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A century of Canadian pioneer life Clearihue, J. B. (Joseph Badenoch), 1887-1976 1975

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Array A      CENTURY      OF
CANADIAN
PIONEER      LIFE
by
Judge Joseph B.  Clearihue Transcribed from a corrected typescript
loaned to the PABC for copying by Judge
Clearihue, September 1975.
Transcribed by:  wu-v^-v^ \^^/v<w^3-^--*o^,
Deanna L. Tremblay    3 Chapter
A CENTURY OF CANADIAN PIONEER LIFE
by
Joseph B. Clearihue 9KM M.C., E.D.,Q,tff7
B.A., M.A., B.C.L.,
• :      LL.D.
Retired County Court Judge of the County
Court of Victoria and Chancellor Emeritus
of the University of Victoria.
1
A Pioneer Couple
1
2
My Father's Life
8
3
The Klondike Venture
43
4
Our Early Life
54
5
My High School and Victoria
College Life
71
6
I am a Teacher
80
7
My University Life
94
8
War
115
9
Army Days
126
10
After the War
152
11
1924 and Thereafter
171
12
5th B.C. Regiment Canadian
Garrison Artillery
187
13
University Education in
B.C.
208
14
University of B.C. and
other matters
232
15
Judicial Life
245
16
1959-1962 Memories
266
17
University of Victoria
278
1$
Retirement
302 The Clearihues
The Story of a Pioneer Family
Introduction
On December 20, .1962, being 75 years of age, I retired as County Court Judge of Victoria. On that day I
stated that I would do everything I could to have Victoria
College created into a full University of equal status with,
that of the University of British Columbia. This did not
take as long as I had expected as the Premier of British
Columbia, Hon. W.A.C. Bennett, On January 18, 1963 announced that he intended to grant the College full University status. Legislation was in due course prepared
and passed and Victoria College became the University of
Victoria on July 1st, 1963.  As I was then Chairman of Victoria College Council, I became automatically Chancellor
of the University of Victoria. This was later confirmed
by election by convocation members. This meant that for
a period of at least three more years I could hardly call
myself retired. I was indeed quite busy until December 31»
1966 when my elected term as Chancellor terminated.  I then
retired a second time.
During all this period I was reminded by my wife and
daughter that there was a certain trunk in the attic which
required my attention and should be \d.thout further delay systematically explored.  This was an old trunk v/hich had
been in the family for many years and which had been filled
with all kinds of relics.
Over many years my father and mother had gathered
many letters and various documents referring to their life
history which, of course, included that of their relatives
and our own family. My mother had received many letters
from myself which appear to have disappeared and I cannot
remember what was done with them. But I do know that I
did gather together a lot of papers I considered trash
and threw them away. There was a lot in there which I
would now like to peruse.  Anyway I was now persuaded to
open up the trunk and sort out the contents which had remained. This I have done.  It has taken me a long time
and I have not yet completed the problem.  But if a record
is going to be made, it must novr be started.
My father had kept my mother's letters to him and
she had done the same of his. Then there was the correspondence of us children which was not very much, and uncles,
cousins and aunts, and lastly some of Irene's, Joyce's and
mine. Then there were newspapers carefully kept, photogrphs
of relatives and places and documents of all kinds and relics and relics.  I have carefully perused and sorted out
most of them. One thing I am struck with. There was not a
word of anger nor complaint, nor hatred, only love; and
yet our life and that of many of our family has been hard. We have had to work and struggle for a meagre existence.
My father especially has given so much and got so little.
And when he passed on he hated no one.  My reading of all
these papers has confirmed my opinions and made me love
them all.  My trunk became a trunk full of love.  My trunk
is now empty.  I hope the story I am about to tell will
fill it again, this time with loving memories. Chapter 1
A Pioneer Couple
When in 1968 my wife and I were in the lobby of the
Chateau Frontenac at Quebec City I was interested in listening to a bilingual receptionist greeting her guests.  I
asked her, "Are you English or French?" She proudly replied, "I am a Canadian." It gave me something to think
about. Quebec has always been Canadian and still is and
will always so remain.  And so am I and my father and his
father and my family. We are all Canadian and are proud
of it.
On July 20th, 1971, British Columbia will have had
a Century of Canadian Pioneer Life from the day it entered
Confederation as part of Canada, a great nation stretching
from ocean to ocean.  It recalls to me the pioneers of
British Columbia and what they have done for our province,
especially my father who was one of them.
He was very young when he first set foot in Victoria
on June 18, 1859. He lived the life of a pioneer the rest
of his life, working up the Fraser River all through Yale,
Cariboo, Barkerville, Williams Creek, Germansen Creek,
Omineca, Dease Lake and Victoria. He was a miner, a gold
seeker, a merchant, trader, hotel keeper, a baker and a
Justice of the Peace.  He knew the lure of gold and could
not resist it.  After he had settled with my mother at Victoria in 1886, and raised a family and had a prosperous
wholesale business at Victoria he could not resist the call
of the Klondike when the gold rush exploded, in 1897.  He
returned to Olenora on the Stikine River to convey goods
to Dawson via Telegraph Creek, Dense Lake, Atlin Lake and
the Yukon River. When the White Pass and Yukon Railway
was built from Skagway to Whitehorse and the White Pass
became the entry to Dawson he followed it there as a trader.
He worked hard, he made money, and he lost a lot. He was
too generous in grub staking the miners and trusting them
all.  But he was happy, though he died poor at Victoria on
January 8th, 1907, but rich in memories, a wonderful life
to be remembered.
When he was living in Victoria he joined the "B.C.
Pioneer Association" and became its president in 1893 and
was proud to be part of it. Yes, he was a pioneer, he
lived the life of a pioneer, he died one, he will be remembered, as one.  I wonder what he would have thought of
the results of the labours of the pioneers and their descendants if he could only view British Columbia today.  I
am certain he would say that at last he had struck gold
and had struck it rich, and he would advise us all to
stake our claims in British Columbia and we too would
strike it rich, and never regret it.
My mother was born Annie Bisset on May 21, 1848, the
daughter of George Bisset who had come from Scotland and
settled at an early date in Quebec City where he married Maria Badenoch on Decpmb^r 23, 1833.  She died on November
9th, 1.867, leaving my mother at the early age of nineteen
years to care for her father until his death on September
23, 1878.
On February 17, 1885 she married her first cousin,
Joseph Clearihue, and set out with him for Northern British
Columbia. The wedding was performed by the Rev. T. Love
at St. Andrew's Church, Quebec City, the oldest English
speaking congregation of Scottish origin in Canada, tracing
its origin to 1759 with a continuous ministry since that
time and a building of its own dating from 1810. The
congregation was almost wholly military in character at
first, made up for the most part of the famous Fraser
Highlanders of Wolfe's Army. With the merchants from
Scotland and New England who arrived in Quebec shortly
after the British occupation it soon assumed a civilian
status and was known as "The Scottish Congregation in
connection with the Church of Scotland in Scotland".
Alexander Badenoch, my great grandfather on both sides of
my family had been an elder of the Church for forty years
from 1796 to the date of his death in I836.
And so it came about that after a journey across the
United States and up the Stikine River from Wrangell,
Alaska, my father and mother arrived at Glenora, a happy
married couple destined for awhile to live in Northern
British Columbia with only pioneer men and Indian families
as their friends and companions. /..
And they were happy friend0, end good companions.
They were welcomed as they stepped off their boat at
Glenora on April 29th, I885 by Indian friends, and my
mother records that °n Indian woman made her a present
of a jar of preserves of her own making.  This warmed my
mother's heart.
On May 1st the horses were ready and they started in
the afternoon for Dease Lake.  They had two horses, one
packed with provisions and baggage and led by an Indian
boy.  My mother rode the other led by my father.  As she
records she had never been on a horse before. They stopped
at a farm house that night some 6 miles further on, and
next day passed through Telegraph Creek, another six miles
distant.  There they lunched and were loaned a mule to be
taken a distance of some 24 miles. My father mounted this
and rode before my mother who got along very well but a
bit fatigued when they camped that night.  After about 15
miles next day they delivered the mule and my father
continued the trip on foot. They travelled thus for some
two days more through bad roads, with snow, -rater and
slush till they reached the head of Dease Lake about 46
miles further on.
On May 5th about 3 p.m. they completed their journey
with horses.  Dease Lake was still frozen solid.  Next
morning at 4 a.m. they started out on dog sleigh and travelled on the fro?.en lake, a distance of some 1.6 miles
to Dease Creek, my father's home, where they arrived about
9 a.m.  My mother records the event, "Had breakfast and
rested a few hours and then started to clean up the house".
My mother was home. What an introduction to northern ways*
Mother never complained.  She had come to make a home and
she did it.  She was nov; a "Pioneer", a pioneer of Northern
British Columbia.
In a diary she says, "May 7 - 31st.  House cleaning
for several days.  Indian women coming around to see me.
House very comfortable now—got a cabinet organ lent us by
Mr. Harvey, a miner, which is a great pleasure. We generally
play and sing every evening."
Father in the meantime was carrying on his business
and trying to close out in order to move to Victoria where
he intended to open a new business as a merchant.  It was
not an easy thing to do.  Dease Creek or Laketon as it was
known, had once been quite a large settlement, a settlement
of miners who moved from creek to creek in search of gold.
As each creek was panned out, the settlers disappeared.
Father had been there for over ten years supplying the
needs of the community.  He was a Justice of the Peace and
occasionally was called- on to assist in the administration
of Justice.  He was a trader who brought in supplies and
provided the needs of the miners. He was a sort of Banker
who had to grub stake the miners each year as they sought out gold.  Tf they found none or very little he generally
got a promissory note xvhi.oh w-?s often never paid as his
papers show.  If they paid he weighed out their gold dust,
gave credit for it, and sent it out at times by Wells
Fargo and others who assayed it and paid.  He was even on
occasions the Librarian.  He was Secretary of the Library
at one time and owned a small library at Laketon for his
friends.  It was a small library which only brought him
$100 when he finally closed out. But it was used by the
miners who largely were fairly literate and appreciated
such a service.
It was thus no easy job to close up and move south.
But the creeks were gradually being panned out, the
community was dying, and even the Indians were gathering
fewer furs that helped out his business.  So he knew he
had to move when he married my mother and he had made
plans to move to Victoria. Whilst in Laketon my mother
kept a small diary.  It shows that the weather was cool in
the summer but pleasant. They went out boating quite
often in the evening and had music afterwards. They had
also heavy rain storms, thunder and lightning and heavy
hail.
My father had established quite a garden which he
worked himself.  In the middle of July they had quite a
supply of raspberries and vegetables.  In August he
gathered red currants and also raspberries which continued
into September. My mother accompanied my rather on a trip into some
of the mines and saw the process of gold mining and even
picked up some fine gold herself out of the gravel. •She
even watched the Chinese feeding their dead at their burial
ground.
Snow appeared in the mountains as early as September
20th and snow fell in town on September 25th. Winter had
appeared and some of the settlers began to move out by
steamer. There is little record of the winter months but
the spring brought evidences of a child.  But no doctor
was available and so it became necessary for my parents to
hasten their exit. When spring appeared they hastened out
to Glenora by boat and horses, and down the Stikine River
by Indian Canoes. They arrived at Wrangell, Alaska at the
mouth of the Stikine where a small hospital was located.
My sister, Etholine, was born there on July 15, 1886. They
did not remain there very long but came down by steamer to
Victoria, landing there on July 29th.
My mother had indeed become a real Pioneer of British
Columbia and was proud of it.  She never left until the
Summer of 1912. Chapter 2
My Fathers Life
John Clearihue came from Scotland in the vicinity
of Aberdeen, around about 1800 or perhaps a little earlier
and settled in Quebec City. With him besides his wife
were a daughter Jane and two sons, William and James.
James was born in 1787 and was my father's father. My
father, Joseph, was born on December 12, 1835.  He received
an excellent education at the British and Canadian School
at Quebec City, on the governing board of which was his
father, James.
No doubt as a youth he could not withstand the call
of gold.  He was only 14 when the gold rush started in
California and 23 when it first broke on the Fraser River
in I858. Then there were neither roads nor railways
across Canada nor even to the Pacific Coast of the United
States.  He travelled from New York to the Panama by boat
and crossed to the Pacific by rail which had only been
constructed in l855> and thence by boat to San Francisco.
He could not have carried much with him and had little
of his own to take, if anything. Just how long he remained
in San Francisco I do not kno\*, but he left there by boat
and soon arrived in Victoria as I have already stated on
June 18, 1859.  At that date the pioneers were arriving in
large numbers and were going immediately up the Fraser
River. He-set out at once and first sought work at New
Westminster.  One of his first jobs was the building of
a trail through the bush from New Westminster north to
Burrard Inlet.  This trail became what is now known as
"North Road" along the East boundary of Burnaby Municipality.  I find him writing a letter addressed to the
"Chief Commissioner of Crown Lands" from the Burrard
Inlet Trail at Camp 1 mile from the Inlet, on January
19, i860. This today would be a location just about a
mile East of the present Simon Fraser University.  In
this letter he says, "I wish to take up 80 acres of land
and to have the same registered in my name." On March
2nd i860 from New Westminster he writes, "You are aware
I some time ago fixed on the land I want from the government
for the work done by me in contract with others on the
cutting through the Bush North Trail to Burrard Inlet.
"The parcel of ground commences at forty chains
from the Brunette measured north along the Westside of.
the North Road.  It has a frontage on the road of fifteen
chains and extends back forty-five chains and a half."
"I now pay to you for this land by returning the
scrip I have received from you as my share, namely thirty-
three pounds nineteen shillings and two pence, together
with ten pence in money, equal to the sixty-eight acres
at ten shillings per acre, and I request title deed for
the same." 10
On March 9th of the same year the Chief Commissioner
of Crown Lands forwarded th^ deeds to Governor Douglas to
be signed.  The deeds were made out to William Holmes as
my father had sold the land to him.  I don't know what
profit my father made out of the sale, but it would have
been nothing like the amount he would have had if he had
kept it for his descendants.  The land as near as I can
estimate is in Burnaby Municipality, West of North Road,
between Austin and Rochester Roads, extending West over a
half mile now intersected by the Lougheed Highway.  It
would be very close to the South West corner of the
Vancouver golf and Country Club.
My father then proceeded up the Fraser River and soon
became a trader as well as a miner. He became very friendly
with one James Moore who is recorded in the Archives of the
British Columbia Government.  James Moore I knew well, as
he visited us in Victoria and did not pass away until after
he was living for some time in the home for pioneers
established by the government in Kamloops.
Mr. Moore says that Donald McLean, Chief Trader of
the Hudson Bay Company at Fort Kamloops, told him in l86l
that the first gold that he, McLean, received was in I856
»
and 1857 from Indians on the Thompson River. This gold he
sent to Fort Victoria and in February I858 the Hudson Bay
Company steamer "Otter" left Victoria for San Francisco.
The purser having this gold dust took it to the U.S. mint
in San Francisco and had it coined as the first gold found
in New Caledonia, the old name for British Columbia. 11
Mr. Moore was then in San Francisco and a member of
the volunteer fire department.  He says that at one of the
fire department meetings th^ superintendent of the mint
was present and remarked,  "Boys, the next excitement will
be the Fraser River." He then told them of the gold
brought down by the Otter.  On the strength of that statement James Moore says he and others formed a party to
explore and report on the Fraser River. They left San
Francisco on March 12th, I858 and entered the Fraser River
about March 20th and discovered and located the first mines
on the mainland of British Columbia on March 23rd, I858.
In ascending the river they camped one day on a bar
to cook lunch when one of their party noticed particles
of gold in the moss that was growing on the rocks on the
bar.  He washed the pan of this moss and got a prospect.
After lunch they all prospected and discovered the richest
bar on the Fraser or its tributaries.  In honor of the man
who washed the first pan they named the bar "Hill's Bar".
It has been estimated according to Mr. Moore that $2,000,000
was recovered from that bar. Mr. Moore says that they
sent one of their men to Fort Langley to replenish their
larder and they reported their finding and news soon
spread across the Sound. Mr. Moore adds that they were
not long left in possession of the "Bar" as the whole
tribe of Yale Indians, about three hundred men, women and
children, moved down the river and camped on the bar, and
commenced washing for gold. The next party to arrive was 12
Captain Taylor with a boat load of whiskey.  He commenced
selling it to the Indians at $5 a bottle taking his pay in
gold dust, the Indians not knowing the real value of the
mineral. That night the Indians all got drunk. Moore and
his friends then offered to buy up all the liquor to keep
it from the Indians.  Taylor refused and the miners then
took it upon themselves to confiscate the liquor, knocking
the heads out of each barrel and dumping the liquor into
the river. They then gave Taylor a half hour to strike
camp or they would make him a present of a hempen necktie.
Taylor disappeared. Trouble th°n arose with the Indians
and the chief of the tribe got on a stump and made a long
speech to the tribe.  Just then a barge of the gunboat
Satellite arrived with a dozen bluejackets and Governor
Douglas. Mr. Moore asserts that their arrival saved them
from annihilation.  Finally the Indians were persuaded to
return to Yale and they were never bothered again.  About
six weeks later Governor Douglas appointed the first
Justice of the Peace on the mainland, George Perrier, and
this brought in the lav;.  The next visitor to Hill's Bar
was Billy Ballon an old California expressman who started
the pioneer express of British Columbia.  It wasn't long
before he was carrying out letters and samples of gold dust
to all their friends in the outside world.  And so the
California rush to the Fraser River started.  This was in
April I858 and in May the river was lined with prospectors
from the mouth to Fort Yale a distance of some 100 miles. 13
There were no railroads, wagon roads nor pack trails.
There were only Indians Trails and the Fraser Canyon. But
Moore and his friends were restless, they could not remain
long in a camp but had to move on.  And so it was Yale,
Lytton and the Horsefly River.  In i860 it was Duck,
Keithly, Goose, Harvey and Horse Creeks.  In l86l they
discovered the richest creeks in the Cariboo, Antler,
Williams, Lightning, Lowbee and Grouse Creek and some of
the claims of these creeks were fabulously rich.
James Moore says, "Williams Creek, during the palmy
days of '62 and '63 was a lively place, theatres, dance
halls, hurdy-gurdy girls, saloon keepers and gamblers
reaped a rich reward from the liberal miners who never
thought the gold in their mines would ever give out and
were as careless of their gold as if it had no value."
In my youth I was a member of the Young Peoples'
Society of St. Andrews Presbyterian Church and was
instrumental in arranging many of their meetings.  Also
during that time Mr. James Moore was living a great deal
in Victoria and was a constant visitor at our home. The
story I have told above was told to me in various ways by
Mr. Moore and I urged him to put it in writing and when
he had done so, I arranged for him to tell his story at a
meeting of the Young Peoples' Society at St. Andrews
Presbyterian Church in January 1909. The address was an
instant success and the Victoria Daily Colonist published
the same on January 24, 1909.  I have a copy of the same u
and hgve used it to refresh my memory.  Naturally I have
omitted much that he said.
Just when my father first met Mr. Moore I do not know,
but as my father moved up the Fraser River with the miners
in i860 he probably first met him about that time as they
approached the Cariboo District.  Anyway I do know that my
father travelled widely amongst the mining creeks in and
around Barkerville and esnecially Williams Creek, and
mined and traded and at one time was associated with a
Community Library which I believe was at Williams Creek.
It wasn't long before the miners moved north and were
soon found in Omineca District. My father followed in
1870.  He says he left Quesnelmouth and travelled by water
to the Landing on Lake Tatlah a distance of about 350 miles
and by land to Vital Creek about 50 miles over a trail that
reminded him of the trails of Cariboo in l86l.  He arrived
at Vital Creek on May 25, 1870. William F. Fitzgerald a
friend of the Clearihue family from Quebec, acting Gold
Commissioner for Omineca, arrived there on May 30th so my
father reports.  At that time there were about 200 miners
in Omineca. Most of the miners had about two or three
months provisions and prices were high.  He quotes flour
at 40/, bacon $1.00, beans 40^, sugar 75^, butter $1.05,
tea $1.75 and tobacco $2.00. This would appear to constitute most of their supplies and requirements. The miners
were called "sourdoughs" because they always carried a
piece of sour dough to use as yeast to start their next
baking of bread. When he arrived in Omineca he reports 1ST
that Gillis and Kern were building a large saloon which
was shortly afterwards completed. This was one of the
first requirements for most miners.
But the miners were moving on and the old creeks were
being worked out and Germansen Creek was discovered.  September 4th, 1870 finds my father there.  He reports that
Germansen Creek is about 30 miles long. He says that had
this creek not been discovered, Omineca would have been
abandoned. The gold, he says, is of coarse order and of a
scaly shape, and from $10 to 2 ozs. per day has been made
so far in this creek.  "This is the busiest and liveliest
little mining camp I have seen in years" he adds. He found
grub scarce.  But beef was plentiful, a Mr. Poole having
brought in his herd. On November 7, 1870 the Cariboo
Sentinel reported, "W. Cust has arrived from Omineca,
reports everybody making money on Germansen Creek, say from
ten dollars to 3 ounces per day. Joe Clearihue, Joe Brown,
and Paine have the best claims on the creek.  A tunnel run
into the hill has paid expenses from the first start.  Cust
thinks that grub having been sent up in such large quantities
that most miners will winter there.  A letter from Fitzgerald dated Stuarts Lake, 24th Oct. confirms the news. He
says that some of the boys have had a slight attack of
scurvy."
But my father evidently did not winter there for we
find the Cariboo Sentinel of Dec. 3rd, 1870 which was
published in Barkerville and Williams Creek, reporting that \$
Mr. J. Clearihue had arrived from Omineca on November
30th, having left Germansen Creek on the 5th November.
He reported that a heavy freshet due to the breaking of
ice had occurred the day previous to his leaving doing
considerable damage. The Omineca river was frozen over
and the miners were sleighing their provisions to German-
sen Creek. He reported that the Payne Co. for six days
work had declared a dividend of $700 to the share.  I
understand that my father was a member of the Payne Co.
How many shares he had I do not knox*. He said about 30
miners were wintering in the Omineca.
My father evidently wintered in Barkerville or
William's Creek for we find, him going down on the Gerow
& Johnson's Express on April 3rd, 1871.  "Going down"
meant going to the coast by the Cariboo and Fraser River
roads probably to Victoria. He was seen in San Francisco
in 1871 and so I can only come to the conclusion that he
went to San Francisco to purchase supplies to take in to
Germansen Creek, for we find him in Germansen Creek on
June 8, 1871. My father had been for some time acting as
a special correspondent for the Cariboo Sentinel. On
June 24th, 1871 the Cariboo Sentinel published his report
dated June 8, 1871.  He reported, "The Skeena party arrived
at Tatla Landing on May 2nd being the first of the spring
arrivals. The fleet from Quesnelmouth via Salmon and
Omineca Rivers reached here on May l6th. The little fleet 17
by way of Stuarts River arrived at Tatla May 17th and had
to store, as few Indians to pack; $20 to $25 per 100 lbs.
to Hogen's, a distance of 50 miles is being paid."
It is thus quite clear that travellers and goods went
to Germansen Creek via three routes as described.  As my
father had evidently travelled to Victoria and San Francisco,
he must have returned to Germansen Creek with his supplies
up the Skeena River to what was called the Forks of the
Skeena River, which would be near Hazelton, and then he
would have travelled across country to Tatla Landing (or
Takla) and thence to Germansen Creek.  He described this
route in a later report.
In his report of June 8th he describes Germansen Creek
as quite a respectable town.  He says it has been named
"Omineca Town" by the gold commissioner. There were about
twenty buildings in the course of construction, but an
account of the want of nails they could not be completed.
He says there were about 500 miners there and every day
new arrivals. He quoted tobacco as fetching $4.00 per
pound with none on the market. Evidently the miners were
enjoying themselves. He says of the miner "So will the
sweet music which will issue from Sterling & Smith's saloon
charm him to its doors where with the littler dancers he
can enjoy a cheering glass and a good time in the Omineca
Mines." 18
On August 17th my father reported that those working
on their claims were doing well, which were distributed
over Germansen Creek, Mansen Creek, Illinore Creek and
Lost Creek. One claim on Lost Creek was paying $300 per
day. On August 30th he reported that the claims below the
town were all washing and gold to the amount of 500 ozs.
was taken out the previous week, but the claims above the
town were disappointing. Mansen Creek and its tributaries
seemed to be the gold country and the centre of the gold
fields. Two expresses were then running to Germansen Creek,
Barnard's Express and Gerow & Johnson's Express. On October
4th he reported that Mansen Creek was the centre of the
Omineca District, and that nearly all the miners were making
a little and ask no "jaw-bone which is a good sign." By
October 19th there had been quite a fall of snow with hard
frost and the mining operations had ceased for the season.
The miners were then leaving for their winter quarters and
not more than 100 men would winter there.  In the meantime
a provincial election was being held and he reported that
Omineca would poll very few votes as nearly all the voters
had taken their departure.
It is interesting to examine the rough method which
then prevailed in the election of the members to sit in the
legislature. The Cariboo Sentinel of October 28th, 1871
reported the Cariboo Election.  A proclamation was issued
calling a meeting of electors of Cariboo District to be
held in the Court House at Richfield on Monday, October 19
23rd at 11 o'clock for the purpose of nominating candidates
for the Legislative Assembly. On that date the returning
officer read the proclamation and the candidates were
nominated and each spoke. The returning officer then called
for a show of hands which was in favour of Messrs. Walkem,
Hunter and Thompson. A poll was then demanded on behalf of
Messrs. Booth and Evans and other candidates. Mr. Bell
then announced that it would be held on Thursday, November
l6th at the several places specified in the election proclamation.  A vote of thanks was then proposed to the
returning officer and carried unanimously.  If no poll
had been demanded the successful candidates by a show of
hands would have been automatically elected. Those actually
elected were Walkem, Hunter and Booth. George Anthony
Walkem became Premier of British Columbia in 1874 and again
in 1879.
Evidently shortly before May 17th, 1873 one William H.
Fitzgerald, at one time clerk of the Court of Richfield and
later gold commissioner of the District of Omineca, died
intestate. His father was Robert Fitzgerald living at
Quebec City and a long time friend of the Clearihue family.
My father then living at Germansen Creek wrote on May 15th,
1873 advising his father of his death. Letters of Administration were first granted to Charles E. Pooley, Registrar
of the Supreme Court of British Columbia and Official Administrator on June 12th, 1873 and later granted to my father
on December 1st, 1873 as Attorney for the said Robert
Fitzgerald. My father was then in Victoria. My father 20
duly administered the estate which realized a value of
$2Z>76.27, the sum of $1934.58 going to the said George
Fitzgerald.
In the meantime the miners had wandered through the
Cassiar District as far north as Dease Lake and even
beyond.
The Daily British Colonist of Victoria on November
19th, 1873 reported that Mr. J. Clearihue of the Payne Co.
had left Germansen Creek on the 28th October. The weather
was cold, freezing hard, but very little snow on the ground,
The trail through Frying Pan Pass was in good order. Between Tatlah and Omineca the lakes were frozen, on one the
ice was strong enough to permit the party to cross. The
party was nine days in making the trip from Germansen Creek
to Skeena Forks, and three days from the Forks to the mouth
of the Skeena River.
On Germansen Creek, Keen &  Johnson had struck very
good pay, taking out 40 oz. in one week.  On Mansen Creek
McDonald & Co. did well, one piece weighing $140 was picked
up on this claim.  Several other claims did well. Twenty
or thirty miners had remained in the diggings.
It was estimated that $40,000 came by the "Otter".
The purser's safe could not contain all the dust that was
offer on deposit.  So reports the Colonist.  Evidently the
mining though dying out was not too bad. 21
My father thus hgd come down from the Skeena on the
"Otter" and arrived at Victoria about November 19th, 1873•
My father was still in Victoria on Dec. 6th, 1873 for
we find him writing a letter of that date to the Colonist of
December 7th, 1873.  Evidently the old pioneers who had
moved to the Cassiar District had in many cases omitted to
stake and register their claims according to law. The Cassiar
government agent had announced that such claims were open
for location by others.  This raised my father's ire. He
says in part, "Your article of the 5th as to the Cassiar
government agf-t encouraging the jumping of claims cannot
be disputed as there are miners nov; in town ("Honest Miners")
who vd.ll confirm your statement.  Even supposing the
pioneers had not acted according to the lav; their undaunted
perseverance as prospectors entitled them to every consideration and encouragement from the government agent.
As our Government Agent has decided that the claims of
the early pioneers are open for location and it may be that
others have already located them and may nov; be working
them it would be advisable for the Government to send in as
soon as possible the Gold Commissioner from Omineca (in
which the miners have every confidence) with power to
protect the hard earned claims of those deserving pioneers
who have risked their lives and by their undaunted perseverance and hardihood unaided by the Government have
opened up a new Eldorado and bring sunshine and prosperity 22
upon the province.  As for those glorious prospectors,
let the Government and the miners shot* their gratitude to
those bold pioneers by protecting their claims." My father
signs the letter "Jos. Clearihue, An Omineca Minor".
British Columbia entered Confederation on July 20th,
1871 and the first member elected to represent the Cariboo
District in the House of Commons at Ottawa was J. Spencer
Thompson.  As part of the bargain British Columbia had been
promised a railway. Many thought it never would be built.
July 20, 1873 was the time limit set for the commencement'
of construction.  Sir John A. Macdonald had named Esquimalt
as the terminus by Order-in-Council the day before. On
that date no route had been decided upon and none could be,
and all proposed ones were disputed. On their arrival in
Ottawa, all the Members of Parliament and of the senate from
the far West announced their intention to support the
government led by Sir John A. Macdonald who had promised
the railway.
Sir John A. Macdonald in forming his first Dominion
Cabinet had disregarded former party lines by calling to his
assistance the leading men who in the various provinces
had supported Confederation, thus the name in Dominion
politics which resulted "Liberal-Conservatives".
Toxvards the close of 1872 a general election took place
with the result that the ministerial majority in the house 23
was somewhat reduced.  An Act had been passed during the
preceeding session providing for the construction of the
Canadian Pacific Railway by a chartered company.  In the
session of 1873 9 formal charge was made against the
government that the company had bought its charter by
means of large subscriptions to the ministerial campaign
fund for the election recently held. Evidence was taken
before a Royal Commission, and though the ministers denied
the existance of any corrupt bargain, the fact that very
large sums had been paid them for use in the election was
clearly proven. This transaction, known as the "Pacific
scandal", wrecked the ministry and early in November Sir
John A. Macdonald resigned office.
In British Columbia Sir John A. Macdonald was still
regarded as the patron of the province and his solicitude
for British Columbia's welfare was not expected to be
shared by Alexander Mackenzie his successor as Prime
Minister.  As leader of the Liberal Party Mackenzie had
made it clear during the election campaign that he considered the "bargain" with British Columbia "the insane
act of the Administration here" as "a bargain made to be
broken."
The election was called for early in 1874. My father
was then in Victoria preparing to leave for Dease Lake in
Cassiar District.  It was proposed to my father that he
should run for election as the member for Cariboo. What
a challenge it was! 2/;
On January 13th, 1874 he wrote a letter to one who as
far as I can interpret his initials signed himself "W.F.".
The letter was not received in Williams Creek until
February 18th. My father informed him that it had been
proposed that he should seek nomination for the Cariboo
seat.  He asked his friend to advise him as to the prospects.
When he, "W.F.", received the letter he immediately informed
another friend, Mason by name. Both agreed that it was a
good idea and that my father would stand a good chance of
being elected. They immediately got in touch with another
friend, George Tunstall. They got a list of all the voters
in Richfield, Clinton and Omineca. My father's name was
soon on the lips of every voter, so his correspondent
reports, and the opinion appeared to be that if he immediately came up from Victoria and spoke to the voters that
he would be elected.  They then got a requisition asking
my father to come out as a member for the Commons. Many
promised to vote for him. Then one James F. Steele announced his candidacy.  All this time they heard nothing
from my father. The next day Steele withdrew and my
father's chances were good. They then got a dispatch
from my father requesting to be nominated and stating that
he was coming up on the first boat leaving on February 23rd.
They kept on working for him until two days before nomination.  By that time the telegraph line was down and they
could not send or get any news. The roads were also
blocked up. They could not get out to the creeks as the roads were blocked.  And so after consultation they decided to let the nomination go, as my father \-rould be too
late in getting to Williams Creek. They all felt that he
would have been elected if he had been able to come up to
Cariboo for nomination. On the day of nominations, which
would have been before March 6th, 1874 they went to the
Court House and found one Sam Walker being nominated, one
evidently never mentioned before. The sitting member,
J.S. Thompson didn't even turn up but he appears to have
been re-elected.
My father does not appear to have worried much about
not being nominated.  Indeed I feel that if he had wanted
the nomination he would have found a way to go up to Richfield Court House for that purpose.
He was soon on his way to the Cassiar District to
establish himself at Dease Creek where he arrived on May
17th. On June 13, 1874 as a special correspondent to the
Cariboo Sentinel and published by the Sentinel on July
18th, he reports his arrival and confidence in the net-;
diggings. He says it is almost impossible to locate
ground on Dease Creek and the surplus population will have
to prospect for new creeks. Nearly all the claims were in
dispute and he fears great trouble will ensue. The first
pack trains had arrived a few days before his report and
fifty cents a pound was the charge for freighting a distance of 75 miles, and the trains had more work than they 26
could do.  A number of traders and saloon keepers were
flocking in.  All were busy putting up houses and in a
short while there would be quite a respectable little
tovm. The population then in and around the creeks was
almost 1700.
On July 22nd he reported from Laketon which appears
to be the name of the town on Dease Creek, that the Dease
was the favorite creek and that Thibet Creek had not turned
out as well.  Some of the miners had built boats and had
gone down the Del* Liard River to prospect. He reported
gold being found by a colored man, Harry McDame, who
incidently gave his name to the creek. Pack trains of
over 200 animals were packing a distance of 70 miles over
a good road with charges of 45 cents freight and they could
not keep the market supplied. Several of the traders were
getting their goods packed in by Indians.  He refers to the
Cassiar trade as being large and profitable. He comments
"surely there ought to be sufficient enterprise amongst our
merchants to supply the miners with provisions and protect
them from the cormorants that prey on the necessities."
On August 20th he reported to the Cariboo Sentinel
that a number of the miners were leaving Dease Creek and
that a great many people would set down Cassiar as a bilk.
A few hundred miners were still in the country, notwithstanding the enormous cost of living. They were then
turning out weekly gold to the amount of several thousand 27
ounces.  Almost 150 men had left for the new diggings at
McDame Creek.
My father definitely was an optimist and we find him
purchasing a Hotel and restaurant building and bakery with
its contents. On October 20th, 1874 he entered into a
partnership with James Carson under the name of Clearihue
& Carson to operate the same.  Carson was to give his full
attention to the said business, without salary until August
1st, 1875 but on the basis of a one half share of the profits.
On January 19, 1875 my father as correspondent for the
Victoria Colonist, reported that a winter in Cassiar was
very monotonous, more especially as reading matter was
limited and the political element very quiet. The whole
population then wintering in the Cassiar District numbered
only 51 persons.  A few marriages had taken place but no
births, deaths or sickness were recorded. Everyone was
enjoying extraordinary good health.  A newspaper was being
published. It had evidently offended the Gold Commissioner
who my father alleged was both the Government and the Lav;.
My father was very critical of him and said that he was
out of his element both as Gold Commissioner and Magistrate.
My father complained that the Cassiar District had no
representative in the Provincial Legislature to look after
its interests and that they were disfranchised.  The revenue
from Cassiar was large and the disbursements were nil.  Only 28
two small cabins for Government purposes had been built.
Throughout the Province all roads and trails were free,
but the Moore Trail was subject to a fee.  It was evidently
built by private persons.  He advocated that the Government
should purchase the Charter held by the builder.  He also
advocated that a Judge learned in the law should be appointed
to take over the job of Gold Commissioner and that a County
Court should b«? established.  Evidently the Gold Commissioner
would not allow anyone to plead in the Court who was not a
lawyer and there were no lawyers. He advocated that a miner
should be allowed to obtain the services of a friend without
any cost to plead his case.
He also advocated the building of a mule trail up
Dease and Thibet Creeks and the construction of a hospital.
At present there was no physician in the district. He also
advocated prospecting aid be given for the discovery of a
new gold field.
One might almost think he intended to enter provincial
politics, but this was not the case. His hotel and restaurant business was prosperous and James Carson proved a
successful partner. On August 2nd, 1875 my father transferred to him a one half interest in the business described
as the Hotel Building, stock in trade, table ware, bar
furntiure and fixtures, kitchen ware and utensils, beds and
bedding. They continued in partnership under the name of
Clearihue &  Carson. 29
It was not long before Clearihue & Carson purchased a
share and entered into partnership with J. Patrick Cannon
under the name of Gannon & Co. to carry on the business of
a butcher. This partnership continued until October 30th,
1877 when Clearihue &  Carson purchased Mr. Gannon's share
for the sum of $1040.25 and Clearihue & Carson took over
the business.
The administration of justice in the Northern Country
was in those days an important event. In 1877 Mr. Justice
H.P.P. Crease of the Supreme Court arrived in Cassiar to sit
both as a Supreme Court Justice and as a County Court Judge.
No judge had sat at McDame Creek previously.
On his way to McDame Creek the horse he was riding
fell with him, and seriously injured he was carried the
rest of the way strapped on a stretcher, and on a stretcher
conducted the County Court hearings where he heard two cases
on August 23rd. He then travelled to Laketon still strapped
to a stretcher, and again on August 28th to August 30th inclusive conducted both the Court of Assizes in the Supreme
Court and the sittings of the County Court. Whilst so invalided and on a stretcher he heard in all at Laketon five
more cases, besides other court work.
Mr. Justice Crease in thanking the Grand Jury for
their services at the Assizes expressed "my grateful thanks
for the sympathy you have extended to me while suffering
from a serious injury sustained on duty. But for the aid 30
of your sheriff and one of your most prominent merchants
rendered at the critical moment, I might not have been here
to address you."
The Report of the Grand Jury reveals that there were
more than 1500 men in the community at that time and only
five mails a year.  There was also no hospital nor court
house in existance, nor did the Cassiar District have a
member of Parliament in either the Dominion or Provincial
Parliaments.
These were some of their complaints.  As my father
kept a copy of the Grand Jury Report I feel pretty certain
he must have been a member and probably the "prominent
merchant" referred to by Mr. Justice Crease.
The newspaper report shows that his Lordship left
Dease Creek on a stretcher borne by Indians and the Court
adjourned to Telegraph Creek and afterwards to Glenora
Landing on the 6th September.  No case at either place in the
Supreme Court or County Court was ready for trial.
A judges life was not an easy one especially in Cassiar.
Cecil Clark, formerly assistant commissioner of the
former B.C. Provincial Police in writing about conditions
in Cassiar reports the accident of Mr. Justice Crease and
says, "Another stretcher case that winter was Hawaiian
freighter Bill Kanahama, '-Tho when he failed to show up at
Dease Take one week in January, was found on the trail by
volunteer searcher Dick Glenn, covered with snow and 31
unconscious, draped across his sleigh, both his hands and
feet frozen.  In a temperature ranging between 40 and. 50
degrees below, Glenn pulled the stricken man 90 miles in
four days, so that Laketon hotelkeeper, Joe Clearihue,
could nurse Bill slowly back to health. His hands useless,
Clearihue fed his patient every spoonful of food for weeks".
Cecil Clark also adds "Some of the characters who had
know Wildhorse and Fisherville, who appeared on the Cassiar
scene were men like "Dancing Bill Lathan" who opened a
dance hall with four squaws and a hand organ, and whose
pal, Nehemiah T. "Blackjack" Smith bet Bill he'd outlive
him...and lost!
Women, except Indians, were practically non-existent.
A couple of Portuguese girls were mining at Thibet Creek
with the men, and among 300 Chinese on Dease Creek were a
couple of Chinese women.
Only white woman in Laketon was Nellie Cashman, a 20
year old, petite Irish blond from Limerick, who hauled her
sleigh of grub up the Stikine in February, to make Dease
Lake in 27 days. There she built a hotel and ran it two
seasons. Nellie owned claims all up and down the coast,
from southern California to Cassiar. Last heard of in 1898
she was outfitting in Victoria for the Klondike."
Such was the pattern of Cassiar Society in 1877 to
1879 and depicted by Cecil Clark. 32
Clearihue & Carson were also in the mining business.
On June 2, 1879 according to a receipt of that date Clearihue and Carson purchased a one-quarter interest in the
McKinnon Co. Dease Creek.  I would judge that this was sold
by one Nathaniel Hilton who had a mortgage on the claim.
The money was paid into the office of A.W. Vowell, the then
Gold Commissioner.
Clearihue & Carson were still carrying on the business
of a general merchant and hotel keeper in 1879 and 1880 as
I have an account against Joseph Wilson, who besides other
things purchased gum boots, oatmeal and pain killer. He
also received $4.00 cash and a meal on credit valued at
$1.00. My father received $11.00 later and there was still
owing $18.35. This is one example of the credit given to
a miner who evidently came from one of the creeks. It is
to be noted that my father even supplied the miner with
cash.
The business of Millard & Ross, General merchants
closed out at a date unknown to me and left their goods with
my father for sale on commission. The inventory shows various groceries, and also nails, tobacco, ham, flour coffee
and beaver traps to be sold.
My father's firm equipped the miners vdth clothing,
food, hardware and other supplies and gave them credit to
a large extent. When necessary, when the credit appeared
to be uncertain, they received a mortgage on the interest
"I 33
of the miner on his claim, which was duly registered with
the gold commissioner.  On the payment of the debt due,
the mortgage was discharged.  J.P. Walls, a solicitor
practicing in Laketon in 1879 and 1880, drew up certain
of these morgages for my father. He was practicing in
Victoria when I started practice in 1919.  I have in my
possession several of such mortgages, one from Thomas
Donohue for $55.22 which was paid and discharged; and one
from George Murdock to Simon Leiser to secure payment of
$250.00 which was transferred to Clearihue & Carson, which
my father evidently paid to Mr. Leiser.  Clearihue & Carson
subsequently secured judgment against George Murdock for
$391.99 upon, which was only collected $19.00 according to
their accounts.
In 1877 Clearihue & Carson gave credit to a Mr. Baxter
for meals, board, groceries and sheet iron to the amount
of $497.37, and was still trying to collect on July 29th,
1888 the balance of $388.87 with evidently no security.
Other claims piled up such as $68.50 against Thomas
McDermott and $433.00 against Patrick McCall and John
McCall and many, many more never to be collected.  And it
should be noted that money was worth many times as much as
it is today.
In 1880 it became quite clear that the Dease Lake
Creeks were being washed out, and Clearihue & Carson had
extended its credit too lavishly in staking the miners who 3 A
could not pay and were moving out.
The wholesale firm of Richman and Ofield of Victoria
had been supplying Clearihue & Carson with goods ordered
and had given them credit which on May 1st, 1880 amounted
to a sum of $4556.77. They report receiving payments of
cash and gold dust forwarded from Clearihue & Carson and
an order for the year 1880 but report hard times in Victoria
and gloomy accounts concerning the Cassiar Country. Mr.
Richman was about to retire from their firm and Mr. Ofield
did not consider himself financially able to carry such a
large account as that of Clearihue &  Carson. But he was
worried about losing the account.
As evidence of a decline in business, one Neil McArthur
was moving out and appointed Clearihue & Carson as his agent
to sell his boats and collect money due him. He valued a
scow at $200.  It evidently was sold to one Joseph Irvine
who in 1882 for the sum of $25.00 transferred it to my
father.
Finally on Dec. 28th, 1880 my father and James Carson
decided by mutual consent to dissolve the firm. Accounts
were taken and on March 7th, 1881 the firm was finally dissolved and my father paid over to Mr. Carson the sum of
$1300 for his half share. My father took over the Hotel
and two warehouses and all the goods, chattels and stock
in trade belonging to the firm.  All liabilities of the firm
had been paid.  All debts and accounts due the firm were to 35
be paid to my father who would carry on the business, which
he did.  Unfortunately he appears to have collected very
little of the debts due him.
My father was also a Justice of the Peace.  I don't
know when and where he received this appointment but I have
amongst his papers a record taken in his own handwriting of
a trial evidently heard by him of a charge against one T.I.
Bergeron for stealing a dog. Bergeron's defence was that
he had purchased the dog.  I do not know what decision my
father made, but it was an interesting example of the various
occupations undertaken by my father in Cassiar.
The accounts reveal some interesting stories of Cassiar
life.  From September 3rd, 1883 to December 31st, 1883 just
4 months there was in Laketon an interesting character, who
was a minister of the Church.  During that time he ran up
a bill with my father of $312.07 1/2.  All he ever paid on
his bill was $5.50. Just what church he belonged to I do
not know. During that time my father supplied him with 3
weeks board $30.00. He gave him in cash from time to time
in small amounts $19.25, and postage stamps to the value of
$2.50. He bought from my father's store 12 bottles of
whiskey, brandy and rum valued at $24.50 and a gallon of
wine for $8.00.  He also got my father to donate $20 of his
bill to his church. The rest of the bill consisted of food,
house supplies and clothing.  He later moved to Essington,
1 36
and my father was still trying to collect on February 21,
I885.  As far as I know he never collected.
