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Peace River guide Canadian Northern Railway Company 1917

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Array  CANADIAN GOVERNMENT AGENTS IN THE UNITED
STATES.
Biddeford, Me 107 Main St L. N. Asselin
Boston, Mass 73 Tremont St Max A. Bowlby
Chicago, 111 64 W. Adams St R. F. Clark
Chicago, 111 112 W. Adams St. . . C. J. Broughton
Colombus, Ohio 82 Inter'ban St. Bldg. W. S. Wethery
Des Moines, Iowa   202 W. Fifth Ave. ... F. H. Hewitt
Detroit, Mich 176 Jefferson Ave. . . N. V. Mclnnes
Duluth, Minn 424 W. Superior St C. A. Skog
Grand Forks, N.D Clifford Block W. E. Black
Great Falls, Mont Room 6 Dunn Block J. L. Porte
Harrisburg, Pa 210 N. Third St. ... F. A. Harrison
Indianapolis, Ind 215 Trac. Tr. Bldg., J. M. McLachlan
Kansas  City, Mo 2012 Main St Geo. A. Cook
Manchester, N.H 1139 Elm St J. E. Laforce
Marquette, Mich C. A. Laurier
Milwaukee,  Wis 123 Second St Geo. A. Hall
Minneapolis,  Minn 311 Nicolette Ave. .. J. T. Whitlaw
New York   Woolworth Bldg F. A. Young
Omaha, Neb Bee Bldg., 220 17th St.W. V. Bennett
Philadelphia, Pa 1337 Walnut St J. P. Jaffray
Pittsburg, Pa 214 Park Bldg F. G. Wood
Saginaw,  Mich 222 Hoyt St R. Lauriex
San Diego, Cal Can. Pav. Pan. Expo Gil. Boche
St. Paul, Minn Cor. 4th & Jackson Sts., A. H. Davis
St. Paul, Minn 308-11 Jackson St E. A. Garrett
Spokane, Wash Cor. 1st & Post Sts. ... J. N. Grieve
Syracuse, N.Y 301 E. Genesee St. . . O. G. Eutledge
Watertown,  S.D Box 197 M. J. Johnston
CANADIAN NORTHERN RY. REPRESENTATIVES
IN CANADA.
Halifax, N.S.
Div'n Freight and Passenger Agent, 123 Hollis St.
Ottawa, Ont.
City Passenger Agent, 34 Sparks St.
Montreal, Que.
Assistant General Passenger Agent, 226 St. James St.
City Passenger Agent, 226 St. James St.
Toronto, Ont.
City Passenger Agent, 52 King St. East.
Vancouver, B.C.
District Freight and Passenger Agent, 605 Hastings St.
Winnipeg, Man.
City Passenger Agent, Cor. Main and Portage.
Assistant General Passenger Agent, Union Station.
IN UNITED STATES.
Chicago, 111.
General Agent, 64 West Adams St.
Duluth, Minn.
District Freight and Pass. Agent, 424 West Superior St.
New York, N.Y.
General Agent, Suite 510 Woolworth Bdg., 223 Broadway.
Minneapolis, Minn.
Commercial Agent, 311 Nicolette Ave.
Pittsburg, Pa.
General Agent, 214 Park Bldg.
San Francisco, Cal.
Commercial Agent, 516 Santa Marina Bldg., 112 Market
Street.
St. Louis, Mo.
Commercial Agent, 553 Pierce Bldg.
St. Paul, Minn.
General Agent, Cor. 4th and Jackson Sts.
For all information and literature write to above agents, or
R. Creelman, Gen. Pass. Agt., Union Station, Winnipeg, Man.
R. L. Fairbairn, Gen. Pass. Agent, 68 King St. E., Toronto.
Geo. H.  Shaw,  General Traffic Manager, 68 King  St. East,
Toronto, Ont. PEACE RIVER CROSSING
PEACE   RIVER  GKUTDE
The Peace River Country was known of by report many
years ago; it was acknowledged to be a land where the soil
was remarkably fertile, even judged by the standards of
Western Canada, and where splendid climatic conditions prevailed. So remote, however, did it seem and so difficult of
access, that it was generally associated with thoughts of
pioneers, trappers and prospectors. With the opening of the
Canadian Northern line from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing some eight years ago, the obstacles between this agricultural Eldorado and the prospective settler were so far
removed as to bring it within the range of practical consideration and a relatively small but steady stream of immigration
set towards the newest land of opportunity.
Other lines gradually pushed their way from Edmonton
until, where it was once necessary to undertake a long and
fairly arduous journey, it is now possible to reach the heart of
the district by direct train. At a time when increased production of food-stuffs has become such a pressing problem, and
when the land holds out a greater hope of wealth and independence than ever before, any man possessed of average
intelligence, backed up by reasonable energy, can reap a rich
reward from homesteading in the Peace River.
This district embraces practically the whole of the northern
portion of the Province of Alberta and part of British Columbia, located in the basin of the Peace River and its tributaries, also the Smokey and Little Smokey Rivers, the known
agricultural area being about 275 miles by 300 miles, comprising in all some 60,000 square miles, or forty million acres
of farming land. As the crow flies, it is some 220 miles from
Edmonton to Peace River Crossing, which is in the centre of
the country.
