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Plateau and valley lands in British Columbia : general information for the intending settler 1914

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Array PLA'
AND
VALLEY LANDS
CENTRAL
BRITISH *
COLUMBIA Grand Trunk System's European
Organization
Grand Trunk System Offices, London, Eng.
The Grand Trunk System
has a most complete organization in Europe, with every
facility at its command to
help passengers to reach their
points of destination in
Canada and the United States,
and at its different offices, a
list of which can be found in
this publication, ocean and
rail tickets are issued and
arrangements can be made for
forwarding baggage and
covering same with insurance.
These offices are also in a
position to supply travelers
with convenient forms for
carrying money, viz.: Canadian Express Money Orders,
which may be cashed anywhere in dollars and cents.
It will be to the advantage of
travelers to consult with any
of the European Agencies,
where the latest publication
dealing with Canada can be
secured free.
Trans-Atlantic passengers visiting London, Eng., are cordially invited to visit
the handsomely equipped new offices of the Grand Trunk System at 17-19 Cockspur
Street, London, S.W., Eng. The site of this new building is one of the best in the
great Metropolitan City, and in the midst of the busiest center of London; in fact,
it is at the very hub of the world's metropolis. It is within five minutes' walk of a
half dozen of the leading hotels, and adjacent to Trafalgar Square, Bakerloo and
Piccadilly Tubes. Motor buses p.iss the door every few seconds to all parts of London—North, South, East and West.
Reception rooms have been sumptuously furnished for the use and comfort of
visitors, where writing material may be found and the leading daily newspapers
of Canada are on file.
The Grand Trunk are in a position to book passage to Canada and the United
States via any of the ocean routes. This is a great convenience to tourists and business
men visiting England or the continent.
Courteous representatives of the Company are in attendance to give all information to enquirers, and to see that visitors are made at home. If desired, correspondence may be addressed in care of this office. /*>? cy»A
PLATEAU
AND
VALLEY LANDS
IN
BRITISH COLUMBIA
GENERAL INFORMATION
FOR THE
INTENDING   SETTLER
Issued by
PASSENGER TRAFFIC DEPARTMENT
GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY
WINNIPEG,  MANITOBA
Fourth Edition, 1914 British Columbia
British Columbia is the largest of the Provinces of Canada, its area being 395,000
square miles, or as large as Ontario, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward
Island and Manitoba combined. The coast line measures 7,000 miles. The population
is about 350,000, but the fisheries alone are sufficient to support at least one million
people; the mining industry, timber and general manufactories are in their infancy,
with unlimited possibilities in the future, while the arable lands along the route of
the Grand Trunk Pacific are capable alone of furnishing prosperous homes for 350,000
people, about as many more as the entire population of the Province at present.
It seems timely, therefore, in anticipation of the opening of the National Transcontinental route of the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway between the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans, in 1915, to place before an expectant, land-hungry people the possibilities of Central British Columbia, through which the new line now under construction
will operate.
It must be borne in mind that in dealing with a section of country as great as
that to be served by the new railway in British Columbia,—a distance along the
main line of 700 miles, about which no systematic attempt has hitherto been made
to collect and publish reliable information,—the subject must be dealt with in a
general way. While no intentional misrepresentation will be madey it is difficult,
in face of results, however meagre, to overestimate the possibilities of the marvel-
ously rich and climate-favored land referred to. The statements made are based
directly upon the observations of Grand Trunk Pacific Railway experts who have
explored the territory on different occasions.
In addition to this, facts have been secured and incorporated herein from Government Agents' reports and equally reliable sources, so that while every care has been
taken to present only definite, accurate statements, it is believed that later investigation and results will show that all claims made herein have been conservatively
set forth.
As later information is received it will be incorporated in further issues of this or
other pamphlets. Any information not covered in such pamphlets will be dealt with,
as far as practicable, upon request to—
W.   P.   HINTON, GEO. A. McNICHOLL,
Asst. Pass. Traffic Manager, Commissioner Colonization and
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, Industrial Dept.,
WINNIPEG,  Man. PRINCE  RUPERT,  R.C. The Central Interior and Coast District
of British Columbia along the
Grand   Trunk Pacific
A few years ago the North Pacific Coast was unknown land, except for the
fleeting glance of a gold-hungry traveler to the Yukon, and still less known
was the interior of the Central portion of British Columbia.
Since the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway surveys, however, were pushed through,
and the vast areas of the very richest soil, with splendid climatic conditions, were
revealed to the explorers, the prospects for a very large traffic through the settlement of this territory would seem alone to justify the construction of this line now
completed. Land-seekers and mineral and timber prospectors are flocking in,
and they add their tribute of praise for the marvelous possibilities of the country
through the development of its agriculture and other natural and diversified economic
resources.
A Pioneer's First Crop of Garden Peas and Strawberries
Markets
Nor are these promising areas to be remote from markets. On the contrary, the
exploitation of the resources of the country will make a considerable market in itself.
Prince Rupert—the west coast terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific, which had a
population of nearly 5,000 people during the first year of its existence—is a substantially-built city, and will eventually have a very large population, with the rapidly-
growing cities of the north coast dependent upon the supplies of the interior for their
economic consumption; with Alaska and the Yukon markets two days nearer Prince
Rupert than any other port; with a like saving in time to the Orient; and in 1915,
when the Panama Canal is finished, the cereal products of the Central Interior will
be nearer Europe in means of transportation than the Prairie Provinces of Western
Canada.
Several prominent cities will flourish along the line of the Grand Trunk Pacific
in the very near future, a very large market alone for the produce of this soil and
climate-favored land. Page 4
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
British Columbia already consumes several times more than its production of
the farm, dairy, poultry and live stock; the value of the imports from outside the
Province, as shown in Government returns for the last completed year, being:
Butter     $1,000,000.00
Poultry and Eggs      2,225,000.00
Agriculture    13,000,000.00
A Total of  $16,225,000.00
WkmkwkWkWKKgkWHkWKkW
Prince Rupert,  B.C.
The time seems opportune to reverse this score, for no finer agricultural land or
one better suited for dairy purposes exists than that in much of the territory dealt
with in this pamphlet. Besides, poultry and other market specialties will thrive to
perfection.
