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Report of the Returned Soldiers Aid Commission (British Columbia): appointed by order in Council approved… 1916

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Array PROVINCE OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
REPOET
OP the
KETTTKNED SOLDIEKS AID
COMMISSION
(BRITISH COLUMBIA)
APPOINTED BY ORDER IN COUNCIL APPROVED BY HIS
HONOUR THE LIEUTENANT-GOVERNOR
NOVEMBER 29th, 1915
'THEG0VERKM£ffrOF
THE PROTOCE OF BRITISH COUBBIA.
PK1NTED BY
AUTHORITY OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
VICTORIA, B.C. :
Printed by William H. Culli.v, Printer to the King's .Most Excellent Majesty.
1910. Victoria, B.C., March 16th, 1!)10.
Hon. W. J. Bowser, K.C.,
Premier, Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Herewith I beg leave to baud you report of the Commission appointed by
the Provincial Government to deal with, and make recommendations regarding, the
aid to returned soldiers.
I have the honour to be,
Sir,
Your obedient servant,
HENRY ESSON YOUNG,
Chairman.
THE RETURNED SOLDIERS AID  COMMISSION
(British Columbia).
Chairman.
Dr. H. E. Young. LL.D., M.L.A., representing the Government of British Columbia.
Members.
His Worship Mayor A. Stewart, representing the City of Victoria ;
His "Worship Mayor A. "W. Gbay, representing the City of New Westminster;
A. E. Planta, Esq., representing the City of Nanaimo;
Alderman R. II. Gale, representing the City of Vancouver;
A. C. Buudick, Esq., representing the Returned Soldiers Employment Committee of Victoria;
E. W. Hamber, Esq., representing the Returned Soldiers Committee of the Canadian Clul),
of Vancouver.
Offices.
Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C.
Secretary.
James H. Hill, Esq., A'ictoria, B.C. REPORT OF RETURNED SOLDIERS COMMISSION.
Your Provincial Returned Soldiers Aid Commission, appointed by Order in Council approved
November 29th, 1913, beg to submit the following report:—
The first meeting of the Commission was held at the Parliament Buildings, Victoria, B.C..
November 29th, 1915, the following gentlemen comprising the Commission being present:—
Dr. H. E. Young, M.P.P. (Chairman), representing the Government of the Province of
British Columbia;
His Worship Mayor A. Stewart, representing the City of Victoria;
His Worship Mayor A. W. Gray, representing the City of New Westminster;
His Worship Mayor A. E. Planta, representing the City of Nanaimo ;
Alderman Joseph Hoskins, representing the City of A'ancouver;
A.  C. Burdick,  Esq.,  representing the Returned  Soldiers Employment  Committee,  of
A'ictoria;
E. AV. Hamber. Esq., representing the Returned Soldiers Committee of the Canadian
Club, of A'ancouver ; and
James II. Hill, Esq., Secretary.
The Chairman outlined to the members the duties of the Commission, and stated its objects
with regard to making provision for the welfare of returned members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force were:—
(a.)  The finding of immediate employment for those discharged soldiers already returning to Canada who are able to work:
(l>.) The provision of any special or technical training or treatment necessary to assist
disabled soldiers who may be unable to take up their former employment to secure
other employment:
(c.) The devising of a practical method of placing returned soldiers on the land under
such conditions as will enable them to provide comfortably for themselves and
families:
(rf.) The finding of employment for the large number of soldiers wlio. within a short
space of time, will return to Canada upon the conclusion of the war.
It was the feeling of the Commission that the matter of finding employment for those
soldiers already returning to Canada who are able to work would best be dealt with by the
formation of sub-committees in the different centres throughout the Province, who would be
charged with the duty of taking care of the interests of the men  returning to  the  various
districts.    The sub-committees to work in conjunction with the Provincial Commission, aud to
keep that body advised as to the men returning and the disposition made of them.
This work was immediately proceeded with. The cities, municipalities, and Government
Agencies of the Province, seventy-six in all, were advised of the work undertaken by the
Military Hospitals Commission and the Provincial Commission, and requested to form local
employment committees to work in conjunction with these bodies. So far forty committees
have been organized and others are expected to meet our request shortly.
The larger cities of the Province, A'ancouver, A'ictoria, New Westminster, and Nanaimo, have
appointed strong committees and are doing good work. It is altogether probable that the bulk
of the returning men will be dealt with at these points. So far, 239 reports on men have been
received from the Discharge Depot at Quebec and distributed to the various local sub-committees,
who report 149 applications, with 114 men provided for, a very good percentage in view of the
existing labour conditions. It must also be remembered that many of the men who have registered their names with the different committees are not yet fit to go to work. At this date
(March 13th) there are twenty-nine inmates at the Convalescent Home at Esquimalt, and we
understand nine are being accommodated at the Trauquille Sanatorium at Kamloops. AA'e are
therefore able to account for 152 men. It has already been seen that not all of the men reported
as returning to the Province register with our local committees. We have not, however, to
coucern ourselves immediately with them unless they do so. J i Returned Soldiers Aid Commission. 1!)16
In order that the other matters before us might be dealt with as efficiently as possible, the
following gentlemen were appointed by the Chairman a committee to investigate and make
suggestions to the Commission relative to the best methods to be pursued with regard to the
education, technical and agricultural training, and employment of returned men:—
Dr. H. E. Young, M.P.P., Chairman of the Provincial Commission;
President Wesbrook and
Dean L. S. Klinck, of the University of British Columbia;
Mr. W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture;
Dr. Alexander Robinson, Superintendent of Education;
Mr. G. H. Deaue, Supervisor of Technical Education;
Air. J. AV. Gibson, Director of Elementary Agricultural Traiuing;
Mr. J. Kyle, Organizer of Technical Training; and
Mr. James H. Hill, Secretary of the Provincial Commission.
