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British Columbia, Canada's Most Westerly Province: Its Position, Advantages, Resources and Climate: New… 1904

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Array British
Columbia
1904  BritisH
Columbia
Canada's
Most
Westerly-
Province
lts Position,
.Advantages,
Resources
and Climate
NEW   FIELDS   FOR
Mining, Farming,   Lumbering, Fruit
Growing and  RancHing
REACHED   BY   THE
Canadian  Pacific   Railway.
A HANDBOOK OF TRUSTWORTHY INFORMATION.
1904-
Tq INDEX TO CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction  3
Coast and Harbors     4
Rivers and Lakes  7
The Kootenay District  8
East Kootenay  8
West Kootenay  16
Yale District   24
Boundary District  27
Okanagan Valley  29
Nicola Valley    32
Lillooet District  39
Cariboo District.'.  39
Cassiar District  41
Omineca District  41
Atlin District  42
Westminster District  45
Vancouver Island  52
Minerals of British Columbia   58
Synopsis of B. C. Mining Laws 1  63
Government Assay Offices  65
Timber •  66
Fisheries  67
Lands  69
Climate  75
Trade  80
Education  81
Sport  82
How to Reach British Columbia  83 BRITISH
COLUMBIA
Canada's
Prosperous Province
on the
Pacific Coast
British Columbia is the most westerly province of the Dominion
of Canada, and lies immediately to the north of the American States
of Washington, Idaho and Montana, the 49th parallel of north latitude
forming- the international boundary, and with the summit of the Rocky
Mountains separating it from the district of Alberta in the Northwest
Territories on the east. The province extends northerly to the 60th
degree of north latitiude. Between latitude 54 degis. and 60 degs. it
occupies the whole country between the sea coast and 1^0 degs. west
longitude, with the exception of a narrow strip along the coast that
belongs to Alaska. Included within its limits are Vancouver Island
and Queen Charlotte Islands and a large portion of the archipelago
of the Pacific. The province has a length of about 700 miles, with an
average width of 450, embracing an area of 383,300 square milss.
British Columbia is one of the richest and most richly endowed provinces of the Dominion, and one abounding in the most varied natural
resources, and is Canada's great western outlet to Japan, China and the
Orient, in general, to Hawaii, Fiji, New Zealand and Australia to the
whole North Pacific Coast, as well as to the famed gold basin of the
Yukon, which lies directly to the north of it. Its trade is increasing
annually, and, through ;its excellent means of communication with all
parts of the globe, has already reached gratifying dimensions. The
high commercial and political importance the province has attained
is permanently assured by its commanding geographical position,
which bears a somewhat similar relation to a large portion of the
North American continent that Great Britain does to Europe for the
trade of the world. The wealth of its mines, forests, waters and soil
is practically illimitable, each succeeding year demonstrating the
marvellous richness of its varied resources.
(British Columbia is a mountainous country, abounding in mineral
wealth, with valleys of splendid arable and pasture lane's, magnificent
forests and numberless waterways.   Its timber is unequalled 'n quality, quantity and variety; its numerous gold, copper, silver-lead and coal
mines already working or under process of development, and the wide
extent of partly unexplored' territory denote vast areas of mineral
wealth; its fertile valleys indicate great agricultural, horticultural and
fruit growing possibilities; its waters contain untold quantities of the
most valuable fish. These, combined, give British Columbia a wealth
that few countries possess. While large tracts, especially in the
•northern part, are practically unexplored, the southern, central and
■coast portions of the province are entering upon a prosperous era
through the rapid development of their boundless resources, which is
now rendered possible by the increased transportation facilities
afforded flor land and water travel by the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company. Few countries have 'shown as great progress during recent
years as British Columbia, and it is now offering unsurpassed inducements to the settler in search of a farm, the stockman seeking a ranch,
the. fruit grower in want of an orchard, the miner in quest of gold,
silver or other precious metals, the lumberman, the fisherman, the
business man, or the capitalist, whether large or small, wiho seeks investment for his money. lit is a magnificent country, of great possibilities and certainties to the persevering, frugal and industrious,
and one  which offers countless  opportunities for all.
A perusal of this pamphlet will give the reader such information
regarding the province that, should be determine upon visiting It with
the intention of remaining, he will be 'materially aided in the selection
of his new field of operations without loss of time or money.
COAST   AND   HARBORS.
British 'Columbia has a magnificent ocean frontage of over 1.000
miles, its coast line on both island and •mainland being .sinuous and
indented to a remarkable degree. It has many fine 'harbors, the principal of which is located at the entrance of Burrard Inlet, a few miles
north of the mouth ■ of the Fraser River, on which is Vancouver, the
western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which traverses
the Doiminion from Atlantic tidewater.
Victoria, on Vancouver Island, possesses an outer harbor at which
all the ocean 'liners dock, and an inner harbor for vessels drawing up
to eighteen feet.
Three miles from Victoria is Esquimau harbor, which Is about
threle imliles long and something under two .miles broad in the widest
part. It has an average depth of six to eight fathoms, and affords
excellent holding ground, the bottom being a tenacious blue clay.
The British Government has built a dry-dock at Esquimau with a
length of 450 feet and width of 90 feet at the entrance, to accommodate
vessels of larger size.   Nanaimo, at the coal mines, has also a commodious and will
sheltered harbor, from which large shipments of coal are made to
Canadian and United States points, and Ladysmlth has also splendid
shipping facilities.
RIVERS   AND   LAKES.
British Columbia has magnificent waterways; and in several districts they form  the principal means  of communication.
The principal rivers of British Columbia are the Fraser, the
Columbia, the Thompson, the Kootenay, the Skeena, the Stikine, the
Liard and the Peace. The Fraser is the great watercourse of the province. It rises in the northern part of the Rocky Mountains, runs for
about 200 miles in two branches in a westerly direction, and then in
one stream runs due south for nearly 400 .miles before turning to rush
through the gorges of the Coast range to the Straits of Georgia Its
total length is about 740 miles. On its way it receives the waters of
the Thompson, the Chillcoten, the Lillooet, the Nicola, the Harrison,
the Pitt, and numerous other streams. For the last 80 miles of its
course it flows through a wide alluvial plain, which has mainly been
deposited from its own silt. It is navigable for vessels drawing
twenty feet to New Westminster, about fifteen miles from its mouth,
and for light draught river boats to Yale, a small town 110 miles from
the .mouth, and again for smaller craft for about 60 miles of its course
through the northern interior, from Quesnel Mouth to Soda Creek in
Cariboo.
The Columbia, a large river rising in the p-outheastern part of the
province, in the neighborhood of the Rocky Mountains, near Kootenay
Lake, .runs north beyond the 52nd degree of latitude, when it takes a
.sudden turn and runs due soulih into the State of Washington. It ;s
this loop made by the abrupt turn of the river that is known as th°
" Big Bend of the Columbia." The Columbia drains an area of 195,000
square miles.
The Kootenay, which rises near the head waters of the Columbia,
flows south through East Kootenay into the States of Montana and
Idaho, and returning to British Columbia, empties into Kootenay
Lake, its waters again being discharged through the Lower Kootenay
River into the returning branch of the Columbia some distance south
of the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Peace River rises some distance north of the north bend of
the Fraser, and flows eastwardly through the Rocky Mountains,
draining the plains on the other side. Gold discoveries at its head
waters have been reported in recent years, but the river more properly
belongs to the district east of the Mountains. 8
The Thompson River has two branches, known as the North
Thompson and the South Thompson. The former rises in small lakes
in the Cariboo District, and the other in the Shuswap Lakes in the
Yale District. They join at Kamloops, and flow out of Kamloops Lake
into the Fraser River at Lytton.
The Stikine flows into the Pacific Ocean through a short stretch
of Alaskan territory, and forms the main artery of communication for
a large portion of the province north of latitude 57 degrees, and for
years has been regularly navigated. The Cassiar mining district is
reached by it. It is navigable for river steambaots for about 130 miles
to Glenora and Telegraph Creek.
The principal lakes are the Kootenay, Slocan, Arrow (Upper and
Lower), Okanagan, Trout, Shuswap and Harrison in Southern British
Columbia, and Quesnel in Northern. They are all navigable, and on
the five first named, an unexcelled steamboat service has been established by the Canadian Pacific Railway Co., which connects with its
extensive system of branch railways that gridiron the country, and
affords a convenient and luxurious means of communication throughout the entire year in that portion of the province. A system of car
ferries is also in operation, by which freight cars are taken through
to their destination from the place of shipment without breaking bulk,
thus enabling the handling of goods, etc., at comparatively low
charges.
LOCAL   DISTRICTS.
The province is divided into the Kootenay, Yale, Lillooet, Westminster, Cariboo and Cassiar Districts on the mainland, and the
Comox (which includes the northern half of Vancouver Island and a
portion of the opposite mainland), Alberni, Nanaimo, Cowichan and
Esquima.lt Districts on Vancouver Island. These districts are subdivided for local purposes, and in the mineral bearing regions mining
divisions are formed, their limits being usually the surrounding
watersheds.
THE   KOOTENAY   DISTRICTS.
The Kootenay District, comprising an area of over 15,000,000 acres,
extends north and south from the international boundary to the Big
Bend of the Columbia. It is divided by the Purcell range of the
Selkirks into East and West Kootemay. Almost the entire district is
drained by the Columbia River, which flows north through East
Kootenay and south through West Kootenay.
EAST   KOOTENAY.
East Kootenay, lying between Alberta on the east, from which it
is separated by the Rocky Mountains, and West Kootenay on the west,
comprises  the larger  part  of  the famous  Kootenay  region  of British Columbia. The country practically contains every variety of mineral
wealth that is known to exist ilri North America. The great wealth
of the region has been known for years, and in the early days of placer
mining it yielded millions, but the lack of means of communication and
the heavy cost of transportation of supplies and machinery, combined
with the rich discoveries in other .parts of the province which were
more easy o.f access, naturally retarded mining operations seriously,
and prevented the work of development reaching those immense proportions which, under more favorable conditions, would have been
attained). The completion and operation of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which traverses one of the richest parts of the district, have removed these impeding obstacles, and are giving a great impulse to the
work of development. By this new avenue af communication, access
is now' readily gained to this region, and a new mining empire is being
opened' to the world. The magnitude of the latent inches of this immense tract can scarcely be realized yet, for, although the work of
prospecting has been vigorously prosecuted, with most gratifying
results, there is still a large area to be explored. The existence of
immense bodies of ore has already been established, but how wide
their distribution is can only be determined by actual search. Prospectors And' here magnificent opportunities for discovery, and practical
mining men and capitalists an unsurpassed field for investment.
Several large mines, principally silver-lead have been opened up in
this section.
The North Star Mine is situated near Kimberly, the ores are clean,
consisting of silver, lead, sulphides and carbonates, requiring no concentrating or sorting. The Company have paid out some $58,000 in
dividends.
The Sulivan and St. Eugene Mines are also large producers, the ore
being galena running 20 oz. of silver per ton and 35% lead.
Besides gold, copper and silver-lead, East Kootenay also possesses
what are believed to be the greatest coal deposits in the world', which
already have a wide reputation, both on account of the quality and the
quantity of coal extracted. These coal fields, which are without doubt
the. best and'most extensive undeveloped' on the continent, are situated
in the southeast part of the district, and are traversed by the Crow's
Nest Pass Railway. The first or eastern deposits are not far from the
west end of the Crow's Nest Pass through the Rocky Mountains, and
consist of numerous seams of coal, one above another, clearly visible
ailong the mountain ridges and stretching to the summits. These are
bituminous in their nature. Another great series of seams Is that In
the Elk River Valley, where they extend' for a distance of forty miles.
An analysis and test of these coals have been made, and the results, as
shown in the Government reports, prove that they compare favorably
with the best  coals of the  same variety in  Pennsylvania.   Of coking 10
coal there is an abundance, which is proving of great importance to
the smelters of British Columbia, it being indispensable for the treatment of refractory ores. By the development of these coal measures
not only is coal supplied east and west, but over 1,000 coke ovens are
already in operation at different points, and1 their number is being
largely augmented as the demand for coke increases. In other portions
of southern East Kootenay are deposits of coal which are now being
prospected, and there is every reason to believe that before long the
number of thriving towns in the region will be increased.
One of the various resources of East Kootenay that is now awaiting
development is iron smelting; large deposits of haematite iron ore
having been discovered at Kitchiner. Their proximity to the coal fields
of Fernie place them in an excellent position for cheap smelting.
The lumber industry is a great and growing one. There are large
saw mills located' throughout the district, and during the past year
there have been a number of new ones erected, the output of which
finds a ready market.
The resources of East Kootenay, however, unlike those of mining
regions generally, are not confined to minerals. The district is, speaking generally, also a good agricultural and pasture country. It contains a valley nearly 3C0 miles long, from the international boundary
line to the apex of the Kootenay triangle of the Big Bend of the
Columbia, with an average width of eight to ten miles, in the centre
of which is enclosed the mother lakes of. the Columbia, 2,850 feet above
sea level. "It is," says Judge Sproat's report, "one of.the prettiest
and most favored valleys in the province, having good grass and soil,
a fine climate, established mines and promising mines, excellent waterways and an easy surface for road-making." Nearly the whole of the
area of the valley described1 is a bunch-grass country, affording excellent grazing. The grass country is 250 miles long, of an average width
of five miles, besides a number of lateral valleys of more limited extent.
It is safe to say that the whole of the valley is fertile. The atmosphere is clear and dry, and the snowfall in winter light, but in a
district so extended' climatic conditions vary considerably from local
causes.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company has recently published for
free distribution a map showing the lands controlled .by it in the
Kootenay and Columbia Valleys. Farmers who are desirous of farming in the West, where they can raise fruit, should) enquire about these
lands. The mining districts of Windermere, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Fort
Steele, Elko and Fernie have now a large and increasing population of
men employed in the development of the mines. A market for farm and
Elko and Fernie have now a large and increasing population of men
employed in the development of the mines.   A market for farm! and   13
garden prod'ucts is thus to be had in the immediate vicinity of these
lands, and the rapid development of the West Kootenay District also
furnishes a desirable market. There is also an unlimited demand for
fruit in the prairie districts of Manitoba and the North West Territories. These lands are sold by the Company at practically the same
low prices and on the same' easy terms as are asked for the prairie
lands in Manitoba. Throughout the district are scattered farms and
ranches, but as yet little attention has been given to the cultivation
of cereals, with the exception of oats. Of these magnificent crops are
grown annually. The nutritious grasses of the foot-hills on both sid'es
of the valley afford ample food supply for horses, cattle and sheep.
Abundance of good water, a light snowfall and a moderate climate in
winter make this an ideal country for stock raising. The bottom lands
are gennerally prairie and) hay meadows, requiring little oir no clearing.
The grassy bench lands are dotted over with pines. The absence of
undergrowth permits an uninterrupted view in every direction, and
allows the herder to ride without obstruction in round'ing up his cattle.
Apples, strawberries, raspberries, plums, etc., grow luxuriantly and ,
with very little attention. Mr. N. Hanson, of Wasa, twelve miles north
of Fort Steele, grows excellent crops of apples, both table and crab,
annually. At McKay's ranch, near Windermere, Mrs. McKay has obtained over 3,000 pounds of fine strawberries from an acre of ground.
At the Roman Catholic, mission near Cra.nbrook, fruits of all kinds are
successfully and' abundantly grown.
The bottom lands require no irrigation, receiving their supply of
water by seepage from the river. Wherever irrigation is required it
can be provided from some of the mountain streams which abound in
the district.
The country is in places far more thinly wooded than the West
Kootenay district, and' affords great facilities for fishing and hunting;
big game,  trout and salmon abounding.
The southern and central parts of East Kootenay are more readily
reached from the East by the Crow's Nest Pass Railway, which
branches off the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Medicine
Hat in the Canadian North-West, and' runs through the great ranching
district of Southern Alberta, the miming and agricultural districts of
East Kootenay, and forms a link in the short line to the entire mining
regions of southern British Columbia. They can also, be reached from
Calgary by branch line of the Canadian Pacific to Maoleod, in Alberta,
on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. From the west the best route is via
Bevelstoke, the Arrow and Kootenay Lakes and' Crow's Nest Pass Railway. The extreme northern portion of the district is reached by the.
Canadian Pacific main line to Golden, and up the Columbia River
during the season of navigation by steamer, and in winter by stage. 14
CHIEF    TOWNS.
FIELD is at the base of Mount Stephen, on the main line of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, where there are several stores and hotels—
the principal being the Mt. Stephen House, operated! by the C.P.R. Co.,
a pleasant resort for tourists, who reach the famed Yoho Valley from
here.
GOLDEN, in the valley of the Upper Columbia River, at its junction with the Kicking Horse River, the headquarters of navigation on
the Upper Columbia and the supply point for the mineral region of
which it is the centre. Steamers leave for Windermere regularly
during navigation, n winter there is a weekly stage to Windermere,
84 miles. The local government, judicial and mining offices are located
at Golden.
FERNIE is a town at the mouth of Coal Creek, near the s:reat
Crow's Nest coal mines, on the Crow's Nest- Pass Railway. It only
sprang into existence in 1898, and) is making wonderful progress.
Already 600 coke ovens are in operation, and, as the supply of coal is
inexhaustible, these will be increased as the demands for coke by the
smelters of the province become greater. There are four saw-mills at
Fernie.
MORRISSEY and MICHEL are also new towns, brought into existence by the development of the coal lands in their vicinity.
ELKO, at the crossing of the Elk River, 12 miles south of Fernie,
will be the market town for the Tobacco Plains and the farming settlements to the south. The utilization of the water power of the Elk at
this point should make this town one of great importance.
FORT STEELE is the present judicial centre of East Kootenay.