The average retail market prices paid for farm and dairy products throughout
the year were:
Butter       34  1-7  cents  per  pound
Eggs     37J/£ cents per dozen
Turkeys  22 to 30 cents per pound
Live Stock:
Ranch cattle       3}4  to  5  cents per pound,   live  weight
Calves   lYi cents per pound,  live weight
Sheep   53^2 to 6)^ cents per pound, live weight
Hogs     6J-2 to 10 cents per pound, live weight
Lambs   $4.00 to $6.00 each
Dairy cows     $50.00 to $75.00 each
Draught  horses       $500.00 to $800.00 per  team
Farm  horses       $300.00  to  $500.00  per  team IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 5
Mineral    Production
Another indication of the large and growing demand for farm products may
be gathered from the enormous value of the products of the mine in British Columbia
for the last completed year, amounting to nearly $32,500,000, which constituted an
increase of about $9,000,000 over the preceding year. It is expected that the figures
for 1913, when available, will show a corresponding increase.
1911 1912
Gold, placer         $426,000       $555,500
Gold, lode          4,725,513      5,322,442
Silver  958,293       1,810,045
Lead   ...          1,069,521       1,805,627
Copper        4,571,644      8,408,513
Zinc    129,092 316,139
Coal        7,675,717      9,200,814
Coke  ...   396,030      1,585,998
Miscellaneous        3,547,262      3,435,722
Total    $23,499,072   $32,440,800
The fisheries, which constitute one of Prince Rupert's most valuable assets,
yielded during the same periods, $11,000,000 and $13,677,125 respectively, an increase
of over two and a half million dollars.
Strawberries in Perfection the First Year, in Kitsumgalurn Valley,
90 Miles East of Prince Rupert
Climate
The warm Japan current, which flows north until it strikes the Alaskan coast,
then flows south along the coast of British Columbia, gradually cooling off until
it is a cold current off the coast of Oregon, exercises a moderating influence on the
climate, especially over the central interior of the Province, through which the
Grand Trunk Pacific passes. Warm winds penetrate the deep inlets and follow the
low passes at their heads, to spread over the plateau between the Coast and Rocky
Mountain ranges, there being no intermediate mountains, as there are farther south,
and the moisture-laden breezes from the ocean are therefore not prevented from
exercising their beneficent purpose of giving sufficient but not too much rain to insure
crops under natural conditions, irrigation being unnecessary. So, whether it be the
hardness and quality of the grain, or the flavor and excellence of the fruit, the Central Page 6
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
Interior of British Columbia is peculiarly favored as the most fortunate of countries
in the ideal conditions sought by the agriculturist, dairyman, fruitgrower, or the
man who desires most for the least expenditure of labor or capital. The long summer
days of eighteen hours' sunlight, the extreme fertility of the soil, and the temperate,
well-balanced climate insure quick growth and maturing of crops, with consequent
elimination of danger of crop failure, which is more or less common to less-favored
sections of the North American continent.
Settlement
The settlers established in the central interior are substantially all pre-emptors
who have located for the most part during the past six years.
There can be no question of the immense opportunities still awaiting the settler,
with or without much money, who will pre-empt, and while awaiting means of rail
transportation—which are now assured for the most remote sections of the territory
to be served—get land under cultivation and reap a rich profit from the market
afforded by the influx of prospectors, settlers and the army of railway contractors.
Land offered for sale by private owners who purchased from the government,
is specially selected, certificates as a rule covering 640 acres, the maximum amount
allowed, and may be purchased from present owners at prices varying from about
$15.00 to $30.00 per acre, according to quality and location, or the varying confidence
of the owners as to its value.
Soil and Class  of Lands
The nature of the soil in the different agricultural districts of Central British
Columbia is as follows:
Frasek River (East of Prince George).—Chocolate loam on a clay subsoil, well
drained, and running streams numerous. As a rule, bench lands prevail, the valley
being narrow, and although some open areas of comparatively limited extent, the
entire country is well wooded with small fir, spruce, jack pine, etc.
Nechako River (West of Prince George to Fraser Lake).—The country becomes
level, and the first considerable areas of agricultural lands begin about at the confluence of the Stuart and Nechako rivers, then west to Fraser Lake, most of the
Trail and Typical Country, Fraser Lake, Nechako River District.
Note Luxuriant Growth of Native Grasses. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 7
land being extremely fertile, and what growth of timber there is, is easily removed.
The soil consists usually of a white silt of from five to thirty feet on a clay subsoil,
good drainage, and plenty of good water easily obtained. Where meadow land
exists, pea-vine and native grasses attain a dense luxuriant growth of from four to
six feet. The slopes of the hills on each side of the valley furnish splendid natural
pasturage throughout ten months of the year usually, and with the cultivation of the
lower lands, this will prove an ideal dairy country, and one which is confidently
expected to excel in the production of all the small and the hardier fruits.
Some of the early pioneers are now well to do.—Bulkley Valley, B.C.
Fraser, Ootsa, Francois Lakes and the Endako River Country.—The soil
consists chiefly of black and chocolate-colored loam or silt on clay subsoil. This
district is lightly wooded, With much open meadow land, becoming almost entirely
open towards Ootsa Lake. The numerous deep inlets from the Pacific reach within
less than one hundred miles of this district, and the tempered moist winds drifting
up these inlets spread over this fertile district, promoting sure and abundant growth,
and giving this district a well-balanced climate. Excessive continued cold in winter
would be impossible; the snowfall being light, with comparatively mild weather
generally throughout the winter months, renders it practicable for horses and cattle
to feed out and fatten on the luxuriant, nutritious grasses. Small fruits flourish
abundantly, attaining a size, quality and flavor which proclaim the possibilities of
the soil and climate for the cultivation of garden fruits and at least the hardier fruits,
and quite probably peaches and pears. The climate of this portion of Central British
Columbia is approximately the same as that of Southern Michigan, Southern Ontario
or Western New York.
The Bulkley Valley.—The soil in the Bulkley River district consists of a
loam on a clay subsoil or silt on a loam and clay subsoil of great depth and fertility.
The climatic conditions are approximately the same as those of Northern New York
or Eastern Ontario. The country is largely open, gently undulating, the valley
being from five to fifteen miles wide. It is native meadowland in its natural state,
but is excellently suited for cereal growing, vegetables and mixed farming. The
hardier fruits, with small garden fruits, will thrive; and as a dairy country it cannot
be excelled.
The Skeena River District.—There are no large areas of agricultural land along
the Skeena River proper, but many comparatively small areas of bench lands, well
wooded as a rule, the soil consisting of a silt or loam of great depth on clay or gravel.
The valleys are narrower and the climate is milder than in the interior, with a heavy
snowfall in winter, with abundant but not too much rainfall in the growing season.
