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Alaska, and missions on the north pacific coast. Fully illustrated Jackson, Sheldon, 1834-1909 1880

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         w   u
ivni
AND
IORTH PACIFIC
Rev. SHELDON JACKSON. RD
TV
ILLUSTRATED.
NEW YORK:
0,  MEAD  & COMPANY,
Publishers,  ALASKA,
AND
MISSIONS ON THE NORTH PACIFIC
COAST.
BY
Rev. SHELDON JACKSON, D.D.
FULLY  ILLUSTRATED.
NEW YORK:
DODD, MEAD & COMPANY,
Publishers.  PREFACE.
In the preparation of this volume, I have received
valuable assistance from Wm. H. Dall, Esq., Smithsonian Institution ; Mr. Marcus Baker, U. S. Coast
Survey ; Prof. J. W. Powell, Bureau of Ethnology,
Smithsonian Institution ; Prof. J. E. Nourse, U. S.
Navy; Rev. John L. French, Washington ; Hon.
Wm. Gouverneur Morris, U. S. Treasury Agent;
Messrs. Lee & Shepard, Boston ; Mr. Ivan Petroff,
San Francisco, and Mr. E. Conklin, New York City,
to all of whom I return thanks.
The Author.
Denver, Col., February 2d, 1880.  CONTENTS.
CHAPTER I.
Great Extent of Country—Natural Phenomena--Divisions-
Agriculture—Islands—Mountains—Volcanoes—Glaciers
— Aurora Borealis— Mineral Springs— Rivers— Furs —
Fisheries—Lumber—.Coal—-. Petroleum—Copper— Iron—
Sulphur—Gold—Climate—Kuro-Siwo—Routes of Travel.
PAGE
13
CHAPTER II.
Population—Customs— Houses—Dances— Feasts—Cremation—Religious Beliefs—Shamanism    62
CHAPTER  III.
The Degradation of Indian Women in Alaska—Female Infanticide—The Sale of Girls—Female Slavery—Polygamy
—Habitations of Cruelty—Widow-burning—Murder of
the Old and Feeble  115
CHAPTER IV.
Greek and Lutheran Churches — Preliminary Steps Toward
American Missions  124
CHAPTER V.
The Commencement of Presbyterian Missions in Alaska-
Mrs. A. R. McFarland—Her Varied Duties—Sickness and
Death of Clah—Christmas Welcome  140 VI
CONTENTS.
CHAPTER   VI.
PAGE.
Indian Constitutional Convention—Great Speech of Toy-a-
att—Native Police—Indians making a Treaty of Peace—
Need of a Home for Girls—Witchcraft—Home Commenced
1    —Arrival of Rev. S. Hall Young  166
CHAPTER VII.
Sketch of Sitka—Arrival of Rev. John G. Brady and Miss
Fannie E. Kellogg—Commencement of School—Missionary Journeys of Mr. Brady—Marriage of Miss Kellogg—
School of Mr. Alonzo E. Austin  196
CHAPTER  VIII.
Appeal for Funds for Mission Buildings—The Response—
Joy at the Mission—Arrival of Dr. Corlies and Family—
Coming of the Roman Catholics—Arrival of Miss Maggie
J. Dunbar as Teacher—Visit of Rev. Henry Kendall,
D.D., and others—Rejoicing of the Indians—Organization
of the Church—Erection of Buildings  216
CHAPTER IX.
A Canoe Voyage—Deserted Indian Village — Toiling in
Rowing—Councils with Chilcats, Hydas, and Tongas—
New Fields—Fort Tongas—Driving before the Storm—
An Indian Welcome 254
CHAPTER X.
Missions of the Church Missionary Society of England in
British Columbia on the Border of Alaska—Cannibalism
—A Christian Village—Triumphs of Grace—Tradition
Concerning the First Appearance of the Whites  273
CHAPTER  XI.
Missions of the Methodist Church of Canada in British
Columbia—A Great Revival—Wonderful Experiences.... 302 ILLUSTRATIONS
PAGE.
Portrait of the author, steel engraving (Frontispiece).
Map of Alaska.
Travelling on a dog sled  16
Eskimo village  17
Ptarmigan  19
An Arctic mountain scene  20
Capturing a whale in Behring Sea  21
Alaska House  27
Sled dog.  30
Eskimo sled  32
Snow shovel  32
Stone kettle  35
Bone lamp  35
Bone fork  35
Aurora borealis  39
Breaking up of the ice in the Yukon  43
Fishing village  47
Hunting walrus.  55
Walrus head  57
Knife for cutting blocks of snow  59
Seal-skin canoe 1  59
Innuit arrows  59
Innuit knife and saw 1  59
Eskimo head  61
Playing the Key-low-tik  63
Key-low-tik and Ken-toon  65 Vlll
ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE.
Eskimo snow house     08
Diagram of the same     69
Eskimo hunter.     7°
Eskimo woman     71
Bone comb     72
Horns of musk ox '.     77
Hunting musk ox     75
Carved images, Fort Wrangell     81
Totem poles, Fort Wrangell I       79
Ladle from horns of musk ox     84
Ivory knives, forks, and spoons     85
Carved ivory comb     85
Deer-skin boots     86
Carved canoe-head     86
Tomb of a chiefs son, Fort Wrangell     88
Innuit grave     89
Ingalik grave     89
Ekogmut grave ,     90
Cremation     93
Innuit knife     99
Stone knife     99
Carved spoon-handle     99
Aleutian mask  100
Innuit bone charm  101
Seal-tooth head-dress.  105
Innuit harpoon heads.  106
Shaman and sick man  m
Tattooing  no
Eskimo woman and babe 123
Sitka  125
Chiefs house, Fort Wrangell  134
Fort Wrangell village  141
Mrs. A. R. McFarland  146
The McFarland school.  140
Clah  I59
Alaska Fox 165
Shaaks lying in state   179 ILLUSTRATIONS.
IX
PAGE,
The Home, Fort Wrangell  187
Rev. S. Hall Young   191
A Puffin  195
Rear view of Greek church, Sitka  197
Bay of Sitka  199
The Castle and Custom-House, Sitka  201
Rev. John G. Brady  203
The barracks, Sitka  207
Mission group, Fort Wrangell  231
Seal-skin shoes   241
Seal-Skin moccasins  241
Indians gambling  243
A scalp dance  257
Stone implements  262
Aurora on the Yukon  267
Alaska sea-gull I  272
Dog eaters  277
Kindling a fire by friction   285
Indian family on the Yukon  291
A canoe voyage  301
Great medicine man  303
Methodist Church, Fort Simpson  309
Heathen dance, Alaska  313
Sled |§.  327
INNUIT NEEDLE-CASE.    ALASKA.
CHAPTER I.
Great Extent of Country—Natural Phenomena—Divisions—Agriculture—Islands—Mountains—Volcanoes— Glaciers — Aurora
Borealis—Mineral Springs—Rivers—Furs—Fisheries— Lumber
—Coal—Pet^eum—Copper—Iron—Sulphur— Gold — Climate
—Kuro-Siwo—Routes of Travel.
" Go ye and look upon that land,
That far, vast land that few behold ;
Go journey with the seasons through
Its wastes, and learn how limitless."
During the spring of 1867 the United States Senate was the scene of a stormy debate over the ratification of the treaty with Russia for the purchase of
Alaska. Upon that occasion Charles Sumner delivered one of his finest orations. As he unfolded the
resources of that vast, distant, and unknown land,
even learned men listened with eager interest. As he
presented its- intimate relations to our Pacific coast
possessions, patriotism glowed with a warmer enthusiasm. As he spoke of its grand future, every heart
was thrilled, and the determined opposition of many
was overcome. m
MR. SEWARD'S  OPINION  OF ALASKA.
The treaty, which was made March 30th, 1867, was
ratified by the United States Senate on the 28th of
May ; and on the 18th of October, 1867, Russian
America was formally turned over to the United
States upon the payment of $7,200,000.
The attention and interest that had been awakened
at the time of the heated debate in the Senate soon
died away. The American people almost lost sight
of their new possession, or only occasionally recalled
it as Secretary Seward's folly.
This was not unexpected to that great statesman.
Nor did it shake his confidence in the value of that
country. At a public dinner given him upon retiring
to private life, to the question, " Mr. Seward, what
do you consider the most important act of your official life ?" he unhesitatingly replied, " The purchase
of Alaska ;" then, after a moment's pause, he added,
I But it may take two generations before the purchase is appreciated."
The old statesman was right. It was his crowning
glory to have added a new empire to his country's
domain. For, as its name signifies, it is an empire of
itself.
Alaska is an English corruption of the native word
I Al-ak-shak," which means " a great country or continent."
And it is indeed a great country, covering over
580,107 square miles, an area equal to the original
thirteen States of the Union with the great " Northwest Territory " added ; or, in other words, Alaska
is as large as ail of the United States east of the Mississippi River and north of Alabama, Georgia, and GREAT EXTENT OF COUNTRY.
15
North Carolina. Its extreme breadth from east to
west is two thousand two hundred miles in an air
line. According to Professor Guyot, a recognized
authority on all geographical matters, the island of
Attu in Alaska is as far west of San Francisco as the
coast of Maine is east of that city ; or, in other words,
San Francisco is the great middle city between the
extreme east and west of the United States. The extreme breadth of Alaska from north to south is one
thousand four hundred miles. The shore line up and
down the bays and around the islands, according to
the United States Coast Survey, measures twenty-five
thousand miles, or two and one half times more
than the Atlantic and Pacific coast lines of the remaining portion of the United States. The coast of
Alaska, if extended in a straight line, would belt the
globe.
Commencing at the north shore of Dixon Inlet, in
latitude 54° 40', the coast sweeps in a long regular
curve north and west to the entrance of Prince William's Sound, a distance of 550 miles ; thence 725
miles south and west to Unimak Pass at the end of
the Aliaska Peninsula. From this pass the Aleutian
chain of islands sweep 1075 miles in a long curve almost across to Asia, the dividing line between Asia
and Alaska being, according to the treaty made with
Russia, the meridian of 1930 west longitude. North
of Unimak Pass the coast forms a zigzag line to
Point Barrow on the Arctic Ocean. The general
shape of Alaska is that of the head and horns of an
ox  inverted.;   the main body of  land forming the i6
THE YUKON DISTRICT.
head, the  Peninsula and Aleutian Islands the one
horn, and the South-eastern Peninsula the other.
This physical configuration naturally divides it into
three districts—the Yukon, extending from the
Alaskan range of mountains to the Arctic Ocean ;
the Aleutian, embracing the Aliaska Peninsula and
islands west of the 155th degree of longitude, and the
Sitkan, including South-eastern Alaska.
a?-g
TRAVELLING ON DOG-SLED.
Concerning the Yukon District but little is known,
except of the coast and along the Yukon River.
I The Coast Pilot," a publication of the United
States Coast Survey, represents the country between
Norton Sound and the Arctic Ocean as "a vast
moorland, whose level is only interrupted by promontories and isolated mountains, with numerous lakes,
bogs, and peat-beds.    Wherever drainage exists, the wmimMM
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it-.li.al. '■ 'sii i.avi.r.iuii™j,
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■■.a-jl J..I,ll»a?Jf-..-,..8.   ■  .ji;.J|  VEGETATION  IN ALASKA.
19
ground is covered with a luxuriant herbage and
produces the rarest as well as most beautiful plants.
The aspect of some of these spots is very gay. Many
flowers are large, their colors bright, and though
white and yellow predominate, other tints are not
uncommon.    Summer sets in most rapidly in May,
ALASKA PTARMIGAN.
and the landscape is quickly overspread with a lively
green." The extreme heat and constant sunshine
cause it to produce rank vegetation. The commercial value of this section is mainly in its furs.
Turnips, radishes, and salad have been successfully
raised at St. Michael, Nulato, and Fort Yukon.
Grasses and fodder are abundant; among the former-
are   the   Kentucky blue-grass, wood-meadow   and 20
ALEUTIAN DISTRICT.
blue-joint grasses. This latter averages three feet in
height. The red and black currants, gooseberries,
cranberries, raspberries, thimbleberries, salmon-
berries, blueberries, killikinik berries, bearberries,
dewberries, twinberries, service or heath berries,
mossberries, and roseberries, grow in great abundance in all sections of Alaska.    Hundreds of barrels
H-sfo
mmm
AN ARCTIC MOUNTAIN  SCENE.
of wild cranberries are annually picked by the Indians and shipped to San Francisco.
The Aleutian District is largely mountainous and
of volcanic formation. Between the mountains and
the sea are, however, many natural prairies, with a
rich soil of vegetable mould and clay, and covered
with perennial wild grasses.   VEGETABLES AT  SITKA.
23
Dr. Kellogg, botanist of the United States Exploring Expedition, writes : " Unalaska abounds in
grasses, with a climate better adapted for haying
than the coast of Oregon. The cattle were remarkably fat.    Milk is abundant."
William H. Dall, of the Smithsonian Institution,
predicts that the Aleutian District will yet furnish
California with its best butter and cheese.
This district, except at the eastern end, is without
timber larger than a shrub. The principal resource
at present is in the wonderful fisheries off its coast.
The Sitkan District is mountainous in the extreme,
and the larger portion covered with dense forests.
The great wealth of this district is in its lumber, fish,
and minerals. Many garden vegetables are raised
with success. Rev. John G. Brady, Presbyterian
missionary at Sitka, writes :
" The Kake Indians furnished the Russians with
potatoes. Some of the natives at Wrangell are clearing off garden patches this year. Much can be done
in - this direction, for Alaska will furnish vegetables
for a teeming population. There are several thousand acres in the neighborhood of this place, upon
which the finest vegetables may be raised with certainty. The soil, for the most part, is a vegetable
mould mixed with sand. Mr. Smiegh, of this place,
has had a garden for the last seven years. He says
that he has grown cabbages weighing twenty-seven
pounds. He has tried peas, carrots, leeks, parsnips,
turnips, lettuce, radishes, onions, potatoes, celery,
parsley, horseradish and rhubarb. He has tried cucumbers and beans, but they did not do well.    Cauli- 24
SCENERY.
flower and celery surpass any that he has raised in
other places. The wild black currants abound in
the woods. The tame currants do well, and are sure.
Gooseberries do well, and have a delicate flavor.
The cabbage grows wild, and six or eight inches in
diameter. Mr. Burns, who has had a garden for
the last three years, agrees with Mr. Smiegh. The
strawberry grows wild near Mount Edgecumbe."
During the summer of 1879 I cut at Fort Wrangell
wild timothy that would average ^five feet in height,
and blue-grass that would average six feet, the
longest stem measured seven feet three inches. Professor Muir, State Geologist of California, testifies
that he never met anywhere outside of the tropics
such rank vegetation as in this district.
Alaska is not only "a great land" in its large
area, but also in its natural phenomena. Captain
Butler, an English officer, crossing that great
" north-land," writes that " Nature has here graven
her image in such colossal characters that man seems
to move slowly amid an ocean frozen rigid by the
lapse of time—frozen into those things we call mountains, rivers, prairies, and forests. Rivers whose
single lengths roll through twice two thousand miles
of shore line ; prairies over which a traveller can steer
for weeks without resting his gaze on aught save the
dim verge of the ever-shifting horizon ; mountains
rent by rivers, ice-topped, glacier-seared, impassable : forests whose sombre pines darken a region
half as large as Europe. In summer a land of sound,
a land echoing with the voices of birds, the ripple of
running water,  the mournful music of the waving ISLANDS.
pine branch. In winter a land of silence, its great
rivers glimmering in the moonlight, wrapped in their
shrouds of ice , its still forests rising weird and spectral against the aurora-lighted horizon ; its nights so
still that the moving streamers across the northern
skies seem to carry to the ear a sense of sound."
Alaska is the great island region of the United
States, having off its southern coast an archipelago
rivalling   the   better known   archipelagoes  of   the
Southern Pacific.    The 732 miles of latitude from the
western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, at
the head of Puget Sound in Washington Territory
to the head of Lynn Channel in Alaska contain one
of the most remarkable stretches of inland ocean nav
igation in the world.    It is remarkable for its bold
shores, deep water, numerous channels, innumerabl
bays and harbors, abundance of fuel and fresh water
and shelter from the swells of the ocean.    The grea'
mountainous islands of Vancouver," Queen Charlotte,
Prince of Wales, Wrangell, Baranoff, Chichagoff, and
others    form  a complete breakwater,   so  that  the
traveller can enjoy an ocean voyage of a thousand
miles without getting out to sea and without seasickness, the trip being made through channels between the islands and the main land.
The labyrinth of channels around and between the
islands that are in some places less than a quarter of a
mile wide, and yet too deep to drop anchor, the mountains rising from the water's edge from 1000 to 8000
feet, and covered with dense forests of evergreen
far up into the snow that crowns their summits ; the
frequent track of the avalanche, cutting a broad road 26
MOUNTAINS.
from mountain-top to water's edge ; the beautiful
cascades born of glaciers or the overflow of high inland lakes, pouring over mountain precipices or
gliding like a silver ribbon down their sides ; the
deep gloomy sea-fiords, cleaving the mountains far
into the interior ; the beautiful kaleidoscopic vistas
opening up among the innumerable islets ; mountain-
tops domed, peaked, and sculptured by glaciers ; the
glaciers themselves sparkling and glistening in the
sunlight, dropping down from the mountain heights
like some great swollen river, filled with drift-wood
and ice, and suddenly arrested in its flow—all go to
make up a scene of grandeur and beauty that cannot
be placed upon canvas or adequately described with
words. When the attractions of that trip are better
known, thousands will make a pleasure tour along
the coast of Alaska.
The southern portion of this great archipelago is
in Washington Territory, the central portion in British Columbia, and the northern portion in Alaska.
This latter has been named the Alexander Archipelago, in honor of the Czar of Russia. It is about 300
miles north and south and 75 miles east and west,
containing 1100 islands that have been counted. The
aggregate area of these islands is 14,142 square miles.
Six hundred miles to the westward is the Kadiak
group, aggregating 5676 square miles, then the Shu-
magin group, containing 1031 square miles, and the
Aleutian chain, with an area of 6391 square miles.
To the northward is the Pribyloff (seal islands) group,
containing, with the other islands in Bering's Sea,
3963 square miles.    The total area of the islands of >
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a  VOLCANOES.
29
Alaska is 31,205 square miles, which would make a
State as large as the great State of Maine.
It is the region of the highest mountain-peaks in
the United States. The coast range of California
and the Rocky Mountain range of Colorado and
Montana unite in Alaska to form the Alaskan Mountains. This range, instead of continuing northward
to the Arctic Ocean, as the old atlases represent,
turns to the south-westward, extends through and
forms the Aliaska Peninsula, and then gradually sinks
into the Pacific Ocean, leaving only the highest peaks
visible above the water. These peaks form the
Aleutian chain of islands. These islands decrease in
size, height, and frequency as the mountain range
sinks lower into the ocean. Unimak, the most eastern
of the chain, has that magnificent volcano Shishaldin,
9000 feet high ; then Unalashka, 5691 feet; next
Atka, 4852 feet; then Kyska, 3700 feet, and Attu,
the most western of the group, only 3084 feet high.
In the Alaskan range are the highest peaks in
the United States—Mount St. Elias, 19,500 feet high ;
Mount Cook, 16,000 feet; Mount Crillon, 15,900 ;
Mount Fairweather, 15,500, and numerous others. In
addition to the Alaskan range, the Shaktolik and Ulu-
kuk Hills, near Norton Sound ; the Yukon and Roman-
zoff Hills, north of the Yukon River; the Kaiyuh
and Nowikakat Mountains, east and south of the
river, and a low range of hills bordering the Arctic
coast.
Alaska contains the great volcanic system of the
United States. Grewingk enumerates 61 volcanoes,
mainly on the Aliaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, 3Q
TRADITIONS.
that have been active since the settlement by Euro
peans. The violence of the volcanic forces is said to
be decreasing, so that only ten are now belching out
smoke and ashes.
One of the extinct volcanoes is Mount Edgecumbe,
near Sitka.     Its funnel-shaped  crater  Is   2000  feet
SLED-DOG.
across and about 400 feet deep. It is on the southern point of Kruzoff Island, and has an elevation of
2855 feet.
Rev. John G. Brady gives the following traditions
concerning it : I This is a Mount Olympus for the
natives.    They say that the first In iian  pair lived VOLCANIC  ERUPTION.
31
peaceably for a long time, and were blessed with
children. But one day a family jar occurred. The
husband and wife grew very angry at each other.
For this the man was changed into a wolf and the
woman into a raven. The metamorphosed woman
flew down intckthe open crater of Mount Edgecumbe,
Ik on a stump, and is now holding the earth on her
wings. Whenever there is thunder and lightning
around the summit, it is only the wolf giving vent
to his rage while he is trying to pull her off the
stump. It would be a great calamity if she should
lose her grip, for then the earth would be upset and
all who live upon it perish. So whenever it thunders the Indians take stones and pound on the floors
of their houses to encourage the raven to hold to the
stump.
" Another myth is that a being who is half dog and
half Indian lives on the top. He comes down once a
year near the harbor to catch halibut. He covers
himself with an eagle's skin. But upon his first attempts to fly to the crest he failed. In his efforts
he scratched the grooves and deep gullies in the
mountain-side. After repeated attempts he got so
that he could fly, and now he feeds on whales, which
he carries to his home in the crater."
On the Naass River, just across from Southern
Alaska, is a remakable lava overflow from a volcano
in the neighborhood. The Indian tale is that some
cruel children, playing at the mouth of a small
stream, were catching the salmon, and, cutting open
their backs, put stones in them and let them go
again.    The Good Spirit, being angry- set the river 32
TRADITIONS.
on fire and burnt up the children, and the Lava Plain
remains as the memento.    The diverted channel of
ESKIMO  SLED  AND  SNOW-SHOVEL.
the Naass River is  still called  New River by the
Indians. GLACIERS.
33
A correspondent of the San Francisco Bulletin
speaks of a fresh eruption in 1878 on the Island of
Umnak : " The inhabitants of villages on the west
and south side of Unalashka Island complain of the
sudden disappearance of fish from their shores and
Streams. The cause of the disastrous phenomenon is
a volcanic eruption on the adjoining island of Umnak, accompanied by a heavy fall of hot ashes and
earthquakes. The volcano on Umnak has been
considered extinct tor many years past, but two weeks
ago a new crater opened, at least ten miles away on
a sloping plain of but slight elevation above the sea
level. Owing to the latter circumstance the lava
flows but slowly, and hardens before it reaches the
shore, but the fall cf ashes extends over a large area
of land and water. Persons passing the east side of
the island in canoes suffer from sulphurous gases
whenever the wind blows from the shore, and the
thundering noise of the eruption can be heard at the
village of Unalashka during the still hours of the
night."
It is the great glacier region. From Bute Inlet to
Unimak Pass nearly every deep gulch has its glacier,
some of which are vastly greater and grander than
any glacier of the Alps.
On Lynn Channel is a glacier computed to be 1200
feet thick at the "snout" or lower projection. In
one of the gulches of Mount Fairweather is a glacier
that extends fifty miles to the sea, where it ends
abruptly in a perpendicular ice-wall 300 feet high and
eight miles broad. Thirty-five miles above Wrangell,
on the Stickeen River, between two mountains 3000 GLACIERS.
feet h.gh, is an immense glacier forty miles long and
at the base four to five miles across, and variously
estimated from 500 to 1000 feet high or deep.
Opposite this glacier, just across the river, are
large boiling springs. The Indians regard this gla-
sier as a personificatiou of a mighty ice-god, who has
issued from his mountain home invested with power
before which all nature bows in submission. They
describe him as crashing his way through the cafion
till its glistening pinnacles looked upon the domains
of the river-god, and that after a conflict the ice-
god conquered, and spanned the river's breadth so
completely that the river-god was forced to crawl
underneath. The Indians then sent their medicineman to learn how this could be avoided. The answer
came that if a noble chief and fair maiden would
offer themselves a sacrifice by taking passage under
the long, dark, winding ice-arch, his anger would be
appeased, and the river be allowed to go on its way
undisturbed. When the two were found and adorned,
their arms bound, and seated in a canoe, the fatal
journey was made, and the ice has never again attempted to cross the river. At one of these glaciers
ships from California have anchored and taken on
cargoes of ice.
Another tradition given me by one of their medicine-men was that years ago a tribe which resided
on the upper waters of the Stickeen River wanted to
come down and see the great salt water. But the
great ice-mountain of the Stickeen at that time
spanned the river and barricaded all passing up or
down.    The water, indeed, ran under the ice. but they did not know whether they could go through
safely with their canoes. While they were assembled
in solemn council, consulting about it, two old men 36
GLACIER NEAR CAPE FANSHAW.
.ow.'' They chanted their death-song and disappeared beneath the ice. The passage was made safely,
and their people followed.
Professor John Muir, State Geologist of California,
accompanying our party on a trip to a large glacier
near Cape Fanshaw, thus describes it :
I The whole front and brow of this majestic glacier is dashed and sculptured into a maze of yawning
chasms and crevices and a bewildering variety of
strange architectural forms, appalling to the strongest
nerves, but novel and beautiful beyond measure—
clusters of glittering lance-tipped spires, gables and
obelisks, bold outstanding bastions and plain mural
cliffs, adorned along the top with fretted cornice and
battlement, while every gorge and crevasse, chasm
and hollow was filled with light, shimmering and
pulsing in pale blue tones of ineffable tenderness and
loveliness. The day was warm, and back on the
broad waving bosom of the glacier water-streams
were outspread in a complicated network, each in
its own frictionless channel cut down througfh the
porous, decaying ice of the surface into the quick and
living blue, and flowing with a grace of motion and
a ring and gurgle and flashing of light to be found
only on the crystal hills and dales of a glacier.
"Along the sides we could see the mighty flood
grinding against the granite with tremendous pressure, rounding the outswelling bosses, deepening and
smoothing the retreating hollows, and shaping every
portion of the mountain walls into the forms they were
meant to have, when in the fulness of appointed
time the ice-tool should be lifted and set aside by MINERAL SPRINGS.
37
the sun. Every feature glowed with intention,
reflecting the earth-plans of God. Back two or three
miles from the front the current is now probably
about twelve hundred feet deep ; but when we examine the walls, the grooved and rounded features,
so surely glacial, show that in the earlier days of the
ice-age they were all overswept, this glacier having
flowed at a height of from three to four thousand
feet above its present level."
Dall, in his " Alaska and its Resources," says :
" Any account of Alaska would be incomplete which
did not include a mention of the remarkable hot and
mineral springs which are so numerous." There are
large ones south of Sitka, also on Perenosna Bay, on
Amagat Island, and Port Moller. On Unimak Island
is a lake of sulphur. Near the volcano Pogrumnoi
are hot marshes. Boiling springs are found on the
Islands Akhun, Atka, Unimak, Adakh, Sitignak, and
Kanaga. These latter have for ages been used by
the natives for cooking food. In the crater of Gor-
eloi is a vast boiling, steaming mineral spring eighteen miles in circumference. A lake strongly impregnated with nitre is found on Beaver Island.
The thermal springs on the Island of Unalashka hold
sulphur in solution. Noises proceed from them occasionally like the booming of a cannon. The natives
have a tradition that long ago the volcanoes in this
neighborhood fought with each other and Makushin
came off victor.
The northern portion of Alaska, within the Arctic
Circle, is famous for its beautiful auroral displays.
Bancroft describes them "as flashing out in pris- NORTHERN  LIGHTS.
matic coruscations, throwing a brilliant arch from
east to west—now in variegated oscillations, graduating through all the various tints of blue and
green and violet and crimson, darting, flashing, or
streaming in yellow columns upward, downward ;
now blazing steadily, now in wavy undulations,
sometimes up to the very zenith ; momentarily
lighting up the surrounding scenery, but only to
fall back into darkness." Whymper speaks of one
display seen on the Yukon as representing a vast
undulating snake crossing the heavens. The superstitious natives, that see in all phenomena evidence
of the spirits they fear, consider these displays
as the reflection of the lights used by the spirits
in their dances in their northern homes. " Singularly enough," says Dall, " they call the constellation
of Ursa Major by the name of Okil-Ok'puk, and consider him to be ever on the watch while the other
spirits carry on their festivities. None of the spirits
are regarded as supreme, nor have the Innuit tribes
any idea of a deity, a state of future reward and punishment, or any system of morality."
Alaska contains not only one of the largest rivers
of the United States, but also of the world.
The river Yukon is 70 miles wide across its five
mouths and intervening deltas. At some points
along its lower course one bank cannot be seen from
the other. For the first thousand miles it is from one
to five miles wide, and in some places, including
-islands, it is twenty miles from main bank -"o main
bank.    Navigable for 1500 miles, it is computed to
Upon its upper waters, within >
c-:
o
>
o
>
l"1  RIVERS—FUR.
the Arctic Circle, is Fort Yukon, a post of the Hudson Bay Company. At this far distant post, where
tidings from the outside world only reach once a
year, is a Scotch missionary. The British Church
looks well after its own people. On its banks live
thousands who know neither its outlet nor its source,
and yet, recognizing its greatness, proudly call
themselves the " Men of Yukon."
The other principal rivers of the Territory are the
Stickeen, 250 miles long; the Chilcat, the Copper,
the Fire, the Nushergak, a large shallow stream 150
miles long ; the Kuskoquim, next to the Yukon in
size, and between 500 and 600 miles long j the Tana-
nah, 250 miles. This river is half a mile wide at its
mouth, with a very strong current; the Nowikakat,
112 miles, and the Porcupine. The latter three are
tributaries of the Yukon. The only river of any size
flowing into the Arctic Ocean is the Colville, for a
long time supposed to be the outlet of the Yukon.
The chief value of Alaska to Russia was its wonderful fur supplies. And when the Territory was sold
to the United States the most prominent attraction
was the seal-fur fisheries on the Pribyloff group of
islands in Bering's Sea. To protect these valuable
interests the Government leased these islands for
twenty years to an incorporated company known as
the " Alaska Commercial Company." They pay the
Government an annual rental of $55,000 for the islands, and a royalty of $262,500 a year on the 100,000
seal-skins allowed by law to be taken.
Thus these two little islands—St. Paul, 13 miles
long and 6 wide,   and St. George, 10 miles long and 42
FURS AND  FISHERIES.
6 wide—furnish nearly all the seal-skins used in the
markets of the world, and have paid a revenue into
the United States Treasury from 1871 to 1880 of over
two and one half million dollars ; and yet it is
thought by some that Alaska was a worthless purchase.
The Alaska Company has thirty-five trading stations in addition to its seal-fisheries.
The next most valuable fur is that of the sea-otter,
of which about $100,000 worth are annually taken.
Formerly these skins were worth from $200 to $500
each in gold ; ir. 1880 they are quoted at from $20 to
$200 each.
The principal land fur-bearins: animals are the sev-
eral varieties of the fox, the mink, beaver, marten,
lynx, otter, black bear, and wolverine. There are
also the skins of the whistler, reindeer, mountain
goat and sheep, ermine, marmot, muskrat, and wolf.
The fur product amounts to $1,000^000 annually.
Alaska is also a great fish region. All the early
navigators and explorers, from Cook to the present
time, have spoken of its immense numbers of salmon,
cod, herring, halibut, mullet, ulicon, etc. There are no
other such fisheries in the known world. A missionary thus describes a fishing scene on the Naass River :
" I went up to their fishing-ground on the Naass
River, where some five thousand Indians had assembled. It was what is called their ' small fishing.'
The salmon catch is at another time. These small-
fish form a valuable article for food, and also for oil.
They come up for six weeks only, and with great regularity.    The Naass, where T. visited it, was about a a
a
>
3
o
«
*tJ
O
-3
3!
W
l—(
n
M
o
21
«*!
o
2  FISHERIES.
mile and a half wide, and the fish had come up in
great quantities, so great that with three nails upon
a stick an Indian would rake in a canoe full in a
short time. Five thousand Indians were gathered
together from British Columbia and Alaska, decked
out in their strange and fantastic costumes. Their
faces were painted red and black, feathers on their
heads, and imitations of wild beasts on their dresses.
Over the fish was an immense cloud of sea-gulls—so
many and so thick that, as they hovered about looking for fish, the sight resembled a heavy fall of snow.
Over the gulls were eagles soaring about watching
their chance. After the small fish "iad come up
larger fish from the ocean There wai the halibut,
the cod, the porpoise, and the fin-back whale. Man
life, fish life, and bird life—all under intense excitement. And all that animated life was to the heathen
people a life of spirits. They paid court to and worshipped the fish they were to assist in destroying,
greeting them, ' You fish ! you fish ! You are all
chiefs, you are.' "
Cod are found from the Seal Islands southward,
but are most abundant on the banks in the Kadiak
and Aleutian archipelagoes. Three San Franciso
firms engaged in the business caught 3000 tons
during 1879 on the banks off the Shu m agin Islands.
Alaska can also supply the world with salmon, herring, and halibut of the best quality. Salmon canneries have been established near Sitka, at Klawak,
and at Kasa-an Bay. As many as 7000 salmon have
been taken at one haul of the seine.    Salmon are TIMBER.
frequently caught in Cook's Inlet weighing 60 pounds
each, and exceptional ones 120 pounds each.
Alaska is the great reserve lumber region of the
United States. It is only a question of a few years
when the forests of Maine, Michigan, Wisconsin,
Minnesota, and even Puget Sound, will be denuded
of their best timber. Then the country will appre-*-
ciate those thousands of square miles of yellow cedar,
white spruce, hemlock, and balsam fir that densely
cover the south-eastern section of Alaska. The Hon.
William H. Seward, upon returning from a trip to
Alaska, said, in a public address, " I venture to predict that the North Pacific coast will become a common ship-yard for the American Continent, and
speedily for the whole world. Europe, Asia,
Africa, and even the Atlantic American States have
either exhausted or are exhausting their native supplies of timber and lumber. Their last and only resort must be to the North Pacific,"
The indications are that Alaska is very rich in
minerals. It should be remembered that there has
been no scientific or geological survey of Alaska ;
that the long Russian occupation sought only the
development of the fur interests, and that the minerals which have been found in the country have not
been developed sufficiently to determine their full
economic value.
Ex-Mayor Dodge, of Sitka, writes : '' From the
earliest history of the country to the present day
the existence of gold, silver, copper, iron, marble,
and coal has been constantly attested. We have the
undeniable authority of   eminent scientific officials   COAL—PETROLEUM—COPPER—IRON.
49
and the statements of strangers temporarily visiting
the coast."
Coal is found all along the coast. The most valuable of the known deposits is found in Cook's Inlet,
It is of excellent quality for the use of steamships.
The quantity seems to be unlimited.
Petroleum is found floating on a lake near the Bay
of Katmai. It is quite odorless, and in its crude
state has been used by the Russians for lubricating
machinery. Large deposits have also been found on
Copper River.
Specimens of pure copper have been found in many
places. It is so abundant on Copper River as to
give the name to the stream. At Kasa-an Bay a valuable mine of bronze copper is being worked by an
English company. Lead in small quantities is found
on Whale Bay, south of Sitka, and also in Kadiak
Island.
Iron is common to many sections of the Territory.
Graphite is found at several places. A fine quality
of marble exists in inexhaustible quantities. A fine
quality of bismuth is found on Vostovia Mountain.
Kaolin fire-clay, and gypsum are also found. Sulphur exists in large quantities. Amethysts, zeolites,
garnets, agates, carnelians, and fossil ivory are found.
Indeed, the people of the United States have no conception of the mineral wealth of Alaska.
Gold is found in a number of places, and supposed
to exist in many others. But little prospecting has
been done on account of the hostility of the natives.
Up the Stickeen River through Alaska, over on the
head waters of Deese River, are the Cassiar mines of 5o
GOLD.
British Columbia, where from 2500 to 3000 miners
have spent several summers in placer mining with
profit. The annual product of these mines is from
$800,000 to $1,000,000. As the precious metals
abound the whole length of the mountain chain in
South and Central America, Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, Utah, Nevada, Montana, British America, and
Cassiar (on the edge of Alaska), the presumption is
that the precious deposits continue through Alaska.
Captain J. W. White, United States Revenue Marine, in his report to the Department, says :
" With regard to the resources of that portion of
Alaska which we have visited, I would mention the
recent discovery of gold on the several streams of the
main land, between the parallels of 570 10' and 580,
emptying into Stephen's Passage, some thirty or
forty white men and as many Indians being now engaged in mining there, making $5 to $10 a day'. I
saw at Sitka very rich specimens of gold-bearing
quartz and silver ore which had been obtained from
lodes on Baranoff (Sitka) Island."
The mines referred to on Stephen's Passage are
called Shuck, and are about 75 miles north of Fort
Wrangell. The only quartz mining at present is in
the neighborhood of Sitka.
The Alaska Appeal of March 6th, 1879, gives the
following review of the mines :
'' From Sitka to the head of Silver Bay is ten miles
over a beautiful sheet of water deep enough for vessels of any tonnage, which can lie at anchor twenty-
five feet from the shore. From this point of the
shore to the first mine, known as the Haley and Mile- GOLD  MINES AT SITKA.
tich mine, is less than one mile. The shaft on this
ledge is down forty-five feet. The ledge is eight and
one half feet wide, with two well-defined walls in
slate formation, and the rock at that depth resembling that in the Stewart tunnel. Said tunnel is one
quarter of a mile north-east, and crosses thcsame
gulch on which the Haley and Miletich is situated,
both running east- and west and parallel with each
other. The tunnel is in on the ledge 108 feet, and the
shaft downward eighty-five feet from the surface in a
ledge fourteen and one half feet wide. When first
worked the ledge was only one foot in width, and
kept widening as we penetrated the hill until it got
so wide that we cut on one side of the vein, with a
five and one half foot drift through the body of ore,
the walls being also of slate formation. We ran a
side-drift through the ore body, and struck the wall
at some distance back from where the tunnel ends at
present. The croppings of this ledge are visible for
one mile, where they disappear in a dip.
