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Facts and figures relating to Vancouver Island and British Columbia showing what to expect and how to… Pemberton, Joseph Despard, 1821-1893 1860

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Array  LIST 0i«)RKS BYMRBpAGA^r:
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lVX MACAULAY • ComDrisiri^WContributions to Knight's Quarterly Magazine.; Articles?*the Edinburgh
Review, notincluded inSSS5&WW M*r; Biographies written f^t^njcm^Brttanmca;
Miscellaneous Poems, &c.  -a vols. 8vo. with Portrait.
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on Wood by S. Williams.   New Edition.   Ecp. 4to. .pxice 2is: boards; morocco, by HaVf^fc Jgg*.
TOED 1 ^ ©WPK^^i
n&ca    1 VANCOUVER ISLAND and BRITISH COLUMBIA LONDON
PEINTED   BY   SPOTTISWOODE   AND   CO.
NEW-STREET   SQUARE   FACTS   AND   FIGUKES
RELATING TO
VANCOUVER ISLAND and BRITISH COLUMBIA
*WHAT TO EXPECT and HOW TO GET THERE
WITH     ILLUSTRATIVE    MAPS
J.   DESPAED   PEMBEETON
SURVEYOR-GENERAL V. I.
"If, as I firmly believe, it is our duty to maintain our great and valuable Colonial
empire, let ■ us see that those principles are sound which we adopt in our Colonial
administration " Loed John Russell
" I believe that much of the power and influence of this country depends upon its having
large Colonial possessions in different parls of the world  that by the acquisition of its
Colonial dominions the nation has incurred a responsibility of the highest kind, which it is
not at liberty to throw off"  , ... Earl Geey
LONDON
LONGMAN,   GREEN,   LONGMAN,   AND   ROBERTS
1860  JOHN EAE, ESQ.  M.D. F.RG.S.
CORRESPONDING member of the geographical society OF NEW YORK,
ETC   etc.
My dear Dr. Rae,
I would ask you, in glancing over the following pages, which
I do myself the honour of Dedicating to you, to bear in mind, that,
as the circumstances of the Colonies to which they relate will necessarily vary with every fresh discovery and political change from year to
year, and even from month to month, a studied composition would have
been but labour lost.
From abundant material I have endeavoured to select facts sufficient to support the opinions expressed, the whole being so roughly
put together as to constitute a mere temporary literary structure,
which I hope at leisure hours in the Colonies to rebuild and reproduce
in a more complete and perfect form.
I take the liberty of associating your name with the volume, not
simply on account of private friendship or personal admiration, nor
because you are familiar with and take a deep interest in the subject
of it; but influenced in doing so by this additional motive: Arctic
enterprise, in which you have taken so distinguished a part, may
be said to be practically at an end; the idea revives painful recollections only,—of cold unendurable, ships abandoned, famine, and the
tomb; and I had hopes of enlisting those energies, deprived of their
object, but  still unimpaired notwithstanding the hardships you  have VI DEDICATION.
undergone, in an enterprise of great national importance,—that of
connecting England, via the Canadas, Red River Colony, Sascatchewan,
British Columbia, and Vancouver Island, with Australia, by one unbroken chairs of commercial and postal communication.
That the undertaking, large as it may sound, is far from being
impracticable, will, I am persuaded, be inferred from the* evidence
adduced.
But it is to individual exertion and private enterprise that we must
look for the realisation of the project, towards the accomplishment of
which it seems certain that the interests of various classes of the community and the assistance of Governments will not be invoked in vain.
I remain, my dear Dr. Rae,
Very sincerely yours,
J. DESPARD PEMBERTGN,
Parsonagk House, Kensall Green,
London :  August 20, I860. CONTENTS.
CHAPTER L
Preliminary Remarks
Page 1
CHAP. II.
General Appearance of the Country.— Salt Water and Fresh Water-
Navigation. — Land :   Proportion of Open Land and Waste.	
Flora.— Fertility.— Profits of Cultivation.— Stock.— Timber.-—
Fisheries.— Game.— Mode and Terms of Sale of Lands     .        8
CHAP. III.
Minerals and Rocks.— Gold in British Columbia,-Vancouver Island,
and Queen Charlotte's Island.— Coal on the Pacific, Iron, Copper,
and Plumbago. — Limestone, Sandstone, and Marble.— Various
coloured Earths.— Salt Springs     . . . .36
CHAP. IV.
Chief Towns of Vancouver Island and British Columbia
49
CHAP. V.
Institution of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia— Their Progress traced, and compared with that of the
adjoining American States — Their Commerce. •— Policy of
England and America respectively, with regard to their Possessions on the Pacific . . . . .57 mmm
CONTENTS.
CHAP. VI.
Routes to the Pacific — By Long Sea,— By Royal Mail Line, or
vid New York, across the Isthmus to San Francisco, and thence
to the British Colonies. — The four Overland American Routes.
— Postal   ...... Page 84
CHAP. VII.
Proposed British Emigrant and Postal Route to the Pacific, from
Canada, south of the Lakes, through Red River and British
Columbia to Vancouver Island.— Climate of the proposed Route.
— Trade with China and Japan.— Postal Communication witn
Australia.— Conclusions arrived at . . .97
CHAP. VIII.
Society in the Colonies
127
CHAP. IX.
A few Suggestions to different Classes of intending Emigrants    135
APPENDIX.
Journal of a Tour across Vancouver Island, from Nimkish River to
Nootka Sound, by Hamilton Moffat, Esq., in the H. B. Co.'s Service .......    143
Report of an Excursion from Nanaimo vid Quallehum, Lake Horn,
and Alberni Canal to the Pacific, by J. D. Pemberton        .    147
Report of an Excursion from Cowichan Harbour to Nitinat, by
J. D. Pemberton   . . . . . .149
Extract from Journal of Captain Vancouver on the Country in the
Neighbourhood of Point Breakers . . . .150
Report of Major William Downie of a Tour from Port Essington to
the Babine Lakes and Interior of British Columbia .    151
The Months most favourable for doubling Cape Horn from either
Ocean        .......    154
Professor A. S. Taylor, M.D. F.R.S., on the Salt Springs of Vancouver Island        . . . . . .159 CONTENTS.
IX
Professor James Tennant on the Rocks of Vancouver Island, Page 160
Naval Station of the Pacific Squadron {Times' Correspondent, June
26,1860.). . . • . .161
Horse Racing in California    . . . . .162
Law of Land Sales    . . . . .163
Laws relating to Purchase of Lands by Aliens . .167
Regulations for the working of Gold Mines in British Columbia    168
The Chinese .......    170
MAPS.
I. Map of British Columbia and Queen Charlotte's Island
to face title-page.
II. Map of Vancouver Island, and Diagram of Esquimalt and Victoria Harbours .... Page 56
III. Map  of  the   principal   American   Overland  Routes  to  the
Pacific . . . . . .97
IV. Map of proposed British  Emigrant and Postal Route from
Canada, through Red River Settlement, to the North Pacific
Colonies . . . . .127  FACTS AND FIGURES
RELATING   TO
VANCOUVER ISLAND * BRITISH COLUMBIA.
CHAPTER I.
PRELIMINARY   REMARKS.
I feel satisfied that neither preface nor apology are
required to awaken or revive the interest felt in England
on the subject to which the following pages relate; but
I think it due to the reader, before he shall have taken
the trouble to read them, to say something of my object
in pubhshing, the nature of the statements contained,
and the authority on which they rest.
In my official capacity, I continue to receive verbal
and written communications from a great number of
persons resident in Great Britain or the Canadas, who,
as intending emigrants, merchants, or capitalists, require
some detailed information about the British colonies on
the N. W. Pacific. To reply to these inquiries separately, and at the same time satisfactorily, is impossible,
nor can I refer the querists to any existing publication
containing useful, or even reliable, information.
To compensate for their scanty information on points
B
u* EARLY  SETTLEMENT  OF  THE  NORTH-WEST  COAST.
of practical utility, such publications usually treat at
length of the discovery of America, generally by the
agency of Christopher Columbus, but some, by that of
John Cabot: they discuss the questions, whether Juan
de Fuca was a myth or a man, and if the latter, who
first verified the discovery of the strait named after him;
whether this strait was the Strait of Anian, or if the
latter connected Hudson's Bay with the Atlantic; —
whether Perez or Cook first sighted Nootka; of the
Spanish mine secretly worked at Hogg Island; the mysterious cairns of the north-west, and remains of a
chimney at Neah Bay. All which questions I shall
assume the reader to have already resolved to his own
satisfaction; being more interesting to the historian or
antiquarian, than to the practical inquirer of the present day, for whose perusal these pages are intended.
No doubt, the story of the early settlement of the
north-west coast of America, with its thrilling adventures by sea and land, its brilliant discoveries and
appalling disasters, its anecdotes of crafty Spaniards and
unsuspecting natives, hardy trappers and reckless buccaneers, could not fail, if well told, to interest the
public, and repay the publisher. This department I
leave intact, intending in these pages not to trespass
upon antiquity more than I can avoid, nor to revive,
unless it be incidentally and where the interest is of the
present time, even the more recent memories of the
sagacious Mears, or the indefatigable Vancouver. The
names of the early pioneers will always be heard with
reverence, although wiser in their own generation than
hi ours, which is an age of steam and telegraph, of
marvellous invention and rapid discovery. Humboldt
himself, were he to live over again, would find it
difficult to achieve an equal reputation  by depicting
w OBJECT  OF  PUBLICATION.
a continent, the privacy of which is invaded by our
noblesse in quest of buffalo and bear tracks, where
botanists search for seeds, and labourers for gold, where
merchants travel, and where artists sketch.
It is my intention to use freely the published evidence
of any modern witness, where such evidence is preferable to my own; so that this may, to some extent, be
regarded rather as a compilation of facts than as an
original treatise, in which the writer can have no other
object than to supply correct information. An influx of
strangers adds considerably to the work of the office
under my direction ; and, in addition to this consideration, I should feel much regret if, by any too highly-
coloured or over-sanguine statements of mine, people
were induced to undertake an unprofitable voyage.
But I had another motive in this publication—viz.
that the books alluded to, in addition to containing a
great amount of useless matter, not unfrequently propagate very erroneous statements with regard to these
colonies. To correct these errors seriatim would be
too tedious, and would in fact amount to writing the
books over again; but I shall select, by way of example,
a description of Vancouver Island by Colonel Walter
Colquhoun Grant, read at the Geographical Society, and
published by Mr. Eoutledge, bound up with some other
material and a few of the admirable letters of the
I Times' " Correspondent. The colonel had of course
no intention to convey an erroneous impression of the
island, but fell into a very common mistake, that of applying to the whole island, which he did not explore
or examine, a description which ought only to have
been applied to a very small fraction of the island
with whiph he was familiar. It does not answer to
form opinions of any country on the expede Hercidem mm
THE  COUNTRY MISREPRESENTED.
principle, and comments are futile where the ground
has not been trod.
The colonel appears to have formed his opinion on a
single excursion up the Sooke Eiver. That every part
jof the ground he examined is quite as iniquitous as
he describes the whole island to be, I can vouch. But
within two miles of that river some very beautiful
country has been since discovered by the Messrs. Muir.
The publication says, " It is difficult to convey upon
paper a correct impression of the interior, the sight of
which, seen from the first eminence that he ascends,
causes to the explorer a hopeless elongation of visage."
No single view should have been so discouraging as
this: had the explorer ascended a second hill, or perhaps a third, so agreeable might have been the prospect^
as to have caused his countenance with pleasure to
expand in the opposite direction. But it may be asked,
how is it that some others who have seen the island
have carried away a similar unfavourable impression ?
The answer is obvious, they have seen the island, but
not explored it; they have seen from a distance the
elevated rocks and hills, but have not wandered through
the open lawns and rich valleys, which appear, in number
and extent, to increase with every fresh addition to
our knowledge of the country. To illustrate this in a
familiar way : if dinner were on the table, and the arrangement looked at from a point on a level with the
table-cloth, the mind would receive an impression of
legs of mutton and coverdishes only, and the intervals
of flowered damask would be unseen and unrecorded.
The same book abounds with absurdities like the following : " Between Fort Hope and Port Yale, sixteen
miles, the view presents -no difficulties whatever to a
tanoe ascending— except in one place, where there i§ a FOREIGN  RELATIONS.
rapid, which, however, is no great obstacle, as, close to
•the shore, in the eddy, a canoe is easily towed past it;"
the fact being that the steamer " Umatilla " has plied
between the points mentioned. And again, of certain
Indians, "they all prefer their meat putrid, and fre-
•quently keep it until it smells so strong as to be disgusting. Part of the salmon they bury underground for
;two or three months to putrefy, and the more it is
decayed, the greater delicacy they consider, it."