Much of this land is suited for apple growing, experiments having shown excellent
results. Vegetable growing and dairy farming will yield handsome returns in this
favored region. Page 8
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
Potato Field at Francis Lake, B.C.
The valleys of the Kitsumgalurn, Lakelse and Copper rivers, however, when put
under cultivation, will be found capable of producing enormous yields of small fruits:
apples, pears, prunes, and probably peaches in the 200,000 acres available. These
valleys are not more than three to four miles wide, with bench lands above well
watered, and lie perfectly for irrigation works if ever needed, which is quite improbable. The soil consists of a heavy varying depth of white silt on a loam and clay
subsoil. The climate, winter and summer, is very moderate, and nowhere will conditions be found more ideal for the specialist in farming and fruit growing. With an
already large and ever-growing market near at hand, and an insatiable appetite of
the Interior and Prairie portions of the country to supply, which can only be done
from such areas as this, an easy road to comfort and affluence is suggested to those
who locate in these favored valleys.
Temperatures, Etc.
From the latest record for the Bulkley Valley, taken at Aldermere during 1913,
the coldest day was 12 degrees below zero, and on seven other days only throughout
the winter the register showed below zero. All reports indicate that the cold is never
steady, and when extremely cold the atmosphere is clear, dry and still. The climate
in the Ootsa and Francois Lake districts is generally milder in winter. The Fraser
Lake and Nechako River districts have a similar climate to that of the Bulkley
above referred to.
In summer the days are warm and the nights cool, conditions being very similar
to those prevailing over the wheat-growing provinces of Western Canada.
Meteorological
No definite records have been kept of the annual precipitation in Central British
Columbia along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific, but over the enormous area
of fertile lands there is no necessity for irrigation or even careful intense cultivation,
as the precipitation is always sufficient to insure requisite growth and maturity.
Where the rainfall is lightest in early summer, in the Nechako district, the dews are
very heavy, falling practically every night in density equal to light rains. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 9
Summer frosts are not frequent, and owing to the warmth of the soil on the rare
occasions when they have been experienced, apparently they do no crop damage.
As the land comes under cultivation, naturally any danger from summer frosts should
disappear.
Altitudes
Typical of the fertile areas of Central British Columbia along the route of the
Grand Trunk Pacific Railway:
Skeena River Terrace..
Hazelton
Bulkley Valley	
240
985
 Moricetown  1,353
Smithers  1,641
Barrett  1,875
Quick  1,977
Nechako River Fraser Lake  2,208
Vanderhoof  2,097
Stuart River  2,087
Prince George  1,870
Willow River  1,921
Fraser River Tete Jaune  2,400
The  Land  of  Sunshine,  Warm  Days and  Cool Nights
The great length of the days in midsummer,—from twenty to twenty-one hours,
—and frequent, sufficient rains with abundant sunshine in the growing months, mean
safe, quick and early maturing of crops of excellent quality throughout Central
British Columbia along the Grand Trunk Pacific route.
There is at least as much arable land along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific
in British Columbia as in all the remainder of the Province combined.
The Central Interior of British Columbia to be served by the Grand Trunk
Pacific is not all valleyland, but chiefly a wide plateau between the hills; the elevation
in two hundred miles does not vary 400 feet.
In the growing season ample but not too much rainfall is assured over the Central
Interior of British Columbia along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific, there being
/
■*        *     ' '   ■      \
i
..   ■               ;
Devoin's Ranch, Adjoining Smithers Townsite. Page 10
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
no intervening range of mountains, as farther south, to stop the moisture-laden
breezes of the Pacific. In consequence the native grasses attain a thick growth of
from five to six feet, making this territory the finest mixed farming and dairying
country in America.
The Nechako Valley in much of the area from about fifty miles west of Prince
George to Fraser, Francois and Ootsa Lakes is covered with a light growth of small
poplars and conifers, easily removed, and has many open spaces, all eminently suited
for mixed farming, dairying and fruit growing, owing to the even temperate climate
and richness of the soil.   Cattle and horses graze out all winter.
:
J*
'" ' :?;                      " '■■     '                                                                               ■-'.' ■ z
,«>
Oat Field in the Fraser Lake District
In the Bulkley Valley the country is generally open, or nearly so, and is a continuous belt of extremely fertile land some fifteen to twenty miles wide, extending
from Burns Lake to Moricetown, a distance of approximately eighty miles, the elevation above sea level being from 1,350 feet at Moricetown to 2,300 feet, the highest
point at Bulkley. At the latter point ranches have been in operation for some years
with marked success in cereal and vegetable crops. Hardy fruits will probably do
well, as the conditions are parallel with those existing where the finest apples and
plums are produced.
Irrigation is entirely unnecessary in the section of Central British Columbia
along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific, and in consequence the quality of cereals,
vegetables and the hardy fruits is superior to like crops grown under artificial conditions. The rainfall is ample, but in no case excessive. Numerous spring-fed streams
with an unusually abundant growth of pea-vine and red-top grasses, furnish ideal
conditions for stock raising and dairying.
The settler who desires spring-fed trout streams, beautiful lakes teeming with
salmon and all varieties of trout in his vicinity, and his farm set in a park-like country
of entrancing beauty, cannot get away from such conditions anywhere along the
route of the Grand Trunk Pacific in British Columbia.
Nature provided perfectly for the content and prosperity of the settler in Central
British Columbia along the route of the Grand Trunk Pacific. A rich black or chocolate loam from three to six feet and more deep proclaims the fertility of the soil.
Splendid climatic conditions, with long summer days of over twenty hours' light
in the growing season, maturing crops in record time, and the tempering breeze from
the snowcapped distant mountains, insure comfort. The winters are much shorter
than in the prairie provinces of Canada or the Northwestern States, and not nearly as
cold.
The Skeena River section of the Grand Trunk Pacific route has much bench-
land areas suited to dairying and fruit farming, a ready market for the products
being found in Prince Rupert,  Alaska, Yukon and Prairie Provinces of Western IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 11
Canada. The Kitsumgalurn, Copper River and Lakelse valleys are sufficiently far
inland to escape the extremely moist conditions common to the entire North Pacific
Coast, and have demonstrated already their ability to grow all the hardy and more
delicate fruits in wonderful yields, size, quality and unrivaled flavor. Pre-emption
land can be obtained in these valleys, but only at some distance from the railway.
