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Report of Royal Commission on Milk-Supply in British Columbia under "Public Inquiries Act" Procter, A. P. 1913

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Printed by William H. Cullin, Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1913.  3 3298 00243 4992
the government of
The province of British Columbia.
Printed liy William II.  Cullin, Printer to  the King's Most Excellent Majesty.
Appointment of Commission  7
Methods of Inquiry  7
The Importance of Milk  7
Milk and the Public Health  8
Present Condition of the Law  9
Vancouver's Milk-supply  10
A Vancouver Review  11
Victoria  13
New Westminster  13
Transportation  13
Interests concerned      14
Conditions on the Farms  15
The Colony Farm  16
Imports of Milk from United States  16
Views of Medical Officers  16
Tuberculin Test  17
What other Provinces are doing  18
Pasteurization  20
" Certified " and " Approved " Milk  20
Score-card  System "  21
Seattle's Milk-supply  23
Necessity for Proper Control  24
Infant Mortality  24
Recommendations  25 New Westminster, B.C., January  25th,  1913.
Hon. H. E.   Young,
Provincial Secretary,   Victoria.
Sir,—We, the members of the Royal Commission appointed by the Provincial
Government of British Columbia to inquire into the question of the milk-supply of the
Province, beg to submit our report thereon.
We have the honour to be,
Your obedient servants,
A. P. PROCTER, Chairman.
Appointment of Commission.
An Order in Council was issued in December, 1911, appointing a Royal Commission
under the "Public Inquiries Act" to inquire generally into the question of the sale of milk
and the management of dairies, cow-sheds, and milk-shops in the Province of British Columbia.
The members of this Commission were : Dr. C. J. b'agan, M.D., Director of the Provincial
Board of Health, Victoria; Mr. Frederick J. Coulthard, of New Westminster; and Dr.
Anson Knight, B.S., Chief Veterinaiy Inspector for British Columbia, of Sardis. Most
unfortunately, however, owing to ill-health, Dr. Fagan was unable to attend the woik assigned
to him, and accordingly a new Commission was issued in June, 1912, appointing Dr. A. P.
Procter, M.D., of Vancouver, as Chairman, in the place of Dr. Fagan.
* Methods of Inquiry.
The Commissioners commenced their work without delay. In order to ascertain correctly
the position of the various matters and circumstances connected with the question referred to
them, the members of the Commission visited dairy farms and cow-sheds of all descriptions in
various parts of the Province, travelling as far north and west as Campbell River on
Vancouver Island, and as far south and east as the Okanagan and Kootenay Districts ; whilst
visits were also made to a number of farms in the State of Washington, U.S.A. The
Commissioners have, moreover, visited and inspected (he dairies and milk-shops in (he
principal centres of population throughout the Province, and have held public meetings in all
the large cities, at which officials and others connected with the milk-supply, as well as citizens
and the public generally, have been invited to express their experiences and opinions, and to
voice their complaints against the milk-supply. In these various ways your Commissioners
gathered a considerable amount of valuable information, and, as a result of their investigations,
now beg to submit their findings in the matter, together with certain recommendations which
appear to them advisable.
The Importance of Milk.
At the outset it may be remarked that the milk industry in the Province of British
Columbia is of a very important character, both from a commercial standpoint and the urgent
question of the health of the community. Dealing first with the commercial aspect of the
matter, it may be observed that there are, as far as can be ascertained, approximately 16,025
cows maintained in the Province for the purpose of supplying milk to the people; $110 is not
too high an average value to place upon a milch-cow at the present day, and upon this basis
these animals represent a capital investment of $1,762,750. In addition, a sum of about
$50,000 may be added as the value of young stock, and about $80,000 for breed bulls. To
these amounts must also be added a sum which it is not possible to state, but which must be
quite considerable, for the value of cow stables and barns, milk-houses and equipment. Then,
too, apart from the dairy-farmers and milk-producers, there are a great number of wholesale
and retail milk-distributing establishments located in the cities and towns of British Columbia.
Many of these are equipped with every modern appliance for cleansing, cooling, and bottling
the milk received from the producers. The capital invested in these establishments must
represent an immense sum.
Then there are twenty-two co-operative and commercial creameries, which together
consume annually a very large quantity of milk and cream. There has been a noticeable
decline in the number of working creameries during the past five years. Of eighteen of such
establishments that were in active operation on Vancouver Island and the Mainland in 1906,
only eight of these are now working creameries. Two of these institutions on the Coast produce
about 100,000 ft. of butter annually. The total quantity of butter manufactured by all the
creameries  in   1906  was   1,619,204 ft.,  value $427,060;  and in  1911,  2,463,655 1b. value J 8 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
$985,462. The total amount of milk and cream consumed by the whole of the creameries in
1911 was 10,985,000 gallons, of the value of $3,295,000. The reason for the decline in the
co-operative creameries is the increasing demand for fresh milk in the rapidly growing cities,
particularly the Coast cities, and in some degree to the improved manner of transportation
placed at the disposal of the farmers. The simple fact that the latter can obtain 65 cents per
pound (upon the butter-fat test) in the cities for his milk, as against 38 cents for butter-cream,
makes evident the reason for his choosing to dispose of his milk rather than reserve this for
the cream. It is, in fact, practically only those farmers who are without transportation
facilities that are now sending to the creameries.
In addition to the co-operative creameries, there are a large number of dairy establishments
in the principal cities af the Province which manufacture butter, and during the summer months
also turn out a very considerable measure of ice-cream. One of the largest of these concerns,
in the City of Vancouver, deals with 500,000 gallons of milk, 40,000 gallons of cream, and
manufactures 6,000 ft>. of butter and 20,000 gallons of ice-cream in the course of the year;
paying altogether during the same period $160,000 to the farmers. This business represents
a capital investment of $100,000.
Again, there are at least two large condensed-milk factories, one of which also manufactures
chocolate cream, that utilize a considerable amount of milk and cream. One of these annually
receives about 3,000,000 lb. of milk (300,000 gallons), for which the farmers wore paid during
the last annual period a sum of $49,349.
It must not be forgotten that quite a large amount of milk and butter is sold direct from
the farm, principally in the smaller settlements and rural districts, of which no estimate can
be formed. But some idea of the amount of milk consumed in the more populous centres may
be gained from the fact that over 8,000 gallons of milk passes into the City of Vancouver in
the course of a day, or a total of about 2,920,000 gallons per annum, for which an average
price of 21 cents per gallon is paid to the farmers, representing an annual sum of $613,200.
If the price paid by the consumer in Vancouver is placed at an average of 50 cents per gallon,
this will represent a total expenditure of about $1,460,000 for milk in the course of a year by
the people of this, the largest city of the Province.
It must also be borne in mind that the milk industry involves the expenditure of quite a
large amount for grain and feed, whilst also giving employment to some thousands of persons.
It will therefore be apparent that the milk industry of British Columbia is of a very
important character commercially.
Milk and the Public Health.
Altogether apart from its importance as a commercial product, however, the question of
the milk-supply of the Province in relation to the health and well-being of the community is
of far greater significance.
Milk is one of the most necessary articles in the daily dietary of the human race. Whilst
it is thus extremely valuable as an article of diet in every-day life, it is absolutely essential
for the nourishment of infants and the young. One of the regrettable features of modern
civilization is the inability of some mothers and the antipathy of others to nourish their babes
at the breast, leaving these infants entirely dependent upon artificial feeding. On this subject
all those best qualified to speak agree that there is no substitute so satisfactory as the properly
modified milk of a healthy cow. As one authority puts it: "It is true, as a general statement, that there is not a single patent food or condensed milk on the market which can
adequately replace fresh cow's milk in the feeding of an infant who is deprived of mother's
milk ; and, moreover, that a vast amount of infantile suffering and misery and no small sacrifice
of infant life are due solely to the indiscriminate feeding of infants with artificial preparations."
It is unfortunately true, however, that there is no article of food which provides a better
medium for the growth of certain bacteria than milk, this being particularly so under particular
conditions of temperature.
There are few subjects more melancholy to contemplate than the infant death-rate which
occurs annually during the hot months of the summer from infantile diarrhoea. In the City
of London, England, from 2,000 to 4,000 infants under one year die annually from diarrhoea—
during the period when their diet is exclusively milk—and a significant fact, and one which
may well give those mothers pause who, without excuse, refuse to nourish their children in the
natural and proper way, is that of these infants only 4 per cent, were entirely breast-fed. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 9
As a great authority on this subject remarks: " To suckle an infant for nine or ten
months is to save it from a very serious risk." The inference is obvious : that the chief cause
of this heavy death-rate at this particular season is to be found in an infected milk-supply.
How the high temperature acts, or what particular micro-organism is responsible, is entirely
unknown. But it is known that amongst infants fed upon a properly produced milk-supply,
kept and delivered at a temperature below 50° Fahr., infantile diarrhoea is not nearly so common.
Milk is further known to be a favourable medium for the transmission of the germs of
such diseases as tuberculosis, typhoid and scarlet fever, and diphtheria. There is a growing
belief among eminent medical authorities that the all too common ailment of septic sore throat
is traceable to infected milk. It has been suggested, on the one hand, that the infection of
the milk is due to udder-infection of the cow; whilst, on the other hand, the opinion has been
expressed that it is due to the contact of infected persons.
For all practical purposes the milk yielded by a healthy cow is free from harmful bacteria,
but it easily and quickly becomes contaminated if proper care be not taken in the storage,
preservation, and distribution.    Hence the great importance of safeguarding the milk-supply.
Whatever may have been thought at one time as to the transmission of bovine tuberculosis
to the human being through milk, it is generally admitted to-day that the disease is so
transmitted. In one of the most recent works on the diseases of childhood by one of the
ablest authorities, the following statement occurs : " The risk of infection from cows' milk is a
very real one. My own figures show that, rare though ailmectary infection may be in
comparison with respiratory, it probably amounts to very nearly one-third of the fatal cases
of tuberculosis in childhood, and it can hardly be doubted that the source of the bacillus in
these cases is cows' milk."
The real value of milk as a food has always been acknowledged, but it has remained for
a body of experts, the New York Milk Commission, to make this popularly understood by
recording its real nutritive value in the form of a comparative table. According to this, one
quart of pure milk, costing 10 cents, is equal in food-fuel value to either 3 lb. of fresh coffee,
value 95 cents; or 1 ft. of round beef-steak, 25 cents; or 2 ft. of salt cod, 50 cents; or 1 quart
of oysters, 45 cents.