" Next comes the Wicked Fall mine, the croppings
of which are four and one half feet wide. A dark
blue plumbago ore appears a some distance below the
croppings.
" Next is the lode known as the Ha!"ey and Francis
lode, not much improved, but prospects very well in
gold and galena. It runs irregularly with reference
to the other lodes, and is rich in free gold.
" The next is the Bald Mountain lode, having the
same east and west course, and prospects very well
in gold and galena, and has, like the last-mentioned
mine, a slate formation. 52
GOLD  MINES AT SITKA.
" Next is the Lake Mountain lode, which prospects
well in free gold. Much of it is black sulphurets,
and the ledge runs in a slate formation.
" Next is the Witch Mine, very rich in gold.    The
ledge is broken up and decomposed.    The range is
east and west.    The ledge runs in a slate formation,
and is from six to seven feet wide.    There is an
'abundance of rotten granite in the vicinity of the lode.
■ Next is the Last Chance mine, a very extensive
ledge of ribbon quartz-—such as is well known to California miners—in a slate formation and plenty of
black sulphurets.
" There is a mill just finished and ready for work
on the Stewart mine, the only mine prospected to
any great depth.
| There is a superabundance of wood and water on
all these claims for all mining and mechanical purposes.
I The maker of this report has lived in Sitka and
worked on those mines for the last six years. The
weather in the locality of those mines is very mild,
no snow having fallen up to the time the writer left
there, on the 15th of December last. Carrots, turnips, cabbages, etc., were at perfect maturity at that
date, and not one frozen in the ground."
In a country as extended as Alaska, with its large
rolling plains, wide valleys, and high mountains,
there is necessarily a wide diversity of climate. In a
general way it may be said that inland Alaska has an
arctic winter and a tropical summer. At Fort Yukon
the thermometer often goes above ioo° in summer,
and from 5oQ to 700 below zero in winter. CLIMATE.
At Nulato on the Yukon River the fall of snow during the winter averages 8 feet, and frequently reaches
12 feet.
Along the immense southern coast and islands the
climate is moist and warm.
The greatest cold recorded on the Island of Unalashka, by a Greek priest, during a period of five years,
was zero of Fahrenheit ; extremest heat for the same
time was 770. The average for five years at 7 a.m.
was 370, 1 p.m., 400, and 9 p.m., 36?. The average
of weather for seven years was 53 all clear days, 1263
half clear, and 1235 all cloudy. It is very much the
climate of north-western Scotland.
At St. Paul Harbor, Kadiak Island, the mean annual summer temperature is 540 and winter 290.
The coldest month, February, with the thermometer
at 27 °, and the warmest, July and August, with a mean
temperature of 570, the extremes being from 6° to
750. The climate is that of southern Sweden and
Norway.    The annual rainfall is about 73 inches.
At Sitka, where, with the exception of a few short
gaps, a record of the thermometer has been kept
for 45 years, it has been found that the mean spring
temperature has been 41 ° 2', summer 54° 6', autumn
440 9', winter 320 5', and for the entire year 430 3' F.
The greatest degree of heat recorded in these 45
years was 87 ° 8', and of cold 40 below zero. The
thermometer has recorded below zero during only
four of the 45 years, and above 8o° during only
seven of those years. The mean annual temperature
for 45 years has ranged from 410 3' to 460 8', a difference of but 50 5'.    The annual rainfall 81 inches. 54
MILD  CLIMATE.
During a period of 43 years, there has been an
average of 200 rainy or snowy days per year. The
most favorable year was 1833, with 82 rainy and 32
snowy days, and the most unfavorable 1856, with 258
rainy and 27 snowy days.
During the winter of 1877 and 1878 the coldest
night at Sitka only formed ice the thickness of a
knife-blade on a barrel of rain-water under the eaves
of a house.
At Fort Wrangell, owing to distance from the
ocean and nearness to snow-covered mountains, the
climate is colder than at Sitka. The mean temperatures are, for spring 400 4', for summer 570 1', autumn
430, winter 280 3', and for the year 420 2'. The annual
rainfall about 65 inches. From these observations
taken from the " Alaska Coast Pilot," Appendix 1,
Meteorology, a.d. 1880, the surprising fact is brought
to light that the winter climate of Southern Alaska
for 45 years past has been the winter climate of the
State of Kentucky and West Virginia.
This mild climate of Southern Alaska is due to
the Japan Gulf Stream, the Kuro-Siwo, which first
strikes the North American Continent at the Queen
Charlotte Islands, in latitude 500 north. Here the
stream divides, one portion going northward and
westward along the coast of Alaska, and the other
southward along the coast of British Columbia,
Washington Territory, Oregon, and California, giving them their mild winter climate.
The former stream flowing northward has been
named *' the Alaska Current,"   and gives the great  II TRADE WINDS.
.southern coast of Alaska a winter climate as mild
as that of one third of the United States.
Mr. Joseph Cook, in his celebrated Boston " Monday Lectures," thus refers to it :
'* You will pardon me if I call attention to the
reasons why Alaska is so warm. Everybody understands that the continents are tally-ho
coaches driving toward
the sunrise, and that
the wind blows in the
faces of those who sit
on the front seats of
coaches. The wind
that bore Columbus
across the Atlantic and
Magellan across the
Pacific blows in the
faces of the tally-ho
coaches of the continents, driving out of
the sunset into the
sunrise. As the trade
winds in the tropics
blow from east to
west, at a speed often
reaching fifteen or eighteen miles an hour, they
produce a current in the ocean moving in the same
direction across the tropical zone. When that current strikes the east side of a continent it divides,
and part goes north and part goes south. As
the   portion moving toward  the  pole  flows away
WALRUS  HEAD. 58
GULF STREAM  OF THE  PACIFIC.
from the tropics, it of course reaches a part of the
earth moving with less rapidity than that from which
it came. Everybody sees that the equator must re-
1 volve with far greater rapidity than the.arctic circle,
simply because it is larger and must turn around in
the same time. The motion of the earth decreases
from the equator to the pole. As the warm current
passes from the equator to the North Sea in our Atlantic basin, it is constantly transferring itself to
parallels that move less rapidly than those which it
left at its last place of departure. The water does
not at once lose the speed of eastern motion it had
nearer the equator, and so slips eastward faster than
the northern water it meets. Thus arises a translation of a great body of water toward the sunrise. In
this way originates the gulf current, the cause of
which was a mystery for ages. So in the Pacific
Ocean, under the sweep of the trade winds and the [
influence of the difference of temperature-between
the torrid and the northern waters, there is produced
an enormous equatorial current moving from east to
west. On reaching the Asiatic coast and islands, a
part of this vast stream goes north and a part south.
The portion which goes north is of course always
dropping into latitudes where the motion of the earth
is less rapid, and therefore there is a translation of
the waters toward America. Thus springs up a
gulf current in the Pacific. (Guyot, ' Physical
Geography,' p. 65.) It pours out of the East Indies
as ours does out of the West Indies. It laves the
coast of China and Japan, as ours does that of
America.    It is called the Japan Current, or Black;  6o
HOW TO  REACH ALASKA.
water, and farther on has the name of the North Pacific Current. It divides at the westernmost end of
the Aleutian Islands. A part of it runs through Bering Straits. That is the reason why the ice never
drifts through those straits into the Pacific, and why
the transit of steamers between China and the United
States is likely to be free from icebergs. The larger
part of the current goes south of the Aleutian archipelago and strikes our continent first on the coast of
Alaska. As the Gulf Current warms England, so
does the North Pacific Current warm Alaska and
Oregon. But the Atlantic is more open to the Arctic Sea than the Pacific is, and so the latter current
is less cooled by cold water from the north than the
former.''
With regard to Alaska, Mr. William H. Dall, of
the Smithsonian Institution, writes after a trip to
Europe : " I come back convinced, from personal inspection, that Alaska is a far better country than
much of Great Britain and Norway, or even part of
Prussia."
The routes of travel to Alaska are not very numerous. A steamer carrying the United States mail between Port Townsend, Washington Territory, and
Fort Wrangell, and Sitka, Alaska, makes a monthly
trip.
Two small steamers run at irregular intervals during the summer from Victoria, B. C, to Fort Wrangell, calling en route at the several trading-posts on
the coast of British Columbia.
The country west of Sitka, including the Aleutian
Islands and the great interior and main section of the ROUTES OF TRAVEL.
Territory, is reached from San Francisco. So that a
citizen of Oregon, in order to reach Kadiak, Unalashka, the Seal Islands, St. Michael, or the numerous
villages on the Yukon River, is under the necessity of
going by the way of San Francisco. From this lat-
iter place there is frequent communication with Western Alaska, and once a year with the central and
northern sections.
ESKIMO  HEAD. CHAPTER II
Population—Customs—Houses—Dances— Feasts — Cremation—
Religious Beliefs—Shamanism.
" And they painted on the grave-posts
Of the graves, yet unforgotten,
Each his own ancestral totem,
Each the symbol of his household—
Figures of the bear and reindeer,
Of the turtle, crane, or beaver."
Major-General Halleck, in his official report to
the Secretary of War in 1869, gives the following
statistics of the population of our lately-acquired
Territory :
" Most writers make four general divisions of the
natives of Alaska : 1st, the Koloshians ; 2d, the Ke-
naians ; 3d, the Aleuts; 4th, the Eskimo. These
are again subdivided into numerous tribes and families, which have been named sometimes from their
places of residence or resort, and sometimes from
other circumstances or incidents.
" 1. The Koloshians.—This name is given by the
Russians to all the natives who inhabit the islands and
coast from the latitude 540 40' to the mouth of the
Atna or Copper River. The Indians of the northern
islands and northern coast of British Columbia be-   HYDAS AND  TONGAS  PEOPLE.
long to the same stock, and their entire population
was estimated by the early explorers at 25,000. The
Koloshians in Alaska at the present time have been
subdivided and classed as follows :
" The Hydas, who inhabit the southern part of Alexandria Archipelago. They have usually been hostile
to the whites, and a few years ago captured a trading vessel and murdered the crew. They number
about 600.    These Indians  are also called Kaigani
KEY-LOW-TIK  AND   KEN-TOON.
and Kliavakans ; the former being near Kaigan Harbor, and the latter near the Gulf of Kliavakan.
I In the same archipelago are the Hennegas, who
live near Cape Pole, and the Chatsinas, who occupy
the northern portion of the principal island. They
are said to be peaceful, and to number about 500
each, in all about 1000.
"The Tongas, who live on Tongas Island and on
the north side of Dixon Inlet. A branch of this
tribe, called the Foxes, now under a separate chief, 66
THE THLINKETS.
live near Cape Fox. The two branches together
number about 500.
" The Stickeens, who live on the Stickeen River and
the islands near its mouth. Although represented
as at the present time peaceable, a few years ago
they captured a trading vessel and murdered the
crew.    They number about 1000.
" The Kakus, or Kakes, who live on Kupreanoff
Island, having their principal settlement near the
north-western side. These Indians have long been
hostile to the whites, making distant warlike incursions in their canoes. They have several times visited Puget Sound, and in 1857 murdered the collector of customs at Port Townsend. They number
altogether about 1200.
" The Kuius, who have several villages on the bays
and inlets of Kuiu Island, between Cape Division and
Prince Frederick's Sound. They number in all
about 800.
"The Kootznoos or Kooshnoos, who live near
Kootznoo Head, at the mouth of Hood's Bay, Admiralty Island.    They number about 800.
" The Awks, who live along Douglas' Channel and
near the mouth of the Tahko River. They have a
bad reputation, and number about 800.
"The Sundowns and Tahkos, who live on the
main land from Port Houghton to the Tahko River.
They number about 500.
" The Chilcatds or Chilkahts, living on Lynn Channel and the Chilkaht River. They are warlike, and
have heretofore been  hostile to all whites, but at *z
O
a
o  SITKA AND KENAIAN PEOPLE.
present manifest a disposition to be friendly. They
muster about 2000.
" The Hoodsuna-hoos, who live near the head of
Chatham Straits. There are also small settlements
of them near Port Frederick, and at some other
points.    They number about 1000.
" The Hunnas or Hooniaks, who are scattered
along the main land from Lynn Canal to Cape Spencer.    Their number is about 1000.
DIAGRAM  OF ESKIMO SNOW-HOUSE.
" The Sitkas, or Indians on Baranoff Island, who
were at first opposed to the change of flags, but have
since become friendly. These are estimated by General Davis at about 1200.
'' If we add to these the scattering families and tribes
on the islands not above enumerated, and the Ky-
acks, who live south of Copper River, we shall have
from 12,000 to 15,000 as the whole number of Koloshians in the Territory.
"2. The Kenaians.—This name, derived from the
peninsula of Kenai, which lies between Cook's Inlet  THE ESKIMOS.
71
in industry. By the introduction of schools and
churches among these people the Russians have done
much toward reducing them to a state of civilization.
As might be expected from the indefinite character
of the lines separating
them from the Eskimos,
the estimates of their numbers are conflicting, varying from 4000 to 10,000.
Probably the lowest number would comprise all the
inhabitants of the Aleutian
Islands Proper, while if we
include the other groups
and the Peninsula of
Alaska, and the country
bordering on Bristol Bay,
the whole number may
reach as high as 10,000.
"4. The Eskimos.—These iFi)( \
people, who constitute
the remainder of the population of Alaska, inhabit the coasts of Bering's
Sea and of the Arctic
Ocean, and the interior
country north, and including the northern branches
of the Yukon River. The Kenaians are said to hold
the country along the more southerly branches of
that river. The character of the Alaskian Eskimo
does not essentially differ from that of the same race
ESKIMO  WOMAN,   ALASKA. ESTIMATE  OF POPULATION.
in other parts of the world. They are low in the
scale of humanity, and number about 20,000. These
estimates make the entire Indian population of
Alaska about 60,000."
William H. Dall, in I North American Ethnology,"
Vol. i., gives the following enumeration :
TINNEH.
. (WESTERN.)
KaiyuhkhotSna  2,000
Koytlkukhotana -       5CO
UnakotSnS      300
(kutchin.)
Tenan-ktitchin	
Tenniith-kutchin, extinct.
TatsSh-kiitchin, extinct.
Kutcha-ktitchin	
Natsit-kutchin	
Vunta-kutchin.
TukkQth-kutchin.
Han-kHtchin.
Tiitchone-kutchin.
Tehanin-ktitchin	
400
250
150
1,000
(eastern.)
Abbato-tena.
Mauvais Monde (Nehaunees).
Acheto-tinneh.
Daho-tenS.
Tahko-tinneh.
" Chilkaht-tena."
Ah-tena	
1,500
T'LINKETS.
(yakGtats.)
(kwan.)
Chilkaht-kw3n   1,300
Sitka-kwan   2,200
Stakhin-kwSn  1,500 COLYER'S ESTIMATE OF THE PEOPLE.        73
(kygahni.)
KygahnL      300
(NASSES.)
Nasse Indians.
ChimsySns.
Alaska Indians-  11,650
Alaska Orarians (Coast Indians)  14,054
Total native population  25,704
Add Russians  50
"    Half-breeds or Creoles  1,500
"    Citizens  150
27,404
The reader will notice the wide discrepancy between the foregoing estimates. No census of the
country has ever been taken, and so large a portion
is still unexplored that it would be practically impossible to secure a census. The Russian officials
claimed at the time of the transfer a population of
about 66,000.
The Hon. Vincent Colyer, Special Indian Commissioner to Alaska, in closing his report, says :
"I do not hesitate to say that if three fourths of
them (Alaska Indians) were landed in New York as
coming from Europe, they would be selected as
among the most intelligent of the many worthy emigrants who daily arrive at that port."
Ivan Petroff, Esq., editor and proprietor of the
Alaska Appeal, gives the following enumeration of
the Aleutian Islands for 1879 :
Unalashka, 304 Russians, Creoles, and Aleuts, and 5
white men, in four villages ; Akutan, 140 Aleuts and
Creoles ;   Atka,  207   Aleuts   and   Creoles,  1  white 74
PRINCIPAL  SETTLEMENTS.
man ; Umnak, 117 Aleuts and Creoles. From At-
ka to Attu, 600 miles, 10 to 15 islands, with 170
Aleuts. Shumagin Islands—Unga, 160 Aleuts, 69
Creoles, and 13 white men ; Belkovsky, 193 Creoles,
80 Aleuts, and 2 white men ; Nikolaievsk, 31 Aleuts ;
Protasof, 53 Creoles and 67 Aleuts ; Cook's Inlet,
620 Creoles and 4 white men.
The principal villages are :
Unalashka.—This is the refitting station for all vessels passing between the Pacific Ocean and Bering's
Sea. It is also the most important trading post of
the Alaska Commercial Company. "The village
straggles along a narrow sand-spit formed by the
water of the bay and a shallow creek, and begins
with the substantial wharf, warehouses, and dwelling-
houses of the Commercial Company. The centre of
the town is occupied by the Russian church and the
residence of the Greek priest, the neatest, best furnished and most comfortable house in the Territory,
and the eastern end is composed chiefly of the half-
subterranean ' barabaras ' of the Aleuts and the
new houses of the rival trading firm. The best
hunters have been furnished by the company with
comfortable cottages, which they occupy rent free."
St. Paul's Harbor, on Kadiak Island.—This was at
one time the capital of Russian America and the
chief seat of operations. The island was discovered in 1763 by Gotloff. In 1783 it was occupied by
Shelikoff, who erected the first trading post. The
settlement at St. Paul's Harbor was made in 1792.
In 1794 eleven monks arrived to establish missions,
and  in    1796  the   first   Russo-Greek   church   was r
111,1,1 ~1%MnHr
a
c
z
2
o
o  SITKA—FORT WRANGELL.
77
erected. Joasaph, Elder of the Augustin Friars, was
made bishop. In 1799 \t was made head-quarters of
the Russian-American Fur Company and capital of
Alaska. Schools and a hospital were also established. Its prosperity waned with the transfer of the
capital to Sitka.
Sitka.^This village is described in chapter 7.
Fort Wrangell.—This village of one hundred
houses is on the northwestern coast of Wrangell
Island, near the mouth of the Stickeen river. Owing
to the extensive gold mines at Cassair, on the
Stickeen river, it has
become the chief business centre of Alaska.
The trade of the mines
Wrangell is at the end
of ocean and commencement of river
navigation. An ocean
steamer runs between
Portland and Wrangell
and two between Victoria and Wrarigell, and two
small river steamers run on the Stickeen river between Wrangell and the Mines. The coast of Wrangell and the mouth of Stickeen river was first visited
by the American ship Atahualpa of Boston, in 1802,
three years before Lewis and Clark descended the
Columbia. The permanent population is about one
hundred whites and Russians, and five hundred Indians. Besides these there is a large winter population of miners, and a floating Indian population of
from 500 to 700 more, there sometimes being from
HORNS OF MUSK-OX. 78
CHIEFS—TOTEMIC  ORDERS.
2000 to 3000 Indians in the place. It is on the great'
highway of the Indians to and from the mines, also
to their hunting and fishing.
Along the main coast and upon the islands of the
Alexander Archipelago are seven or eight tribes
speaking a common language called the Thlinket.
These tribes dwell mainly in sixteen villages.
Like other Alaska tribes, they have several chiefs,
one of whom is head chief. Upon all public occasions they are seated according to their rank. This
rank is distinguished by the height of a pole erected
in front of their houses. The greater the chief the
higher his pole. Some of these poles are over 100
feet high. Mr. Duncan, the missionary, relates that
upon one occasion a chief of the Naass River Indians
put up a pole higher than his rank would allow.
The friends of the head chief made fight with guns,
and the over-ambitious one was shot in the arm,
which led him quickly to shorten his pole.
The Indians are again subdivided into various families, each of which have their family badge. These
badges, or totems among the Thlinkets are the raven
(yehl), the wolf (kahanukh), the whale (koostan-ine),
and the eagle (chethl'). Their emblems are marked
on the houses, canoes, household utensils, ornaments,
and even clothing of the people. These crests or
badges extend through different tribes, and their
members have a closer relation to one another than
the tribal connection. For instance, members of the
same tribe may marry, but not members of the same
badge. Thus a wolf may not marry into the wolf
family, but may into that of the whale. TOTEM  POLES,   FORT  WRANGELL. mmsrn TOTEMS.
In front of their leading houses and at their burial-
places are sometimes immense timbers covered with
carvings. Those who attended the Centennial Exhibition will remember such posts.
These are the genealogical records of the family.
The child usually takes the totem of the mother. For
instance, at the bottom of a post may be the carving
of a whale, over that a raven, a wolf, and an eagle-
STATUE OF THE
CHIEF'S SON.
CARVED BEAR.
signifying that the great-grandfather of the present
occupant of the house on his mother's side belonged
to the whale family, the grandfather to the raven
family, the father to the wolf family, and he himself
to the easrle family. These standards are from two
to five feet in diameter, and often over 60 feet in
height, and sometimes cost from $1000 to $2000, including the gifts and entertainments that attend their
dedication.    Formerly the entrance to the house was 82
HOUSES—CANOES.
a hole through this standard, but latterly they are
commencing to have regular doors hung on hinges.
Among the Stickeens these badge trees or totems
are usually removed to one side of the door.
Their houses are generally built along the beach at
the edge of high tide. They are from 25 to 40 feet
square, without a window, the only openings being
a small door for entrance and a hole in the roof for
the escape of the smoke. The door is three or four
feet above the ground level, and opens inside upon a
broad platform", which extends around the four sides.
This platform contains their rolls of blankets, bedding, and other stores. Some of the houses have a
second platform inside the first, and a few steps lower.
Then a few more steps down is the inside square on
the ground floor, which is also planked, with the exception of about four feet square in the centre, where
the fire is built on the ground. Some few have a
small inside room, looking as if it were a portion of
the cabin of a vessel. The walls, and frequently
roofs, are made of cedar plank, from two to five feet
wide, and two to three inches thick. These planks
are made by first splitting the trees into great
planks, then smoothing them down with a small
adze.
The people have to a great extent adopted an
American style of dress, the universal ready-made
clothing store having already found its way to that
coast.
The beach is lined with their large canoes. These
are from twenty to thirty feet long, and made out of
one solid log of   cedar or cypress.    Some   of   the FOOD—MANUFACTURES.
largest are from sixty to seventy-five feet long and
eight to ten feet wide, and will carry one hundred
people.
One was on exhibition at the Centennial Exhibition. The operation of making them is thus described : " Having selected a sound tree and cut it
the desired length, the outside is first shaped, then
the tree is hollowed out till the shell is of proper
thickness ; this is done with a tool resembling agrub-
bing-hoe or narrow adze with a short handle. It is
then filled with water, which is heated by throwing
in hot stones. The canoe is then covered with a
canvas to keep the steam in ; this softens the timber,
and the sides are distended by cross sticks to the
desired breadth at the centre, and tapering toward
the ends in lines of beautiful symmetry. It is finished off with a highly ornamental figure-head, and
the bulwarks strengthened by a fancy covering
board."
Their food consists largely of berries and fish.
Large quantities of salmon are smoked and put away
for future use. They also prepare large quantities of
fish-oil.
Some years ago a party of them, having seen the
cooks on ship mix flour and bake it into bread, got
possession of a barrel of lime from a shipwrecked
vessel. A portion of this was mixed as they had seen
the cook do it, and baked and boiled and boiled and-
baked, but to their great disgust nothing eatable
came from it.
Many of them paint their faces with lampblack and
oil, which gives them a very repulsive appearance. 84
MANUFACTURES.
They have a great variety of household utensils
made from the horns of mountain sheep and goats,
from ivory, and from wood. These are elaborately
carved with their totemic or heraldic signs. Indeed,
they excel in carving. They also excel in the manufacture of baskets, mats, dishes, hats, etc., out of the
inner bark of the cedar.     These baskets will hold
LADLE FROM HORN OF MUSK-OX.
water, and in the olden times, before the introduction of iron kettles, they were used for boiling. This
was done, not by placing the basket of water into
or over the fire, but by heating stones and placing
them in the basket.
Mr. W. H. Dall, in his " Alaska and its Resources,"
gives the following customs of the people : MARRIAGE.
" Polygamy is common among the rich. Upon arriving at a marriageable age the lower lip of the girl
is pierced and a silver pin inserted, the flat head of
the pin being in the mouth, and the pin projecting
through the lip over the chin. Many of them, men
•as well as women, wear a silver ring in the nose as
-well as the ears.
IVORY  KNIVES,   FORKS,  AND   COMB.
" A man wanting a wife sends a message to that
effect to the girl's relations. If he receives a favorable answer he sends them all the presents he can procure. Upon the appointed day he goes to her father's
house and sits down on the door-step with his back
to the house. 86
LABRETS IN THE LIP.
"The relations who have assembled then sing a
marriage song, at the close of which furs and calico
are laid across the floor, and the girl is escorted over
them from the corner where she has been sitting, and
takes her seat by the side of the man.
I The dancing, singing, and eating are kept up by
the guests until they are tired.    In these festivities,
the couple take no part.    They then  fast for two
days, and after a slight repast fast two days more.
DEER-SKIN BOOTS.
CARVED   ORNAMENT   TO   A
CANOE-HEAD.
Four weeks afterward they come together and are
recognized as husband and wife. Perhaps if there
was more fasting upon similar occasions among
Americans there would be fewer divorces. After
marriage the silver pin is removed from the woman's
lip, and a spool-shaped plug, called a labret, about,
three quarters of an inch long, is substituted in its
place. As she grows older, larger ones are inserted,
so that an old woman may have one two inches in
diameter.     When  a husband  dies,   his brother or WAR.
87
sister's son must marry the widow. A refusal to do
this has led to wars. If there are no male relations of the husband, the widow can choose for herself.
"They consider corporeal punishment as a great
disgrace, and only chastise the child who refuses to
take its daily bath.
" Theft is not considered as a crime, but the loser
may demand restitution if the thief is discovered.
" Murder demands blood for blood ; if not that of
the actual murderer, at least one of the tribe or family to which he belongs.
" Family feuds are not uncommon, and sometimes
result in duels. The duellists are dressed in armor
of raw moose or bear hide, or thin strips of wood
laced together. They wear heavy wooden helmets
painted or carved with their totemic emblems. The
combat is carried on with knives, and accompanied
with songs by the bystanders. At a conclusion of
peace, either between two tribes or two members of
a family, hostages are exchanged. These are obliged
to eat with their left hands for a certain period, as
they had carried weapons in the right hand during
the combat. Each hostage has two companions of
equal rank assigned to him by the tribe which holds
him.
"Their method of war is an ambush or surprise.
The prisoners are made slaves, and the dead are
scalped. The scalps are woven into a kind of garter
by the victor. During war they use red paint on
their faces, and powder their hair with red earth and
the down of birds. CARVINGS—FESTIVALS.
I The talent for carving in wood and bone possessed
by the Thlinkets has long been a matter of remark.
Before the introduction of iron by the Russians they
were unacquainted with it, but used tools of stone or
native copper. At present many of them have some
knowledge of working in iron. They purchase large
files of the traders, of which they make peculiar
bayonet-shaped knives. Those of native copper were
of similar form, and both are frequently ornamented
TOMB OF THE
CHIEF'S SON.
THREE COLOSSAL FROGS CARVED
IN WOOD,   FT. WRANGELL.
with totemic emblems. They are fond of silver and
other white metals, which they prefer to brass or
gold. They wear ear-rings and other ornaments of
their own manufacture from silver half-dollars.
" Bows and arrows seem to have disappeared, as
they have been well supplied for years by the traders
with iron spears or pikes and flint-lock guns.
I Their festivals consist of dancing, singing, and
feasting.    The dances and songs are alf emblematic, FUNERAL CEREMONIES.
INNUIT  GRAVE.
and the Thlinket prides himself above all on his proficiency in these accomplishments.     The songs are
remarkable     for     their
rhythm."
In their villages, scattered between the houses
and the higher land back
of them, are a number
of boxes about five feet
by two in size, raised on
four posts a few feet
from the ground. Also
small frame houses like
an old-fashioned smokehouse four feet square.
These are the graves of the chiefs and shamans (sorcerers). One of them at Fort Wrangell was surmounted by a wooden figure of a whale ten feet long ;
another had a figure of an immense bear. ' Others
had the genealogy of the dead
painted upon
them.
"The bodies
of the dead are
disjointed and
burned. The
funeral ceremonies of the wealthy
often last four
days. Dead slaves are cast into the sea. They believe in the transmigration of souls from one body
INGALIK GRAVE. go
CREMATION.
to another, but not to animals. And the wish is
often expressed that in the next change they may be
born into this or that powerful family. Those whose
bodies are burned are supposed to be warm in the
next world, and the others cold. If slaves are sacrificed at their burial, it relieves their owners from
work in the next world.
I Poor people take their dead in a boat to some
distant spot and burn them there. Some time after
the death o"f a Thlinket the members of the family
who belong to other totems are  invited to a feast.
The body is put on a
funeral pile before the relations and burned. The
guests accompany the ceremony with dismal cries.
tfw£- They sometimes burn their
hair in the fire, or cut it
off and smear themselves
ekogmut grave. wjt}1    ashes.     Among    the
Hydahs they cut themselves with knives and stones.
The guests who are of the same totem as the wife
then enter the house, while the near relatives come
in, disfigured and leaning on long staves, and
weep or sing in the middle of the floor. These
ceremonies last four days, with short intervals for
eating. Several slaves were formerly killed, the
number varying with the wealth of the dead man.
After four days the relations wash and paint their
faces. Presents are made to the guests who have
assisted, and food is distributed, which concludes
the ceremony."
~^"- CREMATION.
" The next heir is the younger brother or sister's
son. The ashes of the dead are placed in curiously
painted boxes near the house."
One beautiful morning in 1879, Dr. Kendall and
myself went up the beach at Fort Wrangell to see
a vegetable garden recently opened by Mr. Davidson. At its upper end we saw a white sheet
stretched between two poles and looking as if it
might be intended for a scare crow. Upon inquiry
we found that it contained the ashes of a boy who
was drowned the week before. • His friends had
promised Rev. Mr. Young that he should have a
Christian burial. But during Saturday night they
took the body up the beach, and early Sabbath morning burned it.
Several large dry sticks were laid side by side upon
the beach. Upon these was placed the body of the
boy. Other sticks were piled over the body and the
whole set on fire amid the wails and superstitious incantations of hired mourners.
In about an hour the body was consumed. After
the fire had cooled down, the ashes were carefully-
gathered up and placed in a basket until a suitable
box could be carved for their permanent preservation. When all was ready, an old Indian woman,
bowed down with age and infirmities, took up the
basket and started for a pine-tree, which had previously been selected for the purpose. She was followed by the mourners and friends with bowed heads
and loud wails of sorrow. At the base of the tree
two poles, about eight feet high, were driven into the
ground two feet apart.    The basket containing the 92
MOURNING FOR THE DEAD.
ashes was tied between these poles, and a muslin
bag, like a large pillow-slip, pulled down over the
poles and basket and sewed up at the bottom. On
the outside of the sheet is sometimes rudely painted
a face, through which the spirit of the departed is
supposed to look out upon the bay.
Morning and evening the parents of the boy come
out from their hut, and turning their faces to the
north utter loud cries of distress. This will be kept
up several months.
A writer in vol. iii., " North American Ethnology,"
says :
" I witnessed a scene of cremation on Bear River
that was one of the most hideous and awful spectacles
of which the human mind can conceive. The mourners leaped and howled around the burning pyre like
demons, holding long poles in their hands, which,
ever and anon they thrust into the seething, blistering corpse, with dismal cries of ' Wu-wu-wu!\ On
American River, after the body is reduced to a little
smouldering lump, the women draw it out of the fire,
then each one in succession takes it in her hands,
holds it high above her head, and walks around the
pyre, uttering doleful wails and ululations. They
also have a dance for the dead (tst'-pi ka-mi'-ni, ' the
weeping dance '). It always occurs about the last of
August, beginning in the evening and lasting until
daybreak. They bring together a great quantity of
food, clothing, baskets, and whatever other things
they believe the dead require in the other world.
Everything is bought or made new for the occasion ;
the food is fresh and good, the clothing is newly llMf^M^ii'  MOURNING FOR THE DEAD.
95
woven and fine, the ornaments are the best they can
procure. These are hung on a semicircle of boughs
or small trees, cut and set in the ground leafless, the
smaller and lighter articles at the top, twelve or fifteen feet high, and the larger toward the bottom or
lving on the ground. In the centre burns a great
fire, and hard by are the graves. On the opposite
side of the fire from the offerings there is a screen
made of bushes, with blankets hung over them to
reflect the light of the fire brilliantly on the offerings,
which glitter like a row of Christmas-trees. They
seat themselves on the graves, men and squaws together, as the twilight closes in around them, and
begin a mournful wailing, crying, and ululation for
the dead of the year. After a time they rise and
form a circle round the fire, between it and the offerings, and commence a dance, accompanied by that
hoarse, deathly rattle of the Indian chant which
sounds so eldritch and so terrible to the civilized ear.
Heavily the dancing and the singing goon from hour
to hour, and now and then a few pounds of provisions, a string of shell-money, or some article is
taken down from the espaliers and cast into the
flames. All through the night the funereal dance
goes on without cessation ; wilder and more frantic
grows the chanting, swifter becomes the motion of
the dancers, and faster and faster the offerings are
hurled upon the blazing heap. The savage transports wax amain. With frenzied yells and whoops
they leap in the flickering firelight like demons—a
terrible spectacle. Now some squaw, if not restrained, would fling herself headlong into the bum- 96
RELIGIOUS   BELIEFS.
ing mass. Another will lie down and calmly sleep
amid the extraordinary commotion for two hours,
then arise and join as wildly as before in the frightful orgies. But still the espaliers are not emptied,
and. as the morning stars grow dim and daybreak is
close at hand, with one frantic rush, yelling, they
seize down the residue of the clothing (the clothing
is mostly reserved until near morning) and whirl it
into the flames, lest the first gray streak of dawn
should appear before the year-long hunger of the
ghosts is appeased."
At the funeral of chiefs the traditions and history
of the tribe are rehearsed. If these ceremonies are
not conducted properly, the water of death swallows
up the departed soul, or it is lost in the forests.
But if conducted properly, the chief of the gods
speaks the word, and the " water of death is small,"
and the soul is carried to a place of rest or forgetful-
ness. Then after a long time it comes back to some
descendant on its sister's side, and lives another life.
To such superstitions these people are bound body
and soul.
Dall thus writes concerning the religious beliefs of
the Thlinkets :
" Their religion is a feeble polytheism. Yehl is
the maker of wood and waters. He put the sun,
moon, and stars in their places. He lives in the
east, near the head-waters of the Naass River. He
makes himself known in the east wind ' Ssankheth,'
and his abode is ' Nassshak-yehl.'
|| There was a time when men groped in the dark in
search of the world.    At that time a Thlinket lived EVIL SPIRITS.
97
who had a wife and sister. He loved the former so
much that he did not permit her to work. Eight little red birds, called kun, were always around her.
One day she spoke to a stranger. The little birds
flew and told the jealous husband, who prepared to
make a box to shut his wife up. He killed all his
sister's children because they looked at his wife.
Weeping, the mother went to the sea-shore. A whale
saw her and asked the cause of her grief, and when
informed, told her to swallow a small stone from the
beach and drink some sea-water. In eight months
she had a son, whom she hid from her brother. This
son was Yehl.
" At that time the sun, moon, and stars were kept
by a rich chief in separate boxes, which he allowed no
one to touch. Yehl, by strategy, secured and opened
these boxes, so that the moon and stars shone in the
sky. When the sun box was opened, the people,
astonished at the unwonted glare, ran off into the
mountains, woods, and even into the water, becoming animals or fish. He also provided fire and water.
Having arranged everything for the comfort of the
Thlinkets, he disappeared where neither man nor
spirit can penetrate.
" There are an immense number of minor spirits
called yekh. Each shaman has his own familiar
spirits that do his bidding, and others on whom he
may call in certain emergencies. These spirits are
divided into three classes—Khiyekh (the upper ones),
Takhi-yekh (land spirits), and Tekhi-yekh (sea spirits)* The first are the spirits of the brave killed in
war, and dwelling in the north.    Hence a great dis- 98
SHAMANISM.
play of northern lights is looked upon as an omen of
war.'frThe second and third are the spirits of those
who died in the common way, and who dwell in
Takhan-khov. The ease with which these latter reach
their appointed place is dependent on the conduct
of their relations in mourning for them. In addition
to these spirits everyone has his yekh, who is always
with him, except in cases when the man becomes exceedingly bad, when the yekh leaves him.
"These spirits only permit themselves to be conjured by the sound of a drum or rattle. The last is
usually made in the shape of a bird, hollow, and
filled with small stones. These are used at all
festivities and whenever the spirits are wanted."
