Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Affairs in Oregon. Letter from the Secretary of War, communicating, in compliance with a resolution of… Harney, William S. (William Selby), 1800-1889 1860

Item Metadata

Download

Media
bcbooks-1.0221960.pdf
Metadata
JSON: bcbooks-1.0221960.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0221960-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0221960-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0221960-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0221960-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0221960-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0221960-source.json
Full Text
bcbooks-1.0221960-fulltext.txt
Citation
bcbooks-1.0221960.ris

Full Text

 36th Congress, )   HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
1st Session.    \
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
LETTER
FROM
THE SECRETARY OF WAR,
In compliance with a resolution of the House of Representatives, correspondence with General Harney, relating to affairs in the
of Oregon.
April 12, 1860.—Laid upon the table, and ordered to be printed
War Department, April 11, 1860.
Sir : I "have the honor to transmit herewith copies of the papers
called for by the resolution of the House of Representatives of the 2d
ultimo, by which the Secretary of War is requested to communicate
to the House "the official correspondence of Brigadier General William
S. Harney, in command of the department of Oregon, relating to the
affairs of that department."
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOHN B. FLOYD,
Secretary of War.
Hon. William Pennington,
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
List of accompanying papers.
I. Difficulties at San Juan Island.
1. Mr. Marcy to Mr. Stevens, July 14, 1855.
2. Same to Mr. Crampton, July IT, 1855.
3. General Harney to Colonel Casey, July 18, 1859.
4. Same to Captain Pickett, July 18, 1859.
5. Same to General Scott, July 19,1859. 2 AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
6. Mr. Drinkard to General Harney, September 3, 1859.
7. General Harney to General Scott, August 1, 1859, enclosing
petition of citizens at San Juan.
8. Same to the Adjutant General, August 7, 1859.
a. From Colonel Casey, July 31, kwith enclosures from
Captain Pickett.
b. From Captain Pickett, August 3, covering correspond
ence with Captain Hornby.
c. Proclamation of Governor Douglas.
d. Reply to same, August 6.
e. To Captain Pickett, August 6.
/. To commander of the Pacific squadron, August 7.
g. To General Clarke, August 7.
9. Same to same, August 8, 1859.
10. Mr. Drinkard to General Scott, September 16, 1859.
11. General Harney to same, August 18, 1859.
a. To Colonel Casey, August 8.
b. From same, August 12, covering correspondence with
Admiral Baynes.
c. From same, August 14.
d. To same, August 16.
e. From Governor Gholson, August 11.
/. To Mr. Campbell, August 16.
12. Same to the Adjutant General, August 25, 1859.
a. From Governor Douglas, August 13.
b. Reply, August 24.
c. Governor Douglas's message.
d. Debate thereon.
e. Article from the "British Colonist."
13. Same to same, August 29, 1859.
14. Same to General Scott, August 30,1859, enclosing letters from
Colonel Casey, August 22.
15. Same to Colonel Casey, September 2, 1859.
16. Same to General Scott, September 14, 1859.
a. Affidavit of Mr. Hubbs.
b. Affidavit of Mr. Cutler.
c. Letter from Mr. Hubbs.
17. Governor Gholson to General-Harney, August 21, 1859.
18% General Harney to Mr. Floyd, October 10, 1859.
a. From Mr. Campbell, August 14.
b. From same, August 30.
19. General Scott to the Adjutant General, October 22, 1859.
20. Same to same, October 26, 1859.
21. Same to Mr. Floyd, October 27,-1859.
22. General Harney to General Scott, October 29, 1859, enclosing
letter from Colonel Casey, October 28.
23. General Scott to Mr. Floyd, December 8, 1859.
a. Letter to Governor Douglas, October 25.
6.  Memorandum by Colonel Lay, October 26.
c. From Governor Douglas, October 29.
d. To same, November 2. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
e. Projet of settlement.
/.  From Governor Douglas, November 3.
g. To same, November 5.
h. Special orders, November 5.
i.   From,Governor Douglas.
j.   From same, November 7, with enclosure.
k. To Governor Douglas, November 9, with enclosure.
I.   To Captain Hunt, November 9.
m. To Colonel Casey, November 9.
n. Colonel Thomas to General Harney, November 9.
o.  General Scott to General Harney.
p. Special orders.
24. General Harney to General Scott, November 17, 1859.
25. Same to the Adjutant General, November 17, 1859.
26. Same to same, January 24, 1860.
a. Resolutions of the legislature of Washington.
II. Military affairs in the Department of Oregon.
1. The Adjutant General to General Harney, September 14, 1858.
a. General orders, September 13.
2. General Harney to General Scott, October 19, 1858.
3. Same to same, October 24, 1859.
a. Orders, September 20.
b. Orders, October 20.
4. Same to same, October 29, 1858.
a. From Colonel Wright, October 28.
b. Treaty with the Coeur d'Alenes.
c. Treaty with the Spokanes.
d. Treaty with the Nez Perces.
5. Same to same, November 4, 1858.
6. Same to same, November 5, 1858.
a. To Mr. De Smet, October 28.
7. Same to same, November 22, 1858.
8. Same to same, November 24, 1858.
9. Same to same, November 27, 1858.
10. Same to same, November 29, 1858.
a. From Captain Ingalls, November 22,1858.
b. From Mr. Scholl, December 27, 1857.
c. From Mr. Newell, December 31, 1857.
d. From Mr. Palmer, January 3,1858.
e. Distances from Vancouver to Salt Lake.
11. Same to Adjutant General, December 6, 1858.
a. To Lieutenant Sill, December 2.
b. From same, December 3.
c. Charges against Lieutenant Sill.
12. Same to same, December 8, 1853.
13. Same to General Scott, January 20, 1859.
14. The Adjutant General to General Harney, February 2, 1859.
15. General Harney to General Scott, February 7, 1859.
16. Same to same, same date. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
17. The Adjutant General to General Harney, February 19, 1859.
18. Same to same, February 23, 1859.
19. General Harney to Mr. Campbell, February 24, 1859.
'20. Same to the Adjutant General, March 1, 1859.
$1. Same to General Scott, March 7,1859.
a. From Lieutenant Scott, February 15.
22. The Adjutant General to General Harney, March 18, 1859.
23. General Harney to the Adjutant General, March 19, 1859.
a. From Major Alvord, March 18.
b. Major Allen to Major Alvord, March 4.
c. General Jesup to Colonel Swords, December 8, 1858.
24. The Adjutant General to General Harney, March 19,1859.
25. Same to same, March 30, 1859.
26. Same to same, April 2, 1859.
27. General Harney to the Adjutant General, April 5, 1859.
28. Same to General Scott, April 6,1859.
a. From " Gary," March 28.
29. Same to same, April 16, 1859.
a. From Mr. Ruckell, January 31.
b. From Captain Ingalls, March 9.
c. To Major Wyse, March 10.
d. From same, March 10.
e. From Captain Ingalls, April 13.
/. Mr. Allen to Captain Ingalls, March 4.
g. Colonel Swords to same, March 31.
h. To Major Wyse, April 13.
i.   From same, April 13.
j.   Major Wyse to General Scott, April 13.
30. Same to same, April 19, 1859.
31. Same to same, April 21, 1859.
32. Same to the Adjutant General, April 23, 1859.
33. Same to General Scott, April 25, 1859.
34. Same to Captain Wallen, April 28, 1859.
35. The Adjutant General to General Harney, April 29, 1859.
a. To General Clarke, April 4.
36. General Harney to the Adjutant General, May 7, 1859.
37. The Adjutant General to General Harney, May 13, 1859.
a. Mr. Floyd to General Lawson, April 7.
38. Same to same, May 13, 1859.
39. General Harney to General Scott, May 21, 1859.
a. From Mr. Campbell, May 2.
40. Same to same, June 1, 1859.
a. From Mr. De Smet, May 25.
b. To Mr. Owen, May 28.
c. From same, May 28.
d. To same, May 28.
e. To Mr. DeSmet, June 1.
41. Same to same, June 3, 1859.
a. From Mr. De Smet, May 28.
42. The Adjutant General to General Harney, July 2, 1859.
43. Same to same, July 19, 1859.' AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.. 5
44. General Harney to General Scott, July 19, 1859.
45. Same to same, July 20, 1859.
46. Same to the Adjutant General, July 20, 1859.
47. Same to General Scott, August 1, 1859.
48. Same to same, August 3,1859.
49. Same to the Adjutant General, August 5, 1859.
a. Charges against Lieutenant De Hart.
b. To commander of Fort Vancouver, July 23.
c. Order to Lieutenant De Hart, July 23.
d. Lieutenant De Hart to post commander, July 23.
e. Reply," July 24.
/. From Lieutenant De Hart, July 24.
g. To commander of Fort Vancouver, July 30.
h. Lieutenant De Hart to commander of Fort Yancouver,
August 4.
i. Same to General Scott, August 4.
j.  To Colonel Morris, August 4.
k. Colonel Morris to Lieutenant De Hart, August 5.
50. Lieutenant De Hart to General Scott, August 5, 1859.
51. General Harney to General Scott, August 5, 1859.
52. The Adjutant General to General Harney, August 10, 1859.
53. Same to same, same date.
54. General Harney to General Scott, August 15,1859.
a. From Captain Kirkham, August 4.
b. From same, August 15.
c. From Captain Ingalls, August 15.
55. Colonel Merchant to the Adjutant General, August 17, 1859.
a. From Lieutenant Ihrie, August 1.
56. General Harney to the Adjutant General, August 30, 185.9.
57. Same to same, September 2, 1859.
58. Same to General Scott, September 5, 1859.
59. Same to same, September 15, 1859.
60. The Adjutant General to General Harney, September 17,1859.
61. Captain Wallen, to General Harney, August 16, forwarded
September 19, 1859.
62. General Harney to the Adjutant General, September 19, 1859.
a. To Lieutenant Howard, August 13.
b. From Captain Judah, September 12.
63. The Adjutaut General to General Harney, October 4, 1859.
64. General Harney to General Scott, October 6, 1859.
a. From Captain Wallen, October 1.
b. From emigrants to Captain Wallen.
65. Same to same, November 12, 1859.
a. From Mr. De'Smet, October 5.
66. The Adjutant General to General Harney, November 19, 1859.
67. General Harney to General Scott, November 22, 1859.
G8. Same to the Adjutant General, December 9, 1859.
a. From General Scott, October 21.
b. Post return of Fort Yancouver.
69. The Adjutant General to General Harney, December 17, 1859.
70. Same to same, same date. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
71. General Harney to General Scott, December 26, 1859.
a. Colonel Craig to Lieutenant Welcker, May 30.
b. Lieutenant Welcker to Colonel Craig, August 2.
c. Colonel Craig to Lieutenant Welcker, September 15.
d. To Lieutenant Welcker, October 12.
e. To same, December 24.
/. From same, December 26.
72. Colonel Abert to Mr. Floyd, December 31, 1859.
73. The Adjutant General to General Harney, January 12, 1860.
74. General Harney to the Adjutant General, January 17, 1860.
a. From Captain Wallen, November 25, 1859.
b. Lieutenant Bonnycastle, September 15, 1859.
c. Mr. Scholl, December 3, 1859.
d. Lieutenant Dixon, January —, 1860.
e. Lieutenant Houston, October 29, 1859.
75. The Adjutant General to General Harney, January 18, 1860.
76. Same to same, February 7, 1860.
77. Colonel Craig to the Adjutant General, February 25, 1860.
a. From Lieutenant Welcker, August 1,1859.
b. Agreement for occupancy of General Harney's property.
c. From Lieutenant Welcker, October 5, 1859.
d. From same, November 1, 1859.
I.  Difficulties at San Juan Island.
1. Mr. Marcy to Mr. Stevens.
Department of State,
Washington, July 14, 1855.
He [the President] has instructed me to say to you that the officers
of the Territory should abstain from all acts on the disputed grounds
which are calculated to provoke any conflicts, so far as it can be done
without implying the concession to the authority of Great Britain of
an exclusive right over the premises.
The title ought to be settled before either party should exclude the
other by force, or exercise complete and exclusive sovereign rights
within the fairly disputed limits. Application will be made to the
British government to interpose with the local authorities on the
northern borders of our territory to abstain from like acts of exclusive
ownership, with the explicit understanding that any forbearance on
either side to assert the rights, respectively, shall not be construed
into any concession to the adverse party.
By a conciliatory and moderate course on both sides, it is sincerely
hoped that all difficulties will be avoided until an adjustment of the
boundary line can be made in a manner mutually satisfactory.    The AFFAIRS IN  OREGON. 7
government of the United States will do what it can to have the line
established at an early period.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,
W. L. MARCY.
His excellency I. I. Stevens,
Governor of Washington Territory, Olympia.
2. Mr. Marcy to Mr. Crampton.
Department of State,
Washington, July 17, 1855.
Sir : I am under some apprehension that collision may take place
between our citizens and British subjects in regard to the occupation
of the disputed points along the line between Washington Territory
and the British possessions on the north of it.
In the hope of avoiding such a difficulty, I have, by the direction
of the President, addressed a letter to the governor of that Territory
on the subject, and herewith furnish you with an extract from it. I
presume that the government of her Britannic Majesty will be willing
to recommend to her subjects along the boundary in question a similar
course until the line can be established. In that way I sincerely hope
all collision may be avoided.
I avail myself of this opportunity to renew to you, sir, the assurance of my high consideration.
W. L. MARCY.
John F. Crampton, Esq., &c, &c.
3. General Harney to Colonel Casey.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., July 18, 1859.
Sir: By Special Orders No. 72, herewith enclosed, you will perceive
the general commanding has withdrawn the garrisons from Belling-
ham and Townsend, and has placed the steamer "Massachusetts"
under your orders for the better protection and supervision of the waters of Puget's Sound.
To carry out these instructions with more effect, the general commanding desires me to communicate to you the following directions :
The steamer ''Massachusetts | will proceed without delay to Belling-
ham, to be used in establishing company | D," 9th infantry, on San
Juan island; after which she will convey company "I" of the 4th
infantry to Steilacoom, when the company you assign for service on
the steamer will be embarked under your supervision. Article 37,
general regulations: Troops on board of transports will, as far as
practicable, govern in the disposition of the company on board. As
no surgeon is available for the ship, medical attendance will be ob- 8 AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
tained at Fort Steilacoom or San Juan island, when required; medical
supplies, however, with directions for use, will be furnished by your ■
medical officer for such probable cases of danger as will require immediate attention.
After the ship has received the necessary stores and supplies, she
will be instructed to cruise in the sound among the islands frequented
by the northern Indians, who will be warned not to come into any of
the waters under the jurisdiction of the United States, which embraces
all the islands and currents to the east of the Straits of Haro.
Any opposition by these Indians will be speedily checked, and the
requirements of these instructions will be maintained by force, if necessary. The ordinary rendezvous of the steamer Massachusetts, for
wood and water, will be San Juan island; and should the commander
of that island desire the assistance of any force from the ship for purposes connected with the defence of the island, the officer in command
of the ship will be instructed to furnish the force and co-operate with
the troops in all measures requiring its,safety and protection. At the
end of every two months tbe ship will visit Fort Steilacoom to obtain
supplies, and for the muster and inspection required by the regulations. The command on the steamer Massachusetts will be borne on
the post return of Fort Steilacoom, as a component part of its garrison.
In the ordinary cruising of the sound, the ship will be propelled by
sail only, but at least four days' fuel for steam will be kept constantly
on board, to be used whenever necessity requires celerity of motion.
The ship will visit the light-houses on the sound in her cruises, and
furnish them any protection that may be needed. As the ship is
mounted with eight thirty-two pounders, and the proper ammunition
has been provided, the crew will be instructed, under the direction of
the master of the vessel in their use, to obtain the most efficient action
from all parties incases requiring it. Whenever circumstances occur
requiring a deviation from the tenor of these instructions, you are authorized to use your own discretion and judgment in the matter, reporting the occurrence to this office. The general commanding is pleased
to communicate his confidence in the zeal, energy, and intelligence
you exercise in the discharge of your duties to the service, and he rests
assured the details transmitted in this communication will be rendered
with satisfaction and advantage to such worthy qualities.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON,
Captain Id Dragoons, Acting Ass't Adj't General.
Lieut. Colonel S. Casey,
9th Infantry, commanding Fort Steilacoom, Puget's Sound. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
4. General Harney to Captain Pickett.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., July 18, 1859.
Captain: By Special Orders No. 72, a copy of which is enclosed, you
are directed to establish your company at Bellevue or San Juan island,
in some suitable position near the harbor at the southeastern extremity.
The general commanding instructs me to say the object to be attained
in placing you thus is two-fold, viz : First. To protect the "inhabitants of the island from the incursions of the northern Indians of
British Columbia and the Russian possessions. You will not permit
any force of these Indians to visit San Juan island or the waters of
Puget Sound in that vicinity over which the United States have any
jurisdiction. Should these Indians appear peaceable you will warn
them in a quiet but firm manner to return to their country, and not
visit in future the territory of the United States; and in the event of
any opposition being offered to your demands, you will use the most
decisive measures to enforce them; to which end the commander of the
troops stationed on the steamer Massachusetts will be instructed to
render every assistance and co-operation that will be necessary to enable your command to fulfil the tenor of these instructions.;
Second. Another serious and important duty will devolve upon you
in the occupation of San Juan island, arising from the conflicting interests of the American citizens and the Hudson's Bay Company establishment at that point. This duty is to afford adequate protection to
the American citizens in their rights as such, and to resist all attempts
at interference by the British authorities residing on Vancouver's
island, by intimidation or force, in the controversies of the above-
mentioned parties.
This protection has been called for in consequence of the chief factor
of the Hudson's Bay Company, Mr. Dallas, having recently visited
San Juan island with a British sloop-of-war, and threatened to take an
American citizen by force to Victoria for trial by British laws. It is
hoped a second attempt of this kind will not be made, but to insure
the safety of our citizens the general commanding directs you to meet
the authorities from Victoria at once, on a second arrival, and inform
them they cannot be permitted to interfere with our citizens in any
way. Any grievances they may allege as requiring redress can only
be examined under our own laws, to which they must submit their
claims in proper form.
The steamer Massachusetts will be directed to transport your command, stores, &c, to San Juan island, where you are authorized to
construct such temporary shelter as the necessities of the service demand.
Any materials, as doors, window-sash, flooring, etc., that can be
rendered available will be taken with you from Fort Bellingham. To
secure to your command the vegetables of your garden a small detachment will be left to gather them when grown.
The general commanding is fully satisfied, from the varied experience and judgment displayed by you in your present command, that 10
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
your selection to the duties with which you are now charged will advance the interests of the service, and that your disposition of the subjects coming within your supervision and action will enhance your
reputation as a commander.
In your selection of a position, take into consideration that future
contingencies may require an establishment of from four to six companies retaining the command of the San Juan harbor.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
'    F      ' K A. PLEASONTON,
Captain 2d Dragoons, Acting Assistant Adjutant General.
Captain George Pickett,
Commanding company (< D," 9th Infantry,
Fort Bellingham, Puget's Sound.
5. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., July 19, 1859.
Sir: * * * * * *       ;   * *
On the morning of the 9th instant I left Victoria and visited Belle-
vue, or San Juan island, about ten miles to the east of Vancouver's
Island, on the opposite side of the Straits of Haro. This island is fifteen miles long and five or six broad. It contains fine timber, good
water, and grass, and is the most commanding position we possess on
the sound ; overlooking the Straits of Haro, the Straits of Fuca, and
the Rosario strait, it is the most suitable point from which to observe
and prevent the northern Indians from visiting our settlements to the .
south of it. At the southeastern extremity one of the finest harbors
on this coast is to be found, completely sheltered, offering the best
location for a naval station on the Pacific coast.
The Hudson's Bay Company have an establishment on this island for
the purpose of raising sheep, which they export at eight dollars a
head. Twenty-five Americans, with their families, are also living
upon the island ; and I was petitioned by them through the United
States inspector of customs, Mr. Hubbs, to place a force upon the island
to protect them from the Indians, as well as the oppressive interference of the authorities of the Hudson's Bay Company at Victoria, with
their rights as American citizens. Mr. Hubbs informed me that a
short time before my arrival the "chief factor of the company at Victoria, Mr. Dallas, son-in-law of Governor Douglas, came to the island
in the British sloop-of-war Satellite, and threatened to take one of the
Americans by force to Victoria for shooting a pig of the company. ■
The American seized his rifle and told Mr. Dallas if any such attempt
was made he would kill him on the spot. The affair then ended.
The American offered to pay to the company twice the value of the
pig, which was refused.
To prevent a repetition of this outrage, I have ordered the company
at Fort Bellingham to be established on San Juan island for the protection of our citizens, and the steamer Massachusetts is directed to AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 11
rendezvous at that place with a second company to protect our interests in all parts of the sound.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WILLIAM S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
The Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
6. Mr. Drinkard to General Harney.
War Department, September 3, 1859.
Sir : Your despatch of the 19th July last, addressed to the general-
in-chief, has been forwarded to this department, and laid before the
President for his consideration.
The President was not prepared to learn that you had ordered military possession to be taken of the island of San Juan or Bellevue.
Although he believes the Straits of Haro to be the true boundary
between Great Britain and the United States, under the treaty of June
15, 1846, and that, consequently, this island, belongs to us, yet he
had not anticipated that so decided a step would have been resorted to
without instructions. In cases respecting territory in dispute between
friendly nations it is usual to suffer the status of the parties to remain
until the dispute is terminated one way or the other, and this more
especially whilst the question is pending for decision before a joint
commission of the two governments. If you had good reason to believe that the colonial authorities of Great Britain were about to disturb the status, by taking possession of the island and assuming jurisdiction over it, you were in the right to anticipate their action,
***** The President will not, for the present,
form any decided opinion upon your course on the statement of facts
presented in your despatch. He will await further details, which he
expects to receive from you by the next steamer. He is especially
anxious to ascertain whether, before you proceeded to act, you had
communicated with Commissioner Campbell, who could not then have
been distant from you, and who was intrusted by this government, in
conjunction with the British commissioner, to decide this very boundary question.
In the meantime care ought to be taken to apprise the British
authorities that possession has thus been taken solely with the view of
protecting the rights of our citizens on the island, and preventing the
incursions of the northern Indians into our territory, and not with any
view of prejudging the question in dispute or retaining the island
should the question be finally decided against the United States.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. R. DRINKARD,
Acting Secretary of War
Brigadier General Wm. S. Harney,
Commanding department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver. 12
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
7.   General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., August 1, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the general-
in-chief, a copy of a petition of the American citizens on San Juan
island, Puget's Sound, for protection from the constant incursions of
marauding Indians.
The requirements of this petition were anticipated by the establishment of company "D," 9th infantry, upon the island, and the disposition of the steamer Massachusetts to act in concert with that company, as contained in Special Orders No. 72 from these headquarters,
a copy of which order has already been transmitted to your office.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY, ;
Brigadier General, Commanding. t
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
la.
San Juan Island, July 11, 1859.
To General Harney, Commander-in-Chief
of the Pacific division of the United States army:
The undersigned, American citizens on the island of San Juan, would
respectfully represent: That in the month of April, in the year one
thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight, the house of the United States
inspector of customs for this island was attacked and fired into in the
night by a party of Indians living on this island, and known as the
Clallams, and had it not been for the timely aid of the Hudson's Bay
Company, the inspector would have fallen a victim to their savage
designs. In the month of July following we found on the beach, close
to the above-mentioned Indian camp, the bodies of two white men,
apparently Americans, who had, when found, cotton cords about their
necks which had been used to conceal them under water. Last fall
another daring murder was committed in the middle of the day, and
in the plain sight of us all here, without the slightest chance of our
rendering them assistance. Only ten days ago another body was
found on our shore which had been the victim of foul play. Inclusive
with the above dangers that we are exposed to from our neighboring
Indians, we are continually in fear of a descent upon us by the bands
of marauding northern Indians, who infest these waters in large numbers, and are greatly retarding the progress of the settlement of this
island.
According to the treaty concluded June 15,1846, between the United
States and Great Britain, (the provisions of which are plain, obvious,
and pointed to us all here,) this and all the islands east of the Canal AFFAIRS  IN   OREGON.
13
de Haro belong to us ; we therefore claim American protection in our
present exposed and defenceless position.
With a view of these facts, and for the essential advantage of having
this and the surrounding islands immediately settled, we most earnestly
pray that you will have stationed on this island a sufficient military
force fc> protect us from the above-mentioned dangers until we become
sufficiently strong to protect ourselves.
J. M. Haggaret. Noil Ent.
Samuel McCauley. Michael Farris.
J. E. Higgins. George Perkins.
Chas. H. Hubbs. Alex. McDonald.
^—L  A. Cutlar. Peter Johnson.
William Butler. Angus McDonald.
J. D. Warren. William Smith.
H. Wharton, jr. Charles McCoy.
John Witty. D. W. Oakes.
B. S. Andrews. Paul K. Hubbs, jr.
John Hunter McKay. Paul K. Hubbs.
8. General
to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., August 7, 1859.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the
War Department, a copy of a proclamation of Governor Douglas of
her Britannic Majesty's island of Yancouver, also a copy of my reply
to the same, with a copy of a letter I have addressed to the senior officer of our navy on this coast, requesting him to send a proper force to
observe the British vessels-of-war, which are being used to threaten,
with attempts to intimidate, our people on the Sound.
I have also the honor to enclose a correspondence between Captain
George Pickett, 9th infantry, commanding on San Juan island, and
Captain Hornby, the senior officer commanding her Majesty's ships
"Tribune," ''Plumper," and "Satellite."
The threatening attitude the British authorities have seen proper
to assume has caused me to order Lieutenant Colonel Casey to reinforce Captain Pickett'with his three companies from Fort Steilacoom,
which post will be occupied by four companies of the 3d artillery
from Fort Yancouver until further orders.
In my report of July 19, 1859, to the headquarters of the army, I
stated I had ordered the company from Fort Bellingham to San Juan
island to protect the American citizens residing on that island from
the insults and indignities which the British authorities of Vancouver's
island did not hesitate to offer them on every occasion. On my visit
to San Juan island, mentioned in that report, the United States
inspector of customs on the island, Mr. Hubbs, made an official complaint in behalf of the American citizens of the outrages perpetrated
upon them by the British authorities of Vancouver's island, who are
connected with the Hudson's Bay Company establishment, and who 14
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
have a sheep farm on the island. This company pretend to own the
whole island, which is some fifteen or twenty miles long, and five or
six broad—while their improvements on the island are a few old
hpuses and some small fields under enclosure.
A week or ten days ago, before my arrival on that island, one of the
Americans shot a pig belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, after
having been greatly provoked by the person in charge, to whom he
had applied to have the pig secured, as it damaged his fields. This
request was treated with contempt, and the pig was shot, the American
offering twice the value for the animal, which was refused. The next
day the British ship-of-war "Satellite," with Mr. Dallas on board,
who is the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and a son-in-
law of Governor Douglas, visited the island and threatened to take
the American to Victoria, by force, for trial. The American resisted,
seized his rifle, and in return told Mr. Dallas he might take him, but
he would kill him first. I was also informed that the Hudson's Bay
Company had threatened at different times to send the northern Indians down upon them and drive them from the island. This statement has since been confirmed to me by some of the most reliable
citizens of the Sound. I felt it my duty, therefore, to give these citizens the protection they sought with just and pressing claims.
Governor Douglas is the father-in-law of Mr. Dallas, and, having
the local rank of vice-admiral, he commands the British navy in the
Sound. This accounts in some measure for the use of the British
ships-of-war in the supervision of the interests of the Hudson's Bay
Company. To attempt to take, by an armed force, an American
citizen from our soil, to be tried by British laws, is an insult to our
flag and an outrage upon the rights of our people, that has aroused
them to a high state of indignation. I therefore most respectfully
request the President to consider the necessities for an increased naval
force on this station, to give confidence to the people that their rights
will be respected.