Present Condition of the Law.
The production, sale, and supply of milk is at present controlled by statutory enactments,
coming under the three powers—namely, Federal, Provincial, and municipal. The first
named is, of course, supreme, but within reason the Provincial Legislature may have, as
far as your Commissioners have been able to ascertain, power to enact such Statutes as may
be necessary for the regulation of the milk-supply of the Province; but an uncertain situation
has been created by legal decisions in regard to this, whilst doubt has arisen as to the power
of corporate authorities to make by-laws respecting the milk-supply in their own districts.
So far as the Federal authority is concerned, the only legislative enactment which really
concerns the milk-supply is the "Pure Food Act," which fixes the standard of pure milk,
provides for the appointment of analysts, etc. Unfortunately, this Act is of no real advantage
to the Province of British Columbia, because only one Inspector under the Act has ever been
appointed, which circumstance makes it impossible to prosecute dishonest milk producers or
The Department of Agriculture at Ottawa exerts its influence to encourage the breeding
of the best class of milch-cows, controls in some measure the prevention of the spread of
contagious diseases, administers quarantine regulations, and controls the import and export
of cattle. The Dairy Branch of the Department also gives attention to the development of
the manufacturing side of the dairy industry.
The Provincial Board of Health has enacted regulations governing the sale of milk and
the management of dairies, cow-sheds, and milk-shops. These regulations were approved by
the Lieutenant-Governor in Council on the 21st July, 1904, and have since been in force.
These regulations provide: That a Medical Health Officer or Inspector of Dairies, or any
authorized officer of the Board, may visit and inspect and obtain any necessary information
from any occupier or person in control of a dairy. That proper lighting, ventilation,
cleansing, drainage, and water-supply shall be provided for cow-sheds and dairies. Cow-sheds
are required to be limewashed at least twice a year, except when clean paint or varnish is
used; to have all manure removed once a day ; all liquid matter drained well away, and a
proper supply of clean water provided.    Dairies are also required to be regularly cleansed, J 10 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
and the floors washed down at least once a day, and all liquid drained away. Milk-stores
and milk-shops are to be kept sweet and clean. Every milk-vessel must be thoroughly
cleansed with steam or boiling water. Milk intended for sale must not be kept in any place
where it is likely to become infected or contaminated. Cattle at the time of milking are to
have the udder and teats cleansed, the hands of milkers to be clean, and cows to be free from
disease, or the ante or post effects of calving. All milk-rooms must be situated at least 10
feet from a cow-stable, and a place with proper facilities for cooling milk be provided. Milk
is required to contain 3 per cent, fat; 9 per cent, of solids not fat; total solids, 12 per cent.
Water in excess of 88 per cent, is deemed an adulteration; and neither drugs nor colouring
matter must be added to milk.
Calving cows and animals suffering from infectious diseases must be separated from the
herd. Cow-keepers are required to have a certificate from an official veterinary surgeon that
the cows from which milk is obtained for sale are free from tuberculosis, such certificate to
hold good for six months.
Every person concerned in the production, storage, transportation, or distribution of
milk is required to give immediate notification of the outbreak of any infectious disease in
or upon his premises or in his family, or among his employees, to the Local Board of Health,
and to at once suspend the supply of milk. A maximum penalty of $100, with six months'
imprisonment in default, or both fine and imprisonment, upon conviction before a Magistrate,
is provided for infringement of the regulations.
Under the "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act," chapter 48, 60 Vict., page 12, and 9
Edw. VII., 1911, regulations for standards are imposed upon producers of milk. These
provide that dairy stables shall have sufficient ventilation to keep them sweet and clean, and
shall be whitewashed twice a year; that concrete or good-quality wood shall be used in the
construction of gutters or mangers; that good supply of pure water shall be maintained ; that
cows shall be cleansed before milking and kept clean; that all manure shall be removed at
least once a day, and placed not less than 48 feet from the stable; that the milk-house be
ventilated and kept sweet and clean ; that dairy utensils be properly scalded and cleansed ;
screen doors and windows to be provided to exclude flies. The regulations also require that
cows shall be free from tuberculosis and other diseases. To secure this end cows are required
to be tuberculin-tested twice every 3-ear. Four grades are assigned to premises according to
the measure of compliance with the regulations. The work of inspection is carried out by
four Inspectors under the direction of the Chief Veterinary Officer of the Province.
Both the regulations of 1904 and 1911 are of a very useful character, and there is no
doubt that excellent educational work has been done by the Inspectors of the Agricultural
Department, and the general conditions of the dairy industry at the source of production
much improved. But the complete powers provided have not so far been put in force, nor
have the prohibitive provisions been generally exercised. The policy of the Department has
been rather to introduce the regulations in a gradual way and use these as an educational
force. In this way the farmers of the Province have been made acquainted with the Act.
But it is a question whether the time has not now arrived when the regulations should be
Vancouver's Milk-supply.
The difficulties connected with a pure-milk supply become most acute in the most
populous cities. Vancouver, the largest city in the Province, with its population of 150,000,
is constantly faced with a serious problem in endeavouring to secure an ample supply of pure
milk. This city consumes over 8,000 gallons of milk per diem, the supply in this Province
being drawn from 109 herds, numbering 3,487 cows, maintained in the surrounding country,
principally along the Fraser Valley, from as far distant as Chilliwack, whilst an increasing
quantity is being imported from the neighbouring State of Washington. The average
quantity imported from the United States last year was 250 ten-gallon cans per diem from
May to September, and 300 ten-gallon cans from October to April. But your Commissioners
are informed that the quantity imported had risen to about 500 ten-gallon cans (5,000
gallons) in January, 1913.
A thorough inspection of all the registered dairies in this city was made by your
Commissioners. It is unnecessary to enter into details of these; but it may be said that in
most cases the dairies were equipped with cooling appliances of a more or less satisfactory
character, the larger establishments utilizing  the  pasteurizer,  and  leaving their milk  in 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 11
cold-storage closets after bottling, the smaller dairies relying upon cold-water tanks. Again,
in regard to the bottling of milk, the larger dairies possess modern machinery for cleansing
and sterilizing the bottles and appliances for bottling, whilst in the smaller places the
equipment for this very necessary work of cleansing was often of a quite rudimentary
The advantage of milk being supplied in bottles is wholly lost, and, in fact, the bottle
system becomes a veritable source of danger to health unless the most thorough cleanliness is
regularly observed in regard to the bottles used.
In the case of one small dairy, retail, trading under a style of a most alluring character,
conditions that were disgraceful and disgusting were found to prevail, both in respect to the
condition of the premises, the bottling of the milk, and the general conduct of the business.
It is a matter of considerable surprise to your Commissioners that this dairy should have
been passed and, as they understand, is still passing civic inspection.
But in the matter of cleanliness generally it may be remarked that the proprietors of
the various dairy establishments in Vancouver are making an honest effort to observe the
best conditions. Whilst also many of these places provide against the entrance of flies to
the dairy premises, some were found, even among the larger ones, to make no provision
against this dangerous infectious agent.
The best restaurants in Vancouver were found to supply their patrons with milk in sealed
bottles, suitably stored; but others of a less reputable character appeared to take little trouble
to keep the milk cool and sweet, or to preserve it from the attentions of the noxious house-fly.
With regard to the importation of milk from Washington State, U.S.A., your
Commissioners were informed that under present conditions it would be impossible to secure
the necessary quantity of pure milk for the city if this source of supply were excluded.
A Vancouver Review.
In a review of the milk situation in the City of Vancouver during the past nine years,
Dr. Underhill, the Medical Officer of Health for the city, says :—
" Since taking the position of Medical Officer, I have, from the first, endeavoured to
improve the quality of the city milk-supply, and to that end have personally inspected many
of the farms and dairies outside the city from which the supply is drawn.
"Chemical analysis is made every month of a large number of samples, both as regards
the standard of butter-fat, solids, etc., and also preservatives ; and whereas it was formerly
the rule to find preservatives of various kinds in the milk, principally formaldehyde, I am
pleased to be able to state that preservatives are now seldom or never present. The milk is
poor in quality, dirty, sometimes skimmed, and water is frequently added. These conditions
I have endeavoured to improve by warning the milk-vendors, and by prosecutions which have
been instituted under every clause of the Provincial milk regulations, with varying success.
Now, however, we have no law under which a vendor of adulterated or poor-quality milk can
be prosecuted. Another reason for the poor quality of milk, other than skimming or adding
water, is the class of cows kept by the farmers, the milk from which does not average 3 per
cent, butter-fat, which is the standard set by the Provincial Government.
" With reference to the dirt in milk, there was and still is no law calling for a clean milk
with a bacteriological count. The milk supplied to this city, with very few exceptions, is dirty
and unclean, and will continue to be so until the dairy-farmers are educated to the necessity
of keeping their cow-sheds, cattle, and employees in a clean and sanitary condition, and are
also in a position to adopt the best methods for cooling and storing the milk on their farms,
and also for keeping the milk cool during transit to the city. At present milk from many
sources is brought into the city in freight-cars which are not provided with means to keep the
milk cool, and on arrival the milk may be left for a considerable time exposed to the sun, all
of which practices, by raising the temperature, favour the growth of bacteria.
" The farm, the dairy, the freight-car, are not the only places where the milk is exposed
to conditions favourable to bacterial growth. The public contribute in no small degree by
their carelessness; and it is no uncommon thing to find the receptacle placed for receiving
milk, in a dirty condition. The surroundings where milk is kept are most unfavourable—
open to the contamination of flies and dust; and when kept in a cool place, such as a cellar
or cupboard, the custom is almost universal of placing vegetables, fruit, meat (raw and cooked)
in close proximity. The purest of milk would not keep fresh if placed in the surroundings
above described." J 12 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
As a means of improving the milk-supply of the city, Dr. Underhill suggests:—
" A compulsory veterinary inspection of all dairy herds, using the tuberculin test to
eradicate tuberculosis from the herds. The cow-sheds and dairies should be vigilantly
inspected, and a special point made as to their water-supply, for without a pure supply of
water it is impossible to carry on a good dairy farm. I think it would be as well if all dairies
were classified, the classification to include, amongst other things, registration, water-supply,
air-space, lighting, the cleansing of vessels and employees, the means provided to keep milk
free from dust, means for cooling and storage, etc. That a bacteriologist should from time to
time make a bacteriological count at the farm.