It is situated on Kootenay River, and is about seven miles from Fort
Steele Junction, a station on the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It has
numerous hotels, stores,  churches, etc.
CRANBROOK (population 2,000) is the principal town on the line
of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. It is most delightfully located on a
fertile stretch of prairie in the valley between the Rocky and Selkirk
Mountains, and has already become a centre of great Importance. It
Is the chief divisional point on the Crow's Nest Pass Road, and has,
besides the shops of the railway, a number of well-stocked stores,
chartered banks, hotels, churches, schools, etc. It is the principal
lumber manufacturing point in East Kootenay, having four saw-mills
operating within its limits. The town is lighted by electricity. As a
residential town it has no superior in British Columbia. A branch line
of railway connects the North Star Mines and Kimberley with Cran-
brook. 15
MOYIE, at the south end of Moyle Lake, Is the site of the St.
Eugene Consolidated, a group of high-grade silver-lead mines, and has
three saw-mills.
CRESTON is in the midlst of a good farming and grazing district,
where fruit growing Is being prosecuted with excellent results.
KITCHEN KR Is a rising town, near which iron ore deposits are
being developed!
WINDERMERE Is the site of the mining record office Cor the Windermere division, and is situated on Windermere Lake.
•aANTIORKUKY. at the north vnd' of the lake; ATIIALMF/R, at Its
outlet; and WlLMEOR, three miles north-west of Athalnier, on the
Columbia River, are new mining towns, with stores, hotels, post-
offlces, etc.
KIMBBRLEY is the terminus of the North Star branch, and Is in
close proximity to many mining properties which are being developed.
It is 18 miles from Crambrook.
MARYSVILLE is the site of a smelter, built In connection with the
Sullivan group of mines, and Is 14 miles from Cranbrook, from which
it is reached by railway.
There are other towns springing up, and there are also other places
where prospectors, miners and sportsmen can supply their requirements,
such as Thunder Hill Landing on Upper Columbia Lake.
MINING   LOCALITIES.
Along the line of the OanadHan Pacific Railway, not far from Golden,
Donald and other stations, mining operations are being prosecuted.
The Good Luck mine on McLean creek has a fine showing of COpp r ore
which is being shipped. At Tete Juan Cache, north of the Big Bend of
the Columbia River, extensive deposits of beautifully large mica have
been found, a force of men have been employed building a road' to get
the mica to the river and from thence down stream to the railway.
Back of Spillimacheen, on the several branches of the river of that
name, In the region known as the McMurdo district, a number of
promising claims have been located and worked to a considerable
extent. Some of them are large gold quairtz lodes, and others are small
high-grade silver-lend veins. On Bugaboo Creek, a few miles south of
Spillimacheen, a large number of new discoveries have been made. On
Toby and) Boulder Creeks, opposite Windermere, there are numerous
quartz locations; and back of Windermere sliver-lead and copper properties have been opened up and some high-grade ,'a.rbon.a.l.es shipped,
and new claims have been worked extensively during ;903. The Paradise Mine has been working steadily, navlng run 2,600 feet of underground work last year and taken out .luring .Involopment 1,000 tons of
good ore.   On Spring Creek a large number of claims nave been steadily 16
. developing and shipping ore. At the head of Upper Columbia Lake are
great parallel gold-bearing quartz lodes forming a ridge from 250 to 500
feet above the adjacent country, carrying gold in varying quantities.
Large low-grade lead and' silver and gold quartz lodes have been found
up Findley Creek and on the South Fork. There are also high benches
of hydraulic ground for miles along either side of Findley Creek. In
the Southern Division are the North Star and Sullivan groups, seventeen miles from Cranbrook, with which there is railway connection.
The former is a large lode, fifteen to thirty feet widte, carrying immense
quantities of argentiferous galena and carbonates; and the shipment
of ores to smelter points is paying large profits. Its value averages $60
per ton. The Sullivan mines are of a similar character. At Wild
Horse, a few miles back of Fort Steele, hydraulic mining is being carried on, and several good quartz claims are .more or less opened up. In
early days this section was a rival of Cariboo in the marvellous output
of its placer mines, the value reaching up into the millions. On Tracy
Creek, 14 miles north of Fort Steele, is a cam.p which is developing
silver-lead and seme copper properties. Still further south on Moyie
Lake are large silver-lead lodes, as at the St. Eugene Consolidated
mines. The large ore bodies on the shores of Moyie Lake run 30 oz. of
silver and 60 p.c. lead, but are more cheaply worked' than those of the
Slocan, and are said to be larger deposits. There are also rich gold and
copper mines on St. Mary's River, and a .number of properties are being
developed. Perry Creek, 12 miles west of Cranbrook, shows a series of
gold-bearing quartz veins for an unusual distance on the surface, but
so far only one property has been developed to the mining stage. An
extensive bed of iron ore is being developed near Kitchener.
WEST   KOOTENAY.
Marvellously rich deposits have been discovered in different sections
of West Kootenay, and new find's are frequently made. It is a country
of illimitable possibilities, but only few parts of it, when the vast area
of hidden wealth is considered, have passed beyond the early stages of
development. Great strides, however, have already been made, notably
in the Trail Creek, Ymir, Nelson, Kaslo-Slocan and Atnsworth districts,
where many properties are completely equipped with costly modern plant
for mining operations. In the Lardeau and other portions of this rich
region, mining is also profitably carried on, and' as capital is acquired,
through the working of the properties, or is brought in. the output of
ore will be immensely increased. A railway from Lardo, the head of
navigation on Kootenay Lake, to Gerrard, on Trout Lake, has opened
up a very rich district, in which already there are over a dozen shipping properties. *
Capitalists and practical miners have shown their unbounded confidence in West Kootenay by investing mUlions of dollars in developing 17
properties, equipping mines, erecting^smelters, building tramways, constructing roads, etc. In the past four years there has been a large addition to the population, and the establishment of permanent mining
camps, Which have astonished the world with their growth and' continued prosperity, has been phenomenal. So rapid has been the recent
development of this district and encouraging the prospects for even
greater expansion that an eminent American mining authority speaks
of it as " the coming mining empire of the North-West."
The   increased output of   ore, combined with   the supply of   cheap
coke, has   led to   the wondlerfuil   expansion of   the smelting   industry.
CANADIAN  PACIFIC RAILWAY SMELTER, TRAIL,  B.C.
Smelters are already erected at Trail and Nelson, and there is every
prospect that there will be others in operation in the immediate future.
At Trail, where the Canadian Smelting Works Co. has modernized its
extensive plant, the capacity of the smelter is 1,400 tons daily. The cost
of treatment has already been largely reduced, the aim being to further
reduce costs and smelting charges and to materially increase the
quantity of ore shipped and make possible the mining of the low-grade
ores, of which there is a large quantity in the contiguous country. The
treatment charges are lower on ores than prevail in the great smelting
centres of the United  States, where there is  the keenest competition. 18
The Trail smelter is absolutely modern in every respect for the treatment of silver-lead, copper and gold' ores, and being located at a central
point for the East Kootenay, West Kootenay and Boundary Country,
wtilll probably be the principal of a series of smelters scattered through
the mineral region. An experimental plant for the refining of lead by
the Betts' electrolytic process has recently been established' at Trail.
At Nelson, the smelter, with a capacity of 400 tons per day, is also a
thoroughly equipped institution, and gives employment to a large
number of men.
There are valuable timber limits in different parts of the country,
and numerous saw-mills  are in operation.
West Kootenay is a. fine field for the sportsman—the angler and the
hunter—game and fish abounding in nearly every section. Its rivers
and lakes give easy means of communication, and the Canadian
Pacific Railway Co. has established a magnificent steamboat service on
them, besides constructing and operating numerous branch lines of
railway, which make all parts of the country easily accessible throughout the entire year.
The mining regions are reached from the east by the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway, which branches off from the main line of the Canadian
Pacific "at Medicine Hat, on the prairies east of the Rockies, through
East Kootenay to Kootenay Landing at the head of Kootenay Lake,
and thence (for the present) by steamer to Nelson, from which there
is railway and steamboat connection with all parts of the country.
Steamers ply daily to all the towns on Kootenay Lake—Ainsworth,
Pilot Bay, Kaslo, Kootenay Landing, etc., and regularly to Lardo, in
the Lardeau country, from which rail communication is now established with Trout Lake, and will be continued to the Columbia River
at Arrowhead. The Lardeau country is a most promising one, and the
mines there, which show great values in gold and silver-lead' ores, are
being rapidly developed. The Slocan mining region can also be reached
by rail and steamboat on Slocan Lake daily. Rossland, the centre of
the Trail Creek district, is connected with Nelson by the Canadian
Pacific Railway system, which has also been extended into the Boundary Country to the west, on which there is a daily service. A magnificent bridge has been constructed across the Columbia at Robson,
giving through service from Nelson to all points west of the river.
From the west these regions are most easily reached' from Revel-
stoke, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, about midway
between the eastern slope of the Rockies and the Pacific Coast. From
•this point a branch line runs south twenty-five miles to Arrowhead, at
the head of Upper Arrow Lake, from which the fine steamers of the
Canadian Pacific Railway Company run to Nakusp, near the foot of
the lake, from which there is rail communication wdth the towns of the   21
Slocan, the principal of which are New Denver and Sandon, the centre
of a rich mining region, and to Robson, near the mouth of the Lower
Kootenay River, where the Canadian Pacific Railway's branches reach
to Trail and Rossla.nd, to Nelson, and to the Boundary Country. From
Arrowhead the Trout Lake district is reached by small steamer,
CHIEF   TOWNS.
REVELSTOKE, on the Canadian Pacific Railway, at the junction
with the Arrowhead branch, is one of the chief towns of West Kootenay,
and has shown great progress during the past three years, when a
large number of buildings were erected. It is a mining town between
the Gold and Selkirk ranges, and is the chief source of supply for the
Big    Bend    country to the north.    Population about 2,700.
HALCYON HOT SPRINGS, on Upper Arrow Lake, twelve miles
from Arrowhead, is a, favorite health resort, the waters of the springs
having peculiar curative properties. A fine hotel and cottages for
visitors are erected here.
NAKUSP, near the foot of Upper Arrow Lake, is the initial point
of the Nakusp & Slocan branch of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It
is prettily situated, and has a shipyard, at which the fine steamers
plying on the Columbia River and Arrow Lakes are constructed'. A
large saw-mill is in operation here.
NEW DENVER, on the east side of Slocan Lake, at the month of
Carpenter's Creek, is the seat of government of the Slocan district.
There is daily steamboat communication between New Denver, Rose-
bery, Silverton (four miles south of New Denver), Slocan City, and
other points on Slocan Lake, and' the town has excellent hotel accommodation, etc.
THREE FORKS is situated at the confluence of Seaton Creek and
the north and south branches of Carpenter's Creek, on the Nakusp &
Slocan Railway. Large concentrating works are erected near the town,
with a daily capacity of 100 tons.
■SANDON is the terminus of the Nakusp & Slocan Railway, and
from which Kaslo is also reached by railway. Around the town are
several groups of the most valuable silver-lead mines. It is the centre
of what is known as the wet ore belt of the Slocan, the ore being chiefly
galena and' carbonates. It has waterworks, electric light system,
churches, schools, etc., and possesses all the adjuncts of modern towns.
NELSON, with a population of about 6,000, is situated on the west
arm of Kootenay Lake, where the Lower Kootenay River begins,
twenty-eight miles esat of Robson, and from it points on the lake are
reached daily by steamer. It is on the direct route of the Crow's Nest
Pass Railway. A smelter of 400 tons daily capacity is erected nere.
Nelson is the judicial centre for Southern Kootenay,  where the offices 22
of the Gold Commissioner and Government Agent, customs, etc., are
located. It is an important jobbing centre, with hospital, chartered
banks, well-stocked stores, electric street railway, and is unsurpassed
as a residential place. During the past few years it has made wondjer-
ful progress, and building operations are being extensively carried on
and its trade greatly extended.
LARDO is at the head of winter navigation, and the eastern
terminus of the Kootenay & Arrowhead branch of the Canadian Pacific
Railway.
GERRARD, at the south end of Trout Lake, is a distributing point
for the Trout Lake mining division, and the present northern terminus
of the Kootenay & Arrowhead Railway.
KASLO, on the west side of Kooteany Lake, is one of the bases of
supplies for mines on the eastern slope of the Slocan district. Every
branch of business is represented in Kaslo, which has also ore sampling
works, public offices, saw-mills, planing faotory, bank, brewery, electric light works, waterworks,  schools hospital, etc.
YMIR is a flourishing mining town in the Salmon River country
south of Nelson, with a population of 1,200. Free milling gold has been
found at Ymir, and an 80-stmp mill, the largest in Canada, is operated
here. A large number of properties are being developed' in the vicinity
of Ymir.
TRAIL, on the Columbia River, has the most extensive -smelting
works in Canada. It is an important station on the Rossland branch
of the Canadian Railway.
ROSSLAND is one of the largest towns in the West Kootenay, its
growth having been, phenomenal. From a small mining camp in 1804
it has grown to the proportions of a thriving, bustling city with a
population of 7,000. At Rossland are a number of mines, whose great
richness brought this region first into prominence. 'The city, which is
eight miles from the United States boundary line, has excellent hotels,
well-furnished stores, public and private schools, hospitals, several
chartered banks, churches, theatre, breweries, is lighted by electricity,
and has a system of waterworks. Some of the mines are operated and
lighted by electricity, from power d-erived from the falls of the Kootenay River, near Nelson.
There are also a number of other towns, such as Arrowhead, Cam-
bourn, Trout Lake City, Ferguson, Silverton, Slocan City, Whitewater, etc.
MINING LOCALITIES.
There are numerous mines at work in different sections of the
district, chiefly in the lower Kootenay country, in the north of which
are the Kaslo-Slocan mines; in the centre, those around Nelson and
Adnsworth, and in the south, those of .Trail Creek district.   There are 23
no richer gold fields than those of the latter-mentioned district, of which
Rossland is the centre. Several mines are already operated extensively,
and are paying large monthly dividends, while new discoveries indicate
that the full richness of this region cannot yet be even approximately
estimated. The output for 1902, according to the official figures, was
329,534 tons, valued at $1,356,966.
'The most notable silver-lead mines are in the famed Slocan district,
from which large shipments of ore have been and are being made, those
for 1903 being in excess of the previous year's output. The Dominion
Government has granted a bonus on all lead ore mined in Canada, and
ROSSLAND,  B.C.
it is anticipated that with the findingi of a market for the zinc ore the
output will be largely increased during 1904. The general character
Of the ore is high-grade galena, often carrying 600 ounces of silver to
the ton, and averaging 100 ounces and over, and 60 per cent. lead. The
Slocan is admitted to be the richest silver-lead mining region in America
to-day, and has the advantage of excellent transportation facilities.
It has a large number of shipping mines, and several regular dividend
payers. On the east side of the Slocan Lake and! River are valuable
silver-lead properties and gold-bearing propositions undergoing development.   On  Kootenay  Lake  are  the  well-known   Ainsworth  group, 24
which are large shippers of ore. The Toad Mountain district around
Nelson, and south of it, has a distinct gold, silver and copper belt, the
ore being of that character known as bornite. There are a number of
rich mining properties in this .section. A large deposit of silver-bearing
limestone and quartz has also been found' known as the Hunter V Mine.
This deposit is specially valuable as it forms a flux which has long
been sought after. Smelters are offering low rates of treatment and the
mine gives great promise for the future. A number of free milling gold
claims, equipped' with stamp mills, are now being profitably operated
near Nelson, amongst them being the Fern, Athabaska, Venus, Granite,
etc. Some rich discoveries have been found near Ymir in the Salmon
River country, between the Lower Kootenay River and the international
boundary. In the north, in the Illecillewaet, Camibourn, Fish Creek
and Trout Lake districts are rich properties, which are being worked,
and around Laid'eau some valuable placer gold mines and extensive
deposits of galena are being developed. Between the Gold Range and
the Selkirks is the west side of the Big Bend of the Columbia R'.ver,
that extends north to the 52nd parallel. This bend drains a gold reg on
yet awaiting complete exploration, but which has every indication of
great mineral richness. Throughout the whole Kootenay country new
discoveries are made every year, so that which is the richest claim of
a district during one season may be surpassed by a dozen others in
the following year.
YALE   DISTRICT.
This district lies to the west of the Kootenays, from which it is
separated by the Gold' Range, and to the south and east of Lillooet
district, and east of Westminster district, extending southwards to the
international boundary line. Yale, which has an area of 15,850 square
miles, lies entirely within the dry belt of the province, although it
has, naturally, from its extent, a variety of soil and climate. Within
its Emits are great stretches of mining, pastoral, agricultural and
forested lands, Which afford excellent openings for the miner, rancher,
farmer and lemberman, and particularly in the portions now on the eve
of development, unequalled chances for investment by capitalists. This
development is made possible by the construction of railways by the
Canadian Pacific Railway Co. in the south-eastern part, which furnish
adequate facilities for transport, the lack of which has hitherto hindered
that marked progress which its boundless resources render possible.
Yale contains the valleys of the Kettle River and Boundary Creek—now
spoken of together as the Boundary district, from the proximity to the
International boundary line—the Okanagan, the Nicola and the
Thompson valleys.   27
THE   BOUNDARY   DISTRICT.
This region, which is becoming one of the wealthiest portions of
the province, forms the south-eastern part of what has hitherto been
known as the Yale district. In it are four distinct mineral basins—
that around the Christina Lake on the east;-that adjacent to the North
Fork of the Kettle River; of the Boundary Creek; and that of the
main Kettle River with Rock Creek, West Fork, Canyon Creek and
other tributaries.