One of my father's oldest friends was John Finlayson
who was at Laketon and later Wrangell for many years.  He
was a man of wonderful health and ability. He died at 105
still in the north. He was at Laketon during the winter of
I884-I885 and it would appear that he was in charge of my
father's business during that time. My father had gone to
Quebec to marry my mother. Old John as he was generally
called was a fisherman on the lake at that time and kept the
town supplied with fish.  On March 25, I885 one George
Thompson writes to my father, "I write for John to let you
know what is wanted here, first liquor, corn beef, butter,
lard, gum boots, and John wants you to bring one doz. of spool
thread no. 25 for nets and some line. You will find a sample
piece in this letter." He also reports the winter had been
cold, 58 degrees below, but it was then warm and the Chinese
were at work on the creeks, also that McClure and McCrimmon
had struck it at $20 to the pan. That was pioneer life in
Cassiar.
I might add that John Finlayson later visited us in
Victoria and we children got to love him. I recall him
when he was nearly 100 digging our vegetable garden, and
on several occasions giving us gold nuggets as a gift and
beautiful martin furs to my sister.  The old pioneers
were very generous.
~l 37
When my father closed up in the spring of 1886 he was
greatly missed by his -fold friends at Laketon.  Letters
followed letters telling of how the creeks were being
panned out and the miners moving on. George Thompson and
John Finlayson were evidently left with a number of debts
to collect for my father. They were able to collect very
little, but those who owed were very grateful to my father
and were always looking forward to finding some creek which
would pan out better.
The news of gold having been found in the Yukon had
come out as far as Laketon and Wrangell.  "There is quite
a stir about the Yukon" says George Thompson. On October
5th, 1886 he says that there will be a stampede to the
Yukon if the news is good.  He thinks of going and he says
that John Finlayson was thinking of going in the spring.
As far as I know they didn't go, but they had the fever.
Edward Shearer writes from Dease Creek on Dec. 19,
1886.  He says in part, "I was in your old store yesterday
by chance. What a contrast it shows to former days, the
old, old stove that for years warmed and comforted so man}/-
is there, but now cold. The pictures on the vrall look
chilly, one of them Mr. Chamberlain.  I have no sympathy
for it, it is 18 degrees belov; z^ro.  A little time brings
great changes in more villages than ours, I presume. Our's
is quieter than it has ever been.  There is not an Indian
around, hunter or huntress." 38
Yes, the village was dead and my father was gone.  He
had a h^ppy marriage and a new home and a fairly prosperous
business.  For he had established himself in Victoria at
that date the most prosperous city in British Columbia, and
the centre of government in the west. He had gone into
partnership with his brother, Alexander, under the name of
"J. &. A. Clearihue", Commission Merchants and Dealers in
Fruits and all kinds of F.~>~m Produce, including butter and
eggs with special attention to consignments of furs and
skins.  In those days there were very few creameries making
creamery butter. Butter was made by the farmers and put
into tubs.  A good deal came from Alberta, all under the
name of "Dairy Butter". My father received this, sold it
to the grocery stores wholesale and packed it for them into
pound packages about the size of a pound package as of today.
Fruit came in from the farmers and also from California,
usually oranges.
On the whole he made a comfortable living. My father
built us a new house on Fort Street just at St. Charles St.
which we took possession of about the end of 1890. We had
a lovely garden, which my father loved and worked in. We
had a nice lawn upon which wc played croquet, a good vegetable
garden and a chicken run. We were very happy. My mother
was comfortable, always supplied with a maid who lived in her
ov;n room in the maid's quarters. My father could get a
Chinaman to work the garden and. do the heavy housework for 39
$1.00 per day, and he lived in town and supplied his ovm
food.
My father soon joined with the citizens of Victoria in
the organization of the* first electric company in British
Columbia by investing in the capital of the Victoria Electric
Railway and Lighting Co. Ltd.  Unfortunately he also induced his brother, Alexander, and his sister, Jean, to make
similar investments.  But the venture proved more than the
citizens of Victoria could handle and the English bondholders
later took possession and the shareholders lost everything.
This company ultimately became the British Columbia Electric
Railway Co. Ltd. which nov; under the Government of British
Columbia, is in control of most of the electric business in
the province.
I well remember the old electric tramway running up
Fort Street as far as the Jubilee Hospital and later on to
the Oak Bay Beach. The tram car was a small four wheeled
affair with a motorman at the front and a conductor at the
rear riding on platforms completely open except for a
projection of the. roof.
The old timers of British Columbia organized the
British Columbia Pioneer Society on April 28, 1871 and my
father joined with his old friends.  This was about the
only society in which he took a real interest. He was its
president in 1893.  Indeed this organization in the early
days was one of the most influential in British Columbia. 40
It had as one of its aims to build British Columbia and
preserve the history of the times.  And it did.
It also kept alive the pioneer's heart which drove
a pioneer from adventure to adventure.  If gold was to be
found the pioneer was there and felt the urge to travel to
the next creek and pan the gold that lay in its sand.
And so the memory of the Yukon was kept alive. The
knowledge of its existence and its possible wealth was
planted in my father's heart in 1886 when the Dease had
given up its gold.  Few knev; of the Yukon in those days but
as the pioneers trickled out and my father welcomed James
Moore, George Thompson and John Finlayson to Victoria, I
am sure they discussed the wonderful land that lay to the
north. They had not been to the Yukon but they were
pioneers and I knoxv they wanted to go. We welcomed all
throe of the pioneers and had them at our home.  I don't
think any actually lived with us, but they came to Victoria
on various visits and then back to the north, and when in
Victoria we sav; them often and I know they felt our home
was their home just as Edward Shearer felt in 1886 that
father's old stove in his store was his home and so did
the others.
I personally know x«;hat the old stove means.  I taught
school in the autumn of 1906 at Ashcroft which was then the
entry to the Cariboo Country where the old horse drawn
stage went north and came back.  There, there was an old 41
drug store where the druggist, Samuel Ewart, lived.  In
the back of his store was a large black stove which, in
the winter at least, was aglow.  You could never enter but
you would find one of the inhabitants of Ashcroft comfortable
in a big chair chatting with another. The drug store was
the centre for gossip and friendship. I ofter shared Ashcroft with them and made friends, though I was only there
for a little over four months.
And so it came to pass that in 1897 and 1898 the West
Coast was alive with tales of hidden wealth in the Yukon and
especially Dawson, and I am certain my father's blood was
aflame. There were no roads, nor railways into Dawson and
what appeared to be the best entry was up the Stikine River
to the head of navigation at Glenora and thence by pack
train to Dease Lake and Teslin Lake, a road all too well
known to my father, and thence to Teslin Lake and River to
Dawson.
My father heard the call and on May 9, 1898 he left
Victoria for the north. His destination was Glenora where
he was to establish his base and run a pack train north.
In an article in the National Geographic Magazine of
July 1968 on "The Canadian North Emerging Giant," the author, David S. Boyer, at page 39 speaking of the Dawson
Gold Rush says,
"Five hundred miles south, on a spring day when the
ice was melting on the Stikine River, I finally found
my only true eye witness to the gold rush.  Emma Brovm
was a pretty Tahltan Indian maiden of 16 when she 42
watched "those crazy men" dragging their gear up the
Stikine and then overland toward the yellow dust of
the Yukon in the spring of 1898. Nov; she was a Grandma Brown, a "third grandmother" with four generations
of descendents.  She still had a beautiful face as
she sat before an old Singer Sevang machine and recalled those sights from long ago.
"They was camped all over the ice a few miles down
there at Glenora," she said.  "It was a tent city.
They was using all kinds of animals — dogs, horses
even goats — to pull their sleighs. They lose 100
men in our river that spring. They put too much on
their sleighs. Too heavy. They crash right through
the ice. Those crazy menJ "
My father was one of those who established his trading
post in a tent at Glenora.  He was one of her "crazy men". Chapter 3
The Klondike Venture
My father was not hasty in coming to a decision to
return to the north.  A new and rich area had been opened
up. The shortest and best method of securing entry through
Canada into that area at that time was via the Stikine,
Glenora, and north. My father had spent years in this area
and perhaps had as good as knowledge of its possibilities
as anyone. He was careful to consult his friends, especially
an old friend, who was still living there, Robert Hyland of
Telegraph Creek. On June 3rd, 1897 Robert Hyland reported
a good trip up with his horses. He reported a Mr. Galbraith
and his party on the new Yukon Trail via Teslin Lake.  A
party of Dominion Government surveyors were also there
surveying a waggon road.  He also reported his son, Johnny,
would shortly leave to go over the trail and report on the
opportunity for business. He was very optimistic.
At that moment Victoria was still the centre of
Western business. Vancouver was rapidly arising, but the
old established firms were still in Victoria. These firms
such as J.H. Todd & Son, Salmon canners and wholesale
grocers, the Brackman & Ker Milling Company Limited, manufacturers and dealers in flour, bran, hay, grain, meals,
barley etc., and Thomas Earle, wholesale grocers, had long
been established in Victoria and were all active in the 44
northern trade. My father was in active touch with D.R.
Ker, J.H. Todd and Thomas Earle and took their advice.
They all wanted to get their business into the Yukon. The
obvious Canadian entry was to build a railway from Glenora
to Teslin Lake and thence one could travel by water down
the Yukon River. There was a movement by business men to
build the Stikine — Teslin Railway from Glenora to Teslin,
and it appeared certain that with Dominion and Provincial
government assistance the railway would be built. The
Board of Trade of Victoria gave it its support, and the
politicians and newspapers were active in Victoria and
Ottawa. It was necessary to build a good waggon road also
from Glenora to Teslin Lake.  So far there was only the
pack train trail.
In June of 1898 Mackenzie & Mann, railway builders
instructed their agents at Glenora to commence the construction
of the waggon road and hasten its construction, but it soon
turned out that all they were constructing was a trail
quite inadequate for the work. Both the Provincial and
Dominion Governments were blamed for their failure to grasp
the situation.
In the meantime the only other method of entry to
the Klondike gold fields was through Alaska territory by
way of Skagway and over the treacherous White Pass to
Bennett Lake and down the connecting rivers.  It was through
this area that so many gold seekers pulled their sleighs,
led their horses and packed their packs and died on the 45
road climbing up and across the mountains through the
White Pass.  In 1897 it was called a "stinking abattoir".
And so, as I have already recorded, my father decided
to go north again, boarding the Washington & Alaska steamship "Paksham" as it stopped at Victoria on May 9th, 1898
taking with him a pack train of 40 mules fully equipped and
a supply of goods. He was held up for a while at Vancouver
as the steamship loaded further cargo, but he finally
arrived at Glenora without loss, travelling on a C.P.R.
flat-bottomed stern wheeler of light draught from Wrangell
up the Stikine River. He erected an oblong tent 80 feet long
by 22 feet wide having a space about 10 x 12 feet for what
he called his bedroom, parlor, dining room and office.  He
says he made the enclosure by stacking up bales of compressed
feed and leaving a small place for an entrance.  His kitchen
was out in the open air.  It consisted of a small stove with
two lengths of pipe which sometimes the wind blew down.  His
clerk who was a fine fellow lived with him in the enclosure
and did the cooking.
My father found in Glenora an old friend of my mother's,
Rev. John Pringle. My mother knei* him in college days at
Quebec. My father struck up a friendship which lasted as
long as my father lived.  His store was open for business
every day of the week as soon as he could get out of bed
until they retired about 11 p.m. each night. On Sundays
he closed for a short while and turned the store over as a 46
Church for Mr. Pringle to carry on his service, and then
it opened again.
His pack train was soon on the road headed for Teslin
Lake. The trails were very poor. They took about a month
to go north and each mule on the first trip carried a load
of about 250 lbs. The pack train appears to have prospered
for some time as long as miners were going north via Teslin
Lake.
In his letters he was discussing the question of returning the mules south to winter, but I am of the opinion,
though not certain, that they wintered at Glenora as I note
that 268 bales of hay and a supply of oats was being shipped from Wrangell to Glenora on September 12th, I898, just
as navigation was about to close, and an offer to care for
them for the \>dnter was made by one seeking work at that
time.
During the summer father had moved goods to a storehouse on Teslin Lake.  Business appears to have been good
and father was making money.  In September he was still
buying goods and shipping them up the Stikine.  But the
river was running low, and due to low water the Canadian
Development Company reported on September 29th, 1898 from
Wrangell that goods shipped on one of their ships could
not get up and the goods had been unloaded at the McKinnon
wharf some distance below Glenora. What became of these 47
goods T do not know.
Sometime in the end of October father returned to
Victoria for the winter.  He appears to have left his
clerk in charge of his business for the winter months.
Next spring he returned.  Just what date I do not
know.  But he was in Glenora in June or early in July,
probably earlier. Things had changed. No one was going
to Dawson then by that route. The place was already dead.
And to make it worse his employee was short in his funds
some $600 which was a great shock to my father.  On July
31st he was planning to go to Teslin as soon as some one
would accompany him.  He finally did and in a letter dated
September 2nd reports his trip.  He had just returned from
Teslin after a trip of eleven or more days. He had a man
with him.  They travelled I65 miles in 5 1/2 days remaining
there one day and returned in 5.  He had a pack horse which
carried blankets and provisions and two riding horses.
They averaged about 30 miles a day.  He reports Teslin
absolutely deserted and he didn't know what to do with his
goods.  He reported that the Cassiar Central Railway had
stopped vrork  there and would not likely resume.
During the summers of 1.899 and 1900 he had examined
prospects for mineral claims on August 2, 1899 and July 19,
1900 near Dease Lake and had staked claims and forwarded
specimens to be assayed.  He never completed the necessary
work to secure crown grants and they were later abandoned. 48
He had placed a Mr. Ellis in charge of his store and
returned to Victoria about the middle of October.  The
boats had then stopped running and he came down by canoe.
In June of 1900 he was back again in Glenora. He
was then more interested in the mineral claims he had
staked.  He reports on June 25th being at Glenora and
that he then could do nothing to his advantage and that
he was returning as soon as possible to Victoria.
In the meantime the American government had become
alive to the potentials and wealth of the north and it
was not long before the White Pass and Yukon Route came
into being; and by 1900 the White Pass and Yukon Route
had chiselled a narrow gauge railway line from Skagway,
tunnelled a mountain, and reached the Yukon River boats
at Whitehorse.  The name "The White Pass and Yukon Route"
was used as a name for the "Pacific and Arctic Railway
and Navigation Co.," the "British Columbia Yukon Railway
Co" and the "British Yukon Railway Co." The White Pass
and Yukon Route continued to prosper and today is one of
the large corporations in Alaska.
The road to the Yukon via the Stikine, Glenora and
Teslin Lake \<;as dead and the Dease Lake, Cassiar area was
no more.  It is only since the second Great War after the
road from Dawson Creek to Alaska was built that the Cassiar
has again found its own.  And novr a connecting road south
through Dease Lake and on to Stewart is almost completed 49
and the wealth of the Cassiar District is revealed. My
father is dead but his vision lives.
But in the late summer of 1900 he was not dead but
a pioneer rareing to go where gold could be found.  Nothing
could keep him in Victoria.  Dease Lake had failed him, but
the White Pass and Yukon Route was then in operation and
had opened up the Yukon.  And so he was off.
Thomas Earle, already mentioned, was one of Victoria's
leading wholesale grocers. My father formed a partnership
^^;ith him under the name of Clearihue and Earle to open a
trading venture in Dawson.  And so he was off on September
5th, 1900 landing in Skagway and registering at the Fifth
Avenue Hotel on September 11th.  Evidently it was full as
he only had a cot and 3 meals that day.  But on September
12th he had room 19.  Strange to say that when I visited
Skagway in July 1949 I visited the Pullen Hotel which was
then a Museum of Klondike Days. There were registers there
from all the former Hotels.  I drexv one out from many and
opened it and on the next page I found the registration of
my father. I wonder what power directed me to that particular
register and page. Before that date I had no idea where or
when he had registered at any hotel in Skagway. His goods
were shipped from Victoria on September 4th and arrived in
Dawson on October 8th. My father had made special tarpaulins
to cover his hay and oats.  These were shipped, and mislaid
by the Railway Company and not delivered until January 1901. 50
My father had. good reason to believe that the tarpaulins
were used by the Canadian Development Company for coverage
on their scows. My father claimed damages for the loss of
the tarpaulins as he had to store some of his goods, and
his hay and oats were damaged as he could not cover them.
The goods in his business were chiefly hay, oats, and
groceries, in quite large amounts and he appears to have
done well.
As winter approached he became ill and entered the
hospital. My father called it a bad cold, but from what I
remember my mother called it a touch of pneumonia and always
praised Rev. John Pringle for the good attention he gave
him.  In a letter written by my father on Dec. 24th after
he had returned to his lodging place he says he had had a
good rest in the hospital and hoped that my mother was not
worrying as the rest had done him good, and he hoped in
February to be on his way back to Victoria.
And indeed he was. The passage from Dawson to White-
horse at that time was by sleigh and partly if not entirely
on the frozen river and it required a strong constitution.
My father survived but his health was never quite the same
again.
But he was back again in June via Skagway, the White
Pass & Yukon Route to Whitehorse, and the Yukon River to
Dawson.  Speaking of Whitehorse he says, "On my arrival
here I met Mr. Pringle. He came here to meet his brother 51.
who was joiner to Dai^son. Mr. Pringle will remain at Atlin
this summer." Whitehorse was not much of a place for business as the steamers were leaving almost daily and passengers did not remain very long. He, of course, had
brought in a shipment of goods.
Unfortunately on his arrival at Dawson he found that
his employee whom he had left in charge had sold all his
groceries, evidently at a profit, and without giving him
any account, had left Dawson.  It appears that he had gone
to Whitehorse and had bought goods to be taken to Dawson
as soon as the ice went out, expecting to sell them at a
high profit the profit to go to himself. My father was
quite certain that the goods were lost by the scows being
upset.  He never recovered his loss. This was a terrible
shock. But my father had to carry on and did so.
It was during that summer that the steamship "Islander"
was wrecked and sank and Dr. John Duncan, our physician in
Victoria, lost his life. The Islander was a well known
passenger ship plying between Victoria and Skagway. This
was a severe blov; to Victoria. Father lost some letters
enclosing money on this ship but the money value was recovered as the letters were registered.
My father had a clerk to assist him viho  from time to
time travelled up the creeks to take orders and did fairly
well.  In a letter dated September 5, 1901 he says that he
is getting quite strong and is putting on weight. He 52
expected to remain to the end of November and then go out
to Victoria.  In September he had a small stove put into
his store and his clerk slept there.  As for himself he
seldom went out after his dinner.
On September 24th Dawson was connected for the first
time with Vancouver with the telegraph line. This was a
red letter day in the life of Dawson.
My mother continued to urge my father to come out
before the close of navigation. On September 29th he reported
that he might remain until the end of November as then the
ice would be good and safe and the Whitehorse stage was
calculated to make the trip in 5 1/2 days. He promised to
buy a fur coat to protect himself.
On October 9th he announced that Rev. John Pringle had
arrived the day before and would take charge of the Church
at Grand Forkes in Bonanza about 14 miles from Dawson. He
stated that Mr. Pringle had come down from Atlin in his
small boat, taking about 14 days, and he seemed to enjoy
camping and roughing it.  Such was the life of a Presbyterian missionary.
In the meantime Rev. George Pringle had commenced his
ministry in Dawson and became better known as a missionary
than his brother John.  A story is told that John Pringle
was once asked if he was a relative of George Pringle, to
which he replied that they were distant relatives, that his
father had twelve children and that he was the eldest and 53
George was the youngest.
Today the name "George Pringle" has been given to the
United Church camp for children at Shawnigan Lake in memory
of his work in the north. I had the pleasure of acting as
a trustee of the camp when it was first established and I
felt very happy to have been in a small way able to honor
the Pringle family.
On October 9th my father wrote that the small steamer
would run as long as possible and that he would come out
within a week.  He was then busy moving his stock to another
store which was more comfortable and cost no more.
He did move out as planned, left C.H. Gray in charge
of his store, and came to Victoria. On October 24th Mr.
Gray reported that business was very quiet since he had
left; but he hoped conditions would change after navigation
closed on the river.
Just what happened in Dawson after that I do not know. Chapter 4
Our Early Life
»
As I have already stated after my father closed his
business in Laketon, my father, mother and newly born
sister, Etholine, came to Victoria to make their permanent
residence. They arrived at the Oriental Hotel on Yates St.
on July 29th, 1886. They rented a house on Chatham Street
from August 17th, furnished it and moved in as far as I can
ascertain on August 26th.  I and my brother, Albert Maitland
(Bert), were born there.  I, on December 20, 1887, and he
on February 27th, 1890. In those days you were not taken to
the hospital for that purpose.  Incidently the rent for our
Chatham St. house was $15 per month.  It was a one story
house and in excellent condition. There was a small garden
around it, and it had a frontage of about 60 feet.
After my father had become engaged in the spring of
1884» he returned to Laketon and whilst on the way was in
Victoria.  In his letter written to my mother as he was
leaving Victoria for Laketon he says, "I have been hunting
over Victoria for the best and prettiest place to build a
cage for my little bird.  I have found such a place and
purchased it, but will not build at present, as my little
bird might fly away."
In a letter written to my mother two months later at 55
Laketon he says, "Yon wonder what Victoria is like.  It is
a pretty little city of about 10 or 12 thousand inhabitants
with a beautiful climate.  The streets are not so crowded
with buildings; but nearly all the private residences have
very pretty gardens around their houses. The little plot
of land which I purchased is 110 x 130 feet which will give
ample room for a good sized garden round about our little nest,
It is situated in the fashionable part of the city and only
about ten or fifteen minutes walk from the business part of
the city."
But my father's little bird did not fly away and now
that there was a "chick" to put in the nest plans were
immediately made to build the nest. My father employed
an architect, Mr. Soule, and in due course the nest was
built.  It was called "Dalvenie", 156 Cadboro Bay Road, and
was located on the north side of the road just opposite St.
Charles St. It was quite a large two story building, with
a large sitting room, dining room, breakfast room, kitchen
and pantry, a front and rear set of stairs with 5 bedrooms
and a modern bathroom of the type of that time. There were
t':VO tile fireplaces and a large entry hall with a large
stove in it with a heating drum upstairs. We took possession
of the home about the end of 1.890 or beginning of 1891.  I
am not sure of the exact date. My father was a keen gardener
and in a very short while, had an excellent garden, a splendid lawn with fruit trees, maple trees, oak trees and
beautiful flo*^ers. We were all very happy.  In due course 56
as Cadboro Bay Road was on extension of Fort St. bej^ond
Cook Street it became known as 1?00 Fort Street, and it
has remained there till last year. It is now partly built
on by an apartment and the building has been pulled down.
A high rise apartment building is novir planned to occupy
this site and adjoining property. It is sad to see the
changes but it must be so.
Our early education was undertaken by my mother.  As
soon as my mother started to teach my sister or very soon
thereafter I received my first lessons.  I was then just
four.  Each morning we would sit around the table in what
was known as the breakfast room and receive instructions
from my mother.  Indeed neither my sister nor I went to the
public school until August I896, I then being eight years
of age.  I was then put into the second reader of the Boy's
Central School which was then three divisions from the
earliest class. My teacher was ?4iss Carrie C. Christie.  I
soon came to the top and graduated from that class in first
place. My sister who was in the Girl's Central School adjoining was also well up to the top of her class. My
brother, Bert, was being educated by my mother at home.
My memories of my earliest days in Victoria are very
happy. We had a maid vho did most of the work and lived in.
I well recall how my sister and I used to crawl under the
dining room table and wait for the maid to come ±n  to lay
the table and then jump out with a cry to scare her.  No 57
doubt the maid would weit until we had crawled in before
she c^me to the t»blc.  Rut it ,r?s fun. We didn't have a
piano, but we had a small organ pumped by the foot which
my mother loved to play and we all gathered around in the
evening and sang songs.
And then our lawn became our playground. We had a
croquet set and this was a great source of fun.  And we had
a svdng on which four or more persons could sit; and it all
became a drawing card for other children to play with.  And
we loved it all and made lasting friends.
In those days teen—age Chinese boys did much of our
hard work in the houses and on the grounds. Many of them
were practically slaves to older Chinese who paid their
entry fee of $300 into Canada (later $500) and then worked
them to pay it off together with their board. They worked
for us for a dollar a day.  How much they paid their elders
I have no idea, but it was a profitable trade for their sponsors. The Chinese had pretty well control of the retail
vegetable and fish trade. They carried two baskets on a
pole over their shoulders and made daily calls on foot on the
clients in their homes.  Each Chinese in those days wore
long hair braided into a. long tail hanging down his back.
This was quite a source of sport for young boys who loved
to pull their tails (called by the boys "pig tails"), who
sometimes wore well disciplined by the Chinese.  I well
recall seeing this done, but we were too well disciplined
by our parents ever to try it.  There were no motor cars 58
in those days and few Vnd phones. Thus the grocers, butchers, bakers and milkmen h^d their own horse drawn rigs
and called daily or every few days as arranged and took
orders and later delivered the goods to each residence.
The roads were all unpaved, mud in winter and dust in
summer. The sidewalks were built of wood often well above
the level of the unpaved roads. The street cars ran on
rails mounted on wooden sleepers usually beside the sidewalk and also often above the level of the road.  Such was
the case when Robert Dunsmuir, a successful coal miner,
built his wife a castle "Craigdarroch Castle" on the hill
to the south of the Boys' and Girls' Central Schools on
Fort Street, extending from Fort Street to Rockland Avenue.
When he first built it about 1889 it was surrounded on Fort
Street by a low solid stone wall. The garden inside, covering many acres, remained rather wild.  Each spring it was
brilliantly white with what we all called "Easter Lilies",
otherwise known as "Dog Tooth violets", and other wild flowers, and the school children from the Central Schools swarmed
over the wall to gather them.  The Dunsmuirs later erected
upon the stone wall an ornamental steel picket fence which
remained there until the land was subdivided and for some
time afterwards.  I recall one of the school boys in the
Boys' Central School climbing over the picket fence and
being rather seriously impaled on one of the pickets.  Craigdarroch Castle is nov; a tourist site.
When my parents arrived in Victoria they joined the .
First Presbyterian Church then located at the corner of Blan-
shard Street and Pandora Avenue and there I was baptised.
Just why they transferred to St. Andrews Presbyterian Church
I do not know.  In all probability it was due to the fact
that St. Andrews Church had established a Sunday School on
Hilton Street, later Redfern Street, very close to Oak Bay
Municipality, and it was  easier for us to be taken' there
for Sunday School than all the way to town. Mrs. Jennie
Arbuckle, my first Sunday School teacher, once told me of
the origin of the Sunday School.  Early in 1892 when she was
in her early twenties and just recently married and living
on Richmond Road, she conceived the idea of starting a Sunday
School in her own home.  She discussed the matter with her
minister, Dr. McLeod of St. Andrews Presbyterian Church. He
suggested that they put it to the Young People's Society who
in their turn decided to build the Sunday School themselves.
With the help of the Church they did and it was called the
East Fernwood Mission. Thomas Gambling donated a lot on
Hilton Street, A. Maxwell Muir, an architect, donated the
plans and the young people donated the labor. There were
Alexander Muir, Alexander Fraser, John Boyd, John Alexander
and many others. They worked hard and every afternoon the
girls of the Young People's Society joined them and served
them tea. The Church opened on November 28, 1892 with 40
persons present.  It was a great victory.  They had established
a home mission in that distant district area adjoining Victoria
and had started a Sunday School. The first superintendent 6o
was a Mr. Soule, a friend of our family.
My memories of the Sunday School are of course only
childhood memories.  I can remember a big open ditch on
Redfem Street where we used to play on our way to Sunday
School.  And there was a big wooden elephant, advertising
elephant paints, on Oak Bay Avenue at Redfem Street, around
which we also played.
I remember the high Sunday School Christmas trees covered with flaming candles. Why they didn't burn down the
building I don't know.  And we all got presents. We didn't
give them as they do now. I remember the Sunday School picnics at Oak Bay Beach and the Uplands farm, which is nov; Uplands subdivision. There was a hugh slaughter house there
and we played amongst the cattle, sheep and pigs. There was
of course no refrigeration or very little, and so the butchers slaughtered the animals close to town as needed.
Fort Street and Cadboro Bay Road led directly to the
slaughter house in the Uplands. As a result herds of cattle,
sheep and pigs would be landed at Cadboro Bay by the slaughter house and at the wharves on Wharf Street and driven up
Fort Street and Cadboro Bay Road right past my home 0ft IB*
Cadboro Bay Road. In dry weather all this was in a cloud of *
dust and yet we were living then in what was the better residential part of the city.
St. Columba Sunday School, as it was called, grew into a church. There was first one minister for Knox, St.
Aidan's and St. Columba Missions.  In 1909 St. Columba 61
severed its connection with the others and in 1912 became
a self sustaining pastorate under the name of St. Columba
Presbyterian Church.  On November 8th, 1914 a new building
had been constructed and dedicated on the present site of
the Oak Bay United Church on Granite Street.
In my early childhood the "chain gang" still existed.
For many years much of the government work around Victoria
was done by convict labor dating back to the early 1850's.
The convicts were chained together and marched to the
music of their chains with guards in the rear vdth loaded
shotguns. They were employed at Government House, at least
in the gardens, and were seen by me on various occasions
marching up Fort Street past our residence. Just where
they were going I do not know.
The 24th of May was the Queen's birthday and it became
Victoria's Annual Holiday, and has ever since remained so,
though the events of the day are now greatly varied. There
was usually a military display or a sham battle either at
Macaulay Plains or Beacon Hill Park and always a Regatta
at the Gorge where Indian canoe races and other water
sports took place, We were always taken to these events
and very often Charles Cliff of New Westminster, a distant
relative of ours by marriage, came over vdth his family to
spend the day at our home.  In I896 the Cliffs were with
us and we were all ready to catch the tramway to town '"here
we were to transfer to the tram for Macaulay Plains for a 62
sham battle, but Mrs. Cliff had not finished her hair.
My father called back that the Elfords, who lived close
by, were there and we would miss going vdth them unless we
hurried. We did miss them, but when we went down on the
following tram we saw the Elfords on the transfer car and
we tried to follow them, but the car was so full that my
mother pulled us off. When that car was passing over Point
Ellice bridge across the Victoria Arm, the bridge crumbled
and most were drovmed including two of the Elford family.
We missed it by a miracle.  It is an event I will never
forget.
Then a few years later the 24th of May Parade was held
at Beacon Hill Park for sports events.  The parade was a
Militia and school children's affair led by the 5th Regiment
Militia band and the soldiers, followed by the school children.
We marched down Government Street and across the bridge
over the James Bay mud flats by the Provincial Government
Buildings. The bridge had the reputation of being unsafe,
and I remember so well that we were all told to break step
as we crossed the bridge so as not to cause it to sway lest
it fall down. The bridge didn't fall down and we children
all crossed it safely.  I wonder what the public would now
think if their children were marched over such a bridge and
told to break their step.  Times have changed.
To us youngsters Beacon Hill park was a wonderful place
designed by neture for us to play in and we were often
taken there. The park was full of woods and in the spring 63
vdth wild flowers, and there were lady's slippers and wild
lilies, and buttercups and daisies and wild roses ^nd long
=:rasst and we would pick the flowers and listen to the birds
and frogs and even hunt for birds' nests.  Probably it was
all illegal, but the frogs and birds never told us so, and
no one seemed to care.  In the winter it must have been
colder than no'/; for wo took our sleighs to the hill and
slid for distances th?t seemed like miles to us.  And when
the lakes were frozen we slid without skates as we wanted.
Today Beacon Hill park is a beautifully man designed park
vdth flowers of all varieties planted in rows and rows,
with nan made lakes for the ducks and sea-gulls to settle
on, to be fed by children and old age pensioners vdth food
purchased for that purpose from nearby stores.  And the
park is filled vdth parking lots and motor cars and tourist
buses for children to dash across.  It is still a beautiful
place but not the same.  No longer can you wander slowly
hand in hand down Lovers' Lane to the bear pit and watch
the bears come out.
Another event I recall was the opening in 1898 of the
new Parliament Buildings on Belleville St.  My father took
us all around the buildings and explained to us all the
working of Parliament.  T recall being shown the different
rooms around the Legislative Assembly, built vdth different
kinds of natural vood such as cedar, m?ple, fir, etc., and
being told about the gray stone being brought all the way
from the West Coast of Vancouver Island. 64
And then Foul Bay was a happy memory.  It is nov; called
Gonzales Beach. We as children were first taken there very
young, and built fires ,on the beach and learned to swim.
Later each summer holiday, when we could go alone, we spent
almost every day, in and out of the water, around a big
roaring fire, usually on a large adjoining rock. No permits
were then required.
Another event was the arrival of the first motor car
in Victoria in the early part of the nineteen hundreds.  It
was owned by Dr. E.C. Hart who lived just across the street
from us on Fort Street. In those days there were  no gasoline
nor repair stations and I can remember Dr. Hart on various
occasions bringing home his motor car by horse traction.
My first year at school was a happy one and so were my
following years.  In those days the teacher had to prepare
a monthly report with monthly examination results which was
given to the child to be taken to the parents.  Nearly all
the classes had much more than forty children. How the
teachers handled the work I do not know. But they all had
a strap and some made good use of it.  And the discipline
and the results were always excellent.
My second year in school was spent in the class of
W.N. Winsby whom I learned to admire.  He was a member of
the 5th Regt. Canadian Garrison Artillery in Victoria, and
when the war broke out in 1914 he enlisted me as one of his
lieutenants. He was then Lt. Col. Winsby in charge of the
5th Regt. I was always a close friend for the rest of his 6s
life.  During most of my year with him I stood at th° head
of my class, but in the final examination for promotion I
stood second, which was rather a shock to me.  But I was
promoted to the third division without having to pass
through the fourth division. My teacher in that class was
Arthur W. Currie, who incidently also joined the 5th Regt.
Canadian Garrison Artillery and became its Lieutenant
Colonel. He later organized the l6th Canadian Scottish
Militia unit as its Lt. Colonel.  In 1914 he v^ent overseas
and later became Sir Arthur Currie, Lieutenant General in
command of the First Canadian Division in France. On his
return to Canada he became President of McGill University.
I always admired him and he always remained a good friend.
He was one who could always remember a boy's name and I was
always to him just "Joe".
I then passed into the Second Division of the school
under Mr. A.J. Sailaway and did well enough to be promoted
to the First Division after my Christmas exams.  This put
me at the age of twelve into the entrance class under Mr.
J.D. Gillis who finally became assistant Superintendent of
Education for British Columbia. There I struggled on for
six months doing a years work finally passing the High
School entrance examinations.  The head boy was Jeffree A.
Cunningham who has always remained another of my lasting
friends.  Jeff later became Principal of one of the elementary schools, then graduated from Queen's University with
a B.A. degree and finally joined Victoria College x-;here he
became its assistant Principal. 66
As we enter the twentieth century may I pause a
moment to contemplate the closing years of the nineteenth.
On December 8th, 1899 the B.C. Pioneer Society held its
28th Annual Dinner at the Dominion Hotel in Victoria. My
father proposed the toast to the "Pioneers of British Columbia".  In part he said "Forty-one years have rolled away
since the first step of progressiveness took place, and yet
in that short time what marvellous changes have been wrought
by the hands of those intrepid Pioneers in the almost uninhabited and uncivilized wilds of this Western Wilderness.
There were few families, no public schools, and few
churches, but nov; these indispensable adjuncts of civilization
attest almost undeniably to the morality as well as the
intelligence of the founders of our beautiful province.
They can now point vdth pride to the grand transformation which has taken place, cities now vdth palatial
homes, and stately public structures with a busy and growing
commerce, both at home and abroad, and a population active
and happy in a hundred vocations, thousands of acres of
land subdued by the husbandmen nov; yielding a rich reward,
a system of public schools so endowed that every child may
acquire an education fitting them for all the duties of
useful citizenship, and our mines yielding forth bountifully
their secret treasurers.
The ship of State has safely been guided unbroken, up
to the present time, by Pioneers. 67
I can only trust the Sons of Pioneers and Native
Sons will all work in harmony together and continue to
carry it to a successful termination and work for their
best interests."
Seventy years have nov; passed by, and that speech
could well be made again.
In I842 Chief Factor James Douglas of the Hudson Bay
Co. chose the port of Camosack (Camosum) on the southern
tip of Vancouver Island as a new Pacific Port which could be
accessible to sea-going ships.  He wrote "The place appears
a perfect "Eden" in the midst of the dreary wilderness of
the North West Coast and so different is its general aspect
from the wooded, rugged regions around, that one might be
pardoned for supposing it had dropped from the clouds into
its present position."
On March 13, 1843 Douglas arrived in the Beaver off
Clover Point to select the present site.  A few weeks
later it was named "Fort Victoria" in honor of the new
Queen.
Thus Victoria, had its beginning.
When I was born, December 20, 1887, the population of
Victoria was about 17,000. Looking up the "Colonist" of
a few days after my birth, I find this item, "A sidewalk
is being laid on the West side of Wharf St. This is a
decided improvement as well as a convenience, es pedestrians
have been accustomed to-walk through mud and slush during the
wet season." "The whole town was similar," I might add. 68
I slso find that about that date Victoria was experimenting vdth a new fangled contraption which most people
thought would never work, and that was a funny instrument
called a telephone.  I find an item concerning it being
used between the new E. &  N. Railway station and the Driard
Hotel and it worked, evidently much to the amazement of many.
On May 6th, 1880 telephone poles were being erected in
Victoria, and connection was made vdth Esquimalt.  In July
1880 the Colonist was connected with Esquimalt and on
August 1st, 1880 the "Victoria and Eso^uimalt Company" was
organized. By then there were some 50 or more applicants
to be connected and the supply of telephones was exhausted.
If my memory is correct Carl Pendray who was Mayor of
Victoria in 1925 told me that th0 Pendray Soap Works located
on James Bay on Humboldt Street actually was the first to
introduce the telephone in Victoria.
The Clearihue family did not make connection until the
turn of the century as far as I can remember, nor did we
have electric light until about the same time.  Coal oil
lamps were quite good enough for the great majority of
citizens.
Also about the time of my birth the Oak Bay Golf Course
was only a herding field and it was said that sheep were
regularly dumped on its shores and smuggled in from the
American Sn.n  Juan Island^.
An important section of the citizens of Victoria were. 69
and still are, Chinps°. Many of these came as miners
through San Francisco or had been brought to Canada by
the Canadian Pacific Railway Company as laborers to build
the railway across British Columbia. They and their des-
cendents subsequently gravitated to the coast, and became
excellent citizens of Victoria. They occupied an area
west of Government Street largely on Cormorant, Fisgard
and Herald Streets. They brought vdth them their own
customs and religion, and set up their own school, hospital,
cemetery and at one time, a temple.
I recall a narrow alley for pedestrians only between
Cormorant and Fisgard Streets. It was lined with stores,
and formerly vdth open gambling joints on both sides. It
was called "Fan Tan Alley" and '•'as a thriving gambling
centre which was left open by the police. Many years ago
I was guided through it by a Chinese friend and was much
impressed.  I don't know what it is like today.
I also recall at one time seeing a Chinese funeral.
Around the turn of the century a wealthy Chinese citizen
died. A scaffold was built up to his upstairs bedroom on
Cormorant St. His body was brought out from the window
and down the stairs so his body could follow his spirit
which had gone through the window. Do'^n the middle of
Cormorant Street was a table upon which was spread a wonderful, feast, p^rt of which I rpn^nb^r w-as a whole roast pig.
The procession was headed by a military band which was
followed by paid mourners, women, in white robes who were 70
said to have been crying continuously for some days.
They were supported by paid attendants and bowls w«re
held urder their eyes to catch their tears. They both
preceded and followed the hearse. White banners were
also carried. The friends followed in the rear. Pieces
of paper vdth many holes in them were thrown out along the
road as the euner?i proceeded to the cemetery 2t Foul Bay.
This was done so no evil spirit could catch the deceased
as each evil spirit had to crawl through each hole before
it could catch the procession. Food was left on a sort
of altar in the cemetery for his future use. His body
would later be exhumed and taken to China. Chapter 5
My High School and Victoria College Life
My High School life "as a delightful experience. I
entered Victoria High School, the only high school for the
district, when I was twelve years of age. There were only
four teachers then, the youngest being Miss Rosalind Watson,
B.A., who was our teacher of English and admired by everyone.
The Principal was E.B. Paul, M.A., of Aberdeen University
who taught us French and Latin; then came A.J. Pineo, B.A.,
our science teacher who taught Chemistry and Physics, and
E. Howard Russell, B.A., who taught mathematics. Mr. Russell
was also a highly qualified singer who conducted for many
years the well knovm male choir known as the Arion Club.
Mr. S.J. Willis, M.A., joined us in 1901. Miss Watson in
1903 married Dr. Esson W. Young, M.D., a medical doctor and
the Minister of Education for British Columbia and left us.
She later received a honorary degree of L.L.D. given by the
University of B.C. at the time of the first graduating class
of Victoria College.  As Chairman of Victoria College I had
the privilege of taking part in this presentation in.May
1961. The Young Building of Victoria College, later the
University of Victoria, is named after her and her husband.
She became an outstanding member of the academic life of
Victoria. 72
The year 1900 inaugurated a revised programme of Education for the Schools of British Columbia, especially
in High School work. The plan was to matriculate in three
years, vdth two examinations to be held for that purpose,
the Junior Examination to be taken after the 2nd year of
High School study and the Intermediate to take place after
the third year study. The Intermediate examination was
considered matriculation ani was accepted as such by McGill
University.  A third examination called the Senior Examination v-;as under a modified form later known as Senior
Matriculation and v;as equivalent to First Year Arts in
McGill University. We had no University in British Columbia
at that time.
I was very fortunate to head my class the first month
of my High School studies. When my Christmas exams came I
was promoted from grade 4 to grade 3 which delighted me,
but meant a great deal harder work. By Easter it was
decided to let me try the first Junior Examination and I
was promoted to Grade 2, the students in which were to take
that examination. This examination was set by the Department of Education.  I am glad to say I was successful. I had
done two years work in one.  I completed my Intermediate
examination in the summer of the following year, June of
1902. I was then 14 years of age.    This was accepted as
matriculation for McGill University.  In 1902 Victoria
College was incorporated under the Board of School Trustees 73
of Victoria under a B.C. Order-in-Council, to affiliate
with McGill University under the provisions of the Education Act of British Columbia. But it was not to open as a
College until September 1903. I thus decided to take the
High School Senior Examination and completed this in 1903,
and so was ready to enter Victoria College when it opened
its doors in September 1903.
On being enrolled as a student of Victoria College I
became a full student of McGill University and was so enrolled in its records. Our courses were under the supervision of the Dean of Arts of McGill and all final examination papers were sent to us from McGill and returned to
McGill to be corrected by members of its faculty. Our
teaching was done by the teachers of Victoria High School.
We opened our classes in the new High School which had then
been erected on Fernwood Road between Fort Street and Yates
Street on the area now occupied by the Central Junior High
School, which of course now is a nev; building. Again I was
successful and was given full Junior standing at McGill
University in April 1904.
Here may I digress for a moment and say a word about
the members of the first class of Victoria College, the
Class of 1903-1904. We were seven, four girls and three
boys; Sara Spencer, Lilian Mowat, who became Lilian M.
Godard, Kate Pottinger, who became Kate Thompson, wife of
a United Church Minister of Edmonton and later of Victoria, 74
and Josephine Wollaston of Victoria. The boys were
Clifford J. Rogers who became President and head of the
White Pass and Yukon Route, Frederic G.C. Wood who became
Professor of English in the University of British Columbia
and myself, Joseph B. Clearihue. As the College had been
incorporated on July 24th, 1902 its Golden Jubilee was
celebrated by Victoria College on October 15, 1952 at which
all three men were present. I presided at the ceremony as
Chairman of Victoria College Council. On July 1st, 1963
the University of Victoria, the successor of Victoria
College, became a University with all the powers of a full
University. This event was celebrated by the laying of the
corner stone of our library besides our opening ceremonies.
As Chancellor of the University of Victoria I again presided
and at the ceremony six of the seven were actually present.
Afterwards we got in touch with the seventh, Lilian Godard
by long distance phone in Kingston, Ontario and held our
60th re-union. On August 14, 1968 we held our 65th re-union
at a luncheon held with a few friends at the University of
Victoria Faculty Club. Josephine Wollaston was missing as
she had passed away in the interval. After our luncheon we
again conversed by telephone at my home vdth Lilian Godard
in Ontario, though it was this time at the summer home of
her son, Dr. Hugh Godard, a well known authority on "Corrosion".  It is rather remarkable that all had attained the
age of over 80 years, including Josephine Wollaston then
deceased.
1 75
But now I must go back to my 1903-1904 student life.
We were a small group and so we had to take part in the High
School life at that time. We especially took part in the
athletics of the Victoria High School and played field hockey, rugby football, cricket and ping pong which had just
become popular. We debated in the "Demosthenes Literary
and Debating Society" of the High School and when the end of
our College year came we produced in English the French Play
we had studied in our French Course, "The Trip of Mr. Per-
richon". Every one of us took a part and we had to call in
a few others to help us out. It was a great success.