I read this passage to the infinite amusement of a
gentleman well acquainted with the part of the country
to which it relates, and who had six times crossed the
Rocky Mountains, without as much as hearing of anything of the sort.*
It is impossible to do justice to this subject, without
considering with it the nature and extent of our rela-
,tionsr commercial or otherwise, with the Foreign States
adjacent. San Francisco is at present the great centre
of commerce, and holds as it were the keys of the
Pacific; despatching annually her mercantile fleet of
2000 sail, and 600,000 tons, to almost every port of
importance in the world. Our principal trade is with
her: Washington and Oregon supply our miners- with
beef and flour ; Victoria is built principally with timber
from Puget Sound ; any spars of consequence that
have as yet been shipped by English merchants were
ihewn in Admiralty Inlet; and the only communications, postal or otherwise, to the country are by
American roads or in American steamers. And if it
.can be at the same time shown, as I think it can, that
our natural advantages are in many respects, in point
of situation and products, superior to those of California,
* Dugald M'Tavish, Esq,
B 3 mm
RESPONSIBILITY,
this consideration may tend to increased exertion, and
may prompt us to enter into friendly and not unsuccessful competition, to share the commerce which San
Francisco now monopolises.
Although, as I before mentioned, in point of facts
produced, these pages may, in part, be regarded as a
compilation, instances will occur in which I shall have
occasion to express unreservedly my own opinions ;
and as I write, not in an official capacity, but as a private individual, and in doing so violate no confidence,
nor use any information to which the public could not
have had access equally with myself, such opinions,
if inconclusive or even injudicious, cannot do harm,
since this hypothesis would deprive them of force, and
since they are at best but the opinions of a unit of the
\ community addressed to the mass.
The substance of some short despatches of my. own,
written to the secretary of the Hudson's Bay Company,
I readily obtained permission from Mr. Thomas Fraser,
the present" secretary, to print; extracts from them
appear in the Appendix.
In venturing to impugn the policy adopted towards
these colonies at their foundation, years ago, now
generally accepted and become almost hereditary, I
disclaim any allusion to the talented gentlemen who
preside over the Colonial Department,* nor have I the
least ambition to identify myself with a class which
exists, I presume, in most colonies, who hold that
rulers at a distance are necessarily imperfectly informed.
On the contrary, I would be ungrateful as well as
culpable, if I did not acknowledge the kind interest, as
well as the intimate knowledge of circumstances and
places in these colonies, manifested by all the gentlemen
of the Colonial Department with whom I have had the PUBLICATION NOT ILL-TIMED.
honour to converse. In one respect especially they
stand on vantage ground: disinterested and aloof from
petty animosities and party politics, their decisions are
arrived at with a judgment unbiassed, and with conscientious impartiality.
Nor can it be said that these remarks are inopportune at a time when England, councilled by statesmen
of unsurpassed ability, cannot but regard with concern
the continued exodus of almost the whole natural
increase of Ireland * (some 70,000 or 80,000 a year) to
people, not her own colonies, but to swell the millions
of the states adjacent, because they hold out to the
emigrant facilities so obvious and inducements so inviting, as, in the opinion of these, to neutralize the
benefit of living under the flag of Great Britain ; when
the necessity for quicker communication with Australia
and China is every day more apparent; and, when
want of population has more than once led the country
to the verge of war, and plainly shown that in launching this new colonial adventure upon the waters of
civilisation, measures should have been at the same
time taken to man the vessel with a British crew.
In conclusion, I would merely observe, that the
same reason that induces me to publish,—the scantiness
of our information on the colonies in question,—compels
me to make the publication short. No advantage can
be gained by diluting the little reliable information we
possess.
* Vide " Times' " leading article, May 3, 1860.
B   4 CHAP. II
GENERAL   APPEARANCE   OF   THE   COUNTRY. SALT   WATER   AND   FRESH •
WATER   NAVIGATION. PROPORTION  OF   OPEN   AND   WASTE   LAND.	
FLORA. FERTILITY. PROFITS OF  CULTIVATION STOCK. — TIMBER.
 FISHERIES. GAME. MODE  AND TERMS  OF   SALE  OF  LANDS.
General Appearance.
Steaming for the first time eastward into the Straits of
Juan de Fuca, the scene which presents itself to a
stranger is exceedingly novel and interesting. On his
right hand is Washington Territory, with its snowy
mountain range stretching parallel to his course for
sixty miles, flanked with Mount Eanier and culminating in the centre with Mount Olympus. Of these
mountains the base is in some places at the coast, in
others many miles from it. This range is occasionally
intersected with deep and gloomy valleys, of which the
Valley of Angels is the gloomiest and most remarkable;
and every succession of cloud and sunshine changes
the panorama. On his left is Vancouver Island, in
contrast looking low, although even there as late as
June some specks of snow may be detected on distant
mountain tops. Straight before him is the Gulf of
Georgia, studded with innumerable islands, which, to
be seen to advantage, should be viewed toward evening, when, as is often the case, the sun is reflected
from waters as smooth as those of an inland lake. In
the background is British Columbia, and furthest of all
the  Cascade  Range, and  glittering peaks of Mount HARBOURS  OF THE  PACIFIC. 9
Baker. At first sight the whole country appears to be
clothed with forest, for it is not until we travel inland
that we ascertain that in the lowlands the pines take
frequently the form of belts, enclosing rich valleys and
open prairies, lawns in which oaks and maples, not
pines, predominate; marshes covered with long coarse
grass, and lakes fringed with flowering shrubs, willows,
and poplars. Nor is the scene in the strait wanting
in animation; vessels trading with the sound, steamers,
canoes filled with painted Indians, enliven the picture,
to say nothing of vast numbers of waterfowl, which
awaken the echoes on every side.
Navigation.
It appears far from improbable that this strait will
ultimately become the great commercial thoroughfare
for the commerce of the North Pacific, and that Juan
de Fuca, when he discovered it 260 years ago, was
right in his conjecture that he had found the northwest passage. This idea is strengthened by an examination of the ports which lay between San Francisco
and the strait. That this coast line, nearly 600 miles
in length, should not possess a single respectable harbour is a very remarkable fact. Of these harbours so
called a sample or two will suffice. Retracing our
steps, Humbolt is the first harbour of importance north
of San Francisco: so still the water, it looks like an
inland lake, with a country in the back ground of
exceeding beauty; but the entrance is guarded by a
heavy swell extending for miles along the shore, and
by foam and breakers reaching far to the west. I first
visited it in 1851 in the steamer " Sea-Gull;" the steamer
I Preble " was a short distance in advance. The passengers, from a dislike to salt water, or to avoid risk of
11 10
HARBOURS  OF THE  PACIFIC.
being washed over, had gone below : the moment was a
trying one, as an accident to the machinery must have
proved fatal. Such an accident did occur to the
" Preble;" she struck, became a wreck, and in what appeared but an instant, the waves seemed to overwhelm
her and the spray to rise high above the funnel. I was
there again in 1859, and from the elevated roof of a
saw mill, in company with several other persons, witnessed a very impressive scene. A vessel had got
entangled among the breakers, the crew had made
every effort to wear her off the threatening shore, and
stand out to sea, but the wind was insufficient. Her
destruction seemed but a matter of moments ; a gallant little steam tug, which had gone to the rescue,
was every now and again lost to sight among the
breakers. At length success was achieved, and amid
cheers, which distance and the roar of waters prevented from being heard, the vessel was towed out of
danger.
The entrance to the Columbia River is not a whit
better; it is the terror of navigators. I crossed it but
once, and then between walls of breakers; the rudder
was disabled and the vessel cast away on a sand bank,
luckily within the entrance, where she remained three
days waiting for assistance. That the early navigators
should have failed to discover rivers, however large,
but with bars at the entrance such as this and the
Eraser have, is not at all to be wondered at.
Of the other harbours within the 600 miles stretch
of coast which I have not noticed, the traveller cannot
fail to remark the absence of shipping in them. Vessels cannot remain long in roadsteads so exposed, liable
as they are to be blown ashore by a westerly wind at
any time springing up. STRAIT  OF  JUAN DE  FUCA.
11
As to the commerce of the beautiful valleys of the
Columbia and Willamette Rivers, it seems certain that
an outlet for it will be found, by railway or otherwise,
through the valley of the Cowlitz River, into Admiralty Inlet and thence by the straits into the
Pacific.
In the few remarks that follow on the navigation
and harbour facilities at and north of the strait, I shall
avoid minute details, which those interested can find in
the admirable charts and sailing directions of Captain
George Henry Richards, and those of Captain Alden of
the U. S. Coast Survey.
The Strait of Juan de Fuca is, on an average, eleven
miles wide, and is free from sunken rocks or shoals;
its direction is east and west for about seventy miles
to its junction with the channels, wln^ch lead by a
northerly course into the Gulf of Georgia, which separates Vancouver Island from the continent. The approach is safe for all descriptions of vessels, being liable
to no other dangers than those incident to gales from
the south-east, which, with considerable intervals of
tranquil weather, are, in winter, not uncommon, and to
fogs, or rather dense smoke arising from forests on fire
in autumn. Although in the latter case soundings are
a safeguard, and good anchorage can generally be
found within a mile of either shore.
The facility of entering and navigating this strait
has been greatly increased by the erection of lighthouses on the south shore by the United States Government, and on the north by the British. That at
Cape Flattery stands 162 ft. above the sea, and in
clear weather the light can be seen distinctly 20 miles
off. New Dungeness is 100 ft. high, and has a fog-bell
attached to the lighthouse.     Besides these there are ia
ESQUIMALT AND  VICTORIA.
lighthouses on Smith's Island, at Esquimalt Harbour,
and Race Rock; the last, however, is not yet lighted.
Once within the strait, on both coasts safe anchorage
and good harbours are everywhere met with. On the
north shore, thirteen miles east of Point Bonilla, is
Port San Juan,— a spacious bay well sheltered from
every winter wind. Thirty miles further inland, as it
were, is Sooke Basin: perfectly land-locked, and large
enough to hold a fleet, with the disadvantage that it is
entered by a narrow and rather intricate channel.
Four miles farther is Beecher Bay, and then come the
harbours of Esquimalt and Victoria. That harbours
such as these two last named should occur at the
limit of sailing navigation is a very happy circumstance
for these colonies. The waters of the Gulf of Georgia
are well adapted for steamers, but, there, uncertain tides,
• and variable winds, fogs, currents, hidden dangers and
detention, practically exclude sailing vessels.
Esquimalt Harbour has, we are told,* been selected
by Government as the naval depot of the Pacific: if
true, a better selection could not have been made ; for,
though not first class in point of size, it is capable of
holding at least a dozen ships of the line, with any
number of smaller vessels, while, if additional accommodation were required, the inner basin at Sooke, not
far off, could readily be converted into a second
Hamoaze. In point of shelter, holding ground, facility
of ingress and egress, dock sites and warfage, Esquimalt
Harbour is without a rival, and appears to be the
natural port of entry for sailing ships which have made
a long sea-voyage to either colony, and to be the
proper starting-point for a fine of steamers connecting
with British Columbia.
* " Times, " March 15, 1860. THE  GULF  OF  GEORGIA.
Victoria Harbour is three miles from Esquimalt, and
although it cannot compete with the latter as a naval
depot or as a port for clippers, it is far from unimportant. Ordinary merchant vessels, by attending to
the tides, can readily enter, and, once within, there is
ample space and depth. The main objections to it are
that the entrance is rather difficult at night to find,
which could be remedied by a light, and a narrow sand
bar, which could be removed at small expense.
That these harbours are connected with upwards of
100,000 acres of arable land in the background is a
strong recommendation to them.
To resume this question of navigation, I may mention that one peculiar advantage of the strait, as a
refuge for sailing vessels, may be gathered from this
consideration—that, if a ship, running from a storm in
the Pacific, having entered the strait, should be baffled
in her endeavours to reach the harbour or anchorages
just described on the north shore, the winds preventing
must be fair to take her into Neah Bay, Calum Bay,
Port Angelos, or Port Townsend, on the south shore.  -
Next, taking a northerly course, we enter the Gulf
of Georgia, having the contested group of Islands either
on our right hand or on our left. Apart from questions
of batteries and Whitworth guns, these islands are of
no great value. They possess neither harbours nor
town sites of consequence: the quantity of available
land they contain is infinitesimal compared with that
of either nation, adjacent and unoccupied. Destitute
o-f fresh water streams, the fisheries in the neighbourhood are not remarkable; and since, if either nation
possess these islands, they must, from their peculiar
half-way position, become a thorn in the side of
the American 24 per cent, tariff, it must appear to 14
NANAIMO.
persons who are not diplomatists astonishing that both
nations did not at once decide the question by converting them into an Indian reserve, for which they are
peculiarly adapted.
Having passed by this group of islands, Fraser River
lies on our right hand, and Nanaimo opposite to it on
the left; before us is Johnston's Strait, the narrows
where tides adjust their different levels in very violent
manner, and a meeting of waters occurs very different
from that which Moore has so beautifully described.