It would be well for the British government to know the American
people of this coast will never sanction any claim they may assert to
any other island in Puget's Sound than that of Vancouver's, south of
the 49th parallel and east of the Canal de Haro ; any attempt at possession by them will be followed by a collision.
I desire to assure the department that while there is no one more
desirous than myself for an amicable settlement of the difficulties
raised by the British authorities of Vancouver's island at this time, I
shall use all the means at my command to maintain the position I
have assumed in regard to San Juan island ; being fully convinced
that whatever respect and consideration might have been yielded to
the statements of a doubtful claim advanced in due form have been
forfeited by the overbearing, insulting, and aggressive conduct her
Majesty's executive officers have displayed not only towards our citizens but to the officer commanding our troops at San Juan.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
_ £     [ _   V Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper, Adjutant General, Washington City, D. C. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
15
Fort Steilacoom, July 31, 1859.
Captain : I have the honor to report that I have despatched the Massachusetts to-day with Major Haller's company "I," 4th infantry, for
San Juan island. I sent, also, on the same steamer, Lieutenant Shaaff
and twenty men, to report for duty with the boundary commission,
at Semiahmoo.
I have directed the acting assistant quartermaster at this post to
forward to San Juan the articles which Captain Pickett informed me
he required, and which could be spared from this post. I have also
directed the steamer to take from Fort Townsend a small boat and
some tarpaulines, which are much needed at San Juan.
I have directed, in case contrary orders are not received from department headquarters, that the steamer Massachusetts shall stop at Fort
Townsend, in returning to this post on the 31st proximo, (for the
muster and inspection of the company,) and take on board all the
public property and the detachment of men and convey them to this
post.
I directed that one sergeant and two privates be left there until
further orders, to take charge of the public quarters and gardens.
I have enclosed, for the information of the general, copies of communications which have passed between Captain Pickett and the
agent of the Hudson's Bay Company at San Juan, also a note which
I received from the captain. Not having been informed of the tenor
of Captain Pickett's instructions, I could not, of course, advise him
with regard to them. The authorities on the other side are trying to
bluff a little, but I do not apprehend anything serious.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY,
Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry, Commanding Post.
Captain Alfred Pleasonton,
Acting Assistant Adjutant General, U. S. A.,
Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
[Enclosures.]
1. Captain Pickett to Colonel Casey, July 30.
2. Mr. Griffin to Captain Pickett, July 30.
3. Captain Pickett to Mr. Griffin, July 30.
8 a.
TT
Military Camp,
San Juan Island, W. T, July 30, 1859.
My Dear Colonel : I have the honor to enclose you some notes which
passed this morning between the Hudson's Bay authorities and myself.
From the threatening attitude of affairs at present, I deem it my duty 16
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
to request that the Massachusetts may be sent at once to this point.
I do not know that any actual collision will take place, but it is not
comfortable to be lying within range of a couple of war steamers.
The " Tribune," a 30-gun frigate, is lying broadside to our camp,
and from present indications everything leads me to suppose that they
will attempt to prevent my carrying out my instructions.
If you have any boats to spare I should be happy to get one at least.
The only whale boat we had was, most unfortunately, staved on the
day of our departure.
We will be very much in want of some tools and camp equipage.
I have not the time, colonel, to make out the proper requisition, but
if your quartermaster can send us some of these articles it will be of
great service,
I am, sir, in haste, very truly, your obedient servant,
G. E. PICKETT,
Captain 9th Infantry.
Lieutenant Colonel S. Casey,
9th Infantry, Commanding Fort Steilacoom, W. T.
P. S.—The Shubrick has rendered us every assistance in her power ;
and I am much indebted for the kindness of officers.
Bellevue Farm, San Juan, July 30, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to inform you that the island of San Juan,
on which your camp is pitched, is the property and in the occupation
of the Hudson's Bay Company, and to request that you and the whole
of the party who have landed from the American vessels will immediately cease to occupy the same. Should you be unwilling to comply
with_ my request, I feel bound to apply to the civil authorities.
Awaiting your reply,
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
CHAS. JNO. GRIFFIN,
Agent Hudson's Bay
Captain Pickett, &c, dc, dc.
8 a.
3.
Military Camp,
San Juan, W. T., July 30, 1859.
Sir : Your communication of this instant has been received.    I have
to state in reply that I do not acknowledge the right of the Hudson's
Bay Company to dictate my course of action.    I am here by virtue of AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
17
an order from my government, and shall remain till recalled by the
same authority.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEORGE E. PICKETT,
Captain 9th V. S. Infantry, Commanding.
Mr. Charles J. Griffin,
Agent Hudson!s Bay Company, San Juan Island, W. T.
8 5.
Military Post,
San Juan, W. T., August 3, 10 p. m.
Captain : I have the honor to report the following circumstances:
The British ships the "Tribune," the "Plumper," and the "Satellite,"
are lying here in a menacing attitude. I have been warned off by the
Hudson's Bay agent; then a summons was sent me to appear before a
Mr. De Courcy, an official of her Britannic Majesty. To-day I received
the enclosed communications, and I also enclose my answer to same.
I had to deal with three captains, and I thought it better to take
the brunt of it. They have a force so much superior to mine that it
will be merely a mouthful for them ; still I have informed them that
I am here by order of my commanding general, and will maintain my
position if possible.
They wish to have a conjoint occupation of the island : I decline
anything of that kind. They can, if they choose, land at almost any
point on the island, and I cannot prevent them. I have used the utmost
courtesy and delicacy in my intercourse ; and, if it is possible, please
inform me at such an early hour as to prevent a collision. The utmost
I could expect to day was to suspend any proceeding till they have time
to digest a pill which I gave them. They wish to throw the onus on
me, because I refused to allow them to land an equal force, and each of
us to have military occupation, thereby wiping out both civil authorities.
I say I cannot do so until I hear from the general.
I have endeavored to impress them with the idea that my authority
comes directly through you from Washington.
The " Pleiades" left this morning for San Francisco with Colonel
Hawkins.
The excitement in Victoria and here is tremendous. I suppose some
five hundred people have visited us. I have had to use a great deal of
my peace-making disposition in order to restrain some of the sovereigns.
Please excuse this hasty, and, I am almost afraid, unintelligible,
letter, but the steamer is waiting, and I have been writing under the
most unfavorable circumstances. I must add that they seem to doubt
the authority of the general commanding, and do not wish to acknowledge his right to occupy this island, which they say is in dispute,
unless the United States government have decided the question with
Great Britain. *I have so far staved them off, by saying that the two
governments have without doubt settled this affair ; but this state of
H. Ex. Doc. 65 2 18
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
affairs cannot last, therefore I most respectfully ask that an express be
sent me immediately on my future guidance. I do not think there are
any moments to waste. In order to maintain our dignity we must
occupy in force, or allow them to land in equal force, which they can
do now, and possibly will do in spite of my diplomacy.   •.
I have the honor to enclose all the correspondence which has taken
place. Hoping that my course of action will meet with the approval
of the general commanding, and that I may hear from him in regard
to my furture course at once,
I remain, captain, your obedient servant,
G. E. PICKETT,
Captain 9th Infantry, Commanding Post.
Captain A. Pleasonton,
Mounted Dragoons, Adjutant General,
Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
[Enclosures.]
1. Captain Hornby to Captain Pickett, August 3.
2. Captain Pickett to Captain Hornby, August 3.
3. Captain Hornby to Captain Pickett, August 3.
4. Same to same, August 3.
5. Captain Pickett to Captain Hornby, August 3.
8 ft.
1.
Her Majesty's Ship " Tribune,"
Griffin Bay, Island of San Juan, August 3,1859.
Sir : Having received instructions from his excellency Governor I
Douglas to communicate with you in reference to the landing of the
United States troops under your command on the island of San Juan,
I have the honor to propose a meeting should take place between yourself and any other officers of the United States military forces on the
one part, and captains of her Britannic Majesty's ships on the other,
(on board, her Majesty's ship " Tribune,") at any hour that may be I
convenient to you, that we may, if possible, conclude such arrange-1
ments as will tend to preserve harmony between the subjects of the J
two States in this island.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
GEOFFREY PHIPPS HORNBY, Captain.
Captain Pickett,
Commanding Detachment United States Troops, Island San Juan.l AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
8 6.
2.
19
Military Post,
San Juan, W. T, August 3, 1859.
Sir : Your communication of this instant, favored by Lieutenant
Dunlop, has been received.    I have the honor to say, in reply, that I
shall most cheerfully meet yourself,  and whatever  officers of her
Majesty's service that you may select, in my camp at whatever hour
you may choose to designate.    Be assured that my wish corresponds
with yours to preserve harmony between our respective governments.
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
GEORGE E. PICKETT,
Captain 9th United States Infantry, Commanding.
Captain Phipps Hornby,
Commanding her Britannic Majesty's Ship "Tribune,"
Harbor of San Juan, W. T.
8 5.
3.
Her Majesty's Ship " Tribune,"
Griffin Bay, Island of San Juan, August 3, 1859.
Sir : In reply to your letter of this morning, I have to inform you
that I shall do myself the honor of calling on you at 2 p. m., in company with the captains of her Britannic Majesty's ships.
I have the honor to be, sir, your obedient servant,
G. PHIPPS HORNBY, Captain.
Captain Pickett,
Commanding Detachment U. S. Troops, Island of San Juan.
8 5.
4.
Her Majesty's Ship " Tribune,"
San Juan Island, August 3, 1859.
Sir: In accordance with your request for a written communication,
I have the honor to transmit the substance of the declarations and
propositions made by me to you to-day.
) > Having drawn your attention to the extract of a despatch from Mr.
Marcy, Secretary of State, to his excellency Governor Stevens, dated
July 14, 1855, prescribing the conduct that should be pursued by the
officers of the United States in respect of the disputed grounds, I asked
if that was the tenor of your present instructions, or if the relations of
the two States had been placed on other than a friendly footing by any
of a more recent date.
To this you replied by referring to the date of the despatch. 20
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
I then asked you, in the name of Governor Douglas, the terms on
which you had occupied the island of San Juan ; to which you replied
that you did so bv order of the " general commanding," to protect it
as a part of the United States territory, and that you believed he acted
under orders from the government at Washington.
I then presented to you the governor's protest against any such
occupation or claim. I represented to you that the fact of occupying
a disputed island by a military force necessitated a similar action on
our part; that again involved the imminent risk of a collision between
the forces, there being a magistrate of each nation now acting on the
island, either of whom might call on those of their country for aid._
|i prevent the chance ol such collision, I suggested that a joint military occupation might take place, and continue until replies could be
received from our respective governments; and, during such times, that
the commanding officers of the forces should control and adjudicate
between their respective countrymen, the magistrates being withdrawn
on both sides, or the action of their courts suspended for the time
being, their employment not being necessary under a joint military
occupation.
I suggested this course as apparently the only one left (short of
entire evacuation by the troops under your command) likely to produce the object so much to be desired, viz: the prevention of a collision
between the forces or authorities of the two countries, landed or in the
harbor of San Juan—an event which must lead to still more disastrous
results, by permanently estranging the friendly relations subsisting
between Great Britain and the United States of America.
You replied that you had not authority to conclude such terms, but
suggested the reference of them to General Harney and Governor
Douglas, without interference in any way with our liberty of action.
I pointed out that my proposition was strictly in accordance with
the principles laid down in Mr. Marcy's despatch, and that yours, on
the other hand, offered no security against the occurrence of some
immediate evil.
That as officers of the United States government had committed an
act of aggression by landing an armed force on this island pending'
the settlement of our respective claims to its sovereignty, without
warning to us, and without giving you a discretionary power of
making any necessary arrangements, that the United States and its
officers alone must be responsible for any consequences that might
result, either immediate or future.
I agreed to your request to furnish you with the substance of the
conversation in writing, and concluded by informing you that having
now made what seemed to me a most equitable and simple proposition,
I reserved to myself, in the event of your non-acceptance of it, entire
liberty of action either for the protection of British subjects and
property, or of our claims to the sovereignty of the island, until they
are settled by the Northwest Boundary Commission now existing, or
by the respective governments.
I believe I have now given you the substance of our conversation,
and have only to add my regret that you were not able to agree to a AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 21
course which it appears to me would totally avoid the risk of a collision.
The responsibility of any such catastrophe does not, I feel, rest on.
me or on her Majesty's representative at Yancouver's island.
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient, humble servant,
GEOFFREY PHIPPS HORNBY,
Captain and Senior Officer.
Captain. George Pickett,
Commanding Detachment of United States 9th Regiment.
Military Post,
Island of San Juan, W. T., August 3, 11 p. m.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of this date, in reference to the conversation which was held
to-day between ourselves and Captains Prevost and Richards. Your
recollection of said conversation seems to be very accurate. There is
one point, however, which I dwelt upon particularly, and which I
must endeavor, as the officer representing my government, to impress
upon you, viz : That, as. a matter of course, I, being here under
orders from my government, cannot allow any joint occupation until
so ordered by my commanding general, and that any attempt to make
such occupation as you have proposed, before I can communicate with
General Harney, will be bringing on a collision which can be avoided
by awaiting this issue. I do not for one moment imagine that there
will any difficulty occur on this island which will render a military
interference necessary ; and I therefore deem it proper to state that I
think no discredit can reflect upon us, or our respective flags, by
remaining in our present positions until we have an opportunity of
hearing from those higher in authority.
I hope, most sincerely, sir, you will reflect on this, and hope you
may coincide with me in my conclusion. Should you see fit to act
otherwise, you will then be the person who will bring on a most
disastrous difficulty, and not the United States officials.
I have thus hurriedly answered your communication, in order to
avoid any delay and its consequences.
I remain, with much respect, your obedient servant,
GEORGE E. PICKETT,
Captain 9th Infantry, Commanding Post.
Capt. G. Phipps Hornby,
Commanding her Britannic Majesty's ship " Tribune,"
Harbor of San Juan, Washington Territory.
. 22
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
8c.
n and
vice-
By James Douglas, C. B., governor and commander-in-chief in
over the colony of Yancouver's island and its dependencies,
admiral of the same, &c.
The sovereignty of the island of San Juan and of the whole of the
Haro archipelago", has always been undeviatingly claimed to be in the
crown of Great Britain. Therefore, I, James Douglas, do hereby,
formally and solemnly, protest against the occupation of the said
island, of any part of the said archipelago, by any person whatsoever,
for or on behalf of any other power, hereby protesting and declaring
that the sovereignty thereof by right now is, and always hath been,
in her Majesty Queen Yictoria and her predecessors, Kings of Great
Britain.
Given under my hand and seal, at Yictoria, Yancouver's island, on
r n this second day of August, one thousand eight hundred and
LL« S-J fifty-nine, and in the twenty-third year of her Majesty's reign.
JAMES DOUGLAS.
8d.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 6, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to inform you of the receipt of an official
copy of a protest made by you to the occupation of San Juan island, in
Puget's Sound, by a company of United States troops under my command.
This official copy was furnished by Captain Hornby, of her Majesty's
ship "Tribune," to the United States officer in command at San Juan
island, Captain George Pickett, of the 9 th infantry of the American
army, together with a communication threatening a joint occupation
of San Juan island by the forces of her Majesty's ships "Tribune,"
"Plumper," and "Satellite," now in the harbor of that island by
your orders.
As the military commander of the department of Oregon, assigned
to that command by the orders of the President of the United States,
I have the honor to state, for your information, that by such authority
invested in me I placed a military command upon the island of San
Juan to protect the American citizens residing on that island from the .
insults and indignities which the British authorities of Yancouver's
island and the establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company recently
offered them, by sending a British ship-of-war from Yancouver's island
to convey the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company to San Juan
for the purpose of seizing an American citizen and forcibly transporting him to Yancouver's island to be tried by British laws.
I have reported this attempted outrage to my government, and they AFFAIRS IN  OREGON. 23
will doubtless seek the proper redress from the British government.
In the meantime, I have the honor to inform your excellency I shall
not permit a repetition of that insult, and shall retain a command on
San Juan island to protect its citizens, in the name of the United
States, until I receive further orders from my government.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, vour obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General United States Army, Commanding.
His excellency James Douglas, C. B.,
Governor of Vancouver's Island, &c.,
Vice-Admiral of the same.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 6,1859.
. Captain: The general commanding instructs me to inform you of
the receipt of Governor Douglas's protest to the occupation of San Juan
island, and directs me to enclose a communication, which you will request Captain Hornby, of her Majesty's ship " Tribune," to transmit
to Governor Douglas with all convenient despatch.
The general approves the course you have pursued, and further
directs that no joint occupation or any civil jurisdiction will be permitted on San Juan island by the British authorities under any circumstances.
Lieutenant Colonel Casey is ordered to reinforce you with his command as soon as possible.
Send Lieutenant Howard to Fort Steilacoom in arrest.
I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON,
Capt. 2d Dragoons, Acting Asst. Adjt. General.
'  Captain George Pickett,
9th Infantry, Com'g on San Juan Island, Puget's Sound, W. T.
8/.
Headquarters Department oi Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 7, 1859.
I Sir : I have the honor to enclose for your information a copy of a
proclamation of Governor Douglas, the executive officer of her Britannic Majesty's island of Yancouver, in Puget's Sound; also my reply-
to this proclamation, as far as it affects the rights of American citizens whose interests have been confided to the protection of my command ; and I desire further to inform you that at this time I have a
company of United States troops in possession of San Juan island, to 24 AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
prevent any repetition of the insults that have been offered to our citizens by the British authorities of Yancouver's island. This company
I have ordered to be strongly reinforced, which the British authorities
have threatened not to permit, but also to remove the present force
from the island. This I do not believe they will attempt, but I shall
make every effort to meet and frustrate any designs to place such an
indignity upon our flag ; and as we have no national vessel belonging
to our navy*in the waters of Puget's Sound to observe the three British
vessels of war that have been placed in a threatening attitude over
the harbor of San Juan island, I have the honor to request you, as
the commander of the United States naval forces on the Pacific, to
order to Puget's Sound such force as you can render available to assist
in the protection of American interests in that quarter, and to enable
us to meet successfully any issue that may be attempted to be made
out of the present impending difficulties.
This communication is transmitted through Brigadier General
Clarke, commanding department of California, not having the honor
of your acquaintance or a knowledge of your station.
I shall forward immediately a copy of this letter to the Secretary of
War, for the information of the President.
I am, sir, with high regard, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General United States Army, Commanding.
The Senior Oeeicer of the United States Navy,
Commanding Squadron on the Pacific Coat.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 7, 1859.
General : I have the honor to enclose a communication for the senior
officer of the navy commanding on the Pacific coast, in which I have
requested a force from his command, to be stationed on Puget's Sound,
to observe the British men-of-war that are assuming a threatening
attitude towards a company of infantry I have placed on San Juan
island.
I will thank you, general, to cause this communication to be transmitted to the proper officer of the navy at your earliest opportunity,
as speedy action on his part will do much to allay the excitement"
^ , J? "fast spreading among our people at the overbearing conduct
ot the British authorities.
I enclose for your information copies of Governor Douglas's proclamation, and my reply to the same.
I enclose, also, an important communication for the Adjutant Gen- AFFAIRS IN  OREGON. 25
eral, which should reach him as early as possible; perhaps an express
line would be more certain and speedy than the mail.
I am, general, with high respect, your obedient servant,
W. S   HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Brigadier General N. S. Clarke,
Commanding Department of California,
San Francisco, California.
9. General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 8, 1859.
Colonel : In connexion with my report of yesterday's date, I desire
to state that the island of San Juan has for months past been under
the civil jurisdiction of Whatcom county, Washington Territory—a
justice of the peace had been established on the island—the people had
been taxed by the county, and the taxes were paid by the foreigners
as well as Americans. An inspector of customs, a United States officer
of the Treasury Department, had been placed upon the island in the
discharge of his proper duties. The British authorities at Yancouver's
island were aware of all of these facts, and never attempted to exercise
any authority on the island, except clandestinely, as reported yesterday in the case of the pig which was killed.
When Governor Douglas heard of the arrival of Captain Pickett's
command at San Juan, he appointed a justice of the peace and other
civil authorities at Yictoria, and sent them over in the British ship-of-
war "Plumper" to execute British laws in the island. Captain
Pickett refused to permit them to act as such, and I have sustained
him in his position. I believe I have now fully and fairly explained
all the facts which have any bearing upon the occupation of San Juan
island, which was made an imperious necessity by the wanton and insulting conduct of the British authorities of Yancouver's island towards our citizens.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General United States Army, Washington City, D. C.
10. Mr. Drinkard to General Scott.
War Department, September 1<\ 1359.
Sir: The President has been much grailf^J at the alacrity with
which you have responded to his wish that you would proceed to 26
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
Washington Territory to assume the immediate command, if necessary,
of the United States forces on the Pacific coast.
He has directed me to call your special attention to the present
threatening attitude of the British and American authorities at and
near the island of San Juan. The two governments have differed on
the auestion of title to this island under the treaty concluded between
them at Washington on the 15th June, 184&._ The decision of this
question depends on whether the treaty line, in passing " from the
middle of the channel, on the 49th parallel of latitude, which separates
the continent from Yancouver's island to Fuca straits," ought to be
run through the Canal de Haro or the Rosario strait. If through
the Canal de Haro, the island belongs to the United Sates ; but if
through the Rosario strait, to Great Britain.
This is not the proper occasion to discuss the question of title. If it
were, it might be shown that all the territory which the American
government consented to yield, south of the 49th parallel of latitude,
was the Cape of Yancouver's island. The idea that the treaty intended
to give Great Britain not only the whole of that large and important
island, but all the islands south of 49° in the archipelago between the
island and the continent, was not, at the time, entertained either by.
the President or the Senate of the United States.
In order to prevent unfortunate collisions on that remote frontier,
pending the dispute, Mr. Marcy, the late Secretary of State, on the
14th-of July, 1855, addressed a letter to the honorable Isaac I. Stevens,
then governor of Washington Territory, having a special reference to
an " apprehended conflict between our citizens and the British subjects on the island of San Juan." In this letter Governor Stevens is
instructed " that the officers of the Territory should abstain from all
acts on the disputed grounds which are calculated to provoke any conflict, so far as it can be done without implying the concession to the .
authorities of Great Britain of an exclusive right over the premises.
The title ought to be settled before either party should attempt to exclude the other by force, or exercise complete and exclusive sovereign
rights within the fairly disputed limits." Three days thereafter, on
the 17th July, 1855, Secretary Marcy addressed a note to Mr. Crampton, then the British minister at Washington, communicating to'him
the material portion of his letter to Governor Stevens. Copies of both
these letters are herewith enclosed.
Thus matters stood until General Harney deemed it proper, for the
purpose of affording protection to American citizens on the island and
the neighboring territories of the United States, to direct Captain
George E. Pickett, ninth infantry, "to establish his company on Belle-
vue, or San Juan island, in some suitable position near the harbor at
the southeastern extremity." At the same time the steamer '• Mas-1
sachusetts " was placed under the orders of Lieutenant Colonel Silas'
Casey, 9th infantry, | for the better protection and supervision of the
waters of Puget's Sound," with instructions to cooperate with Captain
Pickett. These instructions were promptly executed. Captain Pickett
immediately proceeded to the island with his company and established
a military post at its southeastern extremity.
It is unnecessary for me to compile for you, from the papers in the AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 27
department, a statement of the condition of affairs in and near the
island of San Juan, because you will be furnished with copies of all
these papers. I would refer you especially to the two despatches of
General Harney, dated July 19 and August 7, and to my despatch to
him of the 3d instant, in reply to his of the 19th July. Suffice it to
say that they present a condition of affairs demanding the serious attention of this government.
It is impossible, at this distance from the scene, and in ignorance of
what may have already transpired on the spot, to give you positive
instructions as to your course of action. Much, very much, must be
left to your own discretion, and the President is happy to believe that
discretion could not be intrusted to more competent hands. His main
object is to preserve the peace and prevent collision between the British
and American authorities on the island until the question of title can
be adjusted by the two governments. Following out the spirit of Mr. i
Marcy's instructions to Governor Stevens, it would be desirable to pro- |
vide, during the intervening period, for a joint occupation of the island, I
under such guards as will secure its tranquillity without interfering
with our rights. The President perceives no objection to the plan
proposed by Captain Hornby, of her Majesty's ship "Tribune," to
Captain Pickett; it being understood that Captain Pickett's company
shall remain on the island to resist, if need be, the incursions of
northern Indians on our frontier settlements, and to afford protection
to American citizens resident thereon. In any arrangement which
may be made for joint occupation, American citizens must be placed
on a footing equally favorable with that of British subjects.
But what shall be your course should the forces of the two governments have come into collision before your arrival ? This would vastly
complicate the case, especially if blood shall have been shed. In that
event, it would still be your duty, if this can, in your opinion, be
honorably done, under the surrounding circumstances, to establish a I
■temporary joint occupation of the island, giving to neither party any /
advantage over the other. It would be a shocking event if the two
nations should be precipitated into a war respecting the possession of
a small island, and that only for the brief period during which the
two governments may be peacefully employed in settling the question
to which of them the island belongs.
It is a possible, but not a probable, case that the British authorities,
having a.greatly superior force at their immediate command, may have
attempted to seize the island and to exercise exclusive jurisdiction over
it, and that our countrymen in those regions may have taken up arms
to assert and maintain their rights. In that event the President feels
a just confidence, from the whole tenor of your past life, that you will
not suffer the national honor to be tarnished. If we must be forced
into a war by the violence, of the British authorities, which is not anticipated, we shall abide the issue as best we may without apprehension
as to the result.
I am, sir, very respectfullv, your obedient servant,
W. R. DRINKARD,
Acting Secretary of War.
Lieutenant General Winpield Scott,
Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army, Washington. 28
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
11
General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 18, 1859.
Sir : Since my report of the 8th instant to the Adjutant General, a
copy of which was sent to your office, with accompanying papers, I
have received the enclosed correspondence from Lieutenant Colonel
Casey, commanding on San Juan island, as a record of the events
which have occurred at that place; in addition to which I have the
honor to report, for the information of the general-in-chief, my own
action, based on the above correspondence, as shown by the enclosed
copies to Lieutenant Colonel Casey and Commissioner Campbell, and
also, a copy of a communication from his excellency Governor Gholson,
of Washington Territory, containing an assurance of a cordial response
by the people of this Territory whenever it may be necessary to apply
for their assistance.
I enclose a list of the fleet and forces of her Britannic Majesty on
service in Puget's Sound, which have been made use of to threaten
my command occupying San Juan island. This armament, it will be
seen, contains five vessels of war, one hundred and sixty-seven guns,
two thousand one hundred and forty men, some six hundred of which
are marines and engineer troops ; and when it is known that this force
has been employed from the 27th day of July until the 10th day of
August, the day on which Colonel Casey, with reinforcements, reached
the island, in using every means in its power, except opening a fire,
to intimidate one company of infantry but sixty strong, the conviction
will be universal that the cause which this large armament had been
called upon to maintain must be totally deficient of right, justice, and
integrity.
The senior officer of three British ships-of-war threatened to land
an overpowering force upon Captain Pickett, who nobly replied that
whether they landed fifty or five thousand men, his conduct would not
be affected by it; that he would open his fire, and, if compelled, take
to the woods fighting ; and so satisfied were the British officers that
such would be his course, they hesitated in putting their threat into
execution. For the cool judgment, ability, and gallantry which distinguished Captain Pickett in his command on San Juan island, I
most respectfully offer his name to the President of the United States
for his notice, by the preferment of a brevet, to date from the commencement of his service on San Juan island.