As the good spirits, from the very nature of the
case, will not harm them, the Indians pay but little
attention to them. They give their chief attention
to propitiating the evil spirits, so that their religion
practically resolves itself into devil-worship or de-
monolatry. This is called Shamanism, or the giving
of offerings to evil spirits to prevent them from doing
mischief to the offerer. It is said to have been the
old religion of the Tartar race before the introduction of Buddhism, and is still that of the Siberians.
Indeed, long ago Paul declared, "the things which
the Gentiles sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not
to God " (i Cor., 10 : 20). The one whose office it is
to perform these rites is called a shaman, and is the
sorcerer or medicine-man of the tribes. The shaman has control, not only of the spirits, but, through
the spirits, of diseases, of the elements ; and of nature,
he holds in his power success or misfortune, bless- SHAMANISM.
ing or cursing. '' The honor and respect,'' says
Dall, " with which a shaman is regarded depend on
the number of spirits under his control, who, properly employed, contribute largely to his wealth.    For
II
Lll
every one of them he has a name and certain songs.
Sometimes the spirits of his ancestors come to his
assistance and increase his power, so that it is believed he can throw his spirits into other people who
CARVED  SPOON-
HANDLE. SHAMAN  CUSTOMS.
do not believe in his art. Those unfortunate wretches
to whom this happens suffer from horrible fits and
paroxysms.
"When the shaman is sick his relations fast to promote his recovery. His command is law. The shamans long since forbade the eating of whale's flesh
and blubber, one of the greatest delicacies among
the neighboring tribes ; and to this day it is regarded
with abhorrence by the Thlinkets.
"The shaman has a large
amount of paraphernalia. This
includes wooden masks, one for
each spirit, carved and carefully
painted. These are distinct
from the masks used by all the
Thlinkets in their dances and
festivals.
" The hair of the shaman must
never be cut.   After his death,
as   was  mentioned  previously,
his body is not burned, but deposited in a wooden box on four high posts.    For
the first night it remains lying in the corner where
he died ; but on the following day it is removed to
the opposite corner, and this is continued until the
body has visited each of the four corners of the house.
All the inmates of the house fast meanwhile.
| On the fifth day the body, dressed in the garb of
his profession, is bound to a board. Two ivory or
bone wands, which the shaman used in his performances, are placed, the one in the cartilage of the
nose and the other in the hair, which is tied together. SHAMANISM.
" The head is covered with a piece of basket-work,
and the body is carried to its final resting-place, always on the shore. Every time a Thlinket paddles
by the remains he throws an offering, as a little tobacco, in the water, that he may by this means find
favor in the eyes of the dead man.
" One example of the manner in which shamanism
is practised will suffice.
" On the day appointed for the exhibition of his
INNUIT BONE CHARM.
power, his relations, who act the part of a chorus of
singers, are obliged to fast. Nay, more than that:
they are obliged to use a feather as an emetic, and
free themselves entirely from such gross material substances as food.
'' The performance commences at sunset and lasts
till sunrise. All who wish to participate assemble in
the lodge or hut of the shaman, where they join in a
song, to which time is beaten on a drum. Dressed
in his paraphernalia, with a mask over his face, the 102
INCANTATIONS.
shaman rushes round and round the fire, which is
burning in the centre of the lodge ; he keeps his
eyes directed toward the opening in the roof, and
keeps time to the drum with violent motions of his
limbs and body. These movements gradually become more convulsive ; his eyes roll till the whites
alone are visible. Suddenly he stops, looks intently
at the drum, and utters loud cries. The singing
ceases, and all eyes are directed toward him, and
all ears strained to catch the utterances which are
supposed to be inspired. These ceremonies comprise the whole art of shamanism among the Thlinkets. The spirits of the different classes appear to
the shaman in different forms. By changing the
masks he places himself ' en rapport' with the spirit
to which each mask is dedicated. It is believed that
this spirit inspires for the moment all the utterances
of the shaman, who is for the moment unconscious."
Bancroft, in his " Native Races on the Pacific
Coast," thus speaks of shamanism : " Thick, black
clouds, portentous of evil, hang threateningly over the
savage during his entire life. Genii murmur in the
flowing river; in the rustling branches of trees are
heard the breathings of the gods ; goblins dance in
the vapory twilight, and demons howl in the darkness. All these beings are hostile to man, and must
be propitiated by gifts and prayers and sacrifices ;
and the religious worship of some of the tribes includes practices which are frightful in their atrocity.
Here, for example, is a rite of sorcery as practised
among the Haidahs, one of the northern nations :
■ When the salmon season is over, and the pro- SORCERY.
visions of winter have been stored away, feasting
and conjuring begin. The chief—who seems to be
principal sorcerer, and indeed to possess little authority save for his connection with the preterhuman
powers—goes off to the loneliest and wildest retreat
he knows of or can discover in the mountains or forests, and half starves himself there for some weeks,
till he is worked up to a frenzy of religious insanity,
and the nawloks—fearful beings of some kind not
human—consent to communicate with him by voices
or otherwise. During all this observance the chief
is called taamish, and woe to the unlucky Haidah
who happens by chance so much as to look on him
during its continuance ! Even if the taamish do not
instantly slay the intruder, his neighbors are certain
to do so when the thing comes to their knowledge,
and if the victim attempt to conceal the affair, or
do not himself confess it, the most cruel tortures are
added to his fate. At last the inspired demoniac
returns to his village, naked save a bear-skin or a
ragged blanket, with a chaplet on his head and a
red band of alder-bark about his neck. He springs
on the first person he meets, bites out and swallows
one or more mouthfuls of the man's living flesh
wherever he can fix his teeth, then rushes to another
and another, repeating his revolting meal till he
falls into a torpor from his sudden and half-masticated surfeit of flesh. For some days after this he
lies in a kind of coma, ' like an overgorged beast of
prey,' as Dunn says ; the same observer adding that
his breath during that time is j like an exhalation
from the grave.'    The victims of this ferocity dare 104
DANCES.
not resist the bite of the taamish ,* on the contrary,
they are sometimes willing to offer themselves to
the ordeal, and are always proud of its scars."
All the Alaska Indians are held in abject fear by
the conjurers or medicine-men.
During the visit of the Rev. Dr. Henry Kendall
and party to Alaska, in 1879, the Christian Indians
at Fort Wrangell, in order to testify their joy at our
visit, and also to show us what were their customs
before the missionary came, gave a series of entertainments.
One afternoon we were invited to the house of
Toy-a-att, a leading chief and Christian, to witness a
representation of some of their national customs.
When everything was prepared, dressed in a hunting-shirt, with face blackened and spear in hand,
Toy-a-att appeared in the war-dance. Retiring with
much applause he reappeared in the form of a-wolf,
and, with mask, rolling eyes and snapping teeth,
gave the dance of the " invocation of the spirits for
success in hunting." Then he put on a horrible
mask to represent the devil, and with hideous rattles gave the devil or Tamanamus dance. Then with
dress and mask, and large hat with tinkling bells on
the rim and eider-down in the crown (which down
he showered around the room as blessings upon his
guests), and rattles in his hands, he gave us the religious dance of the shamans or medicine-men.
After a series of national dances he came out and
made a speech, apologizing for the feebleness of his
representations. In his red cloth shirt, covered
with mythological emblems worked in white pearl la-
buttons and beads, his embroidered and painted
deer-skin blanket thrown over one shoulder and
gathered   under   the 	
Wmwf^
other arm, with one
foot advanced and
erect head, with
graceful and expressive gestures, he
spoke in substance as
follows :
" When I was a
young man I danced
vigorously, now,
since I have become
a Christian, I have
almost forgotten how.
When I was young I
was a great fighter;
now I have learned
from Christianity to
fight no mo re. Christianity has changed
us. Formerly we
thought the crow
made us, and made
these mountains, and
the water, and everything ; now we know
God made it.    They
lie who say no God made the sun, moon, light,
darkness. God made them all with his strong
arm.    Our fathers were foolish, and said the crow RELIGIOUS TRADITIONS.
made it; now we know better ; we know that God
made them.
" My brothers, I thank you.    You come into this
house to see how we used to do.
we used to do.    We were foolish
You laugh at what
Now we know
INNUIT HARPOON-HEADS.
better. Now God show his kindness to us ; now he
send his ministers to teach us the new way ; how he
building churches for us. Now we forsake the old
way. We not like as we used to do—fight, shoot,
wound, trouble, all the time. Now peace all the
time.    See my house—no ball or shot go through it. INDIAN SPEECH.
All God's work now. Before the devil says to quarrel and fight and do bad ; now we have peace all the
time ; nobody hurt us. [Bringing out his war-spear
and defensive armor, and laying them in the middle
of the room.] I fight no more. I give up my spear.
All peace, all love now. I have a Saviour. He died
on the cross to save me. I believe on God. I am
now old. When I die I know where I go. I go to
God, my Saviour. My heart is very happy now. I
am in a bay where no wind ; no wind now to upset
my canoe and trouble me. I am in a safe harbor.
The Lord is my light and peace."
Toy-a-att was followed by John Kadeshan (also a
chief), who said : " You have heard how bad I was
long ago. I thought it good. When I do bad to
any one I had a proud heart. I didn't know what
I say or do. I do what the devil tell me. How
great the change now. Some one whisper in my ear
and humble my heart to God. Formerly white men
come here and blind our hearts. They didn't tell us
the way ; they learned us more badness. White men
lie to us about other Indians, and make us enemies.
We knew no God in heaven, and they didn't tell us.
Then we hear a little about God at Fort Simpson
and they tell us to pray God to send us a teacher,
too. We then cry to God ; we ask God. He answer
our prayers. He never forget us while sinners. He
answer our prayer. He send Clah and Mrs. McFarland and Mr. Young. See how kind God is. He
answer our poor prayer. We don't disbelieve God.
See with your own eyes what God has done for us.
Other Indians laugh at us because we cry to God for io8
INDIAN   FEAST.
a teacher. But you see how it is. God heard. We
no ashamed ; no disbeiive him. White men laugh
at us because we Christians. We don't care ; we
not ashamed. They laugh against God, and cry
down us. But we must strong our hearts, and not
care for what they say."
The next week Moses and Aaron, Matthew, Lot,
Toy-a-att, Kadeshan, and the other Christian Indians combined and gave us a feast. It was held in
Matthew's house. Previous to his conversion he
had been a noted sorcerer, and his house was frequently used for the superstitious rites and devil-
worship of heathenism. After his conversion it was
as frequently used for church and school, by Clah.
Upon my first visit to Fort Wrangell, to commence
Presbyterian missions, I found upon the door the
following :
Notice by Governor Matthew.—That no Chinaman or white man allowed to have lodging in my
house, only for Christ's service.
By Order of Matthew.
Fort Wrangell, April 26, 1877.
At sunrise the boom of a cannon started us from
our beds to look down the straits for an incoming
steamer ; but it was a morning salute, fired by the
Indians to express their joy that the day had come
during which they could entertain those who had
come all the way across from another ocean to see
them. At noon another salute was fired, and boys
sent through the village ringing hand-bells to announce   that   the feast was  now  ready.     At one ADOPTION INTO  STICKEEN TRIBE.
o'clock we heard still another salute, which was the
signal for us to start for the entertainment.
We were met at the door by chief Toy-a-att, decked
in his official red shirt, dressed deer-skin leggins,
and red, white and purple sash. He was followed
by the leading men of the tribe, who met us with
warm shaking of hands and boisteroua expressions of
delight. As Toy-a-att took the hand of Dr. Kendall, the booming cannon, ringing bells, and cheer
upon cheer gave vent to the joy of assembled Indians at the presence of the great white chief of missions. Tables were arranged along two sides of the
room, and covered with bread, crackers, cakes,
pies, fish, corned beef, canned peaches, fresh berries,
white sugar, butter, tea, coffee, etc. Two large bouquets of beautiful wild flowers added to the attractiveness of the tables. The chairs and seats were
cushioned with blankets and costly furs. Upon a
pole at the door waved the Stars and Stripes, and at
the foot of the pole the small cannon used in firing
the salute.
There were present eighteen whites and seventy-
five Indians. During the dinner we were entertained
with native music upon a tambourine drum. After
dinner, of course speeches. Moses, rising from his
seat, said :
" In our old ways, when a man succeeds to the
chieftainship upon the death of his uncle he makes
a great feast, and invites all the tribes far and near.
For this he has been gathering blankets and furs and
slaves for years. This feast lasts many days, during
which the blankets and furs are given away, slaves HEALING THE SICK.
killed and all the people fed. This entertainment
will cost from $1000 to $2000 in presents and provisions. At this time the heir takes the name and place
of the chief who is dead. His name costs him a great
deal. We now honor you with the names of our
people, without money or blankets. You, Dr. Kendall, whom we love, we name Kohan-ow (Cinnamon
Bear, which kills lots of slaves), after my brother
Aaron. And you, Dr. Jackson, we name Koostan-
ine (Great Whale), for the whale family is influential
among us. And you, Mrs. Jackson, we call Ko-da-te.
And you, Dr. Corlies, we call San-to-nine (brother to
Mr. Young). And you, Mr. Vanderbilt, we name
Kadeshan.''
Then Toy-a-att arose and said :
■ "I am sorry you sit in this old-fashioned Indian
house. When you come back again we will have a
new American house for you to sit in. But I am so
happy you are here, I would not care if anybody
kicked me. When we name our people we have a
feast. We now give you our names and make you
our people. Long ago I knew how to fight, and the
people called me Toy-a-att (Great Fighter). I now
give my name to Mr. Young, because he comes and
fights our battles for us. And you, Dr. Lindsley,
we call Tenn-na-take (Grandchild of Shaaks)."
After the speeches, some ballads narrating national
history and traditions were sung. The tables were
then cleared, and we had the tableau of a Chilcat
princess in her royal dress.
The entertainment closed with the representation
of a shaman healing the sick by sorcery.    It was a *-W  HEALING THE SICK.
"3
strange, weird scene. The sick man lay upon the
floor in a blanket. Soon an Indian entered bearing
upon his shoulder a large box, which was placed by
the sick man. The box contained the paraphernalia
of the sorcerer. The attendant was followed by the
shaman dressed in the costume of his order, with
long, dishevelled hair, rattles in his hand, and his
face covered by a hideous mask. He walked around
the fire in the centre of the room, occasionally casting side glances at the sick man and shaking his head
dubiously. Soon a friend of the sick man brought
in some furs and laid at the feet of the shaman, for
he must have his pay in advance. He still shook his
head, with low mutterings. More furs were brought,
and again the friends went out and collected what
they could to satisfy the shaman. When he had
received all that the friends were able to gather, he
commenced business.
Young men beat gongs and kept time with sticks
on the floor, while the friends chanted a monotonous
song. The shaman shook his rattles over the sick
man and threw himself into every kind of hideous
attitude, with horrible contortions of features. He
rushed wildly around the fire, striking savagely at attendants with a dagger, flew at the sick man, ran his
tongue at him, hissed, sometimes falling to the floor
as if in a swoon. An attendant from time to time
changed his mask and head-dress. Each mask represents a different spirit. And if one spirit has not
sufficient power he tries another. Worked up to
perfect frenzy, he finally declared that the sick man
is bewitched, and immediately commences to trace H4
ENTERTAINMENT.
up the witch. Hand over hand, as if following a cord
in a labyrinth, or as a dog tracks his prey, he followed the imaginary line here and there until it ended
at some person, who is accused of being the witch,
and is often taken and tortured to death in order
that the sick person, relieved from the baleful influence, may get well.
A few days later Shaaks, the head chief, gave the
closing entertainment. Again we were greeted with
booming cannons, ringing bells, and cheering Indians. The main representation at this time was the
ancient potlach dance of the Tsimpseans.
There were eleven men and seven women among
the performers. They were dressed in masks and
costly robes and furs, representing a grizzly bear, a
deer, porpoise, fox, crow, and other animals. It was
a scene of barbaric gorgeousness that cannot well be
described.    At the conclusion of which Shaaks said :
'' Dear brothers, this is how we used to do before
white men came. We don't know who taught us
these dances. But we liked them. Now, may God
pity us, we so blind. All this we do long ago, but
now it is past. God's word is never past. Now you
see with your own eyes how blind we were. God
don't like these things, and we put them away. Now
we know better, and use them for the last time.
God pity us, and send his Son to the world. White
men knew it first. They pity us and tell us. Now
you come to see us, and we are very happy." CHAPTER III.
The Degradation of Indian Women in Alaska—Female Infanticide
—The Sale of Girls—Female Slavery—Polygamy—Habitations
of Cruelty—Widow-burning—Murder of the Old and Feeble
" Come and help us !" hear them calling,
Heathen in a Christian land,
Groaning under Satan's bondage,
Yearning for a helping hand."
As in all barbarous lands the heaviest burdens and
greatest degradation fall upon the women, so in
sections of Alaska.
From early childhood they are accustomed to
every kind of drudgery and oppression.
Female infanticide is common among some of
the tribes, particularly the Mahlemuts and those on
the Yukon. Many Indian mothers, to save their
daughters from their own wretched lives, take them
out into the woods, stuff grass into their mouths,
and leave them to die.
The Rev. W. W. Kirby, of the Church Missionary
Society, who penetrated through British America to
the Upper Yukon, says : " In common with all savage # ople, the Indians regard their women as slaves, n6
FEMALE INFANTICIDE.
and compel them to do the hardest work, while they
look lazily on, enjoying the luxury of a pipe, and
often requite their service with harsh words and
cruel blows. They are inferior in looks and fewer in
number than the men. The former probably arises
from the harsh treatment they receive, and the latter
is caused in a great measure by the too prevalent
custom of female infanticide. Many a poor mother
assured me that she had killed her child to save it
from suffering the misery she had herself endured.
Then came the sad and harrowing tales of
murder and infanticide. No fewer than thirteen
women confessed to having slain their infant girls,
some in the most cruel and heartless manner."
Spared in infancy, the lesson of inferiority is early
burned into the lives of the girls. While mere
babes they are sometimes given away or betrothed
to their future husbands. And when they arrive at
the age of twelve or fourteen years, among the
Tinneh, the Thlinkets, and others, they are often
offered for sale. For a few blankets a mother will
sell her own daughter, for base purposes, for a week,
a month, or for life.
All through that vast land wretched woman is systematically oppressed—made prematurely old in
bearing man's burden as well as her own. In some
sections all the work but hunting and fighting falls
upon her—even the boys transferring their loads and
work to their sisters.
Said a great chief, "Women are made to labor.
One of them can haul as much as two men can do. SLAVERY—POLYGAMY,
They pitch our tents, make and mend our clothing,"
etc.
And as if their ordinary condition was not bad
enough, the majority of the slaves are women. The
men captured in war are usually killed or reserved
for torture, but the women are kept as beasts of
burden, and often treated with great inhumanity.
The master's power over them is unlimited. He can
torture or put them to death at will. Sometimes,
upon the death of the master, one or more of them
are put to death, that he may have some one to wait
upon him in the next world.
Polygamy, with all its attendant evils, is common
among many tribes. These wives are often sisters.
Sometimes a man's own mother or daughter is among
his wives. If a man's wife bears him only daughters,
he continues to take other wives until he has sons.
One of the Nasse chiefs is said to have had forty
wives.
On the Upper Yukon the man multiplies his wives
as the farmer his oxen. The more wives, the more
meat he can have hauled, the more wood cut, and
more goods carried.
When a young girl arrives at maturity she is considered unclean. Everything she comes in contact
with, and even the sky she looks upon, is considered
unclean. She is therefore thought to be unfit for
the sun to shine upon, and is confined for a year in
a hut so small that she cannot stand upright in it.
Only the girl's mother is allowed to approach her.
and she only to bring her food. u8
TATTOOING.
Around Sitka this period has been shortened to
three months. At the close of this imprisonment
she is taken out, her old clothes burned, new ones
provided, and a feast given, during which a slit is
cut in the under lip, parallel with the mouth, and a
piece of wood or shell inserted to keep the aperture
extended. After marriage they are practically slaves
of their husbands. Among some tribes their persons
are at the disposal of visitors or travellers, guests of
their husbands. They are sometimes, in Southern
Alaska, sent to the mines, while the husband lives
in idleness at home on the wages of their immorality.
If ill-behaved, excessively lazy, or barren, they are
sent away. Sometimes they are traded off by the
husband for something he may desire. In childbirth, when needing the most tender care, they
are driven out of the house as unclean, and kept for
ten days in an uncomfortable hut, without attention.
Their very lives are in his hands. During our visit to
Fort Wrangell in 1879, an Indian killed his wife and
brought her body into the village for a funeral. No
one could interfere. According to their customs he
had bought her as he would buy a dog, and if he
chose he could kill her as he would kill a dog.
At the age of twelve to fourteen the girls are tortured with tattooing. According to Bancroft, " The
color is applied by drawing a thread under the skin
or pricking it in with a needle. The form varies
among different tribes and different classes of the
same tribe. The favorite colors seem to be red and
blue, though black and leaden colors are common.
A common woman of some of the tribes is permitted   WIDOW-BURNING.
to adorn her chin with but one vertical line in the
centre and one parallel to it on either side, while a
woman in the upper and wealthier classes is allowed
two vertical lines from each corner of the mouth."
'' Young Kadiak wives secure the affectionate admiration of their husbands by tattooing the breast and
adorning the face with black lines, while the Kusko-
quim women sew into their chins two parallel blue
lines. And not content with tattooing, they also daub
the face with various paints, make necklaces of copper wire, cover the face with grotesque wooden
masks, scar their limbs and breasts with knives,
pierce the nose, ears, and chin, filling the apertures
with bones, shells, and pieces of copper, and attach
heavy weights which draw the face out of proportion. The more the chin is riddled with holes the
greater the respectability. Very aristocratic women
sometimes have as many as six ornaments in their
chin. They live in constant fear of innumerable
spirits which fill the earth, the air, and the waters.
Some of these spirits are good, but the majority of
them are supposed to be evil and ever on the watch
to do them harm. To appease the wrath of these evil
spirits they employ the shamans to make offerings,
and sometimes, though very rarely, offer a human
sacrifice of a woman slave.''
Among some Indians, on the Upper Yukon, when
a man dies his widow is compelled to ascend the
burning funeral-pile, throw herself upon the body,
and remain there until the hair is burned from her
head, and she is almost suffocated. She is then allowed to stagger from the pile, but must frequently THE OLD AND FEEBLE KILLED.
thiust her hand through the flames and place it
upon his bosom, to show her continued devotion.
If through pain or faintness she fails to perform her
duties, she is held up and pressed forward by others,
her cries and shrieks being drowned in wild songs
and the beating of drums. Finally, the ashes are
gathered up and placed in a little sack, which the
widow carries on her person for two years. During
this period of mourning she is clothed in rags and
-treated as a slave. If there is more than one wife,
they are ranged along the dead body of the husband,
'with their heads resting upon the corpse. This position is maintained until the hair is burned from
their heads. When suffocated and almost senseless,
they withdraw their heads from the fire, after which
they hold one hand and then the other in the fire until the corpse is consumed. The ashes are gathered
up and divided between them. Not unfrequently
they commit suicide to avoid their slavery.
Among the Kariak the old and feeble are sometimes destroyed.. This is done by placing a rope
around the neck and dragging them over the stones.
If this does not kill, then the body is stoned or
speared and left to be eaten by the dogs. Occasionally the old ask to be killed. Then they are taken,
stupefied with drugs, and, in the midst of various
incantations, bled to death.
Among the Tuski and many of the tribes around
the shores of Bering's Sea, the bodies of good men
are burned and the ashes carefully preserved. But
in some sections, where wood is scarce, the bodies of
women  are not considered worth the wood   that CONFIRMATION.
™1
would be consumed in the burning, and they are
either cast out, to be consumed by the dogs, foxes,
and crows, or cast into the sea as food for the fishes.
Despised by their fathers, sold by their mothers,
imposed upon by their brothers, ill-treated by their
husbands, cast out in their widowhood, living lives
of toil and low sensual pleasure, untaught and un-
cared for, with no true enjoyment in this world and
no hope for the world to come, crushed by a cruel
heathenism, it is no wonder that many of them end
their earthly misery and wretchedness with suicide.
In confirmation of the above dark picture, Captain
Ebenezer Morgan, for many years the Christian captain of a whaling vessel in Alaska waters, at a large
missionary meeting of ladies in New York City, made
the following remarks :
" I have read all that my Brother Sheldon Jackson
has published concerning Alaska, and I know of
but one mistake he makes. He does not say enough.
He has not told you one half the degradation of those
Northern Indians, and I do not know where the suffering comes heavier than on the women, who are slaves
and beasts of burden. These pictures our brother has
given are not strong enough. You would blush that the
human fdmily could be brought so low."
ESKIMO WOMAN AND BABE. CHAPTER IV.
Greek and Lutheran Churches—Preliminary Steps Toward American Missions.
■ Lo ! to the wintry winds the pilot yields
His bark careering o'er unfathomed fields *
Cold on his midnight watch the breezes blovr
From wastes that slumber in eternal snow,
And waft across the waves' tumultuous roar
The wolf s long howl from Oonalaska' s shore."
Campbell, Pleasures of Hope.
On the 30th of June, 1793, the Empress Catharine
of Russia issued an Imperial order that missionaries
should be sent to her American colonies. In accordance with this order eleven monks sailed from
Ochotsk for Kadiak Island, in charge of Archimandrite Joasaph, elder in the Order of Augustin Friars.
In 1796 Father Joasaph, being made bishop, returned to Irkutsk to receive consecration. The same
year the first church building was erected at Kadiak.
In 1799 the newly-consecrated bishop and all the
missionaries but one were shipwrecked and lost.
This one monk remained alone in the colonies eleven
years before another was sent to his assistance.
On December 5th, 1822, three more priests reached
the colonies in safety.   GREEK CHURCH—SCHOOLS.
But the one of all others to leave his impress upon
the Aleuts was Innocentius Veniaminoff, who began
his labors at Unalashka in 1823. In 1840 he was
made bishop. He was subsequently advanced from
one position to another until he was made Metropo-
lite of Moscow, the highest position in the Greek
Church. He died in the spring of 1879, mourned-by
a whole nation. He was the one among all the
Russian priests to Alaska that has left an untarnished
reputation and seemed to possess the true missionary
spirit. At one time the Russian Greek Church had
seven missionary districts in Alaska, with eleven
priests and sixteen deacons; and in 1869 they
claimed 12,140 members.
The Russian Fur Company contributed toward the
support of the missions $6600 annually ; $2313.75
was received from the Mission Fund of the Holy
Synod, and $1100 from the sale of candles in the
church, making about $10,000 annually. The balance came from private individuals. From these
revenues the mission churches had accumulated, up
to i860, a surplus of $37,500, which was loaned out at
five per cent.
The first school was established by Shelikoff on
the Island of Kadiak, the pupils receiving instruction
in the Russian language, arithmetic, and religion.
This was about 1792. A few years later one was
established in Sitka. In 1841 an ecclesiastical school
was opened in Sitka, which in 1845 was raised to the
rank of a seminary.
But little was taught in the schools but the rites of .LUTHERAN CHURCH.
the Greek Church and the art of reading ttie ecclesiastical characters.
In i860 a colonial school was opened, with twelve
students. In 1862 it contained twenty-seven students, only one of whom was a native.
In 1839 a girls' school was established for orphans
and children of the employes of the Fur Company ; in
1862 it had twenty-two pupils. In 1825 a school was
established on Unalaska Island for natives ; in i860
it had thirty boys and forty-three girls. A school at
Amlia Island in i860 had thirty pupils. A school-
house was built on the Lower Yukon, but had no
pupils.
Since the American occupation these schools have
been suspended.
During the Russian domination there were many
Swedes, Finlanders, and Germans in the employ of
the Russian American Fur Company.
To provide for this population a Lutheran minister
was sent to Sitka in 1845 and remained until 1852.
He was succeeded by Rev. Mr. Wintec, who preached
in Swedish and German. He remained until the
transfer in 1867, when, his support being withdrawn by the Russian Government, he returned to
Europe.
The Protestant churches of Russia, while allowed
no self-governing and self-sustaining organizations,
are recognized under the Ministerium of Public Instruction. They have a consistorium for each province, and the funds for salaries, etc., come direct
from the public treasury.
While the Lutheran minister remained at Sitka, a THE TRANSFER OF ALASKA.
129
fund of several thousand dollars was accumulated
for furnishing the church, etc.
No organization was made, and the cause dropped
out of sight upon the final removal of the minister.
When in 1867 this vast territory, with a population of from 30,000 to 50,000 souls, was turned over
to the United States, the call of God's providence
came to the American church to enter in and possess
the land for Christ.
And in response to that call it was to be expected
that the churches of the United States, with their
purer religion and greater consecration, would send
in more efficient agencies than Russia had done.
But ten years rolled around, and the churches did
nothing. Ten years passed, and hundreds of immortal souls, who have never so much as heard that
there was a Saviour, were hurried to judgment from
a Christian land. Ten years came and went, and
thousands were left to grow up in ignorance and
superstition, and form habits that will keep them'
away from the gospel, if it is ever offered them.
It was also to be expected that the great missionary
societies of the country would vie with one another
which should first unfurl the banner of the Gospel in
that land, but for years nothing was done, and yet
the question was not wholly lost sight of. It was
more or less agitated by various persons in different
denominations and widely separated sections of the
country.
Among others, the Rev. E. D. Saunders, D.D., of
the Board of Domestic Missions of the Presbyterian
Church (O. S.), soon after the purchase, offered a I30
MISSIONS  PROPOSED.
resolution in his board that they send a missionarv
to Alaska.
At the same time a similar proposition* was discussed by the Committee of Home Missions of the
Presbyterian Church (N. S.).
At different times, from 1869 to 1877, the Rev.
George H. Atkinson, D.D., Superintendent of Congregational Missions in the North-west, urged the
Mission Board of his denomination to undertake the
work.
Major General O. O. Howard, U. S. A., again and
again pressed the religious needs of that section
upon the attention of the country through the newspapers.
The Hon. Vincent Colyer, Secretary of the Board
of Indian Commissioners, made a special visit to
Alaska in 1869, and upon his return sought to awaken
the public interest. He so far succeeded that Congress appropriated $50,000 for educational purposes.
But no one was found to administer the fund, and it
was not used.
On my long stage trips, while establishing churches
thoughout the Rocky Mountain Territories, I had
often thought of that distant section of our country,
and the vague hope would sometimes cross my mind
that I myself might yet be permitted to go there. I
could not then anticipate the unexpected providences
by which afterward I became the first Presbyterian
minister to visit Alaska in the interest of missions
and commence the work of the Presbyterian Church.
I had also, during the winter of 1875 and 1876, in
view of the approaching Centennial, urged upon the. MISSIONS  URGED.
Board of Home Missions the desirability of so extending their work that the Presbyterian Church
could celebrate the completion of the first century of
our national existence with missionaries in every
State and Territory, calling special attention to Arizona, Dakota, and Alaska.
To assist in accomplishing this, I made a long and
dangerous trip through Arizona in the spring of
1876, which resulted in sending two ministers to that
Territory.
During 1876 the Rev. Thomas Crosby, of the
Methodist Church of Canada, stationed at Fort Simpson, B. C, was in active correspondence with the
Board of Missions of his own church, also with that
of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United
States, and with one of the Presbyterian Churches of
Canada, pleading with them to secure missionaries
for Alaska.
The Rev. A. L. Lindsley, D.D., corresponded with
the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, in 1877,
with reference to their undertaking the work.
In the spring of that year, through Major-General
Howard, he secured the position of paymaster's clerk
in the United States Army for Mr. John C. Mallory, of New York City (who was passing through
Portland in search of health and a position), and had
him sent north to ascertain and report the condition
of affairs. Mr. Mallory was, however, so far gone with
consumption that he returned in a few weeks and accepted an Indian agency in Arizona, where he died
the 20th of June, 1878.
Christian women, wives of the army officers sta~ 132.
MISSIONS COMMENCED BY INDIANS.
tioned at Sitka and Wrangell, were continually
writing to their friends concerning the need of missionaries.
Probably there were many others interested in
Alaska.
But notwithstanding all these movements, the
churches slept and mission boards waited. Not so,
however, with God's providence : it never waits.
In the spring of 1876 Clah (Philip McKay), Su-
gah-na-te (his brother), Ta-lik, John Ryan, Lewis
Ween, Andrew Moss, Peter Pollard, George Pember-
ton,- and James Ross, Tsimpsean Indians, went from
Fort Simpson to Fort Wrangell to obtain work.
They secured a contract to cut wood for the Government. On Sabbath, as was their custom, they met
together for worship. This gathering of a few
Christian Indians was the commencement of missions
in the Territory.
They found a protector and warm friend in Captain S. P. Jocelyn, of the 21st U. S.  Infantry, who
was then in command at that station.    He assisted
them in securing a room for worship on the Sab--
bath, and protected them from interruption.
He also supplied them with some small hymn-
books that had been sent to the fort by the American Tract Society.
In September of that year Rev. Thomas Crosby
visited Fort Wrangell and held services. The Presbyterian Church owes much to him for his unselfish
zeal and assistance at a critical period in the history
of the mission.
With the assistance of Captain Jocelyn, Mr. Crosby SUBSCRIPTION FOR
held a meeting of whites and Indians to take measures toward securing a church and school building.
There was a good deal of enthusiasm, and the Indians made the following subscription :
Tribe.
Stickeen.
Cassiar.
Tarko.
Hydah.
Tsimpseans.
Name. Amount.
Chief Toy-a-att $10 oo
Jun Lewy      5 oo
Mrs. Lewy       5 oo
Miss Lewy      5 oo
Lewy's two children       5 °°
Charley and wife, two blankets, white and
green.
Dick, one blanket, white.
Thos. Steele, one blanket, white.
Jennie      5 oo
Jennie's two children       5 °°
Mary     io oo
Billy  50
Dan  50
Sarah, two blankets, blue and green.
Susan       1 00
Jack  50
George Blake       2 00
Billy Lewy       2 00
George        5 00
George's wife       5 00
George's boy Sam      5 00
Paul Jones, Jr  50
Pat  50
John       100
Harry...
Louis...
Thomas
George.
Moss...
Shaw...
00
00
        I
00
00
00
       I
00 SUBSCRIPTION FOR A CHURCH.
Name. Amount.
Philip  $i oo
Nelly Miller.  5°
William Dickinson  25
George  5°
Mary Ann  1 50
Sarah M. Dickinson  25
Kate,  100
William Stephens, Jr  50
HOUSE OF  THE WIDOW  OF  SKILLAT, THE FORMER  CHIEF, AT
WRANGELL,  ALASKA.
In addition to the money and blankets, they also
agreed to do much of the work.
Mr. I. C. Dennis, the Collector of the Port, consented to act as treasurer. He afterward turned
over the funds to Mr. J. M. Vanderbilt, who in turn
gave them to Rev. Mr. Young for the Presbyterian
Church in 1879. SCHOOL AND PREACHING.
135
Mr. Crosby agreed to look after the mission until
some American missionary should come and assume
the control.
Accordingly, when the young men at the close of
their contract in the fall would return to Fort Simpson, he directed Clah to remain and open a day
school and conduct the Sabbath services. Lewis Ween
and George Pemberton secured positions at Wrangell and assisted Clah on the Sabbath. So anxious
were the natives to learn, that the school was attended by sixty or seventy adults. And three times on
the Sabbath he preached to audiences of from 200 to
400 of his own people. This subjected these Tsimp-
sean Christians to much ridicule from the Americans,
and threats of violence from the Indian sorcerers.
But they persevered, and the meetings increased in
interest and numbers. A few Americans attended to
ridicule, but more were attracted by the sight of unlettered Indians singing, praying, and explaining the
Scriptures with power. Prayerless white men were
reminded of early religious training. The Holy
Spirit was at work among the natives, and forty of
them gave up their heathenism and came out upon
the Lord's side, while many others renounced their
devil dances, their witchcraft, and other heathen practices.
A soldier at the post, not himself a Christian,
wrote the following letter to Major-General Howard,
asking that some church might be persuaded to send
a minister to guide this movement and teach these
new converts more perfectly the way : 136
AN  APPEAL FOR HELP.
" Dear Sir : I write you in behalf of the Indians
in this section of Alaska, hoping that you may be able
and willing to assist these poor creatures in their endeavors to learn more of the good Saviour, of whom
they have learned but recently.
" About last June a party of Indians from Fort
Simpson, British Columbia, arrived at Wrangell and
instituted a series of meetings for divine worship.
The Stickeens and other tribes here really knew
nothing about Christianity. They soon became interested in the proceedings of their Christian visitors, and a few, after many inquiries, concluded to
try the ' new life ' of which they had heard. Since
then the few have become a hundred, and the tribe
are asking for a Christian teacher, for some one to
explain to them more fully the way.
"Rev. Mr. Crosby, of Fort Simpson, came here
last fall and did noble work for a few days, but his
own mission demanded his presence, and he could
only leave two young men (Indians) of his church
to continue the work. It has been manfully carried
on during the winter, and could you, gentlemen, be
present during some of their services, I know your
hearts would go out to them at the earnestness of
their prayers and their intense mental struggles between the prejudices of their tribal teachings and the
new doctrines of Christianity. They are poor financially, and while their country is unfitted for anything like agriculture, the waters are rich in fish,
and the land full of game and heavily covered with
timber. Since the advent of traders and miners
among them, lewdness and debauchery have held A REMARKABLE LETTER.
high carnival, and the decimation of their numbers
is the result. If a school and mission were established at Wrangell there would no doubt an Indian
population of over iooo souls locate within reach of
its benefits. And one whole-souled, energetic worker
here could sow seed that would bear fruit from British Columbia to Bering's Straits.