The town of Nanaimo, comprising as it does some
fifty or sixty buildings, steam-engines, tramways, and
piers, is very picturesquely situated on the north shore
of an excellent harbour, backed by a range of hills
some 3000 ft. high. The river is very pretty in some
places, particularly where tall maples overshadow it.
In the harbour and rivers salmon abound, and excellent
spars are found in the immediate neighbourhood. So
great are the facilities for shipping coal, that, at any
time of the year, 1000 tons a week can be removed
without inconvenience.
The foregoing is interesting, since, as recently as
August 25th, 1858, the Lords Commissioners of Her
Majesty's Treasury laid particular stress upon the want
of harbour accommodation, and of development of the
coal fields of Vancouver Island; which, in the communication referred to, are assigned as their reasons for
postponing the consideration of postal communication
between Great Britain and these colonies.
If I were to continue to enumerate and describe the
harbours and inlets on the western coasts of the continent and the island, and those of Queen Charlotte's
Island, at least half a dozen, this small publication
would, I fear, read like the commencement of a geo- FRASER RIVER.
graphical dictionary. Enough has perhaps been said to
show that the facilities for navigation in the vicinity of
these colonies is unrivalled, and that there is no want
of harbour accommodation.
Some, however, of the most important of the harbours omitted in the foregoing I shall have occasion
to touch upon farther on incidentally.
Of those deep salt water inlets, with which the coast
abounds, I may here mention two peculiarities. At
the head of every one of those that I have ever visited
a fresh-water stream is found. The second peculiarity
is the frequency in them of gorges or contractions,
through which, as the tide rises or falls, the water rushes
with great violence. Some of these will, I have no
doubt, be found valuable as water powers, although at
present, skilled labour is too dear to make them so, and
capital better expended on a steam engine. Whichever way the tide might rush, a turbine fixed in one of
these gorges would work uniformly.
Having water communication still in view, and recollecting that British Columbia is heavily timbered,
and no direct main roads are as yet hewn through the
forest into the interior, on looking at the map we are
struck by the fact that the Fraser River and the Columbia are the only avenues through which the country
can be penetrated, if we except the natural passes in
the Rocky Mountains.
Traversing the country diagonally from corner to
corner, 1000 miles in length, in volume- and velocity,
Fraser River fully equals the Columbia, which it also
resembles in the sand bar, occupying an area of fifty
square miles at the entrance; less dangerous only
because the long swell of the Pacific is interrupted by
the chain of islands intercepting it.    As it is, sailing 16
HARRISON. AND   LILOOETTE  RIVERS.
vessels constantly miss the channel and ground on it:
if at high water, they are lightened to get them off; if at
low water, the rising tide sets them free. On account
of the softness of the bottom, injury in such cases is
seldom sustained.
For nearly a hundred miles from its entrance, as far
at least as Hope, Fraser is navigable for steamers. In
the middle of summer, when swollen by the melting
snows of the Rocky Mountains, in which it rises, the
water is highest, and the current, often six knots an
hour, swiftest.
Twelve miles farther, at Yale, the rapids commence,
and from that point to its junction with Thomson's
River, some fifty-five miles, Fraser River presents a
spectacle of exceeding grandeur, more interesting, however, to the artist than the navigator. Here, avoided by
trails often thousands of feet above its level, white with
foam, and impatient of confinement, the river is seen
bursting through the walls of the mountain passes.
It was in order to avoid this portion of the river
that the Harrison River and Lilooette route, 108 miles
in length, was adopted, by which the traveller can reach
a point north of the confluence of the Fraser and
Thomson Rivers, by a succession of rivers, lakes, and
trails, which, though rather circuitous, do not present
difficulties so great as the portion of the Fraser described, the head of Harrison lake being the limit of
steam navigation.
Entering the country by the Columbia, steamers
take the traveller as far as the Cascades or Dalls, and
thence, by the continuous valleys of the Okanagan and
Similkameen Rivers, the valley of the Thomson is
reached.
The interior of British Columbia is everywhere in-
lii    T; ...... LAND.
17
tersected by natural water communications, in which
respect it greatly resembles the Canadas.
Having thus taken an imperfect survey of the waters
in the vicinity of the colonies, let us next take a glance
at the land.
Land.
In area British Columbia, as the boundaries are at
present arranged*, is about three and a half times as
large as Great Britain, and Vancouver Island about
half the size of Ireland. With a coast-line of 500
miles, and 400 miles in width, varying in elevation
from nothing to 16,000 feet above the sea, and composed, as this country is, of lake and mountain, forest,
marsh and. prairie, frequently alternating ; in these
colonies, as might be expected, the greatest diversity
of soil and climate is met with. As the latter has
been justly termed the decisive condition on which the
future of a country must mainly depend, I shall have
occasion to discuss it pretty fully in another place ; it
may therefore be sufficient here to say, that in the
southern portion of Vancouver Island, and in parts of
valleys of the Frazer, Lillooette, Columbia, and Thomson Rivers, a climate quite as mild as that of Devonshire
is indicated by birds of bright plumage, humming
birds, cactuses growing in the open air, &c. While
lands farther north, or in the neighbourhood of lofty
mountain ranges, reproduce not unfrequently the
climates of Hudson's Bay and Labrador.
* The entire extent of valuable land, eligible for immediate
settlement, near the 49th parallel, extending from Red River to the
Pacific, and unless by Blackfeet or Dacotahs utterly uninhabited,
would in area equal half Europe.
C 18 PROPORTION  OF   FRAIRIE  TO  FOREST.,
As neither colony is as yet surveyed, it is impossible
to state with accuracy the proportion that the open or
available land in either colony bears to the waste :
generally speaking, the tracts of land which are condemned as waste and unprofitable, are such as have
not been surveyed, and exploration and settlement have
invariably led to the discovery of tracts of open land
where least expected. Of the land in either colony,
the portion occupied (some thousands of acres out of
150 millions), is so small compared with the whole,
that a considerable time must elapse before settlers
arriving shall find it difficult to obtain farm sites containing a sufficient quantity of open land. In addition
to this, an ample supply of timber, for building, fencing,
&c, is indispensable in a farm; and the quantity required
for fuel only, is surprising.
Of Vancouver Island the southern portion only has
been examined, and it is found to contain 100,000 acres
of valuable farming land in the immediate vicinity of
Victoria, extending to Cowichan, which again is found
to contain about the same quantity of open land, which
adjoins some 30,000 acres of open land at Nanaimo,
and plains at intervals are found extending to Cape
Mudge; that is to say, for 150 miles measured along
the coast Vancouver Island has been explored, and
the capability of this portion of the island to support
in affluence a large population is admitted, while a
conclusion the very opposite to this is arrived at with
regard to other portions of the island which have not
been explored.
Similarly, in British Columbia, open plains of great
extent are known to exist in the valleys of the Pitt
River, the Fraser, the Similkamen, and the Thomson.
At   Langley  and  Kamloops,  the  Kootanie  and   the SOIL—FLORA.
Columbia, and every addition to our knowledge of the
country tells favourably on the ratio in question.
The soil, where it is richest, in the river deltas, the
valleys, and the plains, usually consists of black vegetable
mould, six inches to three feet in depth, overlying a
deep substratum of clay, gravel, or sand; it is generally
covered with a luxuriant crop of fern, which is very
difficult to kill and tedious to eradicate. The native
grasses of the country are of a poor Alpine character,
springing up early in April and dying away in September ; swamp grass excepted, which supports the stock
of the country in winter, but which is too coarse and
woody in the fibre to fatten them. This deficiency is,
however, to a great extent counterbalanced by native
tares, clover, and vetches, which are, in most localities,
abundant. The open grounds, also, grow berries of
many kinds, and roots, such as onions, kamass, &c, on
which the Indian, to a great extent, subsists.
In many places the wild flowers of England, and the
common garden flowers, such as lilies, lupins, orchids,
&c., occur in profusion, and blossoming shrubs of infinite variety. All that is known of the Flora is derived
from a few specimens, not a dozen, collected by Men-
zies years ago ; but as soon as sufficient time shall have
elapsed to have examined the beautiful collection of
Dr. Lyall, and those of Captain Palliser and Mr. Jeffrey, a cheap work on the Flora of the whole of the
British Possessions in North America, from the able
pen of Sir William Hooker, is expected. Sir William
writes: "The botany of the coasts is, no doubt, very
similar to that of the main land and valley of the
Columbia, pretty fully described in the Flora Boreali
Americana. It is on the mountains and the west coast
that a difference will be found." 20
CROPS.
I
While mentioning shrubs, could not the north-west
tea plant, which covers whole swamps, be turned to
account?—the leaf resembles tea, the flavour not bad,
and the effect exhilarating. Some years ago the Hudson's Bay Company imported. a cargo, but it was
stopped at the custom-house and, to avoid duty,
thrown overboard; but if the plant is quite distinct
from the real tea plant, it is possible that the customs
could not have prevented its introduction free of duty.
To the swamps we are also indebted for the cranberry, which, for preserves, is fast becoming an article
of export, principally to San Francisco.
I have omitted to mention strawberries, raspberries of
three kinds, sallal, bearberries, similar to those of Scotland, blueberries, native currants and gooseberries, &c,
as indigenous ; important inasmuch as they add to the
many points of similarity which strike us on comparing
these colonies with home.
The fertility of the soil in the neighbourhood of the
gold-bearing rocks is very remarkable, and is indicated
rather by the production from ordinary seed of gigantic
roots, and vegetables, and fruits, than by crops of grain.
Turnips as large as hassocks, radishes as large as
beets or mangolds, and bushels of potatoes to a single
stalk, are nothing astonishing. It is the same all along
the coast as far south as San Francisco, where, at their
agricultural exhibition, pumpkins 200 lbs., to 250 lbs.,
and a squash weighing 400 lbs. have been exhibited.
At the house of an ex-consul at San Francisco I have
seen Oregon pears, to demolish one of which required
the united effort of five guests ; the apples being large
in proportion. These monsters are not usually wanting
either in flavour or solidity: although I must confess
my own opinion is that almost everything, in a new FRUITS.
country, is wanting in intensity compared with England. It is certain, for instance, that the game is not so
juicy, that the flowers do not smell so sweetly, that the
birds do not sing so well, and even the sting of the
wasp is more quickly forgotten. Oregon apples and
pears are in great demand in San Francisco, because
they keep better the farther north they are grown.
The Americans are 'an. apple-loving people, and their
consumption of them is astonishing. The British colonies are too far north to compete with the vineyards of
Los Angelos, or the peaches of Obispo, but they may
reasonably expect to assist Washington and Oregon in
supplying the south with English fruits. Orchards in
the colonies will be very remunerative. Those in
Oregon have the disadvantage of being situated in the
O DO
centre of the state, and fruit has to be carried to
the Williamette River, and thence by steamers from
Portland.
An acre of land planted with 200 apple trees,
would, at the end of three years, on a minute calculation, cost a proprietor 30/. to 40/., and the lowest
selling price on the coast, of an acre of apple trees of
that age, is 200/. The intermediate trees are chopped
out with an axe as the orchard becomes too crowded.
Hops grow well in the country, and a brewery on a
large scale would pay well, as any one interested may
satisfy himself, by noticing the cargoes of bottled ale
and stout sent from England to that coast. Native
hemp (Ortica canabina) grows wild in many places, particularly round the Indian lodges. Some of the fibre
was sent to H. M.'s dockyards, and was there tested
and pronounced quite equal to Russian. I should not
think that to cultivate it would pay as well as to grow
common crops, such   as wheat, oats, barley;  but  it
c 3 22
FERTILITY  ACCOUNTED   FOR.
might pay well to trade it from the Indians at the
proper season, and export to England the raw material,
as the experiment above mentioned is sufficient to
show that it is not deteriorated by the voyage.
It has been somewhere stated, by Sir Charles Lyell,
that volcanic rocks produce, by their disintegration, a
remarkably fertile soil: that their component ingredients, silica, alumina, lime, potash, iron, and the rest,
are in the proportions best adapted for vegetation,
which may in part account for the extraordinary productiveness mentioned : and we may reasonably doubt
whether the sandstone districts will be found to produce
results so unexpected. The same idea is repeated in
the " British Quarterly " of 1851, which speaks of the
facility with which volcanic rocks lend themselves
to cultivation and to the natural growth of vegetation;
and adds, that perhaps no parts of the world are more
richly cultivated or support a larger population than
the neighbourhoods of Vesuvius and -ZEtna. Now, it
will be recollected that the general character of the
rocks in these colonies is igneous or volcanic. On
the Columbia, I was much struck by the appearance
of occasional basaltic masses, crowning some eminence
above the river, rising above the forest, and at the
moment, from their columnal structure and time-worn
look, suggesting some ancient stronghold on the Rhine.