A  meeting of this sub-committee was  held at the  office  of  the  Provincial  Commission,
Parliament Buildings, A'ictoria. B.C., December 2Sth, 1915, for the purpose of arriving at a
definitely formulated plan which the Commission could submit to the Provincial Government
for the education and training of returned men. with the approximate cost of same.
It was thought by the committee that the two features of the educational side of the
Provincial Commission's work—i.e., the training of men in technical work and the training in
agricultural work—would be best dealt with separately, and accordingly the following subcommittees were appointed:—
Mr. L. S. Klinek, Dean of the University of British Columbia (Convener) ;
Mr. W. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture; and
Mr. J. W. Gibson. Director of Elementary Agricultural Education;
a  committee  to  formulate  a  plan  to  be  submitted  to  the  Government  by  the
Commission for the agricultural training and education of returned  men, with
approximate cost of same; their report to include the basis, at least, of a community land-settlement plan.
Mr. J. Kyle, Organizer of Technical Education (Convener) ;
Mr. J. R. Davison, Industrial Commissioner, A'ancouver;
Mr. T. J. Trapp, of T. J. Trapp & Co., Hardware, New Westminster;
Mr. James H. McA'ety, President, Trades and Labour Council, A'ancouver;
Air. A. S. Wells, President, Trades and Labour Council, A^ictoria;
Air. John A. Taylor, Manager, Royal Bank of Canada, Arictoria;
Air. H. J. Scott, Alauager, Canadian Explosives, A'ictoria; aud
Air. J. P. Nicolls, Alacaulay & Nicolls, A'ancouver;
a committee to formulate a plan to be submitted to the Government by the Commission for the education, technical training, and employment of returned men,
with approximate cost of same.
The reports of these committees form the basis of the recommendations which your Commission is making with regard to the following matters :—
(1.)  The provision of farm lands for settlement by returned soldiers and sailors:
(2.) The provision of education, technical and agricultural training, and employment of
returned disabled men:
(3.) The establishment of Provincial employment bureaux to provide for the distribution of the labour-supply created by demobilization and immigration:
(4.) The provision of adequate land to be acquired by the Federal Government for use
as a supply farm in connection with the Convalescent Home already established at
Esquimalt under the jurisdiction of the Military Hospitals Commission.
REGARDING THE MATTER OF LAND-SETTLEMENT BY OUR RETURNED  SOLDIERS.
In making the recommendations embodied in our accompanying report, your Commission has
endeavoured to lay before your Government a plan which will not only express our appreciation
of what is due from the people of Canada and this Province to those men who have fought and
suffered in the defence of our national liberties, but which also contains the nucleus of a plan
or system which may be enlarged to meet the requirements of a far greater number of settlers
than we can expect to find supplied from the ranks of our returned soldiers. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 5
Our primary consideration, however, has been the recognition of what is due to our returned
soldiers, and in our recommendations we have endeavoured to place before him a not unattractive
plan, by which he may go ou the land and become self-supporting under the most favourable
couditions.
To briefly summarize the advantages to be enjoyed by the holder of an allotment in one
of our suggested co-operative settlements, we would point out: He becomes the owner of a
" picked " farm with enough cleared land to euable him to make an immediate start; buildings,
live stock, and machinery are supplied in accordance with his expressed wishes, at rates far
more reasonable than he could hope to obtain by buying individually; he enjoys good transportation facilities; the support of a co-operative system of purchasing all supplies and selling
all surplus produce; the benefits to be gained from having the assistance and advice of experts
always at his service; the ability to avail himself of courses of instruction in agricultural
matters aud the advantages of social life as compared with the isolated condition of the majority
of our settlers.
AVe have recommended that the advantages of these co-operative farm settlements be available to " all returned soldiers." We have made no discrimination, and think they should be
open to any man who has served the Empire either under our own flag, that of the Mother-land,
or any of the other Overseas Dominions.
It is readily conceivable that this Province, owing to its climatic and other advantages, will
attract large numbers of those settlers who will after the war seek new homes in Canada, and
that we will be called upon to make provision for many returned soldiers other than those who
left this Province for the front.
It will be seen, therefore, that the problem of providing for these is not in any sense a local
matter. It is one in which not only all the Provinces of our Dominion are equally interested,
but which is of vital interest to the Empire at large, and we feel that the responsibility and
cost of making provision to meet the problem is one which should be shared by all those
interested.
The problem is of so complex a nature as to probably be the subject of a Federal inquiry.
No doubt, however, each Province will be required to devise some plan in accordance with its
own resources, and this your Commission has endeavoured to do in so far as this Province is
concerned, but we are of the opinion that the matters of the allocation of the lands and the
adjudication of the expenses in connection with the entire scheme should be borne in part, at
least, by the Imperial and Federal Governments.
There has recently appeared in the London Standard a summary of the primary features
of a report issued by the departmental committee appointed by the Earl of Selborne. President
of the Board of Agriculture, to investigate and make recommendations with regard to the matter
of land-settlement for discharged sailors and soldiers.
With the exception of a clause relative to " tenancy," the recommendations, offered by this
Imperial committee coincide exactly with the principles which had been already formulated by
your Commission.
The Imperial committee, in concluding their report, emphasized "that preparations must be
made at once to meet the need which will arise when the war is over. Unless demobilized men
obtain regular work without delay, there is some danger that they may acquire habits of idleness
or swell the ranks of casual labour." The force of this will be apparent to all who have given
consideration to the matter.
Recommendation of the Provincial Commission to the Provincial Government.