" The public should be informed what the classification means, and the Inspector should
notify the dairies that after a stated period, say three months, they will all be graded and
the result published in the daily papers. By these means the public will know who are
endeavouring to supply the cleanest milk and best quality. I am fully aware that it would
take considerable time and also expense, and I think the Government could do nothing more
popular than to assist the farmers, where necessary, by financial help and by educating them
as to the best and most modern means for providing pure milk.
" The milk in transit should be kept locked in either refrigerator-cars or kept cool
by the addition of a block of frozen ice. The temperature of distribution should not
exceed 50° Fahr., and, if it was not for the expense, the distributing-bottle is much to be
Adverting to the present position of affairs, Dr. Underhill says :—■
"On February 10th, 1908, certain licensed milk-vendors of this city were summoned to
the Vancouver Police Court on a charge of selling milk not in accordance with the standard
fixed by the Provincial Government of British Columbia. The Court found the defendants
guilty and imposed a fine, but the defendants appealed to the higher Court, and in due course
a decision was issued reversing the Police Court decision and setting aside the conviction.
The city authorities, recognizing the purport of such a decision, appealed to the. Full Court,
with the result that in June of'1908 a decision was handed down by the Full Court giving
effect that the Province of British Columbia had no jurisdiction in regard to the question of
milk. The effect of this decision is to take away from the city all authority over the question
of the purity of the milk-supply. Not only does this question affect the milk-supply, but all
other foods.
" Another effect of the finding of the Full Court was that the standard of butter-fat which
the Province had established could no longer be used, and the city was recommended to use
the Dominion standard ; but at that date—1908—the Dominion authorities had fixed no
standard, and did not do so until the end of the year 1910."
A Voluntary Effort.
In view of the fact that there was no legal means of dealing with the milk situation in
Vancouver, and realizing the importance of a pure-milk supply, the Vancouver Medical
Association, in 1908, appointed a commission of four medical men and instructed them to
devote their efforts towards improving the state of affairs in regard to the milk-supply of the
city. The secretary of the commission, Dr. C. S. McKee, covered the whole of the area of
supply upon a tour of inspection and education. He found the condition of many of the
farms to be far from satisfactory. In some cases, where the farmer displayed a desire to do
better, and among others who yielded to his diplomatic efforts, Dr. McKee succeeded in
establishing a better understanding of the need and advantage of a well-kept and well-fed
herd of good healthy cows, of a clean, sanitary, and properly ordered stable for the animals, as
well as dairies and buildings.
The definite result of the work of the Vancouver Milk Commission was the fixing of a
voluntary standard, both chemical and bacteriological. Upon any milk producer or vendor
agreeing to live up to the standard, both chemical and bacteriological, he was authorized to
use the, name of the Vancouver Medical Association upon his cans and bottles; and one
important condition was that the milk should be bottled at the farm.
But this medical commission lacked the backing of authority, and possessed no more than
the power of persuasion as an influence; yet, even so, the efforts of this body were attended
with no small amount of success, and among other things it resulted in the introduction into
Vancouver of what is known as " approved " milk. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 13
As to the quality of the milk supplied to the people of Vancouver, this appears to be
generally good. The labours of the medical commission have no doubt contributed to the
improvement in some measure, whilst another factor is the present practice of all the principal
purveyors to purchase and pay for their milk upon the butter-fat test. It would appear that
since this method became general the quality of the milk has improved, whilst the quantity
has rather diminished. The standard of quality observed is that fixed by the Dominion " Pure
Food Act."
The Capital City of the Province, with its population of 35,000, draws its milk-supply
from the pastoral districts of Vancouver Island, from as far north as Duncan and Cowichan.
Distant supplies are conveyed by the two lines of railway, whilst milk from farms within a
radius of five miles is brought in by road. A small quantity of milk also reaches this city
from Seattle, Washington. There are only two large milk-purveying establishments, but there
are also some fifteen smaller retailers. The two principal establishments named receive about
1,000 gallons per diem between them, for which 28 cents per gallon, net, is paid to the
producer. In neither of these places are the arrangements of a first-class character, and in
one no provision is made to exclude flies.
On the whole, the milk supplied to the public appears to be good. The proportion of
both butter-fat and solids is high, the figures ranging from 3.08 to 4.04 butter-fat, and from
8.09 to 8.76 of solids not fat, in three months of the early summer of last year. This is a
very satisfactory average.
New Westminster.
This important and rapidly growing city is advantageously situated in regard to the milk-
supply, forming as it does the well-established centre of the famed Fraser Valley, with ample
steam and electric railways and river communications. Its milk-supply is furnished almost
entirely by farms on the Surrey side of the river, but some is shipped in from Langley and
Chilliwack districts. There are eight retail dairies and dealers supplying the city, the
population of which is 17,000.    Generally speaking, the quality of the milk supplied is good.
There is one large retail establishment in New Westminster, of modern institution, which
is well equipped with tjood machinery and appliances for cleansing, cooling, and bottling the
milk. There are also several farmers on the Surrey side of the river, some of whom deliver
the milk in bottles direct to the consumers, and some from the can ; for the rest the milk-
distribution is carried on by small dealers, who peddle the milk from door to door direct from
the can.
A large condensed milk, evaporated cream, and milk chocolate manufactory, that of the
Pacific Chocolate Company, Limited, is situated in this city. This concern receives for
manufacturing purposes 300,000 gallons of milk per annum, and in the last annual period paid
the farmers nearly $50,000 for milk.
There is also the New Westminster Creamery, which draws its supply of cream from one
end of the Fraser Valley to the other, and manufactures over 65,000 ft. of butter per annum.
Generally, it may be remarked that the conditions pertaining to the milk-supply in the
larger cities prevail, with some modifications and variations, in the smaller centres.
Your Commissioners have found that there is almost universal complaint from wholesalers and retailers in the cities and chief urban centres of the Province, as well as from the
farmers, in regard to the present methods of transportation. The circumstances which prevail
in connection with the milk-supply to the City of Vancouver, the major, portion of which is
conveyed a considerable distance, will serve to form an idea of the conditions which predominate
in connection with the important question of transportation generally.
Milk is conveyed hither from distant points by the Canadian Pacific Railway, Great
Northern Railway, and the British Columbia Electric Railway companies, and arrives in
Vancouver at various times in the day. Practically all the milk received from the Fraser
Valley district, which forms a large proportion of the total milk-supply, arrives at about 11 p.m.
each day by what is known as tbe " milk-train " on the British Columbia Electric Railway. J 14 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
The milk, contained in 10-gallon cans, is collected by the railways at various points on
their lines, at which points the milk stands, often for some hours, on a staging or platform,
without any cover, shelter, or protection whatever, waiting until the train comes along. In
the winter months the exposed condition of the cans is not of such great importance, but in
the hot months of the summer the character and quality of the milk is seriously jeopardized
by the exposure of the cans to the heat of the sun, the dust, and flies. Its condition is further
impaired by its shaking and churning on the train journey. Hence milk arrives in the city
at a high temperature.
Your Commissioners examined a number of cans which arrived at 11.30 a.m. on July 18th
by the Canadian Pacific Railway, upon delivery at one of the larger dairies, and found the
temperature to range from 68 to 77° Fahr., that at the lower temperature having travelled the
shortest distance—namely, from Pitt Meadows, about twenty-five miles. When it is remembered that milk should not reach a higher temperature than 50 degrees, it will be seen that
such a high figure as named above constitutes an excellent medium for the development of
This heating of the milk, injurious as its effect may be, is not, however, the worst feature
of the transportation arrangements which appear to prevail generally throughout the Province.
Whilst no provision whatever is made by the railway companies to keep the milk cool, no
attempt is made to prevent its contamination during conveyance. In fact, the worst kind of
carelessness would appear to exist in respect of this very important need. Your Commissioners
were informed by managers of the largest dairies in Vancouver and Victoria, and by producers
on Vancouver Island and the Mainland, that it is the custom of the railway companies to
convey milk in dirty baggage and box cars in conjunction with such kinds of general freight
as live and dead poultry, human corpses, carcasses of meat, skins for the tannery, live pigs,
and the like.    Such a condition of things is in the highest degree reprehensible.
It is almost unnecessary to observe that it is useless for the farmer to take trouble and
go to the expense to provide good, pure milk, and for the distributer to provide the best modern
methods for cooling and delivering it, if the transportation companies deal with the milk they
carry in such a careless manner.
The Interests concerned.
In dealing with the question of the milk-supply of the Province and the regulations and
restrictions that may be necessary to ensure a good, pure supply to the people, the fact must
be borne in mind that there are the interests of at least four sections of the community
to be considered, and that in order to obtain the best results these interests must be
The four interests are those of the farmer as producer; the railway company as carrier;
the wholesale or retail dealer as distributer; and the general public as consumer. It will at
once be evident that, in order to secure the desired result, i.e., a pure-milk supply,—
(1.) The farmer must produce his milk under cleanly and sanitary conditions, and
deliver this in clean receptacles, properly cooled, to
(2.) The railway company, which must convey the milk in such a manner as to retain
its cool temperature and preserve it from contaminating agencies, delivering it
speedily to
(3.) The dealer (wholesale or retail), who must preserve the safe low temperature of
the milk and distribute it in clean.vessels in the promptest manner to
(4.) The consumer—(a) the restaurant, public institution, or retail store; (6) the
general public, which must take care to keep the milk in a cool, clean place, free
from flies and contamination in order to retain its purity.
It is a labour in vain if the farmer goes to the trouble of producing pure, cool milk if the
transportation company or the dealer does not take care to preserve its condition ; or if the
two last-named agencies take every possible care in this respect, then for the consumer to be
indifferent to the preservation of his milk.
Again, the commercial aspect of the milk-supply question must be considered in conjunction
with the health aspect. It will not do to impose such restrictions upon the farmer as to make
the conduct of his business impossible, or to harass the distributer with such regulations as to
render his undertaking unremunerative. But is has not appeared to your Commissioners that
the production and sale of milk cannot be made both safe and profitable. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 15
Conditions on the Farms.
To your Commissioners it appears to be of the greatest importance that the source of
supply should be beyond suspicion. Though much may happen to milk after it leaves the
farm, in the way of deterioration, or of contamination, or even adulteration, there is no
chance of its being transmitted to the consumer as a pure and wholesome article if it is
contaminated at the source of supply. Hence considerable attention has been given to the
conditions on the farms.