Mount Baker is occasionally active : in 1853,1 noticed,
in company with others, a beautiful sheet of flame
issuing from its summit, and this may perhaps account
for sounds, too loud for the crash of falling timber,
occasionally heard by travellers in the Rocky Mountains, and for plains, the surfaces of which are covered
with small stones, differing widely from those immediately underneath. COST  OF  CLEARING   LAND
The profits arising from the cultivation of grain
crops and grasses are far from inconsiderable.
Open grass lands can of course be ploughed up at
once, and a crop obtained. Fern lands require to be
ploughed in the heat of summer, in order, by fermentation, to kill the fern, and to destroy, by exposure,
bulbous roots, such as crocuses, kamass, &c., for which
purpose pigs make admirable pioneers. To clear pine
lands is not very difficult, being very resinous they
burn up readily, and are easily overturned, as the roots
do not descend but creep along the ground; in which
respect, these trees stand like pawns upon a chessboard. Oak is more difficult to eradicate, as the roots
go straight down. Marsh lands are usually easily
drained, and reclaimed by burning them up in summer;
these lands afterwards produce the best crops. The
cost of clearing an acre of timbered land may be taken
at 8/.; of the other descriptions less, varying with the
locality. An acre of land produces from twenty to
forty bushels of wheat, or a corresponding quantity
of oats or barley, and continues to do so for some
years without manure before it is exhausted; hitherto,
wheat has sold in the colony at Ss. the bushel, oats
at 65. Hay pays remarkably well, varying in price
during the year from 8/. to 16/., or more, per ton.
For meat and vegetables the miners and the British
fleet, which are supplied by public contract, afford a
ready market. Indians everywhere grow potatoes, and
carrots as far north as Queen Charlotte's Island; their
plan is to repeat the crop until the ground is exhausted,
and then to clear some more. The potatoes are excellent ; and potatoes and salmon their standing dish.
Meat in the colony is dear, Is. to 15«:Z. per lb., which
to the consumer is counterbalanced by the remarkably.
. c 4     t^M LIVE  STOCK.
low price of teas, wine, spirits, and cigars; in consequence of Victoria being a free port.
Stock.
Of stock, every variety, good, bad, and indifferent,
can be procured on the coast.
The American horned cattle are particularly fine,
and numbers of Durhams and Devons have been imported to San Francisco; the Spanish cattle, which
are the most numerous, are smaller, and very like
the Guernseys at home.
The California sheep are hairy-looking animals, with
long horns and long legs ; but they have lately begun
to improve the breed by importing merinos and South-
Downs, principally from Vancouver Island, where the
best breeds are abundant.
The native horses of the country make admirable
saddle hacks, and are most enduring, but have a
singular repugnance to draught. The carriage horse
is constantly met with. In addition to these, California can boast of a breed of racehorses of English
origin, thoroughbred or nearly so, and of great bone
and sinew; they seldom run their best horses for less
than four mile heats, a part of which, it is said, will
be done at one minute and fifty seconds the mile *;
the original stock of these horses was taken at different
times across the isthmus, which, from New York, costs
from 75/. to 100/.; and taking into account how natural to the horse the climate on the Pacific is, and how
well adapted to his development such a sod as that
which overspreads the valleys of Santa Clara and San
* This may be true. The Derby of 1860 was, I think, run at
the rate of V 57" the mile; but the horses alluded to in the text
are aged.    See Appendix, page 162. TIMBER.
25
Jose is, I shall not be surprised if, at no distant period,
California should produce the finest racehorses in the
world.
Horses of the character of the English dray horse,
Clydesdale, or the Suffolk Punch, have not yet reached
the country.
; To have attempted a minute description of an area
so extended as that embraced by these colonies, would
have exceeded the limits of this publication. To compensate for this deficiency I propose, in the Appendix,
from the unpublished journals of myself or others, to
give the results of some recent explorations; merely
premising that in no case ought one scrap of a country
to be regarded as a specimen of the whole, any more
than Wales is a sample of England, or the Wicklow
hills of the open plains of Meath or Tipperary.
Timber.
The largest trees yet discovered on the Pacific
coast resemble cedar, but are of the cypress kind ; they
are found at Mariposa and Calaveras, and measure
upwards of 30 feet in diameter, and nearly 400 feet in
height. No pines have been met with as large as
these. Near Humboldt I noticed a forest of firs (which
resembled the Douglas, but had smaller foliage and
cones), in which a diameter of from 14 to 15 feet, and
a corresponding height, was not uncommon. A few
trees of the Douglas kind, of .similar size, are found
on the banks of the Columbia. In the British colonies,
trees exceeding 9 or 10 feet in diameter, and 270 or
300 feet in height, are rarely met with. In the very
large trees, alluded to as being found south of 49°, the
annual rings are large and soft, and the timber comparatively weak. 26
TIMBER.
In this respect, the timber north of 49°, being of
more moderate dimensions, has decidedly an advantage. There the Douglas fir, which, with the silver
fir (grandis\ is the most abundant on the coast, will,
I should think, prove, on being properly tested, to be
the strongest fir or pine in existence. Broken in a
gale, the stem is splintered to a height of 20 feet at least:
and when being hewn down, it is astonishing to observe
how small a portion of the trunk will withstand the
leverage of the whole tree. On account of the quantity of resin it contains, the timber is exceedingly
durable. The bark resembles cork, is often 8 or
9 inches thick, and makes a capital fire. H.M.S.
Thetis, was sparred with it, — I am not aware with
what result. If the wood is not too heavy, I should
think it will make the best spars in the service. On
the banks of Nitinat Inlet and elsewhere, forests of
the Menzies pine occur, very suitable in point of size
for first-class spars ; this wood appears to work beautifully. Hemlock spruce {Canadensis), from which laths
are made, is very common. The banks of the Columbia, near Colville, appear to grow ponderosa almost
exclusively. A small pine (inops), a portion of the bark
of which Indians eat, is constantly met with near water,
whether in the lowest swamps, or basins on mountain-
tops. The Weymouth pine (Strobus) is common every
where. The P. Nootkatensis I have not met with.
These are but a few of the firs or pines which are
generally met with. A series of experiments to test
their physical properties has been commenced, but is as
yet too incomplete for publication.
Although spar timber is common everywhere, the
trees grow larger and straighter in the still valleys bordering on the Gulf of Georgia, than where more exposed
on the coast. FISHERIES. 27
There are two occasions on which touring in a pine
forest is far from entertaining : viz. in a storm, when
tree after tree, with a noise like thunder, comes crashing to the ground ; and secondly, when the forest is on
fire. It is difficult to conceive anything more dismal
than the appearance of charred and branchless forests
where fires have swept. It is not uncommon in
autumn, to see the country in this way illmninated by
a blaze extending for miles in every direction.
Of
there are two kinds ;  the timber is weak,
and the trees usually show symptoms of decay.
If curled maple is in England valuable for furniture,
as I am told it is, it may be of service to some one to
know, that it grows in abundance on the banks of the
rivers in these colonies.
The trunks of the arbutus grow very large, and the
wood in colour and texture so much resembles box,
that for many purposes it might supply the uses of the
latter.    It is, however, specifically fighter.
The country also produces cedar or rather cypress
(Cupressus thyoides), juniper, yew, birch, poplar,
sorbis, &c, but I never noticed ash, beech, or elm.
Fisheries.
Situated as these colonies are, within the limits of
the whaling grounds, they are certain, when a little
more advanced, to become the resort of that portion at
least of whalers which follows the right whale north of
forty-five degrees. At present the whaling fleet, several
hundred in number, pass by Victoria, since it has no
dock to offer them, no certainty of supplies of provisions
or tackle, nor facilities to repair them, and refit or
winter at the Port of Honolulu.    A few of them find 28
FISHERIES.
their way to San Francisco ; but there supplies are too
expensive, and port charges and pilotage too high, to
entice any number of them from wintering at Oahu.
Of small fish, salmon in millions ascend the rivers;
the most valuable is that which is taken from the
middle of April to the end of July: this is succeeded
by a small eight pounds salmon, which is taken from
June to August. The next is a large white salmon.
These three kinds are usually taken in main streams or
in large lakes. Besides these there are the striped
salmon, the hunchback, the hook-nose, and salmon
trout in infinite variety. So dense are the shoals of
salmon that ascend these rivers, that they can often be
taken with a strong hook tied to a stick. The Indian
lets his canoe float down the stream, and with a small
landing net lifts them in. From the banks, the bear
secures as many as he requires with his paws. None
ever return; they spawn, the waters receding leave
them in the bushes, and the banks are covered with
the dead. They are found of all weights, up to fifty
pounds. In flavour the best kinds are equal to those
of Europe, and in richness superior; the other kinds
are not so good. They can be taken with bait in* salt
water, but not in the rivers. As the coast Indians five
on them, they catch them • in a great variety of ways ;
in weirs variously and ingeniously constructed, in
baskets fixed to receive them where they leap. In
shallow water they spear them, and in deep decoy them
to the surface. I have also seen a whole camp of
Indians occupied stoning them in shallow water.
Sturgeon, often of enormous size, are found in
abundance on the sand bars at the entrance of the
rivers. Soup made from them is rich, and resembles
turtle.    Isinglass is, of course, a drug in the market. GAME.
29
. Besides the above, the waters abound with halibut,
cod, skate, flounders, herrings, dog fish, and others too
numerous to recollect.
Large cray fish are found, but not lobsters; oysters
are. abundant.
Game.
Foremost among the inducements to the middle
classes to emigrate to these colonies is the consideration
that they can there enjoy many recreations, such as
horse exercise, shooting, fishing, &c., which at home
are attended with so much expense.
All the pleasures that can be derived from renting a
moor or owning a deer park in Scotland, from supporting gamekeepers, resisting poachers, or incurring
licences, from tipping whips, or feeing ostlers, are
trivial compared with the sport within the reach of a
settler with moderate means on the Pacific Coast J to
say nothing of game being there, in an economical
point of view, a very important item.
For simplification sake, let us omit the buffalo as too
distant, grizzlies or brown bears as too fierce, and
mountain goats and sheep, as too wild and inaccessible
in their retreats among the mountains.
If large game is an attraction, elk, the size of a
Kerry cow, can readily be met with on the coast. Keeping to windward of them, they are not difficult to
approach ; and once within the band, and a shot fired,
they become confused, and an easy prey to the hunter.
The antlers are five feet or so in width, and weigh
upwards of thirty pounds; the meat is excellent. Like
all the deer tribe, they are found in winter in valleys
near the coast, and in the heat of summer prefer
central lakes and hill-tops, where they can catch the
n 30 LARGE  GAME.
breeze, and avoid the flies, which would   otherwise
torment them.
Deer, being capital swimmers, prefer the groups of
small islands to the mainland, and a party of half a
dozen hunters will, after an absence of a fortnight or
three weeks, occasionally bring back to Victoria as
many as thirty or forty, weighing lOOlbs. to 1501bs.
each. The Indians snare them in pitfalls, and kill them
in traps. But the slaughter is greatest in snow crusted
over with ice, strong enough to bear a man, but which
the pointed foot of the deer, aided by its spring, too -
readily penetrates, and the animal is soon overtaken.
The venison is seldom so good as that of the parks in
England.
The black bear too is easily met with, and is never
known to attack till wounded, or in defence of cubs ;
some are very large. If young, the flesh is excellent,
but rather too like pork; but old bear is tough, and
the strong smell, which no amount of cooking can
neutralise, is far from enticing. They are generally
seen where berries are abundant, or among charred
stumps of their own colour, and usually stand up to
look at an intruder before decamping, presenting a
capital mark to fire at. They are difficult to kill, and
even when shot through the heart, are active for some
time after.
To see one of these animals steeple-chasing over the
fallen timber of the forest, or spring up a tree in its
native state, it is difficult to conceive its. being similar
to that we have seen so tame and spiritless in the
menagerie, and conclude that there, though the body
was living, "the heart must have been dead."
The Puma, formidable as it looks, is far from courageous ; it will dart up a tree from the smallest dog. FEATHERED  GAME.
31
To sheep it is very destructive ; once within the fold it
seizes them successively by the throat and rapidly
sucks the blood; even a man would be in danger if
asleep in the vicinity of one.
The wolves are of different colours, and larger than a
Newfoundland dog; they are excessively shy.
To meet with any large game the sportsman has
now, as might be expected, to go several miles from
the settlement. His equipment for this purpose should
consist of a double rifle with one sight, adjusted for
point blank shooting only, with strong charge, up to
100 yards, a hunting knife, and ammunition, an oil
skin and blanket, and an Indian or two to carry the
game and keep the track, retracing, if required, in
which department they excel. Dogs, unless remarkably
well trained, are better dispensed with.
Of feathered game the duck-shooting is decidedly
the best sport upon the coast. Of these there are fifteen
or more different kinds; the best are found at river
deltas and in swamps, where, as you walk, they continue to rise straight up, often at the sportsman's feet.