With regard to the matter of providing farm lands for settlement by returned soldiers,
members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, your Commission recommends:—
That in recognition of their services to the Empire,—
1. A land-grant be made these soldiers in accordance with the following regulations:—
2. That an independent Board of Commissioners be appointed to select suitable lands for
settlement; to direct the preliminary land-clearing or equivalent, improvements; to approve of
the purchase of all stock, implements, etc.; and to administer all the funds in connection with
the co-operative settlements.
3. That the land-grant take the form of farms of such acreage as may, in the opinion of the
said Board of Commissioners, be best adapted to the different classes of farming to be pursued J 6 Iyetirned Soldiers Aid Commission. 191(5
thereon, in accordance with the location and adaptability of the laud. In those districts best
suited to the purposes of mixed farming and dairy farming the acreage will necessarily be larger
than where it is the intention of the beneficiary to follow poultry-rairing, market-gardening, or
fruit-growing.
4. The farms to be located in such districts as may be determined upon by the Board of
Commissioners, and that such provision be made by the Government as may enable the said
Board of Commissioners to acquire such lands and to carry out the co-operative land-settlement,
and that these lands be in blocks of such size as to provide for at least sixty allotments.
5. The farms to be subdivisions of selected areas of suitable size in these respective districts,
such areas to be Government lands if available, or to be acquired by the Government for the
purpose, and to be within easy access of transportation and markets.
G. Each of the foregoing areas to constitute a Co-operative Settlement, for which purpose
it shall be laid out or disposed of as follows: Sufficient acreage to be reserved for a Demonstration Farm, Central Organization Plant, roads, recreation-grounds, etc. The balance of the
acreage to be subdivided iuto farms of such size as may be decided upon by the said Board of
Commissioners with regard to the location and the class of farming to be followed thereon.
7. The Central Organization Plant and Demonstration Farm are to be centrally located, in
order that they will be within the shortest possible distance from the farms on the. boundaries
of the areas.
S. It being a prime necessity that all the farms shall have easy access to the Central
Organization Plant, roads shall be constructed both along all section-liues and also connecting
each farm with the main or trunk roads.
!>. The Demonstration Farm eventually to be provided with equipment necessary for the
proper working and developing thereof and with live stock in accordance with its requirements.
10. To make complete the organization of the settlement it will be necessary that there be
provided those features essential to the successful working out of a co-operative system to be
availed of by the soldiers occupying the settlement farms. These will constitute the Central
Organization Plant, and will he located centrally iu accordance with paragraph 7, and will
comprise:—
(«.)  General store:
(&.)  Creamery:
(c.)  Blacksmith-shop:
(rf.)  Carpenter's shop:
(r.) Public  hall:
(/.)   School:
(<j.) "A residence" designed to provide temporary accommodation for soldiers going
to look over the land. etc. It will, in this respect, take the place of an hotel, and
should be suitable for the accommodation of the soldiers' wives as well.
11. Those eligible to become possessors of farm lands under this recommendation are:—
(«.)  All returned soldiers irrespective of their point of enlistment and without distinction either as to military rank or length of service :
(b.) The son of a deceased or permanently disabled soldier,  provided he is at least
eighteen years of age.    In case the son has not reached this age, provision to be
made whereby his mother or guardian can take up the allotment and develop it
until such time as he attains the age of eighteen:
(p.)  The widow of a deceased soldier:
(d.) The wife of a permanently disabled soldier:
(c.)  The daughter of a deceased soldier, if there is no son in the family:
Provided always that only one allotment shall be available by a soldier or any member of
his family, and that such allotment will only be made where it is the intention of the beneficiary
to make bona-fide settlement thereon.    It is not intended that these allotments shall be made
available for purely speculative purposes.
12. That ou each farm allotment there he certain improvements made at tho expense of the
Provincial Government, said improvements to be confined to land-clearing and to the draining
and fencing of the cleared area.
13. That in no case the cost of these initial improvements exceed tho sum of $500 per
allotment. G Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 7
14. That further assistance be given in the way of a long-term loan at a low rate of interest
for the purpose of erecting farm buildings, for the purchase of machinery, stock, seed, fodder,
household necessities, etc., or for further improvements in clearing, draining, or fencing.
15. That all such stock and equipment be purchased only on approval of the said Board of
Commissioners and remain the property of the Government.
10. That a lien or mortgage to the full amount of such loan, with interest as agreed upon,
be established against the farm, including all chattels and improvements.
17. That $1,350 be the maximum amount loaned by the Government against any allotment.
The loan transaction to take the form of a credit in supplies which will be charged against the
allotment-holder on the books of the Central Organization to be provided by the Board of
Commissioners. All such supplies, whether buildings, live-stock, implements, or improvements
to the land, will be provided by the Centra] Organization, though the allotment-holder has, of
course, the option of specifying his requirements.
18. That no titles be issued for at least three years from date of entry.
19. That at the expiration of such period, provided improvements to an extent to be decided
upon by the Board of Commissioners have been made to the approval of the said Board, patents
be issued; any uupaid part of loan to be a first mortgage against the property.
20. That the taxes on any allotment for the year in which' such allotment is taken up by a
returned soldier be remitted.
21. That arrangements be made whereby a limited number of returned soldiers receive
assistance in establishing at the centre of the settlement such industries and occupations as, in
the opinion of the Board of Commissioners, directly contribute to the needs of the settlers.
22. That full opportunities to obtain training and instruction in agricultural matters be
placed at the disposal of those returned soldiers who may wish to avail themselves of this
opportunity to  acquire land.
23. That such training and instruction be given under the direction of the College of
Agriculture of the Provincial University.
24. That a short course of three months' duration be offered in general agriculture, and
that this course be repeated as often as is deemed advisable.
25. That in this course laboratory-work constitute the major part of class-room instruction,
and that practical work in the fields, orchards, and stables receive special attention.
20. That tuition be provided by the Provincial Government free of cost for all returned
soldiers who are desirous of taking a three months' course with a view to acquiring a holding
in the co-operative settlement; their board and lodging while taking such course to be provided
by the Dominion Government.