In 1904 I was very anxious to go to Vancouver and enter
the Sophomore year at Vancouver College, which was also affiliated with McGill University. But I had no money and my
father was at that time not in good health and was unable
to assist me. I had worked at David Spencer Ltd. for some
weeks during my Christmas holidays in 1903, but had saved
nothing. So, as soon as our examinations were completed in
April, I sought work to help me along. I did some coaching
during the evenings and was first employed in the Victoria
Daily Times canvassing for subscribers. This I did until I
had canvassed the whole city when this work ended. I then
secured employment with the Twentieth Century Shorthand
Company, a private business college. This continued until
the Christmas season.  I had enrolled in the meantime with
the Vancouver College and had got permission to study at 76
home. There were to be at Christmas two final examinations
in Geometry and Psychology. I provided myself with textbooks, plugged them up, and entered Vancouver College two
weeks before the examinations were held and was successful.
Vancouver College was then located in the old Vancouver
High School at what is now Victory Square just off Hastings
Street. A new high school was being built at that time off
10th Avenue, which was then being opened up, south of False
Creek. It was later known as King Edward High School. We
entered there as part of the high school when the spring
term opened in January. Tenth Avenue had not then been
constructed and the entry was across the fields from 9th
Avenue, now Broadway. The College, the Normal School and
the High School were all in the same building and when we
stepped out of the buildings we entered the tall timbers
directly to the south, which had not then been cut down.
The college faculty consisted, as it did in Victoria,
of the High School teachers. The Principal was J.S. Shaw,
M.A., our Professor of Latin, our Professor in Mathematics
was George E. Robinson, M.A., who later became Dean of the
Faculty of Arts, Professor of Mathematics and Registrar of
the University of British Columbia. Our Professor in Psychology and logic was James Henderson, M.A., who later became
Professor of Psychology at the University of British Columbia. Our Professor in French and English was Miss Maud
Hunt, M.A., a most accomplished and successful instructor. 77
I was successful in securing a small attic room in a
home at 733-9th Avenue and was provided with full board
for $16 per month. I was very happy and made some excellent
friends.
The examinations came all too soon. I got through
them all except my French which I later conquered in a
supplemental examination in the autumn.
I thus found myself back in Victoria at the end of
April without a job.  I had no money and had to temporarily
postpone entering my third year at McGill. I would like to
have become a school teacher in the autumn term, but I could
not get a certificate until I was eighteen in December. And
that reminds me that the first time I shaved was in Vancouver when I was in Vancouver College in December 1904.
Some of the boys who were boarding with me decided I needed
a shave and decked me up as one should be decked in a barber
shop and took turns at shaving me clean. How I escaped
being cut to pieces I never will know. One of the boys,
G.M. Irwin, graduated from McGill as a civil engineer and
became City Engineer for the City of Victoria. Later as an
Alderman of Victoria I assisted to shave down his estimates.
And so it was settled.
In due course, I found a job with J.H. Todd and Sons
at its Empire Cannery at Esquimalt, canning salmon. Mr.
Todd later gave me a recommendation and said I was a
"general assistant etc". He was just being polite.  All
my work came under the heading "etcetera".  I was assistant
to a very accomplished Indian Chief Cooper of the Songhees 78
Tribe who taught me a lot about life in general. I learned
to respect the Indian workers who worked hard and had a
high standard of morality and life in general without many
of its benefits. They lived in their own quarters on adjoining Indian property and largely in tents with their
families during the summer. One of my jobs was to assist
Chief Cooper in unloading coal as it arrived at the cannery
and this was the hardest work I had to do - I just couldn't
keep up with the Chief. Then he taught me how to paint and
we painted together the office building and a great deal of
the outside of the cannery. J.H. Todd & Sons had only
recently established fish traps beyond Sooke which were used
to catch the salmon as they came down the strait towards the
Fraser River. All our salmon came in barges from the traps
and each had to be separately loaded into the cannery.
There was little automatic machinery for that purpose. The
well known machine known as the iron chink used for canning
the fish generally had not yet come into use. The fish were
cut largely by hand into small pieces and filled by hand
into cans by Indian women. One of my jobs was to see that
this was done properly and to dump out cans not properly
filled. On the whole the Indian women were excellent,
expert workers and proud of their skill, and I had little
trouble.
The Chinese men were also highly skilled and had their
own living quarters in a large bunk-house. That was where
I first came across the Chinese smoking opium.  I don't 79
suggest for a moment that this was a general habit. It was
frowned upon by the Chinese as well as the other workers.
But in the evening when work was over one could find the
occasional smoker lying in his bunk with his long opium
pipe. It didn't seem to hurt him and he was always back in
the cannery performing his work as well as ever. The
authorities of course could not approve of it, but do not
appear to have prosecuted the Chinese.
We started work at 7 a.m. and closed down each day when
the salmon were canned, often as late as 11 p.m., for six
days in a week. No one went on strike. I got $35.00 a month
and my grub and had a place to sleep. I was very happy.
During the summer the Empire Cannery only canned sock-
eye salmon. The fish traps brought in all kinds. Those
not used for canning were sold to Chinese dealers for five
cents per fish. They in turn sold them from house to house
in Victoria, for twenty-five cents per fish. When visitors
came to the cannery we gladly showed them around and presented them with the gift of a fine large salmon. How times
have changed! I have nothing but good to say for J.H. Todd
& Sons.
But that job ended in the autumn and I had to find
another to fill in the rest of the year. I had been employed before as an extra hand at David Spencer Ltd. during
Christmas work and now I was taken on as a shoe clerk and
felt quite accomplished in my new position.
Then I became a school teacher. Chapter 6
I am a Teacher
My first experience as a school teacher was at the
Alexandria School at South Wellington where I arrived in
January, 1906. Shortly before the coal mine.had operated
A
there had been closed by the Dunsmuir Company and the town
had been largely abandoned and even the post office had
been closed. The school was built with two adjoining rooms,
each heated by a large iron stove fed with wood. Only one
room was then being used and I started with 21 children in
seven elementary classes, quite enough for an inexperienced
teacher such as I.
I resided across the road from the school at the home
of a Mr. Thomas, a most successful farmer where I had most
comfortable quarters and excellent cuisine. Most of the
residents were farmers, employees of the Esquimalt and
Nanairao Railway Company, loggers and a few other occupations.
All were most friendly and I thoroughly enjoyed my stay
which lasted till the end of June.
Just across the railway track and west of the old
town lay a small but beautiful lake surrounded by tall
timber. The Munsey Lumber Company of Victoria was building a
small sawmill on its shore. In those days we had little, if
any, of the automated machinery of today. Each tree had to
be felled by hand labor and skillfully thrown in the proper 81
direction to be taken out by horses on a skid road, leading
from the forest to the water's edge on the lake. From there
it was towed to the mill and sawn as required. The process
was a slow and painful one and the loggers were not well
paid. But they were a happy skillful group and it gave
needed employment to the residents nearby.
I often wandered through the forest filled with wild
flowers, birds and small animals, a lovely picture, and I
often referred to them when discussing nature study with
my students. Indeed the students knew more about it all
than I and taught me much. We always had the school decorated with wild flowers and a bowl filled with tadpoles
carefully cared for by the students. I had a delightful
book by Ernest Thompson Seton filled with stories of animal
life and I regularly read them the stories and let them
tell me what they knew about them all. Whether this was
orthodox or not I never knew and didn't care. I had never
been taught how to teach. At one time when I was so engaged the School Inspector arrived and I nearly collapsed.
But somehow or other I got away with it.
Whilst I was there two small sisters, too young to be
at school, had wandered away and had been lost in the
woods adjoining the lake. No one could find them. Some
months later loggers working in the woods found their bodies,
the older holding the younger in her arms, cuddled under a
fallen decayed log. Though I didn't see the children the 82
event caused quite a stir in the neighbourhood and I
couldn't help but recall the story of the "Babes in the
Woods".
Now the timber and birds and tadpoles and wild flowers
have all disappeared and the place is civilized.
My next venture in school teaching was in August of
the same year at Ashcroft, a small but lively town of about
500 population on the Canadian Pacific Railway 205 miles
east of Vancouver. Its importance consisted in its being
the forwarding point to Cariboo, Clinton, and Lillooet via
the Cariboo waggon road. The B.C. Express Company had its
headquarters there and thus there was always a large moving
population passing through. It was in what was known as
the dry belt which became a rich agricultural country with
the application of irrigation waters, producing then an
ample supply of potatoes, tomatoes, peaches, etc. Large
cattle and other ranches had gradually been built up nearby
and much of the produce came through Ashcroft to pass
through the C.P.R.
There was a goodly number of merchants of excellent
standing and about everything that one desired could be
purchased there. The town also had a bank and for many
years an excellent weekly newspaper. If you needed a
medical doctor or a lawyer, a druggist or a barber, one
was always on hand. 83
Though the town was small there were four churches,
the Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist and Roman Catholic,
all with an active membership. I always felt that the members of each group were closely knit together, but I found
that the school teacher was welcome in all.
The B.C. Express left Ashcroft regularly for the north
and was the only method of travel for passengers and freight
to the Cariboo district. Of course it was horse drawn and
was on the style of the old English coach line for passengers.
It originated with one Barnard who drove the early stage
coaches, and was the father of Senator Barnard and his well
known brother, the lawyer, who settled in Victoria and
became leading citizens. One of the drivers who had
recently retired at the time I was in Ashcroft was a Mr.
Tingley whom I knew. J.D. Moore was the manager of the
Express Company at Ashcroft at my time and I became very
friendly with him. Under the seat of the driver of the
coach was a small safe in which the valuables of the travellers and others were kept. This often contained gold dust
in various quantities. It opened my eyes to the days of
my father on the Cariboo Road which were fast fading away.
There v;ere two hotels in Ashcroft, the Ashcroft Hotel
and the Grand Central Hotel, both of excellent standing,
each with a saloon. There appeared to be some rule about
closing the saloons around 11 p.m. or thereabouts. At the
Ashcroft Hotel the doors were indeed closed, but remained 84
on the swing and anyone could enter. In the backroom was
a poker table, which occupied those who wanted to use it
until the early hours. Some of the prominent citizens did
so. But many of the miners and others, who were hard
working men, would come down the road and spend their savings
at Ashcroft. It was reputed that the managers of the saloons
always loaned their customers enough money to get them back
to the Cariboo.
I was very amused over one party of English travellers
who had come from England to Ashcroft to go north on a
hunting trip. But their guns had not arrived as they had
expected and they registered at the hotel where I was living.
It was my first experience of this type of person. I had
never seen clothing such as they wore and the first night
they were there they put out their shoes in the hall to be
shined. It was a great joke and I doubt if they did it
again.
The meals at the hotels were superb. Three full
course meals were served each day at 25 cents a meal. I
always remember with a great deal of pleasure the menu for
breakfast. A bowl of fresh fruit was always on the table.
This was followed by a large bowl of hot rolled oats porridge, and then the maid would say, "Beefsteak, pork chop,
ham, bacon and eggs" and you had your fill, ending with
toast, marmalade, jam, and coffee, all for 25 cents. Both
hotels prided themselves for the high quality of their
beekfsteaks. 85
When the B.C. Express drove down the Cariboo Road
across the North Thompson River into Ashcroft the first
buildings which met the sight of the northern miners were
in the red light district of the town. During the daytime when the weather was fine the girls sat out on the
verandahs in full view of those passing by. During the
night a red light was seen at each house. As far as I
know no objections were taken by anyone to this. Indeed,
Ashcroft was a well behaved town. There was one constable
who was well known and mixed with us all. There was no
crime that I ever heard of. The population was happy.
My school had been built with two large rooms but
only one was in use when I was there, heated by the usual
large iron stove. I had over 60 pupils supposed to be on
the roll, but the attendance was generally poor and I
seldom had many more than forty. A number of children
were half breeds who worked on the ranges when herding
the cattle was required and this happened in the autumn
during my terra. They just didn't turn up and nothing
could be done about it. One of these was a girl who was
older than I and seemed to be anxious to learn, but she
too had to join her family on the range.
My students came from all classes and mixed well and
I had no trouble. They came mostly from the town, but
also from the farming area close by. Some of the wealthier
ranchers and a few in the town sent their children to
boarding schools in Vancouver and of course I never met
them. The school was an elementary one and had all classes 86
up to entrance. The work therefore was not easy but very
challenging. Today I feel amused at the attitude of some
of our teachers who object to teaching more than 25 children all in one class, and suggest that each must be allowed
to do as he likes. My teaching was probably poor, but I
got away with it and no one complained.
On my arrival in Ashcroft I put up at the Grand Central
Hotel and it was my first experience of hotel life. But a
teacher at $60 per month if he wanted to save anything
could not long survive on such accommodation. Thus I soon
arranged to share a small hut with the new Presbyterian
minister who was a bachelor and some years older than I,
Rev. E.G. Thompson, and we ate less meals at the hotel.
We organized a sports club and played basketball, even
travelling to Kamloops to play. We had an open air ice
rink where I learned curling and had my first experience at
skating. I made many good friends and also enjoyed the
company of many fine girls who entertained us at dances
and picnics. I recall one dance where the sole music was
that of an accomplished fiddler who fiddled and sang his
dancing directions well known to the Cariboo pioneers of
former days. His art vanished with the years. I was only
at Ashcroft till early in January, 1907, but it remains
one of my happy periods of life.
When I returned for Christmas holidays I found my
father in very poor health and after I had returned to
Ashcroft I was called back when my father passed away on 87
January 8th, 1907.
At that moment a vacancy occurred in the Boys Central
School in Victoria by A.J. Campbell being promoted to
principal of one of the City Schools and I was offered the
job to replace him in Division 3. This I could not refuse.
I finished the rest of the spring session in Division 3 and
after the summer holiday went to Division 5 vacated by my
friend, Frederic Wood, who went to finish his University
studies at McGill University. I remained on the staff
until June 30, 1909 when my three years teacher's certificate
with a six months' extension expired.
Due to the various financial losses suffered by my
father as previously explained our home had been mortgaged
to the extent of $3000 which was paid off by a life insurance
policy with nothing left. But I was not at work, my brother
was apprenticed as a student to D.E. Campbell, a druggist,
and my mother took in a few boarders. I thus was unable to
save any money.
But the period in Victoria was a most rewarding one.
We had long been members of St. Andrews Presbyterian Church
in Victoria and it was not long before I was an active
member of the Young People's Society both as a secretary
and President. This brought me into touch with the young
people of the Church with whom I actively worked. We had
many lectures, literary meetings, musical evenings, debates
and even some plays. In the spring of 1909 I wrote a comedy "When Women have their Rights 1975", which I directed and took part in as a player. We received in the
newspapers a most excellent and encouraging report. The
play itself was a foolish farce written at the time of the
rising demands for woman suffrage and equal rights with
their male counterparts. The fact that I dated the farce
"1975" does not suggest that I expected an early solution.
It told the story of a mother who was President of an
"Anti-Dust League" and belonged to a Women's Club, who
spent most of her time playing bridge, whilst she controlled the purse of her hard working husband and kept her
son doing the housework, including cooking and the care of
her baby. Her son was much in love with a young lady, who
had proposed to him, that being the appropriate method of
that time, and he wanted to marry. The mother, who had the
right to choose her daughter-in-law, demanded that she must
be selected by a matrimonial agent upon evidence compiled
by the agent which showed whether or not they were suited
for marriage.
I had the mother arriving in the family aeroplane
which settled down vertically at their residence and was
stored in the shed adjoining. With the recent announcement
of an English invention of an aeroplane with somewhat similar qualities, the present demand for the liberation of
women, and the use of a computer to match eligible partners,
perhaps the 1975 date fixed by me was not so foolish as I 89
thought. Anyway "love" finally settled all the problems
I propounded and the play ended happily with the father
and son in control.
I also joined the Young Men's Christian Association
of Victoria and took an active part in its physical education programme, being at one time a member of one of its
basketball teams. The Y.M.C.A. had a Debating Society, a
Mock Parliament and oratorical contests. I took part in
them all and learned a great deal, winning several awards.
We ultimately ended in a drive for a new Y.M.C.A. to be
built on the corner of Blanshard and View Streets. I was
one of those who headed a Young Men's group to raise funds.
We were very successful.
Victoria then had no ice hockey team but it did have
a rather excellent field hockey team. I had played field
hockey in Victoria College and joined the Victoria team
and was able to hold my place. We played in Victoria,
Seattle and Vancouver and were largely successful. Incidentally one of the members of the team later became Premier
of British Columbia, Hon. John Hart.
I took part in our teacher organization, the Victoria
Teachers' Institute, and was its secretary for the 1907-
1908 year. In those days we were not sd much interested
in raising salaries, as raising our standard of teaching,
and from this organization I learned a lot. 90
On June 30th, 1909, my teachers' certificate expired
and I had to consider what next to do. It seemed strange
that after 3 1/2 years experience I was no longer competent
to teach without going to normal school. Anyway it was
always my desire to go to the University and ultimately
become a lawyer. The time had come for me to take the
necessary steps. I easily got a temporary job as a clerk
selling tickets in the Canadian Pacific Railway ticket
office in Victoria. I had saved a little money but not
enough to go to McGill for a year. Besides my salary as
a teacher I had done quite a lot of coaching for students
taking examinations in various subjects. This helped quite
a lot. My mother again came to the rescue and raised $300
on a mortgage on our home for me later to repay.
At that period, to restrict Chinese immigration into
Canada, which was undercutting Canadian wages, Canada had
imposed a charge of $500 upon each landed Chinese immigrant.
As most of these immigrants had wives and other members of
the family in China, mostly in Canton, there was a continual flow of Chinese back to China as often as they could
to visit their wives and families. There were also many
Chinese living in the United States, especially in the New
York area, who also wished to make the same return visits
to China. This of course could easily be made on American
railways to Seattle and San Francisco. The Canadian Pacific 91
Railway had established an excellent service of steamers
sailing between Vancouver and China, the Empress liners,
such as the Empress of China, but the so called head tax
of $500 precluded the C.P.R. from sharing in the lucrative
business of the Chinese trade from the Eastern United
States. Arrangements were thus made with the Canadian Government to run a special train from time to time between
Vancouver and Montreal and thence to New York and counter-
wise to carry Chinese passengers in bond. As most of the
Chinese travelled as third class passengers both on the
railway and on the ocean liners, special trains made up
of colonist cars with bare wooden seats were run for this
purpose between Vancouver and Montreal and vice versa.
Guards were appointed to see that the travellers could not
leave the train at any stop. The guards were given second
class return tickets for their services. I thus applied
for and got such a position and so when the time came to
go to McGill University I became a guard and had my return
fare in May, 1910. I was able to repeat this for the 1910-
1911 season. And so with the help of my mother I was able
to go to McGill.
When the Empress liner arrived in Vancouver the
Chinese who were to so travel were herded into the Immigration sheds close to the C.P.R. wharves and there sorted
out. We guards met them at the train and travelled on our
own colonist car attached to the end of the train. We had
1 92
the use of blankets and had to make up our own berths.
We paid a small sura for meals which were fairly good and
cooked by an attendant on our car. We each took our turn
sitting on a wooden box on the platform between each car.
When the train stopped for any purpose we had to open up
the steps to the entrance to the car on one side, descend,
and watch the entrance and windows in a pre-arranged
direction, to see that no person got off of the car or
through the windows. Both sides of the train were thus
guarded. The Chinese made up the berths themselves and
had meals in their own cars. There was no dining car
attached. We travelled to Montreal with fewer stops and
much quicker than the fastest transcontinental passenger
trains. As the Chinese well knew the conditions of travelling in bond and had agreed to such conditions, none
was anxious to break the bond and thus there was no trouble
whatsoever. Indeed they were a fine lot and we all had the
occasional conversation. I would judge that every traveller
was in a better financial position than myself. Those
travelling were given the same service as anyone travelling
on a colonist car.
Transporting silk from China to Canada was a profitable
business. Silk was easily damaged in transit and incurred
higher insurance rates. It was thus profitable to transport
it in a manner much faster than on an ordinary freight
train. Most of the Empress liners when they arrived in 93
Vancouver carried silk destined for Montreal and New York.
On such an occasion a special silk train was made up and
attached to the Chinese train, and carried in the front
part of the train. This meant that it was carried across
Canada in the fastest possible time. We had at least one
silk train to my knowledge on one of our trips. We of
course had nothing to do with this. And so I arrived in
Montreal. Chapter 7
My University Life
In 1909 McGill University had about 1500 students
and I was a member of a great University. I had entered
my third year and had enrolled in the honor course of
Economics and Political Science under Dr. Stephen Leacock
Ph.D., who was to become famous not only as an economist
but also as a humorist. Probably he was better known as
the latter, though his writings on Economics and Political
Science had brought him fame. Along with Dr. Leacock was
Prof. J.C. Hemmeon as Professor of Economics with whom I
also studied. Dean F.P. Walton, head of-the Faculty of
Law, instructed us in Roman Law and Constitutional Law.
He was author of a well known text book on Roman Law. The
course was a difficult one and lasted over the third and
fourth year sessions. In both years I secured a first
class standing and was awarded a Mackenzie Scholarship of
$50.00 at the end of my third year.  In my final year on
graduation, Henry F. Angus and I were given equal standing
as head of the graduating class.
In my first year I had a room with the mother of my
earliest friend, Frederic G.C. Wood.  He was in his graduating year of 1910 and his mother had joined him in
Montreal by taking a large house and taking in roomers.
We were all Victorians and were royally treated by Mrs. 95
Wood. In my second year I took a room in the McGill
Y.M.C.A. I joined the Students Union and got a few of
my meals there. But they cost five meals for a dollar,
and I could get seven for a dollar from the Presbyterian
and Methodist Colleges, and also from a Cafe nearby in
Bleury St. which catered to shop girls in nearby department stores. So I ate a few things in my room for
breakfast and got along well.
The Union gave me the opportunity to take part in
debates and in my second year I became President of the
Literary and Debating Society and also speaker of a Mock
Parliament. On occasions I represented the University on
debates with others. I had always played English Rugby
and was not familiar with the Canadian Football as played
at McGill. I thus secured a place on the English Rugby
team which team incidently won the Montreal Championship
for 1910-1911. I also played in the McGill Association
Football Second team. I wasn't a star in Athletics, but
took part in all I could for recreation.
Due to the fact that there was no University in
British Columbia except Victoria College and Vancouver
College, both affiliated with McGill, the students of
these Colleges usually finished at McGill and so there
arose the Western Club, of which F.G.C. Wood was President
when I arrived in 1909. I was elected Vice-President in
my final year 1910-1911. Through this organization we met 96
our Western counterparts in all faculties and made many
lasting friends.
Our University was Co-educational and the girls had
their own residential College, The Royal Victoria College,
which of course could only accommodate a very few students.
And so by means of dances, skaing parties, lectures and
other meetings we became acquainted with the opposite sex.
The times were very different from now. There was no steady
dating and we mingled rather as brothers and sisters. We
met often in the library, lecture halls and other University
precincts and enjoyed each others company but very few of
the Western students ended up as married couples; and no
one thought of marriage until he had graduated and was
safely settled in ones career.
Frederic G.C. Wood and Henry F. Angus remained ray
closest and most intimate friends during ray McGill days
and still are. There was another, Harold B. Marchant, who
was with me at the Victoria High School and one year at
McGill where he graduated in Medicine in 1910. Unfortunately he had a tragic death. On his graduation he was
appointed medical doctor at Britannia Mines in B.C. On
his first trip on an aerial elevator he was caught between
an electric wire pole and the car vdndow from which he was
leaning when leaving the mine and was killed. It was a
great loss. Then there was George S. Currie who graduated
in our honor class and later became one of Montreal's 97
leading Chartered Accountants. I met him in France during
the war and occasionally hear from him from Montreal where
he has become one of McGill*s leading Alumni. Shirley G.
Dixon was also in our Honor Class and became a well known
Montreal lawyer and a leading member of many of Montreal's
top financial and Industrial Boards of Directors. As did
also E.F. Newcorabe who became a leading Ottawa lawyer and
is now deceased. Then there was A.K. Hugesson who is now
a retired Senator of the Parliament of Canada. George
Weir was in our class and later secured his Ph. D. and
became a top educational figure on the Prairies, then in
the University of British Columbia and ultimately Minister
of Education in British Columbia. And there were many
others.
After my first year at McGill I was again employed by
the C.P.R. during the summer of 1910 as a ticket clerk and
again as a Chinese guard in a Chinese train and so earned
my return fare in 1911.
Then came the first great day of my life, my graduation
and first University degree, which was conferred in the
Royal Victoria College Hall on May 12, 1911, and I was at
last a Bachelor of Arts of McGill University.
It means so much to a graduate, but the world thinks
little of it. It is merely a gold brick laid as a cornerstone in ones life, and ones whole future depends on its 98
superstructure. It had long been ray desire to become a
lawyer and to get a law degree if possible from Oxford
University. I had carefully planned my life along that
line and had applied to the British Columbia Rhodes
Scholarship Selection Committee in 1911. On May 26th the
committee met and I was selected.
But before leaving my McGill University life I should
mention an event which suddenly happened and gave me a
good deal of worry, especially as I was applying for a
Rhodes Scholarship.
In March of 1911 it was quite clear that there would
likely be a Federal election that year. The principal
political question was whether or not there should be a
reciprocity treaty drawn up between Canada and the United
States. The Liberals were in favour of such a treaty,
the Conservatives were against it. It had long been the
rule that Political speakers could and should be heard
and public matters discussed in the McGill Union, but on
no occasion should the building be used by any Political
Party for political purposes. On March 20th the Conservative Party had arranged for a political meeting to be
held in the Windsor Hall in Montreal to be addressed by
the Hon. Clifford Sifton. Mr. J.T. Hackett, a former
President of the McGill Union, and other students had
arranged for Clifford Sifton to address the students at a 99
meeting in the Union prior to the Windsor Hall meeting.
The Conservative party had evidently supplied fireworks,
torches, and a musical band to head a procession of students to pull the sleigh with Mr. Sifton in triumph from
the University to Windsor Hall. Other students, I being
one of them, along vdth Daniel Gilmour, the popular Captain of the football team, objected to the Union being used
for such purposes.  Our Group, which was fairly large, got
possession of the Gallery of the Union vdth the intention
of stopping the meeting. To our astonishment Dr. Stephen
Leacock appeared vdth Mr. Sifton, as his chairman. The
result was we protested and the meeting was unable to proceed. Dr. Leacock and Mr. Sifton had to leave and took
their places in the sleigh headed by the band and students
vdth torches, etc. to be pulled by students to the Hall as
arranged. But no one knew who was for or against and in a
short while those against got control, broke up the band,
and pulled the sleigh dovm a side street up on to a snow
bank. The result was that both Leacock and Sifton had to
find their own way to Windsor Hall, and the students took
charge of the sleigh, ultimately setting it on fire and
pulling it through the streets. The students were followed
by the police back to the University where the police were
well sprayed by a hose from the f.M.C.A. building.
Neither I nor other leaders had taken part in the 100
procession nor burning of the sleigh, but we could not
evade responsibility and so I found myself in a difficult
position. I was surprised next morning when I met Dr.
Leacock in the Arts Building that he should greet me with
a broad smile, an outstretched hand and the words, "Well,
you beat us last night." The Student Council called a
meeting of the students for the purpose of condemning
Daniel Gilmour and myself and requiring us to apologize
personally to Hon. Clifford Sifton. But they did not
succeed in passing such a resolution. And so it ended.
Back to work I went, again as a clerk in the C.P.R.
ticket office in Victoria, this time to earn enough money
to take me to Oxford, with the knowledge that my Oxford
Scholarship of £300 per year was just enough to put me
through with careful planning. It was hard on my mother
as she had to take in boarders to provide for herself.
My sister was not in good health though qualified as a
kindergarten teacher and was employed as such. My brother,
Bert, had just about finished his four years of apprenticeship as a druggist and was qualified to enter the College
of Pharmacy in Toronto where he could in an extra long
year's term secure his Bachelor of Pharmacy (Phm. B.)
degree at the University of Toronto. My mother again came
to the rescue and borrowed a further small sum to assist
Bert in completing his college work. 10.1
In those days the Travel Agent had not appeared to
any great extent and there was none in Victoria. It was
the custom of the C.P.R. and other railway companies to
book passages over all other American Railways and over
most passenger steamers. Most of the Railway companies
had travelling passenger agents who interviewed the ticket
clerks and provided them with information and other literature, and also offered them free trips over their respective lines. As I was not a full time employee of the
C.P.R. I did not qualify for any reductions in C.P.R. rates;
but there was no difficulty in securing a free return railway passage over two other railways to New York and a half
way fare on the Allan Line, "S.S. Victorian". And so I
got to Liverpool on a little more than $50 and saw Chicago
and New York on the way. Ultimately I found myself in
Oxford registered as a student at Jesus College.
For a hundred years after the Norman conquest Englishmen in search of learning usually found themselves at the
University of Paris. But in 1167 there was a migration
from Paris to Oxford. Just why is not certain, but Oxford
at that time must have been recognized as a place of
learning. There was a hostility between the citizens and
the students who began to lodge in "Halls" of their own.
Here they lived and dined but went for instruction to
teachers in the town. In 1249 the Archdeacon of Durham
died and left 310 marks for the endowment of Masters of 102
Arts. This was used to purchase what is now University
College which became the first college to acquire a
habitation, and which became a Corporation in 1280.  And
so gradually colleges appeared and prospered. Some were
provided by wealthy Church dignitaries, others by prosperous and public-spirited laymen. Some again developed
from halls of residence. Jesus College was founded in
1571 when letters patent for its establishment were
granted by Queen Elizabeth I.
Each College is a self-governing body incorporated
by Royal Charter with its direction vested by statute in
its Head and Fellows. Only the University can confer
degrees, but no one can become a member of the University
or take a degree without first becoming a member of a
college. Matriculation qualifications are thus decided by
each college.
Public lectures and examinations are arranged and
administered by the University whilst tutorial teaching
is a college matter. Most college dons hold University
appointments, give lectures and classes and examine in
University Examinations.
And so I became a part of it. As a graduate from
McGill University I was able to register for the Post
Graduate degree of Bachelor of Civil Lav; (B.C.L.) to be
completed in 3 years and also for a B.A. undergraduate
degree in Jurisprudence to be completed in 2 years. I 103
registered for both and got my B.A. degree in 1913 and
my B.C.L. degree in 1914. Doing courses for two degrees
at the same time was hard work but it was worth it.  For
the graduate degree you were just about supposed to knov;
everything in English lav;, International law and Roman
law. Of course that was impossible but it was a good
start. My M.A. degree followed in due course in 1918
without further examinations.
I had no University examinations to write for two
years, except those set by my tutor.  In the meantime
your tutor to whom you were attached, advised you as to
what lectures you should take, when you should take them
and what you should read. He examined you as he thought
fit.  The year consisted of three terms of eight weeks
each and summer holidays of about three months.
The tutorial system is excellent and worked well
before the first war and still works well in Oxford Colleges where registration is selected and restricted. But
in a multiversity as we have in Canada and the United
States and in Europe today, and especially where ones
subjects become so varied, it is quite impossible to secure the tutors, and further a tutor is not qualified to
instruct the students in all subjects required. Thus now
we have to be satisfied vdth counsellors, who can be a
friend and advisor to each student, and this works well.
But the college system which has grown up in Oxford and
Cambridge still gives the best results.  Each college 10/;
tries to give each student some living quarters in his
early University life with the privilege at all times
to dine in the College Hall and make use of the Junior
Common Room. This means that you are one of a family
of students and are regarded as such. That is why I
have always been an advocate of establishing in the
University of Victoria such a system. But to try to
introduce the tutorial system is quite impossible. All
we can do is to give each student a counsellor. I personally would like to see the counsellor system extended
to outside education, industrial and financial advisers,
who have university degrees and some who have not, who
are substantial citizens well qualified and prepared to
give their services.
And so in 1911 I entered my first year in law. I
was soon learning to row on the river in what we called
"toggers", an eight with fixed seats, and also to play in
my College Rugby team. Oxford gave no lectures in the
early afternoon of each day, so as to permit physical
exercise. I also joined the Oxford Union. This is a
young man's club with a good library and an excellent
hall where the members meet to discuss social and political
subjects. Both the Oxford and Cambridge Unions have supplied and still supply many of the Prime Ministers of
England. The present Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, was
after my time an undergraduate of ray college, Jesus
College, and I am pretty certain he took part in the 105
Oxford Union. It was thus a privilege to take part in
such debates and though I did not know him at the time I
find that one of the students who debated at the same time
as I did at the Union was Mr. Harold Macmillan, former
Prime Minister of Britain and since I960 Chancellor of the
University of Oxford. Whilst I was at Oxford others who
took part in debates at the Union were such well known
persons as Victor Gollancz, Alan Patrick Herbert, J.B.
Haldane, Harold J. Laski, Leslie Hore—Belisha, G.H.D.
Cole, and A.H.M. Wedderburn every one of whom became a
well known leader in his own profession, and many others.
In my first Christmas holiday I had the opportunity
of living in London in an Oxford Club in Bermondsey Distrid
South of the Thames. The idea was to mingle with the less
fortunate young men of that area, learn their ways and let
them learn our ideas. We were on the club premises every
night, and though I doubt if I ever had any influence on
those I met, I do know that I got an insight into London
life which was of the greatest value to myself. Women
were not allowed in the pubs with children and so the women
met with their families on the streets in front of the pubs
and took turns in entering to get beer for each other. To
see young children playing around on the street with their
mothers in a more or less intoxicated condition was something new to me. But the mothers needed some recreation
and had no other place to go and what could they do! They lot
couldn't afford baby-sitters and in the end perhaps some
cocktail parties of today are just about as bad. Bermondsey opened my eyes. I was rather astounded to find that
many of the younger and indeed the older people had never
been out of the area nor on the north side of the Thames.
There was also in Bermondsey a small tram car pulled by
horses, such as we had in Oxford, being operated with passengers on rails on the road for a considerable distance.
I understand the company had a charter for an unexpired
period which it refused to surrender. Such was London in
1912.
My first Christmas was spent at the home of one of my
College chums, E.H. Hiscock, at Atherton. He was one of the
first to make my acquaintance and I think I can say he was
my best Jesus College friend. Unfortunately he was killed
in France during his service in the first war.
It was my desire to perfect my knowledge of the French
language, a matter I never succeeded in accomplishing. And
so I went to the Quartier Latin of Paris for my Easter holidays in 1912 and put up at the Pension of Monsieur Lucet
at 1 rue Vaugelin close to the Sorbonne. I had an hours
instruction each day in conversational French by a member of
the family and I also spent a couple of hours each day visiting Paris, its buildings, parks, etc. in company with a
Frenchman for conversation purposes. The rest of the time I
had to study some English law. After my summer term at Oxfort 107
my summer holidays of 1912 were spent travelling through
Holland, Belgium, Cologne, the Rhine, Basel and Switzerland
to Geneva. There I had registered for a summer course in
French at the University of Geneva. I soon discovered that
the course was rather advanced for my conversation French.
Nevertheless I carried on and had a most enjoyable six weeks,
always speaking French, but unfortunately largely with foreigners who had come for the same purpose as myself. The
rest of the summer was spent at Geneva reading law required
for my Oxford studies, then returning via Paris for the
winter terra.
When travelling through Belgium and Holland I was
fortunate to have as my companion my old Victoria friend,
Henry F. Angus, who was then taking the same course as I
at Oxford. His mother accompanied us. She had come to
England to renew her childhood memories whilst her son was
at Oxford. She was highly educated and cultured and spoke
excellent French. As she knew intimately the history of
Belgium and Holland, the trip through that area, especially
Brussels, Bruge and Liege was most delightful.
In 1912 there was a boom in real estate prices in
Victoria and my mother was fortunate enough to sell her
home at 1500 Fort St. for the sura of $20,000. But she only
collected two payments of $5000 each with a small amount of
interest before the opening of the 1914 War when prices
collapsed. As the reaJU estate agent collected $1000 commission and persuaded my mother to invest some $1500 in another
piece of real estate which she later lost after the war for 108
inability to pay taxes, her profit was not very great.
But it did free her for a few years and enabled her to
visit her old friends in Eastern Canada and Scotland, and
to live in comfort until I was able to assist her after
the end of the war. This was a great relief to myself and
ray brother who had in 1912 secured his degree of Phm. B.
from the University of Toronto, and had got started in his
career as a druggist at Victoria.
My second year at Oxford was also spent in residence
at Jesus College. I was very fortunate to have very excellent
instruction. My tutor was A.E.W. Hazel M.A., B.C.L. He was
a specialist in Jurisprudence and lectured in that subject
for all colleges as was the general custom in Oxford. He
was also Chairman of the Board of the Faculty of Law at Oxford, and an examiner in Jurisprudence and International Law
at the University of Glasgow. He was later Principal of
Jesus College.
I was also fortunate in being able to study under many
of the outstanding legal authorities of that period, such as
W.S. Holdsworth, later Sir William S. Holdsworth O.M., K.C.,
D.C.L., LL.D. the authority on the History of English Law,
Dr. A.V. Dicey K.C., D.C.L. quoted by all for his writings
on "Constitutional Law" and "The Conflict of Laws", Dr. Paul
Vinogradoff widely read for his work on "Jurisprudence", and
one of our early and brilliant Rhodes Scholars, J.C.V. Behan,
who became well known in Oxford for his lectures on Roman
and English Law and later became Sir John C.V. Behan after
a brilliant career at the University of Melbourne, Australia. 109
There were many other well known professors under whornl
studied.
In my first year at Oxford I joined the Oxford University officers* Training Corps. We never dreamed of a
war occuring but we were advised to prepare for one. And
so I did. We were given lectures and drills during term
time and I went to Summer camp in 1912 at Salisbury Plains
before going to Geneva. This was also an exciting experience. But the next year with an increase in all my interests
and the necessity of putting more time to my legal work, as
my examinations for my B.A. Degree approached, I had to drop
something and so I dropped out from the O.T.C. This meant
that I did not take any qualifying examination for an officer's
certificate and so had none when the war broke out in 1914.
There was also a mounted group of Cafvalry, The King
Edward Horse, composed of overseas members of the British
Empire, mostly Rhodes Scholars, As I belonged to the O.T.C.
I did not join this unit. When war broke out in 1914f this
unit was in training quarters and was immediately mobilized,
and all those who wished were given commissions, many in the
field artillery who were mounted units. One of these was A.
Nelson King who graduated with me from McGill in 1911 and
followed me as Rhodes Scholar from British Columbia in 1912.
He entered the Artillery and sad to say gave his life in
France in 1917. 1.10
1
In the spring session of 1912 I had rowed in the
Jesus College Toggers and was spare man for the eights in
the summer session. I was in line to secure my place in
the College Eights for 1913, but also dropped this to give
myself further time for study for my finals in 1913. But I
continued on the Jesus Rugby team as I felt recreation was
necessary for ray health. I nevertheless continued my interest
in the Oxford Union Society and the Colonial Club of which I
was President in 1912 and the Junior Common Room of Jesus
College.
When Christmas came I went to a quiet pension in
Paris to continue my French studies and especially my law
work. My studies there were quite fruitful. In ray Easter
holidays I joined my friend, Henry F. Angus, and his mother
to study with him in France. There we spent our time in
Chartres and Rouen, working quietly at Law and French. And
so I was ready in the summer session to write my finals for
the B.A. Degree. I am glad to say I got a second class in
the Honour School of Jurisprudence. This was not as good
as Henry Angus who made a first class. But the College
considered it good enough to give me a prize of Books, and
the Rhodes Scholarship Trust considers a second quite
satisfactory.
My mother and my sister had in the meantime spent
the winter and spring in Eastern Canada with our relatives;
and wished to come to Scotland to visit the Bisset relatives.
In the meantime I hoped to learn a little conversational
German and had signed up for a summer course at Tilly's Ill
Institute of Crosse Lichterfelde, a suburb of Berlin.  This
institute had been organized by an Australian who had settled in Berlin and spoke perfect German.  He with members
of his family and others took in foreigners to live and
eat in his quarters and adjoining residences. One v-;as only
permitted to speak German and all lectures were given in
German.  I signed up for a six weeks course and was amazed
how well I spoke when the time ended.  I am sorry to admit
that it has been impossible for me to follow through, and
though I have forgotten a great deal I still feel that I
could get along in Germany even today.
My mother and sister arrived in London in the summer
and met me in Berlin at the close of my studies. We then
travelled through Berlin, Leipsig, Dresden, Prague, Vienna,
Venice, Padua, and Verona to Munich taking in the sights.
We stopped in Munich to allow a rest for my mother and sister and to allow me to do some necessary legal study.
At Oxford the Rhodes Trust kept a file of many "pensions" in Europe and I made full use of them, thus saving a
great deal of money instead of going to hotels.  I enjoyed
my stay in Munich where I saw all the sights usually shown
to travellers. We later returned to England after visiting
Strasbourg and Paris. My mother then came vdth my sister to
Oxford to see me receive my B.A. Degree on October 16, 1913,
and then went north to visit the relatives in Aberdeen. 1.12
And now I was a graduate of Oxford University, and
had to seek rooms in quarters in Oxford, but not in College
rooms. I found these at the home of Mrs. A. Whiting, 20
Richmond Rd., sharing a private sitting room with another
Rhodes Scholar, Stanley Scott, from Christ Church College.
We each had our separate bedroom and perfect service which
included full meals. One thing I did miss was the dinner
in Hall at the College, but of course one could always go
to Hall if one wanted to pay the extra cost involved.
The Bodleian Library at Oxford University has become
famous throughout the world. I understand that a copy of
every book published in Britain must be given to the libraries of both the Oxford and Cambridge Universities. Whilst
I was at Oxford, the Bodleian Library was open to every
member of the Oxford University and used by most. I had
supplied myself with most books that I needed, but I found
it a wonderful place just to study in each evening, especially whilst I was an undergraduate. So I could usually be
found there most evenings.
The Christmas holiday of 1913-1914 I spent at the
home of R. Thies, 26 Uhlandstr, Berlin-Steglitz, a suburb
of Berlin in Germany, to increase my knowledge of German.
Mr. Thies was a schoolteacher whom I had met at Tilly's
Institute. I was also, of course, working hard at my legal
studies. To my astonishment I met and had Christmas dinner
with Mrs. R.F. Green of Victoria and her daughter, Cecilia, 1.13
who were there for the medical treatment of Cecilia. She
had graduated from McGill in 1910 and was the sister of
Robert H. Green who shared a room with me at McGill. Unfortunately Cecilia died a few years later. Robert H. Green
(now deceased) has always been one of my closest friends.
After several weeks with ray mother and sister in Aberdeen
getting acquainted with our relatives, the Bisset family,
I was back at Oxford.
My social life at Oxford was most attractive, Sir
William Osier formerly of the faculty of McGill University
and a well known medical authority was particularly friendly
with the Canadian students. Every Sunday afternoon tea was
served in his home and all Canadian students had a standing
invitation. I visited him on a number of occasions and
particularly enjoyed his company and the many persons I
always met at his home.
Dr. J.S. Haldane C.H., F.R.S., a professor at Oxford,
and Mrs. Haldane, whose son was J.B. Haldane, then a student
at Balliol College and later quite famous, also on Sundays
had their home open to overseas students. Dr. Haldane was
the brother of Lord Haldane who became famous in the political life of Britain. This became quite a well known
gathering place for many students and was thoroughly enjoyed. Mrs. Haldane especially will long be remembered.
My spring term at Oxford was spent in hard work as
my final examination for my B.C.L. degree was rapidly 114
approaching. My mother and sister had in the meantime
visited London and settled at 14 New Park Rd., West South-
bourne adjoining Bournemouth where I went for my Easter
holiday. Except for a short walk each day I did little
more than study.
During my last term at Oxford I was President of
the Oxford University Colonial Club and I took part in
various Oxford Union debates.
On June 3rd Prince Lichnowsky, the German Ambassador
to London, attended the dinner of the German Literary Society and Anglo German Club at Oxford, and I as President of
the Colonial Club received an invitation to attend. It was
an event to be remembered as within two months, almost to
the day, we were enemies fighting to the death, and at the
dinner we were almost clasped in each others arms as life
long friends. And so at last I wrote my final exams and
got ray B.C.L. degree.
My mother and sister sailed on the Allan Liner
"Scotian" on July 9th for Canada. I had planned to return
to the home of Monsieur Lucet in Paris to continue my study
of French, and then to travel to Italy and see that country
which I had only visited in the northern area. I was then
booked to sail from Naples to New York and back to Victoria.
And so after receiving my new degree I packed up,
sent back ray books and extra baggage direct from England,
and set out with light baggage for France, arriving there
on July 15th and ultimately to War. Chapter 8
War
On the day following Bastille Day 1914 I arrived
in Paris with the intention of remaining there studying
French for a couple of months and then on to Italy. There
was no thought of war. The summer was warm and so was my
reception.
Paris was all excited over the trial of Madame
Cailloux. Crowds stood before the courts hoping to get
a glimpse of the personages who had played a part in this
dreadful drama. Calmette dead and the wife of a cabinet
minister accused! No wonder Paris was surging with excitement. The boulevards each afternoon brought forth
the crowds snatching up the latest papers. Everywhere
we heard the name of Cailloux. Into this very mess there
fell like a bombshell the ultimatum of Austria to Serbia.
