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A Canadian tour : a reprint of letters from the special correspondent of The Times 1886

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in eifMM and the uhited states.
are attached to all day and night trains, and Emigrant Sleepers are furnished for the use of emigrants without extra
charge. The Soiling Stock of the Company is superior to that of any railway in America, while the Drawing Room
and Sleeping Carriages are unequalled in point of elegance and luxury. They are works of art. ' Refreshment
Rooms have been established at convenient points along the line. These are under the direct supervision of the Company, and the best meals are provided at very moderate prices.
This Line alone will afford Through Cars for all classes of Passengers from Montreal to the North-West,; by any othet
line numerous transfers must be made, and vexatious Customs* regulations encountered.
The new steel steamships Alberta and Athabasca-, which run between Owen Sound and Port Arthur, are speedy, safe,
and comfortable. All their appointments are of the highest class, no expense having been spared to render them seaworthy, commodious, and comfortable.   In fact, they are equal in every respect to the finest ocean-going steamers.
By either the All-Rail or Lake-and-Rail Route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the entire Journey is in Canadian
territory, and, -beyond the examination of passengers' baggage on arrival at any Canadian seaport, no farther
Customs' examination is required.
The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, which is the only direct route to the Canadian North-West, has
thrown open to Settlement some of the finest agricultural lands in Manitoba and the North-West, of which the Dominion
Government offer 160 acres free;
For Rates of Passage, first-class and special emigrant fares, and further information, apply to any Steamship Agent
in Great Britain and Ireland, or to
Hew Pamphlets and Maps, just Published, sent Free of Charge on application. 
THE FAR INTERIOR: a Narrative of Travel
gnd Adventure, from the Cape of Good Hope, across the
Zambesi, to the Lake Regions of Central Africa. By
WALTER MONT AG 0 KERR, C.E., FJR.G.S. Illustrated with Sketches by the Author, engraved by Mr. J.
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Map of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
I.—Entering the St. Lawrence (Quebec, Aug. 25)
II.—The Province of Quebec (Montreal, Aug. 26)
IH.—The Metropolis of Canada (Montreal) ...
IV.—The Ottawa River Valley (Ottawa, Aug. 28)
V.—The Province of Ontario (North Bay, Ontario, Aug. 30) ..
VI.—The Great Lakes and their Northern Shores (Chapleau, Ontario)
VII.—The North Shore of Lake Superior (Port Arthur, Ontario, Aug. 31)
VIII.—The Province of Manitoba (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Sept. 1)	
LX.-—Winnipeg and its Neighbourhood (Winnipeg, Manitoba, Sept. 2)
X.—Opening a New Country (Binscarth, Manitoba, Sept. 3)	
XL—Entering the Great North-West Territory (Indian Head, North-West Territory, Sept. 6)
XII.—The Coming Metropolis of the North-West (Regina, North-West Territory, Sept. 7)
XIII,—Approaching the Rocky Mountains (Fort MacLeod, Alberta, Sept. 8)  ...       	
XIV.—The Ranching Region of Alberta (Calgary, Alberta, Sept. 10)            ...       .«
XV.—Entering the Rocky Mountains (Banff, Rocky Mountains, Sept. 13)    «.
XVI.—Crossing the Kicking Horse Pass (Donald, British Columbia, Sept. 14) ...
XVII.—Crossing the Selkirk Mountain Range (Revelstoke, British Columbia, Sept. 15)
KVIII.—Approaching the Pacific Slope (Kamloops, British Columbi«, Sept. 16) ...
XIX.—Descending the Pacific Slope (Vancouver, British Columbia, Sept. 18)...
XX.'—The Island of Vancouver (Victoria, British Columbia, Sept. 20)	
XXI.—The Canadian Pacific Railway (Port Moody, British Columbia, Sept. 21)    ..
XXII.—Some Pertinent Reflections (Port Arthur, Ontario, Sept. 25)       ...
XXIII.—Homeward Bound (Toronto, Sept. 28) ...
Leading Article from The Timet       »«      ^      ......      ...      ...      ...      ....„«..
•i*     •••     •».
• ••     •••
••*     •••
•*•     »♦•
•»•     ••»
•M      •••      »••      •••
•*•      •••      ♦»■
•»«      ■••      »»«
67 ■^ ¥ -"■* 1
QUEBEC, Atro. 25.
^tie Dominion of Canada occupies the front rank
'among Her Majesty's.widespread colonial possessions. The recent completion of the Canadian
Pacific Rail, ay has directed attention to the
possibilities of growth in this vast British Empire,
which has before it a limitless future. This great
railway is the fourth American transcontinental
line, is built entirely on British soil, and is the
shortest route across the Continent, f It is," said
Tlie Times on June 30 last, when the first Canadian
Pacific through train was on its way from Montreal
to Vancouver, " an indispensable link in the
chain of connexions which binds the various parts
of the Empire together, and concentrates both its
industrial and its military resources. It brings
England into direct and rapid communication with
the Pacific by a line which no hostile Power would
find it easy to assail." Few Englishmen realize
the power of the expansive forces which are yet
dormant in this enterprising and loyal dominion.
It has a superficial area greater than the United
States and nearly equal to the whole of Europe,
covering the enormous surface of about 3,500,000
square miles. Its almost 5,000,000 of people as
yet inhabit but a small portion of this vast domain,
which is said to have fully 375,000,000 acres of
good agricultural land still unoccupied, but ready
to be brought into cultivation. It can grow wheat
on a surface of 1,300,000 square miles and maize
on half-a-million, while grasses and the coarser
grains can be raised on over 2,000,000 square
miles of good land.
The natural highway to this empire is by the St,
Lawrence river. It was by this route, having first
passed through the Strait of Belle Isle, between
Newfoundland and Labrador, that the intrepid
French navigator and explorer, Jacques Cartier,
discovered Canada in 1534. - He ascended the
broad St. Lawrence to the " Narrows " at Quebec,
which he named St. Croix, his religious zeal
prompting him to erect there a large wooden cross
when he took possession of the newly found
country in the name of the French King. The
next year Cartier penetrated further, leaving his
little ships at St. Croix, and ascending the river
in a small boat as far as Montreal, where he found
the populous Indian town of Hochelaga, with the
famous mountain at its back which he named
Mont Real..; This St. Lawrence river, thus first explored, is the outlet of the greatest body of fresh
water on the globe. It drains seven vast lakes—
Superior, Nepigon, Michigan, Huron, Erie,
Ontario,&nd Champlain, besides myriads of smaller
ones, its basin oovering a territory of over 400,000
square miles, and having been computed, before
tne discovery of the great African lakes, to
contain more than balf of all the fresh water on
the earth. The St. Lawrence river proper is fully
750 miles long from Lake Ontario to the head of
the gulf, while the total   length    of its   whole
system of rivers and lakes is over 2,000 miles, and
is calculated as containing 12,000 cubic miles of
water. These are enormous figures, but they will
give an idea of the vastness of the dominion of
Uanada. The valley of this great river and its
tributaries is a region of immense forests capabla
of supplying the world with timber for many
The French navigator Cartier, whose name and
memory are preserved in many ways in Lower
Canada, has had his example followed by many
modern navigators, whose regular lines of first-
class British steamers ascend the St. Lawrence to
conduct a lucrative trade between the mother
country and hor vigorous offspring. For thejf
benefit,the navigation of the vast system of interior
waters has been greatly improved. The Gulf of
St. Lawrence, which may be said to debouch to the
northward of Cape Gaspd, where it is 100 miles
wide, covers a surface of 80,000 square miles, and
with the lower river has a tidal rise and fall of
18 to 24 feet. The head of the gulf and mouth of
the river are generally placed at the section which
has Cape Chatte on the southern bank and Pointe
des Monts opposite. From there up almosf to
yuebec the river is from 10 to 30 miles wide. Before Cape Diamond at Quebec it narrows to less
than a mile-in width, while above it is from one
to two-and-a-half miles wide to Montreal, expanding at one point between the two cities into Lake
St. Peter, where it widens to 10 miles and the
tidal current ceases to have influence. Above
Montreal the riverisgenerally abroad and strongly
flowing stream, with rapids. The ship canals
around these rapids and the Falls of Niagara, and
connecting   the   various   lakes
works that   have   cos
many millions of dollars.
Between the head of the St. Lawrence river proper,
at Lake   Ontario,   and   the  sea level,  there is
descent of 231 f c
Large vessels ascend to Mont-
Louis river, which
real, where they encounter the Lachine Rapids.
The canal system, however, enables all the lake
tonnage to freely pass between Montreal and.
Lake Superior. The head of the St. Lawrence
system was generally placed by the early
French geographers in Lake !Nepigon, north
of Lake Superior ; but it is a question
whether the longer line from the ocean is not
that from the source of the St
flows from Minnesota into the south-
extremity of Lake Superior at Duluth.
The earliest settlements on the St. Lawrence
were largely due to religious zeal. The French,
who had pondered upon Cartier's discovery for
nearly three-quarters of a century, hit upon the
plan of combining religion and conquest in a series
of expeditions sent out in the early part of the
17th century, under the auspices of various patron
saints and sinners, whose names are preserved
throughout the Province of Quebec in the nomenclature of counties, Capes, bays, mountains,
rivers, towns, and streets. But it was chiefly
due to Samuel de Champlain that^ a firm foothold was obtained. This famous colonist and
explorer was noted for his religious fervour and
his personal bravery.    Perilous journeys, prayers,.
-- (I
A   Canadian   Tour.
find fighting were his occupation in ^he New
"World. He firmly planted the French race on
American soil, and every Gallic characteristic
he gave the kingdom of New France remains to
this day in the Anglo-French Province of Quebec.
His saying is preserved in many Canadian
chronicles, that , the salvation of one soul is of
more importance than the founding of a new
empire." His system of settlement was to first
take possession for the Church and the French
-King, and then erect a cross and a chapel, around
which the colony grew. During the 20 or 30 years
succeeding Champlain's first voyage in 16C8, Re-
collet and Jesuit missionary priests came . over,
who traversed the country and made many converts,
so that thus were established colonies and settlements, half-religious and half-military, which
formed alliances with the neighbouring Indians
and ultimately waged almost perpetual wars with
their English and Indian foes to the southward.
Champlain founded Quebec at the Narrows of
the St. Lawrence in 1608, and in his subsequent
voyages discovered Lakes Champlain, Ontario, and
Having written thus much by way of necessary
introduction, we will fallow the route of our
famous French explorers and original settlers,
Cartier and Champlain, as well as that of
the modern navigator and enter Canada by the
St. Lawrence. The voyage is now performed
on a steamer 50 times the size of the vessels that
carried them safely across the Atlantic centuries
ago. The route passes to the southward of the
great island of Anticosti, which lies in front of
the river entrance. To the northward of this
island the Quebec coast stretches away towards
Labrador, and is a region almost without
settlements. To the southward is the broad
Gaspe" peninsula, between the St. Lawrence and
Chaleur bay (famous for international fishery
squabbles).Anticosti isan uncultivated island about
145 miles long and 30 miles broad in the centre,
narrowing towards both ends, and dividing the
St. Lawrence gulf into    two  channels.    Its  east
point is in49deg. latitude and 62deg. west longitude,
guide for the
is sighted as
and its lit
mariner before he sails at a safe distance along
the southern coast of the island, which is bordered by dangerous reefs and is said to be without
a good harbour. The distant background of hazy
hills in the interior rises sometimes to 500ft.
elevation. There are a couple of good havens on
the other side, however, one in Ellice bay, near
the western end, and the other at Fox bay, on the
north-western coast. Anticosti is made a base
of operations by fishermen in the summer, though
it is said that few remain there voluntarily during
the long and ice-bonnd dreary winter.   Heretofore
is  has
eases ot s
heard    from
nd attempts
excepting m
at colonization
and settlement have not-had very successful results. A new attempt is now being made,
however, on a more elaborate scale by. an English
company recently projected, which it is hoped
will have a profitable future, though Canadians
generally doubt it.
As the widely-separated shores of the St.
Lawrence gradually approach, the physical features of the adjacent region can be discerned,
the broad water-way flowing through an alluvial
plain, with distant mountain ranges on either
hand. The northern shore is bordered by the
Laurentian mountains, which form the bank almost
up to Quebec, when they recede and the fertile
valley broadens. These mountains are picturesque,
but on the coast., they   do not attain more than
1,500ft. to 2,500ft. high, though they are said to
have higher ridges and peaks in the back country.
Geologists tell us that this aggregation of crystalline rocks, with their hills worn into rounded
forms, is the most ancient part of North America,
the waves of the Silurian sea having . washed
against the Laurentian range when only two
small islands represented the remaining portion;
of the continent. This mountain region is a
favourite resort of the angler, being studded with
lakes and intersected by torrents, there being over
1,000 lakes of varying sizes laid down upon the
maps. The Notre Dame mountains to the southward of the gulf and river rise higher and make
very bold shores, their peaks sometimes reaching
4,000ft. This, range turns southward and is
connected with the Green and "White mountains of
New England in the States. The frowning promontories of Cape St. Anne and Cape Chatte give
most striking scenery to the stranger, whose
steamer, in a very brief period, has sailed from
the almost boundless level of the ocean close
under this rugged coast. Thus, on either hand, as
it is ascended, the broad St. Lawrence presents
picturesque mountain scenery, ushering the visitor
into the region which was carelessly described as
" a few square miles of snow " when France in
the last century surrendered it to England. Lower
Canada in winter is a land of extreme cold, and
in summer of torrid heat, the temperature varying
from that of Italy to that of Moscow, from
lOOdeg. above to 20deg. below zero, while
the statement is made that the mean
temperature at Montreal shows it to be on
the same isothermal line as that of Orleans in
France. Yet the winter air is so dry and the
summer is so tempered by ocean breezes that
these extremes are not felt in their severity. The
winter covers everything with dry snows, so that
the frost does not penetrate, and the quick spring
with magic power makes vegetation ; develop with
amazing activity. This speedy and wonderful
change causes the maize,which cannot be grown in
England and will barely ripen in northern France,
to be a regular and prolific crop in nearly the
whole province of Quebec.
After passing the cliffs of Cape Chatte and
entering the river, the fishing settlement at Metis
is seen on the . southern shore, and a few miles
above the Rimouski comes down its beautiful
valley into the St. Lawrence. The village at its
moutb, about 180 miles below Quebec, is a popular
watering place and has some handsome villas and
hotels. On the opposite . bank frequent streams
come in from among the Laurentian hills. The
curious promontory of Le Bic (the eagle's beak)
guards its ancient harbour and landing place,
while above the angler seeks the mountain stream
known as the Trois Pistoles, where, amid pleasing
scenery, the fishing is said to be good. The St.
Lawrence is about 20 miles wide where its largest
tributary, the Saguenay, flows in, and on the
opposite shore   is   one   of the   favourite summer
resorts   of  the Canadians,   the pretty
village of
Cacouna. The stern and gloomy Saguenay is one
of the most remarkable rivers in the world. It is
in reality a tremendous chasm, cleft in a nearly
straight line for some 60 miles through an almost
unsettled wilderness. It brings down the waters
of Lake St. John, which receives the inflow of 14
large streams, expanding, its surface to some 360
square miles in the heart of the Laurentian
mountains. Several of these streams rise away
off in the watershed towards Hudson Bay, and
the great accumulation of waterthus gathered flows
down a series of rapids to Grand or Ha Ha Bayj Entering
the    St.    Lawrence.
where the Saguenay chasm begins. The first Frenchmen who ventured up there gave the bay this name
to express their delight at having at last got out
of the gloomy region they had traversed for so
long a distance. From Ha Ha Bay the river
forces its passage with a broad channel
through almost perpendicular cliffs of granite
and syenite to the St. Lawrence. The great
depth of the Saguenay is noteworthy, showing
how the chasm has been split open, it being in
some places a mile to a mile and a-half deep,
while the mid-channel has an i average depth
throughout of 800 to 900 feet. The river is in
most places a mile wide. Chicoutini, or the
" deep water," was its appropriate Indian title,
and is still preserved in the name of the sleepy
little village at the head of navigation, where
vessels are halted at the foot of the rapids. The
Saguenay pursues its sombre, savage course
through the stern cliffs of dark gray gneiss that
rise from the black „ waters, with pines fringing
their summits and clinging to their crevices.
The sublimity of this cold and uninviting region
culminates at Eternity Bay, a narrow cove,
where on either hand, to guard the entrance, rise
in stately grandeur to an elevation of 1,600 feet
Cape Trinity, with its three peaks, and Point
Eternity. The upper rapids of this strange river
rival those at Niagara. It was at Tadousac, near
its mouth, that tbe first Christian church was built
in North America, said to be the first stone and
mortar building erected by Europeans on this
continent. Tadousac is a wild and romantic place,
which also contains a relic of the earliest British
commercial power in Canada,the quaint and ancient
buildings of the Hudson Bay Company.
As the journey proceeds up the river, both
shores of the St. Lawrence are bold and beautiful,
with numerous attractive summer resorts,nowin the
height of activity. Riviere du Loup and Murray
Bay,a few miles above, have a lovely outlook. The
salt water of the river flows clear and deep, and
whales are sometimes seen disporting with the seal
and porpoise. Frequent streams come down
through picturesque gorges and over rocky rapids
to fall in upon either bank. The Laurentian hills
skirting the northern shore present bold promontories and rise to their greatest height, about
2,550 feet, in Mount Eboulemens. The adjacent
cliffs of Cape Tourment jut out as a landmark a
short distance below Quebec, and above here the
Laurentian range recedes from the river. On
the same side the St. Anne river flows in through
a deep and rugged ravine, in the course of which
it plunges over a succession of cascades/one being
130 feet high. Thirty miles below Quebec is the
quarantine station at Grosse Island, the adjoining
Bnores and islets being the resort of the sportsmen. The Chaudiere or Boiling Fall is another
attractive cascade on the southern bank, while
nearer Quebec are the famous falls of the
Montmorenci. The Isle of Orleans guards the
river passage below the city, which stands in a
beautiful position at the Narrows of the St.
Lawrence, its elevated citadel frowning upon the
rivers which converge just below the lower town.
Here; at the impregnably defended portals of the
Dominion, the stranger sets foot upon the soil of
Canada, in a city that is unsurpassed for magnifik
pent natural advantages.
MONTREAL, Aug. 26.
The   anoient   jorovince of Lower   Canada   is q
thoroughly French region, and throughout the many
changes marking its chequered history has maintained the religious character of its original set«
tlement. The geographical names are mostly
those of saints and fathers of the Church
—missionaries and pioneers who founded and
built up this colony of New France—and much of
the land is held by religious bodies. Of the
population.which probably now approximates to a
million and a half, about 1,200,000 are French.
This province occupies a unique position in
Canada, and, indeed, in America. Its French
customs, language, and laws are jealously maintained, though under the British flag. The English
Church exists, and the Presbyterians and other
denominations flourish, but they are overshadowed
by the Roman hierarchy, which nowhere in the
world shows more vitality or commands more
thorough devotion from its people. The original
settlements in the province were all religious
colonies, planted in the 17th century, when the
French were the most zealous missionaries for
the Church, and this imprinted upon Lowei
Canada characteristics that are to-day most prominently developed. Yet this vast region, stretching for many miles from the broad valley of the St.
Lawrence northward to the height of land that
makes the watershed between its affluents and
those flowing into Hudson Bay, is but sparsely
settled. The coast on the north side of the St.
Lawrence has only scattered fishing settlements
below the Saguenay river, while above that remarkable chasm the inhabited region extends but
a short distance into the back country. The
wilderness of the Laurentian mountains is behind.
The province has, it is true, in Montreal and
Quebec the two largest cities of the Dominion ;
but the mass of the people" are gathered around
them and along the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers,
leaving extensive tracts of territory elsewhere
almost untenanted. The small minority of the
English-speaking people mostly live in the two
cities and in the towns on the Ottawa river
above Montreal.
As the famous soldier, navigator, and religious
enthusiast, Champlain, made the earliest settlement at Quebec, the characteristics he gave the.
colony have remained its distinguishing marks to
this day. That attractive city is a fortress, trading
post, and church combined. No finer location
could have been selected for a town and port, and
no more impregnable place found to guard the St.
Lawrence entrance. The great lather of Canada
certainly had an eye to practical business as well
as for the beautiful when he chose the spot at the
junction of the St. Charles with the St. Lawrence
for his combined chapel, stockade, and trading
station. An elevated tongue of land stretches
alongthe north-western bank of the St. Lawrence for
several miles, and from behind it comes out the
St. Charles river. Below their junction the Isle ,
of Orleans blocks the way and divides the St.
Lawrence into two channels, while above the
broad river contracts to less than a mile in width,
and all along is guarded by bold shores. At the
northernextremityof this tongue of land andoppo-
site the narrows in the river there rises the lofty
cliff of Cape Diamond^ some 350 feet above the
water, and here the oitadel crowns the hill and
overlooks the town nestling at its feet. The
extensive fortifications spread all around the cliff
and its approaches completely guard the rivers
and the means of access by land, and here for
many years a British garrison held the gate to!
i Canada, though nor? the citadel is the property of
J 4
A    Canadian   Tonr,
the Dominion, and so peaceful have all the surroundings become that it is chiefly a show place
for promonaders and sightseers. As may be imagined, this grand fortress and its outlying works
are magnificent to look at from the river, while
the outlook from the ramparts and terraces that
encircle the cliff .is one of the grandest sights
over town and river, hills, woods, and waters in
the world.
The great religious corporations occupy much of
Quebec with their buildings and grounds, and the
extensive walls and fortifications also take up a
good deal of space, so that the remaining room left
for the city itself seems rather contracted. Yet
quaint and narrow streets intersect the irregular
surface, bordered by many mediaeval house3,among
them being frequent solid stone buildings sur-
mounted by glistening roofs of shining tin, re-
- splendent in the clear atmosphere. The Lower
Town clusters about the base of the promontory
and is the business quarter, bordered along the
river banks and basin by piers and wharves and
store houses.    From this you climb   laboriously
up the steep and   winding way known
do la Montague " to the Upper Town and the
fortress. This upper city has in later years spread
out far over the historical plains of Abraham,
where the brief and sanguinary surprise and
battle occurred in the last century that killed
both the English and French commanders
and     gave     Great     Britain    her    Empire     in
North America.
the death
one of the great memories
of the victor Wolfe
of Quebec, marked by a modest monument on
the field, while near by aro traces of the
steep and difficult-path by which he and his troops
scaled the cliff and surprised the French. Another
and more elaborate shaft in the Governor's garden
in the city preserves the memory of both the chieftains Wo|!io and Mpntcaim. Rut the greatest
memory that is embalmed in Quebec is that of its
founder Champlain, whose remains are entombed in
the Basilica. The site of his original fort and
stockade is preserved in the present Parliament
House, where the provincial Legislature meets.
Th     " Champlain steps "  lead down the hillside
whftrft JtiH  hrm!aa
to the   place
where his
was built two  centuries
church   of Notre Dame
" Champlain
stood,   on   which
ho   quaint   little
Victoires.      The
not    far   away,    a
ppaoious . structure on the river side. Thus in
every way is the memory of the groat founder of
Canada commemorated, and in fact he is regarded
by the peoplo who have sprung from the little
colony he planted and its offshoots as more truly a
saint than many of those whose names are so
liberally sprinkled over the province. Among
Quebec's finest buildings are those of the city's
great cqllege,tho Laval Univ8rghYy,a modern structure, not far from the Basilica. The ancient city,
howSver. seems almost at a standstill, and though
it enjoys a good trade in timber and other
products, yet the improvements in navigation
methods, and the superior attractions of Montreal
a3 a commercial centre and railway terminus
cause most of the large steamers and cargo ships
to go by Quebec and seek a haven further up the
river. Thus Nature, so prodigal of her .gifts of
scenery and magnificence of landscape, has been
6tinti$g in her allowance to Quebec of some other
advantages in traffic and profit which, perhaps, the
townsfolk might profer. There is, however, an
awakening at Quebec to a realizing sense of the
necessity of doing something to counteract this.
The Government is carrying out a plan of harbour
.imorovemen^while quite a spur has   been give;.
the manufacturing industries of the city. Railway
connexions with the Upper St. Lawrence and with
the British maritime provinces and the New.
England States have their advantages which are
constantly expanding as new extensions are
brought into use. It will be inferred from what is
here written that the city is a Mecca for tourists
from all parts of the world, and consequently
most arriving steamship passengers land ai
Quebec. As may be imagined of such a
picturesque region, the suburbs of the city
are a glorious panorama of natural beauties.
Spencer Wood, the home of the Governor of the
province, is reached by a fine drive, and another
along the romantic banks of St. Charles river
takes the visitor to the old-time Huron Indian
village of Lorette. The St. Lawrence river ferries
also give charming views, and nothing can be
more beautiful than the drive around the Isle of
Orleans below the city. But the crowning charm
of the neighbourhood of Quebec is the route along
the St Lawrence down to the magnificent Falls of
Montmoronci, where a foaming torrent some 50ft.
wide plunges down a cataract 250ft. high.
From Quebec up to Montreal there are two railway routes, the Grand Trunk and the  Canadian
Pacific each having   a line.    The former passes
from .Point Levi,   opposite  Quebec,  through the
country to the southward   of the  St.   Lawrence
and enters Montreal over the well known Victoria
tubular bridge that is the main route of travel between the United States and Lower Canada.    The
Canadian Pacific lino  is the   " North Shore Railway," an old road leased by the  new corporation
and connecting the two cities on that side  of the
river.    The  St. Lawrence itself flows  about 18C
miles from  Montreal to  Quebec, a  broad stream
through the wide  alluvial valley, the   mountain
cliffs which guard the river bank at  Quebec and
give such boldness to the scenery there receding
above and thus   broadening   the   plain.    As the
steamer advances the shores become less bold and
the   adjacent   country   flattens.     The   Richelieu
Rapids are carefully passed-; the stream corning in
from the north-west below them being named from
the   first     explorer    of     the     great   river—the
Jacques    Cataract.    Above    this    and    also    en
the   northern  bank is the busy   town  of Three
Rivers about midway between the two cities.  The
river St.  Maurice, which is d ivided at its mouth
by two little islands, comes in here, and the three
channels give the town  its   name.     This   river-
drains a large area which is an important timber-
producing region.    Its course is marked by rapida
and waterfalls,  the  chief being the Shawanegan
Fall, about twenty miles inland, famous for savage
grandeur and  the remarkable character   of the
cataract. The river, suddenly bending and divided
by  a pile of rocks into two channels, falls nearly
150 feet, and dashes violently against an opposing
wall    of   rock,    where the united stream forces
its way through   a    channel   seemingly scarcely
100 feet wide.    Three Rivers is a great timber   exporting   port   and   formerly   was   an   important
trading post, but the later growth of Montreal has
overshadowed   it.    The St.  Maurico region pro*
duces bog iron  ore in   large quantities.    The St,;
Lawrence   river   above   this   town   is   broad and
monotonous, and ultimately widens  out into Lakt
St.  Peter, where the water spreads to nine nailed
width and becomes very shallow, excepting   in the
ship channel, which has to be kept  dredged  out-
The shores are low, and little is to be seen but the
shipping and an   occasional timber   raft   covering
acres   of   surface   and   floating  lazily   with   the
current.   Several tributa,£ieB fall in, inejuding the The   Province   of
St. Francis river on the southern bank, a valuable
mill stream, and the Maskinonge" on the northern
side. Above the lake, after passing clusters of
islands, we come to the chief affluent of the St.
Lawrence in this part of its course, the Richelieu
river, which drains Lakes Champlain and George
and all the region southward to the Hudson River
Valley, its navigation being improved by the
Chambly Canal, making the connexion between the
St. Lawrence and the Hudson rivers. It was here,
at the mouth of the Richelieu, that Captain Sorel
built the old fort St. Louis as a check to Iroquois
incursions more than 200 years ago, and his name
is preserved in the town that has gathered around
the place, where boat-building and considerable
trade are carried on.
Frequent villages are passed above Sorel that are
practically outlying suburbs of Montreal. Among
a maze of wooded islands the lower part of the
turbid waters of the Ottawa flow in, and below
the line can be distinctly seen that marks the edge
of the clearer current coming down the St.
Lawrence. The river stream—for this is beyond
the limit to which the tidal current reaches—
has worn the steep banks on one side, while on
the other the eddies and pools of water have deposited long shoals and jutting points of alluvial
matter broughtdown from above.Parish afterparish
is passed, each with its church and presbytere, reproducing the structures of Old Normandy, with
their narrow windows and steep roofs, all covered
with shining tin, which the dry air of Canada preserves from rust. The villages cluster around the
churches, and between them are long stretches of
arable lands almost unbroken by trees, save where
the Lombardy poplar stands up stiffly against the
horizon. Longueuil Bay opens out, disclosing its
pretty village and lofty church. Tho steamer
labours against the strong St. Mary current as it
comes up to the great city. Passing between the
pretty wooded mounds of St. Helen's Island—
named after Helen Boulle', the wife of Champlain
—and the town, the landing is sought just above.
Montreal lines the western bank of the broad
river, its miles of water front superbly faced with
long walled quays of eolid masonry and marked
by jutting piers,enclosing basins for the protection
of the shipping. On either hand, at the extremities of the long rank of vessels, up and <down the
stream, looms up a huge grain elevator. The long
line of the great Victoria Tubular Railway Bridge,
which brings the Grand Trunk Railway across the
St. Lawrence, stands upon its row of limestone
piers, and guards the horizon up the river to the
southward. Behind the broad wharves rise rank
after rank of storehouses and stately buildings,
and in and beyond these are myriads of domes,
spires, and steeples, with the lofty twins, the
towers of old Notre Dame, prominent in front.
The grand background to this noble view is made
by the mountain that gives Montreal its name.
The St. Lawrence river above the city flows 172
miles north-eastward from Lake Ontario. It is
one of the favourite tourist routes to take a steamboat from the foot of the lake at Kingston and
come down to Montreal, shooting the rapids.
Just above Montreal are the Lachine Rapids,
short, turbulent, and dangerous. The river then
broadens into a series of lakes, above which are the
Long Sault Rapids. It is the passage through
these, the steamer generally guided by an Indian
pilot, that gives the river journey its zest for the
tourist. Above this the St. .Lawrence becomes the
boundary between the United States and Canada,
and has several flourishing towns on its banks,
including Ogdensburg   in New York,, and Prescott
and Brockville in Canada. At the mouth of Lake
Ontario is the famous archipelago known as thei
" Lake of the Thousand Islands," which is a remarkable formation made by fragments of the,
range of Laurentian mountains which here comes
southward to the river, and makes a most'extra-;
ordinary region. From 'Kingston, at the foot of:
Lake Ontario, the river threads its tortuous passage among the islands to Ogdensburg, some 40.
miles below. There are said to be actually 1,692;
of these islands, of all imaginable shapes, sizes, and!
appearance, some several miles long, others onlyi
a few yards, and others again barely visible.!
They vary from gaunt masses of rock to gorgeous,'
foliage-covered gardens. Cluster after cluster or;
circular little islands are passed, covered with
green trees, and the channel marked by little!
whitewashed wooden lighthouses. The chief'
summer resort of the archipelago is Alexandria1
Bay, a charming village of hotels and boarding;
houses on the New York shore, where elegant!
villas dot some of the adjacent islets. Boating,!
fishing, and shooting are the popular amusements.!
The St. Lawrence river, in fact, almost throughout!
its course, is a stream with a perpetual succession!
of islands, the channel from .Kingston down to!
Anticosti being thus constantly varied. But at*
Montreal its great foreign trade ends, excepting
for lake vessels that can go through the canals!
around the rapids. Jt is at the "Canadian metro-i
polis that the transfer of trade chiefly takes place!
between steamer and railway, the ocean passage]
being    ended,   and   the   freighting   being   after-'
ds   d
over the   two great Canadian lines,;
the Grand Trunk and the Canadian Pacific.
The clangour of many bells in the early morn*-
ing tells the visitor to Montreal that he is in a
city of churches. This is probably its most
prominent characteristic. There are churches
everywhere, representing all denominations, many
of them most elaborate and costly structures that
would be an ornament anywhere. The American
humourist MarkTwain,when he once ventured into
Montreal and was mistaken for a bank cashier from
the States on a hurried summer trip, parried the
suggestion by saying he never was in a city before.
where one could not throw a brickbat without
breaking a church window. The religious zeal of
this community of earnest men of all kinds of
ecclesiastical opinion finds special vent in an
elaborate development of church building. Yet
this trait is a natural inheritance. The original
foundation of Montreal was probably the most
completely religious enterprise of the many the
French undertook in Canada in the 17th century.
The triangular gray building which is the Customhouse marks the spot where La Ville Marie de
Mont Real was founded in 1642, by Paul de
Chomeday, Sieur de Maisonneuve. A little creek
flowed into the St. Lawrence at that place in those
days, and it made a good landing place away
from the swift current of the river. We are told,
the story of the original settlement on May 18,
1642, by the veracious chronicler Parkman, who
has delved deeply into Canadian archives.
" Maisonneuve sprang ashore," say3 he, " and
fell on his knees. His followers imitated his
example ; and all joined their voices in enthusiastic songs of thanksgiving. Tents, baggage, arms,
and stores were landed. An altar was raised on a
pleasant spot near at hand ; and Mademoiselle
Mance with Madame de la Peltriex aided by her
—:——— -! —
-  —--* I
A   Canadian    Tour.
servant Charlotte Barre", decorated it with a taste
which was the admiration of the beholders. Now
all the company gathered before the shrine. Here
jtood Vimont in the rich vestments of his
Dffice. Here were the two ladies with their
servant ; Montmagny, no very willing spectator ;
and Maisonneuve, a warlike figure, erect and tall,
his men clustering around him. They kneeled in
reverent silence as the Host was raised aloft ; and
when the rite  was over   the priest turned and
them—' You are a grain of mustard
seed, that shall rise and grow till its branches
overshadow the earth. You are few, but your
work is the work of God. His smile is on you and
your children shall fill the land.' " Thus was
planted the "grain of mustard seed," and the town
was begun in a spirit of religious enthusiasm, the
Frenchhavingfittedouttheexpeditionsolely to found
in America a veritable " Kingdom of God," as
understood by devout Roman Catholics. There is
no end of tales of ** revelations " and " voices "
and "providential occurrences " by which the zeal
of the early colonist was stimulated. The seed
thus planted has grown so well that the religious
corporations now own a large part of all that is
worth owning in Montreal ; although it is proper
to say that a handful of Scots who came after
them to this attractive land have managed to
accumulate a good deal also. The " mustard
seed " of the enthusiastic Vimont has expanded
in a little over two centuries into a city of about
160,000 people, half of them French and probably
one-fourth Irish, the metropolis, which is
rapidly enlarging, having grown to twice the size
of Quebec in population. The delta of the Ottawa
river, debouching into the St. Lawrence by several
mouths, makes a number of islands, and the city
stands on the south-eastern side of the largest,
with the St. Lawrence flowing a broad river in
front of the town. There is no city that in proportion to its size has so many fine buildings, and
the number of its churches, convents, and pious
houses for charitable and religious uses is astonishing. The fine building stone of the neighbourhood, a gray limestone, is utilized extensively,
and this adds to tho ornate appearance of the city,
which stands on a series of terraces stretching
back from the river, giving many good sites for
buildings. Elaborate, massive, and numerous, the
multitude of costly and varied houses devoted
to religion, trade, and private residences are a
surprise and a charm to the visitor. Mont Real,
or, as it is now called, Mount Royal, rising boldly
behind them gives at the same time a background
bo the river view, and a point of outlook which
displays their beauties to the utmost. The city
has wide streets, generally lined with trees,
and this  adds to its  attractiveness.
Tho commercial importance of Montreal is of
the first rank in Canaaa. It stands at the head of
navigation on the St. La ivrence, and transships
cargoes from the interior of the country to the
sea-going vessels, being a terminal for the trade
of the great North-West of the United States as
well as for Canada. The leaders in its business
enterprises are the Scotch, who, although not
numerous, embrace a large portion of the prominent merchants and bankers and railway
people. It is a terminal for both the great
railways of Canada,and its water front is most conveniently arranged for the cheap and rapid transshipment of cargoes. The stone-bordered quays
line the river, and are a monument to Lord
Sydenham's vigorous administration. Behind
the quays a solid revetement wall runs along the
whole river front supporting the river street at
ten feet elevation above the quays.    Thus   the
operation of   the   commerce of the port can be
overlooked,  and the street traffic is kept away
from the wharves.    The Harbour   Commissioners
have lines of railway along the quays from one
end of the city to the other,  so that movements of
goods between rail and vessel are easy. The Grand
Trunk Railway   connects with these at the upper
end of the town, where the Lachine ship canal
come3   to   the   river   in a broad basin ; and the
Canadian  Pacific Railway has its connexions at
the lower end.    Here at nearly a thousand miles
distance from the ocean is a busy commerce being
carried on, and said to be conducted on a cheaper
basis for terminal charges than at any of the rival
Atlantic seaports.    In and out, the foreign commerce will   probably reach a hundred millions
of  dollars annually,  and is extending so much
that  the present wharfage will   scarcely longer
accommodate    it,   so  that additional   extensive
works spreading lower down the river are contemplated . The Canadian Pacific Railway is building a
fine new bridge across the St.  Lawrence above the
city to connect its lines and enable it to secure an
outlet, for traffic in   the   maritime provinces and
New England,   which will add to the  commerciaT
facilities.    This bridge, however,   will be a much
shorter structure than the great Victoria tubular
bridge, which is one of the lions of Montreal,  and
was formally   opened by the   Prince   of Wales in
1860.    Designed by Robert Stephenson and built
by James Hodges for  Peto,   Brassey,  and Betts,
who were the contractors,  this bridge,  which cost
over six millions of dollars,   is the route between
Lower Canada   and   the  States.    It is 9,184ft. in
length and stands upon 26 piers and abutments,the
centre being about 60ft. above the summer level of
the river, which   flows   past Montreal with a current of seven miles an hour.    The   piers have elaborate ice-fenders on the up-stream side, the pressure  of  ice   when   spring   freshets  are   running
being enormous.    Over five years in building, and
containing three millions of cubic feet of masonry
and over 8.000 tons   of   iron,   this great bridge is
the most elaborate work of the Grand Trunk line,
which with its   amalgamated roads now embraces
some 2,200 miles of railway,and has its connexions
with Chicago, Detroit, and other chief cities of the
It would be difficult to particularize. the fine
buildings of Montreal, and the description of all
of them would absorb several pages of The Times.
Probably the most elaborate when completed will
be the Catholic cathedral of St. Peter, which
reproduces in miniature the great church at Rome
on a scale of 330ft. length and 250ft. height. The
dome is now mounting to completion, and it will
be made the finest church in Montreal. Near it is
tho Windsor Hotel, the leading hostelry of
Canada, which rivals in appointments and magnificence the great hotels of the States. The chief
Catholic church at present in use is the old parish
church of Notre Dame, down near the river, which
is frequently packed by 10,000 people at mass, and
contains the biggest bell in A merica, which weighs
29,0001b. Its twin towers are 220ft. high,
and from their summits there is a superb panorama
of the country round about Montreal and far
away over the broad, level, and highly cultivated
plain stretching beyond the river. This church
Is about 60 years old, and succeeded a
modest predecessor built on the same place
shortly after the city was founded. Among the
remarkable     churches,   though   small,   is Notre
Dame de Lourdes, built and
single idea of   expressing   in
adorned with the
visible  form  tho "^
The    Metropolis    of   Canada.
dogma of the Immaculate Conception. Of the
Protestant churches, the cathedral of Christ
Church partially reproduces Salisbury Cathedral in miniature, being 212ft. Ions; with a spire
224ft. high. St. George's Episcopal Church, Crescent-street Presbyterian Church, St. Paul's Presbyterian, and St.- James-street Methodist are
also fine edifices. When it is stated that Montreal
has a church to about every 2,000 of tho
population the care for the religious needs of the
city may be imagined. Among its charities the
Hospital of the Gray Nuns is probably the most
famous, an order which cares for the helpless and
incapacitated, hvaatics, and children, and has 310
sisters scattered among some 40 establishments
throughout Canada. The Hotel Dieu, where Mademoiselle Mance took up her abode, was founded
shortly after the first settlement, and is another
large establishment that cares for the sick, there
being now about 80 in the sisterhood. The Convent of the Good Shepherd and the Sisters of
Providence for the aged and infirm are other prominent charities.
Englishmen who have visited Birmingham
for the meeting of the British Association
will recall Montreal as the very pleasant and successful meeting place of the Association two years
ago, when it came to M'Gill University. This is
the leading college of Canada, and is an elaborate
foundation with fine buildings and grounds. The
Presbyterian College, an elegant structure adjoining, is affiliated with it. The Seminary of St.
Sulpice is an elaborate mass of buildings at the
western limit of the city where the Roman Catholic clergy are trained and a high class school is
conducted. This is a wealthy and venerable establishment and among the most noted in the
country. Its origin is coeval with the city of Ville
Marie itself. The Abbe" 01ier,a zealous priest of
Paris, claimed to have received a revelation in 1636
to found upon the island of Montreal a society of
priests for the propagation of the faith in the
New World. Led by mystical guidings, he formed
the acquaintance of Dauversiere, an Anjou tax-
gatherer, whose mind had been similarly touched.
They interchanged their rcvelations,and the result
was a determination to found upon the island
three religious orders—one of priests to preach, a
second of nuns to nurse the sick, and a* third of
nuns to educate the youth. Their dreams of 250
years ago are to-day realized in the Seminary of
St. Sulpice, the Hotel Dieu Hospital, and the
schools of the Congregation of Notre Dame. The
two men had unlimited faith but an extremely
limited amount of cash. They waited, however,
until they found Baron Faucamp and three others,
who in 1640 bought the seigniory of the island
of Montreal,and it was they who sent out Maisonneuve and the expedition that founded the religious colony which has grown to be the metropolis
of Canada. The fj gentlemen of the seminary,"
as the Order of Sulpicians are called here, are
the successors of the original grantees of the island,
and consequently conduct in these later days
a large secular business as landlords. They have
in the heart of the city, at the Place d'Armes, an
antique quadrangle surrounding a quiet garden
which is their ofhcial headauarters and the location of their ancient establishment. St. Mary's
College is a prominent building in charge of the
Jesuits. The sisters of the Congregation of Notre
Dame,above referred to,have their mother house in
the city and conduct no less than 17 schools in
Montreal with over 5,000 pupils. Their most
elaborate establishment is about three miles out of
town at Ville Marie.    They have no less than 600
sisters and novices and nearly 20,000 pupils under
their care in Canada and the States. The headquarters in America of the celebrated teaching
order of the Christian Brothers are also in
Montreal. The Convent of the Sacred Heart and
Hochelega Convent are prominent institutions.