On the 14th of August Colonel Casey had five companies with him
on the island, and was busy placing in position eight thirty-two
pounders, taken from the steamer "Massachusetts" by my orders.
By this time four companies more have joined him, making in all nine
companies—say five hundred men. These, with the citizens on the
island, can now defend it until a diversion could be made in their
• favor. From the height of the island above the water it presents many
advantages for shelter from the fire of a fleet, and no force could be
landed to dislodge Colonel Casey after his guns are in position and his
intrenchments are completed.    A detachment of engineer troops will AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
29
proceed by the mail steamer in a day or two for service with Colonel
Casey's command.
The visit of Colonel Casey to Esquimault harbor to see the British
admiral was not anticipated by me, and was a generous act of zeal on
the part of the colonel, tending, however, to produce confusion in the
minds of the British authorities. I have directed that in future all
official communications be referred directly to headquarters.
Some Indian disturbances occurred at Whatcom, on the Sound,
about the fab instant, in which one man was killed. The steamer
Massachusetts proceeded immediately to the spot and arrested the ringleaders. Four Indians were killed in the melee at Whatcom, and the
remaining offenders have been turned over to the civil authority.
This prompt action has restored quiet to the country around Whatcom.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York city.
11
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 8, 1859.
Colonel : The general commanding instructs you to take such supplies from Bellingham and Townsend, for your command on San Juan,
as it may require, and any deficiencies make up from Steilacoom.
You are authorized to strengthen your position on San Juan by the
four companies of the 3d artillery now en route to Steilacoom, should
you conceive the necessity demands it.
It is not the general's intention to reoccupy either Bellingham or
Townsend ; consequently, as soon as you can conveniently do so, have
all the public property from those posts transferred to San Juan and
Steilacoom, according to the wants of the service.
The application for Mr. Goldsborough's services as clerk on the
steamer Massachusetts to the officer in charge of the public property
has been favorably endorsed and transmitted to the Adjutant General
for the approval of the Secretary of War, under General Orders No.
13, from the War Department, of this year.
Mr. Goldsborough can be retained in the service until the application
is acknowledged.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON, j
Captain 2d Dragoons, Acting Assistant Adjutant General.
Lieutenant Colonel S. Casey,
9th Infantry, commanding. United States troops,
San Juan Island, W. T. 30
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
lib.
Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island, W. T, August 12, 1859.
Captain : I have the honor to report that, in obedience to orders
received from department headquarters, I left Fort Steilacoom on the
steamer Julia on the 9th instant, (the morning after the receipt of the
order,) with my command. In a short time after leaving we were met
by the steamer " Active," on her way to Fort Steilacoom, for the purpose of communicating to me the state of affairs on the island. I was
strongly and solemnly advised by Captain Alden, in view of the momentous consequences that might arise, not to land any troops on the
island, as this would be prevented by the British steamship-of-war
" Tribune," who, with her fires constantly kept up, was lying with
her broadside on the landing.
Although fully appreciating the terrible consequences of a hostile
collision with our quasi enemy, which would probably be no less than
involving two great nations in war, I did not under the circumstances,
however, consider myself at liberty to disregard my orders, and accordingly resolved to land under the guns of the frigate. The commencing hostilities should be on their side. We left Port Townsend
about twelve o'clock the night of the 9th, expecting to reach San Juan
early on the morning of the 10th. The fog, however, came up so
dense that we did not make "the island of San Juan until about seven
o'clock the morning of the 10th.
After hugging the shore for a few miles, I was informed by the captain that we were but a short distance from Captain Pickett's camp,
and that it was difficult to get along on account of the fog, and that,
moreover, the tide was so low that he would not have been able to
have gotten up to the wharf at the landing for several hours.
Finding ourselves a smooth place near the land, with the coast so
depressed at the point as to make the ascent from the shore easy, I
landed the troops and howitzers, with orders to the senior officer to
move them to Captain Pickett's camp. I proceeded on the steamer
around to the wharf, taking with me my adjutant and a small guard
for the howitzer ammunition and other public property.
I found the Tribune lying as has been described. They did not interfere with the landing of our freight. Whether they would have
interfered with the landing of the troops I cannot say. It is Captain
Pickett's opinion that they would.
Before I had landed from the steamer, I received a message from
Captain Pickett, by one of his officers, requesting my presence at once
in camp. The captain pointed out to me a British war steamer, ascertained afterwards to be the "Satellite," which he was under the impression was about taking a position to shell the camp. The camp
is situated on a narrow neck of land opposite to the harbor, and distant
about two-thirds of a mile. The "Tribune," lying in the harbor, has
on board several hundred men, composed of marines, royal artillery,
and sappers and miners. He expected the land attack from the harbor
side, and was prepared to fire upon them with his howitzers and then AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
31
spike them, deliver his fire with his musketry, and retreat to the
woods. Not having time to form any well-considered plan of my own,
with regard to the state of affairs, I did not countermand the directions that Captain Pickett had given.
Seeing the danger of a collision at any moment, which would inevitably lead to war between two mighty nations connected by so many
common bonds, and whichever way it might terminate would. be
eminently disastrous to the cause of civilization and the interests of
humanity, I resolved to make an attempt to prevent so great a
calamity. I sent an officer aboard the " Tribune" with a request
that Captain Hornby, the commander, would call on me at my camp
for .the purpose of a conference.
The message returned to me by Captain Hornby was, that he was
much engaged at that time, and would come if he could conveniently,
but would be happy to see me on board his vessel. However, in a few
hours the captain came, accompanied by Captain Provost, the British,
and Mr. Campbell, the United States commissioner.
I informed Captain Hornby that I had landed that morning with a
force of United States troops, and explained to him the reason why
I had not landed at the wharf, under the guns of the frigate. I
also said to him that I regretted that Captain Pickett had been so much
harassed and threatened in the position he had occupied.
I inquired of Captain Hornby who the officer highest in command
was, and where he was to be found. He said it was Admiral Baynes,
and that he was then on board the flag-ship " Ganges," in Esquimault
harbor. I intimated a wish to have a conference with the admiral, and
that I would go down to Esquimault the next day for the purpose of
the interview. Both the captain and the British commissioner seemed
pleased. The next day, accompanied by Captain Pickett (both of us
in full uniform) and Mr. Campbell, I went down to Esquimault on the
steamer Shubrick. We anchored near the " Ganges," and I sent to
the admiral, by an officer, the note marked "A." I received in reply
the note marked "B." The note marked " C" was taken on board by
Captain Pickett and handed to the admiral in person. The captain
was courteously received by the admiral. Governor Douglas was present in the cabin. After reading the note the admiral handed it to the
governor. The governor inquired if I knew he was on board the
ship. The captain replied that he had no reason to suppose I did, but
that I had not sought an interview with him, but with the admiral.
The captain informed the admiral that the steamer was: then firing up,
but that I would be happy to wait should he then decide to give me the
conference. It was declined, but the admiral reiterated his desire that
he would be happy to see me on board the ship. I was of the opinion
that I had carried etiquette far enough in going 25 miles to see a gentleman who was disinclined to come 100 yards to see me.
The proposition which I intended to have made the admiral was this:
to calm the rising excitement on both sides among the people, and to
give time for the intentions of the home government to be made known
in regard to the matter. I intended to propose that in case he, the admiral, would pass his word on honor that no threats should be made or
molestation given by the force under his command for the purpose of 32 AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
preventing Captain Pickett from carrying out the orders and instructions with which he is intrusted, I would recommend to the commanding
general the withdrawal of the reinforcement which had landed on the
island under my command, and that affairs should so remain until the
sivereign authorities should announce their, intentions. I have so far
had no further intercourse with any of the officers of the fleet. Lieutenant Kellogg, 3d artillery, being at Fort Steilacoom on the reception
of your order, I directed him to accompany me in charge of the artillery. I trust that, under the circumstances, the general commanding
will approve my course in the matter.
The I Massachusetts" arrived to-day with Major Haller's command
on board. Inasmuch as most of the subsistence stores here are spoiled,
having been damaged on board the "Massachusetts" before she landed
them at Bellingham Bay, and the articles of the quartermaster's department being required, I shall direct the "Massachusetts" to proceed, as
soon as the guns can be landed, to Fort Townsend, and take from there
all the public property, leaving a sergeant and two or three privates
to take care of the buildings and garden.
I enclose a list of the ships and men which the British have in this
vicinity. I would advise that the general send an officer express to
San Francisco, requesting the naval captain in command to send up
any ships-of-war he may have on the coast. It is not pleasant to be at
the mercy of any one who is liable at any moment to become your open- >
enemy. The British have a sufficient naval force here to effectually
blockade this island when they choose. I do not know what the
intentions of the British naval authorities with respect to this island
are. I shall resist any attack they may make upon my position. I
request that five full companies of regular troops, with an officer of
engineers and a detachment of sappers, be sent here as soon as possible.
Let Lieutenant Kellogg's be one of the companies. I have enclosed
copies of communications from Major Haller with regard to his operations with the Indians. I think the major exercised a commendable
enterprise in his operations, and that there will be no further difficulty.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY,
Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry,
Captain Alfred Pleasonton,
Acting Assistant Adjutant General, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
[Enclosures.]
1. Colonel Casey to Admiral Baynes, August 11.
2. Admiral Baynes to Colonel Casey, August 11.
1 3. Colonel Casey to Admiral Bayne's, August 11.
;   4. Statement of British forces at San Juan. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
33
115.
1
United States Steamer Shubrick,
Esquimault Harbor, W. T, August 11, 1859.
Lieutenant Colonel Casey, United States army, commanding the
forces on San Juan island, presents his compliments to Admiral
Baynes, commanding her Britannic Majesty's naval forces on the
Pacific coast, and would be happy to meet the admiral in conference
on board the United States steamer Shubrick, in the harbor, at his
earliest convenience.
115.
2
11 Ganges,"
Esquimault, W. T, August 11, 1859.
Rear-Adminal Baynes presents his  compliments  to  Lieutenant
Colonel Casey, and regrets that circumstances prevent him doing himself the honor of meeting Lieutenant Colonel Casey on board the
Shubrick.    But  Rear-Admiral Baynes will have great pleasure  in
receiving Lieutenant Colonel Casey, or any one who may wish to accompany him on board the Ganges.
Lieutenant Colonel Casey,
United States Army.
lib.
3
United States Steamer Shubrick,
f Harbor, W. T.
Lieutenant Colonel Casey regrets that circumstances prevent Rear-
Admiral Baynes from accepting his invitation to meet him on board
the Shubrick according to his request.
H. Ex. Doc. 65 3 34
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
Her Britannic Majesty's Fleet at Vancouver's Island and in its vicinity,
Rear-Admiral Baynes commanding.
Name of vessel.
No. of guns.
Men.
Name of captains.
84
31
21
21
840
325
325
325
125
Slavel.
Geoffrey Phipps Hornby.
De Courcey.
James Prevost.
10
Richards.
167
1,940
The Tribune, now at anchor in the harbor of San Juan has, in addition to her own crew, a detachment of sappers and miners and marines,
brought down from Frazer's river on the 30th July, by the steamer
Plumper, numbering 200; total, 2,140.
The relative calibre of the Ganges guns unknown; she is one of
the old-fashioned line of battle-ships, thirty-five years old. Tribune
has twenty-two 32-pounders, nine 68-pounders, one of them a pivot-
gun. Pylades and Satellite are 68-pounders, twenty broadside, one
pivot; they are the new class of corvettes, of which the English are
building a great number.
Plumper is a surveying vessel; the armament is comparatively \
light, the guns are all 32-pounders.
On board the fleet there are above five hundred troops, one hundred I
of that number being sappers and miners, the rest marines.
lie.
Headquarters Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island, W. T, August 14, 1859.
■ Captain : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your two
communications dated the 8th of August, and also Special Orders No.
82. Since my last nothing of moment has transpired. The "Tribune" and I Satellite" are now in the harbor, with their broadsides
on the landing. I have not been informed what the intentions of the
British force in these waters are, but am of the opinion, however that
they have concluded to wait for further instructions from higher authority before any violence is attempted. However, it is a wise maxim
"to be prepared for the worst, while hoping for the best." I shall
accordingly direct the four companies of artillery at Steilacoom to
join me at once.    In a former communication I asked for five compa- AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
35>
nies and an engineer officer, with a detachment of sappers. I would
like to have them sent around on board the United States steamer
" Active," which Captain Alden has kindly placed at my disposal for
carrying this despatch. The service of the engineer officer and the
detachment of sappers would most probably be required but a short
time. We are encamped in rather an exposed situation with regard
to the wind, being at the entrance to the Straits of Fuca. The weather,
at times, is already quite inclement. To maintain the object of our
occupation I do Dot, however, from my present information, think
it advisable to change my position. I have enclosed requisition for
"Sibley" tents, with stoves and quartermaster's stores, which I would
like to be forwarded by the " Active" on her return. I have also
enclosed a requisition for subsistence stores, which should be sent to
Fort Steilacoom as soon as they can be supplied from San Francisco.
In view of the possible contingencies of the service, it was my intention to draw from Steilacoom, as a depot, supplies as they would be
needed, The "Massachusetts" landed her guns and ammunition
yesterday. I have directed that she leave to-day for Port Townsend
and bring all the supplies from the port to this point, leaving there a
sergeant and two men to take care of the public buildings and garden.
I shall place the 32-pounders in position as soon as possible. With
our present appliances I find them rather difficult to manage.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY, Lt. Col. 9th Infantry,
Commanding U. S. troops on San Juan Island.
Capt. Alfred Pleasonton, A. A. Adj't Gen'l,
Headquarters Dept of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
lid.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., August 16, 1859.
Colonel : The general commanding has received your reports of the
12th and 14th instants, and accompanying papers, and instructs me
to reply as follows :
The supplies and stores required for the command at San Juan
island will be forwarded as soon as practicable ; the camp and garrison
equipage will be shipped on the "Active."
The course pursued by you in ordering the four companies from
Steilacoom to San Juan island is approved.
A detachment of engineers will be sent you by the mail steamer.
In the meantime have platforms made for your heavy guns, and cover
your camp as much as possible by intrenchment, placing your heavy
guns in battery on the most exposed approaches; the howitzers to be
used to the best advantage with the troops, or in the camp, according
to circumstances.
Select your position with the greatest care to avoid the fire from the
British ships.    In such a position your command should be able to •36 AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
-defend itself against any force the British may land. i The general has
requested a naval iorce from the senior officer on this coast, and has
notified General Clarke, as well as the authorities at Washington, of
the existing state of affairs on the sound. Troops and supplies will
be sent to you as fast as they can be collected.
The general regrets, under all the circumstances, your visit to Esqui-
fciault harbor to see the British admiral, but is satisfied of your generous intention towards them. He instructs you for the future to refer
all official communication desired by the British authorities to these
headquarters, informing them at the same time that such are your
orders. It is almost needless to inform you that the subjects of Great
Britain on San Juan island will be treated with the same consideration and respect as that shown to our own citizens.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON,
Capt. 2d Dragoons, A. A. Adj't Gen'l.
Lieut. Col. S. Casey, 9th Infantry,
Com'd'g U. S. Troops, San Juan Island, Puget's Sound.
11 e.
Executive Oppice, Olympia, W. T.,
August 11, 1859.
Sir : By yesterday's mail I had the honor of receiving your favor of
the ^th instant, enclosing copies of your "orders to Colonel Casey,"
"the proclamation of Governor Douglas, and your reply to the same."
Reciprocating the frankness of your communication, I have to reply
that, should the contemplated emergency arise, your just expectations
of the course to be pursued by myself shall not be disappointed, and
that, in such an event, I have an abiding faith that the citizens of this
Territory will with enthusiastic alacrity respond to any call necessary
for the defence of individual rights, the rights of their country, or
their country's honor.
I am, general, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
R. D. GHOLSON,
Governor Washington Territory.
Brigadier General W. S. Harney,
Headquarters Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., August 16, 1856.
My Dear Sir : Your communication of the 14th instant has just
been received, and I hasten to place you in possession of the facts connected with the occupation of San Juan island by some of the troops
of my command. This step would have been taken before, but I was
informed you were en route to Washington. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
I enclose, for your information, a copy of a protest issued by Governor Douglas, commander-in-chief of the island of Yancouver, to the
occupation of San Juan island, and claiming the sovereignty of said
island for the crown of Great Britain; also a copy of my letter to
Governor Douglas in reply to his protest.
You will perceive that in my reply to Governor Douglas I charge
the British authorities of Vancouver's island with having violated
the rights of American citizens on the island of San Juan in such a
manner and by such means as to leave me no other alternative than to
occupy the island for the protection of American interests. In assuming this responsibility I was careful to state distinctly and fully to
Governor Douglas the position of my troops on the island of San Juan;
and I reiterate to you that the relative claims of the two countries have
had nothing to do in the assignment of the troops in question. The
British authorities chose to violate treaty stipulations made in good
faith, and maintained by the United States in'good faith, by attempting to arrest an American citizen on San Juan island to carry him to
Yictoria to be tried by British laws. To prevent a repetition of this
outrage, until the government of the United States could be apprised
of it, I have placed troops on the island, with such orders as I have
deemed necessary to effect this object.
Among other things you have been pleased to inform me that you
have authorized Colonel Casey to call for volunteers, and that you
"feel assured of my cordial co-operation whenever an emergency may
demand it."
With the question of boundary between the United States and Great
Britain, I disclaim having done anything with respect to it in occupying San Juan island. Great Britain has no sovereignty over
American citizens on San Juan island, and every attempt made by
her authorities to advance such claims I shall resist, until further
orders from the President, to whom I have submitted the whole matter;
in the meantime I hope the labors of your joint commission will be
prosecuted amicably and successfully, for I can assure you that no one
is more desirous of facilitating your labors than myself.
I am, sir, with high respect, your obedient servant,
W. S: HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Archibald Campbell, Esq.,
United States Commissioner Northwest Boundary,
Harbor San Juan Island, Puget's Sound.
12. General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, August 25, 1859.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose a copy of a despatch from his
excellency Governor Douglas, of her Britannic Majesty's island of
Yancouver j also a copy of my reply to the same, both of which papers 38
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
I request may be submitted for the information of the President of the
United States, at your earliest convenience.
Governor Douglas denies that the British authorities of Yancouver s
island were cognizant of the outrage attempted upon an • American
citizen on San Juan island, as reported in my communication to the
headquarters of the army, of July 19, and my letter to you of the 7th
instant. This denial, couched as it is in strong language, does not
explain how a British ship-of-war did convey Mr. Dallas, the chief
factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and son-in-law of Governor
Douglas, to San Juan island ; that Mr. Dallas landed and threatened
an American citizen by the name of Coulter, with imprisonment^ at
Yictoria, to which place he would be taken in the ship-of-war waiting
for him. This threat was not put into execution for the reason that
Coulter told Mr. Dallas if it was attempted he would kill Mr. Dallas
on the spot. But Mr. Dallas having left the island in the ship-of-war,
the conclusion is irresistible that Mr. Dallas either had the ship-of-war
under his control by some direct authority from the British authorities, or he was acting independent of that authority in the exercise of
powers delegated to him elsewhere.
If Mr. Dallas can use a British ship-of-war to overlook the interests
of the Hudson's Bay Company on this coast, without the authority of
Governor Douglas or the British admiral, which is just what he has
done, according to the facts and Governor Douglas' despatch, then the
interests and rights of our citizens have been in greater jeopardy than
I have heretofore supposed, and the necessity of retaining the occupation of San Juan island is still more imperative.
Governor Douglas has opposed the occupation of San Juan on the
ground of sovereignty, and lays great stress upon Mr. Marcy's despatch of July IT, 1855, to her Majesty's minister at Washington.
In a communication to Commissioner Campbell, of the northwest
boundary survey, I have disclaimed any intention of asserting any
sovereignty over th<s island of San Juan, beyond that which the necessity of the case has demanded. A copy of this communication has
already been sent to you.
Mr. Marcy's instructions in reference to the conduct of officers of
the two governments never contemplated the case of a direct aggression on the rights of our people, backed by so powerful a naval force
as to create strong surmises of its intentions. Indeed, so extraordinary
has been the course of conduct of the British in reference to San Juan,
and so evident has been their design to force our people from the island,
that I should consider I had been recreant to the high trust imposed
on me, in not taking possession of the island, it being the only position from which we could defend our rights to advantage.
Eight companies are now on the island with eight 32-pounders.
landed from the steamer Massachusetts. A detachment of engineer
troops are engaged with the troops in constructing a field-work to
defend their position, at the same time protect them from any fire
from the water. This command is fully supplied for over two months,
and is considered now to be able to hold its own in the event of any
difficulty until reinforcements could arrive.
I enclose a copy of Governor Douglas' message to the legislature of AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 39
Vancouver's island ; also of " The British Colonies," the government
paper published at Yictoria, giving an account of the proceedings of
the assembly in relation to San Juan ; also an editorial, complaining
that an error had been committed by somebody on their side. Our
quick-witted people were aware of that fact nearly two months ago.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General U. S. Army, Washington City, D. C.
12 a.
Government House,
Victoria, Vancouver's Island, August 13, 1859.
Sir : On the evening of the 10th instant I had the honor of receiving
your despatch, dated Fort Yancouver, August 6, 1859.
2. In reply thereto, I must thank you for the frank and straightforward manner in which you communicate to me your reasons for
occupying the island of San Juan, on the Haro archipelago, with a
portion of the military forces of the United States under your command.
3. I am glad to find that you have done so under your general
instructions from the President of the United States as military commander of the department of Oregon, and not by direct authority
from the cabinet at Washington.
4. You state that the reasons which induced you to take that course
are the "insults and indignities which the British authorities of
Yancouver's island and the establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company have recently offered to American citizens residing on the island
of San Juan, by sending a British ship-of-war from Yancouver's island
to convey the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay Company to San Juan,
for the purpose of seizing an American citizen and forcibly transporting him to Yancouver's island to be tried by British laws. "
5. I will explain for your information that the agents of the Hudson's Bay Company hold no official position in Yancouver's island,
nor exercise any official power or authority, and are as entirely distinct from the officers of the executive government as are any of the
other inhabitants of Yancouver's island.
6. To the reported outrage on an American citizen I beg to give the
most unhesitating and unqualified denial.
None of her Majesty's ships have ever been sent to convey the chief
factor or any officer of the Hudson's Bay Company to San Juan for
the purpose of seizing an American citizen, nor has any attempt ever
been made to seize an American citizen and. to transport him forcibly
to Yancouver's island for trial, as represented by you.
7. Up to a very recent period but one American citizen has been
resident on San Juan.    About the commencement of the present year 40
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
a few American citizens began to " squat" upon the island, and upon
one occasion a complaint was made to me by a British subject of some
wrong committed against his property by an American citizen, but no
attention was paid to that complaint out of consideration and respect
to the friendly government to which the alleged offender belonged,
and whose citizens, I think, it cannot be denied, have always been
treated with marked attention by all the British authorities in these
parts.
With reference to San Juan, in particular, I have always acted with
the utmost caution, to prevent, so far as might lie in my power, any
ill feeling arising from collisions between British subjects and American citizens, and have in that respect cordially endeavored to carry out
the views of the United States government as expressed in a despatch
from Mr. Marcy, dated 17th July, 1855, to her Majesty's minister at
Washington, a copy of which I herewith enclose for your information,
as I presume that the document cannot be in your possession.
8. Following the dignified policy recommended by that despatch, I
should, in any well-grounded case of complaint against an American
citizen, have referred the matter to the federal authorities in Washington Territory, well assured that if wrong had been committed reparation would have followed.
9. I deeply regret that you did not communicate with me for information upon the subject of the alleged grievance ; you would then
have learned how unfounded was the complaint, and the grave action
you have adopted might have been avoided. I also deeply regret that
you did not mention the matter verbally to me when I had the pleasure of seeing you at Yictoria last month ; for a few words from me
would, I am sure, have removed from your mind any erroneous impressions, and you would have ascertained personally from me how
anxious I have ever been to co-operate to the utmost of my power with
the officers of the United States government in any measures which
might be mutually beneficial to the citizens of the two countries.
10. Having given you a distinct and emphatic denial of the circumstances, which you allege induced you to occupy the island of San
Juan with United States troops ; having shown you that the reasons
you assign do not exist3 and having endeavored to assure you of my
readiness on all occasions to act for the protection of American citizens
and for the promotion of their welfare, I must call upon you, sir, if not
as a matter of right at least as a matter of justice and of humanity, to
withdraw the troops now quartered upon the island of San Juan, for
those troops are not required for the protection of American citizens
against British authorities, and the continuance of those troops upon
an island, the sovereignty of which is in dispute, not only is a
marked discourtesy to a friendly government, but complicates to an .
unduedegree the settlement in an amicable manner of the question of
sovereignty, and is also calculated to provoke a callision between the
military forces of two friendly nations in a distant part of the world.
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
Brigadier General W. S. Harney,
Commanding the troops in the Department of Oregon. AFFAIRS  n*  OREGON.
41
12 5.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., August 24, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 13th instant, which came to me by mail this morning.
The copy of Mr. Marcy's despatch of the 17th July, 1855, to her
Majesty's minister at Washington, stated to be in your communication
enclosed, was not received. This I presume was an accidental omission
in the transmission of your letter.
It was with pleasure I received from your excellency a prompt dis-
avowel of any intention on the part of the British authorities of" Vancouver's island to commit any aggression upon the rights of American
citizens residing on San Juan island, and I desire to communicate to
you that I shall forward this despatch by the first opportunity to the
President of the United States, to enable him to consider it in connection with all the facts duly reported to him, attending the occupation
of San Juan island by a portion of the troops under my command.
Your excellency has been pleased to express how anxious you have
ever been to co-operate with the officers of the United States government
in any measures which might be mutually beneficial to the citizens of
the two countries, and your regret is signified, that communication
with you on the subject of the occupation of San Juan island had not
been sought during my late agreeable visit to your excellency at
Yictoria.
I beg to offer in reply that I have cordially reciprocated the sentiments of friendship and good will you have manifested towards American interests from the period of my service with this command. In
that time I have on two different occasions notified the government of
the United States of your acts affecting our citizens in terms of commendation and praise as assurances of a proper appreciation of the
confidence reposed by my government in thfefe^f her Majesty. On my
late visit to Yictoria I was without knowledge that any occurrence had
taken place on San Juan island to outrage the feelings of its inhabitants, else I should then have informed your excellency what I conceived it became incumbent for me to do under such circumstances.
The explanation your excellency has advanced, while it serves to
remove the impression at first created of a direct action on the part of
the British authorities of Vancouver's island in the recent occurrences
on San Juan island against the rights of our citizens, does not expose
any evidence of a preventive nature to a repetition of the acts which
have caused so serious a misunderstanding in the minds of the American
people on San Juan island ; nor has the course which events have
taken since the occupation of the island by the troops of my command
been of such character as to reassure these people, could the contents
of your despatch be announced to them.
From what has taken place, I do not feel myself qualified to withdraw the present command from San Juan island, until the pleasure
of the President of the United States has been made known on the
subject; I can, however, frankly assure your excellency that the same
motives which have induced me to listen to the appeals of my own 42
AFFAIRS  xN  OREGON.
countrymen will be exerted in causing the rights of her Majesty
subjects on San Juan to be held inviolate.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General United States Army Commanding.
His excellency James Douglas,
C. B., Governor of Vancouver's Island
and its dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the same, (fee.
Government House,
Victoria, August 3, 1859.