27. That adequate facilities be provided in the way of instructors, class-rooms, dormitories,
laboratory and field equipment, stables, live stock, etc., for the efficient carrying-out of the
courses indicated above.
2,s. Applicants for these courses are to be accommodated in the following order:—
(a.)  Soldiers who have taken up farms in the Co-operatice Settlement and those whose
intention it is to do so:
(b.)  Soldiers owning farms outside the Co-operative Settlement:
(c.)  Other parties desiring to avail themselves of the training offered.
29. That a trained agricultural adviser be appointed for each settlement, and that he undertake field demonstrations in co-operation with the farmers, and generally assist them in the
conducting of their work in accordance with best farm practice.
30. That, with a view to assisting those returned soldiers who had taken up pre-emptions
before going to the front, they may, if they desire, receive assistance in the form of land
improvements to the value of $500, such improvements to be made by and to be subject to the
approval of the said Board of Commissioners.
31. That the nature and extent of the improvements required to be made on any allotment
before title to same shall be granted be decided upon by the said Board of Commissioners. Such
duties to be performed within reasonable time limits, provided that the total improvements are
not required to be done iu less than three years' or more than five years' time. Failure on the
part of an allotment-holder to comply with the regulations regarding improvements to constitute
grounds for the cancellation of such allotment. J S Returned Soldiers Aid Commission. 1910
EDUCATION, TECHNICAL AND AGRICULTURAL TRAINING, AND EMPLOYMENT.
AArith regard to the matters of the education, technical and agricultural training, and
employment of those men who, upon their return from the front, are unable, by reason of
physical disability, to follow their previous occupations, in our recommendations in this connection your Commission has endeavoured to place before your Government a plan under which
the desired objects may be obtained.
With regard to those for whom the provisions outlined iu our recommendations are made,
it must be borne in miud that many of the same features referred to in our previous report
with regard to laud-settlement apply in this case also. There is no doubt that we shall be
called upon to receive iu this Province many a disabled man whose home prior to his enlistment was in some one of the other Provinces of the Dominion. Our climatic conditions alone
are sufficient to make this a foregone conclusion.
Manifestly we cannot close our doors to them, and therefore this problem is also one that
is not confined to ourselves locally. If it becomes incumbent upon us to receive as wards and
patients men from the other Provinces of the Dominion, it is reasonable to suppose that those
Provinces should share with us the burden of the responsibility and expense incurred in the
training and employment of such men.
We understand from the Blue Book dealing with the work of the Military Hospitals Commission that it is their intention that certain of the expenses in this connection, such as the
providing of expert instructors and the maintenance of men undergoing training, are to be borne
by the Federal Government.
We expect shortly to be visited by the A'ocational Secretary of the Military Hospitals
Commission, who will, no doubt, be in a position to give us some further particulars as to'
this important feature of the case.
Your Commission is confident that there is no desire on the part of this Province to evade
any part of its own responsibility in this matter, and that it is prepared to do its full share
towards meeting the ueeds of these men. It must, however, be recognized that our share, as a
Province, of the burden of responsibility is one to which every municipality throughout the
Province must be keenly alive. They must realize that provision has got to be made for the men
returning to their districts, and the expenses in this connection must be borne by the individual
municipalities. Local committees have already been formed throughout the Province, through
which your Commission purposes dealing with the individual cases of men seeking employment,
and the expenses in connection with these organizations must be met by the municipalities in
which they are located.
With regard to the matter of the expenses to he incurred in carrying out this work, the plan
as outlined in our recommendations calls for provision to the extent of $14,000, to be borne by
the Dominion Government.
Recommendations of the Provincial Commission with regard to the Matter of providing
Technical Training for our Returned Soldiers.
1. That arrangements for the training of men for civil life by the following methods be
undertaken at once, and that where necessary and feasible a half-time system be established:—
First:    By obtaining admission to business colleges:
Second:    By apprenticeship:
Third:    By   supplementing   such   apprenticeship   by   study   at   central   classes.    The
instructors in the central classes to work in conjunction with the firms to which
the men are apprenticed.
2. That the organization of the Education Department be used to arrange for this special
instruction, and that the Military Hospitals Commission meet the expenses incurred for the
services of experts necessary to carry on such instruction.
3. That classes for instruction in the following subjects be formed at those schools in the
Province which are, in the opinion of the Education Department, best adapted to the purpose :-
Commercial Course.—For office-work and Civil Service Examinations; book-keeping;
typewriting; shorthand; commercial English; writing; spelling; correspondence; commercial
arithmetic. 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 9
Lettering and Show-card Writing.—To assist bench-hands in carpentry and joinery, engineering or machine work; draughting—plans, elevation sections, reading, blue-prints; estimating
and taking off quantities; mechanics.
Stationary Engineers.—Study for British Columbia papers.
Care and Operation of the Gasolene-engine.—A practical course dealing especially with the
running of automobiles, launches, etc.
Electrical Work.—Electrical currents aud their work; motors and dynamos—principals and
practice of electricity.
Modelling and Designing.—For wood-carvers, stone-carvers, or plaster-workers.
Navigation.
Any other classes should be included which may be required to supplement the training
given at the workshops In which the men may be engaged. These classes to be held during the
day, between the hours of 7 a.m. and 7 p.m.
4. That where necessary suitable places for board and lodging be provided for men taking
such courses, and that provision for their maintenance during the time of instruction, taking into
consideration their wages earned and their pension (if any), be made by the Military Hospitals
Commission.
5. That classes in general subjects, as English, arithmetic, etc., be established at the Convalescent Home, Esquimalt, and that work-rooms be provided aud instruction given in manual
arts, such as wood-work, light metalwork, basketry, brush-making, etc., aud also that equipment
be laid down for developing a factory based oil economic lines for brush-making and basket-
making.