Austria was going to fight, no one could believe it at first,
it seemed so dreadful. But still what nation could accept
the conditions required and the same time uphold the pride of
her race. Serbia did accept them almost. Austria declared
herself not satisfied, recalled her ambassador and Russia
began to mobilise.
All this fell upon Paris like a thunderbolt. That
there might be an European War seemed to be realized at
once. Even the meanest workman grasped the gravity of the 116
situation. There seemed to surge into the breast of every
Frenchman a certain satisfaction. The time for revenge
had arrived! Revenge! Forty-three years before, the pride
of the nation had been crushed, Paris had been trodden on
by the very shoes of the Germans. Alsace had been snatched
from them. For forty-three years Paris had draped her
statue to Strasbourg with crepe and mourning and kept alive
its memory in the hearts of every Frenchman. For forty-
three years every being from his cradle to his tomb had
learned the lesson of Revenge! The time had now arrived.
But the French were a peaceful nation.Though they were
burning with revenge no one wanted to fight. They thought
of their homes, their children and their loved ones. They
were willing to sacrifice Alsace for the sake of peace. For
a week diplomats came and went. Everyone talked of war but
hoped for peace. Preparations were silently made. A week
passed and Saturday arrived. That afternoon there appeared
a simple notice, "General mobilisation, first day to depart,
tomorrow, Sunday August 2nd." That was all. Crowds silently
gathered, gazed and turned away without a word. Paris the
gay was suddenly draped in the veil of grief. I will never
forget the scene, I was on the streets when the order arrived.
I returned to my Pension. In the sitting room were members
of the family. They asked the news. I simply said "C'est
la guerre!" That was enough. One in the room was a young
married girl. She gasped in agony and cried "Mon Dieu, il 117
va demain." (My God, he goes tomorrow). I never want to
see such a scene again.
That night the cafes were full, not with the usual
happy throng, but a silent mass. The music no longer
played its cheerful tunes; it seemed to have a muffled
sound. Now it \*as a patriotic hymn, now a soldier's ballad.
Silently they rose and cheered their officers who came and
went. True patriotism mingled in their hearts with grief
and sadness.
Sunday broke with a flood of sunshine, a fitting day
for departure. The Churches, far too often empty, filled
that morning with a weeping mass. The task of the priest
was a hard one. Consolation, duty, patriotism, all had to
be mingled with the spirit of sacrifice. The women vdped
away their tears, the crowds filed out.
The railway station was all animation, trains came
and went, taxies dashed to and fro, crowds pushed. I was
drawn to the station and watched vdth grief. Every door
was guarded by a soldier, only the mobilised could enter.
In the square, the youth of France headed by their country's
flag shouted and sang. They alone were cheerful. "He is
gone, he is gone," she sobbed as she clung to the grating
and watched her dear one depart. Another held his wife and
child and couldn't let them go. In tears they wept. He
disappeared. The child didn't understand. A mother led
her drunken son fearing lest he'd miss the train. Overcome 118
with "saddness he no doubt had tried to drown his sorrow,
he laughed a jovial laugh and staggered as he went. She
pressed him to her breast and bathed his cheeks with tears.
The train moved on, the crowd saluted, the soldiers cheered,
and they were gone. One turned aside to wipe away a tear.
Such was the war!
The French were ready to fight and die for their
country. But the English had not yet grasped its gravity.
When the war was declared, London was not silent. A great
shout went up, flags were waved, processions made with
cheers and demonstrations. There was great enthusiasm it
is true. The troops were cheered and feasted. They were
the idols of the day, somewhat as a football team after a
great victory. But few thought that they would have to
fight. The soldiers were doing that for which they were
paid, and anyway the war would all be over in a few weeks
with victory a certainty. London was as gay as ever, theatres
dances and supper parties went on as usual. And yet within
a few hundred miles the English and Germans were locked in
deadly strife, slaughtering and being slaughtered. Yet one
cannot deny that England was patriotic. She was vastly so,
she was giving her men and her money, but her patriotism
was of a different sort.
Everyday some incident brought closer to me the awful
aspect of the war. There arrived the helmet of a young
German officer, Baron von Bieberstein, son of a former 119
Ambassador in London. He had just left Oxford having held
a Rhodes Scholarship in that University. He was a brilliant
young man and deeply loved by his many English friends. He
was picked up by the French, badly wounded and thought to be
dying. At that time he was reported to have said, "Thank
you, Gentlemen. I have done my duty. I have served my country, you are serving yours". I had dined with him at the
German dinner at Oxford on June 3rd, 1914, though I did not
personally know him. Fortunately he survived, was awarded
the Iron Cross 1st and 2nd class, and subsequently had a
brilliant diplomatic career.
Then came a flag, the first flag captured in the war.
Paris was enthusiastic. For a day it hung in the public
gaze. All Paris filed past, silent and reverent, France had
entered Alsace, brought to her former subjects the message
of deliverance and carried off a flag. It surely was an
oraen of success. It was later hung with other trophies in
the Chapelle des Invalides, in the shadow of the tomb of
France's greatest man, Napoleon.
The Red Cross flag floated everywhere. Most of the
schools were prepared and many of the large department
stores had portions furnished as hospitals. The world's
greatest gallery, the Louvre, and many of the museums had
thrown open their doors, and instead of the thronging mass
of curious tourists, there reigned a silent hush amongst
the line of spotless cots. 120
The wounded at first were being scattered throughout
the provincial towns where better care could be given than
in a crowded city.
The call to mobilisation had left many a family without its support and, unless the government had come to their
aid, misery and starvation would have had to be faced. Stron
committees were formed to dispense the funds allotted by the
government. As one passed by various centres, one could observe long queues of waiting people, where bowls of free
soup were handed out and fresh milk for infants.
The "Bois de Bologne", the huge park of Paris had
been turned into a huge pasture and there sufficient cattle
and sheep had been herded in to withstand a lengthy siege.
The storehouses had been stacked with provisions and on the
outskirts of the city those houses which were in the way of
the forts were being demolished.
In spite of all these preparations and the gradual
approach of the Germans the city was quiet. The cafes were
closed at eight and shortly after the streets seemed deserted.
The population had become accustomed to watch the search
lights playing on the skies seeking out a zeppelin or an
aeroplane.
The Germans had the satisfaction of sending one plane
as far as Paris to drop a few bombs in the hope of spreading
panic. But it did not.  It only attracted the curious, I
being one of them, to see the results. Damage was only done
in one or two places on a road, the hole being less than 121
half a foot deep and not more than one or two feet wide.
A day or two later I saw a German plane flying over the
city with the French firing from the ground after it.
Neither the Germans nor French did any damage. I thus
felt that I had seen and experienced the first aeroplane
raids ever held in the world. Nobody then seemed to worry
about them.
Every day refugees began to arrive from Belgium.
One could hardly believe the stories they told. I did not
see personally any of them, but I have since learned that
all war is cruelty and soldiers are trained to kill. And
unfortunately war is getting worse especially from a
civilian standpoint.
And then I received information that the British
liner on which I v/as to sail from Naples had been cancelled and that tourist travel in Switzerland and Italy was
impossible. There was nothing else for me to do but to
return to Canada by way of England, and that might be
difficult. I also learned that my friend, Henry Angus,
had received a commission in an English Infantry regiment
in the new Kitchener Army, and was about to leave for
training in India to replace regular troops who were withdrawn
for service in France. My mother was also sending me pleading
letters to return to Canada as soon as possible. I therefore
decided to remain and work on my French as long as possible,
and then return to Canada, and if the war was not ended and 122
it was necessary, to join the Canadian Forces. It must
be remembered that then there was no Canadian Army as such
and all Canadians who joined in Canada were sworn into
the British Army. The Commissions then given officers
by the Canadian Government were only commissions in the
Canadian Militia which was not the regular Army.
We were given little information in the newspapers
in Paris concerning the war. We knew of the glorious
advance of the French in Alsace and knew that the French
and British Armies had to retire, but we were never told
the extent of such retirement. We expected of course that
it was only a temporary affair and we would soon see victory
and peace.
I was therefore rather surprised about the first of
September or thereabouts to see a British Dispatch Rider
on the streets of Paris. I immediately got in touch with
him and he informed me that he had left the Germans about
15 miles or so from the outskirts of Paris. About the
second or third of September I received a post card from
one of my Aberdeen cousins, Miss Kate Bisset, who had been
visiting French friends in the East of France. I had given
her ray Paris address some time previously in England. She
had returned to Paris in a refugee train and was very worried about being able at all to return to England.  She
asked me to meet her and discuss the problem. This I did.
We immediately visited the railway station for information 12?
which I presume was the "Gare du Nord". To my astonishment I discovered a mass of American Tourists who had
fled from the East in a rather hysterical condition. The
American Embassy at that moment was assembling a train to
carry them to Le Havre to be taken by an American ship to
the United States. The train was to leave early in the
morning of the next day, September 5th. We therefore decided to leave next morning on the refugee train as it was
then called. We were also told that the Germans were very
close to the railway track and there was no guarantee that
we would ever reach Le Havre. We were there and we got on
the train. I do not recall whether we had to declare ourselves Americans or not, but I don't think we were ever
asked. If you could find a seat you got one, if not, you
just stood up, quite regardless of whether you were rich
or poor or had paid for a first or third class ticket. It
was the morning upon which the French government left Paris
and moved to Bordeaux. We later discovered that the Army
had mobilised all the taxi cabs in Paris to take reinforcements to the north to try and turn the German Army. We saw
the taxi cab army moving along the roads. It was quite a
sight which I will never forget. There were no meals on
the train, but the train had to stop from time to time,
and there was always someone around selling various kinds
of food.
It was quite an exciting trip. We saw no German
soldiers and finally late that night got to Le Havre. We 124
of course could not take the American ship supplied by
the Embassy and so had to find a hotel. We had to carry
our own bags and with the help of a young boy found such
a place. There were, of course, no rooms available but
we were allowed to stretch out on a sofa and a big easy
chair and so we spent the night.
There was no boat available until the next night.
And that was a night! The boat was constructed to accommodate about 300 passengers and carried about 1500. We
were lucky to get something to sit on, on the open deck,
but most of the passengers just lay down on the deck.
Then it got rough and many were seasick. Miss Bisset and
I turned out to be good travellers, but many on deck just
lay there and were sick. I recall a young padre coming
up from below, who being asked how it was down there
replied, "Dreadful, and there is no side to the boat!"
After a stormy night and a trip much longer than usual
we arrived in London to be greeted as refugees. It was
a trip I will never forget.
After arranging to travel to Montreal on September
15th, I travelled to Aberdeen with my cousin to fill in
the time and welcomed the rest. Aberdeen to me is a
beautiful city, which at all times deserves a visit. But
I doubt if I could find many relatives living there now.
I boarded the Cunard Liner "Andonia" on September
15th and sailed from Tilbury, London, arriving in Montreal 125
on the 25th after a pleasant and unadventurous journey,
again to be greeted by the press as a refugee. Within
a short time I was at home with my mother, sister, brother
and his attractive wife Evelyn Wright. My brother had
established himself as a druggist. Chapter 9
Army Days
Few if any Canadian soldiers had left for Britain
on my arrival at Montreal. But Canada had started to enlist and many militia units had contributed many of their
best. A camp had been established at Valcartier near
Quebec City for training and organizational purposes. My
former school teacher, A.W. Currie, then a Lieutenant Colonel of the 50th Gordon Highlanders and formerly in command of the 5th Regt. C.G.A., had offered his services and
had been given a commanding post at Valcartier. The old
militia unit, the 5th Regt. Canadian Garrison Artillery
for many years located at Victoria, was on duty in charge
of the fortifications at Esquimalt, under the command of
another of my school teachers, Lieut-Col. W.N. Winsby.
The old guns at Fort Macaulay, Rodd Hill and Esquimalt
were very old, obsolete and of little use, but they were
all we had. Canada had a Navy, just two ships, one located
at Halifax and one at Esquimalt. Two of the German naval
ships were known to be in the Pacific and it was expected
that at any moment they would enter Esquimalt.
A submarine had just been built at Seattle for a
neutral nation, and had not been accepted. It was offered
to the Premier of British Columbia, Hon. Richard W. Mc-
Bride, who under, I presume, arrangements of some kind
with Ottawa, purchased the same and advertised its presence 127
in Juan de Fuca Strait so as to scare off the German
cruisers. It was said that the submarine was not supplied with any torpedoes nor had any, but whether this
is true or not I do not know. But I do know, through
knowledge I later received from Canadian Garrison Artillery officials, that it was nearly sunk by the officer
commanding Black Rock Battery at the entrance of Esquimalt Harbour. This was the examination battery whose
duty it was to examine every vessel entering the harbour.
The crew on the submarine was new, with little experience,
and had just taken command. The vessel was brought in on
the surface which was rather strange for an enemy ship.
But it was clearly a submarine and the Canadian authorities had been given no instructions concerning its arrival, nor even of its existence, which probably the proper
authorities knew nothing of. The command officer at the
Battery, Lt. M. Kirkpatrick-Crockett, challenged it and
got no reply. The men on the battery had received orders
to load and fire on command, and were waiting for that
command, keeping the target in proper range at all times.
The commanding officer held fire and for some reason or
other decided it was not an enemy vessel. Had he been in
error he would probably have lost his command. As a
matter of fact he was praised.
This was shortly before my return. I then had to
make ray decision. I decided to join up and went down to
see Lt. Col. Winsby. He offered me a commission and I was 128
placed almost immediately in a school of instruction
of Work Point Barracks.
It was a tough school and lasted some months,
but I enjoyed it all.' One of those who also had been
given a commission was John Hart, who later became Premier
of British Columbia from December 9, 1941 to December 29,
1947. Adjoining Work Point Barracks was a nine hole golf
course operated by the Macaulay Plains Golf Club. Just
what its connection with the officers at Work Point Barracks I do not know but we were all welcome to make use
of the course. Thus, after training hours we usually had
a few holes of golf. This was my first introduction to
this sport and John Hart was my instructor. He later in
1916 was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly of
British Columbia and remained an officer on the staff of
the 5th Regt. C.G.A. but did not go overseas. He, of
course, was always liable for duty in the forts when
needed.
My first Christmas back in Victoria was spent on
duty at the Black Rock Battery, the examination battery,
relieving the Battery Commander. It was my first responsible job as a military man. Our training continued for
a short time after Christmas when I was posted on permanent
duty in Fort Macaulay. We were in charge of three disappearing 6 inch guns which were of very little value as
their range was quite too short; but we went through all 129
the necessary drill and the men were all keen and well
trained. Our staff of sergeants was particularly efficient. The one with whom I mostly worked was Sergt.
Stuckey, later Sergt-Major Stuckey. Then Lt. Col. Winsby
was transferred for service in Europe and Lt. Col. Richard
Angus took command. Major H.H. Woolison was in command of
Fort Macaulay. I remained with him on duty there until I
joined the 62nd Battery Canadian Field Artillery in the
spring of 1916 for overseas service.
My mother, sister and I rented a house at 1199
Victoria Avenue where my mother remained until my return
from overseas service. This became ray official residence
though of course I was living at Fort Macaulay until I
left for overseas service.
In the spring of 1916 the 15th Brigade Canadian
Field Artillery was organized under Lt.-Col. A.T. Ogilvie.
It consisted of the 59th Battery from Manitoba, the 60th
Battery from Saskatchewan, the 6lst Battery from Alberta
and the 62nd Battery and the Ammunition Column from British
Columbia. The organization of the British Columbia units
was at Macaulay Plains and the preliminary work was done
by the 5th Regt. C.G.A. officers. Capt. A.E. Sargison
took charge of the Ammunition Column and I joined as a
lieutenant in the 62nd Battery. Our Battery was put under
the command of Major W.M.J. Martin, a regular army officer.
A good deal of the preliminary organization was done at
Fort Macaulay and for that purpose we enlisted a fine body 130
of men who for a short while served with me at Fort
Macaulay. We had been trained as Garrison Artillery.
The 62nd Battery was a Field Artillery Battery of 4.5"
Howitzers drawn by horses. This meant that I was mounted.
In anticipation of this I had for some time been taking
riding lessons at the Willows Park, and although I never
became a good horseman I got to a stage where I was able
to keep my seat.
On May 28th, 1916 we sailed from Victoria to Vancouver on our v/ay to Petawawa Camp at the outskirts of
Pembroke, Ontario. This was a comparatively new camp.
There were few if any permanent buildings and we were at
all times under canvas. There we received our first
training with horses and field guns, and firing on the
range. It was most exciting, everything was new, the
boys were all young and excited to go. On the whole they
were all well educated, many with University degrees and
other skills. We all became friends, both officers and
other ranks.
On September 11, 1916 we had arrived at Halifax
Harbour and went that same day on the Anchor Line steamship "Cameronia". The ship had been converted into a
troop ship. The officers* accommodation was good but
that of the other ranks was rather crowded though not
uncomfortable. It was about that date that I received word
that the purchaser of our former home at 1500 Fort St. was 131
unable to complete the purchase and had handed back the
property to my mother. The pre-war real estate boom was
over and prices had slumped to the extent that real estate
vdth the taxes accumulating was no longer an asset. My
salary was very little and though my mother had a separation allowance it was not sufficient to pay the high taxes
and be able to live. But the law allowed us to accumulate
them during the war, which in the end only delayed matters.
The result was that some years after the war was over we
allowed the property to revert to the city for unpaid taxes.
We lay in Halifax Harbour for a day or two until a
convoy was arranged and we were off, arriving in Liverpool
on September 22, 1916 vdthout any undue delay.
We proceeded by train to Witley Camp, near Milford,
Surrey and became part of the 4th Divisional Artillery.
Almost immediately I and about twelve officers of our
Brigade were dispatched to Larkhill to be trained in Field
Artillery Work, after which I personally was sent to a
signal training school. How I ever passed that school I
will never know, but I finally did get a certificate as a
qualified officer, both in artillery and signalling. In
January 1917 we as a battery were taken to Larkhill, Salisbury Plains for more intensive training and firing practice.
We, of course, expected to be sent to France at once, but
instead there was a reorganization. The four gun batteries
were enlarged to six guns and the 15th Brigade was split ~l
132
up, half of the 62nd Battery being sent to the 58th
Battery of the 14th Brigade and my section to the 51st
Battery 13th Brigade C.F.A.
And so I found myself in a new Brigade under the
command of Lt. Col. E.G. Hansen and under a new Battery
commander, Major M.V. Plummer, with only one officer who
had been with me before and about one half of the men of
our former battery. Then instead of proceeding to France
as the 4th Division Artillery we were made the 5th Division Artillery. The Fifth Division infantry never became
a reality and we remained a roving unit, attached to any
Canadian Division that needed us, and even on several
occasions attached to United Kingdom units.
Our life in Witley was not all hard work. Godalming
and Shalford nearby received us with open arms. It is a
lovely area and not too far for a comfortable ride on a
horse, and a horse always needed to be exercised, even if
it carried a lady rider, and occasionally we had the
pleasure of their company. I can only recall two names,
a Miss Travers and a Mis3 Phyllis Tudor, daughter of
Admiral Tudor, who used to ride with us and entertain us
at tennis and at her home. I wonder where they are now.
King George V with Queen Mary and Princess Mary
inspected our stables. The Duke of Connaught, General
R.E.W. Turner V.C., Lady Byng and Lord French all marched
us past at respectable intervals. 133
And at last on August 25th, 1917 the 51st Battery
entrained at Milford station in the early dawn for Southhampton, embarked on the S.S. "Australind" and disembarked
the next day at Le Havre, France.
On September 5th we went into action at Lievin and
were heavily attacked with gas for 2 1/2 hours, but there
were no casualties; but the 58th Battery had four wounded
and 6 horses killed. Then I had my first experience in
an O.P. We called it 0. Pip which meant "Observation
Post", where we watched the movement of the enemy and
fired when a target appeared. We were there to kill and
they were there to kill us. I must have killed many but
I never saw one die as a result of my firing. And when
vte  were shelled we ran for cover, usually a safe cellar
or a dug out, which would save us from splinters but not
a direct hit.
On September 29th I was sent with Lieut. Virtue of
the 14th Brigade on a camouflage course at Wimereaux and
had a delightful day at Boulogne, being put up at the officers* club. We had a good swim in the sea with many
other soldiers on leave and all in natures garb. It was
a camouflage school but not for that purpose. Camouflage
was something new for the Array and was being rapidly
developed. One of the officers we met was Lieutenant
Stewart, an artist who was exhibiting at the Royal Academy,
and there was also there a Royal Academy sculptor. 134
We were back in the lines on October 4th and remained there for some time. My job was usually that of
an observing officer, working from an O.P. reporting movements and directing fire or that of a liason officer with
the Brigade headquarters or at Battalion headquarters in
the line. When I was with the latter I was usually very
close to the front line, as it was then ray duty to keep
in touch with my battery and give any artillery aid that
the battalion officer in charge required.
Then in October I was loaned to the 53rd Battery
in our Brigade. They were short of observing officers
and I was sent to sit on top of Fosse 11, at the Coal
mine in St. Pierre. It was an excellent observation post,
located well in view of the enemy who knew of our existence
and shelled us regularly. When the shelling began we retired to a dug out and stayed there until the shelling
ended and then returned to our post. I am thankful we were
never hit whilst I was on duty.
On November 11th I was sent to attend the First
Army Infantry School at a place called Hardelot via Boulogne. I was one of two Artillery officers. The course
was for company commanders including majors and captains
and was most interesting. I could never discover why I
was chosen to represent the Brigade, but I presume my
senior officers must have thought I needed the training. 135
I learned a great deal about all the new subjects including machine guns, gas, air service, etc. Besides
working hard we were given a good deal of entertainment
including swimming, concerts and even a trip to No. 3
Canadian General Base Hospital (McGill) for a dance with
the nurses in the Red Cross Recreation Hut. One of our
training areas was the "Field of the Cloth of Gold", made
famous in the days of Henry VIII. Our mess was run by
the W.A.A.C., the "Womens Army Auxiliary Corps." (Wacks)
who were all smartly dressed and did excellent work. It
was ray first experience with them, and I was rather amused
at the manner in which their quarters were protected as if
they were prisoners and the army the enemy.
Our Course ended on Dec. 14th and before we left
we were all served our Christmas Dinner, which was excellent, from oysters to plum pudding, fruits and nuts. Turkey
was absent but goose took its place.
Then I was back in the lines and on Christmas day
I was on loan to what was known as Green's Battery which
was a composite Battery which was taking over the 6th
Battery who had gone out for a rest. As I was on duty at
the O.Pw and away from my own Battery I lost my Christmas
Dinner and found myself surrounded with snov;.
Early in January we moved from Lievin to the North
side of Bois de Riaumont where I had a weeks service as
Brigade Liaison officer with the Infantry Brigade, tunnelled 136
into the ground at St. Pierre, and was most comfortable.
There was quite a lot of raiding being carried on and we
captured quite a few prisoners, some of whom I met and
talked with.
Our waggon lines for some time had been in the
vicinity of Petit Sains far enough from the front line to
be comfortable and safe. When we were not on duty at the
guns, the O.P. or on liaison duty we could have the occasional comfortable night in a French home where we were
usually well treated. At Petit Sains Madame de Laporte
served meals for those who desired and her place was always
well patronized. Her meals x^ere excellent, served by herself assisted by her two daughters who were very pleasant
and nice girls. The result was that we often ate there
and always were able to find fellow officers from the front
line. One often wonders what has become of the French
families who treated us so well.
As spring advanced troop activity increased and
continual raids took place to gather information by capturing prisoners. We were moved about from place to place,
I carrying on the usual work already described.
On March 28th the Germans attacked along the Scarpe
in an attempt to take Arras. They failed with heavy
losses, but the Imperials lost about a mile, and we were
thrown in with others to take up positions in the open 137
field. It was not a pleasant duty. German parties were
still carrying away their dead, a Red Cross flag flying
in front of the carriers, a sort of sling carrier on the
shoulders of 4 men on which were placed the dead one on
top of the other. I was getting closer to the horrors of
war. General Currie inspected our section of guns there
and asked for me, but unfortunately I had just returned
to the rear on duty. During that period I was liaison
officer with the commanding officer of the 87th Battalion.
We didn't know just where the front line was and suddenly
the commanding officer said "Come on, Liaison, we'll go
and see" and jumped over the front line trench into no
mans land. I had to follow. It was a new experience for
rae and one I don't want to repeat. Luckily we found no
enemy and extended our lines some distance.
In May we were taken out to an area near Houdain
for training in open warfare. Following the manoeuvres
we were on May 18th inspected by General Currie who seemed
pleased to see me again and I had a short pleasant talk
with him.
When in a reserve position near Arras on July 15th
the Catholic padre, Major McPherson, dropped in and invited me to accompany him to Arras to get currants from
the convent. The convent was very interesting, and
abandoned by the nuns with the exception of two left to 138
guard the place.  It was a desolate reminder of the aw-
fulness of war. The two nuns were franciscan and walked
with bare feet save wooden sandals. We were reverently
shown shell holes in the garden and a hole blown out of
the side of the Chapel. We entered the chapel and the
padre, the nuns and I knelt in reverence before the Altftr,
torn by war and left a silent prayer. Then we were
neither Catholic nor Protestant nor Hindu, Moslem, Buddist
nor Jew, only human beings before a Supreme Being, praying
for peace, a scene I will never forget.
In 1957 I revisited the war zone with Irene, my
vdfe, and sought out Arras and the convent and retold ray
story. The convent had been rebuilt but the little chapel
had been removed, but its existence was remembered by the
nuns.
On July 31st we were taken out of the lines and
put on a train and later found ourselves at a small town,
Cagny, just south of Amiens, without any explanation.
Here many troops were concentrating. It was then revealed
to us that we were about to put on what was called a "show".
Our officers' mess was in a summer home in the garden of
a Chateau. From August 4th each night we took our guns
and ammunition into our new positions. This was one of my
duties. In the daytime I spent my time working out corrections for the guns for the show. Capt. Buckley was
slightly wounded and I took him to the hospital. We also ~l
139
lost a couple of horses.  By August 6th we had got all
our guns and ammunition into position for action. On
my arrival back to our rear position the next morning I
was told that I was to go on leave at once.  I had little
choice and I left at 6 a.m. that morning in the cook cart
and passed through Arras as if nothing was going to happen.
We of course kne\-; nothing of the plans nor dates.  It was
a secret well kept.  I had to pick up motor cars wherever
I could and dashed along the road, passing at one time
the King, Haig, and probably President Poincare who were
on their way to see the "show". The next day, August 8th,
the great advance long planned had started which never
ended until November 11th. That night I was in London at
a show "The Bing Boys in Broadway". Hov; the scene had
changed! and then to Aberdeen, Oxford and back to London,
and in France once more on the 22nd after a most delightful holiday quite forgetful of the horrors of War, and at
last on the 25th of August in the firing line. We had
started to move on August 8th and never stopped.  Each
night we were in a new position, firing a barrage and
following the infantry forward. We had a fcv; casualties
and lost at least one of our men.  I was again doing
liaison work vdth the Infantry and Brigade Headquarters.
I had several close calls but was just lucky.
On September 11th we had our guns and billets in
Rumancourt when we were shelled early in the morning for 140
2 1/2 hours vdth yellow cross gas.  Our billets were
heavily struck and our losses heavy, but only one man as
far as I know lost hi.s life.  Sergeant Gavin Mouat, who was
a tower of strength in my section and liked by all, and
many others were severely gassed and went out as casualties.
A fine young fellow, Wilfred Dawson, lost his leg. Both
Mouat and Dawson survived and became active and influential citizens in British Columbia, Mouat as a foremost
merchant in Ganges, Salt Spring Island, and Dawson as a
leading bank manager.
As our pressure increased the Germans gave way and
our advance each day quickened.  I well recall our advance
through Denain.  I was on liaison with the infantry when
we entered. This was the first place entered which had
not been evacuated of the French population.  I will never
forget the welcome we received as we appeared on the main
street. The town soon became bedecked with flags and
flowers and our men everywhere were worshipped.  As we
approached Valenciennes on October 31st I was posted to
the 38th Battalion as liaison officer.  About 1 a.m. on
November 1st I advanced, vdth the colonel and headquarters
staff and the official Canadian photographer, which was a
new event in warfare, to cross into Valenciennes.  At the
time I was in the middle of a broken down bridge across
the canal, the smoke barrage ceased and a German machine
gun opened fire. We ran like a streak and got across the 141
canal. As we entered the town the enemy started shelling,
and the colonel thought it was our fire, and asked me to
return and advise the artillery of the location of the
infantry and to stop firing. I did this and I must admit
I wasn't very anxious to re-cross the canal under the
German machine gun. But I did it and the photographer
was there with his movie camera. It looked to me as if I
was running away. I have since seen the picture when
shown with other shots. It doesn't show much and I am
not seen. Early the next morning we entered Valenciennes.
The house had been occupied by a German general, and was
well furnished with soft carpets, good furniture and two
pianos. I entered another house which appeared vacated.
Then an old man came up from the cellar and eying us
curiously, suddenly yelled, "Les Anglais". It had just
dawned upon him. The cry brought up elderly men and
women from the cellar and we were immediately heroes.
Old wine saved from the enemy was produced and we all
drank to France and Belgium and the cause. Two little
girls about 8 or 9 came out holding up their arms asking
me for a kiss. I took them up and embraced them. Then
they took my hands and walked down the road with me.
Flags were quickly hung out and the old German flag that
had been left on the Mairie soon disappeared, torn down
and carried off by two of our officers, Capt. Bagnall and
Lt. Chatwin of our Artillery. It was later returned to
the Mayor as a souvenir. Shells still fell around us. ~l
142
I spent a good deal of time getting wires laid and
repaired and did much of the work myself. It was
difficult to keep up communications in moving warfare;
they soon get very long. I was still liaison officer
with Lt. Col. A. Douglas Cameron of the 38th Canadian
Infantry Battalion through his advance.
My diary written at the time tells the story as
I saw it.
"Nov. 3rd We started our advance again in the morning
under a barrage. The enemy had again retired beyond St.
Saulve. We followed. Battalion Headquarters later moved
up but I remained until the afternoon as my communications
had not advanced as quickly as the infantry. In the
afternoon the infantry band moved up playing the Marseillaise amidst great enthusiasm. The 55th Battery moved
through the town and I got them quickly into action to
barrage a sunken road for the infantry. They did good
work. After this was done they moved further up. My
communications with the rest of the brigade were rather
poor. I moved up to our new H.Q. in the evening after my
work was over and spent the night in a Chateau on a sofa.
In the next room was a dead woman killed by one of the
enemy shells that afternoon. It is rather ghastly when
one thinks of a dead woman, though I could sleep beside
a dead man any day.
"Nov. 4th Another barrage early in the morning started 14j>
o
us once more forward.  Our H.Q. moved again along the
road into a chateau half way to Onnaing. Our troops
moved on and past that town.  I started out after them
and got as far as Onnaing when our motor machine guns
were held up. They shortly afterwards moved on. The
55th Battery moved up and I got them into action very
quickly for a target which was holding up our infantry.
We moved our headquarters into Onnaing. The enemy
shelled us very heavily and fired upon the town vdth
indirect fire. One of my signallers, Victor Hare M.M.,
was killed as he went out to repair the line.  It was
sad to see him lying in the open. We took his body into
the garden as it was getting dark. We are located in the
cellar of a house opposite the Church. There is the cure
of the town here and a number of other people. They
treated us kindly giving us coffee and chocolate.  I was
also offered a bed but did not accept it. Everyone, men
and women, were sleeping in the same room in v/hich they also ate and cooked. The town has been terribly shelled
all day and drove the inhabitants to the cellars. On
our entry we were overwhelmed vdth gratitude from the
inhabitants, and the place became as busy as a town on
market day, but soon all disappeared when the shelling
commenced.
"Nov. 5th This morning under a heavy barrage we took
Quarouble and advanced beyond but were held up by Fosse 144
2 outside of Quieverchain.  Yesterday the 38th Battalion
went out of the line and were relieved by the 85th Battalion.  Fosse 2 is a stronghold. We shelled it heavily
about 2 p.m., but did not succeed in capturing it. Our
headquarters moved to Quarouble and the 55th Battery
moved up behind us. They were heavily shelled as was the
town. There were few inhabitants here.
"Nov. 6th Through the night several prisoners were
captured who told us the Germans intended to remain another day in the Fosse. We attacked in the morning and
captured the Fosse, entered Quieverchain and in the afternoon our troops crossed into Belgium. I am still liaison
officer and have the arduous duties of keeping the artillery in action and notified of what is happening.  It is
very pleasant work. Last night I slept in a coal bin and
was not uncomfortable. Sad to say we lost rather heavily
before the Fosse, two officers were killed and one blinded.
The blinded one that day was notified that he had received
the Military Cross. About 12 men were killed and 40
wounded. The 85th Battalion was relieved that night by
the 22nd Battalion of French Canadians 2nd Division.
"Nov. 7th I was relieved early by a 2nd Division officer
and I went down to our waggon lines in Valenciennes. They
are comfortable and we have all the horses under cover.
The guns were taken out of action. They had been in Quarouble. We expect to rest for some days." 145
Incidently I didn't get ray rest as I was sent over
to the 53rd Battery at 6 a.m. on November 9th as they
were short of officers. We were ordered back into action.
On November 6th Lt. Col. Douglas Cameron of the
38th Canadian Infantry Battalion very kindly sent me a
copy of a letter which he had written to the commanding
officer of the 12th Canadian Infantry Brigade in which he
had recommended me for a Military Cross for the services
I had rendered him as liaison officer.
Though I did have a bit to do with the liaison
work, I do want to record the excellent work of my splendid team of artillery signallers who did all the hard work
and whose wonderful co-operation made our success possible.
Without them I would have been lost. May I mention two of
them, G.B.H. Stevens and Victor Hare, who earlier had both
received Military Medals for meritorious services. Victor
Hare M.M. lost his life doing his duty. I have already
recorded in my diary entry how we laid his body in the
garden adjoining. When I and my wife were in France in
1957 touring the old war area, I was driving a motor car
in that direction and got off the main road having lost
my way. I got out to see where I was and to my astonishment I found myself at the garden gate of the garden in
which we had laid him. I felt as if an unknown power had
dropped me there. Miracles do seem to happen. 146
I also want to record the excellent work of the
55th Battery of our 13th Brigade when the Battalion was
held up at Quarouble. The whole battery did really a
marvellous job in getting into position and landing
shells perfectly on the target resulting in the immediate
retirement of the enemy. This especially pleased Col.
Cameron. I was just lucky in locating the Battery moving
on the road and communicating the target.
I must also record the excellent work of my own
Battery the 51st Battery and indeed every other Battery
of the 13th Brigade and other batteries which provided
the artillery support whenever called upon and whose
work was so vital to our success. I was only one amongst
many.
And then November 11th arrived and the war was
over, and we were in the vicinity of Crespin not far from
Mons. We found that the Germans had fled and left us
without a target. At 11 a.m. the actual hour the war
ended I was in the waggon lines where the horses were
being groomed and fed. The men were all drawn up, the
official message ending the war was read, a cheer given
followed by an order of "Carry On". The war was over
but the horses had to be attended to.
We remained in the vicinity of Mons for some days.
I even became a tourist and did a little sightseeing.
Mons was quite a nice little town with some comfortable 147
and beautiful homes. The town was filled with people
and there was a good deal to sell in the stores though
prices \*ere very high.
On November 21st we started on our march through
Belgium to the Rhine. Everywhere we were received with
flags and decorations. All Belgium was decorated. Banners of welcome hung in every town and we certainly felt
that it was good to take part in such a march. On our
way I spent a day in Namur and was delighted to meet one
of my old friends from Oxford, J.B. McNair. He was a
Rhodes Scholar from New Brunswick who came to Oxford with
me and did the same courses as I and graduated vdth first
in everything. He later returned to New Brunswick, became
Premier of New Brunswick and later Lieutenant Governor of
New Brunswick. Unfortunately he passed on only a very
short while ago.
Finally December 13th arrived. My diary reads
as follows.
"Dec. 13th Not only is today the thirteenth but
it is Friday, a day of good or bad luck surely.
It was awful to pull out of bed so terribly early
and find it raining in torrents. We left in the
darkness of 6 a.m. prepared for the triumphal
entry. Today we cross the Rhine. The minds of
most of the men have been looking forward to the
day!  (Der Tag!) And now it has arrived. But in
mud, darkness, and rain imagination is blunted 148
and dulled, and the happy anticipation has developed into a thankful realization that our trials
are near an end. As we crossed the bridge giving
"Eyes Right!" to General Currie, little did we
think that we were making history which some day
would be proudly studied for our future generations.
Bonn is a beautiful city, humbled in its pride and
learning by our passage. But Bonn vdll rise again
to her former stately stature. Siegburg, where we
ended, is 5 or 6 miles East of the river. It is
quite a nice town, in former days quite prosperous.
On the hill "Micheburg" is a hospital, once a
monastery. Here are still German wounded and
German medical officers.
The billets for the men are to be in a shell
factory where we have comfortably placed our horses
under cover and free from rain. Our billets are
not yet ready for the men and sadly to say they
have had to hang around the horse lines all day in
the mud and rain. After much negotation we got
billets in the town. I went out with a German
policeman and we secured a room and bed for every
man in the battery. Some even had sitting rooms
attached. All are delighted with the arrangements.
I have a very comfortable room well heated vdth 149
steam heat and a comfortable bed. The lady is
very nice. I am drying out after the rain."
When the war was in progress we all planned and
talked about the wonderful holiday we were all to have.
But I soon found it wasn't for me. The very day we
arrived in Sieburg I was informed that I had been put in
command of the Brigade Khaki University. I felt rather
honored in being selected for such a position. It was
my duty to organize as many educational courses as possible,
and to attach those who wanted subjects we could not supply
to the correspondence department of the Khaki University.
It was not an easy job. I had no assistants, no faculty,
no books, no library, nor even premises in which to work.
I had to find them all. We also did not know how long we
would be in any place nor how we could plan any course.
We were surprised to find the number of well
trained University men we had at our command, some held
University posts, and many were teachers in all grades
of schools. There were also many excellent technicians who
were skilled and available for technical instruction. On
the whole I was delighted with the results and before long
we really had established quite a school. Our biggest
trouble of course was the lack of books which really
never was filled. I decided to take a course myself and
chose German and I soon had a German conversing with me 150
each day for three hours for which I paid him a suitable
fee.
And so it went on until January 19th when my leave
warrant arrived and I was off to Cologne and across Belgium back to London, and then on to Ireland, which I
visited from the North to the South and back again to
London. I even kissed the Blarney stone at Cork, Ireland.
In the meantime I discovered that if one wanted to study
at an English University and had proper qualifications
one could get transferred from ones unit to the Khaki
University for that purpose. I accordingly enrolled in
the London school of Economics to study economics, and
entered the chambers of a barrister, Willoughby Williams,
in Pump Court in the Middle Temple as a student barrister.
I was then transferred to the Khaki College until June
30th, 1919. My war days were over, but not my memories
which will always haunt me.
I will never forget the first time I saw our dead
in the field, a young boy, lying on his back in a shell
hole, clutching a testament, issued to the ranks, evidently
knowing he was dying, and praying to his loved ones.
On another occasion I was artillery liaison officer
with an infantry battalion who at night raided an enemy
trench. It was not a success. No prisoners were taken
and many casualties occurred. To see them crawling back
under enemy fire was a scene one cannot forget. 151
It is hard to know that a friend has been killed
or even wounded, especially one who has just left you to
do his duty.
And our dumb animals suffered a lot. I will never
forget seeing one of my horses straining with his guns to
escape a shelling with half of his entrails hanging out.
It was a dreadful sight. On another occasion I had to
hand my own revolver to a sergeant to end the suffering
of my own riding horse who had broken a leg under enemy
fire. I couldn't do it myself. Such is war and awful
the memories.
We all of course have happy memories of the heroic
deeds and bravery of many of our friends who survived,
but they can never erase the sad memories of those who
died, nor can they justify the awfulness of war. Chapter 10
After the War
On February 3rd, 1919, I officially became a member of the Khaki University. I was then at the Canadian
Officers Club in London. From there I engaged rooms with
board at 28 Upper Bedford Place, Russell Square. It was
my main idea to get some practical experience in a barrister's Chambers, and to continue my studies in economics
in the later afternoon classes at the London School of
Economics. This was a faculty of the University of London
and is one of the best known schools of Economics in the
world, at least in the English speaking world. So many
of our world wide leading political leaders have studied
there, that one can almost say that its students are in
control of, or influence, a great part of the world's
political and economic life.
At the time that I studied there the well-known
Sydney Webb was its head along with his illustrious wife.
I was there before the new building had been erected and
there was then situated upstairs in almost a garret room
an old dining and lunch room. At noontime I lunched
there on many occasions. There I met people from all
around the globe, especially from India, Africa and China,
and though I cannot now name them as I kept no records of
my conversations, I do know that many have since become 153
leading officials and may even be heads of states. The
question of the development of China at that time was
one of the paramount questions to be discussed, and I
recall that we on one occasion discussed the future of
the Chinese and Indian immigrants into Canada, and I was
asked to contribute a short statement of ray personal
thoughts in this connection for publication in one of the
papers of the school.
I studied there for a period of five months, taking
various courses in European History of which I knew very
little, and also in the study of new methods of economic
development, and especially that of energy consumed in
work and the methods of greater efficiency. This was a
completely new study, which has since developed in such
a remarkable manner, that my notes would now be completely
out of date.
Each morning I walked down Middle Temple Lane to
Pump Court and entered that famous court where I mounted
a staircase leading to the Chambers of Willoughby Williams.
There I was met by an elderly clerk who had been attending
Mr. Williams for many years.  I would judge, though I do
not know, that Mr. Williams was in his sixties or late
fifties, and so was his clerk. They didn't even have a
typewriter.  Indeed, Mr. Williams had little to do with
the public as he was a barrister and did all his work
through a solicitor. He had written a textbook on 1^/;
Contested Election Law and was considered an authority on
that subject.  I spent my time in his room or in the law
library of the Middle Temple, usually working up law for
his various briefs. It was very interesting work and of
course I got paid nothing for my trouble. Indeed, Mr.
Williams carefully told me that his charge for such a
privilege was something like a hundred guineas, but that
as I was a Canadian soldier he would charge me nothing.
Mr. Williams was very kind to me and entertained rae at
his home on several occasions, and I had the pleasure of
being a partner with his daughter at a very charming dance.
Mrs. M.E. Angus, mother of my life long friend,
was then living in a small hotel in Bedford Street and I
had the pleasure of visiting her on a number of occasions.
Henry F. Angus had spent his time during the war in a
British Infantry Battalion in India and the middle East
battle area, and returned to London for demobilization
shortly after my arrival there. He also became attached
to a solicitor in London, and became a lecturer in various
matters in the Khaki University. The result was that I
met him on a number of occasions during the spring and
summer. I was not long in London before I got the opportunity of being presented with my Military Cross by King
George V and had the usual invitation to attend at Buckingham Palace for that purpose and was allowed several
invitations for my friends. Mrs. Angus and Mrs. and Miss
Alice Nelson thus accompanied me to the presentation which
I think was quite enjoyed. 155
Miss Nelson was a graduate of the University of
Edinburgh and a senior grade teacher in French whom I
had met at the University of Geneva when I was a student
there in 1912. She and her widowed mother were living
in London where she was teaching, when I was training in
Witley previous to proceeding to France. The Canadian
Army liked to have an English address for each soldier
whilst in France where he could keep his effects that
could not be taken to France on active service. Mrs.
Nelson very kindly offered her address to me for that
purpose and allowed me to store my excess baggage with
her. Their home thus became my official English home
and was greatly appreciated by myself.
It was not long, a short while before Easter, that
Mrs. Angus introduced me to Mrs. Herford of Gordon Square.
Mr. R.T. Herford was a Unitarian ordained minister and was
Librarian of Dr. Williams Library, a foundation on Gordon
Square, which square has since become part of the University of London. Mr. Herford was later given an honorary
doctorate degree by the University of Amsterdam on the
occasion of its tercentenary celebration. Two floors of
the Library were set aside for the Herford family as their
residence, far more than they needed. Thus Mrs. Herford
had taken in several boarders and she offered me a room.
I was delighted to accept and lived there until the end
of June. In residence at that time were two of her 156
daughters, Catharine, an art student, and Margaret, a
medical student. Boarding was Irene M. Golding, also a
medical student. The Canadian Club for officers and the
Royal Automobile Club had opened their doors to Canadian
officers and I made use of their services. One invitation given me through the Canadian Club was from Sir
George Scott, a member of the rather famous "The Savage
Club" which was a club composed of authors, editors, and
other writers. On February 8th I attended a most delightful dinner given by them and met such persons as E. Flynn,
Editor of the Daily Mirror and A. St. John Adcock, Editor
of the Bookman, and others.
The Royal Automobile Club also gave delightful
dinners followed by dancing. At that time there was a
Canadian officer on duty in London, an old friend of mine
from Victoria, Capt. A.E. Robertson, and also Capt. Henry
F. Angus. The three of us therefore took the opportunity
of attending a number of dinners and dances at the Club
in company with Catharine and Margaret Herford and Irene
Golding which we all thoroughly enjoyed.