'' These Indians have patriotic ideas, are proud to
call themselves ' Boston Siwashes ' (United States
Indians), and glory in the possession of a ' star-
spangled banner.' But they feel bad when they
learn how much better off than themselves are the
Indians of British Columbia. Schools and churches
abound among the British Indians, so that nearly
all of them can read and write, and appear to better
advantage than their neighbors in Alaska. This fact
speaks much for the Christian people of Canada, and
little for those of our own Republic, who yearly send
so much to convert the heathen in other lands, while
they allow our own countrymen, who certainly are
just as deserving, to go down to the lowest hell.
" I am not a church member, but am making
this appeal for these poor people from the dictates
of a heart that I trust may never be deaf to the cry
for help from the heathen. Can you not, will you
not, make it your business to build up and foster
this mission to Alaska ? A number of men could be
employed advantageously, but one whole-souled
man can do much and pave the way for doing more.
Send out a shepherd who may reclaim a mighty flock
from the error of their ways and gather them to the
true fold, the Master of  which said :   ' Feed  my 138
APPOINTMENT OF A  MISSIONARY.
sheep.'    I hope that this letter may be considered in
all charity, blemishes excluded.
"And now, with faith in the justness of the cause
for which I plead so feebly, I leave the matter in
your hands, trusting that a brighter day may soon
dawn for the poor benighted natives of Alaska.
" Yours sincerely,
This letter was placed in my hands at the General
Assembly of 1877 at Chicago. I immediately published it in the Chicago Tribune, and soon after in
the leading Presbyterian newspapers. I also sent a
copy to the Board of Home Missions, with an urgent
appeal for action.
The board responded at its first meeting (June,
1877) by appointing Rev. Francis H. Robinson as
missionary to Alaska, but before he received his
commission he had accepted an invitation to a church
in California.
Returning from the General Assembly, I was sent
by the secretaries of the Board of Home Missions
on a special mission tour through Idaho, Eastern
Oregon, and Eastern Washington. Arriving at
Walla Walla, I found the whole section agitated by
the outbreak of Chief Joseph's band of Nez Perces,
and the exposed settlers fleeing from their homes.
This condition of things was so unfavorable to mission work that I was able to extend my trip to
Alaska.
Upon reaching Portland and consulting with Dr.
Lindsley and other ministers of that section, my
purpose to visit Alaska was warmly approved. MRS. MCFARLAND.
139
I also found at Portland an old missionary friend,
Mrs. A. R. McFarland, who was waiting my arrival
to consult with regard to future work.
Born in Virginia, Mrs. McFarland was educated at
Steuben ville, Ohio. Upon her marriage she accompanied her husband to Illinois, where they spent ten
years in home mission work. In 1867 they were sent
to Santa Fe", New Mexico, the first Presbyterian missionaries to that Territory.
While in that field she crossed the plains from the
Missouri River to Santa F6 in a stage-coach several
times. Upon one occasion, for twelve days and
nights she was the only woman in the coach, and a
portion of the way they were pursued by the wild
Indians of the plains. Through many dangers and
trials she has been prepared for frontier work.
In 1873 they went to Southern California for Mr.
McFarland's health. This improving, and wishing
to re-enter the mission field, they accepted positions among the Nez Perces in 1875. Hard work
and a severe climate again laid Mr. McFarland
aside, and in May, 1876, he laid down the cross to
take up his crown. Unable to endure the feeling of
desolation and loneliness, Mrs. McFarland, in January, 1877, removed to Portland, Oregon. But her
missionary spirit could not be satisfied there, and
she was waiting with prayerful anxiety my arrival to
apply for a new field.
It was soon determined that she should accompany
me to Alaska. CHAPTER V.
The Commencement of Presbyterian Missions in Alaska—Mrs.
A. R. McFarland—Her Varied Duties—Sickness and Death of
Clah—Christmas Welcome.
" Shores of the utmost West,
Ye that have waited long,
Unvisited, unblest,
Break forth to swelling song ;
High raise the note that Jesus died,
Yet lives and reigns the Crucified."
On the ioth of August, 1877, Mrs. McFarland and
myself reached Fort Wrangel and commenced Presbyterian missions in Alaska.
Upon landing and passing down the street, I saw
an Indian ringing a bell. It was the call for the
afternoon school. About twenty pupils were in attendance, mostly young Indian women. Two or
three boys were present; also a mother and her three
little children. As the women took their seats on
the rough plank benches, each one bowed her head
in silent prayer, seeking divine help on~her studies.
Soon a thoughtful Indian man of about thirty years of
age came in and took his seat behind the rude desk.
It was Clah, the teacher. The familiar hymn, " What
a friend we have in Jesus," was sung in English ;  H INDIAN SCHOOL.
143
a prayer followed in the Chinook jargon,* closing
with the repetition in concert of the Lord's Prayer
in English. After lessons were studied and recited,
the school arose, sung the long-metre doxology, and
recited in concert the benediction. Then the teacher
said, " Good afternoon, my pupils," to which came
the kindly response, " Good afternoon, teacher."
As upon the Sandwich Islands, and more lately in
Old Mexico, so here God had opened the work in
advance of the coming of the usual missionary appliances.
The mission school was in full operation, but
under great difficulties.
They met around in the several Indian houses, not
always knowing one day where they would meet the
next. But the ringing of a small hand-bell indicated
the school-room for the day. At the time of my
visit they were using a dance-hall. Upon the return
of the miners in the fall the school was turned out of
the hall and found refuge in an old log building.
There was a great scarcity of school-books and
appliances. I found the stock inventoried as follows : Four small Bibles, four hymn-books, three
primers, thirteen first readers, and one wall chart.
"These people," remarked a sailor, " are crazy to
learn. Going up the beach last night I heard an
Indian girl spelling words of one and two syllables.
Looking in I found that, unable to procure a school-
* Chinook jargon is a language composed of French, Canadian,
English, and Indian words, and was used by the Hudson Bay Fur
Company in their trade with the various Indian tribes. A Chinook and English dictionary has been published. 144
MISSIONARY  MEETINGS.
book, she was learning from a scrap of newspaper
she had picked up."
Arranging for the work, I returned to the East,
leaving Mrs. McFarland in charge as teacher and
Clah as native assistant teacher, and Mrs. Sarah
Dickinson, a Christian Tongas Indian, as interpreter. When we reached Wrangel this woman was a
hundred miles up the Stickeen River gathering her
winter supply of berries. Learning from a passing
steamer that the missionaries had come, she placed
her children, bedding, and provisions in her canoe,
and paddled home, against heavy head winds, to
give us a welcome.
During that fall and winter I published a lengthy
series of newspaper articles and made public addresses in New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, and the other principal cities of the North,
creating such an interest in Alaska that special funds
have been sent in, from October, 1877, to December,
1879, aggregating over $12,000. This enabled the
Board of Home Missions to carry on the work in
that section without drawing from the general missionary treasury.
I also addressed the students at the theological
seminaries, and secured the appointment, by the
Board of Home Missions, of Rev. John G. Brady, of
Union Theological Seminary, for Sitka, Alaska ;
Rev. S. Hall Young, of Allegheny Theological Seminary, for Fort Wrangell, and Rev. George W. Gallagher, of Princeton Theological Seminary. Mr.
Gallagher was afterward transferred to the Utah
field.   A REMARKABLE .WOMAN.
147
Later I secured the appointment of Miss Maggie J.
Dunbar, of Steubenville, Ohio, as teacher at Fort
Wrangell, and still later that of Rev. G. W. Lyons,
who was commissioned by the board in January,
1880, for Sitka.
During the same winter I had a hearing before
several "committees of Congress in behalf of a government for Alaska.
Mrs. McFarland entered upon her work with great/
earnestness and wisdom. Her matured Christian
experience and her eventful life on the frontier had
eminently prepared her for the responsible and wonderful work she was now entering upon. It will
be borne in mind at that time she was the only
Christian white woman in Wrangell, that she was
for seven months the only Protestant missionary in
Alaska, and for twelve months the only one at Fort
Wrangell.
It will also be noticed that all the perplexities, political, religious, physical, and moral, of the native
population were brought to her for solution, and
that her arbitration was universally accepted. If
any were sick, they came to her as a physician ; if any
were dead, she was called upon to take charge of
the funeral. If husbands and wives became separated, she was the peacemaker to settle their difficulties. If difficulties arose as to property, she was
judge, lawyer, and jury. If feuds arose among the
small tribes or families, she was arbiter. And when
the Christian Indians called a constitutional convention, she was elected chairman. She was called upon
to interfere in cases of witchcraft; and when the Vig- 148
IN THE SCHOOL-ROOM.
ilance Committee would hang a white man for murder, she was sent for to act as his spiritual adviser.
Her fame also went out far and wide among the
tribes. Great chiefs left their homes and people and
came long distances to enter the school of '' the
woman that loved their people," or to plead that
teachers might be sent to their tribes. She had
charge of both school and church. During this trying period she was greatly assisted by the counsel
and substantial aid of Mr. John M. Vanderbilt, .the
leading merchant, and Mr. I. C. Dennis, Collector
of the Port.
The history of her work cannot better be made
known than by giving her monthly letters to the
Rocky Mountain Presbyterian, an illustrated Home
Missionary journal.
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Sept. 10th, 1877.
" Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D.D.
■ Dear Brother : I went into the school-room
the morning after you left, and have become very
much interested in the school. It now averages
thirty scholars. I have had as high as thirty-eight
some days. They all seem very anxious to learn.
Clah studies in the forenoon. He and Mrs. Dickinson are in a class together. They study reading,
spelling, geography, and writing. I go at nine
o'clock and remain until one. Then Clah has a
short session in the afternoon. I am teaching the
whole school the multiplication table in unison.
Clah is much pleased to learn it. They have gotten
the second and third lines perfectly^     Since Mrs.
r********** IP  slabs'*"*".
VISITING THE SICK.
Dickinson came home, Clah preaches in Tsimpsean,
and Mrs. D. interprets his sermon into Stickeen.
" He preaches with much more ease in Chinook
than he does in his own language, but it seems that
many of the old people do not understand the
Chinook.
" Clah's wife came up on the steamer. She is
quite good-looking, rather dignified and reserved.
She does not speak a word of English. He seems
quite proud of her.
" Two weeks ago last Saturday I was sent for to
see a sick man. He belonged to the Hydah tribe,
and was thought to be dying, having just had a severe hemorrhage. No wonder he felt like dying.
Upon reaching the house I found sixty-five people in
the room, with a big fire in the centre. I asked him,
through the interpreter, if I could do anything for
him. He replied that he wanted me to pray for
him, and when he died that I would see him buried
like a white man. He said that he had heard of
Jesus Christ, and that he believed in him. At
another visit he urged me to teach all Indians to
pray. He wanted me to sing. I sang ' There is a
fountain filled with blood,' and endeavored to explain the meaning of the words to him. In a few
days he was better, and his friends took him home.
I do not know whether they will carry out his wish
for a Christian burial. Several chiefs have been to
see me. They are all very anxious to have a ' white
man preacher come,' and to have a ' church house
like Fort Simpson ' (the mission station of the
Methodists in British Columbia). A HOME FOR GIRLS.
" Last week I had a prominent chief of the Takou
tribe to see me. He seemed to be a very sensible
man, and expressed great anxiety to have a school
for his people.
"Our school-room has been rented for a dance-
house, and will be taken from us by the 15th of the
month. I went to see the house that belonged to
Matthew, but it would not answer. I have since
secured an old log house, which the owner has agreed
to repair and rent us for $20 per month. I have
rented the little house back of Mr. Lear's store to
live in.    It was the very best I could do.
" I am exceedingly anxious to have a room furnished as soon as possible, where I can take any
young girls that may have a disposition to do right.
Such an one recently came and wanted to stay with
me. She was bright and smart, and talked English
well, but I was not so situated that I could take her.
When I next heard of her she was living with a white
man. I hope I will have sufficient aid to offer a
home to such cases when they present themselves.
I believe I could have saved that girl if I could have
offered her a home. Yours truly,
"A. R. McFarland."
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Oct. nth, 1877.
"Dear Brother: I rejoice to write that I am
now moved and in my own house. I find this little
house very comfortable—much more so than seemed
possible, with so little to fix it with. The people
have been very kind in helping me move.
" Clah has moved into Matthew's house.   His wife THE PEACEMAKER.
153
comes to school now.   I was surprised to find that she
does not know her A B C's.    I asked Clah how long
they had been married.   He replied, ' My father gave
me Annie when I was a little boy, for a present, and I
have lived with her ever since.'    Matthew comes to
school, and is very anxious to learn.    He says, ' Me
want to learn quick, so me can read the Bible all the
time.'   I had a funny experience with him last week.
He and his wife had quarrelled, and had not lived
together for almost a year.    She is one of my best
scholars, and I saw that she was in great trouble.    I
found she wanted to go back to her husband.    So I
brought Matthew home with me one day and had a
long talk with him.    He said that he and his wife
had lived together very happily for ten years.    But
last fall some people told him that she was a bad
woman, and that if he was a Christian he ought not
to live with her.    I answered him, that although his
wife may have done some wrong things, yet if he
was a Christian he ought to forgive her—that he had
no right to ask- God to forgive him if he could not
forgive his wife.     He went away very thoughtful.
The next day he came back in great trouble, saying
he had not been able to sleep all night.    He wanted
me to see his wife.    So I appointed a meeting for
the next day, when we would all be present; also
another man and wife who had come to me with
their troubles.    The two couples came at the appointed time.    I had Clah and Mrs. Dickinson present.   I made it a religious meeting, and as solemn
as possible.    After each one had told their grievances, I summed up with the necessity of mutual 154
SICKNESS OF CLAH.
forbearance—that they should forgive one another,
try to be happy together, and live as Christians
should. This they agreed to, and went away satisfied, and are seemingly doing well since. This is
new work for me.
"I do hope that we shall get a minister soon
to attend to such cases as this. I do not know
that I am very wise about some things, but I try to
do the best I can, seeking help from above. There
is a very aggravated case here of one of our schoolgirls. If I can get her away Twill bring her to my
house. Pray for me that I may have wisdom to do
what is right about all these things. I hope there
may be money furnished me from some source to
offer a home in such cases, where it may seem wise
to do so.
I We now hold the school in the old log house,
but it is too small and cold. I had to purchase the
lumber for the seats.
[' The Roman Catholics had sent to Europe for a
priest for this place, so that if I had not come when I
did they would have had the field. They expected to
have commenced this fall. There has a little leaven of
Catholicism already crept in. I have had to remonstrate with some of them about the confessional."
" October 15th, 1877.
" I have very sad news to write. Our dear Clah
is very sick—nigh unto death. Night before last an
Indian came after me, saying that Clah was dying
and wanted to see me right away. I dressed and
went as quickly as I could, and found that he had .t*.m
THE  SEWING-SCHOOL.
been suddenly taken with a severe hemorrhage. I
feared that he would not live until morning. Today he seems better, but has bad symptoms. I asked
him that first night whether he was willing to go if
it should be the Lord's will. He replied that he
would like to have seen a minister here first, but
that it was all right. The Indians are very much
distressed about his being sick.
I October 19.
" Clah has had no return of the bleeding, but is
very feeble, and to-day I find his hands and feet
swollen very much. I also found Mrs. Dickinson
very sick in bed with a severe cold. So you see how
full my hands are.
" There have been three young men here from
Fort Simpson attending school. One of them is a
preacher, but he can only preach in his own language, and now that Mrs. Dickinson is sick and there
is no one to interpret for him, I do not know how
we shall get along.
" The Indians came flocking in yesterday upon the
arrival of the steamer to know whether there was
4 any word about a white man preacher coming.'
" The women and girls come to my house three
afternoons in the week for a sewing-school. This,
with being in day-school, visiting the sick, and attending to my household duties, keeps me very busy.
'* Yours truly, A. R. McFarland."
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Nov. 10th, 1877.
" Dear Brother :  My hands are so full,  and I
feel so exhausted when evening comes, that it is an NEED  FOR A  MINISTER.
effort for me to write. Clah is still sick, but seems
to be improving slowly. He looks very badly, but
is quite cheerful. I asked him if he did not feel
more encouraged about getting well. He said, ' I
don't know. If Jesus makes my wind strong, all
right. Me get up and preach. Jesus make my
wind (breath) stop, all right, me die.'
" I have three other sick ones on my hands. The
boys from Fort Simpson have all gone home but
one. I kept Andrew to do the preaching until Clah
gets better. I feel so anxious for a minister to come
for many reasons. One is, there are some young
Indians here who wish very much to get married.
I am also hopeful that some of the white men would
marry the girls they are living with if there was a
minister here. And it will make a great change for
the better.
" I had a letter from Mr. Crosby, sending the
church certificate of Clah and his wife and expressing a great deal of interest in the work here. Mrs.
Dickinson, my interpreter, continues very zealous
and faithful.
" I had a Hydah man come into my school today. He looks to be about forty-five years old. He
says he came here to go to school, so that he can go
back and teach his own people. He did not know
the first letter of the alphabet. Yesterday a chief
by the name of Hotchcox came to school. He said
he was from Buffalo Island, and wanted to talk with
me. He was a remarkably fine-looking man, and I
felt that if the Christians of the East, who have abundant means, could have seen him with the tears run- _«aM
THE APPEAL OF A HEATHEN CHIEF.
ning down his face, and heard what he said, there
would be no lack of money to carry on the work in
Alaska. Laying his hand upon his heart, he says,
' Me much sick heart. You come teach all Stickeens,
all Hydahs, all Tongas abput God. My people all
dark heart. Nobody tell them that Jesus died. By
aid bye all my people die (pointing down), go down,
down, dark.' He was completely overcome. Oh,
how my heart ached. I tried to comfort him by telling him that we hoped to be able to send preachers
and teachers to all these people soon.
" My sewing-school is getting along nicely, and I
hope will be productive of much good. The women
and girls are delighted with coming to my house to
work, and to have me assist them with their sewing.
We take a verse of Scripture, and while at work they
memorize it, and I try to make them understand its
meaning. I try to give them the right ideas about a
great many other things. Then -we close with singing and prayer. I would be glad if there was some
person to take the school off my hands that I might
devote my whole time to this kind of work. You
know how much need there is of it. As I am now
situated, I cannot attend to the sick as I would like.
I think I am a very strong woman (physically), yet I
have realized many times of late that I am not made
of iron. Mr. and Mrs. Vanderbilt are very kind to
me indeed.
" Since writing the above there has been an occurrence which, while it does not amount to much
in itself, yet has made some excitement among this
superstitious people.    It seems that a young Indian THE  DREAMER.
by the name of Johnson went with his father some
distance to cut wood. While encamped there he had
awondcf"l dream. Upon his return he narrated
the dream ax an evening meeting. He dreamed that
he died and went to heaven. He stood at the side of
the gate and saw all the school Indians come up.
The keeper allowed some of them to pass in, but
others were kept out. He said that they were good
people, but that they had been living in sin—because
they had never been married to those with whom
they were living. There was much more to his
dream, and it has created great consternation. A
number who have had no opportunity of getting
married after the American way are very much
troubled, and are more anxious that a minister may
come quickly, who can marry them.
" Yours truly, A. R. McFarland."
On Friday, December 28th, 1877, Clah, whose English name was Philip McKay, died with consumption, aged thirty years. When the preaching of the
Gospel was commenced among the Tsimpseans at
Fort Simpson, by some converted Indians from Victoria, Clah was among the first to believe and be
baptized. Giving himself faithfully to the study of
the Bible and the advantages of the mission school,
he made such rapid advances that he was stationed
at Wrangell in 1876.
Upon my first visit he was teaching the day-school
six days in the week, holding prayer-meetings Tuesday and Friday evenings, and preaching three times
on the Sabbath.    Though not understanding a word II"  AN INDIAN EVANGELIST.
161
of his sermons, yet I was greatly impressed with his
earnest and yet dignified and easy delivery in
preaching. During his first year in preaching he
mostly lived on fish. Fish for breakfast, dinner and
supper, month after month ; and now and then, when
fresh fish was scarce, he had smoked fish for a
change. His salary of $10 a month would not admit
of any luxuries.
His body was taken to Fort Simpson and buried in
the Christian Indian cemetery, which I visited in the
fall of 1879, in company with Rev. Thomas Crosby.
It crowns a beautiful hill overlooking the bay.
Passing by the crest-poles, in which, formerly,
with heathen rites, they deposited the ashes of the
cremated dead, we came to a cemetery laid out in
modern style, many of the graves being adorned
with marble headstones and covered with flowers.
Among the inscriptions were the following :
" His end was peace." " There is hope in his death." "Jesus
pity me. Take my hand and lead me to the Father. I have been
poor in the world, and wicked. But all is over now. Take me
home to God." " Said to his father, trust in God." I He departed trusting in Jesus." " Of such is the kingdom of Heaven."
Upon the stone of a chief who was drowned by the splitting of his
canoe, ''His last act was to sing a hymn and offer prayer to God."
The following was Clah's last letter :
" Fort Wrangell, Sept. 14, 1877.
" Dr. Jackson.
" Respected Sir : We are getting along nicely
since you left. Mrs. McFarland gives us all good
satisfaction ; in fact, we are all pleased with her.    I l62
AN INDIAN  LETTER.
keep up the meetings three times on Sabbath, and
Tuesdays and Fridays. Our members are doing very
well. No doubt Mrs. McFarland will write you all
the particulars. My wife has come up from Fort
Simpson, and I shall need a house to live in. I do
not know what I shall do, as I shall not have money
enough to live with and expend any on a house.
Neither can I pay rent with my salary, and keep
even. I had only $28 or $30 on which to live from
the time you left to the 1st of October, and if this
has to be taken from my pay after the 1st of October, it will make me awful short. If I could start
even on the 1st of October I could get along splendid,
if I had a small room to live in. We expected to
hear from you by return steamer, but were disappointed. We want your prayers to God for our
success in converting these Indians. It is my constant prayer to God that these Indians may all be
made to know Christ, and we earnestly ask that all
the churches will pray for us, as we need all your
prayers to God.    Yours very respectfully,
" Philip McKay."
Soon after Clah's death, Mrs. McFarland wrote :
' Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Jan. 16th, 1878.
■ Dr. Jackson.
■ Dear Brother : Although we have commenced
a new year, we feel sadly broken up and discouraged, for God has taken away our beloved Philip.
He passed away very peacefully, on Friday, December 28th, 1877. THE DEATH  OF CLAH.
" I went up to see him on Thursday. He talked
very cheerfully. Said he thought he had only a few
hours to live. I asked him how death seemed to
him. He replied, ' As earth fades away, heaven
grows brighter.' His wife was crouched down by
his bed weeping. He turned to her and said, ' Annie, you must not cry ; Jesus knows what is best.'
' His friends took his body to Fort Simpson to
bury it beside his mother and three brothers, who
were drowned last summer.
" The natives raised sufficient money among themselves to pay for the coffin and build a fence around
his grave. I think it was very thoughtful in them.
Philip's dying request was that the Christian friends
in the East should do something for his wife. He
said, ' My wife and little boy will be left without
anything to buy food with, and it troubles me.' I
told him he must not worry about it, that the Lord
would raise up friends for them ; and asked him if
he could not leave them in the Lord's hands ? He
replied that he would try and trust all to Jesus.
" My school is very full, and I am about as busy
as it is possible for a person to be. Oh ! I do pray
that the Lord will soon send us help.
' There is a good deal of alarm among the Christian natives about the Catholics. Word has come
from Victoria that two priests are coming here to,
build a church. Shus-taks, the rich chief you went
to see, is very anxious to have them come, and has
promised them much help in building a church.
" I am rejoiced to report that we are moved back
with the school and church into the dance-house. 164
CHRISTMAS   GREETINGS.
The dance business did not seem to be profitable, so
they closed the house, and Messrs. Lear and Vander-
bilt, who had the leasing of it, very kindly allowed
me to make the change. It is much more comfortable than the old log house.
"Mrs. Dickinson has just sent her little girls
down to me to write you her kind regards.
" I must describe to you how the natives observed
Christmas. Between twelve and one o'clock Christmas morning I was awakened by hearing persons
coming up to my house. I arose, and from my window saw about sixty of my Indians standing in a
double row in front of my house, with their lanterns
and umbrellas, for it was raining heavily. Just as I
looked out they commenced singing, ' While shepherds watched their flocks by night.' They sung
that and another hymn, and then went quietly away.
It seemed to me that nothing ever aroused my gratitude as that did. I did not know that there was
anything more to come. But about nine o'clock in
the morning I saw a large procession filing into my
yard. First came the son of one of our prominent
men, a boy about thirteen, carrying a large British
flag. Perhaps some Sabbath-school class of boys
would be willing to present our mission with an
American flag, the Stars and Stripes. Next came
the Christian chief, Toy-a-att. Then came all the
leading men ; then their wives, then my school.
They walked in single file. I stood in my door, and
as they walked past each one shook hands with me
and wished me ' A Merry Christmas.' The old chief
took my hand and said, ' A Merry Christmas,' and A SALUTATION.
165
' God bless you, dear teacher,' and, much to my surprise, leaned forward and kissed me on the cheek.
He had evidently learned his speech for the occasion,
as he does not speak English. I wish I could describe their costumes. But as I have not time I will
only say that the boy who carried the flag was
dressed in light blue cashmere, covered over with gilt
stars. He had also on a head-dress made of flowers
and stars. There were about two hundred in the
procession.
i During the holidays the natives got into many
troubles, through the great quantities of whiskey
that have been made here. It became so bad that Mr.
Dennis gathered a posse of men last Thursday and
made a raid on suspected parties. Eight distilleries
were found and broken up. There have been eighteen in all destroyed.    Yours truly,
" A. R. McFarland."
■ji^-J
ALASKA   FOX. CHAPTER VI.
Indian Constitutional Convention—Great Speech of Toy-a-att—
Native Police—Indians making a Treaty of Peace—Need of a
Home for Girls—Witchcraft—Home Commenced—Arrival of
Rev. S. Hall Young.
" Oh ! for God and native land,
And his Word make strong your hand.
Task—an angel might desire ;
Task—your Christian zeal must fire !
This your task, oh, seeing one,
May it win, at last, ' Well done.'''
The mission commenced the year 1878 with an
important movement toward law. There were five
hundred whites and a thousand Indians congregated
in the place. Gambling, drunkenness and debauchery were rife.
The military had been withdrawn, and there were
no officers or courts for the protection of life and redress of grievances.
In this condition of affairs a few chiefs and Indians
who had renounced heathenism and gathered around
the mission, feeling, the need of some government,
appointed Toy-a-att, Moses and Matthew as a police
force to keep order and punish the guilty.
For a time it worked smoothly, but after a while
Shus-taks, the leading heathen chief, rebelled, and CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION.
167
told the Indians that the policemen had no authority.
Consequently, to secure the sanction of popular
opinion, a constitutional convention was called for
February 3d, 1878. This convention lasted for two
days, Mrs. A. R. McFarland being elected the presiding officer.
She thus writes concerning the convention :
" The school-house was packed full. We had a
great many long speeches, until it began to grow
dark. I had written out some laws, with which they
seemed to be much pleased. But as it was now five
o'clock in the afternoon, I proposed that they should
adjourn until the next morning, and that I would
take the rules home and copy them off ready for their
signatures. The next morning at daybreak Shus-taks
came out on the end of the Point, as he always does
when he has anything to say to the people. He then
made a great speech, telling them that he knew all
about what he had been doing the day before, and
that I was trying to make war between him and the
other people.
" When we met at the school-house that morning
we concluded to send an invitation to Shus-taks to
come over and hear the laws read, and, if possible,
conciliate him. He came, bringing five of his men
with him. We also invited Mr. Dennis, the Deputy
Collector of Customs, to be present.
" I had the first talk with Shus-taks. He was
very hostile, and made bitter remarks. I tried to
convince him that I had come up there to do him
and his people good, and then read him the laws we
had adopted. 168     MRS. McFARLAND'S  LIFE THREATENED.
"He replied that he would like to know what I
had to do with the laws—that I had. been sent there
to teach school, and nothing more. He said that if
Mr. Dennis and I went on, as we were now doing,
that we would upset the town and bring war, and
all the people would be killed. He said he supposed
that I thought I was safe, but he would advise me
to send for the soldiers to come back.
" Mr. Dennis then had a talk with him ; but I do
not think it made the least impression.
" Then Toy-a-att made a talk to Shus-taks—indeed preached him a solemn sermon. He told him
that he was now an old man and could not live long ;
that he wanted him to give his heart to the Saviour,
who had died for him ; that if he did not, but died
as he was living, he must be forever lost.
" Shus-taks replied that he did not care if he did
go to hell-fire—that his people were all there. He
then left the meeting.
" After he had gone the people all signed their
names (or rather I wrote their names and they made
their mark) to the following rules :
ist.
We concur in the action of Mr. I. C. Dennis, Deputy Collector
of U. S. Customs, appointing Toy-a-att, Moses, Matthew, and
Sam to search all canoes and stop the traffic of liquor among the
Indians.
2d.
We, who profess to be Christians, promise with God's help to
strive as much as possible to live at peace with each other—to
have no fighting, no quarrelling, no tale-bearing among us. These
things are all sinful, and should not exist among Christians. LAWS ENACTED
169
3d.
Any troubles that arise among the brethren, between husbands
and wives, or any man leaves his wife, these brethren, Toy-a-att,
Moses, Matthew, Aaron, and Lot, have authority to settle the
troubles and decide what the punishment shall be ; and if fines are
imposed, how much the fines shall be.
4th.
The authority of these brethren is binding upon all. And no
person is to resist or interfere with them, as they are appointed
by Mr. Dennis and Mrs. McFarland.
5th.
To all the above we subscribe our names.
The great speech of the convention was that of
Chief Toy-a-att before a crowded audience of whites
and Indians. We give it as reported in the Port
Townsend Weekly Argus :
" My brothers and friends, I come before you to-day
to talk a little, and I hope you will listen to what I
say, and not laugh at me because I am an Indian. I
am getting old, and have not yet many summers to
live on this earth. I want to speak a little of the
past history of us Stickeen Indians and of our present
wants. In ages past, before white men came among
us, the Indians of Alaska were barbarous, with brutish instincts.
" Tribal wars were continual, bloodshed and murder of daily occurrence, and superstition controlled
our whole movements and our hearts.
" The white man's God we knew not of. Nature
evinced to us that there was a first great cause ; beyond all that was blank.    Our god was created by 170
AN INDIAN SPEECH.
us ;  that is, we selected animals and birds, the images of which we revered as gods.
" Natural instincts taught us to supply our wants
from that which we beheld around us. If we wanted
food, the waters gave us fish ; and if we wanted raiment, the wild animals of the woods gave us skins,
which we converted to use. Implements of warfare
and tools to work with we constructed rudely from
stone and wood. [Here the speaker showed specimens of stone axes and weapons of warfare.]
I These," said he, holding them up to view, " we
used in the place of the saws, axes, hammers, guns,
and knives of the present time. Fire we discovered
by friction. [Here he demonstrated how they produced fire.]
" In the course of time a change came over the
spirit of our dreams. We became aware of the fact
that we were not the only beings in the shape of man
that inhabited this earth. White men appeared before us on the surface of the great, waters in large
ships, which we called canoes. Where they came
from we knew not, but supposed that they dropped
from the clouds. The ships' sails we took for wings,
and concluded that, like the birds of the air, they
could fly as well as swim. As time advanced, the
white men who visited our country introduced among
us everything that is produced by nature and the
arts of man. They also told us of a God, a superior
being, who created all things, even us, the Indians.
They told us that this God was in the heavens above,
and that all mankind were his children. These thing?
were told us, but we could not understand them. TOY-A-ATT S SPEECH.
171
" At the present time we are not the same people
that we were a hundred years ago. Contact and association with the white man has created a change
in our habits and customs. We have seen and heard
of the wonderful works of the white man. His ingenuity and skill has produced steamships, railroads,
telegraphs, and thousands of other things. His
mind is far-reaching ; whatever he desires he produces. His wonderful sciences enable him to understand nature and her laws. Whatever she produces
he improves upon and makes useful.
" Each day the white man becomes more perfect
in the arts and sciences, while the Indian is at a
standstill. Why is this ? Is it because the God you
have told us of is a white God, and that you, being
of his color, have been favored by him ?
" Why, brothers, look at our skin ; we are dark,
we are not of your color, hence you call us Indians.
Is this the reason that we are ignorant; is this the
cause of our not knowing our Creator ?
" My brothers, a change is coming. We have
seen and heard of the wonderful things of this
world, and we desire to understand what we see and
what we hear. We desire light. We want our eyes
to become open. We have been in the dark too
long, and we appeal to you, my brothers, to help us.
" But how can this be done ? Listen to me. Although I have been a bad Indian, I can see the right
road, and I desire to follow it. I have changed for
the better. I have done away with all Indian superstitious habits. I am in my old age becoming civilized.    I have learned to know Jesus, and I desire to 172
JUSTICE ASKED.
know more of him. I desire education, in order
that I may be able to read the Holy Bible.
" Look at Fort Simpson and at Metlakatla, British
Columbia. See the Indians there. In years gone by
they were the worst Indians on this coast, the most
brutal, barbarous, and blood-thirsty. They were our
sworn enemies, and were continually at war with us.
How are they now ? Instead of our enemies they are
our friends. They have become partially educated
and civilized. They can understand what they see
and what they hear ; they can read and write, and
are learning to become Christians. These Indians,
my brothers, at the places just spoken of, are British
Indians, and it must have been the wish of the British Oueen that her Indians should be educated.    We
my
have been told that the British Government is a
powerful one, and we have also been told that the
American Government is a more powerful one. We
have been told that the President of the United
States has control over all the people, both whites
and Indians. We have been told how he came to be
our great chief. He purchased this country from
Russia, and in purchasing it he purchased us. We
had no choice or say in change of masters. The
change has been made, and we are content. All we
ask is justice.
" We ask of our father at Washington that we be
recognized as a people, inasmuch as he recognizes
all other Indians m other portions of the United
States.
I We ask that we be civilized, Christianized, and
educated.    Give us a chance, and we will show to mm
AN APPEAL TO WHITE  MEN.
173
the world that we can become peaceable citizens and
good Christians. An effort has already been made*
by Christian friends to better our condition, and
may God bless them in their work. A school has
been established here, which, notwithstanding strong
opposition by bad white men and by Indians, has
done a good and great work among us.
' This is not sufficient. We want our chief at
Washington to help us. We want him to use his
influence toward having us a church built and in
having a good man sent to us who will teach us to
read the Bible and learn all about Jesus. And now,
my brothers, to you I appeal. Help us in our efforts
to do right. If you don't want to come to our
church, don't laugh and make fun of us because we
sing and pray.
" Many of you have Indian women living with
you. I ask you to send them to school and church,
where they will learn to become good women.
Don't, my brothers, let them go to the dance-houses,
for there they will learn to be bad and learn to drink
whiskey.
" Now that I see you are getting tired of listening
to me, I will finish by asking you again to help us
in trying to do right. If one of us should be led
astray from the right path, point out to us our error
and assist us in trying to reform. If you will all assist us in doing good, and quit selling whiskey we
will soon make Fort Wrangell a quiet place, and the
Stickeen Indians will become a happy people. I now
thank you all for your kind attention.    Good-by." 174
ARRIVAL OF REV. JOHN  G. BRADY.
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, March 16th, 1878.
" Dr. Jackson.
" Dear Brother : There has been a great time
among the natives here this week. It seems that the
Tongas and Stickeens have been enemies for a number of years ; but this winter they have become
friends. This week the Tongas came to visit the
Stickeens and have a grand ' Hee-Hee.' We all
went down to the beach to see the Tongas come in.
They had nine large canoes lashed together abreast.
They were all dressed in their gayest colors, and
made quite an imposing appearance. After landing
they and the Stickeens had a sham battle, followed
by a grand dance on the beach. They were all
painted, and dressed in their native costumes.
There were some 1500 of them present, besides all
the whites in the settlement. It was a strange
scene, and one long to be rememberec" The dancing
has been kept up all the week, day and night, and I
suppose will be for some time to come.
1 The great importance of our work here was
more than ever felt, as I looked upon this multitude
of immortal souls who had never heard of a crucified
Saviour. And my earnest prayer was that with the
coming of Rev. Mr. Brady, these people, who have
never heard the Gospel, might have their eyes opened
to the truth.
I Rev. Mr. Brady arrived by steamer on the 15th.
It is a great encouragement to have him here.    He
went on to Sitka, but will return with the steamer.
■ Two weeks ago Rev. Bishop Bompas  (Episco- amm
VISIT OF BISHOP BOMPAS.
175
palian) came up on the Otter, but returned on the
same boat.
" He reported that he had come to lookup mission
stations, but had no desire to come in where other
churches were already on the ground. He spent a
day in my school, and spoke to some of our citizens,
highly commending the management and success of
the school. I told him of my great desire to establish a home for young girls, and also how my heart
had ached at the utter destitution of all comfort
among those that were sick.
" He seemed to think that there should be a fund
for the relief of the worthy suffering, and as for the
' Home,' he was sure if Christians in the East could
be made to see the importance of it, that I would
soon have all the money needed to build and furnish
the necessary quarters.