For the purpose of gaining a correct idea of the conditions under which milk is produced
and dealt with at the point of production, your Commissioners visited a large number of
farms of all kinds and descriptions, both on the Mainland and on Vancouver Island, and also
the principal farms in the State of Washington which supply milk to the Cities of Vancouver
and Victoria.
Of these various farms in the Province a goodly proportion were found to possess
cow-barns in a more or less satisfactory condition. In some of these there was an absence
of the cleanly and sanitary aspect bestowed by a biannual coating of limewash. In others
the constructional design was faulty. In others, again, the drainage arrangements were not
wholly satisfactory; whilst some, perhaps otherwise clean and well constructed, were
deficient in light and air.
A comparatively small proportion of the total number were either badly constructed, or
dirty, or dark, or were lacking facilities for proper drainage, or the removal of the manure
to the necessary distance from the barn. Here and there were found premises that were
dilapidated, and possessed all the faults of slovenly and careless management in combination.
Two of the last named may be instanced. The first, situated in a central farming
district on Vancouver Island, had a cow-barn in such a wretched state of repair that it
looked as if the next gale of wind would send it tumbling about the heads of the unfortunate
cattle it was supposed to shelter. The floor was decayed and filth clogged, and long-standing
piles of manure were heaped up outside the broken doors. The surroundings were such as to
make it evident that in the rainy season the yard would be a veritable muck-puddle.
En passant, it may be remarked that about a year previous to the visit of your Commissioners
two-thirds of the herd kept on this farm had been found to be tubercular and had been
The second example was situated in Surrey Municipality. The approach to the barn
was through a yard that, even in the dry weather then prevailing, was deep in mud. The
barn itself was dark and in a bad state of repair; it was very filthy, and at one end,
immediately adjacent to the cow-stalls, was a privy in a vile state of neglect. The owner
possessed a herd of Jersey cows, and shipped cream to the creamery.
But, on the whole, there was an apparent desire to establish and maintain better and
altogether more sanitary conditions; with some recognition of the simple fact that it costs
no more to produce milk amid cleanly, light, and healthy surroundings than it does under
circumstances resulting from carelessness and neglect. The improved and improving state
of dairy-farming arrangements of which your Commissioners found so many instances must
be attributed to the excellent educational work carried out by the veterinary staff of the
Department of Agriculture during the past two or three years.
It is a pleasure to your Commissioners to be able to record that, in contradistinction to
the specimens of bad management and mediocrity, to which reference has already been made,
at least six dairy-farm establishments were seen where the conditions were of the best. In
these the cow-barn varied in size from a lofty, spacious, well-lighted, and cleanly building
which accommodated a splendid herd of 100 cows, all tuberculin-tested, and with a first-class
milk-house or dairy, fitted with the best arrangements for straining, cooling, and bottling
the milk attached, to a modern barn with a single row of stalls, but sweet and scrupulously
clean, providing for a modest herd of eight tuberculin-tested cows, conjoined with a
well-constructed modern dairy. Both these places were situated on Vancouver Island. Yet
another satisfactory example of a first-class establishment, situated in the heart of the Island,
and providing accommodation for a small but choice herd of cows, had a solidly built and
well-constructed barn, with a lantern roof, and most ample light and ventilation, and
generally was fitted with the best arrangements and appliances, having also a dairy similarly
fitted and equipped. This last was in fact quite a model establishment. Mention may also
be made of another high-class dairy farm, located on the Mainland, providing for a herd of
fifty-five cows, all tested.    Here, as at the other places mentioned, the walls of the cow-barn J 16 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
were of concrete, as well as the floor, except that in the stalls a patent slab of cork and tar
was laid. A spacious and well-ventilated dairy was equipped with ice-making plant, bottling
apparatus, cooling appliances, sterilizing chamber, and excellent machinery for cleansing
bottles and cans. Here cotton-wool and muslin strainers were used over the pail-heads at
the time of milking, the former being destroyed after use, and the latter washed and
sterilized. Every provision was, in fact, made for securing a clean and pure supply of milk ;
a lavatory and bath-room even being provided for the use of employees. This farm was
producing what is known as " approved " milk, cooled to 40 degrees, and the bottles were
packed in iced crates for shipment to Vancouver.
The Colony Farm.
What may be said to be the perfection of dairy-farm arrangements is to be witnessed at
the Colony Farm at Coquitlam, for the thorough inspection of which every facility was
courteously extended to your Commissioners by Dr. Doherty, the Medical Superintendent of
the Provincial Hospital for the Insane.
Here the cow-barn and dairy premises are substantially constructed, with concrete and
cement floors and linings, and provided with the most approved form of stalls, fittings,
and appliances. The premises are spacious and scrupulously clean, and everything is done
to keep the valuable herd, all tuberculin-tested, under the most comfortable and healthy
conditions. The dairy is amply proportioned and well designed, and here the best provision
is made for cooling and pasteurizing the milk, as well as for making butter; whilst a
laboratory and cold chamber are provided. The entire premises being surrounded by a large
yard, paved, ensures almost absolute cleanliness.
Your Commissioners were very favourably impressed with the whole establishment and
with the excellent system of management which prevails, and they regard this as a valuable
object-lesson to the dairy-farmers of the Province.
Imported Milk from the United States.
Your Commissioners having been aware that a considerable quantity of milk is shipped
into the Province, chiefly to Vancouver and Victoria, from Washington State, U.S.A., paid a
visit to the City Health Department at Seattle—to which reference is hereafter made—and
visited the principal farms concerned in the supply of milk to the two cities named.
They found the conditions existing at these establishments to be generally satisfactory
and such as to compare favourably with the better class of dairy farms in British Columbia.
One of the largest of these, with a milking herd of fifty Ayrshire cows, was found to be
equipped with the best arrangements, every care being taken to produce pure and wholesome
milk. From the evidence gathered in the course of your Commissioners' journey, there did
not appear to be any real foundation for the statement made to them that only milk of a
character and quality not acceptable in Seattle and other cities in the State of Washington
was shipped to British Columbia.
Views of Medical Officers.
With the object of securing the views and opinions of the Medical Officers of Health
upon the character and conditions of the milk-supply, some of these officials were personally
interviewed in the course of the travels of your Commissioners over the Province, and to each
of the several Medical Officers throughout the country a set of questions were submitted.
These questions were as follows :—
(1.) Under what general conditions is the milk produced that is supplied in your city
and district'!
(2.) What examinations of your milk is made?
(3.) What tests are used1!
(4.) What is your opinion of: (a.) Certified milk ?    (b.) Pasteurized milk?
(5.) What are the difficulties (if any) you meet with in securing a safe milk-supply?
(6.) Do you find the present law adequate to control  the outbreak of infectious
disease at the source of supply ?
The replies to question 1 seemed to show that for the most part the conditions of milk-
supply are not satisfactory.    In one or two cases the milk was stated to be such as not to be
fit for the use of infants. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 17
Questions 2 and 3 elicited the information that in the great majority of cases no
examination of the milk-supply in the larger centres is made; nor any test; and that only in
the larger cities is a regular periodical inspection of dairies undertaken, and the milk tested
for purity and quality.
Most of the Medical Officers expressed themselves as being in favour of certified milk,
but it was generally admitted that this was difficult to secure. One or two expressed a
preference for pasteurized milk, but two condemned this method; one on account of its
reducing the nutritive value of the milk, the other because it presents chances for supplying
dirty milk and gives opportunity for adulteration.
As to the difficulties (question 5) met with in securing a safe supply of milk, these would
appear to be many and various. Dr. Underhill, Medical Officer for Vancouver, replied :
" Want of a good workable law dealing with the milk-supply and the necessity of giving
municipalities full control."
Many of the other officers expressed a similar view, and blamed the lack of power to
supervise the milk-supply, and the conditions and circumstances attending its production.
Dr. McQuarrie, Medical Officer for New Westminster, remarked: "(a.) Lack of ordinances
governing sale of milk, (b.) Lack of inspection of district dairies, (c.) Apparent ignorance
of milk-vendors as to great liability of milk being infected, (rf.) Lack of proper system of
reporting sickness in the household of dairy-owners. The city has no means of knowing when
infectious disease breaks out in household of milk-vendors outside city limits."
In regard to the adequacy of the present law to control infectious disease at the point of
supply, the almost unanimous opinion was expressed that the law is sufficient if it is properly
enforced. Dr. Underhill added that it would be an advantage if skin ,and venereal diseases
were added to the list of infectious diseases.
Dr. Henderson, Medical Officer for Creston, remarked : " Tuberculin test should be made
compulsory in all cases of persons supplying milk to others than their own family; herds
should be visited annually or semi-annually under direction of Chief Veterinary." He also
remarked : " Personally, as a physician, I have had to discard absolutely cows' milk for infants,
save where the parents own a reliable and clean pasture or stall-fed animals."
The Tuberculin Test.
There is no longer any room for doubt that the tuberculin test is a thoroughly reliable
means of ascertaining if cattle are affected with tubercular trouble. Your Commissioners had
the efficacy and reliability of this test demonstrated to them by Dr. White, one of the
Veterinary Inspectors of the Board of Agriculture, upon one of their visits to the farms.
The utility and reliability of the tuberculin test was made a point of special inquiry among all
interested in the dairy business who were met or gave evidence before your Commissioners.
It is most satisfactory to relate that, with a very few exceptions, a perfect readiness to have
their cows tested was displayed by the farmers, but it was frequently urged that the test, being
only now imposed upon the herds of such owners as would accept it, was not satisfactory, and
that in order to render it so it must be made compulsory and imposed upon all alike.
This view your Commissioners regard as a fair one. It is useless for A. to have his herd
tested and perhaps suffer the loss of one or more animals as a consequence thereof, if his
neighbour B., whose herd may range over adjacent lands and come into close contact with his,
A.'s, cattle, are not tested.
Allied to the question of the tuberculin test is the matter of compensation for slaughtered
animals. The rate of compensation at present in force is half the value of the slaughtered
animal, as fixed by the Inspector, with a maximum value of $75. This figure was fixed some
years ago when the price of dairy cattle was far below that at present obtaining; and the
feeling was very freely expressed to your Commissioners that this maximum value should be
considerably increased, and that the basis of compensation should be not less than two-thirds
of the value.
