Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Report on a journey in British Columbia in the districts bordering on the Thompson, Fraser, and Harrison… Mayne, Richard Charles, 1835-1892 1861

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0222005.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0222005.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0222005-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0222005-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0222005-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0222005-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0222005-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0222005-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0222005-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0222005.ris

Full Text

Array       XYI.—Report on a Journey in British Columbia in the Districts
bordering on the Thompson, Fraser, and Harrison rivers. By
Lieut. Eichaed C. Mayne, e.n.
Communicated by the Admirai/ty.
Bead, December 12, 1859.
Lieut. Matne to Capt. G. H. Richards, r.n.
H.M.S. Plumper, Esquimalt, Vancouver Island,
Sir, July 7th, 1859.
I have the honour to report that, in pursuance of your orders, I proceeded to Langley, and, taking the first steamer to Fort Hope, reached that
place on the 23rd of April. 214 Maine's Report on a
I left Fort Hope on the 29th, and reached Fort Tale on the same evening.
The part of the Fraser River between Forts Hope and Yale is so well known
that I need not speak of it, except perhaps to say that several rocks must be
removed before it can be made reasonably safe for steam navigation.
We left Tale on the 2nd of May, and followed the river trail to Lytton,
which we reached on the 7th.
The distance by trail from Tale to Lytton is about 60 miles, and the ground
over which the trail passes is the roughest on which I have ever travelled, the
greater part of it being over sharp pointed rocks of granite boulders. Some of
the ascents in the Great Canon, which is 6 miles long, are from 30° to 60°, and
nearly perpendicular over the water. The current in the narrowest parte I
estimated at 15 or 16 knots an hour. During the whole summer this part of
the river is impassable for boats going up; and though some few people have
come down it in safety, a great many have perished in the attempt.
There is hardly any land fit for cultivation between Lytton and Tale.
There is a small fiat at Spuzzum and several above Boston Bar, but they only
average 200 or 300 yards long by 50 or 60 wide, and are almost all thickly
timbered and covered with granite boulders. The largest one is about 9 miles
below Lytton and is fenced in. It is about 1000 yards long by 400 yards wide,
well covered with grass, but very sandy soil.
From Tale to Boston Bar the vegetation is limited to pine-trees and a few
alders, wild onions and vetches growing among the rocks. Above Boston Bar
it improves, and on the flats before-mentioned there are currants, cherries,
gooseberries, and Oregon grasses in considerable quantities, and willows and
maple in addition to the pine and alder.
About 2 miles above Boston Bar we found a bed of fine clay-slate running in
an easterly direction, dip ranging from 5° to 40°, strike about 25°, and about 3
miles farther on we came to a bed of limestone, the only one we saw between
Tale and Lytton. The surface was very small. With the exception of these
two beds and a very small surface of clay-slate close to Spuzzum, we saw
nothing but granite both in the mountains and in boulders of every shape and
size, some at Wellington Bar being 10 or 15 tons weight.
There is a ferry at Spuzzum and another at Boston Bar. The former it is
not necessary to cross travelling on foot, but the latter must be crossed to get
to Lytton.
There are several " Restaurants " along the road (everyplace where anything
can be got to eat is called a restaurant in this country), where tea, coffee, bread,
bacon, and beans can be got, as well as a plank to sleep on; and these places
are at such distances apart that no man possessed of any money need sleep out.
At Chapman and Boston Bars there are large stores belonging to the express-
■vmen-MessTsrWeiis", Fargo, and Co., and Ballon.
The mule-trail leaves the river at Tale and meets it at Spuzzum, crosses it
there, and again leaves it until reaching Lytton. It was blocked up by snow
when I went up.
Lytton is at the forks of the Thompson and Fraser rivers on the south bank
of the former and east of the latter, and is composed of eight or ten stores and
a Government House. The site of the town is nearly 300 feet above the river
on the upper of two benches, the lower of which is about 200 feet above the
water. The bank on the opposite side of the Fraser is in three benches, the
highest being about 600 feet, and the river is 576 feet wide at this season.