The whole area covers a distance of about 50 miles east and
west, and extends a similar distance northwards. There have
been numerous finds of ore in all these basins, but a good deal of unexplored territory is still open to the prospector, while further north
is a region that is practically a virgin field for the gold-seeker. The
ore bodies in the Boundary district are very large and carry good
values in gold and copper or gold and silver. A lot of development
work has been done on numerous claims, and on some properties costly plants have been placed. The output of ore is becoming large
owing to the extension of the Canadian Pacific system through this
region. Not only does a great trunk line traverse the entire district,
but the railway company has also built short branch lines to the principal mining camps to facilitate the shipment of ore, an unprecedented departure from the usual course pursued by railway companies.
The yearly tonnage of ore shipments, chiefly copper ore, carrying low
values in gold and silver, had, by the end of September, 1903, reached
about 520,000 tons, In 1900 the shipments reached 103,000 tons, and in
1901, 396,000 tons. This ore was nearly all smelted at the district smelters, of which there are three, viz., the Granby Company's works, with
four blast furnaces and a copper converter, at Grari*d Forks; the B. C.
Copper Company's, with two furnaces, at Greenwood, and the Montreal & Bo~ton Copper Company's, with one furnace, at Boundary
Falls. Arrangements are being made for the enlargement of all three
smelters, and the erection in the district of another smelter is being
prepared for by the Snowshoe Gold & Copper Mines Company.
The Boundary District possesses other resources than its enormous
mineral wealth. It has fertile valleys and hillsides, with great capabilities for farming and market gardening, and bunch-grass ranges,
affording good pasturage for horses and cattle. Fruit growing has
shown splendid results, the apples grown near Grand Forks, Kettle
River Valley, being as fine as grown anywhere. Pears, cherries, plums
and prunes can also be grown in abundance, the trees in the valley
being said to be more productive than those of California and other
States of the Union; and small fruits of different varieties are plentiful. For all these fruits there is a steady home market at good prices.
Vegetables are also a prolific crop, potatoes yielding from 10 to 12 tons
oer acre, and garden truck eeraerallv and roots, for which there is   a 28
constant demand, bring large returns to the producer. Wheat of a fine
quality is said to yield up to 50 bushels to the acre, and oats as high
as 75 bushels, while hay, which averages from two to two and a half
tons to the aore, like oats, always commands a lucrative price. Around
Midway, the present western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company's Columbia & Western Railway, and westwards in the Rock
Creek, Myers Creek and Anarchist Mountain sections, are numbers of
thriving farmers who are steadily adding to the total area of land
under cultivation .in the district, and increasing their live stock possessions.    During the   past two   years   there has been  a   considerable
A   BRITISH  COLUMBIA  FARMER'S  HOME.
addition to the farming population hereabouts. Spring work commences
in April, and there is generally no frost until the middle of October.
The land can be cleared at a very small cost, and it is calculated that
a farm of 20 acres in fruit will return the owner $2,000 per annum on a
conservative estimate. Divided up into smaller holdings, as they are
bound to be, say, of from 5 to 10 acres, the valleys would prove equal
to sustaining a population of from 15,000 to' 20,000 people. Irrigation
works in some sections have already been inaugurated, and with the
enlargement of the system a large area will be brought under cultivation, the products of which will find a ready market at home. 29
All over the district there is an unlimited supply of fine timber,
comprising pine, fir, and tamarack, and some cedar, stretching right
up the North Fork of Kettle River, and at the head of Christina Lake.
For building, mining and other industrial purposes, the value of the
timber bounty will be very evident. There are already several mills
in the distrioi working at their utmost capacity, and a large business
is being done now that railway facilities are afforded. The lumber can
be economcally handled, as it has the advantage of water carriage right
from the logging camps down to the mill. There are as well first-
class clay beds for brick-making, besides marble, lime and building
stone quarries.
The climate of this section is mild, extremes of heat or cold being
seldom felt,  and  the rainfall is light.
No part of British Columbia has brighter prospects than the Boundary District, and at no time will there be greater opportunities offering the poor man than  during the present year.
THE   OKANAGAN"     ALLEY.
West and north of the Boundary country, and south of the main
line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is one of the finest districts in
the whole province for agricultural and stock-raising pursuits. In this
part are to be found the most extensive farms, as well as the largest
cattle ranges in British Columbia. Many can count their herds by the
thousands of head, and their broad fields by thousands of acres. The
district is an extensive one, and within its borders are to be found large
lakes, the principal one being Okanagan, whilst such streams as the
Spallumcheen and  other large  rivers  flow  through  the* district.
Okanagan is famous as a grain-growing country. From three- '
quarters to a ton and a half of wheat is grown per acre, the best quality fetching $30 per ton. Wheat sometimes runs 6S lbs. to the bushel
(there being 33 1-3 bushels to the ton), and a field near Enderby averaged 72 bushels to the acre, although this was an exceptional yield.
Samples of wheat raised in Okanagan, sent to the Vienna Exposition,
were awarded the highest premiums and bronze medals. One of the
best flouring mills in the Dominion is now in operation at Enderby,
twenty-four miles south of Sicamous, and connected with it by rail.
The flour manufactured at these mills from Okanagan-grown wheat
is equal to any other to be found on the continent. There is another
mill at Vernon and one at Armstrong, managed by the farmers of the
vicinity. Though Okanagan is an excellent wheat-producing country,
considerable attention is now being given to the various kinds of fruit
culture—peaches, apples, pears, prunes, plums, etc., being grown to
perfection. Vegetables of all species are produced, and an experienced
gardener asserts that $400 per acre is a fair return for this industry.
Attention has been turned to the production of Kentish hops, and dur- 30
ing several years past hops from this section have brought the highest
prices in the English markets, competing successfully with the English, the continental and those grown in other parts of America The
Earl of Aberdeen, formerly Governor-General of Canada, has over
13,000 acres near Vernon, in the Coldstream Valley, where general
farming, hop-growing and fruit-raising are carried on. His orchard
of about 200 acres is the point of attraction for visitors to Vernon,
being one of the largest orchards in the Dominion. He has also a dairy
farm near Kelowna, on the east side of the lake. An excellent quality
of tobacco is grown about Kelowna. The cultivation of this plant is
as yet only in its initial stage, but there are indications that it will
become an important source of wealth to the country.
Peachland and Summerland are both desirable health resorts. The
former has been visited during the summer, as a vacation trip, by
many people from Manitoba and the North-West for the past five years.
They are also desirable places to live in during the winter months, as
the temperature does not go as low as zero more than two or three
times during a winter, and then it will only be a case of a sudden
drop at night. During the past five years 6 below zero for one night
is the lowest temperature recorded at Peachland. Peach culture is
therefore a safe and profitable industry here, and 'is being gone into
quite extensively. Some two thousand acres of bench lands in the
vicinity of this village have been subdivided into five and ten acre lots
by a local company, and these are sold to Eastern people who are
desirous of going into fruit culture.
Summerland is fifteen miles south from Peachland, on the west side
of the lake. This place is also in the peach belt. It was founded by a
number of Montreal capitalists, who put in a complete irrigation system, sufficient to water the five thousand acres of the syndicate's holdings. The land, which is specially well adapted to the raising of
peaches, plums, pears, apples, grapes, cherries and all small fruits, as
well as vegetables, hay and grain, has been subdivided into five, ten
and twenty acre lots for the convenience of those seeking a desirable
climate where  fruit  culture  may  be  followed.
Three miles up the Trout Creek valley from Summerland a promising coal seam has been uncovered. If the vein proves at depth to be as
good as the surface showing would indicate, coal mining will soon be
one of the most important sources  of wealth for the  district.
There are still to be taken up large stretches of good land, which
are but lightly timbered and easily brought under cultivation. Water
is abundant in many sections, whilst in some it is scarce, redering irrigation by artesian wells a necessity.
South of Penticton, extending to the southern boundary of the province, are many thousands of acres of the finest fruit lands in British
Columbia, ind^.d of the Pacific slope;  these lie along both sides of the 31
Okanagan River and its connecting chain of lakes, Dog Lake, Swan
Lake and Osoyoos, forming a series of charming landscape pictures
backed by mountains. So far, these lands have been used only for pastoral purposes, forming one large estate, but will soon be provided with
a system of irrigation from the river, which furnishes an unfailing
supply of water, and be subdivided into small holdings and placed .upon
the market. The development of the Okanagan Valley generally on
fruit-growing and intensive farming lines, for which it is especially
well adapted by nature, has been hindered on account of the difficulty
experienced in acquiring land by intending settlers. The finest portions of the valley have been owned in large holdings, extending to
many thousands of acres, and used partly for pastoral and partly for
wheat-growing purposes.
The successful enterprises of Lord Aberdeen and others have demonstrated that large areas of these lands are worth far more for fruit
and hop-raising and intensive farming generally, than for wheat or cattle- raising, and in consequence some of these holdings have been
acquired by syndicates, subdivided., irrigation provided, and placed
upon the market in lots of five to forty acres; other properties are in
process of being dealt with in a similar manner, and it is only a question of a short time when, wherever .water can be made available,
flourishing orchards and gardens will diversify the entire face of the
valley. The enterprises referred to furnish opportunities for new settlers to establish charming homes, and build up profitable industries in
this favored section.
Okanagan is also a very rich mineral district, and in different parts
valuable gold, silver, copper and iron deposits have been discovered,
and are being developed.
The Shuswap & Okanagan Railway to Vernon, the chief town of
the district, from Sicamous, on the main line of the Canadian Pacific,
a distance of forty-six miles, has proved an immense impetus to this
splendid section of the country. There are magnificent grazing lands,
and the valleys that intersect them are of the most fertile character,
The Coldstream or White Valley is one of thse, the Similkameen is
another, and the country round about Kelowna is a rich and valuable
section. Crops grow luxuriantly, but the dry climate necessitates irrigation. From Okanagan Landing, near Vernon, the steamer Aberdeen,
owned by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, plies to Kelowna
(formerly called the Mission), to Peachland, a new and thriving town
on the west shore of the lake, to Summerland, and to Penticton, at the
south end of the lake (which is seventy miles in length), and the Provincial Government has constructed roads to the mining country south
of it, and to the Similkameen Valley.
The mountains to the east of Okanagan Valley, and on Harris Plateau, between Okanagan Valley and Kettle River Valley, are famous 32
hunting grounds for sheep and goat. The Okanagan Valley, in fact, is
one of the best hunting grounds known to the world—caribou, deer
bear, mountain sheep and goat being found in many parts of it. Guides,
horses and supiplies can be obtained at Vernon.
The country tributary to Lake Okanagan is pre-eminently suitable
for settlement, and will doubtless become thickly populated.
The climate of the Okanagan country is mild and dry. There is
only a light snowfall in winter, and the summers are warm and pleasant.
THE   NICOLA   VALLEY.
in the western part of the Yale district, while specially adapted to
pastoral pursuits, is well fitted for agriculture, and the growth of all
classes of cereals, for a great distance. It is a railway divisional point,
and a thriving town of 2,000 population, doing a good trade with the
farmers, ranchmen and miners of the district. Steamboats ply on Kamloops Lake, and there are saw-mills in constant operation. The town
is supplied by waterworks, and lighted by electricity. It was originally merely a Hudson's Bay Company's trading post, but has now
become a town of some size and importance, and is destined to be one
of the great health resorts of the West on account of the dryness and
equability of its climate, and its possession of all the conditions necessary for the cure of lung troubles. Placer mining has been successfully carried on north of Kamloops for twenty-five years, and rich mineral discoveries have been made within a few miles of the town, carrying gold and copper and some being free milling.
ASHCROFT, on the Thompson River, is 204 miles east of Vancouver. It is the starting point of the stage line for Clinton, Lillooet, 150-
Mile House, Horsefly, Harper's, Quesnel Forks, Quesnel Mouth, Stanley, Soda Creek, Barkerville and other points in the Lillooet and Cariboo districts. It is a busy place, where considerable freighting business is done, and where supplies of all kinds can be obtained. Excellent crops are raised here on irrigated land.
ENDERBY and ARMSTRONG are smaller, but rising, towns, where
there are good hotel accommodation and a variety of stores, and other
business establishments, and each having a large grist and saw-mill.
VERNON is a well-built town of 1,300 population. There are stores
of all kinds, good hotels, flour and saw-mills and a bank. Having a
first-rate farming and ranching country in its immediate vicinity,
besides vast tracts of valuable timber, a large and flourishing business
is done at this centre.
KELOWNA, on Okanagan Lake, thirty-three miles south of Vernon, is a prosperous village, to which is tributary the trade of the-
greater part of the Mission Valley and the Sunnyside district. It has
a hotel, good stores, saw and planing mill, and the Kelowna Shippers' 33
Union has erected a large warehouse for storage of fruit and vegetables
for shipment  to Kootenay,  and  to  the  North-West Territories.
PEACHLAND is a new town, 17 miles from Kelowna, and SUMMERLAND, 15 miles south, are prospective summer resorts, and will
be centres of fruit-growing districts.
PENTICTON is at the southern extremity of Lake Oka.na.ga.n. with
a*wharf, warehouses, good hotel and store. It is the point of departure for the stages to Fairview, Camp MeKlnney and other minim;
camps.
FAIRVIEW is a mining camp, in which several mines have been
worked. The most important is the Slemwlnder, owned, by the new
Fairview Corporation, at which there is a 46-stamp mill and a cyanide
plant. The Gold Commissioner lor the Osoyoos Mining Division has his
office here. A few miles north of Fairview, at. White Lake, are some
coal lands, on which a.rj croppings of several seams of coal.
KEREME10S is at the junction of Keremeos Creek with Similkameen River. A few miles away the Olalla Mining Co. has a group of
mining properties, and. there are numerous other mineral claims In this
part of the Similkameen.
HEDLEY CITY is coming into notice, being the nearest townslte
to the stamp-mill and reduction works now being erected in its vicinity
by the owners of the Nickel Plate mine, on Twenty-Mile Creek.
ALLISON is higher up. the Similkameen River. From ll'edley to
about three miles below Allison the valley of the Slmllkarween la from,
one to two miles wide, with line stretches of bottom land anil BOHIfl
.splendid ranch properly. The valley is well timbered, and there is good
gracing ground on the benches.
I'lil.NClOTOM is situate in the forks of the Si milka nuni and Tula-
meen Rivers. It is the centre of a. large mining and ranching district.
Here are several hotels and stores, and a local newspaper. , The more
important mining camps are those on Copper and Kennedy Mountains,
l'vip-.clively. On'crops of coal are to be seen in the bed of the Similkameen River near by. The seams here exposed vary in lhicl<n«',MH from
6 to 20 feet. So far as ascertained, the coal basin comprises an area, of
about 50 square miles, and the establishment of collieries in this
neighborhood promises to become an important industry in the? near
future. Railway surveys have been, made from Princeton to Hop,, and
to Spenoe's Bridge, on bnie main line of the C. P. R., and to Penticton
in the opposite direction. There is a, wagon road from here to Spenoe's
Bridge, and a. trail  to Hope.
CAMP McKINNEY is In the Kettle River mining division, about
27 miles east of Fairview, on the stage road to Midwa.y. McK.inney's
chief standby has from its start been the Cariboo mine, now owned by
Hi,. ('irihoo-McKinney M. & M. Co., of Toronto, Ontario, which mine
has to date paid more than half a million dollars in dividends.    Ther« 34
are other gold quartz properties in the neighborhood. The town has
several hotels, stores and other places of business, and has telephone
connection with Greenwood.
MIDWAY is located on the international boundary line, about 12
miles east of Rock Creek, and nine miles south of Greenwood. It has
its own local newspaper, saw-mill, several stores and hotels, and is the
present western terminus of the C. P. R. Co.!s Columbia & Western
Railway. Nearby are some fine market gardens and promising young
orchards.    It is proposed  to erect  a smelter here shortly.,
BOUNDARY FALLS lies half way between Midway and Greenwood, on Boundary Creek. The Montreal & Boston Copper Company's
smelter is here, and several mines are'in the vicinity. Limekilns, two
hotels, store, etc., contribute to its growing importance.
, GREENWOOD is one of the most flourishing towns in the Boundary district. It is situate in a valley at the junction of Twin Creek
with Boundary Creek, and from it roads have been made to all the
surrounding mining camps and the other towns in the district. Its
hotels and stores are among the largest in the Boundary, and it has
branches of three chartered banks, electric light works, brewery, and
other industries, whilst most other businesses and trades are also represented. Five churches, large public school, hospital and other institutions are to be found here. The Provincial Government Agent for the
Boundary has his office in the town, as, too, has the Mining Recorder
for the Kettle River mining division. Sittings of the Supreme Court
are held periodically, and the erection of a court house has been provided for by the Provincial Legislature. Between Greenwood and the
adjoining residence town of Anaconda are located the smelting works
of the British Columbia Copper Company, of New York. The Dead-
wood Camp branch line leaves the main line at Greenwood.
DEADWOOD is two miles west of Greenwood. It has two |hotels,
store, saw-mill, public school, etc, and is in proximity to the Mother
Lode,  Sunset,  Morrison, King,  Solomon,  Big Copper and other mines.
PHOHNIX, five miles east of Greenwood, on the wagon road to
Grand Forks, is the most important mining camp in the Boundary,
with a population of more than 1,000 people. It is connected with the
C. P. R- main line through the Boundary by a branch line from Eholt.
It has numerous stores and hotels, public school, hospital, churches, etc.
The Granby Company's big copper mines (Old Ironsides and Knob Hill
group), with their enormous bodies of ore, are on the outskirts of the
town, and the Brooklyn, Stemwinder and Snowshoe, also important
mines, are close by as well.