" Before leaving he gave me $2, one for the
' Home' and the other to relieve sick Indians. He
said he was poor, but wished to do something, and
advised me to write East that the fund was commenced, and that every dollar that was added to it
would help on the great and glorious work. I wish
so much that some one else could take the school
and I be allowed to give my entire time to the
women and girls. If we had only some rooms for a
home I am sure that some Ladies' Society would
support it.    The need is a most urgent one.
" Yours truly,
" A. R. McFarland," 176
INDIAN WEDDING FEAST.
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, March 26th, 1S7S.
" Dear Brother : On Sabbath morning Rev.
Mr. Brady married, in the church, Toy-a-att (our
Christian chief) and his wife, and Moses and his wife.
The service was performed with the ring and all.
" On Monday some Indians came to my schoolroom and asked us to go to ' Shakes' and. have a
funeral service for a young man that had died the
night before. Upon receiving the word Mr. Brady
came up, the school was dismissed, and taking some
of our people with us we went over to the house.
They received us very kindly, and we had an interest-
ing meeting. The heathen portion of the audience
seemed to be very much impressed. They had intended to burn the body, according to the customs
of their fathers. But before we came away the most
prominent man among them made a speech, saying
that he was ' going to have a hole made and bury
the dead man as white men did.' He said if a minister came to live at Fort Wrangell, the missionary
was to be the head, and they were bound to do
whatever he told them. The hearts of these heathens
seemed to be opened in a most wonderful manner.
Everything seems to be ready for a great work
to be done for Christ among this people, if we
only had a minister here to carry it on. Mr. Brady
goes by the steamer to Sitka.
I About two o'clock yesterday a messenger came
with an invitation for Mr. Brady and myself to a wedding feast that Toy-a-att and Moses were giving in
Matthew's house Of course we accepted the invitation.  We were agreeably surprised to see how nicely t*awm
KING GEORGE S PEOPLE.
177
they had everything arranged. Their tables were
neatly set with clean white cloth. Two long tables
extended clear across the house. You remember that
Matthew's house has a raised platform extending
around the wall of the building and three feet above
the main ground floor. Upon this platform they had
set a small table for Mr. Brady and myself. The
dinner was good. They had crackers, butter, salmon, apricots, pies of" different kinds, plum-pudding,
tea, coffee, condensed milk, and white sugar. I have
eaten plum-puddings made by white people that
were not near as good as theirs. They had prepared
great quantities of everything. The two long tables
were filled three times, and every one had all they
could eat. It was surprising to see how orderly and
quietly everything was carried on in such a crowd.
" There were several of the Tongas and Hydah
chiefs present. Mr. Brady had a long talk with
them. A very fine and intelligent looking Tongas
chief, who did most of the talking, asked when his
people were to have schools and preachers. Mr.
Brady replied b;r asking if nothing had been done for
them. We were much surprised at his reply. He
said that an English missionary had been there and
offered to do something for them, but that they belonged to the United States, and did not want King
George's people coming over to teach them ; that
they would wait and look to American people for
help. Mr. Brady assured them that they should have
teachers as soon as they could be secured. This talk
was had while the second and third tables were
being served. DEATH  OF SHAAKS.
" After all had eaten, and the tables were carried
out, Toy-a-att proposed that they should have a regular Indian dance, to show us how they did before
they knew about God. They then dressed up in
their Indian costumes, masked their faces, then came
out and danced four different kinds of dances. After
the dance they played a game called the flag-game.
They drew us both into this game, which amused
them very much. At the close Toy-a-att made a
speech, saying that this was their last dance, that
they had learned a better way, and did not intend to
dance any more. He then turned around and presented us each with one of their musical instruments,
saying they would now have no further use for them.
The party then broke up, and all went home before
dark. Yours truly,
"A. R. McFarland."
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, June, 1878.
" Dear Brother : Shaaks (the head chief of these
people) came home sick with a hemorrhage of the
lungs, and died in four days. They kept the body
lying in state (or rather sitting) until Sabbath.
On Saturday they sent for me to decide whether
they should burn or bury the body. Of course I decided that it was better to bury it. They said then
it should be buried. On Sabbath they sent for me
to take charge of the funeral, saying ' \ they wanted
me to come and pray like white people." So I took
some of our Christian Indians and went and had
religious service. They seemed very much pleased.
None of Shaaks' people have ever attended church.   DISAPPOINTMENTS.
On Saturday evening I talked with the new chief,
Shaak's brother. He promised me that he would attend church. Said he wanted to learn about God.
Mr. Davidson secured a very good photograph of the
dead chief as he was sitting in state, with all his
Indian fixtures around him. Since Rev. Mr. Brady
Went to Sitka we have been doing the best we can,
but it is hard work carrying on the Sabbath services.
" June 7.—Mr. Brady and Miss Kellogg write very
encouragingly of the work at Sitka.
" My school is now averaging thirty-five scholars,
which is very good for this season of the year. Many
have gone to the mines and other places for work.
" Shus-taks has been pretty quiet since the revenue cutter came. He tried to make trouble about
the time that Shaaks died, by reporting that Shaaks
had been poisoned by some white person. I believe
that Shus-taks will come around all right yet.
" June 13.—The steamer California came in last
night, and we were again disappointed in the non-
arrival of the minister. The delay in securing a
minister makes me almost sick. The Indians, too,
feel it very much. Toy-a-att and Lot came to me
last night to know ' How many moons now till
preacher comes ?' I told them that I could not tell
anything about it. I hoped he would come next
steamer, but I could not tell. Toy-a-att laid his
hand on his heart and said, 'Hica sick. Tum-tum.
' Wake-siah. Conaway Indian mama Louse. Nika sick,
Tum-tum.' (I have sad heart. By and by Indian
all dead. I have sad, sad heart.) He felt so badly
that he shed tears over it.    I fear all this delay is 182
DISAPPOINTMENTS.
going to cause the Indians to lose confidence in
the church.
"July 8.—By the last steamer we heard that the
minister was on board on his way here, so I had
the girls clean up a house and get it all ready for
him. This time we felt so sure that he would come
that I had the men and boys bring in evergreens and
trim up the school-room beautifully, but when the
steamer came, and no minister, the disappointment
was correspondingly great. The Indians said, ' Well,
we will not do anything more. It is no use. We do
not believe any person is coming at all.' I cannot
blame them. I have not been so depressed since
coming here. The work is greatly suffering and
the success of the mission greatly imperilled by the
long delay in the arrival of a minister.
" Then the idea has been held out that we were
going to build a church this season, and yet there is
no one here to take the lead, and consequently nothing has been done.
I Then, to add to all the other discouragements, a
Catholic priest eame up on this steamer. No person
knows what he is aroine to do. But the indications
are that he has come to stay. I would not be surprised to see him at once commence the erection of
a church. If he expects to do anything here, he
will be shrewd enough to take advantage of the disappointment of the Indians at the long delay in the
coming of a minister.
" The captain of the steamer has kindly invited
me to accompany his wife and "daughter on a free
trip to Sitka, which I have accepted. KLAWOCK—APPEAL FOR  SCHOOL.
183
" Sitka, July 10.—I find Miss Kellogg very happy
and much interested in her work.
" Rev. Mr. Brady has just returned from a missionary tour to the Hoonas Indians, and will make
application for a missionary for them. There is also
a new settlement of Americans up here, where we
should have a missionary at once. Oh, how long
will the church sleep and let these people perish ?
Can nothing be done to secure more help ?
"July 10.—We have been lying all day in the
steamer at the new settlement of Klawock.
" The principal white men have visited me, to
learn what was necessary for them to do to secure a
missionary. The Indians also have been to see me.
They ask, ' Why can't we have a school as well as
the Indians at Sitka or Fort Wrangell ?' One of the
Americans says he is confident we could have a
school of one hundred Indians here. There are also
a number of white children, and very great need of a
mission. It is a dirty, muddy, disagreeable village,
much more so than Wrangell, and nothing but the
love of the work and love to the Saviour would induce missionaries to live at such a place. And yet
it ought to be occupied.
".There is a saw-mill here. Lumber is cheap, and
the people will do all they can to assist the mission.
Surely it is a call from God. Will the Church enable the board to respond ?
" I have had two schools in operation since spring.
Up-the beach were a lot of wild natives that I could
not induce to come into our school. I felt so distressed about them that I concluded  that  if they 184
WITCHCRAFT.
were too shy to come to me I would go to them.
I rented an old log building on the point in their
neighborhood and opened school. I have from
forty-five to sixty in attendance. I teach them from
the blackboard. This school meets in the afternoon.
After I had gone a few times they asked me if I
would not come Sunday and have church for them.
Consequently I hold a little service with them on the
Sabbath afternoons. They seem much interested.
By and by 1 hope they may be induced to attend
the other church and school.
" We have had more witchcraft here, and the effect
has been very bad on the minds of the young people.
Some of my brightest and best scholars have been
led away by it. As we have no kind of law, none
of the whites felt that they had any right to interfere. It has frequently been said to me, ' If you
will get a minister here, so that"the Indians will see
that he is permanent, and one who will make them
understand he is determined to break up all such
things, it will more than anything else tend to prevent the recurrence of such scenes.'
" Yours truly, A. R. McFarland."
'' Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Sept. 3d, 1878.
" Dear Brother : Rev. Mr. Young has been very
busy since his arrival last month. He has made a
very favorable impression both on the whites and
the natives. We all like him very much. Last Sabbath he was called upon to attend the funeral of an
old woman who died on Saturday. When we went
to the house we were shocked to see the dead body THE HOME.
of another woman wrapped in a blanket and lying
on the floor. We were still more shocked to find
that she had hung herself but a short time before.
It was the effect of witchcraft.
" I have not yet moved into the hospital building,
as I have nothing to begin with. I am exceedingly
anxious to get the ' Home ' started. There are six
young girls whom I ought to take right away, as the
miners are coming into town for the winter. I tremble for these poor children lest it should be too late
to save them. I have turned the responsibility of the
school over to Mr. Young, and feel as if a great load
had been taken off my shoulders. He preaches to
the whites at three o'clock every Sabbath afternoon.
They come out very well, and seem to be greatly interested.
" Sept. ii, 1878.—The steamer has just come in,
and how rejoiced I am to hear that the Board of
Home Missions has commissioned Miss Dunbar. I
wish she was here now to take charge of the fall
school. I also received a very kind letter from Dr.
Cyrus Dickson, with the renewal of my commission
for another year.
" I realize more and more the difficulties I will
have to contend with in opening this ' Home,' but I
also feel the necessity laid upon me of going forward.
There are several girls here now who will be lost if
I do not take them at once. Of course there are a
great many more, but these I feel particularly interested in, because they have been in school and have
made considerable progress. Being pretty and
smart, they are just the ones the white men will try 186
THE HOME COMMENCED.
to get possession of. I have written many letters
and made appeals in many directions, but so far have
received little encouragement to go on, and yet I
feel that I must do it. Mr. Young has been urging
me to get moved and make a beginning. He feels
the necessity of it. I will try to move this month
into the old hospital building, but of course we will
have nothing to begin with in the way of furniture.
Still I have faith to believe that it will come in due
time.
"Mrs. Dickinson has just been in with a woman
who is the mother of one of my scholars, a pretty
girl of thirteen. She was about to start up the river
with the child to make money to buy ' muck-a-muck '
for the winter. The woman is determined to go herself, but after much persuasion consented to leave
the girl with me.    So you see the ' Home ' is started.
" October 17.— . . . My girls are contented and
happy. Lest some should think that I acted unwisely in taking them before their support was pledged,
permit me to say that I could not do otherwise. I
dared not delay even for a week.
" Of course I feel much anxiety about the means
to carry on the work. I know it will be a great
struggle for a while, but my trust is in the prayer-
hearing God, whose work it is. I hope to hear by
the next steamer that some societies have assumed
the support of these girls.
" Mr. Young is very busy securing what funds he
can  here toward the erection of a church.
" Mr. J. M. Vanderbilt, to whom we have been
indebted for many facilities, has paid the rent for us
■  mi ARRIVAL  OF REV. S. HALL YOUNG.
on the hospital building for one year, as a contribution from his wife.    Truly yours,
"A. R. McFarland."
In August, 1878, the Rev. S. Hall Young, of
Parkersburg, West Virginia, who had been commissioned by the Board of Home Missions the previous
spring, reached Fort Wrangell.
Graduating with high honors at Allegheny Theological Seminary, he entered upon his work with
great zeal and earnestness, and was very gladly welcomed by Mrs. McFarland. At the very outset of
his work Mr. Young was confronted with demonstrations of witchcraft. Consequently he held a
convention of the people to put it down. This convention lasted five days.    Mrs. McFarland writes :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Nov. gth, 1878.
" Dear Brother : The witchcraft excitement has
again broken out and given Mr. Young much trouble.
He has shown great wisdom and courage in quelling
it without the loss of life. Kootlan, the oldest of the
Stickeen chiefs, died this week after a long illness.
Although he belonged to the heathen Indians, yet
they sent for Mr. Young to attend the funeral. Shus-
taks lost his wife this week, and is making great
preparations to burn the body next Sabbath. Mr.
Young and I both visited her during her illness.
Her friends firmly believe that she was bewitched.
" The more fully we become acquainted with Mr.
Young, the more we are impressed that the Lord has
sent us just the right man. He makes a splendid
missionary. 190
AN  INDIAN  COUNCIL.
" I am very much pleased with the proposition to
ask a Christmas offering for my Home. We are living on faith now.
"December 5th, 1878.
" Mr. Young has recently held a five days' council
with the chiefs and principal men of the Stickeen
nation. The different bands of the nation were not
good friends. Each of the chiefs had his following,
and they would not attend church together. Since
the council many more have been attending church.
If the council result in breaking down their jealousies,
an important point will have been gained. Mr.
Young has also taken hold of the witchcraft operations with great vigor, and, I think, will be able to
break them up.
" Our school is doing nicely. We greatly need
another teacher.
'' The council has opened up the way for much
more visiting among the people. But with the
school and Home on my hands it is impossible for
me to do more. Yours truly,
"A. R. McFarland."
Rev. Mr. Young writes :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Dec. 5, 1878.
" Dear Dr. Jackson : We have gained a victory
over witchcraft. Shus-taks and his wife were both
sick, and of course they must blame some one with
having worked I bad medicine ' against them. Young
Shaaks, successor of the head chief and nephew to
Shus-taks, gathered up his friends and caught an
old man, one of our church attendants, and accused  -****•--s-.n4l
\
ll WITCHCRAFT.
193
him of being ' bad medicine.' They carried him to
Shus-tak's house, stripped him naked, tied him
most cruelly hand, foot, and head, and put him into
a dark hole under the floor. This happened at
night. The next morning the clerk of the Custom-
House and myself went over to the house where all
Shus-taks and Shaaks' friends were assembled.
They were very determined to resist any encroachment on their ancient customs, but we were equally
firm and persistent that they should release him, and
tie up nobody else without first consulting us. This
they at length did. Although angry at first, they
soon saw the reasonableness of our request. Shaaks
has promised to come to church and bring all his
followers. Mrs. Shus-taks has since died, and, contrary to the wish of all his friends, her husband had
her burned. Shaaks is rather a fine young man, and
professes to have renounced his belief in witchcraft.
" I have been canvassing for the church and school.
I expect to raise about $600, mostly from the Indians,
to build a neat church, with seating capacity for two
hundred and fifty. Will cost about $2500. We can get
undressed lumber here for $22 per 1000, and dressed
at $31. We will need a large school-house, as the
native population is large and increasing monthly.
All the educational influences for this whole region
will centre here. Six tribes look to us for light.
Next season I expect a school of three hundred pupils. Our hope is in the young. They learn rapidly, and are delighted with the school. We have
selected a good location on the first bluff above the
beach, containing two acres.    It was presented by 194
LAND  FOR MISSION BUILDINGS.
Mr. Lear. We will commence work clearing off the
brush and draining it at once. We shall proceed
only as we have the funds, therefore we hope the
friends of the mission will be prompt with their contributions.
" I have not yet figured on the cost of a Home for
Girls. It depends entirely on the number of girls
the Ladies' Societies will support. You see the
needs of the work have no limit, save the probability
of support.
" We could in a year or two gather into the Home
a large number of interesting girls who will otherwise be lost. I do hope that this enterprise of all the
institutions upon this coast will receive the support
of the Christian world. It is essential to the enlightenment of the people. Unless these girls are sheltered and saved, our preaching will largely be in
vain. Mrs. McFarland has acted wisely in founding this
protectorate. It was absolutely necessary. We were compelled by the urgency of the cases of several girls to
open it before their support was guaranteed. We
could not help it. And now we trust the Presbyterian Church will not let it fail for want of funds..
We have received many encouraging promises, but
are now in pressing need of the money. Oh, if some
Christian would endow this institution, what a noble
work he would do for this people !
" Mrs. McFarland is exactly fitted to be the matron
of such a home. The women of the place love her
as a mother. She has been offered large salaries and
easy positions elsewhere, but remains here, spending
her time, great energies, and private funds to help |ka
CATECHETICAL CLASS  ORGANIZED.
195
this work. She has had a severe struggle to get
started, but I hope her heaviest trials are past. She
merits the fullest confidence and most generous support of the Church. I am most happy in having
such a helper.
' We were much disappointed in not securing
another teacher by last steamer. The pressure of
work is beyond the strength of Mrs. McFarland and
myself. The Indians come to me more and more for
counsel on all manner of questions. I never dreamed
of having such a weight of care.
" I am about organizing a catechetical class, to
train material for elders, deacons, and members. I
preach twice each Sabbath to the natives and once
to the whites. Our congregations are large and
orderly. Sabbath-school is immediately after morning service. I hope you will be able to stir up a
great interest in this field. The next few years will
practically decide the fate of many tribes on this
coast. I thank you for what you have done and are
doing for these poor people. God bless you.
" Your brother in Christ,
" S. Hall Young."
JpFT^
A PUFFIN. CHAPTER VII.
Sketch of Sitka—Arrival of Rev. John G. Brady and Miss Fannie
E. Kellogg—Commencement of School—Missionary Journeys
of Mr. Brady—Marriage of Miss Kellogg—School of Mr. Alonzo
E. Austin.
The snowy peaks that north and south now rise to summits grand,
Stood here the ocean's tide beside, and watched it near at hand.
The spirit of the storms kept one, and when his robe he shook,
The roar that swept the clouds along was heard to far Chinook;
'Twas there the spirit dwelt whose fires flash from the mountain's
shroud
In lightning strokes that signal when shall peal the stormy
cloud—
Dread spirits, born of gloomy power, whose anger sometimes
woke
In jealous wrath, and  then would flash the lightning's fiery
.  stroke ;
Then thunder with its mufHed roll would answer peal on peal,
And fires would light the mountain-side like blows of flint on
steel."
Sitka, Alaska, has had a varied history. The
head-quarters of Russian supremacy in the North
Pacific, it was once a proud commercial city, the
centre of an extensive commerce, and capital of a
large province, with many schools and seminaries.
Here Baron Romanoff for years ruled as governor
with despotic hand. The castle, once the abode of
Russia's proud  nobles, still crowns the hill.    The REAR VIEW  OF GREEK CHURCH,   SITKA.
IM!! US 6merald ^reen dome and roof, its chime
f| bells, its queer interior arrangement ,to
"* ve,me„ts, ana ***U^^'-S&$& 198
SITKA.
massive silver—all speak of Russian power. The old
stockade, from whose loop-holes upon occasion during the Romanoff dominion poured the death-dealing
ball and shot, is now partly in ruins.
Sitka has a beautiful island-studded bay, said to
equal in picturesqueness the Bay of Naples or Rio
Janeiro. Mount Edgecumbe, an extinct volcano,
discovered by Bodega in 1775, still guards the entrance to the bay, while the sharp, snowy summit
of Vostovia, surrounded by a group of peaks and
glaciers, stands guard in the rear. The opening
gold mines and the great salmon-canning interests
seem now to hold out a prospect of future prosperity.
The bay was first visited by Baranoff in 1799, who
built a fort which he called Fort Archangel Gabriel,
and took possession of the country for Russia.
Three years later the Indians rose, captured the fort,
and murdered all the officers and thirty men. In
1804 Baranoff returned and recaptured the town and
built Fort Archangel Michael, the settlement taking
the name of New Archangel. From 1809 shipbuilding became one of the active industries of the place.
In 1810 the place was visited by the Enterprise, one
01 the ships of John Jacob Astor's fur company.
The same year a Greek priest arrived in a sloop-of-
war, to minister unto the colonists. The first resident physician did not reach Sitka until ten years
later.
The growth and  importance of the  place were-
finally assured in 1832, when Baron Wrangell transferred the capital of Russian America from St. Paul
to Sitka.   In 1834 it was made the seat of a bishopric,  P*l  ■It
202     ARRIVAL OF REV. J. G. BRADY AT SITKA.
the rank of a seminary. In this school were taught
arithmetic, geography, history, book-keeping, navigation, geometry and trigonometry, and the Russian
i and English languages. In 1845 the first school was
established for the natives. These schools were
discontinued at the time of the American occupation
in 1867, and no other supplied their place until the
arrival of Rev. John G. Brady and Miss Kellogg,
Presbyterian missionaries, in 1878.
Of his work there Rev. Mr. Brady writes :
" Sitka, Alaska, May, 1878.
" Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D.D.
" Dear Doctor : We arrived here the night of
April the nth. Our first meeting occurred on Sunday in the castle. The day was charming, for the
clouds had vanished, the sun was warm, and the
scenery was all that could be asked. Far out beyond the harbor, protected by innumerable green
islets, lay the vast Pacific, in a sort of rolling calmness. At another point rose the funnel-topped
Edgecumbe, crested with snow. Back of the town,
and as far down the coast as the eye can reach, we
have all the variety of grand mountain scenery.
When these days come all nature seems to be still
with solemnity, and one appears to be near the presence-chamber of the Almighty. Alaska scenery has
a peculiar effect upon my emotionc.
I The castle has been stripped of everything, and
is in a dilapidated condition. As we began to sing
some of the Moody and Sankey hymns, the Indians
began to steal in and squat themselves on the floor   SITKA JACK.
205
along the wall. Most of them had their faces painted black ; some were black and red, and a few had
the whole face black with the*exception of the right
eye, which was surrounded with a coat of red. All
but a few of the chiefs were in their bare feet, and
wrapped in blankets of various colors.
" Sitka Jack is the chief who seems to have the most
influence among them, and he is their orator. He
and Annahootz, the war chief, were clad in some old
suits of the naval officers who have been here. They
think a great deal of the buttons, shoulder-pieces
and the like. Several wore soldiers' caps. The
rest were bareheaded.
" The natives along the coast from Cape Fox to
Mount St. Elias, speak the same tongue. Mr. Cohen,
a Jew who keeps a store here, kindly volunteered
to hunt up the old Russian interpreter. This man
is about sixty years old. He is a half-breed. The
Russian American Fur Company took him, when
a boy, and educated him for a priest to the natives ;
but for some reason he was never ordained to that
office. He has always been employed as interpreter.
He speaks both languages well, and can read and
write the Russian. Mr. George Kastrometinoff turned
my English into Russian, and the interpreter turned
that into good Indian. The people listened very
attentively to all that I had to say. Jack, becoming
impatient to speak, broke into a gesticulating speech,
telling how bad they were heretofore, fighting and
killing one another. Now they were glad that they
were going to have a school and a church, and people to teach them.    After.him Annahootz took the 206
CHURCH   SERVICE.
floor and made an emphatic speech, approving all
that we had told them.
'' I explained to thtyn why we wished them to go
to school, and the advantages which they would have
if they would learn English. I centred everything
upon the Bible, and tried to impress upon their
minds its value to all men, because it is God speaking to us when we read it.
"Jack asked the people whether they liked what
we had said, and after some talk among themselves
they all said, ' Yes.' Mr. Francis and several miners
were present. They expressed themselves as surprised to see the Indians consent so readily and act
so heartily and with such straightforwardness.
" We held but one service that day, as it had lasted
several hours. There were about one hundred and
twenty-five persons present. This was rather a small
number for Sitka, since there are over one thousand
who live in the village. Many have gone off to trade
and hunt ; they will return in two moons.
" I hired some Indians, and we all worked hard to
put the upper floor of the soldiers' barracks in trim
for our school and church services. Mr. Whitford,
who bought nearly everything which the soldiers
left, sold us twenty benches, a stove, cord of wood,
two brooms, and a box of chalk. The Russian priest
loaned us a blackboard with half-inch cracks between
the boards. These things, together with two tables,
make up the list of our furniture. The school opened
on Wednesday, April 17th, with fifty present, and
after asking God's blessing upon this beginning of a
work, which will surely prove to be one of the most Mta
SCHOOL.
207
interesting in the history of missions, we began with
ABC. It is a real pleasure to teach these people,
for they are anxious to learn, and take right hold.
They have bright intellects. The progress which
they have made in the past month is a matter of
amazement to me. There are thirteen now reading
fn the primer, and twenty-five have learned all the
THE BARRACKS,  USED AS A SCHOOL-ROOM.
large letters. We have but six primers. This want
of apparatus retards the work very much. Miss Kellogg has been careful to see that they do not learn
in the parrot manner. They are taught the meaning
of what they learn. They have learned ' Hold the
Fort' and three or four more tunes, which they sing
well. At some of our services over three hundred
have been present. 208
CLIMATE—PROD UCTIONS.
" If our churches had known the facts concerning
this people, and the wonderful coast upon which
they live, missionaries would have been sent out
years ago. The money spent in teaching and Christianizing these people will not be thrown away.
' Blessed are they which do hunger and thirst after
righteousness : for they shall be filled.' This promise will surely be fulfilled to these people, for they
are hungering and thirsting for more light. It would
be a great wrong for the Church to neglect these
people longer.
11 hope that before the leaves fall we shall be
able to organize the Presbytery of Alaska. This
will be a great thing for this Territory, which has
been so wilfully misrepresented to the public. Such
a body can be the source of information concerning
the people and the country and its resources which
will be trusted by the reading public.
" There has been no ice in Sitka this last winter,
and very little snow fell. The tops of the rain-barrels
did not freeze to the thickness of a knife-blade. Since I
came here I have planted a large garden in peas, potatoes, lettuce, onions, turnips, and other vegetables. Most of these plants are now up. Nearly
every vegetable that has been tried does well, beans
and cucumbers excepted. Small fruits, such as
strawberries, currants, gooseberries and the like, do
very well and have a rich flavor. Cauliflower, cabbage, and celery do especially well. People are slow
to believe such statements when they look at the
map and find Sitka in 570 3' north latitude.
"I came here expecting to find about the lowest m\%
RELIABILITY OF THE NATIVES.
209
grade of people on the globe. In all my journey
from New York to Sitka I received but very few
words of encouragement from those who knew my
mission. I now know that the people of our country
are ignorant in regard to the people and resources
of this grand system of archipelagoes. There are
several miners here in Sitka who have been among
the Indians since 1849, and are thoroughly informed
in regard to customs, habits, mental powers, etc., of
the various tribes in the gfold regions. These men
say that the Alaska Indians are in all respects superior to those on the plains. They build good, permanent houses. They store up supplies of food
when fish, berries, and the like are in season. They
will do hard work, and are always anxious to be em-
ployed. An officer of a steamboat which plies on
the Stickeen told me that whenever he hired an Indian to chop so many cords of wood, and to have it
at a certain place, he was sure to find the contract
strictly fulfilled. The Cassiar miners in British Columbia employ them constantly in packing, chopping, and in doing all kinds of hard work. They are
self-supporting.
" This part of Alaska abounds in food. Yesterday I bought four codfish for ten cents, and a string
of black bass for five cents. A silver salmon, weighing thirty-eight to forty pounds, is sold for fifteen
or twenty cents. Last week I bought fifteen dozen
fresh clams for ten cents, and about twenty pounds
of halibut for the same price. Ducks, geese, grouse,
and snipe are abundant and cheap.    A good ham of 2IO
NATIVE SKILL.
venison will bring fifty cents.    In season berries are
gathered by the bushel.
I These natives are very saving of anything to
which the least value is attached. Some of the chiefs
are worth six or eight thousand dollars in blankets,
houses, skins, and the like. Some are wealthy on account of their slaves. The invention of these people
is remarkable. Their canoes are perfect. Some of
these are very large, holding three or four tons.
They carve out all sorts of toys illustrating their
mythology.
I Some of them devote their time to making
jewelry, a thing of which they are all fond. Hydah
John has done a great deal of work-at Wrangell for
the miners, in the way of rings, bracelets, and pins.
One fellow here at Sitka labored for a long time in
trying to make a watch ! Nearly everything that
they use has some sort of carving on it—their halibut-
hooks, knife-handles, spoons, pipes, baskets, dancing
apparatus, etc. This talent could be cultivated and
made a source of income to them.
"Your brother in Christ,
"John G. Brady."
Miss Kellogg writes :
" Sitka, Alaska, October, 1878.
" Dear Sir : Our school has proved a success, and
the advancement of the scholars has been a surprise
to every one. For a time they were very irregular
at the opening in the morning, but discovering that
the larger scholars were very fond of writing (that
they might be like Americans), I made it the first ex- A SINGING-SCHOOL.
211
ercise after the opening service. Very few of them
are tardy now. As far as possible, I give them object words for copy, requiring them to spell all out.
I then pronounce it in English, and then give them
the equivalent Indian word, that they may know
what they are writing about. After writing a dozen
lines, the English words are impressed upon their
minds. They are stimulated to do well, as the one
who takes the most pains gets a straight line or inventive drawing lessons.
" Two young men who have been only a few weeks
in the school are in multiplication in arithmetic.
They also have a perfect knowledge of notation, and
can write or tell me the most difficult numbers.
" Each Friday evening we have a singing-school.
Last week I told them that they could not be American men until they could whistle J Yankee Doodle.'
They caught the air at once. They are extremely
fond of music, and have learned the air of many of
Sankey's hymns. The hymn ' Come to Jesus ' having much repetition, they have learned the English
words.
" A week ago Sunday, the benches were all full,
and the people seemed greatly interested. Forty-
three remained at Sabbath-school. In four Sabbaths
they committed the first two verses of the 23d Psalm,
so that even those who could not say another word
in English could repeat them perfectly.
"We have had a funeral and wedding. Captain
Jack has had a rather bad reputation. He is, however, a good-natured Indian, and since the wedding
ceremony calls himself a Christian.    He has given TEMPERANCE.
up drinking, and has not tasted a drop for four
months. He says, ' Me drink no more.' I have explained to him the temperance pledge, and as he can
write his name he is anxious to sign one. I have
tried to impress upon him the solemnity of the
pledge, and that it would be a very sad thing if he
broke itfe I think at no distant day a little temperance society could be established here. Jack says
that he wants to be good just as soon as he can learn
how.|| Poor fellow, he needs the prayers of Christians.
I In consequence of his sobriety he was retained
at a salmon-cannery until the last hand was discharged for the season. Returning with his wages,
he bought some good clothing for church ; also a
nice calico dress and silk handkerchief and shawl
for his wife. On the following Sabbath she had the
handkerchief on her head. Meeting him afterward,
I said, ' Jack, the next article you buy for Mary must
be a hat, that she may look as well as the Fort
Wrangell women, who have nice gloves, collars, neckties,' etc. Last Saturday they came to my house to
show me his purchases—a muslin dress, which he
wished me to show her how to make just like mine,
two hats (a straw and velvet), a pair of gloves, and a
green ribbon for a tie. I gave her collars and cuffs
to complete the outfit. Jack is very proud of her,
and in her new rig she is styled the ' belle of the
city.'
" Mr. Brady succeeded in procuring the signatures
of all the merchants to an agreement that they would
send for no more molasses for rum, but the next HOOCHINOO.
213
steamer  brought a large   cargo   of  brown   sugar.
Even this is an improvement.
"Dick says, 'When molasses plenty, hoochinoo*
(rum) two bits a bottle ; plenty Indian buy rum.
When rum two dollars a bottle, nobody buys.' The
manufacture of rum must be stopped before these
people can ever become Christianized.
I Truly )rours,
" Fannie E. Kellogg."
• " Sitka, Alaska.
" Dear Doctor : I have just returned from a
missionary visit to the Hoonas. Indeed, I have recently made two canoe voyages, carrying with me
provisions, blankets,- and gun. The one was to the
Hoonas, upon Chicagoff Island, and the other to the
Kootsnoos and Litsuhquins, on Admiralty Island.
Several times the canoe came near being lost in the
chopping seas. The larger part of the time I was
wet from the spray dashing over us. I preached
boldly against witchcraft and the medicine-men,
against gambling, drunkenness, and licentiousness.
I took with me to the Hoonas a magic-lantern and
some fine views of the Holy Land. You may imagine
the astonishment of these people, who rarely ever see
a white man. I exhibited on two nights. On the second night, Charlie, the interpreter,  asked me to let
* Hoo-chi-noo, a rum distilled by the natives cf Alaska from
molasses. Their distillery is a very simple affair, being two discarded kerosene oil cans, and the long hollow root of the seaweed for a pipe. Hoo-chi-noo is the name of the tribe that firs!
manufactured it.    They were taught by a discharged soldier. 214
MISSIONARY TOUR.
the views of Jesus raising Lazarus, Jairus' daughter,
and Jesus walking on the water remain a longer
time, as the people liked to see them. I had been
talking to them about Jesus during the mornings.
They are an interesting people, and something
should be done for them.
I One day when we were among the icebergs which
come down from one of the glaciers in Cross Sound,
we came across one of the leading men. He was
dressed in citizens' clothes, and had a good canoe
and three strong men. We took him aboard. He
showed some good testimonials which had been given
him without solicitation. The next day he came and
brought with him another leader and his son. This
gave me an opportunity to speak to them, for Shu-
koff, my interpreter, was with me. They all knew
what was going on in Sitka. After talking to them
for some time they replied that they had been told
that there was a God, and they believed that there
was, but that they knew very little about him. They
would be very happy to have some one come and
teach them what is right and what God wants them
to do. I asked if they would like to have their children go to school. They replied, ' Very much ■ but
we are afraid that they can't learn well, like the children at Sitka. For they are close to white men, and
hear them, but we do not know one word.' I assured them that the children would do well, for they
would have less to draw them away from school.
They said that their people wanted to become civilized, but they knew that some of the other tribes
did not care to become so, but they thought that MARRIAGE  OF REV. S. HALL YOUNG.
215
their jealousy would be excited if they saw them doing well. They said that they would help build a
school-house. Now here is a tribe ready for the
Gospel, and the circumstances are all favorable, for
they are sensible people, but little given to hoochinoo
—far away from the whites, and are, therefore, virtuous. They have a home delightful for its scenery,
and its shelter is close to some of the grandest
sights on the globe, and they support themselves.
If we could only anticipate the miners by three
years, untold misery and vice would be prevented.
The miners are coming, however, and are beginning
to prospect, working in toward the sources of the
Yukon. Your brother in Christ,
"John G. Brady."
In December, 1878, Miss Kellogg was married to
Rev. S. Hall Young, of Fort Wrangell, and removed
from Sitka to her new home. Upon her departure
the school was suspended until the fall of 1879, when
Mr. Alonzo E. Austin, of New York, at the invitation
of the citizens, reopened it with sixty pupils.
In January, 1880, the Board of Home Missions appointed Rev. G. W. Lyons as missionary to Sitka,
and Miss Olinda A. Austin, daughter of Mr. Alonzo
E. Austin, as missionary teacher. CHAPTER VIII.
Appeal for Funds for Mission Buildings—The Response—Joy at
the Mission—Arrival of Dr. Corlies and Family—Coming of the
Roman Catholics—Arrival of Miss Maggie J. Dunbar as Teacher
—Visit of Rev. Henry Kendall, D.D., and others—Rejoicing of
the Indians—Organization of the Church—Erection of Buildings.
" Pity the Red Man ! scattered and peeled,
Smitten and wounded, yet scorning to yield ;
Prairie and forest and lake were his own,
Now he must wander, sad, homeless, and lone.
Hasten ! he stands on the farthermost shore ;
Haughty, intrepid, but loath to implore ;
Pilot his bark o'er the fathomless flood ;
Lead him to pardon, to Heaven, to God."
Rev. P. BEVAH-f.
The prominent events in the history of Alaska missions for 1879 were the appeal for funds for the
erection of mission buildings at Fort Wrangell, the
erection of those buildings, the organization of the
Fort Wrangell Presbyterian Church, and the visit of
Rev. Henry Kendall, D.D., and party.
Dr. Kendall and myself, in addition to our missionary duties, were a commission of the United
States Government, being officially requested by
"the Hon. John Sherman, Secretary of the United
States Treasury (who has the supervision of Alaska THE SAlaT* or GIRLS.
217
affairs), to make him a report upon the condition of
the native population, which we did upon our return. We also sent a renort to the Hon. Carl Schurz,
Secretary of the Interior, wno replied with a letter
of congratulations upon the success of the school at
Fort Wrangell, and recommended an application to
Congress for a grant for educational purposes in
Alaska.
Mrs. McFarland felt, from the very commencement of the mission, the need of a "Home" into
which she could gather such promising girls as
were in danger of being sold, and train them up to
be the future Christian teachers, wives, and mothers
of their people.
Among a people where heathenism crushes out a
mother's love and turns her heart to stone—where
for a few blankets a mother will sell her own daughter
for a week, a month, or ror years—she found that her
brightest and most promising pupils where those
who were in the greatest danger. As they improved
their advanages in the mission school, it manifested
itself in their external appearance. • They began to
comb their hair more smoothly, to dress more neatly,
and keep their persons more cleanly. Their dull, stolid
countenances began to light up with intelligence.