We were also invited by them to dances elsewhere.
On several occasions I enjoyed boating on Regent Park with
Catharine and Irene, and also occasionally visited the
theatres in their company. 157
Then London held a Victory Parade I never will
forget. Irene and I went down to see the evening events
during which she and I stood on Waterloo Bridge watching
the fireworks in the distance. We gazed in silence. It
was a beautiful display. But it wasn't the fireworks I
was interested in. I knew I was in love.
She always contends that the only failure she had
in an examination was due to such frivolity. I didn't
consider it as such, and I don't think Irene did either.
She ultimately became my wife, but not till 1924.
At the commencement of the war Irene had enrolled
as a Red Cross Nurse and had become interested in medicine,
and later entered as a student of the London School of Medicine for Women. After completing her studies there in
1919 she entered The London Hospital when it first admitted
women students, graduating as a doctor in 1922. Subsequently she completed an appointment in the London Hospital in
the Surgical Emergency section, and did two years general
practice with a London Hospital graduate, Dr. Basden, in
Brooke, Norfolk.
In the meantime June 30th arrived all too soon and
I was called back to Witley Camp for return to Canada and
demobilisation.
My experience at the London School of Economics
and as a student in the Chambers of Willoughby Williams 158
was well worth the time I spent in London; and I may add
that my experience at Dr. Williams Library was the crowning event of my life. As a matter of fact Irene and I
never discussed the question of marriage, but I do think
that both of us inwardly hoped that such an event would
happen. We both knew that she required three more years
to complete her medical degree at the London Hospital, and
that I had a mother and sister to care for, no money, and
not even a prospect of work as a lawyer for the future. I
therefore had to return to Canada and built up a practice.
And so it was that I received my discharge from
Witley Camp on July 11th for return to Canada and ultimately sailed from Liverpool on the Cunard R.M.S. "Royal
George" arriving in Halifax on July 25th, 1919, and then
on to Victoria. At last I was home with a thank you and
six months pay which was only about $100 a month. That
was all I had and that only came monthly.
I wasn't at all surprised that nobody wanted me.
I had been called and admitted as a British Columbia
lawyer in 1916 and held two law degrees, one a graduate
degree, and felt myself fairly well qualified. I visited
practically every lawyer in Victoria and not one would
give me a job. At last Mr. C.W. Bradshaw stated that if
I wanted to work for him without pay he would permit rae
to do so. I had to get started some place and so I accepted his offer and worked for him for three months. At 159
last I decided that the best thing to do was to open my
own office which I did on November 27th, 1919 at 212 Union
Bank Building, View Street. I only had one room divided
into two small parts, an outer and inner office. I must
say that Mr. Bradshaw was of great assistance to me and
kind enough to give me $100 for ray services. I bought
some old furniture, an old safe, and an old typewriter and
employed a stenographer for a few hours a day. And so I
got started.
But I needed more and so persuaded the school
inspector to allow me to give a course in the night school
in Economics and Political Science. If I recall correctly
I gave two lectures a week throughout the winter season,
and on the whole, besides supplying me with a small income,
they were well attended and I received an invitation to
repeat the series next winter. In the autumn of 1919,
the Provincial Government was holding a referendum on the
question as to whether or not a Provincial Government
Liquor Act should be established, and I got the job of
presiding at one of the voting centres. Thus, with my
military pension for 6 months, I survived the winter and
just paid my expenses for running an office. TheWMr.
Thornton Fell K.C., one of Victoria's well know lawyers,
died on April 1st, 1920, and I was offered his practice
by his wife, who in the meantime had become acquainted
with some of my work. I had to pay a small amount, payable
1 160
in small sums over a period of time. I accepted the
offer and moved to his quarters in the Chancery Chambers
in Langley Street, right next to the Court House. My
quarters consisted of a large office, a law library, and
two lawyers offices, much more than I needed. Unfortunately the best part of his practice had in the meantime
been taken over by other firms of lawyers who had not
been slow in soliciting their work. But I got quite a
bit of small work which put me on my feet. I had, of
course, to pay a larger rent and a full time salary for
a very efficient stenographer employed by Mr. Fell. But
I was able to pay my way and the expenses of my home,
but no more.
In the meantime a number of returned soldiers
organizations had come into being, the principal one being
the Great War Veterans' Association. I joined this organization and was elected the Treasurer of its Victoria
Branch. As I became more active I made many friends, one,
now deceased, being another lawyer, C.H. O'Halloran, who
was appointed a Justice of the Supreme Court of British
Columbia, later being raised to the Court of Appeal.
The Kiwanis Club of Victoria was organized on
January 18, 1920 and I was invited to become a charter
member. I accepted this invitation and have remained a
member ever since, being its President in 1933. The work 161
of this club has been outstanding in Victoria, and I am
proud of my association with this organization.
1920 thus became a busy year for myself. To help
out my finances, I again repeated ray course in Economics
and Political Science during the evening classes of the
School Board. I also gave a course of legal lectures for
law students, then studying in local law offices.
Luckily for me the Provincial Government which was
then under the Liberal Premier, John Oliver, planned an
election for December 1920. Victoria had four members,
all of whom at that time were Liberals. Both parties
decided that the ticket must contain at least one returned
soldier. My father had always in the past supported the
Conservative Party and I had supported the Liberal Party.
Thus it happened that I was first approached by a member
of the Conservative party to see if I would stand as a
candidate, which I had to refuse, though I had never
actually joined the Liberal Party. And then the Liberals offered me a place and I decided to run. I felt
rather honored that both parties should have considered
me personally, though I do not know whether the Conservatives had ever officially discussed my name as a candidate. It probably was only an enquiry, and probably
quite unofficial at that. In the meantime the Conservatives nominated Canon Hinchcliffe who had been a Padre 162
overseas. When the election came on December 1st, 1920,
both Canon Hinchcliffe and I were elected and the Liberal
Party returned under John Oliver.
In perusing the statement I made on the announcement of the election, I find I said, in part, "The vote
proves that the people of British Columbia are desirous
of continuing the development of our natural resources
without the disasters accompanying the wild speculation
of several years previous.... British Columbia is still
a young country and has need of her young men to assist
in building upon the present firm foundation a superstructure of prosperity, happiness and greatness which
will rank our Province amongst the greatest in the world..
The people of Canada must have faith in their land
and be prepared to exert their last effort in service to
their fellow men	
As a native son I feel that I am a true Victorian.
I have grown up and developed with this Province, and I
look forward to the time when I will be able to turn back
on ray life and feel and know that my development and
progress has been accomplished by the development and
progress of my country."
Almost 49 years have now passed and I can now look
back on my life and endorse every word of that speech
and especially the last paragraph quoted above.
This speech was made in the Liberal Rooms after
the returns had come in and my election was assured. 163
1
Amongst those attending was my mother. I don't think
there was anyone there more pleased than she, and I will
always remember the wonderful way in which she received
my victory and how proud I was of her presence as she
had done so much for me. I only wished my father could
have joined her. One thing especially pleased her.
Woman suffrage had only been brought in by the Liberals
after their victory at the polls in 1916. Except in a
municipal election she had never voted before for a member of the legislature and now at the first election at
which she had that right she was able to cast a ballot
in favour of her son.
And so early in 1921 I was sworn in and sat for the
first time as a Victoria member of the Legislative Assembly
of British Columbia. I was asked to second the motion for
the reply to the Speech from the Throne, and was appointed
Secretary for the Private Bills Committee. This was an
important position especially for a lawyer. All Private
Bills that were being promoted by private companies or
other organizations went before this committee and came
under ray supervision. This meant that I met many of
British Columbia's leading financiers, lawyers, and business men. Thus, after I had been defeated in 1924 I
was able to practice as a specialist in drawing and
presenting Private Bills to the legislature, a practice
which I carried on for many years on fairly remunerative
t erms• 164
I had been living at 1199 Victoria Avenue on a
rental basis. In 1921 my landlord informed me that the
house was to be sold and if I did not wish to purchase
it I should make other arrangements. The price was one
which I could not meet. As a result I found excellent
quarters at 1188 Hampshire Road at a purchase price payable monthly on easy terms and so I with ray mother and
sister moved to that location. After the war real estate
prices had fallen badly and though my mother had re-taken
possession of 1500 Fort Street, it was too large for us.
We rented this to others, but in the end various tenants
were unable to pay and we finally allowed the property
to revert for non-payment of City taxes.
Then early in 1921 my mother felt unwell and went
to see her doctor, Dr. Ernest Hall. When she came back
she informed us very bravely that she had a cancer of
her lower bowel and that the doctor would not operate
but that a colostomy was necessary. This was a great
shock to me, but she took it all very calmly, and the
operation was in due course performed. This, of course,
did not cure the cancer, but gave her a longer interval
to live. I was fortunate in being able to employ a very
good maid who was able to live in and care for her. As
my mother became weaker I had to employ a full time nurse
who also lived in. My mother was fully conscious during
the whole period of her illness and even spoke to us on 165
the day of her death. On August 16th, 1922 she realized
that she was sinking and looked at me and asked, "Am I
dying?" I said "I hope not". She passed out later that
day. My great friend, F.G.C. Wood, was one of the pallbearers and Hon. John Oliver, our Premier, honored me by
attending the funeral with many others. And so one phase
of my life had passed on and with it, a wonderful mother.
She had had an active, busy life. She had been a perfect
daughter, a perfect wife and a perfect mother. On the
whole she had had a hard life but a happy one. She never
complained and met all problems with a smile, and a
determination to solve them. This she did and was a
real pioneer of British Columbia.
With hard work and good luck my legal practice
had prospered, and with my small allowance as a member
of the House I was able to pay my expenses but that was
about all. For a time I employed Gordon Cameron, whom I
had met overseas, as a student-in-law. He later opened
his own practice and only recently passed on after quite
a successful career. Then William T. Straith completed
his course in law and was called to the Bar. He was a
1916 graduate in Arts from the University of Manitoba,
then served in France during the war and later completed
his law degree from Manitoba and his articles in Victoria.
He joined me as a partner in the autumn of 1922 and we
"1 166
carried on partnership until 1939 when he opened his own
partnership with Mr. H.S. Pringle.
In the meantime I had carried on a correspondence
with Irene Golding whom I have referred to before. I
knew she would not graduate as a Physician and Surgeon
until 1922. She knew that financially I could not marry
her for an indefinite period. So both of us remained
quite free to marry or not in the future as we chose,
and our correspondence always remained that of just good
friends. I soon found in Victoria that the life socially
of an unattached bachelor can be very pleasant and one
never lacked social entertainment nor partners at a dance.
On several occasions I was rather amused at being invited
by the Matron of the Jubilee Hospital to graduation dances
on the promise that I was to dance only with her "girls"
as she called them. Also on a number of occasions the
secretary for Government House called me up and said he
needed an extra man for a dinner or a dance or for some
other affair and could I please help him out. I was
always delighted to fill in. And so I was kept very busy
socially.
One of the problems we had to decide was what was
to be done with the Pacific Great Eastern Railway. The
company had been organized with private capital and the
railway had only been constructed from Squamish to near
Quesnel and was bankrupt. The country through which it 167
"1
travelled was quite clearly a rich country, but the
railway started nowhere and ended nowhere, and quite
clearly could not pay. The Liberal Government was very
doubtful as to what should be done and so were all the
members. But something had to be done and the Liberals
decided to do it and take over the Railway. So John
Oliver invited all members to take a trip with him over
the line. And so we attended and a pleasant trip it
was. It opened my eyes at least, to the wonderful country
which lay in the interior. I was particularly impressed
with the necessity of making some connection with other
Railway Lines and advocated a connection between Clinton
and Ashcroft. Though it never materialized I still
believe that it would have been wise. One amusing incident was the fact that Canon Hinchcliffe refused to
accompany the other members of the Assembly. He maintained
that the Liberals would conceal something from him. So he
set out as a tramp or something like one and moved from
place to place along the railway to study the conditions,
without revealing his indentity. I don't think he enjoyed
the trip very much as we heard nothing more about it.
The losses have been heavy in connection with the
railway, but now the Railway does not have to pay the
heavy debenture debt and the Railway is paying its way.
I think we were wise to have done as we did, but we must
be careful in its future expansion.    The Oliver Government
saved the P.G.E. for British Columbia. The P.G.E. owes 168
a debt to the B.C. Government and can only pay it by
developing the hinterland.
Another problem which had to be faced was the
liquor question. During the war prohibition had been
in force and had been a distinct failure. The government
had put a plebiscite to the people of British Columbia as
to whether the government should re-establish the sale of
liquor, under Government supervision. This the citizens
approved of and a Liquor Control Board had been established.
But the question of the sale of Beer by the glass was a
difficult one and caused me a good deal of worry. I,
myself, would have been just as happy to have seen prohibition continued. The premier, John Oliver, was in a
similar position, and as far as he was concerned the
question of voting on the subject in the legislature was
left entirely to the conscience of each member. But in a
democratic society the majority must prevail, and this
was the opinion which I advocated. The result was that
the government provided for the establishment of licensed
Beer Parlors for the sale of beer by the glass. The vote
quite regardless of party was widely divided.
Another question which came before us was what to
do with the University of British Columbia. This had
been started during the war and a chemistry building had
been partly built on the Point Grey campus. The University had carried on in what was known as the shacks near 169
the Vancouver General Hospital. The Government had given
the University very little money, and we were soon met
with a demand from Vancouver and other parts for an active
participation in building the University. But there was
no universal demand. Our total government budget was not
much more than $20,000,000 a year and everyone was asking
for money. A delegation of students and others visited
the Parliament buildings and urged the completion of the
chemistry building, and the plans generally to move to
the Point Grey Campus. I was very happy to support them
and did all I could to help them. It was quite a hard
struggle. I was amazed at the general lack of support
for education generally. But we were successful and I
feel that we owe a great debt to the then Minister of
Education, Dr. J.D. MacLean.
I had four years of hard work as a member of the
legislature. I enjoyed them all. I learned a great deal.
Our salary was small, but I was young and the experience
was well worth it. When 1924 came and Liberal Government
decided to have an election, &   had been in power eight
years. The problems of the returned men and the rehabilitation of the country after a war was not an easy one.
It was, therefore, not surprising that the popularity of
the Liberal Government was on the wain. Victoria had
always been more Conservative than Liberal and so it was
not surprising that when our election was called on ~l
170
June 20th, 1924, all four Liberal candidates in Victoria,
including Premier Oliver and myself, were defeated. Mr.
Oliver had been careful to run also in the Delta constituency and so was able to carry on as Premier, but with a
reduced majority in the house. Thus ended my active
political life.
But I had decided upon another life, I was to be
married on July 30th, 1924. My bride was to be Irene
M. Golding, and my wedding was to take place in London,
England.
The Canadian Bar Association was to meet at Quebec
City on July 7th and 8th followed by a trip of the Canadian Bar Association from Quebec to Southampton from
July 8th to the 16th to join with the American Bar
Association in a grand reception by the English Bar in
London on July 21st. I decided to go. Chapter 11
1924 and Thereafter
It was a great day in the life of Sir James
Aikins, the President of the Canadian Bar Association.
He it was who had founded the Canadian Bar Association
and had written its constitution. Its objects were as
follows:
(a) To advance the science of Jurisprudence
(b) To uphold the honour of the profession
(c) To encourage cordial intercourse amongst
the members of the Canadian Bar.
The Canadian Bar Association was for all of Canada and
became a union of the French and English Codes of Law.
It was significant that the meeting was being held in
Quebec City on the eve of the Canadian Bar Association,
and the English Bar being hosts to the American Bar
Association in London, England.
"Canada" declared Sir James, "has ceased to belong
to the people of Britain and the people of France, whilst
neither does it belong to the aborigines, who have never
been treated with any degree of courtesy, but it does
belong from the Atlantic to the Pacific, from North to
South, and from the warmth below to the starry skies
above, to the population of Canada." And he added, "We
must not only make the house of laws but we must also
alter them to suit changing conditions." ~l
172
"Although Canada is an incomparable gift," he
concluded, "let us not delude ourselves that we are a
favoured nation, but let us prevent all agitations that
tend to make governments paternal and people dependant."
This was his message forty-five years ago. If he
were able to be today in Quebec, he would give the same
message and receive as tumultous a reception as he did on
that occasion. The Canadian Bar Association has carried
out the three objects set out by Sir James and is still
doing so, and will be a lasting influence in solving the
legal and constitutional problems which now too often
confront us.
And so we embarked from Quebec on July 8th on
"S.S. Moniaurier" for a delightful trip to Southampton
and then on to London. And so it was that on July 21st
at Westminster Hall an historic gathering was held and
Irene, my wife to be, and I sat in our reserved seats
and watched one of the most wonderful gatherings that I
have ever attended anywhere.
At the south end of the Hall a platform had been
erected midway up the broad flight of steps and it was
to this platform that a stately procession of Judges,
headed by the Lord Chancellor, all in wigs and ceremonial
robes, proceeded through an aisle flanked by members of
the British, American and Canadian Bars such as never
before had gathered there. It was a magnificent and rare 173
sight as their Lordships slowly and in a dignified manner
made their entry.
On the right of Viscount Haldane sat the Lord President of the Council (Lord Parmoor) and on his left was
the Lord Chief Justice (Lord Hewart). With the members of
the American Bar was the American Ambassador (Mr. Frank
B. Kellog).
As soon as those forming the procession had taken
their place, the Attorney General (Sir Patrick Hastings,
K.C.) addressed the Lord Chancellor and presented the
members of the American Bar Association. He was followed
by Mr. R.W. Dibdin, president of the Law Society, and Sir
James Aikins, president of the Canadian Bar Association
who was acting as joint host with the English Bar. In
part Sir James Aikins said "Hitherto there has been no
opportunity for American or Canadian Bar Associations to
meet collectively the lawyers of Great Britain. Now we
have come, come as men of law, to the ancestral home of
our law, to this shrine, Westminster Hall, the seat of the
English Law courts for seven or eight centuries, built by
William Rufus, and roofed in oak by Richard II, the walls
of which listened to great state trials and conclusions
which gave us our systems of constitutional government.
Taught by England here the fundamentals of freedom, and
of sacred property rights, and methods of local self-
government under which those rights and freedoms are best
maintained, and given here the common law, born out of the 174
experience of centuries and softened by equity, the United
States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the South African
Union and the Irish Free State arrived at nationhood under
the same pilot, the British Spirit, and substantially by
the same route, though some had a more difficult passage
than others. It was choice, not chance, that moved these
nations in their development. In that choice and in the
constitutional construction of those nations, the men of
law were then the leaders: now their successors from all
parts of the United States and Canada converge to the home
of the mother of nations."
The Lord Chancellor, Viscount Haldane, gave a brilliant welcome and ended with "Here in Westminster Hall the
ancestors of both of us did their work, here they have
given their names to some of the great deeds in history
and law, and it is surely right that this hall should be
the place chosen in which to accord to you a heartfelt
welcome."
It was indeed a great privilege to take part in
such an event and the pleasure was greatly enhanced by
being able to obtain invitations for Irene Golding, my
prospective bride, who shared with me the events of the
day. We were first entertained by the Canadian High
Commissioner at a reception at 97 Lancaster Gate on
July 17th, and again by the Treasurer and Master of the
Bench of the Honourable Society of Lincoln's Inn at -75
Lincoln's Inn on July 18th, and then by the American Ambassador and Mrs. Kellogg at Crewe House, Curzon Street
on July 22nd, all of which were delightful and introduced
both of us to a new atmosphere of society.
On July 22nd the Treasurer and Benchers of the
Four Inns of Court and the President and Council of the
Law Society entertained the Canadian and American members
of the Bar at a magnificent dinner at Gray's Inn Hall that
evening. The dinner was presided over by the Right Honourable the Earl of Birkenhead. He gave an inspiring address
and brought back memories to me of a visit by him, when
he was F.E. Smith, at the Oxford Union. On that occasion
he took part in a university debate, in which I joined,
when the debate was later thrown open for discussion.
At the dinner at Gray's Inn the ladies were not
invited to share the event, but the following day, July
23rd, the Treasurers and Masters of Lincoln's and Gray's
Inns and the Canadian Bar Association entertained at
Lincoln's Inn Gardens and Gray's Inn Gardens when the
ladies joined us. There was no lack of entertainment for
that same night we were entertained by the University of
London at a Reception at the University of London, Imperial
Institute Road, South Kensington. This was a very gay and
striking occasion. Robes and orders were to be worn.
Unfortunately I did not have any of mine available. Irene
joined me on that occasion.
175 ~l
176
July 24th was a busy day for on that occasion
Their Majesties, King George and Queen Mary, entertained
us all at a Garden Party in the Garden of Buckingham
Palace. As I had obtained morning Dress for my wedding
I was able to appear properly attired. This was an event
which Irene and I cherished. Though Their Majesties
circled amongst us, we were not amongst the favoured few
who were presented. But I was able to secure additional
invitations for Irene's mother and father which pleased
me greatly.
That same night, July 24th, Irene and I were invited by the Master, the Right Honourable Sir Ernest M.
Pollock Bart, K.B.E., Master of the Rolls, and Warden
of the Worshipful Company of Grocers to a reception at
Grocer's Hall to meet Field Marshall H.R.H. The Duke of
Connaught, K.G., Senior Hon. Freeman of the Company. I
might add that the Worshipful Company of Grocers is one
of the most ancient guilds in London, dating from 1180
A.D. and does not necessarily have any members who are
grocers. The occasion was quite a brilliant one and we
were entertained by the Band of the Royal Regiment of
Artillery.
The final event in London was a magnificent Reception given in the Palace of Westminster on July 25th
at 10 p.m. by the Lord Chancellor and Miss Haldane, the
Earl and Countess of Birkenhead, Viscount and Viscountess 177
Cave, Viscount Finlay, and Lord and Lady Buckmaster.
These were the members of the House of Lords, the highest
court in Britain. This will be long remembered by both
of us.
The Ladies Reception Committee entertained the
ladies at other events including a luncheon at the Savoy
Hotel on July 19th and an "At Home" on the Terrace of the
House of Lords on July 22nd.
From London the Bar Associations moved for a day
to Oxford to be entertained by Oxford University. We
accompanied the party, but as I knew Oxford well, we left
them and were entertained by Sir Francis and Lady Wylie
at a luncheon followed by a trip on the river and a view
of my Oxford resorts. The trip was only for a day. The
Bar Association then moved to Paris, but as the day for
my wedding was approaching I had to give consideration
to that event and so terminated a memorable event. I
doubt if such an event has ever occurred again in such
a lavish manner. For a young lawyer such as I, it was an
event of my life.
But the next event of my life was rapidly approaching. I had only three days left before my marriage and
all kinds of things had to be attended to. Irene's
mother and father had been living in Bournemouth but had
come to London with Irene for the wedding. They were
then living at the Manor Hotel, 32 Westboume, London,
W.2. I had secured also a room in the same Hotel. But 178
I was informed that it was bad luck for a bridegroom
to be living in the same location as the bride on the
day of the wedding and so on July 29th I had accepted
an invitation from Rev. R.T. Herford to move to his home
at Dr. William's Library. This was the place where I
had boarded in 1919 and where I had met Irene in the
first place. My old friend, Henry F. Angus, had been
recently married in Vancouver and was on his honeymoon
on that date in London. I had arranged for him to be
my best man. W.A. McAdam was living in Victoria when I
had been elected a member of the Legislature and was well
known to me. He was later appointed to the Civil Service
and moved to London as Secretary to the Agent General of
British Columbia House in London. He was of great assistance to me when I came to London in 1924. I had invited
him and his wife to my wedding, as I had also invited
Mr. W.B. Ryan, a well known business man in Victoria, whom
I had casually met on the Strand several days before the
wedding. I had also found another Victoria friend, Mr.
and Mrs. J.L. Beckwith, at the same hotel as I, and they
also attended my wedding.
The securing of the marriage licence is usually
the job of the husband, but as it had to be applied for
a specified time before the marriage, I had to ask Irene
to do this for me as I would not be in London long enough
to meet the residence requirements. When she was asked 179
my name she didn't know what the "B" stood for, and as
I was at that moment on the Atlantic she was frantic as
they refused to licence until they got the full name.
Finally she thought of another girl who knew me, Catharine Herford, who helped her out of the problem. And
so the wedding was saved.
On the evening of July 28th, Irene's father, G.H.
Golding, arranged a dinner at Dr. William's Library.
This was a most delightful occasion and thoroughly enjoyed by us all.
So July 30th finally arrived and at 2 p.m. I was
waiting in the Presbyterian Church, Regent's Square,
W.C., when Irene on the arm of her father, G.H. Golding,
accompanied by her bridesmaids, Dr. Joyce White and Dr.
Margaret Herford, marched up the aisle and we were married by Rev. Robertson, a Scotch Presbyterian. We were
pelted with rose petals as we fled from the Church and
on to a grand reception at University Hall in Dr. Williams
Library, Gordon Square, kindly provided by Rev. Herford.
The usual pictures were taken in the gardens of Gordon
Square and after the usual toasts we left for Victoria
Hotel on our honeymoon. The name "Victoria" had been
chosen for obvious reasons. That evening we spent at a
theatre and next day we were off to the Lake District,
registering at the Low Wood Hotel, Windermere. 180
On September 4th we sailed from Southampton on the
S.S. Minnedosa and duly arrived in Victoria where a cordial welcome was awaiting us.
Though Irene was entitled to practise her profession
in England this did not permit her to practise in British
Columbia. She thought it wise to secure membership in
the College of Physicians and Surgeons of British Columbia
in order to retain her standing in the medical profession
in case she should need it any time. Thus in the spring
of 1925 she wrote the necessary examinations in Vancouver
and became fully qualified for the whole of Canada except
the province of Quebec which has its own organization.
Shortly after I began my practice in British
Columbia, I had joined the Victoria Board of Trade and
had been appointed a member of the Board of Directors.
This became the Victoria Chamber of Commerce, and I remained for many years an active member. In the autumn of
1924, the Chamber of Commerce decided to run a slate of
candidates for the City Council and invited me to join
this slate. I accepted the invitation, and in December
was elected for 1925 an alderman under Mayor J. Carl
Pendray for a period of two years, which was renewed for
a further two years until the end of 1928. Those who
were elected with me were Percy R. Brown, J.L. Mara, and
James Adam. During my term there was nothing very contentious. We received $400 a year salary and got a free 181
telephone and a pass on the street tramway in Victoria.
We met regularly once every week with many extra meetings
and of course many committee meetings. As I was then an
active officer with the 5th Regt. C.G.A., it is not hard
to find that I was pretty busy with little financial reward. Alderman A.E. Todd was also a member and he had a
pet project to build a civic golf links at Beaver Lake.
The city owned the land as part of the Sooke Lake watershed. He had the golf links plans drawn up by a competent
golf architect, but he was unable to secure the money to
build it, and he knew the citizens would never endorse it
if they had to raise their taxes. So each year he got a
small vote placed in the budget to clear a part of the
Beaver Lake Farm as he called it, for farming purposes.
This money was always spent to clear part of the farm on
the golf course. Unfortunately it was never completed
and when the road was widened quite a part of the golf
links disappeared. Perhaps yet the golf course will materialize. I remembered this later and when we wanted land
for the University of Victoria, I suggested that we acquire
the Uplands Golf Course for a reasonable sum and give the
Beaver Lake Course to the Uplands Golf Club for its
development. But I was unable to get the necessary funds
nor anyone to agree. Perhaps it was just as well as we
later got the present site for the University, but at a
greatly enhanced price. 1.82
On July 13th, 1925 Victoria gave a rousing reception to Earl Haig of Bemersyde who had commanded us in
France during the first war. He arrived on the morning
boat from Vancouver.
At the wharf was drawn up a Guard of Honor composed of members of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light
Infantry accompanied by the band of the 15th Canadian
Scottish who played marshal airs of greeting. Also drawn
up was a large delegation of returned soldiers representing
their various units.
Promptly at 9:15 a.m. the Reception Committee
boarded the Princess Mary and found Earl Haig waiting them.
I had been appointed to introduce the delegation
which consisted of His Honor the Lieutenant-Governor and
Mrs. Nichol, the Premier Hon. John Oliver, Brigadier General J.M. Ross, CO. of Military District No. 11, Commander Brabant R.N., Hon. William Sloan, T.H. Pooley,
M.P.P., Col. Cy Peck, V.C., Mayor J. Carl Pendrey, U.S.
Consul George Bucklin, and representatives of the various
returned soldiers organizations from Nanaimo south.
There was also a delegation of ladies representing various
ladies' organizations in Victoria. After I had introduced
them all, the Premier handed Earl Haig, an address of
Welcome to which Earl Haig suitably replied. The ladies
presented Countess Haig with suitable bouquets of flowers. ~l
183
After Earl Haig inspected the Guard of Honor
and the Returned Soldiers parade, he and his party
proceeded to Government House and later were honored
at a Luncheon given by the Canadian Club.
For some time after the first war negotiations
were proceeding throughout Canada to unite the Presbyterian, Methodist, and Congregational Churches of Canada.
Finally this was accomplished. To do this legally, Acts
of Parliament had to be passed by the Canadian government and each of the provinces. I was employed as legislative counsel to pass the act in British Columbia, during
the sitting of the legislature in 1925. During a period
of about two months I had constant interviews with the
members of the legislature and representatives of the
three churches and expecially Dr. W.G. Wilson, who as I
write, has passed his 101st birthday. One of the provisions of the act was to permit any of the Presbyterian
churches to take a vote to remain out of the union. At
that time I was a member of St. Andrews Presbyterian
Church and a member of its Board of Management. Rev.
Leslie Clay, our pastor, was a strong opponent to the
union. There developed in St. Andrews Church a strong
movement to approve the union. I was a member of the
group. I thus found myself in a difficult situation.
During all my known life I had been a member of Mr. Clay's
church and closely associated with its life and the Clay 184
family with whom I am extremely friendly.  St. Andrews
Presbyterian Church voted to stay out of the union and
St. Columba Church voted to enter the union. I thus felt
that I could do nothing else than join St. Columba Presbyterian Church. It was also decided that it would be
better to merge St. Columba Church and the Hampshire Road
Methodist Church.
This church was first started as a Sunday School
by the Metropolitan Methodist Church in the old skating
rink on Fort Street, opposite to what is now the Oak
Bay Junior High School. The skating rink was later burnt
down, and a new church was built in 1912 at Hampshire and
Cranmore Roads. Mr. Van Munster, later of Sooke, built
the church free of charge and Mr. T.F.G. Oliver and his
partner Mr. Townsend did the plastering and chimney without cost. George Williams and others helped. It was
another pioneer church.
Thus on March 17th, 1926, the union of the two
churches became a fact. As was proper, their names were
changed to the Oak Bay United Church. It was also decided and it was mutually agreed by the two pastors concerned that they should resign their appointments and
that a new minister should be called. Thus Rev. William
^*>*j/ became the nev; minister and remained until 1932
when he was succeeded by Dr. Gerald 0reen Switzer, a
young man just out of College. Dr. Switzer remained
until he was called in July, 1937 to a much larger con- 185
gregation in Calgary.  He was succeeded by Rev. F.R.G.
Dredge who resigned on July 1, 1943 to be followed by
Rev. Dr. W.W. McPherson who remained until retiring age.
Dr. McPherson was succeeded by the present incumbent,
Rev. A. Calder, with whom is nov; associated Rev. Dr.
D.B. Sparling.
Shortly after Victoria College moved to Craigdarroch
Castle in 1921 the University Extension Association of
Victoria was organized. The originator and moving spirit
in this venture was Mr. James T. Stott, father of Arthur
Stott, well knovm columnist of the Victoria Daily Times.
He was not a University man, but was very interested in
education.  He organized a committee consisting of Mrs.
Rosalind Watson Young, Rev. W.L. Clay, Mrs. E.C. Hart,
Dean Cecil Quainton and myself and a few others for that
purpose. Mr. Stott acted as its secretary for many years.
The organization has prospered since and still is active
in Victoria, and of course nov; has extended its work to
the University of Victoria. I have always claimed that
it was our organization that started the Extension Department of the University of British Columbia. We owe
a great debt to Mr. Stott.  As a result of this venture
I became associated vdth the reorganized work of Victoria
College at Craigdarroch Castle and haxre remained an ardent
supporter ever since. 186
Once again I tried my hand at Provincial politics
and ran as a Liberal candidate in the election of 1932,
but unfortunately was defeated by a rather narrow majority. It was on this occasion that Bryon Johnson was
first elected as a Liberal and later became Premier of
British Columbia. I was also elected President of the
Victoria Kiwanis Club for the year 1933. This was all
during the depression years and life was very difficult.
Our membership in the Kiwanis Club had fallen as a result,
but on the whole we were able to carry on with all our
work. I had carried on my legal practice for a number of
years at the offices in the Chancery Chambers, Langley
Street and then moved to above the Bank of Montreal at
Yates and Douglas Streets. About 1932 I was appointed
solicitor for the Bank of Toronto in Victoria and moved
to the Bank of Toronto Building at Douglas and Johnson
Streets where I remained until my appointment to the
Bench in 1952.
In 1935 I was appointed a member of the Board of
Governors of the University of British Columbia in succession to Benjamin C. Nicholas, formerly editor of the
Victoria Daily Times who was then deceased. I remained
on the Board for twenty-two years until 1957, and learned
a great deal about University life in British Columbia. Chapter 12
5th B.C. Regiment. Canadian Garrison Artillery
I have already recorded my joining the Fifth
Regiment C.G.A., as an officer in the early days of
the First Great War and my rejoining it on ray return
to Victoria as part of my civil life. The Fifth Regiment became part of my life and has continued to be
so, just as it is part of the life of Victoria. Indeed it is the oldest militia unit still existing in
Western Canada. A company of Victoria Rifles was organized as a volunteer unit in 1862, the Seymour Battery
of New Westminster was formed as a volunteer company in
1866 and the Victoria Battery of Garrison Artillery was
formed in 1878. All of these became united in a single
Regiment in 1883, the Fifth Regiment.
The Hudson's Bay Company organized and maintained
the very first Garrison Artillery on the coast of British
Columbia. The fort in Victoria was built in 1843 and
five years later it became the company's headquarters
for the whole of their territory west of the Rocky
Mountains. The actual area occupied by the Fort was
that part of the present city of Victoria, now bounded
by Bastion, Government, Broughton and Wharf Streets.
The Fort area was rectangular in shape and was enclosed
by a strongly built stockade of Cedar poles, 20 feet in ~l
188
height. At the northeastern and southwestern corners
were octagonal bastions 30 feet in height built of huge
logs, each bastion being mounted with several 6 or 9
pounder Iron guns.
In 1849 Vancouver Island was created a Colony and
in the following year Richard Blanshard, who had been
appointed Governor of the colony, arrived at Victoria.
He only remained a year, but during that time a certain
amount of trouble with the Indians at Fort Rupert and at
Sooke occurred, and Blanshard asked for troops to be sent
from England. This was not approved of. James Douglas
succeeded Blanshard as Governor in 1851 and governed
Vancouver Island for five years with the assistance of a
Legislative Council appointed by Royal Commission. On
several occasions the Legislative Council was called
upon to discuss the question of the defence of the colony.
This arose at the time of the Crimean War in 1854 and
again in 1855 due to trouble with various bands of Northern Indians who were arriving at Victoria. The result
was that in I856, the Rifle Company was formed consisting
of 30 men and officers. But they do not appear to have
done much.
In the summer of 1861 the Vancouver Island Rifle
Volunteers were organized and Major George F. Foster
was elected by the Unit to be the Lieutenant-Colonel
commanding. His appointment was approved by His Excellency 189
Governor Douglas on July 17th, l86l. One hundred and
sixty-four names appeared on the roll of volunteers.
Immediately upon the organization of the Vancouver Island Rifle Volunteers a number of the members conceived
the idea of forming an Artillery Company as part of the
Corps. A petition signed by 25 of their members dated
July 8, l86l, required that Lt. Col. Foster organize
such a unit, which was approved of by Governor Douglas
on July 29th.
M.W.T. Drake was elected its first Lieutenant.
Mr. Drake subsequently became a Judge of the Supreme
Court of B.C. and was the grandfather of the present
County Court Judge M.L. Tyrwhitt-Drake.
Interest in the Vancouver Island Rifle Volunteers
soon died down and the unit was abandoned, but on July
1, 1862 a number of the members applied to the Governor
to be re-organized as an Artillery Company, distinct
from the Vancouver Island Rifle Volunteers, which was
approved by the Colonial Secretary, and this seems to
have ended any training as an Artillery Unit.
But steps were taken in Victoria in the spring of
1864 for the re-organization of the old Volunteer Rifle
Corps. Interest continued and in July, 1866 the Corps,
went to camp under canvas just East of Beacon Hill.
There were two companies with about ninety men. 190
In the spring of 1866 a bill was introduced in
the Legislature at Victoria to place the Voluntary Military Forces on a properly constituted basis. But for
some reason definite action was postponed until 1869.
Then came the entry of British Columbia into Canada in
1871 when the military forces were re-organized and became part of the militia of Canada.
In 1877 war was declared between Russia and Turkey, and relations between Great Britain and Russia became strained almost to the breaking point. Joined with
this was the activity displayed by the Fenians, who,
relying on the probability of Great Britain being fully
occupied with Russia, were gathering in American centres
for the ostensible purpose of making marauding descents
on Canadian points.
The events above described awakened the authorities to the need of providing some land defences at
Victoria and Esquimalt.
On February 9, 1878, a Russian Squadron of 5 vessels was reported in San Francisco and public excitement
grew intense in Victoria and the banks transferred their
funds and securities to Port Angeles for safety.
Captain CT. Dupont was at once authorized to organize a voluntary Battery at Victoria and called for
volunteers. Victoria responded; a declaration of war
was expected. The&a Russian gunboat appeared in Esquimalt Harbour but only to make repairs. 191
In the meantime the call for volunteers met with
an enthusiastic response, and platforms were built for
a two-gun battery at Finlayson Point, and a two-gun battery at Beacon Hill at Nias Point, later called Victoria
Point. On the following day naval carriages and guns
were placed there and also in Esquimalt.
On October 12th, 1883, an Artillery Regiment was
authorized to include under one command the Seymour Battery of New Westminster, the Victoria Battery and one of
the Rifles Companies at Victoria under the name of "British Columbia Provisional Regiment of Garrison Artillery."
Capt. Dupont was appointed the first Commanding Officer.
The name was changed to "British Columbia Brigade
of Garrison Artillery" on May 7, 1886, which name continued for about 7 years when it was again changed to
"B.C. Battalion of Garrison Artillery". On the 1st of
January, 1896, the name of the Battalion was changed to
the "5th Regiment Canadian Artillery".
With the organization of the 6th Regiment D.C.O.R.
in 1899 all connections between the 5th Regt. and the
mainland were cut and from that time the 5th Regiment has
been a wholly Victoria unit.
I joined the regiment as I have already related at
the opening of the First Great War, on Sept. 11, 1914 as
a Lieutenant, and at once was attached to a School of 192
Gunnery at Work Point Barracks where I received my training as a Garrison Artillery gunner with the rank of Lieutenant. Having passed all my qualifying exams I was fin-
ally absorbed into the establishment on May 13th, 1915
though I was on full duty with the regiment from September
11th.
The following were the commanding officers from the
re-organization of the 5th Regt. from October 12, 1883 to
the second re-organization after the first Great War:
Major CT. Dupont     - Oct. 12, 1883 to July 7, 1888
Lt. Col. E.G. Prior    - July 7, 1888 to Sept. 29, 1896
Lt. Col. F.B. Gregory  - Sept. 29, 1896 to Dec. 10, 1901
Major R.R. Munro      - Dec. 10, 1901 to Feb. 28, 1903
Lt. Col. J.A. Hall    - Feb. 28, 1903 to Sept. 1, 1909
Lt. Col. A.W. Currie   - Sept. 1, 1909 to Jan. 2, 1914
Lt. Col. W.N. Winsby   - Jan. 2, 1914 to Mar. 1, 1915
Lt. Col. Richard Angus - Mar. 1, 1915 to Apr. 28, 1920
I did not know Major Dupont as an officer of the
Regiment, but I did know him as the owner and occupier of
a fairly large area of land adjoining my home on Fort St.
and as a boy I always considered him a man of some authority to be revered and obeyed. He was the owner of some
riding horses and a member of a riding club which met regularly on his premises and whose members rode from there
across the adjoining open country, usually on what was
called a paper chase. This no doubt was the origin of the
Victoria Riding Club. 193
I did know Lt. Col. F.B. Gregory very well, and
I greatly admired him as a Judge of the Supreme Court of
British Columbia. I know he was highly regarded as an
officer of the 5th Regt.
When in August of 1913 the strike of coal miners
in the Nanaimo District necessitated the calling out of
the 5th Regiment and other military units in aid of the
civil power, Col. Currie showed his organizing ability
and skill in solving difficult situations. In co-operation
with Lt. Col. J.A. Hall, former commanding officer of the
5th Regiment and at that time the commanding officer of
the 88th Battalion of Infantry at Victoria, Col. Currie
assembled the 5th Regt. on August 13th, 1913 for an ordinary parade. At 10 p.m., at the request of the District
Office Commander, he advised them that they were leaving
for Nanaimo that night. The strikers in Nanaimo and especially at Extension Mines had been attacking the workers
who would not strike and were burning their houses and
destroying their property. Indeed they had taken charge
of the community, and mob rule prevailed.
To deceive the strikers of the intention of the
militia, those responsible prepared a special E & N train
for the purpose of proceeding to Nanaimo. At the same
time they arranged the night C.P.R. boat, leaving with
passengers at midnight, to stop at the Outer Wharf and
take on the militia and proceed to Nanaimo that night. ~l
194
As soon as this happened all connections by telegraph
and telephone to Nanaimo ceased.  A hostile troop of
miners had gathered at the E & N Railway at Nanaimo expecting their arrival. The boat did not land at Nanaimo
but at Beechen Mine Wharf close by and the landing was
peaceful. The militia vrere then taken on a special train
to Starks Crossing and the troops marched by route march
to Extension. During the next two days troops from Vancouver also arrived and the movement was a success.
Later when the 5th Regt. was drawn up at Ladysmith
near the railway station it was faced by a decidedly ugly
tempered crowd. Col. Currie addressed the crowd telling
them that the militia were solely to maintain law and order. This was not popular. Then he said he relied on the
people to assist him in maintaining order. They replied
that they were running the town and didn't need his assistance.
Then Currie said, "But we are not taking any chances"
and turning sharply around to the regiment gave the order
"With five cartridges load magazine". The clicking of the
cartridges in the rifles was not pleasant to the crowd.
But when "Ease springs" was given one shot was fired in the
air. The effect on the crowd was such that you could not
see them for dust, and when the dust had flown away there
was no crowd.  It was rumored that Currie had arranged for
the discharge of a rifle vdth blank ammunition. The regiment re-established civil control in the area.  Some of ~l
195
the Militia were retained on duty until August, 1914.
When war broke out, a draft of 5 officers and 64
men was sent from the 5th Regiment to Valcartier for
service overseas. Amongst them were Capt. R.P. Clark,
Capt. P.T. Stern, Hon. Capt. Rev. W. Barton, Lt. K.H.
Bovill and Lt. W.B. Shaw.
As soon as the first draft had left, Lt. Col. Winsby endeavored to obtain authority from Ottawa to have the
Regiment organize a complete Battery for overseas service,
but as it was considered by the military authorities at
that time that the Pacific Coast Defences should be fully
manned, this permission was not granted.
Shortly afterwards on March 1, 1915 authority was
given for the mobilizing of the 47th Infantry Battalion,
and Lt. Col. Winsby reluctantly severed his connection with
the artillery to accept command of the 47th Battalion for
overseas service. Col. Winsby offered to enlist those in
the 5th Regt. who wished to transfer to the Infantry. The
total number transferred to the 47th Battalion was 57 including five officers, Lt. Col. W.N. Winsby, Major J.C
Harris, Capt. F.A. Robertson, Lt. and Q.M., W.H. Lettice
and Lt. E.G.P. Baker. Major Harris and Capt. Robertson
both were transferred to the Artillery in England and returned to the 5th Regt. on its re-organization in 1920.
About the same time a draft consisting of Lts. Kirk-
patrick-Crockett and R.C Hoyle and ten gunners, was sent 196
for service at St. Lucia where they remained till the
end of the war.
In the meantime Lt. Col. Richard Angus took com-
mand and I was posted for duty at Fort Macaulay under
Major H.H. Woolison, where we had comparatively comfortable quarters.
The duties there were fairly light. We had at all
times to be prepared for an attack by the German fleet on
Esquimalt. It was our duty to man the 6-inch guns then
located at Fort Macaulay and fire them if necessary. We
of course had to live in and got only the ordinary leave
accorded to those on duty.
We had reason to believe that a field artillery
battery was about to be organized and I decided to offer
my services in such a unit when organized. Early in 1916
we began to enlist recruits and drill and the 62nd Battery Canadian Field Artillery was in due course organized
under Major W.M.J. Martin, a regular officer. I have already discussed my war experiences from that date in an
earlier chapter. I will not repeat.