There is, however, plenty of excellent land to be bought, and prices vary from $10
an acre, for unimproved to $35 for cultivated farms. During the past summer the
ranchers in this neighborhood have been producing peas 8 feet high, beans, potatoes,
cabbages, cauliflower, lettuce weighing one pound apiece, tomatoes, sugar beets,
strawberries, gooseberries, currants, red and white, cherries, apples and plums.
In addition to this most of the settlers have been successful with poultry, hogs and
cattle, etc.
Of the products which British Columbia is eminently fitted to raise, the Province
is forced to purchase the following from outside markets in the average year to meet
the home demand:
Butter    $969,908.00
Condensed Milk and Cream     383,700.00
Eggs     971,616.00
Cheese     655,806.00
Poultry 1,200,000.00
Meats 2,000.000.00
Fruits and products     800,000.00
Yearly value $6,981,030.00
Where Rich Vegetation with an Abundance of Fresh Water,
Make Stock Raising a Success.    Bulkley Valley, B.C.
Little anxiety need be felt that the home market will not absorb all such products grown in the Province for years to come, and that the competition will be
keen or prices low. Aside from this there is an unlimited market outside the Province for any possible surplus; the settler located on the Grand Trunk Pacific having
access under favored conditions to the domestic and world's markets.
There is no section of America where the man who will work will find it so easy
to make a good living at the same time that he is preparing his lands as in the territory
served by the Grand Trunk Pacific and its Coast Steamship lines in British Columbia.
From the eastern border of the Province to the Queen Charlotte Islands great activity
is taking place in timber manufacture, mining, fisheries and all branches of commercial life, and ample occupation in any of these branches of industry will be found
near at hand, no matter where he settles in that territory. Page 12
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
Graham   Island
There is a very large area of first-class agricultural land along Massct Inlet and
east and south for a short distance from Skidegate Inlet which is comparatively
free from heavy timber and comprises many large open areas of natural meadow land,
a great deal of which is open for pre-emption. This country is comparatively level,
elevations being from fifty to one hundred and fifty feet above sea level, sloping
-' Money-makers," Terrace, Skeena River District
gently northward. The soil consists of rich vegetable and leaf mold, varying from
one to four feet in depth, the subsoil being a gravelly clay or clay with a substrata
of blue clay. Much of the land, especially in the vicinity of Masset Inlet, will have
to be drained, as it lies very flat. The annual precipitation for this part of the island
averages about 47 inches, being much dryer than the mainland coast, accounted for
by the fact that there are no high hills on this part of Graham Island. The winters
are very mild, snow very rarely lies on the ground, and in midwinter there is scarcely
enough frost to form ice on the water. Being so far north, the hours of sunshine are
much longer in summer, inducing a more rapid growth and early ripening. The
natural growth of the pea-vine and wild grass in open places is very luxuriant. This
all indicates an ideal mixed farming country, and the conducting of dairy ranches
and stock farms can be undertaken at a minimum expense, while the market at Prince
Rupert and other points on the mainland will easily absorb the products of the farms.
The Grand Trunk Pacific Steamships operate twice a week between Prince
Rupert and points on Graham Island, and transit is now both rapid and comfortable
between Seattle, Victoria and Vancouver and all ports on the islands.
Timber   Lands
Timber lands (that is, lands which contain milling timber to the average extent
of 8,000 feet per acre west of the Cascades—Coast Range—and 5,000 feet per acre
east of the Cascades—Coast Range—to each 160 acres) are not open to pre-emption,
lease or purchase.
By order in Council, dated De cember 24th, 1907, the Government placed a reserve
on all timber lands undisposed of at that date, consequently no more licenses to cut
timber will be issued until otherwise determined. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 13
Purchases
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 640 acres, and for this purpose
are classified as first and second class, according to the report of the surveyor. The
minimum area that may be purchased shall be forty acres, measuring 20 chains by
20 chains, except in cases where such area cannot be obtained.
Purchased lands may be staked by an agent.
Lands which are suitable for agricultural purposes, or which are capable of being
brought under cultivation profitably, or which are wild hay meadow lands, rank as,
and are considered to bo first-class lands. All other lands, other than timber lands,
shall rank and be classified as second-class lands. Timber lands (that is, lands which
contain milling timber to the average extent of eight thousand feet per acre west of
the Cascades—Coast Range—and five thousand feet per acre east of the Cascades—
Coast Range—to each one hundred and sixty acres) are not open for sale.
The minimum price of first-class lands shall be $10.00 per acre, and that of second-
class lands $5.00 per acre: Provided, however, that the Minister of Lands may for
any reason increase the price of any land above the said prices.
No improvements are required on such lands unless a second purchase is contemplated. In such case the first purchase must be improved to the extent of $3.00
per acre.
When the application to purchase unsurveyed lands is filed, the applicant shall
deposit with the Commissioner a sum equal to fifty cents per acre on the acreage
applied for. When the land is finally allotted, the purchaser shall pay the balance
of the purchase price.
Surveyed land may be purchased by paying twenty-five per cent of the purchase
money on application and the balance in three equal annual instalments, with interest
at six per cent per annum.
I
A Typical Landscape in Central British Columbia.
Leases
Leases of Crown land which has been subdivided by survey in lots not exceeding twenty acres may be obtained; and if requisite improvements are made and
conditions of the lease fulfilled at the expiration of lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases (containing such covenants and conditions as may be thought advisable)
of Crown lands may be granted by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council for the following purposes:
(a)    For the purpose of cutting hay thereon, for a term not exceeding ten years. age 14
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
(b)    For any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay as aforesaid, for a term not
exceeding twenty-one years.
Leases shall not include a greater area than 640 acres.
Leased lands may be staked by an agent.
Timber lands cannot be leased.
^
The New Settler Often Secures employment in the
Mines of Central British Columbia.
Exemptions
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt incurred
after registration; and it is free from seizure up to a value not greater than $500.00.
Cattle " farmed on shares " are also protected by an Exemption Act. Pre-emptions
are exempt from taxation for two years from date of record, and there is an exemption
of $500.00 for four years after record.
Homesteads
Free land can be obtained in British Columbia, but the conditions are different
from those applying to homesteads in the Prairie Provinces, see Sec. 11, page 16.