The educational government of public schools is
harmoniously conducted in Quebec province by
two Boards,one Protestant and the other Catholic,
for each class of schools, and serving under the
Provincial Superintendent of Education. Each
has an   office   in   Montreal.
This description could be carried on indefinitely,
but I will mention only a few more of the attractions of Montreal. The Champ de Mars,
formerly the parade ground, has fronting upon it
two noble public buildings. The handsome
Court-house is 300ft. long,and the adjoining Hotel
de Ville is 485ft. long. The Place d'Armes,
which has the old church of Notre Dame facing
xt, with the half ancient, half modern Seminary
of St. Sulpice adjoining, is a small square surrounded with famous structures. The Grecian-
fronted Bank of Montreal is the largest financial
institution of Canada, so shrewdly and successfully conducted that it long ago became a power
in the International exchanges and has often exerted an influence in New York unexcelled by any
money power there. The Jacques Cartier Bank and
the Ontario Bank, with the Royal Insurance Company's building, the Liverpool and London and
Globe office, and the Canadian Pacific Railway office
are the other buildings surrounding this famous
square. Bonsecours Market is a spacious structure
500ft. long surmounted by a domed tower, fronting the river,where the Canadian peasantry gather
in force to sell their products twice a week to the
townsfolk. In amusements, perhaps, the most
famous building is the Victoria Skating Rink, tho
largest in the world and supported by a club of
2,000 members. The Montreal Hunt Club, whose
kennels are just outside the city, is the largest and
most elaborate hunting establishment in America.
Toboggan slides abound and athletic sporting is
carried on with earnestness at all appropriate
seasons, and to an extent exceeding that at any
other Canadian city.
The Montreal suburbs present a pleasing variety
of attractive scenery. The city gradually loses
itself among the gardens and farms of the French
husbandmen, who live in comfortable houses with
steep roofs and fronted by foliage and flower
gardens. An occasional ancient windmill is seen
stretching out its broad sails in reproduction of
Normandy, while along the St. Lawrence the
shores abound with frequent villages, each clustering around its church. Such are La Prairie, St.
Lambert, Lachine, and Caughnawaga. The latter,
which has an elaborate church with a tall and
shining tin-covered spire, but only a rather sorry
looking lot of other houses, is an Indian village
near the head of Lachine rapids, where now live
all that are left of the once powerful and warlike
tribe of Mohawks. Lachine spreads along the St.
Lawrence bank for about three miles, and is a
popular place of suburban residence, rows of
pretty villas lining the shores of Lake St. Louis.
It was here that Jacques Cartier is said to have
halted in his explorations of the St. Lawrence. He
came up to the top of the rapids, and, overlooking
the broad expanse of waters,felt sure that there at
last was found tho road to China. Hence Lachine
the village, thus most reputably named, has remained to this day. Here begins the broad canal
around the rapids, which debouches near the
city   at    Point    St.   Charles,   where the  (irand 8
A   Canadian   Tour.
has     extensive    shops    and
Trunk    Railway
The finest thing that Montreal possesses however, is its mountain. The summit, embracing over
450 acres, is a park,and footpaths and drives ascend
to and traverse this charming place, from which
at an elevation of 700ft., there is an outlook of
unrivalled magnificence. The copious moisture of
the past summer has made the dense foliage covering the sides of the mountain particularly
luxuriant this season, and the first faint traces of
the autumn turning of the leaves are beginning to
be seen. By October it will be a blazing mass of
resplendent beauties. As the visitor stands upon
this mountain top and looks out upon the vast
panorama spread before him the impression made
is one rarely forgotten. At your feet the dense
foliage spreads down the sharp declivity until it
reaches the clusters of buildjngs alternating with
lines and masses of trees that make up the great
city. This stretches away to the broad river,
which passes from the right around to the left
hand across the view, the long Victoria-bridge
crossing diagonally in front. The steeples, towers
and domes that are so numerous stand up prominently among the brick and stone buildings,
and outside of all is the fringe of shipping and the
smoke of many factory chimneys down by the
river. In all directions we scan the clusters of
buildings and extensive gardens of the city's many
religious and charitable institutions. There are
islands great and small,and the streams that bring
in the waters of the Ottawa River are seen both
above and below the town. St. Helen's Island
and the Nun's Island, both covered more or less
by trees, are in front,and others aro seen far away.
The Lachine Canal, with its moving vessels, can be
traced as a silver streak to the south-westward.
Across the river the level land of the vast alluvial
prairie stretches until lost at the horizon, where the
Adirondacks loom up to the south and the hills of
Boloeil to the east. The tall church at Longueuil
shines in the sunlight. Such a view from such a
mountain makes the grand attraction of Montreal,
but the easily satisfied and contented French who
rule the city do not seem to care to let the world
know about it.
OTTAWA, Ana. 28.
The great Ottawa river is the most important
branch of the St. Lawrence. It is over 700 miles
long, is contained entirely within Canada, and
drains with its tributaries a basin covering 80,000
to 100,000 square miles, said to be the most
productive pine timber region in the world. The
river has a circuitous course ; rising in the western
part of the province of Quebec, it flows first
north-west and then west for about 300 miles to
Lake Temiscamingue on the border of the province
of Ontario ; then turning, it flows back again,
south-east ward,forming the boundary between the
two provinces for some 400 miles, and empties itself
into the St. Lawrence at Montreal, the main stream
passing into Lake St. Louis above the Lachine
rapids. It is a romantio river, filled with falls and
rapids, and has an irregular width, being almost
lost in some portions in the lakes into which it
broadens, while in other places the width contracts to 40 or 50 yards and the waters are precipitated  over  the rocks in   wild fashion.   For
about 25 miles above its mouth, the Ottawa
river is from one to six miles wide, and is
known as the " Lake of the Two Mountains."
Abotit six miles above the city of Ottawa begin
the rapids which terminate in the famous-
Chaudiere falls at that city, where the water
plunges down 40 feet, and part of it is said to
disappear through an underground passage of
which the outlet is unknown. The Ottawa river
is navigable for over 250 miles, the rapids and
falls being avoided by canals which  conduct the'
The Rideau'
is    used    for
ie  of the valley.
Ottawa,  and this
great timber
river enters i
the construction of the Rideau Canal, connecting
the Dominion capital and the Ottawa valley with
Kingston at the foot of Lake Ontario. The
Gatineau river also falls in there, a tributary of
great volume, over 400 miles long, and, like the
other, a timber producer.
It is by way of the Ottawa valley that the,
Canadian Pacific Railway starts on its long route
across the Continent to British America. While
it has a line to Quebec and others into the
maritime provinces, the eastern terminal of this
great railway is at present at Montreal Here
are located its extensive shops for locomotive and
car building and repairing that make so large a
display on the St. Lawrence western bank below
the city. Here is its grain elevator of 600,000
bushels capacity, which the export trade over its
lines has already outgrown, so that a duplicate in
size and capacity is now building, and a third
elevator of similar proportions is contemplated
for next year. The admirable terminal facilities
are so arranged that the steamer or ship can take
in grain and move other cargo at the same time,
and the elevator charges are reduced to but one
cent a bushel. At Montreal also an elaborate
passenger station and. general offices for the company are in contemplation ; while at Lachine
above the city, the railway is constructing a
second great bridge across the St. Lawrence.
This bridge, which is to connect the Canadian
Pacific lines on both sides of the river, is about
3,500ft. long, a single-tracked truss bridge,
built on 17 stone piers and abutments,and elevateds
60ft. above high water. The Dominion Bridge
Company, located near by, are doing the work,
and expect to have it finished for next year, the
cost for the bridge and its approaches being
estimated about §1,200,000. By the Canadian
Pacific    Railway   we   will   now    commence   the
journey up the great tributary valley of the
Ottawa from Montreal to the Dominion capital J
and beyond.
Leaving the metropolis by the northern side
down the St. Lawrence, we pass the site of
the   original Indian    settlement   of   Hochel
now a busy railway yard and shops, and, gradually
diverging to the westward,across the level land,bid
farewell to the great river. The various streams
forming mouths for the Ottawa are crossed and
the line passes St. Martin, St. Jean, Ste Rose,
Ste Therese, St. Jerome, St. Lin, St. Eustache,
St. Augustin, St. Scholastique, St. Hermas, St,
Phillippe, and I do not know how many other
places named after the whole calendar of saints,
showing under what good auspices the Canadian
I acific Railway starts on its long journey across
the continent. Then, leaving all the saints behind, the train strikes for the main Ottawa river,:
and does not seem to find another saint on the
entire route to the capital. All the way the road
is over the broad and almost level valley, with the
Laurentian hills in the distance, though at one
©art they come closely down to the river bank and The   Ottawa   ftiver   Valley.
mUEo  some rujjgea  scenery.
  The signs of agriculture are but indifferent, and though if is'
harvest time, the use of modern machines is rare,
these French Canadian farmers being content to
gather thoir crops in the primitive ways of their
fathers. Two or three mountain torrents flow
down,fone of them, the Riviere aux Lievres, rushing under the railway in a wild and turbulent
cascade, through which -logs are dashing until
caught in the booms at the saw-mills below, where
the product lines tho river in vast timber piles.
It was in this region in 1660 that the valiant
Dollard and a handful of companions held the
stockade at Carillon, at the foot of the Long Sault
rapids, and sacrificed their lives to save the early
colony from the Indians in what i3 known as the
French Canadian Thermopylae. Also here
at Montebello lived Papineau,the CanadianO'Con-
nell, the local leader of whom the French are so
proud, and whose portrait hangs in the Parliament
House at Ottawa. The savagery and romanco of
the past are now, however, superseded by devotion
to the timber trade, the great industry of this
region, and after crossing the Gatineau river the
train takes us in full view of the noble government buildings, and, reaching the suburb of Hull,
crosses over the Ottawa itself to the station at the
capital of the Dominion.
In the early part of the century Colonel By
established a British military outpost and trading
station at the confluence of the three rivers, the
Rideau and the Gatineau with the Ottawa, and in
process of time a settlement grew up which was
called Bytown. It is about 100 miles from the
St. Lawrence, and 320 miles east-north-east from
Toronto. In 1854 its name was changed to Ottawa
apoh its incorporation as a city, and when the
Dominion Confederation was formed Her Majesty
in 1858 selected it as the capital. Excepting from
the location of the magnificent public buildings,
however, its political importance does not strike
the visitor so much as its business development.
The first and most lasting impression made is by
the timber trade. Landing among boards, deals,
and sawdust, walking among timber-piles* and
over timber side-walks, with blocks, slabs, boards,
and planks in endless profusion everywhere, the
rushing waters filled with floating logs and sawdust,
the busy saws running and planing machines
screeching, the canals carrying timber cargoes, the
rivers lined with acres of board piles,a faint idea is
given of what the lumber trade of the Ottawa valley
is. The Canadian,like the American,uses "lumber
as the general name for all woods. This trade in
white and yellow pine concentrates at Ottawa,
whither comes the vast product of the great forests
Df this extensive valley for a market. The demand
at present, I am told, is beyond the means of
supply, so that the mills are running night and
day, using the electric light for the night work.
The consequence is that the lodging camps already
being sent out for the next season will embrace an
increased force of axemen, and a much larger
supply of logs will be available for next year. For
many miles the Ottawa valley is a succession of
log booms and saw mills, but the greater part of
the trade is gathered at the capital. Alongside
the pretty Chaudiere falls at the western edge of
the town are clustered the great sawmills, where
machinery picks up the log from the water, runs
it through* the saws and planes, and in a few
moments turns it out as finished lumber, which is
carried off to the extensive neighbouring
yards to be piled up and dried. This busy industry is almost fascinating to watch, the perfection     of    wood-working     machinery    being
*hown by the facility with which logs ofgreat size1
and weight are handled. Ottawa appears to have
the controlling influence in the trade, its rivers,
canals, and railways enabling the product to be
sent cheaply in all directions. A large part of the
population are engaged in it, not a few going out
to the logging camps on the upper river, where
the business of felling trees and rolling the logs
down into the streams for the spring freshets to
| carry to the mills is varied by killing bears,, which
are reported to be plentiful in the woods this
The valuable water power furnished by the falls
and rapids of the Ottawa is also used for
general manufacturing, there being some large
flourmills and other factories. The great boiling
cauldron of the Chaudiere falls is the chief
natural attraction, and it is as curious as it is
grand. Owing to the peculiar formation of the
rocks, all the waters of the broad river are
diverted into a sort of basin about 200ft. wide,
down which they plunge with great commotion
and showers of spray. The endeavour has been
made to sound this-curious place, but the line has
not found bottom at 300ft. depth, and much of
the water, as already stated, seeks a subterranean
outlet. The narrowness of the passage below the
falls has allowed a suspension bridge to be
thrown across at that place to connect the city
with the suburb of Hull, and this bridge, passing
in front of the falls, gives opportunity for an
admirable view, wherein the handiwork of Nature,
with its foaming waters, clouds of spray, and
gorgeous rainbows, is flanked by timber piles and
sawmills which send out gushing streams of water^
and sawdust into the river below. The chain of
eight massive locks on the Rideau Canal comes
down through a fissure in the laminated rocky
substrata of this region, its sides almost perpendicularly cut by the action of water in
past ages, and this enables the timber boats with
their cargoes of pine planks to be locked up to the
level of Lake Ontario, and carry the product to
the extensive region on both sides of the boundary
line which draws its timber supply from Ottawa.
These locks are of massive masonry, a Government work constructed solidly and well. This
fissure, thus availed of for the canal, divides
Ottawa into the Upper and the Lower Town, and
two pretty bridges thrown across it connect them
at the principal streets.
Up on Barrack-hill, at an elevation of 150ft.,
surrounded by ornamental grounds and with the
Ottawa river flowing at the western base, stand
the Government buildings. These magnificent
structures cost nearly $4,000,000, their cornor
stone having been laid by the Prince of Wales on
his visit to America in 1860. They are of
Italian-Gothic architecture, built of cream-
coloured sandstone, with red sandstone and
Ohio stone trimmings, and stand upon
three sides of a grass covered quadrangle.
Here are all the Dominion Government ofhees
and the Parliament House. The latter is 472ft.
long, while the departmental buildings are constructed on the east and west sides of the quad-i
rangle and are respectively 318ft. and 277ft. long..
They are all impressive in appearance and their
elevation enables their towers and spires to be
seen for many miles. The Legislative Chambers
are richly furnished and capacious, and, as in the
American Congress, each Senator and member oi
the Housfc has his own desk and chair. Her
Majesty's portrait looks down from the walls upon
one House, and George IH. and Queen Charlotte
upon the other.    The Parliamentary library is a 10
A   Canadian   Tour.
handsome polygonal structure adjoining, which
even now in the recess has many visitors. The
Governor-General's home is in the suburb of New
Edinburgh across the Rideau river. From a little
pavilion which has been placed on the western
edge of Barrack-hill, where the precipitous cliffs
go steeply down to the river's edge, there is a
view for a long distance over the western and
northern country whence comes the Ottawa. The to the left hand is Ontario Province,
while the distant hills and looming mountains to
the right hand are in the Province of Quebec.
From the south-westward flows the Ottawa down
its rapids and over the falls, with its outlying
canals and waterways for the mills, and it sweeps
grandly in front and passes away to the northeastward until is is lost behind the Laurentian
hills. Just to the right and almost under the
great Government building on that side of the
quadrangle is the fissure containing the canal, up
which a timber boat is being slowly and laboriously locked to begin its journey to Lake Ontario.
The suburb of Hull across the river in front is
made up of scattered clusters of houses fronted by
timber piles, which in fact make a broad border
on both sides of the river, whose waters are
streaked with sawdust floating down from the
mills above. A low and barren ledge of rocks
forms an island in the centre of the river, while
the sides of the cliff on which we stand are
covered with green trees. Facing about from this
pleasing view over the river and the lands beyond,
the Parliament House stands up behind us in all
its grandeur. It must do the Canadian law-maker
good, during the session, to leave politics alone
occasionally and look out of the windows at the
view they give of the two provinces he is trying
to govern.
There is considerabh
When the Canadian explorer and original
colonist, Champlain, made his first journey up the
St. Lawrence river abovo all the rapids and past
the myriads of islands he found that it expanded
into a vast inland sea, the like of which he had
never seen before. The Indians in their figurative
language called it Ontario, or the beautiful water,
and Champlain did not change its name. Thus
from the lake Upper Canada,when made a province
of the Dominion, got it3 new name of Ontario.    It
is the most populous and expansive division of the British Empire in North
America, and, unlike Quebec Province, is mainly
a home of the British races. Containing over
two'millions of people, it has barely 75,000 French.
The Irish make up one-third of the inhabitants,
while the Scotch are a strong and influential
body, and there are more Germans than French
among the people ; in fact, as one moves westward
the French almost seem to disappear, until the
race is in a manner revived by the half-breed
Settlements in the North-West Territory. The
greater part of the present population is located in
the eastern and southern parts of the province,
along the shores of the Ottawa river and
the lakes, and on tho peninsula between
Lakes Michigan and Huron. The region north
of Lakes' Superior and Huron is almost
uninhabited, excepting at a few isolated places.
immigration going on, the
settlers moving to the district between the Ottawa
river and Georgian Bay, which is the eastern arm
of Lake Huron, and also to Lake Kipissing. The
Laurentian hills, which are such a prominent
feature in Canadian scenery, after they leave the
St. Lawrence at the Thousand Islands, pass westward through Ontario to Georgian Bay, and, rising
to the dignity of mountains,make bold and rugged
shores along Georgian Bay and Lake Superior,
their tops in some cases exceeding 2,000 feet in
height, and making cliffs and promontories jutting
into the lakes that rise from 300 to 1,300 feet.
Northern Ontario, like Quebec, is a country studded'
with lakes. The province has both agricultural and
mineral wealth. Great attention is given to dairy
farming and cheesemaking, and its cheeses go all
over the world. Last year it turned out more than
71 millions of pounds worth nearly six millions of
dollars. In that year Canada exported nearly
80 millions of pounds, and the Canada cheese has
been a great attraction at the Colonial Exhibition.
Its corn crops are large, and, unlike those of
Quebec, its farmers avail themselves pretty generally of agricultural machinery. The mineral
wealth of the province may be regarded as just
beginning to be developed. Iron in large quantities is found in the country east of Georgian Bay,
some gold north of Lake Huron, and silver and
copper on the islands and shores of Lake Superior
and adjacent to Lake Nipissing. There are petroleum and salt wells. The population is not only
the largest of any of the Canadian provinces, but
is also in the aggregate the wealthiest.
The Provincial Government, I am told by the
Commissioner of Crown Lands, secures about one-
fifth of its aggregate ordinary revenues from the
sale of the rights to cut timber on the public
lands. The policy pursued is to get the pine
woods cut off so that the agricultural lands may
be availed of for colonization, the hard woods being
left on the lands for the benefit of the settlers.
The timber rights are sold for a bonus of so much
per square mile to the highest bidder, who has a
period of five years in which to cut the trees down,
and as the cutting proceeds he pays dues at the
rate of 75 cents per 1,000ft. board measure.
This is estimated as producing for the Provincial
Exchequer an annual revenue averaging §500,000.
Intending settlers are very liberally dealt with by.
the Government. They acquire the patents to
their lands after five years' actual residence and
improvements. They are expected to clear an
acres per year, or 15 acres in
years, and within that period also
build a small log house and barn. These
conditions accomplished, a married man is
given a tract of 200 acres, and a single man
100 acres. The additional right is given, if the
settler wishes it, to buy 100 acres more, and thus
they may have in each case a total holding
respectively of 300 acres and of 200 acres. As all
the Ontario lands are timbered, a good deal of
labour is requisite to clear them, so that the craze
to acquire large tracts, for which it is impossible
to provide an adequate working force for cultivation, is not developed here to the extent seen on
some of the prairie lands in the States. Considerable immigration is going on, and along the railway
new settlements and clearings are found ineligible
places. The young men from the lowerportions of
Canada, who are accustomed to clearing lands,
come out hero and go to work, but the chief
colonists are said to be from the British races,
although considerable numbers of French come in
from Quebec, thus depleting ; that province.
There are Germans and Scandinavians, and the
average of three
the   five
•——Tl"*- The   Province    of   Ontario.
usual mixture of races that seek new homes on the
frontiers of America. The policy of the Canadian
Pacifio Railway is to encourage this by reduced
rates for travel, the charge for colonists going
westward from Montreal as far as Winnipeg, 1,423
miles, being placed as low as ten dollars.
Having crossed to the southern bank of the
Ottawa river and entered the province of Ontario,
we now resume the westward journey along the
valley of that stream. The railway makes a short
detour to the. south-west upon leaving Ottawa,
temporarily deserting the river bank and heading
towards Toronto, on Lake Ontario. At Carleton
Junction, a small town 29 miles out, the railway
divides, a branch going on 261 miles further to
Toronto, while the main line, which, in tho
parlance of the railway servants, is the " Winnipeg
line," turns north-west and afterwards west, and
seeks the bank of the Ottawa river again. The
Toronto road is expected to become one of the
chief carriers of the system, as it is to be extended
westward to Detroit, where traffic connexions are
to be established by which the Canadian Pacific
will get into Chicago, and thus become a close
competitor with the Grand Trunk and other lines
for the Chicago through traffic to the seaboard.
After leaving the junction at Carleton, the region
traversed by the main line is a land cultivated in
isolated spots, but chiefly devoted to timber
cutting and saw-mills, for which the frequent
rapids of the river give an excellent water power.
The Ottawa is followed westward to Mattawa,
where the river diverges as it come3 down from
the northward, and then the route has been laid
out westward across what was very recently a
wilderness towards Lake Nipissing, north of
Georgian Bay. As Mattawa is approached, the
land becomes rough and is strewn with boulders,
.»nd this continues for some distance towards the
lake. Scrub timber grows up among the rocks
and gaunt trunks of trees, that have been charred
by forest fires, and small lakes abound. The
largest villages here are Pembroke and Mattawa'
Log drives are found among the streams and vast
amounts of timber and faggots for shipment are
piled alongside the railway. The stations are sub-;
stantial wooden buildings and the line is wbII constructed. At Callander, a village 344 miles from
Montreal, the old Ontario Government lines\
which were taken by tbe new company, j termi^
nated, and here, the construction of the"" Canadian*
Pacific Railway proper began about three years,
As Lake Nipissing is approached the roado runs
into a much better region with fertile soils,
capable of high cultivation, and this continues for
a considerable distance westward. The Sturgeon
river rushes down a contracted cataract directly
under the railway, advantage being taken of the
narrowed passage to throw a bridge over. The
fertility extends for some distance westward until
the spurs of the Lawrentian hills are reached,
which stretch northward from Georgian Bay.
Then the rough and rocky country reappears,
settlements are sparse, and we gradually move
from an agricultural to a mineral region. We
ultimately reach and halt at Sudbury, a small
settlement in the woods, which is said to be dej-
stined t© be a great railway junction in the future,
This is about 40 miles north of Georgian Bay,
and a branch railway diverges south-westward to
the bank of Lake Huron at Algoma ; 96 miles running down the valley of Spanish river. This branch,
"traversing a rich mineral region, is to be immediately extended to Soult Ste. Marie, the strait at
the international boundary which  connects Lakes
is said that
price     of
Superior and Huron. When finished this will give!
through connexions both from St. Paul and Minneapolis, in Minnesota, and from Duluth at the
head of Lake Superior,so that the Northern Pacifies
Railway and the great flour milling industries at!
the Falls of St. Anthony, on the Mississippi river,j
will have their outlet to the seaboard at Mon-i
treal, some 400 miles shorter than any other and,}
ifc is to be presumed, proportionately cheaper in.1,
transportation charges. Several of the connecting;
links in this new system are now constructing,
and it will extend the existing branch 84 milej*
from Algoma westward to the strait, passing the
well-known Bruce copper mines on the norths
shore of. Lake Huron. This route I have alreadya
spoken of as developing great mineral wealthy
Last year in the railway construction near
Sudbury some vast copper deposits were discovered;. Rocky rounded hills called. " buttes "
abound here, and it was found that some of them
were practically piles of copper pyrites. The
greatest vein of copper ore in the world was
developed by the examinations that followed, ifc
being found to extend about eight miles and
to cross both the main line of railway and the
branch. For two miles of the distance it is
1,500ft. wide, and is known to be at least TOOft..
deep. Most of it is above the surface
of it assays 33 per cent., and it
even considering the present low
copper, all the ores that will assay above 10 or
12 per cent, can be disposed of at a profit. The
Canadian Copper Company began the working
about three months ago, and are quarrying the
ores out by blasting the sides of one of the buttes,,
and piling them up, awaiting the railway spur
line,which is to come in and take them to market .>,
Smelting works are contemplated, and quite a
settlement has been started among the rocks and)
rubbish that make up this part of the recenfc
wilderness. The copper ores are so plentiful thafc
the railway which is cut through tho vein uses
them to ballast the line for a considerable distance.
I have mentioned Lake Nipissing, a broad and:
pretty sheet of water that was practically x.n-
known to the world until the railway came alon^g
about three years ago and started a town on it*
banks at North Bay. Some of the choicest lands
in Ontario border the lake, the surface being level,|
and heavily timbered in most cases. As the train!
approaches North Bay it suddenly passes out of
the woods and gives a fine view over the lake
stretching as far as the eye can see. This
beautiful sheet of water is 50 miles long, andt
about 15 miles wide, with several islands dotting*
its surface. Its waves wash against beaches of
pebbles and sand, and there are several flourishing
settlements on its shores with steamboats connecting them with the railway at Nor^h Bay, a
thriving town of about 1,000 people, which has a
fine hotel, the " Grand Pacific," and good stores,
and buildings. The stumps still adorning some
of the streets show how new it is, for most of the
land on which the town is built was not cleared
till last year. The fertility of this region is probably due to the presence in earlier ages of a much
larger lake, of which the present one is the reduced
successor. Thus were made the rich alluvial deposits of the region, which wa3 a favourite home.
of the Nipissing Indians, a tribe of Algonquins
living on the borders of the lake, from whom its
name was derived. It discharges its water through
the French river, a stream filled with islands and
rapids,and flowing about 50 miles south-westwards
into Georgian Bav.    The few descendants of this
i'i Mirm \um 12
4.   Canadian   Tonr.
once powerful tribe who are left are living on a
broad reserve adjoining North Bay. They do not
do much at cultivating the land, but they have
discarded Indian feathers and paint for ordinary
garments, and some of them were not too proud to
assist at railway building when the line came
through their country. Their old chieftair,
iBeaucage, still lives in a log house—instead of a
wigwam—on a romantic point of land jutting into
the lake, and his memory is to be kept green by
having a raifway station named after him, where the
road passes through the reserve. These Indians
will have a fortune when their lands come into the
market, but it will take a high price to tempt them
to desert the pretty lake and its pleasant sur-
j* i
Our railway route westward of Lake Nipissing
traverses the country to the northward of Lakes
Huron and Superior. These great lakes are the
largest of the chain. Huron preserves in its
name the recollection of the powerful tribe
occupying the shores of Georgian Bay, who were
the allies of the Algonquins. This lake, including
its eastern arm of Georgian Bay is 250 miles long
and 190 miles wide. It varies in depth from 100ft.
to 1,750 ft., averaging 1,000ft., and its surface
is about 575ft. higher than the ocean level,
Georgian Bay, which stretches around the lake on
the eastern and northern sides, is 120 miles long
and about 50 miles wide, and is entirely within
the province of Ontario. The Manitoulin chain
of islands forms a separating line between the bay
and the lake, the water to the northward being
known as Manitou Bay and the North Channel.
Copper ores are found on the northern shores,
where the broken and rocky surface rises sometimes to 600ft. elevation in cliffs and hills along
the bank. It is here that the Bruce mines are
located. To the westward, the St. Mary's river,
a beautiful and romantic stream of 62 miles
length, forms the outlet of Lake Superior. It is
a succession of expansions into lakes and contractions into rivers, is dotted with pretty islands
covered by foliage, and has some small settlements along the shores. Its chief attraction is
the *' Leap of St. Mary," the sault or rapids of
over 50ft. descent being avoided in the chain of
inland navigation improvements by the St.Mary s
ship canal. Westward of this is the great Lake
Superior, the largest body of fresh water in the
world, 360 miles long and covering a surface of
32,000 square miles, with a- coast line of about
1,500 miles. The average depth of the lake is
about   1,000ft.,  and   its   surface is
above  the ocean level.    It receives its wa
some 630ft.
ers from
nearly 200 rivers and creeks, which drain a basin
covering 100,000 square miles. There are some
islands in the eastern and western portions, but
all the centre of the lake is a vast unbroken sheet
of water. The early Jesuit missionaries, who were
the first explorers, told their story of it in Paris
as early as 1636, and in their published account
speak of its shores as resembling a bended bow,
of which the north shore makes the arc of the
bow, the south shore the cord, and Keweenaw
Point, projecting from the southern shore, represents the arrow. The lake has generally a rock-
bound coast, displaying great beauties of scenery,
and  in  some Dlaces. particularly on the northern
shore, the beetling crags and cllrfslarehordly projected into the lake along the water's edge. As
the northern coast is high, and the height of land;
is near the lake, with the long slopes stretching
away from it to the northwards, the formation:
prevents rivers of large size from falling in. This
northern coast is m'uch indented by deep bays,-!
rock-bound by their border of precipitous cliffs,!
back of which rise the black and dreary mountains
of the Laurentian range. There are rocky islands
scattered about this portion of the coast, many1
rising almost perpendicularly to great heights,!
directly up from the deep water. Some present
vast castellated walls of basalt, and others are)
granitic peaks, elevated 1,000ft. to 1,300ft. above
the lake. Nowhere else upon the inland waters of
North America is' there such grand scenery. The
irregularities of the coast-line make numerous
good harbours, but as yet they are little availed of
excepting at Port Arthur. The most considerable
affluent of Lake Superior on the northern shore is
the Nepigon river which comes down over falls
and through rapids, bringing the waters of
Nepigon Lake into Nepigon Bay. . This elliptical
sheet of water to the northward of Superior is
itself one of the great lakes,althoughuntil recently
but little known. It is about 70 miles long and 50
miles wide, with a coast line of 580 miles and
shores indented by bays and bounded by cliffs and
promontories. It is elevated considerably above
Superior, the surface being 813ft. higher than that
lake. Thickly studded with islands and being very
deep, it receives various mountain streams that
come from the almost unknown wilderness around
The forests of the region around Lake Nipissing'
and north of Georgian Bay produce large amounts;
of timber, the preparation of which gives general
employment to a good many of the people. From
the neighbourhood of North Bay, the railway has
carried away, on English orders alone, over 50,000
tons of squared timber during the season just
closing.' This, being nearly 4,000 car-loads, is an
enormous traffic of itself, the timber being carried
down to the Ottawa river, where it is formed into
rafts and floated down the St. Lawrence to
Montreal or Quebec to be loaded on shipboard for
the ocean voyage. For the new settler, the extensive employment atsjfood-cutting is a great boonJ
The young Scotchman from home, or the Frenchman from Quebec province, comes into this region!
with scarcely any capital but his axe, in tbe use of
which the French Canadians are particularly expert. They do not like to leave their Quebec
homes, but they have to from sheer necessity.
When the old farm has been sub-divided among
the children undor the French system until the
long strips of land get so narrow between the
fences that there is no opportunity for further
sub-division, then the young men are forced to
seek homes elsewhere. They start for the new
couutry in the backwoods of Upper Canada, which
the railway has just opened. The old man gives
them his blessing with a good axe and two or three
dollars, and this is their capital in starting life.
They can get employment up here at four to.
six shillings a day wages, but most of themi
start in as settlers, taking up land which they
proceed to clear. They are at home in the
forests, can quickly build a log cabin, and go
to chopping out railway ties, telegraph poles,,
and firewood, for which'there is a ready, sale along
the railway. They live on almost nothing,
can catch abundant fish of most excellent
quality in the numerous lakes and trout streams'
that are everywhere found, and need   only buy The Great Lakes and their Northern Shores.
their flour and salt, both of which are very cheap",
a sack of low grade flour costing but six shillings
for a hundredweight. Thus they go to work, and
in the course of tho season will cut, besides the
larger timber, one or two hundred of cords of
wood which the young man sells at the railway
for six shillings a cord. He soon gets a horse, and
a rope for harness,and, building a sled,hauls in his
wood when the snow is on the ground Thus, out
of comparatively nothing, he will have accumulated by dint of hard work in a season or two from
$200 to §300 in Canadian money, and this is a
fortune for the young Frenchman, the news of
which, sent back to the old folks at home, charms
them with the idea that he is on the road to
become at least a millionaire. Then he goes back
for a visit, gets married, and brings his wife out
to the new country to start housekeeping. The
young Scotchman also does good work in his early
career here,but while the French Canadian is willing to keep on at- it, the Scotch of Upper Canada
are more ambitious and become larger landowners
and storekeepers and timber merchants, and develop into the ruling power.
Thus, crossing a country which gives the chance
for displaying so much energy, let us for a few
minutes take a survey of the Canadian Pacific
transcontinental train in which the travelling is
done. The locomotives have a haul of about 120
to 130 miles on each division of the line, when
they are changed and fresh ones put on. The
continent is at present crossed ; from Montreal to
Vancouver in five days and fourteen hours and this
will soon be reduced to 120 hours ; good time is
kept. The first east-bound transcontinental train
that we met in transit passed Sudbury, going
eastward, at 4 17 p.m., after being about five days
on the journey. There was, before its arrival,
some curiosity displayed to learn whether it was
in time, and bets were made on the timo it would
arrive. The betters wagered Vice-President Van
Home of the railway, who was at the station,
that it would be at least three minutes late, and
he promptly took them up and won, for the train,
after its long journey of nearly 2,500 miles to that
station, came up to the platform just 15 seconds
behind time. It brought the latest newspapers
from Winnipeg, and, after a moment's halt, proceeded on for Montreal. This train makes the
longest journey known on any railway in the
world, 2,900 miles, and the through sleeping
coaches attached to it run the entire distance
without change, which is a great comfort to the
traveller. Every week-day a.train starts from each
end of the line, leaving the eastern terminug at
Montreal at 8 o'clock in the evening and the,
•western terminus at 1 o'clock in the afternoon,'
On Sundays the trains are omitted that otherwise would start, thus making six trains each way
jeyery week. The west-bound train is called the
Pacific Express and the east-bound traim the
SAtlantio Express. Westward of North Bay,
on Lake Nipissing, these are the only passenger
•trains that at present move on the mam line of
Jthe railway. Eveiy 24 hours the through train
ipasses each station going each way, and it is an
jevent in the backwoods that usually brings out the
ismall available population to the station platform
jfco see the novel sight and pick up the news.
We are going westward on the Pacific
'Express which is made up of five coaches. At
tthe head is the luggage, mail, and express coach,
which carries the baggage and other paraphernalia
of the long journey. The next is the colonists'
coach, a third-cl%ss carriage with seats arranged
so that they can be turned into a double tier of
berths on each side for sleeping accommodation
The train carries passengers at three rates. The
ordinary American first-class passenger coach follows the colonists' coach, and may be considered
os the second-class carriage in the English comparison. This usually takes the local travellers
along the line, the through travellers being either
in the colonists' or sleeping coaches. Following
this is the dining coach which is becoming an
institution on American railways where long
journeys are taken. This coach only travels parfc
of the way with the train, not being hauled at
night, but going usually from 7 o'clock in the
morning till 9 o'clock - at night, when it is taken
off and next morning is taken back by the return
train, each coach thus moving backwards and forwards over about 300 miles of line. In our train
the dining coach is constructed in the same style
as a large American passenger coach, about 70 feet
longj built very broad and high. The main body
Of the coach has large, double plate-glass windows
in the sides that keep out all the dust, while the
high top is arranged to furnish thorough ventilation. On either side, arranged along the windows,  are   five   tables,   each    about three   feet
comfortable' seats are
persons may sit at each
table, and thus 20 can get their meals at the same
time. On the sides of the coach, between the
windows, racks are set that contain the casters.
Here   the traveller can enjoy his food at leisure
square.      Broad
provided, so   that
and at the same time view the
coach rolls smoothly along. The space at one eh
of the coach for about 20ft. is occupied by the
kitchen and pantry, with a passage on one side
of them to enable the passengers to move through
from one end of the train to the other, which is
regarded as one of the birthright privileges of
free America. The kitchen has a broad range,
with hot-water, apparatus and all the latest improvements, and ample lockers for all the dishes
and utensils. Tanks overhead hold the fresh
water, and little refrigerators contain the meats
and other food supplies, which are put freshly
aboard at every round trip. In front of the kitchen
is the pantry, where the waiters come and pass
the orders through a wide shelved opening to tho
cooks inside. Extensive closets keep the table
silver, linen, glass, &c. At the other end of
the coach is the wine closet, arranged with icehouse to keep the  wines and beer always cool, so
it is   ready
1b are furnished from an ample menu, and at
the uniform price of 3s. In practice they can bo
had whenever wanted, but the usual custom is to
breakfast about 8 o'clock, lunch at 1, and
dine about 6 or 7, and it is surprising what
healthy appetites the journey develops. The
steward, or, as he is called in this country, the
" conductor of the dining car," carries on his
travelling restaurant    with a   working force of
as general
two cooks and two waiters,  he acting
supervisor and butler of the establishment.
Following    this    convenient
through sleeping coach,  the
is the
two together gh
all the conveniences needed for the long journey.
The sleeping coach is constructed with six
" sections " (as they are called) on each side..
Each section will represent the stuffed seats and-
high backs of an English first-class railway
carriage, excepting that an aisle passing along
the middle of the coach divides one side from.
the other. At night the seats are rearranged,
into an upper and a lower berth, with curtains
drawn in .front. At one end a section, made
somewhat wider, is enclosed in the form of a state A   Canadian   Tour.
room, so as to give complete privacy. In the
aggregate 26 persons can be given sleeping accommodation in the coach, while at either end are
toilet rooms, and a bath room is also provided. At
the rear of the sleeping coach is a large open
apartment, with a good outlook from the back
platform, this being the rear of the train, so that
the passengers can use it as a smoking room and
have a view of the line as it is passed Over. Thus
is each transcontinental train made up, an equipment of 14 sleeping coaches and 11 dining coaches
being required for the cwtfit of the through .trains
in the aggregate, besides extra ones to provide
for trains that carry a heavier load. The
" through sleeping coach," as already stated, goes
over the entire route, its conductor and servants
going the whole way. They thus become
acquainted with the peculiarities and special wants
of their passengers, and also aid in relieving the
monotony of the long journey by giving notification of the approach to attractive bits of
scenery, to see which it may be necessary to rise
early m the morning. This may in time develop
into a transcontinental courier system for the line.
The colonists' and ordinary coaches are changed at
Winnipeg, about the middle of the route, and a
new and clean outfit thus put on the train for the
remaining half of the journey.
The    Canadian     Pacific     Railway    westward
from   Lake   j"
the    junction
after   passing Sudbury,
Tieretofore    referred    to,     goes
through rocky ridges, with broad stretches of level
isional   log-house and  settle-
covering tnem
the lakes and masses of rock.
land, h
ment. Forests cover almost the entire surface.
The train speeds along and gradually takes us into
a region of pretty lakes and running streams, with
rapids and cataracts giving pleasing variety to the
forests and rocks. The lakes and water courses bear
prolific crops of beautiful pond lilies, sometimes
The line winds in and out among
It passes at Onaping
river a beautiful cataract in full view. It runs for
miles along the edge of Strait Lake, 489 miles
west of Montreal, where some difficult engineering
had to be done. The long and very narrow
lake being on the summit of a gradient, it was
necessary to reduce its level, and by constructing
a canal, the surface was lowered ten feet, and the.
roadway made along the new bank, at about two
feet elevation above the water. The " Cadge
road " or " Toteroad, " as it is called in different parts of the country, runs alongside the line,
now near, and now far off, being the roadway
that had to be constructed through the wilderness,
before tho railway building began, to bring in
necessary supplies and materials and the men to
do the work. The abandoned huts of the railway
builders, rudo little log constructions, are seen
at intervals, being now of no more use. The
making of this preliminary road in some cases was
as difficult and expensive as building the railway
itself. The route turns north-west, and passes
northward of Lake Huron, bringing us to the
height of land between the lakes and Hudson Bay.
The water courses flow at times south and at
times north, as they seek their respective outlets.
Swamps and fens abound, and also the peculiar
morass which in this country is called a " muskeg."
This is a lake bearing on its surface a thick growth
of decayed vegetable matter and peat, in layers
made year after year, and covering it to a considerable depth. These " muskegs, '.' which are
occasionally crossed, enhance the difficulties of
railway building in this new country, as the surface must be solidified and the uncertain region
beneath made strong enouch to bear ud the rail
way.   Much work   is going   on
" muskegs," which   have   to be
at treating the'
with la
filled with layer
upon layer of timbers and muck piling as the sur-i
face gradually sinks. They will soon all be in
good condition.
As may be supposed, the signs of habitation are
few, but there is occasionally a good settlement
in this new country. Such is Cartier, 478 miles
from Montreal, named after the late Sir George
Cartier, who was one of the earlier advocates of
the construction of the railway. Biscotasing, 5S2f
miles from Montreal, is quite a busy place, upon;
a beautiful lake, with arms that stretch in every
direction, like a double cross, giving fine vista
views over the forest-bordered waters. An extensive series of inland waters is connected with this
lake and can be navigated, so that considerable
trade concentrates here. Saw-mills and timber-;
cutting are the chief industry. Three years ago,
when the railway route was prospected, there was
scarcely a white man within a hundred miles.