They became more attractive ; and as their attractions increased, white men were tne more anxious to
buy them for base purposes.
Again and again Mrs. McFarland had to interpose
to save her school-girls from lives of sin. One time
she rescued one, a girl of not over eleven years, from
a white man who had his arm around her on the
'msmm 218
A HOME NEEDED.
street, and was trying to force and coax her to his
house. At another time a white man went to the
home of one of her pupils—an orphan girl—and holding out a handful of money rattled it before her
eyes, saying that she could have all the money she
wanted to buy nice clothes with if she would go and
live with him. Upon another occasion one of her
pupils came to her with tears, telling how her mother
had sold her for fifteen or twenty blankets, and beseeching Mrs. McFarland to intercede with her
mother, as she did not wish to live such a life.
Again and again her pupils, having been thus sold
by their own mothers, have frantically clung to her,
imploring her to save them.
During 1878 the pressure steadily increased month
by month, and the necessity of such a Home more
imperative.
Month after month she sent the most touching appeals to the Ladies' Societies for funds to commence
the Home. Day after day, with a heart burdened
for the daughters of this people, she went into her
room, and with an agony that at times could not
find expression in words, besought that God, who
controls all hearts, would touch some, and raise up
helpers. It was the cry of great need and sore distress.
Letters were received from various sections of the
Church expressing a warm interest in the work, but
.no funds came.
While the church waited and the women of
Alaska perished, the providence of God interposed,
and the Home was commenced October 12th, 1878. A MOTHER PROPOSING TO SELL HER DAUGHTER. 2I£
Katy, one of the school-girls, fourteen years of
age, who had attended the school from the commencement, was about to be taken up the river and
sold to the miners by her mother. Mrs. McFarland,
hearing of it, took Mrs. Dickinson with her and started to visit the family, who lived over on the island.
When they reached the point where they usually
crossed, the tide was so high they could not get over.
By signs they attracted Katy's attention, who came
across in a canoe. She was sent back for her mother,
who came over. There for an hour and a half, seated
on a rock by the shore in a pouring rain, Mrs. McFarland pleaded with that heathen mother until she
promised not to take Katy away. But the next week
the mother broke her promise, and tried to compel her
daughter to accompany her to the mines. The canoe
was prepared, and the mother took her seat; the blankets, provisions, and younger children were in their
places, but the little girl lingered on the shore. The
mother ordered her in, threatening her with all manner of terrible things. The child hesitated, crying and
begging most piteously. Finally, when they would
have put her in by force, the little girl, straightening
herself up, said, | Mother, you may kill me, but I will
not go with you and live a life of sin."
She then ran into the woods and hid. When her
mother had gone she came out and claimed Mrs. McFarland's protection.
Then a bright-eyed little girl of twelve years, who
was about to be sold, having learned better things
in the school, came begging Mrs. McFarland to save
her, and thus a second was added  to the Home. Z20
AN APPEAL FOR THE HOME.
Without furniture and without means, the enterprise
began in the house kindly rented for the work by
Mr. Vanderbilt. It is a large two-storied structure,
well suited for the purpose. The Home being commenced, the necessity was upon the Church to provide for permanent buildings.
In this exigency, corresponding with Mrs. Julia
McNair Wright, whose pen and talents are ever at
the service of the Church, it was agreed that she and
myself should write a series of appeals to the Church,
to contribute, as a Christmas offering, the funds necessary for the erection of these buildings. This was
done.
Mrs. Wright closed one of her articles with the
following touching appeal :
" O mothers of our Church, every one of you who
holds a baby girl on your knee, see in her face the
pleading of that babe cast out in cold woods to die !
In the name of Him who blessed the little children,
give something, even if the veriest mite, to this
Home. O you mothers of these dear young girls,
every one whose home is made fairer by a daughter's
face, give something to save these other girls from
shame and anguish, something to help us teach those
other mothers how great a boon a little maiden may
be at her own fireside. The proposal is to make this
Home for Alaskan girls the Christmas gift of our
Prerbyterian women to their Lord. Mothers, wives,
sisters, daughters, friends, can you now prepare your
Chf'stmas gifts for your kindred and acquaintance,
and send nothing, not one dollar, to this Christmas
gift for our Lord ?   Ah, better that there should be SUCCESS OF THE APPEAL.
a little less, and not our choicest guest forgotten.
Let us have a grand, warm-hearted response ; let
each, according to their ability, send to the Home
Board a gift marked, ' For the Girls' Home in
Alaska.' "
The Ladies' Board of Missions consented to receive
the funds. The appeal was successful. Contributions flowed in from the St. Lawrence to the Gulf.
The freed-women of the South joined their gifts with
the wealthy of the cities. The women rallied from
the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in many a mission
home in the Rocky Mountains earnest prayer accompanied their gifts on Christmas morning for far-
off Alaska.
In February I was able to write to the missionaries
at Fort Wrangell, who were anxiously waiting the
result of the appeal, "God has heard your prayers.
The Church is responding nobly. Two thousand
five hundred dollars have been received, and more is
coming." This sum eventually reached between
four and five thousand dollars. The response from
the missionaries was what might have been expected.
Rev. S. Hall Young wrote :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, March ix, 1879.
" Rev. Sheldon Jackson, D.D.
" My Very Dear Brother : Your letter of February 15th has caused great rejoicing at the mission.
It is the king of all the letters we have received.
Our hopes now have eagles' wings. God is better
than our fears. The future that this mission merits
seems likely now to be at last proximately realized. 222
THANKS OF THE MISSIONARIES.
And to you, under God, we give hearty thanks as
the kind instrument of this change for the better in
our prospects. You have our gratitude far beyond
any other man. You have proved yourself an unselfish, self-sacrificing, earnest friend of Alaska and
its missionaries. We are all your firm and grateful
friends, and pray always for your success and welfare "
Mrs. A. R. McFarland wrote :
" There has been a song in my heart ever since the
mail arrived with the news of the noble response of
the Church to the call in the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian for funds to build the ' Home.'
11 felt sure if we trusted him, God would, in his
own good time, send us the help we so much needed.
We feel that this is the beginning of glorious times
for this mission. Suitable buildings for our work
will enable us to accomplish so much more for Christ.
I We are very much rejoiced to hear that Dr.
Kendall and yourself are proposing to visit this mission. The Lord bring you to us in safety. I wish
every Christian could come and see with their own
eyes the great destitutions and needs of this field.''
Rev. John G. Brady, of Sitka, then in the East,
wrote :
'* New York City, March 20, 1879.
" Dear Dr. Jackson : . . . You have done more
than any other one in stirring up an interest in Alaska.
Dr. Hastings to-day spoke of the time when you had
the large map in his church.    Nearly all the funds *-*—
VIGILANCE COMMITTEE.
which have been raised must be credited to your
zeal. I wish that you had wings like an eagle, that
you might soar over the whole of Alaska, and then
tell in the Rocky Mountain Presbyterian what you saw.
Your appeals, I perceive, have come down with triphammer force."
These letters were followed by a unanimous vote
of thanks from the Presbytery of Puget Sound, the
nearest * presbytery to Alaska.
We now return to Mrs. McFarland's letter-history
of the mission :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Jan. 8, 1879.
" Dr. Jackson.
"Dear Brother: After I had written you last
month, a white man killed another in a billiard-saloon.
The mob took possession of the murderer, and would
have hung him on the spot, but the more thoughtful
ones prevented them. They organized a court and
gave him a regular trial. He was convicted and sentenced to death. They proceeded at once to erect a
gallows in the main street in the village. Hearing
that he was to be hung, I felt that, as Mr. Young
was away, I must go and see him. He professed
great indifference to the  future, although I could
* By an oversight of -the General Assembly of 1876 in constituting the Synod of the Columbia (see pages 75 and 76, Vol. 4,
New Series, of Minutes of the Assembly), and defining the boundaries of the several presbyteries thereof, Alaska was left within
the bounds of the Synod of the Pacific, where it was placed by the
General Assembly of 1870. (See Minutes of Assembly, page 87,
Vol. 1, New Series.) 224
A CHRISTMAS TREE.
see that it was forced. Twice in the night, however, he sent for me. He was then in great distress
of mind, but got no peace. He told me that he had
Christian parents (Presbyterian), but that he had not
heard a prayer for twentv vears until I prayed with
him. It was a terrible scene, and completely unnerved me.
'' Since the holidays commenced the Indians have
had a gay time. We had a Christmas-tree, and it
was a perfect success. We numbered the Indians by
hundreds, and yet there was something for each one.
The fruit of this tree was furnished by Mrs. Young,
from things sent by her friends in the East.
" At midnight the Indians came and sang in front
of our houses, and gave us their Christmas saluta^
tion. At ten o'clock a.m. they had a procession
and hand-shaking. At half-past eleven a.m. we
had a Christmas sermon, at the close of which Mr.
Young married one of my pupils to Matthew, our
good Indian. Immediately after came the wedding-
feast, which was a grand affair for this section.
I During the week there was another wedding and
feast, besides several feasts without weddings. Now
two white men are soon to wed Indian girls. Thus
a very different state of things is springing up here.
" The Home is getting along nicely—that is, if you
can call it nice to be getting deeper and deeper in
debt every day. I believe it is God's work and that
he will raise up the means. And while I feel that
faith is an excellent thing to have, yet I am greatly
pressed to find anything to eat for these hungry
girls.    I am very anxious to know the result of your mm
ARRIVAL OF AN ORGAN.
225
appeal. The year for the lease of this building is
rapidly passing away, and if we are to get up another
building in time, we must soon be at work. If we
fail to do this, I do not like to think of the consequences."
■ Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Feb. n, 1879.
" Dear Brother : The school is very full, and the
attendance of the Indians upon church is increasing.
" The Home is prospering beyond my expectations. I now have seven young girls. This week two
more applied for admission, but I have to put them
off. I could fill the house before sunset, but have to
move slowly. We can only enlarge as the Church
furnishes the money. The missionary-boxes have
been a great help. The girls look so pretty and comfortable in their new dresses.    They are so thankful.
" Our organ has arrived imgood condition, and is a
very great help to us. I am exceedingly anxious to
hear about the building fund. Surely such appeals
cannot go unheeded."
" March, 1879.—One of my girls has been very
sick the past month. It is too bad not to have a
physician here. I feel it more than ever now that I
have these children to take care of. I hope a teacher
may come soon, as Mr. Young is burdened with the
school in addition to all his other labors. It was a
good providence that sent him to this mission.
" I hope some time this summer to be able to visit
Fort Simpson and Metlahkatlah and learn how they
carry on their schools. Their experience and methods might assist me. It is after midnight, and I
must rest.    My correspondence has become a serious 226       VISIT OF MENNONITE  MISSIONARIES.
matter, and increases every month. Last mail I sent
out thirty-five letters. I have already written twenty-
eight for this mail, and am not near through yet. My
stationery and postage are quite an item."
I April, 1879.—I have taken two more girls into
the Home since I last wrote you. One is the daughter
of a Tacou shaman or medicine-man. She is twelve
years old, and exceptionally pretty and bright. I
saw her on the street, and knew that with her winning face she was not safe. My heart went out to
her,- and I concluded to try and make room for her
in my little household.
1 Being too unwell to go myself, Mr. Young kindly
consented to secure her for me. Taking Mrs. Dickinson, the interpreter, and the little girl, they went
.in a canoe to where her parents were staying. They
had a long wa-wa (talk) before her parents would
give her up. But they finally consented, and Mr.
Young brought her back with him. I have named
her Annie Graham.
I The other girl is only ten years old. But young
as she is, her mother had already sold her for ten
blankets to a Chilcat Indian for his wne. she was
keeping the girl until he brought the blankets.
While waiting, the mother was taken sick. An older
sister, who does not live at home, hearing of it,
brought the child to me. The little girl seems to be
perfectly happy with me. She was in great terror
of being taken up into the Chilcat country. I have
named her Alice Kellogg.
1 Rev. S. S. Haury and an assistant, John Baer,
&oth of  the  Mennonite   Church,  came up  on  this a\RRIVAL OF THE ROMAN CATHOLICS.
steamer and preached for us yesterday morning.
We were pleased with him. They have gone on to
Sitka and Kadiak.    Truly yours,
" A. R. McFarland."
I Fort Wrangell, Alaska, May, 1879.
" Dear Brother : We are all rejoiced at the
prospect of seeing your party at an early day. The
coming of such dear friends will make it seem almost
like the East. I feel quite impatient to see a beginning made on our new home. There is now an additional reason for making haste.
" The Roman Catholics are invading our ground.
Among the passengers on the Olympia a week ago
was a Romish bishop and priest. They at once established a mission. The bishop made an attack on Mr.
Young the following Sabbath morning. He was trying to get the people to make the sign of the cross,
but none would respond save Shus-taks, the wicked
chief. This made the bishop angry, and he broke
out as follows : ] Why don't you do as I told you ?
Are you afraid of Mr. Young ? You are not Mr.
Young's slaves. He is not a true minister anyway.
No man can be a true minister and have a wife.
Look at me ; I am a true minister ; I am all the same
as Jesus Christ, and I don't have any wife. By and
by Mr. Young will want you to pay lots of money
for his wife,' and much more of the same kind.
"The Indians are so fond of outside display and
show that the Romish Church would suit them in
that respect. But we can take courage as we remember that the Lord is on our side. 228
ARRIVAL  OF  REV. W. H. R. CORLIES.
i The Home is prospering. The village is crowded
with miners, many of them being of the worst kind.
If the friends of the mission were here now they
would realize more than ever the necessity of protecting the girls. It makes me very happy to feel
that at least those in my family are safe. I see
that there has been some fault-finding because I took
such young girls into the Home. If they who find
fault were only here they would see the wisdom of
our course. The last girl I received was only ten
years old, yet her mother had already sold her to a
man for ten blanket*-"
■ June 9th, 1879.—Since writing you last month I
have taken three girls into the Home. One is a very
bright and pretty child from the Hydah tribe. The
other two are half-breed Stickeens. One is seventeen years old.
" Hers is a peculiar case. She lived with an aunt,
who was living with a white man. Lately the white
man conceived a great fancy for the girl, and has importuned her to live with him, saying that he would
send the old woman awav. The girl utterly refused
to consent to any such thing. The man being called
away from home on business, the girl fled to me for
protection. She is quite intelligent, speaks English
well, and is the best educated Indian in the village.
She is very fair, and would pass for a white girl.
These make twelve girls now under my care.
"Truly yours.       A. R. McFarland."
In June,  1879, Rev. W. H. R. Corlies, M.D., wife
and child, of Philadelphia, reached Fort Wrangell. VISIT OF REV. HENRY KENDALL, D.D.
.29
They had gone out, independent of mission societies, to establish a mission at their own charges.
After canvassing the field it was deemed best for Mr.
Corlies to settle at Fort Wrangell as a missionary
physician. Mrs. Corlies opened a school among the
visiting Indians, who in large numbers come to the
village for the purpose of trade, and usually camp
on the beach above the town.
This school has been very successful, and from
it the leaven of the Gospel has been carried to many
distant tribes.
During our stay at Wrangell a great medicineman came from the interior, north of the Chilcat
country, who had never before seen a white man.
He regularly attended church and Sabbath-school,
and also Mrs. Corlies' day-school. When the time
came for him to return home, he asked Mrs. Corlies
to pray for him, and to pray that God would quickly
send a teacher for his people.
On the 21st of July, 1879, a party consisting of
Dr. and Mrs. Henry Kendall, Dr. and Mrs. A. L.
Lindsley, Miss M. J. Dunbar, my wife and myself
reached Fort Wrangell and received a very warm wel-
come from the missionaries and the native Christians.
This was particularly the case with Dr. Kendall.
No late event has so favorably impressed the Indians
at Fort Wrangell as this visit of Dr. Kendall. Of
commanding personal presence, one of the secretaries of a board that has its thousand men stretching from Alaska to Florida, coming from the shores
of a distant ocean to inquire after their welfare,
bringing the money to erect the Girls' Industrial 230
CHURCH  ORGANIZED.
Home, it is no wonder that the Indians recognized
him as the " Great Chief." One after another of
their chiefs and leading men called to see him and
express their pleasure at his visit, one with great
earnestness remarking that he had not slept all night
for joy. The missionaries, too, hailed his coming
with delight. His large experience and wise counsels solved for them many a knotty problem. His
patience and kindliness in entering into the details
of their difficulties and trials, his large sympathies,
greatly endeared him to them ; while his hopefulness
encouraged their hearts, strengthened their hands,
and stimulated them to fresh zeal in the work.
Sabbath, August 3d, 1879, will ever be a memorable
day in '.he history of Alaska. The Presbyterian Mission, commenced August 10, 1877, by the arrival at
Fort Wrangell of Mrs. A. R. McFarland and myself,
had made such progress during the two years of
its existence that Rev. S. Hall Young, the missionary in charge thought it expedient to form his
Christian natives into a church. He had for months
.been instructing them in a special class as to the
nature and duties of church-membership.
The presence of several visiting ministers made a
suitable occasion.
On Saturday afternoon, August 2d, Rev. Henry
Kendall, D.D., preached the preparatory sermon,
after which was held the examination of candidates
for church-membership. This examination was had
through an interpreter, the candidates being unable
to speak English, and the examiners equally unable
to speak Thlinket.
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P  CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
233
The services continued from three o'clock p.m. to
seven, and, after a short intermission for supper,
until eleven p.m.
On Sabbath morning at half-past nine o'clock the
church came together for prayer.
At half-past ten a.m. the formal organization of
the church was effected. Sermon by Rev. Henry
Kendall, D.D., constituting prayer by Rev. Sheldon
Jackson, D.D., reception and baptism of members
by Rev. S. Hall Young, reading of the Covenant by
Rev. A. L. Lindsley, D.D., and benediction by Rev.
W. H. R. Corlies, M.D.
At three p.m. the church met for the celebration
of the Lord's Supper, Rev. S. Hall Young presiding.
The opening prayer was by Dr. Corlies, the address by Dr. Jackson, the distribution of the elements by Dr. Kendall, prayer of thanksgiving by
Rev. Mr. Young, and benediction by Dr. Lindsley.
At 7.30. p.m. I preached to the whites, and was followed with an address by Dr. Kendall.
Twenty-three members were received into the new
organization, of whom eighteen were Indians, and
all of the eighteen, save one, received Christian
baptism. The following Sabbath five more were received, four of whom were Indians.
Among the six whites received into membership
were Mrs. McFarland and Mrs. Vanderbilt, from the
Presbyterian Church of Portland, Oregon ; Mrs.
Young, from North Granville, N. Y.; Miss Dunbar,
from Steubenville, Ohio, and Mr. Regner and Mr.
Chapman (two carpenters working upon the church
and Home) upon profession of their faith. 234
.CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
It will be of interest to the many friends of the
Alaska Mission to know something of the testimony
of the native Christians who were received into church-
membership. Some of the converts that I found at
Fort Wrangell in 1877, as the result of Clah's preaching, had shown that they were not truly regenerated.
Others had remained steadfast, and under the instructions of Mrs. McFarland and Rev. Mr. Young
had grown in the divine life.
These latter, with others that have been more
directly the fruit of Mr. Young's ministry, gave the
following testimony, Mrs. Dickinson interpreting :
Moses Louie.—" I am a sinner—very evil. My
hope is that God had sent his Son to wash away my
guilt. I believ*-*** that God has given me a new heart.
I love to pray daily for strength. I want only one
mind toward Christians."
Martha (wife of Moses).—" I have learned about
God and Christ, and want them to have pity on me.
Will try to obey God as long as I live, not in my
own strength, but pray God for strength. Daily
pray God to have pity on me."
Matthew Shakats.—" Formerly blind in sin.
Very long time in sin. Think God has changed my
heart, and I want to come out on God's side. I
have had much trouble, and want the help of the
Church and of God. Learned of God that Jesus
died for me. Now carry my sins to God, and have
hope."
Aaron Kohanow.—" I understand very solemn
thing to join the church. Indians don't understand
as well as white men  about it.    Willing to go on CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
235
looking to God to help me. Understand how Christ
has spoken that I must be born again. I want the
new birth. I ask God to give me a new heart. God
hear me. Take my sins and troubles to God."
(Aaron was formerly a shaman and sorcerer. Upon
his conversion destroyed all the implements of his
sorcery.)
Annie (Aaron's wife).—" I was sick and told God.
I wanted to walk with God's people. Always bad
before, because I did not know about God. Now I
know about him and want to follow him. The Lord
Jesus knows that I am a sinner and he died for me."
Jonathan Katanake (leading councillor of the
head chief).—" Willing to try and obey God.
Know how God pity on us. Diet! for me—pains
for my sins—pities me, and teaches me to live aright.
I try to do it. I give my heart to him. I do not disbelieve about God—how he saved me—I know it.
I nearly lost. He stretched out his hand and pulled
me back. I feel it. Willing to leave all earthly
things. I want to live as God says. Not my strength,
only if God helps. Don't say this to make men believe. God knows my heart. I want to live in his
sight. When a boy I went to Victoria and heard
some one say the Son of God die for people's sins.
I did not know then. When sickness come, then I
ask the Son of God to save me. Did not ask that
sickness go away, but that he save me. God heard
me, therefore I believe."
John Kadishan (chief).—" Yes, true. The Lord
die for us. Why disbelieve, when he suffered all
pains for us.    He came for our sins.    I know it when 23*5
CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
a boy, but did not take it in my heart. Now I take ii
in. Bible tells us one brother, one heart. I try to
love all who love Jesus. Try to love my brothers
and sisters—to live straight. God's Spirit now in
me. I know it. I believe it with all my heart'.
When I first go to hear Mr. Young I hear the truth.
I fight against it. Temptation hold me back. But
I couldn't stand it longer. I must go and talk with
Mr. Young. I fight the truth no more. Now I love
the truth."
Lena Quonkah (wife of John).—"When Clah
was here he stay at our house. I go to hear him
preach. He pray, and get what he prayed for. Then
I thought I pray too. God heard me; then I was
happy. I like to quit all my badness and give it to
Christ, and he take it. I like to live as a Christian
-—help the poor, pity the sick. I came to tell all my
heart before these gentlemen.    I tell it all to God."
Isaac Kasch.—" I came to Mr. Young first time
last winter and say I wanted to be his friend and the
friend of God. People say you turn your heart to
God and laugh at me. I say nobody's business what
I do. I mean to serve God. Long ago we blind—
all in darkness. We call the crows, and fish, and
everything God. But God pity us and give us daylight. He don't want us to die all together. He
pity us. Not hard for me to believe in God—that
Jesus is the Son of God. I feel different in my heart.
My old-fashioned heart was different. I feel my
heart is clean now. I live different. I quit all
earthly things. I try to do right and pray God. I
want to be swift in God's way." CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
237
Jeremiah O'unk.—" I love God and want to be a
Christian. When young, my hair was black, and I
never heard of God. Now I am getting old—my
hair is white, and I hear about God, and want to
love him and obey him. One time I heard about
God. Fort Simpson people say, believe God and I
would be saved. I try to believe him. I give my heart
to God, and want to do what is right. I am a sinner. I always before do bad toward God, but when
I heard that Jesus die for my sins, I believe. Formerly I talk bad and strike my wife and children.
Now I try to do right, and I pray God to help me
do right."
Toy-a-att (chief).—I How many sins we must
quit on earth ! The serpent, he make us blind.
That the reason we live so poor. Now God show
himself to us and we believe. You know all about
how I formerly lived. How I was all the time in
trouble and quarreling—all the time when the ball or
knife go through me. Now I quit it all. Jesus help
me. I live peaceably. I always ask God give me a
new heart. Bible tells how Jesus lived on earth—not
proud. The Son of God, he washed his disciples'
feet. I wash all the brethren's feet. Two things
I want: Be like little children ; thank God help us
always. Formerly I love myself. Didn't want to
die quick—all blind heart. Now I know better,
and want to love every one. I love my enemies, and
pray God to save them. I see many children. I
pray God send ministers and teachers. God hear
my prayer.    I very happy."
Mary Katlseeh.—" Like to be a church-member 23&
CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
because God die for my sins on the cross. That is
the reason I like to pray God. I do not put my face
before any people. God knows my heart. I want
to serve him."
Mary Flanery.—'' I like to love my Saviour and
give all my badness to him, tell him all my sins,
carry my heavy-laden to him, and ask him to forgive
all my sins. I am willing, and want to love God
with all my heart. Nobody tell me about him until Mr. Young come.    I now believe him."
Mrs. Jennie Church.—" I believe the Church is
God's road, and I want to be in it and love God. I
confess my sins before his face. I put them all
away.    I give myself to God's service."
Rebecca Shetutayah.—" I like to be a friend to
Christ. I want to give all my sins to him. I am
poor and weak. I believe in God because he shows
how he loves me, pities me, and saves me. When I
was nearly gone down into the pit of everlasting fire,
he pities on me and die to save me. I try to stop all
my sins. I don't want to go in the wrbng way any
more. God shows me what is the right way. I pray
him help me."
Mrs. Jennie Steele.—'' I like to be a church-member. Quit all my sins I used to do before. Because
God saved my life, I want to do right and not as
I used to do before-I give myself to God."
Lot Ty-een.—" Yes, I feel God's Spirit come to
me. I feel how sin I am before. I knew not God
then. Now my heart differ. I feel now God forgive my sin. I feel it in my heart that I love God
because he save me.    I believe Jesus Christ died for CHRISTIAN EXPERIENCE.
239
me—pay my sin. God teach me to love one another.
I try to obey God and love them all. If enemy come
to me, I love him, and show him the right, and tell
him about God.    If he starve, I feed him."
Emma Ty-een (Lot's wife).—" I was sinner-full of
sin, because I didn't know how to live. God knows
it. I now give it all to Jesus. I don't want to hide
back my sin. I give it all to Jesus who died for me
with nails in his hands and feet, and knife in his side,
and that's why I don't want to go back to my sins. I
want to live right. I trust Jesus help me. Not my
own strength to put away sins. All the things I put
behind me. Earthly things like rust in my flesh. I
obey my husband, and obey God, and help the poor
and sick."
Richard Katchkuku (married his uncle's wife by
inheritance).—" Great sinner—hungry and want
something to eat of God's word to satisfy my soul.
I hear about God a long while, but did not feel in
my heart. Now I feel in my heart, and want to join
with my brothers and sisters. God pity me. His
spirit come to me. I give all my heart to God. I
look to Jesus for help, and ask him to forgive all
my sin. I like to tell every'one the good news about
God."
Mary Katchkuku (Richard's wife).—11 like to
love Jesus, and that's the reason why I want to come
to him. I feel sorry that I always disobey God before, but now I praise my Saviour because he die for
me. And I don't like to dirty his face any more.
Four years been believing in God, ever since Clah
first tell me about him.    If in my house, or canoe, 240
BUILDING.
or in the woods, wherever I am, always pray to
God."
While we were at Fort Wrangell arrangements were
made for pushing forward the mission buildings as
rapidly as the necessary materials could be procured.
The church was to be 36x55 feet in size, and the
Girls' Industrial Home 40x60 feet, two stories high,
besides attic and basement.
No one that has not tried building a thousand
miles from a hardware store and a hundred miles
from a saw-mill, in a community where there was
not a horse, wagon, or cart, and but one wheelbarrow, can realize the vexatious delays incident to
such a work.
Nevertheless the church was completed so as to be
occupied for worship on Sabbath, October 5th ; and
the Home was inclosed, but will not oe finished until
the spring of 1880. In October Rev. S. Hall Young,
accompanied by Professor Muir of California, Toy-a-
att and Kadeshan, and two young men, made a
canoe voyage up the coast as far as the Chilcat villages to see what could be done toward the establishment of schools among them. We give the following extracts from his report :
" Passing through Kake Strait to its junction
with Prince Frederick Sound, we came to the principal Kake town, called Klukquann (no sleep). The
village consists of some half dozen large houses and
some smaller ones. It is beautifully situated on a
charming bay, with a wide, dry, sandy beach. In
the immediate neighborhood there is an abundance
of good land from which the people raise quantities
•ww MISSIONARY   TOUR.
24I
of potatoes and turnips. Their country is the best
adapted for agriculture of any we found on our trip.
The tribe numbers three hundred and sixty-four, and
has a bad name. Several years ago a party of six
white men were murdered by them. We met the
principal men. They listened reverently to our message and asked for a teacher. But there was an air
of suspicion and indifference among them that we
did not find at the other villages. An earnest Christian teacher would not find any difficulty in working
a great change among them.     A majority of this
SEAL-SKIN  SHOES.
SEAL-SKIN MOCCASINS.
people had never heard the Gospel message before.
The nefarious traffic in their women at Fort Wrangell
and Sitka and the manufacture and use of hoochinoo
are making fearful inroads upon their numbers. This
village is on the north-west side of Kuprianoff Island.
. . . Monday, October 20th, we reached Letushkan,
on Admiralty Island, a village of the Hootznahoos.
It is a mean, dirty-looking place, of low, dingy
houses, and contains a population of two hundred
and forty-six. They are very poor and degraded,
and their chief said to us with great earnestness that
the only hope of saving his people from speedy ruin 242
THE  CHILCATS.
was in the coming of a missionary ; that whiskey and
the debauchery of their women were making fearful
ravages among them ; that he and his people would
gladly yield obedience to a missionary should one
come, and that there would be but little difficulty in
suppressing intemperance.
" Tuesday we reached Angoon, the chief town of
the Hootznahoos. It is beautifully situated, and has
a population of four hundred and ten. But we did
not remain long, as the whole town was drunk.
" We next visited Kowdekan, the large village of
the Hoonyah tribe. It is located on a beautiful deep
bay on the north-east shore of Tchitchagoff Island.
The population is six hundred and twenty-five.
They are a simple-hearted, primitive people. The
women are comparatively unpolluted, and the children numerous. They have constant communication by canoe with Sitka and Fort Wrangell. We
should make this one of our chain of mission stations among the Thlinket-speaking people. . . .
" Gayrun is the lower village of the Chilcats, at
the mouth of Chilcat River (pronounced by the natives Chitl Kawt). We were met at the landing with
the firing of guns and great demonstrations of joy.
At a subsequent conference, Kath, the chief, speaking for the people, expressed their great satisfaction
at the prospect of a missionary being sent to them ;
that it was what they had been asking for a long
time ; that, from what they had seen at Fort Wrangell
of the fruits of Christianity, they had been led already to give up a belief in their old superstitions,
and were ready to adopt the religion of the white INDIANS   GAMBLING. *ml ANXIETY TO HEAR PREACHING.
245
men, who excelled them in every branch of knowledge.
' They offered to donate a large new house to the
missionary for church and school purposes.
' I never before saw a people so hungry for the word
of God. They filled the house of the chief, where we
spoke, to suffocation, and some who could not get in
climbed upon the roof and listened through the aperture for the escape of the smoke, enduring the cold
for two hours at a time rather than miss any of our
message. When we were through they refused to go
away, saying, ' Your words are food to our hearts,'
and insisting that we should preach again and again.
They are a fine-looking, intelligent people. Many
are rich, and nearly all in comfortable circumstances.
They control the trade of a large tract of country
inland, and are sharp traders. The women are virtuous, and seem to have at least as much honor from
the men as they show to their husbands. They are
far from being slaves. I noticed that all the hard
work, such as getting wood, carrying water, and
caring for the canoes, was done by the men, and indeed a good deal of housework is done by them also.
" Children swarm about every house. Their old
laws are in force, but the superstitions which answer
for their religion are held very slightly. An old
medicine-man who was present said that when the
missionary came he would cut his hair and cease his
sorceries. We were unable to reach the principal
village, twenty-five miles up the river, on account of
a severe storm and the lateness of the season.
Shathitch, the chief, sent down a canoe for us.    I 246
ANXIETY  TO  HEAR  PREACHING.
would like nothing better than to enter such a
place as a pioneer missionary, and see what could
be done toward lifting up to a high standard of
Christian civilization a naturally noble people. I
know of no other place where, so far as we can
judge, such valuable results could be achieved by
the same amount of effort in so short a time.
" On the eastern side of Admiralty Island we visited the village of Auke. They were the most degraded, poverty-stricken, brutal people we visited.
Many of them were half drunk. In several of their
camps we found hoochinoo stills at work making
rum. We reached Fort Wrangell upon our return,
November 21st, and found that the work had progressed beyond our hopes. Several accessions are
expected at our next communion. The incidental
expenses of the church are now all provided for by
the Indians. The congregations number from two
hundred to three hundred. The Sabbath-school has
an average attendance of one hundred and seventy-
five, with six teachers. The home is very prosperous."
Mrs. McFarland writes :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Oct. 11,1879.
I Dear Brother : Our church last Sabbath was
largely attended. In the evening there was a larger
congregation of whites than I have ever before seen
at this place. Mr. Young preached an excellent sermon from the text, \ I would rather be a doorkeeper,'
etc.
" Miss Dunbar is proving herself a very competent
and efficient teacher in the school. A MARRIAGE ENGAGEMENT BROKEN
1 Tillie has broken her engagement with the young
Indian. She concludes she could not marry an unbeliever. She says, ' John does not care anything
about God, while I am trying to be a Christian, and
I know I would not be happy with him. He would
only drag me down again to be a " siwash" (degraded
heathen woman). I asked her why she had promised
to marry him. She replied, ' I never wanted him.
It was my family made the match.' I then inquired
if she preferred any other, to which she replied, ' No,
I want to stay with you, for I fear I cannot be good
if I am not where I can have your assistance.' The
young man is very angry, and threatens that she shall
not marry any one else.
" We have now divided the Sabbath-school into
five classes. Miss Dunbar has all the girls who can
read in the Testament. Dr. Corlies has the boys
who can read. Mrs. Corlies and Mrs. Chapman
have the little ones. I have the larger girls and
women who can not read, and Mr. Young takes the
larger boys and men. This will be a great improvement on the time when I had them all in a class together. Truly yours,
" A. R. McFarland."
Miss Dunbar writes :
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, October n, 1879.
" Dear Sir : I have opened my school with forty-
five scholars ; have been teaching three weeks. I
think I shall like it very much indeed. My time is
so busily occupied that it passes very quickly. I
have school five hours, and from four to six we study 248      PARENTS AND CHILDREN AT SCHOOL.
the language with Mrs. Dickinson. It is very hard.
We are now translating the first chapter of Genesis.
I am taking music lessons from Mrs. Young ; practice one hour and a half before school. There is an
organ in the school-room, and I find it very convenient. Friday afternoon we devote to knitting, plain
sewing and patch-work, singing, etc., etc. The large
boys saw enough wood to last the coming week.
Classes range from A B C to fourth reader, geography, and practical arithmetic. I find the Indians
quite as ready to learn as the white children, and not
half so mischievous. The Indians are now coming
home from their fishing and hunting grounds, and
this winter we will have a large school. I am training some of the larger girls to assist me with the
small children. Mothers and daughters stand side
by side in class, and it is interesting to see what delight they take in turning one another down in spelling-class. The children are very fond of singing.
Some have very sweet voices. They would all be so
proud to have a singing-book of their own. The
girls are learning to do housework. They wash and
iron quite well, and the oldest girl is a nice baker.
We all eat at the same time, but have separate tables
from the girls. When they are excused, each girl
carries her own plate, cup and saucer to the kitchen,
and the table is cleared off very quietly and quickly.
They make quite a business of eating—do not talk
much at the table—and do you believe it ? these girls
never knew what it was to eat at a table before they
came into the Home.
" Now I will tell you how we spend Sabbath.   It HOW THE SABBATH IS SPENT.
249
is the busiest day in the week. Preaching at ten
o'clock, Sunday-school at close of church. Preaching again at three o'clock in the afternoon, sometimes in Chinook, but often through an interpreter
in the Stickeen language. In the evening preaching
in English for the whites. We look forward to this
service With pleasure, as the other services are necessarily very tedious. In the evening before church
the children in the Home recite the catechism and
Scripture verses. We have worship at our meals before we begin to eat. In the evening the girls come
into my room to read a chapter before they retire.
They read quite well now.
' From my room the view is exquisite, overlooking
the bay. At a distance you can see the snow-capped
peaks. One mountain after another rises out of the
sea like domes. This is a wonderful country. God
has done much to beautify it.
" The names of our girls, from the smallest to the
largest, are Nellie, Fannie, Susie, Mary Jackson,
Hattie, Louisa Norcross, Annie Graham, Kitty, Alice
Kellogg, Emma, Katie, Minnie, Eliza, Johanna, Tillie Kinnou. Truly yours,
" Maggie J. Dunbar."
"Fort Wrangell, Alaska, November 11, 1879.
" Dear Brother : My family has increased very
much since you were here. I now report twenty
girls. This greatly increases my cares. Last Sabbath Dr. Corlies suggested at the morning service
that some of the Christian Indians should go up the
beach, where a number of heathen Indians were en- 2$0
THE CHURCH FULL.
camped, and invite them to church in the afternoon.
This was done, and resulted in the church being
crowded to overflowing. There was not even standing room left. It was very inspiring to see so many
of those poor creatures, with their blankets and
painted faces, crowding into the church. We earnestly pray that it may be the beginning of a revival
among us. Truly yours,
" Mrs. A. R. McFarland."
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, Nov. 29, 1879.
" Dear Sir : . . . The school is prosperous and
every department of the mission flourishing. The
great eagerness of this people to receive instruction
is wonderful. I was told before coming here that the
Indians could not learn. But in this respect I have
been very agreeably disappointed. I must say that
in dress, order, and studiousness they rank with many
of our common schools. In singing, reading, spelling, writing, at the blackboard or mental arithmetic,
they evince ability to learn what white children
learn. Perhaps they are a little slower, but considering that they are mastering a new language at the
same time, all due allowance can be made for them.