EHOLT is at the summit of Eholt Pass, between the North Fork of
Kettle River and Boundary Creek, and in the neighborhood are the
B.C., Jewel and other mines. Several hotels and stores draw trade
from surrounding camps.    Summit, Wellington and Phoenix camps are 35
connected with Eholt by rail, whilst Dong Lake camp is reached by a
five-mile wagon road. Eholt is practically the C. P. R. divisional point
for the district.
GRAND FORKS, 22 miles east from Greenwood, is another flourishing town. It is an important railway point, and situate at the junction of the North Fork with the main Kettle River. The Granby Company's smelter, located here, is one of the largest works of the kind in.
British Columbia, having four furnaces and a copper converter, with
an addition of two more furnaces being prepared for, so as to increase
the daily treatment capacity of the works to about 2,000 tons. The
town also has good hotels, stores, banks, saw-mill, sash and door factory, brewery, local newspaper, churches, and the finest public school
building in the Boundary. The adjoining town of Columbia has agreed
to amalgamate with Grand Forks. The Republic mines, in the State
of Washington, are reached from here.
CASCADE CITY is situated near the international boundary, and
occupies one of the most attractive and advantageously located town
sites imaginable. It has hotels, stores, several saw-mills, etc. It is a
natural market for the new mining country around Christina Lake,
from who'se waters it is but a mile distant, and is an important railway
point. The Cascade Water Power & Light Co., has its plant here,
generating power .for Boundary mines, smelters, etc.
A number of other places have also sprung up in consequence of
the mining development in their locality.
MINING LOCALITIES.
Although the southern portion of Yale is only commencing to show
any great development, it has been known for some years that immense
quantities of ore existed. The copper ores in the Boundary country are
generally low grade, but some gold and silver ores .show rich values.
The copper ore bodies are very large. The whole country almost from
Arrow Lake on the east to beyond Camp McKinney on the west, in
this southern belt, is largely mineralized. East of Christina Lake is
the Burnt Basin, in which are some rich gold-bearing properties, and
on the shores of the lake other properties are being developed. In the
country north of Grand Forks are numerous groups of claims—Franklin
camp, Brown's camp, Knight's camp and Pass Creek camp. Near
Eholt are Summit and Long Lake camps. Between Grand Forks and
Greenwood are Wellington and Phcenix camps, west of which are Providence and Skylark camps, and, near the boundary line, Central camp.
North of Greenwood is Kimberley camp, and immediately west of the
town Deadwood camp, west of which again is Copper camp, Smith's
camp lying to the southwest. West of Mid<way is Graham's camp. At
some of the mines in these camps costly plants have been installed, 3G
and the work of development is pree~ed'ng steadily, the results of
which are now apparent The gross value of ores produced to date is
about $7,000,COO. At Rock Creek there are several good claims, and at
Camp McKinney there is free milling gold. The ore averages $20 to the
ton, A number of properties are now being developed in the vicinty,
and several incorporate'd companies are working. Further west, and
directly south of Okanagan Lake, .is Fairview, where there are a number of properties under development, and a 46-stamp mill In operation.
West of Lake Okanagan is the Similkameen mining section, in which
considerable progress  has been  made,  particularly in prospecting with
THE GRANBT SMELTER, GRAND FORKS. -
drills for coal seams. The mines at Twenty-Mile Creek and in the
country further west on Granite and other creeks, as Avell as around
Kamloops to the north, are properties which are said to contain large
deposits. At Kamloops, on the Iron Mask claim a body of copper ore
has been discovered and prospected; the owners propose building a
smelter.
In a country so vast, and of such recent discovery, there are grand
opportunities for prospecting and for investment in developing mine?.
New discoveries aire always possible, for there is a large tract which
is as yet unexplored, and the possibilities of the mines now commencing
operations can scarcely be estimated.   39
LILLOOET   DISTRICT.
Iflllooet, lying between Yale on the south and Cariboo on the north,
is bisected by the Fraser River, and ds traversed by the famed' Cariboo
road. The country is as yet only sparsely settled, the principal settlements being in the vicinty of the Fraser River, though there are other
settlements at Clinton, Lillooet, and elsewhere, which, when the projected Cariboo Railway is built, will rapidly become of more importance.
Considerable free milling gold ds found near the town of Lilloost, where
a number of mines are .being operated. Several quartz-bearing locations are being developed in this district, especially on Bridge Creek,
and Anderson Lake, and, as machinery capable of treating the refractory
tores is of the most improved type, the results already attained are
attracting miners and mining men in numbers. There Is a large area
cf the finest grazing land in this district, and cattle thrive well. The
district is well adapted .for dairying, and by irrigation farming can be
carried' on profitably. The valleys are wonderfully rich, and fruit of an
excellent quality, chiefly apples, is grown; peaches, pears and plums
are also cultivated, and smaller fruits grow in profusion. See page
60, middle zone, for climate.
CARIBOO   DISTRICT,
This district lies between Cassiar on the west and the North-West
Territories on the east, the southern boundary being the 52nd parallel.
The famed Cariboo mines, from which millions of dollars of gold have
been taken, are in this district. This is still a promising field for the
miner, the immense output of the placer diggings being the result of
explorations and operations necessarily confined to the surface, the
enormous cost and almost insuperable difficulties of transporting
heavy machinery necessitating the employment of the most primitive
appliances in mining. These obstacles to the full development of the
marvellously rich gold fields of Cariboo, have been largely overcome
by the construction of the 'Canadian Pacific, and the improvement of
the great highway from that railway to northern British Columbia,
with the result that the work of development has recently been
vigorously and extensively prosecuted. During the past few years
several costly hydraulic plants have been introduced by different
wealthy mining companies, which are now operating well-known claims
with the most gratifying results, and there is every prospect of a
second .golden harvest, which in its immensity and vaJlue will completely overshadow that which made Cariboo famous forty years
ago. Among the numerous Cariboo enterprises ifl the Cariboo Hydraulic
Miming r- . with a capital of $4,000,000, actively prosecuting work on
its claims on tie South Fork of the "luesnel River, on extensive
ground exceptionally rich in gold deposits, the company, for Its
hydraulic purposes,  conveying water by thirty-two miles of ditching, 40
which supplies a volume of 3,000 miner's inches over a course of
two feet d'eep, with a top width of eleven feet, and a bottom of seven,
feeding four hydaulic " giants," or monitors, carrying a 300 feet head
of hydraulic pressure. The Montreal Hydraulic Gold Mining Company
is-developing its claims rapidly, and with excellent results. At Slough
Creek, Willow River, Antler, Cunningham, Big Valley, Lightning and
other cheeks, and' at Barkerville, on Williams, the richest of all known
creeks in the world, from witch $25,000,000 were taken in two miles'
distance in early days (and now being at enormous expense opened
up to work by the Cariboo Gold Field's Company, with an hydraulic
elevator),  the results speak Well for the future prosperity of Cariboo.
• In addition to the properties of these companies, there are
numerous other large gravel deposits, many of which are now bsing
prepared for working by companies with ample capital, and which
only require properly directed exertions to insure large returns. Among
these are the Miocene Gold Mining Co. of Horsefly, and the Lightning
Creek Gold, Gravels & Drainage Co., who are running a tunnel to
di-ain the old workings of Lightning Creek, which produced $14,000,-
000 in the early days. Dredging operations are also carried on with
varying success in the upper waters of the Fraser and Quesnel. The
development work for the past few seasons served to materially
advance the interests of the district, and the coming season will
doubtless witness even greater activity. Many hundreds of men
found employment last year in the region at good wages. The seasons
are fully six months long. Timber and water are plentiful. Capitalists-
will And advantages in Cariboo which no other part ot the world offers
for investments. The quartz mines have as yet been exploited only in
a very superficial way, but the rich surface showing on Burns' Island
and Bald Mountains all tend to prove that further research and fair
use of capital will make the quartz mines of the Cariboo district
among the great producers and d'ividend-payers of the world. Gold
abounds in many valleys, and in almost every stream that empties into
them, and there is no estimating the unusual activity in the Cariboo
mining circles, some of the richest places merely awaiting the advent
of capital for. that development which the new condition of affairs
has rendered easily possible. Cariboo is not witnout agricultural
resources, and there is a limited area in scattered localities, in which
farming and ranching are carried on; but this region will always
prove more attractive to the miner than to the settler. The early
construction of a railway from a point on the main'line of the Canadian Pacific, through the district, which is now proposed, when coim
pleted will open up many desirable locations, and largely assist in.
developing the immense mineral wealth already known to exist. At
present communication is by semi-weekly stage line from Ashcroft
(with  steamer  from   Soda  Creek to  Quesnel  during navigation),   but 41
en application in advance, arrangements can be made at any time
for transportation of large or small parties by special conveyances.
The roads are excellent, the stopping places convenient, and the trip
is not an uncomfortable one. This district covers such a large area
that it contains more than one climate, which subject, however, is
dealt with on page 60, middle zone.
CASSIAR   DISTRICT
occupies the whole western portion of the province north of the Westminster district and west of Cariboo, including Atlin. In former years
old Cassiar was the scene of mining excitement, and about $5,000,0OG
were taken from its mines. In latter years, however, it has lain
practically dormant, but recently interest in the country has revived,
and during the past year a large number of prospectors explored parts
of the district and located good claims. The district contains some
of the richest mines yet discovered in the province, but its distance
jfinpm a base of supplies, with want of roads, has greatly retarded
its progress. As the wealth of Cassiar is becoming more widely
known, however, it is anticipated that it will share in the development which is noticeable throughout every part of British Columbia.
The country is generally wooded and mountainous, and difficult to
travel through. Dease Lake, on which a large hydraulic plant is
being successfully operated, is the central point of the district, and
about it mining operations are carried on.
OMINECA   DISTRICT.
The Omineca district comprises such portions of the drainage area
of the Peace River and its tributaries as may lie within the Province
of British Columbia, the drainage area of the Stuart and Neehacko
Rivers above their junction and the drainage area of. the Salmon
River above  its  junction  with  the'Fraser" River.
In 1871 this district was first discovered and prospected by miners
who pushed north from Cariboo by way of the old telegraph, line to
Neehacko River and from thence by way of Stuart Lake to Vital
Creek. Within the following two or three years Germanson, Manson,
Slate and Lost Creeks were discovered, and found to be rich in placer
gold. Considerable work was done during the next few years, until
the discovery of placer diggings in Cassiar in 1876, when the greater
number of the miners left to try their luck farther north, which is
the custom of placer miners, and from that time until 1895 the Omineca
gradually became deserted until at the last mentioned date there were
only about 10 or 12 white men and a few Chinese left scattered through
the district. In the spring of 1895, an Ottawa company was formed
and  a  party  sent  out  to prospect,   and  locate  ground   for  hydraulic 42
mining, and a number of claims were taken up on Manson, Slate and
Kildare Creeks. The following year development was commenced on
a large scale, other companies soon followed, and the district once
more became the scene of busy mining operations. Trails have been
opened and improved, bridges built, and a Gold Commissioner and
Mining Recorders appointed by the Government, so that the Omineca
now promises to become a premanent mining district. Nearly all the
streams so far discovered and prospected show gold, and a number
of them have proved to he exceedingly rich.
Quartz carrying free milling gold has been discovered in the vicinity of Mount Selwyn. Immense quantities of low-grade galena have
been found on Boulder Creek near Manson,  traceable for miles.
Although a very large amount of development work has been done
in the district, it has been confined to a very limited area. The Omineca being such a large district and lying in the Gold Belt, has a number of rivers and streams which should prove equally rich when properly prospected as those streams already mentioned. Owing to the
distance from the base of supplies in the past and the difficulty of
travel in that portion of the province, the Omineca district has practically remained unexplored, and offers a virgin field to the prospector
and capitalist.
There is at present a choice of routes into the district. First, by
way of Ashcroft on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
thence to Quesnel by the Cariboo wagon road, a distance of 220 miles,
and from Quesnel to Manson via the Old Telegraph line (now the Government telegraph line to Atlin), as far as trie Neehacko River, thence
to Stuart Lake, and from there on to Manson, 335 miles from Quesnel
by trail. There is abundant feed for animals, camping grounds are
good and water plentiful all along the line. The other route is by
steamer up the coast from Vancouver or Victoria to Essington at the
mouth of the Skeena River, by steamers plying every week, from
Essington by river steamer to Hazleton at the forks of the Skeena, and
from Hazleton by trail 180 miles to Manson.
ATLIN   DISTRICT.
This district, embracing the Atlin, Bennett and Chilkat mining
divisions, is in the extreme north-western part of the province, just
within the boundary line which separates British Columbia from the
Yukon Territory. Although the first discoveries of placer gold were
only made in the summer o^ 1898, a great deal of development work
has been done, and the richness and extent of the gold-bearing area
have been confirmed. Thei Atlh; District Board of Trade's official
reports states: "The usual characteristics of a gold-bearing country
are present in a marked   degree.    There are zones of   contact between   •45
granite, syenite or gneiss and stratified rock; and dykes of eruptive
rock—diorite or diabase, in which are veins showing free gold—^prevail.
There is everywhere evidence of recent glacial action. Many good
prospects of sulphide ores carrying gold, silver and lead have been discovered, and also some very promising ledges of copper ore. The prospects for sucoessful hydraulic miming could hardly be better. There
are unquestionably enormous .quantities of rich gold-bearing gravel
most favorably situated for profitable working, and large returns may
be expected from the hydraulic mining industry that will shortly be
developed." Atlin is an ideal country for gold dredging operations. A
dredge has been built in 1903 costing $100,000 and will commence work
as soon as the season opens up.
The country has well-marked physical features. Long, deep lakes
indicating easy communication by water and high snow-clad mountains insuring an ample summer flow to the many large streams that
drain their slopes.
The two principal towns are Atlin and Pine City (also known as
Discovery City), which are six miles apart. Both are thriving, with
good hotels, stores, banks, churches, etc. At the former are the offices
of the Gold Commissioner and Government officials, and there are
three saw-mills, with an aggregate capacity of 30,000 feet per day.
These towns are reached from Victoria and Vancouver by .steamer to
Skagway, and rail to Bennett (39 miles), thenoe by .a night's sail by
steamer (95 miles) to Taku, where a two-mile portage, covered by
tramway, leads to Atliin Lake, across which, •fiv.e miles distant, Is
Atlin City. In; winter the route is from Log Cabin, a station on the
White Pass Railway, near Bennett, from which there is a Government
road via Otter Lake and Taku, some 60 miles; there are stopping
places en route.
WESTMINSTER   DISTRICT.
extends from the international boundary line on the south to 50 deers.
15 mins. on the north. Its eastern boundary is the 122 deg. west longitude, and its western the 124 deg., where it strikes the head of Jarvi.s
Inlet and the Straits of Georgia. In this district there is a good deal
of excellent farming land, particularly in the Fraser River Valley and
in its delta. The soil is rich and strong, the climate mild, but in the
winter months of the year there is considerable rain, which comes
instead of snow, in those parts of the district nearest the coast. Live
stock arp often allowed to shift for themselves the year round. Heavy
yields of rgain are obtained without much labor. Very large returns
of wheat have been got from land in this locality, as much as 62 bushels
from a measured acre, 110 bushels of oats per acre, and hay that yielded three and a half to Ave tons the acre, and frequently two crops,
totalling six  tons.    Fruit-growing is extensively carried  on,  with   the 46
most satisfactory results—apples, plums, pears, cherries, almonds4
prunes, and all the smaller fruits being grown in profusion, and at the
Experimental Farm at Agassiz, figs in small quantities have been successfully produced. This part is fairly well settled, but there is sti'l
ample room for new comers. Those having a little money to invest,
and desirous of obtaining a ready-made farm may find many to choose
from. These settlements are not all on the Fraser; some are at a distance from it on other streams. There is considerable good timber in
the western and southwestern portions.
The Canadian Pacific Railway crosses the southern portions of this
district to Vancouver, and rail communication is established with the
cities situated on Puget Sound, with Portland, Oregon, San Francisco
and the American railway system generally. The Vancouver & Lulu
Island Railway, connecting Vancouver with Steveston, runs through the
most fertile district of the delta of the Fraser.
CHIEF   TOWNS.
VANCOUVER.—On a peninsula having Burrard Inlet on the east,
one of the finest harbors in the world, and English Bay on the west, is
the marvellous young city of Vancouver. It is surrounded by a country of rare beauty, and the climate is milder and less varying than
that of Devonshire and more pleasant than that of Delaware. Backed
in the far distance by the Olympian range, sheltered on the north by
the mountains of the coast, and sheltered from the ocean by the
highlands of Vancouver Island, it is protected on every side, while
enjoying the sea breeze from the Straits of Georgia, whose tranquil waters bound the city on two sides. The inlet affords unlimited space for sea-going ships, the land falls gradually to the sea,
rendering drainage easy, and the situation permits of indefinite expansion of the city in two directions. It has a splendid and inexhaustible
water supply, brought across the inlet from a river in a ravine of one
of the neighboring heights. The Canadian Pacific Railway was completed to Vancouver in May, 1887, when the first through train arrived
in that city from Montreal, Port Moody having been the western terminus from July of the preceding year. In 1887 also the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company put a line of steamships on the route between
Vancouver and Japan and China, and in 1893 an excellent service was
established between Vancouver and Victoria and Australia. These
three important projects have given an impetus to the growth of the
city, by placing its advantages entirely beyond the realm of speculation, and the advancement made is truly marvellous.
In addition to the great transportation lines of the Canadian Pacific
Railway and the steamship lines to   Japan and   China, the Hawaiian   49
Islands, and Australia, the city has connection with all important
points along the Pacific Coast and with the interior. The boats
employed in the mail service between Vancouver and Japan and China
are three magnificent steel twin-screw steamships, especially designed
for that trade—the Empress of India, the Empress of Japan, and the
Empress of China, and the Tartar and Athenian—which are the finest
ships afloat on the Pacific, and make the fastest time across the ocean.