The track-laying came along two years ago, and
this brought the people. Many of them were out at
the station to see our train go by—the chief event
of the day. Such advanced work at settlement
may be considered too venturesome, but it must
be remembered that this region, with alPits rocks
and roughness, is hardly as uninviting as many
parts of the States of Maine and New Hampshire,
where a hardy population have managed to thrive
and become numerous and influential. Thus we
come to Chapleau, 615 miles from Montreal,
named in honour of the Canadian Secretary of-
State, where the railway has the shops and buildings usually at the terminus of a division. This
is a Hudson Bay Company post, being on a range
of interior waters connected by an easy portage
with the Moose River, flowing into Hudson Bay.
The settlement, however, is barely a year old,
having begun with the railway-building. It has
about six hundred people, chiefly railway workmen, with a few settlers in the bush on the outskirts. All hands were at the station when the
train halted, and the Union Jack flying from a
telegraph pole waved over this oasis in the wilderness.
Until the Canadian Pacific Railway came ah ng,
the northern shore of Lake Superiorwas an almost
unknown region. A few Indians and fur-trappers
lived there, but except the Hudson's Bay Com*
pany's voyageur3 scarcely any one evertraversed it.
The construction of a railway along this stern and
rock-bound coast was one of the most daring enterprises ever attempted. The line is built at or
near the lake shore for 200 miles from HeronBay,
about 800 miles from Montreal westward to Port
Arthur. The road at times is hundreds of feet
above the lake, the route being carved out of the
precipitous cliffs, and at intervals it is down almost
to the water level,where it can sweep around some
pretty cove with pebble-covered beach. The coast
is a succession of high rocky headlands projecting
far out into the lake, with intervening bays and
coves. Deep canons and fissures are cut into the
crags down which torrents run, though few rivers
of any size flow in. Off shore the lake is dotted
with rocky islands. The waters are a beautiful
green, so clear that the bottom is visible for a long The   North   Shore   of   Lake   Superior.
Gistahce. To build a railway in such a forbidding
country, as may be imagined, was enormously
costly,and,in fact,the Canadian Pacific line in this
section of the work was most expensive,the outlay
being some $12,000,000 in "the aggregate
for the 200 miles distance, while in several cases a
single mile of the heavy cuttings«ind tunnels cost
as much as $750,000. The rocks cut through are
the hardest known—granite and flint, with mica
schist and black trappe. * The railway expended
$2,100,000 during its construction for dynamite
and explosives, most of which were used on this
difficult section. It was among the latest portions
of the work completed, and when tho troops from
the Lower Canadian provinces were transported
last year for the suppression of the North-Western
rebellion they had to march over portions of this
distance, in some cases being compelled to march
around some of the bold promontories, which the
railway had not yet traversed, by going out\. upon
the ice in the lake. This portion of the great
railway was finished Oh May 19, 1885,ne&r Jackfish
Bay, one of the deeply-indented fissures in the
rocky and irregular shore. The preliminary work
at running lines and levels was exhaustively done,
and the result was the discovery of a number of
interior lakes just inside the coastline which
afforded northern faces to some of the great promontories. The route was then laid out in some
cases on the smaller lake shores inland, and in
others upon the perpendicular southern faces of
the cliffs, while coves were encircled, crags tunnelled, and fissures and canons crossed by lofty
bridges. The railway builders had the advantage of
the Lake Superior navigation to land their
supplies, and this enabled them to build the lino
at many places at the same time, so that progress
was comparatively rapid.
After running for a long distance through the
woods beyond Chapleau westward over a reasonably level and rather uninteresting country, our
train in the early morning came out ivpon Heron
•Bay, an arm of the lake, at about 3u0ft. elevation
above the water. The region was timbered, with
huge rounded rocky hills rising loftily above the
line, which ran over an elevated plateau withmuch
difficult rock cutting to get through the hills. Here
at the little settlement of Peninsula there, were a
few cabins and a good harbour indented in the lake
shore, the first found on Lake Superior for 90
miles westward from Michipicotan Bay. Here also
some venturesome frontiersman has built a three-
story house for an hotel, to divide the honours
of the station with the huge railway water tank.
The railway stations in this region are only established at intervals of 15 to 20 miles, where it is
necessary to provide water for the engines. The
gradients are not over one foot in a hundred, however, though the newness of the line prevents fast
running. The view over the lake shows rocky
islands rising high out of the watet, the most considerable being Pic Island. As the railway winds
along among the crags the very difficult work of deep
rockcuttingandtunnellingand airy trestle bridging
OTerthe fissures and fiords astonishes the beholder.
There are no signs of habitation or settlement
excepting what the railway has brought. The
deeper fiords running far up into the land have the
railway built around them, sometimes going miles
to accomplish a  short distance, while  in   other
{places, suddenly moving away from the lake shore
)y plunging through a cut or tunnel, the train
comes out upon the craggy border of an inland
lake at much higher level than Lake Superior. In
many parts the rocks have been rent by some
'undent convulsion into myriads   of   fragments.
while in others the syenite, exfoliated and disintegrated by the operations of frost and wet,'
covers the entire surface. Boulders are strewn
about, Some of enormous size, while the timber is
poor and chiefly birch. The most imposing
spectacle is the beetling crags that the train goes'
around, which rise from the water's edge almost
perpendicularly to many hundreds of feet above
the railway. The coves and bays between these
projecting crags make magnificent amphitheatres.
At the head of Red Sucker Cove a long trestle
bridge 120ft. high, built upon a curve, carries the
railway over, while cliffs rise 1,500ft. above
the lake. As the railway curves this great
bridge, with its enclosing amphitheatre of
cliffs, is in full view, the train rushing
through a tunnel to leave the cove. The
railway constructidh is very substantial, the
cuttings being made wide so that snow will not*
obstruct them, and the tall and airy bridge trusses
being in every way strengthened and protected.
The solitary habitation of a stray fisherman, who
is out in his canoe catching the trout, is the,only
variation seen in the monotonous yet grand display of rocks and forest, the crags standing up
over the railway tunnels and cuttings like the
buttresses and Castellated peaks of some ancient
Point CaldWell,that required some very difficult
work at railway building, is a long, jutting promontory thrust out into the lake, around which
the Canadian troops marched on the ice in the
spring of last year to the next section of tho then
unfinished railway. The march was comparatively short, but a most trying one for the
soldiers. These crags of the old red syenite lifted
far above you display a pretty variety among the
green foliage in the pink flowers that are liberally
distributed over them. Beyond the Point, the
Pic River is crossed on a substantial iron truss
bridge on stone piers which is at 110ft. elevation
above the water, and the line then winds along;
the face of the crag until the stream enters the.
lake. Fissures and canons are crossed by a succession of trestles, that will be replaced With solid;
masonry piers and truss bridges when the line gets
older. The roadway then,passing inland from the
shore, skirts Steel Lake and crosses Steel River,1
winding down its bank to the edge of Terrace
Bay, out on the lake again. \ Here is a remarkable
formation. Four separate terraces rise in a grand
amphitheatre from the lake shore, formed by
ancient sea-beach shingle and pebbles which have
been uplifted. Next the line comes to Jackfish
Bay. a long and narrow land-locked harbour, with
sandy beaches and rocky capes projecting into the.
water. It is named after the largerpike,known here
as the " jackfish." This has a little settlements
and a wharf and railway station, 846 miles from]
Montreal, where coal and other supplies arej
landed, the Pennsylvania coal being brought here,
cheaply by the lake transportation. The railway*
goes round this bay at about 40ft. elevation,'
winding successfully among the crags that enclose!
its shores, yet with three miles of line accomplish-^
ing barely a half-mile in the westward journey byi
bridges, tunnels, and galleries in the rocks that]
cost over §1,600,000 to make. We stopped at the
little station and heard a fish story from one off
the residents, who told how he had gone down to<
the shore and, seeing the trout disporting, hadj
taken a little butterfly to bait his hook, and with
it caught three 201b. speckled trout. They were
of the finest quality, yet so numerous are they hero*
that he had sold all three for one dollar. In the!
construction of the railway at this bay a land-slide ff \i
years ago, which carried
down a man and horse, both being drowned.    The
man had a funeral, but the   horse remains in perfect preservation standing up where ho fell into
the water,   the low temperature of Le
which is
The most pretentious  place    in this desolate
j    uuu j.^,» u^iiip«r«,uuifci ui jjaii.e Superior,
never above   40deg., making it a refrige-
iiway   station
reiber, 865
miles from Montreal, where a considerable colony
has been established by the railway people, and a
broad and level plateau among the hills has been
availed of for necessary shops and buildings for
the line. Beyond this the road gradually rises to
several hundred feet elevation, with moro rock
cuttings and trestle bridges carrying it through
crags and over ravines, with long vista views
among the trees, seen far over the lake, and disclosing a magnificent panorama of bays and headlands, with bleak mountains to the 'northward.
Then we begin to skirt the shores of Nepigon Bay,
which is bounded far away to the southward by a
succession of mountainous islands, whose shores
are as full of crags as the mainland. The land is
desolate, the syenite and boulders covering the
surface, the white birch trees alternating with
stunted fir3, while eagles and hawks circle about
the tree tops or skim over the water in search of
fish. For 20 miles the railway i3 laid along this
bay of savage grandeur. The little station of Ross-
nch has ju
outlook over
H been established.bas a beauti-1-
tho  entrance to this haj.    Tho
finished.yot it is noticed
that tho crows b
in this new country  that  they  quickly follow tho
aay arrived
f V
coming ot
tho onwa
flatten  o%
i   of
rs, and thus keep up
nd the French exp.
, where there is a chance
oil being good. But in
a jutting cane of enormous size,
misnomer.     It has   taken
Lut) first
jj3 march
a/ond thi
named it tho Pays-P
for cultivation, the
Pays-Plat Point
the name becomes a
skilful engineering and hard work to get tho railway around this, the great tunnels and. buttresses
with bridges and cuttings being among the
most expensive construction on 'the line. Then
the vast circuit of Gravel Bay, flanked by its
mountains, is made, and in the distance looms up
the huge promontory of Fire-hill with its basaltic
columns at the apes. A fine bridge carries tho
railway across Nepigon river, winding among the
hills with rapid current, bringing down the waters
of Nepigon Lake,.- and said to be tho best trout
stream in this section. The Hudson's Bay Company has a post on the opposite shore of the bay,
;and a steam yacht and somo little craft are at
'anchor there. This is an important trading post
928 miles from Montreal, but the view is. soon
shut in, as a gallery carries the line around Red
Rock, tho hewn- sides of the cliff, as red as blood,
giving it the name. The Wolf Run and Big
Sturgeon river are crossed, and the line bends
south-westward across a broad and comparatively
level forest towards Thunder Bay on the northwestern side of the lake, the brisk southerly wind
coming over the great fresh-water sea. making the
white-capped breakers roll in upon the shore, for
Lake Superior ean,upon .small provocation,produce
even worse storms than the Atlantic.
Thunder Bay is a deep indentation divided
from Black Bay by the great projecting promontory of Thunder Cape, seen 16 miles away across
the water, and ri-eing 1.350 feet high in stiff
columns of basalt, the summit containing the
crater of an extinct volcano. Across from it is
another basaltic Gibraltar, rising l,i;u0 feet from
the almost level plain that borders the bay—"
M'Kay Mountain. Between them and guarding
the entrance is Pic Island. Leaving the great
cliffs and heavy work that has brought the line
along the
shore   of   Lake Superior—a
along   the bay, with fine
monument of railway engineering skill—the train
now runs over the level agricultural land into the
well-known town of Port Arthur, 993 miles west of
Montreal. This is the chief port of the northwestern coast of Lake Superior, the growth
of the last four years, all brought by the railway.
The town now has about 5,000 inhabitants, and
stretches over a mile
wharves protected by a breakwate:
storms on the lake. The wind blew freshly over
the harbour as wo arrived, and a big steamer was
just starting off on a voyage down the lakes. The
pretty Kaministiquia river flows through a rich
and level prairie down to Thunder Bay, and in its
upper waters is a series of rapids, with the famous
Kakabika fall about 30 miles from its mouth. This
is one of the most attractive cataracts in the
neighbourhood of Lake Superior, the rocks being
cleft so that the river tumbles into a chasm 130
feet deep, and then goes on for nearly half a mile
in rapid current through the fissure, the sides
rising perpendicularly and in some places overhanging their bases. Upon tho banks of this pretty
river, down where it flows peacefully through the
level prairie, the North-West Fur Company niany
years ago established, a trading post. It was very
profitable, and the company baa quarrels with the
Hudson's Bay Company ; but ultimately, about
1819. the two wereconsolidated,andthispostof Fort
William became a well-known north-western
station among the Indians and trappers. A largo
Indian settlement was made up tho river valley,
and ultimately a flourishing town was established
about two miles inland. On the opposite side the
later village of Prince Arthur's Landing (Port
Arthur) gradually, grew, and tho railway gave an
impetus to both towns. There are probably in all
those places 10,000 peoplo, with steady employment and a brisk trade, for at Fort William,
which is just 1,000 miles west of Montreal, the
Canadian Pacific Railway has erected one of the.
largest grain elevators in the world, having
1,350,000 bushels' capacity, and rivalled by but
one other similar edifice, recently built at Chicago.
Another elevator of 400,000 bushels' capacity is
located at Port Arthur, and the traffic in the grains
of the great fields of Manitoba has become so large
that the construction of a third elevator is in contemplation. Vast quantities of coal are landed
here for transportation further westward, there
being huge piles on the wharves awaiting transit.
Port Arthur is a busy place, and its chief buildings
flags flying in honour of
were decorated and its
the Canadian Premier Maccfonald, who had just,
made the town a visit and then proceeded eastward. It has valuable minerals in the neighbourhood. The Silver Island, pear Thunder Cape, is a
valuable-mine of which fabulous, tales are told.
Jarvis Island, not far away, also contains a rich
vein of silver ore.  Silver is found at several places
on the   mainiai
good   iron-ore
deposits. As a hard-working and very enterprising
population are collected here, with a fine agricultural region being developed by thousands of
farmers around them, the future prospects of the
country about Port Arthur are excellent. I looked
with great interest upon the old buildings that
formerly made up the trading post of Fort William.
Thej' have passed into the possession of the railway, and the solid, square, white, stone house,,
with its thick walls, which was the store-house lor
J The   Province
the furs, has ceased to fill that duty, but, with tho
advance of railway improvement, has become tho
engine-houee for hoisting cargoes out of vessels.
Thus do the powers that rule the past yield to the
power forces that control the present in this
Rapidly developing country,
At    10    minutes    past   15    o'clock   yesterday
the  guard
conductor,   as   he is
called, shouted ' \ All aboard " on the Canadian
Pacifio Railway train at Port Arthur, and we
resumed the western journey. The railway clocks
west of Lake Superior and the time tables of this
line mark the 24 hours consecutively, and the unusual circumstance causes a flutter among the
passengers, and some difficulty in translating the
record of watches. From midnight to midnight
the hours are conseoutively counted, so that what
is ordinarily called 10 minutes past three in the
afternoon, has become, through this novel stroke
©f railway enterprise, 10 minutes past 15 o'clock.
The timepieces recording this havo the ordinary
dials,but with an inner circle of numerals marking
the hours above 12. The time is also reckoned
westward of Port Arthur by the Central Standard
time in tho American railway system, which is
one hour slower than tho Eastern Standard
time, which controls the eastward. This, by
throwing the Watches ono hour too fast, being
added to the computations necessary under the
24-hour system, made time-keeping among the
travellers quite an abstruso mathematical problem,
and most of them gave it up. Tho railway train
was started successfully, however, and moved
rapidly over the level land westward past the old
post at Fort William, and its town site,
and then up the valley of tho pretty Kaministiquia River, with its rows of comfortable looking little houses and their gardens.
The cultivation here is extensive and the land
good, so that the region is attractive to farmers,
and much new land is being cleared. The Canadian
Pacific Railway goes westward along the valley of
this river and one of its affluents, following what
is known as the Dawson route. This in former
days was the chief portage between the head
waters of the St. Lawrence and those leading into
Hudson's Bay, originally used by the Indians, who
carried their canoes across the intervening strip
of land,and ultimately developing into a passenger
route by stage and boats between the two Hudson's
Bay posts of Fort William and Fort Garry. It was
a roundabout way, requiring a journey of about 60
miles overland to the head waters of streams by
which boat navigation could be conducted through
the Rainy Lake and river to the Lake of the
\V oods, and then through Winnipeg River to Lake
Winnipeg,whence the voyage continued southward
up the Red River to Fort Garry. This was the
route taken by Colonel, now Lord, Wolseley in
1870. when he made the expedition westward that
suppressed -the first French half-breed rebellion
led by Louis Riel. Part of this route has been
made the international boundary between Canada
and the United States, which on its eastern portion, however, comes out upon Lake Superior at
Pigeon River about 30 miles below Fort William,
on what is known as the " Grand Portage."
After leaving the level and well settled region
which extends for some distance back from Lake
Superior, the railway route gradually ascends to
the summit of the height of land separating the
two great basins draining into the Bt. Lawrence
and into Hudson's Bay. It is a country almost
destitute of inhabitants and having stations only
at long intervals. The summit is reached some
60 miles west of Port Arthur, and the railway goes
along it for a great distance. At first the land is
comparatively level, but the rough rocks of the
Laurentian and Huronian ridges soon begin to
Bhow and make a wild and difficult region, tim*
bered, and with many lakes, but hard and uninviting, almost incapable of cultivation, and consequently without habitations. When the Savanne
River is crossed, which leads down towards Rainy
Lake, a couple of the old boats that were used in
conveying the Wolseley expedition are seen,
abandoned alongside the bank, one of them having
been adopted for a home by an Ojibway Indian
family, who were sitting out on the shore, the
squaw holding her papoose and trying to fan life
into a fire to prepare -something to eat. Heavy
smokes from distant forest fires enveloped us, and
as we mqved along the lakes became . more
numerous, the crags larger, and the face of the
country more and more broken. This uninviting
region continued until the Luke of the Woods was
approached at Rat Portage, also part of the route
taken across this section by the Indians, in which
the rapids of tho river leading out of the lake required a portage, and this route and river the
railway crosses. There are sawmills and an extensive trade at Rat Portage, the vast extent of
tho interior waters leading through the mazes of
these extensive lakes enabling the lumbermen
to cut and float hither a largo amount of logs,
which are converted into timber for transportation
eastward. Gradually as the train moves along, it
runs out of this sterile section,and patches of good
land appear, which finally, become general as the
road passes upon the prairie and cresses the
boundary between Ontario and the Province of
Manitoba. The railway goes over the Whitemouth
River, where more timber is concentrated and a
sawmill is at work. All along the line is bordered
by piles \ of faggots, the settlers hauling out the
firewood from their clearings to be carried to
market. The signs both of habitation and cultivation become more numerous, and Whitemouth
boasts an hotel not large nor pretentious, but
announcing, on a sign almost |&s big as the shanty
that held it up, the important facts that it was an
" hotel," a ''billiard hall," was " licensed to sell
liquors," and furnished " hot meals at all hours."
The timber became scant,, and soon tho grass
prairie was all about us with the grass burning in
many places, fanned by the stiff westerly gale
blowing. As we moved Swiftly towards Winnipeg
the number of houses increased and also ths
evidences of cultivation, until finally the train
crossed over Red River and halted at the Winnipeg station, 1,423 miles west of Montreal, and 430
miles from Port Arthur.
The land into which we have now come belongs
to an entirely different system from that through
which the Canadian Pacific Railway passes into
the older provinces of the Dominion. The Red
Paver of the North is .an affluent of Lake Winnipeg,
and brings down to it a great amount of red clay-
discoloured water in times of freshet which, by
tinging the lake, gave it, in the figurative Indian
language, the name of " Winnipeg," or the $ Lake
of the Dirty Water." This Red River rises in
Minnesota, and has a tortuous course for nearlv
800 miles, flowing first I south, then west, and
finally north to tho lake. Its sourco is. 1,680 feet
above the sea, and the valley in Manitoba through
which it meanders has an average elevation of about 18
A   Canadian   Tour.
700 feet. It is the boundary between Minnesota
and Dakota in the States, and divides Manitoba
into two unequal parts. Flowing through a prairie,
its delta at the lake is in a region of fens, marshes,
and muskegs, and it has no less than six mouths.
Its affluents drain an immense number of small
lakes, the chief among them being the Assiniboine
river, named after an Indian tribe, and coming
over 400 miles from the westward. This section of
country and that to the north and north-west is as
remarkable a basin of lakes as that drained by the
St. Lawrence. The great Lake Winnipeg has
tributaries from lakes and rivers that spread over
and drain a basin of some 460,000 square miles.
This lake is of irregular shape, 260 miles long and
from six to 60 miles wide, covering 8,500 square
miles and having 930 miles of coast line. Its sru>
face is at 628 feet elevation above the sea, and it
contains many ialands. For so large a lake its
Bhallowness is remarkable, the depth nowhere exceeding 70 feet. Besides the Red River, the Barens
River enters this lake from the east, the Winnipeg
river from the south-east, the Saskatchewan River
from the north-west, and the Dauphin River brings
in from the west the waters of Lakes Winnipegosis
and Manitoba. On the northern side it has no
affluents, but there discharges through the Nelson
River to Hudson's Bay. This river is 350 miles long
and passes a series of lakes and rapids, the latter
rendering navigation almost impossible, though it
discharges an immense amount of water into that
great inland eea. Of the affluents of Winnipeg
Lake, the Winnipeg River is 165 mile3 long, and
flows north-west from the Lake of the Woods, dis-
the waters  of many lakes, and having
rapids in its course which descend no less than
849 feet. The Saskatchewan River comes from the
Rockies, where it has two sources flowing from
different directions and joining to form the stream.
whi6h is 550 miles long, and drains a basin covering 240,000 square miles. Its name is a corruption
of the Cree Indian words meaning " swift current." The Winnipegosis Lake is literally the
" Little Winnipeg," although it is itself quite
large, being 120 miles long, 25 miles broad, and
Covering 2,000 square miles. It discharges throrurh
the Water-Hen River into Lake Manitoba, above
which its surface is elevated 20 feet. This latter
lake is about 60 miles south-west of Lake Winni-
is 120 miles long and 20 to 22 miles broad,
and covers 1,900 square miles. It discharges into
Lake Winnipeg, whose surface is about 40 feet
lower. The name of Manitoba was given to it by
the Indians, who attribute a supernatural origin
to a peculiar agitation of a portion of its surface.
and hence named it the " Supernatural Strait.
It will thus be seen that the Indian names of the
chief of these lakes, which are themselves great
bodies of fresh water, second only to the Takes
drained by the St. Lawrence, are reproduced in the
province   of   Manitoba
Thomas Douglas,  Earl  of
nd   its   capital city of
Selkirk,  bought th<
greater part of theregion now known as Manitoba to
carry out a benevolent plan of settlement, and in
1812 began the Selkirk colony on the Red River, a
few miles north of the present site of Winnipeg.
About the same time the Hudson's Bay Company
established its frontier trading post of Fort Garry,
at the confluence of the Aseiniboin with the Red
River. The settlement did not flourish very much
in its earlier history, but after tbe Canadian
Pacific Railway was projected and work begun at
construction, the town around Fort Garry grew
and the Provincial Government was
formed.  The temperature and climate here have a
very wide range, varying from 40deg. below zero in
winter to over lOOdeg. above in -summer, but the
dryness of the atmosphere prevents the cold being
severely felt. In this level prairie land, however,
they can get up winds that blow with startling
force. A gentle zephyr of this sort greeted our
arrival that made a sudden change in temperature of 50  degrees,  blew clouds of dust around
the streets  of Winnipeg,
it retarded the progress
and was so strong that
will before long give the
that will rivi
of tho railway trains.
The province of Manitoba is a parallelogram about
2C0 miles long, its general surface being a level
prairie of the richest land, with soils that are
among the most prolific on the continent. Its
eastern and western borders are hilly, and the outcrop shows in some portions near Winnipeg, but
the ridges of the Laurentian formation are not
seen here as they were elsewhere in our progress
across Canada. The chief settlements in the
province are along the Red and Aseiniboin Rivers,
but emigration is rapidly filling up other portions,
and the craze to trade in choice town sites and
good agricultural lands has been exhibited here in
times past to an extent exceeding even that seen
in the mushroom frontier settlements in the
States. Towns and villages are consequently
■pringing up, and the new population going rathe province many places
in size those of Eastern Canada.1
The development of transportation facilities for
this prolific region is being carried on by the
"Canadian Pacific Railway m an extensive way,
their lines radiating from Winnipeg in seven
different directions. There are lines northward
on both sides of the Red River towards Lake
Winnipeg, north-westward to valuable stone
quarries, which furnish much of the building
material used for the handsome edifices of the
city, southward on both sides of the Red River to;
the United States boundary, where they connect
with American lines leading to St. Paul and
Chicago ; and also westward through the Turtle
River country. This extensive system involves
the. establishment by the railway at Winnipeg of
an elaborate central terminus, and consequently
the yards, stations, shops, and necessary adjuncts
of traffic cover some 2U0 acres in the northerns
portion of the city, and a large business is carried'
on, involving the employment of probably 1,000
men. The shops alone, which are fully fitted to»
care for all the rolling stock on the railway division out to the Rockies with repairs and renewals^
are a series of large buildings equipped with the
best machinery and facilities, and having 400
hands employed.
The earlier settlement of Manitoba was by the
French and Indian half-breeds, who came here
to cultivate the land, it then being under the
rule of the Hudson's Bay Company. The rebellion
of Riel and the half-breeds against the Dominion
Government, when it first took possession, was
in 1869-70, being finally suppressed by Woleeley's
expedition in August of the latter year. The
population was then comparatively email, but
since that time the stream has been moving in
from all directions and of all races, the rebellion
having attracted general attention to the great
fertility of the lands. The chief growth has been
within the last five years, and the half-breeds now
are but a fraction of the inhabitants, Riel and his
following having gone far away to the north-west
into the valley 01 the Saskatchewan, beyond the
lakes, where his eecond rebellion occurred last
year. The railway has been the mainspring in
bringingpeople here,the advancement of the various,
settlements along the Red River and westward Winnipeg
and   its
having been almost marvellous since the through I
line was opened. The construction of the road |
between Port Arthur and Winnipeg, with the
branch southward from Winnipeg to Pembina, was
undertaken as Dominion Government public works
before-the Canadian Pacific Railway was chartered
• in 1881, the unfinished portions being afterwards
completed by the company. It was from Winnipeg
as a base that the building of the long route
westward to the Rockies wa3 subsequently pushed
forward and recently completed. The general
appearance of settlements, buildings, and population in Manitoba is in some respects similar to
what is seen in the thriving frontier towns of
rapid growth in the States, but there seems to be
more solidity here, and a better class of people.
There can nowhere be learnt, however, a more'
impressive lesson of the value of a railway in
opening a country ; and it gives every indication
of such steady increase that the traffic of this
region alone will before long become so vast that it
will tax the energies of more than one railway to
manage it. The products of the province are of
the widest range. In food the people no longer
need outside supplies, but grow all their own
meats, vegetables, and fruits, with large quantities
to spare for shipment to less-favoured neighbours. The tall elevators that stand up at
frequent intervals along the railway routes tell
of the wheat this rich valley produces to send to
all parts of the world. Train-loads of cattle and
hogs raised on these prairies are sent eastward to
Canada. The dairy interest is becoming so
large that several towns are extensive exporters
of butter and cheese. Manufacturing establishments are springing up, and, taken altogether,
this prolific province seems, after the railway
journey around the rock-bound coast of Lake
Superior and the sterility on the height of land
between its affluents and those of the Red River,
to be literally the promised land for the Canadians.
The flourishing city of Winnipeg, which got its
present name upon incorporation as a city about
DL3 years ago, is built on the prairie at tho confluence of the Red and Assioiboim~rivers,about 50
miles above or south of Lake Winnipeg and 90
miles north of the United States boundary. The
rivers flow through narrow valleyswith bluff shores
rising some 30ft., "but otherwise the surface is
Entirely level. The old trading post of Fort Garry
stood'near their junction, in a place where the
winding Assiniboin* gave pretty views. A'crooked
path northward, taken by the ox-teams going
towards Selkirk and Lake Winnipeg, gradually
broadened into the main street of the city, which
is now a fine avenue of 132ft. width, woll-paved
with wood, and having wide sidewalks bordered
with very goqd buildings, some of which are lofty
and imposing architectural structures. Along this
street the city extends for two miles, and it has
been built, over the adjacent prairie for a long
distance in both directions, the suburb of St.
Boniface being across Red River, and containing
the home with the cathedral and convent of Archbishop Tach6, whose careful guidance has had
much to do with the history of this region.    The
'castellated " Governor's '•■ Gate " is^all tha<
remains of the walls enclosing the old Hudson
Bay Fort, and two, or three rather 4djlapidated
buildings preserve the memory of the post and its'
fur-trading, and the subsequent theatre of Riel'a
first rebellion, which .began with , the seizure of.
Fort Garry and its" stores. The main street iflf
carried over part of the enclosure. and crosses the)
river beyond on a fine bridge, while the Hudson
Bay Company has erected a row of splendid stores
and offices along the street in which its' large busi-*
ness, reaching an aggregate of £200,000 annually
for this place alone, is now carried on. These
stores cover much surface and have connected!
with them a grain elevator and shipping piers orj
the river. Winnipeg is the centre, not only of
railway traffic for this section, but of a widely ex-«
tended system of inland navigation, stretching in!
all directions along the streams and lakes tributary to Lake Winnipeg, and by portages far up:
northward and westward among the Rockies, ana)
to the Mackenzie and Peace river regions and the
Arctic circle. For hundreds and thousands of miles
the boats and steamers of' the Hudson Bay ComJ
pany and its kindred interests penetrate thisf
maze of waterways that are a network through the
interior of the continent. The company stores,
here are the base of operations for this vast region,!
supplying the peculiar classes of goods needed for;
the Indian trading at the interior posts,and receiving the furs that are exchanged, which are packed!
and shipped to' England. The great warehouse^
are filled with the goods that this traffic deals in,:
but the routes taken now to reach civilization with?
their product are changed. The Canadian Pacific
Railway brings in tho blankets and supplies from)
England, and takes back the furs and other results'
of the trado. In former times the only method of
ingress and egress was by way of Hudson Bay, the
Nelson river, and Lake "Winnipeg, the transport
being long and laborious, and only available duringj
summer and early autumn.
Around this great store-house, but with many5
interests having no connexion with' the Hudson
Bay Company, this rapidly growing city of 27,000
to 30,000 people has been gathered in a few years.'
The old company no longer has its almost despotic
sovereignty, having sold those rights with much of
its territory to the Dominion Government for
£300,000. Hence the sceptre has passed into the
hands of the federal, provincial, and city Governments, respectively represented by very fine buildings, two of them, the Government Post Office and
the City-hall, elaborate new structures of high
architectural merit, being now almost completed.
The Parliament-house is anothdr fine building,'
adjoining which the provincial Governor has a
comfortable residence. All *the leading Canadian
banks have large and imposing offices in Winnipeg,
and there are many stores and other buildings of
impressive appearance, while the suburbs, particularly along the Assiniboin ■ and its beautiful shores,
have attractive villas where the wealthier citizens
have made their residences. I was surprised to
see such an elaborate and active town so far
away from the sea-board, and at the rate the new
building is going on and the older wooden buildings are being replaced^by newer structures of
whito brick and stone, both plentifully produced
in the neighbourhood. Winnipeg will before long
become one of the most attractive Canadian cities.
The busy industry, push, and nervous activity of
the people are much like that shown in an
American town. Everybody is busy and on the
qui vive to make money, and fabulous fortunes
have been made here on ihe great advance in the '»'■'
A   Canadian   Tour.
prices of lands. During the recent " boom" which
followed the advent of the railway every inhabitant seemed to be a land speculator, and hundreds
of " syndicates " were formed for dealing in town
lots and new sites for settlements. I was shown a
shallow lot on Main-street, barely 26ft.'front and
narrowing towards the rear, which was then actually sold at the enormous figure of $78,000. The
inflation has passed, however, and prices, though
still high, have settled to a more stable basis.
There are five churches that have cost $50,000 to
0100,000   a-piece,  and   two   colleges   which are
,,   nnu hospi
The numerous
arge and
amply endowed foundations
other public buildings
attractive shops show trading to be brisk, for they
are filled with most varied assortments of the
newest goods, and the ladies wear the latest Paris
Eashions. The Manitoba Club is an extensive and
complete establishment, modelled after the best
London standard, and furnishing a good dinner,
with two joints and every variety of vegetables,
for a half-crown, so cheaply can food be obtained..
Such is this wonderful interior Canadian city,'
which has suddenly grown up, almost like a pro-,
duct of Aladdin's lamp, on the fertile prairie more
than 2,400 miles inland from the Atlantic Ocean. '
Some of the Winnipeg prices will be of interest.1
In the retail market, the best roasts and steaks
can be bought for 6d. to 8d. per lb ; boiling pieces
for 2^d to 4d; and the whole carcass dressed at.
3|d to 4d. Pork is 5d. per lb. ; veal, 6d. ; mutton,'
8d. to 9d. ; ham, 7^d. ; breakfast bacon, 6d.- to
7^d. ; lard and sausage 5d. ; butter, 6d. to 7-|d. ;
and fresh eggs, 6^d. to 7|d. per dozen. Of fish the
supply is large and cheap, white-fish, a most.
delicious fish of the trout species, retailing at 2^dJ
per lb. j gold eyes, a good pan fish, at a shilling a
dozen ; and pike and pickerel at ljd. to 2d.
per lb. Vegetables command per bushel, from two
to three shillings for potatoes, Is. to Is. 6d. for
turnips, and 5s. for carrots. Of corn products,
oats are 15d. per bushel ; No. 1 hard wheat, the
best product of the Red River valley, 3s. ; flour,
3s. 6d. to 10s. per cwt. ; oatmeal, 8s. to 9s. , Of
live animals, good milch cows fetch £6 to £10 ;
working oxen are in demand at £18 to £24 per yoke;
and cattle live weight are sold for lis. to 14s. per
cwt. Hay sells at 24s. per ton, and straw at 4s.
to 6s. The price of milk served in Winnipeg, however, notwithstanding the wealth of good land over
which the cows can pasture, is kept up to the
standard ruling in the Eastern cities, 4d. to 5d.
per quart. There are thousands of cattle
pasturing on the prairie near the town, wire
fences being placed to protect them from the
various lines of railway crdtesing the level land in
different directions, but there is not much other
fencing., The lands around Winnipeg are a level
prairie, treeless, excepting along the river banks.
They are used mainly for grazing, not being cultivated because speculators hold them at too high
figures for the farmers to buy them. The dead level
land, reaching *as far as the eye can see, is unbroken, save by the deep" gorges washed by the
'water courses, though about 12 miles north of
Winnipeg they have a mountain. This Stony
Mouutain would not perhaps be dignified by such
■a title in some places, but to the inhabitants of
this land of monotonous level there is such gratefulness felt at the relief to the vision afforded by
what the Yankees call " a littlerising ground,"that
the people are glad to have the chance of calling
it a mountain. Stony Mountain is a long ridge
of rock stretching across the country at about 60ft.
to 80ft. elevation, and in it are the quarries.
whence the cream-coloured building stone is got
that Is so much used in Winnipeg, while bricks"
are made from the white clays of this regio*.
From the ridge, which makes quite an imposing
show and becomes a very respectable mountain in
^contrast with the level plain, an outlook is had
over the prairie and the distant valley of the Red
River, where the original Selkirk settlement is in
a flourishing condition, the Scotch settlers having
been very prosperous.
Upon the top of the ridge is located the
Manitoba Penitentiary, where 100 to 150 convicts
are confined, and though it is out on the open
land, without enclosing walls of any kind, and the
convicts, under guard, do all the outside work, the
proportion of escapes is said to be less than from
any other Canadian prison. Possibly this may be
because they get more wholesome food and live
in considerably more comfort. than is usually tho
lot of the frontiersman. I was told that all
nationalities were represented among the convicts,
the Indians and half-breeds beiijg rather the more
numerous. The renowned Cree Indian chief Big
Bear and two of his tribe are confined here for
their complicity in the Frog Lake massacre
during the late rebellion. Big Bear is a rather
sedate-looking old gentleman of about 60 years of
age, in his prison garb, and devotes his time to
working in the garden where vegetables are grown
for the prison, and feeding somo bears that are
kept in a pit, and have such liking for him
that he goes freely into the den with them. The
lately deceased chiof Poundmaker was confined
here, and the Penitentiary officials denied that
the imprisonment was the cause of his death.
They say that all Indians have weak lungs on
account of the exposure of their mode of life, and
that Poundmaker, on returning to his tribe,
entered into the terrible ordeal of the " thirst
dance," which was ordered in honour of his release, and, after the sedentary and enervating
influence of his confinement, the tortures which
are a prominent part of the ceremonies were too
much for him, causing the hemorrhages from
which he died. WarderBedson,of the Penitentiary,
has   a   herd
over a  surf
prison, whi
of some
buffaloes that wander
ice of about six squaro miles near the
)h are  said to be now about the only
herd of buffaloes known in this country, as the
race is almost extinct.
The vast prairie southward and westward of
Winnipeg is a garden spot, rich with the varied
flora in July,but now having only a few of the later
flowers in bloom, while the grass is beginning to
show the approaoh of the autumn. This prairie, in
Canada, is said to extend hundreds of miles to
the west and
north-we>t, its limits being only
by the mountain spurs of the
Rockies. The fertile bolt is much broader than ifc
is to the southward in the States ,as tho mountains
trend westward, broadening the region, and the
sterile alkali plains and the " Bad Land" region,
which cover so much of the surface on tho lines of
the Union Pacific and the Northern Pacific Railways, do not extend in any appreciable degree
across tho boundary. The climate, too, as one
proceeds westward from the lakes, becomes moro
moderate. In the Winnipeg region the snowfall
in an average season does not exceed 18in.
to 20in., being much less than in Eastern Canada,
while it so quickly disappears that the spring
opens early. The cattle can get their own
subsistence from the prairie, excepting for about
four months,when the snow covers the ground with
a hard crust. The horses, by pawing, however,,
break through this, and thus at all times can get
at the grass that comes up freshly beneath.   It ig '-".T.g; .' —j.1 ■'u-jmj.iag—s
its   Neighbourhood.
this great fertile plain westward from the Rod
River that will make the fortune of Canada, arid
may rule the wheat market of tho world when it
becomes thoroughly settled. Already the Manitoba • wheat supply has a great influence upon the
American wheat markets,and is increasing to enormous proportions. Although the season was dry this
year, the harvest now going on is very good, the
grain being as fine as any yet produced. The
straw was short, and all tho sustenance seemed
to go into the head. As the straw has to bo got
rid of by burning in this fertile region, its shortness is regarded rather as an advantage by the
farmer. But while the wheat yield is large, it is
said that very little profit will accrue to the
tillers of the soil, as they are generally in debt to
the machine men. Although the farmer lives in'
most frugal style, in a rude little cabin that will
scarcely hold his family and presents small chance
,for comfort, yet he must have the most improved
agricultural machinery. These machines are sold
on easy terms of payment by the agents who
traverse the country, and show great rivalry to
make sales, so that most of the farmers' earnings
go to these people until the debts are paid. The
Dominion Government, which is the landholder
here, encourages settlement by giving away tracts
to homestead settlers, the same as in the United
States. Thus, much of the land that is eligible
is already taken up, while the Canadian Pacific
Railway is also a large holder, its lands being in
the market. The Railway Land Commissioner,
Mr. M'-Tavish,has an extensive office in Winnipeg,
with complete surveys showing the peculiarities,
soils, and other features of the lands, and says
that considerable amounts are being sold at from
8s. to 16s. an acre.
To open this great prairie, as already stated,
various branch lines have been constructed in
different directions from Winnipeg. The most
extensive of these branches stretch towards tho
westward, and carry out an elaborate plan, whereby the region will be traversed by parallel routes
located 20 to 30 miles apart, with other brand
some distance westward from Winnipeg joinii;
them again with the main line. This process
extension is going on upon two railways to tho
southward of the main line, one skirting the
"United States boundary, while a friendly company,
the Manitoba and North-Western Railway, is
constructing another parallel road some distance
northward of the Canadian Pacific main line. This
mple railway facilities
It is laid out upon the
towards the United £
turning westward, on
prairie, at. fi
es boundary, and then,
route near the
iu Manitoba,
rst southward
for a breadth of 100 to 150 miles, with prolongation indefinitely to tho westward. Some of this
enterprising railway construction is in advance of
much settlement, but it shows its advantages by
bringing the new settlers in. One of the Canadian
Pacific branches has been pushed westward 85
miles, and another, which goes along the southern
part of the province just north of the international boundary, 188 miles, and both are still
building indefinitely westward. I made a journey
to the end of the latter road, which passes through
Its whole line, with the exception of a few miles,
is laid upon the level, treeless prairie, over which
the sight is only limited by the horizon. The
Pembina Mountains, a series of rounded hills,
covered with small timber and much brush, break
the continuity of the surface for a time, and
among and near them the railway crosses tho
Pembina River, the gradient rising  at this point
probably 300ft.'from a lower to a higher terrace of
prairie—for, strangely enough,this great flat region
is at different levels. The road crosses several
watercourses, all seeking outlet in the Red River,
and small towns have sprung up along the line.
The country nearer Winnipeg is but sparsely
settled, but beyond that the settlement is more
general, and the many wheat-stacks and large
herds of cattle show that the farmers are quite
successfully   pursuing   their   avocation,    I   was
surprised to see the extent to which cattle-
raising is carried on, and was informed that for 50
miles beyond the end of the line the population
was large and the settlement general. The soil
after leaving Winnipeg was black and sticky,
but in the more remote portion it has an ashen
hue. Tho stickiness of this soil makes locomotion
difficult in wet seasons ; hut then, as Archbishop
Tachd shrewdly puts it,this should be no cause for
complaint, because the 1 stickiness makes 40
bushels to the acre." The farmers along the line
having cut and stacked their wheat, awaiting the
threshing, were mostly engaged in ploughing to
prepare for the next crop. We went to Boissevain,
the terminus of the line, 188 miles south-west of
W innipeg. This is a brand-new town of small size
but great expectations. It has an hotel, a store,
and two or three shops; but a considerable portion
of the inhabitants were yet living in tents, not
having had time to build their cabins. Beyond
the town, out on the prairie, the railroad builders
were at work, and said they expected to put down
20 miles more of line before stopping operations for the season. Railway building is an easy
operation in this flat country if the materials are
brought in, for they have to come a great distance..