To the Legislative Council and House of Assembly
of the Colony of Vancouver's Island:
Gentlemen : I have to communicate for your information the intelligence of the landing of a detachment of United States troops on the
island of San Juan, avowedly (see enclosed Nos. 1 and 2) for the purpose of forming a military post, and of asserting the sovereignty of the
United States to that island. Having received no information from
any quarter that the United States ever contemplated taking military
possession of any part of the disputed territory, while the boundary
line remained unsettled, I am forced to believe that the late unwarrantable and discourteous act, so contrary to the usages of civilized
nations, has originated in error, and been undertaken without the ,
authority of that government. That impression is corroborated by a
letter (a copy of which is here enclosed) from the Hon. W. L. Marcy,
Secretary of the United States, dated Washington, July 12, 1855, to
her Majesty's minister at Washington, which contains instructions
from the President of the United States to the governor of Washington I
Territory, and displays, in the clearest manner, the conciliatory and
moderate views entertained by his government on the subject of the
disputed territory.
Though the right of Great Britain to all the islands situated to the
westward of " Vancouver" or " Rosario" straits is, to our minds,
•clearly established by the first article of the treaty of 1846, and though
those islands have, since the foundation of this colony, been considered
as a dependency of Vancouver's island, it is well known to you, gentlemen, that out of respect to the construction that has been put upon
that treaty by the government of the United States we have abstained
from exercising exclusive sovereignty over them. Convinced that any
assumption, on either side, of exclusive right to the disputed territory.
would simply be a fruitless and mischievous waste of energy, neither
detracting from nor adding force to the claims of either nation, wise
and considerate policy enjoins upon us the part of leaving so important
a national question for settlement by the proper authorities, and of
avoiding complications foreign to the views and wishes of and probably embarrassing to both governments. Immediately on being
informed of the landing of the United States troops at San Juan, her AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
43
Majesty's ship " TribiMM^''1 under the command of Captain Hornby
was despatched to that quarter, and soon after a detachment of royal
engineers and royal marine light infantry were ordered from New
Westminster by her Majesty's ship | Plumper," Captain Richards,
and those troops will be landed at San Juan to protect the lives and
property of British subjects. You will observe, gentlemen, from enclosure No. 1, that the captain in command of the United States detachment of troops, in a public notice, dated July 27, assumes the
exercise of exclusive sovereign rights in the island of San Juan, while
the President of the United States altogether disclaims such pretensions, and seeks at most to continue the joint right of sovereignty and
domain in common with Great Britain. We may presume from that
circumstance that the notice in question was framed in ignorance of
the intentions of the United States government, and that the pretensions set forth will not be maintained. Entertaining such opinions,
I have not failed to impress on her Majesty's naval officers now stationed at San Juan the desire of her Majesty's government to avoid
every course which may unnecessarily involve the suspension of the
amicable relations subsisting between Great Britain and the United
States. At the same time, those officers'have been instructed and are
prepared to assert the rights and to maintain the honor and dignity
of our sovereign and her dominions.
I have the honor to be, gentlemen, your most obedient servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
12 d.
[From the "British Colonist," Victoria, August 17,1859.]
reply to governor s message about san juan.
Victoria, Victoria's Island,
House of Assembly, Friday, August 12, 1859.
Mr. Speaker, learning that neither Mr. Skinner nor Mr. Pemberton
intended to insist on their motion as regards San Juan, had prepared
a reply to the message. He considered that a great mistake had been
made by the government in sending out men to settle the boundary.
Common sense and dollars should have been sent. The dollar the
Americans worship. If dollars had been used, a different interpretation of the treaty might have been made. Why not have made the
proceeding a mere mercantile affair and paid the commissioner ? Then
the island would have been ours, and the Americans would have clearly
seen the justice of our claim. But a general on his own authority
had invaded our territory. His grounds for doing so were based on
falsehood and carried out clandestinely. What more could be expected
of a man who has spent a lifetime in warring with Indians ? But
what is to be done ? His excellency sends troops and ships. Why
all this expense and show, if for parade ? Why were not the troops
landed ?    Instead of fighting, her Majesty's captains take to diplomacy 44
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
It shames me to think that the Satellite was running around after
Commissioner Campbell. I am ashamed to think that post captains
were holding a pow-wow with a subaltern of the American army*
They should have landed their troops and avoided all degrading negotiations. But more troops have landed, in spite of post captains and
admirals. (Here he read some extracts from the Blue Book of British
Columbia enjoining the necessity of accustoming the colonists to defend
themselves.) Yes, a militia must be raised. We must defend ourselves, for the position we occupy to-day would make the iron monument of Wellington weep, and the stony statue of Nelson bend his
brow.
' The reply to the message was then read. Mr. Yates agreed with a
part of the address, but could not understand why the honorable
speaker had said in it that the time to land troops has gone by. My
motion is to learn why they were not landed. The time to land them
was when there was no danger of blood being shed. Now, perhaps, i
the case is different.
Mr. Pemberton. I am not sure that the time to land troops has gone
by.    If it has not, I recommend his excellency to land them.    That;;
portion of the address in relation to militia I would leave out.    If we I
asked the home government for arms for the militia they would be
likely to send us some old muskets from the Tower one hundred and
fifty years old.    No allusion has been made to British subjects occu- I
pying the island.    I think it necessary.
Mr. Speaker. I think there was a council on board the flag-ship. |
His excellency was present.    Negotiations was the object, perhaps, as |
American officers had arrived on the Shubrick.    I would not hold any |
negotiations with so dishonorable a man as Campbell.    I have not
said anything in the address about San Juan as the key to British
Columbia.    1 leave that to his excellency.
Mr. Yates preferred negotiation to war. I believe the powers that j
be have been too slow, and put the governor in a false position. My I
motion is to learn who is to blame.
Mr. Pemberton believed a few soldiers, if supported by a man-of-war, i
could land without danger of collision.
Mr. McKay was favorable to landing troops at all hazards.
Mr. Speaker had no doubt the naval officers had said: Now, Mr* I
Pickett, will you allow us to land ?
Mr. Pemberton thought the colony would be benefited by the difficulty. A large naval station would be built here, and everything
would be removed from Valparaiso.
Mr. Speaker thought the honorable member very patriotic in taking I
such an interested view of the question. He cared nothing for the •
paltry local advantages. It is a national question, and in that light'
alone he looked at it.
Mr. Pemberton proposed the occupation of Lopez island by British
troops.
After some amendments to the address, the following to the governor's message was then adopted: AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
45
The house acknowledges the receipt of your excellency communication of the 3d instant, relating to the clandestine invasion of San
Juan island by United States troops and the steps to be adopted in
relation thereto.
Since that communication it is well known that additional forces
have been landed.
The house would therefore inquire why the British forces were not
landed, to assert our just right to the island in question, and to uphold the honor of our country and our Queen.
The house would most urgently impress upon your excellency to
enforce upon her Majesty's government the necessity of demanding
from the government of the United States not only immediate withdrawal of those troops, but also strenuously and at all risks to maintain her right to the island in question, and also to all other islands
in the same archipelago now so clandestinely, dishonorably, and dishonestly invaded.
It is not for our country to be wantonly and insolently insulted, but
redress must be demanded.
The weakness of the colony is its greatest danger, and, at the same
time, an inducement for the repetition of similar offences by similar
persons. Let it, therefore, be urged upon her Majesty's government
that sending out colonists rapidly from Great Britain is the surest
way, not only of maintaining peace, but of preserving intact her
Majesty's possessions. Coupled with this, the house would propose
that free and liberal grants of land be given to such emigrants after
settling thereon for a certain time.
[From the "British Colonist," Victoria, August 17, 1859 ]
WHY WERE NOT TROOPS LANDED  AT SAN JUAN?
On our first page will be found the assembly debate on the governor's message in relation to landing soldiers on San Juan. From the
severe strictures passed on our naval officers by the speaker, who is
taken as the exponent of the government, it is evident that a serious
■difference of opinion as to our policy exists between the naval and
civil authorities. It is difficult to imagine how so high an official
could use such language except from information derived from official
sources ; and it is still more difficult to believe, as suggested by the
chairman during debate, that the naval authorities had refused to
land when they had no discretionary instruction, ' If they had full
instructions to land, the unenviable position of the government, since
the publication of the message, is justly chargeable to them. If, on
the other hand, they were governed by discretionary instructions, the
charges against the commander's of her Majesty's ships for equivocal 46
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
conduct is justly reprehensible. No future explanation, however, can
explain away the palpable inference which will be drawn from the
language used in debate. i m #
An error has been committed by somebody. Either the administration should have been satisfied with a pacific policy, manifested by
serving the United States authorities with a formal protest or an assertion of our sovereignty in the first place, and then have allowed the matter to rest until despatches were received from the imperial goverment,
or it should at once have landed troops on the island, without making
such a display of force or asking permission. We confess that we are
not disposed to accept peace at any price ;"for if that were the case,
cowardice would be the safest policy. We do, however, concur with
the opinion expressed in the message that our forces shquld have been
landed. The Americans took the ground that their citizens required'
protection, and that they landed troops with that object. Now, in-
order to protect British subjects on the island, we also should have-
done the same. Then our position would have been exactly similar tc-
theirs. On this high ground, had bloodshed followed, we could have-
appealed to the world, with right on our side, certain of a verdict in
our favor. As it is, the Americans have been allowed to strengthen-
their forces with men, munitions of war, and settlers, and actually
occupy private property long in the possession of British subjects,,
whilst we, apparently divided in our councils, have made a grand and-
useless parade, and done nothing but render ourselves ridiculous.
Whoever are the parties, or whatever are the causes why a vigorous^
and firm policy has not been pursued, it is certain an explanation is;
due to account for the charges made against the naval forces in our
waters.
In the meantime some action ought to be taken by the people to;
show the deep interest we have in San Juan, and that'we are determined to protect our fellow-subjects-oWfee- island. In addition, it is-
necessary to arouse our sister colonies to the importance of the island
to British America, and show to the imperial government the necessity of holding the island to guard the overland transit from Great
Britain to her Asiatic dependencies.
It matters not what may or may not have been said by British or
American statesmen in relation to the reputed claims to Canal de Haro
or Kosario straits. We are forced to abide by the treaty. If the-
United States knew all about Canal de Haro at the time of the treaty,
and that the line was deflected from the 49th parallel, so as not to*
divide the sovereignty of this island, then why was it not named as*
the boundary? On the other hand, had Kosario strait been thoroughly
known and fixed on as the channel by the negotiants, it would have-'
been in the treaty. Finding neither one nor the other there; finding-
no ship channel or main channel named in the treaty, but fining four-
channels leading north from the Straits of Fuca, and that the only
channel named in the treaty is that which separates the continent-
from this island, we see no way for a pacific adjustment, except making;'
Washington channel, between San Juan and Lopez, the boundary.'
That we justly claim. AFFAIRS  IN   OREGON.
47
13. General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T,, August M! 1859.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose a copy of Mr. Marcy's despatch,*
referred to in Governor Douglas' communication to me of the 13th
instant, which was received on the night of the 27th instant, with a
note from William A. G. Young, esq., acting colonial secretary, a
copy of the same being also enclosed.
My communication of the 24th instant had been sent to Governor
Douglas before Mr. Young's note and its enclosure were received.
The instructions of this document from Mr. Marcy have no bearing
upon the question at issue between the British, authorities of Vancouver's island and myself at this time ; and my answer to Governor
Douglas of the 24th instant would appear as it is, had this copy of
Mr. Marcy's despatch accompanied the Governor's letter of the 13th
instant.
The spirit of Mr. Marcy's instructions, when carried out in good
faith by the functionaries and citizens of both countries, I not only
most heartily approve, but I am satisfied my conduct will stand the
most critical and searching investigation in the support of that
approval.
From the time of my assuming the command of this department
until the occupation of San Juan island I was most careful neither to
increase nor change the position of the force on Puget's Sound, that
there might be no misconceptions of my acts on the part of the British
of the good faith which animated me in the observance of treaty stipulations. Time and again our light-houses were attacked, and the wives
and children of our citizens on that coast were brutally murdered by
British Indians. Beports reached me that these Indians had been
instigated to these acts by the Hudson's Bay Companj^|^ order to
drive them from the lands which this immense establishment covet for
their own purposes. I was well aware of the extent and power of this
great commercial monopoly, second only to the East India Company,
which has crushed out the liberties and existence of so many nations
in Asia, and committed barbarities and atrocities for which the annals
of crime have no parallel. I knew the exacting policy of the Hudson's Bay Company would not hesitate to adopt any measure deemed
necessary to insure their success, for their history has shown this, and
the history of our wars with England establish the fact that an Indian
alliance is their first requirement. With all these truths before me,
I was still reluctant to believe that the Hudson's Bay Company would
attempt the violation of the solemn obligations of a treaty, or that
the British authorities would permit any action to be taken by the
Hudson's Bay Company, in case an attempt was desired by them.
Judge, then, of my astonishment and mortification in my late visit to
San Juan to find an unwoithy advantage had been taken of my forbearance to outrage our people in the most insulting manner.
"See Nob. 1 and 2 of these papers 48
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
For this thing was not done in a corner, but in open day. A British
ship-of-war lands Mr. Dallas, the chief factor of the Hudson's Bay
Company, who abuses one of our citizens in the harshest manner, and
threatens to take him by force to Yictoria for trial and imprisonment.
Finding the citizen resolute in the defence of his rights, the Americans were informed the British Indians would be sent down upon them
to drive them from the island. I shall substantiate these facts by
the affidavits of American citizens of such position and character as
cannot leave a doubt of their truth, and showing the attempted denial
of Governor Douglas in his communication of the 13 th instant is only
a quibble. These affidavits would have been sent before this, but the
disturbances at San Juan and the difficulty of communication in this
country have delayed their completion.
It is proper also that I should inform you that Captain Alden, of
our navy, commanding surveying steamer Active, has reported to me
I a conversation which he held with Governor Douglas since the occupation of San Juan, in which conversation Governor Douglas stated
• that, in the event of a collision between the forces of the two coun-
/ tries, he would not be able to prevent the northern Indians from driving our people from the island. This intimation from Governor
Douglas is significant, as indicating the conception of such an action
originated before the occupation of the island, and was the foundation
of the reports of our people throughout the winter, that I did not
consider at the time of sufficient importance as to notice in my official
reports. From all the events that have occurred before and since the
occupation of San Juan island, I am convinced the British government have instituted a series of acts aiming at the eventual sovereignty
of San Juan island, in consequence of its paramount importance as a
military and naval station. Its position, in connexion with the islands
adjacent to it, has induced the English to call it the Cronstadt of the
Pacific, and with good reason, for the power that possesses it will
command a supremacy on this coast.
In the occupation of San Juan I have assumed a defensive position
against the encroachments of the British, either by authority or
through the medium of their Indians, upon the rights, lives, and
property of our citizens. I was influenced by no other motive in
placing troops upon the island.
In the matter of ownership, I have carefully investigated the treaty
of 1846, defining the boundary between Great Britain and the United
States, and I have also personally examined the premises in question
under the fairest auspices, and I fearlessly assert a stronger title cannot exist than that which the treaty of 1846 establishes for the United
States in San Juan, nor do I believe the British would have ever attempted the hazardous game they are now playing but for the immense
prize at stake.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HAKNEY,
„ ,     , „   _ Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General, Washington City, D. C. AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
49
14. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department op Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T.s August mjk 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the general -
in-chief, copies of two reports from Lieutenant Colonel Casey, 9th
infantry, commanding on San Juan island.
These reports convey all the intelligence received from San Juan
since my report to you of the 18th instant.
The number of troops forming Colonel Casey's command at this
time is as follows :
Companies A and 0, 4th infantry, and | H" of the 9th  139
Companies A7B, U~, and M, of 3d artillery  181
Company D, 9fh infantry  66
Company "I," 4th infantry. ..r.  64
Detachment of company m A," engineers  11
 1     461
Besides this force, Colonel Casey has with him eight 32-pounders,
which I ordered to be taken from the steamer Massachusetts.
The ammunition for these guns consists of round shot—grape and
canister. Captain Pickett's company took with them to the island
one 6-pounder and two mountain howitzers, and Colonel Casey's company from Steilacoom increased that number by three mountain
howitzers.
This command is busily engaged placing its position under intrench-
ment, and has been amply supplied with everything necessary and
requisite to maintain itself for nearly three months. From the conformation of the island, and the position occupied by the troops, the
English ships could not remain in the harbor under a fire from the
32-pounders, but would be compelled to take distance in the sound,
from whence they could only annoy us by shells, which would be
trifling. The English have no force that they could land which would
be able to dislodge Colonel Casey's command as now posted.
There is a rumor current that Bear-Admiral Baynes has countermanded Governor Douglas's orders to attempt a landing on San Juan
by force ; nothing official on the subject has reached me.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
H. Ex. Doc. 65 4 50
AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
14 a.
Headquarters Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island, W. T, August 22, 1859.     •
Captain : I have the honor to report that I received by the ' 'Active,
Captain Alden, the general's instructions of the 15th of August.
After a personal examination of the ground within afew miles of
the harbor, I have taken up a position for a camp, which I think,
above all others, will fulfil many of the conditions which I wished to
obtain.    The subject presented many difficulties.
Were it merely to select a position for an intrenched camp where I
would be able with my present force but to sustain myself against a.
land attack of an enemy, and where, at the same time, I would be '
secure from the shells of the ships-of-war, the question is solved.
About three and a half miles from the harbor I have discovered a
very good position for an intrenched camp, secure from the shells of
ships-of-war. But in order to keep the position to which I have just
referred, the following alternatives would present themselves : I would
either be obliged to give up my present guard at the landing, my/
position for the 32-pounders which bear upon and my oversight of the
harbor, or render the troops whom I might maintain at these positions
almost certain to be cut off, in case of a serious land attack, before
they could reach the intrenched camp nearly four miles off.
In view of all these circumstances, I have taken up a position near
the Hudson's Bay establishment, and shall put my heavy guns in
position to bear upon the harbor, and also on vessels which might take
a position on the other side. Shells from the shipping may be able to
reach us, and we may not be able to protect the camp from them ; but
I shall try.
The British authorities appear to be very sensitive with regard to
anything like fortifying on the island. Owing to the peculiar circumstances of the case, we have none of the advantages which a cas>of
actual war would confer, as regards keeping any action secret from the
enemy. 3
Our every_ manoeuvre is closely observed, and I have considered it
best to act with circumspection lest a conflict should be forced upon, us
prematurely.
The general may rest satisfied that I shall give the whole master''
my best abilities, and I trust everything will come out right.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY,
Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry, Commanding Camp.
Captain Alfred Pleasonton, U. S. A.,
Acting Asst. Adjt. Gen., Dept. of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T. AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
14 6.
Headquarters Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island, W. T., August 22, 1859.
•   Captain : I have the honor to report that I received by the " Northerner" the general's instructions of the 17th and 19th instant.
The " Massachusetts " arrived on the night of the 21st, and she is
now unloading the government property from Fort Townsend. I will
cause the freight of the "Northerner " to be placed on her, as directed.
I had ordered Major Haller on shore with his company before receiving the general's instructions so to do. It was not my intention
to place another company on at present. When I do, I shall be happy
' to offer the position to Captain Pickett, as I am as fully impressed as
the general with the gallant behavior displayed by him during the
late difficulties on the island.
I have placed Lieutenant Kellogg, with his company, oh duty in
charge of all the artillery.    That leaves, including Major Haller's,
eight companies, which I have formed into an infantry battalion, and
shall endeavor to have them efficiently exercised in drill.
Very respectfullv, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY,
Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry, Commanding Camp.
Captain Alfred Pleasonton,
Acting Asst. Adjutant General United States Army,
Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
15. General Harney to Colonel Casey.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, September 2, 1859.
Colonel : The general commanding instructs me to enclose, for your
information, a copy of a communication he addressed to Governor
Douglas, under date of the 24th of August, in answer to the governor's
letter to himself of the 13th of that month, which you have doubtless
iseen, it having appeared in the Victoria papers.
I From the tenor of this answer you will perceive it is not the intension of the general commanding to remove any portion of the present
force on San Juan island from that position until the orders of the
President are communicated on the subject.
You are therefore instructed to make such preparations for the comfort, efficiency, and health of your command as will anticipate a period
of at least six months.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASANTON,
Captain 2d Dragoons, A. A. Adjutant General.
■<-• Ooxonel S. Casey,
iSmth Infantry, Commanding Camp Pickett,
San Juan Island, Puget's Sound. 52
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
16.  General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., September 14, 1859.
Str : I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the general-
in-chief, copies of two affidavits verifying the accusation of attempted
outrage upon one of our citizens on San Juan island, which was
charged to the British authorities and the Hudson's Bay Company of
Vancouver's island in my communication to Governor Douglas of the
6th of August.
The affidavit of Lyman A. Cutler, the person upon whom the outrage was attempted of being taken by force to Victoria for trial by
British laws, fully and completely refutes the denial of Governer
Douglas, transmitted in his communication of the 13th August, a
copy of which has been sent to you.
The want of propriety and good faith on the part of the British
officials is so apparent, in the course pursued by them towards ourselves in the matter of San Juan island, as to have forced Governor
Douglas into a flimsy evasion of the facts which so strongly condemn
them, and it is not surprising that Governor Douglas should attempt
to throw discredit upon my action in the occupation of San Juan after I
being compromised by conduct he dares not acknowledge.
Governor Douglas speaks of the Hudson's Bay Company establishment as one of no significance or responsibility, and that its acts are I
no more to be considered than those of any other of the inhabitants I
of Vancouver's island.    In the face of such a statement I consider it I
my duty to inform the general-in-chief that this insignificant company |
has a positive military organization, with a discipline exceeding in 1
rigor that of our own service.   The forts of this company on this coast 1
are armed with guns of much heavier calibre than any we possess, and 1
in its service are steamers that can readily be applied to war purposes. I
The authorities of this company have boldly claimed the exclusive 1
ownership of San Juan island, warning the United States officer, Captain Pickett, from the island, and threatening him, at the same time,
with the civil authorities if he did not obey.    This was reported in I
my communication of the 7th of August to the Adjutant General, and J
accompanying reports of Captain Pickett, copies of which have beer&i
furnished your office.    This is the establishment whose acts Governor
Douglas calls upon us to ignore, but which he carefully supports in I
its aggressions by both the civil and naval forces under his orders.
I trust the British government will see how useless it will be for
them to attempt to maintain a course of conduct that exposes them to
the reflection of having used unworthy means to obtain that to which
they have no claim, and showing the Hudson's Bay Company to be a
willing cat for extracting the chestnuts from the fire.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
16 a.
Washington Territory, Whatcom County:
t On this 7th day of September, A. D. 1859, appeared before the undersigned, a notary public in and for said county, Paul K. Hubbs, jr.,
who, being duly sworn, on his oath deposes and says: That he had
an interview with General Harney while on his visit to this island,
and stated to the general that there had been some trouble between
one of the American settlers and some of the officers of the Hudson's
Bay Company. Upon being asked by the general the cause of the
trouble, he said that a short time since Mr. Cutler, one of our citizens,
had shot a hog belonging to the said company, and immediately went
to Mr. Griffin, the superintendent, and offered to pay for the hog.
Mr. Griffin became enraged, and declared that the Americans were a
pack of intruders, and said that he was a fool for ever allowing a
United States inspector of customs to come on the island. In the
afternoon of the same day the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer
Beaver arrived from Victoria, with Mr. Dallas, a director of the Hudson's Bay Company, Dr. Solmie, a chief factor, and some other parties,
who, after holding an interview with Mr. Griffin, called on Mr. Cutler,
and used some very threatening language, and, among other words,
they said that they had a posse on board, and would take him prisoner and carry him to Victoria for trial.
PAUL K. HUBBS, Jr.
Subscribed and sworn before me this 7th day of September, 1859.
r    I j HENRY R. CROSBIE,
LL- S'J Notary Public.
16 6.
Territory of Washington, County of Whatcom :
Lyman A. Cutler, being duly sworn, deposes and says: That he has
been a resident of San Juan island since last April, at which time he
located one hundred and sixty acres of land, agreeably to the preemption law, and upon which land he has ever since resided.
That on or about the 15th of last June he shot a hog belonging to
the Hudson's Bay Company ; that immediately after so doing he proceeded to the house of the agent of the Hudson's Bay Company on the
island, Mr. Griffin, and informed him of the fact, stating that it was
done in a moment of irritation, the animal having been at several
times a great annoyance, and that morning destroyed a portion of his
garden ; he desired to replace it by another, or they could select three
men, and whatever valuation they might place on the animal he would
at once pay. Mr. Griffin, very much enraged, said the only way it
could be settled would be by him (Cutler) paying one hundred dollars.
He replied he was astonished both at Mr. Griffin's conduct and his 54
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
proposal, and left him. The same afternoon Mr. Griffin, in company
with three other persons, came to his house. He afterwards learned
they were Mr. Dallas, one of the directors of the Hudson's Bay Company, Dr. Solmie, a chief factor, and a Mr. Fraser. Mr. Dallas asked
him if he was the man that killed the hog ; he answered, yes. Mr.
Dallas then, in a very supercilious manner, asked him how he dared
do it. lie replied that was not the proper way of talking to him ; that
he dared do whatever he thought was justifiable, and he had no cause
to blame himself in the matter ; as soon as he had killed the animal
he went to Mr. Griffin and offered to make him a proper reparation—
that he was ready to do it then ; had he chosen to have acted
otherwise, he could have said nothing about it, and Mr. Griffin would
have never known his loss ; the animal was so worthless he would
never have troubled himself about it. Mr. Dallas, in reply, stated
this was British soil, and if he, Cutler, did not make the reparation
demanded—one hundred dollars—he would take him to Victoria ;
their steamer (the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer Beaver) was in
port, and they had a posse at their command. He answered, Mr.
Dallas must be either crazy or deem him so, to pay one hundred
dollars for an animal that was not worth ten ; and as for taking him
to Victoria for trial, that could not be done ; when they brought their
posse he would have his friends to resist them ; this was American
soil and not English ; and whilst he was willing to answer before any
American tribunal for what he had done, no English posse or authority
should take him before an English tribunal. Mr. Fraser commenced
speaking about its being British soil, &c. ; he (Cutler) declined, how-i
ever, having any conversation with him on the matter ; he had said alls
he had to say about it. Dr. Solmie said nothing. Mr. Griffin simply
asked him if he ever knew him (Griffin) to disturb any of the settlers
or insult them ? he answered, never before that morning.
As they rode off one of the party remarked, "You will have to I
answer for this hereafter," or words to that purport.
Their manner and language were both insulting and threatening.
Afterwards, on the 2£tlTof June, the morning Captain Pickett landed,
the British steam frigateSatSrfite arrived and landed Mr. DeCourcy, who I
was installed as British magistrate for the island of San Juan, as Captain
Provost publicly stated; at the time he left Yictoria nothing was known
of the landing of the American troops ; it seemed evident that the
magistrate came over for the purpose of apprehending him, (Cutler ;)
that he understood process was issued by the said DeCourcy to compel
his attendance to answer to his charge ; that Captain Gordon, the
English constable, with a posse, came to his house during his absence,
on or about the 29th or 30th of July ; word was sent to him by Mr.
Crosbie, the American magistrate, to come in and place himself under
the protection of Captain Pickett; that he came, staid one day, and
returned the next, Captain Pickett having informed him if they
attempted in any way to interfere with him to send him word, and he
should be protected at all hazards. He is convinced that if troops had
not been on the island he would have been taken by force and carried
before an English magistrate ; his reason for this belief is based en the
fact that the English force on board the steam frigates Satellite and AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 55
Tribune had orders to obey any requisition that Mr. DeCourcy should
make on them.
LYMAN A. CUTLER.