Ihe opposite bank of the Thompson is about the same height as Lytton. The
Thompson River is about 150 yards wide at its mouth, and there is a horse-ferry
across it for trains going to the Fountain, &c, &c. It is always blowino- hard
from north or south, the latter wind prevailing in summer; and the clouds of
dust which continually sweep across the flat make it anything but a desirable
spot for a residence. Journey in British Columbia. 215
We left Lytton for Kamloop, a post of the Hudson Bay Company, on the
Thompson River, on the afternoon of the 9th of May, and followed the south
bank of that river for 9 or 10 miles, when we ascended a steep hill for about
li miles, and came to a valley extending about 10 miles to the eastward, well
covered with grass and hemmed in by hills 700 or 800 feet high. From this
point the aspect of the country became much more promising than the Valley
of the Fraser. After traversing the whole length of this valley we went down
upon the Nicola River, and fording it, followed its left bank till we came to
the Nicola Lake.
The Nicola River is far prettier than any others I have seen in the country.
It is very rapid and full of small islands and sandbanks, and winds along in
reaches of about half-a-mile long. At each bend there is a flat of 5 or 6 acres
of clear grass-land, which would be very valuable were they not constantly
flooded in summer. In some places the banks are high enough to prevent
this, but generally the soil does not appear to be so good as where the banks
are low, and the rise of the river is so different in different years that it would
require a residence of several summers to know which are flooded and which
are not. Another great drawback to agriculture is a deposit of nitrate of soda,
which, though we first noticed it here, appeal's more or less through all the
country. Mr. McLean, the officer of the Hudson Bay Company, in charge of
Fort Kamloop, told me that where it is in large quantities it destroys wheat,
but that it has very little effect on vegetables.
Behind the flats the mountains rise from 500 to 1000 feet, but though some
are bluffs of trap and sandstone, far the greater number are covered with grass
' The banks of the Nicola are for the most part of clay, nearly perpendicular,
and averaging about 20 feet high, but in some places they are 150 feet and in
others only a few inches above the water even at this season, and lined with
poplars and willows. The bed of the Nicola is much higher than that of the
Thompson, there being about 1100 feet difference between the places where I
left the latter and joined the former.
About 15 miles before coming to the Nicola Lake there is a valley extending
to the northward, 5 or 6 miles wide. It is not quite level, but the soil appears
good, though, like all this country, too sandy for an Englishman's notion of
rich land. It is well covered with grass, and there are not more than ten or
fifteen trees to an acre. The hills bounding it are from 700 to 1000 feet high.
The Indians say there is a lake in it running nearly parallel with Nicola Lake.
The. Nicola or Smeehaatlon lies nearly north and south, and is about 14
miles long by 1 to 2 wide. The banks are low and covered with grass on both
sides. There is not much good land on the west side, but on the east there are
two large valleys, with apparently good land in them, down which run the
rivers Bodimon and McDonald. Granite here for a time supersedes the sand- -
stone and trap, and at the north end of the lake on the west side there are
some very steep cliffs of it.
After passing the Nicola Lake we went along a good place of prairie by the
side of a chain of small lakes or ponds, which continues till it joins the Thompson nearly opposite Kamloop. Stump Lake, or Lake Hamea as it is called by
the Indians, is the largest of this chain, and is about 6 miles long by 1 to 1|
wide. After passing this, which is about 5 miles above Nicola Lake, we
ascended Mount Skyetaken, at the top of which we were by the barometer
3600 feet above the level of the sea. This was the greatest height attained
during our tour. The view from this mountain was very fine, extending as far
as the Semilkamen Valley and Little O'Kanagan Lake, and showing a very
large tract of grazing, if not farming, country. After crossing Skyetaken we
passed a succession of low grassy hills, and descended to the Thompson River 216
Mayne's Report c
opposite Fort Kamloop, and, crossing the river in a canoe, reach©
about 10 o'clock a.m. on the 14th of May.
Fort Kamloop is situated at the forks of the Thompson and No
on the north bank of the former and the west bank of the latter, anc
the prettiest sites in the country. It is at the east end of a prairi
miles long by 1 to 2 miles wide,, which would be very valuable lai
not so low that it is always flooded in the summer. The year befo
fort itself was flooded so much that it had to be abandoned until
fell.
i Ii
3 the:
wer doi
The Thompson was about 300 yards wide at Kami
and the North River 320 yards. There is nothing of the rushing cr
that there is in every other river we met, and in this river also lo
and the contrast is so great as to give quite a sluggish appearance t
which quietly winds along about 3 knots an hour, though of course
much more in Midsummer.