The character of the land varies. There are sections particularly adapted for grain growing; other sections are particularly adapted for mixed farming, while others are
exceptionally suitable for stock raising and dairying. There
is as well considerable wooded land, grazing areas with abundance of grass, open country, prairie lands, coulees and valleys.
The sections most suitable for agriculture and the main
settlements are at Grouard, Heart River, High Prairie, Big
Prairie, Winaginew and Salt Lake, Peace River Crossing,
Burnt River and Cold Springs, Shaftesbury, Griffin Creek,
Water Hole, Dunvegan, Spirit River, Lake Saskatoon, Grande
Prairie and Swan River.
Canada is a self-governing country, and her participation
in the present European war has been purely voluntary. The
revenue necessary to meet the expense is being raised by an
increase of seven and a half per cent, added to the customs
tariff, taxation of banks, loan companies, a tax on railway
1
and steamship tickets, telegrams, postal matter, patent medicines and proprietary articles. The farm lands of Canada
are free from any war tax and the farmers exempt to draw
the wealth from the rich productiveness of the soil, without
contributing to the war expenses, except as outlined above.
Immense areas of Western Canada are yet open for free homesteads. Land of the same quality that has produced for the
settlers now there from thirty to sixty bushels of wheat and
sixty to one hundred bushels of oats to the acre is available.
HOW TO GET THERE.
From Pacific Coast States, the route is via Vancouver and
Canadian Northern Railway to Edmonton.
From the Central States, the most convenient route is via
Duluth and the Canadian Northern Railway or via St. Paul
or Minneapolis, Winnipeg and the Canadian Northern Railway to Edmonton.
From the Eastern States the route is via Toronto or Ottawa
and the C. N. R. to Edmonton therefrom.
In the very near future through passenger train service
will be established from Montreal to' all points west of Winnipeg, and with the establishment of this service tho direct
route from far eastern points will be via Montreal and the
C. N. R. to Edmonton.
Beyond Edmonton the Edmonton, Dunvegan & British
Columbia runs north to Spirit River, a distance of 356 miles,
with a branch line to Grande Prairie City. From McLennan, a
junction point, the Central Canada Railway, part of the above
system, runs to Peace River Crossing, a distance of 50 miles.
The Alberta & Great Waterways Railway runs from Edmonton to Fort McMurray, a distance of 290 miles.
An alternative route, which was formerly the main summer highway to the district, is Canadian Northern from Edmonton to Athabasca Landing, thence by steamer on the
Athabasca River to Mirror Landing, with a 15 mile wagon
trail to Norris Landing on the Lesser Slave, and a 75 mile
steamer run through Lesser Slave Lake to Grouard.
There are three transportation companies plying the extensive waterways of the country which give access to many
points in the interior from Peace River Crossing. These are
the Hudson Bay Co., the Peace River Navigation Co., Ltd.,
and the Peace River Tramway & Navigation Co.
LOW FARES FOR SETTLERS AND LAND SEEKERS.
In order to obtain the lowest possible fares, please call upon
or communicate with the nearest representative of the Canadian Northern Railway, who will be pleased to quote fares
and make all arrangements for your trip. Peace    River    Guide
One Way Fares.
Low fares applicable for settlers from the United States
are quoted in separate publications, copies of which may be
obtained from any Canadian Northern Representative. Low
one way are in effect from all points in Eastern to Western
Canada.
Round Trip Homeseekers' Fares from Points in the United
States.
Low round trip homeseekers' fares from points in the
Central States (Indiana, Illinois and West) to Western Canada are usually in effect from March to November inclusive,
to destinations in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta
every Tuesday, and to destinations in British Columbia on
the first and third Tuesdays of each month. Tickets are
first class, good for twenty-five days, with liberal stop-over
privileges.
These fares apply via Duluth and the Canadian Northern
Railway to  destination,  or   via   St. Paul  and  Minneapolis,
Winnipeg   and  Canadian  Northern   Railway   to   destination.
ASK FOR SPECIAL LEAFLET GIVING ALL DETAILS.
Round Trip Fares from Eastern to Western Canada.
Low round trip fares to selected destinations in Manitoba,
Saskatchewan and Alberta are frequently in effect from all
points in Eastern Canada, including Toronto and Ottawa,
Ontario, Montreal and Quebec, Quebec. When such fares are
authorized tickets are second class, good for sixty days, with
liberal stopover privileges at all points on the Canadian
Northern Railway west of Port Arthur and Coughlin, Ontario.
SERVICE PUBLICATIONS.
Any representative of the C.N.R., also Canadian Government Agents listed herein, will be pleased to furnish copies
of   our   Publications,   showing   the   reduced   fares   in   effect,
stop-over privileges, and the high standard of our service in
equipment (including colonist sleeping cars with range, and
tourist sleeping cars with complete kitchen, standard sleeping
: and dining cars and compartment observation cars), grades
and road-bed.
ASK FOR LEAFLET GIVING ALL DETAILS.
CLIMATE.