Whilst the health of the community as milk-consumers is of primary importance, and the
adoption of any steps necessary to that end are requisite and proper, the interests of the
farmers cannot fairly be overlooked. By ridding the Province of tuberculous cattle a great
step towards securing the better health of the animals would be attained, but it is not quite
equitable to impose the whole burden of such a step upon the farmer, by inflicting upon him
the monetary loss involved in the slaughter of infected cattle. J 18 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
What other Provinces are doing.
In consideration of the legislative aspect of the question referred to your Commissioners,
the provision made by other Provinces in the Dominion for safeguarding the milk-supply is of
The Province of Ontario, by an Act passed in 1911 respecting the production and sale of
milk for human consumption, delegates a major part of the responsibility for the protection of
the interests of the public to the municipalities, which are authorized to pass by-laws for
regulating milk produced for sale, subject to the approval of the Minister of Agriculture,
as to—
(a.) The care of cows producing milk for sale for domestic consumption :
(b.) The cleanliness and sanitary conditions of the places in which cows are kept or
milked or in which milk is stored :
(c.) The water supplied to cows :
(d.) The care and cleansing, construction and type of all utensils used in handling
milk, whether by producers, carriers, or vendors :
(e.) The care, storage, transportation, and distribution of milk by producers, carriers,
or vendors :
{/.) The making of bacteriological tests for the purpose of ascertaining the whole-
someness of milk offered for sale by any producer, carrier, or vendor; and
(g.) Such other matters regarding the production, care, transportation, or sale of
milk as the Council may consider necessary.
Municipal Councils are also authorized to enact by-laws fixing the standard of butter-fat
and total solids of milk, to appoint Inspectors for the enforcement of the Act,  and send
Inspectors endowed with power to inspect the premises of milk-vendors within their respective
municipalities, and to take samples; and the Medical Health Officer is empowered to publish
the results of tests.    The addition of preservatives or adulterations is prohibited.
Section 7 of the Act provides that "No milk shall be sold from any cow which, upon
physical examination by a duly qualified veterinary surgeon, shall be declared to be suffering from
tuberculosis of the udder or milk-glands, or whose milk, upon bacteriological or microscopical
analysis, is shown to contain tubercule bacilli, or which is known to be suffering from splenic
fever or anthrax, or any other general or local disease which is liable to render milk from such
cow a menace to the public health. Where any doubt arises as to any cow being affected with
any of the diseases above mentioned, it shall be the duty of the Inspector to notify the owner
that the milk of such cow must not be sold or offered for sale until a permit so to do has been
given by the Board of Health of the municipality in which such milk is being consumed ; and
upon such notice being given, no milk from such cow shall be sold until said permit has been
Section 8 prohibits persons suffering from contagious diseases from working or assisting
in the production or sale of milk.
Municipal authorities are empowered to establish milk depots to furnish a special supply
of milk for infants.
Section 11 enacts : " It shall be unlawful to apply the term ' certified' to any milk which
does not comply with the following standard :—
"(a.) It shall be taken from cows semi-annually subjected to the tuberculin test,
and found without reaction :
" (b.) It shall contain not more than ten thousand bacteria per cubic centimetre from
June to September, both inclusive, and not more than five thousand bacteria
per cubic centimetre from October to May, both inclusive:
" (c.) It shall be free from blood, pus, or disease-producing organisms :
"(<f.) It shall be free from disagreeable odour or taste :
" (e.) It shall have undergone no pasteurization, and be free from chemical preservatives :
" {/.) It shall be cooled to forty-five degrees Fahrenheit or under within half an hour
after milking, and kept at that temperature until delivered to the consumer :
" (g.) It shall contain twelve to thirteen per cent, of milk solids, of which at least
three and one-half per cent, is butter-fat:
" (h.) It shall be from a farm the herd of which is inspected monthly by the veterinarian, and the employees of which are examined monthly by a physician : 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 19
" Provided that no milk shall be sold as ' certified' until a certificate setting forth that
the above conditions have been complied with is obtained from time to time from the Medical
Officer of the municipality in which it is to be consumed, or from an incorporated society of
medical practitioners."
By section 12 it is provided that "It shall not be lawful to apply the word 'pasteurized'
to any milk unless all portions have been subjected for at least twenty and not more than
thirty minutes to a temperature of not less than one hundred and forty and not more than
one hundred and fifty degrees Fahrenheit, and then at onee cooled to forty-five degrees
Fahrenheit or under and kept at that temperature until delivered to the consumer, and the
process of pasteurization shall be subject to inspection by the Local Medical Health Officer or
such Inspector as he may designate: Provided always that all such milk shall in all other
respects be subject to all the terms and conditions of this Act."
The maximum penalty for infringement of the Act is $50.
The Province of Manitoba has no special Milk Act; but under its "Dairy Act" (1912),
which applies more particularly to cheese and butter factories and creameries, it is enacted
that " No person shall sell milk containing less than eleven and a half per cent, of total solids,
or less than eight and a half per cent, of solids not fat, or less than seven per cent, of butter-
fat, or cream containing less than fifteen per cent, of butter-fat.
The maximum penalty for infringement is $25, and prosecutions are to be instituted by
the Superintendent of the Dairy Branch of the Department of Agriculture. Penalties are
also provided for the sale and supply of diluted, adulterated, " stripped," or sour milk.
Similarly to its sister Province of Manitoba, Saskatchewan has its "Dairy Act" (1906),
which deals entirely with the establishment and control of creameries and cheese factories, but
has no Act dealing particularly with the supply of milk.
In 1910 this Province passed a comprehensive measure entitled the " Public Health Act,"
Regulations 75 to 121 of which have special reference to cow-keepers, dajrymen, and vendors.
No. 77 provides: "The Local Board of every city, town, or village shall cause every cow kept
for the purpose of public milk-supply to be inspected as to its general health, and in addition
the said Board shall provide for the testing of every milch-cow by ' tuberculin ' by an executive
officer at the expense of the said Board."
Power is given to Inspectors to enter any premises, and test dairy and other cattle in
close communication therewith.
The keeper of any dairy supplying milk in any city, town, or village must obtain a written
permit from the Local Board before he can sell milk therein.
The sale of diluted, adulterated, stripped, or skimmed milk (except when the last named
is specially so declared) is prohibited.
There are provisions in regard to dairymen or their families or agents suffering from
contagious diseases; to the proper cleansing of all vessels and machinery used in connection
with the handling of milk; the supply of pure water to cattle, milk-sheds, and dairies.
Milk kept for sale in any store, shop, restaurant, market, bakery, or other establishment
shall at all times register on test a temperature not higher than 50° Fahr., and shall be stored
in a covered cooler, box, or refrigerator, the same to be properly cared for and kept closed,
and the same shall be kept only in such locations or under such conditions as shall be approved
by the Local Board. Every cow-keeper is required to provide a milk-house, to consist of two
parts—one for cooling and storing milk, and the other for cleansing and sterilizing utensils.
Every vendor of milk must obtain a licence from the Local Board, and every vehicle used for
milk-delivery have the licence number attached.
Milk other than skimmed milk intended for sale shall have the following minimum composition :—
(a.) Specific gravity not less than 1027 :
(b.) Fat not less than 3 per cent. :
(c.) Solids, not fat, 9 per cent. :
(d.) Total solids, 12 per cent. J 20 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
Skimmed milk must contain not less than 8£ per cent, of total solids, and not less than
1 per cent, of butter-fat. Cows' milk containing water in excess of 88 per cent, shall be an
Provision is made for lighting, ventilation, and drainage of cow-stables; the removal of
manure twice daily; the proper cleansing of all utensils; the cooling of milk to 55° Fahr.,
immediately after being drawn. No privy shall be allowed within 50 feet from any stable
or well.
As the result of their inspection of the dairies in Vancouver, Victoria, in the summer,
and New Westminster later on, your Commissioners found that practically all the more
important establishments where making a point of pasteurizing their milk. In some cases
the bottles in which the milk was being supplied bore the words "pasteurized milk" or
" scientifically pasteurized," the desire being to convey to the consumer the impression that
he was getting pure milk. But whilst the process of pasteurization properly performed is
probably a more or less reliable means of reducing the bacterial count of milk and of preserving
its better qualities for a longer period than would otherwise be the case, and in this respect
deserves to be acknowledged as a useful safeguard, many of the dairies were found to be using
what is commonly known as the flash method, sometimes termed "commercial pasteurization."
In plain words, this flash method is neither more or less than a delusion and a snare for the
unsuspecting public. This method consists of running the milk straight through a series of
coils heated to a temperature of 150 degrees, or thereabouts, and then cooling it. In a good
many cases, it may be observed, both the coils and the containers were without any means of
protection against the contaminating influences of dust and flies. It was establishments that
were utilizing this apologetic method of pasteurizing that were labelling their milk "pasteurized"
and "scientifically pasteurized."
The proper method of pasteurizing is known generally as the holding method. In this
system the milk should be heated to a temperature of about 145 degrees, and held at this for
not less than twenty minutes before passing into the cooler, whilst the coils over which the
milk passes should be protected, preferably by glass, from any contaminating influences. In
this connection the following recommendation of the New York Milk Commission is of interest:
" In order to allow a margin of safety under commercial conditions, the Commission recommends
that a minimum temperature during the period of holding should be made 145° Fahr., and
the holding-time twenty minutes."
Pasteurized milk is thus defined by the Canadian Medical Association Milk Commission :
" Milk which has been subjected in a closed vessel to a temperature of 150° Fahr. for twenty
minutes or 140 to 145 degrees for thirty minutes, and immediately thereafter refrigerated to
at least 45 degrees and kept at that temperature until delivered to the consumer." Pasteurized
milk should be delivered to the consumer within less than forty-eight hours after pasteurization.
Dr. Crichton, Medical Officer of Health for the City of Seattle, Washington, has little
faith in the efficacy of pasteurization. He says : "Pasteurization of bad milk is just putting
a premium on dirt. I think pasteurized milk will set the pure-milk movement back some
years, because the farmer can be careless and sloppy in his method of producing milk. The
pasteurizer is a machine that can always be tampered with, and with it, milk in bad condition
can be turned loose in a city."
Opposed to this sweeping condemnation is Dr. Henderson, City Milk Inspector of Seattle,
who says: " I would have pasteurization made general and compulsory, if I had my way.