Mr. McLean considers the soil here as good, though not so fin<
head waters of the Thompson, about 22 miles east of this, or in
kamen Valley, which he considers the best place in the colony for
tural settlement. The land about Fort Alexandria where he :
several years, he also considers better than this, though more subje
But I believe it is a great though common error to suppose that
destroyed nearly every year by frost at places even further north
andria, once in four or five years being a fair average. Great qi
potatoes are grown at the head of both Thompson and North riv
Indians, but nothing else has been tried. At Kamloop vegetables <
thrive very Well. A bushel of wheat there yields on an average 1
Mr. McLean says that at Alexandria he has known it yield 40.
msiderable trade now carried on across the American ft
nloop to the Fraser, and to the small rivers branchh
l nearly all of which there are or have been minei
great quantity of spirits and other things were smuggled into the country th
way last year.
Gold has been found in the rivers Tranquille, Deft
nd
There is
hrough Kai
Thompson, <
I bushe
working.
tha
rand i
ishi
svap Lake, so pure that they i
* had s
north bank of the Shush y
stems, &c, of it.
There is a trail from this to Fort Hope which is alwa;
of the Hudson Bay Company for transporting their g
northern parts. It is, however, dangerous in some ps
horses are lost each time the fur-brigade comes down.
7 or 8 miles long, and a steep mountain, Manson Mount
have to cross. It takes them ten or fifteen days to go fi
but I am told that, travelling without luggage, it could 1
days.    A man has gone from Kamloop to Langley in fi
The Indians all over the country suffered fearfully
winter, a great many dying of starvation. It was owin
their improvidence, most of them leaving off the fisl
summer in the general mania for gold-digging, and m
the winter. This state of things accounts for the numl
on miners and others by them, their only choice in mos
die.    I think they can hardly be wondered at for prefer
We left Kamloop for the Pavilion on the 17th M
north bank of the Shuewap-JLake as far as Tranquil] Journey in British Columbia. 217
. a steep hill to the northward and opened about 3 miles of
id, and then coming down again followed the lake to the
s foot of which we camped.    It is in a hank of about 800
reached the river De'font, across which we had to swim the horses, an undertaking which the force of the current makes both difficult and dangerous to
perform, though the river is only 20 or 30 yards wide. The west bank of this
river is about 250 feet high, on ascending which there is a grass plain 5 or 6
miles long, and from that to the River de la Cache is all good grazing-ground,
and indeed I might almost say all the way to the Pavilion. There is a small
stream two yards wide between the rivers Defont and De la Cache, which is
dignified by the name of Conteaux River, and here we left the Thompson and
turned a little northward, the river running away to the southward.
All the Thompson River from the Shuswap is very much like the Nicola,
but larger and not so pretty. The soil near the Eiver de la Cache is very
good, but covered with soda. The river is small and shallow, but just above
where it joins the Bonaparte being the best ford in that river makes it a good
place for a revenue station, as the Bonaparte River must be crossed in going
to either Fountain or Pavilion, except by going round to Lytton, where there
is a magistrate.
We crossed the Bonaparte River on the morning of the 19th May, finding
only 3 ft. 6in. of water in the deepest part of the ford, which was an agreeable
surprise, for we expected this to have been the worst of all the rivers as it was
far the largest we crossed between Kamloop and Pavilion, and we had been
told the deepest. We skirted along a steep hill on the north side of it, down
which one of the pack-horses fell, though fortunately without injury, and we
then came down again on the river. This hill would be avoided if the river
were bridged, as lie bridge would be thrown across higher up, where the trail
crosses the stream in winter, but the river at this season is too deep for fording
at that part. The valley of the Bonaparte is not quite so much covered with
the nitrate of soda as the other valleys we passed through; indeed, neither the
Bonaparte or Chapeau valleys contains so much of it as those of the Thompson
and Nicola.
We followed the north bank of the Bonaparte for about 7 miles till we met
the Chapeau River, from whence we followed the Chapeau for 12 miles, crossing the river several times. The Bonaparte turns northward after its junction
with Chapeau to Lake Loon, in which I believe it takes its rise.