The Canadian-Australian Line gives a service to Australia via Honolulu, H.I.„ and Suva. Fiji, every four weeks. There are regular and
frequent sailings to Skagway, Alaska, by which the Yukon gold fields
are reached, and to St. Michaels, in Behring Sea,, and up the Yukon.
Steamers ply between Vancouver and Victoria and Nanaimo daily, and
connection is also made at Victoria for all Alaskan and Puget Sound
ports and San Francisco.. The Seattle & International Railway gives
close i-ailway connection, via Mission Junction, 43 miles east of Vancouver, with the different cities and towns of Washington, Oregon and
California
■ The young city was literally wiped out by fire in June, 1886. The
sites of the wooden buildings of that day were soon occupied by splendid structures of stone and brick and iron. Under the influence of the
large transportation interests, which were established there the next
year, the building of the city progressed rapidly, and now it is not
only a great trade and outfitting centre for the interior mining regions
of British Columbia and the Yukon, and for the shipping, fishing and
lumbering districts, but has several extensive industries—iron works,
sugar refinery, cement works, canneries, soa.p works, cigar factories,
paint works, breweries, steel pipe works, evaporating establishments,
ship-yard, marine railway, etc. The city is the centre of the lumber
trade of the province, and within its limits are several large sawmills. The population, which was LOSS in 1886, rose to 32,000 in 1903, and
the assessed value of property is about $17,000,000. Electric oars run on
the principal streets, which are paved with asphalt, and there is a service of electric cars to and from New Westminster, on the Fraser
River, a distance of about twelve miles. The C. P. R. Co's Hotel, the
Vancouver, recently enlarged to meet increasing wants, in comfort,
luxury and refinement of service is equal to any hotel on the continent,
and in the vicinity of this hotel is an opera house admitted to be unsurpassed in elegance by any outside of New York. The new C P. R. sta-
iton is a magnificent building on the waterfront. The city is laid out
on a magnificent scale, and it is being built up in a style fully in accord
with the plan. Its private residences, business blocks, hotels, clubs and
public buildings of all classes, several of which were erected in recent
years, would be creditable to any city, and Stanley Park is a dream of
beauty to all tourists.    It is unsurpassed by any other in the world. 50
The following table of distances will be,useful for reference:—
Miles.
Vancouver   to  Montreal    ..';...... 2t906
Vancouver to New York, via Brockville    3,163
Vancouver to Boston, via Montreal    3,248
Vancouver to Liverpool, via Montreal   5,713
San  Francisco to New York    3,266
San Francisco to Boston     3,370
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via San Francisco. 11,281
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Vancouver  ... 10,047
Sydney to Liverpool, via Vancouver    12.B73
Sydney to Liverpool, via San Francisco    13,032
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via Vancouver   11,649
Liverpool to Hong Kong, via San Francisco  12,883
Vancouver to Yokohama     4,283
Vancouver to Hong Kong    5,936
Vancouver  to  Calcutta     8,987
Vancouver to London, via Suez Canal    15,735
Vancouver to Suva, Fiji    5,215
Vancouver to Honolulu,  H.  1  2,410
Vancouver to Sydney,  N. S. W  6,960
NEW WESTMINSTER.—This city, founded by Colonel Moody during the Fraser River gold excitement in 1858, is situated on the north
bank of the Fraser River, sixteen miles from its mouth, is accessible for
deep water shipping, and lies in the centre of a tract of country of rich
and varied resources. It is connected with the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway by a branch line from Westminster Junction, and
with Vancouver by an electric railway. New Westminster is chiefly
known abroad for its salmon trade and its lumber business, but the
agricultural interests of the district are now coming into prominence,
and giving the city additional stability, particularly as it is the market
town of the Fraser River valley and the delta. There are five large
salmon canneries within the city's limits, and cold storage establishments, this being one of the most important industries of the region,
and has led to the establishment of an automatic can factory, which
manufactures over nine millions of cans annually. Lumbering operations are also extensive and profitable, the three mills in the city alone
cutting about 40,000,000 feet annually, besides turning out salmon and
other cases, and large quantities of shingles. There are also an oatmeal mill, condensed milk factory, sash and door factories, machine
shops, etc., and a magnificent system of waterworks. At the New
Westminster Royal Park an annual exhibition is held, which is amongst
the best in Canada. The Provincial Penitentiary, Asylum for the
Insane, and other public buildings are located here.    The city has two 51
colleges, high school, three public schools, three hospitals, and fourteen
churches.
STEVESTON.—A town at the mouth of the Fraser, where a number of large fish canneries are located. The Vancouver & Lulu Island
Railway, operated by the C. P. R., connects this town with Vancouver,
the  road traversing the fertile delta of the Fraser.
LADNER'S, a rising town on the delta of the Fraser, has several
fish canneries, saw-mill, creamery, etc., and is surrounded by a prairie
region of great fertility, a considerable area having been reclaimed by
dyking.
' ''*
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—
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i    jijl
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY STATION, VANCOUVER,   B.C.
CHILLIWACK, an important town, with a population of 700, is in
the centre of a large agricultural and fruit-growing district, known as
the garden of British Columbia. The valley has about 3680 inhabitants. It has a fruit cannery, cheese factories, creameries, several saw
and shingle mills, grist mill, lime kiln, brick-yard, etc. Steamers run
dally between Chilliwack and New Westminster.
MISSION CITY is a C. P. R. junction point, with its Mission branch
connecting with the American system. It is 43 miles from Vancouver,
on the north side of the Fraser, and has a large area of farming lands 52
tributary to it, which are also well adapted for fruit-growing. The
Pitt Meadows, which include 40,000 acres of bottom lands being
reclaimed by dyking, are contiguous to the town.
AGASSIZ, on the main line of the C. P. R., 71 miles east of Vancouver, is the site of the Dominion Government Experimental Farm,
which has proved of great benefit to the farmers and fruit-growers of
the province. Besides all kinds of cereals, roots, fodder and plants that
are under test, very many varieties of apples, pears, plums, cherries,
peaches, apricots, grapes and all varieties of smaller fruits are under
cultivation. Almonds, walnuts, filberts and chestnuts are < also grown.
Attention is paid to the raising ol live stock at the farm, and in the
district hop-growing is extensively carried on. This industry is being
rapidly developed, the average crop being 1,100 lbs to the acre.
HARRISON HOT SPRINGS, is a noted health resort for people on
the coast from Southern California to Alaska is five miles distant on
Harrison Lake, and is reached from Agassiz by stage daily. At Howe
Sound just north of Vancouver has been discovered a large zone of
schist carrying copper ore with a little gold and silver.
A group of claims was located on this ore body and is now called
the Britannia Mine, this body of ore has been proved to be of immense
extent and bids fair to be one of the largest bodies of copper ore in
North America.
VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the Straits of
Georgia. It is the largest on the west coast of America, being about
three hundred miles long, and with an average breadth of about fifty
males, and contains an estimated area of about 15,000 square miles.
The   coast   line,   more   particularly on   the   west   side,   is   broken   by
numerous inlets of the sea, some of which run up to the interior of the
Island for many miles between precipitous cliffs, backed by high and
rugged mountains, which are   clothed in fir,   hemlock and   cedar.    At
some points are sheltered bays, which receive small streams, watering
an open gladed country, having a growth of wild flowers and grasses—
the white clover, sweet grass, cowslip, wild timothy, and a profusion of
berries. The two ends of Vancouver Island are, comparatively speaking, flat, but there are mountains in the interior ranging from 6,000 to
8,000 feet on the highest ridges. The interior of the island, still unsettled at any distance from the sea coast, is largely interspersed with
lakes and small streams. The surface is beautifully diversified by
mountains, hills and rich valleys, and on the east coast the soil is so
good that great encouragement is offered to agricultural settlement and
fruit growing.
In other parts the soil is light and of little depth, but it is heavily
wooded.    In the   inland   lakes   and in the   indentations of the   coast  > 55
there is a plentiful supply of fish, and a fair variety of game on shore.
The scenery is picturesque and varied.
The Island is rich in mineral wealth, besides the great coal mines
of Nanaimo, whose output amounts to over 1,000,000 tons annually—In
1901 being 1,312,202 tons—there being discoveries of gold and other valuable metals in several districts. The region about Alberni has come
into prominence owing to the " finds" of gold and copper, and It is
expected that this district will rank high among the gold-producing
centres of the north, as development, already well under way, progresses. Some of the rocks of the island furnish excellent building
material, the grey granite being equal to the Scotch and English granites.
The principal harbor is that at Esquimalt, which has long been the
rendezvous of the British squadron in the North Pacific. It is situated
at the south end of the island, on the eastern side. There are, however, numerous good harbors both on the east and west coasts of the
island, notably Nanaimo and Departure Bay on the former, and Alberni
Canal and Quatsimo Sound on the latter.
VICTORIA is the capital of British Columbia, and the chief city of
Vancouver Islajnd, with a population of 26,000. It was formerly a stockaded post or the Hudson's Bay Company, and was then called Fort Victoria. It is delightfully situated on a small arm of the sea, commanding
a superb view of the Straits of Juan de Fuca, the Olympian range1 In
Washington, the mountains of the mainland, and snow-capped Mount
Baker in the distance. The city's age may date from 1858, when the discovery of gold on the mainland brought a rush of miners from the south.
It is now a wealthy, well-built and a very English city, with business
and shipping interests of great importance. Victoria is pre-eminently
a place to delight tourists, and has ample accommodation for a large
floating population, having several comfortable hotels, one or two of
which are noted for the excellence of their tables. Beacon Hill Park,
Oak Bay, and other resorts are Interesting places. Various public
buildings are also worthy of more than passing notice, the new Government buildings, costing about $1,000,000, and covering an acre of ground,
especially being an imposing structure. Many of the manufacturing
and commercial interests of the province are centred at Victoria, which
is one of the great outfitting points on the coast for mining parties
destined for the Yukon, Cassiar, and other mining regions. It has one
of the largest iron work3 on the Pacific Coast outside of San Francisco,
and several smaller foundries and machine shops, and many factories.
The city is amply provided with educational facilities, both public and
private.
Victoria has the advantage of being a port of call of the Canadian
Pacific Railway Company's Royal Mall Steamship Line of steamers to
and from Japan and China; the Canadian-Australian Line to Honolulu, Suva, and Brisbane and Sydlney, Australia, and several ©their lines.
Steamers run daily between Victoria and Vaincou'wer, and the trip> from
city to city through the- clustered isles of the Straits of Georgia is very -
pleasant. Boats ply to all important Pugeti Sound ports, and to points
northward' on the1 island and mainlatttd, audi all regular San Francisco
anai«B Alaska steamers call) at Victoria.,
The country for some miles about the city supports-a scattered flarm-
iimsg; population,, and) furnishes au portion of the supplies, of the city, but
it is particularly adapted to fruit culture. Here' every variety of fruit
grown, in a temperate climate attains peculiar excellence, andi fruit.
culture promises- tan become a leading industry ifiai the near future.
ESQUIMALT.—There is a small town at the northern corner of the
harbor of Esqutfrnaltt. The nucleus; off it is some' British Government
buildings, consisting of* a naval hospital,, an arsenal and' two dockyard buiHings. The graving dock is the largest on the- Pacific Coast.
t Esquimau is- only- three and; a half miles from Victoria by tamid!, and is
connected with it by an excellent macadamized road and an electric: ear
service.
NANAIMO.—Situated on rising ground and? overlooking- a fine harbor on the east coast of Vancouver Island! is the City of NainsQinot with
a population ©f 5,000, but taking' in the mining districts, immediately
tributary to it the1 population would .probably be between 9„OQ0 and
10,001k NaroaiiFiOi ranks next to Vietiopia in imipoFtance. It is 70' miles
north o$ Victoria, and depends eMeflty oru its? coaling: interests amdi ship-
piirog business for sunpport. Nanaimo harbor is connected) by a deep
enamel with Departure' B'ajy, where the largest craift find safe anehoir-
age: Vancouver Island, bituminous; coal) is- mtow acknowledged, to, be
superior for all practical purposes, to any coal om tfte Pacific Coast
Large quoauntntfesi aire sent tee San Francisco, to the Hawaiian Islands
and' China, being- shipped^ from either Nanaimo or Departure Bay.
Nanaimo. is also the coailiing: station' for the British squadron) fn the
Faeiifffic. A large number of men find' employment iinu the mines and
about the docks, arod the town, for its size, is- wetl, sui©jpla>e<!l with thu»
requirements- of a growing populatiiofi). It has chnnrrches, schools, hotels*
waterworks, telephone, arod several manufacturiring' industries, and. daily
anxf semii-wieekly newspapers^ Much of the1 land f« excellent for agri-
eiajWusral purposs. There- Is a weeft-d'ay railway train ssrviice between
N'anafmor and Victoria, and connections-' by steamer with Vancouver.,
3LADYS-MTTH ft* a new town, and is the point of export for- the
Extension Mines', which- will soon- be one of tha- largest coal producers
to Amerfea. It is aPso the- rewi'eFewee of the miners. Eitensifve coal
bunkers have been erected, and C. P. R. freight cars are ferried1 over
to- Jiia<$y»m<ftfh from- Vancotrwer; The Tyhee Cropper Cbi has built a 200
tfoitf smelter Here, and! has been runniing stteaxFily/ sftrce Gtetoheir, 1902;. «wa
eopper are- rrom- the- Fyftee Mme.    The Tyhese Mine has heem worked SI
without imflenmissioni and has< a three years" suippiy of ore toltoeked: ouit for
smeltiiEug; it carries; as. high, percentage of copper besides gold and1 si'Dver.
CHEMAINUS, six milies; from Ladysmith,, is situated on) the harbor of Chemainiusy one of- the best as the coast.. Here, the Chemainus
Saw-mills Company has the largest saw-mills in the province, doing
solely an export: business.. It is also the terminus: of a short line of
railway built into the logging, camps. Several miles- from Chemainus
are situated the Mount Sicker and. Mount Brenton mines. The Lenora
is already a large shipper of gold and copper ores, and the Tyhee is
able farming lands in the immediate vicinity.
CROFTONr 40 miles from Victoria, on, Osborne Bay,, on the east
coast of Vancouver Island. A large smelter with a. daily capacity of
being extensively developed by British capital. There are,, too, consider-
4Q0 tons, is in operation, treating the Qr.es of Mount Sicker and of the
mines on the west coast of the mainland. Crof tan is., of recent birth,
but has already hecome an important, business, place; It is aonnected
by rail and stage with Mount Sicker, and has daily rail and steamboat
communication with Victoria.
MOUNT SICKER situated near the summit of the mountain of
that name, and about 55 miles from Victoria,, is a nourishing, mining
camp, having a population cf about 2,500. It has a. good school^house,
a first-class hotel and several well-stocked general stores. It is the
headquarters of the Lenora, Tyhee,. Copper Canyon, Richard' III., and
other working mines, the output of which wilil at present aggregate
abouiii 5"00 tons a day.. The Mount. Sicker Railway connects the- town
with. Westholnme and Croftorai, and there is a daily stage service* to
Duneanv the county town of Cowichan. district.
DJUNCAN,. om the. E'. 8t. N.. Ra#way„ 50' miles-- north of Victoria, is
also; a substantial: business: place,, which) is' gradually assuming the
impointance of a. county town,, dienirwing; its, business from) the neighboring- farming- community aind the. mines, of Mount Sicker ami
Breniton.. The. C'owichan creamery at Duncan is famed for the- quality
of. its- product, Duanean is also a. rendezvous for sportsmen, being the
centre of a fivne- ffeMmg and. hunting district..
The three places,. Victoria),. Nanaimo; and' Esquimau, all on the
sautfo-eastern' corner of Vancouver Island, are the principal centres.
There are smaller commujairtties'- on the island', mainly on the- southeast, comer, and at no great distances' from the three, principal places
already spoken of. Such' is Cowicham1, a settlement on» the east coas+,
about midway batweeru Victoria and) Nanaimo, where the quality of
the soil permits fanning to tee carried! on to* g-reait. advantage.
•Saanich is another farming settlement at the* extreme- south-east;
.Mapfe Bay, SOmenos\ alfi in the- neighborhood of Cbwichan; Cbmox,
some 90' miles north of Nanaimo, in the vfcinty of wniteh are some of
the- principal Hogging camps;   Uhlan,   where large coke  ovens are in 58
constant operation, and Sooke, a short distance south-west of
Esquimau. Alberni, on the west coast, where gold in quantities has
•recently been discovered, is attracting attention, and' promises to
become a great mining region, with one or two towns of importance.
THE   SOIL   OF   VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
The soil of Vancouver Island varies considerably. In some parts
are deposits of clay, sand and gravel, sometimes partially mixed, and
frequently with a thick topsoil of vegetable mould of varying depth.
At other places towards the north of the island, on the eastern shore,
are some rich loams, immediately available for cultivation. The mixed
soil, with proper treatment, bears heavy crops of wheat; the sand and
gravelly loams do well for oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, roots, etc.,
and where the soil is a deep loamy one, fruit grows well. The following average of the yield! of a properly cultivated farm in the Comox
district is given by a member of the Canadian Geological Survey; this
is from the best land in Comox, but there are other parts of the
island not much inferior.
Wheat, from 30 to 45 bushels per acre; barley, 30 to 35 bushels;
oats, 50 to 60 bushels; peas, 40 to 45 bushels; potatoes, 150 to 200
«bushels, turnips, 20 to 25 tons per acre.
MINERALS   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
It would be difficult to indicate any defined section of British
Columbia in which gold or silver has not been or will not be found'.