There is not a herd you can go into and not find some disorder among the cows, trouble with
the udder, or something of the kind. I do not think pasteurizing, if done properly, hurts the
m'ilk at all."
The manager of a large dairy in British Columbia supplying " approved " milk to
Vancouver expressed the opinion that pasteurizing spoils the flavour of the milk, and is likely
to cause the loss of cream.
The general excuse made by dealers for the pasteurizing of milk is that is serves to
preserve the milk and prevent it from turning sour.
"Certified" and "Approved" Milk.
"Certified " milk forms the ideal quality of pure milk. "Certified" milk is defined by
the American Association of Certified Milk Commissioners as conforming to the following 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 21
requirement: "It should be produced at dairies'subjected to periodical inspection, the
products of which are subject to frequent analysis. The cows producing such milk must be
properly fed and watered, free from tuberculosis, as shown by the tuberculosis test and physical
examination by a qualified veterinarian, and from all communicable diseases, and from all
other diseases and conditions whatsoever likely to deteriorate the milk. The cows must be
housed in clean, properly ventilated stables of sanitary construction, and must be kept clean.
All persons who come in contact with the milk must exercise scrupulous cleanliness, and must
not harbour the germs of typhoid fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, dysentery, scarlet fever, and
septic throat infections, or other infections liable to be conveyed by the milk. Milk must be
drawn under all precautions necessary to avoid infection, and be immediately strained and
cooled, placed in sterilized bottles, and kept at a temperature not exceeding 50° Fahr. until
delivered to the consumer. Pure water as determined by inspection and chemical and
bacteriological examination is to be provided for use throughout the dairy farm and dairy.
Milk of this class should contain less than 10,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre, and should
not be more than twenty-eight hours old when delivered."
The Canadian Medical Association Milk Commission defines "certified" milk as : "Milk
examined and guaranteed by any Local Board of Health or incorporated society or association
of legally qualified practitioners; first, to be taken from cows semi-annually subjected to the
tuberculin test and found without reaction, all doubtful and suspicious cases to be excluded
from the herd ; second, to contain not more than 10,000 bacteria'per cent, in the summer,
and 5,000 in the winter, on delivering to the consumer; third, to be free from pus, blood,
disease-producing germs, preservatives, or other foreign matter, and not to have been heated
in any way, or frozen ; it shall contain at least 2 per cent, of total solids, of which 3} to 4J
per cent, must be butter-fat; it must be cooled to a temperature of 45 degrees within one-half
hour after milking, and shall be kept at a temperature not higher than 45 degrees until
delivered to the consumer."
It is evident that the production of " certified " milk means increased cost of production,
though this should not be great, but it is sufficient to warrant an advance in the price to the
consumer. • Your Commissioners have cause to believe that a goodly proportion of those
resident in the more populous cities at least would be prepared to pay the small extra cost
involved in order to obtain milk of the finest quality, which is particularly necessary for infants
and invalids. "Certified" milk may be said to be a satisfactory solution of the difficult
problem of infant-feeding.
"Approved" or "inspected" milk is the next best in quality of milk, and is in some
measure to be welcomed as a substitute for " certified " milk.
This should consist of clean raw milk from healthy cows, as determined by the tuberculin
test and physical examination by a certified veterinarian, the cows to be fed, watered, housed,
and milked under good conditions. All persons who come in contact with the milk must
exercise scrupulous cleanliness, and must not harbour the germs of typhoid fever, tuberculosis,
diphtheria, or other infectious diseases liable to be conveyed by milk. The milk to be delivered
in sterilized containers, and to be kept at a temperature not exceeding 50° Fahr. until it
reaches the consumer.    It should contain less than 100,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre.
The Score-card System.
As a means of securing efficiency in the dairy farm and dairy, and thereby doing much
to ensure a pure-milk supply, the score-card system of dairy inspection was introduced about
three years ago, and is now used in Montreal, and in all the principal cities of the United
States, and is Worthy of consideration.
There is a general agreement among medical officers and municipal officials that there
should be some kind of standard established which every cow-keeper and dairyman should
live up to if allowed to sell milk.
The objects of inspection may be stated as being, first, to determine in a systematic way
the conditions in dairies and record this in a convenient form for reference ; secondly, to
protect the public from impure milk.
The score-card system appears to be helpful to officials and producers and purveyors alike
in accomplishing the desired result, with a minimum amount of friction.
Your Commissioners had this system very carefully explained to them by Dr. Henderson,
Inspector of Milk-supply, in Seattle, Washington. This card deals with itemized conditions
in the dairy, arranged in logical order, each being given a definite numerical rating, the total
number of points for a perfect dairy amounting to 100, J 22
Royal Commission on Milk-supply.
The separation of dairy conditions into equipment and methods is a strong feature of this
card. The score for equipment indicates the quality and sufficiency of the utensils the
dairyman has to work with, whilst the score for method gives an accurate idea of the way the
dairyman utilizes his equipment and indicates whether he is practising right methods.
This card is arranged with separate columns for "equipment" and "methods," and allows
a total of 40 points for the former and 60 for the latter. This arrangement of points is made
for the purpose of emphasizing the importance of good methods and giving unmistakable
credit for cleanliness. A farmer may be handicapped by poor buildings which he cannot afford
to rebuild, but he can be clean, and cleanliness earns a high score. The following is the form
of card :—
Detailed Score.
Equipment + Methods .
(Deduct  1   point when cows are not
groomed daily, and 1 point when long
hairs about udder are not clipped.)
If tested with tuberculin once a year
and no tuberculosis is found, or if
tested once in six months and all
(If tested only once a year and reacting animals found and removed, 2.)
Floor  2
Walls     1
Removal of manure daily to field or proper
Free from contaminating surround-
Tight, sound floor and proper gutter. 2
Smooth, tight walls and ceiling.   ... 1
Proper stall, tie, and manger  1
Means of lighting: Four square feet of glass
(Three sq. ft., 3 ; 2 sq. ft., 2; 1 sq. ft., 1.
Deduct for uneven distribution.)
(To 50 feet from stable, 1.)
Utensils and Milking.
Thoroughly washed and sterilized in
Cubic feet of space for cow; .500 to 1,000
(Thoroughly washed and placed over
steam jet, 4 ; thoroughly washed
and scalded with boiling water, 3 ;
thoroughly washed not scalded, 2.)
(Less than 500 feet, 2; less than 400 feet,
1;  less than 300 feet, 0; over 1,000
feet, 0.)
(Udders cleaned  with   moist cloth, 4 ;
cleaned with dry cloth or brushed at
least 15 minutes before milking, 1.)
Handling the Milk.
Cleanliness of attendants in milk-room...
Milk removed immediately from stable
-    and not poured therein	
Prompt cooling (cooled immediately after
(Glean, convenient, and abundant.)
Small-top milking-pail	
(Should be in milk-house, not in kitchen.)
(nl° to 55°, 4 ; 56° to 60°, 2.)
Free from contaminatingsurroundingsl
(51° to 55°, 2; 56° to COM.)
(For jacket or wet blanket, allow 2; dry
blanket or covered wagon, 1.)
. Final Score.
Note 1.—If any filthy condition is found, particularly dirty utensils, the total score shall be limited to 49.
Note 2.—If the water is exposed to dangerous contamination or there is evidence of the presence of a dangerous disease in
animals or attendants, the score shall be 0. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 23
What are termed " city milk plants," which is a comprehensive term for all wholesale and
retail milk-purveying establishments, are dealt with in a similar way to the dairy farms under
the same card system, and the details of system and management, or the lack of these, noted
upon inspection are scored by points under the same headings of "equipment" and "methods,"
a perfect dairy scoring a maximum of 100 points in either column.
Seattle's Milk-sdpply.
The system of inspection and control adopted in the City of Seattle, Washington, in
regard to the milk-supply approaches a state of completeness and perfection that is worthy of
notice. Your Commissioners interviewed both Dr. Creighton, the Medical Officer of Health
for the city, and Dr. Henderson, the City Milk Inspector, both of whom very cordially afforded
them every information.
The supervision of the city's milk-supply is carried out by three Inspectors, a chemist, and
a bacteriologist, all being under the jurisdiction of the Medical Health Officer.
Seattle consumes about 18,000 gallons (U.S.A. measure) of milk per diem, and this
is produced by 380 dairy farms located within a radius of sixty miles of the city. The
supervision of the outside dairy farms is maintained by a system of permits. The producer is
required to make application for permission to ship milk into the city before being allowed to
do this. Upon the receipt of the application, an Inspector is sent out to see the farm and its
method of working, and be makes a return on the form set out in the chapter on " The score-
card system." Fifty points is the minimum score necessary to secure a permit. With the
permit is furnished a series of practical regulations, printed on linen for affixing to the wall of
the cow-stable.
Then, too, retailers are required to apply for a dairy-wagon permit before being allowed
to sell milk. This is upon another special form ; and if the method and conditions are found
to be satisfactory upon inspection, a permit is issued.
Storekeepers have likewise to secure a permit before being allowed to vend milk, and this
is also granted only upon satisfactory conditions being assured.
In this way the consumer is safeguarded against every person interested in the handling
of the milk-supply, except the transportation companies.
All milk brought into the city is frequently and regularly tested, and the chemical and
bacteriological nature of every sample is carefully registered.
The milk-supply of the city is governed by a series of ordinances, the principal one of
which is " An ordinance relating to the maintenance of dairies and the production, keeping,
and transportation and sale and disposition of milk, cream, and dairy products, establishing
standards for certain dairy products, providing for the inspection, regulation, and control of
dairies, and appliances used therein, and the products thereof, and the manner of handling,
keeping, selling, transporting, and disposition of dairy products, and providing penalties for
the violation thereof."
It is the intention of the Department, your Commissioners were informed, to establish
regulations grading the milk-supply in three classes. This, it is hoped, wi" be effected in the
near future. The first class will be for certified milk, or its equivalent. This milk will have
to come from tuberculin-tested animals, and have a bacteria count of not over 10,000 per
cubic centimetre ; not to be pasteurized, and to be delivered to the consumer within twenty-
four hours of production; nothing can be added to or taken from the product without
permission of the Seattle Certified Milk Commission. Thus, if the dairy wisbed to modify its
milk according to a physician's recommendation, the commission would allow this.