The Chapeau River is a remarkable one, though only 10 or 12 yards wide,
inasmuch as it and the Thompson make an island of about 25 square miles of
country, in the same way that the Nicola and' Thompson make one of 40
square miles farther south. After leaving the Bonaparte it turns westward for
about 12 miles, and then turns southward, joining the Fraser about 18 miles
above Lytton. Its banks are from 20 to 60 feet high, and the valley averages
800 yards in width. Here the limestone commences, and from this to Lake
Pavilion there is hardly anything else.
Leaving the Chapeau we turned north, and through a narrow valley between
perpendicular limestone mountains 4000 to 5000 feet high, and came to a
small lake (Crown), immediately beyond which is Lake Pavilion, which is
about 6 miles long and i of a mile wide. At the north end of this lake there
is a most curious peak like a round tower, called by the Indians Skille Paa-
lock; and about a mile farther on is a farm of about 20 acres, on which three
Americans are at work. They had not tried grain when I was there, but said
they thought the"soil good.   Four miles more along the north bank of the 218 Mayne's Report on a
Pavilion River, which runs from the Lake to the Fraser, brought us to the
The Pavilion is on the east bank of the Fraser, on a bench 600 feet above
the river, very similar to that at Lytton. The wind blows and the dust flies
in the same manner. There is one wooden house and several huts of canvas
and boughs, which, like their log contemporaries in the Canons, are called
restaurants. Flour was 35 cents per lb. and bacon 75 when I was there. In
the winter flour was as high as 85 cents, and bacon 1 dollar 50 cents.
The charges for carriage of goods, &c, now are from Pavilion to Kamloop
25 cents per lb.; to Fountain, 6; to Cayoush, 8 ; and to Big Bar, 8. From
Lytton to Big Bar 30 cents. Big Bar is about 18 miles above Pavilion.
Silver and copper have both been found at the Pavilion; the latter I have
seen.
We left Pavilion on the 23rd of May, and walked by a very good trail-to
the Fountain. The Fountain, so called from a small fountain there, is a very
much prettier and better site for a town than Pavilion : the latter, however,
possessing the great advantage of limestone, none of which I saw at the
Fountain, though I do not doubt there is some not far from it.
There is a considerable bend in the river at the Fountain, which shelters it
to a considerable extent -from the north and south winds. There are two or
three large stores here, and some half-dozen log-huts scattered over the flat.
There is a valley at the west end of the flat which extends southwards as far
as Foster Bar, and through which there is a good trail.
About 3 miles below Fountain, on the opposite side of the Fraser, is Bridge
River, where there is a large store belonging to Messrs. Fraser and Davis, who
have thrown* a wooden bridge about 40 yards long across the river, 800 yards
from its mouth, for crossing which they make the miners pay 25 cents a head;
they having, I am told, pulled down a bridge the Indians had made, and on
which it was quite safe to cross. About 1£ mile below this is French Bar,
where there is a ferry, by which we crossed; and 2 miles farther, on the west
bank of the river, is situated Cayoush.
Cayoush is at the junction of the Tukumeth and Fraser rivers, where the
Harrison Silloet route commences, and is the prettiest place I saw on the
Fraser. Four or five huts, and the same number of stores, compose the town
on the west side. On the east side the Hudson Bay Company are building a
fort, to be called Fort Berens. It is to stand on the lowest of three benches,
into which the bank is divided about 50 feet above the water. There is a
ferry at Cayoush, and a trail on either side of the river to Lytton. The drawback to the one on the west side being that the Tukumeth is not always ford-
able. On the 24th May we again left the Fraser, and struck down the Harrison
Lilloet route, and, following the Tukumeth, camped at the north end of Lake
Seton, where there are a few huts for the boatmen who ply on the lake.
The following morning we crossed Lake Seton in four hours, and Lake
Anderson the same afternoon in five. The two lakes are about the same size,
and have much the same appearance, but Lake Anderson tends much more to
the southward than the other. Both are bounded by steep mountains 3000 to
5000 feet high, and both are very deep. There is no perceptible current in -
them and hardly any rise and fall. Southerly is the prevailing wind and it
blows nearly always during the day, the morning and evening bem"* calm.
These lakes are separated by a neck of land 1 i miles wide, which is nearly level*
and through which runs a stream 20 or 30 yards wide. Port Anderson is at
the south end of Lake Anderson. There is a large restaurant there for the
entertainment of muleteers, &c, &c.