After the war was over it became necessary to reorganize the 5th Regiment. At that time there were some
85 officers on the list. This was not an easy operation.
On April 28, 1920 Lt. Col. F.A. Robertson D.S.O.
was appointed to command the re-organized Regiment. During
the war Col. Robertson had been twice wounded and had lost ~l
197
a leg belov; the knee and one eye. This did not disqualify him in any manner. He started immediately canvassing the field for officers who might be considered
eligible for the active list, interviewing all officers
on the Regimental list, and disposing of them in the manner provided by regulations.
It was not until February 1, 1921 that the regiment was gazetted as re-organized as follows:
Officer Commanding  - Lt. Col. F.A. Robertson, D.S.O.
- Capt. J.B. Clearihue, M.C
- Capt. W.H. Lettice, O.B.E.
- Hon. Major Rev. W. Barton
- Col. H.M. Robertson, C.B.E.
- Major T.B. Monk, Capt. and Brevit
Major M. Kirkpatrick-Crockett, Lts.
V. McKenna, M.C, and C.S. <aO*V~
nason, M.C
- Major and Brevet Lt. Col. J.E.
Harris, Captain A.E. Robertson,
Lts. V.R. Sutherland and A.N.
Robertson
- Major W.B. Shaw, Capt. M.A. Kent
Lts. B.R. Ker & W.B. Monteith
- Major G.G. Aitken M.C, Captain
H.K. Robinson, Lts. A. Maclean
M.C, and R.F. Castle
Adjutant
Quart erraast er
Chaplain
Medical officer
No. 1 company
No. 2 company
58th Field Battery
12th Siege Battery 198
The 58th Field Artillery and 17.VS. Siege Batteries were
not originally a part of the Regiment, but were attached
to it for Administration and training. In case of mobilization the 58th Battery would be part of the 15th Brigade with headquarters at Vancouver, an Anti-aircraft
section was also authorized to be added to the strength
of the Regiment, but owing to the difficulty of obtaining
sufficient recruits for the four batteries, this section
was not immediately organized.
My job as adjutant was very routine and I found
myself confined largely to an office. There were many
problems. We soon found a reluctance of men of military
age to join the militia and an unwillingness of the public through Parliament to vote sufficient funds to carry
on an adequate policy of public defence. But to the small
numbers v/ho enlisted, it became impossible to carry on
successful training in all the batteries, with the result
that the regiment did not go to camp in the summer of
1921.
During the winter of 1921 and 1922 a series of dances and sporting events were carried on in the armouries.
Through the assistance of the Victoria City Police Mutual
Benefit Association, who wanted a new and better place for
its Annual Police Ball, a wooden dancing floor was laid on
the greater portion of the concrete floor and dances Mere
held every Saturday night. The music was provided by the 199
5th Regt. Band under Bandmaster Albert Rumsby, the band
sharing in the fees for admission. Those in uniform were
admitted free, others were charged a fee of ten cents.
The attendance averaged from 1500 to 2000 per night.
The officers mess was open each Saturday night for
all officers and their invited friends and we had some
most delightful dances. I being still young enjoyed them
immensely.
Our training continued and summer camps were regularly held at Macaulay Plains and firing took place at
Fort Macaulay, Rodd Hill and Black Rock Batteries. In
1922 the 58th Battery trained at Sarcee Camp at Calgary.
On March 20, 1924 we held a Re-union Dinner in the Officers'
Mess, which included 52 officers of which there were 24
former members of the old 5th Regt. This was a memorable
occasion.
On January 23rd, 1925 the last parade was held
under Lt. Col. Robertson. On that occasion the Regiment
was inspected by the General Officer Commanding Military
District No. 11, Brigadier General J.M. Ross. Lt. Col.
J.C Harris took over command. By that time the 5th Regt.
had reached a high standard of perfection and was so regarded by the citizens of Victoria. I was proud to be a
member.
In the meantime in 1924-25 I had taken a Field
Officer's Course and on February 12, 1925 received my 200
certificate from the Royal School of Artillery, Esquimalt,
certifying that I was qualified for the rank of a Field
Officer with special mention.
Accordingly when Lt. Col. J.C. Harris took over the
command on February 1, 1925, I was promoted to the rank of
Major and given command of the 56th Battery with duty as a
Militia officer at Fort Macaulay where I had served from
1914 to 1916 during the war. This was more exciting than
the duties of adjutant as I came into active contact with
all members of my battery. As my second in command I had
Capt. Alex Maclean M.C. who had gone overseas with me in
1916 and was a fellow Barrister and solicitor. Lieutenants
Ross Wilson, E.B. Corby and W.V. Allen were also with me.
My Battery Sergt. Major was H.P. Hooper and my Battery
Quarter Master Sergt. was J. Stuckey who had served as
B.S.M. at Macaulay with me in 1914-1916.
It was at this time that we had a very unfortunate
disagreement amongst the officers in our mess. It all
arose over the appointment by Lt. Col. Harris of two of
the former officers of the 5th Regt. who had served during
the first war in Victoria, but who had not gone overseas.
They had not been taken on the strength of 1921 when Lt.
Col. Robertson re-organized the Regiment. He had confined
his appointments to those with overseas service. Many of
the members of the Regiment felt that this policy should
be continued. Lt. Col. Harris disagreed and made the
appointments. As a result a number of the officers re-
1 201
signed and were transferred to reserve.  In my opinion
there was no justification for their resignations and it
did not assist the cause of the regiment. I am glad to
record that later most of them re-joined and the breach
was healed.
Company No. 1 of the Regiment now became known as
the 55th Battery and Company No. 2 as the 56th Battery.
The 55th Battery was under the command of Major M. Kirk-
patrick-Crockett with whom I had also served in 1914-1916.
Though our guns were all very old, the coast defence of Canada was still justified and the active militia
played a very important part. Batteries were established
in British Columbia, Quebec Province along the St. Lawrence, and the Maritime Provinces. They were all under
the control of the Regular Canadian Artillery, but for
defensive purposes, in case of war, were manned by the
active militia of which we were a part.
The Canadian Artillery Association each year held
competitions across Canada and awarded prizes for efficiency. These were based upon the training exercises of
the various Batteries during the year and especially during
the Annual Camps. For the best batteries each year there
were awarded the Governor-General's cups, one for Coast
Defence and one for Field Artillery etc. There were also
other awards such as the Lansdowne Cup for 2nd place in
General Efficiency, the Tumbull Cup for 1st in Gun Practice, the Hugh Blake Cup, 2nd in Gun Practice, and the
Gwatkin Cup for Efficiency of Personnel in Signalling.
1 202
The 55th Battery and the 56th Battery came into
competition with all the other Coast Defence Batteries
in Eastern Canada. It was therefore considered quite
an honour to win the Governor-General's Cup, which remained a trophy with the winning Battery and did not have
to be returned the following year. Our work was strenuous
throughout the year. We had a regular training night each
week during the winter, and then each night during gun
practice in the Forts during the Summer training period.
Beyond this we spent many extra nights almost every week.
This was particularly true for the commanding officer of
each Battery. It also meant hard work for the non-commissioned officers, especially the Battery Sergeant Major.
I was especially lucky as I had an excellent organization
ready to back me up. Even to this day I constantly meet
many of my men who are always ready to talk of the excellent times we had together.
From 1925 when I took over command of the 56th
Battery until I handed over the battery in 1932, either
the 55th Battery or the 56th Battery won the Governor-
General's Cup each year. The 55th Battery won the cup
three times in 1925, 1926, and 1929 and, the 56th Battery
under my command won the cup four times in 1927, 1928, 1930,
and 1931. The 56th Battery also won the Lansdowne Cup for
2nd place in General Efficiency in 1925 and 1926, the
Tumbull Cup for 1st place in Gun Practice in 1928 and 203
1931 and the Hugh Blake Cup for 2nd place in Gun Practice
in 1925, 1927 and 1930. They also won the Gwatkin Cup for
Efficiency in Signalling in 1927. I also personally won
the Canadian Artillery Association prize for Observation
of Fire in 1929. We were proud of the results which could
only have been obtained by the excellent work of all ranks.
Small cash prizes earned by the individuals were all pooled and enabled us to hold an annual dinner each year with
all the requisites. We were a happy family with long memories. Unfortunately in those days the pay given the ranks
was very small and for a very limited period of work. It
meant that each member underwent quite a sacrifice of time.
There were a few small recompenses, such as a swimming pool
in the Armories and the usual military messes for the officers, non-commissioned officers and men.
In 1929 I entered my name for the Militia Staff
Course which was held in Victoria during the winter and at
Sarcee Camp in Calgary in the summer of 1930. It was a
hard course and the instruction at Sarcee was strenuous
and excellent and I made many friends as a result. When
at Sarcee, we were instructed by the best officers in Canada, including Brig.-General A.G.L. McNaughton C.B., C.M.G.,
D.S.O., CD., and Brig.-General George R. Pearkes V.C,
C.B., D.S.O., M.C, CD. both of whom later attained the
rank of Major-General and that of Minister of Defence. The
course alone was well worth the trouble if it was only to 204
work with such men. My militia staff course certificate
is dated September 11th, 1930 and qualifies me for appointment to the staff of non-permanent Active Militia
of Canada up to and including that of Brigade Major.
Then the depression came in 1928 and was worse
about 1932. In the meantime the appointment of Lt.-Col.
Harris expired as Commanding Officer and Lt. Col. T.B.
Monk was appointed in his place. Besides continuing as
commanding officer of the 56th Battery I became second
in command. Each time ray battery had won the Governor-
General's Cup, I had become entitled, at government expense, to a trip to Ottawa to receive the Cup and attend
the Canadian Artillery Annual meeting and dinner. But I
found it difficult to leave my practice and only attended
once in 1930 or 1931. I am not sure which.
There is one occasion which I will never forget,
when Major General A.G.L. McNaughton paid an inspection
visit to Victoria and inspected the 5th Regt. C.G.A. The
56th Battery under my command was invited to put on a
special shoot from Fort Macaulay as part of the inspection.
The Mayor of Victoria and a large number of Victoria's
prominent citizens were invited to attend. I felt quite
flattered to have been so invited and so did every member
of my Battery. We were just a bit nervous. So many
unusual things can happen. And of course it did. 205
I had been careful to work out all my angles and
artillery corrections and knew my crew, and we all expected a good shoot. The target at which one fires consists of t\*o floating targets connected by a strong towing
rope of a regulation length. This is pulled by a small
vessel across the battery at varying distances at varying
speeds, all of which have to be estimated by the commanding
officer. If the shells fell within a certain distance
short of or over the target which would have hit a ship of
a regulation height and width, it is considered a hit and
is so recorded. We had done very well and had made some
hits and then a shell fell right in the centre and cut
the towline. I had never seen such a thing happen before,
and of course it spoilt the shoot for the targets floated
apart. The audience of course thought it was great and
no doubt thought that that was what we wanted. Any way
the officials applauded our work and we all felt quite
proud of our display. I don't suppose anyone had seen it
happen before nor will they again.
This reminds me of an event in the life of my brother-in-law, Irene's brother, Major G. Vernon Golding, now
deceased, a former veterinarian in the British Army, and
on duty in India. Whilst playing gold he made a hole in
one. Next day, when on the same course and at the same
location, he was asked by his partner to show him how he
had done it. Major Golding replied that he had placed his
ball at a certain spot and then had hit it in a prescribed 206
manner. To the amazement of both, he scored a second
hole in one. The occasion was so rare that he received
recognition in the London Press.  In the officers* mess
it was exceptionally expensive.
I now found myself with a decision to make. The
depression had arrived and though I continued to have a
good practice, I was unable to collect many of my fees
and I really had a difficult time to meet my living expenses, indeed, I had to dispense vdth the services of
a young maid for my wife at home. I was second in command
and the expenses of an officer in a mess continued as before. When Lt. Col. Monk retired as he shortly would, I,
as second-in-command, would likely be appointed Lieutenant Colonel in command of the Regiment. This would mean
added expense in the mess and it would almost certainly
mean that I would be an Aide de Camp to the Lieutenant
Governor which again would add expenses. I did not feel
that I was justified in giving up the necessary time and
undertaking the required expenses called for under the
circumstances. I thus decided to retire and be placed in
the reserve and this I requested. Accordingly I was
struck off the strength on April 15th, 1932 and transferred
to the Reserve.
In the meantime I had become entitled to the Efficiency Decoration, but had never applied for it. Finally on September 9th, 1953 I was notified of this award 207
having been granted to me.
And so my career as a military man ended, but I
have remained an honorary member of the mess and am still
interested in all that is done by the unit with which I
have worked for so long.
But I am still a soldier. When we have lived,
worked and fought together, and played, laughed and cried
together, we are molded together into an organization
which never dies but just fades away. Chapter 13
University of Education in British Columbia
* t
As early as 1872 John Jessop, Superintendent of
Education for British Columbia, advocated the establishment of a Provincial University capable of conferring degrees in Arts, Law, and Medicine.
Again in 1877 he raised the same question and in
1884 and 1885 S.D. Pope, the then Superintendent of Education emphasized the lasting benefit of a Provincial
University.
The matter was not dropped and on July 20, 1889
Mayor Grant of Victoria called the citizens of Victoria
together to consider what could be done towards the establishment of a Provincial University in Victoria. A
strong committee was appointed and a bill to incorporate
the University of British Columbia was prepared by one of
our prominent lawyers, J. Stuart Yates and others. They
were successful in getting the government to pass it at the
following session on April 26th, 1890. But the Act did not
provide for government financial aid nor the location of
the site. Mr. B.W. Pearse, a well-known Victorian who then
resided at "Femwood" at Oak Bay Junction and whose residence was located on the hill just off Begbie Street and
is now demolished, said "Just to start the thing if 30
others will join, I will give $1000 a term, and if 50 will ~l
209
join you, I will give $500 a term, although I don*t propose to limit myself to that amount." The result was that
at least two parcels of land were offered as sites and
probably more, 30 acres facing Royal Roads, and overlooking Juan de Fuca Straits and 60 acres on Florence Lake.
Under the 1890 Act a convocation consisting of all
University graduates living in the Province was to elect
not more than seven persons annually to the Senate. By
amendment to the Act in 1891 a statutory meeting of the
Senate was to be held one month after the election of the
Senators by Convocation.
A meeting of convocation was called at Victoria
and Dr. I.W. Powell, a prominent physician of Victoria,
was elected Chancellor and the Senators elected; but there
was a complaint that all graduates in the Province had not
been given a chance to sign the register and that the
graduates on the mainland largely predominated over those
on the Island and that therefore the University should be
established on the mainland.
The statutory meeting of the Senate was called for
July 2nd, 1891. The necessary quorum was nine. Four members from Victoria attended, but not one from the mainland
appeared. It was apparent that the mainland Senate members
had scuttled the legislation. The Attorney-General ruled
that the failure of the meeting had nullified the Act.
Victoria was furious and the City Council was asked 21
to submit a by-law for. $50,000 towards the construction of
University buildings in Victoria. The Colonist evidently
thought the by-law would pass easily. However, the by-law
was defeated by a bai*e 12 votes on December 9th, 1891. It
was just like Victoria! I wish we could now build a University for $50,000.
The struggle went on and in 1894 the School Act was
amended and further amended in 1896 to provide that the
Lieutenant-Governor might grant Letters Patent incorporating any of the schools Boards of Victoria, Vancouver, New
Westminster or Nanaimo as "The Board of Governors of the
........College" to enable the board to become affiliated
with certain universities.
In 1899 Vancouver High School affiliated with McGill
and provided first year work in Arts, and in 1902 second
year Arts was added.
In 1902 the Board of School Trustees of Victoria
petitioned to be incorporated under the name of "The Board
of Governors of King's College" and on July 24, 1902 the
Lieutenant Governor, Sir Henri Joly de Lotbiniere, by his
proclamation established the Board of School Trustees of
the City of Victoria as a Corporation under the name of
"The Board of Governors of Victoria College". Why the
name was changed from "Kings College" to "Victoria College"
I do not know. 21
This Corporation then became affiliated with McGill
University and the first class of Victoria College came
into existence in September, 1903. This consisted of seven
students, four girls and three boys. I was one of them.
We used as our first College building and classroom the office of E.B. Paul, the Principal of Victoria High School.
Our Faculty consisted of the Victoria High School teachers
which were then five vdth an additional one coming in the
spring of 1904. The Victoria High School was then newly
built on Fernwood Road between Fort and Yates Street. This
later became the Girls Central School and has since been
replaced by the Central Junior High School. This was also
the original site of the old "Colonial School" started in
1853, the first public school in British Columbia.
I have already mentioned Mr. B.W. Pearse. He died
on June 17th, 1902. He left his estate to his wife for
life, who incidently lived for another 50 years. After
her death he left $10,000 to be invested in the name of
the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province and Mayor of Victoria the proceeds of which were to be devoted to the endowment of a Chair of Natural Science in a College or University in Victoria which may have the power of conferring
degrees in Arts and Science, or which may be affiliated
with any University or College in Great Britain or in Canada. We later received this money and it was our first
endowment of Victoria College. I vdll return to this later. 21
In 1906 under a British Columbia Government Act,
"The Royal Institution for the Advancement of Learning of
British Columbia" was established. This was a branch of
McGill University to be located in British Columbia, with
headquarters in Vancouver. It had power to establish "The
McGill University College of British Columbia." The institution had power to enter into agreements with any Board
of School Trustees to conduct the higher education work
carried on by such Board. Under this provision the Royal
Institution on July 17th, 1907 entered into an agreement
with the Victoria School Board to conduct Victoria College.
The effect was that Victoria College continued its affiliation with McGill at Montreal, but in co-operation with
the McGill institution in Vancouver, which was in reality
a branch of McGill.
Victoria College commenced a second year Arts class
in September 1907 with two students. By January 1st, 1908
the staff of Victoria College consisted of S.J. Willis,
B.A. as Principal and 4 others all of whom were also High
School teachers. Mr. Paul had been appointed by then as
Inspector of Schools in Victoria.
All during these years the agitation continued for
the establishment of a University in British Columbia, and
finally in 1908 an Act was passed incorporating "The University of British Columbia". As you can imagine, both 213
Victoria and Vancouver wanted the campus and a great deal
of pressure was brought.
The citizens of Victoria soon organized and discussed the question in all its aspects. A special committee
under the Chairmanship of Magistrate George Jay, Chairman
of the School Board was appointed. On February 5th, 1909
the citizens committee met and received the report from
this committee which read as follows:
"Your special Committee on the Case for the
University to be established at or near to
Victoria beg to report that your committee
met this day and is of the opinion that the
site for the proposed university should be
left to the decision of an independent board
composed of Eastern University experts and
that a deputation wait upon the Provincial
Government to place such view accordingly.
I was at the moment Secretary to the School Teachers of
Victoria organization and took part as such on a strong
deputation consisting of the Mayor, the Victoria members
of the Provincial Government, aldermen, members of the
School Trustees, Chief Justice Hunter, members of the
Clergy and many leading Victorians, School teachers, etc.,
who attended on Premier McBride and the Minister of Education, and presented our findings. This was somewhat of
a back down by Victorians, but it was considered a just ~l
214
solution of the problem, and it was hoped that ultimately
we would succeed in locating the University of Victoria.
Premier McBride promised to introduce a bill at the
next sitting of the house to provide for the appointment
of such an independent commission. The Premier added that
he wished to leave nothing undone towards making the University a success and he added:
"There must be a large endowment for this
purpose. This is necessary for the appointment of an efficient teaching staff. British
Columbia is a young country in points of years,
and we have little reason to think that wealthy
men of the province are going to come forward
to help in securing this endowment. The government must then be prepared to provide the
greater part of it. To that end we have already commenced to set aside in various parts
of the country sections of crown lands. I
believe that some 40,000 acres have thus been
set aside to date. We are trying to get together the funds essential to the institution
before taking any further steps. We propose
that when the doors of the University are
thrown open it shall be equal in every respect
to any University in Canada. This is an ambitious standard but nothing is too good for
British Columbia." 215
1
So said Premier McBride sixty years ago. Indeed a great
deal has been done, but those words are as true today as
they were in 1909.
A commission ot  Eastern University experts was so
appointed and even I vdll admit that they made the best
selection when they picked the Point Grey location.
The University of British Columbia opened in Vancouver on the old McGill site in 1915 and on that date
the McGill University College of British Columbia was merged in the University of B.C. and Victoria College was
closed.
The citizens of Victoria were indignant and some
even advocated affiliation with the University of Toronto.
Finally largely through the efforts of Mr. E.B. Paul they
secured new legislation which permitted the re-establishment of Victoria College affiliated with the University
of British Columbia.
Accordingly Victoria College was re-opened with 72
students in the Victoria High School on September 28, 1920.
E.B. Paul was appointed Principal.
Next year on September 27, 1921 Victoria College
moved into Craigdarroch Castle with 89 students. These
later increased to 104, first and second year Arts and
Science classes only were given.
In May 1927 Dr. E.B. Paul as he then was resigned,
and Percy H. Elliott took his place as Principal. They 2lt
still only had first and second year Arts and Science
until merged with the Normal School when Education was
added, but there were no third year classes until 1959.
« *
Now we come to September 1943. Just before the
terra commenced the Principal, Percy H. Elliott, died and
the vice-Principal took over. The enrollment then stood
at only 192. A dispute arose between the School Board,
the Department of Education, the Faculty, and the University of B.C. as to who should be Principal. The
choices of the School Board were not acceptable for
various reasons.
The Board of Governors of the University of British
Columbia then appointed a committee of their Board to report on Victoria College. I was one of the members.
The impasse was solved by the happy appointment of
Dr. John M. Ewing as Principal, who ably carried on his
duties until his death in 1952.
The result of our committee work was the re-organization of Victoria College under the control of a new
body, "Victoria College Council" representing the Department of Education, the Victoria School Board and the University of British Columbia. The financial direction remained in the hands of the Victoria School Board. This
came into force on October 1st, 1945 and I became one of
the members of the College Council, the appointee of the
University of British Columbia. 21*;
The v;ar was over in 1945 and the students flooded
back. In 1946 the enrollment was up to 732 students and
at the same time Craigdarroch Castle v;as condemned by the
Fire Chief and the City Health Department.
Arrangements were happily made to move in 1946 to
the Normal School Building on Lansdowne Rd., which we shared
with the Normal School students.
Our Library and our funds were then so small that
our students who had motor cars personally carried over
the whole library to the Normal School in one day.
We still did only first and second year Arts and
Science work.
Our crowded condition required expansion. The Hon.
W.T. Straith, the then Minister of Education, purchased an
adjoining six acres of land and arranged for the construction of a new building to be paid for by the Provincial
Government. An election ensued and Mr. Bennett became
Premier. The building was opened on October 15, 1952 after
the death of Dr. Ewing, and the building was named in his
memory. Our enrollment was then 324.
Dr. Harry W. Hickman was appointed the new Principal.
We all wanted to expand and realized we had to. We thus
looked around for land to increase our campus and approached
the Hudson's Bay Company to purchase the land adjoining.
The Hudson's Bay Company had made plans to subdivide the
land and refused to sell even an inch of it. I interviewed
Mr. Williston, the then Minister of Education and got a 218
promise from him that he would expropriate the land if it
was necessary. I took it upon myself to tell the Hudson's
Bay Company that if they continued to refuse to sell, that
the Government would expropriate and I am certain Mr. Wil-
liston's promise would have been carried out. Anyway it
worked and the company agreed to arbitrate the price to be
paid. A Board of Arbitration was set up by agreement and
as a result the government agreed to purchase some 34.5
acres of land along Foul Bay Rd. adjoining the normal
school. This was not completed until early in 1957. By
that time we realized that what we had acquired was insufficient and we began to look around for more land.
In the meantime Mrs. Pearse had died and the bequest
in the will of the late B.W. Pearse became payable, but we
had no incorporated body to receive the same unless it was
"The Board of Governors of the Victoria College" which I
mentioned before, but this was unsatisfactory. I therefore
with Major H. Cuthbert Holmes and others got together and
I drew up a Bill to incorporate us as the "Victoria College
Foundation", and got the government to approve of it by an
Act of Parliament passed in 1954. We then had to get the
$10,000 and we did this by petitioning the Supreme Court
to approve of its transfer from the executors of the will.
An order was thus made transferring the funds to the "Victoria College Foundation " now known as "The University of
Victoria Foundation", which is still in existence, and operating as an endowment fund for the University of Victoria. 219
In the meantime the Department of Education had decided to merge the normal schools with the University of
British Columbia. If this had happened as first planned,
the normal school in Victoria would likely have been closed.
We thus got busy and a nev; Act was passed on March 15, 1955
creating "Victoria College" into an independent corporation
with power also to carry on the education of teachers as
may be approved by the Senate of the University of British
Columbia. This act I largely drew. We had no degree-
granting powers and remained affiliated with the University
of British Columbia. A new "Victoria College Council" was
set up with powers to conduct the affairs of the College.
Under these powers the Normal School became merged with
Victoria College in 1956 and the Government of British Columbia took over the financing on the same basis as that
of the University of British Columbia.
Suddenly the citizens of Victoria began to realize
what was happening and on March 25th, 1956 the business
editor of the Colonist, Harry Young, headed his column,
"Why not a Victoria Varsity." This was exactly what we at
that time were developing. The Colonist then added its
support and on January 12, 1957 Alderman Austin Curtis,
President of Victoria Chamber of Commerce, announced that
he would appoint a special committee to investigate the
possibility of establishing a University in Victoria. Two
months later the composition of the Chamber of Commerce 220
University Committee was announced with Captain Ronald
Newell as Chairman and Conway Parrott, W.C Mearns, Hugh
Stephen, Douglas Abbott, Fred Manning, Arthur Burns, Harry
Young and Arnold Webb as its members.
All this delighted me as it brought the problem to
a head; but at that moment I found myself in a rather difficult position. I for many years had dreamed of a second
University in British Columbia and that Victoria College
would in due course become that University, and I knew I
had a great deal of support. But I was officially the
Victoria representative on'the Board of Governors of the
University of British Columbia. I knew that Dr. Norman
MacKenzie the President of the University of British Columbia believed that there should never be more than one
University in British Columbia, but there should be many
campuses throughout the province and one Board of Governors,
and we should be one of them.
I also knew that if we were to expand it was very
important that we should be granted the right to give our
own third and fourth year courses, with the granting of
University of British Columbia degrees to our students.
It was, therefore, very necessary that we continue to work
in close and very friendly co-operation with the University
of British Columbia.  I also knew that my term as a governor of the University of British Columbia terminated in
1957 and that it was not likely that I would be re-appointed
by the Social Credit government. I also held ray appointment 221
as a member of the Victoria College Council as a representative of the University of British Columbia. When this
appointment terminated I would not likely be re-appointed
if I did not co-operate with the University of British Columbia. I therefore felt that as long as I was a member
of the Victoria College Council it was in the interests of
Victoria College and Victoria generally, that I should cooperate in every way with the University of British Columbia in building Victoria College to a degree-granting
status.
It was for this reason that until we got that status
I could not openly support the founding of a new University
in Victoria. I am of the opinion that my stand was by some
misunderstood, but it finally proved correct. But I do
want to express our deep gratitude to the Chamber of Commerce Committee for all that it did. It made our University
possible.
In September, 1959 we commenced our third year courses
and in September, I960 we added fourth year courses. On May
29, 196l we granted our first Bachelor of Arts, Science and
Education degrees to our first graduating class of 37 students, but these were University of British Columbia degrees,
not our own.
The size and location of our campus was one of our
problems. If we were to become a University we must have
more land. The Hudson's Bay Company held all the vacant 222
land adjoining us and were determined to make a subdivision of it. The Uplands Golf Course was nearby and it
occurred to me that it might be possible to purchase this
at a reasonable price if the City of Victoria would give
the Club that portion of its Elk Lake property already
designed as a golf course. This would permit the club to
use the purchase money to build a new and enlarged course
and club house and move out of the city to a more beautiful location. This appealed to some but I did not succeed in my suggestion.
Then in December 1957 it was rumored that the Dominion Government was about to close the Gordon Head Military
Camp. We immediately applied to Major-General Pearkes, the
then Minister of Defence, to grant us this land. He explained that he could not do this, but it would have to be put
up for sale in the ordinary way. The sum of $100,000 had
been spoken of by the Victoria College Council as a purchase
price, but the Provincial Government was not prepared to pay
the price, and no agreement could be got from the Federal
Government. Finally Major-General Pearkes came to our aid
and we were able to purchase the property for $1000 per
acre plus a small amount for the buildings. This was done
by using money which we took from our general funds which
we needed for other purposes and we acquired a new campus
of some 120 acres with a number of buildings in the summer
of 1959. 223
We therefore ended with two campuses close to each
other, but no new buildings and no money.
The University of British Columbia had started a
drive to raise funds upon the promise of the British Columbia Government to match dollar for dollar the amount
raised. The same promise was given us. V/e thus organized
in January, I960 a campaign to raise $1,500,000, later
$2,500,000 over a period of 5 years under the chairmanship
of Richard B. Wilson, one of Victoria's leading business
men. We appealed to the public in general and the Victoria
Chamber of Commerce and service clubs in particular. In
the end we raised slightly over $2,500,000. With the government matching grant we had about $5,000,000 and we
spent it all.
This immediately called for a statement as to whether
or not we should attain full University powers independently of and on an equal standing with the University of British
Columbia.
Unfortunately some of our own Faculty in Victoria
College did not support this move, mostly on the ground that
a University of British Columbia degree was worth more than
one granted by ourselves. We did, nevertheless, secure the
support of the Victoria Chamber of Commerce and most of our
service clubs, though in some cases not unanimously. The
Victoria Daily Colonist gave us unanimous support,jespecially
its publisher, J. Stuart Keate, vigorously opposed our be- 224
coming an independent university. I have already explained
the stand of Dr. Norman MacKenzie, but his term as President was to end on July 1st, 1962.
I was then Chairman of the Victoria College Council
and it became necessary for me to take a stand one way or
the other. The Premier, himself, raised the question at
the opening of the E.B. Paul Building on our Lansdowne Campus. This was the first building designed and built as a
result of our drive for funds. On January 18, 1961 when
the Premier opened the building he pledged a second $2,500,000
matching grant for further development of "Victoria University" over a five-year period starting in 1966. Mr. Bennett
added that he was pleased to see the U.B.C. President, Dr.
N.A.M. MacKenzie present because close co-operation with
the mainland centre was desirable, "as this great University
unfolds here in Victoria."
In the meantime the location and size of our campus
became more important, and had to be settled at once. The
Fund Raising Committee under R.B. Wilson had been asked by
the College Council to carry on as a University Development
Board to plan and develop the Buildings and Campus. There
was a strong feeling in Victoria that the new Gordon Head
campus we had now purchased should be the location of all
future buildings and that we should endeavor to purchase
the Hudson's Bay property lying immediately to its south
and north of the Cedar Hill Cross Roads. 225
Early in 196l Mr. Wilson assisted by E.W. Arnott,
a member of his committee, hit on the idea of calling in
the leading University campus expert, W.W. Wurster, from
the University of California to advise us on the problem.
He strongly advised that we should endeavor to purchase
the suggested land from the Hudson's Bay Company. On May
27, 1961 an agreement was signed with the Hudson's Bay
Company to purchase 140 acres of land adjoining and lying
south of the Gordon Head Campus purchased from the Federal
Government. The purchase price was $3000 an acre.
But the Hudson's Bay Company had made an agreement
vdth the Oak Bay Municipality for the subdivision of the
land and the sale of the property to Victoria College would
mean the loss of a yearly revenue to Oak Bay Municipality
of some $90,000 as the College could not be taxed. It was
finally agreed that the College should set aside a 400 feet
wide strip of land for development over 50 years for apartment use which would bring in that revenue. This provision
still stands though no apartments have been built.
It all sounded very simple, but the College Council
had no money and the Provincial Government refused to pay
for the land. We were told that if we wanted the land we
could borrow the money and in due course pay for it from
the funds we collected from the public. We borrowed the
money. Had it not been for the generous gift made to us
by Mr. T.S. MacPherson on his death December, 1962 of 226
$2,000,000 payable in 5 years we would still be paying
interest on our loan.
On May 29, 196l Dr. A.E. Grauer, Chancellor of the
University of British Columbia conferred the first degree
at our first convocation and on that occasion I said, "We
have to develop Victoria College in the same manner as
every other University of Canada (I might almost say the
world) has been developed by the monetary gifts of our
citizens." I then referred to those who had contributed
funds to McGill University, our founder, and I added,
"Their names will live forever. By their generosity they
have built McGill in a little over a hundred years into
one of the greatest Universities of the world. What a
challenge it is to our citizens to do likewise, to build
a University here and record their names for posterity.
I hope some will take up that challenge."
On November 25th, 196l at a windup dinner of the
Vancouver Island Conference on Higher Education at Nanaimo,
Dean Geoffrey C Andrew, assistant to President Norman A.
M. MacKenzie of the University of British Columbia, advocated the recognition of Victoria College as "an autonomous degree-granting institution at the earliest moment
they feel ready to accept such status," but he added he
wanted to emphasize that he was expressing his own views
and not the U.B.C policy. 227
I was delighted with this endorsement of my views
and on November 27th I stated that I hoped we would be an
autonomous degree-granting institution in 1962. But I
well knew we had not won the fight.
For some time previous to this I had been occupied
in drawing up the necessary legislation for the creation
of Victoria College into a University. I had made many
drafts and submitted them to the Faculty of Victoria College for its approval. Unfortunately this was difficult
to get, but I did finally get such an approval by a committee appointed by the Faculty. I did also get its approval from the Deputy Attorney-General, of course, on the
grounds that his approval was of the wording only. I had
the draft bill all ready for presentation to the Legislature at its sittings to commence on January 24th, 1963.
In the meantime Dr. John B. Macdonald had been
appointed President of the University of British Columbia
and took charge on July 1st, 1962. When he was first
appointed and before he took over on July 1st I had written
personally to him and set out the situation in Victoria
College. In his reply he promised me that he would support our wishes for complete autonomy. I was therefore
delighted. But as my letter was a private one and so was
his reply I did not feel that I could publish its contents.
As soon as Dr. Macdonald took over he stated that he would
prepare a report on University Education and present it to
the Government before its next sitting on January 24th,
1963. As the report was being drawn up I discovered that 228
he was recommending that there should be only one University in B.C., and that Victoria College should be created
not a University, but an independent four year degree-
granting undergraduate College in Arts, Science and Education only and nothing more. He was also recommending
that a second College of the same standing should be set
up in the Western Lower Fraser Valley to help out the
University of B.C.  We were to be only a second-class
University without even the power to use the name, "University". He didn't use these words of course, but that
was the substance of his recommendation. Instead of raising
our present status he was lowering it.
This was quite a shock to me as I understood that
Dr. Macdonald had promised me his support. I thus decided
that I must take immediate action and appeal to the public
without disclosing the information I had received which was
confidential. As I was retiring as a Judge on December
20, 1962, I took this as an opportunity to do so. I accordingly prepared a statement for the press stating that
I would spend all my energy in securing the passing of the
legislation that I had prepared, granting full University
status to Victoria College at the next sitting of the
Legislature. I drew attention to the fact that the Premier
had promised to make us a full University and was the first
to use the term "Victoria University" and I felt certain 229
he would carry out his promise. But as Dr. Macdonald's
report would appear just before the sitting of the House,
I suggest*/this would likely result in a discussion and
delay the matter.
The Daily Colonist put my statement to the Premier
who immediately stated, "I certainly made a commitment
that, if Victoria College wanted to be a University, I
would do everything possible as Premier, to bring it about."
He added that legislation to give full University status to
Victoria was only being delayed by the government's desire
to "make sure that when we set it up, it is set up in the
best possible way."
The formal opening of the Clearihue Building on the
Gordon Head Campus was to take place on January 18th, 1963
and the Premier had been invited to perform that function.
The legislature was to open on January 24th, Dr. Macdonald
had promised to present his report before that date, and
it was understood that it would appear early in January.
I am of the opinion, though it is only a guess, that the
Premier had decided to make a statement at the opening of
the Clearihue Building that he would bring in legislation
to create a full University at the next sitting of the
House. I privately had hoped so. For Dr. Macdonald's
report to have appeared just before January 18th would have
been a calamity to us, as the Premier could not in the face
of it have made such a promise. I feel pretty certain,
though this also is a guess, that someone had given private 230
information to the Premier of the contents of Dr. Macdonald' s report, as Dr. Macdonald was asked to delay the
presentation of his report until a later date, which was
*
a date after January 18th.
Thus it happened that on January 18th, 1963 on the
occasion of the opening of the building the Premier announced
that the government intended to introduce legislation at
the coming session to create an independent University of
Victoria.
Then came the Macdonald report which suggested a
new college in the Fraser River Valley, but not to be a
University. The result was that the Premier announced
there would be three Universities, all of equal standard,
and a new University Act was to be drawn for all three Universities. This was not an easy matter for so short a
time. But as I had already drafted a new bill for the
University of Victoria, I was asked to redraft the same
for all three Universities and to have it ready in three
days. This bill was to be placed before a committee consisting of two representatives from the University of British
Columbia, two from Victoria College and two from the Department of Education with the Superintendent of Education,
Dr. J.F.K. English as Chairman. This was a challenge to
me which I accepted. I had the bill ready as promised in
three days, and finally after many discussions and amendments we settled on its form. One of the questions which
1 231
arose was a name for the New University in the Lower Fraser
Valley. It was chosen in a very casual way. Just who suggested "Fraser" I am not certain. But we had to have a
name and I think I am responsible for having actually written it into one of ray drafts without any final decision.
We then had a meeting with the Premier and discussed the
contents of the Bill. We had called the University, "Fraser
University". The Premier said "Fraser who?" and I think
it was Mr. Leslie Peterson who replied, "Simon Fraser, of
course." The Premier then said "Why not Simon Fraser University?", and we all agreed, and so it was. I think the
origin of the name is worth recording. Had we asked the
public for a name I fancy we would still be discussing it.
So Victoria College became the "University of Victoria"
and "Simon Fraser University" came into being, both on
July 1st, 1963. Chapter 14
University of B.C. and other matters
I have already stated that in 1935 I had been appointed by the Provincial Government to be a member of the
Board of Governors of the University of British Columbia.
This was in the middle of the depression and British Columbia was in a difficult position as were all other countries.
The University of British Columbia had then a campus of 584
acres (later 1000 acres) of land located at Point Grey with
two permanent and nine semi-permanent buildings and a registration of 1752 regular students. Indeed the registration
due to the depression had declined from a maximum of 2044
in 1930-1931. The University offered instruction in four
years in each of the faculties of Arts and Science, Applied
Science (including nursing) and Agriculture. The Chancellor was Dr. Robert E. McKecknie who served until 1944 and
the President was Dr. L.S. Klinck who retired in June, 1944.
The work of the members of the Board of Governors was a
responsible one but not too heavy. I had to attend one meeting every month which took me away from Victoria for an
afternoon and evening's work returning to Victoria on the
night C.P.R. steamer from Vancouver. Then there were extra
meetings, convocation and other appointments and of course,
the usual committee meetings, all of which would probably 233
double the regular meetings. But I didn't mind it and enjoyed it greatly.
The greatest trouble of course was money. No matter
what government was in control there never was enough, and
when the depression came the Conservative Government under
the Minister of Education, Canon J. Hinchcliffe, actually
cut the grant. In the early days of the depression, before
I was on the Board, the University seriously had to consider whether the Faculty of Agriculture should be discontinued. Then there were very few students and many less
graduates in Agriculture with an abnormal high cost. Happily for the University the President, Dr. Klinck was an
Agriculturist himself and a specialist in that department.
The members of the Faculty were thoroughly trained
and dedicated to their work and gave many hours of their
time without expectation of higher reward, solely for the
love and advancement of their University. I can never
remember any complaint such as we unfortunately have today.
The Chancellor, the President, the Board of Governors, the
Senate and the student body always co-operated for the
good of the cause and strove to build a greater and better
University.
Then the war came and we saw so many of our finest
students and faculty members depart. Our loss was immense
and our whole organization suffered. I particularly want 234
to mention one of our earliest students and a member of our
Board, Colonel Sherwood Lett, C.B.E., D.S.O., M.C, E.D.,
L.L.D., now deceased, who did such wonderful service in the
first and second wars and who so valiantly landed and was
seriously wounded at Dieppe. He served for a long period
on the Senate, Board of Governors and finally as Chancellor
of the University of British Columbia. The University
honored him on his return from the war with the degree of
Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa). He subsequently became a
Supreme Court Judge of British Columbia and finally Chief
Justice of British Columbia of the Court of Appeal. I
know he could have been in the Supreme Court of Canada had
he so desired. To me he was a wonderful friend and he will
be long remembered as a famous alumnus and a great Canadian.
And then there was Mrs. Phyllis G. Ross, another
graduate of the University who did noteworthy service in
the civil prosecution of the war at Ottawa. On her return
to British Columbis she was honored along with Col. Lett
with the degree of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa). I
learned to admire her work as I met her on the Board of
Governors and subsequently as Chancellor of the University
of British Columbia. She also had a distinguished career
on the Senate. She also served as Chatelaine at Government House in Victoria with her husband, Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia, Frank M. Ross. I later as 235
chancellor of the University of Victoria, had the delightful honor of conferring upon her in April, 1966 the degree
of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa).
British Columbia owes a great debt to George T.
Cunningham, the founder of the Cunningham Drug Stores, who
gave so much of his valuable time from 1935 to his death
in 1965 as a governor of the University. I will long remember him as a real friend.
My association with the University of British Columbia brought me into contact with so many wonderful people
who have freely given so much of their lives to the cause
that their influence will never die. May I mention a few
such as the late A.E. Grauer, a graduate, a member of the
Senate and Board of Governors and finally Chancellor, Mr.
Justice Arthur E. Lord, one of its earliest graduates and
a member of the Senate and Board of Governors, Mr. Kenneth
P. Caple, a graduate, member of the Senate and Board of
Governors, and now Chancellor of Simon Fraser University,
Mr. Leon Koerner who has so lavishly endowed the University,
Mr. Walter C Koerner, an untiring member of the Board and
its Chairman who has given so much time and money to the
cause, Mr. Leon J. Ladner, a pioneer of B.C., a member of
the Senate and Board of Governors and an influential friend
of the University, Mr. Justice N.T. Nemetz, a graduate, a
member of the Senate and Board of Governors and Chairman
of the Board, and so many others whose names have become ~l
236
outstanding in the history of British Columbia.
I could go on and on recalling the names of those
to whom the University has become indebted, and to whom I
feel I owe the deepest gratitude. I do want to mention
three of my special friends, Professor F.G.C Wood, Dr.
Henry R. Angus and Dr. Harry T. Logan, who joined the
University in its earliest days and were most effective
in building a sound foundation for what it now is, a great
University. The University has openly recognized their
worth.
One of the earlier problems with which I, as a member of the Board, was involved was the selection of a new
President to succeed Dr. Klinck who had reached the retiring age. I feel certain that we chose wisely when we
selected in 1944 Dr. Norman A.M. MacKenzie, who was a
specialist in International Law and President of the University of New Brunswick. Dr. MacKenzie had won a Military
Medal and Bar in the First Great War and was particularly
valuable, by such experience, in dealing with the return
of the veterans to the campus; which was a major problem
to be solved, one of which was to find them accommodation.
Dr. MacKenzie solved this by placing on the campus all the
army huts he could find. Dr. Gordon M. Shrum, also a
Military Medal winner of the First War and head of the
Department of Physics was told to do the job and he did it. 237
Permission to take the huts could not be got, but somehow
or other the huts were borrowed, and arrived even from as
far away as the West Coast of Vancouver Island. After
they were all safely in position and filled with students
the Federal Government awakened to the situation, and permission to take them was granted by the Department of Defence. One of the huts became the residence of Dr. MacKenzie, who decided the President should reside on the
Campus. The Board agreed but had no money to spare. Dr.
MacKenzie was happy with a hut.
In 1944 before the war ended the registration of
students was 3058. By 1947 it had risen to 9374 and the
establishment of new faculties was imperative. Dr. MacKenzie enlisted the services of George F. Curtis as Dean
of the Faculty of Law whilst he was actually on the train
travelling to the University of Alberta to consider a position there. Dean Curtis opened the Faculty of Law in a
hut in 1945 and has built up one of the finest Law Schools
in Canada. The establishment of a Faculty of Medicine was
overdue in British Columbia, but this cost money and again
we had too little. But by the assistance of the huts,
the Vancouver General Hospital, the co-operation of the
Medical Fraternity and the drive of Dr. MacKenzie this
too came into being on September 27, 1950 and has been a
wonderful success. 238
Finally in 1957 the time for me to retire as a
member of the Board arrived, and in 1958 I was given an
honorary degree LL. D. as a result.  It is true I had
been there twenty-two years, and they were years of great
delight. I did little but approve of what was done by
others, and especially by both the Presidents under whom
I served. It was an experience to see my own daughter,
Joyce, graduate in 1947 as a Bachelor of Arts with honors
in Bacteriology and Zoology. It was a wonderful venture
to take part in the building of a University from a small
foundation to the high pinnacle to which it had attained
under Dr. MacKenzie in 1957.