6. That an Advisory Board be appointed to deal with all cases where retraining seems
necessary or desirable. Such Board to comprise a general educationalist, a technical educationalist, a medical man, an employer of labour, and a labour representative.
ESTABLISHMENT OF PROVINCIAL EMPLOYMENT BUREAUX.
In connection with the matter of finding employment for the large number of soldiers who,
within a short space of time, will return to Canada upon the conclusion of the war, your Commission desires to make the following recommendations with regard to the establishment of
Employment Bureaux throughout the Province:—
We are of the opinion that the establishment of such Bureaux will do much to benefit the
employment-seeker, the employer, aud the Province at large.
Our aim in making these recommendations has been to provide a responsible channel through
which not only our own returning soldiers may get in touch with suitable employment, but which
will serve the same purpose for the influx of immigrants from other countries which we may
reasonably expect after the war.
It is, we think, manifest that the existing system under which the worker and the employer
are brought together is inefficient, and that a better system must be put iuto effect for the
assistance and protection of both parties.
In order that our recommendations may uot work auy unfair hardship on really deserving
employment agencies already in existence, we have recommended that the Board of Commissioners appointed to deal with this matter be given discretionary powers with regard to the
renewal of the licences of such agencies. This is aimed to provide for the continuance of bodies
doing a business of proven respectability and legality, and is intended primarily to apply to
such bodies as the Y.W.C.A., the Salvation Army, and other similar orgauizatious which deal
principally with the supply of female domestic labour.
AVe also recommend that provision to the extent of $15,000 be made iu the Estimates of the
Provincial Government for the carrying-on of the clerical work connected with the office of the
Commission and the various Employment Committees organized throughout the Province with
a view to the development of these committees iuto Employment Bureaux along the lines laid
down in this report, and also for the formation of the Board of Commissioners called for in
our recommendations with regard to carrying out the plan of land-settlement already outlined.
With regard to the formatiou of a system under which provision may be made for dealing
with the problem of findiug suitable employment for those in search of same in this country,
we beg to submit the following:— J 10 Ketirned Soldiers Aid Commission. 191(5
1. There has already been organized at Ottawa, under the charge of the Honourable Senator
Lougheed, P.C., K.C., "The Military Hospitals Commission," which body is charged on behalf
of the Federal Government with the duty of " dealing with the question of employment for
members of the Canadian Expeditionary Force on their return to Canada."
2. At the instance of this body each Province of the Dominion has assumed the responsibility
of dealing with this question within its own borders, through the several Provincial Commissions
appointed for the purpose.
3. In order to make efficient the Provincial plan of organization, there has been formed, at
the central points throughout the different Provinces, Returned Soldiers Employment Committees,
upon whom, in turn, devolves the responsibility of finding employment for the men returning to
their respective districts.
4. There has, therefore, now been inaugurated a system of what may be termed " Patriotic
Employment Committees " pledged to the self-imposed duty of caring for the necessities of those
of our returned soldiers who are capable and who desire to obtaiu employment.
5. The primary duty of these committees is towards those of our own citizens who are
returning home, but judging from the views expressed by those whose ability and experience
best qualify them to judge of the situation confronting us, it appears that we may, in Canada,
expect to be called upou to welcome also vast numbers of home-seekers from both the United
Kingdom and foreign countries.
If it is our pleasure to welcome these settlers, it is also our duty and should be our pleasure
and privilege to see that adequate provision is made for their well-being, to save them from the
costly mistakes due to ignorance of new conditions aud customs, and to protect them from their
exploitation at the hands of the unscrupulous.
To this end we suggest the following procedure be adopted:—
(«.)  That   the  above-mentioned   local   committees   be   incorporated   as   "Employment
Bureaux" for the purpose of dealing with applications received from any source:
(h.) That these Bureaux be the authorized agents of the Provincial Government:
(c.)  That no licences to operate Employment Bureaux be issued by the Government to
any person, firm, or corporation other than the above-mentioned bodies:
(tf.) That the expenses of the incorporation and maintenance of these Bureaux lie borne
by the Provincial Government.
(c.) That no charge lie made for the services of the same:
(/.) That an independent Board of Commissioners be appointed by the Provincial
Government to supervise and control the Bureaux, to regulate the maintenance
expenditures, and to administer all the funds iu connection therewith. Such
Board of Commissioners to be responsible to the Provincial Government for all
funds so administered by them:
(g.) That the Board of Commissioners determine the points at which such Bureaux be
established:
(ft.)   That, at the discretion of the Board of Commissioners,  a  limited  number of the
licences now in force may be renewed from time to time for a period not to exceed
one year.
SUPPLY FARM  IN  CONNECTION AVITII' CONVALESCENT  HOME  AT  ESQUIMALT.
Referring to the matter of the Convalescent Home established by the Military Hospitals
Commission ot Esquimalt, it is most probable that this institution will fully answer the requirements of the Province in this respect, arid that it will develop in process of time into a permanent
Soldiers' Home.
The necessity for such Homes in the not-distant future has been recognized by the Military
Hospitals Commission, and the establishment of several of them through the Dominion is contemplated by that body. They will be Federal institutions and all expenses in connection with
their establishment aud maintenance will be borne by the Dominion Government.
In referring to these institutions, the Blue Book dealing with the work of the Military
Hospitals Commission points out that such Homes should have a considerable acreage, so that
the meat, vegetables, and fruit consumed iu the Home might be raised on the premises. G Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 11
In view of this, at the first meeting of the Sub-committee on Education and Training we
appointed a sub-committee to secure information relative to acquiring a piece of laud in the
immediate vicinity of the Convalescent Home at Esquimalt which would serve as a supply farm
for that institution.