The fact of a person having a homestead in another Province, or on Dominion
Government lands in this Province, is no bar to pre-empting Crown lands in British
Columbia. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 15
How to Secure a Pre-emption
Any person desiring to pre-empt unsurveyed Crown lands must observe the following rules:
1. Place a post four or more inches square and four or more feet high above
the ground—a tree stump squared and of proper height will do—at one angle or
corner of the claim and mark upon it his name and the corner or angle represented,
thus:
" A. B.'s land, N.E. corner post " (meaning northeast corner, or as the case
may be), and shall post a written or printed notice on the post in the following
form:
" I, A. B., intend to apply for a pre-emption record of acres of land,
bounded as follows:   Commencing at this post;   thence north chains;
thence east chains; thence south chains; thence west chains
(or, as the case may be).
" Name (in full).
" Date."
2. After staking the land, the applicant must make an application in writing
to the Government Land Agent of the district in which the land lies, giving a full
description of the land, and a sketch plan of it; this description and plan to be in
duplicate.   The fee for recording is $2.
Peas Seven Feet High, Kitsumgalurn Valley
3. He shall also make a declaration, in duplicate, before a Justice of the Peace,
Notary Public or Commissioner, in Form 2 of the Land Act, and deposit same with
his application. In the declaration he must declare that the land staked by him is
unoccupied and unreserved Crown land, and not in an Indian settlement;   that the Page 16
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
application is made in his own behalf and for his own use for settlement and
occupation, for agricultural purposes, and that he is duly qualified to take up and
record the land.
4. If the land is surveyed the pre-emptor must make application to the Agent
exactly as in the case of unsurveyed lands, but it will not be necessary to plant posts.
5. Every pre-emption shall be of a rectangular or square shape, and 160 acres
shall measure either 40 chains by 40 chains—880 yards by 880 yards, or 20 chains
by 80 chains—140 yards by 1,760 yards; 80 acres shall measure 20 chains b}' 40 chains;
and 40 acres, 20 chains by 20 chains. All lines shall be run true north and south and
true east and west.
Business Section of Prince Rupert, Third Avenue in 1913
6. When a pre-emption is bounded by a lake or river, or by another pre-emption
or by surveyed land, such boundary may be adopted and used in describing the boun-
aries of the land.
7. Sixty days after recording the pre-emptor must enter into occupation of the
land and proceed with improving same. Occupation means continuous bona fide
personal residence of the pre-emptor or his family, but he and his family may be
absent for any one period not exceeding two months in any year. If the pre-emptor
can show good reason for being absent from bis claim for more than two months,
the Land Agent may grant him six months' leave. Absence without leave for more
than two months will be looked upon as an abandonment of all rights and the record
may be cancelled.
8. No person can take up or hold more than one pre-emption.
9. Pre-emptions are free.
10. After fulfilling all conditions the pre-emptor shall be entitled to a Crown
grant of the land, on payment of a fee of $10.
11. A pre-emption cannot be sold or transferred until after it is Crown-granted.
12. A pre-emption cannot be staked or recorded by an agent.
13. Timber lands (that is, lands which contain milling timber to the average
extent of 8,000 feet per acre west of the Cascades—Coast Range—and 5,000 feet per
acre east of the Cascades—Coast Range—to each 160 acres) are not open to preemption. IN    BRITISH    COLUMRIA
Page 17
Pre-emptions
Crown lands, where such a system is practicable, are laid out and surveyed into
quadrilateral townships, containing thirty-six sections of one square mile in each.
Any person, being the head of a family, a widow or self-supporting single woman
over eighteen years of age, or single man over the age of eighteen years, and being
a British subject, or any alien, upon his making a declaration of his intention to become
a British subject, may, for agricultural purposes, record any tract of unoccupied
and unreserved Crown lands (not being an Indian settlement) not exceeding one
hundred and sixty acres in extent.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time. Prior record
of pre-emption of one claim and all rights under it are forfeited by subsequent record
of pre-emption of another claim.
Pre-emptions cannot be staked by an agent.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed until after a
Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation. Such occupation must be a bona fide residence of the settler or his family.
The settler must enter into occupation of the land within sixty days after recording and must continue to occupy it.
Continuous absence for a period longer than two months consecutively of the
settler or family is deemed cessation of occupation; but leave of absence may be
granted not exceeding six months in any one year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land may be considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two months
consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording is two dollars (8s.).
A pre-emptor of surveyed land, or of unsurveyed land, when the survey thereof
is effected, after being in occupation for not less than three years, shall be entitled
to a certificate of improvement, upon proving to the Commissioner by declaration
in writing, of himself and two other persons, that he has been in occupation for at
least three years and made permanent improvements to the value of $5.00 per acre,
including the clearing and bringing under cultivation of at least five acres.
Cutting Timothy in the Nechako Valley
Every person pre-empting surveyed or unsurveyed crown lands shall after the
issuance of a certificate of improvement be entitled to a free grant of such land, upon
payment of a Crown Grant fee of $10.00.
Pre-emption land in British Columbia is free.
Two, three or four settlers may enter into partnership with pre-emptions of
160 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $5.00
per acre made on some portion thereof will secure Crown grant for the whole. Page 18
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
Coal and petroleum lands do not pass under grant of lands acquired since passage
of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
Timber lands are not open to pre-emption.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded or pre-empted
by virtue of his declaring his intention to become a British subject, unless he has
become naturalized.
The heirs or devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown grant on his decease.
Government  Land  Agencies
The following is a list of Government Agents with whom pre-emptions may be
filed. Lands in outlying districts, in which there is no resident agent, are dealt
with in the Lands Department, Victoria, R. A. Renwick, Esq., Deputy Minister of
Lands.
Atlin J. A. Fraser Atlin.
Cariboo C. W. Grain Barkerville.
Coast Ranges I, II, III R. A. Renwick Victoria.
Fort Fraser J. E. Hooson Fort Fraser.
Hazelton S. H. Hoskins Hazelton.
Prince George T. W. Heme Prince George.
Skeena J. H. McMullen Prince Rupert.
Land Locators
It is customary for private individuals to offer their services as land locators in
the several agricultural districts herein referred to. By communicating with the
following, the names of reliable land locators may be procured; but it must be remembered that pre-emptions cannot be staked by an agent:
district address place
Skeena River Secretary Board of Trade Prince Rupert,B.C.
Bulkley Bulkley Valley Association Smithers, B.C.
Nechako and Fraser River... .Secretary Board of Trade Fort  George,   B.C.
Graham Island Secretary Board of Trade Masset, B.C.