To me Dr. MacKenzie was always a warm friend who
was always willing to assist me and give me advice especially on the development of Victoria College. It was
common knowledge that he and I did not agree in my desire
to develop Victoria College into the independent status
of a University, but that never affected our friendship.
Dr. MacKenzie was always a friend to every member
of the Board of Governors, the Senate, the Faculty and the
students. His office and his heart was always open to any
who wished to apply.  In this lay much of his success.
The many honors which have been bestowed upon him, and especially that of his appointment to the Senate in the
Government of Canada are richly deserved. 239
During most of this time I was carrying on my practice as a barrister and solicitor, having been appointed a
Kings Counsel (K.C) on December 31, 1936. In 1938 early
in the spring we took our car and had a holiday driving
south through California as far as Mexico which we entered,
visiting Tijuana for a day. During this trip we were met
with bad floods and were held up at San Francisco for about
a week due to the washing out of several highways.
In the spring of 1938 Mr. Straith felt that the time
had arrived for him to establish his own law firm and so we
dissolved partnership on December 31, 1938. He took in Mr.
H.S. Pringle who had just retired as solicitor for the City
of Victoria. He also employed Mr. J.C. Ruttan, a young
lawyer who had been previously employed in our firm. The
new firm became known as Straith, Pringle and Ruttan. I
decided to carry on by myself in my old offices, less two
rooms, employing such legal help as I might from time to
time require, and later to take in a suitable younger lawyer as a partner.
Then came the war and the whole world erupted and
no young lawyers were available, and Mr. Straith immediately lost Mr. Ruttan who joined the services.
A call went out for more doctors, and Irene offered
herself to replace the younger men who had joined the services. She decided that as she had been away from her 24C
practice for so many years she should re-train and come up
to date in a specialty. She chose anaesthetics and accordingly took training at the Cook County Hospital in Chicago,
with a short period at Mayos in Rochester and also in a
hospital in New York. She then became a resident at the
Montreal General Hospital in conjunction with McGill University of Montreal, where she secured her specialty. This
took about two years and so Joyce became a boarder at St.
Margaret's School and I a boarder with friends. All this
was very disturbing. Finally in the summer of 1941 she
returned to Victoria and joined the medical staff of the
Royal Jubilee Hospital. She worked there until ill health
caused her to retire in 1953.
From the time I had opened my office in 1919 I had
been carrying on a general practice in law and had done a
good deal of court work of every nature, appearing in the
Police Court, County Court, Supreme Court and Court of Appeal, both in Victoria, Vancouver, and elsewhere in British
Columbia. I had an extensive practice as a legislative
counsel in the drafting and prosecuting of Private Bills
at the sittings of the Legislature at Victoria which was
fairly profitable. On many occasions I appeared for the
defence at Criminal Trials at the Assizes and in County
Court. I was also Crown prosecutor for many Assizes and
at other courts. I acted on several occasions for the 241
Federal Government and on one occasion for the Department
of Transport at a public inquiry into the sinking of the
tug, George McGregor. One of the most distressing things
I was required to do, at one of the assizes was to prosecute an old school chum and a pupil I had taught for the
fraudulent disposal of a quantity of shoes. But it could
not be helped, as one cannot pick and choose the cases you
will take at an Assize. No doubt I made enemies, but I
also made many friends.
During the war it became necessary for the Federal
Government to control inflation, and for that purpose to
set up a Board to Control trade and especially prices, known
as the Wartime Prices and Trade Board, and I was appointed
in Victoria to act as prosecutor against those who offended
against its rules. This took up a great deal of my time
and often I found myself prosecuting many of our citizens
who had wrongfully raised prices. But on the whole our
citizens were very co-operative and assisted in every way
to support the prosecution of the war.
As Irene had to be in the hospital to give anaesthetics by 7:45a.m. we were up every morning by 6 a.m. and
I was usually in my office before 8 a.m., and often there
late at night, as was Irene often also in the hospital for
night surgery. Joyce continued her studies at St. Margaret's School and entered Victoria College in the fall of ~l
242
1943 and then the University of British Columbia to graduate in 1947. The war years, therefore, for us all became
a hectic experience but well worth it.
When the war ended in 1945 there returned to reside
in his native city Victoria, a young lawyer, George F.T.
Gregory, who had been born in 1916 the son of the former
Mr. Justice F.B. Gregory of the Supreme Court of British
Columbia. Mr. Gregory had graduated with a B.A. degree
from the University of British Columbia in 1938 and from
Harvard University with a LL.B. degree in Law in 1941. He
had then joined the Royal Canadian navy as a Lieutenant,
where he saw action during the war, winning the Distinguished Service Cross in 1944 for his part in sinking a German
U-Boat. I had known his family for many years, and in my
early days at St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church, where both
of our families were members. Later I had practiced on
many occasions in his father's Court and when his father
had retired for health reasons, I had assisted him to catalogue his library. Mr. Justice Gregory when he was raised
to the bench had been the partner of Mr. Thorton Fell in
the firm of Fell and Gregory. As I have recorded earlier
when Mr. Fell died I took over his practice. It just
seemed natural that Mr. Gregory and I should drift together
and become partners in January, 1946 in the firm of Clearihue and Gregory, which proved a very happy and successful
arrangement. 243
In 1947 Joyce graduated and Irene and I decided to
take her to England to show her Great Britain where Irene
had been born. Joyce had been there before, but in her
early youth. As Irene was still working in the Jubilee
Hospital and I was fully employed in my practice the trip
could not be a very extensive one, but we travelled from
the south to the north of England and Scotland and visited
many of Irene's relatives and friends. It was a great
pleasure to show Joyce our old haunts and introduce her to
a few of my remaining relatives.
On my return I found I had been elected President
of the Victoria Law Society and on June 20, 1949 I was
elected to be a Bencher of the Law Society of British Columbia. This position I held until my OtAUwVK,tm*tvT<^^*^-^H?-
In the meantime J.R. Grant, Ian E. MacPherson and
Alan Leslie Cox had become students at law at the University
of British Columbia and were registered with Mr. Gregory
and myself as law students as required.  After graduation
all three were given employment by us and in 1950 the names
of J.R. Grant and A.L. Cox were added to the firm name as
Clearihue, Gregory, Grant & Cox. When I retired on becoming
a Judge, Messrs. Grant and Cox purchased my one-half interest in the firm and the firm became known as Gregory,
Grant and Cox. And so ended my career as a practicing
lawyer. ~l
244
As I now look back over my legal career, I cannot
help but be proud of all those who have been associated
vdth me, either as partners or employees. Every one has .
shown the highest talent in his profession and has risen
to a rank in the Canadian Community. Chapter 15
Judicial Life
*
In the early summer of 1952 I was asked if I would
accept the appointment of County Court Judge for the County
of Victoria. His Honor Judge H.H. Shandley was about to
retire. I had known and worked with and under him for many
years, dating back to when he practiced in Victoria before
he had been appointed to succeed His Honor Judge Lampman,
who had held that position for many years. Both of thera
were well-known for their conscientious and excellent work
as lawyers and judges, and were held in the highest esteem
in Victoria circles. I felt it was an honor to have been
invited to succeed them. The invitation came as a surprise and at first I didn't know what to say. I will admit that I had always aspired to become a judge, but I had
hoped that it would be that of the Supreme Court rank. At
that time for some unknown reason a County Court Judge never
received promotion to higher rank and a decision to accept
such an appointment meant that you were destined to. remain
there until you reached the retiring age of 75. Luckily
times have changed and during recent years County Court
Judges are nov; being given promotion.
In making my decision I also had to consider the
financial problem. I had been actively practicing since 246
my return from the first war in 1919, and I had built up
what I regarded as a very excellent practice and was a
Bencher of the Lav; Society and a Q.C My income was never
higher and would continue to increase. To accept the position my salary would only be $8000 a year and likely remain at that, a most drastic cut from what I was earning.
Fortunately I later did receive a raise to $10,500 a year,
but never received more. Since my retirement all judges
salaries have been substantially increased, including those
of the County Court Judge, bringing them more in line with
those of the time.
Then another problem I had was that I would no longer be free to do as I liked. A County Court Judge had no
fixed holidays. If he wanted to get away, even during the
summer, he had to arrange with another County Court Judge
to cover his sittings, and if he wanted a longer holiday,
he had to get the consent of the authorities at Ottawa.
I was bewildered and worried for a while. I will
admit that had I been offered the position of a Supreme
Court Judge, I would have accepted it with alacrity. But
that, too, had its disadvantages. It would have meant that
I would have had to move to Vancouver as at that time there
*
was only one resident Supreme Court Judge in Victoria, and
he really wasn't resident more than six months in the year.
At that moment I was also associated with those building 247
up a University in Victoria, and this would have had to
end, as far as my participation would have been.
So I discussed the problem with my partner and
Irene, my wife, and I finally decided to accept the offer.
Thus in due course I was sworn in as a Judge of the County
cu^-cL ao ix, £***Jc%uJL}L. A ftu lUt^*****. ir^ruX^ &yiA.(Zvu. &4u*rvtt«u
Court of VictorilfYby Chief Justice Gordon McG. Sloan in a
A
short ceremony held in the Judge's Library of the Victoria
Court House on October 15, 1952.
I will never regret my decision. It opened up a
whole new world and life to me. Indeed only a few days
after my appointment, Senator G.H. Barnard, one of Victoria's top lawyers and best known citizens and politicians,
congratulated me on my appointment. He added that there
was only one appointment that he had hoped to get, and
that was that of Judge of the County Court of Victoria,
but he never could get it.
One of the usual disadvantages of a County Court
Judge was that he had to move from place to place through
his county to hold sittings of his court. Even the County
Court Judges of Vancouver had one outside court to cover.
But the County Court Judge at Victoria had only one registry to work from, and that was in the Court House at
Victoria. This was very attractive. I did sit on occasions
in various locations on Vancouver Island, Vancouver City
and elsewhere, but these were only at the requests of other
judges, and to assist them in their work or holidays. In
return they gladly helped me on various occasions. 248
In 1952 when I was appointed the Court House was
the old Court House in Bastion Square.  This building had
served as Victoria's Court House since 1889.  It vreis designed by H.O. Tiedeman, a German Architect, who patterned
it after a court building in Munich. Since its opening
by His Honor Lieutenant Governor Nelson, many of the entrances and exits had been changed, and several of the
stairways, passages, and message routes re-arranged. Stories
are told of an appropriation of $200 in I896 for an elevator
following the appointment of Hon. Theodore Davie as Chief
Justice, who was warned by his doctors not to climb the
stairs. The present elevator was installed a few years
later, and has had a rather bad reputation of needing constant repairs.  Often when I have come into the building, I
would find a sign that the elevator was not operating, and
an electrician would be tinkering vdth its interior.
Law Courts were first established in Victoria in
I856 and the Honourable David Cameron was the first "Judge
of the Supreme Court of Civil Justice of Vancouver Island."
The first prison of any sort that Victoria possessed was
in the North-East Bastion of the old Hudson Bay Fort at
the corner of Government and Bastion Streets.
On August 6, I858 the Daily Victoria Gazette stated:
"An Editorial calls for the establishment of a public
hospital, a jail, and a deadhouse.  The present jail is too
small and coroner's inquests have to be held in the open 2/, 9
air in front of the jail; the jury stand around the corpse,
some leaning against it, spread on some boards, and the
coroner sits on top of an empty barrel." Early in 1859
Governor Douglas announced that it had been decided to
erect certain buildings on the south side of Victoria Harbour and to connect them by means of a bridge over James
Bay with Government Street, so as to render them convenient of access to the public. These buildings became the
Government Buildings, generally known as the "Birdcages"
due to their structural design. One of these was called
the "Supreme Court" which became the first Court House
building that Victoria possessed. Before this time justice
was administered "on the nearest log" as Sir Matthew B.
Begbie reminisced in this address at the opening of the
Bastion Street Courthouse in 1889.
From the outset the Supreme Court at the Government
buildings came under fire and demands for a Court building
in the centre of the town was heard. To satisfy the clamour, adjustments were made to the old "gaol" or "city barracks" building originally erected in 1859 as a prison on
Bastion Square. The inclusion of the courts within the
walls of this very much altered building added one item
more to the list of its various uses. These included a
police barracks, gaol, drill hall, Mayor's office, Magistrate's Office, court, armoury, debtor's prison, and Superintendent's residence. The Daily Colonist in announcing
its demise in 1866 observed in part, "What is now the city 250
barracks room was used in 1859, and later on for Methodist
Church purposes and as the courts were also held within
its walls, justice, religion, and defence were thus made
companions."
The old building erected in 1859 as a prison on
Bastion Square was torn down to make way for the nev; courthouse already described and opened on February 2nd, 1889.
The occasion was a brillant one. "C" Battery, accompanied
by the Band, arrived at the Court House with the City Po -
lice in the rear playing during the arrival of the guests
including many ladies in their brilliant apparel.
The Band played the National Anthem and "C" Battery
presented arms as His Honor Lieut-Governor Nelson arrived.
When all were assembled Hon. F.G. Vernon, Commissioner for
Lands and Works, handed the keys to the Lieut-Governor who
delivered them to Chief Justice, Sir Matthew B. Begbie, who
delivered the opening address. In accepting the keys with
his brethern of the bench, he felt that he was assuming
great care and responsibility and that in the future, as
in the past every effort should be made by all to further
the ends of law and justice. He was glad that no insinuations or corruption had ever been made against the Bench
of British Columbia and he hoped that they would continue
so to decide all matters brought before them, that in years
to come none could impute unworthy motives to them. Since
then the old Bench has passed on and a nev; one has come, 251
but the old traditions of law and justice have prevailed.
This was the building in which I was installed as
a judge. When Sir Matthew spoke I was probably crawling
in its direction under my mother's feet on the kitchen
floor.
Sir Matthew Begbie was a graduate of Cambridge and
had been called to the bar at London, but he had never
practiced. He always rode a horse in British Columbia and
was said to never have any use for law books and never
used them. The law was what he declared it. He was known
as the hanging judge. If he didn't like a lawyer who
practiced before him, he just disbarred him and struck him
off the roll. He did this to one William Kelly, who was
one of his enemies and who swore that Begbie had never
been called to the Bar. He later also struck off Mr. J.F.
McCreight who later became Mr. Justice McCreight of the
Supreme Court of British Columbia. Rocke Robertson who
later became a Judge and was the father of the late Mr.
Justice Harold B. Robertson espoused McCreight's cause and
was promptly struck off. As a result the legislature finally removed from the Judges the power to strike lawyers
off the rolls and placed it in the hands of the Benchers
of the Law Society.
In the case of Regina vs Lavin heard at the Victoria
Assizes about 1880, Begbie presided. A fight had arisen
between one Robertson and Lavin, and Lavin had pounded
Robertson's head on the floor and fractured his skull.
Robertson died and Lavin was charged with murder. The 2^2
Chief Justice got it into his head that Lavin had used a
sandbag to kill him. To his annoyance the jury brought in
a verdict of "not guilty". Begbie smote the desk with his
clenched fist and shouted, "Remember, Gentlemen, that is
your verdict, not mine, you may go, you may go. You are
discharged, prisoner. Get out of my sight as quickly as
you can or I will not be responsible for what I may do or
say."
And then he turned to the prisoner and cried, "Stay
you, you miscreant, my advice to you is that you get your
sandbag and sandbag that jury."
About 1890 the Rev. J.E. Starr was pastor of the
Metropolitan Methodist Church in Victoria. He was called
to give evidence in a case before the Chief Justice. He
was a tall man and the witness box was very low and he
sprawled over the side in an awkward manner. The Chief
Justice cried, "Stand up, Sir, you are like a sausage skin
filled with water." The story is told by Mr. D.W. Higgins
who was speaker of the Legislature and editor of the
Colonist.
Higgins says that the insult was not resented at
the time, but everyone predicted and made bets that on the
following Sunday Starr would deliver a sermon which would
make Begbie's punishment fit the crime.
On Sunday morning the Rev. Mr. McLeod of St. Andrews Presbyterian Church delivered a powerful sermon in 253
denunciation of the Chief Justice's remarks, charging that
he had fired his insult from the porthole of the coward's
castle knowing well that he would not be replied to.
On Sunday evening everyone flocked to Mr. Starr's
Church expecting to hear a thriller. But Starr said not
a word about the incident. But when the closing prayer
was offered Starr asked a blessing on everyone he could
think of and concluded thus, "And finally, God bless those
who have lost their bets tonight.  Amen."
In spite of all his frailties, Sir Matthew Begbie
remains one of British Columbia's Great Pioneers much to
be admired.
My office in the Court House when I took over in
1952 was the old office formerly occupied by Judge Shandley
for a short time and previously by Mr. Justice F.B. Gregory
adjoining the County Court and was a very comfortable one.
I remained there until the opening of the new Court House
in January, 1962. It was comfortably furnished and in due
course redone with all that I needed. I spent many happy
days in those surroundings.
For myself 1952 is filled with memories. During
the summer my daughter, Joyce, had returned from McGill
University where she had completed her third year in the
Faculty of Medicine and had secured a position at St.
Joseph's Hospital at Comox for summer work.  Irene, Joyce
and I motored north on July 25th and spent a day at the 25/
Lodge at Forbidden Plateau enjoying its beauty. The next
day we moved to a hotel near Comox called "The Fort" which
had been the former residence of Sir Ernest Petter whom we
knew in Victoria. It was a most delightful spot on the
waterfront which we enjoyed until our return to Victoria
on August 6th. During that time we visited the Comox Air-
base and were also privileged to tour the hospital precincts
and especially that area occupied by the Nuns as their residence. The latter was a privilege that a mere man would
never have been given, had my wife and daughter not both
been medical, and they didn't have the heart to turn me
back.
In the evening of the same day upon which I was
sworn in as a County Court Judge, on October 15, 1952, was
held the 50th Anniversary of the founding of Victoria College and the opening of the Ewing Building. Dr. John W.
Ewing had been appointed Principal of Victoria College in
1944, and had done a most excellent job. He was filled
with energy, a good speaker, and had rapidly expanded the
college. Although the first class was not formed until the
autumn of 1903, Dr. Ewing decided that 1952 the year of its
incorporation was the date upon which the 50th Anniversary
should be held. This was also influenced by the fact that
at that moment we were constructing a new Library for the
college on land newly acquired.  Dr. Evdng had planned
both the 50th Anniversary and the opening of the new building
at the same time. Unfortunately the sudden death earlier ?'
in the year of Dr. Ewing had shrouded the college in gloom.
It was therefore natural that when a name was required for
the building all were, unanimous that it should be called
the "Ewing Building" in his memory and so it has remained.
A portrait of Dr. Ewing was generously given for the
opening by Mrs. Myfanwy Spencer Pavelic who had painted the
picture in oils. She had never met the deceased, but did
the work from photographs and verbal descriptions. Mrs.
Pavelic is the daughter of the late William Spencer, one
of the members of the David Spencer family who built the
Spencer Department store in Victoria, which was later purchased by Eatons of Toronto. The picture is a perfect
portrait of Dr. Ewing. We are very fortunate to have in
Victoria such an excellent artist as Mrs. Pavelic and her
'.vork will be long remembered.  Five of the seven members
of the first class and one of the professors, Mrs. Henry
Esson Young, were present.
The Victoria Daily Times in part reports, "The men
and women who have loved the College through half a century
of mingled joy and adversity gathered to do her honor during the celebration of 50th Anniversary week.
"They came to watch Education Minister Tilly Rolston
open the new Ewing Memorial Library and lingered to hear
men like F.G.C Wood and Jeffree A. Cunningham speak kindly
of the past and sometimes chide—but always gently—the
trappings of the present. 2«.
"We were always a congenial company", confided Mr.
Wood, professor emeritus of U.B.C of that First College
Class of seven in 1903....
"And the audience felt it.
"For the first time they saw the faculties of the
Provincial Normal School and the College march together
and sit side by side in a ceremony to open a library both
will share."
The next event which raised many nostalgic memories
was an invitation to me to address the 35th Annual Alumni
meeting of the University of British Columbia at Brock
Hall at the University in Vancouver on November 13th, 1952.
At that time the Convocation at the University of British
Columbia held an Annual meeting of a rather formal nature.
Convocation consisted of those who had registered as
founders after the University was first organized in 1912
of which I was one and all those who had graduated since.
The 40th Annual gathering that year was held in conjunction with the Alumni Association. Convocation still elects
members of the senate and a Chancellor, but only meets now
when called upon to do so.
My address covered the history of the University
from its earliest days. It was well received and I had a
most enjoyable reunion with many of my friends.
Finally on December 6, 1952 the Frederic Wood
Theatre was formally opened at the University of British 257
Columbia. He had been on the faculty in the University
since its opening in 1915 and had finally retired with
the rank of Professor emeritus. When he became a member
of the English Faculty at U.B.C he organized the Players
Club, and produced annually the University Play which
travelled each year extensively over British Columbia with
great success, and continued to do so until his retirement.
He well deserved the honor which had been accorded him in
constructing the University Theatre in his name.
In the spring of 1953 I accepted the Chairmanship
of the Dominion Drama Festival Committee in Victoria. The
Dominion Drama Festival had originally been inaugurated by
Lord Bessborough when he was Governor-General of Canada.
Vincent Massey, C.H., the Governor-General in 1953, had continued the distinguished Patronage and came to Victoria for
the festival to be held May 4th to 9th of that year. In
endorsing the Festival his Excellency said in part, "The
Festival undoubtedly has become one of the major influences
in the cultural development of our country.
"As the Festival moves to the Province of British
Columbia for the first time, yet another important chapter
will be added to the story of its achievements.
"To all those associated with the Festival I send
my warmest good wishes for a most happy and successful week
in Victoria." ~l
258
I was advised that there would be little for me to
do. This was true to a certain extent as our committees
did wonderful work. Plans for staging the festival at the
Royal Victoria Theatre, housing and directing the activities
of about some 150 contestants, arranging functions at which
they and their friends and relatives were to be entertained,
advertising, erecting posters, meeting boat and air travellers for registration at the Empress Hotel, etc., all took
a great deal of time. We had excellent committees, but we
had to meet and co-ordinate and this was important. We had
a most enjoyable time attending all the performances and
other affairs. There were receptions at the Empress Hotel,
luncheons, dinners, awards banquet and other parties and
especially a dinner given by Governor-General Massey, himself. We made friends with many with whom we have had associations ever since.
Indeed the Dominion Drama Festival created an atmosphere in the dramatic and cultural life in Victoria v/hich
has continued to expand. Drama has since become an established study in the school and university life of British
Columbia. The establishment of the Macpherson Theatre in
the life of Victoria was one of its indirect results. I
personally have had little to do with this as my work ended
with the Drama Festival, but those who were associated with
me during the festival were very instrumental in supporting
the subsequent development of a theatre in our city. ~l
259
Besides being an eventful and delightful year in
many respects, 1953 was otherwise an anxious and difficult
one. Irene had been suddenly called to England on account
of the illness of her brother, Major C Vernon Golding.
She flew to Montreal on February 22, 1953 and arrived in
London on February 25th, a few hours after he had passed
away. As she was then still employed at the Royal Jubilee
Hospital administering anaesthetics, she had to hasten back
long before the estate of her brother could properly be
attended to. She, herself, was suffering from diverticulitis which was giving her considerable concern. She thus
in the autumn entered the Royal Jubilee Hospital to be operated on. The operation at first appeared to be a complete success, but for some reason later her condition
became serious and ultimately very grave, but finally she
recovered. This meant, of course, her retirement from her
profession. By then Joyce had graduated from McGill University with her Medical Degree and in 1954 had finished
her internship. She was then ready to commence her training as a specialist.
On May 14, 1956 Dr. Henry F. Angus retired as Dean
of the Faculty of Graduate Studies of the University of
British Columbia and was awarded an honorary degree of LL.D.
by the University.  I might state he had previously (1949)
been given by McGill University also an honorary degree of
Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.).  It was accordingly a great pleasure to be able to take part in the ceremony as a member of the Board of Governors of the University.
One of my duties as a County Court Judge was to be
responsible for the examination and admission of applicants
in the County of Victoria for Canadian Citizenship. The
standard of knowledge and education required for new citizens was set out in a general way, but largely was left
to my own discretion. The Department of Education of the
Provincial Government had drawn up a set of lectures, instructions and examination papers and I was invited to make
any suggestions as to their suitability. At one time I
criticized them as being of too high a standard and that
was immediately corrected. I want to commend the efficiency
of the Department in the instructions and examinations which
followed.  I had no hesitation in accepting the certificates
of citizenship received, I held a formal sitting of the
Court, addressed them on their duties as citizens, administered the oath of allegiance, welcomed each as a new citizen, shook his or her hand, and presented each with a
certificate. I was greatly assisted in this proceeding,
by the members of the Greater Victoria Canadian Citizenship
Council, a local organization who always attended and
produced a well-known Victorian as a speaker to greet them.
They then adjourned to another building for refreshments.
From what the newspapers reported and from subsequent ~l
261
conversations with those whom I had sworn in, I am convinced that the new citizens were greatly impressed. Many
have, since, on various :occasions, personally met me and
always take the opportunity to advise me that I had created
him or her a Citizen of Canada. In the summer of 1957 I
with my wife and daughter were sitting at a sidewalk restaurant in the City of Nice in France, when a gentleman accosted me with an outstretched hand and joyfully announced
that less than a month previously I had sworn him in as a
Canadian Citizen in Victoria.
I have often wondered just how loyal the new citizen
would be in Canada. I had occasion to mention this in June,
1958, when administering the oath of allegiance to some 22
new Canadians in the Court House, I said that some new
Canadians are often insincere when they take the oath. Many
are unwilling to renounce their countries of origin and the
oath is often taken lightly. I gave as an example the manner in which Dutch-Canadians in Victoria had recently flocked to greet Prince Bemhard of the Netherlands carrying
flags and celebrating as if he was their King. Many had
only recently taken the oath of allegiance to Canada. This
caused a trans-Canada report and almost a universal rebuke
from new Canadians. One member of the Dutch Community was
so up in arms, so it was reported, that he said he v/ould
inform official sources in the Hague of my remarks and insult to Prince Bernhard. I know they were in a difficult 26:
position but I still believe they were wrong and their
rebuke to me only confirms my statement.
1958 filled my life with memories. British Columbia had now been in existence for one hundred years.
On August 22nd, 1858 Queen Victoria gave her royal assent
to an Act of the British Parliament to create a new Colony
of British Columbia. It was therefore a fitting occasion
to celebrate its Centennial. And so it was considered by
the Provincial Government. Most organizations took notice
of the fact in some manner. One such organization was the
British Columbia Drama Festival, Southern Vancouver Island
District, 1958, of which Irene and I were Patrons. This
was held at the Oak Bay Junior High School from April 16
to April 19th, 1958.  I was honored by being invited to
make the opening address which of course had a centennial
flavour. The performances were of a very high standard.
Japan took cognizance of the Centenary celebrations
and sent the Nippon Maru to visit British Columbia and
bring its greetings. The Japanese Consul in Vancouver and
the Captain of the Nippon Maru held a reception on board
the ship in Victoria on June l6th and invited many of Victoria's citizens. All had a most thoroughly enjoyable
experience. The Government of Japan recognized that good
will between her friend pays handsome dividends and she
certainly knows how to dispense it. 263
The Greater Victoria Canadian Citizenship Council
for twelve years on the Sunday nearest the 1st of July,
had held "I am a Canadian" citizenship ceremony. This
was on the steps of the Provincial Legislature and consisted of a musical programme usually supplied by one of
our leading musical organizations accompanied by an address on Citizenship by a leading citizen. Canadian Citizenship was also conferred on at least two of our applicants for the same. As it was my duty as a County
Court Judge to swear in the new citizens, it had been my
privilege each year to attend properly robed to perform
the act. The Native Sons of British Columbia Post No. 1
each year awarded a medal to a selected "Good Citizen" for
the year. The Ceremonies for 1958 were held on June 29th
and I as usual swore in and granted Canadian Citizenship
to Frank W. Heimback and Mrs. D. Hosstede.  I also presented the "Good Citizen" award to Harold B. Elworthy, President
of the Island Tug & Barge Ltd., whose family came to Victoria over 100 years previously. He is one of the most valued members of the Board of Governors of the University
of Victoria. The Junior Chamber of Commerce held its
National Convention in Victoria in 1958. This was made
a special occasion to conform with the British Columbia
Centenary. On July 1st special Dominion Day Ceremonies
were held when Civic and Government officials took part
and the convention was addressed by a representative of 26/
the Federal Government.  I was also invited to present
Citizenship Certificates to the National Executive.
But the chief event of the Centenary Celebration
was the visit to British Columbia of Princess Margaret.
She took part in a number of events in Victoria and travelled extensively throughout British Columbia. Perhaps
the most important was the Centennial Naval Review off
Royal Roads on July 15th. Irene and I witnessed the review from H.M.CS. Ontario which was one of the ships
being reviewed. We boarded the ship at 11 a.m. and were
served lunch between 11:30 a.m. and 1:30 p.m. whilst the
Ontario steamed to her place. As the H.M.CS. Crescent
with Princess Margaret on the reviewing stand approached,
a 21 gun Royal Salute was fired. As she passed the "Ontario", a musical salute by the guard and band on the quarter deck followed, and three cheers for Her Royal Highness
greeted her as she passed down the ships side. It was a
beautiful day and we were back again on shore by 5*05 p.m.
The University of British Columbia made a special
occasion of the autumn convocation to remember the British
Columbia Centenary and its own 50th Anniversary of the
granting of its charter. Degrees of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa) were conferred upon the Prime Minister of
Canada, Hon. John Diefenbaker, the Liberal Leader of the
Opposition, Hon. Lester B. Pearson, the CCF. Leader, 265
Mr. J. Caldwell and the Premier of British Columbia, Hon.
W.A.C Bennett.  Sir Hector Hetherington, Principal of the
University of Glasgow, gave the address. He caused a good
deal of amusement by calling British Columbia, "a little
bit of Scotland," as indeed it was, as its former name
"New Caledonia" designated it.
Finally Victoria College decided to hold a Homecoming Centennial on October 18th. This was a complete
success. Some 400 former students remembered the "Good
Old Days" of their Alma Mater. It was a most informal
gathering. But it was the older generation who came out
in large numbers rather than the more recent graduates.
A special guest was Mrs. H.E. Young, the former Miss Rosalind Watson, "our Rosie" as we called her. She was our
teacher of English and History and a sponsor of campus
athletics. Indeed she played field hockey with us on our
mixed team. She was the first President of the University
Women's Club and one of the organizers of the University
Extension Association. I had the pleasure of meeting her
on this occasion and also Mrs. J.M. Thompson, formerly
Kate Pottinger who was one of my classmates. But there
were not very many more I personally knew. It was a good
way to vdnd up my centennial memories and reminded me
that I was no longer young. Chapter 16
1959 - 1962 Memories
There is always some event which stands out in the
life of a community which will never be forgotten by those
who took part. The event of 1959 was the visit to Victoria
by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II and her husband, Prince
Philip.
They arrived in Victoria by motorcade from Nanaimo
on the afternoon of July 16th, 1959 driving through crowds
on the streets directly to Government House, where they
were welcomed by His Honor Lieutenant Governor and Mrs.
Frank M. Ross. Then at 5:30 p.m* they went to the Legislative Buildings to be greeted by Premier W.A.C Bennett
and the members of the Legislature.
Friday was a full day for the Queen. The first event
was the presentation of Colours to the Princes Patricia's
Canadian Light Infantry, and to the Kings Own Cavalry Regiment, on the football field at Beacon Hill Park just off
Douglas Street at 11 a.m.
Some 20,000 citizens were reported to have gathered
for the event. The invited guests gathered on seats distributed around the parade ground. The others covered the
whole West side of Beacon Hill. The weather was  all that
could be desired.
The marching of the Princess Patricia's Canadian 267
Light Infantry on to the Square was received vdth enthusiasm, the Colour Escort Guard first, followed by five more
guards each of 54 men and 3 officers. The Queen's arrival
caused a roar from the crowd. Immediately she stepped to
an especially constructed Land Rover Car upon which she
stood as she slowly passed the Guards in Review. She was
regal in vivid royal blue and pink organdy hat. As the old
Colours were marched off to "Auld Lang Syne", one almost
wiped away a tear. Then the guards formed a hollow square
and the drums were piled. The new Colours were consecrated
and the Queen presented them to the Princess Patricia's
and the guidon to the King's Own Calgary Regiment. When
the Colours joined the line of Guards, they marked past in
slov; time, then in quick time as Straight as a line, and
then in Review Order. Three times the new colours were
dipped to the Queen and as they are only dipped to the Sovereign, one will never see it again.
At the exact moment of the advance an Arrow of Bombers from 407 and 408 Squadrons R.C.A.F. flew past and the
letter "E" for "Elizabeth" was spelled out in the sky by
CF. 100 jets. Such pageantry was never seen in Victoria
before.
That same afternoon we were invited to a garden
Party at Government House where the Queen and Prince Philip
mingled with the guests.  It reminded us of a similar visit
to a Garden Party at Buckingham Palace in London in 1924 268
just before our marriage when King George and Queen Alexandra did honour to us all of the American and Canadian
Bar Associations.
That night the Navy produced an unforgettable display
in the Juan de Fuca Straits of illuminated ships, followed
by a blackout at 10 p.m. and a sudden display of fireworks.
The night was perfect for the occasion and I doubt if I
have ever seen a more magnificent display. We sat on the
rocks nearby. The Queen saw it from the balcony of Government House.  And so it ended.
I have already discussed the development of Victoria
College with the University of Victoria and I do not want
to repeat myself, but I do want to emphasize a few events
during the year 1959.
On February 18th, 1959 the Premier W.A.C. Bennett accepted an invitation to open the Ewing Building Extensions.
The programme prepared by the Provincial Department of Public Works stated in part, "It is fitting that this building
serve as the transition piece between the institution's
past as a college and its future as a University."
At the ceremony the Premier announced that the government would match "dollar" for "dollar" money raised in
the College's campaign for University development funds
and referred in his speech to the warm welcome given him
by the students.  "That made me," he said, "more interested
in this College, or rather University, than I other'-dse
would have been." Public Works Minister, W.N. Chant also 269
said, "We want a University which will serve not only Vancouver Island but British Columbia and the whole of Canada."
This was not a promise that we would be created an
independent University, but many of us took it as such and
felt it could never be repudiated.
Two days later the Victoria Colonist after discussing the situation in an Editorial said, "Meanwhile the
University of Victoria has become a fact and congratulations
will go to the former Victoria College Council for this fine
climax to its endeavors and to the Chamber of Commerce Committee which has backed the project strongly and well from
the start. With a concerted pull all round the fledgling
University should go forward to a physical realization of
all that is inherent in a full-fledged institution of this
kind."
We immediately set out to organize a Citizens Committee to raise funds for building purposes, and ultimately
employed the firm of Deachman, Fairclough, Parks and Company
Ltd. of Vancouver, B.C. for organization purposes. All this
was done before the end of the summer.
Everyone in Victoria was glad to help. Hon. R.W.
Mayhew PC accepted the position of Hon. Chairman with Mr.
R.B. Wilson, one of Victoria's foremost business men as
Chairman and Mr, J.V. Harbord as Vice-Chairman. Before we
knev; it we were well on the way. An excellent committee
was organized with representatives from every walk of life 270
and they did a wonderful job opening the campaign as I960
dawned upon us.  I would like to record the name of everyone who helped us in the drive but this is impossible; but
I will mention the names of the Chairmen of each Division,
E.W. Arnott, National and B.C. Corporations, Capt. G.R.
Newell, General Corporations, W.T. Straith, Q.C and Dr.
J.A. Pearce, Personal Gifts, E.T. Staley and A.W. Toone,
Employees Division, L.J. Wallace, and R.T. Wallace, B.C.
Communities, H.R. Stephen, Speaker Committee, J.C. Haddock,
Publicity Committee, Miss M. Ardley, Residential Canvass
and E.D.B. Hawkshaw, Treasurer.
The drive opened on January 8, i960 with a dinner
for some 150 citizens at the Union Club paid for out of
the pockets of the Campaign Board of Management, on which
occasion the Campaign Chairman, R.B. Wilson, was able to
announce pledges already totalling some $200,000 of which
the Faculty and staff of the College had contributed
$27,604.00. On this occasion the Premier announced the
government vrould further match the campaign money over a
period of 5 years up to $2,500,000 instead of $1,500,000
if the citizens would raise that amount which was readily
agreed to.
One of our most ardent workers on the management
committee and also an honored patron, the Hon. J.C. Davis,
whilst on a voyage to Vancouver to assist in securing 271
donations, suffered a severe heart attack and passed away
on January 21, I960. He gave his life in our service and
we owe him a deep debt, of gratitude which can never be
repaid.
One of the first buildings planned was the erection
of a classroom building on the Landsdowne Campus and the
turning of the first sod was performed by Lloyd McKenzie
Q.C, one of the members of our council and an active member of our campaign committee. For the students this was
a day of celebration. Some 200 decorated cars streamed
through downtown streets in a jubilant motorcade, as the
students whooped-up the start of the University expansion
programme.
On January 18th, 196l our first building financed
by funds raised by our campaign, the E.B. Paul building,
was formally opened by the Premier. This cost us $329,000
and was a classroom and faculty building on the Lansdowne
Campus. We were then able to announce that the campaign
total was more than $2,000,000 and that there was every
promise that it would ultimately reach the $2,500,000 goal.
In due course the citizens of Victoria met the challenge
and raised more than the $2,500,000 sought. We then organized a University Development Board with representatives
of our Citizens, Faculty and College Council with R.B.
Wilson as Chairman to plan the spending of the money raised, Onr>
They soon employed Wurster, Beraardi and Emmons of
California, specialists as University Designing Architects,
to draft a general plan for the development of the Gordon
Head Campus. They produced a central walking campus Of
72.8 acres upon which all teaching academic buildings would
be built surrounded by a circular road upon which all traffic would be carried. The space surrounding the circular
road was reserved for student resident colleges, cafeterias, athletics, auditorium, administration and other purposes.  Four buildings were immediately designed by local
architects for the Library, Science, General Classrooms,
and the Student Union.
May 29th, 196l was an historical occasion for Victoria College, the conferring of University Degrees upon
its first graduating class at the Gordon Head Campus. The
Victoria Colonist in its issue of the previous day said,
"This Ceremony will make Monday perhaps the biggest day in
the academic life of the City of Victoria and the stepping
stone to the ultimate goal of an independent University
which will rank with the finest in the country."
Dr. A.E. Grauer, Chancellor of the University of
British Columbia, conferred degrees of Bachelor of Arts,
Bachelor of Science, and Bachelor of Education on 37 graduates and Doctors of Laws (Honoris Causa) on Mrs. Rosalind
Young and Dr. Charles J. Armstrong. Mrs. Young was the
only surviving member of the First Faculty of Victoria 273
College and Dr. Armstrong was the step-son of the late
Prof. Percy H. Elliott who was Principal of Victoria College.  At the time of the congregation he was President
of the University of Nevada. His address was "The Idea of
a University". We were honored with the presence of Lt.
Governor George R. Pearkes, Education Minister Leslie Peterson, Hon. R.W. Mayhew, Dr. Norman A.M. Mackenzie and
many other leading citizens. The graduating class honored
the occasion by presenting the College with a silver mace
to be carried in the academic procession. Both the Victoria Colonist and the Victoria Daily Times honored the
occasion with special editions. The Colonist gave fitting
prominence to the work of the Chairman of the Development
Board, Mr. R.B. Wilson.  It said, "Spearheading the drive
that raised $2,200,000 in public money for the University
extension was businessman, R.B. Wilson. Mr. Wilson has
spent most of his time during the past 16 months as head
of the campaign drive, and his continuing interest as head
of the development board assures the University of action
at the top." I may only add we owe a great debt of gratitude to Mr. Wilson which we can never repay.
I was rather astounded when I was later informed
that the occasion was to be further remembered by the
Native Sons of B.C. Post No. 1 by selecting myself as Victoria's Good Citizen for 196l and awarding me its silver ~l
27';
medal at the Canadian Citizenship Ceremony held on June
18th on the Legislative Building steps.  Among dignitaries
present were Lt. Governor George Pearkes and Mrs. Pearkes
and Mayor Percy Scurrah and Mrs. Scurrah. The R.C.N.
Naden Band was in attendance. This was an occasion in my
life which will never be forgotten.
In the meantime pressure was brought to bear upon
Mr. Wilson to run as Mayor of Victoria and he finally consented and was elected with a large majority. He accordingly
resigned as chairman of the University Development Board
and was duly honoured by us at a University dinner.
Meanwhile negotiations for the purchase of 147 acres
of land from the Hudson Bay Company had been completed and
we were ready to turn the first sod on our new Gordon Head
Campus which was duly done by myself on January 20, 1962.
It was a cold day and the sod was frozen, but we had a warm
reception by Education Minister Leslie Peterson who pledged his support in a warmer location, our new auditorium-
gymnasium. The sod I turned was once part of a dairy farm,
then an airport, a truck garden, an army camp, and a temporary postwar housing area, and nov; it was a University,
and the building commenced was to bear my name, the Clearihue Building.
1962 was memorable to me for other purposes. The
new Court House, built on the old Cathedral site, was ready
for occupation and the time had come to me to move. On 27'
February 25, 1962 the court was opened and I had the pleasure of sitting on the first case held in the court. The
case was a suit for damages arising from a two car crash
near Chemainus.  Appearing for the plaintiff was Miss
Elouise Harrison of Crofton, a grand-daughter of Eli Harrison who came to Victoria in I856. Counsel for the defence was former city M.L.A., George Gregory, son of the
late Mr. Justice F.B. Gregory also an early pioneer of
Victoria. My father had arrived in Victoria in 1859. We
were all descendents of Victoria's early pioneers, quite
an appropriate gathering for the occasion. The site upon
which the new court was built was that of the old Church
of England Cathedral which had stood on the hill since
1872 after it had been rebuilt after the fire which destroyed the original built in 1856. The site also was
adjoining the site of a duel fought in July of I858 between two newly arrived pioneers, an American outlaw and
a young Englishman over the reputation of a young woman
whom they had met on the steamer Sierra Nevada, recently
arrived from California. The young Englishman was shot
through the heart. D.W. Higgins, formerly editor of the
Victoria Colonist and a speaker of the British Columbia
Legislature, arrived on the same steamer and tells the
story.
Though we had actually taken possession of the new
Court House on February 25th the formal opening was not 27^.
held until June 15th '.';hen we were honored vdth the presence
of Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal who arrived escorted by Major-General the Honourable George R. Pearkes,
V.C, the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia. The
audience assembled outside the entrance, the judges and
representatives of the bar being in their usual robes. The
Hon. R.W. Bonner Q.C, Attorney-General, made the proper
presentations and opening speech. The building was then
dedicated by the Right Reverend Harold Sexton and the Rev.
H.K. Johnston D.D. and the keys were accepted by the Honourable Sherwood Lett CB.E., D.S.O., the Chief Justice
of the Supreme Court. The Princess Royal cut the usual
ribbon and declared the building open and then made her
inspection.  I retired to my room and we all felt properly
dedicated.
The City of Victoria, Vancouver Island was incorporated in 1862. On August 3rd, 1962 as part of its Centennial Celebration there was held a civic luncheon reunion at the Pacific Club.  At this reunion were assembled
all surviving mayors and aldermen representing a total of
187 years service to the city. I was one vdth 4 years service as an Alderman during the years 1925 to 1928 inclusive.
At this gathering Mayor Wilson introduced the city's plans
for the rehabilitation of the City Hall and the construction of Centennial Square. There was also present a mother 277
and daughter, former alderman Mrs. M.D. Christie and her
daughter, Alderman Mrs. Lily Wilson, who still holds that
post. Both of them have performed exceptional service.
Each of us was presented vdth a bronze centennial medal
commemorating the event. To all of us it was a memorable
reunion.
On September 5, 1962 Dr. Claude Bissell, President
of the University of Toronto and President of the National
Conference of Canadian Universities and Colleges dedicated
the first nev; building on the Gordon Head Campus in my
honor the "Clearihue Building".  A plaque bearing the inscription "Friend of Victoria College" was greatly appreciated by me. I only hope I can live up to such a dedication.
And then the time for my retirement as a Judge came
and I stepped down on my 75th birthday December 20, 1962,
barely satisfied vdth my life as a judge but knowing there
was much more to do. M.M.L. Tyrwhitt-Drake, a well-known
Victoria Lawyer, and grandson of Mr. Justice Drake, one of
our pioneer Supreme Court Judges, was appointed County
Court Judge to succeed me. Chapter 17
University of Victoria
I have already described the creation of Victoria
College into a University by the passing of the new Universities Act early in 1963. This provided that we should
secure our new status on July 1st next. In the meantime
we still remained Victoria College affiliated with the University of British Columbia; and so we were on March 30th
when our new Student's Union was officially opened. This
building had become possible through the excellent cooperation of the students who had carefully planned every
detail and had arranged that every student should be charged
an extra sum of $10 per year. With a contribution from the
Board of Governors the building was finally constructed.
Representing the government at the opening was Education Minister Leslie Peterson who said, "I do particularly want to congratulate the students. I know that what
they have contributed to this building must have been a sacrifice if today's students are as impecunious as students
were when I was at University."