This sub-committee have handed in a very comprehensive and thorough report which, in
accordance with a resolution of the Committee on Education and Training, your Commission
is recommending to the Federal Government through the Military Hospitals Commission. It is
the wish of your Commission that their recommendation in regard to this matter should receive
the support of your Government, and for this purpose the report is submitted herewith for your
consideration.
Dr. H..IJ. Young, M.P.P.,
Chairman, Provincial Returned Soldiers  Commission,
Victoria, B.C.
Sir,—Your Committee appointed for the purpose of securing information relative to a piece of
land convenient to the Soldiers Convalescent Home at Esquimalt aud to offer suggestions as to
the establishing of shops necessary for the giving of instruction in farm mechanics ibeg to report as
follows :—
Immediately following the appointment of this Committee a preliminary survey of the district
in the vicinity of the old Naval Hospital, now being used as a Soldiers' Convalescent Home, revealed
the fact that there is available at the 'present time upwards of 100 acres of good land suitable for
general farming and gardening purposes. That so much good land should be found immediately
adjoining the present Hospital grounds is peculiarly fortunate when so much rock and waste land
exists in that district. As there was no plan of tliis district which showed the location and extent
of the arable lands, we at once decided to secure the services of a land surveyor in order to ascertain
the exact location and extent of the available agricultural land. A competent surveyor was
employed, who, in company with the members of the Committee, made an examination of the general
conditions of soil and contour, and in a general way decided upon the most suitable part of the
available agricultural area for the purposes in mind. On account of the unusually stormy weather
which followed this investigation, some few weeks elapsed 'before the detailed survey could he completed and the plans prepared, tout we think that the information now at hand will ibe of considerable
value in connection with any further action that may 'be taken by the Provincial or Dominion
Commissions with reference to the project in hand.
Your Committee are of the opinion that, as this part of A'ancouver Island possesses sirch ideal
conditions as regards climate and congenial environment, the Soldiers' Home at Esquimalt is likely
to become the most important home for disabled soldieis in AVestern Canada. In view of this fact,
we strongly recommend that immediate steps he taken to make the institution as far as possible self-
sustaining, 'by securing sufficient land to provide for the operation of a farm not less than 160 acres
in connection with the 'present Esquimalt Home. The main purpose of this farm would be the providing of such supplies as meat, butter, eggs, milk, vegetables, fruit, etc., to meet the daily needs of
the Home. In order to do this economically it would be necessary to carry out the most approved
system of mixed farming. Such a farm operated in this way, in addition to its great usefulness as
a source of supply for the 'Soldiers' Home, would also have a certain educational value, not only for
such soldiers as might he able to participate in the daily work of the farm during the .period of
their convalescence, but also for all men interested in the various lines of work included in connection
with it.
It is the opinion of your Committee that a small part of this farm, not to exceed 10 acres,
should be devoted to the growing of garden vegetables and fruit, and should be so arranged as to
provide outdoor occupation for a large number of the men during the greater part of the year.
Most of these men would be able to take part in such light work as gardening, fruit-growing, and
poultry-raising, hut very 'few would he physically fit for the heavier kinds of farm work. Under
com'petent direction many of these men would soon become proficient as gardeners and poultrymen,
and might eventually recover their health and strength to such an extent as to enable them to take
positions as managers or directors in connection with these lines of work, and thus become self-
supporting. But of even greater importance than this is the fact that the introduction into their
lives of new and wholesome interests such as these will do a great deal to bring contentment and
even a measure of happiness to them. The amount of recreation as well as the continuous occupation which would thus 'be afforded would do a great deal to save these disabled soldiers from the
awful ennui and discontent that is sure to come with enforced idleness.
In this connection we also take the liberty of suggesting that the present Hospital grounds,
comprising about 7 acres, be so laid out as to provide not only for the accommodation of additional buildings in future, but also to provide facilities for outdoor rest and recreation, and that
the service of a competent landscape architect be secured to properly lay out these grounds in
accordance with an approved plan. We also suggest that in laying out these grounds ample
provision ibe made for the practice of floriculture in connection with such scheme of decorative-
planting as  may  be adopted. J 12 Returned Soldiers Aid Commission. 101G
The area most suitable for the location of the farm which we have recommended lies immediately north and east of the present Hospital or Home grounds, and on the north side of and
running down to the E. & N. Railway tracks. It is almost triangular in shape, extending from a.
point just west of the entrance to the Hospital grounds in a north-easterly direction to the Uruin-
flower Road, which street forms the boundary along the north-east side to a point about ti(X) feet
west of the junction of Craigflower Road and Lampson Street. 'From this point a line running due
south with n slight westerly deviation and running nearly parallel with Lampson Street forms the
easterly boundary. The whole area referred to is shown on the accompanying plan enclosed by a
red line, and contains approximately 105 acres, exclusive of the churchyard, the location of which
is also indicated on the plan. The whole of the property referred to, excepting the churchyard,
which was purchased years ago by the British Government, belongs to the Hudson's Bay Company,
no part of it having as yet been sold to private individuals. This proposed farm comprises at the
present time approximately SO acres of cultivated land, 15 acres in medium to light timber, 35 acres
partly cleared, and 35 acres broken land containing a good deal of rock. The extent of the cultivated
area is shown on the accompanying plan enclosed by black dotted lines, and includes practically all of
Blocks 7, 0, and 12, together with parts of Blocks 10, 11, and 13. The whole of Block 15 and the
easterly part of Block 14 are wooded. Parts of Blocks 13 and 14, enclosed within the 'black dotted
line, comprise the partly cleared area, whilst most of the broken and rock portions o£ the farm is
located in the central and northerly parts of Blocks 10 and 11.