It consists of setting out a line of stakes, throwing
up the earth from each side of the line towards the
centre, and then putting down the ties and rails.
After a while the road gets thoroughly ballasted
and settled, when it makes a good level piece of
work. Considerable trestle bridging is required,
as there are many streams and lakes. It is
astonishing how quickly the little villages along the
lines of new railway grow up into towns,with their
great elevators standing up like landmarks in this
vast level plain that, it is said, has room enough and
fertility enough to support 20,000,000 people.
No visit to this interesting region is complete
without crossing over Red River from Winnipeg to
tho suburb of St. Boniface, the home of Archbishop
Tache. Thero are two men of Winnipeg who, by
merits and a long course of wise
ns for the benefit of this region, have become
• -I
pre-eminent m their influence over the people
of the Canadian North-West. Sir Donald A.Smith,
whose Winnipeg home is at Silver Heights, on tho
banks of the Assiniboine, was for many years the
head of the Hudson's Bay Company in this country,
and his influence over the people in the wide
domain extending from the boundary to the Arctic
circle and from the great  lakes westward to  the
their personal
Rocky Mountains has been very mar
bishop Tache", whose province extends all over the
same wide territory, is the revered spiritual
adviser of the French and Indians, and also a sage
counsellor for the whole country. Those two men
for a long period have been a reliance of the
Government in dealing with these remote peoples,
and they were mainly instrumental in settling the
original troubles in Manitoba which resulted in
its being made a Canadian province. Riel very
properly objected to some suggested modes of
sett! em
region desired
to Canada
nt, because, a ; j;
0 said, the people   of thir
1 to and; not subordinate
they   did not wish " to be the. colony
to be ea-
:. 9.9.
A   Canadian
of a colony." Crossing over the substantial
hridge spanning the Red River between Winnipeg
and St. Boniface, the attractive cathedral is
in full view. The river sweeps grandly around
from the west to the north, and'on the edge
of the* outer bank' is a road. *A plain white
fence borders this road, with foliage behind
it, from among which stands up the Cathedral of St. Boniface, with its tall, shining, tin-
covered spire, a reproduction of those seen on the
Lower St.Lawrence. Above this is the large, square
academy building, which is a school of the Sisterhood of Gray Nuns from Montreal, and adjoining it
is their convent. Below the church, embosomed
in trees, stands the modest residence of the Archbishop, a low,square-roofed house, yet comfortable
in its appointments. St. Boniface College is behind.
The buildings are constructed of the cream-
coloured stone found near by, and which is used
so extensively in Winnipeg. The church is of
modern build, erected in 1860, to succeed the
original church then burnt. It has a famous chime
of bells, first sent out from London to the old
church, destroyed when the church was burnt, the
fragments collected and sent back to London for
recasting, again sent out, and, after meeting
various mishaps, finally safely brought overland
by ox teams from St. Paul on theMississippi river.
They are known here as the " travelling bells of
St. Boniface." But the most interesting part of
the place is the grave of Riel in the churchyard.
It is a flat grave enclosed by a plain wooden fence,
with a cross, also of wood, stuck in the ground and
bearing the words " Louis David Riel," without
who recently died,  is
rk, and, in fact,
of    any    care
The death of Riel by the
interred alongside without any m
the graves show no evidence
being taken of them.
extreme penalty of the law, while still a cause ot
great irritation among the French of Lower
Canada, has probably ended all prospect of French
half-breed domination in any part of tho North-
West, where the English rule, mainly through the
instrumentality of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
has now established its supremo authority.
The fertile and attractive province of Manitoba,
over which we have been going, extends westwards
from Winnipeg about 188 miles by an air line to
the boundary of the North-West Territory. By the
winding line of the Canadian Pacific Railway the
distance to this boundary is about 211 miles west
from Winnipeg. The land for the whole distance
is a prairie, sometimes rolling, but presenting
throughout the same characteristics of rich fertile
soil and the ability to support an almost limitless
population. This great wheat-growing and cattle-
raising prairie west of the Red River valley is the
country to tho development of which the best
energies of Canadian statesmanship are now
directed. The method of doing this in practice I
have partially explained in describing the new
railways that are being extended through Southern
and South-Western Manitoba. But probably the
best exhibition that can be given of the restless
spirit of enterprise that animates the pioneers on
the Canadian frontier and the capitalists, both in
this country and^m England, who furnish the
means for carryirrg^but the vast plans of colonization and settlement that are entertained for the
new country is shown in the construction of the
railway that is going through North-Western Manitoba to the wdderness bevond.    We resume our
directions, there are large cattle
of agricultural thrift.
journey westward from Winnipeg upon the"
Canadian Pacific route over the level prairie northward of the Assiniboin River. It is a monotonous,
treeless expanse whereon large cattle herds are
roaming, patches of the grass having been burnt
over, and, after traversing 56 miles,we come to the
village of Portage La Prairie, having about 2,000
inhabitants. In olden times the Indians, amd
afterwards the voyageurs of the Hudson's Bay
Company, had a portage here across the prairie
from the Assiniboin River about a (dozen miles to
Lake Manitoba, thus reaching a vast inland navigation leading far northward through the
Saskatchewan River. The country for a long
distance around Portage La Prairie is a section of
good farming and long settlement, the old trails
through here having brought inhabitants before
the railway was thought of. The tlnesMng is
going on in all
herds  and every evidence
The farmers live in good buildings and have
extensive shelters with straw-thatched roofs for
their animals, this not being found to any extent
in Southern Manitoba. The whole country seems
to be under cultivation, the fields being fenced and
rotation of crops practised, wheat, oats, and root
crops varying with grass. The lands are quoted
from £2 to £4 per acre. There is a considerable
Indian village, numerous Sioux living in their
wigwams at the edge of the town, the braves, however, having donned the clothing of the white man.
There are also wheat elevators for the reception of
the crop and storage until shipment, and a flour
mill, the people having learnt the economy of
making their own flour out of their own wheat.
A brewery also flourishes at Portage La Prairie,
which is said to have inqre orders for beer than it
can fill, showing, as they told me, the advanced
civilization of the people. From Winnipeg and
the Assiniboin there is laid out the famous
trail to the North-West through Portage La
Prairie, that leads far away to Edmonton and
Prince Albert on the Saskatchewan River,some 500
miles distant in the North-West Territory. This
trail or road, at first for the Indians and afterwards for the freighters and traders, is now being
superseded by the railway constructed by joint
Canadian and British enterprise. It takes na
small amount of energy to build a first-class rail-*
way through an almost unexplored wildernessj
but knowing that this route led into a country oi
great fertility this road has been undertaken,'
The " Manitoba and North-Western Railway "
has been laid out north-westwardly from Portagfi
La Prairie towards Prince Albert, following in
general the route of the trail above mentioned,
and already the construction has proceeded to the
western boundary of Manitoba. This company
was originally started by the late Sir Hugh Allan,'
of Montreal, and his family and relatives are now
its chief promoters. At the close of the present
season the expectation is that 180 miles will be
completed, including the difficult crossing of the
Assiniboin River, at the western boundary of
Manitoba, and its confluent streams, and to-day
159 miles of the route are actually completed and
in running order, with the grading about finished
to the termination of the new line contemplated
for this season. The intention is to continue
building the railway at the rate of about 50 miles
annually until Prince Albert is reached. The
Dominion Government encourage this enterprise
with a subsidy of 6,400 acres of land for each mile
completed, and the company has negotiated a
loan in England at the rate of $14,600 per mile
(the mortgage also including all the equipment Opening   a   New   Country.
and the unsold lands) at 5 per cent, interest for
five years, and afterwards at 6 per cent. The
proceeds of lands sold go first to meet interest
and afterwards for the redemption of the principal
of the debt. The present issue of this loan is
£390,000, and enough lands are already sold to pay
this year's interest. To examine the method of
opening the new country I went on this line out
to the end of the track. The route begins at
Portage La Prairie, and is laid upon the level
prairie south of Lake Manitoba, following up the
valley of a stream of exceeding perversity and
crookedness which is an affluent of that lake and
is known by the not very taking title of the White
Mud River. The channel of this stream is being
dredged up to the railway eo that navigation may
be carried on connecting the railway with the lake
and its extensive system of interior waters, this
improvement being a Government enterprise. The
first station of importance on this new railway is
named Gladstone, standing on the White Mud
River some 1,400 miles from Montreal. It is a
village of about 70 houses, and has a weekly newspaper, it is said of decided Tory proclivities—
the Gladstone Age. The original name of this
nearly new town was Palestine, but the popular
feeling was so strongly shown against this cognomen that Gladstone was substituted. It has a
fine station and refreshment room, a big water
tank, and the most vigorous windmill on the line
was engaged in doing the pumping when we passed
along. It will probably be gratifying to Mr.
Gladstone to know that ono Manitoba wheatfield
at his town has this year produced a crop averaging 55 bushels to the acre. The general average of
this region, however, is about 25 bushels this
season, though the grain is unusually heavy,
weighing 621b. to 651b. per bushel.
The route beyond Gladstone passes into a
wooded region, and goes through the County of
the Beautiful Plains. There is upon the surface
of the country a most unusual formation. A
broad, level, grass-covered plain stretches northward as far as the eye can see, bordered upon
either hand by timber, one side being poplar and
the other side chiefly oak. The rows of timber are
about 2,000 feet apart, and this stretches northward, it is said, for 40 miles. It looks like a
broad race-course cut out of a low forest, and was
formerly a favourite resort of the buffalo. The
land is poor and the soil chiefly gravel. The railway traverses this plain for about three miles and
then by a bend leaves it, suddenly going into an
entirely different region of rolling wooded prairie
developing far to $he northward into the heavily,
timbered ridges of the Riding Mountains,
which loom up at the horizon. This is a
fine country, with rich soil, and one of
tbe best wheat-growing sections of Manitoba. The settlements are frequent, and we
come to the little station of Neepawa, which in
the figurative language of the Cree Indian signifies " abundance." This is a small village
set on the side of a hill, crowned by the most
pretentious building of all, which we are told is
the, Court-house. At almost all the stations
there are tall grain elevators ready to receive
the wheat crop of the country, each elevator
bearing the name of its owner in huge letters that
can be seen for at least a mile across the prairie.
Ogilvie, the enterprising miller of Montreal and
several other towns, has the most of these elevators thus dropped among the Manitoba wheat-
fields. The railway ascends heavy grades towards
the more remote but higher table-lands of the
NortluWest and approaches the Little Saskatche?
wan River. The town of Minnedosa was located
in this region before the railway came along, tho
fact that the North-Western trail crossed the river
ford at this place gathering two or three cabins.
The railway came through in 1883, and the little
settlement has expanded to a town of a thousand
people, which is steadily growing. These far
north-western rivers pass through the nrairie in
tleep gorges, and it has taken skilful engineering
to make this crossing: The railway builders
search the country adjacent to the rivers for a long
couUe. This is the scoured out valley of an extinct tributary stream, and by availing itself of
the notch thus cut into the side of the gorge,
which sometimes extends for miles away from
the stream, the railway route is successfully
carried over. The Little Saskatchewan River is a
narrow and winding stream, subject to heavy
freshets, and it brings down a vast number of logs
to give occupation to the Minnedosa saw-mills.
The town is set in a basin, surrounded by an
amphitheatre of hills, and as the railway rises
again on the other side a grand view isgiven over
the river valley and the town below. The railway
climbs up the grade to an elevation of about
1,900ft. above the sea to get upon the higher tableland beyond, the route being carved out of the
hillside composed of much gravel and boulders.
There are little lakes upon this elevated prairie,
and wild birds abound, for the sportsman has not
yet done much in this remote region to disturb
them. The shooting is very good—ducks, geese,
plover, grouse, prairie chickens, snipe, and
other birds being abundant. There is considerable settlement here, mainly by emigrants
from Ontario province, with some Germans
and Scandinavians, and the omnipresent Scotch,
who are the most persistent developers of
the new country. We reach Shoal Lake, where
the train obligingly halts long enough for one of
our companions to go out and shoot a wild duck.
This is a beautiful sheet of water about six miles
long, where a hotel is to be built to make the great
summer resort of the far North-West. A site has
been selected in a pleasant grove near the shore.
This lake is elevated about l.TCOft., and the railway , which came along last year, has made near by
just   ten   months
some 100   people,
small,    is   without
old. As no town, however
^^ ^^ its weekly newspaper in
this enterprising country, I called upon the
editor of the Shoal Lake Echo, started in May last,
and found that he combined in himself the editor,
compositor, and pressman, and was also the archi-
tect and builder of his newspaper office. He had
a circulation of 300 copies at 6s. a year in the
country round about, and was happy. This new
little town and its dependent region expect to
give the railway 100,000 bushels of wheat to export this season, and the managers say the whole
section the railway serves will produce about
1,000,000 bushels from the very good crop
just harvested. Thus we ran out along this
railway, and finally get upon the new track
which has just been laid and is still unballasted. Moving carefully down another cculie,
we cross the valley of Bird-tail Creek, an affluent
of the Assiniboin, and beyond this go up to the
top of the hill again to the station for the village
of Birtle, which has 500 people living down in the
valley along the creek. Here is one of the
Dominion Emigration offices, and shelter sheds
for the arriving settler who has no place for temporary refuge. Next there comes difficult engineering
to carry the line across the Assiniboin and two or
three streams that flow into it.   Broad,  airy, and mw.  .'-.jl
A   Canadian    Tour.
rather startling timber trestle- bridges carry it over
deep valleys, and these difficulties of construction
unusual in a prairie country make it a costly line
to build. The engineers take the road over tho
Silver Creek, a deep valley, by a ponderous and
lofty trestle bridge, and as the}* are then at an
elevation of nearly 600ft.   above the Assiniboin
river they seek a Ion
g coucee*
to  carry the  line
down. It is through this, Johnson's cculee, tl
the builders are now workingj and we go out over
the unballasted rails that have just been laid upon
the newly graded surface, the train giving a peculiarly rockaway sensation as it slowly moves out
to the railway builders, and approaches what is
known as the " end of the track." Here we
halted for the night, sleeping in the railway
coaches near Binscarth with the fresh breezes
fanning us upon this remote border of northwestern Manitoba, 1,538 miles west of
Thus are railways opening up the new country,
fend in the morning we started out to see how they
worked at constructing the new line. The long
and winding embankment for the railway was cut
into the hillside of tho cculee as far as eye could
see, gradually descending to the Assiniboin, which
flows through a broad and deep valiey worn into
myriads of fissures by these abandoned stream-
beds which run in every direction, while great bare
round-topped -hills rise high above. The brown
grass and tho Steep and rounded formations give
the scene much the appearance of a bit cut out of
the Scottish Highlands. We passed Johnson's little
cabin and saw him milking his cow, an Englishman
who had not long ago come out to settle in tho
new country, and gave his name to this great
cculee. Then, as we moved along down the ravine
the various processes were seen that contribute to
complete a new railway. Wo had come from,the
end of tho unballasted track, and in a sheltered
nook found the temporary village of part of th e
railway builders, who were encamped in tents
like an army. There were ox-rteams, wagons, and
horses in largo numbers, busily at work unloading
ties and timber from the construction train just
ahead, to carry them forward to the builders. In
this veritable Arab village they said they were
getting good living, as supplies were abundant
and cheap, beef costing but 3|d. to 4d. per lb.,
butter 5d., eggs 5d. per dozen, and milk 2^d. per
quart. The end of the telegraph wire was carried
into one of the tents to make a temporary office,
while beyond the poles were being set up and the
wires stretched for a further extension of the
line. Passing the construction train, which was
sending a steady procession of teams forward with
timber and ties, we came upon the " spiking
gangs," who were fastening the newly-laid rails
to the ties, and then in front of them to the " rail-
layers," who were moving their carload of rails
forward and carrying out rail after rail on each
side to lay upon the ties, which stretched out in a
long row before us. At some distance ahead, the
end of the row of ties was reached where men
were arranging more of them in order, from the
piles which the teams deposited at the roadside.
In advance of this there was only the graded line,
with frequent little bridges and trestles which
the carpenters were completing. Then further on
were pile drivers setting the piles that were to give
secure foundation for more trestles, and, finally,
we came to another village of tents, where a
brigade of men were building a huge trestle SCO
feet long. The railway had been laid out along
, the cculee for several miles, and now at a favourable point turned to cross it by this great trestle
bridge. B'yond, the engineers were adjusting the
grade, which still,proceeded down-
the   a—:—"
the  rough and unev
ruts by the teams,  at times in danger of slipping
down inb
out of th
view   over   the wide  valley of   the .Assiniboin,
furrowed   with   knolls   and   fissures,  stretching
far   away on  either hand,  with the edge of the
above   us.     It   is a small   and
chiefly employed to bring legs
smiboin...   We drove along
o3S hillside road,  worn   into
les .
the.railway  cuttings,  and finally came
cov2iie to a point where there was,a good
the wide
table-land   nigh
tortuous  strean
down to a saw-mill busily at work in the valley.
Tho foliago'is just beginning to show the autumn
tints, and the dying grass has turfied brown from
the drought that covers all the roads with dust.
Far away on the other side of the river,the railway
grade can be traced, climbing up the hillsides to
valley  again, trie grading forces
get out or tht
being at work beyond.
Such is the process of railway building on the
remote borders of this new country, the graded
line being laid out considerably beyond the
boundary into the North-West Territory, and
several hundreds of men being busily at work.
This crossing of the Assiniboin, and the difficult
approaches to the deeply worn bed of the river
from the elevated table-lands on either side, it is
said will cost £200,000 to construct, although
there are no rock cuttings. We turn back and
drive up to the tops of the hills, seeking the famous
farm of Binscarth. On the way, lakes are passed
with sedgy edges,and we stop for a little shooting.
They team with wild ducks and several are bagged,
also a prairie chicken or two. Everyone in this
country takes his gun when he gcos about, and
thus varies the.time with a littlo sport. Reaching
the farm, which belongs to the Scottish Ontario
and Manitoba Land Company, an elaborate
establishment is found, with large herds of valuable cattle, sheep, and pigs,  and about 4,000 acres
under cultivation or used for cattle-
wheat crop just harvested averages 40 bushels to<
the acre. The thorough-breds have taken frequent
prizes, and, in fact,, are the most valuable herd in
the North-West, there being 260 of them, mostly
pure Durhams. This establishment has all been
made in the past four years, the company
owning 30,000 acres of land and having invested in
land and buildings §135,000. They have complete
buildings for the farm, and are making a great
impression upon the neighbouring country by
their success as cattle-breeders. The colony at
the farm are Ontario people and Scotch. There is
to be established here next season one of Dr.
Barnardo's Homes for Destitute Children, 200 boys
being sent out from London to learn farm work.
This enterprise is promised $1,000 bonu3 by the
local Government and 2,000 acres of land, and it is
thought will do much good by providing farm
labour where it is greatly needed. All these results
have been accomplished by stretching out the
railway into this attractive and fertile region,
where pretty much all the lands are already taken
up. In fact, the frontier has been removed far be-
yond,by the anticipation of more railway building.
The location of the route into the ISorth-West
Territory has caused settlers to flock thither, and;
thus when the Manitoba and North-Western Railway has been pushed to completion to1 its present
intended terminus at Prince Albert, on the North
Saskatchewan River, nearly 500 miles from Winnipeg, it is probable that the onward march of settlement may thentempt its enterprising builders still
further to extend the line, until it reaches the
hyperborean regions up by the Arctic circle. Entering   the
it   North-
In progressing westward through Manitoba and
beyond there is the sharpest contrast seen between the old systems that prevailed in this
country and the new-methods introduced by the
advent of the railway. Then the Hudson's Bay Company was the ruling power, and its stores and
transportation routes and lines were almost the
only means of trading, freighting, and travel. The
whole region was closely kept by the traders, the
settlements being sparse and the knowledge of
lands and availability that escaped outside being
but meagre. Few people ever attempted to pass
the Chinese wall thus in effect drawn around the
North-West Territory, and as a result little popuh
in,   and  had  it not been for the
Dion caj
Montreal. Near here is a little
Fleming, named in honour of Sandford Fleming, formerly engineer of the Canadian Government
railways, and always a strong advocate of these
improvements, who is now director of the Canadian
Pacific line.
A pleasant drive of 45 miles across country from
the unfinished end of the Manitoba and Northwestern Railway towards tho south-west took us to
the Canadian Pacific road again at the little station
of Moosomin, a village of probably 300 inhabitants, a short distance beyond the Manitoba
boundary. This trail between the railways crosses
a level prairie generally without trees, and has to
traverse tho broad valley of the Assiniboin* which
is scoured into great ravines and fissures, between
which flows,. across the level floor of the depression, a narrow and crooked stream. The view from
the edge of this deeply-carved valley is very fine,
its timbered sides'giving it a greener hue than the
brown moors of the bordering prairie, parched by
the summer drought. The Qu'Appelle river, which
attained notoriety during the rebellion last year,
flows in from its deep tributary valley some distance to the northward, while off to tho south,
towards Brandon, the valley appeaus to widen
and the hills become lower.    In the foreground $b
change in transportation and trading methods, it
would have remained thus until this day. Perhaps it
was a shrewd business policy in the Hudson's Bay
Company to thus jealously preserve its lucrative
trading monopoly, but it was not a very good thing
for opening the country. The sale of the company's sovereignty and most of its lands to the
Dominion some 18 years ago prepared the way for
undermining the Chinese wall, and the coming in
of the new railway three years ago threw it down
altogether. This made a wonderful change in the
transportation- and trading systems, and has
caused the entire region to be overrun by prospectors and land buyers, so that settlement is becoming general, and little villages are springing up at
almost all the railway stations westward from
Winnipeg for a long distance. The Canadan Pacific
Railway main line passes through Manitoba across
the prairie west of Winnipeg towards the valley
of the Assiniboinv river, the surface gradually
changing from a dead level to rolling land. At
Brandon, a town of about 1,800 people, largely
settled by English colonists, the Assiniboin-- is
crossed. This town is the centre of a prolific
wheat-growing section. The railway reaches the
western limit of Manitoba at a point about 211
miles from   Winnipeg   and   1,634 miles  west of
the top of the precipitous hill are the white and]
grayish buildings of the Hudson's Bay Company's,
post of Fort Ellice, its storehouse. being downj
alongside the river. Here the great North-Western
trail crosses the Assiniboin- by a rude rope ferry,j
and here in former times came the company's boats]
from Winnipeg, some seven hundred miles by thej
crooked river, to land the large amount of supplies!
which Fort Ellice distributed to the North-Westi
Territory. We went down into the valley, across;
the ferry, and climbed the hills on the opposite:
side to the Fort, which the changed systems introduced by the railway have reduced to the spectre,'
of its former self, and then we went on over the
miles of brown prairie among wheatfields and f arm-t
houses- and stretches of sand barrens, with an
occasional shot at a covey of grouse, to Moosomin'
and the railway again. Fort Ellice gave the im-<
pression of a place that had become somewhat
seedy, its day having gone by. A half-dozen low/
buildings of timber and plaster are distributed
around a quadrangle with a flagstaff out on the
river bank in front. The trader at the post had a
small store with few customers, and the other*
houses and stables were rented for
the travellers are scant in number.    Not
an inn, though
ago this was a valuable trading post, and the scene
of great bustle, when the boats came, and the
wagon trains were started off, and scores of
the strange Red River carts, drawn by oxen andj
built all of wood, without a scrap of iron in
their composition, were on hand to fetch away
supplies. But now all is changed. Winnipeg no
longer assembles at the Fort Garry landings to
see the floets of boats depart for Fort Ellice ; but, j
instead, the enterprising Winnipegger of to-dayj
goes to the railway station to see the moving pro-j
cessions of freight cars and coaches, and hear the
railway servants shout directions to the passengers.
Then a week's notice could be given of the annual
departure of the fleet of boats ; but now, in the
rapid railway development of this new country,
the guard's instruction to his passengers on arrival'
of the train at Winnipegis expected before long to:
bo expanded into something like this :—y Winnipeg ; ten minutes for refreshments; change cars for
Vancouver, New Orleans, Montreal, Chicago*
Hudson's Bay, Sitka, Pekin, and Yokohama."
This will realize the moderate ambition of the
Manitoban of to-day.
Having entered the North-West Territory,  we
resumed tho Canadian Pacific
wards the set
Assiniboia.     The line is laid
prairie,   and    here    we    first
''* mounted police," who are the
the ~
ilway journey to-
n,  through the province of
across    the  level
encountered   the
standing army of
"orth-West. These neat and trim cavalrymen in their scarlet uniforms and top-boots maintain'order throughout the Territory, and were of
great service during the late rebellion. They
enforce the excise regulations, there being a prohibitory liquor law in this region, and all arriving
trains are inspected to guard against the clandestine importation of spirits and- beer. At present
there is an agitation to h
to  admit beer
We  are in
the Sioux and Crees from
e law relaxed so as
lie Indian land, and
numerous reserves
near the railway come out to the stations to exhibit themselves and see if anything of value to
them will turn up. They are a sorry lot generally,
and although tho Government feeds them while on
tho reserves, they love to wander away and put out
their teepees or wigwams on the praii*iefwhere they
catch the gophers and dig up buffalo-root, and on
this fare manage to subsist. Some of them I am
toid, especially the Sioux, have shown Quite an m- 26
A   Canadian   Tour.
cHnatioh to work on the farms, being very anxious
to thus earn a little money, being paid about 3s. a
day. There is but little attractiveness among them
however, and their numbers dwindle. It is not far
from Moosomin that Lady Cathcart's colony of
crofters is established, and they are said to be
getting on quite well. Count Esterhazy has also
placed in this region large numbers of Hungarians,
and expects in his comprehensive emigration movement to bring out as many as 20,000. The westward route of the Canadian Pacific railway is laid
across the prairie to the southward of the deeply
carved and broad cculee made by the Qu'Appelie
river. The prairie far away to the south-west at
the United States boundary rises into Wood
Mountain, which is a broad ridge of 3,400ft. elevation. The lands of Qu'Appelie valley are a rich
wheat-growing section, and the Hudson Bay Company has a post at Fort Qu'Appelie, with a large
Indian reserve near by. This is a trading post and
not a military station, and the railway passes
some distance to the southward.
While journeying along over the prairie there
passed us east-bound a train of freight cars laden
with tea, on the through route from Japan by way
of the Canadian Pacific to the Atlantic seaboard.
This tea trade is an important matter for the railway, and is working a great change in the route
taken to fetch teas and Japanese goods to Lower
Canada and New York. I had an interesting conversation with Mr. Everett Frazar, of Frazar and
Co., of Japan and China, who are the agents
transporting these tea cargoes and kindred goods.
One ship's cargo, numbering 20,000 packages, has
already been passed over the railway in 47 days
from Yokohama to Montreal and 49 days to N ew
Fork. This cargo required 50 freight cars to transport, and about half of it was" left   in Canada for
ten miles through the " Bell Farm," which is
believed to be the largest farm of contiguous
territory in the world. It covers a surface of
about 100 Bquare miles, a few sections of school
lands in, parts of the tract, however, not being
owned by the company. In the centre of the farm
is the railway station of Indian Head, so called
from a curious hill on one of the Indian reserves
near it on the southward.    This is about 1,730
miles west of Montreal, the lands having been
carefully selected before the railway was built,
but in anticipation of its construction, the route
having been then located. This great farm contains 63,387 acres, bought from the Canadian
Government, the railway, and the Hudson's Bay
Company, so that there were thus obtained all the
sections in tho tract. The company was incorporated in 1882, by Canadian and British shareholders, the intention being to break up and
prepare for cultivation about 20.000 acres, half of
Which w^j to be summer-fallowed every year, am,
at the end of five years to divide the estate into
small farms and sell. The original capital was
£120,000, and the shareholders have paid up
£60,000, while £30,000 six per cent, debentures
have been issued. No dividends have yet been
paid, as large expenditures have been made according to the original plan, and it was thought;
best to re-invest profits rather than call additional
share payments. The North-West rebellion last
year interfered with the farm work, as the team.*
Were all in use for transport service to the remote
region where Riel's forces were located, and this
year the drought has somewhat curtailed the wheat
yield, but it is estimated at about 20 bushels to
the acre, the threshing being yet incompleto.
Thero were 5,000 acres under crop this year, and
next season about 10,000 acres will be cultivated*
consumption,  while tho other half went to tho      Several farms have this season been sold off to
United States. The trains made the
between Vancouver and Brockvillo, Canada, where
the tea is delivered to the United States railways,
in 137 hours. A second ship, with 30,000 packages
of teas and other goods, arrived at Port Moody a
few days ago, and the train passingus was carrying
part of her cargo, thirteen cars laden with teas.
The entire consignment will occupy five or six
through trains. Three other vessels, with 50,000
packages, are crossing the Pacific, the five
cargoes being of an aggregate value of
£400,000. A sixth cargo is now being arranged
for, tho intention being to start the ship
from Shanghai, calling at Japanese ports. The
delivery of this freight is accomplished ahead of
the other transcontinental routes by moving the
tea •(rains at a speed of about 20 miles an hour,
which, added to the fact that the line across
Canada is the shortest, gives the shipper much
advantage. Compared with the Suez Canal route,
the saving in time to Montreal and New York is
25 to 3u days, besides the advantage of avoiding
transhipment at New York, which saves both
expense and damage. The freightage to the railway is about £100 per car, making £25,000 or
more for the whole shipment now en route. The
distribution for the Western States is made from
Winnipeg by the railways leading southward, j culture,
while the Eastern consignments, as above stated,
are delivered at Brockville, on the St. Lawrence,
just below Lake Ontario, wnenee they pass to the
New York Central railway system. This is the
early development of a new trade route half-way
around the world that may become very important.
It is on the rich soil  of the Qu'Appelie Valley
that the Canadian   Pacific   Railway passes for
newly-arrived colonists, the terms being about
24s. per acre for unimproved land,and £3 to £3 5s.
for land that has been broken and back-set and
got thoroughly ready for cultivation. The president of the company says that witft fair crops
hereafter they expect to put aside £5,000 sinking fund annually to redeem the debentures,
and pay 8 per cent, dividends, while the disposal
of the lands—the larger part of the tract being
held on speculation—will give a return on capital
account. They have built a flour mill, and expect
hereafter to grind all their wheat, thus saving
freight charges and being enabled to use the
refuse in feeding cattle and pigs, these in future
making from their sales an important item in the
annual returns. The labour question, formerly an
important element, both as to cost and the difficulty
of obtaining labourers, has been solved by the employment of Indians, no less than 150 Sioux having
this year aided in gathering the harvest. To
assist the agricultural prospects of this section it
is the intention next spring to open a college in
a building just erected at a cost of about £2,400,,
and to receive pupils, under the name of the Albany
College, called after the late Duke of Albany. This
will be under the personal supervision of Professor
so well known in connexion with agri-
I made a survey of a part of this great farm,
riding over the rich black soil and seeing the threshing processes. The wheat fields, just harvested,
stretched as far as eye could see from one point-
of observation, while in another region the ploughing bad turned the black soil over in the process of
summer-fallowing, so that the square miles of land
to be put down in next year's wheat crop would be
ready for early seeding in April.    There were 200 ""**
Metropolis   of   the   North-West.
horses, 250 cattle, and 900 hogs on the estate, and
the outfit of agricultural machinery embraced 45
reapers and binders, 73 ploughs, six mowers, 40
seeders, 80 harrows, and seven complete steam
outfits for thrashing. Major Bell, the manager, is
one of the greatest farmers of America, of ripe
experience and great ability. He tells me that in
working the land, the very careful accounts kept
Bhow that it costs about 8s. per acre to originally
break up and backset, while afterwards the
ploughing for the crop is worth about 2s. per acre.
The actual cost of producing wheat, including
every expense, with interest on the cost of the
land and allowance for wear and tear, is about 20s.
per acre. The profit of the farm will consequently depend on the yield. They get about 3s.
to 3s. 2id. per bushel at the railway at present,
while their freight charge to Montreal is Is. 4d.
per bushel. By turning the wheat into flour, for
which there is a good demand in the extreme North-
West, the profit is greater, and the refuse fattens
the cattle and hogs, which are always in demand.
His experience has shown that the proper method
of treating this land is by summer-fallowing, so
that a wheat crop is raised every second year.
He has also divided the estate into farms of 200
acres each, finding this sub-division the best
method of economical working, each small farm
having its own outfit of horses and machinery,
the whole being supervised by foremen, each of
whom overlooks a number of these small farms.
The/ buildings and equipment of this great farm
are of the most complete character, and it is one
of the institutions of Canada. The fertile soil has
been found to extend to great depths in the
Qu'Appelie Valley, the boring of artesian wells
having brought up the same rich black loam as is
on the surface from a depth of 300ft. in some
places. The wheat belt does not extend a great
distance further westward, however, but it is
almost beyond comprehension to estimate the
ultimate value as a wheat.producer of this vast
fertile belt in Manitoba, Assinniboia, and Dakota,
which covers a surface about 600 miles long by
250 miles in width. Here is grown the famous
" No. 1 hard," which yields the best flour known,
and this year has such plump berries that it
weighs from 621b. to 651b. per bushel. Such is
the " fertile belt " on the future development of
which Canada bases such great hopes.
The survey we have made of the great fertile
belt of Manitoba and the North-West Territory
naturally directs attention to the inducements
offered by the Dominion Government to settlers.
The Canadian homestead policy is a more favourable one than that of the United States. In Canada
the head of a family, or any malo person 18
years of age, is entitled to a homestead. In the
States the limit of age is 21 years. The Canadian
entry may be made for any quantity not exceeding
160 acres in any land open therefor, whether
within or without the railway belts, the even-
numbered sections, comprising some 80 millions of
acres,being held by the Government for homesteads
or for sale. In the States, within the railway
belts, a settler can only get 80 acres for a homestead, while the pre-emption system has been
abolished. Canada, however, permits the settler
to pre-empt 160 acres more      Three years'  re
sidence gives the settler his Canadian land patent,"
while five years' residence is necessary in the
States. Canada permits a second homestead
entry, but this is not permitted in the States.
The Canadian system also allows commutation by
purchase after one year's residence. I find, after
considerable observation and inqtdry, that the
chief settlers in this region c6me from '^Ontario
and are of Scotch descent, while many Scotch also
come over from the old country. There are also
some English and Germans. The movement is not
large, but is a steady ohe, each railway train
bringing in families or prospectors, who drop off
at one station or another ana go into the interior.
There is also the usual pioneer movement seen in
new countries, where restless folk settle on the
frontier, and, as it moves ahead, progress with it.,
They pride themselves on being in advance of civilization, and may in the course of a few years, by
successive westward stages, start a naif-dozen new
settlements. It is astonishing to find these people
planting themselves in all sorts of out-of-the-way
places, remote from any communication, and
hence it is that whenever a new railway is projected there ate always settlements miles ahead
that want it to Come along. This new country,
however, suffers from drawbacks, and all is not of
roseate hue. The long drouth this - year has
curtailed, and in some cases entirely destroyed,
the crops, many fields of wheat and, oats being
left uncut because they would, not pay foe
harvesting. As one sturdy settler who had been in;
the bottom lands of Qu'Appelie Valley for the
past four years described it, " We have more;
steady sunshine probably than any. oilier place,
and too little rain ; I am afraid the Rockies steal
the rain that ought to come to us." ,In fact, there
had been no ram to speak of in this region forj
nearly three months until two days ago, when-
copious showers began falling, arid now the rich'
and sticky soil is almost as bad as the dust was.
It clings to one's shoes and becomes so slippery]
that locomotion is difficult. The temperature, too,
which had burnt everything up, being above
lOOdeg. frequently during the. hot spell, changed
in one night with the east wind that brought the;
rain to 45deg., and in a few hours the foliage put
on its autumn tints.
I am told that the range of temperature here
from actual observation has been during the past
year from 58deg. below zero in the winter to
106deg. above during the summer. This means
both excessive cold and oppressive heat, and the
inhabitants complain very much of their inability
to keep warm in winter. The great heat and
drouth of the summer, by curtailing the crops,
have caused much distress among the poorer
classes of farmers, many of whom will have to be
helped through in some way. They generally have
taken up more land than they can care for, and
being unable to pay the pre-emption prices are
now pleading for an extension of time. Land
speculation has been carried on upon these
prairies to an excessive degree, and one form of it
has been the making of town sites. All along the
railway lines are located magnificent town plots
planned upon a scale of grandeur that includes
broad avenues and public squares, and stretching
over much surface. The prices* of eligible corner
lots are high, and the only thing wanting about,
them is the inhabitants. Hundreds of these
embryo towns are located along the railways,
through Manitoba and beyond, with a few little
wooden houses scattered about, and much inter-,
mediate vacancy that can be occupied at highj
figures that astonish the residents of the older
V*e 28
Canadian cities. Thus are enormous fortunes made
— on paper, and thus also are intending settlers of
moderate means frequently frightened off.
In our steady westward journey over the prairie
we have come to a tortuous little stream,meander-,
ing upon the surface towards the northwestward,
called most curiously, the ll Pile of Bones River,"
or in Indian parlance the Weseana. It flows
into the Qu'Apelle River,, about 20 miles from
Regina, and near it is located this town, which is
the capital of the North-West Territory. About
half-way over to its mouth a trail crosses, leading far away to the northward,which was travelled
by many Indians in the buffalo hunting days, who
generally encamped at the crossing to kill and
prepare for the winter the animals they had
captured.    In  course  of time  there accumulated
a great mound  of buffalo bones
ige, and these gavo the name to the stream.
prosaic settlers who have succeeded the Indians
have carried off all the bones and sold them for
fertilizers down in Minnesota. This prairie, with
the pretty Qu'Apelle Valley to the northward, -was
a favourite haunt of the buffalo, and thousands of
them formerly roamed here,so that their skeletons
and bones are found in many places, and quite a
brisk trade is carried on at gathering and ship=:
ping them eastward for fertilizers, the bones fetch-i
ing about 20s. per ton. The half-breeds who
come in for supplies generally bring a cartload of
bones with them and trade with the storekeepers.
It . was near the crossing of the Canadian and
Pacific Railway over the " Pile of Bones River "
that it was determined to establish the capital
of the North-West Territory; and here about four
years ago the new town was located, and namod in
honour of Her Majesty the City of Regina, 1,779
miles west of Montreal.
Imagine a section cut out of the middle of the
Atlantic Ocean, and set down a few scattered rows
of wooden houses upon it, and you will have a
pretty good idea of Regina as it looks upon this
level prairie, stretching for miles in every
direction without a tree in sight. There are
probably 300 buildings in the town,which contains
1,000 people, gnd the most prominent object that
looms up as it is approached over the prairie is the
railway water tank. The city is laid out on a
scale of magnificence rivalling even the usUal
" spread " made by frontier towns, and the consequence is that the public buildings, unable to get
room in the town, are all from a half-mile to two
miles away from the place. It has three hotel
named from famous American hosteleries,
" Palmer" the "Grand Pacific" and the
fjj Windsor," but the three put together would
not cover a quarter of an acre. It has one newspaper in full operation, with hopes of another.
It is all located on one side of the railway, with
nothing at all apparently on the other side, where
the smooth prairie stretches away into indefinite
space. Its railway service, too, is most curious,
one passenger train eachN way passing every
24 hours, both of them in the middle of the night,
the west bound train passing at 15 minutes before
midnight, and the east bound train at 50 minutes
after midnight. This, to some extent, may restrict
travel, but it cannot curtail the importance of this
north-western capital, which may some day
become the metropolis of Assiniboia, as it is now-
the home of the Governor of the North-West
Territory, the meeting place of his Council, and
the headquarters of his standing army—the
d mounted police." The few streets of Regina are
broad, and bordered with wooden side walks, the
ox-carts which slowly meander through them being
varied by some highly-painted IhdTah',^Iad^h~a]
picturesque Hudson Bay Company's blanket, who.
proudly rides into town on his pony with his squawj
trudging after through the sticky mud.
To the northward of Regina the beautiful1
Qu'Appelie Valley, now putting on the pretty
autumn foliage tints, is carved out of the tables
land, a depression of 250ft. to 300ft., nearly two
miles broad, across the level floor of which the
narrow crooked river wanders at will. A branch
railway, the Regina and Long Lake road, runs out
to this valley, getting down the grade through
a long cculee, and after going about 23 miles
distance, ends practically nowhere, being in>j
tended at some day to be prolonged beyond
Long Lake, a shee& of water about 60 miles
long and from one to four miles broad, that
lays between the hills south of the river.
This railway has been built within a year past, but
it has little trade to boast of, as the region around
Regina is but sparsely settled. The locomotive
carried us out to the end of the track, and there
a ranche had been established with 600 head of
cattle. The drouth had been so severe, however,
that but little hay was made,and as it costs £2 per
ton the cattle will have to be taken west to winter..
This railway carried os to a pretty spot, down on
the floor of the valley, with the great scoured and
rounded bluffs rising on either hand, but it was a
strange-sort of road. It had no stations, and the
train stopped whenever any one wished to get on or
off. There were no points or sidings in the entire
line, and the train had to come up out of the
valley backwards. Yet several ambitions towns
were laid out* along the line at places where not
a single house was in sight, and had been named
for English gentlemen who were shareholders in
the company. In the rancheman's house about 600
yards from the end of the line the post office of *
Graven was established, the postmaster being a
salaried official of tbe Dominion Government, receiving tbe stipend of 8s. a-year. Just outside of
Regina and near the route of this railway, the city
cemetery has been established, and contains a few
graves fenced about to keep the cattle out. A
passenger explained as we went by that the graveyard had not got a good start yet, the town
being too young, adding '- but it has hopes, mon ;
it has hopes." This North-Western capital, however, is best known to the world as the place of the
trial and execution in November last ^of Louis,
Riel, whose grave is in St. Boniface churchyard at
Winnipeg. In © little square-built brick court
house, set on the edge of the town, he was tried,
being brought in every day from the barracks of
the mounted police, where he was imprisoned,,
about two miles out. At these barracks they:
show the wooden building which is the prison and.
the little cell where he was confined, and also the
gaol-yard, about 30 ft. square, where the scaffold
was set up on which he was hanged. Out on the
prairie in a little house lives his hangman, Jack
Henderson, who now hauls supplies for the post.