From Port Anderson to Port Pemberton is the Birkenhead Portage, or as it
is now generally called, the Mosquito Portage, which name it certainly well deserves.   It is about 25 miles long by the trail, which is on the whole good. Journey in British Columbia. 219
There are regular trains of mules on both this and the next portage.   When I
was there they charged 8 cents per lb. for packing along this one, but in the
About 9 miles from Port Anderson is Summit Lake, which is a mile long,
and from which the waters run north and south. It is about 800 feet above
Port Anderson and 1800 feet above the sea. Half-way between ports Anderson and Pemberton there is a large bed of clay-slate nearly 2 miles long.
There is a river, called the Scaarlux, running the whole length of this portage.
The banks are low and covered with willows, &c, and many small streams
run into it on both sides. The valley of the Scaarlux averages about 1500.
yards in width, except at Port Anderson, where it is nearly 2 miles wide. It
is bounded by mountains 1000 to 5000 feet high, and generally very steep.
There were quantities of wild peas, lettuce, and berries on all the level spots.
There are only two valleys of any size running off from it, one near Port
Anderson on the east side, and the other near Port Pemberton on the west.
We reached Port Pemberton at 11 a.m. on the 27th. Port Pemberton is
on the north bank of the Lilloet Lake, and contains half-a-dozen restaurants
and huts occupied by muleteers and boatmen. There is a large flat on the lake
opposite to it, which dries the whole way across in the winter, and goods have
to be landed a quarter of a mile lower down, but'at this season there is a
passage wide enough for a boat to come up to a wharf which has been built
abreast the town. About 2 feet is the extreme rise and fall on this lake, and
there is never any perceptible current.
We left Port Pemberton at 3 o'clock the same afternoon, and arrived at
Port Lilloet about 7*30 p.m. We were treated on our arrival there to the first
rain that had fallen on the lake this year, and it continued all night. There
is only one store and an old barn at Port Lilloet. We left Lilloet next morning for Port Douglas by what is called the Douglas Portage. There is a small
lake, or rather a continuation of the larger one, for about 4 miles from Port
Lilloet; and from the south end of this, Little Lilloet Lake as it is called, flows
the Lilloet River, the mouth of which is at the Great Harrison Lake about a
mile below Port Douglas. At this season the Lilloet River is entirely un-
navigable, on account of several dangerous rapids, in one of which there is a
fall of 10 or 12 feet, but in the winter considerable quantities of goods were
brought up the river in canoes, with a great saving of expense to the merchants, the Indians charging 5 cents per lb. from Port Douglas to Port
Lilloet, when the mule-trains were charging 15 cents.
Following the east bank of this river about 8 miles we came to the hot
spring (St. Agnes' Well). The temperature of this spring is* I should think,
about 160°, but the thermometer we had with us when we were there was
only graduated to 120°, and it went up to that instantaneously. It flows in a
small stream from the centre of a large knob of conglomerate rock (specimens
of which I have sent among others to his Excellency the Governor) into a
basin at the foot of the rock. I brought a bottle of it down with me, but the
quantity was not sufficient for analyzation.
We camped that night (29th) at the Akotzstar River, and reached Port
Douglas at 3 p.m. next day. MSmM
We observed no new features on the Douglas Portage, and no limestone since
leaving Pavilion.
The Lilloet River is very rapid, averaging 80 to 90 yards in width, but
varying from 30 to 130 yards. There is a large stream called the Amockwa
running into it from the southward about 9 miles below Port Lilloet, and
another from the same direction called the Zoalkleen about 10 miles above
Douglas. This latter is said to come from a lake called Zoalklinckt. The
trail passes over many steep places which I think might have been avoided ; 220 Mayne's Report on a
but as Lieut. S. Palmer, an officer of the Royal Engineers, is examining it
more fully than I did, with a view to making alterations in the route, it is
needless for me to make any remarks-on this subject. The cedars on the side
of the hill above Port Douglas are the finest I have seen in the country. I
was told by a Frenchman that he had found gold-bearing quartz about 10
miles above Port Douglas.
Port Douglas is situated on a flat at the head of a small lake about a mile
long, which is called Little Harrison Lake. In summer the water rises some
distance over this flat; I am unable, however, to say how far, as the water
was not at its highest when I was there ; but even then some of the houses
had two or three feet of water under or in them, according as they were built
on piles or not.