The days are so short we are obliged to have only
one session of the school. It extends from ten a.m.
until half-past two p.m.,. without any intermission.
Mr. Young has reopened the night-school for those
who cannot attend during the day. Dr. Corlies and
Mr. Chapman are assisting him. Our oldest girl in
the Home (Tillie Kinnou) has become a Christian,
and  expresses a great desire   to   be trained for a ■AN EFFICIENT TEACHER.
2-51
teacher. She is already quite a help in teaching the
younger children. She is a girl of much promise
and decision of character.
" Mrs. Corlies is doing a great work among the
wild Indians. Many of their children attend church
and Sabbath-school. We are thankful for the prayers
of God's dear people. With God's favor and blessing we can build up a model Christian village that
shall reflect light and radiate heat to many darkened
tribes all along this coast.    Truly yours,
" Maggie J, Dunbar."
" Fort Wrangell, Alaska, December 16, 1879.
" Dear Brother : The mission work here is in a
very prosperous condition.
" The new church is filled at every service. The
Roman Catholics are making very little headway,
and the priest has gone down to Victoria.
"About the middle of November we organized a
woman's prayer-meeting. We meet every Friday
afternoon, and have an attendance of from 25 to 30
Every Indian woman present who is a church-member leads in prayer. We expect much good from
these meetings.
" Miss Dunbar's school is very full and prosperous.
She is an excellent teacher.
"The Home is doing well. It is a bright, cheerful, and happy family of 20 girls. The poor little
girl whom I received while you was here, whose
mother was murdered, is a delicate child, and I fear
may not live long.
" Nothing has been done with the murderer.   The PROSPERITY.
Indians have been waiting for all the principal men
to return to the village. This week they have had
a council and determined to arrest and try the man.
If he is found guilty they will probably execute him.
"We have had two weeks of cold weather, the
severest I have felt since coming to Fort Wrangell.
"This house is so cold that we could not keep
comfortable. During this cold spell all my house
plants were frozen. Next to my work, I loved them
better than anything else in Alaska.
" Dr. Corlies has moved into his new house near
the church.
I Mrs. Corlies' school for the visiting Indians is
quite large. The transient character of the pupils,
as they come and go with their parents, makes it very
hard and discouraging. But she has such lovely
faith that she labors on cheerfully, ever hoping that
they may carry to their own tribes some seed that
will yet bear fruit. As Christmas draws near the
Indians are all excitement. This is the greatest day
of the year for them. Through the kindness of
many friends in the East, we will have a nice Christmas-tree.
II send most heartfelt thanks to all the dear friends
East and West for their many gifts. I am sure
they would feel amply repaid if they could witness
the pleasure they afford these poor people. May God
bless them all for their kindness to us. Many of the
packages have nothing about them by which we can
learn the donors. I thank them all the same, and
commend then! to the Saviour, who knows their gift
of love. PROSPERITY
•"So
" For a long time I have been trying to get into
the Home the little daughter of Shus-Staaks, the
wicked chief who once threatened my life.
" Yesterday he sent the child to me, saying that he
was a wicked old man himself, but he wanted his
little girl to be good, and he wanted Mrs. McFarland
to teach her. She is a nice child, about 13 years old,
and I have named her Louisa Norcross, Shus-
Staaks.
' We are very much rejoiced at this, as the old
chief has opposed our work from the beginning, and
been the chief supporter of the Roman Catholic
movement.    He now attends our church regularly.
"We are also  rejoicing in the hope that Chief
Shaaks  is a converted man.    He has asked to be
baptized and received   into church-membership.    I
received sixty-six letters by this steamer.
'' Sincerely yours,
" Mrs. A. R. McFarland."
The year 1879 closed with the re-establishment of
the school at Sitka, the arranging of missions among
the Chilcats, Hydahs, and Hoonyahs, and great prosperity at Fort Wrangell.
!"-*wu,
fPZ
7*>
W.
ALASKA DOG-HEAD. CHAPTER IX.
A Canoe Voyage—Deserted Indian Village—Toiling in Rowing-
Councils with Chilcats, Hydas, and Tongas—New Fields—Fort
Tongas—Driving before the Storm—An Indian Welcome.
" Angel of life ! thy glittering wings explore
Earth's loneliest bounds and ocean's wildest shore.
Now_far he sweeps, where scarce a summer smiles,
On Bering's rocks, or Greenland's naked isles."
I had long wanted to make a visit to the missions of
the Methodist and Episcopal Churches at Fort Simpson and Metlahkatlah, and inspect their plans and
methods of labor. The latter of these missions has
been in operation twenty years, and sufficient time
(an important element in mission work) has elapsed
to test the efficiency of their methods. Besides,
these missions were the forerunner of our own work
in Alaska. Unable to visit them in any other way,
I concluded, during my visit to Alaska in 1879, to
make the trip in a canoe. Just at that time a large
one came in from the Chilcat country, loaded with
furs and bound for Fort Simpson. As a portion of
the crew were Christian Indians from Fort Simpson,
there was no difficulty in arranging a passage. Besides the six Christian Indians, there were twelve
wild Chilcat savages, headed by two chiefs, one of
whom was a medicine-man or shaman. A DESERTED  VILLAGE.
255
The canoe was about thirty-five feet long, five
wide, and three deep. A comfortable seat was allotted
me in the centre, with my blanket and provisions
within easy reach. On the nth of August we left
Fort Wrangell for Fort Simpson and Metlahkatlah,
B. C. The day wore on with the monotonous dip of
the paddles. Rounding a cape, they were able to
hoist two sails, and have their assistance for a short
distance.
Late in the afternoon we passed an abandoned
Stickeen village. A number of the ancient totem
poles were still standing, surmounted by grotesque
images, and containing the bones and ashes of the
former inhabitants. Many had fallen and are rotting amid the dense undergrowth of bushes and
ferns. Some of the corner-posts of their large houses
were still standing, resting upon the top of which
are immense beams, some of them three feet through
and from forty to sixty feet long.
Without an inhabitant, the coarse croaking of the
raven alone broke in upon the stillness and desolation of the scene. The Indians, resting upon their
paddles, gazed intently at the ruins as we floated by
with the tide. What thoughts were passing through
their minds I had no means of knowing. Perhaps
the savage Chilcats looked upon the scene with superstitious dread and awe, while to the Christian
Tsimpseans (Simp-se-ans) it brought joy and gratitude as they more fully realized that the heathen
darkness of the past had been changed to light and
hope.
If those ruins had a voice to rehearse the scenes that 256
THE  CRUELTIES  OF  HEATHENISM.
have passed within them, the whole Christian world
would stand aghast and horrified at the cruelties
which it is possible for human nature to enact and
even gloat over. When those great corner-posts
were placed in position, a slave was murdered and
placed under each. When the houses were completed and occupied, scores of slaves were butchered,
to show the power and wealth of the owner—that his
slaves were so numerous that he could afford to kill,
and yet have plenty left. Founded and dedicated
with human sacrifices, who can conceive of the aggregate of woe and suffering in those habitations of
cruelty, year after year, at the wild-, drunken orgies
of the Indians—their horrid cannibal feasts, their
inhuman torture of witches, their fiendish carousals
around the burning dead, the long despairing wails
of lost souls as they passed Out into eternal darkness ?
They have passed away to meet us at the judgment-
seat, and their village is in ruins. But other villages
exist on this coast, where these same scenes of
cruelty and blood are still enacted. When will the
Christian Church awake to its responsibility, and
send the light into all this benighted land ?
Frequently along the way the Chilcat Indians
would break out into singing one of their national
airs, to cheer the rowers. This would challenge the
Christian Indians, who would follow with a number
of the precious hymns of Bliss and Sankey. One
evening, after a large number of these had been
sung, the old Chiicat and shaman inquired, "Who
is this Jesus you sing about ?" Then the Tsimpsean
Indians gladly preached Jesus unto him. A SCALP DANCE. -I CHRISTIAN  INDIANS.
259
These Christian Indians carry their religion with
them wherever they go. They were now returning
from a voyage of over a thousand miles. They had
been on the way for weeks. But under no circumstances would they travel on the Sabbath. Upon
one occasion they were nearly out of food, and their
heathen companions urged them to continue the
voyage, that they might reach an Indian village and
procure supplies. The heathen said, " We are
hungry, and you are no friends of ours if you do not
go where we can get something to eat." But neither
tide, wind, nor hunger could induce them to travel
on the Lord's day. One of them afterward said, in
a meeting of his own people, that his heart was often
sad upon the trip because he did not know more of
the language of the people they were visiting, and
could not tell them more about Jesus.
It is the universal testimony of the whites, both
friends and foes of the missions, that the Christian
Indians of Metlahkatlah, Fort Simpson, and Fort
Wrangell are strict in the observance of the Sabbath.
I was much interested in my Chilcat companions,
and, like the Christian Indians, deplored that I could
not more fully communicate with them. However,
after we reached Fort Simpson, where an interpreter
could be had, they came and sought a council. The
two chiefs, speaking in behalf of their people, declared their desire to give up the old way and learn
the new, which was better ; that they were ready
and waiting to give up their heathen practices, as
.soon as a teacher would come and show them how,
and they earnestly inquired how soon a teacher would 26o
AN APPEAL FOR SCHOOLS.
come. These people occupy the country at the head
of Lynn Channel, and were known to the Hudson
Bay Fur Company, at an early day, as the Nehau-
nees. They are a bold, warlike, and enterprising
people. They are also noted traders, being the middle-men between the interior tribes and the American merchants on the coast. They number about
two thousand.
I promised to present their case to the Board, and
encouraged them to believe that a missionary would
be sent. These were the people that we had hoped
to visit in their northern homes, but being prevented
from reaching them, they were thus providentially
sent to us. The Rev. Mr. Young, of Fort Wrangell,
and the Rev. J. G. Brady, of Sitka, have had frequent conferences with members of this tribe, and
concur in the importance of establishing a mission
among them at an early day.
I also had a council with some Hydahs. We
camped one night on their island. They re-echoed
the universal desire of the people along this coast
for schools, and I promised to bring their case also
before the board.
At Fort Simpson I was visited by a delegation of
Tongas, who had the same request to make for help.
I could only promise to try and interest the Church
in their behalf. The Indians think that the whites
have some great secret about the future state of the
soul, which they wish to learn. They are in a condition of expectancy which would cause them warmly
to welcome Christian teachers. But if this season is
permitted by the Church to pass away unimproved, FISHING.
26l
who can say that it will not be followed by greater
hardness of heart and more determined heathenism ?
About six p.m. the canoe was run upon the beach,
and an hour spent in supper, which, to the Indians,
consisted of tea and salmon. Embarking at seven,
they paddled until ten o'clock, when, finding an
opening in the rock-bound coast, we put ashore,
spread our blankets upon the sand, and were soon
sound asleep. At three a.m. we were roused and
were soon under way, without any breakfast. This,
however, did not matter much, as my stock of provisions consisted of ship biscuit and smoked salmon.
Biscuit and salmon for breakfast and supper, salmon
and biscuit for dinner. The Indians upon the trip
only averaged one meal the twenty-four hours.
During the morning, passing the mouth of a shallow mountain stream, the canoe was anchored to a
big rock. The Indians, wading up the stream, in a
few minutes, with poles and paddles clubbed to
death some thirty salmon, averaging twenty-five
pounds each in weight. These were thrown into the
canoe and taken along.
At noon they put ashore for their first meal that
day. Fires were made under shelter of a great rock.
The fish, cleaned and hung upon sticks, were soon
broiling before the fire. After dinner all hands took
a nap upon the beach. At three p.m. we were again
under way. When night came, finding no suitable
landing-place, the Indians paddled on until two
o'clock next morning, having made a day's work of
twenty-three hours. At two a.m., findinga sheltered
bay, we ran ashore.    As it was raining hard,  we 262
CANOEING.
spread our blankets as best we could, under sheltering rocks or projecting roots of the great pines.
At six o'clock, rising from an uncomfortable sleep,
STONE IMPLEMENTS.
we embarked and paddled until nine, when, reaching the cabin of Mr. Morrison, at Tongas Narrows,
we went ashore for breakfast.    Mr. Morrison has a
•nl TOILING IN  ROWING
263
fine vegetable garden, and is also engaged in salmon
fisheries. At this point I secured two fine specimens
of stone axes.
In an hour we were again under way, the Indians
working hard at the paddles until the middle of the
afternoon, when we ran ashore upon a rocky point
for a short rest and sleep, the sea being very rough.
In an hour and a half we were again on our journey. Toward evening we passed Cape Fox and
boldly launched out to cross an arm of the sea, and
once out it was as dangerous to turn back as to go
forward. The night was dark, the waves rolling
high, and the storm upon us. One Indian stood upon
the prow of the canoe watching the waves and giving
orders. Every man was at his place, and the stroke
of the paddles kept time with the measured song of
the leader, causing the canoe to mount each wave
with two strokes ; then, with a click, each paddle
would, at the same instant, strike the side of the
canoe and remain motionless, gathering strength for
the next wave. As the billows struck the canoe it
quivered from stem to stern.
It was a long, tedious night, as in the rain and fog
and darkness we tossed in a frail canoe upon the
waters, but daylight found us near Fort Tongas.
This is an Indian village and an abandoned military post. From the water there seemed to be a
whole forest of crest or totem poles. Many of them
are from sixty to seventy-five feet high, and carved
from top to bottom with a succession of figures representing the eagle, wolf, bear, frog, whale, and
other animals.    The military post was established in 264
ARRIVAL AT FORT SIMPSON.
1867 and abandoned in 1877. The buildings are still
standing. The chief has repeatedly, in a most earnest and urgent manner, asked for a teacher for his
people before, through the combined effect of vice
and whiskey, they become extinct.
The wind had been against us all the way from
Fort Wrangell. It had rained more or less each day
that we had been out, and the storm had continued
to increase in violence. Some of the Indians being
so exhausted by the labors of the past night that
they dropped asleep at their paddles, it was thought
best to go ashore and get some rest. On shore we
tried to start a fire, but the driving rain soon extinguished it. Taking my regulation meal of salmon
and hard-tack, I spread my blankets under a big log
and tried to sleep. The beating storm soon saturated
the blankets, and I awoke to find the water running
down my back. Rising, I paced up and down the
beach until the Indians were ready to move on. After
a rest of two hours, seeing no signs of a lull in the
storm, we re-embarked, determined, if possible, to
make Fort Simpson.
Getting out of the shelter of the island into Dixon's
Inlet (another arm of the ocean), we found the wind
in our favor. Hoisting both sails, we drove through
the waves at a slashing rate, the corner of the sails
dipping into the water, and occasionally the waves
running over the side into the canoe. This was fun
for the Indians, who would again and again exclaim,
as our masts bent under the sails, " Beat steamboat !
beat steamboat!" Cold, wet, and hungry, that afternoon  we ran into the harbor at Fort Simpson, and AN INDIAN WELCOME.
265
shortly after were receiving a warm welcome at Rev.
Thomas Crosby's mission of the Methodist Church
of Canada.
In the spring I had written to the Rev. Thomas
Crosby that the Rev. Henry Kendall, D.D., one of
the secretaries of the Presbyterian Board of Home
Missions, and myself would visit Alaska in July,
and if possible would call at his mission.
The announcement of this created great joy among
the Indians. Consequently, in July they came home
from their fisheries to the number of over one thousand, and festooned the principal streets of their
village with evergreens from one end to the other.
Their flags were ready and their cannon in position
to welcome the "great white chiefs of missions."
But, to our great disappointment, circumstances prevented our landing. When, therefore, they heard
that I had arrived by canoe, a meeting of the chiefs
and councilmen was called to give a public welcome.
Being all assembled at the council chamber in the
mission-house, Moses McDonald, a chief, rose and
addressed me in substance thus, Mr. Crosby interpreting :
" Your coming has made our hearts very happy.
We expected you before. Our people came in and
made great preparations. We festooned our streets
in your honor, but you did not come. Our flowers
and evergreens faded ; our people went back to their
fisheries. But though now, because our people are
away, we cannot make as much demonstration, our
hearts are just as much glad.
" We are glad that you are coming to help the ?66
COUNCIL.
poor people, our neighbors, the Stickeens. When
we hear of the great American nation—its large
cities, its great business houses, its vast wealth and
churches—we are amazed that you did not do something for this people along time ago. We hope you
will tell your people about it strong. We hope you
will have whiskey put down. We have put it down
here, and it can be put down there.
' We do not think it well to have two (denominations) churches among the Stickeens. The Stickeens
ought to speak strong all the one way. We hope
your missionary, Mr. Young, will be strong everywhere—directing about the streets and houses and
good order and sick, every day. We hope he will
keep the people driving on—all warm. All the work
you see here has been done in five years. It could
not have been done if the missionary had not worked
very hard and all the time to show us how to work.
Indians are different from white men. They need a
minister to lead them.
" All I have to say is this, that a good man be sent
to our neighbors,  the Tongas.    The  way is open.
If you strike now you will get them.    They will soon
be gone if not rescued."
John Ryan next spoke :
1 We are delighted to meet you here. You see the
place very quiet* because nobody home. If all home,
it is very peaceable, because the peace of Christ has
come here. It was not so formerly. This was a
great people for darkness and cruelty before the missionary came, and that was but a few years ago.
Our hearts were first like the Stickeens'. We thought
' mmmmt   SPEECHES.
269
the new way was all wrong. But God has conquered
and changed the whole life of our people. God
pitied us, heard our cry, sent his minister, and built
his house. It was God's work. God heard our
prayers. Then we prayed for the Stickeens, and
God heard and came to their help. That is the way.
When we see any one in trouble, we help, we pray.
" If you send only one minister, then the work is
heavy, but if you send more it will be light.
" Look ! we thought it was only the English and
Canadian that loved to help this people, because we
saw no one else come. But now we see our American friends come and have warm, strong hearts too.
Now we all work together for Christ.
" Last winter we went far off, and carried God's
word wherever we went. We did not go to make
money or get great names, but to carry the word of
God to others. We visited four large villages that
asked where the missionary was. We had no, authority to tell them that one would come, but we
said to them, Tell God your hearts. Pray to him to
send a missionary, and one will come."
Samuel Musgrave Gemk was the next speaker.
He said :
" I want to tell this chief how glad my heart is
that he come to visit our minister. Half of my
heart very glad, and half a little sorry. We are a
little sorry that you did not wait a little out there on
the island, that we might have gone into our boxes
and got out our flags and fired our guns, and made
you feel very welcome. But we did not know when
you were coming, and now we are delighted to see SPEECHES.
jiou sitting alongside of our minister. Just one
thing I say. Not good as Christians, we be as old,
heathens at enmity. Now we like brothers. I wish
you would push one part of the country into the
other. This line ought to be lost. Hope that it be
done, because if one country, then we all brothers.
Then be no more English Christians and American
Christians, but we will all be one Christians. Then
if you need a little help, or we need a little help, we
can help each other. Since your minister go to the
Stickeens, we feel at home there now. If we get sick
or die there, we feel we should be cared for now.''
. Wicke-tow followed :
I Don't think I am lazy, that I do not stand up to
speak, for I am lame (he is partly paralyzed). It
was very hard for me to get here, but my heart was
so happy because you come that I could not keep
away.
1 If you had come when we expected you, or if we
had had time to get ready now, when you come, it
would not be hard to show how we honor you.
" I am not old, but I remember how it was when
chiefs of another tribe came. We had great rejoicings, and so we would have done for you if we had
known when you were coming. We are sorry that
Dr. Kendall is not herewith you. That is right, you
have come and started in among American Indians.
Go on. Don't think that the«Tsimpseans were always as now. They were very wicked and dark and
bad. How they plunged into all evil ! But God
sent Mr. Crosby, and now it is impossible for the
devil to succeed.    I believe the devil now have to die THE  CHANGE.
271
at Fort Simpson. So it will not be long before the
'Stickeen people give up the old way. One thing
will conquer Indian people sooner than anything.
By kindness you can lead them in the new way."
David Swanson said :
I Our hearts are very happy to see you here. When
I was a little boy, and we were so blind, nobody
thought of us. Now we see the great interest other
people take in our welfare. Then very few good
people ever notice us. Our minister get a letter that
you were coming. I think, Why is this ? Why does
this man so far off want to see us ? It must be God's
work. I am but a young man, but I am astonished
at the changes here. Here in a few years all change
so fast. Only a few old sticks and old houses left.
All change so fast when Jesus come. Surely it must
be God's work to change here and put it in people's
hearts way off that they want to see us. This makes
our hearts very strong to see you. We npw believe
that other people are thinking and praying for us.
We are willing to go where God wants us. We have
been over to Tongas, but they say to us, You are English and we are American. We wish you would send
them an American preacher. They have a great deal
of whiskey at Tongas, and it is bad for them. It was
bad for us a few years ago. Now that our hearts
are changed, we feel for those people that once were
our enemies.
" We see no difference at all between killing men
with whiskey and killing them with a gun. It has
been put away by us, and it can be put away by your
people.    Your government has strong arm and can WHISKEY.
stop it. We could go from here and destroy all of
it, but we have no right to do it in your country. If
in our country, we would do it, and the people be
saved.
I' Whiskey has done bad work. Among some tribes
only a few left—nearly all gone.
I One year and a half ago we went over to Tongas and preached to the people, and they were all
ready for a minister, and now we hope you are go
ing to take hold of it and give them a minister."
After a suitable reply by myself, the council adjourned with prayer and a general shaking of hands.
Just before leaving Fort Simpson I was waited
upon by a committee of the council to inquire what
more they could do to show their, joy at my visit.
After a delightful Sabbath spent with Mr. Crosby
and his Indians, I continued my canoe voyage down
the coast to visit the celebrated mission of the Church
Missionary Society at Metlahkatlah (Met-lah-katlah).
ALASKA SEA-GULL. CHAPTER X.
Missions of the Church Missionary Society of England in British
Columbia on the Border of Alaska—Cannibalism—A Christian
Village—Triumphs of Grace—Tradition Concerning the First
Appearance of the Whites.
" Hark the solemn Irumpet soundin***.
Loud proclaims the jubilee :
'Tis the voice of grace abounding,
Grace to sinners rich and free ;
Ye who know the joyful sound,
Publish it to all around."
There are few chapters in missionary history more
full of romance or more wonderful than those which
record the work of God among the native tribes of
the North Pacific coast.
On the 2d of May, 1669, Charles II. granted a
charter to his cousin, Prince Rupert, conveying the
exclusive right to form settlements and carry on trade
in the northern regions of this continent. This was
the commencement of the famous Hudson Bay Company, whose hardy, adventurous agents penetrated
and made known to geographical science almost
every portion of the great north-land.
Among the most enterprising of these pioneers was
Alexander Mackenzie. In 1793 he had pressed forward
to the head waters of Peace River, crossed the summit 274
WILLIAM DUNCAN.
of the Rocky Mountains, and stood upon the shores of
the Pacific Ocean. In 1806 Simon Fraser had
crossed the mountains and established a post of the
Hudson Bay Company on the Pacific side. And
about 1821 Fort Rupert, on Vancouver's Island, and
Fort Simpson, on the borders of Alaska, were established. The establishment of these posts called the
attention of British Christians to the condition of
the Indian tribes, which number in British Columbia over 28,000. These belong to several nations
with distinct languages. They are again subdivided
into many tribes speaking different dialects.
It was not, however, until 1856 that an effort was
made for the establishment of a mission. In that
year Captain (now Admiral) Prevost, of the Royal
Navy, being ordered to visit that coast, offered a free
passage to any person whom the Church Missionary
Society would commission. In response to this offer
Mr. William Duncan was sent out, arriving at Fort
Simpson on the 1st of October, 1857.
Mr. Duncan had been an ordinary clerk in a mercantile establishment. The secretaries of the Church
Missionary Society, upon one occasion, had appointed
a missionary meeting in the church he attended.
When they arrived from London the evening proved
so stormy that only nine persons were present as an
audience. One of the secretaries recommended dismissing the meeting, but another said, " No ; we
•iave come here to hold a missionary service, and 1
,im in favor of holding it." The addresses were
made, and at the close of the meeting Mr. Duncan,
one of the nine, offered himself as a missionary. THE CLERK.
275
When he announced his purpose to his employers,
they tried to dissuade him from going. They offered
to increase his salary to one thousand dollars and
give him a certain percentage in the sales, that would
have made him a wealthy man.
But he could not be turned aside. He gave up
all, and after some time at the missionary training-
school, went out, as will be seen by the following
narrative, to win whole tribes to the Lord Jesus.
Upon his arrival at Fort Simpson, he says, " I found
located here nine tribes of TsimDsean Indians, num-
J. 7
bering by actual count 2300 souls. To attempt to
describe their condition would be but to produce a
dark and revolting picture of human depravity. The
dark mantle of degrading superstition enveloped
them all, and their savage spirits, swayed by pride,
jealousy, and revenge, were ever hurrying them on
to deeds of blood. Their history was little else than
a chapter of crime and misery. But worse was to
come. The following year the discovery of gold
brought in a rush of miners. Fire-water now began
its reign of terror, and debauchery its work of desolation. On every hand were raving drunkards and
groaning victims. The medicine-man's raffle and
the voice of wailing seldom ceased."
Some of these scenes are thus depicted by Mr.
Duncan :
" The other day we were called upon to witness a
terrible scene. An old chief in cold blood ordered a
slave to be dragged to the beach, murdered, and
thrown into the water. His orders were quickly
obeyed.    The victim was a poor woman.     Two or CANNIBALS.
three reasons are assigned for this foul act. One is
that it is to take away the disgrace attached to his
daughter, who had been suffering for some time with
a ball wound in the arm. Another report is that he
does not expect his daughter to recover, so he has
killed this slave in order that she may prepare for
the coming of his daughter into the unseen world.
I did not see the murder, but immediately after saw
crowds of people running out of the houses near to
where the corpse was thrown and forming themselves
into groups at a good distance away, from fear of
what was to follow. Presently two bands of furious
wretches appeared, each headed by a man in a state
of nudity. They gave vent to the most unearthly
sounds, and the naked men made themselves look as
unearthly as possible, proceeding in a creeping kind
of stoop, and stepping like two proud horses, at the
same time shooting forward each arm alternately,
which they held out at full length for a little time in
the most defiant manner. Besides this, the continual
jerking of their heads back, causing their long black
hair to twist about, added much to their savage appearance. For some time they pretended to be seeking for the body, and the instant they came where
it lay they commenced screaming and rushing around
it like so many angry wolves. Finally they seized
it, dragged it out of the water, and laid it on the
beach, where they commenced tearing it to pieces
with their teeth. The two bands of men immediately surrounded them, and so hid their horrid
work. In a few minutes the crowd broke again, when
each of the naked cannibals appeared with half oi  v DOG-EATERS.
279
the body in his hands. Separating a few yards, they
commenced, amid horrid yells, their still more horrid
feast of eating the raw dead body. The two bands
of men belonged to that class called j medicine-men.'
" I may mention that each party has some characteristics peculiar to itself ; but in a more general
sense their divisions are but three, viz., those who
eat human bodies, the dog-eaters, and those who
have no custom of the kind. Early in the morning
the pupils would be out on the beach, or on the
rocks, in a state of nudity. Each had a place in the
front of his own tribe ; nor did intense cold interfere
in the slightest degree. After the poor creature had
crept about, jerking his head and screaming for
some time, a party of men would rush out, and after
surrounding him would commence singing. The
dog-eating party occasionally carried a dead dog to
their pupil, who forthwith commenced to tear it in
the most dog-like manner. The party of attendants
kept up a low growling noise, or a whoop, which
was seconded by a screeching noise made from an
instrument, which they believe to be the abode of a
spirit. In a little time the naked youth would start
up again and proceed a few more yards in a crouching posture, with his arms pushed out behind him,
and tossing his flowing black hair. All the while
he is earnestly watched by the group about him, and
when he pleases to sit down they again surround
him and commence singing. This kind of thing
goes on, with several different additions, for some
time. Before the prodigy finally retires he takes a
run into every house belonging to his tribe, and is 28o
CANNIBALISM.
followed by his train. When this is done, in some
cases he has a ramble on the tops of the same houses,
during which he is anxiously watched by his attendants, as if they expected his flight. By and by he
condescends to come down, and they then follow
him to his den, which is marked by a rope made of
red bark, being hung over the doorway so as to prevent any person from ignorantly violating its precincts. None are allowed to enter that house but
those connected with the art ; all I know, therefore,
of their further proceedings is that they keep up a
furious hammering, singing, and screeching for hours
during the day.
" Of all these parties, none are so much dreaded
as the cannibals. One morning I was called to witness a stir in the camp which had been caused by
this set. When I reached the gallery I saw hundreds of Tsimpseans sitting in their canoes, which
they had just pushed away from the beach. I was
told that the cannibal party were in search of a body
to devour, and if they failed to find a dead one, it
was probable they would seize the first living one
that came in their way ; so that all the people living
near the cannibals' house had taken to their canoes
to escape being torn to pieces. It is the custom
among these Indians to burn their dead ; but I suppose for these occasions they take care to deposit a
corpse somewhere in order to satisfy these inhuman
wretches.
I These, then, are* some of the things and scenes
which occur in the day during the winter months,
while the nights   are taken   up with amusements, SCHOOL OPENED.
28l
singing and dancing. Occasionally the medicine
parties invite people to their several houses, and exhibit tricks before them of various kinds. Some of
the actors appear as bears, while others wear masks,
the parts of which are moved by strings. The great
feature of their proceedings is to pretend to murder
and then to restore to life. The cannibal, on such
occasions, is generally supplied with two, three, or
four human bodies, which he tears to pieces before
his audience. Several persons, either from bravado
or as a charm, present their arms for him to bite. I
have seen several whom he had thus bitten, and I
hear two have died from the effects."
Sustained by the Divine Arm, Mr. Duncan set
himself resolutely to work. Unforeseen difficulties
met him at every turn. But he persevered. At
length the Gospel leaven began to work. One after
another began to listen and forsake their heathen
practices until quite a body of converts gathered
around him.
On June 28th, 1858, he opened the first school in the
house of a chief, with twenty six children and fifteen
adults. The interest grew so rapidly that in July
the erection of a school building was commenced.
Before the close of the year there were one hundred
and forty children and fifty adults in attendance.
On the 20th of December a chief named Legale,
accompanied by a party of medicine-men, enraged
because the people were losing their interest in sorcery through Mr. Duncan's teachings, attempted to
murder him.
This same Legaic became afterward   an   earnest A VISIT TO NAAS  RIVER.
Christian, and, like Saul, was very zealous for the
faith he had once sought to destroy. Upon one occasion, in reply to an old man who had said that if
Mr. Duncan had come when the first white traders
came, the Tsimpseans had long since been good ;
but they had been allowed to grow up in sin ; they
had seen nothing among the first whites who came
among them to unsettle them in their old habits ;
that these had rather added to them fresh sins, and
now their sins were so deep laid they (he and the
other old people) could not change, Legaic said, "I
am a chief, a Tsimpsean chief. You know I have
been bad, very bad, as bad as any one here. I have
grown up, and grown old in sin, but God has changed my heart, and he can change yours. Think not
to excuse yourselves in your sin by saying you are
too old and too bad to mend. Nothing is impossible
with God. Come to God ; try his way ; he can save
you."
In April, i860, Mr. Duncan visited the settlements
on the Naas River, where he received a warm welcome. One of the chiefs, rising in the council and
spreading his hands toward heaven, said, " Pity us,
Great Spirit in heaven, pity us. This chief (pointing
to Mr. Duncan) has come to tell us about thee. It
is good, Great Spirit. We want to hear. Who ever
came to tell our forefathers thy will ? No ! no ! But
this chief has pitied us and come. He has thy book.
We will hear. We will receive thy word. We will
obey."
At the close of one of Mr. Duncan's addresses the
people  responded,  " Good is your  speech.    Good, TRADITION CONCERNING THE WHITES.
good, good news. We greatly desire to learn the
book. We wish our children to learn." After which
one of the chiefs arose and addressed the people as
follows : " We are not to call upon stones and stars
now, but Jesus. Jesus will hear. Jesus is our
Saviour. Jesus ! Jesus ! Jesus ! Jesus Christ ! Good
news, good news ! Listen all. Put away your sins.
God has sent his word. Jesus is our Saviour. Take
away m3r sins, Jesus.    Make me good, Jesus."
In May Mr. Duncan visited the site of a deserted
village, which was afterward chosen as the site of
the Christian village of Metlahkatlah.
Encamping near an adjacent village, an old chief
gave him the following tradition of the first appearance of the whites :
" A large canoe of Indians were busy catching halibut in one of these channels. A thick mist enveloped them. Suddenly they heard a noise as if a large
animal was striking through the water. Immediately
they concluded that a monster from the deep was in
pursuit of them. With all speed they hauled up
their fishing-lines, seized the paddles, and strained
every nerve to reach the shore. Still the plunging
noise came nearer. Every minute they expected to
be engulfed within the jaws of some huge creature.
However, they reached the land, jumped on shore,
and turned round in breathless anxiety to watch the
approach of the monster. Soon a boat, filled with
strange-looking men, emerged from the mist. The
pulling of the oars had caused the strange noise.
Though somewhat relieved of fear, the Indians stood
spell-bound with amazement.    The strangers landed, 284
WONDER-WORKING.
and beckoned the Indians to come to them and bring
them some fish. One of them had over his shoulder
what was supposed only to be a stick : presently he
pointed it to a bird that was flying past ; a violent
poo went forth ; down came the bird to the ground.
The Indians died. As they revive J again they
questioned each other as to their state, whether any
were dead, and what each had felt. The whites
then made signs for a fire to be lighted. The Indians proceeded at once, according to their usual
tedious fashion of rubbing two sticks together. The
strangers laughed, and one of them, snatching up a
handful of dry grass, struck a spark into a little powder placed under it. Instantly flashed another poo
and a blaze. The Indians died. After this the newcomers wanted some fish boiling. The Indians
therefore put the fish and water into one of their
square wooden buckets, and set some stones in the
fire, intending, when they were hot, to cast them
into the vessel, and thus boil the food. The whites
were not satisfied with this way. One of them fetched
a tin kettle out of the boat, put the fish and the water
into it, and then, strange t*o say, set it on the fire.
The Indians looked on with astonishment. However, the kettle did not consume, the water did not
run into the fire. Then again the Indians died.
When the fish was eaten the strangers put a kettle
of rice on the fire. The Indians looked at each
other and whispered, 'Akshahn, akshahn ' (maggots,
maggots). The rice being cooked, some molasses
was mixed with it. The Indians stared and said,
' Coutzee um tsakah ahket' (the grease of dead peo-   SCHOOL-BOY S  DIARY.
287
pie). The whites then offered this to the Indians,
who refused with disgust. Seeing this the whites
sat down and eat it themselves. The sight stunned
the Indians, and again they all died. Some other
similar wonders were worked, and the amazement
which the Indians felt each time they termed death.
The Indians' turn had now come to make the white
strangers die. They dressed their heads and painted
their faces. A nok-nok (wonder-working spirit) possessed them. They came slowly and solemnly, seated
themselves before the whites, then suddenly lifted
up their heads and stared. Their reddened eyes had
the desired effect.    The whites died."
That same season, at the request of the Government, Mr. Duncan visited the large number of Indians congregated at Victoria. While there, Shoo-
quanahts, one of his school-boys, aged about fourteen, made the following records in his writing-book :
" April 10.—I could not sleep last night. I must
work hard last night. I could not be lazy last night.
No good lazy—very bad. We must learn to make
all things. When we understand reading and
writing, then it will very easy. Perhaps two grass,
then we understand. If we no understand to read
and to write, then he will very angry Mr. Duncan.
If we understand about good people, then we will
very happy."
"April 17 : School, Fort Simpson.—Shooquanahts
not two hearts—always one my heart. Some boys
always two hearts. Only one Shooquanahts—-
not two heart, no. If I steal anything then God
will see.     Bad people no care about Son of God : 288
A NEW  SETTLEMENT.
when will come troubled hearts, foolish people.
Then he will very much cry. What good cry ?
Nothing. No care about our Saviour ; always forget. By and by will understand about the Son of
God." t
" May 17.—I do not understand some prayers—
only few prayers I understand ; not all I understand,
no. I wish to understand all prayers. When I
understand all prayers, then I always prayer our
Saviour Jesus Christ. I want to learn to prayer to
Jesus Christ our Saviour : by and by I understand all
about our Saviour Christ ; when I understand all
about our Saviour, then I will happy when I die.
If I do not learn about our Saviour Jesus, then I
will very troubled my heart when I die. It is good
for us when we learn about our Saviour Jesus.
When I understand about our Saviour Jesus, then I
will very happy when I die."
As the number of converts increased, Mr. Duncan
felt more and more the necessity of establishing a
new village where the Christian Indians could be
separated from the sights and influences of heathenism. As early as May, 1859, the matter had been
considered, but it was not until May, 1862, that the
change was made. At that time he removed the
mission premises, and was accompanied by fifty
faithful ones some twenty miles down the coast to a
new place, which they named Metlahkatlah. At this
point they established a Christian village, with the
following regulations :
" 1. To give up their ' Ahlied,' or Indian devilry ;
2. To cease calling in  conjurors when sick ; 3. To REGULATIONS.
289
cease gambling ; 4. To cease giving away their property for display ; 5. To cease painting their faces ;
6. To cease drinking intoxicating drink ; 7. To rest
on the Sabbath ; 8. To attend religious instruction ;
9. To send their children to school; 10. To be cleanly ;
11. To be industrious ; 12. To be peaceful; 13 To
be liberal and honest in trade ; 14. To build neat
houses ; 15. To pay the village tax."