The climate is exceptionally even, there being no sudden
changes from one extreme to the other. While the summer is
sufficiently hot to ripen grain and vegetables, it does not
involve any physical discomfort. In the same way the winter
is cold enough to ensure seasonable changes in soil without
preventing the feeding of live stock in the open. The
Chinook winds, which blow across the Rockies from the Pacific, break the winter season sufficiently to prevent sustained
spells of cold weather, while cyclone and strong winds are
practically unknown. ■ During the winter the temperature
averages higher than in Manitoba or Saskatchewan, and the
crops are from one to three weeks further advanced than in
other parts of the West. According to records kept for the
past thirty years, there is a dependable precipitation of about
twenty inches a year, which comes chiefly in the form of rain
during June and July, although there is also sufficient snowfall for protective purposes.
The seasons are divided roughly as follows: Spring, middle
of March to first week in April; Summer, first week in April
to last week in September; Autumn, last week in September
to second week in November; Winter, second week in November to middle of March.
AGRICULTURE.
Practical tests have proved the Peace River District to be
one of the best for grain growing in the western plains.   The Canadian    Northern    Railway
wmeBmESMf^^im^^A
GRAIN AT FORT VERMILION
soil is a thick, black loam, as much as twenty-two inches
thick, with a clay sub-soil. The growth of wheat, oats, barley and other cereals as well as roots and vegetables is equal
to that of any other temperate climate. Owing to the long
hours of sunshine during the summer, grain sown early in
May ripens about the middle of August, thus avoiding early
frosts, and, although the growth is rapid, the grain matures
splendidly. There has never been a crop failure. Potatoes,
carrots, beets, onions, celery, cabbage, garden peas, beans,
tomatoes, lettuce, radish, turnips, pumpkins and squash all
give large and satisfactory crops. Average crops are: Oats,
60 bushels per acre; wheat, 40 bushels; barley, 45 bushels;
potatoes, 400 bushels. In the year 1900 there were less than
1,500 acres of land under cultivation in the district, while at
the present time one man alone has 900 acres, and the total
acreage under crop is well over 175,000 acres.
STOCK-RAISING.
It would be hard to find a larger area of land well suited to
stock-raising than this district affords. Pasturage is abundant throughout the summer and, in most years, throughout
the greater portion of the winter. Native hay is also plentiful. In some sections, particularly where the drainage is
good and the rainfall not excessive, horse-raising is being
carried on successfully, but where the drainage is not so good
and the rainfall approximates twenty inches per year, it will
be found advisable to raise beef cattle only. Swine-raising
may also be carried on and at points not too far from transportation facilities this branch of live stock production can
be specialized in profitably.
Because of the dryness of the winters, expensive housing is
not necessary; a wind-break of logs, brush or straw will suffice for walls and a covering of straw or hay, or a thatch of
fine brush is all that is required for a roof.
Where the rainfall exceeds eighteen inches per year, Timothy grass may be grown, yielding up to two tons per acre.
Where the rainfall is less, rye or brome grass will be found
more profitable; the last named being perhaps the best for
pasture purposes. Kentucky blue grass has also proved its
adaptability to local conditions, producing more abundantly
along the Macleod River and Lesser Slave Lake than in its
native State.
TIMBER RESOURCES.
Almost all the river-valleys have very heavy growths of
timber, particularly the southern banks; the principal trees
being spruce, poplar, birch, Cottonwood, balm of gilead and
tamarac, all of which usually grow very close together and
thus are tall and straight, so as to be most suitable for lumbering activities.
MINERAL RESOURCES.
Comparatively little is known about the mineral resources
of the country. The immediate formation along the Lesser
Slave, Peace and Athabasca Rivers is Devonion and Creta-
cious. West of the Devonian areas, it is all cretacious as far
as the Rocky Mountains. Along the Athabasca, south of
Lake Athabasca, to Fort McMurray, immense quantities of
bituminous sandstone (with probably petroleum), asphalt,
rock salt and natural gas are known to exist. Oil is said to
have been struck by some of the companies boring there. The
gas well at Pelican Portage has been burning for over fifteen
years. Silver, lead and iron ore are known to exist in large
quantities. Along the Peace River, from the Crossing going
north, is Tar Island, with an outcrop of tar sand, and also
natural gas escaping. Boring is being carried on near this
point.   Very fine gold is found in most of the river sands and
6 -=-
Peace    River    Guide
CORN AT SHAFTESBURY
can  be washed in  paying  quantities  in the waters  of the
Upper Peace during low water periods.
GAME AND FISH.
Barren land Cariboo, or Husky Deer, in immense herds are
found to the north of Lake Athabasca, and some to the west
of the Mackenzie River. Cariboo and moose meat form the
principal food supply of the north. Musk-ox live out on the
barren lands to the north-east of the Mackenzie River and
north of Lake Athabasca. Wood buffalo are very scarce and
protected. There are estimated to be over 400 in the wild
state between Fort Simpson and the Peace River, west of
Fort Smith. There are very few wolves in the country, with
a bounty of $10.00 on each animal. Wild ducks, geese and
swans are very plentiful indeed. They migrate every year
and are seen in flocks of several thousand. Partridge and
prairie chicken are fairly common in some localities.