This half-breed in his relations with Riel shows
the ups and downs of life. In the first Manitoba
half-breed rebellion in 1870 Henderson was im-r
prisoned by Riel and narrowly escaped death,
while in the second rebellion the tables were
turned. The residence of the Governor of the
IS orth-West Territory is out on the prairie, a low*
built but comfortable house on the road to the
barracks, and the meeting place of the Territorial
Council is also on the prairie away from the town.
This strange fatality of getting all the important
buildings outside the city also infects the
Dominion Land office and the Bank of Montreal, 1
Approaching   the   Rocky   Mountains.
Neither of which are in the built up town. The
mounted police, which is the constabulary of the
Territory, has extensive barracks in a number of
wooden buildings and stables arranged around two
quadrangles, the most elaborate structure being
the riding school, about 200ft. long by 75ft. broad,
•There are 180 men at this, the head-quarters post,
and about 1,000 in the entire force, which is distributed at various posts throughout the Territory,
watching against cattle and horse thieves, patrolling the horder, supervising the Indian reserves,
and enforcing the excise laws, which are strictly
prohibitory, excepting where the Governor may
give a permit allowing certain amounts of spirit
or beer to be imported or used. This force, made
up mostly of young Englishmen,is uniformed much
like the dragoons, and their trim figures and
scarlet coats, varying with the Indians, give
picturesqueness to the streets of Regina. From
the tower of their riding-school there is a good outlook over the prairie, showing a vast expanse of
grass-covered level land without a single tree in
sight, the wayward }i Pile of Bones River"
meandering at will across the foreground, while
Regina's water-tank and clusters of little houses
are seen beyond. Such is the coming metropolis
of the Canadian North-West.
The broad and almost level prairie of Manitoba and the Canadian North-West Territory
stretches westward to the bases of the Kocky
Mountains. This great mountain range, as it goes
southward, approaches nearer the Pacific coast
than, is the case in the States, and its eastern verge
becomes more abrupt, while the mountains them-
selves are not divided into so many ridges of
peaks, nor are there such extensive foot-hills.
Hence the level plains in Canada spread, over a
much wider territory, and the Rockies rise more
markedly from the edge of the table lands. This
gives a stretch of prairie over which we have been
travelling that is some 13 hundred miles broad to
the foot-hills of the Rockies, and it requires, even
with swift railway trains, a long time to cross.
The eye soon tires of the unchanging,level, treeless
expanse, and there is no more welcome sight than
the first view of the low snow-capped, rocky ridge
seen far away under the setting sun. Westward
from Regina the Canadian Pacific Railway passes
few places of importance on the prairie. The
towns are too young -, and the settlement of
the country too sparse for the little villages
to yet show any growth. We cross over a creek
at the distance of 1,821 miles from Montreal,
which has an Indian name containing 28 letters
and almost unpronounceable by the ordinary
traveller. The railway, has located the end of a
division here, and thus made a small settlement.
The Indian name translated means " The creek
where the white man mended his wagon with the
moose jaW-bone," and this has been shortened into
v Moose Jaw " as the name of the station.
Similarly at another little hamlet made by a division terminal on the railway, the translation of
i-f Saskatchewan " has been turned into " Swift
Current," and this names another station on the
prairie 1,934 miles from Montreal. When the
Saskatchewan River itself is reached and has to be
crossed the railway winds down a coulee to the
bottom lands in the pretty river valley, and, this
station at the crossing is called *( Medicine Hat.'?
2,083 miles from Montreal, in memory of the!
Indian conjuror. The intermediate prairie in the
800 miles from Regina to Medicine Hat has
nothing to distinguish it from many hundreds of
miles more of prairie on either side, for if it is not
rolling and undulating, it is a dead level, and!
there is not a tree to be seen, and the lands are so
entirely unoccupied that the' sensation of the want
of inhabitants becomes positively painful. There
are a few lakes and sloughs, with gulls and ducks
flying about, the hawks lazily sail along on the!
look-out for prey, and buffalo bones are scattered
occasionally on the surface ; but the train moves
along for miles without showing any sign of
human life. Here is a vast region awaiting popu4
lation ; but. unfortunately, the lands are too poor
to attract it until the more fertile regions elsewhere are peopled.
As we progress ; an occasional shot is made
from a car window by some sporting traveller
at a passing duck (who escapes harm), and
the mounted police (who seem to do most
of their travelling on foot) give amusement to
the passengers by their searches through the train
for violators of the prohibitory liquor law of the
North-West Territory. They tramp up and down
the long aisles of the coaches, in their scarlet
coats, boots, and spurs. Thisliquorprohibitionhas
the good object in view of keeping whisky from
the Indians. Before it was enforced, " whisky-
traders," who came many miles across country
from the States, sold H fire-water " to the Indians
in exchange for furs and made enormous profits,,
while the unfortunate red man was the sufferer.:
There are many thousands of Indians on reserves
in this region, and the strict enforcement of this
law does great good. But it is at the same time
a general measure,the Dominion Parliament holding that what is good for the Indian must also be
good for the white man. and these policemen are paid
2s. a day mainly to enforce this law. It is, however, a father comical commentary on the prohibitory principle that on the railway the traveller
can get all the fluids he wishes when in the
" dining-coach," but at the same time commits a
deadly sin if he does his imbibing or carries a
bottlo   on    any   other   coach.    The   governor's
any otnei
' are availei
anagement   having discoveret
of   in   th<
ormer, the
that a
great transcontinental tourist line cannot be
successfully run on a prohibitory liquor basis in
free America. In the other parts of the trains,
however,these good-looking detectives have a keen
scent for liquids, and some of them are said to be
very good judges of spirits and beer, but they are
sometimes nonplussed. 1 was told of a case on a
west-bound train, where some passengers had had
lunch just before entering tho territory, and when
the train stopped at a station they went out on
the platform, leaving a partly-empty bottlo of
Sauterne on the seat. The lynx-eyed policeman
pounced upon it, smelt and then tasted, but,
having never before seen such a liquid, was unable
to decide whether it was contraband. Ho called
in another policeman, who applied the same tests.
Still doubting, they consulted the corporal, and
then tho three sampled tho wine, and dis-'
cussed th'e perplexing case. They were sure it was
neither whisky nor beer, but what it was they
could not decido, and giving up the problem, went
off, leaving the bottlo empty on the car-seat.
While mentioning this, however, I must not overlook the fact that if strong liquids are cut off in
this remote region, a substitute is provided. They
sell   out    here   a   strange   decoction    which   is
warranted not to intoxicate
and is known as 30
" Moose Jaw beer,"and this has become a popular
drink in the North-West Territory. But I notice
that few drink it who have influence enough to
Becure a permit to get something stronger.Some
of the seizures of spirits made by the police are
very large, for the contraband trade is carried on
extensively, most of the whisky coming in
ifrom Montana, and being vile stuff, though often
commanding 15s. or 20s. per bottle.
At the flourishing station of Dunmore, near
SMEedicine Hat, or " The Hat " as it is called in
this country, we temporarily left the Canadian
Pacific line, and journeyed westward over a branch
railway to examine another flourishing enterprise
which has been started, mainly by British capital,
in this far-off land—a^coal mine on the verge of
the Rocky Mountains. In former days coals for
this country cost enormously and had to be brought
from Pennsylvania. A few years ago, however,
there was found a valuable coal vein, which the
Belly river in carving out its^deep valley nad exposed to view in the bluffs along the shore. The
Bow and Belly rivers unite to form the Saskatchewan, and both are the union of a great number of
mountain torrents coming down from the eastern
Blopes of the Rockies. The coal vein was seen in
.1879 by Mr. Elliott Gait, a son of Sir Alexander
Gait, the well-known Canadian statesman, and a
company was formed and a colliery opened some
time ago. There was difficulty, however, in getting
the coals to market, and last year it was determined to construct a narrow gauge (three feet)
railway from the mine out to the Canadian Pacific
railway at Dunmore, a distance of 109 miles. The
corporation formed is the North-Western Coal
and Navigation Company. The railway was built
in a few weeks, and the enterprise is quite successful and paying good dividends, about £360,000
being invested in the colliery and railway, the
latter having cost but £800 per mile to lay over
the flat prairie. This company seems to have a
great future, for it is now supplying coals as far
east as Winnipeg, where the Pennsylvania coals
come into competition, and as the country increases in population the demand for these " Gait
coals " will grow. The analysis of the coals,which
are bituminous, shows over 64 per cent, of carbon,
less than one per cent, of sulphur, and about six
per cent, ashes, the remainder being water and'
We went outupon this newly-built narrow gauge
railway,aud found it a well-constructed line across
a desolate and uninhabited region,which gradually
changedfrom poor landstoagood ranching country
as the Belly River was approached. The Government had given a subsidy for its construction of
8,840 acres per mile, amounting to about 414,000
acres, which the company had selected in the
ranching region and was beginning to sell to cattle,
grazing companies at about five shillings an acre.
As we progressed westward the fi^st mountain
view was obtained, the three " Sweet Grass Hills,"
70miles to the southward across theUnited States
border, showing their snow-capped summits just
above the horizon. Then, as the Belly River was
approached, at the young town of Lethbridge, the
long stretch of the peaks of the Rockies was seen'
miles away. Aswe journeyed we crossed the boundary from the province or Assiniboia into the province of Alberta. There were occasional small lakes
and sloughs on the surface and good duck shooting,
but nobody lived on this vast level expanse until
Lethbridge was reached, a busy town of about
1,000 people-just on the verge of the steep bluffs
bordering   the   river  valley.     The surface was
covered With old buffalo trails, where these animals
in years gone by had traversed it in their solemn
single-file processions to and from their watering
and feeding-places. They have now all disappeared, nothing being left but their whitening
bones scattered over the ground. It has been but
a few years since this region was alive with them,
but the Indians, tempted by the price given for
their hides either in whisky or trade, waged a war
against them that proved to be an extermination,
and none are now known to exist in this section.
Instances^ were not rare when an Indian band,
following the great herds, were known to kill
1,000 buffaloes in a single hunt.
In going into Lethbridge the height of land is
crossed dividing tbe waters flowing into Hudson
Bay from those of the Gulf of Mexico. A shallow
coulee is passed, which deepens into the tableland
both northward and southward, and within a few
hundred feet on either side of the railway the
waters flow in opposite directions, one stream out
through the Saskatchewan 4,500 miles northward,
the other by the Milk River to the Missouri and
then the Mississippi 5,500 miles southward.
The Lethbridge Colliery is in the side of the
bluff, down almost at the level of the bottomlands alongside the Belly River, and mining is
easy, though wages are high, colliers making 10s.
to 12s. per day, and ordinary labourers being paid
6s. to 8s., because of the difficulty of getting them
to come out here. About 400 men are employed
at the mine, saw-mill, and railway, making a very
busy place up at the verge of the mountains. The
coals are to be cut by machines hereafter, and the
present daily output varies from 150 tons in
summer to 400 tons as winter approaches. The
coals are run out of the mine levels and hoisted
up the bluffs by an inclined plane rising 280ft.
and 2,250ft. long where they are loaded into the
railway wagons and sent to market. When
taken to Dunmore at the Canadian Pacific Railway
they fetch 16s. per ton. . A good trade is also
carried on at cutting timber, which is brought 400
miles down the Rocky Mountain streams to the
saw-mills, and has a limitless market on the prairie.
All this thriving industry, including the town
itself, is the growth of a single year, and it promises well for the English and Canadian capitalists
who have ventured their money so far away from
We left Lethbridge and started in a carriage
from the end of the railway across the prairie 33
miles further westward to Fort MacLeod. The road
wound down the bluffs and forded the swift-flowing but crooked Belly river, and then it went steeply
up a deep couUe cut into the opposite bank
until the tableland was reached. The horses made
swift progress, over the level prairie beyond,
where cattle herds were grazing, for we had come
into the ranching country. The strong west wind,
.was blowing stiffly against us, but it was warm
and balmy coming through the mountain passes
from the milder slope of the Pacific coast. It is
this generally prevailing westerly wind which
warms this region and keeps tho grass green on the
cattle ranges, melting the winter snows, and raising
the temperature. This is the cause of the increasing mildness as theRockyMountainsare approached
as compared with Manitoba. The wind blew
freshly in our faces as we drove across the prairie
fording the Old Man's River and following its
bank up to Fort MacLeod. This valley is a shallow
one, not being much cut into the prairie, and the
whole neighbouring surface is stony, as if it had
been an ancient river bed. The fort, which is a
station of the  " mounted police." was originally The   Banching    Region
of   Alberta.
built on an island in the river, but the wayward
torrent began washing it away, and compollod
removal to higher ground on the mainland. The
town has about 500 people, and the strong winds
blow all the soil away from over the pebbles and
boulders underlying, so that the main streets are
very rough highways. The " mounted police "
post has about 100 men, and there are 40 more at
Lethbridge, mainly to watch whisky traders and
preserve order on the large reserve of the Blood
Indians on the Belly River, near the Buttes to tho
southward.    This reserve, which is presided over
by " Red Crow," has about 3,500 Indians, and in
the various reserves in this region there are about
7,000, all different bands of the great Blackfeet
nation, of whom the redoubtable " Crowfoot,"
who lives up on the Canadian Pacific line at the
" Crowfoot reserve," is the head chief. Fort
MacLeod, which, however, is not a defensive work
but only a barracks, was established about 12
years ago, an<? soon became a centre of the
ranching businoM^ the cattle men coming up here
from Montana, and thus making it an essentially
American town. The cow-boy is in his glory here ;
American money is the chief circulating
medium ; the Fort MacLeod Gazette is published
as the weekly organ of the ranchmen, containing a
pageful of their " brands ;" and a great horse and
cattle exhibition is being prepared for to show the
enterprising spirit of the people. There are large
stores and comfortable little hotels, this community having been ■ established 2,223 miles west
of Montreal, before a railway route was thought
of, its base of supplies and communication with the
outer world being at Fort Benton, over 200 miles
away on the Missouri River, in Montana. It is a
wealthy place, too, the ranchmen being lavish in
then,* expenditures ; and it stands as the frontier
outpost of the Dominion on its south-western
border, although, happily, Fort MacLeod in these
piping times of peace has no military duties to
The south-western portion of the province of
Alberta and its level plains and many river
valleys lying along and eastward of the foot-hills
of the Rockies contain the great cattle-ranges
of Canada. The grass is greener and the water
purer j than on the prairies to the eastward, and
the hills and valleys for many miles are patrolled
by the herds of cattle and horses. This industry
began as an overflow from Montana, but the
American ranchemen found that the Alberta
climate was milder, and many of them have been
moving their herds up here. The extensive Indian
reserves, which the Dominion Government had to
supply with liberal rations of beef, also made a
good home market, and this, too; was attractive.
The Dominion policy in leasing the public lands
for cattle-ranges is a liberal one. As many as
100,000 acres may be included in a single lease,
an annual rental being paid of one halfpenny,
recently advanced in new leases to one penny per
acre, and the term running for 21 years. The
lessee in three years is to place upon the land one
head of cattle for every ten acres, and maintain
that proportion throughout the term. There is
also a strict prohibition against sheep-grazing in
the southern part of this cattle-ranching district of
Alberta,      It is thought that ultimately,  When
matters on the broad Canadian prairies are!
adjusted by a sufficient increase of population, alii
of the district east of the cattle-ranges will
become a sheep-raising country, as far almost as
Regina, near which the wheatfields bejgin^
According to the latest Government report, there
were 2,098,670 acres in Alberta leased for grazing-4
lands to 58 ranching companies and individuals at
the ' close of 1885, and the Dominion reoeived fop
that year f 20,342 rental, the rent then being bud
a halfpenny per acre. The income is expected]
to bo doubled this year. The whole district at!
that time contained 46,936 cattle and 4,813 horses!
so far as reported, but the lists are incomplete.
There were several large companies holding leases,]
the most prominent being the British American
Ranche Company, the Halifax Ranche Company^
the St. Claire Ranche Company, the Cochrane)
Ranche Company, the Oxley Ranche CompanyJ
and the Walrond Ranche Company, and several
individuals wrere also large cattle-rangers, British;
capital being liberally invested. During the|
present year there has been a liberal movement of
Montana and Oregon cattle into this country, and!
large herds are on the way from Texas. Owing to
the better grass and other advantages, also, some
of the large Montana herders are moving theiri
cattle to the Canadian Pacific line for shipment inj
bond to Chicago, preferring that to the Northern!
Pacific Railway, which passes to the southward ofi
their ranges, on account of the better grassj
en route. There are 10,000 head to be thus shipped
eastward from Maple Creek in October, which arej
now on the way. It is difficult to get an accurate!
statement of the present number of cattle in this
district, but good judges estimate it at about
100,000 head, of which 25,000 came in from other
regions this year. i
The   ranching   district   of   Alberta,    south   ofi
Calgary,   contains   by   a   rough   estimate   about
4,000,000 of acres of lands adapted for cattle^
ranges. The region extends southward along the
eastern verge of the Rockies from Calgary to the
United States boundary, and spreads eastward}
probably 50 to 100 miles from the foot-hills. It ia
divided by the valleys and watercourses into fourj
districts—Pincher's Creek;which extends west and
south from Fort Macleod ; Willow Creek, which
embraces the valleys on either side of the-
Porcupine-hills for some 50 miles northward and)
eastward from Fort Macleod ; the • High Riveri
district, which is north of the last, and embraces
the valley/ of Mosquito Creek and High River ^
and the Calgary district, which spreads along thel
Canadian Pacific Railway, and is mostly composed
of  new ranches stocked since the railway came
along and
ned that territory.    Fort MacLeod
and Calgary are the two centres fortheranche-men.
:>y experienced cattle-men, who have
it is stated
best of
over tho cattle-grazing districts of the
,t this eastern slope of tho Rockies is thet
I, furnishing the most and best grass and
purest water,and that for the distance of 150 miles
from the boundary northward to the railway it is
a region of especial adaptation to the cattle industry. Hence the establishment hero of the
numerous ranches in tho past few years, which the
Dominion Government has taken great pains to
encourage by admitting, cattle to stock them from
the United States free of duty. As there has been
such an hegira of Montana cattle northward, however, this liberal policy ceased on September 1,
when the import duty of 20 per cent, was again
levied. There havo recently come into this region
from the United States the entire herds of the
Powder River Cattle Comnanv. 5.000 head, 1.000 39
A   Canadian   Tour.
head   from   Montana  for   the
Company,  and   several   other
Montana and Oregon, which
Cochrane Ranche
arge herds   from
have been for weeks
westward of the trail taken, while behind theTn"
on the way. The process of moving them is slow,
as they cannot be driven more than six or eight
miles a day and have to be frequently rested on
spots where water and good grass are available.
They get into this new country in very thin
condition, but a month's stay on the grass fattens
fchcm, and, as one of the herders of the Powder
River herd said, "They never knew what good grass
was until they got here." A s these cattle when
in prime condition are valued at £7 to £10 per
head, it may be realized that a very large amount
of capital is invested in these ranehes, though as
yet there has been no export, the demand for beef
tor the Indian reserves and local consumption
taking all the surplus. The herds, under ordinary
circumstances, double from the natural increase
in 24 to 30 months, and, as these Alberta ranges
have not yet been fully stocked, there is no shipment
eastward, though this trade is expected soon to
begin, and the railway is making active preparations to conduct it.
The management of these ranches is generally
In'the hands of Englishmen and Scotchmen with
Ontario men, but the foremen, herders, and cowboys are mostly from the States. In fact, this
district, its towns, and manners and methods are
very American, bo that it seems much like a
Beotion of the western American frontier. Most
of the cowboys and others have previously lived
at various points along the border from Texas to
Montana, and they have thoroughly imbued this
region with American styles. The lasso and lariat,
the broad-brimmed cowboy hat, the leather
breeches, and imposing cartridge celts one meets
at the frontier towns on the Union and Northern
Pacific railways are reproduced in this district in
the same reckless and extravagant fashion. The
cowboy dialect rules supreme in the talk of the
people, while the American national game of
'' draw-poker " flourishes exuberantly at Fort
MacLeod and elsewhere. Horses ana cattle are
all the t^Ik ; about the speed and endurance and
racing abilities of the former, and the numbers
and value of the latter. The cowboy who can ride
the fastest and " round-up " the largest herd is
the popular hero in this part of Alberta, whose
achievements are of more account than either
Dominion politics or the events passing in the
outside world, of which, however, this country,
so remoto from all news sources, gets but an indistinct idea. It must be stated to the credit of
Alberta, however, that the roughness of manners
displayed generally along the frontier is wanting
here ; that the cattle-men are kind and hospitable ; and that the infusion of the British races
which is coming in is bringing marked improvement in the classes of men who work upon the
I have described this ranching district of
Alberta as located generally to the southward of
the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is stated, however, that the country is also adapted for cattle
ranges for 200 miles northward, and as far as
Edmonton, if the possibilities of that fertile
district of the extreme North-West for cattle are
borne out by actual tests. But at present the
cattle herds are all in the region to the southward of Calgary. To see this great grazing region'
I took a wagon ride for two days over the ranges
between Fort MacLeod and Calgary, going northward about 110 miles across the prairie which
skirts the foot-hills of the Rockies. For about
half the distance the  Porcupine-hills are to tno
stretches the grand range of the snow-capped
Rockies, seen from the Chief Mountain, 11,000ft.
high, which stands guard at the international
boundary/northward until lost to view-—a stretch
of probably 200 miles. We forded the streams
and jogged along upon the prairie and halted at
tho " cowboy camps " for meals and sleep. Many
grazing herds were seen, the cattle roaming at will
without watch or hindrance. All the animals are
branded, so that their owners pick them out at the
spring and autumn " round-ups." A " cowboy
camp " is usually a log cabin with the crevices
plastered to keep out the wind, and a thick turf
roof upon which the grass grows the same as on
the ground, while a ceiling of cloth is spread over
the apartment inside to keep the earth from
coming through. Big stoves are provided to
maintain warmth in winter, and also to do the
cooking, over which a cowboy, with more versatile
talents than the others, usually presides. On the
walls are sometimes a deer's antlers or a buffalo's
head for ornament, with little knickknacks in
the way of pictures cut from pictorial newspapers
or fancy advertising cards that haVe wandered out
this way. There may be a bedstead or two, but
generally they sleep on the floor, performing their
brief toilets out of doors, where there is plenty of
room in this country. They live reasonably well,
and mostly on food that is imported, generally
canned meats, vegetables, and sweets, and sometimes have good beef, but this is not always the
case on the ranches, although at the hotels and
private tables excellent nieatB are the rule. But
the anomaly of this great cattle district is that
the ranchmen rarely have milk or butter of their
own production, generally going without milk and
importing their butter, if it is used, in kegs from
the States. The cowboy of the present day is
probably too wary to attempt milking these wild
cows of the prairies ; at any rate he does not do
it; and bo, with hundreds of cows around them,,
these herdsmen drink their coffee without milk.
They are warm-hearted and will do all in their
power for the stranger who comes to see them, but
when he is at the " Cow puncher's home," which
is the title given a cow-camp in this country, he
usually has to rough it.
We rode for miles over the $»rairie, fording the
streams and crossing the ccuUes, and passed
several of the greatest ranches, with their cattle
peacefully grazing on the rich grass of the
bottom lands, or moving to the mountain streams
that come from the terraced Porcupine-hills and
other outposts of the Rockies in search of water.
We passed one herd of 1,200 very tired looking
cattle that were on their way from Oregon to the
High River region. A squad of cowboys on
horseback kept them from roaming too far away
from the trail, and urged forward the weary ones
and stragglers who lagged behind. Another
great flock of sheep that had come 300 miles was
also passed, they being on the way to Calgary
for sale to farmers who are establishing sheep
farms in this neighbourhood. All the herders
carried their camp outfit with them, and slept on
the field with their flocks. As we neared Calgary
the signs of settlement became more frequent, for
homestead settlers are taking up much of the
land, and many farms are fenced, while the
buildings are good and show evidence of agricultural thrift. The High River is a stream
that was quite low when we forded it, but
is said to produce high spring freshets when
it overflows its banks, and has two outlets,.
seeking   an    additional    channel    through    the
iL Entering   the   Rocky   Mountains,
Little Bow River which heads in its valley,,
while the main stream flows into the Bow
River. This is one of the few instances wherein
one river gets its source out of another. The
ranching country is a good shooting ground, its
lakes and sloughs having many wild ducks, while
the grouse or prairie chickens are plentiful on
most of the uplands. Fringes of timber line the
valleys of the streams, which are beautiful landscapes, and long before Calgary was reached there
was agrand outlook over the crocked valley of the
Bow River, which curves and re-curves, forming
the "bow from which it gets its name, while into it
flows another stream with a right-angled bend
which is called the Elbow. It is astonishing to
learn that within four years past this country has
received almost its entire population north of
High River, where the settlements are comparatively numerous , and the newness of the
region was best shown by the little country church
near Fish Creek,recently completed, and its graveyard fenced in, with a single grave-stone standing
to show that its mournful missionhaE but just begun.
VYe came out upon the hillhighabove Calgary and
forded the river and entered the town. This
•lively place,which has a station for the mounted
police, and conducts the trade of a large section,
is but two years old, and is decidedly the most
unfinished town I have yet found in the Canadian
North-West. Building goes on everywhere. The
streets arO' strewn, and in some cases almost
blockaded, with building materials,and large stone
buildings are going up, as well as almost countless
wooden dwellings. The town has 1,500 people,
largely English, and has grown so rapidly that'
they have not had time either to pave the streets
or to construct sidewalks. Eligible lots are held
at high prices, £20 per front foot being the queta-
tion for shallow lots in the main street. Calgary
also rejoices in two city governments, this having
continued several months, with two mayors and a
double town council, owing to a political quarrel
that has now got into litigation, and it is hoped
will soon be settled. This shows what an enterprising town it is, and also thepoliticalpossibilities
in the exhilarating atmosphere of this region. I
find, however, that the people, despite these disputes, are fully united in patriotic devqtion to
their town, and that they are anxious to have
established here a cavalry station for the British
Army, this region being in the way of becoming
the great horse-breeding section of Canada. On
the ranges and stock-farms in the fertile valleys
near Calgary there are some 6,000 horses, and
they think it would, therefore, be the best place to
quarter horses, and also to secure re-mounts. It
is a growing town, with a fine district dependent
Upon it to give permanent prosperity hereafter ;
and,after a survey of its condition and prospects, I
feel sure that. Calgary is the sturdiest two-year-old
in the Canadian North-West.
The youthful town of Calgary, which shows so
many signs of vigorous growth, is the outpost of
the North-West Territory, 2,262 miles from Montreal. It stands in the broad and level valley
between the Bow and the Elbow rivers, and has
plenty of room to spread. Being the entrepot of a
large extent of country stretching both north and
south of the railway, it does a brisk trade and
has several large stores that equal in size and.
amount of business any that aro located beyond
Winnipeg. From Calgary start the processions of
traders'carts for the northern country to Edmonton and the magnifieent valley of the North
Saskatchewan, said to be another Land of Promise^
which is steadily filling with settlers, and aspires
to rival Manitoba as an agricultural region. For
several hundreds of miles the fertilo prairie, with
its rich soils, genial climate, and beautiful valleys
Well timbered and watered, stretches northward
along the bases of the mountains and spreads far
to the eastward ; and the tide of immigration is
such that before long this region will be knocking
at the doors of the Dominion for admission as a
full-fledged province. I have referred to the
genial climate here,which in winter is less rigorous
than in Manitoba and the older provinces, owing
to the tempering Winds from the Pacific that come'
across the Rockies. The actual winter begins late
and ends early, and the snows, unless it "be a very
exceptional season, are easily melted. It is this
favourable condition of climate that renders this
extensive region so good for cattle ranges and
stock pastures, and also makes it so attractive to
the settler, who passes over many miles of intermediate prairie to get to this country. Yot in the
spring and autumn the daily changes of temperature are very wide, and this is said to affect the
health of new-comers and all not used to it. At
this season a change of 40 or 50 degrees between
night and midday is not infrequent, the range
being from 35 or 40 degrees in the night to 85 or 90
degrees in the heat of the day. This is the case
all along the eastern slopes of the Rockies, not
only in this country, but also further south in the
This is also a region of Indians, the various
bands of Crees, Blackfoet, and Stony Indians
being located on reserves, where they are allotted
enough land to enable each family to live by agriculture, but tho noble red man has hardly yet been
rot into the   way of earning his living by hard
They draw their rations of foe
the reserves, but many oi them wander about the
country and set up their smoky teepees on the
edge of a town, where they manage to pick up
enough to eat. These wandering Indians are not
a pleasant picture. They are dirty fellows, with
squaws who look the picture of despair from
unending work, while two or three half-clad little-
Indian children usually play about the teepee.
In this rmoke-begrimed and not very savoury wig*
wam tney all huddle at night, managing to lia
around the fire that is always kept burning in the
middle of the tent, the smoke escaping through an
aperture above. These Indians are being paid theii
anmiity rhoney at present, every man, woman,and
child getting 20s. apiece. It is a proud day for the
Indian when he captures all the money allotted to
himself, his squaws, and his offspring, and, thus
made rich by the possesion of £5 io £10, ccmei
into town to trade. In Calgary, the favourite
articles bought were bright-coloured blankets'
gaudily striped in bold contrasts, and with these
the Indians bedecked themselves to go back to the*
reserves and win the admiration of their squaws.;'
They walked about the streets shopping, with as
much desire to save money and get bargains as
any of the white race, and then, having made
their purchases, galloped over the prairie on theirj
ponies to their teepees. The shopkeepers, as mayj
be supposed, pay them great deference when this!
H treaty money " is being disbursed, and they are;
fully aware of their great importance. No more con-<
sequential creature Hves than one of these Indians,
B 34
A   Canadian   Tour.
pipe in mouth,astride of his pony,with painted face
and gorgeous blanket, coming into town with his
money. The poor squaw travels afoot and carries
all the bundles.
After crossing the vast stretch of table-lands
that form the centre of the American continent,
the Canadian Pacific Railway reaches the valley of
the Bow River just below Calgary. This brisk
stream of clear, cold water flows out from the
heart of the Rocky M ountains, and the railway
takes advantage of its valley to secure an entrance
to the great mountain chain, and follows it up
almost to its source. The Rockies rise abruptly at
their eastern basis from the edge of the prairie,
and often present on this side almost perpendicular
walls of rock. They are composed, not of a single
upheaved ridge, but of a considerable number of
parallel ranges, having a general direction a little
westward of due north, and for the main chain an
aggregate breadth of 60 or 70 miles. Out from
among these flows the Bow River, its source being
almost at the summit,and its valley winding about
from south-east to north-east, until, having passed
out of the mountains, it forms a wide coulee cut
deeply into the prairie, and in this" flows past
Calgary, which is built upon the bottom lands
that werethe bed of the ancient river. Standing pro-
minentlyin front ofCalgary,tothenorth-westward,
a landmark for miles around, is the long protuberance called the " Nose," which is one of the low,
advanced outposts of the Rockies. The railway, as
it has come its long journey over the prairie, has
gradually risen in elevation, It was 736ft. above
the sea level at Winnipeg, and gradually afecended,
until, at Calgary, the elevation was 3,380ft. Then,
followingup the BowRiver, it crosses the summit of
tho Rockies at 5,296ft. elevation. This is much the
lowest pass by which any of the transcontinental
railways  cross
The   Northern
'acific Railway has two summits to cross, at Bore-
man and at the Mull
m Tunnel, each
at an eleva
tion of 5,5C0ft. The Union and Central Pacific
Railways cross three summits,the Rockies at Sherman, 8,240ft. elevation, the Wasatch Mountains
at 7,856ft., and the Sierra Nevada in California at
*7 CiV ~
The Bow river, bright green and swift-flowing
over its pebbly bed, winds and twists in tortuous
fashion through the broad bottom lands of its
coulee, which the railway follows towards themoun-
tains, seeking the best route over the comparatively level land. The steep furrowed bluffs of
the valley show how deeply it has been cut into
the table land, which stretches far away en either
hand. The region is entirely bare of trees, excepting where a fringe of stunted hemlock or cotton-
wood may grow in sheltered fissures. The/winding
course of the valley makes beautiful landscape
views, and ahead of us glimpses are got of the peaks
of the Rockies as.the train moves towards them,
the range steadily rising as it is approached. For a
long distance this valley and the adjacent table
lands are leased by the Cochrane Ranching Company, and they have large herds of cattle, horses,
and sheep grazing at intervals, with extensive
sheds for winter shelters built in well-protected
locations under cover of the bluffs. The hills also
expose coal-measures, and shafts are being sunk
at Vaughan to develop a mine. New timber-
mills just going into operation to saw the logs
floated down from the mountains show how
recently the country has been opened to settlement. The train crosses the Stoney Indian reserve,
and two little hamlets of huts and tents
seen afar off in pleasant nooks of the valley, with
broad nastures stretching down to the river bank.
whereon the ponies are grazing, show how well
these Indians selected their home. They are said to
be the best disposed of the tribes of the North-West,'
and to show good signs of adopting the ways of
the white  man.
As the train rolls along, the line turning from
one side of the winding valley to the other, the
mountain range ahead of us gradually grows higher
and higher, the outlines of the peaks becoming
more and more irregular. As the western sun
shines down upon the dark gray threatening mass
continually expandiug in size, it looks much like
the rising of a summer thunder cloud. The railway,
crosses and recrosses the rushing river to seek the
better route, and as we run rapidly into the foothills, ridge after ridge of mountain peaks rises
higher and higher behind each other. We cross
pretty mountain torrents and pass an occasional
cascade. The actual entrance to the mountain'
chain comes suddenly. The train had been running
south-Westward along the base of an advancedfoot-
hill, when, suddenly making a right-angled bend to,
the north-west, it goes through the " gap "
and right into the mountain chain. The peaks
are enormous, their great masses of rocks standing
up steeply, and m some cases almost perpen-i
dicularly, broken, jagged, rough, and beyond]
description by words. They encroach upon the
valley, narrow its limits, and make the river a
roaring torrent as it swiftly descends the rapids.-
The wild scenery of the vast amphitheatre of peaks,,
rising higher and higher, with the more elevated]
mountains snow-capped where the rocks are not too
steep to retain it, is exhilarating in its influence..
There are fires on the mountain sides, making!
great smokes, which, however, are dwarfed by the;
surmounting peaks. The trees as we get among;
the sheltered gorges become much larger and-
logging camps are frequent, the cutters preparing
their rude cabins for homes during the approaching winter's work. After going through the " gap "
the valley broadens somewhat, and as it expands*
the surrounding mountains do not seem so high j
Little lakes of dear water nestle among the trees,,
and more mountain torrents fall in to feed tho;
river. We have gradually ascended the gradients)
until we are about 4,000ft. elevation, and. this
tends to dwarf the surrounding mountains. It is
surprising how this Bow River valley, thus pene^
t rating up into the heart of the Rockies, has easeds
the- work of the railway builders, for their line has!
followed almost a natural roadway, and while]
passing through wild scenery and among the
greatest imaginable roughness of surface has beenf
constructed with comparative ease by availing or
this Bow River ccul&e. Beyond the summit, however, the builders have had hard enough work to
get through. La this pretty valley among the
mountains, at a point where the comparatively
level surface seems nearly a mile wide, has been
located the railway division station of Canmore^
where there are half-a-dozen little houses and a
small hotel, the great ridges of mountain peaks
surrounding them, mounting guard over the loco-,
motive round-house and modest station.
After a brief halt the train resumes progress
up the winding valley, and apparently makes
directly for the face of the biggest mountain we
have yet seen, risinga mile high,directly in front of
us. This is the great snow-capped Cascade Mountain, . the highest peak in this neighbourhood,
which is elevated about 10,00@ft. above the sea. To
the northward is a peculiar looking peak which has
stood up like a sentinel during our many miles of
approach from Calgary.and is known as the Devil's
Head.   On one side of this threatening peak is the
1 Entering
the    Rocky   Mountains.
Devil's Lake, from which the Devil's Creek flows
down a mountain torrent to the Bow, while not
far away another weird stream, called the Ghoet
River, also comes cut from ampng the peaks. The
railway passes between two steep hills, its way
having to be hewn through their sides directly
towards the Cascade Mountain, but just when
the locomotive seems ready to dash against it
the line suddenly veers to the left, and the
apparently impending collision is avoided. In a
few minutes we have run into another glen among
the peaks, and are at Banff, a new settlement just
started last spring, 2,342 miles west of Montreal.
In the adjacent recesses between the Cascade.
Mountain and the Devil's Head are valuable coal
measures, producing a semi-anthracite coal of
good quality, the working of which has just begun.
J 1US1
this Cai
An analysis of the coals taken from
mine, owned by what is known as the Canada
Anthracite Company, is said to show an average
of 80 per cent, carbon in two seams that can be
most readily worked, while other seams give a
much higher percentage. Some of the coals are
already got oat and sent along the railway for consumption, and the promise is given of a good paying mine when active operations begin. The explorations made of the slopes of the Rockies show
at various places extensive coal-beds, so that,when
the great prairie country adjacent becomes
fully settled, there need be no lack of cheap fuel.
But the attraction of Banff is tbe hot springs.
The settlement is at some distance from the station,
and is reached by a ride over about the dustiest
read in this very dry country of volatile soils.
Last April this region was a wilderness, a few
people having previously ccme here and temporarily   encamped while   testing   the medicinal
virtues of the springs.    Now there
couple of
hotels, made up of log cabins and tents set about
among the scrub timber, and quite a pretentious
building is being erected for a f sanitarium." The
snow-capped peaks are all about us, and the wind
blows chill at night, but the sun is warm by day.
We eat our meals in a low-rcofed log cabin, and so
to sleep in one of the tents,the rushmgriver rapids
just in front singing a lullaby. At this attractive
place, a level glen alongside the river, with steep
timbered hills immediately around it and great
jagged ridges of mountains hemming it hi en all
sides, there is the beginning of a great watering-
place. The Bow River, by widening its course,
makes a pretty lake, at the foot of which a floating
bridge is thrown across, while below tho river
runs into rapids terminating in a beautiful cascade,
where the narrow passage is hewn through thet
solid rock, and the water goes boiling and foaming
down into a pool, whence it peacefully flows eastward out of the glen. Up on the hillside at several
places are the hot springs, charged with sulphur
and iron and other medicinal salts, eo that they
are valued highly as cures for various skin diseases
and rheumatism. One of these springs makes a
magnificent green pool, while another has been
found in a cave 40ft. below the surface. The
bathers crawl down a ladder into an abyss whence
comes a  sulphurous  odour,
there they bathe,
the waters escaping through a subterranean
channel and finally coming out near the river bank.
& winding road up tho mountain-side leads to the
chief hot spring, which comes with a strong flow
out of a small aperture at probably 500it. eleva-.
tion above the river. Here, in rude log huts, baths
are provided, while frcm the neighbourhood of the
spring a magnificent outlook is had over the valley
of the Bow, as it circles about and finally flows off
to  the  eastward, out  of the glen, past the great
Cascade Mountain. This place concentrates within
brief compass so many attractions that tho
Dominion Government has made it a reservation for
public use, this including the valley and surround-.
ing peaks, so that it will become a park. Roads
are now being made to give easy access to its
beauties, and leases are granted for the construction of substantial hotels to replace the present
rude hcstelries. The waters from the various
springs will be conducted in pipes to the riverside, and it will then become a great resort for
invalids. In fact, this very young settlement
among the Rockies at Banff, not yet six months
old, seems destined to become the future Bath or
Leamington for the millions of people who are
hereafter to populate Canada's great North-West
About  40 years  ago an  exploring   expedition
under Captain  Palliser made the most  complete
examinations then possible of the passes in British
America  through  the   Rockies.    The maps they
drafted are still the  chief source of information
about   this
d   and
magnificent canon on the western slope of the
mountain range leading from a notch cut deeply
into the  summit  down   to the  Columbia river.'
When they were examining
was a member of tho expedition, was kicked by a
horse, and for want of a better name they gave'the
stream flowing through the canon the title of the
li Kicking Horse River," and called the notch in
the mountain tho " Kicking Horso Pass." The
exhaustive examinations mado of the Rocky Mountain range by the engineers of the Canadian Pacific
Railway demonstrated that this pass was the
lowest crossing of the ridge, and, in comparison
with others, the most easily accessible. At the
summit, which was not quite 5,3u0fb. above the
sea level, although great snow-capped mountains,
surrounded it, rising fully a mile higher, there was.
found a little lake, and in times of freshet the
waters from it ran both ways, out to the eastward'
by the Bow river towards Hudson's Bay and ultimately the Atlantic, and also westward through^
the Kicking Horse river to the Columbia, andi
thenco to the Pacific. This pass was therefore]
selected as the route for the railway, the'
summit being 2,385 miles west of Montreal.'
The railway reaches the pass by a comparatively,
easy gradient and route up the valley of the Bow
river and one of its small affiuents, and after
crossing the summit follows down the cation of'
the Kicking Horse on the western slope to the
valley of the Columbia. In making the ascent (he
railway climbs 1,908ft. from Calgary to the summit, a distance of 123 miles, while in descending
on tho other side it falls 2,778ft. in the 61. miles!
between the summit and Donald, on the Columbia;
river, 2,446 miles west of Montreal. In sharp;
contrast with the ease of construction on the
eastern slope are the great difficulties of the
western descent, where the roadway in some places
B—2 'Mr
A    Canadian   Tour.
has been as costly as on the northern shore ofi
Lake Superior, though the rocks out through are
generally of sandstone or slate and more yield*
ing materials. The Kicking Horse river descends
abruptly by a canon of startling depth and
steepness, winding with the sharpest turns, and
with loose materials on some of the slopes, that
have taxed the skill of the railway builders to
carry the line through. This gives most wild and
beautiful scenery, but it involves heavy gradients
and many curves and bends, with tunnels and
bridges, the road being often led high above some
perilous abyss,with mountain topsrising thousands
of feet above and a raging torrent below.