Away from the settlement a good shot has killed thirty
and forty in a day. A good retriever is indispensable,
and I may add that there is nothing like an Eley cartridge and large bore for taking them down.
Geese of several sorts are also abundant, so much so
that in places I have seen Indian boys stalk and kill
them with bows and arrows. At night too they
sometimes steal upon a flock, rushlight in hand, and
wring the necks of a considerable number. But the
greatest numbers of wild fowl are killed in this curious
way: The Indians observe the path in air, at the
entrance of a river or elsewhere, through which dense
flocks of wild fowl pass.    While the birds are at rest 32
BIRDS.
or feeding, a net is fixed vertically at the proper level,
being attached to poles planted some hundreds of feet
apart. The birds are suddenly startled, and fly against
the net with such rapidity, that they fall stupefied, and
are easily clubbed by Indians, who rush upon them from
an ambush close by. A punt gun and swivel, with
which to supply the market, would, even as a speculation, succeed.
Swans are very wary and difficult to bag; they are
found sometimes on the lakes, sometimes on salt water.
At the head of Alberni canal I saw five together.
The coast shooting has this great advantage over the
grouse shooting, that the inconvenience of struggling
-through the bush is avoided.
The dusky grouse is large, two and a half pounds
weight, sits all day drumming in a pine top or cleft in
a rock, and at night and morning comes down to feed.
The willow grouse is smaller, of a brown colour, and
is generally found in the neighbourhood of water.
Both are scarce near the settlements, being very
easily shot, as if missed on rising, they settle in the
nearest tree. Of either, even far from the settlement,
it is difficult to bag more than five to ten brace. A
good pointer is indispensable, as they lie very close.
Snipe, on the contrary, increase with cultivation ; in one
field I put up forty or fifty. Besides the above, tall,
buff cranes, standing four or five feet high, are stalked
in the plains, and make good soup.
It is interesting to observe the rapid increase of
small birds near the settlements in proportion as birds
of prey, such as eagles, hawks, kites, &c., are scared
away. In this way flocks of wild pigeons, doves of
two kinds, three varieties of thrush, meadow larks,
several kinds of sparrows^ wrens, humming-birds, torn- LAND ON  WHAT  TERMS   OBTAINABLE.
33
tits, and a bird that sings at night, evidently prefer
quarters near a homestead to a precarious subsistence
in the wilderness.
Mode and Terms of Sale of Lands.
As it is highly probable that the enactments and
regulations under which lands are, in Vancouver Island,
obtainable, will very shortly be assimilated to those of
British Columbia, it will be sufficient here to detail the
very liberal land arrangements adopted in the latter
colony in January last.
By this law, any British subject may acquire 160
acres of unoccupied land, in anticipation of survey, in
any part of British Columbia: excepting only such
portions as are reserved by Government for public
purposes, such as town sites, Indian reserves, or as may
be required for mining. To acquire a good, inalienable
claim to a perfect title, it is only necessary for the
claimant to take possession as soon as he makes his
selection, reporting the fact in writing to the nearest
magistrate, with a description of the boundaries. On
taking possession, he pays nothing for the land, but
has to pay a small fee for recording the claim. When
the land shall have been surveyed by the Government,
the claimant or his heirs acquire a title from Government, on payment of a sum not to exceed 10s. per
acre, but which it is expected will be reduced to 5s.
per acre. This will of course depend on the decision
of the Imperial Government.
With a view to encourage improvement, a person in
possession can sell his land as soon as he shall have
effected improvements to the value of 10s. per acre;
this condition complied with, he can pass a good title
D 34
PRE-EMPTION  OF  LANDS.
to the purchaser. The claimant can, in addition to the
160 acres so acquired, purchase at any time any additional quantity of land he pleases, at a price not exceeding 10s. an acre, of which 5s. per acre is paid down,
and the rest at the time of survey, if demanded. As a
considerable time must elapse before these lands can be
surveyed, persons taking up land promptly, may be years
in possession before they are called upon for payment.
Land so taken up and afterwards abandoned, may
be claimed and taken up by any other person on the
original terms, even if improved by the first occupant.
Persons so occupying land have the same legal
remedies of action of ejectment and trespass against
intruders, as if they had paid for the land and obtained
an indenture.
Questions of boundaries or disputes with neighbours,
are referred to the nearest magistrate to be disposed
of in a summary way, but with an appeal to the higher
courts.
The law gives to aliens, who shall take the oath of
allegiance, the same rights and privileges as to British
subjects.
Acquiring land hi this way, previous to paying for
it, is technically called pre-empting. This system was
first adopted in America, some twenty years ago, nominally as a | relief law," in order to justify certain cases of
occupation on a large scale, without previous permission,
of federal lands. In more than one sense it was a relief
law, inasmuch as it relieved the Government of what
would have been otherwise a source of considerable embarrassment.
Sale of land is after all only the levying of a direct and
immediate tax on one class of the population : and it.
was soon found, that by removing as far as possible APPEAL  TO   THE  BRITISH  PRESS.
35
this, and every other impediment and restriction
tending- to retard the settlement of the country, the
revenue was in reality increased by the influx of a
taxable population. It was also argued, that the advantages and profits arising from the first settlement of
a new country, ought to be enjoyed by the early
settlers; that they have peculiar hardships and privations to undergo, especial dangers and labours to encounter, and, therefore, that to these the law ought not
to contemplate any competition, except from other
actual settlers in selecting the most fertile lands and the
choicest spots. Such was the basis of the American
Act of September 4th, 1841, which, by several subsequent statutes, they have brought into perfect
working order. It was no longer considered necessary
to hold colonial lands, to a certain extent, in trust, to"
benefit the future redundant population of the country—
generations yet unborn — and it was concluded that
posterity should take care of itself.
The act which refers to British Columbia, is inserted
in the Appendix, and objections taken to portions of it,
which will require re-modelling before the whole
can be brought into working order ; but these are trifles
compared with the wisdom of the measure itself, and
the spirit of extreme liberality in which it is conceived;
and it is to be hoped that the press will assist in promulgating it for the information of farmers possessed
of moderate capital, and therefore but moderate profits
in Great Britain. CHAP.  III.
MINERALS    AND    ROCKS.   GOLD    IN    BRITISH    COLUMBIA,    VANCOUVER
ISLAND,   AND   QUEEN  CHARLOTTe'-S   ISLAND.  COAL   ON   THE  PACIFIC.
  IRON.   COPPER.   PLUMBAGO.  LIMESTONE.  SANDSTONE.	
MARBLE,   AND  VARIOUS  COLOURED   EARTHS. SALT  SPRINGS, &C.
The wide distribution of gold in British Columbia is
very striking: traversing the country diagonally from
north to south, the Fraser River everywhere passes
through a gold country. The same may be said of
Thomson's River, and of the Columbia north of 49°.
A glance at the map shows the aggregate length of
these rivers to be much more than 1000 miles. As a
rule, the gold is found in much smaller particles, and
less in quantity nearer the mouths of these rivers, and
both size and quantity increase as we ascend them.
At Colvile, for instance, gold is found in almost any
part of the surrounding country, but not quite coarse
enough to pay for working. In the neighbourhood
of Fort Thomson, Shoushwap and Kamloops Lakes,
gold in quantity was first discovered and reported by
Indians.    For a considerable time Yale was the centre
of attraction, afterwards
?e River and the fork;
but the vicinity of Fort George and Fort Alexandria,
and the slopes of the mountain range in which the
Quesnel River rises, are now found to contain, in the
greatest quantity, the coarsest gold.
As to the produce of the country in this respect, and
the success that an intending emigrant miner may
fairly be led to anticipate, I take the liberty to denounce in the strongest  terms, as unfair and calcu
li
I GOLD  MINING  AS  AN  AVOCATION. 37
lated to mislead, the manner in which this part of the
subject is treated in most books written on gold
countries; which, if I were to follow, I should com^
mence by enumerating the several successes of Brown,
Jones, and Robinson; tell how Peter's eyes sparkled
while he picked "a pocket" in a rock, and how in
a valley exceeding in grandeur anything he had met
before, Jenkins washed out so many cents to the pan.
I could, without any sacrifice of truth, produce instances
of several persons who realised, during a mining season,
some 400/. or 500/. each, but unless I also recorded
many a sad instance of failure, of constitutions ruined,
and disappointed expectation, the induction would be
useless, a wrong impression conveyed, and the exceeds
ingly precarious nature of mining as an avocation lost
sight of, ending with the disappointment of the inexpe-
This remark will perhaps apply with greater force
to British Columbia than to any other known gold
eountry. Gold mining is laborious everywhere, but
there, owing to the want of main lines of road, the
labour is greatly increased. Sometimes, with the
tracking fine passed across his shoulders, the miner
drags his boat or canoe against a swift current, often
wading up to his waist in water. At other times we
meet him toiling up some very rugged hill with a
month's provisions on his back. And what has been the
result ? Since mining began in British Columbia in
1858, the miner's average earnings have not exceeded
100/. or so a-year, while the cost of living is at least
60/. .a-year. An intending emigrant should dismiss
from his mind any instances of extraordinary successes
he may have heard of.    Suppose he has become acci-
ntally acquainted with an authenticated
j> 3
rf GOLD  FIELDS  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
man making five or ten times more than the average in
a season, such an instance only argues 5 or 10 to 1
against his (the intending emigrant) realising anything.
In 1858 the greatest monthly shipment of gold from
British Columbia was $235,000 and the least was about
$6000, and the total product of the gold mines for that
year was estimated at $1,494,211 (vide Gazette, April
19th, 1859). From data before me. I believe the
amount mined in 1859 to have been about $2,000,000 ;
but to be moderate, assume the product of the two years
at $3,000,000 ; the number of miners actually at work at
any time in the country cannot have exceeded 3000, as
the mining licences show (Gazette, June 9th, 1859, estimates them at 2000); which gives the miner's average
annual earning at 100/., as I before stated.
In California the average earnings are about half as
much, but the country is open and accessible, and
therefore the means of living and creature-comforts
much more plentiful, which leads the miner to prefer
it far to British Columbia, notwithstanding the higher
pay in the latter.
To make this clear, I estimate the working miners of
California now at 200,000, and shall give the data on
which I do so. The " Price Current" of December 31st,
1854, when the population of California was, in.round
numbers, 300,000, estimated the number of miners
then in the State at 80,000 to 100,000 ; since then the
population of the State has been increased chiefly
by immigration, at the rate of 30,000 to 40,000 per
annum, principally from the labouring classes, and is now
not far short of 600,000, two-thirds * of whom are
* The New York Herald, copied by Morning Chronicle, March
5th, 1860, makes the population of California exceed a million,—
a manifest exaggeration, GOLD  FIELDS  OF  CALIFORNIA.
estimated by Mr. Greeley to be able-bodied men.* On
these grounds I am safe in putting down the number of
miners as above stated.
The yield of these mines is now, with tolerable regularity, $50,000,000 annually ; and this will show that
the British Columbia gold fields, however inaccessible,
are twice as profitable to the miner, as the California
gold fields are.
In stating the average of the latter, as I have done, at
50/. per man per annum, it may be objected, that they
cannot five, finding tools, quicksilver, mules, clothes, &c.,
on so little: to this I reply that 40,000 or 50,000 of
their number realise a mere subsistence from mining, and are therefore ready,' on the vaguest rumour and
the shortest notice, to start for Victoria, Denver, Sonora,
or the south, with a view to participate in the profits
of any enterprise that may offer.
The surface diggings of California are now considerably exhausted, and the. yield of the mines less by
nearly $9,000,000, than it was in 1853, while the
population has been all along rapidly increasing. Additional force is given to the statement that the surface
mines are partially exhausted, by the fact, that while
the annual yield of gold is on the decline, quartz mills
are now numerous, and quartz companies far more
successful than heretofore.
The editor of the New York Tribune seemed to suspect this, when in 1859 he wrote as follows:—
" I do not suppose that the gold mines of California
will ever be thoroughly worked out; certainly not in
the next thousand years. Yet I do not anticipate any
considerable increase in the annual production, because
I deem $50,000,000 per annum as much as can be
* Overland Journey.    New York, 1860, p. 355. 40
EXHAUSTIBILITY  OF  SURFACE  GOLD.
taken out at a profit under existing circumstances.
The early miners of California reaped what nature had
been quietly saving through countless thousands of
years. Through the action of frost and fire, growth and
decay,, air and water, she had been slowly wearing
down the primitive rocks in which the gold was originally deposited, washing away the fighter matter, and
concentrating the gold thus gleaned from cubic miles of
stubborn quartz and granite, into a few cubic feet of
earth at the bottom of her water courses. Many a
miner has thus taken out in a day, gold which could
not in weeks have been extracted from the rocks where
it first grew. The hills in which it is now mainly
found, can be washed down at a dollar or less per
cubic yard, by the best hydraulic appliances; but
when the miner is brought face to face with the rough
granite the case is bravely altered."