All the lakes and some of the rivers abound in fish. White-
fish form the principal food supply of the dogs and Indians
during the winter. There are lots of jackflsh, great northern
pike and goldeye, with mountain trout higher up.
LAND DISTRICTS.
There are 14,000 surveyed homesteads open for settlement
in the Peace River Country, which is surveyed into townships,
ranges and sections. As settlement extends new surveys are
made and added each summer. There are three Land Districts
with Dominion Land Offices and Sub-Offices authorized to
receive homestead entries and to give information to prospective settlers.
Grouard Land District.—1,110,000 acres open for home-
steading.   Land Office: Grouard, Alta.; Col. W. F. Carstairs,
Agent. Waterways include Lesser Slave Lake, Sturgeon
Lake, Winagamew Lake, Atekamik Lake, the Smokey River,
Little Smokey River, and the South Heart River.
Peace River Land District.—1,125,000 acres open for home-
steading. Land Office: Peace River, Alta.; W. E. Carson,
Agent. Waterways include the Peace River, Battle River,
Hay River, Wabascaw River, and Hay Lake.
Grande Prairie Land District.—1,328,000 acres open for
homesteading. Land Office: Grande Prairie, Alta.; A. S.
McLean, Agent. Waterways include the Wapita River,
Smokey River, Kleskun River, Spirit River, Lake Saskatoon
and Buffalo Lake.
Dominion Land Agents in the above districts are also
Crown Timber Agents, to whom all matters relating to timber and hay on Government lands should be addressed.
At mile 55 on the E. D. & B. C. Ry., and from there on to
mile 85, the land is sparsely wooded with willow brush, also
small and medium-sized poplar, with some patches of open
prairie. The soil is unexcelled for crops and general live
stock ranching on account of its fertility and close proximity
to Edmonton. . At Sawridge there is a small tract of land
suitable for almost any agricultural purpose. While all of it
close in has been filed on, there still remain some good homesteads open for settlement. Along the south shore of Lesser
Slave Lake, at Swan Lake, Sucker Creek and other various
points, some of the best agricultural lands in the province
are available, although most of the open prairie in this vicinity has been taken up.
West of Lesser Slave Lake lies High Prairie, in which
vicinity the first large tract of open prairie land occurs along
the line of railway. The soil is excellent, and thirty-seven
varieties of the most nutritious grasses flourish, so that there
is natural feed for every kind of live stock.   Though already
8 Canadian     Northern     Railway
GRAND PRAIRIE
well populated,  there  is  a large  amount  of  unsettled land
available.
North of High Prairie, near the junction of the E. D. & B.
C. and Central Canada Railways, is an area of open prairie
land in proximity to McLennan, which is considered very
attractive, although occasionally, slight draining will be
required.
West of the Smokey River, between it and the Peace and
Burnt Rivers, is a fine stretch of country, the land being a
heavy black soil, mostly open prairie.
South of Peace River Crossing, within a reasonable radius
of the Central Canada Railway, there are hundreds of good
homesteads available. This section is slightly wooded and
settlers will do well to investigate before locating elsewhere,
as it is considered to be one of the best stretches of agricultural land in the whole district.
At Boyle, on the Alberta & Great Waterways Railway, 72
miles from Edmonton, is the start of some very good homestead lands, which are heavily timbered in some places, and
a rich black loam with a clay sub-soil. At Fort McMurray
there are thirty-six square miles of surveyed homestead lands
open for filing. They are mostly open prairie and a rich
black loam.
DESCRIPTION OF DISTRICTS.
Big Prairie.—Black, sandy loam, from two to fifteen feet
deep. Water abundant, numerous creeks, lakes and ponds.
Country high, rolling prairie, cut up with ravines, plenty of
timber for fuel and lumber. Coal seams appear along the
banks in the upper parts of the creeks and rivers.
Heart River and Salt Creek.—Black loam, from eight to
twelve inches deep, with clay sub-soil. Rolling park prairie,
with plenty of wood, water and timber.
9
Winagamew.—Black loam, good water. Country a succession of prairie, bluffs, forests, lakes and rivers.
Sturgeon Lake.—Rich black loam, with clay sub-soil, from
eight to twelve inches deep. Water abundant and easily
reached. This section is subject to ehinook winds and is considered by many to be a milder climate than 200 miles south.
Swan River and Little Prairie.—Very similar to Heart
River and Salt Creek.
Peace River Landing to Dunvegan.—Soil on the highlands
rich black loam with clay sub-soil; water, timber and fuel
easily obtainable. Soil in the valley a little lighter but an
exceptionally good black sandy loam.
Spirit River.—Black sandy loam, very deep, with a clay
sub-soil. Numerous lakes and rivers. Especially subject to
ehinook winds, so that mild winters are very frequent.
Grande Prairie.—Picturesque rolling prairie, studded with
lakes, intersected by rivers and within sight of the white-
capped peaks of the Rockies. Rich black loam from three to
six feet deep.
Pouce Coupe.—Park-like plateau, broken by deep valleys
near the Peace River. Chinook very common. Prairie about
fifty miles.    Excellent dark loam.