Starting in the early morning from the pretty
Rocky Mountain park which the Dominion Government is making in the glen at Bauff, the train
for the mountain top ran up the Bow river valley,
with the great Cascade Mountain on the right
hand. This snow-capped peak is not one of the
highest in elevation above the sea level, but it
rises to a greater height than most of them above
the floor of the valley, its sleep sides soaring
4,900ft. Opposite is the long side of the Sulphur
Mountain, out of which flow the healing springs of
the Banff. We pass many pretty lakes of brilliant
green hues, then? borders fringed with skrnted
spruce and poplar. A little hay-making is going
on in sheltered places, for where grass will grow
it becomes luxuriant. The mountains hem us in
on either hand, some of them rising in vast
columnar formations, while others have sharp and
jagged edges like a gigantic saw.    Their sides are
„,^^ all   imagination,   and   they well
deserve their title of the Rockies, for it seems as
if some vast convulsion had blown the valley to
atoms and strewn the fragments on the mountain
sides, where the lower slopes have managed to get
enough soil in the crevices to raise the stunted
spruce-pine trees, so that the sombre rocks above
gradually blend into the foliage below. The railway follows up the valley with easygradients,seek-
ing the best route, and seems to run towards the
great peak, with pinnacled and castellated top, its
sides built up in terraces in front, and having an
abundance of snow accumulated on the sheltered surfaces behind. This is the Castle Mountain, which
rises 4,200ft. above the railway. Forest fires have
wrought sad havoc in this valley, the burnt trunks
of trees strewing the ground or standing up
stripped of their foliage. The general course of
the line is north-west between two lines of
mountains, the notches in the left-hand rank disclosing the, snow-capped summits of the higher,
ridge of peaks behind which form the main range.
The valley narrows and broadens, but always provides tho railway a good route, now along some
ridge at the river bank and then through the burnt
timber of the bottom lands.
As we approach Castle Mountain, the more
imposing appear its battlemented pinnacles,
while beyond these rises, as the view
ahead gives glimpses, the great, broad, white-v
topped Mount Lefroy, which stands near
the summit of the pass. We enter a contracted but level plateau in front of Castle
Mountain, and between its base and the bank of
Bow river find Silver City. When the silver
mining fever attacked this region, about two years
ago, there was much exploration in Castle
Mountain and its neighbourhood, and several
mines were opened, but the ores were not found
in paying quantities, and tho excitement waned.
Silver City was then a lively place, but its glory
has departed.    There are a few inhabitants now*
and some small buildings that are occupied, bu!j
the town consists chiefly of deserted log cabins/
and the tall railway water tank is the most promi*
nent edifice in the place. We steam along farther
up the valley, heading direotly towards Mount
Lefroy, whose snowy summit rises higher and
higher. It is the most commanding peak of the
great range on our left hand, which is the highest
range of the Rockies and the dividing line
between the North-West Territory and British
Columbia. The valley goes on between the parallel
ranks of snowy peaks, a broad bed of an ancient
river apparently made purposely for the route
of a railway. We move gradually past Mount
Lefroy, which rises 11,658ft. above the sea level
and 6,600ft. above the railway, with an attendant
galaxy of smaller mountains in front. It stands
as a guardian of the pass, the melted snows from
its opposite sides going down to opposite oceans.
The railway ascends the valley so easily that you
scarcely realize that it is well on its way to the
summit, and the valley is sufficiently broad, when
the mountains on either hand are hidden by
clouds, to give the idea that the line is laid upon
a wooded table-land.
Having passed Mount Lefroy, we see rising in
front of us, to the northward of the pass, Mount
Hector, Goat Mountain, and the Wapputtahk
range, with glaciers flowing down their sides^
Between these peaks the Bow river, begins,'
coming down from a cluster of little lakes, while
to the westward one of the glaciers forms a feeder
for the Kicking Horse river. These peaks are aboufi
10,000ft. high, though accurate measurements
have not yet been recorded. La fact, many of the
mountains intheBritish portion of the Rocky range!
may hereafter have the same experience as Mount
Hood, in Oregon. This great monarch of the
.Pacific Slope was originally, by a " rough esti-i
mate," 17,000ft. high, and later a " close estii
mate " reduced it to 16,000ft. Then some measure*
ments by angles were made and it dropped
to 14,500ft., and a subsequent . triangulation
brought it down to 13,000ft. The first barometea
taken up was an aneroid, which made it 12,000ft.,
and afterwards a mercurial barometer brought it
out 11,225ft. It is believed to stand at that
figure now, until someone shaves it down lower ;'
so that if these reducing processes go on Mount!
Hood may, in the words of a pioneer of that'
region, " finally become a hole in the ground."
It is possible that some of the peaks of the
Rockies in this locality may suffer when an]
accurate measurer comes along, but until then %
will loyally quote the figru     as I find them.
The Bow river,  fed by all these stores of snow J
flows swiftly alongside the railway, which now
winds closely upon its crooked banks, the varying
course giving magnificent views in every positior?
of hundreds of mountain tops, some rising like
pyramids, others rounded, and others in great
Bcarred and? seamed walls of solid rocks. We hall
a few moments at some log huts and a water tank
known as the station of Laggan, and a short distance
beyond cross the Bow river and bid farewell ta
the valley that has stood us so well
as a route into the heart of the mountains. Itt
source is not far away among the mountain
glaciers off the north-west. A small tributary
coming from the south-west, called Noore's Creek,;
flows into the Bow, and, after sundry preliminary
twisting, the railway avails itself of this stream
to ascend towards the pass by a steep gradient
through the coutte the creek has made. Enormous
peaks guard the entrance, for the railway seeks
the lowest point to cross tho range, and the loco- Crossing tho Backing Horse Pass.
j&otSve labours heavily in pulling the train up the
gradient. Through a forest of burnt timber—the
jjcorched trunks of trees lying about in every
Birection, while many denuded masts still stand
Straight up, the railway enters the Kicking Horse
Pass. The surface is strewn with pebbles and
boulders. The snorts and puffs of the straining
locomotive reverberate from the mountains rising
high above us. A little stream that you can step
Across is all that is left of the creek. As the
gummit is reached the gradient comes to a level,
fend right at the top we find a lake with swampy
edges and a border of boulders mixed up withi
bharred timber. It is a desolate region in a narrow
Valley, the ridges from the mountains running
Sown almost to the edge of the lake, across which
the railway is laid, with a side-tract for passing
trains. There is not a hut or an inhabitant, but
this is the highest point of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, and is named, in honour of its highest
official, Stephen. %
We saw the little stream gradually diminishing
ks we ascended towards the lake, and now on the
Other side we see another little rill running out of
r, swamp and led into an artificial channel. This
\s the first stream encountered that goes towards
the Pacific, and it is one of the heads of the Kicking Horse River. We follow it along, and the little
brooklet expands into a creek, and leads us past
the Cathedral Mountain, broad and snow-covered,
jits towers and pinnacles resembling' some great
Duomo. We have pi
jroed the range, and now start
downward on the Paoific slope by a steep gradient*
An extra locomotive is fastened behind the train
fend all brakes put on, so that these, with the
reversed engines, retard the descent. Rounding a
curve, the tall form of Mount Stephen, 10,800ft.
high, with its two surmounting peaks (also named
terom•President Sir George Stephen,of the railway),
Icomes into full view as the outpost on the southern
side of the pass, its. snowy tops tapering off into
a long glacier. The little stream expands into a
take where wild ducks disport, but the forest fires
have blackened all the surrounding surfaces.
Winding through the valley is the "tote road"
of the railway builders, a necessary preliminary of
the work, but now abandoned. We pass the little
station of Hector, named from the hero of the kick-
ing honse,and nestling under the shadow of Mount
Stephen. Our little creek has become a mountain
torrent and falls into quite a large lake, from
fvhich flows on the right hand the Kicking
Horse River. Here begins the great canon which
this stream, with impulsive suddenness, soon
barves out deep into the mountain side. The river
becomes a wild and roaring torrent, leaping over
pataracts and dashing down rapids far below us,
pairing a vast fissure in the mountain which the
Railway has to get down by difficult work and
ikilful engineering.
Cut into the hillside high above the river the
Railway winds about with the canon, ever coming
flown its gradient, the train sliding along with
fhe breaks all smoking, and the reversed engines
buffing eteam. This gradient is from 150ft. to 200ft.
to the mile. Little torrents leap down from the
beaks and plunge under the railway to the river
below. The scenery is wild, beyond description.
Jhb route is cut out of the great cliffs high up on
the sloping side of the canon, turning and twisting
fcbout in the roughest country imaginable to put a
railway through. Mountain peaks are seen everywhere, with subsidiary valleys between them, each
Sending out its rushing stream to feed the swelling
jriver that roars over the boulders far belov      ™
their sides are composed of great and small rocks!
apparently strewn about by some terrific convulsion. Passing under the edge of the Tunnel
Mountain the railway finally gets down to the
bottom of this portion of the canon, where
the river flows with comparative peacefulnessi
into a   valley   of  some   breadth.
Here, undert
the edge of the Tunnel Mountain, with the
river in front and an array of other peaks
opposite, the railway is building a pretty Swiss
chalet, as a mountain halting place for tourists.]
This is Field, 2,895 miles wesfrof Montreal, named
from Cyrus W. Field, of New York, who has'
always been a great advocate of this route.
Then after crossing a spur of an adjacent!
mountain to avoid a roundabout bend in the
river, the road goes over the Otter Tail Creek, and,]
running along it, seeks the Kicking Horse again.j
The timber cutters have their camps here, and;
saw mills are at work. Silver prospectors have
also tunnelled mines into the mountain. The
railway crosses and recrosses the river^ seeking,
the best route down the valley which zigzags
before us, and the mountains bear better foliagej
that gives a greener hue than the forbidding
regions of burnt timber we have  passed.   The
passed.   Then
the   valley,  which   has   been having a general
southern  course,  suddenly veers around the end
of a broken mountain chain,
north-west,  seeking an outlet
nd turns to the
in the Columbia
a roaring torrents,  cuts deeper and?
River! The two streams flow for some distance
parallel to each other, but with an intervening
ridge of peaks. Thus we enter the lower canori
of the Kicking Horse, the river running suddenly:
from a broad valley into a steep-banked fissure,;
through which the railway winds. The canon
farrows, and its sides grow higher, while the1
river, ' ^^^^
deeper   into   the   fissure.   The 	
Sweep with raging speed past great precipices and!
over rocks and boulders that have fallen!
directly into the stream-bed. There is hardlyj
room for the river and railway to get through!
between the enormous masses of cliffs towering
far above and almost shutting out the sunlight.;
The route is cut out of the rocks, and the;
panon makes such sharp bends that in several;
bases to get in a curve that the trains can go
(around the cliffs have to be tunnelled and the
river bridged.    This    is   repeatedly   done,   ths
foarning waters
out of the
crossed and recrossed within briejl
The   old '* tote road " is   scratched]
above, and looks like a most
dangerous highway, yet along it all the materials
had to be taken before the railway could be
built. The construction here has been enormously!
costly, though the rocks are of softer materials;
than the granites hewn through on Lake Superior.
But ail things come to an end at last, and.this;
remarkable canon finally exhausts its rocky and
perilous wonders when it reaches the valley of the
Columbia River. We run out of it into a level
plain at Golden City, where the Kicking Horsel
River flows into the Columbia, 2,429 miles west
of Montreal. This pretentious name was given;-
the place a good while ago by the gold-hunter^
who came up the OblumbiaJbut a fewlog-cabins an<$
& rude bridge across the river are all that it now
consists of, the amount of gold in the neighbour-*
hood being evidently small, This ends the Roekyf
Mountain crossing, for the railway now runs
smoothly along among the forests on the broacj
bottom lands of the Columbia valley, bordered by
distant ridges of peaks, the Rockies on the eastern
and the Kelkirks on the western side.   There are
views along these are indescribably grand, while 1 soma, farms and settlements in the valley, and A
ctJU.cll.iid. 11
aymaking is going on, the genial climate favour-
_ jg the farmer. The river flows placidly in several
channels that wind about and run into and out
of each other, with pretty islands between. The
sides of the bordering mountains are well
timbered with pines, and the train moves swiftly
along to the little town of Ronald. Here on
the river bank is gathered a population of about
while tho railway is making an extensive
settlement in the background, as this is the
beginning of its Pacific division, with repair shops
and other .terminal facilities. It has only been
since July last that business opened here, and
until the railway builders previously came along
the place was an unbroken forest. Yet this is
the nucleus of a flourishing new town in British
Columbia,  which   already  feels  the  impetus of a
vill put the quotation of
corner lots to fabulous prices and foreshadow the
future greatness of Sir Donald A. Smith's namesake among the Rockies.
i     •
T*"W! O O
The great Columbia River rises in a couple of
little lakes, fed by the snows of the Western
the Rocky Mountains, at about 50deg.
ude. It flows a long distance norih-
es a huge bend around the Selkirk
in range.and retraces its course southward,
down into Oregon and thence to tho
)cean. This great loop, stretching for 200
lorthward, is known as the | Big Bend oi
tho Columbia." It is a region unsurpassed for
rugged grandeur, for its wealth of timber, game,
and fish, audits minerals,includinggokl and silver.
The prospectors havo diligently searched its mountain fastnesses, and been abundantly rn warded ;
but, excepting by the river navigation, little until
recently had been done to open it to the world.
Yet by'the placer mining, which has been a mere
scratching of the surface, £10,000,000 of British
Columbian gold has already, been got out of its
watercourses. When the route of. the Canadian
Pacific Ra-ilw-a^ was to be laid out beyond the first
crossing of the Columbia Paver, there was some
speculation as to how the groat mountain range
of the Selkirks was to be passed, which lies westward of the Rockies. Through its loop, the Columbia drained both sides of this ridge, the two sections of the river being barely fifty miles apart.
The railway builders could of course have gone
around with their route as'the river does, but this
Would have involved many miles of line and made
too long a road. It was not until within three years
that an accessible pass was known over the Selkirks:
All the attempts at exploration were made from
the Pacific side, and usually under Indian guidance.
The Dominion Government had begun the construction of ^a railway eastward from tho Pacific
coast, but its engineer, after some examinations
of the Selkirk range from that side, failed to find
a pass.; The great avalanches which Continually
fell from its peaks usually deterred the guides,
and ifc was not until three years ago that a pass
was found. Major Rogers, a well-known pioneer
in this region, i | one failure; succeeded in discovering an accessible route j over the range, and
this route, now known as the Rogers Pass,has been
selected for tho railway. Tho lino goes a short
distance westward down tho Columbia River after
leaving Donald, and then turns southward up tlra
Beaver River canon to the pass, crossing which it
goes south-west down the valley of the lilecillewaet
River to the Columbia again, at Revelstoke. The
pass is crossed at an elevation of 4,006ft., the line
rising 1,688ft. between the Columbia Rivei
and the pass, a distance of 22 miles, • While on
the western side it descends 2,360ft. in about
45 miles, the second crossing of the Columbia
at Revelstoke being 2,525 miles west of Montreal,
and at 1,646ft. elevation above the sea. The
railway construction over this Selkirk range has
been very difficult, requiring gradients of 100 to
120ft. to the mile, and causing some startling
feats of engineering to successfully pass the deep
canons that are cut into the mountains. Both
rivers are wild torrents, the Indian name of
lilecillewaet signifying the " raging waters."
They flow between enormous peaks whose lower
sides and all the valleys are clothed with magnifi-
cenftimber, the use of which has been lavish and
in fact most necessary in the railway construction.
To get through, many bridges and innumerable
curves are necessary, and a section of straight
railway of any length is rare.
The Columbia River flows past the little settlement at Donald with swift current and Fomewhat
steep banks, through a broad valley enclosed by
great mountains, much like the reproduction of a
bit of scenery from Switzerland. Busy work is
going on at building houses for the new town to
accommodate the people who are now living about
in tents and cabins. The surface is covered with
forests excepting where clearings have recently
been made, and stumps and fallen timber are ail
about, showing how recently the place has been
settled. The railway goes northward along the
Columbia River, crossing it just below the town on
a fine bridge at 40ft. elevation above the water,
and then proceeds down the western bank about
12 mile3 to the Beaver River. Near by the little
stream known as Wait-a-bit Creek falls in. The
ride along the Columbia River is beautiful, the
stream contracting and^running swiftly through a
canon, while mountain torrents come in, making
pretty rapids as they run under the railway. The
river has cut out its channel by grinding off the
faces and edges of the cliffs, and it makes a succession of grand curves disclosing fine views. Tall
pines cover all the slopes, and the railway has to
tunnel through the rocks to get around some of the
sharp bends. Several of the great sweeps of the
river form grand amphitheatres, the walls of
rock rising thousands of feet above- us. In fact
the Columbia River for a few miles seems much like
a condensed section cut out of the Rhine, but
without its vine-clad hills or legends. The
Columbia's banks are much higher, and the river is
at times a torrent. It is here that the gold hunters
havo been at work, and all through the interior
they have been quite successful in placer mining.
Leaving the Columbia, the railway curves
around sharply to the south, and enters the canon
of tho Beaver River.a lively stream that flows down
from the centre of the Selkirk range. The road
is carved out of tho rocks alongside the narrow
gorge and ascends a stiff grade, the river roaring
and leaping over the rocky ledges. The peculiar
manner in which the strata stand straight
up and right across the current makes the river go
over a succession of cascades and. as it were,
between so many gate-posts of rock. A pair of
these jutting Out, so that the torrent is contracted
and leaps over two waterfalls, have been used
for a roadway bridge and this is known as the
This formation   of   successive  1
f Crossing   the   Selkirk   Mountain   Range.
which the water breaks through is entirely
different from the Rockies. The canon winds,
and the railway curves around its banks and
steadily ascends, rising higher and higher above
the river in order to gain the necessary elevation
to reach the Rogers Pass. At the same time the
mountains surrounding us also rise higher as the
canon penetrates the range. All the slopes are
clad with timber, which is much better than that
seen in the Rockies, and saw-mills are at work.
Fires have been through here, and as our train
moves along the trees are seen burning in spots
on the opposite slope, the wind blowing the smoke
off towards the Columbia. Rising high above the
stream, its crooked course is mapped out far below
as it winds from one side of the valley to the other,
making pretty little bordering glens. The tributary streams fall in through other deep cations,
down which they plunge and make great gaps
which the railway has to get over by tall timber
trestle bridges. Some of these are of large proportions. The torrent known as Mountain Creek
is crossed on a trestle bridge 176ft. high and
600ft. long, and the railway curving around gives
a good view of this great structure after it is
passed. The tallest of these, and the one that is
believed to be the highest timber railway bridge
in the world, is over the canon of the Stoney Creek,
296ft. high and 450ft.long,a truss bridge supported
upon great timber towers built up from the valley
far below. This startling structure is thrown
oyer a cataract that falls down into a, deep gorge
and then rushes out to the river. We halt for
the locomotive to take water, and the passengers,
who have held their breath while crossing, amuse
themselves by rolling stones down into the valley
This portion of the Canadian Pacific Railway is
part of the most recent construction, and the
company have large forces of men at work finishing
the cuttings and embankments,and building snow-
sheds at the places where avalanches occur that
might obstruct traffic. Much of the roadway is
cut out of mountain sides formed largely of gravel,
or on slopes where boulders and great masses of
half-burnt trunks of trees lie on the ground.
Numbers of men are at work clearing these slopes.
Other forces are cutting timbers, squaring
them and preparing piles for the snow-sheds
which are being constructed further up in the
range. When we passed through, there were about
4,500 men engaged in these various occupations.
The snow-sheds are solid structures of crib-work
and piling, filled irf with stone, and placed where-
ever a " snow-slide " appears on the mountain
side. These routes of the avalanche as it plunges
with resistless force down into the valley can be
easily recognized. Everything is scraped from the
surface where the mass shoots down, all the
boulders, tree trunks, and other d&bris being deposited in a confrjsed mass at the bottom of the
fvalley. For some distance on each side of the
"' slide " the trees are broken off by the force of
the wind that goes down with the avalanche, this
fbeing almost as resistless. These broken trunks
can be seen lying far up the slope, the distance
dwarfing them apparently into little match-sticks.
The railway has experimented with some of these
slides and adopted a method of snow-shed construction which inclines the top to the angle of the
slide, and puts it right into the plane upon which
the avalanche moves.  In this way the snow shoots
pleted by the approaching winter. They are confined to about 18 miles of the line near the summit of
the pass, and if built continuously would be nearly
five miles long. The slopes of the mountain sides
in the Selkirks are much steeper than among the
Rockies, and hence the frequency of the slides.!
The small army that is busily at work in these
mountain gorges lives in huts and shanties, and
box-cars standing about on sidings adjacent to the
scene of operations, and when a gang moves, the
" boarding-house is generally moved with them
to the new place. The business of supplying food
and materials to all these workmen gives this
portion of the railway very active movements.
The Beaver River is followed almost to the summit, when the railway leaves it to take advantage
of the canon of a small tributary stream, coming
out of the centre of the range. Then we begin to
come upon the snow-sheds and the railway " boarding-houses," the mountain swarming in many
places with busy working men. Away up on the
peaks, above the " slides," can be seen the
glaciers, out of which come the white streaks that
ultimately plunge as mountain torrents under the
railway to the stream below. We follow up the
canon, exhaust the little stream, and enter the
Rogers Pass. It is a curving gorge cut deeply
between two great peaks rising steeply on either.
hand,their crevices filled withsnow. One is Mount
Carroll, elevated 5,558ft. above the railway, and-
the other Mount Hermit, 4,983ft. These mpnarchs
of the pass received their names in different
ways. The highest was named after an engineer
who accompanied Major Rogers in his exploration
but wanted to turn back, when tho veteran pioneer
said he would name the highest mountain in the
range after him if he would only persevere. He did,
so and was thus rewarded. On the sharply defined
top of Mount Hermit there is a pinnacle of rock
that looks like a hooded-monk standing erect,
while in front sits a little dog in aposition of expectancy. Thus came its name. These peaks rise
above the pass almost perpendicularly and give a
mountain scene exceeding anything else on the
line for startling grandeur. When they have been
passed the gorge broadens, so that at the actual!
summit there is a valley about 300ft. wide with
level land giving opportunity for a station,
sidings, and, strangely enough, a town ; for here
harmlessly over,  while
railway passes under
the shed as if through a tunnel. These sheds are
of the most solid construction, and 2,600 men are
engaged in building them, so that all will be coxa-
has grown a
mushroom settlement of liquor
Bhops, dancing halls, and the like, with the^
usual questionable population of a frontier town, all sorts of characters being attracted
by the money-spending ability of the large
force of railway labourers in the neighbourhood...
They live in frame shanties that will disappear when
the attraction that brings their occupants together
is withdrawn upon the completion of the railway
work. The pass itself is surrounded with great
peaks, snow covered, with glaciers between them,
and having many little cataracts leaping thousands
of feet down their sides. These peaks average
about a mile in height above the railway, and they
apparently entirely enclose the pass, giving as
thorough a mountain view as can anywhere be
found. Their tops often take fantastic shapes,
as in the case of the Hermit. On one of the mountains the crags form, two well-fatted Southdown
sheep in perfect reproduction, apparently grazing
on the edge of the precipice. On another mountain,
called the " Old Wife," is the form of a woman
wearing a huge night-cap. Another is a perfect
pyramid, and is eo called. These Selkirks are
remarkable for the curious shapes of their rocky;
The greatest mountain of the Selkirk range rises 40
11,000ft. above the sea, and was heretofore called
the " Syndicate Peak,7' but has since been named
in honour of one of the leading spirits in the
Canadian Pacific Railway, to whom I have heretofore referred—Mount Sir Donald. It rises high
above the southern verge of the Rogers Pass, and
alongside is a great glacier which, joining with
another further south, forms the head-waters
of the lilecillewaet River. This stream runs out
from under the icy mass rnd flows a rapid course
over the boulders and dfbris at the bottom of a
deep gorge that crosses at right angles, though
much below the Rogers Pass. We clambered for
two miles up this gorge to the glacier, finding it a
vast mass of ice fully a mile wide at the top, with
the waters flowing out from underneath in several
currents, ultimately uniting to form the river.
Alongside this gorge tho company are building
another pretty Swiss chalet for a .stopping place,
which they call the " Glacier Hotel. Several
artists were in the gorge sketching the magnifi
cent mountain views it gives.
railway avails
of this ravine and of another that comes into it at
right angles a short distance below, to get down
out of the pass. The line, by repeated double
loops, runs for six miles, descends 600ft., and accomplishes just two miles of actual distance.
Here is an achievement of engineering that it took
a railway genius to conceive of and successfully
execute. First the line runs southward along
tho side of the gorge towards the glacier, then it
crosses a high bridge and curves back on the other
side, coming out near where it started but at a
much lower level. Next it curves round into the
second ravine, swings across it, and comes back
again at 120ft. lower level, yet only 130ft. further
down the pass. Then it doubles upon itself, and
crosses the river, immediately   recrocsing  again.
Here are six aimc
view,  each at  a
parallel lines of railway is! full
wer stage,  and each made up
_ ilj of huge tr-estle bridges. These are the
" lopps " of the Canadian Pacific whose fame as
a railway feat has gone abroad, and when we look
down at them from tho top of the strange construction, it looks as if the railway was being twisted
into the bottom of a great abyss.
The xravine through which the Hlecillewaet River
flows is closely followed by the railway down to
tho mouth of the stream at the Columbia River.
It is a deep and crooked cafion, the river everywhere a raging torrent, thus justifying its name.
Frequent tunnels and many bridges are necessary
to get along, the river being crossed no less than
13 times. Much of the upper portion of the line
has to be protected from snow slides by the
sheds that  are building.    As we wind down tho
view   is  seen of the   galaxy of
higher, and their sides
peaks at the summit, with their broad glaciers,
tho bold form of Sir Donald rising above
tho others. Lower mountains, but still enormous
ones, border tho canon, and make it throughout a
deep rift cut into the mount .in range
hang about them as tho
causing them to loom still 1
and the bottom lands are covered with the finest
timber, including magnificent cedars and the
Douglas pines now seen for the first time. It is
hero that the railway gets much of its materials,
all to be had for the cutting. When about 20
miles from tho Columbia we reach the Albeit
Canon,, whore a deep fissure opens in the rocks
and tho river suddenly drops down a cataract somo
200ft., flowing nearly 300ft. bolow tho railway, a
raging mass of waters compressed into a stream
scarcely 20ft. wide. This strango chasm twists
about, and from the train you have momentary
npses of the foaming waters far "below.
stops, the passengers rush out to get a better
view' of the abyss. At another place, nearer the
Columbia,there is a second gorge,broader but much
similar. The huge mountain known as the Twin
Butte is passed, which has a notch cut in the peak,,
dividing it
into two  summits.    The
becomes more luxuriant as the Columbia is
approached, and many of the trees bear moss,
which is said to furnish the winter food for the
deer. We make our final crossing to the north
bank of the  lilecillewaet,   which has  done such
good service in guiding the
ray down out of
the mountains, and then it rushes away from us to
end its course in the Columbia. The rows o£
bordering peaks continue out to the larger river,,
which flows a broad stream southward between
the ranges past the great Mount Begbie. The
railway crosses the level forest, where the huge
cedars have nearly all been burnt, and comes to
this little town of Revelstoke. The scarred stumps
of the hollow trees cover the ground which has
just been cleared to let the railway through.
Great fires have almost destroyed the timber
on much of the slopes of the Columbia, these big
trees, which are all hollow, acting as so manyj
chimneys when the flames reach them. The rail*
way crosses the river and adjacent lowlands on a
substantial bridge nearly a mile long and at 50ft;
elevation to seek its further westward route. Lord
Revelstcke's namesake on the Colombia is practically a mining-camp of little wooden houses
spread along a single street near the river bank,
and begun long before the railway came through,'
as a rendezvous for the gold-hunters. Trains of
pack-horses start from here to carry supplies to
the miners far in the interior, and the little town
has about 300 to 400 population. We halt for
the night among the burnt forest trees on the edge!
of the town, and the journey across the Selkirk?
Mountain range is completed.
The province of British Columbia is no longer a
remote and almost uncared-for portion of. the
British Empire. The completion of the transcontinental railway has brought this distant region
within comparatively close neighbourhood of the
mother country, and it is now being realized whal
a valuable colony this is. Her gold and silver,
her stores of timber, her cattle ranges and fisheries,
and her vast hoards of undeveloped wealth in
minerals and agriculture are already impressing
the nation with her merits and enormous future •
possibilities. The province contains a sturdy race,
and it is quite probable that had it not been for
their urgency the Canadian Pacific Railway might
not have been built across the mountains. This
was the condition of the province entering the
Dominion Confederation, and when the construction halted these people demanded its fulfilment,
and finally secured the result. The effect upon the
development of British Columbia, by thus opening
close communication with Canada and England,
has already been marked and will hereafter expand. Tho pack-horse and the canoe ware not
long ago tho chief methods of transportation on
f A.{
the Pacific slope, but now they are largely replaced
by the railway. The people here are very proud
of this, and appreciate keenly their advantages.
Having passed the great mountain ranges, we
renewed our westward journey and left the
Columbia River to cross the final ridge, the Gold or
Coast range, and get to the better-settled parts of
British Columbia. The railway to accomplish
this goes over the • mountains by easy gradients
and through a natural pass. It has to rise but
350ft. from the Columbia River to do this, and the
route taken charms one with the manner in which
nature laid out the highway before the railway
came along. It is well known that the western
end of the railway had its construction begun at
the Pacific coast, the building of the line progressing eastward towards the mountains. When the
route had been laid out to the western slope of
the Gold range, the engineers were puzzled to select
the right direction- to go to hunt a pass through
the range. The story is told that when they were
in doubt which of two streams to follow up, they
observed an eagle who came flying along, and he
took the route by one of them and disappeared
through the mountains. They followed him and
found a low and practicable route, and it was
named the Eagle Pass, and the stream coming out
from it the Eagle River. The railway is laid along
a succession of lakes and connecting streams that
conduct it through the mountains, and by comparatively easy gradients it gets both up to and
down from the pass. The region traversed is a
gold-producing section, and prospectors and placer
miners are numerous, though there are scarcely any
other settlements anywhere in the mountains. The
valley of a little stream flowing from the southwest is followed for about nine miles to get up
to the pass, which is at 1,996ft. elevation. The
Gold range has some snow-capped peaks, but
generally they are much lower than the Rockies
or the Selkirks, and have more rounded tops,
being composed of loose materials, requiring very
little difficult rock cutting in building the line.
The region is a universal forest in the valleys
and upon the mountain slopes, but fires have
been everywhere and .made a most desolate and
forbidding scene, the scorched trunks of the great
trees standing up or lying about in confusion over
the rough surface. As the road bed has been
only recently completed, much work is going on
at finishing the slopes and ballasting the line, and
large numbers of Chinamen are. engaged at it.
These fellows are willing, but it is said they can
only do about half the work of a white man, and-
their pay is three shillings a day. They encamp
along the line, usually in tents, and keep good-
humoured and jolly so long as they are well fed.
They never got any of their wages, these going to
the Chinese Company at "Victoria that furnishes
them to labour on the railway and keeps them
fully supplied.
All through this region rain has been unknown for a long timo, and everything
is dry and dusty. Fires -are burning
in  many   places    in   the   forests,   and   notably
These   trunks
among    tho  -huge   cedar   trees
are all decayed and hollow, and set like chimneys
when the fire gets into them, and if tho tall trunk
falls it carries the flamo3 a long distance, There
are large surfaces, however, that have escaped the
fires, and much good timber is cut. In fact, tho
railway is lined for long distances with logs,
squared timber, and firewood awaiting shipment.
The latter is very cheap, being but 6s. a cord, cut
and piled alongside the line. Wo go through these
forests to the summit of the pass,- which is the
dividing ridge between the waters seeking the
Pacific Ocean by the Columbia River and thoso
flowing westward through tho Fraser River. At
the actual summit there is a long and narrow lake
of beautiful clear water surrounded by high
mountains. This is the beginning of the Eagle
River, and the railway route is cut out of the
rocky border of the lake. Its winding shores and
overhanging cliffs are very pretty. Then the line
follows the Eagle River down the western elope, a
succession of long narrow lakes and their connecting streams, the railway seeking one shore or
the other as has best presented a feasible line.
While the scenery is fine, there is nothing like the
startling canons and terrific engineering, seen in
the other mountain ranges, though possibly the
repeated exhibitions of mountain passes and sen-,
sational railway building havo caused that sort of
thing to pall upon us. Lake after lake is passed,
the finest being the Three Valley Lake, which
stretches three arms into as many gorges in the
mountains. Tho lakes and streams are full of fish,,
and thousands of trout and salmon can be seen
swimming in their clear waters, a great temptation to the angler.
It is in this attractive region that we pass a
little station alongside the Eagle River, 2,509
miles from Montreal, which has been given the
sturdy Scotch name of Craigellachie. It was here
in November, 1885, that Sir Donald A. Smith, in
the presence of a small party of railway chieftains,
drove the last spike that finished the railway by
connecting the two ends which had been building
towards each other from both oceans, it is
noteworthy in this connexion that while the;
Northern Pacific Railway final spike-driving was
made the occasion of a gij htic excursion that
had no sooner got home than the then management of the company collapsed, the Canadian
Pacific final spike-driving had no such unfortunate
result. The great event was modestly done and;
as modestly celebrated. After it was over I am.
told that all hands went fishing and had most;
glorious sport.
The Eagle River leads us down to the Great;
Shuswap Lake, so named from the Indian tribe
that lived on its banks and who still have a " re-!
serve " there. This is a most remarkable body of
water. It lies among the mountain ridges, and
consequently extends its long narrow arms along
the intervening valleys like a huge octopus in
half-a-dozen directions. These arms are many miles
long, and vary from a few hundred yards to two or
throe miles in breadth, and their high, bold shores,1
fringed by the little narrow beach of sand and;
pebbles, with alternating bays and capes, give
beautiful views. Tho railway crosses one of these!
arms by a drawbridge at Sicamous Narrows, and]
then goes for a long distance along the southern
shores of the lake, running entirely aroun
end of the
lino winds in
wild geese and ducks fly over the wa- rs and light
and shadow play upon the opposite banks This
lake with its bordering slopes' gives a fine reminder of Scottish scenery. The railway in getting
around it leads at different and many/ times
towards evorv one of the 32 points of tho compass,
- Salmon Arm."    For 50 miles the
nd out the bending shores,  while 42
A    Canadian    Tour
Leaving the " Salmon Arm " of the lake rather
than go a long and circuitous course around the
mountains to reach the " South-western Arm,"
the line boldly strikes through the forest over the
top of the intervening ridge. We come out at
some 600 feet elevation above this " arm," and
get a magnificent view across the lake, its winding
shores on both sides of the long and narrow sheet
of water stretching far on either hand, with high
mountain ridges for the opposite background. The
line gradually runs down hill until it reaches the
level of the water, but here it has passed the lake,
which has narrowed into the Thompson river. The
remainder of the route follows the valley of this
stream, which gives as pretty a sight as one would
care to see of a rich pastoral valley enclosed
between mountain ridges. The Shuswap Indian
reserve shows some signs of settlement and cultivation between the river and the lake on an
extended stretch of lowland bordered by forests.
The Indians of British Columbia are said to make
better labourers than most of those on the plains,
when they will work. They make excellent herdsmen and shepherds on the ranches in these
luxuriant valleys, and their little settlements are
scattered at intervals along the river wherever
■they can pick up a livelihood.
The Thompson river broadens into the Little
•Shuswap Lake,and the route is cut out of the hill r
tside on its southern bank. Then the valley
■broadens, and the eye that has been so accustomed
to rocks and roughness and the uninhabited desolation of the mountains is gladdened by the sight
of grass, fenced fields, growing crops, haystacks,,
and good farmhouses on the level surface, while
herds of cattle, sheep, and horses roam over the
valley and borderinghills in large numbers. This.
is a ranching country extending far into the-
mountain valleys west of the Gold Range on both
sides of the railway, and is one of the garden spots
of British Columbia. It is in the dry region, however, and everything is parched and dusty, irrigation being necessary. The Thompson river valley
is well settled for a long distance, and its ranchers
sell large numbers of their surplus cattle to the
ranching district of Alberta. The people are comparatively old settlers, having come in from the
Pacific coast, and it does ones heart good, after
having passed the rude little cabins and huts of
the plains and mountains, to see their neat and
trim cottages, with the evidences of thrift that are
all around. It is in the heart of this flourishing
region that the town of Kamloops is situated. The
north fork of the Thompson river comes down from
the mountains of Upper Columbia and joins the
main stem, and here many years ago, with an eye
to Indian trading, the Hudsons' Bay Company
established a post. The Indian name of Kamloops,
meaning the % junction of the waters," was given
it, and gradually a settlement grew that now has
about 700 population and is the entrepot for the
ranching district. It is in a pretty spot. The
broad valley is intersected by another coming into
it at right angles. The rivers flow over the plain
and finally join. There is both a background and
a foreground of bordering hills, and the town
stretches along a single street at the edge of the
river. At either end the Chinese have set up their
special little towns, while the English residents
occupy the centre. The railway track enclosed
with planks runs along the middle of the street,
and this is tho footwalk and promenade. Little
steamboats are on the river, and a saw-mill is
briskly at work. There is a large hotel and a newspaper, and the dwelling-houses are comfortable'
and in some cases quite fine.   It is a prosperous
town, in successful business, and of about 15" years
growth, and is an important statiun on the
Canadian Pacific Railway, 2,634 miles west oi
Nature's highways are carefully followed by the
Canadian Pacific Railway in getting down from the
Gold Range in British Columbia i and through the
very rough country to the westward, and finally
out to'the terminus of the line on the ws
of the
Pacific. The series of watercourses whose canons
are made use of began with the Eagle River, which
ran into the Thompson River, and this then takes
the railway to the Fraser River and that to the sea'.
Below Kamloops both streams flow through deep
canons and traverse a rocky and mountainous
region that makes railway building extremely difficult. Startling as was the ride through the Rockies
and Selkirks, the carving out of the line upon the
steep banks of the deep and winding canons oi
the Thompson and Fraser Rivers has also called for
great engineering skill, and gives for hundreds of
miles a succession of superb scenes and magnificent
displays of the art of successful road-making. The
line goes through an almost uninhabited country
after the Kamloops district is left, and the reason
for this is because most of the land is set on end.
The river gorges break through the northern prolongation of the Cascade Mountain range oi
Oregon, and although few of the peaks are high
enough to be covered with snow, yet they are wild
and rugged beyond description. It is at the
Kamloops Lake, a beautiful sheet of water into
which the Thompson Riyer widens just below tho
town, that the fine scenery of the canon begins.
This lake is about 20 miles long and a mile or
two wide. The river above it meanders in careless
crookedness through a valley that is enclosed by
parallel ridges of round-topped, furrowed, and
water-worn hills, the bottom lands making a good
grazing country, with many herds of cattle. The
lake spreads across this valley, the bordering
hills, however, changing to towering rocks, which
become higher as the mountain range is entered.
They bear no timber, and the sombre aspect of the
cliffs, with the parched brown vegetation, contrasts sharply with the bright green waters'. The
railway has to be carried on ledges and through
tunnels on the southern bank, the views over the
lake being beautiful as the route winds in and out,
now piercing a tunnel and now hung upon a bridge
over some great fissure. A half-dozen rocky ridges
stretch across this lake, and have been broken
through by the waters so that it presents a series
of high promontories and intervening bays. The
little village of Savonas is at the foot of the lake,
and below this the gorge narrows and the Thompson River flows out with swift current towards the
sea, plunging with mad pace over the successions
of rapids at the bottom of the canon. This
canon broadens and narrows as the mountain
chains approach or recede, and the railway is
carried high above the river on the southern side.'
Where tho bottom lands spread out the river
winds through them,leaving flats or bars. It is on
these, and the sandy outflows of the mountain
streams which fall in, that much gold has been
found, and both here and on the Fraser River can
be seen the gold hunters shaking their " cradles "
to wash the sand from the gold dust.
In the bottoms and on the hills along this river Descending   the    Pacific   Slope
e graveyards
flying from staffs
until the gorge runs too far into the mountains
the grazing is good,and there are evidences of some
settlement, with cattle-herds and horses feeding
on the " bunch grass," which looks in its dried
condition   like so   much hay.    Below this   part,
however, the rocks become too steep to permit of
much habitation,  and the few people seen   are
either Indians or Chinamen, and usually at work
on the railroad.    Between dirt and sunburn, and
the adoption of the cast-off clothing of the white
man, the Celestials and the savages are getting to
look very much alike.    They encamp in tents or in
turf-covered   cabins,  sometimes   burrowing   their
homes out of the hillside, where a log front is put
in with a door.    Their living is very primitive,and
they are about as near the grade of the  savage as
can well   be  imagined.    Our Chinaman cook on
the railway coach looks down  with contempt on
these Celestials who handle the shovel and pick on
the line,  and declares their caste is far below his ;
that they have sold themselves to " Wing Gee,"
at Victoria ; that he gets all their money, and sells
them all their supplies at several hundred per
cent, profit.    In fact,  they seem to be  held in a
sort of bondage by the Chinese factors who furnish
labour when large numbers of men are wanted for
public works.    Bat whatever may be the arrangement, were it not  for the Indians and Chinamen
this part of the country would be very short of
population.    I never saw a place where there was
such a lack of white men, and the room for the
number of inhabitants to increase is great indeed.
The Celestials bring all their home customs with
them.    We saw several of their lit
with red   and striped banner
set up   in   them,   while the white post put at
the     grave   usually had a red   streamer     waving   in   the   wind.    One banner, it was explained
to us,meant, " Man dead;" three banners, "Devil
keep off."    The   question was asked whether his
Satanic majesty obeyed this, and the answer came
quickly, " Devil no like red flag."