Our third and last congregation as an affiliate of
the University of British Columbia held on May 27th, 1963
was a memorable one. Dr. Phyllis Ross as Chancellor presided and conferred the degrees on 84 of our graduating 279
students. Dr. John B. Macdonald gave the address, "Reflections on the Meaning of Discovery." He charged the
graduates to take part in University affairs, promote intellectual pursuits and contribute time and money to higher
education here or elsewhere.  "For the past fev; years the
University has been responsible for you. Now you are responsible for it," he said. Dr. Ross paid tribute to all
the people who in the years 1902-1963 made the College a
distinguished place of learning with "unique benefits of
teaching and scholarship to the students of B.C." She
also gave high praise to the College faculty for all they
had done and especially to Dr. Harry Hickman, the former
College Principal, who had announced he would not seek the
Presidency of the new University and would devote his whole
time to teaching. Dr. Gordon Shrum, the future Chancellor
of Simon Fraser University, joined in the occasion. The
theme of all addresses emphasized co-operation between all
three universities. As I look back now there is no question
but that this has been obtained.
On July 2nd we had our official opening ceremonies
as the University of Victoria. Lieutenant-Governor George
R. Pearkes laid the corner stone of our new library, the
"McPherson Library", and described it as the symbolic corner stone of the University of Victoria. Previous to this
event the Lieutenant-Governor had given in our honor a
delightful luncheon at Government House. Some 500 alumni ~l
280
and friends gathered to watch the historic occasion.  A-
mongst them were 6 of the 7 students in the first class
of Victoria College of 1903, just 60 years before, I being
one.
And so we as a University came into being and I,
as Chairman of Victoria College, became its first Chancellor.
When Victoria College opened in 1903 Professor
Frederic G.C. Wood, now retired from the University of
British Columbia, and I attended its first lecture. Sixty
years later Prof. Wood and I attended the first lecture to
be given in the University of Victoria, when we attended a
summer session French Class given by Dr. Harry Hickman,
the College's last principal and the nev; acting President
of the University.
Messages of greeting were received from many sources.
Mayor R.B. Wilson conveyed greetings from his Alma Mater,
McGill University, under whose wing Victoria College was
first formed. Greetings also came from Lieutenant-Governor
George R. Pearkes, Education Minister Leslie Peterson on
behalf of the Provincial Government, Dean S.M.F. Chant on
behalf of the University of British Columbia, and Dr.
Gordon Shrum, Chancellor of Simon Fraser University and
from many other universities. Even the British Prime Minister, Hon. Harold Macmillan, as Chancellor of the University of Oxford sent me personal greetings, "as one Oxford 281
man to another." Incidently I had debated at the Oxford
Union in several debates in which he as an Oxford student
had taken part.      t .
During the summer of 1963 the new highway through
Rogers Pass and the Rockies had been opened and we decided
to accept my daughter, Joyce's invitation to drive us
through as far as Banff. It was a delightful experience.
She was doing some mountain climbing with a group of Alpine climbers. Irene and I took a trip on a bus through
the Rocky Mountains as far as Jasper where we spent two
nights in the Lodge, a most delightful place. On our way
north we drove over the Columbia Ice Fields on large snowmobiles, crossing over ice crevasses in a thrilling experience. The trip is one which will never be forgotten
and displays the beauties of nature through the Rocky
Mountains. Moose, bear, and other signs of wild life were
experienced.
On August 30th, 1963 the Lord Mayor of London, Sir
Ralph Perring, and Lady Perring visited Victoria and were
given a royal welcome. This included a dinner given by
the Lieutenant-Governor at Government House. As Chancellor of the University of Victoria, I and Irene were
amongst the guests.
On September 17th it was my pleasure to welcome the
first freshman class (1963-1964) of the University.  I 282
impressed upon them the historical occasion and suggested
that they should establish a short name for the University
and suggested the name "UVic".  ^he name was immediately
adopted and has since been firmly established.
The University Act provided for the setting up of
Convocation Founders who were generally graduates of any
University and especiallj'- those who had been associated
vdth Victoria College or the Victoria Normal School and
who registered as such. It was their duty to elect the
first Chancellor and six members of the Senate. This was
done in the autumn and I was elected for a period of three
years.
As I had many years before registered as a convocation founder of the University of British Columbia, and
in 1963 had registered as a founder in the University of
Victoria and Simon Fraser University, I nov; became a founder
of three universities.
A University of Victoria Alumni Association was also
organized, its first members being former members of Victoria
College and Victoria Normal School who had graduated from
any university and others who had not graduated. To honor
the establishment of the University of Victoria, a Convocation Ball was held at the Empress Hotel on November 13th.
It proved a great success and has been repeated each year
since.  It is nov; one of the social events of the year. 283
Probably the most important duty of the new Board
of Governors of the University of Victoria was to select
a President.  In anticipation of this we had vdth the cooperation of the Faculty reviewed many possibilities and
finally on December 18th, 1963 we announced our appointment of Dr. Malcolm G. Taylor who was then Principal of
the University of Alberta's Calgary branch to date from
July 1st, 1964. He had received Bachelor's and Master's
degrees and a Doctor of Philosophy degree at the University of California, and had been on the economics and political science faculty at the University of Toronto from
1951-1960 when he went to Calgary.  He was an expert on
medicare and a member of a number of Public Administration
and Political Science Organizations.
In the meantime our University Development Board
had accomplished miracles and so the University decided
to open the University to the Citizens of Victoria and
celebrate the opening of the new Science Building on February 1, I964.  I will recall the event in the words of
the Victoria Daily Times in part as follows:
"Some 12,000 visitors swarmed over Gordon Head
University Campus at the weekend to check their
investment in the future.  They came, they saw,
they were conquered.  Greater Victoria, in busses and driving an estimated 5,000 cars, was
captivated by the hundreds of displays and demonstrations in the Arts, Sciences and Faculty 284
of Education laid out in University of
Victoria's openhouse.
"For the first time the public was invited en
masse to see four multimillion dollar buildings in use, three a-building and ambitious
plans for a circular "walking campus" the
Academic plot for years to come.
"The two days started modestly at 1:30 p.m.
Saturday when 125 persons gathered at the
$2,000,000 Science building for its formal
opening by Education Minister Leslie Peterson.
Named for science professor Percy H. Elliott
who was third principal of Victoria College,
the sparkling glass, tile, steel and masonry
building houses offices, seminar rooms, research rooms, workshops, and laboratories for
chemistry, physics and life sciences and
astronomy.
"It was the minister's first official act in
connection with the University and he took the
opportunity to welcome on behalf of the Premier
and government, Dr. Malcolm Taylor, new president of UVic, who assumes office in July.
"This building will hereafter be known as the 28
r
"Elliott Building", University Chancellor
Judge J.B. Clearihue said drawing attention
to the fact that the ex-principal's widow,
Mrs. Jessie Elliott, was on the platform
with her son, John Armstrong."
On May 25th, 1964, the day of our first Convocation,
I was formally installed as Chancellor by taking the installation oath before Lieutenant-Governor Pearkes, the
official visitor of the University.
My first act as Chancellor was to confer an honorary
Doctor of Laws Degree on Professor Jeffree A. Cunningham,
Professor Emeritus of Biology and Zoology and former vice-
principal and registrar of Victoria College. No act could
have pleased me more. Prof. Cunningham for longer than
anyone else had been the corner stone of our College. He
was always able to settle trouble and give advice when needed. It is my fond hope that when a name for a new biology
building is required, he will be remembered.
Sandra Came, with first class honours in English
and class poet, received the first undergraduate degree,
an occasion which she should long remember.
Not only was 1964 a red letter day for the University of Victoria, but it was also one for the City of Victoria. Under the guidance of Mayor R.B. Wilson, who had
done so much for the University of Victoria, the old City 28(
Hall had been completely renovated and a new legislative
wing constructed, surrounding a new Centennial Victoria
Square with grass, flowers and a fountain.
The day for its official opening, November 4th,
1964, arrived and His Honor Lieutenant-Governor George R.
Pearkes was called upon to perform the ceremonies.
The renovation was largely made possible through
the generous gift of Thomas S. McPherson, a pioneer resident of Victoria, who passed away in December, 1962 and
distributed the whole estate to Charity. The University
of Victoria benefited by gifts valued at about $2,500,000
and the City of Victoria acquired almost as much. We have
largely Mr. R.B. Wilson to thank whose influences was
largely responsible for the gift.
November 14th was set aside for the installation of
our new President, Dr. Malcolm G. Taylor and a special
Convocation was called for that event. Universities generally were represented by resident graduates who brought
their greetings in various forms. Lieutenant-Governor
George R. Pearkes, our official visitor, Dr. John A. Macdonald representing the National Conference of Canadian
Universities and Colleges, Willard E. Ireland for the Board
of Governors, Sydney G. Pettit for the University Faculties, J. David Edgar for the Alumni Association, Arthur J.
Saunders for the staff and Olivia R. Barr, President of 287
the Alma Mater Society all appeared and welcomed the President with verbal greetings. Then followed the Presidential address. Honorary degrees were conferred on Dr. H.R.
Robertson, Principal of McGill University, Dr. Louis-Albert
Vachon, Rector of Laval University, Dr. W. Kaye Lamb, National Librarian and National Archivist and Mr. Walter C.
Koerner, a governor of the University of British Columbia.
It was all a very gay occasion followed by a short ceremony for the opening of the McPherson Library.
The students papers "The Martlet" and "The Centurion"
had special installation issues to record the occasion.
And so Dr. Taylor was duly installed.
We were all glad to welcome our nev; Presidnet and
his wife and many receptions and other forms of welcome
followed.
But 1965 opened with a sad note vdth the death of
Britain's great man of the century, Sir Winston Churchill.
On January 29th there was held a memorial service in Christ
Church Cathedral and I with President Taylor and Dean Jef-
fels representing the University attended to join in doing
our last respects to the greatest man of our times. Anglican Archbishop Harold Sexton and Roman Catholic Bishop
Remi De Roo knelt side by side before the High Altfcr in
Christ Church Cathedral for the first time, a hopeful sign
for religious co-operation. 288
In I960 we organized a drive to raise funds for
building purposes for the University of Victoria. This
was payable over 5 years ending 1964 inclusive. The
Premier had promised to match dollar for dollar to the a-
mount of $2,500,000 should we again canvas the public for
a second drive starting in 1965.
The time had arrived for such a drive and we had been
discussing the matter for some time. Nov; there were three
Universities all ready to do the same thing and the public
for a second drive starting in 1965.
The time had arrived for such a drive and we had
been discussing the matter for some time. Nov; there were
three Universities all ready to do the same thing and the
public had to be considered.  Co-operation was necessary
and so during 1964 a Tri-University Fund Drive was organized with headquarters in Vancouver and representatives
from all three Universities. We found ourselves in the
minority and had to take what was given us. We were told
that we were to get 16$ of the net collected whilst the
Universities of British Columbia and Simon Fraser were each
to get 42$ to be spread over 5 years. This was approved
of by the Provincial Government. The Premier offered us
$1,000,000 per year over 5 years whilst each of the other
Universities was promised $5,000,000 per year. The division in favour of Simon Fraser was said to be justified
on the ground that they were starting from scratch. 28P
So on March 8, 1965 the Tri-University Drive was
opened with as much publicity as possible. We were unable to raise what we.had hoped for but more than I personally had expected. The final payments are due this
year, 1969, when another drive will have to be organized.
The Premier has already intimated that this is a proper
method of raising funds. Many of our citizens in Victoria
have objected to the University of Victoria receiving only
16$ of the moneys collected and have refused to give anything. The statement of the Fund Organization that one
could give his subscription to any of the Universities he
desired was unjustified as the University's share was reorganized so that the University could never get more than
l6?6 of the total.  I presume that another Tri-University
drive vdll in due course be organized.  If so the gift
should be allotted to each University as the donor directs
and should not be taken into consideration when other funds
collected are divided. Also the University of Victoria
must get a greater allotment than 16$. I do want to record
my appreciation of the wonderful work done by the two co-
chairmen, Mr. W.A. McGavin of McGavin Toastmaster Ltd. and
Mr. Cyrus H. McLean of the B.C. Telephone Co. who gave
hours of their time and energy in making the drive a success. W.A. Armstrong of Victoria deserves special mention
for the work he did in heading the drive in Victoria. 29C
One of the pleasant privileges of the Chancellor
of a University is to attend the Convocations of other
Universities, and so I and Irene had the pleasure of tra-
veiling to Nelson on May 15th to attend that of Notre Dame
University. We were given a most unforgettable cordial
welcome.
Then there followed the congregation of the University of British Columbia on May 27th which we again
attended. I had been attending at least one each year
since 1935 when I became a member of the Board. This was
an event which I had always welcomed and where I made lasting friendships and renewed others.
But our own Convocation for the conferring of degrees
came on May 31, 1965. It was the first one at which our
nev; President, Dr. Taylor, attended and assisted me in conferring degrees. We celebrated this occasion by honoring
two of our own leading citizens with honorary degrees of
Doctors of Law, Lieutenant-Governor George R. Pearkes and
Hon. R.W. Mayhew, a former member of Parliament from Victoria who had served Canada some years previous as a Cab^
inet member and as our Ambassador in Japan. Mr. Mayhew
came to Victoria in the early years of the 20th century
and had organized the Sidney Rubber Roofing Company at
Sidney. I recall when I was a member of the legislature
in 1921 we assisted new industries to become established.
Mr. Mayhev; borrowed a small amount for that purpose and 291
showed great enterprise and ability in building up one of
our finest businesses in Victoria.  I was delighted to
play a small part in honoring him. Honorary degrees were
also conferred on Dr. Thomas Henn of Cambridge and Dr.
Bristow Guy Ballard, Director of the National Research
Council. John Maltwood and his wife, Katherine, had some
years before arrived in Victoria and had purchased the
"Thatch" located at 4509 West Saanich Road xvhich had at
one time been used as a baronial Tudor home and later as
a restaurant. Mrs. Maltwood had been a sculptoress and
collector of sculptures, Chinese ceramics and other objects of art which she had used to establish a museum of
art in the "Thatch". The museum also housed a valuable
library which included books on almost every historical
subject, many of which were first editions. She was recently deceased, and her husband in her memory had donated
the museum and its contents to the University of Victoria,
together with a generous financial donation to assist in
the establishment of a museum for the University.
We were delighted to accept and on June 7th, 1965,
I, as Chancellor of the University, had the pleasure of
performing the opening ceremonies. The museum has since
been open to the public and will in due course become one
of Victoria's interesting attractions.
Governor-General George Vanier visited Victoria and
inspected the Gordon Head campus on June 9th, 1965.  It 29?
was a bit chilly, but the skylarks were in full song being
one of our special prides. Dr. Malcolm Taylor, Dean R.R.
Jeffels and I showed him around.  He appeared especially
interested in what we had accomplished. Unfortunately his
time was short and we could not show him much, but we took
him to the Library roof where he could have a view of the
entire campus. He was particularly interested in the Maison Francais, a French School to be run that summer by Dr.
Claude Treil of the University of British Columbia. Dr.
Treil had previously been on our staff and had met General
Vanier when he was the High Commissioner for Canada in
Paris, and had secured his aid to emigrate to Canada after
he had been a French resistance fighter in France. In the
meantime Mme. Vanier arrived and we had a delightful visit
with both in a room in the Library. Unfortunately he had
to hasten to a luncheon given by Premier W.A.C Bennett and
his cabinet.
In the meantime the Board of Governors had decided
that they would like to have an oil painting of myself as
the first Chancellor. This was very gracious of them and
I felt very honored indeed. Mrs. Myfanwy Pavelic, the
daughter of the late William Spencer, a well-known Victoria
artist, was invited to do the painting, and I had several
delightful sittings at her studio in Ardraore during the
month of June. Much to my surprise she refused any payment and donated the picture to the University.  She also 293
made a colored photograph of the painting, had it enlarged,
and presented it to myself.
The University's Fourth Academic Assembly for the
presentation of awards was held on October 15th, 1965 and
the occasion was used to unveil the portrait by Mrs. William
Spencer, the mother of the artist, who could not herself attend as she was then absent in New York. The picture was
hung in the front hall of the McPherson Library and has
only recently been moved to the new Administration office.
This is the third painting which she had donated to the
University, those of Vice-Principal Jeffree A. Cunningham,
Dr. J.W. Ewing and myself. Victoria is proud of her.
After sitting for the painting in June, Irene and
I decided to go to Calgary to attend the famous stampede
which is held annually. We travelled in the special C.P.R.
train arranged for the event, and visited Field, Emerald
Lake, Lake Louise and Banff on the way. The weather was
rather rainy but the rodeo, chuckwagon races and Indian
dances are always popular and appreciated. I was particularly interested in visiting the University of Alberta at
Calgary which is rapidly expanding and from which Dr. Taylor
came to Victoria.
The big event of 1965 in the academic life of British Columbia was the Installation Ceremonies at Simon Fraser
University when Dr. Gordon M. Shrum was installed as oqi.
Chancellor and Dr. Patrick D. McTaggart-Cowan as President
on October 28th.  As Chancellor of the University of Victoria it was my pleasure to represent the University and
take part in the ceremonies. Honorary degrees of Doctor
of Laws were conferred on Lieutenant-Governor George R.
Pearkes, Hon. Leslie Peterson and Dr. John B. Macdonald.
The University had opened its recently well-constructed
campus and commenced its academic life for the first time.
1966 was British Columbia's Centennial Year and the
government prepared an elaborate celebration. It began
with the usual opening of the Legislature and the State
Ball at Government House.
The Centennial Dinner at the Empress Hotel opened
the formal celebrations on March 11th at which Viscount
Amory was the formal speaker, after which we all were conducted through the British Columbia Centennial Caravan
which was filled with historical records of British Columbia's development. The caravan spent the rest of the summer circulating throughout the province and was instrumental
in creating a feeling of British Columbia unity.
But the highlight of the celebrations came one week
later when Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother,
visited the capital to dedicate the cornerstone in the
seven million dollar Museum-Archives Centennial project of
the Federal and Provincial governments. There was a warm 2Q**
informality about the event from the moment Her Majesty
stepped from the R.CA.F. plane at Patricia Bay.
As Chancellor of the University, Irene and I were
favoured with invitations to all events including an informal dinner party on March 19th given at Government
House to her Majesty the Queen Mother at which we were
all personally introduced. The informality of the occasion
was marked by a statement in the invitations which read
"Dress Dark business suit, afternoon dress for ladies".
On April 22nd the Lieutenant-Governor gave the
Centennial Ball at Government House. Dress was that of one
hundred years ago. I was fortunate to be able to borrow a
formal officers mess jacket of the proper period from the
5th Regt. C.G.A. at my old mess in the Armories.  Irene
and Joyce were fitted with dresses from the University of
Victoria's drama wardrobe. The Lieutenant-Governor appeared in the official government uniform dated back to
early days. The picture produced was an exciting one long
to be remembered.
On May 28th, 1916 the 62 Battery, and Ammunition
Column of the 15th Brigade Canadian Field Artillery left
Victoria on its way for service in France. The fiftieth
anniversary re-union of the old brigade was held at the
Ingraham Hotel in Victoria on May 28th, 1966.  As one of
the old brigade I was on hand. Lieutenant-Governor George 296
R. Pearkes did us the honor to attend.  This was the largest contingent of Artillery men to leave Victoria during
the first war. The fiftieth is always an occasion to be
celebrated and aging gunners from as far south as Santa Ana,
California and as far east as Montreal attended. One at
least was now an industrial millionaire, many were prominent
professional men, all were just gunners known to each other
by their first names, members of a club formed in war with
no new members to take their places. I was chosen to propose the toast to the Brigade. This toast each year is becoming more difficult. Old days must be remembered, old
chums must be gibed at, humor must prevail, death must never be mentioned, but the deceased must be duly honored. I
called in Archie Wills to help and after hours of thought
and work I did my best.  It was the most difficult speech
I had ever written.
As part of British Columbia's Centennial year celebrations the Senate of the University of Victoria decided
that the annual Convocation to be held on May 30th should
be a Centennial Convocation and that honorary degrees should
be conferred upon a descendant of an early pioneer from
Vancouver Island and another from the Mainland.  The Senate
decided that I should represent Vancouver Island and Leon
J. Ladner, a prominent barrister from Vancouver and son of
Thomas Ellis Ladner who had settled in New Caledonia in 297
I858 should represent the Mainland. Premier W.A.C Bennett
and Mrs. Phyllis G. Ross were chosen to represent the 20th
century.
This made it difficult for me.  I as Chancellor had
to confer the degrees and it was most unusual for a Chancellor to receive a degree from his own University whilst
Chancellor; but the Senate insisted and solved the problem
by inviting Lieutenant-Governor Pearkes as official visitor
of the University to confer the degree.
But this brought another problem. I had to write a
speech tying in our Convocation ceremonies with those of
the British Columbia Centennial. Fortunately I had in my
possession a speech written by my father proposing a toast
to the Pioneers of British Columbia at their 29th Annual
Dinner on December 8, 1899 from which I was able to quote
effectively. Hon. W.A.C. Bennett gave the convocation address and everything went off smoothly.
Then as Chancellor of the University of Victoria I
was in Vancouver to attend their congregation on June 2nd,
and 3rd, and a special dinner at Simon Fraser University
on June 13th.
On June 19th, Irene, Joyce and I set out by bus to
Kelsey Bay to travel to Prince Rupert on the new British
Columbia Ferry. This route had only opened a short while
before and had met with great success. The weather was 298
not too good but on the following day we did enjoy the
early morning trip to Prince Rupert. There we spent two
days visiting the town and especially the B.C. Packers
Ltd. where we watched halibut being unloaded, prepared
and frozen.
The next day we took a motor bus east to Prince
George where we were met by Father McLennan who graciously
showed us the Roman Catholic College at Prince George which
they hope in due course will be a full University. Then by
bus we went on to Dawson Creek and the Peace River Dam Site
of which we were greatly impressed, and then on to Edmonton also by bus. One could not help but being impressed
with the magnitude of the north. The last time I had been
in Prince George was in 1923 when vdth Henry Angus and Neil
Hossie I voyaged north as far as Jasper and then by train
to Prince Rupert. The difference cannot be imagined.  I
had passed through Edmonton by train many years before,
but had never actually stopped for any time. The growth
there also is beyond belief.  I visited the University of
Alberta at Edmonton and was impressed with its rapid growth.
Then we left by CN. Railway for Harrison Lake where we
spent several pleasant days at the Harrison Hot Springs
Hotel.
In the meantime we had been successful in getting
R.B. Wilson to agree to allow his name to be nominated as 290
Chancellor in succession to myself and as no one opposed
him it became known in September that he would become Chancellor at the end of the year. We were all delighted with
the result.
I was just a little sad on September l6th at the
Fifth Academic Assembly for the giving of awards and scholarships to know that this was the occasion of my last official appearance at a University ceremony as Chancellor.
It was also a very difficult occasion to prepare an appropriate speech, though I did my best not to make it apparent. Shortly afterwards the University of Victoria
Alumni Quarterly appeared vdth a photograph on its front
page of myself delivering my last speech, with a tribute
paid to me within.  It made me feel that perhaps I still
had a few friends and that all my efforts had not been in
vain.
In November the Lord Mayor of London arrived in
Victoria to do honor.to the Pioneers who built British
Columbia one hundred years before.  I was there in my
Chancellor's robes as part of the ceremonial procession.
My father, deceased about 60 years before, was one of those
who was being honored. The occasion was the Proclamation
Day Ceremony, an inter-Church Service with pageantry held
in the Memorial Area on Sunday, November 20, 1966.  It
was probably the largest and most impressive inter-Church ^00
service in Victoria's history.  Ethnic groups in colorful
native costumes were in procession and so were the clergy
of all denominations forgetting their differences. The
Lord Mayor of London, Sir Robert Bellinger, walked in his
ceremonial robe of black, and gold chain of office and
black tricorn hat, followed by three attendants in picturesque array, the City Marshal, the swordbearer and the
aldermanic sheriff, with Lieutenant-Governor George Pearkes
directly behind. Following the Clergy I walked some distance to the rear. The Lord Mayor read the scripture
lesson and the sermon was given by Anglican Archbishop
Harold Sexton who sat on the platform beside the Roman
Catholic Bishop Remi De Roo.
It was all followed by the B.C. Centennial Fireworks Display at Clover Point and the Centennial Celebrations were ended.
Then I received an invitation to dine with the other
members of the Board of Governors of the University at a
farewell banquet given Irene and myself at the Empress
Hotel on December l6th. The climax came when they surprised
me vdth a gift of a framed and signed photograph of the
University Campus and a desk set of writing material both
of which are now honored remembrances of my old days and
friends at the University.
On my birthday on December 20th there appeared a
group of students and the President, deans and other members ?01
of the faculty at our doorstep vdth the necessary liquid
to drink my health. What a pleasant way of closing my
career! Chapter 18
Retirement
Nineteen sixty-seven was Centennial Year for the
whole of Canada, celebrating Confederation of Prince
Edward Island, Nev; Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Quebec and
Ontario, followed later by the Admission of Manitoba,
British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and the Territories
reaching from ocean to ocean. We had already celebrated
in 1966 the Centennial of the Union of Vancouver Island
and British Columbia as the new colony of British Columbia.
But one matter had not been settled in 1866 and that was
the location of the capital of the nev; Province. Both New
Westminster and Victoria had claims and both were bitter
about the other. When Governor Frederick Seymour called
together the first Legislative Council it assembled on
January 24, 1867 at Nev; Westminster and Governor Seymour
plumped for Nev; Westminster.  Amor de Cosmos and Dr. J.S.
Helmcken, who had been speaker of the Assembly at Victoria
for 10 years, pressed for Victoria. The story is told that
if it had not been for the fact that Capt. W.H. Franklyn,
who supported New Westminster, had had a drink too many,
and that a Victoria confederate had shuffled his notes and
had pressed his glasses from their frames so Franklyn could
not read his notes, New Westminster might have remained the
capital. When the vote was taken, Victoria won by a vote 30?
of 1? to 8, and became the permanent capital in May, 1868.
And so it was, one hundred years after on January 2Zr,
1967, that the 28th Legislature of British Columbia saluted
the founders of British Columbia by opening its session in
Nev; Westminster to hear the Lieutenant-Governor read the
speech from the Throne. But it was only a temporary visit,
but one to be long remembered and well advertised. Next
day January 25th, they moved back to Victoria and the usual
State Ball was held at Government House.
On January 28th Lieutenant-Governor George Pearkes
and Chancellor R.B. Wilson participated in the opening of
the nev; Social Sciences and Education and Arts Buildings
at the University of Victoria.  An Open House was declared
over the weekend and a delightful luncheon was given to
celebrate the occasion.  A great deal of thought and time
had been expended by the University Development Board headed by Harold Elworthy in planning these buildings and in
securing their construction. They are to be congratulated
on their success.
In order to celebrate the Canadian Centennial the
Dominion Government made a grant of a sum of money to each
municipality which was to be increased by an equal amount
by the Provincial Government and each municipality to establish a permanent memorial in each municipality throughout
Canada. The municipalities of Greater Victoria decided to
make use of the money to build a stadium on the University of Victoria. This was formally opened by Princess 304
Alexandra who came to Victoria for that purpose. This was
quite a colorful affair and meant a great deal to the University.  It was most enjoyable. The next evening whilst
she attended a military affair elsewhere, her husband, Mr.
Ogilvie, was entertained at dinner by the University of
Victoria.
One of the big events for the celebration of the
Centennial was the military Tattoo which had been elaborately prepared by the Naval Military and Air forces of
Canada. The first performance took place in Victoria in
the Centennial Stadium on May 26th and continued for a
number of nights. The Tattoo depicted the history of Canada from the earliest days to the latest events and was a
great success. The event was held at night being elaborately lighted to best depict its setting.  It then moved
across Canada being presented in every city of reasonable
size and for a lengthy period at Expo '67 in Montreal. It
could well stand a repetition though probably the cost
would be prohibitive.
The fourth Annual Convocation of the University of
Victoria held on May 29th, 1967 was of special importance
to myself. It opened vdth the installation of the new
Chancellor R.B. Wilson by the President and conferring of
the oath of office by Lieutenant-Governor George R. Pearkes.
Unknown to me a committee consisting of Dr. Sydney W. 305
Jackman and Dean R.R. Jeffels had been active in preparing several brief essays dedicated to myself in which the
authors, who were all my friends, surveyed events of my
life and other events relating to the development of the
University of Victoria.  I knew nothing of this until the
opening of convocation when I was informed that a presentation was to be made to me. I do appreciate the kindness
of my friends and cannot thank them enough.  But the honor
that was done me is one that must be shared with all those
from the top to the bottom, who have built Victoria College
and the University of Victoria from 1903 to 1967 and since.
It is they who have made the University possible and in the
future vd.ll make it a success.
One of the events which I have always enjoyed is the
Graduation Parade and Trooping of the Colors at the Canadian
Services College, Royal Roads. This year, 1967, it occurred on June 2nd and General Jean V. Allard, Chief of
Defence staff, was the reviewing officer. I feel certain
that when the responsibilities are thrust upon the cadets
who have passed through the Canadian Services Colleges,
they will produce the leaders of our nation which Canada
requires.  In due course it is my belief that the Canadian
Services College, Royal Roads, vdll attain full University
status, as has done the Royal Military College at Kingston,
Ontario and will become Victoria's second University. 306
In the meantime John B. Macdonald, President of the
University of British Columbia, had tendered his resignation as President and was to leave Vancouver at the end of
June. Lieutenant-Governor Pearkes very graciously gave a
dinner on June 29th in his honor.  I was sad to see him
sever his connection with the University, but he had his
personal reasons and evidently thought he was justified.
The position of President is probably the most difficult
one to occupy. One has to please everybody, the Government, the Board of Governors, the Senate, the Faculty, and
the students. This simply cannot be done, especially when
you have an exploding University endeavoring to live within
an exploding world. He and I didn't agree on everything
done either in Vancouver or in Victoria, but we xvere always
the best personal friends, and respected each other's views.
We were all glad to join with General Pearkes in wishing
him success in the future.
One of the biggest events in the celebration of the
Canadian Centennial was the establishment of the Exposition '67 in Montreal which opened on April 27th and closed
at the end of October, 1967. We planned to attend in September and made all arrangements to visit Montreal, Ottawa,
Quebec City, Toronto and Winnipeg on the way.  So did
Joyce, who did so, and then went on to Munich to attend an
International Convention on Dermatology.  After which she 307
joined a touring group in Afghanistan, touring that area,
Moscow, Leningrad, Siberia, the Gobi Desert and on to
Japan and then home to Victoria.
In the meantime I was forced to cancel the trip to
Montreal for medical reasons. I was advised to have special X-ray treatment for a skin disorder which had developed. This could only be given in a couple of places in
the United States, one being in Palo Alto-Stanford Hospital
Centre at Palo Alto, California. I am happy to report that
the treatment was successful.
All who resided in British Columbia before January
1st, 1892 were declared Canadian Centennial Pioneers of
British Columbia and were presented vdth special medals by
the British Columbia Government. As I was in this category
I was duly summoned to a reception where, along with all
the other pioneers, I was presented vdth the medal which
brings back many memories. The Dominion Government also
very kindly included me amongst those who were given their
Centennial Medal to commemorate 1967.
The University of Victoria Convocation held on
May 25, 1968 marked the close of Major-General George R.
Pearkes term of office as Lieutenant-Governor of British
Columbia. The University had already honored his exceptional qualities of office vdth an honorary degree. He is
the first to admit that he could not have succeeded as he 308
did xd-thout the aid of his magnificent v/ife.  In this the
Senate concurred and so she was placed on an equal pedestal and similarly honored. What pleasure it was to be
able to attend!
As already reported we had planned a trip to Eastern Canada in 1967 but were unable to go. Now it took
place. On September 12th, 1968 we boarded the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Vancouver, arriving at the Lord Elgin
Hotel in Ottawa on September 15th and leaving for Montreal
on September 18th.  During that time we revisited the area
by bus, auto and on foot spending an evening viewing a
delightful display of light, shadow and music depicting
the Parliament Buildings during its different stages of
history. The highlight of the visit was a visit to the
House of Commons in session where we heard Prime Minister
Trudeau deliver his opening address and Opposition Leader
Stanfield make his reply.  It was interesting to notice
Mr. Diefenbaker whilst Mr. Stanfield spoke. He sat upright vdth a blank expression. Whilst Stanfield*s supporters wildly applauded Diefenbaker never moved a muscle.
Such is politics.
A cousin of mine, Mrs. Marion Dentith, met us in
Montreal and entertained us.  For four days we visited
Expo '67 or what was left of it and marvelled at its extent and beauty. Mrs. Dentith drove us over the whole of
Montreal where I visited my old haunts at McGill Univer- 300
sity to which we added Universite de Montreal, Sir George
Williams University, and the Montreal General Hospital
where Irene trained and worked in her specialty of Anaes-
*
thetics.
Mrs. Dentith then drove us to Quebec City where all
three of us stayed at the Chateau Frontenac visiting the
old spots where my father and mother lived and especially
St. Andrews Presbyterian Church.  It was there my father,
mother and their parents vrarshipped and where my parents'
marriage was performed. We even found the grave stones
of my ancestors in Mount Hermon Cemetery.  It was all a
delightful and memorable experience and so was the drive
back by the South shore of the St. Lawrence to Montreal and
on to Toronto by the Canadian National Railway.
We had not been in Toronto for some years and were
amazed by the growth shown. We were fortunate to have a
cousin of mine, Beverly Clearihue, a chartered accountant,
residing there who showed us around the environments.
Unfortunately Irene and I contracted colds and when we
arrived in Winnipeg we cut our trip short and flew back to
Victoria.
The visit did us good, stirred up our spirits, gave
us new life and made us want to visit again our old haunts
in Great Britain.
And so it happened that on May 18th, 1969 we left
Victoria with a group from the University of Victoria on 310
a Charter flight to England.  We climbed aboard a Boeing
707 Jet plane at Vancouver at 10 p.m. that night and vdth
I85 passengers found ourselves nine hours later at Gat-
wick Airport just south of London, England, and off to
Bournemouth via London railways. This took four hours
more, almost half the time it took to travel from Vancouver
to London. It was a nostalgic visit to see old places and
old friends well known to both of us. Unfortunately the
first three weeks of our trip were a bit cold, cloudy and
rainy but not enough to deter us from carrying out our
plans. From Bournemouth we travelled to Chester via London where we met and dined vdth one of our bridesmaids,
Dr. Margaret Herford. One of my Oxford University chums,
Henry Arnold, a successful businessman now retired showed
us the beauties of Chester with all its treasures and
ancient walls and ruins.
Memories of my first association with Dr. R.T. Herford and his family at Dr. William's Library, where I
boarded after my war service in 1919, were revived by our
visiting two of his daughters, Ruth and Catharine at Rhud-
dlan in North Wales. They are now living in an ancient
building, "The Banquet House," reputed to have been part
of Rhuddlan Castle.
Indeed the investiture of Prince Charles as Prince
of Wales should have been at Rhuddlan Castle and not at
Caernarvon Castle according to Welsh Church historian, the 311
Rev. John W. James D.D. Chancellor emeritus of Bangor
Cathedral.  He maintains that the first Prince Edward,
though born at Caernarvon, was four months old and on his
way to England where his presentation as Prince of Wales
took place in late August or early September 1284 either
vdthin Rhuddlan Castle or at the nearby Dominican Priory.
Seventeen years later at the Lincoln parliament of February, 1301, Edward of Caernarvon was formerly created
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In April of the same
year, says Dr. James, the prince returned to Rhuddlan to
receive the homage of his people in the Church of the Dominican Priory. Thus Rhuddlan claims the honor.
The Banquet House is a delightful historic dwelling,
but rather a difficult one in which to live and so Ruth and
Catharine have purchased a new home in Chelmsford and plan
to sell the Banquet House in the near future. We vdll
always prize our brief association vdth it.
Then we found ourselves at the Randolph Hotel at
Oxford.  I was back to my old college filled vdth happy
memories. We spent a day on the river watching the annual
boat races "the Eights" of the various colleges. We dined
in Hall with the faculty members and undergraduates of
Jesus College. We were guests of the Principal and vice
Principal and of course occupied seats at the High Table,
that of the dons.  It was strange for me to see my wife in 312
such a sacred, male resort, but it was explained to me that
the students and dons can nov; entertain their lady friends
at dinner, the students on two nights of the week.  Indeed
one of the new colleges, Linacre College, a graduate College, had already mixed male and female students and talks
of merging the men and women continue, as it should, in
other colleges.  It was not long since the President of the
Oxford Union was a girl student. One thing which amazed
and troubled me was to see the long hair and beards of so
many of the students; but I have been assured by the dons
that they are not hippies, but in many cases their best
students of first class standing. Times have changed.
Yes, times have changed. When I was a student and
arrived by train one mounted a hansom cab pulled by a horse
with a driver sitting up behind.  It was so delightful to
hear the trot, trot, trot of a horse and the kind words of
the driver who carried your luggage in and thanked you for
your tip.  Now in most cases you carry your luggage to a
taxi nearby, are swished to your hotel where your luggage
is piled in the street and your tip is too small to be
thanked for.
When I was a student you went to your playing field
with your bicycle or for a few pennies on a small tram
pulled by a horse along rails on the High Street vdth the
same musical trot, trot, trot. Now the High Street is so
crowded vdth motor cars your bicycle is of little value
and the exhaust from the cars chokes your breath. 313
When I was a student you could walk the length of
Market Street adjoining Jesus College and enjoy the company
you met or the music of the German Band, a little group of
German musicians who played under your window for the money
that was thrown to them. Now Market Street is so crowded
with merchants of all kinds you can hardly walk between
them.
When I was a student a trip to Cowley adjoining
Oxford was a beautiful trip to the country, now you drive
through a motor car factory and conditions are such that
Oxford is called the "Latin Quarter of Cowley".
But Oxford in many ways has not changed. The old
quadrangle, chapel, dining hall and stairs to your rooms
are re-decorated and improved, but are just the same. The
students still wear their gowns to chapel, lectures and to
Hall and don't complain. You say "Sir" to your tutor and
lecturer and regard him with reverence, and the graduates
of Oxford still rule the Commonwealth.
Yes, Oxford can still be remembered and toasted with
joy and pleasure at each Boat Race Night when Oxford and
Cambridge men gather throughout the world to celebrate that
annual event.
It wasn't long before we found ourselves in London.
We were lucky in securing seats for the first rehearsal of
the annual Trooping of the Colour, the salute to be taken
by the Queen. Of course at the rehearsal she did not 314
appear, her place being taken by a high ranking officer;
otherwise it was just the same. The Guards vdth five
bands all paraded producing a magnificent display, one
to be long remembered."
Through Canada House we also secured reserved seats
at a sitting of the House of Commons at which appeared
Prime Minister Harold Wilson to answer questions to be
challenged by Opposition Leader Heath and others. This
added greatly to our visit. The House of Lords was also
sitting which we visited in the gallery.
In front of the throne is the Woolsack upon which
the Lord Chancellor sits as speaker of the House of Lords,
the mace being placed behind him.  I was amazed to see a
lady occupying this position.  A guard informed me that
she was a retired High Court Justice.  I can only presume
that the Chancellor assigns members of his court to assist
him in his duties. How times have changed! When I was in
London first in 1911 women were holding the wildest demonstrations for the right to vote and were being arrested
and sent to prison. Now they can preside in the House of
Lords.
When not in use by the sovereign railings are erected
around the Throne in the House of Lords.  I was surprised
to see a young man sitting near the foot of the throne vdthin
the railings.  I later discovered that the privy councillors
and the eldest sons of peers may occupy this enclosure to 31
c
listen to debates. So the young man was evidently the
heir to some peer, probably a future leader in the affairs of Great Britain.:
It wasn't long before our visit ended and we v;ere
on the way back to Canada, happy, but rather tired and
with heavy colds as we had not spared ourselves as we
should have.  Fortunately we soon recovered.
The important event in 1969 for the University of
Victoria was the installation of its nev; President, Dr.
Bruce J. Partridge, and his first official act of office
in presenting to Chancellor Richard B. Wilson, His Royal
Highness the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh to confer
upon him the degree of Doctor of Science Honoris Causa.
Victoria Memorial Arena was a fitting place to
gather for such a ceremony, vrtiere some 6000 persons filled
almost every available corner vdth faculty, students, academic representatives and the general public.
Some forty Universities from all around the world
had representatives in attendance vdth fitting greetings
for the success of Dr. Partridge.  I was fortunate to be
invited by the Chancellor of the University of Oxford,
ex-Prime Minister Harold Macmillan of Great Britain and
Ireland to represent Oxford.  All such representatives
together vdth others were greeted at luncheon at the University and later joined the Academic Procession in full
University regalia, to be followed by a reception at the 316
University and a dinner at night at the Empress Hotel and
finally a Ball at the University Common Room till the
early hours of the following day.
As Chancellor Emeritus I took part in the Chancellor's party and assisted Dr. W. Harry Hickman, former acting President, to robe Dr. Partridge as part of the ceremony.
Chancellor R.B. Wilson, Chairman of the Board of
Governors Willard E. Ireland, Vice President Robert T.D.
Wallace, Dr. B.J. Partridge and Prince Philip all made
short, excellent, and suitable addresses and a most successful event came to a close.
But for Dr. Partridge it was only a beginning.
In 1964 he was appointed Administrative Vice-President of John Hopkins University with unusual success. On
his appointment to the University of Victoria, Chancellor
R.B. Wilson said, "His qualifications are so outstanding
that the final choice was relatively easy. He has an ideal
blend of ability, youth, and world experience in university
governance. We are delighted that he has agreed to accept
the presidency here."
The University of Victoria is to be congratulated
on having had R.B. Wilson as its Chancellor since January
1st, 1967.  The position of Chancellor is no sinecure as
some have described it. A Chancellor is a member of both
the Board of Governors and the Senate and has all the "U7
duties of both to perform besides many others.  Mr. Wilson,
who is the grandson of one of Victoria's earliest pioneers,
graduated from McGill University vdth a Bachelor of Commerce degree, and since has had a most successful business
career in Victoria. His experience as a commercial and
financial director of various companies including one of
our banks and as Mayor of Victoria has enhanced his value
to the community. Under his guidance the University of
Victoria has become one of our important universities. We
are sorry that he feels that he has to retire at the end
of this year.  In recognition of his work the University
of British Columbia in 1968 conferred upon him the degree
of Doctor of Laws (Honoris Causa).
Dr. Partridge is lucky to have as Chairman of the
Board of Governors so highly qualified a person as Willard
E. Ireland B.A. (U.B.C.), M.A. (Toronto). Mr. Ireland is
Provincial Librarian and Archivist for British Columbia
and is associated with many Historical, Librarian and other
organizations. He has been a member of Victoria College
Council from 1950 to 1963 and a member of the Board of
Governors of the University of Victoria from 1963 to the
present date and its chairman since January 1, 1963.  He
also was a member of the Senate of the University of British Columbia for 6 years. He is an indefatigable worker
and for many years has been the backbone of the development
of the University of Victoria. 318
The University is fortunate that Lloyd G. McKenzie
Q.C has agreed to remain a member of the Board of Governors for a further three years.  Mr. McKenzie holds the
degrees of B.A. and LL.B. from the University of British
Columbia and is one of Victoria's outstanding barristers,
vdth war service to his credit.  For some time he has been
a Bencher of the Law Society of British Columbia and a
member of the Council of the Canadian Bar Association.  He
has served vdth great distinction as a member of Victoria
College Council from 1953 to 1963 and on the Board of Governors of the University of Victoria since that date. His
experience is an invaluable asset to the University of
Victoria.
Dr. Partridge's right hand man will be Vice-President Robert T.D. Wallace M.A. (U.B.C). He joined Victoria
College as a member of the faculty in 1933 and has made the
College and the University his life time work. Without
Vice-President Wallace there would have been no University
of Victoria. Whenever trouble arose he found a solution.
He is admired by all, the administration, the faculty and
the students, a rare combination. On July 1st, 1968 he
became Acting President. On the appointment of Dr. Partridge he was made Vice-President and will continue as the
corner stone of the University of Victoria. He has richly
earned an extended vacation which he will shortly take 119
with his admirable and beloved wife.
Indeed vdth R.B. Wilson who will be available for
advice, Willard E. Ireland, Lloyd G. McKenzie, Robert T.
Wallace and Bruce Partridge the University of Victoria is
assured of success.
It is to be regretted that Dr. Partridge will not
have on his Board of Governors Harold B. Elworthy, W.C
Mearns and Mr. Justice J.G. Ruttan, who retire this year.
Messrs. Elworthy and Mearns have been serving Victoria
College and the University of Victoria for ten years from
I960 to 1969 inclusive and Justice Ruttan since 1963 with
earlier service on the Victoria College Council. Their
loss will be hard to replace, but their hearts remain with
the University and their service and advice will be always
available.
I could go on and on with golden memories, but all
things must end and disappear, as will all the British
Columbia Canadian Pioneers who have lived in the first
century of British Columbia as part of Canada.  I now
salute them all.  And so must end my rambling thoughts.
As Shakespeare makes his Hamlet say,
"There is a divinity that shapes our ends,
Rough hew them how we will."

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