Between the Little and the Great Harrison lakes there is a narrow passage
nearly half-a-mile long. In summer there is sufficient water in it for the-flat-
bottomed steamers to go through, but in winter there are only four or five
inches, and it is generally frozen over.
The Great Harrison is the largest of the chain of lakes. It is about 30
miles long and in some places 5 or 6 miles wide, in appearance much similar
to the others. There are two large valleys on the e. side, one running e.s.e.,
and the other k.e.    The latter is said to extend nearly to Lytton.
There is a stream running down it which I think takes its rise in the
Cayoush Lake. At the entrance to the Great Harrison Lake there is a flat,
which, like the small passage at its head, dries or nearly dries in winter,
thereby blocking out steamers for at least seven months in the year; so that
during the winter all goods have to be landed at the entrance of Harrison
River, and taken up the lake in boats. This difficulty may be overcome, either
by making a canal for the river steamers to pass through, or by making a road
from the entrance of Harrison River to the south end of the Great Harrison
Lake, and keeping a steamer inside the lake to carry the freight to Port
Douglas; or it may be found better to cut a road from the Fraser River through
the valley of the south end of the Great Harrison Lake, avoiding Harrison
River and the flat altogether. One of these three things must be done if the
Harrison Lilloet is to be the high road to British Columbia. It is thought
that the opening of a road from Fort Hope to Boston Bar will cause the valley
of the Fraser to be used for transporting goods into the interior; but I think
this a mistake, except of course as far as the mining bars between Tale and
Lytton are concerned. In the first place Lytton is not in so central a position
with regard to the mining-regions as Cayoush, Fountain, or Pavilion. And
the trail from Fountain to Lytton is much better from Boston Bar to that
place.
Gold has now been found in large quantities at Alexandria, and from
Pavilion there is a trail through a valley parallel to the Fraser, along which a
waggon might be driven nearly the whole way.
There is gold in almost all the tributaries of the Thompson River also, and
the road from Kamloop to Fountain or Pavilion is much better than between
Lytton and Kamloop.
The country about Chilcoaten is, I am told, very good. A Canadian re- '
siding at Pavilion informed me he had travelled from Fort Chilcoaten to the
lakes on Bridge River, through a valley parallel to the Fraser, and he knows
an Indian who has been from thence to Port Douglas by a route leading down
the valley east of the Lilloet; and both of these routes he describes as beino-
over good land, and such as a road might be made on without great difficulty0
Between Fort Chilcoaten and the sea there is a chain -of mountains throueh
which there are two known passes, one by the West Road River up which
Sir A. McKenzie went, and the other at the head of Chilcoaten River which Journey in British Columbia.
221
When Mr. McLean was at Fort
leaver, lying in North Bentinck
has never yet been crossed by a white
Alexandria he received a letter from
Arm, in three days by the latter route
The change of temperature is very remarkable in British Columbia. I have
seen the thermometer at 31° at daylight in the shade, at noon the same day
85°, and 40° again in the evening. I append a table of meteorological observations taken during my tour, as well as those taken on board H.M.S.
Plumper at the mouth of the river during the same period. The absence of
animal life is also very remarkable. The only birds we saw were about half-
a-dozen partridges, a few humming-birds, American robins, and one or two
other species of small birds. There are rattlesnakes in the country, and the
chief of the Shuswap Indians told me that his people were frequently killed
by their bite; but we saw only one.
I have sent, according to ypur order, to his Excellency the Governor the
geological specimens collected by Dr. Samuel Campbell. A small collection
of plants made also by that officer has been given to Dr. Wood.
I cannot close this without expressing my sense of the great obligation I
am under to Dr. Campbell, r.n., for his zealous and hearty co-operation on all
occasions.
I have also to acknowledge with pleasure the great kindness I received at
the hands of the gentlemen of the Hudson Bay Company wherever I met
them.
Abstract of B.
•,, Attached Thermometer, and Temperature
of the Am.
Time.
Barometer.
Attached
Temp.
Barometer.
Attached
Temp.
Date.
Therm.
of Air.
1     ate'
Therm.
ofAfr.
1859.
1859.
April
i April
'v'p^
Noon
30-37
50
47
!    15
30-42
58
51
Mid.
•37
49
44
Mid.
•22
58
46
2
Noon
30-43
' 54
48
16
Noon
30-20
62
48
Mid.
•38
51
44
Mid.