•    A light bridge deep down  in the  canon thrown
across   the Thompson River, where several roads
come together out of the mountains,  gives a name
to the station of " Spence's Bridge."    Here  were
seen several caravans of the great ox^teams that
are used in this country of terrible hills.    It is no
unusual thing to yoke 12 oxen together to draw
one of the big wagons that carry supplies far into
the interior. The procession trudges along,making
slow progress and a great dust,but strictly obeying
the driver's orders.    All the  settlements in this
region were originally made by the gold hunters,
who moved about as prospects were good or bad.
As the Thompson River canon gets further into
the mountains the gorge becomes deeper and narrower and the scenery even more grand. The hills
are denuded of trees, but some scrub timber grows
in sheltered parts of the valleys.    The river becomes a wild torrent.    The railway has a difficult
route, is laid  high above the water, and crosses
a great number of trestle-bridges over the fissures
in., the  sides of   the   canon,    while    it   has   to
pierce cliff after cliff through tunnels.    The sides
of the gorge in most places are precipitous, making
it   impossible   to    get    down    to    the   water's
edge.    A wagon road is cut into the   precipice
along the top, high above the stream, and here are
seen a. party of Indians with their ponies, moving
their household goods on the animals' backs.    But
it seems perilous navigation to go along such a
roadway in  such a dangerous place, entirely unprotected from falling far down  into the  abyss
below.    There the canon gradually winds its way
into the mountains and approaches the highest
peaks, some 'with snow-rifts on their summits,
which border the canon of the Fraser River. And
finally we come to Lytton, a town started by a
colony of gold-miners at the junction of the two
rivers, but whose occupation has been lost by the
bar they were working upon getting washed out.
It has a scattered array of little huts and cabins
with a few larger buildings, and covers quite a
large space on a fiat overlooking the two streams.
That the town has some age is shown by two neat
and partly filled cemeteries, each with a cross surmounting its gateway.
The Iraser River is the chief watercourse of
British Columbia, rising in the northern portion of
the Rockies, and flowing for about 500 miles before
it begins to break through the mountains on its
way to the Strait of Georgia. It passes Lytton as
a full stream with rapid, turbid current which,
when the Thompson River is added, becomes much
larger and at times a foaming torrent. It flows
through a deep" and rocky gorge, but with the
slopes and bottoms better timbered than the
Thompson River valley. The scenery is, if anything, on a grander scale, and the huge rocks that
have fallen into the water have been worn by the
action or the elements into forms like towers,
■castles, and rows of bridge piers with the swift
current eddying around them. The cliffs that
encompass the river rise for thousands of feet, and
in many places stand up like solid walls, or jut
out, and almost bar tho passage. A pair of such
protruding promontories is used by the railway to cross the river on a fine iron bridge, but it
tunnel one of the cliffs to secure a safe
route on the opposite bank. The great number of
mountain torrents coming in, and the rocky
buttresses that intervene, make the railway for
miles a succession of tunnels and trestle bridges,
most costly to construct, and compelling endless
"lends to get a practicable route at all.    These
obstructions narrow the channel so that the river
runs at race-horse speed. Clouds encompass the
higher peaks and float along in the canon while
the water boils below. There are intervals, however, when the valley broadens sufficiently to
permit a nook where an acre or two of comparatively level land gives a chance for brief
cultivation,butthisisinfrequent. After miles of this
wild scenery have been passed,there comes a slight
change, and on a level place the town of Yale i3
built, a settlement of perhaps a thousand people.
Below this the railway gets a somewhat easier
route, though still among the mountains, and as
we run out into parts of the forest where it is
possible to lay a straight line of any length, the
breath is drawn more freely. The line, since
entering the Rockies,has passed through 600 miles
of mountain work and is probably the longest piece
of difficult railway construction in the world. To
build such a substantial roadway through such a
forbidding and sparsely-inhabited region shows
the wonderful pluck of its projectors. No obstacle
has deterred them.
The Fraser River cafion below Yale becomes
more of a valley,and its course changes from south
to west. There is better cultivation and settle-
ment,but the mountains still overhang us, and the
route to the coast is encompassed by them, and
laid through an almost unbroken forest. On leaving
the dry and arid region of, the mountains for the
more genial climate of the coast, there is brighter
foliage and more luxuriance. The ridges separate
and the river broadens, flowing with gentler
current now that it has plenty of room. Then it
seeks different channels, and flows into the*
Georgian Strait, with two outlets, its  delta em- 44
A   Canadian
now completed.
bracing a vast surface of rich agricultural land
capable of high cultivation. Its shores are
moderately settled, but could easily support a
much larger population. Northward of the Fraser
there is a pretty inlet reaching up a dozen miles
into the land, with forest-lined shores and very
deep water, called Burrard Inlet. Tho railway
leaves the bank of the Fraser and crosses to this
inlet, where the finished line terminates at Port
Moody. This is merely a railway station set in
between the hillside and the edge of the water, for
it is the intention to prolong the line to the sea
entrance of Burrard Inlet at Vancouver, and most
of the grading is now done, and the road will be
completed next year. A barque is at the Port
Moody wharf, unloading a cargo of Japan teas for
railway shipment across the continent. A quick
transhipment of passengers is made to a steamer,
and we sail down the placid waters to Vancouver,
the wind blowing freshly from the mountains that
are not very far away from the northern shores.
The banks of the inlet have several settlements,
and timber mills are at work, and I was surprised
to learn that one pretty town, with white painted
houses and a neat church, was an Indian mission
settlement with 300 population, where the Indians
were busy workpeople and most exemplary
Vancouver, or the " Terminal City," as it
proudly calls itself, is the youngest town in
Canada, and 2,909 miles west of Montreal. It did
not exist until within a year,and after it had been
started with great vigour a terrible fire in June
last burnt it all down, and it had to be started
afresh. No better location for a town could well
be seleeted,and it is no wonder,with its advantages
of position, that this city of three months' growth
is now so busy with axe, hammer, and trowel in
expanding itself. Everybody was burnt out at the
fire, and everybody is building again. The city
stands on a narrow peninsula between Burrard
Inlet and English Bay, the peninsula jutting
out into the Sound, and thus having a chance for
a good harbour on either side, with tho town
between, on a surface sloping both ways, thus rfsr>ecr"i~v
giving good drainage. The northern side,
where the inlet sweeps around into a cove, is
called Coal Harbour, and here is secure anchorage
and deep water clear up to the shore. The end of
the peninsula expands somewhat, and is almost
surrounded by water, being reserved by the Government for a park, the town standing on the
narrower portion. Streets are laid out and a
substantial wharf built, and a population of 1,500
are gathered here, the number rapidly increasing.
The trade in town lots is brisk, and' the city, so
far as it is constructed, seems to be composed
largely of hotels and real estate offices. This is
the land of the " big trees," and a belt of the
giants, growing so thickly that they could hardly
find room for their roots, covered the town
site and had to bo cut down. With the exception
of a half-dozen all have succumbed, and much
of the town-plot is now a rough surface of stumps,
logs, and debris of these trees, which can only be
got rid of by explosions or burning. Trees six,
eight, and eleven feet in diameter have been
destroyed, and their stumps are a problem to extract. It is amazing how thick and luxuriantly
these giants—cedars, spruce, and Douglas pine—
grew. It costs £100 to £150 per acre to merely
clear the land of them, and their rings show that
they have been growing 500 years or more. Men
are working to clear them from tho streets,and the
outskirts of, the town, as of sircurrps
last  June was started.    Like much
and trunks, looks as if a tornado had been through
the forest. One gigantio pine stands solitary in
the town, and is said to nave been prepared for
destruction, but was saved at the intercession of
Princess Louise. The townspeople have named
the great tree after her. Sections of wood cut
across the trees six and eight feet in diameter lean
up in front of the houses and are used for signboards. The processes of burning are continually
going on in the suburbs to be rid of them, and giva
the sky a lurid glare at night. In fact it was owing
to  carelessness in this respect that the great firs
ike much else that is
in the newer regions of Canada,
Vancouver owes its " boom" largely to tha
Scotch. Many of them are veteran pioneers,
having aided in opening settlements in Ontario,
then removed to Winnipeg, and having assisted
in setting that city off on a successful career now
come to the Western Coast to renew the process.
The Vancouver Chief of Police is a Highland*
man of massive build, constructed to rival the
big trees of this region, though as yet his active
force is not so large as might be thought proper
for such a ponderous commander—numbering just
five men. But there is every opportunity for its
future enlargement, as this " Terminal City " has
an ambition as big as her trees, and commensurate
with her proud position as the Pacific Coast
terminus of the great railway whose tour we have
may be supposed,  the vast
stores of timber in the neighbourhood make woodworking the chief industry of this section, so that
most of the houses are built of the lumber that is
so abundant and cheap, though a fine building
stone, prettily mottled with black spots on a gray
ground, is found on an arm of the inlet and this
is being used in some of the structures. The Vancouver streets have wooden sidewalks, and are
paved with planks, where time has been given to
get the huge stumps removed. The vigour with
which work is going on shows that the place will
greatly expand in a short time, for the noise of the
builders is universal, and neat wooden houses
spring up almost with mushroom growth. In this
ancouver is much like a newly-born
American frontier town, and the fact that American money is the general ourrency used adds to
the illusion. This shows the dependence the
whole Pacifio Coast of the Dominion has heretofore had upon California as a base of supplies
and a mode of communication with the outer
world. The completion of the railway will tend
to change this t but Vancouver, with her big
hopes, may find both the Anglo-Saxon nations
contributing to their realization. From the proposed city park'or publio square, in the centre of
the town, at the topmost point of the elevation of
land between the two harbours, the outlook is
lovely across the placid waters bordered with
forests, and having mountains beyond. Nestling
on the opposite shore about three miles away is
the attractive little Indian mission village, its
white houses and diminutive church spirei
glistening in the sunlight. At this • central pointi
of grand outlook the railway is constructing a fine
hotel, to accommodate the rush of tourist travel
expected to pause here before braving the Rocky
Mountain railway transit, or taking the long passage
acrosB the ocean. Almost beneath the prospective
windows of the great hotel of the future lies the
magnificent roadstead, and hereafter, when it
bears the great commerce it is capable of accommodating, the " Terminal City " will become a
metropolis of the Pacific Slope*
I The   Island   of   Vancouver.
George Vancouver, the famous navigator, was
jthe earliest conscientious explorer of the coasts o)
yBritish Columbia. He had served as a midshipman
under Captain Cook in his Pacific Ocean voyages,
and when the Spaniards yielded their possessioni
in the neighbourhood of Nootka Sound to the English he went thither in 1792 to receive the surrender from Quadra, the Spanish commander.
(Afterwards, Vancouver devoted several years to
carefully surveying the coasts and intricate inland
channels for about 2,000 miles along the Pa cific
shores of America, from about SOdec. North lati-
tude up to the Russian possessions. For many
years the largest island on the west coast of
America bore the names both of Quadra and Vancouver, but the former fell into disuse. The various
channels and straits with the larger islands of this
interesting region still hold the names the
famous navigator gave them. Vancouver Island is
about 275 miles long and 85 miles broad in the
widest part, with an average width of 60 miles,
and it covers an estimated surface of some 15,000
square miles. It represents, with the myriads of
other islands of all sizes and shapes that are in
the adjacent waters, the peaks and highlands of a
submerged mountain range running parallel to
the great ranges of British Columbia, and in some
respects a prolongation of the Cascade and coast
ranges of Oregon. Through the island there extends a line of bare and rocky mountains, having
an average elevation of 2,000ft. to 3,000ft, but
rising towards the southern part to peaks of 6,000ft.
The coasts of the island are abrupt and rocky with
great cliffs and promontoriesjutting out into the surrounding seas, so that they are much indented with
bays, and many smaller islands adjoin them, particularly on the western side. The two ends of
Vancouver are comparatively flat, and most of the
settled portions are at the southern end, where
Victoria is situated, and in the region around the
coal measures of Nanaimo on the eastern coast.
Among the many islands in the archipelago which
makes up almost the whole of the Georgian Strait
and other seas and sounds between Vancouver and
the mainland is San Juan Island, This rockbound
region, lying to the eastward of the lower end of
Vancouver, played an important part in the
boundary disputes between England and the
United States, now happily settled. Forty years
ago, when various dormant claims were revived and the States demanded a higher northern
boundary for Oregon, the political war-cry in
American elections was, " Fifty-four forty or
fight." The result, however, was neither the one
thing nor the other; there was much disputing and
an ultimate settlement upon the present boundary
of 49 deg. North latitude, with an imaginary line
among the islands in the Georgian Strait, distri-
butingsome on one side and some on the other. But
ultimately a foraging pig and a stubborn settler got
the two countries by theears in the notorious" San
Juan controversy," which lingered several years
before settlement. This island was used as a sheep
pasture by the Hudson's Bay Company, then the
masters of this whole region, and their herders
kept a few pigs. An American came over from
Oregon and set up an establishment on a point of
the island, since called from him Eubbs's Point.
One of the Hudson's Bay pigs foraged in Hufabs's
garden, and he is said to nave shot it ana-
threatened to shoot its owner. The latter appealed
to the Company—so the story goes—and they
prepared to drive out the American. But he was
too quick for them, and got General Harvey, commanding in Oregon, to send a company of soldiers
over, who took possession, set up the American
flag, and claimed the island as part of the United
States. Two British war vessels went over to shell
them out, and it looked for awhile like warm work,
but there was no outbreak, owing to the judicious
forbearance of the English Admiral and General
Harvey, and for several years there was a joint
occupancy, British Marines holding one end of the
island and American troops the other. Finally,,
the Emperor of Germany was selected as arbitrator,
and the island awarded to the United States, the
boundary line dividing the Archipelago being run
with exactness.
The Island of Vancouver, from an artistib standpoint, is highly attractive, but much of it will
only entice the tourist and not the farmer. The
numerous lakes among the mountain ridges, the
promontories, capes, deep bays, and pretty islets,
give an endless variety of charms of scenery. There
is, however, good cultivation in the neighbourhood
of Victoria, and the most luscious fruits and
vegetables are easily raised. Like nearly all of
British Columbia, it needs population for proper
development. Its coasts have good harbours, the
best known being Esquimault, adjoining Victoria
on the westward, one of the chief havens on the
Pacific and a British naval rendezvous. Departure
Bay and tho adjacent harbours of Nanaimo on
the eastern coast, about 75 miles northward of
Victoria, are bituminous coal-shipping points,
which supply nearly 200,000 tons annually for
general export. These coals are sold at 10s. to 16s.
per ton at the pit's mouth, and go to all parts of
the Pacific. The Strait of Georgia, to which I
have referred as separating Vancouver from the
mainland of British Columbia, varies from an inconsiderable width to 25 miles, and contains innumerable islands. It is a part of the vast inland chain of
navigable waters stretching from Oregon up to
Alaska. This is a wonderful labyrinth of watercourses, winding almost endlessly for thousands of
miles among a network of islands, peninsulas,
rocks, and promontories, unruffled by any ocean
swells, and at every turn presenting new beauties
of scenery. This' vast chain of inland passages,
fronts the entire Pacific coast of British Columbia,
giving every facility for inter-communication
either by the largest or the frailest vessel. Beginning at the southern extremity with that
charming entrance from the   sea between Van-
ri +h
named after the ancient
supposed either to have
or  else said  it  ought to be
m de Fuca—these placid';
couver and the
Greek     who     is
dreamed about it,
here—the  Strait of
waters are prolonged at Puget Sound for some 200
miles inland. Of this sound and its advantages the
American Commodore Wilkes, who explored it
about 30 years ago, reported to the United States
Government, "I venture nothing in saying there is
no country in the world that possesses waters
equal to these." He adds that not a shoal exists
which can in any way interrupt navigation by a
74-gun ship ; that the shores of all the inlets and
bays are remarkably bold, so much so that a ship's
side would strike the shore before the keel would
strike the ground, and that the rise and fall of the
tide, about 18ft., affords every facility for the
erection j of works for a great maritime nation.
Northward for over 1,000 miles from Puget Sound
there is
great sale water rivti
t 46
regular steamer lines sail to Alaska, and this route
from Victoria ¥has become the latest fashionable
tourist trip by Americans, from both sides of the
Leaving the very youthful but expanding town
of Vancouver, we started for a pleasant sail upon
the smooth clear waters of the Strait of Georgia
for Victoria. The steamer, moving with the rapid
tide, which runs at eight or nine knots an hour,
passes swiftly by the bold shores bordering the
Narrows at the entrance of Burrard Inlet. The
waters are covered with Indian canoes, where all
hands, men, women, and children, are fishing for
salmon. This is the great Indian occupation at
this season, and all about this extensive region of
inland waters the canoe is the family carriage of
Indian and white man alike, for the smooth
surface makes it as safe as the deck of the great
steamer. These are the lands of the Hydah and
the Timpsean and the Siwash. They were once
great fighters, and came out in their 80ft. canoes
and had naval battles that would have done
honour to more civilized races in their deeds of
bravery and carnage. But now the Hydah is said
to have adopted most of the vices of civilization,
varied with skilful fishing, and many of the others
are respected sons of the Church and packers of
salmon for shipment to all parts of the world.
These formerly warlike races have become peaceable,
and they are quite willing to work for the money
of the white man. In fact, they are hotter Indians
than the painted and bedizened paupers who live
on the Government bounty back on the plains.
The great " Siwash stone," which was viewed with
superstitious awe by these savages, stands just at   I channel  from Nanaimo down is reasonably well
of the Fraser river, to which I have before referred,
is a region of great agricultural richness, capable
of sustaining a much iarger population than now
occupies tho land. Its yield of fruits and vegetables is prodigious, and there is steadily poured
upon it the rich soils scoured out by thousands of
mile3 of mountain torrents. All it needs is a
market to dispose of its produce. The Fraser
is also the great fish-canning region of Oregon,
and sends thousands of tons of packed salmon
away, much of it to England. The Indians
cafi'ch the fish and the Chinese clean them, and
both profit by the work, which is now at the height
of its season. Extensive arrangements are making
for the export of fish and fruits in refrigerator
cars and vessels by quick transit between this
coast and England, a trade that will be of great
benefit to Victoria and New Westminster, the
flourishing town near the mouth of the Fraser.
Having passed this rich delta, the steamer sets over
towards Vancouver Island, and is soon threading
a maze of smaller islands of all shapes and sizes
with the most beautiful channels between them.
They generally have high rocky shores and are
covered with trees. Settlers are few, there being
an occasional cabin of an Indian or an eccentric
white man who prefers solitude, broken only
by the company of a few sheep. We thread this
maze for miles, and finally get between the archipelago and the Vancouver shore, which rises as a
dark gray threatening mountain ridge, tapering off
as the southern end is approached. There are few
channel marks or beacons, although the whole
region   has been accurately surveyed.    Yhe ship
the entrance  of Burrard Inlet,  a huge isolated
rock, with trees growing from the top.     Here was
the temple of offerings to their gods to propitiate
favour for the predatory expedition or the fishing
or hunting party.   The relics of these Indians wera
once   numerous,   and   particularly   the   " totem
pole,"    the    heraldic    staff    on   which months
were   often   spent   in   elaborate   ornamentation.
These   " totems "   exhibit   fine   wood   carvings
and painting, and were  made to contain the cremated remains of the  chieftain whose achievements the decorations commemorated.    They were
set  up as monuments,   and were  often of great
length,bearing figures representing the history and
legends of the tribe.
The genuin(
" totem
a   "
becoming scarce, however, but their place is amply
filled by an extensive supply displayed in the
shop windows of poles of modern manufacture,
and decorated by enterprising Yankee ingenuity
in this later day with designs and colours often
far more gorgeous than the originals.
We pass out of Burrard Inlet, and the gray
mountains of Vancouver Island are seen rising in
front of us, and the prow turns southward
through the Strait of Georgia. As we steam along
these bold shores rise prominently on the right
hand, while to the left are the great forest-covered
mountain ridges of the British Columbian coast,
running down to the water's edge, and having between them an extensive series of deeply indented
inlets and sounds. Behmd them are the still
higher peaks of the Cascade range, stretching
northward as far as eye can see. But to the
southward the land gradually falls away to a level
at the delta caused by the double outfall of the
Fraser river and the low but fertile islands it encloses. To the south-east is seen the magnificent
peak of Mount Baker, in the States, just below the,
boundary, rising far away, a perfect gem of a
mountain, entirely covered with snow, upon which
the western sun shines brightly.   The fertile delta
marked, but it is thought an improvement will be
made, as both the military and naval authorities
have recently turned their attention to these
waters. The completion of the railway having
opened a new military route from England to the
East, the coasts are being examined to select suitable sites for fortifications, and it is thought that
an extensive military establishment will be created
at Esquimault, in which both England and Canada
will join.
Night falls after a most beautiful sunset seen
over the Vancouver mountains. Bush fires are
burning here and there, making smokes, and soon
the bright electric lights are seen from the masts
in Victoria, shining over the long jutting point of
land around which we go into the harbour—a
perfect gem of a little basin, but quite diminutive.
The inner harbour of the town seems to barely
have room enough for one of the big Atlantio
liners to turn round in, but the outer harbour and
wharves give better accommodation. It does not
take long in Victoria to convince one that,
although the Union Jack flies over the " Government House," he is in an essentially American
town. The first experience is the gauntlet run
of wild and vociferous hackmen and hotel
touters, evidently an offshoot of the New York
and San Francisco species. Then the United
States money is the universal currency, some of
the Canadian species, although this is a Canadian
town, being looked upon with doubts (and discounts) by most of the townspeople. The generousv
supply seen everywhere of " saloons" and
" sample-rooms," where liquor is copiously dispensed, and the numerous hotels of all grades,
with unfailing characteristics of Californian origin,-
help to give tho same impression. We have also
got among a race of tobaccc-chewers, requiring
the presence of innumerable cuspidors in public
places. The steam fire-engine runs to the fires,
tor  which,' as in American frontier towns, many
I 1
The   Island   of   Vancouver.
wooden houses furnish fuel frequently, and the
American flag actually floats from a largerproportion
of vessels in the port of Victoria than is usually seen
in the port of New York. These signs, joined
with the favour whioh the people show to the
American transcontinental railway lines, add to
the American symptoms that break out copiously.
Yet the town is in reality a cosmopolitan community, as a brief walk about the streets will
testify. It has all the English races and
many Americans, and French, Germans, and
most other Europeans in business and on the
highways, with Jews and Gentiles of all kinds, not
forgetting a large proportion of Indians and
Chinese. Few cities of 12,000 people, which is
about the present population, can show a greater
variety of races. In reference to occupations
here, a British Columbian guide-book mentions
that Victoria has eight physicians and ten barristers,  and adds :—
There is a little disproportion in some callings. For
instance, there are 10 breweries and wholesale liquor
establishments and 45 retail bars, besides 22 groceries
where liquor can bo sold, but there are only two book
stores. This plenitude of liquor, however, speaks well for
the climate, for in spite of these establishments and of
four stores specially devoted to the sale of firearms, there
- are only two undertakers. . . . There is a telephone
company, four brass band associations, and a lunatic
$et with these copious supplies of certain kinds
of characteristics, it must not be overlooked that
Victoria has its handsome theatre and a complete
club, excellent schools and charitable foundations, and many churches, and that its people are
hospitable and sufficiently enterprising to' sustain
four daily newspapers.
I have spoken of the Chinese, and as our westward journey has progressed the impression
has been the more strongly made upon
me that this Pacific Coast could hardly
get along without them. The Chinamen in
Victoria perform almost all the domestic duties.
They are the cooks and chambermaids, take
care of the family washing, and do all the
chores about the house. They labour at gardening,
saw wood, run errands, are maids-of-all-work, and
make themselves generally useful in this new land,
where it is almost impossible to get white servants
for any price. " John Chinaman " nurses the
baby and pushes the child's perambulator about ;
is submissive and obedient ; content with small
wages, and generally fills the places of the under
servants, who are almost unknown here in any
other race. Yet there is a violent prejudice
against the Chinese among various classes, and it
is not unusual to find an effort to attract custom
by advertising that " no Chinamen are employed." There are few Chinese women here, but
" John " fulfils the duties of the man and woman
servant alike. Were he driven out it would go
hard with many industries, and although in the
collective form, when the race gets together in any
part of a town, they are very offensive, yet while
separated they give individual satisfaction.
" John " is tho great tea-drawer of this coast, selecting and drawing the teas with consummate
skill, so that under his manipulation it has become
a universal, beverage. He is also said to be a
skilful tea-purloiner from the family chest, and
has to bo watchod on this account. The Chinese
like nothing better than to have their little assemblies, when each man produces his package of
stolen tea, and they draw and discuss it as if it
were, a wine of the rarest vintage. They have Chelr
newspaper, too, in Victoria, and the bright red
" bulletins," printed with black characters, are
posted upon the large buildincr  of M Chu Chung
and Co.," on one "of the main streets, witri
crowds of Chinamen around them anxious to
learn the latest intelligence. They move about
the streets in large numbers, their pig-tails hanging down their backs, and their shops and wash-
houses are dotted all over the town, while in Chu
Chung's section they have quite a settlement. It
is evident that the Celestial has quite as much to
do with Victoria as any of the white races, and it
would be hard to obliterate him, so interwoven
has he become with the work and comfort of the
The British ensign, bearing the letters
" H.B.C.," floating from a tall mast in front of
a substantial building down by the inner harbour,
proclaims the origin of Victoria. A good while
ago the Hudson Bay Company established a
stockaded post here for fur trading, and cailed
it Fort Victoria. In time there was a small settlement, which suddenly expanded when the excitement caused by the gold discoveries on the Fraser
river brought here the great mass of pioneers,
miners, and adventurers who had been previously
drawn to California. The vast human tide rushed
into the mountain region by every possible conveyance, and then most of them moved back
again. The flowing and the ebbing currents made
Victoria. At one time in the winter of 1858 it
was estimated that 30,000 people were encamped
around the fort, thus opening the career of a great
city of tents and cabins dropped among the forests
and by the water side, and having a population
that was constantly changing. The gold excitement passed away, but it left a town on the banks
of this pretty little gem of a harbour, and it soon
became the most considerable settlement on the
Northern coast. A quarter of a centary of life has
replaced much of it with substantial buildings,
I and it has a good business, though complaining oi
much dulness at present. The completion of the
Canadian Pacific .Railway and its close connexions
with San Francisco, Tacoma, and Portland,
Oregon, the terminals of the other transcontinental railways, give Victoria an important position, and make it one of the chief cities of th€
Pacific coast.
A granite shaft set up in front of the Government House, which overlooks the inner
harbour, preserves tho memory of one of
the pioneers of this coast, who did much
to firmly establish British interests here, Sir
James Douglas, who was the Governor of the
province from 1851 to 1864, and one of the chief
streets is also named after him. Out from the
harbour a fine view is had to the southward, over
Strait of Juan de Fuca, of the Olympia
itain range in the States.    The suburbs of
ictoria are extensively occupied by the residential portion of the town, the people living in
comfortable villas surrounded by little gardens,
their wooden houses covered with foliage and
flowers of every hue, while vegetables and fruits
grow in luxuriance. The large open windows and
verandahs show the semi-tropical nature of this
genial climate, which from March until November
perpetual spring-time, while in winter
the temperature rarely falls below 40deg. Yet
even this has its drawbacks, for a steady sky of
blue means absence of rain, and ail the roads are
deep with dust. These roads are among the finest
in the Dominion—excellent macadamized highways, kept in the best order, and winding about
the suburbs in every direction, bordered with
villas and gardens, or else lined by forest trees and
an almost tropical wealth of vegetation. They give
grand views out over the harbours and many water- 48
A.   Canadian   Tour.
ways that run far up into the land. One of the
prettiest of these highways leads to Esquimault
Harbour, which is westward of Victoria Harbour,
and separated from it by a tongue of land. Here
is a natural haven of great advantages, completely
land-locked, about three miles long and from one
to two miles wide. Most of the waters around
Vancouver Island are too deep for convenient
anchorage, but it is not so with Esquimault.
Nothing could have been patterned that w
better please the sailor. It has excellent holding
ground of a tenacious blue clay and an average
depth of from six to ten fathoms. This beautiful
sheet of water is surrounded by forest-covered
hills, and the white-painted hull of Her Majesty's
ship Triumph was seen through the trees, moored
at the anchorage. There is a naval hospital on
the bank, and also some other Government buildings. The Dominion authorities have nearly completed a fine graving dock 450ft. long and 90ft.
wide at the entrance, with a depth of 26ft., so that
there will be no lack of naval facilities befitting
the enhanced importance of this station. A fine
sand-stone, found on one of the neighbouring
islands, is used in its construction. A railway 72
miles long between Esquimault and the coal-pit3 of
Nanaimo is almost completed, and will open for
traffic next month. This is the only railway on
Vancouver Island, most of whose grown-up people
never saw such a road before. Out beyond the
sheltered entrance to Esquimault, the Race Bock
light flashes its friendly guidance to the mariner
seeking port ; and beyond is Cape Flattery and
the Pacific Ocean, the limit of the Dominion of
Canada towards the setting sun
During four weeks of steady westward travel
we have crossed the Dominion of Canada from
the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans and now
turn again towards the rising sun. Most of the
tour has been over   the  lines  of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, and the completion of that great
national work alone made the greater part of the
journey possible. Step by step as the Dominion
was traversed the railway route and adjacent
country have been described, but the story of the
development of this great railway itself has not
et been told.    Before boarding the   " Atlantic
xpress " for the long eastward transcontinc
journey an opportune interval comes in which to
tell it. The Canadian Pacific Railway in the aggregate may best be described as the binding link of
the Canadian Confederation. It was planned to
unite the widely-separated provinces of British
North America, and its prospective construction
was one of the conditions on which the Dominion
of Canada is based. From tho outset, liberal assistance was given to the enterprise by the Dominion
Government ; while the Imperial authority in
London regarded it with steady favour as a great
national work, not only for Canada, but also to
secure closer and more effective communication
between important portions of the British Enrpire
situated in opposite parts of the globe. The railway route from Montreal to Vancouver covers 2,909
miles, or 362 miles less than the railway across the
United States between New York and SanFrancisco.
From Liverpool to Vancouver by the Canadian
Pacific route is 6,160 miles, while from Liverpool,
vid New York, to San Francisco by the Union
and Central Pacific Railways is 5,680 miles—the
Canadian route being the shorter by 720 miles. Extending this comparison across the Pacific Ocean
to Yokohama, the Canadian route from Liverpool
is 9,516 miles, or 880 miles less than by New York
and San Francisco. This saving of time and distance, added to the fact that the Canadian route
isi entirely under British control, gives advantages
that all Englishmen will recognize. The newly-
completed railway is a bond of union in the great
British    Empire    extending
boundaries of Canada.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Company was
chartered by the Dominion Parliament in
February, 1881. Previously to that time a portion
of its lines existed as partially-completed Government enterprises in charge of the Canadian
Minister of Public Works. Seven years ago the
projected railway was estimated as requiring
2,000 miles to be constructed westward to the
Pacific Ocean from the existing railway system of
the Province of Ontario at Callander, on Lake
Nipissing, and Sanford Fleming was then tho
engineer in charge of construction. Sir Charles
Tupper, who was Minister of Public Works, reported on June 30, 1879, that there were 274
miles of railway in operation and 433 miles under
construction, about §11,500,000 having already
been expended and contracts made involving some
$9,000,000 more. Work was. being done upon
three sections of the line, the westernmost being
between Winnipeg and Lake Superior. The anticipation then was that the through railway might
be completed by the spring of 1891. The Company
was afterwards chartered with $100,000,000
authorized capital, and §5,000,000 was subscribed
and paid in. Sir George Stephen, of Montreal, was
made president, and lias continued at the head of
the enterprise ever since. At* the close of 1881,
when the company got fairly into operation, there
were 367 miles of railway completed, and 290,
miles more from Ottawa westward to Lake
Nipissing had been bought to give a route from
the capital of the Dominion to the point where
the charter made the new line begin. Westward
from Lake^ Nipissing to Thunder Bay, on Lake
Superior, a distance of 650 miles, but little work
had been done, and in fact this section was among
the last completed. From Thunder Bay further
-westward to Winnipeg, 425 miles, the railway
was finished in 1882, and 200 miles more still
further westward from Winnipeg were also
then completed, leaving a gap of 700 miles to .the
Rockies. Nothing had been done on the moun--
tain section, and the Canadian Government
was at that time constructing as a public work
the section between the mountains and the.
Pacific Ocean. The Government" had also some
time previously finished the Pembina branch, extending 65 miles southward from Winnipeg to the
United States boundary.
In chartering the railway Canada imitated the
policy of the United States Congress towards the
earlier Pacific railways by giving both a money-
and land subsidy. It promised §25,000,000 subsidy in money and also 25,000,000 acres of lands
along the route west of Winnipeg to the Rockies,
to be available as short sections of the line were
built. It also authorized the company to mortgage its land grant for $25,000,000 at 6 per cent,
for 50 years to raise more money, and in addition
to issue a mortgage on the line as completed, at
the rate of $10,000 per mile. The small beginnings
of the great railway are shown by the initial
financial statement for the year ending June 30,
1881, when it had $388,527 traffic receipts,
$347,116 operating   expenses,   and   8il,4Ii   net The   Canadian   Pacific
earnings. The charter gave the company very
large powers,including the right to build branches,
open telegraph lines, and establish steamer lines
from its terminals. By the close of 1882 there were
1,730 miles of railway 'acquired or built, and the
company had then issued $20,000,000 land grant
bonds, depositing the proceeds of their sales with
the Government, which allowed 4 per cent, interest thereon, and paid the principal back to the
company as the railway construction proceeded.
The remaining $5,000,000 land grant bonds were
held by the Government as security that the company would fulfil its agreements. It had at that
time sold over 6,000,000 acres of lands, and with
part of the proceeds redeemed nearly $4,000,000
of the land grant bonds. Over $15,000,000 had
then been expended on construction,and the traffic
receipts for 1882 had increased to $3,344,851?, and
the net earnings to $882,629.
The railway at the close of 1883 had built or
acquired 2,157 miles of the main line, and on November 1 of that year the Government guarantee
of 3 per cent, dividend annually on the share
capital for 10 years became operative. In addition
to the main line, over 1,000 miles of branches
had been acquired or built, and the capital stock
issued was increased to $65,000,000. In 1884 the
Ontario and Quebec system of railways was leased
in perpetuity, making the eastern limit of the line
at Quebec. There was also established a steamer
line on the Lakes to cover the unfinished gap in
the line north of Lake Superior. This gave a complete route by rail and water from Quebec to the
Rockies. Tho Government gave an additional
benefit by loaning $22,500,000 during 1884 to aid
construction, which had so far progressed that an
engagement was then entered into that the main
line should' be completed by May 31, 1886. At
tho close of 1883 over $78,000,000 had been expended on the lines, and at the close of 1884 this
had increased to $112,000,000. The great work
was finally completed across the Continent in
November, 1885, when the last rail was laid, and,
the line being equipped during last spring, the
through train service was begun in June, the first
train leaving Montreal on the evening of the 28th,
and arriving at Port Moody, on the waters of the
Pacific, on July 4, after a journey occupying 136
The line on the Lake Superior  and RocKy
Lin sections embraces, as I have already
shown, some of the most difficult railway work
ever undertaken. The gauge is the standard of the
United States—4ft. 8Jin. ; and the aggregate
mileage of the company is 4.338, including the
leased lines. There are additional lines now projected to Secure eastern winter terminals at Halifax and Portland, Maine, and also to make
branches in the North-West Territory and on the
[Pacific coast.
The company last spring made a new finanoial
jarrangement with the Canadian Government,which
came into oomplete effect July 1, by which,
through the negotiation of its First Mortgage Five
(per Cent-Bonds at 104 in London,it securedmoney
to pay part of its Government indebtedness, lands
at $1 50o. per acre being acoepted to repay the
remainder and also the interest due thereon. It
thus honourably discharged all its Government
obligations, repaid the money loaned to its
five years before the debt was due, and completed
pts contract for building the railway in half the
[time stipulated. Says the last annual report of
the company j—
In the future it will neither expect nor need anything
from the Government but fair treatment, and earnest and
judicious effort in the inroortant work of settling up the
jjltal,   and   the   remainder
d leases.     There  are
country, developing its resources and promoting _ the
general prosperity oil the whole people of the Dominion a
in all which it will have the hearty co-operation of thaj
Briefly stated, the gifts made by the Dominions
to secure the consummation of this great work
were ,$25,000,000 cash subsidy, 712 miles of Government railways previously constructed at an
aggregate outlay of about $35,000,000, and also
25,000,000 acres of lands. The other loans andi
advances made were repaid, and there still continues the guarantee of 3 per cent, annual dividends on the share capital until 1893. Having
completed the line, excepting the short link
between Vancouver and Port Moody, which meets
some temporary legal obstructions, and made final
settlement with the Government, the total capital
liability of the Canadian Pacific Railway now
stands approximately at $126,884,013, made up of
$65,000,000 share capital
bonded debt and capitalizi
$35,000,000 First Mortgage Bonds, chiefly held in
England (where, in fact, most of the capital has
been secured) ; the Quebec Province is creditor for
$3,500,000 on account of railways bought ; there
are $1/823,333 Canada Central Railway bonds, and
the leases capitalized at 5 per cent, amount to
$21,560,680. The annual fixed charge for the.
loans of the company is $3,110,434 ; 5 per cent,
being paid on everything bub the Canada
Central bonds, which bear 6 per cent, interest. The financial statement for 1885
showed $8,368,493 gross receipts, $5,143,276
expenses, and $3,225,217 net earnings. The>
railway and its transcontinental telegraph system/
was then completed, and the company had
$12,263,264 in deposit with the Dominion Government to provide for the 3 per cent, guaranteed
dividend for 7^ years to come. It also held about
14,734,000 acres of farming land along the line,,
which were being offered for sale and were subject
to $3,612,500 outstanding land grant bonds, the
portion of that issue yet unredeemed. It had large
grain elevators, as I have already described in the
course of this tour, at Montreal and the lake
ports ; equipment had been liberally provided ;
and arrangements were being perfected for connecting steamer lines on the Pacific coast. It was
also building its own bridge across the St.!
Lawrence at Lachine, near Montreal, and extending its branch lines on both sides of the river, as-
well as throughout the wheatfields of Manitoba.
For the current year the company's gross receipts
during seven months ending with July last have
already been reported, amounting to $5,158,691,
the expenses to $3,406,854, and the net earnings to
$1,751,837. The increased net earnings compared
with the corresponding period of 1885 are
$191,850. The transportation of materials for construction are included in these accounts, but are
much less this year than in 1885.
In addition to the gifts of money, lands, and
completed railways made by the Dominion Government, other valuable advantages have been given
the Canadian Pacific Railway. All the lands used
in construction for roadbed, stations, yards, and
water frontage at terminals have been a free gift,
while the Dominion Government admitted free of
customs duty all rails, timbers, and other materials imported for the building of the railway oe '
telegraph lines. The charter also gave the com-*
pany a monopoly for twenty years of the territory
Between its lines and the United States boundary
by prohibiting during that period the building of
lines there by other parties excepting roads running south-west,  and they are  not permitted to
^M^ 50
A   Canadian   Tour.
approach within' 15 milesof the boundary. The
company's properties of every description, and also
its capital stock, are for ever exempted from all
national or local taxation; and this exemption is
further extended to the land grant for 20 years,
unless the lands are sooner sold or occupied. The
company can take from the public lands such stone,
timber, and other materials as they wish to use in
construction. They are authorized to establish
*• fair tolls " by concert with the Government, and
the charter prohibits the reduction of these tolls
either by the Government or by Parliament
'' 'lelow such rates as would afford a profit of
10 per cent, per annum on the capital invested."
The grant of such great privileges as these is unusual, but it was necessary to get the work
undertaken at a time when the project of building
a railway over the difficult and almost unexplored
mountain ranges of British Columbia seemed
The route of the Canadian Pacific Railway, as I
have shown in describing this tour, goes through
a region of widely diversified characteristics. The
first 350 miles, carrying the line westward from
Montreal to Lake Nipissing, is through an old and
well-developed country, and commands the immense timber traffic of the Ottawa River Valley.
The next 1,000 miles reaches the edge of the great
prairie east of Winnipeg. This section is developed only in portions. It passes through extensive forests and also valuable mineral lands
abounding in copper, iron, and.silver. The population is sparse, however, especially in the portions
north of Lakes Superior and Huron. For 900
miles westward of Winnipeg is a prairie, either
flat or rolling, one of the finest agricultural
regions in the world, and being gradually developed by opening branch railway lines and the
expansion of the many towns and villages that
grow up at favourable locations. The settlement of
this region was begun before the railway came
along, but opening the line gave it a great
impetus and started many new villages. In this
district nearly the entire land grant of the railway
is located, and the rich soil extends to the
bases of the Rockies, gradually changing in
character as we go westward from agricultural
to grazing lands. The remainder of the
railway is over a rough country, traversing the
various mountain ranges, where there are immense
forests and magnificent scenery, but slight attempts
as yet at agriculture, though there is a fine grazing
region at Kamloops and good farming lands along
the Lower Fraser River. It will thus be seen that
the railway is constructed through every variety of
country, and that it serves all kinds of traffic
interests. In making the roadway, as has been
heretofore explained, the mountains are crossed at
a lower elevation than upon the Transcontinental
hues in the United States, and the mountain
gradients, with a single exception, are easy. The
average mountain gradient does not exceed 66 feet
per mile, though on portions of the slope 116 feet
per mile is reached, and in one section of seven
miles and a half, at the summit of the Rocky
Mountain range, there is a gradient of 212 feet to
the mile, requiring the use of extra locomotives in
aiding the ascent or retarding the descent of heavy
trains. By boring a tunnel and the construction of
the line on a different route this excessive
gradient may be avoided ; but the work will be
costly, and though in contemplation by the company, yet not being made necessary by the present
traffic, its completion has been postponed.