Subscribed and sworn before me this 7th of September, 1859.
[l. s.] HENRY R. CROSBIE,
Notary Public.
Port Townsend,
Washington Territory, September 3, 1859.
Esteemed Sir : I find that we have some disappointed or annoyed
gentlemen (by the recent movement of General Harney) that are puffing the letter of Governor Douglas in reply to that of General
Harney.
The general, it seems, did not say in his letter anything relative to
the inroads and murders committed by the northern Indians, but confined himself to the immediate subject of grief, that of threatened
taking of an American citizen to Yictoria for trial.
How beautifully the governor in his reply i finesses" out of. In
substance, he says that i the government did not threaten," &c, all of
which is true theoretically ; but practically, the Hudson's Bay Company, with half a dozen armed steamers, the government governor
being the head of the company, and his son-in-law, Mr. Dallas, the
chief director and the power that practically moves the Hudson's Bay
Company and the governor, did land and go to 1 the man that shot
the boar," and threaten to take him on board their steamer (not the
government steamer, but that of the Hudson's Bay Company) to Victoria ; and finding they (five of them) could not do it, left with a
threat to send the " Plumper," a British government frigate, for him,
and, as I am reliably informed, did afterwards put the magistrate on
the island, who sent three times after him, every time being watched
by our peace officers and posse with reliance on our government
officers and men.
Very truly yours, &c,
PAUL K. HUBBS.
I am not personally acquainted with General Harney, but his
timely aid and position taken meets the unbounded admiration of the
citizens of this Territory.
P. K. H.
His excellency the President, James Buchanan.
17.   Governor Gholson to General Harney.
Executive Office,
Olympia, W. T, August 21,1859.
Sir : In view of the excited state of a portion of the people (Gov.
D. included) on Vancouver's island, &c, I have thought  that a 56
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
judicious regard for the welfare of this Territory and the success of
our arms, (should a collision occur,) perhaps, made it my duty to
inform you that we have about (1,000) one thousandof small arms,
(850) eight hundred and fifty muskets, (ordinary,) and (150) one
hundred and fifty muskets, (rifled,) and (4) four twelve-pound mountain howitzers, and that for none of these have we a shot, shell, or
cartridge. ,
Permit me to say, general, that as we shall be wholly dependent
upon your orders for a supply, (if I correctly understand the regulations of the War Department,) I shall be pleased (either now or at
such time as your discretion may direct) to receive whatever supplies
you may think proper to order to this place.
I have the honor to be, general, your most obedient servant,
R. D. GHOLSON,
Governor of Washington Territory.
Brig. Gen. W. S. Harney,
Headquarters Department of Oregon.
[Endorsement.]
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., September 19, 1859.
Respectfully forwarded for the information of the general-in-chief,
who is notified that eighty-five thousand rounds of ordinary muskets
ammunition, fifteen thousand of rifled musket, and two thousand
rounds of mountain howitzer ammunition has been placed at Forti
Steilacoom, subject to the requisition of Governor Gholson, in case of
an emergency.
, W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
18. General Harney to Mr. Floyd.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, October 10, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 3d of September last, transmitting the views of the
President of the United States in reference to the military occupation
of San Juan or Bellevue island, as reported in my despatch of the 19th "
of July last, addressed to the general-in-chief.
Since the date of that despatch other events have transpired, which
are conclusive in showing the intentions of the colonial authorities of
Great Britain were directed towards assuming a positive jurisdiction
over the island of San Juan. These occurrences have all been reported
in a regular course of correspondence to the general-in-chief, duplicates
having been transmitted to the Adjutant General. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
57
The President expresses an anxiety to ascertain whether, before
proceeding to act, I communicated with Commissioner Campbell, who
was intrusted by the government of the United States, in conjunction
with the British commissioner, to decide the boundary question. In
reply, I desire to inform his excellency the President that no official
communication had passed between Commissioner Campbell and myself, in reference to the boundary, previous to the occupation of San
Juan island by Captain Pickett's company, for the reason that no
exigency had arisen requiring it. In the personal interviews I have
had with Commissioner Campbell since my arrival on this coast, he
has always assured me that there could be but one solution of the
boundary question under the treaty of June 15, 1846, and that was to
be obtained by taking the mid-channel of the 1 Canal de Haro," or
Straits of Haro, as the boundary line between the United States and
Great Britain. He has several times stated that a strict construction
of the treaty will not only give us the Haro group of islands, of which
San Juan is the most important, but also the Saturne island, which
is yet nearer to Vancouver. This island, he said, he was willing to
give to Great Britain, under a liberal and generous construction of
the treaty.
In each of these interviews Commissioner Campbell has deplored
the course pursued by the British government in the opposition they
made to the settlements of this question, and the delays continually
seized upon by the British commissioner to prevent coming to an early
decision. Commissioner Campbell appeared to be earnestly impressed
with the conviction that the British government intended to keep this
an open question until some future time, when they could advance
their claims to better advantage, as they had no foundation in justice
or right. I saw Commissioner Campbell for the last time at Semiah-
moo, on the 7th day of July last; at that date neither he nor myself
had any knowledge to induce us to believe the colonial authorities of
Great Britain had attempted to assume jurisdiction over San Juan.
When Captain Pickett's company arrived at San Juan,itappears Commissioner Campbell was making an exploration of the islands in the
Haro group, and visited San Juan the day Captain Pickett landed; he
rendered the captain every assistance, and approved the course that had
been pursued. Captain Pickett landed on the 27th of July, and Commissioner Campbell remained in that vicinity until the 16th of August,
when I received a private communication from him, a copy of_ which
is enclosed. I immediately answered it officially, giving him my
reasons in full for occupying San Juan ; this would have been done at
the time Captain Pickett's order was issued, but I did not know his
whereabouts until I received his communication. A copy of this
answer to the commissioner is also enclosed, and a copy of his reply
dated the 30th of August.
I would respectfully call the attention of the President to the unqualified denial of Governor Douglas, in his despatch of the 13th of August,
that any attempt had ever been made to arrest an American citizen
and convey him to Victoria to be tried by British laws. At the very
moment this denial was being penned, three British ships-of-war
were in that harbor, by the orders of Governor Douglas, to support 58
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
a British stipendiary magistrate sent by Douglas to arrest the same
American citizen, (Cutler,) of San Juan, who would have been arrested
but for the positive interference of Captain Pickett; indeed, so pressing and urgent were the British to possess themselves of Cutler
that Captain Pickett did not hesitate to report his capture could only
be averted by occupying the island in force.
Such are the facts of the case, in which the British government furnished five ships-of-war, carrying one hundred and sixty-seven guns,
and from two to three thousand men, to an unscrupulous colonial governor for the purpose of wresting from us an island that they covet.
Such punic faith should never be tolerated, however plausible the pretext upon which it may be founded.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S.HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Hon. Secretary of War,
Washington City, D. C.
18 a.
Steamer Shubrick,
San Juan Harbor, August 14, 1859.
My Dear General : Captain Alden is about to leave the harbor for
Fort Yancouver, with despatches from Colonel Casey, and I take the
opportunity of dropping you a line in relation to the state of affairs
resulting from the landing of troops on the island of San Juan.
When I learned from Captain Pleasonton that Captain Pickett's
company was ordered to San Juan, I thought it was a very proper
movement for the protection of American settlers from northern
Indians, and from the interference of the Hudson's Bay Company's
agents, who had recently been threatening to take one of the settlers
to Victoria for trial; and I did not anticipate from it any serious objection on the part of the British authorities of Vancouver's island—
certainly no forcible opposition—troops at various times heretofore
having been sent there at intervals, in small detachments, for the protection of the settlers against the Indians.
But I happened to be making an exploration of the archipelago at
the time Captain Pickett arrived, and for several days after I
was anchored in this harbor; and I soon saw that it was going to
produce a great excitement unless managed with great discretion.
Before I saw Captain Pickett's instructions I did not suppose it possible that any collision could arise between the United States and Eng-~
lish troops, and I took it for granted that his duties would be confined
to the objects specified hereinbefore. While the boundary line still
remains unsettled, and the commission appointed to determine the
boundary line still existed, I did not suppose any resistance would be
made by Captain Pickett to the landing of the British troops, if they
thought proper, as a matter of protection to English subjects on the
island, to station a force on the island.    It did not seem to me, under AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
59
present circumstances, that we should be justified in going to the
extent of refusing to allow them to land troops for peaceable purposes. I
found that Captain Pickett had different views, derived from your instructions, and he confidentially showed them to me. I perceived that they
were susceptible of the interpretation he gave them, though they were
not (directly mandatory on the subject; and supposing it possible, if
not probable, that you might have received instructions from the War
Department for the occupation of the island, I felt a delicacy in interfering further in the matter lest I might be disturbing plans well considered by you and determined on by the government. At the same
time, as I had no intimation on the subject from the State Department,
I felt considerably troubled lest there might be some misunderstanding.
I was called upon officially by my colleague, Captain Prevost, the
British commissioner for the settlement of the water boundary, to take
steps individually, or in concert with him, to protest against the armed
occupation of the island, it being intimated that British troops would
be landed. As I did not consider it my duty, as a commissioner, to interfere with the operations of the military forces of either government, I
declined to take the steps indicated. Thus far no serious results have
followed from the presence of troops on the island ; but there is a good
deal of excitement among the authorities of Vancouver's island, and,
doubtless, a great deal of mortification, and, if I may be permitted to
advise, I would recommend caution, so as to prevent if possible any
collision, which, I think, under no circumstances ought to be allowed
to occur.
However certain may be your conviction that the boundary line,
according to the treaty, should run down the Canal de Haro—and I
have never hesitated, when asked, to say that such is the ground I
have taken as commissioner, and that in this I believe I will be supported by the government—still the question has not been authoritatively decided ; and unless you have some intimation from the War
Department which has governed your actions, I fear that the decided
action you have taken in declaring the island American territory may
somewhat embarrass the question. I shall be greatly relieved to learn
that you have some authority from the government for the decisive
step you have taken, though I do not pretend to ask or desire the information in my official capacity. I thought it possible, if you had
no directions from home, that you might be in error on some point
regarding the joint commission, and therefore have taken the liberty
of letting you know that it still exists, notwithstanding the slow
progress made in settling the boundary question.
I presume Colonel Casey has fully informed you of everything that
has taken place since his arrival, and therefore I need say nothing
further.
Hoping you will excuse the liberty I have taken in writing you thus
freely, I am, my dear general, very respectfully and truly, your obedient servant,
ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL.
Brigadier General W. S. Harney,
United States Army. 60
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
Note by the Department of War.—See General Harney's letter
to Mr. Campbell, August 16, with No. 11 of these papers.
18 6.
Camp Semiahmoo, August 30, 1859.
My Dear General : I had the pleasure of receiving, on the 22d
instant, your letter of the 16th, placing me in possession of the facts
connected with the occupation of San Juan by some of the troops
under your command. For the trouble you have taken to furnish me
this information, in the midst of more pressing and important occupations, I beg to return you my sincere thanks. Had I known your
views earlier, I should have been free from the embarrassment expressed
in my letter to you of the 14th instant. The rumor in regard to my
departure for Washington city had no foundation whatever.
In a few days I contemplate a trip along or near the 49th parallel
as far as Fort Colville. I shall return to this place, via the Columbia
river, towards the middle of October, by which time you will probably
have received answers to your despatches to Washington, which I trust
may be satisfactory to you. Looking forward with pleasure to meeting you at that time at Fort Vancouver, I am, my dear general, very
respectfully and truly, your obedient servant,
ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL.
Brigadier General W. S. Harney,
United States Army.
19. General Scott to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters of the Army,
Portland, Oregon, October 22, 1859.
Sir : The general-in-chief desires me to report, for the information
of the Secretary of War, that he arrived in good health at Fort Yancouver on the night of the 20th instant, and had an interview with
Brigadier General Harney the following morning.
The answer of that officer, of October 10, to the Secretary of War,
in answer to his communication of September 3, gave an account of
the affairs existiog at the island of San Juan to that period, since
when nothing of interest has occurred.
Captain Pickett, 9th infantry, the judge advocate of a general court-
martial,^ ordered by General Harney to convene at Fort Yancouver,
who arrived here yesterday, just from the island, reports everything
quiet, and that the British vessels of war had all returned to their
usual anchorage near Victoria except one—the Satellite.
The steamer Northerner, on which the general is a passenger, leaves
this place this afternoon for Puget's Sound, and, on her arrival in those
waters, it is his intention to go on board the government steamer AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 61
Massachusetts, at Port Townsend, and from thence open a correspondence with the British authorities. The general does not intend to
pass beyond the limits of the United States.
Commissioner Campbell is on his way from Colville to Fort Vancouver, and may arrive at the latter place in a day or two.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Colonel Samuel Cooper,
Adjutant General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.
20. General Scott to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters of the Army,
Fort Townsend, W. T, October 26, 1859.
Sir : By direction of the general-in-chief I enclose, for the information of the Secretary of War, a copy of his communication of yesterday's date to his excellency James Douglas, governor of Vancouver's
island, and its dependencies, containing a proposition to serve as a
basis for the temporary adjustment of the difficulties existing at the
island of San Juan between our government and that of Great Britain.
Lieutenant Colonel Lay, who was charged with the delivery of the
communication, is momentarily expected, in the revenue cutter on this
station, with the governor's reply, and if received in time for the mail
a copy thereof will also be enclosed.
The general-in-chief further intends to send the substance of the
communication by the overland mail'from San Francisco to the commanding officer of Fort Leavenworth, with instructions to telegraph
the same to the Secretary of War.
The steamer Northerner takes her departure from Fort Townsend
this morning, via Victoria, for San Francisco, where she is expected
to arrive in ample time, with the mails, for the steamer to leave that
port on the 5th proximo. This communication will be sent by the
Northerner.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C. 62
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
21. General Scott to Mr. Floyd.
[Telegram.]
Fuca Strait, October 27, via Leavenworth, November 24.
Hon. J. B. Floyd,
Secretary [of War,] Washington.
Two days ago I despatched from Fort Townsend a communication.
to Governor Douglas, proposing a temporary adjustment on the basis
suggested by the President in his instructions to me.    There has been
no answer yet.    No doubt the proposition will be accepted.    Every-,
thing tranquil in these islands. 	
u WINFIELD SCOTT.
22. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, October 29, 1859.
Sir: I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the general-
in-chief, a copy of a communication from Lieutenant Colonel Casey,
commanding on San Juan island, in which he reports that Rear-Admiral Baynes, commanding her Britannic Majesty's fleet on the Pacific
coast, was actually on board the British steamship-of-war "Tribune,"
in the harbor of San Juan island, at the time Colonel Casey landed
his troops, and when Captain Hornby, of the British navy, the commander of the "Tribune," informed the colonel, in presence of the,;
British and American commissioners, that Admiral Baynes was then
at Esquimault harbor, near Yictoria, Yancouver's island.
I mentioned this fact to the general-in-chief, in conversation at the J
time of his arrival at this post, but I deem it of such importance in |
showing the duplicity and bad faith exercised towards us by both the
colonial and naval authorities of Great Britain in reference to San I
Juan island, that I desire to place it on record.
This statement exposes three high officials of her Britannic Majesty's f
service, viz: the British commissioner, the admiral, and the senior
captain of the navy in these waters, to th%imputation of having deliberately imposed a wilful falsehood upon the authorities of a friendly
nation to advance the sinister designs of the British government in
obtaining territory that rightfully belongs to the United States.
Is it too much to suppose they would be guilty of like conduct should
they be permitted to assume a position in which it would aid their
purposes ?
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
The Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, Port Townsend,
Puget's Sound, W. T. AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
63
Fort Vancouver, W. T., October 28, 1859.
Captain: In my communication of the 12th August, from San Juan
island, narrating the events which had transpired on that island, from
the time of my arrival with a reinforcement of three companies of
infantry from Fort Steilacoom, it will be seen that I had requested an
interview with Rear-Admiral Baynes, commanding her Britannic
Majesty's fleet on the Pacific coast. As I did not in that communication state the principal reason which governed me in not proceeding
to the flag-ship Gauges, for the purpose of having an interview with
the admiral on board that ship, in the harbor of Esquimault, I- have
thought it due to myself that that reason should be made known to
the general commanding the department, and I would respectfully
request that the following be considered a part of my communication
of the 12th August, 1859, viz:
Soon after my conference with Captain Hornby, I was informed by
Mr. Campbell, the United States commissioner, that Rear-Admiral
Baynes was actually on board the British steamship Tribune, in the
harbor of San Juan island, at the very time I was informed by Captain Hornby, in the presence of the British and American commissioners, that the admiral was at Esquimault harbor, twenty-five miles
distant.
I was somewhat astonished at this, and considered that I had not
been dealt by with that openness and candor which the object to be
brought about seemed to demand.
I resolved, notwithstanding this, to comply with my promise to
meet the admiral at Esquimault harbor; but knowing what I did,
thought it not incumbent on me to repair o... board the Ganges, for
the purpose of the contemplated interview.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
SILAS CASEY,
Lieutenant Colonel 9th Infantry, Commanding on San Juan.
Captain A. Pleasonton,
Acting Assistant Adjutant General,
Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
23. General Scott to Mr. Floyd.
Headquarters of the Army,
At Sea, December 8, 1859.
Sir :   After the despatch of October  26,   by Lieutenant Colonel
Thomas to the Adjutant General, I had no opportunity of communicating with the department before the steamer from San Francisco of
the 21st ultimo, and in her I embarked for home.
This letter will be accompanied by copies of my correspondence and 64
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
orders on the subject of the island of San Juan, while I was on the
Pacific coast, viz :
1. My communication to Governor Douglas, October 25.
2. Hasty memorandum by Lieutenant Colonel Lay, October 26.
[Copies were communicated by Lieutenant Colonel Thomas's despatch.] I
3. Governor Douglas to me, October 29.
4. My letter to Governor Douglas, November 2; and
5. Project of a temporary settlement, November 2.
6. Governor Douglas to me, November 3.
7. My letter to Governor Douglas, November 5.
8. My special orders—sending troops from San Juan, November 5.
9. Governor Douglas to me, November 7.
10. The same, enclosing deposition, &c, November 7.
11. My letter to Governor Douglas, November 9.
12. Extract of instructions to General Harney, November 9; and
13. Extract of instructions to Captain  Hunt furnished Governor
Douglas, November 9.
14. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas to Captain Hunt, November 9.
15. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas to Lieutenant Colonel Casey, No- ]
vember 9.
16. Lieutenant Colonel Thomas to General Harney, November 9.
17. My letter to General Harney, November 15.
18. Special order, November 15.
It will be seen that the British governor having assured me that he I
entertained no design of attempting the dislodgement by force of our |
troops from the disputed island, I immediately, in order to take from |
our position every semblance of hostility or menace, took measures to I
reduce that force to a single company of infantry, with its proper arms
only, (for the protection of American settlers,) with the understanding 1
that, in the same spirit, one of the vessels of war (the larger) in the j
harbor of San Juan would also be sent off at an early day.
And here it is proper to remark that, from the beginning of the
recent difficulties, there has virtually been a joint occupation of the
island by our troops in the land, and by one or more British vessels of 1
war in the harbor.
I have the honor to be, sir, with high respect j your obedient servant, 1
WINFIELD SCOTT.
Hon. John B. Floyd,
Secretary of War.
23 a.
Headquarters of the Army,
Fort Townsend, October 25, 1859.
The undersigned, lieutenant general and commanding in chief the!
army of the United States, having been drawn to this frontier by the]
apprehension of some untoward collision of arms between the forces of]
the United States and those of Great Britain in and about the island!
of San Juan, the sovereignty of which is claimed by both nations, does| AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
65
not hesitate, in the great interests of peace assumed to be as important
to one party as to the other, at once to submit for the consideration of
his excellency the following proposition, to serve as a basis for the
temporary adjustment of any present difficulty, until the two governments shall have time to settle the question of title diplomatically.
Without prejudice to the claim of either nation to the sovereignty of
the entire island of San Juan, now in dispute, it is proposed that each
shall occupy a separate portion of the same by a detachment of infantry,
riflemen, or marines, not exceeding one hundred men, with their
appropriate army only, for the equal protection of their respective
countrymen in their persons and property, and to repel any descent
on the part of hostile Indians.
In modification of this basis any suggestion his excellency may
think necessary, or any addition he may propose, will be respectfully
considered by the undersigned.
This communication will be handed to his excellency by Lieutenant
Colonel Lay, an aide-de-camp of the undersigned, who has the honor
to subscribe himself,
With high respect, his excellency's obedient servant,
WINFIELD SCOTT.
His excellency James Douglas, Esq., C. B.,
Governor of the Colony of Vancouver's Island
and its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same.
^m
23 b.
Hasty Memorandum.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island,
Night of October 26, 1859.
His excellency Governor Douglas authorizes me to say that, having
yet had no time to consider in detail the proposition offered by Lieutenant General Scott, nor to consult with his official advisers here, he
is at a glance satisfied that no obstacle exists to a completely amicable
and satisfactory adjustment (continuing throughout the period of diplomatic discussion respecting the title to the island of San Juan,) either
upon the plan suggested by General Scott, or some other that may be
mutually agreed to after advisement.
His excellency has read this memorandum and retains a copy.
% G. W. LAY,
Lieutenant Colonel U. S. Army.
23 c.
Victoria, Vancouver's Islanb,
October 29, 1859.
<f Sir : I have had the honor of receiving by the hands of Lieutenant
Colonel Lay your note of the 25th instant, communicating to me the
H. Ex. Doc. 65 5 66
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
reasons which have drawn you to the frontier of Washington Territory, and for the great interests of peace, making a proposition to serve
as a basis for the temporary adjustment of the present difficulty, arising
out of the occupation of the island of San Juan by troops of the United
States.
2. In the first place, I beg you will permit me to offer you my warm
congratulations upon your arrival in this neighborhood, and the assurance of my earnest desire to co-operate with you in the most cordial
spirit. I thank you for the frank and friendly tone which characterizes
your note, and I trust you will believe me when I say that if I am not
able entirely to accede to your views, it proceeds solely from the necessity which exists under present circumstances that I should take no
step which might in the least embarrass the government of her
Britannic Majesty in any line of action which they might think fit to
adopt. You have been specially accredited by the government of the
United States, and I fully appreciate the fact; but I, on the contrary,
am not in possession of the views of her Majesty's government on this
matter, and, therefore, am not at liberty to anticipate the course they
may think fit to pursue.
3. You propose, without prejudice to the claim of either nation to
the sovereignty of the entire island of San Juan, that each shall occupy
a separate portion of the same by a detachment of infantry, riflemen,
or marines, not exceeding one hundred men, with their appropriate
arms only, for the equal protection of their respective countrymen in
their persons and property, and to repel any descent on the part of
hostile Indians. For the reasons above given you can readily understand, sir, that were I to accede to this proposition I should at once be
committing her Majesty's government, and I believe I should at the
same time, on their behalf, be assuming an attitude which I do not
think they would now be desirous of maintaining. I admit that the
protection of the citizens of both nations who are now resident on the
island is a matter which cannot be overlooked or lightly treated, but
the principal protection that may be required is from dissensions
amongst themselves, and not against hostile Indians, from whom I do
not apprehend there is the slightest danger of molestation.
4. I again assure you that I am most cordially disposed to co-operate
with you in the frankest manner to assist in removing any and every
cause which might unhappily disturb the particularly satisfactory relations at the present moment existing between her Majesty's government and that of the United States ; and I conceive that the end can
be best attained by replacing matters at San Juan as they were before
the landing of the United States troops—the " status" established on
the moderate and conciliatory views laid down in Secretary Marcy's
despatch to Governor Stevens, of the 14th July, 1855.
5. An arrangement on that footing would bring the whole affair to
a conclusion satisfactory to both parties, and so highly honorable to
the government of the United States that I feel sure it would at once
remove any cause of complaint which her Majesty's government might
be reasonably expected to entertain.
6. I would, therefore, submit for your consideration that for the
protection of the small British and American population settled on the AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
67
island there should be a joint civil occupation, composed of the present
resident stipendiary magistrates, with such assistants as may be necessary, and that the military and naval forces^ on both sides, be wholly
withdrawn.
7. Should it, however, hereafter appear that a military force is indispensable for protection, I can see no objection to such a force being
landed upon San Juan, with such understanding as the British and
American.authorities may mutually determine upon.
8. It is no doubt, sir, fresh in your recollection that the sole reason
assigned to me by General Harney for the occupation of San Juan was
to protect the citizens of the United States from | insults and indignities" offered them by the British authorities at Yancouver's island.
In my reply I, in the most earnest and emphatic manner, repudiated
the aspersion and endeavored to prove to General Harney that for the
cause alleged there was no necessity for the presence of United States
troops on the island of San Juan ; and I therefore begged, for the sake
of peace, that he would withdraw the troops. He, however, declined
to do so, upon the plea that he had no assurance that American citizens woay^aontinue to be free from molestation from the British
authorities. I feel confident, sir, that I need not renew to you my
assurance that the British awfefefflBities in Vancouver's island have no
intention, under existing circumstances, to interfere with any of the
citizens of the United States who may be resident upon San Juan; and
I therefore anticipate that a consideration of these facts, together with
those before mentioned, will remove any difficulty you may have apprehended touching the withdrawal of the United States troops from
San Juan, and I earnestly trust will induce you to entertain with favor
the proposition I have made.
9. I hope, sir, I may have the pleasure of meeting you personally,
when minute details could be so much better discussed than by letter ;
and it would indeed be a source of gratification to me to have the
honor of welcoming to the shores of Vancouver's island an officer so
highly distinguished as he whom I now have the honor of addressing,
and who, I beg, will allow me to subscribe myself as his most obedient,
humble servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott,
Commanding in Chief the Army of the United States.
•23 d.
Headquarters of the United States Army,
False Dungenness Harbor, W. T., November 2, 1859.
I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of the 29th
ultimo, (the receipt of which has been much delayed by winds and
fogs,) in reply to mine dated four days earlier.
It is with regret I learn that the basis for the settlement of the immediate San Juan difficulty I had the honor to submit has not received
your acceptance, and that sentiment is deepened at finding myself 68
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
unable to accept your proposed substitute. We ought not, however,
to despair of finding the means of maintaining the peace of the frontier till the good sense and good feelings of our governments^ shall,
have time to supervene and directly to dispose of the whole subject of
the disputed island forever.
Your excellency seems to regard the preliminary evacuation of that
island by the American troops as a sine qua non to any adjustment of
the immediate question before us. I am sure that at the date of the
instructions which brought me hither, and in the anxious interviews
between Mr. Secretary Cass and her Britannic Majesty's minister,
Lord Lyons, residing near the government of the United States, no
such suggestion was made by his lordship, or it would not only have
been communicated to me, but have, in all probability, stopped this
mission of peace.
You "submit for [my] consideration that for the protection of the
small British and American population settled on the island there
should be a joint civil occupation, composed of the present resident
stipendiary's magistrates, with such assistants as may be necessary,
and that the military and naval forces on both sides be wholly withdrawn."
It strikes me, as a decisive objection to this basis, that if a magistrate (judge or justice of the peace) could be legally (except by treaty
between sovereign powers) established on neutral territory, such functionary could not be subjected to the orders of any officer of the United
States army, nor even to the direct control of the President of the
United States, though appointed by an American territorial governor
claiming jurisdiction over the disputed territory, and therefore not to
be considered a fit person to be intrusted with matters affecting the
peace of two great nations. Besides, I have adopted the impression of
my countrymen generally on this frontier that the few citizens settled
on the San Juan island, though, like all other American pioneers,
brave and possessed of effective weapons for defence and attack, do in
reality stand in need of troops for protection not only against predatory
bands of Indians coming from foreign parts, but also from such bands
residing within our own limits. A marauding descent of this kind
was made but a few weeks since upon the village of Whatcom, in Bellingham bay, when a small detachment of soldiers was actually sent
from the disputed island to protect the villagers against a threatened
renewal of the outrage !    (I am but just returned from that village.)