SHIPMENTS  OF  CALIFORNIAN  GOLD.
51 .
52 .
53 .
54 .
55 .
34,492,000
45,779,000
54,935,000
50,973,968
.  45,182,631
1856
1857
1858
1859
50,697,434^
47,215,398
46,503,632;
45,989,890;
POPULATION OF CALIFORNIA.
1850 .
1852 .
. 92,597
. 264,435
1854-
1859-
-55
-60
. 300,000
. 600,000
i
If in California ten or twelve years has so considerably reduced the profits of surface mining, we
may expect in British Columbia, within a like period,
a similar result.
The surface gold is the great inducement to the
labourer to come to the country; it requires a capitalist to work in quartz.
In California, farms to supply the surface diggers
m A  GOLDEN  OPPORTUNITY. 41
became with them concurrently established, and the
population took immediate root in the country, which
was naturally open, fertile, and unimpeded.
In British Columbia we have the diggers, but owing
to the want of natural or made roads, and the country
being heavily timbered and rough, we see as yet no
farming population.
Admitting the exhaustibility of the surface gold*
which I have shown above, the earliest efforts of legislation ought to be to plant a farming population in the
country to keep pace with and supply the miners.
Miners themselves seldom take to farming, for this
their tastes are usually too speculative, extravagant,
and nomadic.
To the statesman, the existence of surface gold
presents a grand opportunity to settle a wild country,
but oh account of its extreme exhaustibility, from the
time of its discovery, like the Sibyl's offer, the chance
is ever on the wane.
When, in 1858, some 35,000 San Franciscan miners
visited Victoria and as hastily returned, the circumstance of their non-detention was by many, especially
by the local newspapers, considered as the greatest
misfortune that could befall the country. Had the
country been previously adapted by open communication, cheap land, &c, to invite with them a British
farming population, this impression might have been
a correct one; but, hitherto, the mines of British
Columbia have been worked simply for the benefit
of the merchants and shipowners of San Francisco,
and I cannot think that, under the circumstances, Great
Britain or the colonies have lost much by the exodus
so much regretted.
* Hill's Bar^ for instance, washed out: 42
GOLD   IN  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
The foregoing facts show clearly that the produce
of the mines of British Columbia, compared with the
population hitherto at work at them, has been highly
satisfactory, and is indeed conclusive as to their richness ; but lest the smallness of the gross amount, compared with the produce of gold countries long established, should create an erroneous impression, I add
the following remarks, taken from Mr. Waddington's
able pamphlet on this subject: —
" The. official exports (of gold) from California to the
Eastern States in 1849, comprehending a lapse of more
than six months from the first discovery of gold,
amounted only to $60,000. It is possible that as much
more was sent to Chili and the Sandwich Islands, and
we will suppose the same amount to have been taken
away by private hands, though the opportunities at
that time were few and far between. To the above
we may add $60,000 for what remained in the country,
and we shall reach a total of $240,000 for the production of California during the first six months. To
make another comparison :—all the gold brought to
Melbourne in 1834 amounted to 104,154 oz., or, at
sixteen dollars per oz., $1,666,464 ; whilst New South
Wales, which is now so productive, gave, for the first
six months of 1846, only 45,190 oz., or $725,000."
In Vancouver Island, although gold has in one or
two places been actually worked, it has not yet been
found in sufficient quantity to repay the cost of mining.
In 1852, I broke off almost at random pieces of
rock in various places within a walk of Victoria, and
the report on them by Mr. James Tennant (vide Appendix), of the Strand, will be read with interest, enumerating as it does the geological formations usually
met with in the south-eastern portion of the Island,
and showing that it is extremely probable that Van- GOLD  IN  QUEEN  CHARLOTTE'S  ISLAND. 43
couver Island, when properly explored, will be found
a gold-producing country.
Gold was known to exist in Queen Charlotte's Island
as far back as 1852 ; when, in consequence of information obtained from Indians, the agents of the
Hudson's Bay Company despatched 'the Una to .the
Island with a party of miners, drafted from the coal
mines, well provisioned, and provided with every requisite to blast on a large scale.
Anchored in Mitchell Harbour, on the western side
of the Island, a valuable quartz vein was soon discovered. It was seven inches wide, was traced for
eighty feet, and contained twenty-five per cent, of gold
in many places. For several days the vein was worked
with but one bar to their success, and that a serious
one. At every blast, the natives scrambled with the
miners and with one another for the fragments. As
neither side was armed, these arrangements were conducted with perfect good humour. By way of episode
to the general engagements, both parties occasionally
paused to witness a fair wrestling match between some
sturdy Scotchman who had the science and any Indian
that was ambitious to distinguish himself; and the
miners themselves afterwards admitted that nakedness
and fish oil often carried the day. At length the vein
was abandoned, anchor weighed, and the Una wrecked
and burnt on her way back to Victoria. The heaviest
specimens of pure gold as yet obtained from Queen
Charlotte's Island, weighed from fourteen to sixteen
ounces.    (Vide Appendix.)
Coal on the Pacific.
The consumption of coal at the Pacific is enormous,
perhaps 200,000 tons a year.    San Francisco alone, in 44
COAL  ON  THE   PACIFIC.
• 1859, imported 79,722 tons, and the quantity consumed
that year amounted to 69,258 tons. In connection with
the Panama Railway (on both sides), some seventy
steamers ply, the combined tonnage of which is not far
short of 100,000 tons. I mention these facts to show
that the above-mentioned statement is not an exaggeration. The Pacific coasts produce, in many places, coal
of good quality, but have not as yet supplied more than
10 per cent, of the consumption; of this 10 per cent,
the principal part has been supplied by Chili, the produce of the North Pacific coal mines being, up to the
present time, positively insignificant.
It is all very well to say, as is so frequently the case,
" In nothing does Vancouver Island resemble England
more than in the extensive deposits of coal which she
possesses," but we might add, in nothing does she
differ from England more than in the small production
and sale of them.
Discoveries of coal in the neighbourhood of Mary's
ville, Stockton, on the Sacramento and San Joaquin
Rivers are frequently reported in the Cahfornian papers,
but these invariably turn out to be mere lignite beds.
We hear nothing now of the coal of the Umqua and Co-
quille Rivers. Coose Bay, however, sends some coal to
San Francisco ; the place was pointed out to me by Captain Alden. It is about 400 miles north of San Francisco,
on a bold, unsheltered part of that rocky coast, and to
have called the place a bay required some nerve. The
coal is, I believe, a mile or so inland ; I saw some of
it at San Francisco, and it looked particularly slaty.
The coal of the Columbia River is brown in colour. I
saw the Cowlitz coal tried in a steamer, and so great
was the quantity of sulphur distilled from it that it
might almost be swept off the deck.
1 COAL   IX  VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
45
The next coal we come to as we go north is at Belling-
ham Bay, and as this coal field is the only one on the
Pacific in American territory, yet discovered, that can
at all compare or compete with the coal found in the
British settlements, I shall give a more extended description of it. The field consists of four principal beds;
cropping out on the coast, dipping north, I should have
thought, at an angle of 45° (the engineer said it dipped
1 in 2).
In quality the coal is undeniably very inferior to
that of Nanaimo, the beds being often mixed with shale
and clay, and fighter in colour. The thickest bed is
four or five feet, and not nine or ten feet as usually
stated. The working of these beds at an angle like
that mentioned, and roofed with clay as is generally
the case, will be very expensive. The shores of the
bay in which it is found are shoal all round, in fact a
mud flat, and sea-going vessels have a difficulty in
finding it through a labyrinth of islands, intricate passages and uncertain currents.
In Vancouver Island from Nitinat to Port San Juan,
the northern boundary of the Straits of Juan de Fuca,
is flat, and sandstone all along ; at JSTitinat the Indians
showed me specimens of coal; at Sooke, a shallow
boring passed through one inch of coal; at Saanich
coal is found of a bad quality in what looks like clay and
slate. The strike of the Bellingham Bay coal from east
to west would point to Saanich.
About Nanaimo the prevailing rock is sandstone,
varying in texture from the hardest conglomerate and
millstone grit to a soft and workable building stone.
The harbour is admirably sheltered and easily approached ; vessels draw close alongside a wharf to
load.    There several beds of excellent coal are found, 46
NANAIMO.
nearly horizontal, but dipping sufficiently toward the
south and west for drainage, and generally roofed with
sandstone. They are all worked within fifty or sixty
feet of the surface, and are found cropping out on the
islands, for several miles inland, and high up the
Nanaimo River towards the interior of the island,
which will give some idea of their vast extent. They
are used in Her Majesty's steamers, those of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the river steamers.
The American sea-going steamers and those of the
Pacific Mail Steamship Company do not use them;
this is not owing to the want of a reciprocity treaty, as
is elsewhere shown, because, after paying duty and
all other expenses, they can be sold in the San Francisco market at half the price of the foreign coal
which these steamers burn. The agents of these companies assert that the specific gravity of the coal is
so much less than that of anthracite or English coal
which they consume, and that they burn so fast and
freely that they take up too much room, and require,
in consequence, such continual stoking that to burn
them is not economical, even at half the price of
English coal: if this is not true it ought, by experiment, to be contradicted. If it is true, it might be
remedied by obtaining coal at a greater depth from
the surface, for clearly the density of the coal must be
greater in proportion to the pressure from above under
which it was formed. It is not true, as has been stated,
that in burning this coal leaves behind it a good deal of
slag ; on the contrary, it burns to a white ash.
The Hudson's Bay Company have some forty buildings and two engines at Nanaimo, giving it the appearance of a flourishing town ;  there is a considerable "
quantity of mineral land in the neighbourhood unsold.
i COAL  IN  BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
47
Farther up the coast at Valdez Inlet we find the
sandstone formation again; in the inlet itself I noticed a
seam of coal, six inches in thickness, cropping out.
The coal found at Koskeemo, south of Beaver
Harbour, was but eighteen inches in thickness ; there
the sandstone is everywhere broken up by primitive
rock, which, in that neighbourhood, predominates.
Labour on the coast is too dear to make the working of
any seam profitable, which does not exceed considerably eighteen inches. When I last visited the former
workings of the Hudson's Bay Company there, the
place was so overgrown with poplars, and every vestige of dwellings had been so removed by Indians, that
a stranger would not have discovered that coal had
ever been worked there.
On the coasts of British Columbia coal has been
discovered in several places. That within the entrance of
Burrard canal on the south side, was known to the
Hudson's Bay Company several years ago; it was discovered by Mr. Henry N. Peers. The beds are thin,
and the fact that they preferred to mine on the island
showed that their opinion of it was unfavourable.
Coal has also been discovered in the delta of Fraser
River, but its situation is unfavourable to exclude water.
On the Skeena river, which reaches the sea at Port
Essington, Major Downie in 1859 claimed to have
discovered extensive deposits of coal.
In addition to the foregoing minerals, I would mention that I saw specimens of copper, nearly pure, taken
from Deer Island, in the neighbourhood of Fort Rupert,
and of iron and plumbago, taken from various parts of
the coasts.
Limestone is everywhere abundant, and sandstone
of course.    Blue marble is also abundant on the coast, OTHER MINERALS.
often intersected with veins of white; the thickest of
these I have seen, was nine inches. I mention this
because San Francisco pays annually for white marble
some 15,000/., some of which, of inferior quality, is found
at a point inland seventy-five miles, from Sacramento,
but the principal part is supplied from Vermont, by
rail to New York and thence shipped; it is also imported from Italy, and is principally used for mantelpieces and monuments, and costs upwards of 1/. per foot
in the rough. I should add, the coast abounds with
earths of different colours, with which the Indians
occasionally paint their canoes.
I shall conclude this chapter with an instance of the
salt springs of Vancouver Island. Salt on the coast for
curing fish and beef, and other similar purposes, is exceedingly valuable. The Sandwich Island salt contains
too much lime to be used for these purposes. Liverpool salt is retailed in the Sound, as high as *15c. per
pound; this makes the subject worth investigating.
A gallon of water from the Nanaimo spring produced lib. of salt (a gallon of sea water produces
4i- oz.), the spring produced about a gallon a minute—
the specific gravity of the water, taken roughly, was
about 10*60. These springs will not of course compare
with the brine springs of Worcestershire, or those of
Utah, which contain J their weight in salt, but for
the reason mentioned, the subject is not uninteresting.
The offensive smell alluded to in the Report of Professor Taylor (vide Appendix) on two of these springs,
arose from the decomposition which unavoidably took
place, as the samples were bottled for nearly a year
before they were placed in his hands. 49
CHAP. IV.
CHIEF TOWNS OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND BRITISH COLUMBIA. VICTORIA.