To Purchase Located Lands
If particulars of lands offered for sale by original or present owners throughout Central British Columbia are desired, by addressing the Assistant Passenger
Traffic Manager, Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, Winnipeg, giving locality which
you favor for your purchase, you will be furnished with names and addresses of
reliable land owners of that district, together with any other particulars sought, so
far as practicable. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 19
General Information
Taxation
Outside of incorporated cities, towns and municipalities, the taxation is imposed and collected directly by the Provincial Government and expended in public
improvements, roads, trails, wharves, bridges, etc., in assisting and maintaining
the schools, and in the administration of justice.
The rates of taxation imposed by the latest Assessment Act are as follows:
On real property J^ of one per cent of assessed value
On personal property Yi of one per cent of assessed value
On wild land 4 per cent
On coal land, Class A (working mines) 1 per cent
On coal land, Class B (unworked mines) 2 per cent
On timber land 2 per cent
On income of    $2,000.00 or under 1 per cent
On income over $2,000.00 and not exceeding $3,000.00 134 per cent
On income over $3,000.00 and not exceeding $4,000.00.... IK per cent
On income over $4,000.00 and not exceeding $7,000.00 2 per cent
On income over $7,000.00 2x/2 per cent
Discount of ten per cent allowed if paid before June 30th, and the following exemptions from taxation are granted:
On personal property up to $1,000.00 (to farmers only). Farm and orchard
products, and income from farm.
On income up to $1,000.00.
On mortgages, as personal property.
On unpaid purchase money of land, as personal property.
On household furniture and effects in dwelling-house.
On pre-emptions and on homesteads within the Dominion Railwaj' Belt for two
years from date of record and an exemption of $500.00 for four years after record.
Moneys deposited in banks; minerals, matte or bullion in course of treatment;
timber and coal lands under lease or license from the Crown, and timber cut from
lands other than Crown lands if the tax payable under the " Land Act " has been
paid, are exempt from personal property tax.
In addition to the above, there is a tax on coal shipped from the mine of 10 cents
per ton, and on coke 15 cents per ton.
Minerals are taxed two per cent on their gross value at the mine, less cost of
transportation and treatment.
Crown granted mineral claims are taxed 25 cents per acre.
A royalty of 50 cents per 1,000 feet, board measure, is reserved to the Crown
on all timber cut from Crown lands and lands held under lease or license, also a
royalty of 25 cents per cord on wood.
Education
The Province affords excellent educational opportunities. The School System
is free and non-sectarian, and is equally as efficient as that of any other Province
in the Dominion. The expenditure for educational purposes amounts to $400,000.00
annually. The Government builds a school-house, makes a grant for incidental
expenses, and pays a teacher in every district where twenty children between the
ages of six and sixteen can be brought together.   For outlying farming districts and Page 20
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
mining camps the arrangement is very advantageous. High schools are also established in cities, where classics and higher mathematics are taught. Several British
Columbia cities also now have charge of their own Public and High Schools, and
these receive a very liberal per capita grant in aid from the Provincial Government.
The minimum salary paid to teachers is $50.00 per month in Rural Districts, up to
$150.00 in City and High Schools. Attendance in Public Schools is compulsory.
The Education Department is presided over by a Minister of the Crown. There
are also a Superintendent and six Inspectors in the Province, also Boards of Trustees
Wheatfield on the Diamond D Ranch, Bulkley Valley.
in each District. According to the last Education Report, there were 453 schools
in operation, of which 20 are High Schools. The number of pupils enrolled in 1910
was 39,882, and of teachers, 1,037. The Public School System was established in
1872, with 28 schools, 28 teachers, and 1,028 pupils. Its growth proves that education
has not been neglected in British Columbia.
The High Schools are distributed as follows: Victoria (Victoria College), Vancouver (Vancouver College), New Westminster, Nanaimo, Nelson, Rossland, Cumberland, Vernon, Kaslo, Chilliwack, Grand Forks, Kamloops, Armstrong, Golden,
Kelowra, Enderly, Peachland, Salmon Arm, Ladysmith and Revelstoke. There is
a Provincial Normal School at Vancouver and many excellent private colleges and
boarding schools. Victoria and Vancouver Colleges are affiliated to McGill University, Montreal, and have High School and University departments. The Legislature recently passed an Act providing for the establishment of The University
of British Columbia, for the endowment of which two million acres of the public
lands have been set apart.
Social Conditions
The population of British Columbia, widely scattered and composed of many
nationalities, is singularly peaceful and law-abiding. Life and property are better
protected and individual rights more respected even in the isolated mining camps
than in some of the great centers of civilization in other countries. The Province,
though new, enjoys all the necessaries and many of the luxuries and conveniences
of modern life. There are few towns which are not provided with water works,
electric lights and telephones. The hotels are usually clean and comfortable, and
the stores well stocked with every possible requirement.   There is little individual IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA
Page 21
poverty. A general prosperity is the prevailing condition throughout the country,
for none need be idle or penniless who is able and willing to work. The larger towns
are well supplied with libraries and reading rooms, and the Provincial Government
has a system of traveling libraries, by which the rural districts are furnished free
with literature of the best description.
The spiritual welfare of the people is promoted by representatives of all the
Christian denominations, and there are few communities, however small, which
have not one or more churches with resident clergymen.
All the cities and larger towns have well-equipped hospitals, supported by Government grants and private subscriptions, and few of the smaller towns are without
cottage hospitals. Daily newspapers are published in the larger places, and every
mining camp has its scmi-wcekly or weekly paper.
Advice to Prospective Settlers
There is no country within the British Empire which offers more inducements
to men of energy and industry than British Columbia. To the practical farmer,
miner, lumberman, fisherman, horticulturist and dairyman it offers a comfortable
living and ultimate independence, if he begins right, perseveres and takes advantage
Fraser Lake Country.
of his opportunities. The skilled mechanic has also a good chance to establish
himself, and the laborer will scarcely fail to find employment. The man without
a trade, the clerk, the accountant and the semi-professional is warned, however,
that his chances for employment are by no means good. Much depends upon the
individual, for where many fail, one may secure a position and win success, but
men in search of employment in offices or warehouses, and who are unable or unwilling to turn their hands to any kind of manual labor in an emergency, would do
well to stay away from British Columbia unless they have sufficient means to support
themselves for six months or a year while seeking a situation. Page 22
PLATEAU    AND    VALLEY    LANDS
The class of settlers whose chances of success are greatest is the man of small
or moderate means, possessing energy, good health and self-reliance, with the faculty
of adaptability to his new surroundings. He should have at least $1,500.00 (£300)
to $2,500.00 (£500) on arrival in the Province, sufficient to " look around " before
locating permanently, make his first payment on his land and support himself and
Looking Across the Head of Fraser Lake
family while awaiting returns from his first crop. This applies to a man taking up
mixed farming. It is sometimes advisable for the new-comer to work for wages for a
time until he learns the " ways of the country."