Pacific line is admirable, and exceeds in stability
and completeness most of the newer American
railways. The best materials have been employed,
and, having had command of unlimited supplies
of the finest timber and stone, all portions have\
been made substantial and strong. The numerous)
bridges and trestles are built in the strongest!
possible manner of the largest timbers and most}
jjonderous trusses and beams. The tunnels have/
been excavated both wide and high. The ballasting is good, except where work still proceeds on
portions of the mountain section, which, however,
is expected to be finished before winter. The
passenger equipment for all classes is comfortable,
and in the sleeping and feeding arrangements as
complete as is possible to obtain on any American
railway. Taken altogether, the building of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, in the face of all the
difficulties and obstacles that have for years confronted the work, was a stupendous enterprise
most successfully performed. The investment of
British capital mainly, with some from Canada and
New York, made the enterprise possible. The
Canadian Government gave princely gifts, but in
return has got something that makes the Dominion a
great nation within herself, by linking together
her widely separated provinces ; and also gives the
mother country a durable bond of Empire. How
vastly important does this route become when
British interests on the Pacific are considered.
The manager of the fine tells me that he will
undertake, with the present equipment of the railroad, to transport eight thousand armed men a
day, with their luggage and appurtenances,
from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; that he can
continue this for a week, and that in no case will
the transit occupy more than a week. What an
aid is thus given Her Majesty's Government
in any Oriental complication. Fifty thousand men,
with their artillery and baggage of ail kinds, can
be started from England and within two weeks
the advanced'guard will arrive on the Pacific coast,
and in three weeks from the time of departure all
will be there. Such an advantage is inestimable,
and it shows the benefit of this great enterprise
frorh the national standpoint.   During a few years'
East some portions of the British Empire may;
ave been making more noise, and thus attracting
greater attention, but is quite probable that wise
statesmen hereafter will concede that the Dominion,
of Canada, by her quiet, resolute work of completing this railway, has accomplished one of the
best achievements of the time. Within Canada,
while Sir John MacDonald's Government and
Parliament have done everything to forward the
enterprise, yet the practical labour itself has been
mainly performed by a combination of shrewd
business-men, known familiarly as the
" Syndi
The manner of construction of the Canadian.
During four days' steady railway progresswe have
come eastward 2,000 miles through the mountains
and over the prairie, from the Pacific Ocean to
Lake Superior. The journey has given opportunity
for some reflections upon the influence the building of this great trans-continental line will have
upon Canadian development. I have heretofore
written of its national benefits both for the British
Empire and the Dominion. There appears to be no
difference   of    opinion   in   Canada   on the sub- ""1
Some   Pertinent   .Reflections.
ject of tho advantages of the new railway as a means for opening the Great
North-West Territory and British Columbia
to the world at large ; but there seems,
nevertheless, to exist among the people, or,
at least, a portion of them, a question
as to whether, in the words of the late
Benjamin Franklin, they have not " paid
too dear for their whistle." The railway
company was given in cash subsidies and
completed railways £12,000,000, estimating
the latter at their cost to the Government. The land gift at 4s. per acre would be
£5,000,000 more, and is so estimated by some
Canadian critics, though it must not be
overlooked that land is worth nothing
without settlers and means of access to
the outer world, or, in other words, that
it has only been the building of the railway line that has given much of the land grant
any value at all. There is no doubt that
the Dominion Government has been most
generous in its treatment of the railway company ; and in Canada the subject still discussed in some circles is whether this generosity has been more excessive than was
actually necessary, and whether the finishing of the road was not pushed too fast and
hence too expensively, in order to secure
its completion in 1886 rather than in 1891,
as was previously intended. These are
matters, however, that can well be left to
Canadian politicians for debate, and, in the
absence of other fruitful topics for party
discussion, they probably serve the present
purpose. In the meantime, the railway is
finished in 1886, and whatever good it is destined
to do can begin now, and the Dominion have five
years' advantage. Possibly by 1891- they may
find things getting on so well that they will be
talking about (or mayhap building) a second transcontinental railway. All this controversy over
Pacific railway construction was long since fought
out in the United States. Money and lands were
given without stint to push through the American
railways to the Pacific. There are about £13,000,000
of Pacific railway debts included in the American national debt, which the Government guarantees principal and six per cent, interest, and
which no one expects those roads to reimburse
further than probably a portion of the interest.
The people do not like the idea of paying the principal, but that has long since passed away as a
topic of active discussion. Nobody would now wish
to have this debt cancelled if it involved doing
without the railways. An empire of the public
lands was given away to those roads, compared with which Canada's land gifts to the
Canadian Pacific have been a trifle; yet few people
begrudged any of these gifts where the lines were
built. Congress has been forfeiting some grants, it
is true, but in these cases the obligation to build
was unfulfilled, or else the most glaring frauds
vitiated the grants. Canadian statesmen, having to
frame a Pacific railway policy at a later day, profited
by all these experiences of the United States. It
may be stated,now that a score of years has elapsed
since the construction of the earliest American
trans-continental line—the Union and Central
Pacific—that despite the costs, the mistakes, and
the scandals- American citizens do not question
tho wisdom of the policy. Three completed lines
now cross, and two or three other s are pushing their
extensions westward in the United States. Who
knows what the coming 20 years will develop for
Canada ?
To the onlooker, the first impression made by
the Canadian Pacific journey, in comparison with
the American routes, is that the line does not pass
over anything like the extent of waste lands. On
the Union Pacific route, the stretch of alkali
lands of the great " American desert " makes up
a considerable portion of the journey, and their
passage is extremely distasteful to the traveller.
This waste region is narrower on the Northern
Pacific line, but still the " bad lands "
and the alkali lands of that route are a very,
decided feature. On the Canadian Pacific, although,
the prairie is very broad, the alkali almost entirely:
disappears, and, while the traces of it are shown
in some of the stagnant ponds and sloughs in
Assiniboia, it nowhere becomes offensive. In
fact, the " American desert " disappears almost,
before it crosses the boundary, and in Canada the
"bad lands" are unknown. While some of the
lands sire comparatively poor in various parts of
the region westward of the Saskatchewan crossing,'
yet there is no part of the country incapable of
sustaining life,and settlements are not made there,
chiefly because better lands attract the colonists,
elsewhere. In reference to the character of the
soils, Vice-President Van Home, reporting two
years ago, stated that the land " along the constructed line is as good as land can well be, and
the worst of it would be rated as first-claBS in
almost any other country. Reports about alkali
districts and sandy stretches have been circulated
by parties ignorant of the country. These reports
have in some cases originated in malice, and in
others from superficial observation. There is no
more alkali in the land on the prairie section of
the line than on any other jSraine section of the
same extent in North America. There is no more
of it in the prairie soil along the line than is,
required for the-perfect growth of cereals. There
is not one mile of the country where good water
cannot be obtained,and, as three years' experience
leads me to believe, where there is not sufficient
rainfall for the growth of the crops. There is a
notable absence of sand between Brandon (132
miles west of Winnipeg) and the mountains. It
occurs in very few places, and it so happens that
nearly all of the sandy spots have been taken up
by settlers. The yellow clay subsoil so common
west of Moosejaw (398 miles from Winnipeg) has
doubtless been frequently mistaken for sand by
parties looking at it from passing trains. I do not
hesitate to say that the Canadian Pacific Railway
has more good agricultural land, more coal, and
more timber between Winnipeg and the Pacific
coast than all of the other Pacific railways combined, and that every part of the line from Montreal to the Pacific will pay." The mountain section
of the Canadian Pacific fine, owing to the decided
compression of the mountain ranges as they goj
northward, is narrower than on the other lines,'
and to this extent the prairie section is the gainer
in breadth.
Relative to the prospective value of this mountain region as a traffic producer, it must be
recollected that the line through there is but just
opened.    Timber and minerals can be got there in
0—2 52
Smndance, though the agricultural possibilities
are small, excepting in a few sections. The
British Columbian forests are already sending
their timber supplies east to the treeless prairie
region, and the Government has adopted a wise
policy for the preservation of the timber by preventing the forest lands from being monopolized
by speculators, and also protecting therh against
From the mouth   of   the
River, which flows into the Columbia 44 miles
west from the Rocky Mountain summit, to the
Salmon arm of the Great Shuswap Lake, a distance of 150 miles, the railway passes though a
continuous belt of gigantic trees, which increase
in size in going westward, until  they reach their
maximum in the
where   trees
igle-Pass over the Gold Range,
eight to ten feet in
diameter are
common,. This timber is chiefly cedar, Douglas
pine, white pine, hemlock, spruce, and tamarac,
while there are also other varieties. All the
adjacent valleys are filled with timber, and the
-supply seems ahhost inexhaustible. About the
Pacific terminus there are also great forests of
gigantic trees. While fires have run through, yet!
they have not done' great damage compared with
the vast extent of these forests. Eastward of
Winnipeg there is also a broad timber belt around;
the Lake of the Woods, while the Ottawa Valley
supplies are enormous. This timber traffic is one
of the chief items of the railway's trade, and will
increase with population and settlement if the
people who are now so lavish in their use of it
will take any care to preserve it for the future.
British Columbia also has in her fisheries and fruits
a trade capable of limitless development. The
fisheries already produce great stores of canned
salmon for shipment to all parts of the world. The
fruit transit across the continent, however, from
Victoria and the Fraser River region is only just
{beginning. London knows, from the consignments
.sent to the Colonial Exhibition, what a wealth of
luscious fruits can be grown on these genial Pacifio
shores, and once a foreign market is made for
them, the demand will enlarge. A rapid transit
line is being perfected for both fish and fruits, in
cold-storage cars and vessels.
A necessary adjunct to successful settlement in
a new country is a supply of cheap fuel. At
present, wood-burning is generally the habit of
the new country, but, as I have from time to time
indicated, these sections recently opened by the
railway are extensively underlaid by good coals,
©f which the Gait coals, from Lethbridge, are now
mainly used
Nanaimo  cos
^Pacific coast. I am indebted to Professor George
M. Dawson, of the Dominion Geological Survey,
"for some notes on this subject, from which is extracted a brief summary, sufficient for the present
purpose. Valuable lignite deposits are found on
the Souris River, which empties into the Assiniboin river in Manitoba, and also in the Turtle
Mountain country on the border. Analyses give
about 41 per cent, of fixed carbon, and these fuels,
Iwhile inferior to the coals found nearer the
(Rockies,- have a local value, and are said to closely
resemble those of the Saatz-Teplitz basin of
Bohemia. These lignite deposits also extend to
the region of the Cypress Hills to the westward.
The Canadian Pacifio' Railway crosses the South
Saskatchewan River at Medicine Hat, 660 miles
west of Winnipeg. Above this at every bend of
the river for some SO miles a coal seam is exposed,
and at several openings a better lignite than that
of the Souris region is obtained, which produces
484 to 50 per cent, of fixed carbon, and has come
prairie   region,    and the
lis,  from Vancouver   Island, on the
into considerable use. As we go west towardsthe
bases of the mountains, the character of the
deposits improves. There are extensive and as
yet unworked deposits on the Peace River,
analyzing 71 per cent, fixed carbon; also at
Edmonton, '200 miles north of the railway,
analyzing 55 per cent. ; and on the Athabasca
River, 51 to 54 per cent. The most extensive coal
measures, however, are on the Bow and Belly
Rivers, which unite to form the South Saskatchewan,-
and it is in the latter that the well known Gait
coals are produced at Lethbridge. The coal seam
is seen on the banks of both rivers at varying
heights for many miles. The outcrop is known to
extend from St. Mary River to the south-westward
of Lethbridge, for fully 70 miles across and along
both the other rivers, and appears on the line of the
Canadian Pacific near the Blackfeet Indian reserva*
tion. These are the most valuable Canadian coal
deposits of the North-West, and are exhaustless
in supply. The coal is estimated at five to nine
millions of tons underlying each square mile, and
specimens taken from all parts of the measures
show 40 to 56 per cent, and often more of fixed
.carbon. These seams have been carefully examined, however, only in tho districts mentioried,
and are known to extend farther northward along
.the bases of the Rockies, but how far has not
yet been accurately ascertained. Within the
Rockies there are also extensive coal measures,
working having already begun at Banff. This,
with the valuable deposits at Nanaimo on Vancouver Island, has already been fully described.
It will be seen that this extensive region, no
matter how populous it may hereafter become,
will not lack an ample supply of fuel.
The other mineral deposits are extensive, particularly iron and copper. Were the world's
demand for either to so increase as to promise a
profit, smelting furnaces i would appear at many
places, both on the shores of the great lakes, in
the Rockies and on the Pacific coast. Vast stores
of the ores of both lie dormant, awaiting an inducement to mine them. Silver is found on
Lake Superior, and also among the mountains, and
the large gold yield of British Columbia is well
known, although as yet attention has mainly been
confined to placer mining. Now that machinery
for crushing ores can be got in, there is already
talk of quartz mining in the Gold Range, and
when this begins the distant province will
prove an attraction to many, and will pour
out wealth abundantly. Already the gold
fever has had two attacks in the Fraser
river region, each of which has left a permanent
increase of population. A vast portion of the
province is yet practically unexplored, and it may;
at any time develop a bonanza.
In reference to population, it is difficult to
ascertain with accuracy the present numbers of
inhabitants of the country west of Manitoba,!
although I understand a special census is being:
taken m many places, which, when computed, will
give some idea of the expansion already produced)
by opening the through railway this season. There
are evidences of growth in most of the little towns,,
but from the talk Of the people I would judge that
in the regions where the completed line has been;
open for traffic for two or three years the influx of
immigration has not been as large as expected.'
The North-Western rebellion last year gave a setback, and the States offer charms for the immigrant that usually take the mass of the Continental races seeking new homes, and also much of
the migratory current from the British islands,
particularly the English and Irish,,   There seems Homeward   Bound.
6n the whole to be a feeling of some disappointment that the numbers of new arrivals and the
amounts of land sales and homestead entries are
not larger. The Dominion Government receipts
from land sales hardly avail to keep up the Land
Office machinery; but this is no criterion of population, for any settler can get a farm as a free gift,
and in this way most of the lands are taken up. I
toresume, from what can be ascertained on inquiry,
that there are about 150,000 people in the Nortn-
*West Territories and some 70,000 in British
[Columbia. This includes considerable numbers of
(Chinese, a race that probably contributes at least
■one-fourth in most of the settlements of British
Columbia ; and it also includes the railway vstaff
and builders, who for the line west of Winnipeg
will number 8,000 to 10,000 men. At one time the
line had no less than 35,000 men employed on its.
construction in the Rockies and in the Lake
Superior region. If the Dominion westward of
JManitoba has 220,000 inhabitants, it is still a large
{population to serve, but there is undoubtedly
[plenty of room for more. The section that shows
j&t present the plainest evidence of increase is the
(ranching country of Alberta. There is a steady
[influx, not only of herds of cattle, but also of
[herders, and they not only come in over the
border, but every west-bound goods train on the
railway seems to carry fresh stock from Ontario to
(improve the breed, and also men to care for them.
This is building up the new town of Calgary,
which is the railway station for that region. There
are also signs of rapid expansion at Vancouver,
which seems destined to become an important
Pacific coast city when the ocean traffic of the new
(railway is fully developed. What is here written
Refers to the country west of Manitoba. That pro-
fviuce of rich soils and extensive cultivation has
[disappointed no one in its growth, the population
Slaving expanded with unexampled rapidity, and
Sat a rate, if anything, exceeding the neighbouring
jregion of similar characteristics in the States—
pDakota. But Manitoba no longer is regarded as
on swaddling clothes, and is already taking rank
[with the older Canadian provinces.
These observations on various matters pf general
(moment have occurred to me after having crossed
[Canada, and will probably be of interest to the
(reader. It is quite evident that the roseate views
tonally taken by many of new countries have not
[been fully borne out In the western expansion of
She Dominion, any more than they have in the
similar extension of the western frontiers of the
United States. Yet in most respects the character
jef the new country opened by each nation is quite
[similar, and so, also, is the method of opening it
fby railway extension, Canada seems, from the
direction of the isothermal lines, to have some
advantages of climate, especially towards the
Rocky Mountain slopes ; but in influencing the
sources of immigration in Europe she has heretofore been distanced by the superior methods employed in presenting the attractions of the newer
jlands of the United States, whither flock most of
jpie emigrants of all classes. It must not be overlooked, however, that emigrants are much like
isheep, and only need a bell-wether. Possibly the
main flock may some day follow an enterprising
agent's advice and make a movement towards
TOEONTO, Sept. 28.
The homeward journey from the Pacific Ocean
has been a swift one.    As the railway
eastward, from the newer to the older country,:
the gradual change from the roughness of the
frontier to the more matured towns of the prairio
was most pleasing. Each successive stage brought
us into a more settled region, until finally Winnipeg was reached, the" youthful giant among the
Canadian cities of the North-west. The railway
was then further retraced to the Western shore of,^
Lake Superior, where the main line was left for
the water route. The Canadian Pacific Railway
has in connexion with its trains a line of fast and
commodious Clyde-built steamers of the newest
pattern, carrying a paying passenger and freight
traffic across Lakes Superior and Huron. They
sail between Port Arthur- on the north-western
side of Lake' Superior, and Owen Sound on the
southern part of Georgian Bay, making the passage in about 40 hours, and giving a direct line of
transportation between the Far West and Toronto,
to which a short railway line leads from Owen
Sound across the peninsula between Georgian Bay
and Lake Ontario. The change to the passenger
who has been cooped up during several days in a
railway coach, when enabled to walk the decks of.
a vessel, is a most pleasant one, and consequently
the transfer to the good steamer Athabasca, made
September 25, was welcomed. She lay alongside
a large dock and storehouse filled with goods, the
marks of the boxes and bales showing the wide
extent of country the freight traffic of this new
route serves. There were piles of packages which
had come from England and Lower Canada marked
for Victoria and the remote portions of British
Columbia, just landed from steamers, and being
loaded on the railway train for their far western
journey. The steamer herself was taking aboard
sacks of flour, the product of the Manitoba wheat
fields that had been ground in Manitoba mills
for eastern shipment. Upon an adjoining dock
the great elevator was just beginning to receive
the present year's crop of Manitoba wheat, now
first coming into market.
The steamer started promptly, and moving out
from behind the little breakwater protecting the
Port Arthur wharves from being roughly attacked
by the waves of Lake Superior, headed for the entrance to Thunder Bay. On both sides the shores
rose up in great promontories, with a number of
low islands between. The bold, basaltic columns
of Thunder Cape stood up in front of us as the
steamer made for the little white lighthouse
marking the point of the Cape. The receding town
behind us sank into its background of mountains,
and we rounded Thunder Cape, which towered
like a vast recumbent elephant, while back
of it and off to the eastward the north
shore of Lake Superior stretched away in a
succession of promontories as far as eye could
see. Vast basaltic cliffs also guard the western
shores of Thunder Bay, so that its impressive
name, the outcome of an Indian legend, is well
bestowed. Then moving eastward along the shore
of Isle Royale,the largest in the lake, and following
almost the same line as that taken by the international boundary, the steamer took her long night
journey to the eastern end of Lake Superior, soon
losing sight of land on this the greatest fresh
water ocean. In the morning the land was sighted
again, as the shores approached each other, the
bold cliffs of the north shore being gray in the
distance, when the low sand dunes of White Fish
Point were passed, with several vessels behind the
projecting tongue of land which forms there a
harbour of refuge. Then the steamer swiftly moved
into the pretty  Wahk* Bay and the St.  Mary
A    Canadian   Tour.
River, which is the outlet of Lake Superior, conducting its waters to Lake Huron. Immediately
upon leaving the lake this river runs into a series
of rapids, which flow swiftly for about a mile. This
is the Sault Ste. Marie, or the "Leap of St. Mary."
To accommodate the vast traffic between the lakes,
a ship canal has been constructed alongside the
river on the American shore, which contains one of
the largest canal locks in the world, a solid construction of stone 750ft. long and 75ft. wide, the
" lift " being 16ft., which overcomes the fall of
rapids. An older and smaller loek in two sections is alongside it, which is to be replaced by a
still larger lock 900ft. long and 80ft. wide. Through
this channel moves a constant procession of vessels
both ways, and although they are " locked up " or
" locked down " three or four at a time, the great
lock is not able at some busy seasons of traffic to
accommodate all without tedious delays. The
shores of St. Mary River are low and covered with
pine trees, and the swift foaming current which
roars over the rapids is the only outlet the great
Lake Superior has. Pretty little islands are in
among the rapids, and occasionally some daring
boatman " shoots " the torrent in a canoe. On
either side there is a village, known as the
American Sault and the Canadian Sault, in
each of which customs officers care for the interests
of the respective countries. The American Sault,
on the southern shore, is the largest, being spread
over a considerable portion of the level land, and
having a pretty park fronting the canal. Here the
passing of the vessels through the lock is the chief
amusement of the townspeople, and the passengers
also go ashore to see how it is done. All the east-
bound vessels are laden deeply with corn,while the
west-bound fleet either carry coals or else are
light, going up the lake for wheat cargoes. Among
them are the great three and four masted
schooners which are the favourite rig of American
sailing vessels, but all have to be towed, and hence
each two or three schooners are accompanied by
a steam propeller which is a tow-boat and cargo-
ship combined. Moving both ways, the endless
processions, constantly reinforced by new arrivals,
make the Sault a lively place. The river
below the rapids is a pretty winding stream,
moving with strong current among a great
number of islands, now expanding into a lake
and now contracting again, having many shoals
[ and shallows, and running for over 60 miles before
it debouches into Lake Huron. To the eastward
there is for a time a projecting spur from the
mountains of the northern shore of Lake Superior,
which makes a long ridge that gradually sinks to
the common level; but otherwise the shores are all
low and covered with forests, broken by an
occasional village or little settlement. The foliage
just turning, so that the bright tints mingled with
the dry evergreens, gave a foretaste of the forest
glories of the American autumn. The river channel
is crooked and requires careful navigation, but
it is plainly marked by buoys, and guides on the
banks, though so difficult is the passage that it is
rarely attempted excepting in the daylight. After
several hours spent in carefully threading this
winding water route, the steamer finally reached
Lake Huron, and made a second night's journey
south-eastward across that lake and into Georgian
The western peninsula of Ontario (which is
thrust out between Georgian Bay and Lake Huron
in its northern projection) stretches southward to
Lakes Ontario and Erie. It is almost entirely
Burrounded by water, and embraces within it some
of the best settled regions of the great province.
Here the Ontario farmer and cattle-raiser flourish,
and here have also grown up a number of thrifty
and enterprising cities such as Toronto, London,
St. Thomas, Hamilton, EIing8ton,and Peterborough,
that contribute largely to Canadian wealth and
prosperity. This section is well served both by
water and land transportation, the Canadian
Pacific and Grand Trunk railways having crossed
it in every direction by branch lines, while the
great Vanderbilt railway system of the States
traverses it as giving the shortest route between
Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago. The projecting
point of land that makes the northern portion of
this peninsula forms the boundary between Lake
Huron and Georgian Bay. Our steamer in the
early morning rounded this point, and turned
southward along its eastern shore to Owen Sound,
entering finally a long and gradually narrowing
bay thrust like a wedge up into the land. The
shores were a succession of bluffs, laid off in
terraces at several levels,indicating that atvarious
times the surface of the lake had been at different
elevations. It was, apparently, a well settled
region,the green fields running down to the water's
edge, varied by clumps of timber, and making a
pretty sight. There were some low hills, but all
evidence of mountains had disappeared so far aa
could be seen from the deck of the steamer. The
little town of Owen Sound at the head of this bay
gradually came into view, as we approached, with
the buildings spread along the edge of the water,
and a few in the background, an amphitheatre
being formed behind by the rising terraces of the
bank. In the centre was the tall grain elevator,
while on either side, perched on the top of the hill,
was a church. Two long timber dykes, filled
with stone, projected out in parallel lines, and
between them-we glided into the harbour. In
a few minutes a special train was swiftly taking
us across the peninsula from Georgian Bay
to Lake Ontario, 122 miles to Toronto. It was a
picturesque but a very crooked line, running
around the hills and up and down over the ridges
that make up this attractive region of varying farm
and forest,where the autumn tints were coming out
in full splendours of gorgeous colouring, as the
frosts had already touched them. The lands were
fertile and well cultivated, while large surfaces
of new lands were being cleared of timber. Much
good cattle, sheep, and horses were pasturing and
the hardy Scotch, who there abound,were just closing their oat harvest so as to be well supplied
with porridge for next season. As tbe line
approached Lake Ontario,the settlements increased,
the towns and hamlets grew larger and more frequent, and although there were streaks across
country of hilly and stony land, nearly every
available acre seemed to be occupied, while plenty
of business was doing at timber sawing, which is
there a great industry. The best settled portion
of this region is in its south-western section along
Lake Erie and towards Detroit, and the Ontario
Peninsula has developed on its eastern border
what is destined before long to become the most
populous city of Canada, if it continues its present
rate of surprising growth. Into this, the Oueen
City " of Toronto,the railway ultimately carried us.
in the earliest Canadian history, the French
missionaries and explorers, who went travelling
about on the frontiers, combining religious and
business zeal, spoke much of the pass at
Ontario," and as early as 1686 had set up a trading post there to conduct traffic with the Indians.
This " pass " meant the beginning of a portage,
which led from Lake Ontario un a little stream
now called the flumber Rivor, and then across the
i.i iilrun — — Homeward   Bound.
Intervening land to tributaries of Lake Simcoe, and
thus to Georgian Bay and Lake Huron. The trading establishment needed protection when the
season of wars soon after began, and the old
1 rench Fort Rouille was built down near the junction of lake and river. It was an excellent
place for a harbour, the,formation of the land
with a low, forest-covered island in front making
a land-locked basin. Seen from the mainland, the
long.low-lying island looked as if the trees grew out
of the lake, and hence the name of Toronto is believed to be derived from the Indian words signifying " trees in the water," though others adduce
it from " the place of meeting," referring
possibly to the meeting of the Indians with the
traders. This name the post bore for a long time,
but it finally fell into English hands, as most good
things did in those days. Towards the close of the
last century, when Canada was divided into provinces, Governor Simcoe was assigned to the Upper
Province and his name has been preserved in the
fine sheet of water above referred to, which lies to
the south-east of Georgian, Bay. The Governor
Weeded a capital, and the good harbour and
outlook attracting his fancy, he garrisoned
the old fort in 1793, and established the seat
of Provincial Government there in 1796, loyally
naming it York. The nucleus of a town was
started on a tract of marshy land adjoining the
Humber, which was familiarly known for 40 years
as " Muddy Little York," and after going about
the city for a day or two under good guidance in
a period of fairing weather, I can testify that there
wre amplo reasons for its holding that familiar
title to this day. Yet the site is a pleasing one,
the two little rivers, the Humber and the Don,
flowing down to the lake through deep and romantic ravines, having the city between and along
them, while there is a steady slope upwards to an
elevation of 200ft. to 250ft. at some distance
inland. The town did not increase much in population at first, only gathering some 1,200 people in
the 25 years succeeding its establishment as the
capital of Upper Canaaa, Yet it was a place of
some attractiveness for the Americans during the
last war with England in 1812-14, and they twice
captured it, but could not hold it. As the back
country was settled and the lake navigation developed, however, the harbour became of importance, and the town grew. It was made a city
in 1834, and, with their charter, the people decided to take back the original name of Toronto,
the population then being about 9,200. Subsequently the concentration of a large farming
population in Western Ontario made it a valuable
market, brought merchants there, caused the railways to all build lines to the city, expanded its
lake navigation, and it began to grow in a way
only paralleled by the newer cities in the Western
United States, the causes in each case being very
similar. At the census of 1881 it had, without its
suburbs, about 86,400 people, and having since
annexed these and received large accessions of
immigrants, it is now estimated at 130,000 population, and is growing at a rate that, if continued,
may before long outstrip Montreal, the Canadian
metropolis, fast as the latter expands.
Toronto has a good basis for this great prosperity
and increasing population in its geographical advantages, which, by railway and water routes,
make fully one-half the people of the Dominion,
chiefly located in the most thickly-peopled
sections, directly tributary to it. Judging by the
new buildings going up in all parts of the city and
suburbs, it is absorbing new inhabitants at a
rapid rat
About 2.500 houses
now in course
of erection, being nearly all rented, and in some
cases occupied in advance of completion. The
taxable Valuation of real estate is over £17,000,000,
and steadily advances, while affairs are carefully
managed, the city having a debt of but £1,420,000,
of which a large portion was created to pay the expenses of bringing new railways in, thus wisely developing trade. The city's public buildings alone
are valued at £1,100,000. To increase the harbour
Tacilities, the people have just voted a loan of
£60,000 for widening, deepening, and straightening
the river Don, so as to get more wharfage
room. The location at Toronto of the
capital of the Province of Ontario, the leading
political division of the Dominion, gives it
additional importance, for here are the Provincial Government House and Parliament
Tuildings. The latter are somewhat antiquated,
but ground is soon to bo broken for a fine new
structure in the Queen's-park, which will cost fully
£200,000 and be a credit to such an enterprising
city. This money will be expended by the pro-
-ince of Ontario, which, unlike most Governments
.n this expensive world, not only has no debt, but
bas actually a surplus fund of about £1,000,000,
>art of which is to be used in this way. The Go-
■•ernmental location has also brought here the
Oourts of the province, which are held in a fine
' uilding known as Osgoode-hall, a well-adapted
structure for the purpose, named after a dis-
cinguished Chief Justice, and also having an
extensive law library. The Queen's-park, which
has come by the rapid growth of the city to be
■linost in its centre, covers50 acres, with lawns and
srees skilfully laid out, and contains two fine
monuments. One is a memorial of the Canadians
who fell in repelling the Fenian invasion of 1866,
and the other is a shaft and statue of the late Hon.
Georgo Brown, one of the leading Canadian statesmen and journalists of the past generation, who,
many years ago, founded the chief Canadian news-;
paper, the Toronto Globe, now most successfully
managed by John Cameron. The suburbs of!
Toronto contain a large portion of the residential
Bection, where the merchants and well-to-do
middle classes live in pretty villas surrounded by
gardens. The hills and ravines made by the rivers
and their tributary streams,particularlyin the northeastern suburb of Rosedale, give excellent bits of
scenery,  and afford most charming villa sites.
But the strength of Toronto is no better developed in population, business activity, and
wealth than it is in churches and schools. It haa
many churches of all denominations, the tallest
church spire and finest church clock in America,
and the mass of the people are evidently a devout
church-going community. It also has—and, in
fact, this is the case universally thoughout
Ontario—a complete and comprehensive system of
education. The province makes the supervision
of education a part of the duty of Government,
with a Minister of Education in the Provincial
Cabinet. The Minister, the Hon. George W.
Ross, informs me that since 1871, when this
system was established, the province has expended
about £1,400,000 for education, and that the public
votes" have been supplemented by £11,000,000
more, raised in various ways by the people. They
care for every branch of education, and it is
possible for the child to begin at the lowest round
of the ladder and achieve the highest honours of
the University without the cost of a single penny.
The Education Department buildings, where the
chief offices are located, are an elaborate series of
houses in St. James's-square, having an excellent
normal school, museum, collections of philosophi- 56
University    of
avenue    half
cal apparatus, library, paintings, sculpture,
models, &c, and here the educational matters of
the province are supervised for all classes
and creeds. The crowning institution of the
Ontario educational system is, however, the
Toronto. Approached by an
mile long, lined with noble
trees, the College campus and cricket-green
are reached, upon which front the magnificent
Norman buildings of the University, among the
finest in America. In various quarters of the city
are the -affiliated Colleges belonging to the
different religious denominations, for it is to the
credit of the Ontario system that they have succeeded in including all creeds, the Roman Catholic
as well as the Protestant Colleges, within their
University, the latter not being under the control
of any religious body. The University, as such,
dates from 1853, when it was incorporated by the
Provincial Parliament. It has an endowment of
£200,000 and about £16,000 annual income, with
over 400 students and 1,800 graduates. The physiological and chemical apparatus connected with
it is most elaborate and valuable, and it also contains five museums of natural history, mineralogy,
geology, and ethnology. The President of the
University is Daniel Wilson, LL.D., and it should
be mentioned to the1 honour of Canada that at
least two of its scientists have achieved worldwide fame—Sir William Dawson, the head of
M'Gill College at Montreal, who was President at
the last meeting of the British Association, and
Dr. Wilson, of Toronto University, who is one of
the leading ethnologists of the time.
From the top of the tower of the great Uni*
versity there is an excellent outlook over Toronto.
In front and spreading at our feet is the broad,
bright cricket-green, with the town stretching,
away on either hand and running down to the
edge of the lake, across which is the narrow streak
made by the low-lying island that bounds the
harbour. Beyond are the sparkling waters of
Lake Ontario, reaching out to the horizon to right
and left, while far away over them, directly southward, is seen a faint little silver cloud of spray,
rising from the Falls of Niagara. All about us
the busy town is scattered, its broad straight
streets crossing at right angles ; its red and white
brick buildings, in clusters or embosomed in
foliage ; its many steeples and spires rising above
them. Far off in the northern background the
land rises up in pretty hills 200ft. to 300ft. high,
with villas dotted upon their green fields and
wooded slopes. The picture is like a map, showing thrift and prosperity, while in every direction
.the incomplete buildings, with men toiling about
them like little busy ants, and the gentle, distant
noise of the builder's hammer and trowel, tell of
the growth of the vigorous town. Such is Canada's)
" Queen City," and probably in most respects the
best type the Dominion to-day presents of a successful and expanding municipality.
Here closes my record. A few hours' travelling
will take us back through Ottawa to Montreal, and
then homeward. What I have written and The
Times has kindly printed has been mainly the record of a brief and hurried journey made across the
Dominion of Canada from ocean to ocean
been at best but a bird of passage,- I
ask indulgence for mistakes and shortcomings.
The notes were hastily taken and had to be as
hastily written out, as opportunity offered, by the
wayside, on the shaking railway train, or in the
steamer, and then speedily committed by instalments to the post. One scene gave quick place to
the next, and the earlier impression was soon
effaced by the later one. But the intention has
always been to describe things as I found them,
so that the hasty record made is an honest one.
It began with the story of Lower Canada, which
accumulated wealth and prosperity are assimilating
to older lands. It progressed gradually into a
newer region, to tell how the brave and patient
frontiersman has hewn his way through the
greatest obstacles to carve out a road from the'
prairie to the Pacific Ocean. It is largely devoted
to telling of the sturdy and successful attacks
made upon nature in her most frowning guise by
the modern race of railway build,ers of the Canadian
Pacific line, who have compelled forest, river,
lake, and mountain to succumb, and made a route
for the locomotive through the most inaccessible,
portions of the Rocky Mountains and among the
inhospitable granite bulwarks of the northern
shore of Lake Superior. Thus is being opened for
civilization and settlement the newest portion of
Her Majesty's vast dominions—ah empire within
itself, added as another jewel to the galaxy of
flourishing lands available for occupation by the
Wide-spreading Anglo-Saxon race. And everywhere, in making this extended Canadian
journey, there has been found constant kindness
and hospitality, from the highest to the humblest.
The people, who are earnestly striving to mould
the new country into a form necessary to furnish
them sustenance and ultimately fortune, have
freely furnished all information asked, and been
glad also of the opportunity of letting their
brethren across sea know what they are doing.
Trusting the reader will receive it in the spirit
with which it has" been written, I now close the
record of this Canadian Tour, A    CANADIAN    TOUR.
THE TIMES OFFICE, October 25, 1886.
Wo publish to-day  tho   last   of the   very   interesting    series   of    letters    giving   a   graphic
account  of our Correspondent's, Canadian   tour.
In his  passage   from ocean   to   ocean   he   has
done     all   that   time   and     opportunity    havo
allowed to    see   and   inquire   into    the   many
points    of   interest   that   have   offered   themselves on the way.    He concludes with a needless
apology for the necessary shortcomings of  the
account which he has sent us.   His hasty record
doeo  not   claim  to   be an exhaustive one, but
its    readers   will    be   well   satisfied   with   the
abundant   amount    of    interesting   information
which it   lays   before them.    B: our Correspondent   has   not   seen   everything,   he has seen
very   much.     It    has     been    a    new     world
which he has traversed,  much of it inaccessible
only a few years ago, and now just opened out for
civilization  and settlement since the   Canadian
Pacific Railway has run through it, joining ocean
to ocean and affording  easy approach to the intermediate points.    This great work is in advance of
the present needs of the country.    It has been a
supply in excess of the demand,  but tending to
create a demand to which no assignable future
limits can  be conjectured.     Towns are  already
springing into existence at various  stages along
its route.    Further to the west the old prairie is
being broken up and is yielding itspotentialwealth
in  inexhaustible stores of grain.     The  advance
is gradual, but it is   sure.     Pass  a   few  years
and the whole face of the country will be changed.
Towns  will have  expanded ;  villages   will have
grown to be towns ;   settlements   now isolated
will have near neighbours pressing up to them j
the wilderness will have become a fruitful field,
pouring forth its riches in abundance, and drawing to itself new Bottlers from   the thronging
populations  of the East and the Old World.    It
has   been   the   Canadian   Pacific  Railway   that
has made this progress possible, or has  so accelerated its pace as to crowd the work of centuries
into the span of a single life.
; But the Canadian Pacific Railway is not only an
effective pioneer in aid of the onward movement
of emigration. This it is, but it is much more
than this, and for some time yet to come its other
services may possibly be the more prominent.
It is a great highway running through British
territory, and joining by a new link the old
country with some of its most distant colonies.
Starting from the west,it reaches the point at which
east and west become indistinguishable names.
It brings us close to China and Japan.   It opens a
nearer route to Australasia.    Its uses in war and1
in peace,  for attack and   for defence and   for
mutual  trade  intercourse, are as obvious as they
are invaluable.    Canada, our Correspondent tells
us, is beginning to doubt whether it has not been
pushing matters on a little too fast. It has pressed
forward the construction of the Canadian Pacifio
Railway, and has aided it by grants of land arid
money which have   insured its completion some
five years  earlier than the time originally fixed.
Our Correspondent does not believe that there has
been any mistake made, although he fully admits
that the results of the westward extension of the
railway have not as yet come up to the expectations of its projectors and helpers.    But when we
read his statement of the vast and varied capablli«
ties    of  the   region   into    which    the  railway
has    been    pushed, the   fertility   of   its    soil
diversified,  where this fails, by stores of timbei
which he pronounces   seemingly   inexhaustible
and   by   mineral   wealth   in the form of gold
iron,  and copper, with  coal in abundance nea.
them,  we  can   hardly   question the correctness
of his  own  conclusion that the disappoiptmenl
now felt can be no more than" temporary, and that
in a short time the doubt will be not whether the
Canadian Pacific Railway has been successful, but
whether there is not room for a parallel line to do
a like work to the north of the present line.     The
Dominion westward of Manitoba possesses already
a population of about 220,000, and there are signs
of increase at   several  points.   In  the   Alberta
region the chief industry is cattle-rearing,  and
though this, by the space which it demands, tends
rather to forbid than to encourage a dense population of the district, yet it has-been found not incompatible   with    a    considerable    advance    in
numbers, as is shown, among other indications, by
the springing up of the new town of Calgary, the
railway station   for  Alberta.     To   the   extreme
west, the town of Vancouver is rapidly expanding,
and   seems   destined   to  become   an   important
Pacific coast   city    when    the    ocean    traffic oi
the new  railway has   received  the development
which    it   admits.     The   chief   obstacle   in  the
way of the early settlement of the Canadian Northi
West is the counter attraction which the United
States offer to emigrants.     It is very much a
matter    of    fashion.     Emigrants    follow   their
leaders,  and the tide continues to flow in the
direction in which it has been accustomed to flow.
On the  other hand, we have good evidence thai
the lands along the line of the Canadian Pacifio
Railway are richer and more  tempting than thosQ
which the American routes have opened up. Whaf
... „.~—f ^«BH
A Canadian Tour.
are known as the (5 American desert " and as the
" bad lands" to the south disappear almost
entirely when the Canadian border has been
crossed. The plosing words of the report from
Vice-President Horne, which our Correspondent
quotes and endorses, are a complete statement of
the case. After giving details about the excellence
of the soil on the Canadian side of the border and
about the mistakes or intentional misrepresentations which have given rise to an opposite belief,
the report confidently affirms that the Canadian
Pacific Railway has more good agricultural laud,
more coal,and more timber between Winnipeg- and
the Pacific coast than all the. other Pacific railways
combined, and that every part of the line from
Montreal to the Pacific will pay. We make no
question as to the correctness of the above facts,
or, with a duo allowance of time, as to the correct:
ness pf the prophecy. The enterprise which has
created the -Canadian Pacific line may be trusted
to find a use for
In   the rivalry between
North and South, the day must come at which
superior advantages will tell. Each new batch of
emigrants will be at once the outpost and the forerunners of the. great advancing host behind them,
and when the tide has once turned it will continue to flow uninterruptedly to the regions which
have most to offer and where the best lands have
not bepn gjbgacly occupied by previous swarms of
settlers. Where the keen-sighted, industrious
Scotchman ha? established himself, we may be
SUPQ that the location has been good, and
that it yritt he all ^he better by bis presence
in it. The chief point of importance about
which our Correspondent can tell us nothing
from himself is thp character of a Canadian
winter. He has chosen his time prudently
and    has    had    the   undoubted   advantage   of
enjoying the Canadian climate at its best. But
the winter, whatever it may be, is certainly not
prohibitive, certainly not worse than the same
season in the American North-West. Our
Correspondent speaks lightly of it. He admits that it is severe, but he gives us to
understand that its severity might be a good deal
more intense before it would ever begin to operate
as a practical discouragement to settlers who
meant business.
The use of the Canadian Pacific Railway as a
line of transit over the North American continent
is not much felt as yet. It has done
something to facilitate trade with China.
Large quantities of tea have already found
their way by it, and together with tea there
will be other products sent from the same quarter.
But if the United States are its rival in one direction, no less certainly will our mercantile marine
coptend with it for traffic with the East. Its
difficulties will be the same in either case. As
a new route and as opening up a new region
it must win its way against competitors who
are in pqssession. Its chief value to this
country is that it offers an alternative line which
we can use or not as we may please. We are
grateful for the chance, but with a barren
gratitude as yet. The time may come for a!
more fruitful return. Anything which threatenj
thp security of our present route to the East
will force us to turn with preference to a lin^j
of communication -which will be uninterrupted
and our own. The western hemisphere has been
enabled by its geographical position to keep aloof
from the political and military disturbances of the
Old Wprld. If we cannot share its immunity, we
may at least hope to profit by it if the occasion
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