Peace River Crossing to Fort Vermilion.—On the west side
of the river, twelve or fifteen miles below the Crossing, are
open prairies with rich soil. Tar and natural gas springs
reported.
PEACE RIVER TOWNS.
Athabasca.—Population, about 600. An incorporated town,
96 miles north of Edmonton. Terminus of C. N. R. Daily
train service. Two thoroughly modern hotels and several
general stores, banks and lumber yards.    Dominion Govern-
10 Peace
—
Ri v
e r    Guide
i^ari
JMNfti
^  •■
HAY RIVER—GREAT SLAVE LAKE.
ment Sub-Land Office.   Considerable homestead land open in
vicinity.
Grouard.—Population, about 400. Head of navigation on
Lesser Slave Lake. Surrounded by prosperous farm settlements, abundance of coal and wood. Bank, general stores,
hardware store and lumber yards. Government telegraph service. Dominion Government Land Office. Considerable
homestead land open in vicinity.
Peace River.—Population, 950. Terminus of Central Canada Railway. Tri-weekly service. Centre of 600 miles of
navigable waterways. Two hotels, two rooming houses, ten
cafes, ten general stores, two drug stores, two hardware
stores, two flour and feed stores, three bakeries, two banks,
three blacksmith shops, one garage, six livery barns, one
sash and door factory, four saw mills, two butcher shops, two
laundries, one moving picture theatre, large roller rink, hospital, weekly newspaper, sixty first-class residences, twelve
new business blocks, three miles of sidewalk, city fire protection, $10,000 public school building. Good opening for
brick plant, plenty of clay available. Dominion Government
Land Office. 3,161 homesteads filed on in vicinity: 20,500
still available.
Shaftesbury.—About 18 miles upstream from Peace River.
An old settlement, with many highly developed farms, a saw
mill, flour mill, school, also several stores and business blocks.
Many good homesteads available in the vicinity.
Spirit River.—Terminus E. D. & B. C. Ry., 337 miles northwest of Edmonton, train service twice a week. Both settlement and town growing rapidly. Saw mills, shingle mills,
public schools, Experimental Farm, Government telegraph,
post office, general stores, hardware store, and hotel. Many
desirable homesteads available in vicinity.
11
Grande Prairie.—On E. D. & B. C. Ry., 405 miles from Edmonton.    Surrounded  by highly  developed farms.    Quite  a
( large town, having banks, general stores, hardware  stores,
I Dominion   Government  Land   Office,   and  telegraph  station.
Plenty of homestead land available within a radius of from
I six to ten miles.    Good homesteads at Halcourt, 22 miles from
Grande Prairie, also at Red Willow, close to the town.
Fort Vermilion.—300 miles down stream from Peace River.
Three trading stores, saw mill, planing mill, flour mill and
two schools, also Dominion Government Experimental Farm.
Very best of homestead land available in vicinity.
GENERAL INFORMATION.
Education.—The educational laws of the Province of
Alberta contemplate the establishment of schools in even the
newest and most outlying settlements, and every possible
assistance is lent by the Department of Education to the
newly arrived settlers in establishing such schools as may be
required. In order that no community of any considerable
size may be prevented from establishing a school, the minimum number of children of school age resident within a proposed district has been reduced to eight. As a further safeguard against children being deprived of their education
through the indifference or opposition of the settlers, the
Minister of Education has power to establish a school district
without regard to the attitude of the ratepayers. The revenue
of a school district, which is required to meet debenture payments, teachers' and officials' salaries, fuel, insurance, and
current expenditures, is derived from Government grants and
local taxation. Full information regarding procedure in connection with the organization and maintenance of school districts  may be  obtained by  addressing  the  Department  of
12 Canadian     Northern     Railway
HUDSON BAT CO.   STEAMER  "NORTHERN  ECHO,"   ATHABASCA RIVER.
Education, Edmonton, Alta. Public schools are established
and maintained in the following districts: Appleton, Beaver
Lodge, Bezanson, Big Horn, Bluesky, Buffalo Lake, Clairmont
Lake, Dupuis, Englewood, Five Mile Creek, Friedenstal, Griffin, Grouard, Halcourt, Happy Valley, Hermit Lake, Island
View, Kleskun Lake, Lawrence Point, Lower Beaver Lodge,
McHenry, Peace River, Percy, Prairie River, Sawridge,
Saskatoon Lake, Spirit River, Swan River, Sunshine Valley,
Valhalla, Vanrena, Wapita, Waterhole, West Peace River, and
White Mountain.
Churches and Missions.—Roman Catholic Churches or Missions are established at the following points: Athabasca, Dunvegan, Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, Fort St. John, Fort
Vermilion, Falher, Grande Prairie, Grouard, Hudson's Hope,
Lac la Biche, Peace River, Smokey River, Spirit River, Sturgeon Lake and Wabascaw. Further information may be obtained from the Dominion Office of Colonization, St. James
St., Montreal, Que.
Anglican Churches are as follows: Athabasca, Burdier's,
Grande Prairie, Chippewyan, Colinton, Flat Lake, Grouard,
High Prairie, Lake Saskatoon, Peace River, Pleasant Valley,
Pine Creek, and West Vermilion. Anglican Missions, in which
schools are conducted, are established at Fort Vermilion,
Shaftesbury, Wabascaw, Whitefish Lake; several others are
in course of erection.