 LANGLEY. — NEW WESTMINSTER. HARBOURS AND FORTIFICATIONS. —*
ONE BRITISH CAPITAL ON THE PACIFIC SUFFICIENT.
Given an uninhabited country: to choose a town site
which shall ultimately become the capital, is a puzzle,
and might, perhaps, with advantage, be included among
civil-service examination questions. If England were
such a country, I risk nothing in saying, nine competent persons out of ten would not have selected
London, nor if one did, would he have believed that
his selection would ripen into so wonderful a result.
Why is Dublin, with its sand-bars and mud-flats, the
capital of Ireland ? It might bewilder a clever person
to say why half the chief cities of Europe are not
second-rate cities instead.
It needs no prophet to say that British interests require
one capital on the Pacific, so eligibly situated, that it
shall be capable of entering into friendly competition
with San Francisco in commerce and in comfort; and
of rapidly outstripping the mushroom " cities " of the
coast.*
* I hope the term will be excused, as I mean no disrespect to any
of the very beautiful cities America has built: but, on the coast, it
is no uncommon thing for a Tap to be " inaugurated," a Newspaper
• started, a Wharf projected, and a City proclaimed ; and shortly
after, to our astonishment, we find that the barrels have been rolled
away, the patriotic type set to echo the grievances of a different
locality, and that the entire institution has " whittled out." In fact,
Americans are so  enterprising, that they frequently commence a 50
VICTORIA.
Victoria * was selected by Governor Douglas, whose
intimate acquaintance with every crevice in the coast
ought to carry considerable weight, as " the site" in
1842, when he expressed his confidence "that there
was no sea-port north of the Columbia, where so many
advantages could be found combined;" an opinion which
was confirmed by Sir George Simpson, in his despatch
of June 21st, 1844, in which he states, " The situation
of Victoria is peculiarly eligible, the country and
climate remarkably fine, and the harbour excellent."
And again: " June, 1846,—Fort Victoria promises to
become a very important place." The site on the east
side of the harbour has many advantages ; it is level,
extensive, and clear, and from every street the view of
distant snow-capped mountains is a picture. Eight fertile
agricultural districts, containing 100,000 acres of connected open land, surround it. The suburbs and park
adjacent  are shaded with  oak  trees;   and although
town in anticipation of events on which its future success must
depend; and, therefore, cannot be expected to draw prizes every
time. When, for instance, I first saw Eureka, I was standing in a
damp forest, on the banks of a shallow and rather muddy river, and
naturally inquired, Where ? To which my companion replied, " This
is the city. Within a hundred yards of us stands a liquor store, it
will be roofed in a day or two — come and take a drink."
* As with other inventions, copyright should extend to names of
towns. Letters directed to Vancouver Island and Australia will no
doubt, in time to come, be assorted on the same route, and letters
intended for Victoria town may find their way to Victoria colony, as
has to my knowledge occurred; or they may be left behind at
Victoria near New Orleans, or elsewhere. Englishmen abroad like
their towns to be called after a member of the royal family, because
it reminds them of institutions which distance but serves to endear..
In this case, however, had the Queen been petitioned to name the
chief town, as in the case of B. C, it is probable that, as a matter of .
practical convenience, a different name would have been selected. LANGLET.
there is no water in the town, unless what is procured
from wells, water can be readily led into it, from
springs and lakes in the back ground. The streets are
broadband macadamised, and the private dwellings,
public buildings, churches, &c, have been erected with
so much taste, and are kept so attractively neat, that
even now, the appearance of the town is thoroughly
English. The houses are generally built of wood, planed,
relieved by cornice, &c, and painted, the chimneys being
brick, but there are a good many brick buildings as
well.    The population of Victoria is about 3000.
Subsequently to the establishment of British Columbia as a Crown colony in 1858, the ruling authorities
decided that a separate capital for British Columbia —
one seaport, and that of the greatest consequence — to
be established somewhere in the neighbourhood of
Fraser River, was indispensable.
A point on the left bank, nine miles from the entrance,
was first proposed; but afterwards abandoned (in
November, 1858) in favour of a point sixteen miles
further up the river, on the same side.
The spot selected was the site of a former establishment of the Hudson's Bay Company, known as " Old
Fort Langley." The anchorage is good, and the river
deep enough to admit of ships being moored close into
the bank: with a cheerful aspect and surface well
adapted for building and drainage. The greater part
of the site is dry and elevated, and the open lands of
New Langley are at no great distance in the rear. A
trail connects it with Whatcome and other American
towns in the neighbourhood of Bellingham Bay. Here
3000 building lots were laid out, of which 342 were
sold in two days, for 13,000/., on which a deposit often
per cent, was paid.    A court-house, jail, parsonage, and 52
NEW WESTMINSTER.
11:
church were built, and 4Q0 or 500 persons were about
to commence operations,' when another capital was announced.
The site last determined on was on the right bank,
fifteen miles from the entrance, where the Fraser
divides to form the north and south branches.
No exertions were spared to found the new capital
with eclat and stamp it with success. Engineers, military and civil, were for months employed projecting its
squares and terraces. At the auction sales it was announced that in certain quarters, its " West-end," no
shop fronts should be admitted. Majesty itself was
approached to find a name for it, and it was called in
the colonies " The Phantom City."
On perusal of the foregoing and papers in the Ap^
pendix the idea will naturally suggest itself, that it would
be far better if the influence of Government were exerted
to concentrate the energies of so small a population. as
the country contains to the erection of one capital,
whichever of them is best adapted to become the
British dep6t of the commerce of the West.
• The seaboard of California is nearly double that of
British Columbia, yet one San Francisco is found sufficient.
Any port within Fraser River, or in its neighbourhood,
can never be the resort of sea-going vessels. Fogs and
calms for months in autumn, the rapid currents of the
Haro archipelago, the narrow channel passing through
miles of shifting sand, uncertain tides, and the rapidity
of its own current, must prevent Fraser River, however
well adapted for steam navigation, from ever becoming
the resort of sailing vessels.
As a town site, New Westminster is decidedly objectionable.      Too  elevated,   expensive to  grade,  and FORTIFICATIONS.
53
heavily timbered, its progress must necessarily be slow;
the extensive swamps and marshes so close to it are
not an advantage, to say nothing of the music of acres
of frogs in spring, and the stings of myriads of mosquitoes in summer; its impregnability may be unquestionable, but if unfortunately this quality renders it inaccessible to the merchantmen of the Pacific, and to the
trade of Puget Sound, what object could an enemy have
in attacking it? The enemies that soldiers there will have
to contend with are depression and disease, from want
of exercise in open grounds. Langley, which is now
abandoned, was better circumstanced in this respect,
and as to trade; and the town site was clear. The
argument in favour of separating the capital from the
people you want to trade with by a broad and rapid
river, lest they should at a future time become hostile,
is at least questionable, since, assuming war, and that
Government measures are such that we may at the same
time assume a British population, your position on the
foreign frontier is quite as menacing to the supposed
enemy as theirs to you.
Besides, the qualifications, such as accessibility, easy
gradients to approach it by, &c, requisite to constitute
a town site eligible for commercial purposes, are the
opposite to those required for defence. Is a commercial community to carry fuel and water perpetually
up hill, to be pestered with ferries and mulcted in
clearances and gradients, and to undergo a thousand
daily inconveniences, from a morbid apprehension of
future attack that may never occur? Better far, one
Would suppose, from mercantile considerations only to
choose the site, and if in time property should accumulate there, then to call upon science to fortify it.*
* In addition to the foregoing, if San Juan or Orcas Island,
E   3 HARBOURS.
The high open grounds between Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours would be a very healthy place for a
principal military station, and being close to the naval
station, which the Government have so wisely selected,
detachments of troops could, in the event of war, be
rapidly conveyed to any point on the coast required, in
Her Majesty's steamers, on which, after all, should such
a calamity occur, the issue would mainly depend.
The harbour of Victoria is far from perfect, but is
capable of vast improvement at small outlay ; besides,
it almost joins Esquimalt Harbour, admitted to be the
most perfect harbour on the coast. Hobson's Bay may
be said to be the port of Melbourne, though separated
from it by some miles. The waters of Esquimalt
and Victoria Harbours are in one place only 600 yards
apart; and a line of railway to connect them would be
half the length of the Melbourne and Hobson's Bay
railway, which has been attended with such remarkable success. Reference to diagram on Map II. will explain at once this question of harbours. The main
defect of Victoria Harbour is a sand bar from a to b,
having on it eight or nine feet at lowest water. The
basin of the harbour is deep enough for vessels drawing
eighteen or twenty feet. Now if instead of connecting
the harbours by a canal d, as has been proposed, the
bridge at e were removed and the inlet embanked at c
instead, which would be preferable as far as the road is
concerned, and proper sluice-gates made in the embankment, the bar at the entrance being once dredged,
the whole body of water from c to D might be used
continually to scour the harbour out and act upon the
either of which' commands the approach to New Westminster, should
be declared not to belong to Great Britain, what purpose could be
gained by erecting fortifications there ? HOPETOWN, YALE, AND DOUGLAS.
55
bar. If, in addition to this, the distance b a were
slightly narrowed with sheet-piling, the improvement
would be complete, and Victoria Harbour would be
made one of the best harbours for merchantmen on the
coast at a total, expense not exceeding 5000/. or 6000/.
The water on the bar of Fraser River is about the
same as on the bar of Victoria Harbour ; but in the first
case a vessel has five miles of it to cross, in the latter
say-a few hundred yards.*
Hopetown, at the head of steam navigation on the
Fraser, is beautifully situated on the banks of the Que-
quealla River. The town site is a perfect one, and the
variety and beauty of the surrounding scenery is such,
that I could not attempt to describe it. The same
remark might apply to Yale in a lesser degree. The
latter looks wilder and less cultivated.
These were originally the sites of Indian villages;
not here alone, but invariably, the Indians on the coast
have shown great sagacity in choosing, for their village
sites, spots the most favoured by nature, commanding
and accessible at the same time. Fresh water, fuel, and
drainage are attended to; facilities for boat navigation
are never forgotten; and, whether we look at their
camps, or from them, we quit them with the impression
that the savage has a clear conception of, and knows
how to appreciate, the picturesque and beautiful.
* Further uiformation on this subject will be found in the Appendix, and in Parliamentary Papers relating to British Columbia,
dated 1859, Part II. pp. 14, 19, and 60.
If Victoria or Esquimalt, the head of sailing navigation within
the straits, is not the natural site for the British Capital on the North.
Pacific, would it not be more reasonable to look for the desired
locality on the western coast, at Barclay Sound, for instance, clear
of the straits, than to run the gauntlet of tides and islands of the
Gulf of Georgia?
e 4    . M
ONE   CAPITAL  SUFFICIENT.
Port Douglas is a promising town, but the site is very
limited. The town consists at present of twenty small
dwellings, a saw-mill, and a wharf. No doubt the
several towns on Fraser River will ultimately bear to
Victoria the same relation that Stocton, Sacramento,
and Mary's-ville now bear to San Francisco.
The local government of California for a considerable
time retarded the growth of San Francisco, by endeavouring to make Benicia the capital.
Victoria has many advantages over San Francisco.
The cold gusts that constantly toward evening blow
upon the latter from seaward, through the Golden Gate,
as it were through a funnel, are far from agreeable,
carrying with them, as they frequently do, clouds of
exceedingly fine, penetrating sand. San Francisco is separated from the neighbouring agricultural country—
from the beautiful valleys of Santa Clara and San Jose,
by miles of sandy hillocks, hopelessly barren. There
shaky titles retard improvement, and the administration of justice is proverbially defective. To all this I
need hardly add Victoria presents a bright contrast.
As the country improves and population increases,
Government will, of course, have occasion to lay out
. and dispose of many town sites. But there is in this
nothing to prevent the recognition of the principle—
one capital for the British possessions on the Pacific,
—or the announcement of the site of it, when finally
fixed upon. 9cott|
^Mangle ^a
AND
Tkg3ish Miles..
20 30 40 50
^   i   1 ts^r
E.WlerJ
Re&JQon. Square
san m CHAP.  V.
INSTITUTION    OF   THE    COLONIES   OF   VANCOUVER   ISLAND   AND   BRITISH
COLUMBIA. THEIR    PROGRESS    TRACED,   AND    COMPARED   WITH   THAT
OF  THE  ADJOINING  AMERICAN   STATES. THEIR  COMMERCE. POLICY
j OF ENGLAND AND AMERICA RESPECTIVELY, WITH REGARD TO THEIR
POSSESSIONS   ON  THE  PACIFIC.
Has the progress of Her Majesty's Colonies in the
North-West Pacific been commensurate with their
natural geographical and commercial advantages, and
with the resources of soils, minerals, timber, and
fisheries which they are shown to possess, with a
climate admitted to be better adapted to the constitution of Englishmen than that of any other portion of
the Western Hemisphere from Cape Horn to Aliaska;
.and if not, why not ?—- are questions which I shall now
endeavour to answer to the satisfaction of the reader,
and at the same time to show, by a production of facts,
the present commercial status of these colonies, with
reference to that of the American States adjoining.