The soil of those parts now under cultivation is, for the 'most part, rich, sandy loam, shading
in clay loam in the easterly part of Block 12, and is satisfactory for mixed-farming purposes. The
central part of Blocks 13 and 14, now in a partially cleared condition and fairly well covered with
natural grass, is somewhat higher than the district to the east and south of it, and is more of the
nature of a gravelly loam, with occasional small-sized boulders. Whilst the soil is not quite so good
as that in Blocks 9, 7, and 12, it can, nevertheless, all he 'brought under cultivation without auy great
difficulty, and can be worked at a time when it would not he possible to work the more low-lying
parts in Blocks 7 and 12 adjoining it.
It would he desirable in developing this farm to have a certain portion of the partly cleared area
in Blocks 13 and 14 brought under cultivation each year, the remaining part being irsed as a pasture
and run for cattle or sheep. The total area under constant cultivation might eventually he maintained at about 100 to 110 acres. AA'e think it very desirable that at least 10 acres of the present
15 acres of wooded land be preserved as a permanent wood lot to meet the needs of the institution
in furnishing necessary wood and timber. The area in broken and waste land already referred to
would be needed chiefly as a permanent pasture and run for sheep, as it is never advisable to allow
sheep to graze in the same fields with cattle. About 5 acres of this broken land situated near to the
farm buildings might with advantage be utilized as a run for poultry, and possibly about the same
area for pigs, thus conserving the more arable land for the growing of crops.
In recommending the purchase of this entire block of 103 acres, we wish to call attention to the
fact that, as no part of it has as yet been sold to private individuals, there would be no difficulty
in taking over all street allowances. AVe have already been informed by the local agent for the
Hudson's Bay Company that he has advocated the cancellation of the present plan of this and the
adjacent block to the south. The street allowances shown on the accompanying plan exist only on
paper. If this block of 105 acres 'be decided upon as the location for a supply farm in connection
with the Esquimalt Soldiers' Home, we further recommend that the price paid do not exceed $500
per acre.
In working out some further details as to the arrangement of areas, buildings, stock, and equipment, your Committee met in consultation with Mr. Wm. E. Scott, Deputy Minister of Agriculture,
and Mr. AV. T. McDonald, Live Stock Commissioner, both of whom have rendered valuable assistance.
The following details are intended merely to suggest a workable basis on which your Commission would
be warranted in proceeding, and are subject to change or amendment if our recommendation as to
the purchase of this farm should be adopted. The laying-out of the farm, the location and making
of plans for all buildings, and the purchase of stock and equipment are matters of sufficient importance to warrant the appointment of an advisory committee of thoroughly competent and practical men.
AA'e suggest that the farm in question be divided up as follows:—
Acres.
1. Farm buildings, including a farm manager's house and private grounds, drive
ways, stockyards, and paddocks    5
2. Chicken-runs    5
3. Hog-runs  5
4. Orchard  (tree and bush fruits)     5
5. A'egetahle-gardens     5
0. Lanes and roadways   5
7. Permanent wood lui       10
8. Permanent sheep pasture, uncultivated land      25
0. Eight farm fields of 12% acres each for a double four-year rotation     100
Total 105 6 Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 13
AA'ORK   TO  BE  TAKEN   IIP.
1. Growing of Staple Grain and Fodder Crops, including ensilage and field roots.
2. Dairying.—This will he considered the most important department of work, all other lines
being brought into economic relation to it. We recommend starting with twelve good grade Ilolstein
cows and a good pure-bred Holstein bull. The herd would gradually be brought up to about forty
cows and the usual complement of young stock.
3. Shccp-raising.—Would recommend purchasing at the start about twenty good grade Shropshire
ewes aud a pure-bred Shropshire ram. This flock would be increased and maintained at about thirty
ewes for breeding purposes.
4. Hog-raising.—Start with four Yorkshire sows and pure-bred hoar, and increase to not more
than six breeding sows.    This would provide from sixty to eighty young pigs for fattening each year.
5. Poultry-raising.—AArould recommend purchasing 500 day-old chicks to start with ; Barred Rocks
or AA'hite AA'yandottes recommended. Should keep about 300 laying hens over winter and raise about
GOO chicks per year.
6. Horses.—Two teams would be needed—one heavy-draught team of 1,500 lb. each, and one
generaljpurpose team about 1,200 lb. each.
7. Fruit-growing.—A few of the most desirable varieties of apples, pears, plu'ms, prunes, cherries,
and apricots, and such bush-fruits as currants, gooseberries, raspberries, and loganberries, sufficient
to meet the needs of the institution.
8. Gardening.—All regular table vegetables, with larger amounts of such staple crops as potatoes,
beans, peas, cabbage, etc. Some trial plots, including grain, field roots, and fodder crops, as well as
garden-truck, should be established in order to discover those varieties best suited to this particular
soil and climate.
The initial cost of the stock required, as already outlined, would be approximately as follows:—
12 cows at $125 each    $1,500 00
1 bull     500 00
20 ewes at $10 each    200 00
1 ram    35 00
4 sows at $20 each  SO 00
1 boar  35 00
4 horses—heavy, $400 ; general puTpose, $300  700 00
500 day-old chicks    100 00
Nursery stock and planting   150 00
Total    $3,300 00
The necessary farm buildings would consist of :—
(1.) Farm Manager's House, which should have about six rooms and an extra room for an office.
There is at the present time a comparatively new house on the western end of Section 10 which might
be purchased from a party now holding a conditional lease of part of the farm proposed.
(2.) A Dairy-stable.—Built for the accommodation of about twenty-four, head and so arranged as
to permit of enlargement for a larger herd. A dairy and milk-cooling house would be separate from
but convenient to the dairy-stable. A silo and root-cellar would also be included. Storage for fodder
would either be included above the dairy-stable or in an adjoining barn.