Hospitals.—These are established as follows: Athabasca,
Fort Vermilion, Grouard, Peace River, Sturgeon Lake and
Wabascaw Lake. In addition to the above, all Missions are
fitted with the necessary equipment for the care of patients.
Trading Posts.—Trading posts are established at various
points by each of three corporations dealing in furs and general supplies.   They are the Northern Trading Co., Ltd., with
13
Posts at Scenic and Smith's Landing. Revilion Freres, at
Athabasca, Calling Lake, Chipewyan Lake, Dunvegan, Fort
St. John, Fort Vermilion, Grouard, Hay River, Hudson's
Hope, Keg River, Lake Saskatoon, Little Red River, Peace
River, Pelican Portage, Spirit River, Sturgeon Lake, Trout
Lake, Wabascaw, and Whitefish Lake; Hudson's Bay Co., at
Athabasca, Chipewyan, Chipewyan Lake, Dunvegan, Fort McKay, Fort McMurray, Fort St. John, Fort Vermilion, Fond du
Lac, Grande Prairie, Grouand, Hudson's Hope, Keg River,
Lac la Biche, Lac Ste. Anne, North Vermilion, Peace River,
Red River, Sawridge, Spirit River, Sturgeon Lake, Trout Lake,
Wabascaw, and Whitefish Lake.
Boards of Trade.—Flourishing organizations are established
in a number of centres for the promotion of their several
interests. These are as follows: Athabasca, Chas. Nanceki-
vell, Secretary; Clairmont, W. J. Johnson, Secretary; Fort
McMurray, J. Hill, President; Fort St. John, write W. J.
Reid, Govt. Tel. Agt.; Fort Vermilion, write R. W. McLeod;
Grande Prairie, write W. Innes; Grouard, J. R. Connell, Secretary; Hudson's Hope, F. Monteith, Secretary; Peace River,
M. R. Upton, Secretary; Pouce Coupe, write J. J. Dever, Govt.
Tel. Agt.; and Spirit River, R. Harrington, Secretary.
Police Protection.—Although the country is most law-abiding, Mounted Police are stationed at many places throughout
the District on account of, the widely scattered character of
its settlements. These inclu.de Grouard, Fort Vermilion, Peace
River, Sawridge and Sturgeon Lake,
in care of the Twin City Transfer, Official Agents for the
EXPRESS, FREIGHT AND STORAGE.
All freight for points ajong the route of the Edmonton,
Dunvegan & British Columbia Railway should be consigned
14 Peace    R i
ver     Guide
LAKE SASKATOON DISTRICT
E. D. & B. C. Ry., Alberta & Great Waterways Railway, Canada Central Railway, and Canadian Northern Railway.
The Twin City Transfer Co. will arrange all details as to
trans-shipment of freight from other railways and subsequent
delivery at its destination.
All shipment of goods for Peace River Crossing, Dunvegan,
Fort St. John, Bezanson, Grande Prairie, Hudson's Hope,
etc., should be left with the Twin City Transfer, who will
arrange all matters in connection with freight by boat both
up and down the river.
The Twin City Transfer will store free of charge all baggage destined for Peace River points for prospective settlers.
Express is also carried on all the trains running to Peace
River District, and this should also be addressed care of the
Twin City Transfer.
HOMESTEAD REGULATIONS.
Any quarter section vacant and available of Dominion land
in Alberta, excepting 8 and 26, may be homesteaded by any
person the sole head of a family or any male over eighteen
years of age and who is a British subject or declares intention of becoming a British subject, on payment of an entry
fee of ten ($10) dollars.
A widow, having minor children of her own dependent on
her for support, is permitted to make homestead entry as the
sole head of a family.
Entry must be made in person either at the land office for
the district or at the office of a sub-agent authorized to transact business in the district, except in the ease of a person
who may make entry for a father, mother, son, daughter,
brother or sister, when duly authorized by the prescribed
form which may be had from your nearest Government agent.
15
A homesteader may perform resident duties by living in
habitable house on homestead for six months in each of three
years. A homesteader may perform the required six months'
residence duties by living on farming land owned solely by
him not less than eighty (80) acres in extent in the vicinity
of his homestead. Joint ownership in land will not meet this
requirement. If the father, or mother if the father is deceased, or son, daughter, brother or sister of a homesteader
has permanent residence on farming land owned solely by
them not less than 80 acres in extent, in the vicinity of the
homestead, or upon a homestead entered for by them in the
vicinity, such homesteader may perform his own residence
duties by living with the father or mother.
The term "vicinity" in the two preceding paragraphs is
defined as meaning not more than nine miles in direct line,
exclusive of the width of road allowances crossed in the
measurement.
A homesteader performing residence duties while living
with parents or on farming land owned by himself must so
notify agent for district, and keep him informed as to his
post office address, otherwise his entry is liable to be cancelled. Six months' time is allowed after entry before beginning residence.
A homesteader residing on homestead is required to break
•thirty acres of the homestead, of which twenty must be
cropped, before applying for patent. A reasonable proportion of cultivation duties must be done during each year.