After the reader has carefully gone over the information contained in the preceding pages he will have an idea as to where he would particularly like to locate
in British Columbia. If he decides to pre-empt iand his best plan will be to write to
the Government Land Agent of the district in which he is interested—see list on
page 18—and secure information as to the vacant pre-emptions, their location and
proximity to the railway. The reader will understand that it is no longer possible
to secure free land in a well-settled community, but he should not be afraid to venture
further afield. Good roads are being constructed in every direction where traffic
demands, and he will have little difficulty in bringing his produce to the railway.
To avoid the risk of loss the immigrant from Great Britain should pay the
money not wanted on the passage to the Canadian Express Company's office in
London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get a money order payable at any point in British
Columbia; or he may pay his money to any bank in London having an agency in
British Columbia. This suggestion applies with equal force to persons coming from
Eastern Canada or the United States.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
The provincial Government Agent at point of arrival will furnish information
as to lands open for settlement, farms for sale, rates of wages, etc. IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA Page 23
Settlers'   Effects   Free
Settlers' effects, viz.: Wearing apparel, books, usual and reasonable household
furniture and other household effects; instruments and tools of trade, occupation
or employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines, typewriters,
bicycles, carts, wagons, and other highway vehicles; agricultural implements and
live stock for the farm, not to include live stock or articles for sale, or for use as a
contractor's outfit, nor vehicles nor implements moved by mechanical power, nor
machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment; all the foregoing, if actually
owned abroad by the settler for at least six months before his removal to Canada,
and subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister of Customs, may be brought
into Canada free of duty: Provided that any dutiable articles entered as settlers'
effects may not be so entered unless brought by the settler on his first arrival and
shall not be sold or otherwise disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve
months' actual use in Canada.
A settler may bring into Canada free of duty live stock for the farm on the following basis, if he has actually owned such live stock abroad for at least six months
before his removal to Canada and has brought them into Canada within one year
after his first arrival, viz.: If horses only are brought in, 16 allowed; if cattle only
are brought in, 16 allowed; if sheep only are brought in, 160 allowed; if swine only
are brought in, 160 allowed. If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together,
or part of each, the same proportions as above are to be observed. Duty is to be paid
on live stock in excess of the number above provided for. For customs entry purposes, a mare with a colt under six months old is to be reckoned as one animal; a
cow with a calf under six months old is also to be reckoned as one animal. Cattle
and other live stock imported into Canada are subject to Quarantine Regulations.
How to Reach British Columbia
Full and reliable information regarding routes, rates of passage, etc., can be obtained at any of the offices of the Grand Trunk System shown on page 32 of this
pamphlet, or at the office of the Agent General of British Columbia, Salisbury House,
Finsbury Circus, London; the office of the High Commissioner for Canada, 17 Victoria
Street, London, S.W.; the office of the Canadian Commissioner of Emigration,
11-12 Charing Cross, London, W.C.; or the Dominion Government Agents at Birmingham, Cardiff, Liverpool, Dublin, Belfast or Glasgow.
From the United States, through tickets may be bought to any point in British
Columbia over any of the transcontinental railways.
From Eastern Canada.—By Grand Trunk Railway System from Halifax, St.
John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, Toronto and other points in Central and
Western Ontario.
The Grand Trunk Pacific steamships, the finest, fastest, and surest in the North
Pacific Coast service, sail twice a week throughout the year from Seattle, Wash.,
Victoria and Vancouver, B.C., to Prince Rupert and Queen Charlotte Islands, making
connections at Prince Rupert with the Grand Trunk Pacific Railway, now in operation
to Fraser Lake. Prospective settlers should call at the Grand Trunk System offices
at Seattle, Victoria or Vancouver, shown on page 24, for necessary information,
passage tickets, etc.
It is expected that the Grand Trunk Pacific main line will be in operation during
June of this year; all of the country described in this booklet will then be accessible
by railway, either from Edmonton or Prince Rupert. Page 24
PLATEAU   AND   VALLEY    LANDS
Agencies
Kingston, Ont..
Lansing, Mich.
Lewiston, Me..
London, Ont—
Los Angeles, Cal..
For further particulars regarding Routes, Rates, Maps, Literature and other information apply  to the
nearest Grand Trunk Railway Agency.   See List below.
Alexandria Bay,N.Y. .Cornwall Bros Ticket Agents, Market Street.
Battle Creek, Mich. .L. J. Bush  Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
Bay City, Mich Geo. W Watson. .. .Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
Boston, Mass E. H. Boynton New England Passenger Agent, 256 Washington Street.
Brockville, Ont J. H. Fulford Ticket Agent, 8 Court House Avenue.
Buffalo, N.Y H. M. Morgan City Passenger and Ticket Ag nt,285 Main St. (Ellicott Sq. Bldg.)
Chicago, 111 C. G. Orttenburger.City Passr. and Ticket Agent,301 So. Clark St.,cor Jackson Blv'd.
Detroit, Mich R. McC. Smith —City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 118 Woodward Avenue.
Flint, Mich V. A. Bovee Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
Fort William, Ont. . .Ray Street & Co.. .Ticket Agents, 201-203 Simpson Street
Grand Rapids, Mich.C. A. Justin City Passr. and Ticket Agent, 78 Monroe Ave., Morton House Blk.
Hamilton, Ont C. R. Morgan City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 11 James Street North.
Kansas City, Mo C. N. Wilson Traveling Passenger Agent, 327 Sheidley Building.
. .J. P. Hanley City Passenger and Ticket Agent, cor. Johnston and Ontario Sta.
. .F. H. Potter Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
. .F. P. Chandler Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
. . R. E. Ruse City Passenger and Ticket Agent, cor. Richmond &. Dundas Sta.
. .W. H Bullen Pacific Coast Agent,  302 Wilcox Building
Milwaukee, Wis Crosby Transfer Co 396 East Water Street
Moncton, N.B J. H. Corcoran Traveling Passenger Agent, 8 Wise Bldg., Main Street.
Montreal, Que J. Quinlan District Passenger Agent, Ronaventure Station.
"  W.H.Clancy City Passenger and Ticket Agent,   22 St. James Street., corner
St. Francois Xavier.
Mt. Clemens, Mich. .Casper Czizek City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 12 South Gratiot Avenue.