Moved by the foregoing considerations and the spirit of peace which
is known to animate our governments, I will respectfully ask your
excellency to review your decision on my original proposition, which,
the better to show its probable workings if adopted, I have somewhat
elaborated in the accompanying "Projet of a temporary settlement, &c."
I am persuaded that, on mature reflection, you will find nothing in it
to hurt English pride or to prejudice English interests, but much to
soothe past irritations on both sides and to prevent any local conflict.
The details of the plan are no doubt susceptible of improved modifications, but I must candidly say that I do not see how I can positively
consent to a change in the principle.
Highly appreciating the personal compliments of your excellency, AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
69
and reciprocating the kind feelings which prompted them, I have the
honor to remain, with high consideration, your excellency's most
obedient servant,
WINFIELD SCOTT.
His excellency James Douglas, Esq., C. B.,
Governor of the Colony of Vancouver's Island and
its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same.
23 e.
Projet of a temporary settlement, &c.
Whereas the island of San Juan, in dispute between the governments of the United States and Great Britain, is now occupied by a
detachment of United States troops ; protection against Indian incursions having been petitioned for by American citizens, resident thereon,
and against such occupation a formal protest has been entered on behalf of her Britannic Majesty's government by his excellency James
Douglas, esquire, C. B , governor of the colony of Vancouver's island
and its dependencies, and vice-admiral of the same—
It is now proposed by Lieutenant General Scott, commanding in
chief the army of the United States in behalf of his government, and
in deference to the great interests of the two nations, that a joint occupancy be substituted for the present one, which proposition being
accepted by his excellency, it is hereby stipulated and agreed between
the said Scott and the said Douglas that the substitution without prejudice to the claim of either government to the sovereignty of the entire
island, and until that question shall be amicably settled, shall consist
of two detachments of infantry, riflemen, or marines of the two nations,
neither detachment of more than one hundred men, with their appropriate arms only, and to be posted in separate camps or quarters for
the equal protection of their respective countrymen on the island in
persons and property, as also to repel descents of marauding Indians.
And whereas pending such join occupation a strict police over the
island will be necessary to the maintenance of friendly relations
between the troops of the two nations, as well as good order among
the settlers, it is further stipulated and agreed between the parties,
signers of these presents, that the commanding officer of each detachment composing the joint occupation shall be furnished with an authenticated copy thereof by the respective signers, to be regarded as &
warrant and command to the American commander from the said
Scott, and to the British commander, from the said Douglas, tf apse
and confine, or to banish from the island, any person or persons whatsoever found or known to be engaged in fomenting any quarrel or misunderstanding between the officers or men of one of the detachments
and the officers or men of the other, and, further, to treat in like manner all other offenders against the peace and good order of the island;
it being, however, expressly understood and enjoined that such measures
of correction shall only be applied to American citizens, *" 70
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
claiming to be such, by the American commander, or to British subjects,
or persons claiming to be such, by the British commander.
23/.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island,
November 3, 1859.
Sir : Lieutenant Colonel Lay yesterday placed in my hands your
despatch of the 2d instant, conveying to me your sentiments upon the
subject of my proposal for the temporary adjustment of affairs in connexion with San Juan, and informing me that you are unable to
accept that proposal.
2. I regret, sir, for many reasons, that you did not accede to my
suggestion of a joint civil occupation as a temporary expedient for
preserving tranquillity, and especially so because the course you propose to me of a joint military occupation is one which I cannot assent
to, or carry into effect, without the sanction and express instructions
of my government.
3. I am authorized to maintain all treaties as they exist, but not U
alter the provisions or to disregard the stipulations of any ; and, in
short, I am sensible that it would not be advisable for me to anticipate,
by any action on my part, the instructions I may soon receive from
her Majesty's government, unless there was an evident and imperative
necessity for the adoption of such a course, which necessity, in my
opinion,, does not exist in the present instance.
4. I conceive that protection against all ordinary danger to which
either British subjects or American citizens residing on the island of
San Juan are exposed may be 'fully attained without resorting to the
extreme measure of a joint military occupation ; and, moreover, the
expediency,of affording protection to individuals who may settle on
territory the sovereignty of which has not been determined may justly
be questioned. Protection under such circumstances can, indeed,
hardly be considered as a duty incumbent on governments ; and, on
my part, I am not left in doubt on the subject, as my instructions
direct me to announce with reference to this colony that protection
cannot be afforded to persons who, by wandering beyond the precincts
of the settlements and the jurisdiction of the tribunals, voluntarily
expose themselves to the violence or treachery of the native tribes.
5. You must permit me, sir, further to add, that her Majesty's
authorities in this colony have, with respect to the United States, committed no violation of existing treaty stipulations, nor been guilty of
any act of discourtesy whatsoever towards the government of that
nation, but have on all occasions during the late exciting events
exhibited a degree of forbearance which will, I trust, be accepted as a
guarantee that by no future act will we seek to impair the pacific relations existing between Great Britain and the United States.
6. Should you, sir, alter the explanations I have herein given in
reference to_my official powers and position, proceed to carry out your
pacific mission, and divest the large military force now on San Juan AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
71
of its menacing attitude by removing it from the island, we will
instantly withdraw the British naval force now maintained there* and
as soon as I receive the instructions of my government, I shall be glad
to co-operate with you in arranging a plan for the temporary maintenance of order and protection of life and property upon the island.
7. In the meantime you may rest assured that we will not disturb
the ".status" of San Juan by taking possession of the Mand, or by
assuming any jurisdiction there to the prejudic*|«£ the position in
which the question of title was placed by Ifit Secretary Marcy and her
Majesty's representative in the year 1855. •
8. Again assuring you of my desire to act with you to the utmost of
power in the most cordial manner and with the utmost frankness and
sincerity, and renewing to you my expressions of high consideration
and respect, I have the honor to remain, sir, your most obedient and
humble servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott,
Commanding in Chief the Army of the United States.
23 g.
Headquarters of the United States Army,
False Dungenness Harbor, W. T., November 5, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge a second communication from
your excellency dated the 3d instant. Being assured therein that
there is no intention on your part to attempt to dislodge, by force, the
United States troops now in the temporary occupation of the island of
San Juan, without instructions to that effect from your government,
and being perfectly persuaded that the very cordial relations which
now happily subsist between the United States and Great Britain render
the receipt of such instructions extremely improbable, I do not hesitate at once to order the number of the United States troops on that
island to be reduced to the small detachment (Captain Pickett's company of infantry) originally sent hither in July last for the protection
of the American settlers (such protection being petitioned for by them)
against neighboring and northern Indians.
A (copy of my orders in the case I enclose herewith for the information of your excellency. They will be fully executed as soon as practicable by the employment of the United States propeller Massachusetts,
the only craft suited to the purpose in these waters.
I have the honor to remain, with high consideration, your excellency's most obedient servant,
WINFIELD SCOTT.
His excellency, James Douglas, Esq., C. B.,
Governor of the Colony of Vancouver's Island
and its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same.
After the foregoing communication was despatched, the general-in-
chief determined to leave Captain Hunt's company on the island, 72
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
instead of Captain Pickett's, and a copy of his order, after modification, was subsequently sent to Governor Douglas to replace the one
previously transmitted.     The following is a copy of the order as
flna"J'i8BUe<i- L.THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General.
23 h.
[Special Orders No. —.]
Headquarters of the Army,
U. S. Propeller Massachusetts, W. T., November 5, 1859.
As soon as practicable Lieutenant Colonel Casey or other commanding officer on the island of San Juan will proceed to send therefrom
all the companies under his orders, except Captain Hunt's, to the
posts to which they had previously belonged, viz : company I of the
4th infantry to Fort Townsend ; company A of the 4th and H of the
9th infantry to Fort Steilacoom ; company D of the 9th infantry to
Fort Bellingham ; and last, the companies of the 3d artillery to Fort
Yancouver.
Captain Hunt and his company and assistant surgeon Craig will
remain on the island till further orders for the protection of the
American settlers.
Lieutenant Colonel Casey will cause the heavy guns on the island
to be replaced aboard of this propeller, and will send the light battery
to Forts Townsend, Bellingham, and Steilacoom.
By command of Lieutenant General Scott.
L. THOMAS,
Assisstant Adjutant General.
23 i.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island, November 7, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge your communication of the
5th November, announcing your intention to order the withdrawal of
certain companies of United States troops now in temporary occupation
of the island of San Juan, and your intention to leave Captain Pickett's
company of infantry for the protection of the American settlers against
neighboring and northern Indians, and transmitting a copy of your
orders in that case to the commanding officer in the island of San Juan.
2. I shall have much pleasure in communicating your intention to
her Majesty's government, who will no doubt accept it as a proof of
the desire of the United States to restore the former status of the disputed territory.
3. I trust, sir, that instructions will be issued to the officers of the
United States, directing them to abstain from all acts in the disputed
territory which are calculated to provoke conflicts, and in no case to
attempt to exclude British subjects by force, or to interfere with them
in any manner, or to exercise sovereign or exclusive rights within the
disputed limits; and on our part her Majesty's authorities will be AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON. 73
enjoined to abstain from any acts of interference or of exclusive jurisdiction until the question of title is settled.
4. In that way I sincerely hope that all collision may be avoided.
With every assurance of esteem, I have the honor to be, sir, your
most obedient servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
Lieutenant General W. Scott,
Commanding in Chief the United States Army.
23 j.
Yictoria, Vancouver's Island, November 7, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose to you herewith a' deposition which
has been forwarded to me, made by one William Moore, a British subject, concerning his having been apprehended by the United States
authorities on San Juan island, and compelled to work in the trenches,
and, when released, deprived of the sum of seventy-five dollars.
2. I bring this matter to your notice with the full assurance that
you will cause it to be investigated, and such reparation made as the
circumstances may demand.
I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient, humble servant,
JAMES DOUGLAS.
Lieutenant General Winfield Scott,
Commanding in Chief the Army of the United States.
23 j.
[Enclostq^J s; *
I, William Moore, state as follows :
I. That I am a British born subject, and a native of Sligo, in
Ireland.
II. I have been trading with my canoe between Yictoria and Bel-
levue island for nearly two months, dealing in onions, potatoes, bread,
milk, and sometimes liquor, taking with me on several trips from two
to five gallons at a time.
III. Early on the morning of the 16th September last I sold to a
party of the name of Powell, who is^iit-employe of the Hudson's Bay
Company, a bottle of rum, for which I received the sum of one dollar.
Powell returned shortly after he took the rum away, and asked me if
I was on good terms with an American of the name of Crow ; I said I
had never been on bad terms with him. About an hour after this
occurred, I saw this party—Crow—and the sheriff coming down towards my tent. The sheriff said, "I have a warrant for y^rW-
man, and want you to come along with me." I went with him to
the court-house, and arrived there about 8 o'clock in the morning.
IY. I was tried the same day, and the judge (Crosbie) said I was 74
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
guilty, and ordered me to the guard-house till next day. _ I was then
put into a tent with six or seven soldiers, who were prisoners, and
after I had been there about half an hour, the sheriff said he had
orders to search me, and accordingly took my purse, containing $160.
V. On the morning of the 17th, the prisoners turned out to work,
and I answered to my name, when it was called, and subsequently
went to work in the trenches, rollings tones and shovelling earth there.
Previously, however, to going to work, I asked the sergeant of the
guard if I was to work with the rest; when he replied, " that he had
orders from Captain English, the officer of the day, to put me to work
with the rest."
VI. I worked in the trenches till the prisoners were called in to
prepare for dinner, and between 2 and 3 o'clock a constable, by the
name of Cutler, took me to the court-house. Judge Crosbie then told
a constable to take seventy-five dollars from my purse, which was
lying on the table, which he did, and gave me the rest of the money,
and I was then informed that I was discharged. Judge Crosbie never
asked me if I was a British or American subject.
WILLIAM + MOOKE.
mark
Sworn at Victoria, on this sixth day of October, in the year of our
Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-nine, before me, having
been first read over and explained to the said William Moore, who
seemed perfectly to understand the same.
DAVID CAMERON, C. J.
I, Richard K. Powell, employe" of the Hudson's Bay Company, at
Bellevue island, state as follows: That I personally saw William
Moore at work in the trenches, on Bellevue island, on the 17th September last, along with other prisoners, and I believe he was so put
to work in consequence of orders from the court, or Judge Crosbie,
the magistrate on the island.
R. R. POWELL.
Subscribed in presence of us, who have hereunto set our names as
witnesses.
(D)    JOHN COPLAND, of Yates street, Victoria.
(D)    WILLIAM YILLECK, of Esquimault.
23 k.
U.S.
■    Headquarters of the Army,
Propeller Massachusetts, W. T., November 9, 1859.
Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt, at the same time,
of your two notes of the same date, the 7th instant.
m  I am pleased to learn that " her Majesty's authorities [on San Juan
island] will be enjoined to abstain from any acts of interference or of AFFAIRS IN OREGON. 75
exclusive jurisdiction [in respect to American citizens] until the question of title is settled."
In the same spirit I had earlier determined to instruct our commanding officer on the island to allow no person claiming to be a functionary of Washington Territory to interfere with any British subject
residing or happening to be on the same island whilst it shall remain
in dispute between our respective governments ; and I shall add this
further instruction, that if any British subject should become a disturber of the peace of the island, or a seller of strong liquors to American soldiers, without permission from their commander, the latter
shall represent the case to the nearest British authority, and respectfully ask for the instant removal of the offender ; and if afterwards he
shall return to the island without permission, the American commander may expel him therefrom without further ceremony.
I touch the complaint of William Moore, supported by his deposition,
presented to me by your excellency, with great reluctance—first, because the wrong done him, if any, was mainly at the hands of a judge,
I presume, of Washington Territory, and consequently beyond my
control; and, second, because I do not doubt that Moore has grossly
.misstated or exaggerated his case. I am at a distance from the island
and from every officer who may have known anything of the transaction in question, and am, moreover, in the act of taking my departure
for Washington, but shall refer the matter specially to Lieutenant
Colonel Casey, the present commander on the island, who will investigate the complaint carefully, and who, I am sure, will take pleasure in
redressing, so far as may be in his power, any wrong Moore may have
sustained. And your excellency will not fail to perceive that I have
in my instructions to Captain Hunt, as shadowed above, taken measures to guard against future interference with British subjects.
I have the honor to remain, with high consideration, your excellency's most humble servant,
WINFIELD SCOTT.
His excellency James Douglas, Esq., C. B.,
Governor of the Colony of Vancouver's Island
and its dependencies, and Vice-Admiral of the same.
[Enclosure.]
23 k.
The following extracts of communications, addressed from the
headquarters of the army to different commanders, were furnished to
his excellency Governor Douglas, with the general-in-chief s letter of
November 7, 1859:
1. | The general-in-chief wishes it to be remembered that the
sovereignty of the island (San Juan) is still in dispute between the
two governments, and, until definitely settled by them, that British
subjects have equal rights with American citizens on the island.
"L. THOMAS,
"Assistant Adjutant General." 76
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
[To Captain Hunt, commanding company C, 4th infantry, San
Juan island.]
2. | For your information and guidance I put under cover with
this copies of the general's communications to the governor of Vancouver's island, dated the 5th and 9th instant, respectively, as also a
copy of his. special order on the same subject. These papers will
show the. spirit in which it is expected you will execute the delicate
and important trust confided to you, the general haying full confidence in your intelligence, discretion, and (in what is of equal importance in this case) your courtesies.
"L. THOMAS,
"Assistant Adjutant General."
23 Z.
Headquartes of the Army, U. S. Propeller Massachusetts,
Off Port Townsend, W. T., November 9, 1859.
Sir: Your company, with only its appropriate arms, is to be left
alone on San Juan island, when you will revert to the instructions
from the headquarters of the department of Oregon, dated July 18,
1859.
For your information and guidance I put under cover with this
copies of the general's communications to the governor of Vancouver's
island, dated the 5th and 9th instant, respectively, as also a copy of
his special orders on the same subject. These papers will show you
the spirit in which it is expected you will execute the delicate and important trust confided to you, the general having full confidence in
your intelligence, discretion, and (in what is of equal importance in
this case) your courtesies.
It is, further, the direction of the general that after the departure
of Captain Pickett's company you occupy his part of the camp, where
your men will be better sheltered during the winter, and also he
further removed from the establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company. Captain Pickett will, of course, be at liberty to take back to
Fort Bellingham the property carried over to the island, such as
doors, window-sash, &c, as also his company property, but it is
hoped that some part of the excellent shelter he erected may be
transferred to you.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
L.  THOMAS.
Captain Lewis C. Hunt,
Commanding Company C, Ath Infantry, San Juan Island.
23 m.
Headquarters of the Army, U. S. Propeller Massachusetts,
Off Port Townsend, W. T, November 9, 1859.
Sir : I herewith put under cover, for your information and government, the following papers, viz:
1. A copy of Special Orders, dated November 5, 1859. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
77
2. An open package for Captain Hunt.
I am desired by the general-in-chief to add that he wishes you to
leave with Captain Hunt's company two effective subalterns.
I enclose a copy of an affidavit made at Victoria the 6th of October
last, by William Moore, claiming to be a British subject, who complains of injustice done him, not only on the part of the civil authorities of Washington Territory, but on that of the military. His statement is no doubt greatly misstated and exaggerated, but the general
wishes you to make a careful examination of the case, and redress, as
far as may be in your power, any wrong Moore may have sustained.
He wishes you, further, to furnish the colonial secretary of Vancouver's
island with the results of your examination.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Lieutenant Colonel Silas Casey,
Officer Commanding at San Juan.
23 n.
Headquarters of the Army, U. S. Propeller Massachusetts,
Off Port Townsend, W. T, November 9, 1859.
General:   By direction of the general-in-chief I enclose for your
information and guidance the following papers, viz:
1. Copies of the general-in-chief's communication to his excellency
Governor Douglas, dated the 5th and 9th instant.
2. A copy of Special Orders, dated the 5th instant.
3. A copy of my letter to Captain Hunt, dated the 9th instant.
These papers will show you to what extent the general has interfered
in the affairs of the department of Oregon, except that he has made
free use of the United States propeller Massachusetts, on board of
which vessel he made his headquarters.
Captain Hunt will be left on the island of San Juan, under your
instructions of July 18, modified by my letter to him dated the 7th
instant; but the general-in-chief wishes it to be remembered that the
sovereignty of the island is still in dispute between the two governments, and, until definitely settled between them, that British subjects
have equal rights with American citizens on the island.
Captain Fauntleroy represents that the Massachusetts leaks badly,
and that repairs are necessary, which can better be done at San Francisco this winter. The general-in-chief concurs, but gives no orders
on the subject.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Brig. Gen. W. S. Harney,
Commanding Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T. 78
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
23 0.
Headquarters of the Army,
St. Helen's, Oregon, November 15, 1859.
Sir: Intending at the first moment to urge that the two departments
on the Pacific should be thrown back into one, and being aware of
your preference for that having St. Louis as its headquarters, I have
already suggested to you a change. Another motive has just occurred
to me for renewing the subject.
I have no doubt that one of the preliminary demands which will be
made by the British government upon ours, in connexion with your I
occupation of the island of San Juan, will be your removal from your
present command.
In such an event it might be a great relief to the President to find I
you, by your own act, no longer in that command.
I make the suggestion from public considerations solely, and have |
not received the slightest hint to that effect from Washington.
To take effect in conformity with your own wishes, I enclose here- I
with a conditional order to repair to St. Louis, Missouri, and assume J
the command of the department of the west.
If you decline the order, and I give you leave to decline it, please!
throw ft into the fire ; or, otherwise, before setting out for the east, I
call your next in rank to you, and charge him with the command of '
fiie department of Oregon.
We have been forced into this river-^y a defect in a boiler, and to
take in a new supply of coal.    I may not have time to hear in reply
from you on this side of the continent, unless we arrive at San Fran-1
cisco too late for the Panama steamer of the 20th instant, which we
begin to fear.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WINFIELD SCOTT.
Brig. Gen. W. S. Harney,
Commanding Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T.
Headquarters of the Army,
. Helen's, Oregon, November 15, 1859.
[Special Order No. —.]
Brigadier General Harney will repair to St. Louis, Missouri, and
assume command of the department of the west. Colonel Wright,
9th infantry, or next senior present, will be charged, until further
orders, with the command of the department of Oregon, and will be
instructed to repair to Fort Vancouver.
By command of Lieutenant General Scott.
L. THOMAS,
Assistant Adjutant General. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
24. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver,  W. T., November 17, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a communication from the headquarters of the army, dated St. Helen's, Oregon,
November 15, 1859, and signed by the general-in-chief, enclosing a
conditional order for me to repair to St. Louis, Missouri, and assume
the command of the department of the west.
The general-in-chief is pleased to express himself in the following
language in this communication, viz :
"1 have no doubt that one of the preliminary demands which will
be made by the British government upon ours, in connexion with your
occupation of the island of San Juan, will be your removal from your
present command.
"In such event it might be a great relief to the President to find
you, by your own act, no longer in that command."
The general-in-chief states this is his own opinion in the matter, as
he has not received the slightest hint to that effect from Washington,
and concludes by giving me the liberty of declining this order.
In reply to this communication of the general-in-chief, I desire to
inform him I am not disposed to comply with such an order. I do not
believe the President of the United States will be embarrassed by any
action of the British government in reference to San Juan island ; nor
can I suppose the President wc .Id be pleased to see me relinquish this
command in any manner that does not plainly indicate his intentions
towards the public service.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HAKNEY,
Brigadier General Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
25. General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., November 17, 1859.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose copies of a communication
from the general-in-chief, Lieutenant General Scott, dated at St.
Helen's, Oregon, November 15, 1859, with a conditional order for me
to repair to St. Louis, Missouri, and assume the command of the
department of the west; also, a copy of my reply to the same.
I respectfully request that these papers may be submitted to the
President of the United States, for his information.
The general-in-chief states he intends to urge that the two departments on the Pacific should be thrown back into one, and this declaration of his intentions, taken in connexion with his conditional order 80
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
to me, may induce the President to infer that I concur in opinion with
the general-in-chief as to a necessity for this change.
I feel compelled, therefore, to submit my views on thissubject to
the President, as I do not agree with the general-in-chief in his
conclusions. I undertake this duty with the greater reluctance, as I
fully, appreciate the weight of support, the high rank, and great experience of the general-in-chief must always give to his opinion, and
I depend solely on the cogency of the facts I shall offer to induce the
President to permit the present military organization of this coast to
exist undisturbed.
The records of the War Department will show that before the
establishment of this command, an Indian war was either being
prosecuted in Oregon or Washington Territory, or the inhabitants
were living in daily apprehension of their lives from the fearlessness
and confidence of the Indians in their power over them.
The troops were scattered over an extended country, few in numbers,
and without an officer of rank and authority present to concentrate
them, in a case of necessity, for the protection of the people.
The Indians understood the defenceless condition of both citizens
and soldiers under such a system, and did not hesitate to plunder and
murder whenever they were so inclined. They were eventually so
emboldened by the immunity permitted them, as to enter into a most
formidable coalition for the purpose of driving the white race from
the country.
It was then that the commander on the Pacific coast was forced to
concentrate his troops and to place himself at their head to recover
the country from his enemies.
General Clarke could not have succeeded against the Spokanes, Cceur
d'Alenes, and the other tribes, had he remained in San Francisco
and directed his operations from that place. His voluntary act in
placing himself in close communication with his troops and making
his headquarters at this point, during those troubles, is the very best
evidence that he was of this opinion. The facts then show that to
keep in check Indian disturbances in this country the commander of
the troops should be stationed with them, as at present.
The recommendation of the general-in-chief to return to the old
system of placing the commander one thousand miles off, in San
Francisco, is overlooking a fundamental military principle, viz: that
a commander should have the communication with his troops certain
and uninterrupted, to enable him to use them to the best advantage on
any emergency.
One month of time is consumed in sending a letter to San Francisco
from here and receiving an answer; the opportunity to do this only
offers twice in each month, and this is the nearest point in the whole
command to San Francisco. Could there be a more forcible illustration I of its unfitness as a station for the headquarters of the troops
serving in this country ?
The people of Oregon and Washington Territories were forced into
an Indian war in the years of 1855-56, in consequence of a want of
proper military protection; the expenses of that war still bear very
heavily upon them, and they will view with much concern and appre- AFFAIRS IN  OREGON. §1
nension any change having the tendency to produce other disasters of
like character.
Much of the advancement of this section of our Pacific coast is due
to the annual emigration from the States in the east. Under the
department organization of this year ample protection has been given
to the emigrants, and, I am happy to say, with complete success; would
it not be well to test thoroughly a system producing such good results
before considering a change ?
The advantages to the troops in point of efficiency are in favor of
the_retention of the department of Oregon, and should not pass unnoticed. The soldiers are always better cared for, and the rules and
regulations enforcing discipline and duty are more strictly observed,
to the advancement of economy and the regularity of service, under
the supervision and in the presence of an officer of rank and authority,
than when he is placed at a distance from them ; in that instance he
depends for his information on the reports of others, which are not
unfrequently incorrect from carelessness or design.
Another important reason I ought not to omit in this enumeration
for retaining a well-appointed command in this department, is its
isolated position and close proximity to the territories of a power with
whom we have a boundary in dispute, and whose known want of faith
and integrity is only to be met successfully by a firm determination
on our part not to be trifled with.
In conclusion, 1 beg to assure his excellency the President that
the public interest alone has induced me to present to his consideration
the propriety and necessity of maintaining the department of Oregon
as it is now organized. Indeed, it is pertinent to this occasion for me
to say I believe the President has been aware, for some months past,
of my earnest desire to return to the east for the purpose of seeing my
family, .from whom I have been separated, by the calls of the service,
for nearly five years.
I cannot at this time make a formal application to be relieved from
this command, lest it derange any course already decided; still I
should esteem it as a high favor if his excellency would extend this
indulgence to me at his earliest convenience.
I have the honor to be, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
W. S. HAKNEY, _
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington City.
26.—General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., January 24, 1860.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose, for the information of the
War Department, a certified copy of a resolution relative to San Juan
H. Ex. Doc. 65 6 82 AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
"island, which has passed unanimously the legislative  assembly of
Washington Territory.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY, .
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General, Washington City, D. C.
26 a.
Council of Washington Territory—Yth Session.
Whereas it has come to our knowledge that attempts are making,
or will be made, to merge the military department of Oregon into the
department of the Pacific, and in case this is not effected, to cause
Brigadier General William S. Harney to be removed from command ;
and
Whereas we believe that said department was established for good
and sufficient reasons, which reasons still exist in as full force as when
said department was established, the interior of our Territory being
still occupied by numerous tribes of Indians, only restrained from hostilities by the presence of large bodies of troops, and our frontier being
still liable to murderous incursions of powerful and savage hordes of
Indians living upon a foreign soil; and
Whereas experience has shown that, in order that these troops may
act promptly and efficiently for the protection of our Territory, it is
necessary that the headquarters of the department should be of convenient access, which would not be the case were it removed to the State
of California ; and
Whereas General Harney, in all his official acts while in command
of this military department, by protecting us from Indians, domestic
and foreign ; securing and maintaining peace by revoking those unlawful military orders, under which an attempt was made to exclude
our citizens from portions of our Territory, which, under the laws,
were open to settlement; opening communications between different
portions of the Territory; protecting emigration by placing troops on
the island of San Juan, an island which is as unquestionably American
soil as any other portion of our Territory ; for the protection of American settlers against fore gn Indians, and against attempted acts of
foreign jurisdiction, has deserved and secured the entire confidence of
the people of this Territory :    Therefore be it
Resolved, That we, the legislative assembly of the Territory of
Washington, earnestly and respectfully protest against any change by
which the military department of Oregon shall be merged into any
other department, and against its headquarters being removed.