When the duties are performed under regulations permitting residence in vicinity, fifty acres must be broken, of
which thirty must be cropped. Application for patents may,
on completion of duties, be made by homesteader before an
agent or Homestead Inspector, or before a sub-agent for district.
16 Canadian     Northern     Railway
VEGETABLES GROWN AT FORT VERMILION
IMPORTANT AMENDMENT,  1917.
' Whereas owing to enlistment for overseas service there is
now throughout Canada a great scarcity of farm laborers
which, coupled with the diminution of land prepared for
seed, will result in greatly decreased acreage under cultivation unless steps are taken to improve the condition in this
regard; and
Whereas it is believed that there are in Canada and the
United States many young men who would work as farm
laborers if the time so spent were allowed to count as residence upon homesteads entered for by them; it being recognized that by working for a farmer who has all necessary
stock and machinery, young men of the class mentioned would
help to augment the agricultural output to a much greater
extent than if they spent their time on their homesteads hampered by lack of stock or machinery;
Therefore, notwithstanding anything contained in the Dominion Lands Act or the amendments thereto, during the remainder of the year 1917 the holders of homestead, preemption or purchased homestead entries who are employed as
farm laborers within the Dominion of Canada may be allowed
the period of such employment as a like period of residence
in connection with their respective entries, subject to certain
conditions, partculars of which may be obtained from nearest C.N.R. agent.
CUSTOMS REGULATIONS.
A settler may bring'into Canada, free of duty, live stock
for the farm, on the following basis, if he has actually owned
such live stock abroad for at least six months before his removal to Canada, and has brought them into Canada within
one year after his first arrival, viz.:
17
If horses only are brought in, 16 allowed.
If cattle only are brought in, 16 allowed.
If sheep only are brought in, 160 allowed.
If swine only are brought in, 160 allowed.
If horses, cattle, sheep and swine are brought in together,
or part of each, the same proportions as above are to be
observed. Duty is to be paid on the live stock in excess of,
the number above provided for.
For customs entry purposes, a mare with a colt under six
months old is to be reckoned as one animal; a cow with a
calf under six months old is also to be reckoned as one animal.
Cattle and other live stock imported into Canada are subject to quarantine regulations.
Item 705 of the Custom Tariff (1907) for free entry of
settlers' effects reads as follows:
"705. Settlers' Effects, viz.: Wearing apparel, books, usual
and reasonable household furniture and other household
effects, instruments and tools of trade, occupation or employment, guns, musical instruments, domestic sewing machines,
typewriters, bicycles, carts, wagons and other highway vehicles, agricultural implements, and live stock for the farm,
not to include live stock or articles for sale, or for use as
contractor's outfit, nor vehicles or implements moved by
mechanical power, nor machinery for use in any manufacturing establishment. All the foregoing if actually owned abroad
by the settler for at least six months before his removal to
Canada, and subject to regulations prescribed by the Minister
of Customs; provided that any dutiable article entered as
settlers' effects may not be so entered unless brought by the
settler on his first arrival, and shall not be sold or otherwise
disposed of without payment of duty until after twelve
months' actual use in Canada."
18 Peace     River     Guide
FREIGHT REGULATIONS.
1. Carload shipments of farm settlers' effects (secondhand) within the meaning of the tariff, must consist of
the following described property of an actual farm settler,
when shipped by and consigned to the same person, and
where carriers' liability is released to valuation of ten
($10)   dollars per hundred pounds:
Household Goods and Personal Effects, all secondhand, and may include:
Agricultural implements and farm vehicles, all
second-hand (will not include automobiles).
Live stock, not exceeding a total of ten head, consisting of horses, mules, cows, heifers, calves, oxen,
sheep or hogs. (From Eastern Canada not more
than six head of horses and mules may be included in a car of farm settlers' effects.)
Lumber and shingles (pine, hemlock, spruce or bass-
wood), which must not exceed 2,500 feet in all, or
the equivalent thereof, or in lieu of (not in addition to) the lumber and shingles, a portable
house, knocked down, may be shipped.
Seed grain, trees or shrubbery. The quantity of
seed grain must not exceed the following weight:
Wheat, 4,500 lbs.; oats, 3,400 lbs.; barley, 4,800
lbs.; flaxseed, 1,400 lbs. From points in the West
ern States 1,400 lbs. of seed corn may also be
included.
Live poultry (small lots only).
Feed, sufficient for feeding the live stock while on
the journey.
19
2. Live Stock. Should a settler wish to ship more than
ten head of live stock (as per Rule 1) in a car, the additional animals will be charged for at the less-than-carload
live stock rate (at estimated weights as per Canadian
Freight Classification No. 16, G. C. Ransom, Agent, I. C. C.
No. 1, supplements thereto and reissues thereof), but the
total charge for the car must not exceed the rate for a
straight carload of live stock.
When live stock forms a' part of the shipment, agents
must fill out and have executed the usual live stock form
of contract. Shipper must show on the live stock contract
the number of head of each kind of stock loaded in car.
This information must also be shown by billing agent on
the way bill accompanying shipment. Agents must require attendants to affix their signatures in blank space
provided for same on face of Live Stock Contract and witness same, cancelling unused spaces.