The removal, on the 27th of May, was a very solemn occasion.    Mr. Duncan says :
' The Indians came out of their lodges and sat
round in a semicircle, watching the proceedings.
They knew something was going to happen, but
they did not know what. When an Indian watches,
he sits upon the ground, brings his knees up to his
chin, wraps his mantle round him, puts his head'
down, and, mute and motionless, looks at a distance
like a stone. Thus they were seated, and the question was, ' Will anyone stand out in the midst of the
scoffing heathen and declare themselves Christians ?'
First there came two or three, trembling, and said
they were willing to go anywhere, and to give up
all for the blessed Saviour's sake. Others were then
encouraged ; and that day fifty stood forth, and
gathered together such things as they needed, put
them into their canoes, and away they went. On
that day every tie was broken ; children were separated from their parents, husbands from wives,
brothers from sisters ; houses, land, and all things
were left—such was the power at work in their
minds. All that were ready to go with me occupied
six canoes, and we numbered about fifty souls—men, 290
THE DEPARTURE.
women, and children. Many Indians were seated on
the beach watching our departure with solemn and
anxious faces, and some promised to follow us in a
few days. The party with me seemed filled with
solemn joy as we pushed off, feeling that their long-
looked-for flit had actually commenced. I felt we
were beginning an eventful page in the history of
this poor people, and earnestly sighed to God for his
help and blessing. The next day, the 28th of May,
we arrived at our new home about two p.m. The Indians I had sent on before with the raft I found hard
at work, clearing ground and sawing plank. They
had carried all the raft up from the beach, excepting
a few heavy beams, erected two temporary houses,
and had planted about four bushels of potatoes for
me. Every night we assembled, a happy family, for
singing and prayer. I gave an address on each occasion from some portion of scriptural truth suggested to me by the events of the day.
" On the 6th of June a fleet of about thirty canoes
arrived from Fort Simpson. They formed nearly
the whole of one tribe, called Keetlahn, with two of
their chiefs. We now numbered between three hundred and four hundred souls, and our evening meetings became truly delightful."
- In April, 1863, the Bishop of British Columbia visited the new station and baptized fifty-seven adults
and children. He writes : " It was my office to examine the candidates for baptism. I was several
days-engaged in the work. One day I was engaged
from eight o'clock in the morning until one o'clock
at night  . It was the last day I.had, and they pressed   A REVIVAL.
293
on me continually to be examined. Night and darkness came. The Indians usually go to bed with the
sun, but now they turned night into day, in order
that they might be ' fixed in God's ways,' they said.
* Any more Indians ?' I kept saying, as eight o'clock,
nine o'clock, ten o'clock, twelve o'clock, and one
o'clock came, and there were always more Indians
wishing to be ' fixed ' on God's side. I shall never
forget the scene. The little oil-lamp was not enough
to dispel the gloom or darkness of the room, but its
light was sufficient to cast a reflection on the countenance of each Indian as he or she sat before me. The
Indian countenance is usually inexpressive of emotion, but now, when they spoke of prayer and trust in
God, there was the uplifted eye and evident fervor ;
and when they spoke of their sins there was a downcast look, the flush came and went on their cheeks,
and the big tear frequently coursed from their manly
eyes. Their whole hearts seemed to speak out in
their countenances."
One day an Indian from a distance came to Mr.
Duncan, saying, " The Indians tell me that you
have a book which the Great Spirit wrote, and it
tells about me ; is that true?" Being assured that it
was, he added, "'' Can I see it?" Mr. Duncan stepped into his private room and brought out a large
Bible, which he opened before the man. The Indian,
gazing at it intently, said, I Do you say the Great
Spirit.wrote that ?" Being answered in the affirmative, he continued, " Then tell me what is in it. Oh,
tell me quick ! I want to know what the Great
Spirit says to me. I want to do what the Great
Spirit says." 294
METLAH-KATLAH.
The new settlement has now grown to one thousand people, forming the healthiest and strongest
settlement on the coast. I Rules have been laid
down for the regulation of the community, to which
all residents are obliged to conform, and the use of
spirituous liquors strictly prohibited. All are required to keep the Sabbath, attend church, and send
their children to school. Industrious habits are diligently encouraged, and the people educated as farmers, blacksmiths, carpenters, merchants, etc. They
live in well-built cottages, and have a beautiful
Gothic church capable of seating one thousand persons. It is modelled after the old English cathedral,
and was built by the Indian mechanics of that village.
The average winter attendance is six hundred to eight
hundred. They have also a school building that will
accommodate seven hundred pupils. Besides these
they have carpenter and blacksmith shops, storehouse, saw-mill, etc., all owned and managed by the
Indians ; while all around the bay are well cultivated
gardens and potato patches. The main street of the
village along the beach is lighted with street lamps.
Five hundred and seventy-nine adults have been baptized at this mission ; four hundred and ten infant baptisms ; two hundred and forty-three deaths among
the Christian portion of the people ; one hundred and.
thirty-seven Christian marriages, independent of those
who were found married according to their tribal
customs. A large number of catechumens are under
instruction as candidates for church-membership.
The population of iooo is divided into ten companies or wards, each having its elder to look after KINCOLITH.
295
its religious services, its chief as leader in social
gatherings, and one or two constables. The village
has a brass band of twenty-four instruments, a public
reading-room and public guest-house for the lodging of strange Indians. Fifty two-story dwelling-
houses were in process of erection at the time of
my visit. The present mission force is Mr. William
Duncan, superintendent, Rev. W. H. Collison and
wife, and David Leask, native assistant.
These Indians are a happy, industrious, prosperous
community of former savages and cannibals, saved
by the grace of God. This is the oldest and most
successful Indian mission on that coast, and illustrates what one consecrated man by the Divine help
can accomplish.
In 1864 a new mission was established at Kincolith,
for the five tribes of Tsimpseans on the Nasse River,
by Rev. R. A. Doolan. He was succeeded by Rev.
Robert Tomlinson, M.D.,who remained until 1879,
when Mr. Tomlinson left to establish a new mission.
The village is now in charge of Mr. Henry Schutt,
teacher. This mission was established upon the
same plan as Metlahkatlah, and numbers about one
hundred and fifty people. About forty miles above
Kincolith, on the Nasse River, a new mission has
been established at Kittackdamin, and placed in
charge of Arthur, a Nishkah Indian catechist. A
school-house has been erected and a good school
started.
Another native .teacher has been placed at Kitwin-
gach, on the Skeena River, one hundred miles from
Kittackdamin. 296
MASSETT.
On November 1st, 1876, Rev. W. H. Collison, of
Metlahkatlah, established a mission at Massett, on
Queen Charlotte's Island, among the Hydahs. These
are the most daring and blood-thirsty tribe on the
Pacific coast, and in days past have not hesitated
to attack and capture European ships. He had previously visited them in July. A large Indian dance-
house was secured and fitted up for a mission. A
morning school for women and children and an even-
ing one for men were opened. Feeling deeply the
need for it, he also opened a home for girls. During
the past season the average attendance at the morning
school was about fifty. At the Sabbath services the
attendance was from three hundred to four hundred.
The work has been greatly prospered. Thirty catechumens are under instruction as candidates for
church-membership, among whom are four principal
chiefs. One of the chiefs, Cow-hoe, is under special
instruction for a teacher.
Last spring the work at Metlahkatlah requiring
Mr. Collison's presence, he returned with his excellent wife to that station. And the Rev. George
Sneath was sent out from England to take his place
at Massett. Mr. Sneath was originally sent out to
the Central African mission, but his health failed, and
he was transferred to the north-west coast. Before
leaving, Mr. Collison wrote from Massett:
"One of the principal chiefs" died a short time
since. I visited him during his illness, and held service in his house weekly for the five weeks preceding his death. On the morning of the day on which
he died I visited him, and found him surrounded by DEATH OF A CHIEF.
297
the men of his tribe and the principal medicine-man,
who kept up his incantations and charms to the last.
He was sitting up, and appeared glad to see me, and
in answer to my inquiries he informed me that he
was very low indeed and his heart weak. I directed
him to withdraw his mind from everything, and look
only to Jesus, who alone could help him. He
thanked me again and again while I instructed him ;
and when I asked him if he would like me to pray
with him, he replied that he would, very much. I
then called upon all to kneel, and, with bowed head,
he followed my petitions earnestly. He informed
me that, had he been spared, he would have been
one of the first in the way of God : but I endeavored
to show him that even then he might be so by faith
in the Lord Jesus Christ.
" His death was announced by the firing of several
cannon which they have in the village. On my entering the house the scene which presented itself was
indescribable—shrieking, dancing, tearing and burning their hair in the fire ; while the father of the deceased, who had just been pulled out of the fire
rushed to it again and threw himself upon it. He
was with difficulty removed, and I directed two men
to hold him while I endeavored to calm the tumult.
'' I was very much shocked to find that a young
man—a slave—had been accused by the medicinemen as having bewitched the chief and induced his
sickness. In consequence of this he had been stripped and bound hand and foot in an old out-house,
and thus kept for some days without food. I only
learned this about one hour before the death of the 298
A CHIEFS FUNERAL.
chief, and it was well I heard it even then, as 1
learned that they had determined to shoot him, and
a man had been told of who had his gun ready for
• the purpose. I lost no time in calling the chiefs and
the friends of the deceased, and showed them the
wickedness and sinfulness of such proceedings, and
how by theif thus acting they had probably kept
up a feeling of revenge in the mind of their friend
who had just expired. They accepted my advice
and had him unbound, and he came to the mission-
house to have his wounds dressed. His wrists were
swollen to an immense size, and his back, from hip
to shoulder, lacerated and burned to the bone by
torches of pitch-pine. He was deeply grateful to me
for having saved him.
I The dead chief was laid out, and all those of his
crest came from the opposite village, bringing a
large quantity of swan's-down, which they scattered
over and around the corpse. At my suggestion
they departed from the usual custom of dressing and
painting the dead, and instead of placing the corpse
in a sitting posture they consented to place it on
the back. The remains were decently interred, and
I gave an address and prayed ; thus their custom of
placing the dead in hollowed poles, carved and
erected near the house, has been broken through,
and since this occurred many of the remains which
were thus placed have been buried.
" Dancing, which was carried on every night without intermission during our first winter on the islands,
has been greatly checked. Several, including two
of the chiefs, have given it up entirely.    The medi- FORT RUPERT.
299
cine-men have informed them that those who give up
dancing will die soon. They are well aware that the
abandonment of this practice will weaken their influence, and hence their opposition."
Some three or four years ago the head chief of the
Indians upon the northern end of Vancouver's Island,
at Fort Rupert, visited Metlahaktlah, and asked for
a teacher, saying that 1 a rope had been thrown out
from Metlahpatlah which was encircling and drawing together all the Indian tribes into one common
brotherhood."
In response to his earnest entreaty, it was at length
arranged that Rev. A. J. Hall should go and establish a mission among them. This he did, opening a
school on April 1st, 1878. The tribe number about
3500, a strong and intelligent race, given to deadly
feuds, cannibal feasts, slave-catching expeditions,
and infanticide.
The Roman Catholics have had no less than twelve
priests among these people at different times, but all
have left without accomplishing anything.
Mr. Hall has an attendance of from forty to sixty
at the day-school, and frequently audiences of a hundred upon the Sabbath.
In a late letter he says : " The medicine-men still
exercise much power. A few days since I went to
see a sick woman. I entered the house and heard
strange noises. A medicine-woman, with her back
turned to me, was blowing very scientifically on the
breast of the sick woman, and occasionally making a
peculiar howl. I watched the practitioner unobserved, and when she turned round and saw me she 3°°
CRUELTIES  OF  HEATHENISM.
gave me a grin of recognition and then continued
her blowing. For this she was paid two blankets.
A famous doctor was recently sent for from a neighboring village. I heard him blowing in the same
way, and for his* visit he received thirty blankets.
These people are divided into 'clans,' and each
clan imitates an animal when dancing. The children follow their fathers and grandfathers in the
same dance year by year. One party, when they
perform, are hung up with hooks in a triangular
frame, one hook being stuck into the back and two
more into the legs, and suspended in this way they
are carried through the village. Another clan have
large fish-hooks put into their flesh, to which lines
are attached. The victim struggles to get away, and
those who hold the lines haul him back ; eventually
his flesh is torn and he escapes. By suffering in this
way they keep up the dignity of their ancestors, and
are renowned for their bravery."
During Mr. Tomlinson's residence at Kincolith he
was accustomed to make an annual visit to the
Indians in the Kish-pi-youx valley, on the Upper
Skeena. Upon the recommendation of Bishop Bom-
pas, Mr. Tomlinson removed there last April and
Opened up a mission farm, from which he hopes to
reach several tribes. Having long treated their sick
at the mission hospital at Kincolith, he is said to
have acquired great influence over them.
The Church Missionary Society are so much encouraged by the progress of the missions on the
North Pacific coast that they have erected them
into a bishopric, called Caledonia, and appointed  CHAPTER XI.
Missions of the Methodist Church of Canada in British Columbia
—A Great Revival—Wonderful Experiences.
'' The light shall glance on distant lands,
And Indian tribes, in joyful bands,
Come with exulting haste to prove
The power and greatness of His love."
The missions to the Indians on the north-west coast
of America have called out three remarkable men
—the Rev. Innocentius Veniaminoff, of the Greek
Church, who, commencing as an humble priest in
Alaska, was made bishop and then primate of the
Greek Church of all Russia ; Mr. William Duncan, of
the Church Missionary Society of London, who built
up the model Indian village of Metlahkatlah, and the
Rev. Thomas Crosby, missionary of the Methodist
Church of Canada at Fort Simpson, on the edge of
Alaska. On the 28th day of February, 1862, a local
preacher in the Methodist Church, Mr. Crosby left
Canada for Indian work in British Columbia.
In the spring of 1863 he commenced teaching an
Indian mission school at Nanaimo. In six months
he so far secured a knowledge of the language that
he could preach in it. In 1867 he became a candidate
for ordination, and took a circuit extending up and   REV.  THOMAS CROSBY,
305
down the coast among the Indians for one hundred
and eighty miles, and up the Fraser River to Yale.
In 1869 his first field was visited by an extensive revival, and hundreds among the Flathead Indians
were brought to Christ. His great success attracted
the attention of his denomination, so that when a
picked man was wanted to go to the tribes in the distant north he Was selected. The work among those
tribes had commenced in a remarkable manner.
In 1862 there was in Victoria a Mrs. Dix, who was
a full-blooded Indian woman, the daughter of a great
chief, and a chiefess in her own right. When a child
she was at stated times taken up a great river in a
canoe and taught to worship a large mountain-peak.
Her mother's god was a fish. Desiring to learn something of the white man's God, she commenced attending religious services in Victoria, and followed
it up for seven years without finding light or comfort.
About 1868 a great medicine-man named "Amos,"
who in his incantations had torn in pieces with his
teeth and eaten dead bodies, commenced attending
the Methodist Church and prayer-meeting. This
called the attention of the church to the condition
of the Indian population, and a Sabbath-school was
started for their benefit. The second Sabbath no
Indian was present at the school. Upon visiting*
their camp they were found making a medicine-man,
with all the accompanying cruelties. But the school
was persevered in. Amos was one of the first converts, and became a class-leader. About this time
Mrs. Dix found her way to the school and to Christ.
A  revival commenced among the  Indians, during "t.o6
AN INDIAN  REVIVAL.
which meetings were kept up for nine weeks, and
numbers were brought into the church.
With her own conversion Mrs. Dix became anxious
for the conversion of her daughter-in-law and son,
Alfred, who was chief of a tribe several hundred miles
up the coast. She spent whole nights in prayer that
God would bring him to Victoria under the revival
influences. She asked her friends, white and Indian, to join her in this petition. During the meetings that son, who had not been home for years,
landed from the steamer at Victoria, after a canoe-
load of whiskey. He was prevailed on to attend
church with his wife and mother. All the depravity
of his nature rose up against what he had heard and
seen. He was angry at his mother, himself, and
everybody. Still more earnest prayer was then
made for him, and prayer prevailed. Both he and his
wife were brought to Christ. With the fire kindled
in their own hearts, they hastened back to their own
people, near the Alaska line, bearing the glad tidings
of great joy. As of old when Parthians and Medes and
dwellers in Asia and strangers at Rome and others
carried back to their own people the fire and tidings
of the pentecostal season, so these Indians carried
the power of the Gospel with them to their homes at
the Skeena, the Nasse, the Tastazellaroka, and other
places too numerous to mention.
An old gray-haired, blind Indian, hundreds of miles
away, heard the good news that Jesus Christ came
into the world to save sinners—that he who made the
sun and moon, the mountains and rivers and fish,
had sent his boy to the world to take the " bad out THE BLIND INDIAN.
307
of him." How his heart leaped for joy ! Again and
again he had gone into the deep, gloomy cafions of
the mountains and fasted by the day and the week
to get the bad out of him. Under the lashings of
conscience he had gone to the medicine-men of his
people and laid piles of costly furs before them, if
they would only bring him peace. As gray hairs
came, and he himself became a medicine-man, in his
desperation he had, after the horrible rites of his
order, torn the flesh from half-putrid human corpses
to get the bad out of him, but all in vain. And now
he hears of one who can certainly take the bad out of
him. He wants to go to him at once. He wants to
hear all about him. His Indian informer can only
assure him that Jesus is the Saviour, and that if he
could go to the coast there is a man there that would
tell him all about Jesus. Taking a grandson to lead
him, he starts for the coast.
Many a lonely mile they paddled their canoe, and
many the suns that set upon their wild evening camp.
When near the coast they were met by a Christian.
The blind man was ever repeating to himself, as he
groped along, "Jesus Christ came into the world to
save sinners." This attracted the attention of the-
Christian, who halted the party and learned the
above history. The Indian was directed to a mission'
station, and, like the Ethiopian eunuch of old, went
on his way rejoicing.
Alfred, the chief, upon his return from Victoria,
commenced at once to hold meetings among his own
people at Fort Simpson. In connection with his
wife he opened a day-school,.which was soon at- 3o8
FORT SIMPSON.
tended by over two hundred pupils. Letter after
letter was sent to Victoria urging the appointment
of a missionary.
In the spring of 1874 they were visited by Rev.
W. Pollard, of Victoria, who held meetings among
them and baptized a large number. After the departure of Mr. Pollard the meetings were carried on
by the people themselves and with the aid of the Holy
Spirit. So that when Rev. Thomas Crosby reached
Fort Simpson, in the fall of 1874, he found a glorious-
work of grace in progress, and not a single family
that had not already renounced paganism and were
impatiently awaiting his arrival to be taught more
perfectly in the new way
It is proper to say that this preparatory work was
partly due to the leaven of Mr. Duncan's labors for
the Church Missionary Society and partly to the revival at Victoria.
With enthusiasm Mr. and Mrs. Crosby set themselves to the work, and by God's blessing a village
of Christian Indians has grown up around them.
Their beautiful new church is Gothic in style, fifty by
eighty feet in size, with buttresses, and a tower one
hundred and forty feet high.
During the finishing of the church an unusual
storm unroofed it, and for a time the whole church
was in danger of being destroyed. As the first portion of the roof came down with a crash, an old Indian ran to one of the stores, and securing a coil of
rope ran back to the church out of breath. Younger
and stronger men mounted the swaying building
and  fastened  the  rope to the gable end.    Others   UNROOFING THE CHURCH.
311
tightened the rope and fastened the other end to a
large stump. Then kneeling down around the
stump in a beating storm they uncovered their heads,
and one prayed that the Lord would have pity upon
them and spare his house, saying, " Lord, you have
taken the roof off your house ; that is enough. Now,
Lord, don't do any more." The walls of the building being firmly lashed with ropes to neighboring
rocks and stumps, the people repaired to the school-
house. A chief arose and called out that it was not
a time for long speeches, but action. Instantly
twenty or thirty men left the house, and the missionary was alarmed lest they were offended ; others followed them, but soon they commenced returning
with rolls of blankets (the currency of that region)
on their shoulders and laid them in front of the
teacher's desk, as their offering to the Lord. The
fire was kindled, and amid tears and laughter, blankets, coats, shirts, shawls, guns, finger and ear rings,
bracelets, furs, and indeed almost everything that
could be turned into money, were laid upon the table
of offering, to the value of $400—a striking commentary on the constraining love of Christ in their hearts.
Schools of various kinds have been successfully established. The day-school in winter numbers about
one hundred and twenty. The Sunday-school is divided into three parts—before morning service Bible-
classes are held, when the previous Sunday lesson is
taken up, read, and discussed. In the afternoon the
children are taken to the school-house, where lessons suitable to their understanding are given by
Mrs. Crosby and Miss C. S. Knott.     Mr. Crosby 312
INDIAN REVIVAL
has the adults under his care at the same time in the
church.
Thus the whole church is reached, and a whole tribe
are moving steadily forward to a higher civilization.
Under the influence of Christianity the Indians are
abandoning their large houses, which are the common abode of several families, and building separate
houses for each faiMly. During the past two years
sixty such dwellings have been erected by Indian
mechanics, and the old houses are fast disappearing
with other remnants of their old civilization.
Under the leadership of Mr. Crosby the Indians
have an annual industrial fair, at which small premiums are given for the best specimens of carving
in wood or silver, models of dwellings and canoes,
best vegetables, best kept garden, best made window-sash, panelled doors, cured salmon, etc.
During the winter of '77 and '78 a revival came
with great power among them. One evening a great
crowd came and asked to be admitted to the church.
As Rev. Mr. Crosby was absent, his able and efficient
assistant, Miss C. S. Knott, went into the church
with them. The whole assembly seemed moved to
strong crying and tears and excited confessions of
sin. After a lengthy meeting she dismissed them
and closed the church, but they refused to go home.
They gathered in groups in the churchyard, although
it was raining almost incessantly. They scarcely eat
or slept, neglected themselves and their children.
The whole place was one of weeping. These strong
manifestations lasted three days and nights, when
they calmed down.   A MISSION TO NAAS.
315
Mr. Crosby returning, meetings were held for a
number of weeks, until large numbers were brought
into the church. Many flocked in from the neighboring tribes, and, finding Jesus, returned to their
own people to spread the story of salvation.
As at Fort Simpson, so on the Naas River the
converted natives from Fort Simpson carried the
messages of salvation into the regions beyond in advance of the white missionary. And upon the shores
of the Naas, where for ages had been heard the rattle
and wild howling of incantations of medicine-men,
was heard for the first time the song of redeeming
love. Mr. Crosby made several trips to the Naas
villages.
In response to their earnest entreaties he secured
the appointment of Rev. Alfred E. Greene. Mr.
Greene, accompanied by Mr. Crosby, reached the
lower Naas Indian village August 9th, 1877, and met
a very warm welcome. Guns were fired, flags hoisted
on trees and poles, and the population turned out
en masse, and many rejoiced that the day was breaking on the Naas people after a long dark night.
A chief who was at Naas, and whose adopted
daughter is a member of the church, said, '' I heard
my daughter sing and read and pray. I want all
this people to do the same. Give us this great light.
We have heard of the Fort Simpson people, how
wise they are. They used to come up here to fight
us, but they don't any more ; all peace now. We
want to be just like them."
One old chief, as he leaned upon his staff, said,
" I am getting old ; my body is getting weaker every
!*i,^!$S$Si^^^*^S^P^ 3i6
AN INDIAN PROCLAMATION.
day ; I am obliged to have three legs to walk with
now (referring to his staff) ; this tells me I shall
soon die. I don't know what hour I shall be called
away; I want to hear about the great God, and I
want my children to be taught to read the Good
Book ; I want them to go in the new way; we are
tired of the old fashion."
Another said, I My heart got very warm last night
when I heard God's Word. I heard a little last
spring. I was down the river and saw Mr. Crosby,
and I took just a little of the good medicine, and my
heart felt well, but after the missionary went away
I had trouble, and my heart got all mixed up. I did
bad and my heart got very sick, so I say to myself,
When the good medicine comes again I will take
more of it.<-||Last night I took more of it; now my
eyes open and everything look beautiful." Then as
he pointed up the river he added, "There are ten
tribes of people living up there, missionary ; we give
them all to you. Go and see them ; they all want to
know the Great Spirit." They then presented them
the following touching address :
I We, the chiefs and people of the Naas, welcome
you from our hearts on your safe arrival here to begin in earnest the mission work you promised us last
spring.
" Our past life has been bad—very bad. We have
been so long left in darkness that we fear you will
not be able to do much for our old people, but for
our young we have great hopes. We wish from our
hearts to have our young men, women, and children REVIVAL ON THE NAAS.
3T7
read and write, so that they may understand the
duties they owe to their great Creator and to each
other.
j' You will find great difficulties in the way of such
work, but great changes cannot be expected in one
day. You must not get discouraged by a little trouble, and we tell you again that we will all help you
as much as we can.
" We believe this work to be of God. We have
prayed, as you told us, and now we think that God
has heard our prayers and sent you to us, and it
seems to us like the day breaking in on our darkness, and we think that before long the great Sun
will shine upon us and give us more light.
" We hope to see the white men that settle among
us set us a good example, as they have had the light
so long they know what is right and what is wrong.
We hope they will assist us to do what is good, that
we may become better and better every day by following their example.
" We again welcome you from our hearts, and hope
that the mission here will be like a great rock, never
to be moved or washed away ;' and in order to this
we will pray to the Great Spirit that his blessing
may rest upon this mission and upon us all.
(Signed) " Chief of the Mountains,
" And six other chiefs."
Messrs. Crosby and Greene commenced a series of
meetings extending over five days. Three services
were held each day. Soon the house was filled with
the cries of Indians under conviction of sin.    These' 3i8
A STRIKING CONVERSION.
services were continued for weeks by Mr. Greene.
God's spirit was present with a power that shook the
heathenism of that section to its foundation. Desperate and depraved sorcerers bowed at the foot of
the cross and were made new creatures in Christ
Jesus.
An instance of this is thus given by the missionary : "A chief of considerable inflnence, who
has been bitter against any missionary coming here,
came to me to tell how miserable he had been
for two weeks. He said, ' God had troubled his
heart because he was so wicked, and he was determined he would not be a Christian, but he had
no rest day or night, and he was angry with everybody ; he got so bad that his wife could not live
with him any longer.' Then he said when we talked
to him in his house, he saw it was all sin that made
this trouble, and something told him to leave his sins
and become a Christian, but then he thought of his
blankets that he potlatched * last year, and as he
gave away all he had, next year he would commence
to serve God and receive it back, so that he thought
he would not get a new heart till he got his property
back. ' But,' said he, ' my heart got so sick I could
neither eat or work or sleep ; I was nearly dead ;
then I think of God, and Sunday, while in the house,
as I hear God's word, I say I will give my heart,
blankets, and all to God, and the same moment all
* Potlatch means a gift. It is a custom of the northern tribes
for one who aspires to the chieftainship to make a great feast and
give away the accumulation of years, with, the expectation of receiving it all back with interest in the future. A NEW  USE OF THE BIBLE
my trouble went away—my heart became so happy
sometimes I think I am not the same man.' He
went and told his wife ; they became reconciled, and
as he told his experience in the crowded class-meeting, many wept for joy.
"He put his idols away, he buried his bad medicines in a quaking bog, he married his aged consort,
the companion of his life, and hand in hand with
her he approached the table of the Lord. Night
after night he comes to learn from the missionary's
lips the sweetly simple yet expressive prayer of
Christ, ' Our Father which art in heaven, hallowed
be thy name.' "
As the result of these meetings a class of seventy-
five was at once formed.
The following winter an old man, who had opposed
the coming of the missionary, as he felt death approaching requested his children to bring him to
the mission. He was very anxious for the missionary to be with him. He spent much of the time in
prayer. Several times he asked for a Bible ; Mr.
Greene sent him one. The day before he died the
missionary saw the Bible tied to the top of a stick
about three feet long, which was set in the ground
near his head. He asked, 1 Why do you tie the
book there ?" The old man answered, 11 can't read,
but I know that is the great Word, so when my
heart gets weak I just look up at the book and say,
Father, that is your book ; no one to teach me to
read ; very good you help me ; then my heart gets
stronger, the bad goes away." He told his friends
not to bury him the old heathen way, but to let the 320
MISSION TOUR.
missionary bury him, and the next morning calmly
passed away, trusting in Jesus.
A small residence was erected for the missionary,
and a school-house and chapel, thirty by forty feet
in size. Getting started in the lower village, another
mission was established in the upper one, twenty-
five miles distant. This is the darkest and most
wicked village on the river. They do not bury their
dead, but have a feast, make a great fire in the
house, throw on the body, and dance around it while
it burns ; but they are seeking for light. Heathenism was carried on by doctors and conjurors to a
great degree, ten being at work when the missionaries arrived. They preached the first night to a
large congregation. The next day they visited the
sick, giving them medicine and pointing them to
Jesus. A large number of the people followed them
from house to house, eager to catch every word. On
Sunday the large house was filled ; many, being unable to get even standing room, climbed up the roof
to the open square, through which the smoke-escapes,
and there listened attentively, through the whole
service, to the precious word, although snow was
falling. On Monday they had a meeting, and at the
close asked the doctors and conjurors to abandon
their deceptive work. They confessed before all the
people that they knew that they could not help any
one, and promised that they would give it up and
burn their mysterious boxes at once.
One day an old chief came to ask a question. He
said, 1 The white people are very wise ; they know a
great deal, but the Indians are a very foolish people ; ON THE SKEENA.
•"21
they don't like what is good as the whites do. Why
did not God make us all white, so that we would all
be wise ?" The old man seemed amazed as the missionary pointed him back to our common parents,
to the origin of sin ; and when he told him that it
was Christianity that had raised the whites above
his people, the chief said, " Take the door to every
house ; tell everybody about God."
Missions being established on the Naas, Rev. Mr.
Greene felt called upon to make a canoe voyage up
the Skeena. Calling his leading people together,
he explained to them his wish to take the Gospel of
Jesus to the distant tribes. They were well pleased.
One said, " Yes, there is food enough for all. Take them
some."    He writes :
" At Kish-pi-ax nearly four hundred people came
to meet us as soon as they saw us, and made us feel
how glad they were to see us at their village. They
sat down, and we told them of Jesus and his power to
save. Never did I see a people so eager for the
bread of life. At the conclusion, after service, the
chiefs spoke. One said, ' Your face makes me glad,
and your words make my heart warm. I want
God's word, and my people want it, but we have
no one to teach us. We are glad you came to
see us. You have walked five days across the
mountains ; now we know you love us. Put your
coat down ; stay with us, live with us ; we want to
love God. We will give up all the old way and do
what you tell us. If you go away and leave us
many moons, our hearts will get cold and weak.'
" Twenty miles more  and we were at Kit-wan- 322
KIT-A-MART.
gah, with four hundred and fifty souls hungry for
the bread of life. After service they told me they
wanted to be Christians ; that half the village had
thrown away the old dance and feast, and they
wished to know when Sunday would come ; they
wanted to keep it holy, but did not know when it
came, and had no one to tell them. It is quite exciting travelling this river. These gigantic mountains, the swift current, and ' shooting the rapids'
fill every moment with interest.
"A young man very sick had his friends bring him
twenty-five miles to the mission. He wept when he
saw us, and said he wanted to hear about Jesus before he died. He said, ' I am very wicked ; I want
to get a new heart.' When we told him to pray, he
replied, ' I can't; I don't know how.' We felt Jesus
was very near as we pointed him to the ' Lamb of
God.' When we called the next day he held out
his hand, saying, ' Jesus has made heart good ; now
you pray for my wife.' He recovered from that
time. A few days later his wife believed, and both
are now happy in Jesus."
Unable to find an English missionary for these villages, Mr. Crosby stationed a native catechist at the
forks of the river, central to the several villages.
At Kit-a-mart, one hundred and fifty miles south
of Fort Simpson, a beginning has also been made, and
a small church, twenty-eight by thirty feet, erected by
the Indians. The lumber for this church was taken
one hundred and fifty miles in canoes. The earnest
desire of these Indians for light, and the exposures
and hardships they are willing to undergo in order A BELLA BELLA CHIEF.
323
to secure buildings for school and church, are something wonderful.
The most noted medicine-man of this place was
Bella Bella Peter. He had been the leader of a secret religious society of man-eaters, who exhume
dead bodies, bite and pretend to eat them. He was
among the first to come to Christ. Bringing out
all the implements of his sorcery, he burned them in
the presence of his people. For a long time his life
Was in danger, his old associates fearing he would
expose the secrets of their craft and deprive them of
their gains and power over the people. But counting not his life dear, Peter continues to earnestly
proclaim the truth as it is in Jesus, in season and out
of season.
The people at Kit-a-mart belong to the Bella Bella
tribe. And arrangements are made to station a
Methodist minister at Bella Bella to visit all the villages of that people. At Bella Bella a little chapel
has already been erected. Bella Bella Jim, one of
the head chiefs of the nation, was a great gambler
and drunkard. Being over at New Westminster he
was invited to attend church. But he declined, saying he was not a church Indian. Again and again
he was invited, until at length he concluded to go.
He was so well pleased that he continued to attend.
He concluded to give up gambling and drinking, and
after a while saw himself a sinner and went to Jesus
for salvation. After attending for a time the Indian church at New Westminster and Victoria he returned home. He had long been intending to erect
a new house and make a great feast for all the neigh- 324
A HYDAH CHIEF.
boring tribes, that he might show his wealth and
get great renown. But now all his plans were
changed, and' he concluded to build a church house
that Jesus might get the renown. Thus was the
Bella Bella chapel built. The church finished, he
took his wife and child in a canoe and paddled two
hundred miles to Fort Simpson, to beg that a minister might be sent to occupy the new house and
teach him and his people about Jesus. He remained
two months at Fort Simpson, under instruction in
the new way.
The Hydahs, from Queen Charlotte's Island, have
also again and again sought assistance and pleaded
for a missionary. Hydah George, in the line of
royal descent and heir-apparent to the head chief of
his people, one night lay upon his bed of skins
musing on the past. He remembered the ambition of
his father and uncles for great renown among their
people, but they had passed away. He thought of
the desire of his sisters for wealth and display, to
secure which they had gone into sin, which laid
them in early graves. His proud family one after
another had passed away until only he and a younger
brother remained. The inherited wealth of generations had descended to him, and he was about to be
made the chief of a powerful tribe. But as he remembered how only evil had come to his family, he
determined to renounce the old ways of his people
and try the Christian way. He and his people had
often asked that a missionary might be sent to them,
but none had come. He would wait no longer—he
would arise and go where the missionary, was. When SEEKING THE LIGHT.
325
he announced his purpose to his people, they were in
a rage. They were afraid that the wealth of his
family would be lost to the tribe, and they determined to prevent the carrying out of his resolution
by force. He replied, "If it is my property you
want, take it, but as for me, I am going where the
Christians are." And the young man gave up his
chieftainship, distributed much of his wealth, and
taking his brother in the canoe with him came to
Mr. Crosby for religious instruction. Thus from
many tribes the people come to him for the Gospel.
And his canoe voyages to visit them cover thousands
of miles. I have dwelt more at length on these
missions to show both the eagerness of the people
for the Gospel and what can be accomplished. For
what the Methodists and the Church of England can
do for the natives in British Columbia can be done
by the American churches in Alaska. They are the
same people, with the same customs, practices, and
heathenism.
Concerning them their missionaries write :
" The Indians of North America are so open to the
Gospel that, from the experience of the past, the
Christianizing of them is, with God's blessing, simply a matter of men and money. They are like
fields white for the harvest.
" In the dioceses of Rupert's Land, where devoted
missionaries of the Canada Missionary Society have
for many years so lovingly labored, there has not
been a mission where a clergyman has perseveringly
worked in which the next generation has not become -f
326
AN  OPEN DOOR.
to a large extent Christian. There may be a trial of
faith for a few years ; then we perhaps hear—as lately
in the mission at Fort Francis—of an Indian woman
and her two children making open profession of
Christianity and being baptized—first a few drops
and then the shower. There seems no limit in
Rupert's Land to the success God vouchsafes, but
what we make ourselves. The people are everywhere
prepared to anticipate, if not spiritual yet temporal
blessings from the presence of a minister of Christ.
There is a sense of the coming supremacy of the
white man's religion. But, above all, the poor
heathen Indian feels he worships he knows not what.
He is conscious that if he speaks to his Great Spirit
he is but speaking in the air. He hears no response.
He stretches out his hand and grasps nothing. The
future is all darkness. Where the heart feels such a
blank, if not a craving, the way is very open to the
sweet story of the Saviour's love."
Rev. R. Machray, D.D.
I The people have become convinced that the Lord
is the true God, and many are beginning in simplicity and ignorance, yet with earnestness and faith,
to pray for light, wisdom, and strength. Many an
Indian has buried his old heart in the ground, and
left there his old ways. From many a wigwam,,
where but a few short months ago charms were reverenced and demons invoked, ascend with unfailing
regularity the songs and petitions of awakened
men.
" Childish lips have learned to lisp ' Our Father         ■^"--Ws^fe"*-*-  

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