New York, N.Y F. P. Dwyer General Agent,Passenger Dept.,Railway Exchange,290 Broadway.
Niagara Falls, N.Y.. . W. B. Prescott City Passenger and Ticket Agent. 1 Falls Street.
Ogdensburg, N.Y.. . .Geo. S. Meagher Ticket Agent, 55 State Street.
Ottawa, Ont. Percy M. Buttler .. CityPass. and Tkt.Agt., Russell House Blk., cor.Sparks& Elgin Sts
Peterboro, Ont B. A. Rose.. City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 334 George Street.
Pittsburg, Pa A  B. Chown Traveling Passenger Agent, 507 Park Building.
Port Huron, Mich. . .T. C. Mann Ticket Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
Portland, Me C. E. Tenny Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
Portland, Ore Dorsey B. Smith.. .City Passenger Agent. 116 Third Street, cor. Washington.
Prince Rupert, B.C.   Albert Davidson. .   General Agent, 256Third Avenue.
Quebec, Que. Geo. H. Stott C.P. &T.A.,cor.St.Anne& DuFort Sts.&Ferry Ldg.,DalhousieSt.
Saginaw, Mich Hugh E. Quick Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
San Francisco, Cal... F. W. Hopper General Agent, Passenger Department, 203 Monadnock Building.
Seattle, Wash J. H. Burgis General Agent, Pass. Department, First Avenue and Yesler Way.
Sherbrooke, Que C. H. Foss City Passenger and Ticket Agent, 2 Wellington Street.
South Bend, Ind C. A. McNutt Passenger Agent, G.T. Ry. Station.
St. Paul, Minn W. J. Gilkerson Gen ral Agent, Pass. Dept., 400 Robert Street.
Toronto, Ont.
Vancouver, B.C..
Victoria, B.C	
Winnipeg, Man..
F. C. Salter,
Amsterdam and The
Hague, Holland. .
Antwerp, Belgium..
Birmingham, Eng...
Glasgow, Scotland..
Liverpool, Eng	
London, S.W., Eng..
London, S.W., Eng..
London, E.G., Eng..
Paris, France	
Sheffield, Eng	
. .C. E. Horning District Passenger Agent, Union Station.
. . W. J. Moffatt City Pass, and Ticket Agent, Northwest cor. King & Yonge Sts.
. .C. E. Jenney General Agent, Passenger Department, 527 Granville Street and
G.T.P. Dock, foot of Main Street.
. .C. F. Earle City Passenger and Ticket Agent. G.T.P. Dock.
. . W. J. Quinlan District Passenger Agent, 260 Portage Avenue.
EUROPEAN  TRAFFIC  DEPARTMENT
European Traffic Manager, 17-19 Cockspur Street, London, S.W., England.
Messrs. Hoyman &
Schuurman General Passenger and Tourist Office.
.P. A. Clews Acting General Agent, 19-21 Canal des Brasseurs.
.Morison, Pollexfen & Blair, No. 6 Victoria Square.
.J. M. Walker General Agent, 75 Union Street.
.Wm. Cuthbertson.. General Assistant, 20 Water Street.
.F. G. English General Agent, Freight Department, 17-19 Cockspur Street.
.J. Herson General Agent, Passenger Department, 17-19 Cockspur Street.
.P. A. Clews City Agent, 44-45-46 Leadenhall Street.
-Pitt & Scott Ticket Agents, 47 Rue Cambon.
,J. W. Dawson Agent, No. 7 Haymarket.
G. T. BELL
Passenger Traffic Manager,
MONTREAL, QUE.
W. P. HINTON
Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager.
WINNIPEG, MAN.
Canadian   Express   Company
Operating Over
GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY SYSTEM GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC RAILWAY
GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC COAST STEAMSHIP COMPANY
TO   ALL   PARTS
OF THE WORLD
Money Orders,  Foreign .Drafts and Travellers' Cheques  Issued, Payable Everywhere  at"Par.
Safe, Economical, Convenient.
General Offices, Montreal, Que. JOHN PULLEN,  President.
GENERAL  FORWARDERS Canadian Government Immigration Agents in  the
United   States
M. V. McInnes, 176 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit, Mich.
C. A. Laurier, Marquette, Mich.
R. Laurier, 222 Hoyt Street, Saginaw, Mich.
J. S. Crawford, 301 East Genesee Street, Syracuse, N.Y.
F. A. Harrison, 210 North 3rd Street, Harrisburg, Pa.
W. S. Nethery, 413 Gardner Building, Toledo, Ohio.
G. W. Aird, 215 Traction-Terminal Building, Indianapolis, Ind.
C. J. Broughton, Room 412, 112 West Adams Street, Chicago, 111.
Geo. A. Hall, 123 Second Street, Milwaukee, Wis.
R. A. Garrett, 315 Jackson Street, St. Paul, Minn.
Frank H. Hewitt, Des Moines, Iowa.
W. E. Black, Clifford Block, Grand Forks, North Dakota.
L. M. McLachlan, Box 197, Watertown, South Dakota.
W. V. Bennett, 220 17th Street, Room 4, Bee Building, Omaha, Neb.
Geo. Cook, 125 West 9th Street, Kansas City, Missouri.
Benj. Davies, Room 6, Dunn Block, Great Falls, Montana.
J. N. Grieve, Auditorium Building, Spokane, Wash.
Elzear Gingras, Room 29, 29 Weybosset Street, Providence, R.I.
J. B. Carbonneau, Jr., 217 Main Street, Biddeford, Me.
Max. A. Bowlby, 73 Tremont Street, Boston, Mass.
J. A. Laferriere, 1037 Elm Street, Manchester, N.H.
"The Fort Garry
WINNIPEG, CAN.
CHAS. L. DE ROUVILLE, SS
ACCOMMODATION   300   ROOMS   COMFORTABLY and ARTISTICALLY FINISHED.
»
The Latest in Hotel Construction
RATES $2.00 AND UPWARDS, EUROPEAN PLAN
WRITE FOR HANDSOME ILLUSTRATED BOOKLET
CABLE ADDRESS " TRUNKFORT "
GRAND TRUNK AND GRAND TRUNK PACIFIC HOTELS
' CHATEAU LAURIER' ... Ottawa, Ont.
'THE FORT GARRY' ... Winnipeg, Man.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION
'THE MACDONALD' ... Edmonton,  Alta.
'THE QU'APPELLE' ... Regina,  Sask.
'THE PRINCE RUPERT' ... Prince Rupert, B.C. <* x 732°
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