3. Passes. One man will be passed free in charge of full
carloads of settlers' effects containing live stock, to feed,
water and care for them in transit, subject to conditions
specified in the Canadian Freight Classification. No re
duced return transportation will be given.
4..Top Loads. Agents do not permit, under any circum
stances any article to be loaded on the top of box or stock
cars; such manner of loading is dangerous and absolutely
forbidden.
5. Agents must carefully check all shipments, and every
effort must be made to prevent the shipment of commodities other than those authorized above at farm settlers'
effects rates. If it is found that any contraband articles
are shipped, regular tariff rates must be charged on such
20 Canadian     Northern     Railway
articles.    Agents will  be  held accountable  for checking
shipments.
6. Settlers' effects, to be entitled to the carload rates,
cannot be stopped at any point short of destination for the
purpose of unloading part. The entire carload must go
through to the station to which originally consigned.
7. The carload rates on Farm Settlers' Effects are based
on minimum weights per car, of,
North of St. Paul or Duluth       24,000 lbs.
North of Chicago, Kansas City, or Omaha to
Duluth or St. Paul      20,000 lbs.
South and east of Chicago      12,000 lbs.
Additional weight will be charged at proportionate rate.
From points south and east of Chicago, only five horsea
or head of live stock are allowed in any one carload. Any
number over five will be charged extra.
PRAIRIE FLRES.
For the information of settlers and the general public with
respect to the provisions of The Prairie Fires Ordinance, violations of which are punishable in- addition to liability to
civil action with fines up to Two Hundred Dollars.
General Provisions Relating to Fires.—Any person who
directly or indirectly (1) Kindles a fire and lets it run at
large on any land not his own property; or (2) Permits any
fire to pass from his own land; or (3) Allows any fire under
his charge, custody or control, or under the charge, custody
or control of his servant, employee, or agent, to run at large, is
liable to a penalty of $200 in addition to any damages
awarded in civil action.
21
If a fire shall be caused by the escape of sparks or any
other matter from any engine or other thing it shall be
deemed to have been kindled by the person in charge or who
should be in charge of such engine or thing, but such person
or his employer shall not be liable to the penalties imposed by
this section if the precautions prescribed in the Ordinance
have been complied with.
Camp or Branding Fires.—Any person who kindles or is a
party to kindling a fire for camping or branding purposes and
leaves it unextinguished is liable to a penalty of $1.00.
' Clearing Land and Fire Guard.—Any person kindling a fire
on any land for the purpose of guarding property, burning
stubble or brush or clearing land is liable to a penalty of
$1,000 unless the land on which the fire is started is completely surrounded by a fire guard not less than 20 feet in
width, consisting of land covered with snow or water or so
worn, graded, plowed or burned over as to be free of inflammable matter, and unless the fire is also watched during the
whole period of its continuance by three adult persons provided with proper appliance for extinguishing prairie fire.
Spring Burning.—Nothing in the Ordinance prevents any
person from kindling a fire before the seventh day of May
in any year for the purpose of clearing an area of land less
than 320 acres in extent if such area is surrounded by a proper fire guard ten feet in width and is continually watched
by three adult persons provided with proper appliances for
putting out prairie fire, but should any such fire escape or be
left unguarded the person kindling it is liable to a penalty of
$100.
Fire Guardians.—In addition to such persons as may be
specially appointed all members of the North-West Mounted
22 Peace
R i y e r
Guide
SETTLERS ARRIVING INT THE PE,'
Police Force, Councillors of Local Improvement Districts and
Justices of the Peace are ex-officio Fire Guardians, with
power of Constables.
Persons Who May be Required to Fight Fires.—All grown
up male persons under sixty years of age (other than postmasters, members of medical profession, railway trainmen,
and station agents), residing within ten miles of a prairie,
or fifteen miles of a forest fire, may be called upon to assist
in extinguishing fire under a penalty of $5 for refusal.
Threshing Engines.—The following provisions shall be observed in and about the management and operation of engines
used for threshing: (1) No engines shall be placed within
thirty feet of any building or stack; (2) A metal pan of adequate size, filled with water, shall be placed under the engine
as a receptacle for cinders and ashes; (3) Before the fires are
lit in the furnace and during the time the engine is in operation the reservoir in the smoke stack shall be filled with
water; (4) All cinders and ashes shall be thoroughly extinguished before the engine is removed from any place where
it has been in operation; (5) A barrel of water and two
buckets shall be placed conveniently to any stack of combustible material near the engine; (6) A spark arrester in
good repair shall be used and shall not be open while engine
is in operation.
Any person failing to comply with any of these provisions
is liable to a penalty of $5.
A copy of the Prairie Fire Ordinance may be had on application to the Department.—Benj. Lawton, Chief Fire Guardian, Department of Agriculture, Edmonton, Alberta.
23
Canadian Northern Land Publications
"Homeseekers' and Settlers' Guide"
"British Columbia Settlers' Guide"
"Peace River Guide"
"Homeseekers' and Settlers' Fares Leaflets"
Canadian Northern Timetables—Eastern and
Western Lines
24 

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