The first mines discovered were on the Thompson River; then on the
Fraser and Hope, and continued up the Fraser to the Cariboo district.
Gold has been found on the slopes of the Rocky Mountains, on
Queen Charlotte Islands at the extreme west, and* on every range of
mountains that intervenes between these two extreme points. Until
a comparatively recent date, the work has been practically placer
mining, a mere scratching of the surface, yet over sixty-three millions
of dollars have been scraped out of the rivers and creeks.
The railway now pierces the auriferous ranges; men and material
can be carried into the heart of the mountains, and' with each succeeding season fresh gold deposits are found, or the old ones traced
to the quartz rock, and capital and adequate machinery brought to
bear upon them-. In no section is this more strongly demonstrated
than in the famed Cariboo region, where during the past few years
hydraulic mining has been carried on on a large scale, and improved
plant to the value of nearly a million dollars introduced. Already
the results have been most satisfactory. The recognized' and greatest
authority on mineralogy in Canada, the late Dr. G. M. Dawson, F.R.
G.S., who for fifteen years was engaged in exploring British Columbia, 59
says: " The explorations of the Geological Survey of Canada have
already resulted in placing on record the occurrence of rich ores of
Igold and silver in various places scattered along the entire length of
the Cordilleran (Rocky Mountain) region in Canada. * * Because a
mountainous country, and till of late a very remote one, the development of the resources of British Columbia has heretofore been slow,
but the preliminary difficulties having been overcome, it is now, there
is every reason to believe, on the verge of an era of prosperity and
expansion of which it is yet difficult to foresee the amount or the
end,    *   *   Everything  which   has   been   ascertained   of  the   geological
PART   OP  TRAIL,   B.C.,   AND  COLUMBIA   RIVER.
character of the province, as a whole, tends to the belief that so soon
as means of travel and' transport shall be extended to what are still
the more inaccessible districts, these also will be discovered to be
equally rich in minerals, particularly in precious metals, gold and
silver."
There are large areas still open to the poor prospector, and there
are numerous openings for the capitalist. To the agricultural settler
the existence of gold is of double significance. He is certain of a
market for his produce; he is not debarred' from mining a little on
his own account, and he is never deprived of the hope that he will one
day become  the fortunate  discoverer of a  bonanza. m
The total output of gold since its first dscovery in Brutish Columbia
is estimated at over $80,OOO;OOO. In 1901, the goM production reached
$4,358/603, etf which $970,100 was from placers. The yield of copper
during the same year was valued at $4,'446,'%3, an increase of '$2,821,-
674 over the previous year, and the past year (for wnich the official
aeturns have not yet been received) will show much larger figures.
During the coming year, with present facilities for prospecting, -even
much heavier returns are expected, for the era of scientific mining in
British Columbia has only commenced.
In British Columbia a helt of rocks, probably corresponding to the
gold rocks of California, has alread'y been proved to be richly
aaariaerous. Geological esaploralaoims ggu» ife© show a generaS resemiblance
•sff Uhe nocks tt© those <off the (typical sections of California and the
Western States.
fiSrver Iras ibeen .dasQQvered an several places. The best tontown
airgeniliiffeniDaas localities are in East and West KJootemay, inomn -whose
miin-es shipments aaf dare ame largely increasing yearly.. Railroads in
these sections have opened np the eoaantey, amid a magnificent steam-
bnat ssrrace -am the lakes anSl riiwsrs aiffoinis every ireqnaiiir£<d' Mreams of
toaanspHntmiiiEHi. Several .snoelfeins have toeen erected!, and are in ©pera-
ti.on, smelting the ore in close proximity to tlae umines, while the estaib-
IBstanent ef otihers at iEavoraible jjwsimts is am assured fact. There .can
Ibe no -flouM that the OTEtpnt wan 3d© llairgely a the an-arease, as #evelQp-
anent work shows anone ore 'in sight every cGLay, and the eontdiiitae-ns for
imimiinig .cheaply have largely improved?. In ISM. the ontpnt of sHver
iK-as mhBfl :at $2,¥M,7«5, and of lead at $2,.'002,133.
•Great ww& iSepEflsits exastt iin 'lexa#a .Island and In ISast ]Ks©Oitenay..
aneS ©oippsr #epasatts have heen Sonanifl at .several podnifcs -on the coast
tff Utte naainDanvdl.
A tefljge <«f 'ESmnahair., WommM. en Kamloops ILafee, is operated by (the
Onnanar Mining ©smnpany. :The true vein is reporte-il as being fourteen mmdhes thldk, -oamfd there appeairs to be a Oairge scattered npiantity
besides.    Assays give a high percentage  of mercury.
In Alberni dis'Jr'i'ot, on the west coast of "Vancouver Island, a considerable amount of work is in progress. Numerous quartz veins have
been discovered and are being opened up.
Bituminous coal has been extensively worked for many years past
on Vancouver Island.
Bituminous coal has been discovered on the mainland in the New
"Westminster and Nicola districts, and other indications of coal have
been found in many parts. The same formation exists on the mainland'as on the Island, and the New Westminster and Nicola coal beds
are probably small portions only of a large area.
The coal fields of the Crow's Nest Pass in East Kootenay, said to
be the largest in the world in extent,  are already referred to in pre-   63
vious pages. There are other vast coal deposits known to exist In
other portions of south-east Kootenay, which will have a remarkable
value now that the Crow's Nest Pass Railway is completed to West
Kootenay.
Anthracite has been found in several parts of Vancouver Island,
and this would seem to indicate that the seams round in Queen
Charlotte Island will be traced to Vancouver. The total output of
coal in 1901 was 1,460,331 tons, valued at $4,380,993; and the aggregate
production to 1st January, 1903, was 18,821,196 tons, valued at $56,845,-
132. In addition, there were 428,892 tons of coke produced, valued at
$2,144,460.
The exploration of the province, says a mining authority, has proved
that great opportunities exist for those who may wish to mine the
baser metals and rarer minerals used in the arts, sciences and ordinary
commerce.
SYNOPSIS   OF   BRITISH   COLUMBIA   MINING   LAWS.
(Subject to alteration, and* not applicable to the Yukon.)
The following is a synopsis of the mining laws of British Columbia:
A free miner is a person, male or female, above the age of 18
years, who is the holder of a valid free miner's certificate, which costs
$5 for a full year, or a proportionate sum for any shorter period; but
all certificates expire on May 31st. A free miner may enter on Crown
lands and also on other lands where the right to enter has been
reserved, and' may prospect for minerals, locate claims and mine.
Claims may not be located on Indian reserves nor within the curtilage
of any dwelling. Should a free miner neglect to renew his certificate
upon expiry, all mining dlairns held by him under its rights, df not
Crown granted, revert to the Crown, unless he be a joint owner, in
which case his interest or share reverts to his qualified partners or
co-owners. It is not necessary for a shareholder in an incorporated
mining company, as such, to possess a free miner's certificate.
A mineral claim is a rectangular piece of ground not exceeding
1,500 feet square. The claim is located hy erecting three posts, as
defined in the Act. In general, location of a claim must be recorded
within a period varying according to distance from, a registrar's office
from date of location. A mineral claim, prior to being Crown-granted,
is held practically on a yearly lease, an essential requirement of which
is the doing of assessment work on the claim annually of the value
of $100, or, iin lieu thereof, payment of that amount to the mining
recorder. Each assessment must be recorded) before the expiration
of the year to which it belongs, or the claim is deemed abandoned.
Should the claim not meantime have been relocated by another free
miner,  record  of the assessment work may be made within 30  days 64
immediately following the date of -expiry of the year, upon payment
of a fee of $10. A survey of a mineral claim may be recorded as an
assessment at its actual value to the extent of $100. If during any
year work be done to a greater extent than the required $100, any
additional sums of $100 each (but not leas than $100) may be recorded
and counted as assessments for the following years. When assessment work to the value of $500 has been recorded the owner of a
mineral claim is, upon payment of a fee of $25, and giving certain
notices, entitled to a Crown grant, after obtainment of which further
work on the claim is not compulsory. The act includes, too, liberal
provisions for obtaining mill and tunnel sites and' other facilities for
the better working of claims.
There are various classes of placer claims severally defined in the
" Placer Mining Act " under the heads of creek, bar, dry, bench, hill and
precious-stone diggings. Placer claims are 250 feet square, but a little
variation is provided for under certain conditions. They are located
by placing a legal post at each corner and marking on the initial post
certain required information. Locations must be recorded' within three
days if within 10 miles of a recorder's office; but if farther away
another day is allowed for each additional 10 miles. Record before
the close of each year u's requisite for the retention of placer claims.
Continuous work, .as far as practicable, during working hours, is necessary, otherwise a cessation of work for 72 hours, except for reasons
satisfactory to the Gold Commissioner, is regarded as an abandonment. The Commissioner, however, has power to authorize suspension
cf work under certain conditions and also to grant rights to facilitate
working of claims. No special privileges are granted to discoverers
of " mineral " claims, but those satisfying the Gold' Commissioner that
they have made a new " placer " discovery are allotted oiaims of extra
size.
No free miner may legally hold by location more than one mineral
claim on the same lode or vein, and in placer dig-gings he may not
locate more than one claim on each creek, ravine or hill, and not more
than two in the same locality, only one of which may be a creek claim.
In both mineral and placer Acts provision is made for the formation of mining partnerships, both of a general and limited liability
character; also for the collection of the proportion of value of assessment work that may be due from any co-owner.
Leases of unoccupied Crown lands are granted for hydraulicing or
dredging, upon the recommendation of the Gold Commissioner, after
certain requirements have been complied with. An application fee of
$20 is payable. Leases may not exceed 20 years' duration. For a creek
lease the maximum area is % mile and the minimum annual rental
$75; hydraulic lease, area 80 acres, rental $50, and at least $1,000 per
annum to be spent in development; dredging lease, area 5 miles, rental 65
$50 per mile, development work $1,000 per mile per annum, and a royalty
payable to the Government of 50c per ounce of gold mined.
Mineral or placer claims are not subject to taxation unless Crown-
granted, in which case the tax is 25c per acre per annum; but if $200
be spent in work on the claim in a year this tax is remitted. A tax of
2 per cent, is levied on all ores and other mineral products, the valuation being the net return from the smelter; that is, the cost of freight
and treatment is deducted from the value of the product, but not that
of mining. These taxes are in substitution for all taxes on the land,
and personal property tax in respect of sums so produced, so long as
the land is used only tor mining purposes. A royalty of 50c per 1,000
feet is charged on all timber taken from the land for mining uses.
Applications for coal or petroleum prospecting licenses must, after
the publication of certain notices, be made to the Gold Commissioner,
accompanied by plans of the land and a fee of $50, which sum will be
applied as the first year's rent. Limit of land a license will cover is
640 acres. Extension of lease for a second or third year may be granted. Upon proof of discovery of coal royalty and a tax of 10c per ton of
coal mined, 9c on coke,, and lc per barrel of petroleum, is payable.
After proof that land covered by lease has been worked continuously,
lessee may, within three months of expiry of lease, purchase said land
at $5 per acre.
Fees payable are: For a free miner's certificate, $5 per annum;
records, $2.50 each; leases under "Placer Mining Act," $5, etc., etc.
Incorporated companies pay for a free miner's certificate $50 per annum
where the nominal capital is $100,000 or under, or $100 where it exceeds
that sum.
PROVINCIAL   MINING   BUREAU.
By the establishment of a mining bureau in British Columbia by
the Provincial Government, under the superintendency of Mr. W. F.
Robertson, M.E., valuable information regarding mineral formations
and deposits and mining properties is authentically disseminated
throughout the country by means of official reports made after actual
personal inspection. Reports, bulletins, etc., or any information
obtained by the bureau will be promptly sent on application. In the
Provincial Government buildings at Victoria a large collection of ores,
minerals, etc., from the different mines is arranged in the mineralogi-
cal museum.
GOVERNMENT   ASSAY   OFFICE.
There are two Government assay offices in British Columbia. The
Dominion Government has established one at Vancouver, to which
miners and others are able to bring their gold and receive its value in
c 66
coinage. When the gold is taken to the assay office it is weighed, and
a certificate given the owner showing the number of ounces. On this
certificate the banks will advance one-half at once and will pay the
remainder as soon as the gold is received with the assay value stamped
on the bar. The Government has now decided to buy the gold outright,
and hereafter a cheque will be issued on a leading bank, which will be
payable at par, and will be for the full value of the gold, less the office
charges, which amount to less than one-half of one per cent. This
deduction is the same as that being made at all the assay offices in
the United States.
The provincial assay office at Victoria also purchases gold on similar
terms. Upon deposit of the gold at the Provincial Treasury, a certificate is issued, which is negotiable at any bank for half its value.
After assay, a cheque for the full value on any bank in theJ city, is
given the depositor, the only deduction being assay charges at the same
rate as Seattle. Accounts are afterwards adjusted between the Provincial and Dominion Governments.
The miner receives the same value for his gold at both Vancouver
and Victoria, and it is only a matter of personal choice which office he
deals with. The rebate, however, is only obtainable at these two
offices.
MINER'S   WAGES.
The current wages paid in and about the mines are as follows:
Miners receive from $3.00 to $3.50 per day (12 to 14 shillings); helpers,
$2.00 to $2.50 (8 to 10 shillings); laborers, $2.00 to $2.50 per day (8 to 10
shillings; blacksmiths and mechanics, $3.00 to $5.00 per day (12 to 20
shillings). Board is usually $7.00 (28 shillings) per week at mining
camps.
TIMBER.
No other province of Canada, no country in Europe, and no State
in North America, compares with British Columbia in respect to its
timber.
There are prairies here and there, valleys free from wood, and many
openings in the thickest country, which in the aggregate make many
hundred thousand acres of land on which no clearing is required, but
near each open spot is a luxuriant growth of wood. The wooded area
covers thousands of square miles, and includes forty kinds of timber;
and even with a large number of saw-mills with a great daily capacity
there is little danger of the depletion of the forest lands to any appreciable extent.
The finest growth is on the coast and Vancouver Island, and in the
Gold and Selkirk ranges. Most prominent among these trees is the
Douglas fir, a forest   giant that   sometimes attains a  height of   three hundred feet, with a base circumference of from thirty to fifty feet. A
good average, however, is a stick one hundred and fifty feet clear of
limbs and five to six feet in diameter. This timber is the greatest British Columbia tree in so far as commerce is concerned, and in the opinion of many botanists is an admirable wood for pulp purposes. The
yellow and red cedar, although not so widely distributed as the larger
fir, is quite as valuable, if not more so. The red variety is employed
largely for shingle making, the market for this shingle gradually growing in the East. Among the trees which play a prominent part in the
commerce of the province are the white spruce, hemlock, white pine,
balsam, tamarac, yew, cedar and cottonwood. The maple is also a
valuable tree, although not so general as the others •mentioned. There
is an immense amount of timber suitable for pulp manufacture along
the coast, and steps have recently been taken by the Legislature to
encourage this industry by setting apart areas of timber lands for the
purpose, of establishing it in British Columbia.
The approximate number of lumber and shingle mills in operation
in the province last year was 116, whose output was about 232,000,000
feet of lumber and 200,000,000 shingles. The capital invested in sawmills last year—not including the amounts invested in timber limits—
was about $1,000,000.
Despite the number of mills in operation, the supply of timber
seems to be inexhaustible, the extreme density of the forest, an acre of
which sometimes yields 500,000 feet of lumber, rendering the deforestation slow.
The market for British Columbia timber is becoming world-wide,
and vessels from British Columbia carry the sawn product to Great
Britain; Australia, Africa, South America, China and Japan, United
States and Mexico.
The trees indigenous to the province are as follows: White fir,
western white fir, mountain balsam, large-leaved maple, vine maple,
red alder, arbutus, western birch, canoe birch, western dogwood, red
cedar, American larch, mountain larch, western larch, white spruce,
western black spruce, black spruce, white-mark pine, scrub pine, white
mountain pine, black pine, yellow pine, western crab-apple, balsam,
poplar, cottonwood, aspen, cherry, Douglas fir, western white oak,
lance-leaved willow, willow, western yew, giant cedar, yellow cypress
or cedar western hemlock, Alpine hemlock.
FISHERIES.
An important part of the trade of British Columbia is the wealth
of fish in the waters of her coast. Of these the most valuable at present is the salmon. They literally teem in the Fraser and Columbia
Rivers, and frequently passengers on the Canadian Pacific Railway are 68
astounded during the spawning season by the sight of broad expanses
of river, or deep pools, packed almost solid with wriggling masses of
splendid fish making their way to the spawning grounds, their motions
being distinctly visible from the platforms or car windows as the trains
pass by. The salmon make their way for great distances up the rivers.
The salmon of the Columbia fill the streams of the Kootenay; those of
the Fraser are found six hundred miles in the interior. There are five
different kinds of this fish: the spring or tyhee, sockeye, cohoe, dos and
humpback, the latter one only being of no commercial value, and they
arrive from the sea at different times.    There are seventy-two canneries
OKANAGAN  LAKE.
in the province, employing a large number of men during the season.
Of these, forty-eight are on the Fraser, and twenty-four on the rivers
and streams north of that great waterway. The value of the fish catch
has increased enormously, largely owing to the establishment of fish
hatcheries. Since the beginning of this industry in 1876 the annual salmon pack has largely increased, and, owing to the fish hatcheries established by the Government, there is no danger of the rivers being depleted, one authority stating that the greater the catch the larger the
number of fish to be caught. In addition a very large quantity of
frozen salmon, and salmon put up in ice, is shipped to Australia, Great
Britain and the United States, there being two extensive establishments in the city of New Westminster for freezing fish.    Besides this 69
the fish consumed yearly in the province and exported fresh amounts to
over $250,000.