The second class will comprise what is known as " inspected " milk. This milk has to be
drawn from tested cows and contain not over 100.000 bacteria count, and be delivered within
thirty-six hours after production to the consumer. The test will be 3.25 per cent of butter-
fat, and solids 12 per cent., having a temperature under 60 degrees ten minutes after being
drawn from the cow. This milk may be pasteurized if desired, and if it is, must be brought
to a temperature of 145 degrees and held for twenty-five minutes. The dairy supplying this
grade of milk must score 70 of the score-card.
The third-class will be pasteurized milk, and sold as such. It will have to be drawn from
healthy tested cows, and contain not over 500,000 bacteria per centimetre.
Each class of milk will have to be sold with its designation and classification plainly
marked, and it will be left to the public to make its choice of quality.
At the present time milk produced and vended in Seattle under the existing regulations
is purchased by the city dairies and milk-dealers at 12 cents per gallon in the summer, and 18 J 24 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. 1913
cents per gallon in the winter.    Certified milk, however, realizes 45 cents per gallon ;  Class 2
or " inspected ' milk, 18 to 20 cents ; and Class 3 or pasteurized milk is sold for about 15 cents.
Dr. Creighton, the Medical Officer of Health, informed your Commissioners that in order
to secure a pure supply of milk the energies of the Municipal Health Department had been
devoted very considerably to educational work, both among the farmers, the milk-vendors, and
the consumers.
A begiuning was made by gradually insisting upon better conditions at the source of
supply, furnishing the farmers with all needful information upon technical points. Then in
the city popular lectures were given, illustrated by kinematograpb, and in this way the public
has been gradually educated up to an understanding of the character and value of pure milk.
Some 12,000 bulletins per month have been circulated among the residents of the city, and for
the coming year the number was to be increased.
These various means of educating the public Dr. Creighton believes will be effectual in
compelling the farmer to keep only tested cattle and supply pure milk, and both they and the
public to appreciate the fact that they are supplying a product upon which human life so
largely depends.
Necessity for Pkoper Control.
Your Commissioners have found that in all the more populous centres of the Province
the chief need to ensure a pure-milk supply is the possession of power by the local authorities
to control that supply from the source of production right onward to the point of consumption
by the public, ft would seem to be the more necessary that the control should be local,
because of the fact that each district has its own peculiar needs and conditions. But it
would be a distinct advantage if a standard or standards were fixed in regard to milk that
would be applicable to the entire Province. In regard to this point, the observations of the
New York Milk Commission may be quoted :—
" Proper milk standards, while they are essential to efficient milk control by public
health authorities, have as their object the protection of the milk-consumer. They are also
necessary for the ultimate well-being of the milk industry itself. Public confidence is an
asset of the highest value in the milk business. The milk-producer is interested in proper
standards for milk, since these contribute to the control of bovine tuberculosis and other
cattle diseases, and distinguish between the good producer and the bad producer. The
milk-dealer is immediately classified by milk standards either into a seller of first-class milk
or second-class milk, and such distinction gives to the seller of first-class milk the commercial
rewards which he deserves, whilst it inflicts just penalties upon the seller of second-class
milk. For milk-consumers the setting of definite standards accompanied by proper labelling
makes it possible to know the character of the milk which is purchased and to distinguish
good milk from bad milk. In the matter of public health administration, standards are
absolutely necessary to furnish definitions around which the rules and regulations of city
health departments can be drawn and the milk-supply efficiently controlled."
Infant Mortality.
It has come to the knowledge of your Commissioners that the heavy infant mortality in
the large cities of the Province, particularly during the summer months, is, in a considerable
measure, due to bowel and intestinal trouble, and that one of the chief causes of these
ailments is bad milk.
The infantile mortality of Vancouver in 1912, due to diarrhaja was 49 out of a total of
1,719 deaths at all ages ; and of Victoria, 18 out of a total of 617 ; New Westminster, 8 out
of a total of 506; Kamloops, 18 out of a total of 551 (always serious in this district);
Nanaiino, 8 out of a total of 172. Except for some efforts by a few medical men, nothing has
so far been done to attempt to deal with this serious problem.
It may be that it has never occurred to civic representatives and officials to inquire into
the circumstances and causes of infantile mortality in their own particular districts when the
annual return of births and deaths has come before them. If this had been done, some steps
would surely have been taken to try and reduce the heavy toll of human life which is so
marked a feature of modern civilization in our larger cities.
There can be no question that some steps could and should be adopted to diminish
infantile mortality. The most urgent need as a means of remedy is a pure-milk supply.
Perhaps the best means of ensuring this would be the institution of special milk depots,
preferably by the civic authority of each district. 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 25
Having regard to all the facts and circumstances reviewed in the foregoing report, your
Commissioners beg respectfully to submit the following recommendations :—
Classification of Milk.
Milk should be classified. The general public has a right to know, when they are buying
milk, exactly the character and quality of what they are getting. They should know also
what any classification means.
Your Commissioners recommend that the classification should be : (1.) Approved milk.
(2.) Pasteurized milk.
Approved milk to consist of : Clean raw milk from healthy cows, as determined by the
tuberculin test- and physical examination by a certified veterinary, the cows to be fed,
watered, housed, and milked under good sanitary conditions. All persons who come in
contact with the milk must exercise scrupulous cleanliness, and must not harbour the germs
of typhoid or scarlet fever, tuberculosis, diphtheria, or any other infectious disease liable to
be conveyed by milk. The milk to be delivered in sterilized containers, to be kept at a
temperature not exceeding 50° Fahr. until it reaches the consumer, and to the said consumer
be delivered in bottles which have been properly cleansed and sterilized before use. Such
milk should contain less than 100,000 bacteria per cubic centimetre.
Pasteurized milk to consist of : Milk which has been subjected in a closed vessel to a
temperature of 150° Fahr. for 20 minutes, or 140 to 145 degrees for thirty minutes, and
immediately thereafter refrigerated to at least 45 degrees and kept at that temperature until
delivered to the consumer ; to be delivered to such consumer in bottles which have been
properly cleansed and sterilized before use, within less than forty-eight hours after production.
This classification does not shut out certified milk, which your Commissioners recognize
as being the ideal form of milk, especially for infants ; but which under present conditions
in this Province is rather difficult of general attainment. It is hoped, however, that the
necessary conditions for the production and supply of certified milk will be reached at no very
distant date.    Certified milk is defined at page 21  in the foregoing report.
Your Commissioners further recommend that all milk sold should be required to be
plainly labelled and its proper classification shown thereon.
Milk which cannot be guaranteed and labelled either as " approved," or " pasteurized,"
or " certified " milk should not be allowed to be sold.
It may be observed that at the present time no bacteriological examinations of milk are
being conducted by civic authorities in the Province; though in Vancouver, under the
auspices of the Vancouver Medical Milk Commission, some of this work is being done in a
purely voluntary capacity.
It seems to your Commissioners that the time has come when, in the larger centres at
least, bacteriological examination should be insisted upon.
That in order to further ensure the best conditions at the source of supply—i.e., the farm
—the standard regulations under the "Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act" (1897, 1911)
should be continued and the same enforced throughout the Province. But in regard to the
concluding portion of the said standard regulations, reciting the various grades which shall be
allotted to farmers, dairymen, and cow-keepers, your Commissioners recommend that the
following regulations only be retained: " Grade A.—Premises found to be in a sanitary
condition within the meaning of the conditions as set forth in the above standard, and the
herd has been tested once every six months for tuberculosis and has been found free from that
disease"; and that the remaining three grades be no longer permissible.
Your Commissioners also recommend that the text of the regulation, Grade A, above
recited, have added thereto the following words : "The Government Veterinary Inspector is
empowered to decide the measure of compliance with these regulations."
With respect to the carrying of these regulations into effect, your Commissioners feel
bound to state that they consider the number of Inspectors employed throughout the Province
upon this work is entirely inadequate to properly secure compliance with the requirements of
the standard regulations; and they recommend that additional Inspectors be appointed, these
to be certificated veterinary surgeons and graduates of some recognized veterinary college. J 26 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. .   1913
Your Commissioners have no hesitation in recommending that the tuberculin-testing of
all dairy cattle should be made compulsory throughout the Province of British Columbia, and
the consequent slaughter of diseased animals.
They are glad to be able to say that they have found a consensus of opinion among the
farmers, with scarcely a dissentient, in support of this course being adopted.
It being now known that bovine tuberculosis is transmissible to man, and that the usual
channel for the transmission of this disease is by means of milk, your Commissioners are
satisfied that no steps taken to avert the spread of the deadly malady of tuberculosis can be
too strong.
., Your Commissioners have all the more confidence in submitting this recommendation
owing to the satisfactory results they have witnessed from the tuberculin-testing which has so
far been carried out in British Columbia, with the voluntary acquiescence of the farmers, by
the Government Veterinary Inspectors.
It is desired to point out that when once the cattle of the Province have been properly
tested, and the process of exterminating tuberculosis is well under way, it will not be
necessary to maintain so large a staff of Inspectors as at first may be necessary.
Whilst it is not directly a part of the question referred to your Commissioners, it has
been brought to their notice that, largely as the result of there being no system of meat
inspection in this Province, the carcasses of cattle which have been slaughtered for tuberculosis
have been and are being sold to the butchers for disposal to the "public. It has seemed to
your Commissioners that strong representations should be made to your Government upon
this matter in order that some limitation may be placed upon this kind of traffic.
Importation of Cattle.
Your Commissioners also consider it advisable, as a means of lessening the risk of
tuberculous infection, that all cattle purchased and entering the Province of British Columbia
should be accompanied by the certificate of a properly qualified Veterinary Inspector, and
that every importer be required to report to the Department of Agriculture of this Province
that he intends to bring in new cattle, so that these may be tested by the Inspectors of this
Province within a reasonable period.
•The principle of compensation for the slaughter of cattle suffering from tuberculosis
having been adopted by this Province, it is considered by your Commissioners that, the
amount allowed having been fixed some years ago, when the value of cattle was considerably
less than it is to-day, the maximum value should be increased.
Your Commissioners consider that $100 is not too large a sum to fix as such value for a
grade cow, and $150 for a pure-bred cow.
They recommend that compensation in the proportion of two-thirds of the value of a
slaughtered cow, instead of one-half, as is now the practice, should be allowed to the owner.
Your Commissioners desire to point out that by increasing the compensation in this
manner the Government would have the hearty co-operation and goodwill of the farmers, and
this would much facilitate the work of stamping out the disease in the herds of the Province.