•17
54
47
3
Noon
30-47
49
49
17
Noon
30-28
59
51
Mid.
•45
52
43
Mid.
•13
55
43
4
Noon
30-46
59
53
1    18
Noon
30-16
59
49
Mid.
•40
55
46
Mid.
•16
54
43
W-5 >
Noon
30-36
55
51
19
Noon
30-34
54
49
Mid.
"17
53
41
Mid.
•34
51
38
:,-Sw'($
Noon
30-13
59
51
j    20
Noon
30-30
55
52
Mid.
•03
57
47
Mid.
•19
55
41
7
Noon
29-97
57
47
21
Noon
30-13
59
59
^r< *
Mid.
•78
53
47
Mid.
•08
56
44
gfa-% ■
Noon
29-76
55
48
22
Noon
30-04
59
56
Mid.
•74
50
45
Mid.
•02
55
48
'i':-\§
Noon
29-77
56
47
23
Noon
29-93
60
Mid.
■67
47
43
Mid.
•86
57
45
10
Noon
29'63
48
45
24
Noon
29-86
51
Mid.
46
42
Mid.
•99
56
57
ii
Noon
30-02
50
43
25
Noon
30-16
55
52
Mid.
•04
43
32
Mid.
•19
56
50
12
Noon
30-15
53
42
26
Noon
30-22
54
50
Mid.
•26
51
43
Mid.
•11
54
47
13
Noon
30-48
58
45
27
Noon
30-03
Mid.
53
46
Mid.
29-99
51
44
14
Noon
30-62
59
48
28
Noon
30*08
52
47
Mid.
I
57
48
Mid.
•08
57
45 Mayne's Report on a
Abstract of Barometer, &
z.-cmti
nued.
Da*.  |   Time.
Barometer
Them.1
Date.      Time.
Barometer
Therm.
of Air!
1859.
1859.
April
May
Noon
30-06
64
49
Noon
30-25
62
64
Mid.
29-93
53
47
Mid.
•03
59
54
30
Noon
29-96
56
51
27
Noon
29*98
64
62
Mid.
•94
53
41
Mid.
61
56
May
28
Noon
29*90
60
55
1
Noon
29-92
59
53
Mid.
•91
53
Mid.
•93
56
53
29
Noon
29-99
49
52
2
Noon
29-85
64
60
Mid.
•98
57
51
Mid.
•88
58
50
80
Noon
29-95
60
57
'■^S
Noon
29-95
63
58
Mid.
30-10
57
50
Mid.
30-08
58
51
31
Noon
30*40
61
,.^p
Noon
30-31
59
50
Mid.
•40
56
49*
Mid.
•28
53
45
June
ijf^VJ
Noon
30-13
54
58
1
Noon
30-35
59
57
Mid.
29-93
58
57
Mid.
•15
59
55
6
Noon
29-90
55
55
2
Noon
30-10
59
57
Mid.
•94
57
52
Mid.
29-96
61
57
"?'ij||
Noon
29-92
60
3
Noon
29-97
66
Mid.
•78
55
49
Mid.
•86
64
61*
8
Noon
30-85
57
52
4
Noon
30-22
65
63
Mid.
•04
52
46
Mid.
•38
60
52
9
Noon
30-15
60
49
Noon
30-28
60
58
Mid.
•15
56
45
Mid.
•04
57
54
10
Noon
30*18
58
48
6
Noon
30-22
64
54
Mid.
52
44
Mid.
11
Noon
30-30
58
52
7
Noon
30-24
57
57
Mid.
•42
57
50
Mid.
•34
57
56
12
Noon
Mid.
30-54
•45
62
59
58
51
8
Noon
Mid.
30-38
•09
61
61
13
Noon
30-02
69
64
9
Noon
Mid.
•15
63
53
Mid.
•87
66
62
14
Noon
30-14
71
68
10
Noon
80*01
71
67
Mid.
•06
63
57
Mid.
•03
65
60
15
Noon
30-15
63
67
11
Noon
30-11
Mid.
•10
64
59
Mid.
•06
66
59
16
Noon
29-99
60
57
12
Noon
80-12
59
56
Mid.
•00
59
54
Mid.
•02
60
55
17
Noon
30-10
63
63
13
Noon
30-15
63
59
Mid.
•02
61
55
Mid.
•18
58
52
18
Noon
30-10
58
59
14
Noon
30-18
64
Mid.