Besides the salmon are the oolachan, which come in great numbers,,
and supply a valuable oil largely used by the natives. The black cod,
a superior food fish, abounds from Cape Flattery northward. Cod, simi-
klar to the eastern variety, are taken on the banks off the coast of
Alaska. Halibut of fine quality and large size are plentiful in the
inner waters, on the banks of the west coast of Vancouver Island, and
further north. The halibut fisheries are being developed, and during the
past five years large quantities were exported to Boston for the United
States market. The waters of the north seem to be alive with this fish,
and there is apparently no limit to the quantity that could be taken.
Sturgeon of very heavy weight, and occasionally up to 1,000 pounds, are
numerous in the Fraser and large rivers; 1893 and 1894 were the first
years for exporting this fish, and higher prices were secured than
for sturgeon caught elsewhere. There is a great future for this industry, especially in the manufacture of caviare, which Prof. Prince, Dominion Fishery Commissioner, has pronounced equal to t he Russian
article. The surf smelt and common smelt and anchovy are abundant,
and valued for the table. Herring is plentiful and appears to improve
both in quantity and quality every year. Shad, with which the Sacramento River was stocked some years ago, are making their appearance
in the Fraser River, and are equal to the best New Brunswick species.
Trout abounds in the lakes, rivers and streams of the whole province.
Oysters, mussels, crabs, etc., are plentiful.
There are scores of men in the fishing trade of England and Scotland who struggle year after year for an uncertain percentage, who, in
British Columbia, would find competency in a few years' working, and
hundreds who are no richer at the end of December than they were at
the beginning of January who would experience a very different condition of life on the coast of British Columbia.
These coasts afford wide fields for occupation and dispense reward
with less niggard hand than in the older home, where every loaf has
many claimants. There is no rent to ipay, no leave to ask to run a
boat ashore—the land is his who occupies it. A man who in other seas
toils year in and year out for others, may here own his own home, his
piece of land and his boat by no man's favor.
LANDS.
As indicated in the descriptions of the several districts forming the
mainland portion of British Columbia, the land varies in quality in different sections. There is almost every description and quality of land,
from the rich river bottom land, such as that in the Fraser delta, tdl
the light covering of moss and sand at high altitudes on the mountains.
Between Yale and the coast, in the New Westminster district   where 70
the rainfall is regular, the land of the valleys is rich and heavy; east
of Yale, where the rainfall is slight and irregular, there is a considerable quantity of good land, very productive under irrigation. In the
Nicola and Okanagan valleys of the Yale district, and in both the
Kootenays, there is a quantity of very fertile land, in some parts, as
in the Okanagan section, requiring irrigation, and in other places sufficiently cared for by the rainfall. On the higher lands, the bunch grass
grows freely, and affords the best pasturage for cattle. Where water is
convenient for irrigating purposes, grains and vegetables succeed well
in those sections otherwise used only for grazing. Along the Fraser
valley fruit ripens well. A great number of varieties have been tried
at the Experimental Farm at Agassiz, and the more delicate fruits have
been successfully cultivated. Still greater success has been achieved in
the Okanagan valley, a considerable distance east of Agassiz, so that
in all parts of British Columbia south of the Canadian Pacific Railway
the land, when worked as circumstances require, is found to be of the
first quality for agricultural purposes. North of the railway line, in
the district of Lillooet and Cariboo, there is a considerable quantity of
land adapted to farming, and still larger tracts admirably suited for
cattle-raising.
PROVINCIAL   GOVERNMENT   LANDS.
Crown lands in British Columbia are classified as either surveyed or
unsurveyed lands and may be acquired by entry at the Government
Lands Office, pre-emption or purchase.
The following persons may pre-empt Crown lands: Any person
being the head of a family, a widow, or a single man over eighteen
years of age, being a British subject, may record surveyed or unsurveyed Crown lands, which are unoccupied, or unreserved, and unrecorded (that is, unreserved for Indians or others, or unrecorded in the name
of any other applicant).
Aliens may also record such surveyed or unsurveyed land on making a declaration of intention to become a British subject.
The quantity of land that may be recorded or pre-empted is not to
exceed 320 acres northward and eastward of the Cascade or Coast
Mountains, or 160 acres in the rest of the province.
No person can hold more than one pre-emption claim at a time.
Prior record of pre-emption of one claim, and all rights under it are
forfeited by subsequent record or pre-emption of another claim.
Land recorded or pre-empted cannot be transferred or conveyed till
after a Crown grant has been issued.
Such land, until the Crown grant is issued, is held by occupation.
Such occupation must be a bona fide personal residence of the settler
or His family.   73
The settler must enter Into occupation of the 'and within thirty
days after recording, and must continue '.o occupy it.
Continuous absence for a longer period than two months consecutively of the settler or family Is deemed sessation of occupation; but
leave of absence may be granted not. exceeding six months In any one
year, inclusive of two months' absence.
Land is considered abandoned if unoccupied for more than two
months consecutively.
If so abandoned, the land becomes waste lands of the Crown.
The fee on recording Is two dollars (8s).
The settler shall have the land surveyed at his own instance (subject to rectification of the boundaries) within Ave years from date of
record.
After survey has been made upon proof, In declaration m writing
of himself and two other persons, of occupation for two years from
date of pre-emption, and of having made permanent Improvement on
the land to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, the settler on producing the pre-emption certificate, obtains a certificate of
Improvement upon payment of a fee of $2.
After obtaining the certificate of improvement and paying for the
land the settler is entitled to a Crown grant in fee simple. He pays $5
therefor.
The price of Crown lands, pre-empted, is $1 (1 .shillings) per aero,
which must be paid in four annual Instalments, as follows:
First insalment two years from date of record or pre-emption, and
yearly thereafter, but the last instalment is not payable till after the
survey, if the land is unsurveyed.
Two, three, or four settlers may (Miter into partnership with preemptions of 100 acres each, and reside on one homestead. Improvements amounting to $2.50 per acre made on some portion thereof will
secure Crown giant for the whole, conditions of payment being same as
above.
The Crown grant reserves to the Crown a. royalty of live cents per
ton on every ton of merchantable coal raised or gotten from the land,
not including dross or fine slack, and fifty cents per M. on timber.
Coal and petroleum lands do not pass under grant of lands acquired
since passage of Land Act Amendment of 1899.
No Crown grant can be issued to an alien who may have recorded
or pre-empted by virtue of his declaring his Intention to become a British subject,  unless  he  nas  become  naturalized.
The heirs of devisees of the settler are entitled to the Crown grant
on his Geoeaae,
Crown lands may be purchased to the extent of 040 acres. Minimum
price of first-class land, $r> per acre; second-class, $2.50 per acre; third-
class, $1 per acre.   No settlement duties are required on such land unless 74
a second purchase is contemplated. In such a case the first purchase
must be improved to the extent of $5 per acre for first-class; $2.50,
second-class;  and $1.00, third class.
Leases of Crown lands in lots not exceeding 20 acres may be
obtained; and if requisite improvements are made and conditions of the
lease fulfilled at the expiration of lease, Crown grants are issued.
Leases are granted for hay lands for terms not exceeding ten years,
and for any purpose whatsoever, except cutting hay, for a term not
exceeding 21 years.
Twenty-one years' timber leases are now subject to public competition, and the highest cash bonus is accepted subject to the 50 cents per
M. royalty above mentioned and an annual rental, in advance, of 15
cents per acre. The holder must put up a saw-mill capable of cutting
not less than 1,000 feet of lumber per day of 12 hours for every 400 acres
of land in such lease; and such mill shall be kept running for at least
six months in every year.
For further information application should be made to the Chief
Commissioner of Lands and Works, Victoria, B.C.
HOMESTEAD   ACT.
The farm and buildings, when registered, cannot be taken for debt
incurred after registration; and it is free from seizure up to a value not
greater than $2,500 (£500 English;) goods and chattels are also free up
to $500 (£100 English); cattle "farmed on shares" are also protected by
an Exemption Act.
DOMINION   GOVERNMENT   LANDS.
All the lands in British Columbia within twenty miles on each side
of the Canadian Pacific Railway main line are the property of Canada,
with all the timber and minerals they contain (except precious metals).
This tract of land, with its timber, hay, water-powers, coal and stone,
is now administered by the Department of the Interior of Canada, practically according to the same laws and regulations as are the public
lands in Manitoba and the North-West Territories. Government agencies are established at Kamloops, in the mountains, and New Westminster, on the coast
CANADIAN   PACIFIC   RAILWAY   LANDS.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company controls a large area of
choice farming and ranching lands in the Kootenay and Boundary districts. The prices range from $1.00 (four shillings) an acre to $5.00
(twenty shillings) an acre, the latter being for first-class agricultural
lands. These lands are now readily accessible by the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway and the Columbia & Western Railway. 75   -
The Company has adopted the folowing terms of payment:
The   aggregate   amount of   principal and   interest is   divided into
instalments, as shown in the table below;  the first to be paid at   the
time of purchase, the remainder annually thereafter.
The following table shows the amount of the annual instalments on
160 acres at different prices under the above conditions:
160 acres at $1 00 per acre, 1st instalment $45 66 and four     oqual instalments of $33 00
«' l 26 " " 67 95              " " " 41 00
«' 150 " " 68 87 five " " 48 '0
« l 75 «' <l 58 73 six " " 45 00
'i 2 00 " " 67 62 seven «' " 47 00
•' 2 25 " «' 65 73 eight " " 49 00
«« a 60 '« " 69 91 nine '* •' 60 00
• l 2 75 «< « (J0 9i»             " " " 65 00
<« 8 00 " " 71  90             " '« " 60 00
« s 50 « «' 83 90             " " " 70 00
«« 4 00 " " 95 85             " " " 80 00
" 4 50 " " 107 85             " " " 90 00
•• 6 00 " " 119 86             " '« " 100 00
" 6 50 " " 131 80             " " " HO  00
«' 6 00 " " 143 80             " " " 120 00
DISCOUNT FOR CASH. If the land is paid for in full at time of
purchase, a reduction from price will be allowed equal to ten per cent,
on the amount paid in excess of the usual cash instalment.
Special terms and conditions govern the sale of the Company's timber lands.
Interest at six per cent, will be charged on ovedue instalments.
The Company has also lots for sale in the following town sites:
Elko, Cranbrook, Kimberley, Moyelle, Kitchener, Creston, in East
Kootenay; Nelson, Procter, Trail, Nakusp, Lemonton, Arrowhead and
Revelstoke in West Kootenay; Cascade City, Columbia, Eholt, Greenwood, Midway and Kamloops in Yale district, and at Vancouver on the
coast.
The terms of payment are one-third cash, and the balance In   six
and twelve months.
Maps showing the Company's lands can be secured on application to
"F. T. Griffin, C. P. R. Land Commissioner, Winnipeg, Man.; J. S. Dennis, Superintendent of Irrigation and British Columbia Land Commissioner, Calgary, or to A. Taylor, District Land Agent, Nelson.
CLIMATE.
No general description will serve the purpose In speaking of the
climate of British Columbia. On the coast it varies considerably, while
in the interior the variations are yet more plainly marked. It may be
divided into the southern, middle and northern zones, in the interior,
and the coast climate. 76
THE   SOUTHERN   ZONE.
This area, including that between the international boundary, 49 and
51 degrees N. lat., comprises several distinct districts—the East Kootenay, the West Kootenay, a,nd the Okanagan and Kamloops country, or
that lying between the Gold range and the Coast range.
The East Kootenay climate is so mild that " hops can be successfully cultivated, and fruits give a fair yield, considering that the little
orchards were only planted a few years ago."
The West Kootenay lies between the Purcell range and the Gold
range  proper,  and   includes  the   beautiful, Arrowhead   Lakes,  leading
CANADIAN  PACIFIC  RAILWAY,   VANCOUVER  HOTEL-,   VANCOUVER,   B.C.
down from Revelstoke by the Columbia River. This, while a great mining country, has, as the agricultural report already quoted states,
areas from 50 to 1,000 acres in extent, here and there, available for agriculture. " About Revelstoke the red clover and vegetable and root
crops grow luxuriantly." Fruit trees, when planted, have done well.
The small tracts which have been cultivated about Nelson and Kaslo
have produced splendid small fruits. On the shores of Kootenay Lake
apple, pear, plum, cherry and fruit, trees are all found doing well on a
ranch, with fruit of excellent quality. Large reclamation works are
going'on on lands on the Kootenay River, where 40,000 acres of bottom 77
lands have been dyked. The manager of the works states: "We have
found the soil and climate of the Lower Kootenay meadows almost
phenomenally favorable for cereals, loot crops, garden vegetables, and
small fruits.   The climate is both healthful and pleasant."
The Okanagan valley, from Kettle River, on. the boundary, to the
Thompson, " Is the great country of the Okanagan," says Dr. Bryce in
the " Climates of Canada," consisting of lower valleys and undulating
plains and bench lands westward to the slopes of the Coast range,
which, of all British Columbia, has the climate which will go far to
give it claims as the great Canadian sanltorium. Of a width of 100
miles or more and 150 from north to south, this country has running
northward.to the Thompson the series of rivers and lake expansions
known as the Okanagan Lakes. The general level of the bench lands
lies between 1,000 and 2,000 feet, Vernon being 1,200. To describe It would
be to follow up an endless series of valleys, as of the Kettle Rlver> of
the Similkameen River and Osoyoos Lake having the lowest average ■
temperature in January, only 22.6 degrees, and highest average, 75
degrees, In July; of the Princeton and Granite Creek valleys, extending to Nicola, near the railway, lying to the northward, and having a
rainfall in 1890 of 5.4 inches and very limited snowfall, not exceeding
five inches as rain; of the Pentlcton and Trout Creek valley, at an altitude of 1,100 feet, with the bottoms for hay-cutting and the ranges for
cattle, rising hundreds of foot as bench hinds. Hillsides here arc of a
rich sandy loam, and clothed In many places with pine and the Douglas
fir, with cottonwood, birch and willows along the river bottoms, as In
the country surrounding the Okanagan Lake, from the Mission to Vernon, some forty miles apart. Here the total annual rain Tail does not.
exceed ten Inches, with the highest average temperature In August of
64 degrees and the lowest in February of 21 degrees. About Vernon are
the Okanagan Valley proper, the White Valley, Crelghton Valley, and
the country of Mabel a.nd Sugar Lakes, all with a climate much the
same as at the Okanagan Mission, the altitude being 1,200 feet."
Near Vernon is the Coldstream estate of Lord Aberdeen, on which
are located the largest orchards in the province, producing annually
magnificent crops of the choicest varieties of apples, such an the Northern Spy, King of Tompkins, Macintosh Rod, Golden Russet, Rhode
Island Greening. St. Lawrence and others of the most perfect form,
coloring and flavor. Bartlett, Anjou and Flemish Beauty pears are
grown of such size, perfection of form and freedom from blemish as to
be hardly recognizable by Eastern fruit-growers. The plums and prunes
produced are also large, rich and luiClOup, and the reputation of Coldstream fruit wherever ii has been market •<( t hionejioiil the Northwest Territories and Manitoba Is of the highest character. These;
orchards are being extended yearly, and arc very profitable.   There arc 78
a number of smaller orchards in the Vernon district, all of which are
successful and the future of the fruit-growing industry is most promising. At Kelowna, some thirty miles south of Vernon, Lord Aberdeen
has another property, the Guisachan Ranch, which is devoted principally to dairying and hog-raising, and in this district there are a number of profitable orchards, varying in size from an acre or so up to fifty
acres. The orchard of Mr. T. W. Stirling is a notable illustration of
the possibilities of the district in this line, with its symmetrical rows of
large, well-proportioned trees, loaded to the ground in season with luscious fruits, including apricots, peaches, medlars, apples, pears, plums
and cherries.
Again quoting Dr. Bryce:
" Every fruit of the temperate climate grows, the tobacco plant and
hop flourish, and even cotton has been grown as a curiosity. All small
fruit flourish, grapes ripen nicely, and roses may be seen in full bloom
in the end of October as far north as Kamloops. From Spallumcheen
to Salmon River eastward, and to Kamloops westward on the Thompson, both along the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, is a similar
country, the climate all being practically the same as that of Kamloops, with the lowest average temperature in February of 13 degrees
F."
MIDDLE ZONE.
This comprises the region between 51 and 53 degs, north latitude,
and contains much of the mountainous parts of the province, including
the Cariboo Mountains, the locality of the most celebrated gold fields
yet discovered in British Columbia. The rainfall is heavier there than
in the southern zone, and the forest growth, therefore, becomes more
dense. The altitude of the settlements in this division varies from
1,900 to 2,500 feet above the level of the sea; 3,000 feet being about the
maximum height for wheat, though other grains ripen at a greater altitude. From 122 degs. west longitude the land falls toward the valley
of the Fraser, the climate becomes milder than in the mountains, and
bunch-grass grows in the valleys and on the benches. Quoting from
the "Climates of Canada":
" Northward from the Thompson for a hundred miles is another
region of rolling bench lands, a similar country, growing somewhat
Colder with the latitude, but in a surprising manner maintaining a dryness far north into the Chilcoten rolling prairie country west of the
Fraser; while at one hundred miles north of Kamloops such a moderate
temperature exists that cattle maintain themselves all winter on the
ranches in latitude 52 degs. Beyond this th rainfall increases till in the
northern part of the plateau the forest has become more dense, and has
th characteristics of the great forest areas of Eastern Canada." 79
THE NORTHERN ZONE.