Resolved, That we respectfully and earnestly solicit the President
of the United States to continue the present able, experienced, and
prudent officer (Brigadier General Harney) in command of said military department. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
Resolved, That we firmly believe General Harney has acted in a
prudent and proper manner in placing a military force on the island
of San Juan for the protection of American citizens from foreign savages and wanton aggressions of foreign officials:
1. Because the island is clearly ours under a fair construction of the
treaty.
2. Because said island is within the military department of Oregon
it having been, by an act passed in 1854, at the first session of the
legislative assembly of this Territory, made a part of the organized
county of Whatcom, which act was duly submitted to the Congress of
the United States, as by the organic act is required, and has not to
this day been disapproved, and is still the law of the land ; and
3. Because, at the time, the circumstances of the case required that
a military force should be placed there.
Resolved, That General Harney, having rightfully placed a military
force upon said island, would have been recreant to his trust had he
failed to support it with all the power at his command when it was
threatened with an attack by a foreign nation.
Resolved, That having the fullest confidence in our title to the
island, our right should be maintained at all hazard.
Resolved, That we most respectfully ask the proper authorities to
revoke the odious military order placing San Juan island (a portion
of Whatcom county) under military rule.
Resolved, That we have the fullest confidence that the President of
the United States will act justly and firmly in the premises, and that
American rights will be fully vindicated by him.
Resolved, That copies of these resolutions, duly signed and certified,
be sent to our delegate in Congress, to be by him submitted to the
President of the United States ; and also to General W. S. Harney.
We hereby certify that the foregoing resolutions is a true copy of
the original, unanimously passed by the legislative assembly of Washington Territory.
8 JOHN D. BILES, _
Speaker of the House of Representatives.
H. J. G. MOXON,
President of the Gouncil.
January 7, I860. AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
II.   MILITARY AFFAIRS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF OREGON.
1. The Adjidant General to General Harney.
Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, September 14, 1858.
General: In transmitting to you the enclosed " general orders"
No. 10, I am directed by the Secretary of War to communicate the
following instructions, which are to guide you in prosecuting the war
against the Indians of Washington and Oregon Territories :
The campaign, already commenced by Brevet Brigadier General
Clarke, must be prosecuted with the greatest possible vigor and
activity, and the hostile bands must be thoroughly chastised and subdued. There will be no cessation of the campaign from the winter,
that being on many accounts the most favorable season for striking
at the homes and herds of the hostiles. The fall of snow, at no time
sufficient to prevent the ready operations of troops in the valleys lying
between the Cascade and Rocky mountains, where the Indians dwell
and graze their animals in winter, is, nevertheless, so great in the
mountain passes as to prevent their passage by the Indians. Their
families and herds will thus be readily reached by the troops, and no
exertions should be spared to capture the first and destroy the last.
No overtures of friendship should be made to any tribes before the
chastisement of the hostiles. It would be taken as an evidence of
weakness or fear, and exaggerate rather than relieve the evils of a
war with those people.
Undoubted evidences of friendship towards the whites by any of the
tribes should be met in a spirit of kindness, but overtures should not
be made to any.
The Secretary further directs me to say that he expects you to let
no opportunity pass of communicating events to the War Department,
and to this end he desires you to forward to the Adjutant General duplicates of your reports, which, in the ordinary channel, will pass through
army headquarters.
I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient
servant,
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Assistant Adjutant General.
Brig. Gen. W. S. Harney,
United States Army, Washington, D. C.
1 a.
GENERAL ORDERS No. 10.
War Department,
Adjutant General's Office, Washington, Sept. 13,1858.
I. The President directs  that the department of the Pacific  be
divided into two parts.    The southern part will be called the depart- AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
ment of California; headquarters, San Francisco. The northern part;'
to embrace the Territories of Washington and Oregon, excepting the
Bogue Kiver and Umpqua districts, will be called the department of
Oregon ; headquarters, Fort Yancouver.
II. Brevet Brigadier General N. S. Clarke, colonel 6th infantry, is
assigned to the command of the department of California. In thus
abridging the limits of his command—a measure demanded by the
length of time required for communication between its northern and
southern portions—the Secretary of War specially commends the activity, zeal, and judgment displayed by General Clarke in concentrating the troops of his department for energetic operations against
the hostile Indians of the north, as soon as their outbreak became
known.
III. Brigadier General W. S. Harney is assigned to the command
of the department of Oregon, and will proceed to his post with all
possible despatch. The President directs that Captain A. Pleasonton,
2d dragoons, accompany General Harney as acting assistant adjutant
general.
IV. The commandant of the corps of engineers will detail two officers and a detachment of not exceeding fifty engineer soldiers, with
the complement of non-commissioned officers, for service in the department of Oregon. The Quartermaster's department will furnish
transportation for this detachment to Fort Yancouver.
Y. The several staff departments will make the necessary arrangements for the supply of the department of Oregon from the California
depots.
VI. During the campaign against the Indians, the troops in the
department of Oregon will be allowed two extra rations per week of
desiccated vegetables.
By order of the Secretary of War:
E. D. TOWNSEND,
Assistant Ajutant General.
2. General Harney to General Scott.
I
San Francisco, California,
October 19, 1858.
Major: I have the honor to report my arrival at this place en route
to my command in Oregon and Washington Territories.
General Clarke, who has just arrived from the seat of Indian difficulties, informs me that the hostile bands have sued for peace, and
have fully complied with the conditions- he imposed upon them. 1
have therefore considered, after consultation with General Clarke, it
would be more expedient to retain the 6th regiment of infantry in
service in California than transfer it to Oregon at this late season, the
exigency for their presence being removed, and the number of troops 86
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
now present in Oregon and Washington Territories being deemed by
General Clarke sufficient for such service as may be required for them
during the winter.
Captain Pleasonton, Lieutenant Jesup, and theKev. P. J. Debmet
are on duty with me, agreeably to existing orders.
I am, maior, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
'     J   ' WM. 8. HAENEY,
Brigadier General United States Army.
Major J. McDowell,
Assist. Adjt. Gen, Headquarters Army, N. Y. City.
3. General Harney to General Scott.
Fort Yancouver, W. T.,
October 24, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to report my arrival at this post, this morning, after a voyage of thirty-three days from New York. As the
steamer which conveyed me returns immediately to San Francisco, this
communication is rendered to be sent by it to avoid a delay of two
weeks, until the time of departure of the next mail steamer.
In my report from San Francisco it was stated that, after consultation with General Clarke, an arrangement had been determined upon
to delay the 6th regiment of infantry in California for service in that
department, retaining the troops now serving in Washington and
Oregon Territories for the department of Oregon. This arrangement
to be subject to the approbation of higher authority.
From all the information I have been able to obtain up to this time,
I consider it essential and necessary that the force now here should
not be diminished this winter, but that the steps which have been
taken to subdue these Indians should be vigorously followed up ; and
in the event of a winter's campaign, by the entire force not being required, an imposing force should be marched through the country of
the disaffected Indians, next spring and summer, to complete the impression already made, and to satisfy them the troops have not left
the department.
Detailed reports of the state of affairs under my command will be
transmitted as soon as correct and (Authentic information of the same
is obtained.
Captain A. Pleasonton, 2d dragoons, acting assistant adjutant general, and the Kev. P. J. De Smet accompanied me to this place. Upon ■
his own application, permission was granted to Brevet Second Lieutenant C. E. Jesup, of the 10th infantry and aide-de-camp, to join his
regiment.^   He was left at San Francisco for this purpose.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HAKNEY,
Brigadier General, U. S. Army.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
6 a.
[Orders.;
87
New York City, September 20, 1858.
Brevet Second Lieutenant C. E. Jesup, of the 10th infantry, having
reported for duty as aide-de-camp, he will accompany the general to
Fort Yancouver, Washington Territory.
By order of Brigadier General Harney:
A. PLEASONTON,
Captain 2d Dragoons, A. Ass't Adj. General.
[Orders.]
San Francisco, California, October 20, 1858.
Brevet Second Lieutenant C. E. Jesup, of the 10th infantry and
aide-de-camp, having requested permission to join his company, the
prospect of active service in the department of Oregon being now remote, he will proceed to Washington city, and report in person to the
Adjutant General for the necessary instructions.
By order of Brigadier General Harney:
A. PLEASONTON,
Captain 2d Dragoons, A. Ass't Adj. General.
4. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., October 29, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to submit a report from Colonel G. Wright,
of the 9th infantry, in relation to the present disposition and feeling
of the Indians, who were but recently in a hostile attitude to the government and citizens of this country. Copies of three treaties, which
have been made with the Spokanes,the Cceur d'Alenes, and NezPerces,
are also enclosed.
It will be seen from these communications that a material change
has been effected in the minds of these savages as regards the power
as well as the determination of the government to carry out its measures concerning them. They have accordingly made very fair promises,
and have thus far fulfilled the conditions prescribed.
Two of the principal instigators of the late disturbances are still at
large, and it is reported they have fled to the Flathead country. I
shall insist upon their being given up ; and then, from all the information I can obtain from every quarter, I am inclined to believe the
Indians in this department can easily be controlled. At an early date
I shall submit my views of the proper disposition of the troops to com- 88
. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
mand the Indians in future, and protect the emigrant routes to the
territories included in this department.
I am, sir, verv respectfully, your obedient servant,
' WM. S. HAKNEY, ;
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
A a.
Fort Vancouver, W. T., October 28, 1858.
Sir : I have this moment received your communication of this date.
With regard to the present disposition and feeling of the various
Indians with whom I have been brought in contact during the late
campaign, I can assure the general that we have nothing to apprehend. The Nez Perces, Spokanes, Cceur d'Alenes, Pelouses, Walla-
Wallas, and other tribes residing on both banks of the Columbia and
its tributaries, are now regarded as entirely friendly. Written treaties
have been made with the Nez Perces, Spokanes, and Cozur d'Alenes,
and verbal treaties with the smaller bands. The Pelouses were
severely punished ; ten of the worst of them were executed, and a
chief with four men with their families carried to Walla-Walla as
hostages. I have also taken hostages from the Spokanes and Cceur
d'Alenes and retain them at Fort Walla-Walla.
With regard to the Indians in the neighborhood of Colville, there
are doubtless some bad men among them, who should be punished.
Their acts are confined to robbing and stealing, but I have no information that any murders have been recently committed. A gentleman residing in Colville valley wrote to me. a few days since ; he
says nothing of the miners having been driven off, or of the Indians
having committed any hostilities. I would recommend that an expedition be sent through that country next spring, and such Indians as
deserve it severely punished, and then I think we shall have no more
trouble in that quarter.
I am not in favor of establishing permanent posts in advance of
Walla-Walla. Annual expeditions, at little expense, can be made
through the Indian country, north, east, and south of Fort Walla-
Walla, and in this way I think that tranquillity and peace can easily
be maintained..
Should it be desired to establish a post in the Colville valley, it
would be well to defer it until another season, after an expedition
has been made and the localities well examined. It is too late now ;
the ground will he covered with snow before the troops could reach
that country.
Yery respectfully, your most obedient servant,
G. WEIGHT,
Colonel 9th Infantry.
Capt. A. Pleasonton, A. Ass't Adj't Gen'l,
Headquarters Department of Oregon, Fort Vancouver, W. T. ^^appRS IN  OREGON.
89
Preliminary articles of a treaty of peace and friendship between the
United States and the Cceur d'Alene Indiana.
Article 1. Hostilities between the United States and the Cceur
d'Alene Indians shall cease from and after this date, (September 17
1858.)
Art. 2. The chiefs and headmen of the Cceur d'Alene Indians for
and in behalf of the whole nation, agree and promise to surrender to
the United States all property in their possession belonging either to
the government or to individuals, whether said property was captured
or abandoned by the troops of the United States.
Art. 3. The chiefs and headmen of the Cceur d'Alene nation agree
to surrender to the United States the men who commenced the battle
with Lieutenant Colonel Steptoe, contrary to the orders of their chiefs,
and also to give at least one chief and four men, with their families, to
the officer in command of the troops, as hostages for their future good
conduct.
Art. 4. The chiefs and headmen of the Cceur d'Alene nation
promise that all white persons shall travel through their country unmolested, and that no Indians hostile to the United States shall be
allowed within the limits of their country.
Art. 5. The officer in command of the United States troops, for
and in behalf of the government, promises that if the foregoing conditions are fully complied with no war shall be made upon the Cceur
d'Alene nation ; and, further, that the men who are to be surrendered,
whether those who commenced the fight with Lieutenant Colonel Step-
toe, or as hostages for the future good conduct of the Cceur d' Alene
nation, shall in nowise be injured, and shall, within one year from the
date hereof, be restored to their nation.
Art. 6. It is agreed by both of the aforesaid contracting parties
that when the foregoing articles shall be fully complied with a permanent treaty of peace and friendship shall be made.
Art. 7. It is agreed by the chiefs and headmen of the Cceur d'Alene
nation that this treaty of peace and friendship shall extend also to
include the Nez Perce nation of Indians.
Done at the headquarters of the expedition against the northern
Indians and the Cceur d'Alene Mission, Washington Territory, this
seventeenth day of September, eighteen hundred and fifty-eight.
G. WEIGHT,
Colonel 9th Infantry, Com'g U. S. Troops.
MIL-NAP-SI, his x mark.
SAL-TOSE, his x mark.
YINCENT, his x mark.
JOSEPH, his x mark.
JEAN PIEEEE, his x mark.
PIEEEE PAULINE, his x mark,
and 12 other chiefs.
Witnesses:
E. D. Keyes, Captain 3d Artillery,
and the principal officers of the command. 90
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
Preliminary articles of a treaty of peace and friendship between the
United States and the Spokane nation of Indians.
Article 1. Hostilities shall cease between the United States and
the Spokane nation of Indians from and after this date. _
Art. 2. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane Indians, for and
in behalf of the whole nation, promise to deliver up to the United
States all property in their possession belonging either to government
or to individual white persons.
Art. 3. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane Indians, for and
in behalf of the whole nation, promise and agree to deliver to the officers in command of the United States troops the men who commenced
the attack upon Lieutenant Colonel Steptoe, contrary to the orders of
their chiefs, and, further, to deliver as aforesaid at least one chief and
four men, with their families, as hostages for their future good conduct.
Art. 4. The chiefs and headmen of the Spokane nation of Indians
promise, for and in behalf of the whole tribe, that all white persons
shall at all times and places pass through their country unmolested,
and, further, that no Indians hostile to the United States shall be
allowed to pass through or remain in their country.
Art. 5. The foregoing conditions being fully complied with by the
Spokane nation, the officers in command of the United States troops
promise that no war shall be made upon the Spokanes, and, further,
that the men delivered up, whether as prisoners or hostages, shall in
nowise be injured, and shall within the period of one year be restored
to their nation.
Art. 6. It is agreed by both the aforesaid parties that this treaty
shall also extend to and include the Nez Perce nation of Indians.
Done at the headquarters of the expedition against the northern
Indians, at camp on the Ned-whauld, (or Lahtoo,) Washington Territory, this twenty-third day of September, eighteen hundred and
fifty-eight.
G. WEIGHT,
Colonel 9th Infanty, Commanding.
POHLATKIN,
SPOHAN GAEEY,
SKULHULL,
MOIST-TEUM,
SKI-KI-AH-MEW,
SHE-LUH-KE-ITS-ZE,
PII-AH-MENE,
HOH-HOH-MEE,
HUSE-TESH-TUIN-HIGH,
NUH-SHIL-SHE-HIL-SOTE,
CHE-LAH-HIM-SHE,
HUST-SUIT-TAH,
KEH-HO,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark.
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark,
his x mark. AFFAIRS  IN   OREGON. 91
QUALT-TIL-TOSE-SUM, (or Big Star,) his x mark
CHEY-YAL-EOTE, his x mark
QUOI-QUOI-YON, his x mark
IN-SKO-ME-NAY, his x mark.
ITS-CHE-MON-NEE, his x mark,
and 17 other chiefs.
Witnesses:
Captain E. D. Keyes,
and the principal officers of the command.
Ad.
Treaty of peace and friendship between the United States and the Nez
Perces tribe.
Article 1. It is agreed that there shall be perpetual peace between
the United States and the Nez Perce's tribe.
Art. 2. In the event of war between the United States and any
other people whatever, the Nez Perces agree to aid the United States
with men to the extent of their ability.
Art. 3. In the event of war between the Nez Perces and any other
tribe, the United States agree to aid the Nez Perces with troops.
Art. 4. When the Nez Perces take part with the United States in
war, they shall be furnished with such arms, ammunition, provisions,
&c., as may be necessary.
Art. 5. When the United States take part with the Nez Perces
in war, they (the United States) will not require the Nez Perces to
furnish anything for the troops, unless paid for at a fair price.
Art. 6. Should any misunderstanding arise hereafter between the
troops and the Nez Perces, it shall be settled by their respective chiefs
in friendly council.
ALAYANA (and thirty-eight other chiefs.)
G. WEIGHT,
Colonel 9th Infantry, Commanding.
Witnesses:
G. F. Hammond,
Assistant Surgeon, U. S. A.,
and five other officers of the command.
Headquarters United States Troops,
Camp in the Walla- Walla Valley, August 6, 1858. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
5. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Foit Vancouver, W. T, November 4, 1858.
Sir • I have the honor to inform the general-in-chief of the receipt
of a report from Captain I. I. Archer, of the 9th infantry, commanding Fort Simcoe, in which it is stated that two of the three surviving
murderers of Bolan, viz:  "Stahan" and " Wapi-wapi-tla," had been
brought in to that post by a party of friendly Indians, on the 16th
ultimo, and that he had caused them to be hung.   .Captain Archer
further reports that "Sugintch," the only remaining murderer, has •
since committed suicide, in order to disappoint the Indians who were
endeavoring to capture him.
This prompt action on the part of Captain Archer is approved.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HAENEY, #
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, Neio York City.
6. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, November 5, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to report that the state of the service as regards
the disposition of the Indians'in this department has not changed since
my last communication, of the 29th ultimo. Nothing has been heard
from Colville to confirm the rumors which were circulated on my arrival, and I am therefore inclined to believe they had but little foundation.
The Indians in this section of the country are entirely different from
the great nomadic tribes of the plains, who own and roam over vast
regions in search of plunder and game, and all of whose instincts are
warlike. The tribes of Washington and Oregon Territories, with the
exception of those residing near the Eocky mountains, are small in
number, each occupying a limited territory, from which in many cases
they obtain a meagre subsistence. The subdivisions of these Indians
into tribes are very numerous. Those tribes residing on the Columbia
river and its tributaries subsist principally upon fish, particularly the
salmon, whose annual migration up these rivers forms one of the great
curiosities of nature. Other tribes live on roots, berries, and such wild
fruits as their country affords, and in times of great privation they
obtain from the moss of the country, which is very abundant, a glutinous substance that supports life. The same improvidence which characterizes the Indian race elsewhere is seen here, attended by the same
results ; and it is not too much to predict that the red men of America AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
93
will gradually disappear about the same time from the different sections
of our country.  *
From the different languages, interests, and jealousies existing
among so many different tribes, a coalition of all of them in one com*
mon cause is impossible ; indeed, the events of the past summer have
shown the difficulties which require to be removed before a small number could be made to act together, and these difficulties are out of all
proportion to the advantages and facilities the troops possess to crush
them. If the reports I have received be correct, another coalition of
these Indians will never be attempted.
For the welfare of the Indians, as well as the better security of the
white settlers, I would respectfully recommend that the Indians of this
department be placed on reservations assigned them by the government
for their support and sustenance. A system of instruction in cultivating the soil applicable to them should also be adopted, with a proper
provision of seeds and implements for their use.
Laws should also be passed defining their positions and their rights
upon these reservations, which should be convenient to the military
stations, that all controversies between them and the settlers may be
decided on the spot, and that the Indian could have a market for his
produce when desiring to dispose of it.
To secure the emigrant route to this department from the frontiers
of Missouri, I shall establish a post in the spring in the vicinity of Fort
Boisee, on Snake river, some two hundred and thirty miles from Fort
Walla-Walla. At least four companies should garrison this point—
two of foot and two of mounted force. The road is a good one from
Fort Walla-Walla, and it can be supplied from that point. I also
respectfully recommend a post near Fort Hall on the same route, but
would advise that the garrison, as well as the supplies, be furnished
from the department of Utah, for reasons of economy and supervision.
As soon as the season will permit I shall establish a garrison of at
least four companies in the vicinity of Colville, to protect the interests ,
of the citizens in that quarter and serve as a check upon the Indian
tribes who were so lately hostile.
The establishment of the above-mentioned posts is considered subject
to the revision of higher authority.
I enclose a copy of my instructions to the Eev. P. J. De Smet, who,
it will be seen, has proceeded to the Cceur d'Alene Mission, by my
directions, to visit the Indians of that vicinity for the purpose of observing their disposition, and to counsel them to observe most faithfully all the conditions they have promised to fulfil towards the government and its citizens..
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
' J      * W. S. HAENEY, ;
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City. 94
AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
6 a.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., October 28, 1858.
Dear Sir : The general commanding instructs me to say that he
most cordially approves of your proposition to visit the Cceur d'Alene
Mission this winter, for he conceives the happiest results from your
presence among the Indian tribes of that vicinity.
He has directed that every facility shall be furnished you to enable
you to perform in safety the inclement and trying journey you are
about to undertake.    A copy of his instructions is enclosed herewith.
The general desires you to impress upon the Indians you are to
counsel the strong necessity existing for them to live up to the conditions to which they have so lately subscribed in the treaties they have
made, more especially in the surrender of such persons as were
demanded of them. Two of these persons, Kamiakin and Schloom,
it is reported, have gone among the Flatheads, but that circumstance
must not prevent the tribes concerned from using every endeavor to
obtain possession of them for the purposes above indicated.
While informing the Indians the government is always generous to
a fallen foe, state to them it is at the same time determined to protect
its citizens in every part of its territory, and that they can only expect
to exist by implicitly obeying the commands they receive.
The same troops are permanently stationed in the country who met
them in the field the past summer, and these will, most assuredly, be
placed upon their trail in the spring, with instructions to give no
quarter should they again turn a deaf ear to what has been told them.
I am instructed to say you will communicate freely with these headquarters.
The best wishes of the general will attend you in the holy mission
of charity to which you have devoted yourself in so generous a manner.
I am, father, most respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON,
Captain 2d Dragoons, Acting Asst. Adj't General.
Eev. Father P. J. De Smet,
Chaplain, &c, Vancouver, W. T.
7. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, November 22, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to report, for the information of the general-
m-chief, that I have caused the proper estimates to be made upon the
staff departments in California for the supply of this command, in
obedience to paragraph V of General Orders No. 10 from the War Department, dated Adjutant General's office, Washington, September
13, 1858. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
From the reports that I have received, and my own observation the
public interests in this department will be greatly benefited by' the
despatch of all stores and supplies direct to depot at this point without the expense and delay of reshipping in California. The reasons
for this measure will appear so obvious it is unnecessary to mention
them here, except to state that the present exigency of a portion of
the troops being destitute of clothing, with none to issue and none to
be obtained from California, for reasons yet unlearned, will not recur.
I trust the commanding general will take this matter into consideration, and cause the necessary orders to be given to the Quartermaster's, Subsistence, Medical, and Ordnance departments to insure its
adoption.
Supplies should never arrive later thar July at Fort Yancouver.
They can then be shipped economically and expeditiously into the
interior, when in the fall and winter their transportation is attended
by serious delays and great expense from adverse winds and heavy
rains.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,*
W. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, Neio York City.
8. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, November 24, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to request the consideration of the general-
in-chief to the state of the mounted service in this department.
A board of survey ordered to examine the condition of the horses
of the four companies of the 6th dragoons at Fort Walla-Walla has
pronounced ninety-eight of the number as unfit for service, and should
be replaced.
Existing orders allow but sixty horses in each mounted company,
the number of enlisted men being eighty-five.
The economy and efficiency of this branch of the service suggest
an increase of the number of horses to that of the men; the officers
complain that the present inequality of numbers in horses and men
renders the success in drill and instructions difficult of attainment.
In this remote command, where efficiency is so essential, this increase
will inure to the public benefit.
Should the general-in-chief adopt these views, at least three hundred
horses should be sent early in the spring from Fort Leavenworth, via
the South Pass and Fort Hall, to Fort Walla-Walla. Horses requisite
for dragoon service cannot be obtained on this coast.
As the dragoon force will be most useful on the route from * ort
Walla-Walla to Fort Hall, the emigrant route to the States, they can
meet these horses at Fort Hall and provide for them the remainder or
the journey. 96
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
This supposes my former suggestion, to establish a force at Fort
Hall and Fort Boisee, to be adopted.
I am sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
'      y     * ff W. S. HAENEY, <
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
9. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., November 27, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to report, for the information of the general-
in-chief, that the commanding officer of Fort Walla-Walla released
the Spokane and.Cceur d'Alene hostages in his charge, on the representations of the Eeverend Fathers Congiati and Bavaille" of the
quiet and satisfactory state of affairs among the northern Indians, with
whom these gentlemen have resided for some months past. Father
Bavaille left Colville about two weeks since; he reports the Indians in
that vicinity as peaceful and quiet.
I have directed that the Pelouse hostages be also released.
Both of the above-named missionaries assure me the Indians will
never attempt to oppose the whites in any of their measures, as they
have fully realized the folly of so doing.
Father Congiati, who is the superior of all the upper missions,
places all of his establishments at my disposition, to support whatever
policy may be deemed best for'the Indians under their guidance.
1 am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
10. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., November 29, 1858.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose a report from Captain Ingalls,
assistant quartermaster at this place, upon the expediency, economy,
and advantage to the service of supplying the department of Utah
from depots recommended to be established at Fort Vancouver.
The report includes the statements of several reliable persons of
Oregon and Washington Territories, with a table of distances from
Fort Yancouver to the Great Salt Lake City, and a map of the country
through which the supplies must pass. AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
97
Upon examining the map of the country on the Pacific coast, and
the country connecting it with Utah, it will be
seen an uninterrupted
chain of mountains extends along the whole coast from the British
possessions to Lower California, rendering access to the interior country
extremely difficult, and in many places impossible. In Washington
and Oregon Territories this chain of mountains is called the Cascade
range of mountains, while in California it is termed by its Spanish
name, the Sierra Nevada.
The bold and astonishing action of the Columbia river in forcing its
way directly through the Cascade range of mountains in almost a
straight line to the ocean has made the passage of this chain of mountains from Fort Yancouver extremely simple and easy. The only
land travel which is now required to pass beyond the Cascade mountains from this point is over the two portages : one at the Cascades of
five miles, the other at the Dalles of" fifteen miles ; at each portage
there is now a good wagon road. The river is then navigable for good-
sized steamers as high up as Fort Walla-Walla, and for smaller craft,
the Snake river can be navigated as far as the mouth of the Pelouse
river.
Again referring to the map, we perceive a great basin or plain extending up the Snake river from the Columbia river to the Great Salt
lake. This plain is watered by numerous streams, and the country
is represented to be well wooded, with excellent grass.
All reports agree in stating that several good wagon routes can be
made through this plain from the Columbia river to the Great Salt
Lake City. The emigrant route from Fort Hall to the Dalles is at
present a good road.