By paying this higher proportion of compensation they are of opinion that it would not put
the Province to a greater total cost, inasmuch as the work would undoubtedly be done both
more speedily and more easily. Moreover, after the first two years the necessity for paying
compensation would occur very seldom, if at all.
Your Commissioners recognize that a certain depletion of herds would result from the
adoption of the steps which they recommend, and they therefore respectfully beg to suggest
that if the Government could see its way to assist in the restoration of the balance by
importing sound cattle, and placing these at the disposal of the owners of slaughtered
animals, this would be not only of great assistance to such owners, but a safeguard to the
public which depends upon the milk-supply of the Province.
As has been pointed out in the foregoing report, it is necessary to maintain the chain of
communication between the producer and the consumer in an effective manner, in order to
ensure a pure-milk supply. To this end your Commissioners consider that the necessary
regulation's should be imposed upon the transportation companies to compel them  to convey 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 27
milk to its destination in such a manner as to ensure its reaching the consumer in as good a
condition as it is received by them from the producer, and abuses such as are referred to in
the foregoing report be rendered impossible.
Clean cars, ventilated, for the conveyance of milk exclusively should be required to be
provided, and during the summer months, from May 1st to September 30th, ice should be
placed on the top of the cans to prevent the temperature of the milk being increased.
Your Commissioners are advised that there has been or is about to be placed upon the
market a patent milk-can insulated by a jacket of some non-conducting material, which retains
the temperature of the milk throughout a journey at that at which it was received at the
point of shipping. Your Commissioners regret that they have not been able to secure some
definite information about this invention, which they believe would go far towards solving
what they recognize as being a very difficult part of the problem of supplying pure milk. But if
such a vessel for the conveyance of milk can be obtained, they suggest that its use should be
required by shippers of milk during the hot weather.
Your Commissioners further recommend that sheds with proper protection against the
sun, dust, and weather be provided by the transportation companies for the reception of milk
for conveyance, in the place of the open, exposed platforms now in use upon the railways.
In view of the complaints by milk-dealers as to the condition in which milk arrives in
the cities, it is considered by your Commissioners to be highly desirable that all milk coming
into a city should be delivered at a central depot or depots, and should there be inspected by
the city authorities before being released to the retailers for distribution, and the same should
then and there be certified as being fit for human consumption as fresh milk, and if not found
so fit should be destroyed.
Imported Milk.
Stron'g representations have been made to your Commissioners in regard to the milk
coming into this Province from foreign sources. This milk may be produced under conditions
far inferior to those called for by the regulations already suggested, and over which conditions
the Provincial authorities have no jurisdiction.
Serious consideration has been given to this question, and your Commissioners are
thoroughly alive to its importance as well as its difficulties. They feel, however, that the
only solution of the difficulty rests with the municipal authorities, who, while they may not
be able to prevent milk coming in from foreign sources, can, if the necessary power is given
to them, make regulations to prevent its use within their districts unless they are satisfied
that the conditions under which it it is produced are equal to those imposed upon the milk-
producers of the Province.
There are grounds for believing that, provided the milk supplied from foreign sources is
produced under proper conditions, it is inadvisable at the present time to curtail this,
inasmuch as-such curtailment might seriously jeopardize the milk-supply in this Province.
The fact that the milk-supply of British Columbia is not to-day equal to to the demand
is, it appears to your Commissioners, due to the fact that a large portion of the farming land
of the Lower Mainland is, owing to increased land-values, in the hands of speculators, and
is therefore unproductive. There is no reason to doubt that if this were not so, and that
these lands were producing, as they should be, the people would not have to depend upon any
foreign source for its milk-supply.
Use of Milk Products.
Your Commissioners are aware that a large amount of milk product is brought into the
Province, and it is felt that there should be some regulation preventing the use or sale of any
product, whether made from milk or otherwise, which is commonly used to fabricate milk,
cream, etc., without a permit for such use or sale being obtained ; and that the possession of
adulterants should be deemed sufficient for conviction.
In regard to the question of legislation, as far as your Commissioners have been able to
ascertain, both the Dominion and the Province have legislation affecting the question of the
milk-supply of  the Province, the Dominion being the paramount  authority.    Under  the J 28 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. . 1913
"Pure Food Act" the Federal Legislature has set a standard of food-value's. Your
Commissioners recommend that this standard be adopted as the Provincial standard in any
legislation which the Government may see fit to promote.
In order to carry the existing "Pure Food Act" into effect and secure convictions
against dishonest milk-vendors, it is necessary to have Dominion analysts appointed for this
Province. Up to the present time only one such analyst has been stationed in the Province,
and this has rendered the satisfactory working of the Act impossible.
It is not clear to your Commissioners why this condition of affairs has been permitted to
remain so long unremedied, and they recommend that steps be taken for the appointment of
as many Dominion analysts as may be necessary to carry out the requirements of the Statute.
At the present date four such analysts might be sufficient, one for the Mainland, two for the
Upper Country, and one for the Island. In this way the "Pure Food Act" would be rendered
an effective means of protecting the public.
Provincial Enactment.
There does not appear, however, any reason why a good workable Act should not be put
in force for this Province by the Provincial Legislature; nor why, if any question of right
in regard to such legislation occurs between the Province and the supreme authority, the
Dominion permission should not be obtained from the Dominion, so that satisfactory legal
machinery should exist for safeguarding the vital interests of the people of this Province in
respect to this question of milk-supply.
Your Commissioners recommend that under such an Act power be given to municipalities
to make by-laws regulating the conditions of the milk-supply in their own districts, the
standards for which, however, should be set by the Provincial Statute. This is necessary to
do away with varying local standards such as have been already formulated, but which your
Commissioners understand are really inoperative.
In this connection it may be stated that there at present exists a duplication of responsibility in regard to the administration of existing Provincial Statutes, and that the carrying-out
of the regulations of the Provincial Board of Health is being left to the Inspectors appointed
by the Agricultural Department.    This results in a conflict of authority and responsibility.
It is therefore recommended that the carrying-out of these matters be left entirely in the
hands of one or other of the two departments named.
Control of  Milk-supply.
Representations have been made to your Commissioners that it is desirable for local
health authorities to have control of conditions existing upon farms, dairies, and cow-sheds
supplying milk to their particular districts. Careful consideration has been given to this
proposal, but your Commissioners do not consider such local control is either necessary or
desirable. The chief objection to this would be overlapping in the work of inspection and the
probable imposition of opposing requirements upon the producer.
It is therefore recommended that the work of inspecting all farms, dairies, and cow-sheds
within the Province should remain under the direction of the Province, as at present, but that
any corporate authority should be at liberty to exercise supervision over dairies, cow-sheds,
milk-stores, and other places concerned in the sale of milk lying within the jurisdiction of such
corporate authority.
Your Commissioners find that there is at present no co-operation between the Veterinary
and Dairy Inspectors of the Government and the Health Departments of the various corporate
authorities in the Province, which results in the ereation of certain difficulties.
They accordingly recommend that some simple form of report of conditions found by the
Inspectors to exist upon farms, dairies, and cow-sheds visited by them should be furnished by
them, within a reasonably prompt period of their inspection, to the Medical Health Officer for
the. city to which the farmer or cow-keeper is supplying milk, so that the Medical Health
Officer of any city may know exactly the conditions of any dairies outside as well as inside his
jurisdiction supplying his city with milk, and may thus be in a position to take any steps
that he may deem necessary for safeguarding the health of his district.
In connection with the matters above referred to, the following report of Dr. A. L.
McQuarrie, Medical Health Officer for the City of New Westminster, upon the recent outbreak of scarlet fever there, is of interest -.—
" On the afternoon of Saturday, January 4th, one case of scarlatina was reported to the
Department; on Monday, the 6th,  another case; on Tuesday, the 7th, six cases; and on 3 Geo. 5 Royal Commission on Milk-supply. J 29
Wednesday, the 8th, seven more cases were received. From the latter date to the 17th,
between thirty and thirty-five fresh cases were reported, but from then to the present date
(January 24th) only two new cases have been discovered, one of these being a house that had
been quarantined, and the other a baby four years old whose sister had been attending a
private school where five cases had developed on the 9th instant. This last case is the only
one not giving a positive milk history. When it became evident that we were to have an
epidemic on our hands, steps were taken to ascertain the source of the infection. Special
attention was paid to the milk, and we found that in every instance either one of three dairies
had been supplying the stricken families. On investigation it was found that these three
institutions were really one, and that the driver who obtained his milk from one particular
farm in Surrey had supplied all the unfortunates. This farm was visited, and on examination
of the two members of the proprietor's family who were at home, both were found to be
suffering from scarlet fever and in the desquamative stage. The next morning the other two
children of the dairyman were also found to be peeling. The whole household were immediately
put in quarantine and orders given to have all milk destroyed. Fortunately, quarantine was
instituted before the morning's shipment had been made, and consequently Saturday, January
11th, was the last day this milk was delivered in New Westminster. A number of unreported
cases were afterwards discovered. At the present moment I am not in a position to state
positively just how many cases occurred, as a number of the written reports have not come to
hand, but am of opinion that between fifty and fifty-five patients have been quarantined."
Educational Work.
In conclusion, your Commissioners desire to say that it has been borne in upon them that,
in order to make the desired work of reform effective, there is need for a good, broad educational
campaign throughout the Province upon the whole question of the milk-supply.
They accordingly recommend that the Agricultural Department consider the advisability
of giving courses of lectures, illustrated with stereopticon views, both among the producers and
consumers. Such lectures should be directed to conveying information upon plain facts, such
as the way of milking under the best conditions, the handling of the milk after extraction, its
conveyance to tho cities, and its proper care by the consumer.
Another form in which helpful advice might be given would be short, practical bulletins.
Your Commissioners are aware that it is no uncommon thing to find milk that has
reached the consumer in perfect and proper condition is placed on an open shelf in a back
porch, or some such exposed position, where it is at the mercy of any and all climatic influences,
flies, and so forth. Generally it may be said that the average householder has very little idea
of the care that should be taken of milk. Restaurants are also often most careless in regard
to the storage of milk kept by them for sale to the public. The very best of milk cannot be
expected to remain fresh and pure under the conditions in which it is so frequently kept, both
by the ordinary consumer and the keepers of some of the restaurants.
All of which is respectfully submitted.
A. P. PROCTER, Chairman.
Freeman Bunting,
Printed by William H., Printer to the King's Most Excellent Majesty.


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