(3.) A Horse-stable.—To have four single stalls, one double stall, a box stall, a harness and feed
room, with storage for hay and straw overhead.
(4.) A Common Barn.—For storing unthreshed grain with surplus hay and straw. The drive
floor would ordinarily be used for storing the threshing outfit and wagons. It would he possible to
make use of a barn already on the farm for this purpose.
(5.)  Piggery.—Consisting of about eight pens, with a feed-room and boiler.
(0.) Sheep-house.—Open to the south and having a couple of closed pens, feeding-racks, etc., and
storage for fodder.
(7.) Poultry-houses.—One continuous house of six or eight compartments, with yard divisions,
and an incubator and feed room at one end.    Necessary colony houses and coops.
(S.) Farm Workshop and Machinery-house.—Floored with concrete, with closed stairway leading
to the carpenter and general wood-working shop upstairs. Small draughting-room adjoining carpenter-
shop. Downstairs used chiefly for storing machinery and vehicles and having two smaller rooms, one
equipped with a forge for iron-working and the other for cement-work.
(0.) Greenhouse.—For the propagation of early vegetables and flowers, for use in the gardens and
Hospital grounds. A plant working and storage room at one end, also used as a soil and potting
room.
(10.) Water-storage Tank.—For supply to all buildings, or else Esqu'imalt City water-supply
installed. J 14 Returned Soldiers Aid Commission. 1!)1(5
The following is an estimate of the cost of the buildings necessary in connection with the farm:—
Farm  manager's  house    .'  $3,000 (10
Dairy-stable   (24  cowsl    . .   1,000 00
Horse-stable    500 00
Farm workshop, with machinery-house and equipment     000 01)
Storage-barn  for grain,  straw,  and  surplus hay     300 00
Piggery    250 00
Poultry-house  250 (to
Sheep-house     200 00
I (airy-house  300 00
Silo    ,  200 00
Greenhouse    500 00
$7,000 00
Estimated Cost of Faem Machinery and Eqi'H'jiext.
Portable gasolene-ensine   (S horse-power)    $ 500 00
1 (ouble wagon box and rack  150 00
Light express wagon    120 00
Farm-truck      50 (10
Dump-cart     05 00
Two sets double harness and cart harness  125 00
Seed-drill     KM) 00
I)isk  harrow     35 00
I (rag-harrow     22 50
(iang-plough      55 00
AVfilking-plough    20 00
Field-roller     42 50
Manure-spreader    Hi!) 00
Soil-packer     45 00
Mowing-machine    07 50
Binder   1X5 00
Threshing-mill     250 00
Fanning-mill     45 00
Straw and corn cutter    150 00
I lorse-rake    35 00
I lay-fork     ;«) 00
Provender-mill    00 00
■Cream separator and cans     200 00
Spray-pump     22 50
(Jarden  equipment     50 00
Circular saw  for wood-cutting     00 00
Miscellaneous      55 (10
Total cost of farm machinery and  equipment       $2,700 00
An initial expenditure for fencing aud drainage might be estimated at $1,500.
Summary of Total Cost.
105 acres (<i $500 per acre     $ ,'•2,500 00
Stock         :i.:!0() oo
Farm  buildings     7,000 00
Farm machinery and equipment   2,700 00
Fencing aud drainage    1.500 00
Improvement-work on present Hospital grounds and other miscellaneous
expenditures   3,000 00
Total   $100,000 00
The su'ccess of the whole scheme will depend to a large extent upon the character and ability of
the man appointed to manage the farm. In addition to the work of superintending farm operations,
the manager will be associated personally with resident soldiers, on whom he would have a decided
influence. Many of these will be interested in the various branches of the agricultural work carried
on in connection with the Home, and no doubt will be glad of the opportunity to engage in such work
as they may find suitable and interesting. To command the services, therefore, of a thoroughly reliable and competent manager, your Committee considers that it will be necessary to pay a salary of
$200 per month, with free residence; and it further considers it necessary to provide the manager
with at least one assistant, who should be a specialist in gardening, fruit and poultry raising. The
salary necessary to secure a capable assistant would be about $150 per month.
In the suggested outline of farm buildings reference has been made to a farm workshop. This'
would  provide facilities  for farm carpentry,  such as construction of chicken-houses, gates,  trough*. G Geo. 5 British Columbia. J 15
farm utensils, etc., blacksmithing, cement-working, harness-repairing, and general farm mechanics,
which would include the operation and care of the gasolene-engine. This workshop would be available to all resident soldiers. However, as the Convalescent Home will contain, undoubtedly, many
permanently disabled soldiers, your 'Committee considers it desirable to include in this suggested
scheme provision for a few work-rooms where such men could spend their time pleasantly and profitably. Industries and crafts, such as basket-work, brush-making, machine-knitting, toy-making, metal
repousse and bent-iron work, wood-carving, and even embroidery-work, have been successfully undertaken in similar Homes. The good effect of such employment on the health and character of the
inmates is unquestionable, and there is every reason to believe that such work-rooms, pleasantly and
conveniently situated in the grounds, would be used and would relieve the otherwise monotonous life
of" the Home. A building for the above purposes should provide a carpenter-shop, suitable for brush-
making, toy-making, wood-carving, and general carpentry; a shop for basket-work and knitting-
machines ; and a shop for metalwork. The cost of such building and equipment should not exceed
$3,000.
All  of  which  is  respectfully submitted.
G. 'II.  DEANE,
J.  AY.  GIBSON,
Committee.
In conclusion, your Commission desire to express their indebtedness for suggestions and
advice to those gentlemen who have been good enough to serve on our committees, the results
of whose deliberations have been of material assistance to us in preparing the recommendations
we have laid before you.
VICTORIA,   B.C. :
Trlnted by William H. Cullin, Printer to tbe King's Most Excellent Majesty.
1010.

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