The distance to be passed over by land from the proposed depot at
Umatilla to the Salt Lake City is estimated at 614 miles, but I have
been informed that a good route one hundred miles shorter can be
made from the Des Chutes river, passing to the head of the Malheur
river, down the valley of that river to the Snake river. This route
would place Salt Lake City 514 miles from the Dalles, at which point
the depots of transhipment in wagons should be placed.
Another great consideration in favor of this route is, that it can be
travelled at all seasons of the year ; and I am credibly informed that
the month of February is the best time to travel it, as the grasses are
then most flourishing. My own evidence at this place supports this
assertion, as the grass here at this time is as green and fresh as it is
found in the western States in May.
The Sierra Nevada range of mountains of California cannot be crossed
in safety with wagons before July ; and it is well known supplies cannot be sent from- Fort Leavenworth to arrive in Utah before August or
September.
In point of economy, it appears that ten cents per pound from the
Umatilla or Walla-Walla to Salt Lake City would be considered a
high price, and in a short time it could be done much cheaper. From
New York to Walla-Walla the freight on supplies is not quite five
cents per pound. Entire freight from New York to Salt Lake would
then be fifteen cents, and probably much less. Compare these prices
with the heavy expenses the government has been compelled to incur
H. Ex. Doc. 65 7 98
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
during the past year for the transportation of supplies from Fort Leavenworth to Utah, and a very large margin will be left in favor of the
route under consideration.
The country to the west and north of the Salt lake is not so mountainous, nor does it present the difficulties for obstruction that belong
to the country to the east of it. It is accessible at all seasons, and presents a military feature as regards the proposed route which will tend
to modify the necessity for maintaining a large force in Utah, where
all the elements of subsistence are wanting.
Let two strong garrisons be placed on this route ; concentrate a force
of two or three thousand men in the department of Oregon ; let the
Mormons understand that this force can be placed in their midst in
six weeks time, at any season, and they will be very careful not to
afford any occasion for its being done. The army in Utah can then be
reduced to an efficient garrison.
I shall cause a complete and thorough exploration to be made of the
country in question early in the spring, at the same time directing a
good wagon route to be laid out in the direction of Salt Lake City to
the limits of this department.
I respectfully recommend to the general-in-chief, and to the government, the earnest consideration of this subject, which contains such
important results to the interests of the military service ; for I do not
doubt that the physical features above enumerated will attract public
attention to their advantages in favor of one of the great national highways which must sooner or later connect the Atlantic States with those
of the Pacific.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
The Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
Office of Assistant Quartermaster,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, November 22, 1858.
Captain : I take the liberty to submit herewith communications
which treat of routes that lead from this department, by the line of
this river, to Utah, to the Great Salt Lake City. These communications were written by some of the most experienced, reliable, and best
informed citizens in the country. Accompanying are also a map and
table of camps and distances which will indicate the various routes
that cross the "rim" between the valleys of Snake and Humboldt
rivers, or the Salt lake, and the resources of the country as regards
water and grass.
I have the honor to submit these for the perusal of the general commanding this department, to whom I have supposed they would not
be without interest from the positions he has held, and may hereafter
hold, in his official capacity towards Utah and its singular inhabitants. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
When these letters were written it was thought by many that General Johnston would require aid in the way of troops and supplies before
they could reach him either from the Missouri or New Mexico. I was
satisfied then, from my own observation of the country, that he could
obtain that assistance by the line of the Columbia river at any season
of the year much quicker and equally as economical than from any
other competent source. I know now that had events rendered it
necessary to send aid to him at that time from this quarter, it could
have been easily accomplished. There was no time during the winter
of 1857 and 1858 that troops could not have gone from Walla-Walla
to the Great Salt lake in the space of six weeks. There was another
object in ascertaining the character and lengths of the routes. If the
vast interior of our domain is to be occupied by our troops stationed
at different points, the questions of "in what way and by what system can they be most easily, surely, and economically supplied," are
worthy of the most profound consideration. I do not assert that the
troops now in Utah can be supplied from this river at this time cheaper
than from the Missouri, though I certainly think such is the fact; but
I am sure that as the resources of this coast become developed and
multiplied, all the troops between here and Green river can be supplied far more economically from this depot than from the present
point of supply. Fort Walla-Walla, a post in this department three
hundred and fifty miles inland, but to which I now forward its supplies by xoater, is as near to Great Salt Lake City as Fort Laramie, on
the Platte.
The overland distance from Fort Leavenworth to the Great Salt
Lake City is 1,250 miles over two separate chains of mountains.
Many portions of the route, with few resources for large trains, can be
passed over only in summer and early fall, while the distance through
from Walla-Walla, many persona say, does not exceed 500 miles,
certainly not to exceed what is set down in the table herewith accompanying, over the Blue mountains simply, and through a region well
watered and grassed.
I presume that supplies can be landed here from New York city via
Cape Horn for one cent per pound. I am now forwarding them to
Fort Walla Walla for less than five cents per pound. A wagon
train can go from Walla-Walla to Salt lake and back the same
season, and pack trains can go over the route at any season. What
it would cost per pound I cannot state, but should conjecture that
contractors would undertake it at less that ten cents. When the
Walla-Walla valley becomes settled it can then be done much less in
my opinion. The distance from Walla-Walla to Great Salt Lake
City by the way of Fort Hall, over a well-known and perfectly practicable wagon road, is only about 700 miles, and when the news
reached us that General Johnston was ordered to send the 6th infantry
to Walla-Walla, we presumed that thai, regiment would not take a
longer route than this old well-known road, yet it appears it took the
long difficult Carson river road to Benicia, a distance of 950 miles ;
and after its arrival at the latter place it will be 1,185 miles from
Walla-Walla, where it was intended it should serve, and from which
it. was not half so far before commencing its march as now. 100
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
From and after next February, passengers and freight can be
transported by steam vessels through to Old Fort Walla-Walla ; and
it is quite probable that the Columbia will be found navigable to
Priest's Eapids, and the Snake branch further than known at present.
These form important matters for consideration by the general commanding, and also deeply concern the quartermaster's department
in the establishment of new posts further in the interior.
I am, verv respectfully, your most obedient servant,
EUFUS INGALLS,
Captain, Acting Quartermaster General.
Captain Alfred Pleasonton,
2d Dragoons, U. S. A., Act. Asst. Adjt. Gen., present.
10 b.
Fort Dalles, 0. T., December 27,1857.
Captain :
" In my opinion there are several routes to be found from Snake
river, that is, from Fort Boisee to the waters of Humboldt."
1st. A little below Fort Boisee "up" Owyhee river, which is the
nearest route to Salt lake " by the Grand Bond." I recollect very distinctly there is north of "Stony Point" a lake of large dimensions,
say twenty miles in circumference, where a thieving tribe of Indians
are encamped. They have fine horses, the finest I had seen amongst
any Indian tribes, and horned cattle ; distance from Stony Point about
twenty miles on open plain, fine camping in the mountains in the
spring, and but eight miles distant from Humboldt; besides that, -I
found some gold there, which nobody knows but me, and which led
me to explore that country. I took the first road across the mountain
ridge, leaving Humboldt on account of high water and scarcity of
grass, in 1852, as near as I can possibly recollect. I have seen a little
stream running north, which must have been the head of Owyhee
river.
2d. Up a creek above the place called Fishing or Salmon falls, from
which place, or in close proximity, the Indians get their salmon and
bring them to Thousand Spring valley.
This little creek heads in the same range as the west branch of
Humboldt and a little creek (Three Mile creek) of the Humboldt.
3d. Up to Thousand Spring valley, which I believe is the best, and
I myself would prefer.
4th. Up Goose creek, which may prove very hilly.
5th. Down Deep creek, which creek we crossed eight miles from
Hansel springs, emptying into a lake, distant from lake to the place
where I burned the coal pit at Cedar springs twenty-five miles, and
from where I brought the deserted teamster back.
6th. Up Eaft river ; after reflection, however, I pronounce this the AFFAIRS IN  OREGON
best, in point of feed and easy road, which can be found The others
are up Malad and Bear rivers. These routes all run parallel with
each other, only twenty to fifty miles distant from each.
A true copy and correct map from Fort Dalles to Fort Boisee (the
mentioned route,) and which can be relied on, is in possession of Maior
Haller, who informed me of it nearly two years ago ; he travelled it
himself.
From this map (Major Haller's) there can be good and true copies
made, which would give me better insight into the distances between
Snake river and the headwaters of Humboldt or Thousand Sorine-
valley. *    8
Eespectfully, &c.
L. SCHOLL.
Captain E. Ingalls,
United States  A
', Vancouver, W. T.
10 c.
Champoeg, 0. T., December 31, 1857.
Dear Sir : I received yours of 29th instant, and hasten to answer
your questions as you request. In case a column of troops should be
sent from Oregon to Utah or Salt lake, the nearest and best route is
by the way of Walla-Walla to that place by water from Walla-Walla
over the Blue mountains ; by the emigrant route to Fort Boisee, (300
miles;) up Snake river, by same trail, to Eaft river; thence to Salt
lake, about 320 miles, leaving Fort Hall about 70 or 80 miles north.
As to the best time for starting from Walla-Walla, very much
depends upon the weather, or earliness of the season. The Blue
mountains are often impassable until late in spring ; so soon as they
can be crossed you can proceed the balance of the way without any
more danger of snow ; a train can leave Walla-Walla early, travel on
slowly, and, in fact, have good grazing to the foot of the Blue mountains, where it will be well to examine and look out for the best
wagon road, as the old wagon track can be taken advantage of and
shortened ; don't start to go over the Blue mountains until you are
sure you can go through without a stop to fix road. I have no hesitation in saying that the above is the best way to get supplies to Salt
Lake, such as probably you wish to take, and certainly far the
cheapest and quickest; a move of that kind will bring to a close and
make a finale of this Indian war, now so much disturbing the officials
of Oregon. I do hope a large column of troops will be sent on this
route; it will be killing two birds with one pebble, and locating a
road through a country that will be of vast importance to the citizens
of the United States, and great convenience to the army.
There is one thing I would suggest, that is, to keep an eye out for
the valley of Fort Hall; six miles above it is a first-rate place for a
military post, just in the gap of the country leading to the north, or
on to the head of the Missouri; it is the only fine grass r
that 102 AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
valley that is wanted, and should be saved from the Mormons' firebrand for various reasons. I wish Colonel Johnston was there now
with all his stock, as where he is on Green river, or even on Bear
river, he must lose his stock or so impoverish it that it will be useless
in the spring for service. I have wintered there also, passed through
the country on snow-shoes, and know it is a bad country to winter in
with poor animals, as the snow hangs on so late in the spring. I fear
our little army will fare badly this winter out there, though it appears
they have provisions enough, notwithstanding the loss they met with.
You see I make the distance from Walla-Walla to Salt Lake 620
miles ; by the way of Fort Hall it is called 750. From Walla-Walla
to Fort Hall is about 500 miles, and Salt Lake City 196 further.
I do not think of anything more that would be of service to you,
or of interest to you.
Wishing you a happy new year, I remain your most obedient and
humble servant,
. EOBEET NEWELL.
Captain Ingalls, U. S. A.
10 c?.
Dayton, O. T., January 3, 1858.
Dear Sir : Your letter of the 29th ultimo, soliciting information
upon the relative merits of routes from this coast to the Great Salt
Lake City, when to be travelled by troops in early spring, has been
received.
In answer, I have no hesitation in giving the preference to the
route along the Columbia and Snake rivers, via the Dalles, Walla-
Walla., Umatilla, Grand Eonde, Fort Boisee, Salmon falls, to the
head of the Cannon or Eock creek, which is about one hundred miles
below Fort Hall, there leaving the emigrant wagon road and crossing
the Goose Creek hills to the waters of Baft river on Cusia creek, and
following up the eastern fork to the Salt lake and Humboldt road.
The distance between the Oregon road on Eock creek and the Salt
lake road cannot, I think, exceed sixty miles. It is then probably
sixty or seventy miles to the crossing of Bear river, five miles above
Salt lake, which is seventy-five miles from Salt Lake City. There is
a route leading from Fort Hall to Salt lake which goes by way of
Eaft river, though I never travelled it. There is also a route from
Soda springs to Humboldt called "Hoolgpeth's cut-off," which passes
through this district, showing that there may be practicable routes in
almost any direction. The grazing is generally good between Snake
river and Bear river as indicated. By taking this route you would
leave Fort Hall about one hundred miles to the left.
From Fort Boisee to Salmon falls there are two or three routes, one
following up the south side of Snake river, which is the shortest route,
but which is less favorable on account of scarcity of grass ; there are,
however, several good camps.
The route crossing Snake river at Boisee and following some forty or AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
fifty miles up Boisee river and recrossing Snake river at different
points below and near Salmon falls, affords good camps. By starting
as early as the month of April you would be likely to find a little
snow in the Blue mountains, but not to entirely obstruct the passage •
this, however, might be avoided by following south along the western
base to the Young Chief's trail, which intersects the old route at
Grand Eonde river, but this is only a horse trail, and would require
a little labor to prepare it for wagon trains. If the trains were to be
fitted out at the Dalles, by leaving the present road at Butter or at
Willow creek, the distance would be no greater by the Young Chief's
trail than by the present route. The importance of reducing to the
shortest possible distance land carriage, when you must necessarily
rely upon grazing for subsisting your animals, would go very far to
justify an additional expense in transporting by water as far as Walla-
Walla, so that you could have fresh teams to cross the Blue mountains ; in fact, if the proper kind of boats could be constructed, and a
sufficient number of experienced voyageurs or boatmen secured, by
stationing parties at the portages and most difficult rapids, the supplies could be readily transported by water to Walla-Walla, thus
shortening the distance of land carriage about one hundred and fifty
miles.*
Enclosed you will find a table of distances from Walla-Walla to
Salt lake, which, though I do not claim for it precision, approximates at least to correctness. The southern route which was travelled
by Lieutenant Hawkins with the supply train for the rifle regiment,
from Oregon City to Fort Hall in 1849, is, in my opinion, more than
two hundred miles further than by Snake river; besides, it passes
over a desert country having stretches of from twenty to sixty miles
without water and grass suitable for camps, in addition to which, portions of the road are too marshy and soft to admit of the passage of
wagon trains so early in the season.
The road which leaves this (Willamette) and follows the middle
fork of the Willamette river to its source, striking the northern road
at the crossing of Malheur river fifteen miles west of Fort Boisee, could
not be travelled with teams earlier than the first of June on account of
the frequent crossings of the river and the snow on the Cascade
mountains.
The routes from California following the Humboldt river could not,
I think, be travelled with loaded teams before the first of June, on account of snow on the Sierra Nevada mountains and the marshes along
the valley or plain of Humboldt. The route from San Bernadino I
am unacquainted with.
There are no streams on this Snake river route but what could be
forded between Walla-Walla and Bear river,.unless you decided to
cross Snake river at Fort Boisee ; but as a matter of precaution, to
guard against possible contingencies it would be well to have a supply
of canvas boats, such as were used by Colonel Buchanan during his
campaign against the coast and Eogue Eiver Indians in 1856. 1 believe this route to be as open and defensible as any one now known,
* All supplies now are transported by water to old Fort Walla-Walla. 104
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
and that it is equally short and can be travelled earlier with teams-
than any one north of the San Bernadino route.
You will observe that I have made the distance from Walla-Walla
to the city five hundred and ninety-five miles. It is but proper to say
that I have never travelled the entire route between the head of Rock
creek and Salt Lake City on this route.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JOEL PALMER;
Captain R. Ingalls,
Quartermaster, Fori Vancouver. AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
10   e.
105
Table of camps and distances to the Great Salt Lake Gity, Utah Territory, from Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory, a depot on the
Columbia river, 120 miles from the Pacific ocean, as follows:
Names of camping localities.
From Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory, to—
Fort Cascades . . ....	
Fort Dalles, Oregon Territory 	
Proposed depot six miles below mouth of Umatilla, where the
emigrant road touches the Columbia river, a very eligible site
for a landing of the overland supplies ; it is sixty miles from
New Fort Walla-Walla and thirty from the old fort by course
of the river; it is the nearest point to the Blue mountains on
the road to Utah, and is below the Umatilla rapids; distance
by the river from the Dalles	
Agency on Umatilla  	
McCoy's ranch ....	
Foot of Blue mountains .	
Grand Sonde river   ...... .	
Grand Sonde bottom . . .	
Bottom to south end of Ronde	
Crossing of Powder river ........... ...	
Pine stumps  -	
Burnt river, first thirteen miles no water	
Down Burnt/iver  -.
Birch creek .. 	
Malheur river  	
Fort Boisee    -	
Lewis's fork of Snake and up same to Salmon falls	
Salmon creek  .  	
Rock creek above canon .. . - .....	
Through Goose Creek hills to Raft river, thence to the Salt lake
and Humboldt road, where it crosses Raft or Rock streams—
Rock creek . ...... .............	
Cedar Springs .  	
Deep creek	
Blue Spring	
Crossing of Bear below the mouth of Malad river	
Great Salt Lake City	
684
701§
726J
RECAPITULATION.
From Fort Vancouver to Great Salt Lake City, nearest route 801J miles.
Of this distance transportation i
Do do	
by water.,
.by land ..
Miles.
187
614|
801|
QuAETEEMASnSR's OFFICE,
Fort Vancouver, Washington Territory, November 20, 1858.
RUFUS INGALLS,
Captain, Assistant Quartermaster. 106
AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
11. General Harney to the Adjutant General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., December 6, 1858.
Colonel : I have the honor to enclose a charge and specification
against first Lieutenant I. W. Sill, of the ordnance department, and
have to request, under the modification of the 65th article of war, that
a court-martial may be ordered for his trial.
I enclose a copy of my letter to Lieutenant Sill, and also a copy of
his reply, upon which the charge is based.
Presuming ignorance and inexperience on the part of Lieutenant
Sill, I authorized Lieutenant Colonel Morris, commanding Fort Vancouver, to say to him that no further notice would be taken of the
matter if he would withdraw his letter. This he peremptorily declined
to do, after Colonel Morris had pointed out to him his error.
An early action is desirable, and I trust a court will be ordered at'
your earliest convenience.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General, Washington City, D. C.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., December 2, 1858.
Sir : Your application for an office and fuel, under paragraph III of
General Orders No. 3 from the War Department of March 24, 1858,
has been submitted to the general commanding.
As the orders assigning you to duty in this department are specific
in naming you to the duty of erecting an arsenal at Fort Yancouver,
the general commanding does not think it would be becoming and
proper to separate you from those duties sufficiently as to recognize
you in the light of senior ordnance officer at the headquarters of this
department, as contemplated in the paragraph of the order above
quoted.
From your position as ordnance officer of the depot at Fort Yancouver you are entitled to an office and fuel, which you are authorized to
obtain in the usual manner as the service requires at the other ordnance stations.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
A. PLEASONTON,
*;     |. Captain 2d Dragoons, A. Ass't Adj't General.
First Lieutenant J. W. Sill,
Ordnance Department, Fort Vancouver, W. T. AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
107
11  b.
Yancouver, Department W. T.,
December 3, 1858.
Captain : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of yesterday. I am disposed to believe that the action of
the general commanding in relation to the request preferred by me
for an office was dictated by a proper regard for the public interest;
but I cannot remain silent on reading that it is not considered § becoming and proper to _ separate you from those duties sufficiently to
recognize you in the light of senior ordnance officer, &c, as contemplated in the paragraph of the order quoted.'' There surely can be no
doubt that the only ordnance officer in this department must be the senior
ordnance officer therein, and this independent of any special recognition
by the department of Oregon. But I would respectfully inquire if
General Orders No. 2, department of Oregon, dated October 27,1858,
does not sufficiently recognize me in the light of senior ordnance officer, &c , so far as to enable me to avail myself of the privilege conferred by the paragraph alluded to?
It was certainly never anticipated by me for a moment that in transmitting my application through the proper channel for authorization,
as a matter of form, it would be detained and questioned as a
matter of right. Still further was it from my mind that there was
anything unbecoming or improper in requesting the fulfilment of so
express a stipulation. Feeling sure that the department of Oregon
can take nothing but pleasure in according to its staff officers the
privileges to which they are entitled by regulations, and not being
able to perceive how the paragraph quoted can be susceptible of but
otie meaning, and that no doubtful or uncertain one, I feel constrained
to believe that there are special reasons, dictated of course by the public
good, which have brought about the present decision.
An explicit statement of such reasons or a full exposition of the true
and proper construction to be placed on the paragraph in question
will not only relieve my own mind of much painful perplexity, but
also serve as a valuable paper to be put on record, for the guidance of
such of my successors as may fall into a similar misapprehension.
I do not deem it incumbent on me to point out the urgent reasons
for providing an office in the present case, nor to demonstrate that in
no military department is a senior ordnance officer more properly entitled to the privilege referred to than in the department of Oregon.
As regards the authorization granted in the last paragraph of your
letter, it is unhappily nullified by the proviso attached, and you may
be certain that all such rights as I am entitled to, in virtue of commanding Yancouver department, I have not been slow to discover and
avail myself of. But this, with all due deference, I regard as irrelevant
to the question in hand, which rests on grounds wholly different.
There is a principle contained herein which in nowise depends on
the importance, great or small, of the object involved—a principle
which I can by no means consent to waive. j
Sooner than remain content with my anomalous relation to the de- 108
AFFAIRS  IN OREGON.
partment of Oregon, as defined in your letter, or submit to what appears to me in the light of indignity and humiliation, self-respect
demands that I should at once make application to the chief of ordnance to be relieved from the specific duty devolving on me at this
place.
I am, sir, verv respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. W. SILL,
1st Lieutenant of Ordnance.
Captain A. Pleasonton,
2d Dragoons, Acting Assistant Adjutant General,
Department of Oregon.
lie.
Charge and specification preferred against First Lieutenant Joshua W.
Sill, Ordnance department, by Brigadier General W. S. Harney,
commanding department of Oregon.
Charge.—Contempt and disrespect to his superior officer.
Specification.—In this : that he, First Lieutenant Joshua W. Sill,
Ordnance department, having been informed by his commanding oflK
cer, Brigadier General W. S. Harney, United States army, commanding the department of Oregon, that the provisions of paragraph 3 of
General Orders No. 3 from the War Department, of March 24, 1858,
were not applicable to him, did reply in a communication disrespectful
and contemptuous ; accusing his commanding officer of attempting to
place on him, the said Sill, an indignity, and stating that his self-
respect demanded that he should appeal to the chief of ordnance for
redress.
This at Fort Yancouver, Washington Territory, on the 3d day of
December, 1858.
W. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Witnesses:
Brigadier General W. S. Harney.
Captain A. Pleasonton.
12,
General Harney to the
General.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, December 8, 1858.
Colonel : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your com*
munication of the 3d ultimo, and, in reply, desire to inform the Sec^
retary of War that First Lieutenant John Mullan, jr., 2d artillery, AFFAIRS IN  OREGON.
left this command before my arrival, and it is presumed he has
paired to Washington.
I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Colonel S. Cooper,
Adjutant General, Washington City, D. C.
13. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department oe Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., January 20, 1859.
Sir : In my communication of November 5, 1858, I recommended
the establishment of a military post in the vicinity of Colville, for the
purpose of restraining the Indians who were so lately hostile in this
department.
In the event of this suggestion being approved by the War Department, I would further state that a military position at Colville will
dispense with the necessity of a command at Fort Simcoe, as the
Indians now held in check by Simcoe are more easily reached from
Colville, and the difficulties to be overcome in reaching the two points
are not comparable.
From its peculiar position, Fort Simcoe is cut off in the winter from
communication with these headquarters, except at great risk, whilst
Colville is accessible all the year round. Supplies can be furnished
Colville at nearly the same rates as Simcoe.
It would be well, therefore, to throw the garrison at Simcoe to Colville, strengthen it by a company from Walla-Walla, and to turn the
buildings over to the Indian department for an agency.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Lieutenant Colonel L. Thomas,
Assistant Adjutant General, Headquarters
of the Army, New York city.
14. The Adjutant General to General Harney.
Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, February 2, 1859.
Sir : I have the honor to enclose a copy of a communication addressed to the President of the United States by Bishop Blanchet, of
Nesqually, under date of September 29, 1858, in which he complains
of the encroachment by the military on the grounds of the Catholic
mission at Yancouver, &c. .
The Secretary of War directs that you cause the complaint of Bishop 110
AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
Blanchet to be investigated, and a report thereon to be made for the
information of the War Department and the President.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
'     '      J      * S. COOPEE,
Adjutant General.
Brig. General W. S. Harney,
Commanding Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T.
15. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T, February 7, 1859.
Sir : Since my communication of the 20th ultimo, recommending the
establishment of a post in the vicinity of Colville, and the abandonment of Fort Simcoe, I have received from the commsissioner of
the northwest boundary a request for an increased escort when their
labors are to be prosecuted east of the Cascade range of mountains,
on the 49th parallel of latitude.
The service which the commission is called upon to perform exposes
them to the hostilities of large bands of Indians in our own as well
as the British territory, and will require for its protection, at so great
a distance from our resources, at least three companies. This demand,
therefore, determines me to establish the post near Colville, in which
vicinity the commission will winter the next season, and from which
garrison escorts can be furnished to the different parties as they are
needed; besides, the presence of four companies in that country will
go far to impress all the tribes of our determination to chastise them
when it is necessary.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. S. HAENEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
16. General Harney to General Scott.
Headquarters Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T., February 7, 1859.
Sir : I am compelled to call the attention of the general-in-chief to
the recommendations contained in my communication of the 22d of
November, 1858, viz: That the troops in this department should be
supplied from depots established at this point, with proper officers to
superintend and be responsible for the faithful performance of the
duties necessary to their respective requirements. AFFAIRS  IN  OREGON.
Through the most culpable neglect, beyond my power of investigation, the troops of this command have been deprived of the proper
clothing for months; and the men are suffering at many posts for
want of overalls, drawers, stockings, shirts, and shoes. Requisition
upon requisition has been sent to the depots at San Francisco without
effect; and as I have no authority to institute any inquiry to elicit the
facts concerning this strange state of things, I respectfully and earnestly request that orders may be given at an early date, requirin°-
the supplies for this command to be sent to this point to be subject to
the action of officers under my exclusive control.
Besides the increased expense and great delay arising from the
present arrangement, the staff officers in the department of California
are subject to the orders of two different commanders, which tends to
weaken the authority of both ; at the same time the staff officers themselves are liable to imputations, out of their power to avoid, and which
are due solely to their positions.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
WM. S. HARNEY,
Brigadier General, Commanding.
The Assistant Adjutant General,
Headquarters of the Army, New York City.
17. The Adjutant General to General Harney.
Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, February 19, 1859.
General : Referring to the orders given by you to Captain A. J.
Smith, 1st dragoons, and Brevet Second Lieutenant C. E. Jesup, 10th
infantry, directing them to report in person at the War Department,
I am instructed by the Secretary of War to say that it is his wish that
orders of this nature may not in future be issued by you without his
sanction.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
S. COOPER,
Adjutant General.
Brig. Gen. W. S. Harney,
Commanding Department of Oregon,
Fort Vancouver, W. T.
18. The Adjutant General to General Harney.
Adjutant General's Office,
Washington, February 23, 1859.
General: Your letter of the 5 th of November last to the assistant
.djutant general at the headquarters of the army has been forwarded
to this office, and laid before the Secretary of War ; and in regard to 112 AFFAIRS IN OREGON.
so much thereof as relates to the establishment of military stations in
the vicinity of Fort Boisee, on Snake river, and in the neighborhood
of Colville, the Secretary directs me to inform you that it is his desire
that no new posts be established for the present within the limits of
your department whic