•22
57
57
Mid.
•02
59
54
19
Noon
30-31
62
58
15
Noon
29-99
57
Mid.
•26
60
50*
Mid.
•99
60
67
20
Noon
80-33
64
59
16
Noon
30-15
Mid.
•29
60
52
Mid.
•18
61
54
21
Noon
30-18
66
59
17
Noon
30-28
Mid.
•05
66
50
Mid.
•15
61
52
22
Noon
3005
66
55*
18
Noon
30-15
68
58
Mid.
29*92
65
48
Mid.
23
Noon
30-15
60
52*
19
Noon
80-25
61
59
Mid.
•28
54
Mid.
•35
24
Noon
30-50
61
55
20
Noon
30-38
64
58
Mad.
•51
58
49
Mid.
•23
58
56
Noon
80-52
64
Mid.
•89
69
51 Journey in British Columbia.
Meteorological Observations taken in British Columbia during the Months of April
and Mat, 1859.
Baror
neteran
d Thermomet
era*
ched.
Thermometer.
Date.
6.
£
Noc
n.
5p
*
,0,
K.
6
Noon
p5m
&
Remarks, Place, &c.
April
|
u
*:
>
1
;'!
30-11
•65i
1
Weather  very fine; at  Langley,
23
25
30-10
'■
II
'61
29 71
29-97
'58
54"
544
54
Fine night; overcast.
Fine.
Ditto; at Fort Hope.
Ditto; force of wind 4-6.
Cloudy; slight showers, &c.
26
29-79
'56
29-75
56
29 97
29-98
57
58
60*
51
47
sry-
29
29-83
53
29-83
53
29-50
56
29-86
*53
45
50
48
38
Ditto; slight showers.
30
29-57
54"
29-57
54
29-61
63
^
50
48
38
Cloudy; Fort Tale, F. R.
May
1
29-52
*61
29-50
62
58
51
60
53
Fine; at Fort Yale.
Very fine.
40
29-47
81
48
Ditto: at Ferryhouse, F. R.
29-76
29-72
'61
63
5
*9-72
47
29-36
65
29-08
73
29-98
59
41
69
60
50
Ditto;   Therm, in   sun'84°;  at
Boston Bar.
lbs."
51
29-47
29-13
58
45
73
56
Ditto; ditto 80°.
51*
28-78
57
52
Ditto; force of wind 3-5.
28-47
50
64
48
Ditto   ditto.
9
29-07
29-21
'61
29-06
40
42
Fine; Lytton, F. R.
10
29- ll
48
26-50
65
27-72
50
60
27-85
55
43
65
50
55
Ditto   ditto.
Weather fine;  passing along the
Nicola River.
43
27-97
27-42
60
27-81
48
63
40
Ditto.
13
27-80
41
27-40
65
26-25
70/:
26-65
44
30
79
70
45
Ditto; on top of Skytakew-hill, near
Fort Thompson.
15
16
26-60
28-28
40
46
69
28-62
28-53
73
28-35
66
26-65
28-42
68*
32
46
65
65
72
73
60
68
50
Ditto;   at    Fort    Kamloop    or
Thompson.
Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto; at Lake Shnewap.
58
28-11
28-19
55
48
56
50
Ditto; therm, in sun 127° at noon.
20
27-11
39
49
27-71
73
28-46
73
27-10
62
34
80
80
56
64
Ditto.
Ditto; force of wind 4*6.      \§>
21
58
28-10
60
60
80
73
22
28-14
71
Ditto; slight showers, &c.       Sg
28-09
29-25
Cloudy; slight showers, &c.    > § g'
24
29-49
53
29-54
25
29-54
60
Therm, in sun 90°.               ) 5 £
26
29-17
55
29-02
70
28-24
67
28 08
59
55
70
60
sy
Passing along trie  Harrison  and
27
28-00
28-83
3
29-06
62
28-90
W
23-89
61
S
65
60
a.m., fine; _p.nr., very rainy.
29
53
29-67
66
S-74
53
is
52
1
60
52
Heavy  squalls of rain;   at Port
Douglas.
Fine; at Harrison Lake.
31
29-92
49
30-12
59
30-21
53
30-17
49
49
60
53
49      

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/cdm.bcbooks.1-0222005/manifest

Comment

Related Items