The attention of the world is now drawn to this region. A vast gold
area of illimitable wealth is being exploited, though present operations
are almost confined to tributaries of the Yukon. Although little is
known from meteorological observations regarding the inland plateau
northward beyond the 54th parallel, it may, in a general way, be stated that the country consists of rolling plateaus of gradually lessening
height towards the north, free from excessive moisture owing to the
precipitation of the vapors from thei Pacific on the west side of the
Coast range, and while, of course, having severe cold in winter, has in
other respects the peculiar lightness and dryness characteristic of the
whole country within the Coast, range from the international boundary
northwards. In fact, it may be said, it is only the gradually increasing north latitude which affects the length of the day, by which the
winters are lengthened and the summers shortened. The long summer
days make vegetation so rapid that cattle-grazing on the bunch-grass
is possible up to October,  and even later in some seasons.
THE PACIFIC COxYST CLIMATE.
Mr. Stupart, director of the Dominion Meteorological Observatory at
Toronto, says: "The annual rainfall along the exposed western coast
of the island (Vancouver Island), and thence northward to Alaska, is
very great, generally exceeding 100 inches. In the south-eastern part
of the island, between Victoria and Nanaimo, the climate does not dif-
er greatly from that found in the North of England; not only does the
annual mean temperature agree very closely with that of parts of England, but the mean average of corresponding months is nearly the
same."
Dr. Bryce, in " The Climates and Health Resorts of Canada," again
says: "Extremes of temperature, and especially of daily extremes—
the lowest temperature in two years being 8 deg. F., the lowest monthly average being 20 degs. F., and the highest in summer being 82 degs.
F.—to that as above Alberni on the west coast, to Queen Charlotte
Island, even to the 54th parallel. In all this country the fruits of temperate climates grow well and farm animals live outdoors the year
round. The rich bottoms of the Fraser delta have long been famous for
their great hay crops and pasture lands; but here the extreme of rainfall is met, the mean for six years being 59.66 inches at New WtesitL
minster. The climate of the great Island of Vancouver, running northwest across two degrees of longitude and two degrees of latitude, presents every variety from that at the sea coast, with, as at Esquimau, a
very low daily range, and no annual extremes—the lowest temperature
in two years being 8 degs. F., the lowest monthly average being 20
degs. F., and the highest in summer being 82 degs. F.—to that as above GO
Alberni on the west coast, where the Vancouver range rises first into a
plateau of 4,000 feet and even to 7,500 feet in Victoria Peak."
Apart from the mineral wealth of the island, its climate, with every
variation possible, becomes most attractive. Its sea-shore climate is
milder than many parts of England, with less rain and less seasonal
variations. The west slope of the Coast range has a rank vegetation,
owing to the excessive rainfalls, and the lower grounds, if mild, have,
as a climate for residence, attractions rather for the pursuit of agriculture than as health resorts for the invalid.
GREENWOOD,  B.C.
TRADE
j
The trade of British Columbia, if still unimportant when compared
with the extent, resources and immense future possibilities of the province, has improved and developed wonderfully during the past few
years, showing an increase in the last decade that speaks volumes for
the progress and enterprise of the people. It is now the largest in the
world per head of population except Holland. Prominent exports are
fish, coal, gold, silver-lead, timber, masts and spars, furs and skins, fish
oil, and hops. A large portion of the salmon, canned and pickled, goes
to Great Britain, Eastern Canada, the United States, Australia and
Japan; the United States and Hawaiian Islands consume a large share 81
of the exported coal, and great quantities of timber are shipped to
Great Britain, South Africa, China, Japan, India, Australia and ports
in South America. To Great Britain and the United States are sent the
valuable furs, and peltries of land animals and the much-prized seal
•and otter, etc. China also receives a considerable amount of lumber,
timber and furs. Valuable shipments of fish oil, principally obtained
from dogfish at the Queen Charlotte Islands, are consigned to the United
States and to the Hawaiian Islands. These industries, though already
of considerable importance, a.re destined to become very large as well
as very profitable enterprises in the near future. A large inter-provincial trade with Eastern Canada. Manitoba and the North-West Territories is rapidly developing, the fruit of the province being largely
shipped to the prairies, where it finds a good market. With the shipping facilities offered by the Canadan Pacific Railway and the magnificent steamship lines to Japan, China, Australia and the Hawaiian
Islands backed by her natural advantages of climate and geographical
position and immense resources in timber and minerals, British Columbia is gradually obtaining her proper share of the commerce of the
world. There is no other country on the globe more richly endowed
with varied resources of wealth, as fisheries, timber, minerals, pasture
and arable lands, etc., and all are open to those who choose to avail
themselves of these new and attractive fields of enterprise.
EDUCATION.
The province affords excellent educational opportunities. The school
system is free and non-sectarian, and is equally as efficient as that of
any other province in the Dominion. The expenditure for educational
purposes amounts to $400,000 annually. The Government builds a school-
house, makes a grant for incidental expenses, and pays a teacher in
every district where twenty children between the ages of six and sixteen can be brought together. For outlying farming districts and mining camps this arrangement is very advantageous. High schools are
also established in cities, where classics and higher mathematics are
taught. Several British Columbia cities also now have charge of their
own public and high schools, and these receive a very liberal per capita
grant in aid from the Provincial Government. The minimum salary
paid to teachers is $50.00 per month in rural districts, up to $135.00 in
city and high schools. Attendance in public schools is compulsory. The
Education Department is presided over by a Minister of the Crown.
There are also a superintendent and four inspectors in the pi"Ovince,
also boards of trustees in each district. According to the last educational report, there are 338 schools in operation, of which 8 are high, 60
graded, and 270 common. The number of pupils enrolled is between
20,000 and 30,000. 82
SPORT.
ft
The sportsman will find a greater variety of fish and game in British Columbia than in any other part of North America; there are.
indeed, few regions that can boast of anything like the variety of species. Whether with rifle, or with smoothbore, or with rod, there is an
almost bewildering choice. The three great parallel ranges of the mainland hold an immense amount of big game. In the Rockies there are
bighorn, goat, caribou and deer; in the Selkirks, goat and caribou, and
in the Coast range goat and quantities of the true blacktailed deer.
Grizzly and black bear are to be found in numbers throughout the province. In some districts the grizzly will be the more numerous, while
in others, black bear are found in the greater number. The mule deer,
miscalled blacktail, is so abundant in East Kootenay, the Boundary
country, Okanagan and Lillooet as to be a very certain source of supply for the ranchers and miners to draw upon. Elk (wapiti) shooting
may be indulged in by those visiting the northern end of Vancouver
Island. It is believed that the elk is extinct upon the mainland, with
the possible exception of the south-eastern corner of the province, but
on Vancouver Island it is tolerably abundant, although unfortunately,
it frequents a very densely forested region, so that the hunting means
hard work.
Although few persons, however keen, would visit British Columbia
merely for the sake of its wing shooting, yet it is undeniable that, with
the exception of Manitoba and the Territories, a man may find as much
work for his breech-loader in the province as he would almost anywhere. Five species of grouse and vast quantities of wildfowl, from
swans to teal abound in suitable localities. The marshes of the Columbia swarm with mallard and other choice duck in the autumn; the
Arrow Lakes and the upper valley of the Fraser form a trough much
frequented by the wild geese during their migrations, and the fiords and
sounds of the coast shelter great flocks of wildfowl throughout the
winter—for it must mot be forgotten that the winters of the Pacific are
very much less rigorous than those of the Atlantic, and that a very
large proportion of the birds do not go further south than Vancouver
Island.
The fishing of British Columbia is so remarkably good that no one
can realize the quantities of salmon and trout to be found in the
streams of this province, until he has visited it. The quinnat and cohoe
salmon may be taken in salt water at certain seasons in large numbers
by mea,ns of a spoon bait, and a few crack fishermen have succeeded in
taking the quinnat in fresh water, but as a rule British Columbia salmon do not rise to the fly. However, the trout will more than make up
for the salmon's lack of appreciation. The rainbow trout is, possibly,
the finest fish for his inches of all the trout family, and, happily, he is
extraordinarily numerous in many of the inland waters.    Where he is not found his place is taken by the black spotted trout, an excellent
fish, though hardly the equal of the rainbow. Very heavy lake trout are
found in all the larger sheets of water—Shuswap Lake may be mentioned as especially good and easy of access.
HOW   TO   SEND   MONEY   TO   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
The colonist from Great Britain is recommended not to take English coin to British Co'umbia.. In Great Britain he should pay that
portion of his money not wanted on the passage to the Dominion
Express Company's office in London, Liverpool or Glasgow, and get a
money order for it payable in Vancouver or Victoria, or at any other
point in British Columbia, this system furnishing purchasers a receipt,
giving absolute security in case orders are lost or destroyed; or he may
pay his money either to any bank in London having an agency in British Columbia, such as the Bank of Montreal, Canadian Bank of Commerce, Bank of British North America., Imperial Bank, etc. This will
avoid risk from loss on the way.
United States currency is taken at par in business circles.
ON   ARRIVING   IN    BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
It is sometimes better for an intending farmer of moderate means
to place his money on first arrival in the Government Savings Bank
(which allows interest), to take lodgings and to work for wages for
some time in order to gain a knowledge of colonial life and modes   of
management.
The Government or Canadian Pacific Railway agent at point of
arrival will furnish information as to lands open for settlement in the
respective districts, farms for sale, demand for labor, rates of wages,
routes of travel, distances, expenses of conveyance, etc.
The colonist should be careful of his cash capital,, and not put it
into investments hastily. There are Canadian Government Savings
Banks in the province.
HOW   TO   REACH   BRITISH   COLUNBIA.
FROM EUROPE.—The Canadian transatlantic steamers from
Europe, from about 20th November to 1st May, land their passengers
at Halifax, N.S., or St. John, N.B., the Canadian winter ports. From
both places passengers are carried direct to Montreal and thence west
in the Canadian Pacific's oars. During the summer and autumn months
(about 1st May to 12th November) steamers land passengers at Quebec,
and thence the continent is crossed to Vancouver via the Canadian
Pacific Railway. When landed at New York or Boston the route thence
is via Montreal. 84
The Atlantic passage usually takes from eight to ten days, and the
railway trip from Montreal four days. A passenger can usually go
through to British Columbia from England in less than a fortnight by
crossing the continent on the Canadian Pacific Line.
It is advisable to book through to Vancouver or Victoria, the ticket
being exchanged at the port of landing—Halifax, St. John, Quebec, Boston, or New York. Efforts may be made to induce passengers to purchase tickets by round-about routes through the United States, which
oftentimes necessitate expensive stoppages, troublesome customs inspections, and inconvenient transfers on the way. A passenger should
insist on having a ticket by the Canadian Pacific Railway, which is
the only direct and continuous route.
While passing through Eastern Canada or Winnipeg, colonists for
British Columbia shoud apply, in case of need, to the local immigration
officers of the Canadian Pacific Railway, or of the Government of the
Dominion of Canada,  who will give honest advice and information.
Intending passengers can obtain tickets through to all points in
British Columbia, together with the fullest information relative to the
most desirable places of location for farming, cattle-raising, fruitgrowing, mining and trading, by applying to agents of the Canadian
Pacific Railway in London,  Liverpool  and Glasgow.
FROM THE UNITED STATES.—From Oregon, Washington, Nevada and California, via Sumas, at the international boundary, Nelson,
Rossland, or Vancouver.
From the Dakotas, Minnesota, Illinois, Nebraska, Iowa, and Missouri, via the Soo-Pacific Line, entering Canada at Portal, in the Canadian Northwest, and connecting with the Canadian Pacific Railway.
From Eastern States, via Montreal, Que., or Prescott, Ontario, or
via Niagara Falls, Hamilton and Toronto and North Bay.
FROM EASTERN CANADA.—By Canadian Pacific Railway from
Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal, or Ottawa, and by rail from
Toronto and other points in Centra) and Western Ontario to North
Bay, on Lake Nipissing, where connection is made with the transcontinental trains of the Canadian Pacific.
During the season of navigation there is an alternative lake route
through Lake Huron and Superior, via Owen Sound, on Georgian Bay,
to Fort William, at the western extremity of Lake Superior, and thence
by the Canadian Pacific main line. I $ t» Japani China
Consisting of the Magnificent
TWIN-SCREW Steamships
"Empress of India" "Empress of Japan" "Empress of China"
"Tartar" and "Athenian"
Sailing every two or three weeks in summer between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and
Yokohama, Kobe and Nagasaki, Japan, Shanghai, China and Hong Kong. The '-.Empress"
steamships are of 6,U00 tons register, with a speed of 19 knots, and are the most commodious
twin-screw vessels on the Pacific, the shortest and smoothest route across the North Pacific
is followed, and this with the superior speed of the Empn-Bses euableB the voyages to be made
in quicker time thau by other routes.
GANADIAN-AUSTRALSAN ROYAL MAIL S.S. LINE.
The Royal Mail Steamships MOANA, MIOWERA and AORANGI give a
service every four weeks between Vancouver and Victoria, B.C., and Sydney, N.S.W., via
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, Suva, Fiji (from which New Zealand can be reached), and
Brisbane.
Passengers booked from London or Liverpool, New York, Boston, Montreal,
Toronto, or any of the principal cities of Canada and the United States.
Theso vessels carry an experienced nodical man and a stewardess on each voyage and
are in every respect superior to any other ships that have as yet sailed the Pacific Ocean.    '
For passage, handbooks of information or Trans-Pacific or Japanese Guide, apply to
Archer Bakek, 67 and 68 King "William St ,E.C., and 62 to 65 Charing Cross, S."W., London,Eng •
24 James St., Liverpool; 67 St. Vincent St., Glasgow.
H. J. Colvin, District Passenger Agent 362 Washington St.. Boston
E. V. Skinner, Assistant Traffic Manager 353 Broadway, New York
A. E. Kdmonds, City Passenger Agent 7 Fort St. "West, Detroit Mich.
A. C. Shaw, General Agent, Passenger Dept 228 South Clark St., Chicago 111
M. M. Stern, District Freight and Passenger Agent. Palace Hotel Building, San Frauriseo, Cal!
W. B. Callaway, General Passenger Agent, Soo Line Minneapolis, Minn!
W. S. Thorn, Asst. General Passenger Agent, Soo Line 379 Robert St., St. Paul, Minn.
J. II. Thompson, Freight and Passenger Agent 12!) East Baltimore St., Baltimore, Md!
H. McMubtiue, Freight and Passenger Agent 629-631 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa.
David H. Morse, Freight ahd Passenger Agent 1229 Pennsylvania Ave., Washington, D.C.
G. W. IUbbard, General Passenger Agent, D.S.S. & A. Dine Marquette, Mich!
A. H.Notman, Asst. General Passenger Agent 1 King St. East, Toronto
E. J- Coyi.e, Asst. General Passenger Agent Vancouver B C.
C. B. Foster, District Passenger Agent 8 King St., St. John ,'n.'b!
D. E. Brown, General Agent  Hong Kong
ROBERT  KERR,
Passr. Traffic Manager,
C.  E.   E. USSHER,
Gen. Passenger Agent,
Eastern Dines,
Montreal.
e. Mcpherson,
Gen. Passenger Agent,
Western Dines,
Winnipeg.
Montreal. Canadian  Pacific  Railway
OPERATING    ITS   OWN
STEAMSHIP, HOTEL, SLEEPER, TELEGRAPH,
EXPRESS  AND   NEWS  SERVICES
la the Most Substantial and Perfectly Built Bailway on the Continent
of America, and is superbly equipped with the finest rolling stock modern
skill can produce. Coaches, Dining and Sleeping Cars are triumphs
of luxurious elegance, and excel in Stability and Beauty of Finish any
other in the world.
TOURISTS
Will find the New Boute through Canada from the Atlantic to the Pacific
unapproached for magnificence and variety of scenery by any other line
of travel. The rugged wilderness of the North Shore of Lake Superior,
the picturesque Lake of the Woods Begion, the Billowy Prairies of the
Canadian North-West, the stately grandeur of the Bockies, the marvels of
the Selkirks and Gold Bange, and the wondrous beauty of the Pacific Coast
are traversed by The Great Dustless Route. Being entirely controlled
and managed by one Company, the Canadian Pacific Railway offers
special advantages to transcontinental travellers that cannot be granted
by any other line. It, is the Best, the Safest, the Fastest and the Only
Continuous Boute from Ocean to Ocean. The Company has spared no
expense in providing for the wants and comfort of its patrons, as its line of
Dining Cars and Mountain Hotels will at all times testify, supplied, as
they are, with all that the most fastidious can desire.
TRANSCONTINENTAL SLEEPING CARS
Are provided with Smoking Compartments, etc., and offer all the comfort
and convenience of First-class Hotels. They are specially constructed to
admit of the Scenery being viewed in all directions.
Through tickets from Halifax, St. John, N.B., Quebec, Montreal,
Ottawa Prescott, Brockville, Toronto, Hamilton, London and all
points in Eastern Canada; also from New York, Boston, Chicago.
St. Paul, Minneapolis and all the principal points in the United States,
to Vancouver, Victoria, and all points in British Columbia, and to
Portland, Ore., Puget Sound Ports, Whatcom, Seattle, Tacoma,
San Francisco, etc., and also to points in Alaska, this being the
shortest and best route to the Yukon and Atlin Lake Gold Fields.
Insist on getting your tickets via the Canadian Pacific Bailway.
Colonists receive special attention by this route, Free Colonist
Sleeping Cars being supplied for their, accommodation.
Freight Shippers.can have their goods transported without the
vexatious delays and damage incidental to the frequent transfers necessary
by other routes, and without the expense and annoyance of customs
requirements. im«   umonuae      i9r>
110°     GREENWICH 118'
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BRITISH COLUMBIA
AND
PART OF WESTERN CANADA,
SHOWING THE LINES OF
CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY
SCALE OF  STATUTE MILES.
I    I   It » 50 40        5.0 00 70
110°        GREENWICH
I

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