The first step taken by Great Britain to establish a
colony on the north-west coast, omitting at present the
consideration of Red River Colony, as too far inland to
promise early success, was in 1849, one year after the
•gold discoveries in California, when by a Crown grant
the Hudson's Bay Company were entrusted with the
-colonisation of Vancouver Island. The provisions of the
grant are too well known to require detailed insertion
here ; but the principal inducements held out to immigrants under it were as follows.
. 1st.— That no grant of land should contain less than
-twenty acres. 58
INSTITUTION  OF  THE  COLONIES.
2nd.—Purchasers of land to pay one pound per acre.
3rd. — That purchasers of land provide a passage to
Vancouver Island for themselves and their families, if
they have any; or be provided with a passage (if they
prefer it) on paying for the same at a reasonable rate.
4th.— That purchasers of larger quantities of land
should pay the same price per acre, namely one pound,
and should take out with them five single men, or three
married- couples, for every hundred acres.
5th. — That all minerals, wherever found, should
belong to the Company, who should have the right of
digging for the same, compensation being made to the
owner of the soil for any injury done to the surface ;
but that the owner should have the privilege of working
for his own benefit any coal mine that might be on his
land, on payment of a royalty of half a crown per ton.
6th.— That the right of fishing at first proposed to
be given to the Hudson's Bay Company, having been
relinquished, every freeholder should enjoy the right of
fishing ; and that all the ports and harbours should be
open and free to them, and to. all nations either trading
or seeking shelter therein.
The circular from which the above is taken,, then
makes provision for the establishment of places of
public worship, and the maintenance of ministers of
rehgion, a policy afterwards abandoned; and concludes
with a proposal to form a colonial legislature combining the usual elements of governor, council, and assembly, with powers to enact laws and enforce taxes.
A programme so illiberal, so restrictive, and so detrimental to the memory of the colonial administration
of Earl Grey, for ten years stopped the settlement of
the country. Ultimately the grant was revoked, and
on the 1st June 1859, Vancouver Island colony fell
directly under the management of the Crown, previous ALLEGED  CAUSES  OF  NON-SETTLEMENT.
59
to which date the exclusive right to trade from the
Pacific to the Rocky Mountains, which the Hudson's
Bay Company had before possessed, was withdrawn,
and the colony of British Columbia instituted by the Act
of August 2nd, 1858.
The obstacles which I shall now enumerate have
been repeatedly assigned and accredited by the Government, as having hitherto prevented the successful
development of these colonies *: —
1st,— the attraction of the gold region of California;
2nd,—the high rate of wages in the colony and territories adjoining preventing settlement; 3rd, — the
great distance from Great Britain, involving either a
t3dious voyage of five months and 17,000 miles, or
the expense of the overland route by Panama or the
plains ; 4th,—the high price of land; 5th,—Duties
averaging 24 per cent, levied on British goods in the
neighbouring American ports.
* M The high rate of wages in Oregon and California, and the
attraction of the gold districts in the gold country, have not only
operated to prevent persons of capital settling in Vancouver Island,
but have also obstructed the Hudson's Bay Company, and the Puget
Sound Company, in their endeavours to bring land into cultivation,,
and provide means of subsistence for settlers*"— Governor of H. JB.
Company to Secretary of State for the Colonies, Nov. 24, 1852.
u Its commerce, trammelled and met by restrictive duties on every
fide, its trade and resources remain undeveloped."— Governor of
Vancouver Island's Address to Assembly, August 12, 1856.
f Causes over which the local government had no control, and
which are too well known to need recapitulation, have hitherto prevented the settlement from acquiring that development, which its
founders may have expected."—Secretary of State for the Colonies,
to Governor of Vancouver Island, Feb. 28, 1856.
See also index to Report of Select Committee on the Hudson's
Bay Company, under heading, " Vancouver Island : Causes of Non-
Settlement." " The distance from England, and the nearness of the
Californian gold fields, have prevented the settlement and progress
of the island."    Also Blue Books on this subject, passim. 60
THE  REAL  BAR  TO   SETTLEMENT  STILL EXISTS.
And since, with the exception of No. 4, these impediments, if such, continue to exist, it will be well to
. examine into them separately: and I think it can be shown
that the colonies of North West America have not been
retarded at all to the extent supposed by the combination of causes alleged; but that the real bar to their
development still exists in their utter isolation and
absence of connection with each other; in which remark
I include not Vancouver Island and British Columbia
alone, but also Red River, and (why not ?) Sascatche-
wan, all which should derive, from connection, with
each other, the Canadas, and as a consequence with
England, the same vitality, that Washington, Oregon,
Cahfornia, and the intervening states, derive from the
chain of excellent communications by land that bind
them to one another, and to the Eastern American
States ; and in the case of Vancouver Island and
British Columbia, in the want as well of main lines of
internal communication and of other works of a public nature, indispensable to the success of the first
arrivals : that from want of numbers it is impossible
for these to procure by taxation the capital required to
open up communications in a country so vast and wild,
and endow it with the elements of success; but that if this
capital were once obtained, and judiciously and honestly
applied, success would attend the first adventurers,
immigration on a large scale ensue, resulting in a prosperous, and therefore taxable population, sufficiently
numerous in a short time to pay the interest of what I
may term their national debt, and ultimately to discharge the debt itself, and to add to the power and commerce of England; that the requisite capital could
be procured, and the benefits stated conferred, without
trenching, to any great extent, upon the revenues of
Great Britain ; and I shall afterwards endeavour to in- OREGON  STATE AND  WASHINGTON  TERRITORY.
dicate the nature and extent of the works required for
the purposes stated, and approximately the cost of them.
I demur to the first impediment, by adducing the
parallel instances of Oregon and Washington. These
states, which are notoriously not gold-producing, although samples may be found there, as in Vancouver
Island, are nearer to California than the British settlements are, therefore obstacles Nos. 1 and 2 have all along
applied to them more forcibly than to the latter.
Oregon and Washington were formed into a territory
by Act of Congress, dated August 14, 1848, and Great
Britain commenced her colonies in January, 1849,
so it may be said the start was a fair one. As to comparative natural advantages, even Americans admit the
•great superiority of those of the British settlements.
Look at Oregon as its boundaries are now defined —
in point of physical aspect, every part of the coast is
dangerous to navigation on account of the heavy surf continually beating against its shores; there is not a tolerable or accessible harbour in its whole length, its rivers
are choked with sand-bars : in point of agricultural
advantages, it certainly has its rich valleys, much in the
way that British Columbia has, from the Sea to the
cascades, 80 to 150 miles ; -and within this tract is
embraced the only valuable portion of the State.
Within the valleys of the Willamette, Umqua, and Rogue
.Rivers, the farming population, and all the counties yet
established, are concentrated. The tract from the
Cascades to the Blue Mountains, will never be of use
beyond some pastoral purposes, and from the Blue Mountains to the Rocky Mountains, has been justly characterised as wild, sterile, and impracticable; mountain
ranges and isolated buttes-; and unless in the immediate neighbourhood of the valleys of the rivers men- PROGRESS  IN  THE  BRITISH  COLONI
tioned, the country is altogether too rugged for any
industrial purpose.
Of Washington Territory a more favourable account
must be given: it has its inlets, canals, and islands, the
latter often capable of the most profitable cultivation,
but the whole tract of country within it capable of
cultivation is very limited, included within the narrow
strip of country extending from Admiralty Inlet to the
Columbia, and hemmed in by the Cascade Mountains
and the Olympic range: the great plain of the Columbia,
occupying the main width of the territory, from the
Cour d'Alene range to the outliers of the Cascades, is
a hopeless desert, and, unless close to the river and its
branches, utterly uninhabitable.
. And now to compare results. Vancouver Island
colony was established ten years ago, and British Co-
lumbia two; in neither have we, as yet, any farming
population worth mentioning. America feeds us ;
America carries our letters to us; we reach them by
American steamers, or we travel by American routes ;
the bulk of the merchandise we consume comes from
American ports. In Vancouver Island, the rich valleys
of Cowichan, Puntledge, and Barclay Sound are unconnected and by land unapproachable. I was sixteen days
reaching Nitinat from Saanich.* Even between Esquimalt Harbour and Victoria the capital, three miles,
the road is execrable, and while a small expenditure
would render Victoria Harbour one of the most commodious on the coast for whalers or merchant vessels,
it remains unlighted and unfrequented. The island
is unimproved, progress being entirely limited to Victoria district and Victoria Town, and caused in the
latter very exceptional cases, I believe, by its free port,
and the effect beneficial to it of the restrictive duties
* 60 or 70 miles. PROGRESS IN UNITED  STATES  ADJACENT.
63
levied in American ports, as I shall afterwards have
occasion to show.
In British Columbia, with the exception of a few
trails, the only attempt at opening a communication
into the interior has been on the Harrison River and
Lilouette Route, forty-four miles by water and sixty-four
miles by land. Miners are the only population, except
the few traders that supply them : the gold finds its
way to San Francisco, the miners winter there, and the
surface gold — the principal inducement to labouring
emigrants — threatens to be seriously ohminished before
a farming population is established in the country; the
export trade of these colonies is as yet too insignificant
to be worth detailing. .
To complete the comparison, I shall now give the
result of a state census of Oregon and Washington
combined, taken in 1850.
Number of dwellings
Number of families
Number of farms   .
Population
f white
\ free coloured
. 2374
. 2374
. 1164
13087    Washington      .    1201
207    Oregon     .        . 12093
Total
13294
By the census taken in 1855, the population of
Oregon alone was estimated at 33,324, showing an
increase of nearly 176 per cent, in three years, and
had at the same time fifty manufacturing establishments at work.
By a census taken in 1856, the population of Washington territory was 5500, and the following statement of
the exports of last year shows that their commerce kept
pace with their population, and that notwithstanding
its greater distance from San Francisco, Puget Sound has
nearly usurped the trade that formerly belonged to
Humboldt Bay, Umqua, and Trinidad, 64
COMMERCE   OF  PUGET  SOUND.
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H
J THE  LUMBER  TRADE   OF  THE  PACIFIC.
Exports of Lumber from California.
FROM HUMBOLDT  BAT.
To Melbourne
To Honolulu
To Australia
To Peru      .
To Mexico  .
To Sandwich Islands
To Victoria, V.I.
To other Countries
FROM  SAN FRANCISCO.
600,000
100,000
1,136,923
821,497
540,236
106,540
287,206
1,742,994
700,000
Total feet
4,635,396
5,335,396
As to the second allegation, it will be at once admitted that the rate paid for labour of different kinds
in San Francisco and California, regulates equally the
labour markets of Oregon, Washington, and the British
possessions ; a high rate of wages is the principal inducement to the largest and most useful class of emigrants ; far from being an impediment to settlement,
the cause assigned ought to produce in these colonies
the most beneficial effects.
From the foregoing I deduce that we must look
for some other agency than those stated in No. 1 and
No. 2, for the want of success complained of.
Before passing to the consideration of Allegation
No. 3, I shall here shortly detail the nature and
extent of the trade of the British colonies with San
Francisco, so as to give this branch of the subject a
connected form.
The Pacific Mail Steam Company run steamers once
a fortnight both ways, between Victoria and San Fran- 66
EXPORTS.
cisco, carrying passengers at $50 a head, and freight
#20 per ton. Sixty-three vessels, representing a tonnage
of 52,508, also cleared at San Francisco within the
last year, carrying freight to the island at $3 to $4, and
passengers at $25 to $30 : the vessels are for the most
part American.
Our exports consisted of gold in 1859, to the value
of $2,000,000, as under that head was shown; which
export in 1858 was estimated at $1,500,000.
Coal (perhaps) 2000 tons, in 1858 it was 1755 tons.
Oregon and Washington export about 200 tons a month,
and the whole amount of coal imported into San Francisco from the coast north of it in 1859, was 4772 tons.
In addition to the above, we may have exported
a small quantity of fish and oil, and a few barrels of
cranberries, and here we must stop. The spars sent to
England in 1859, had to be procured on the American
side ; as, although our timber is just the same and ports
to ship it from better, no business of the kind had up
to that time been established either on the island or
the mainland.* I omit furs altogether from the consideration of exports, affording no criterion of colonial
wealth or of colonial improvement, but rather the
reverse.
Next, as to our imports in 1859. The gold above
mentioned was spent principally in San Francisco in
the purchase of the list of goods annexed.
* from San Francisco        . ■ .$1,199,380
Puget Sound .        .        .       192,539
Elsewhere     ....       108,081
alue of Impor
in 1859,
r iron
v        )5
$1,500,000
* Some enterprising. London merchants have recently established,
under very able management, a business of this description at the
head of Barclay Sound. IMPORTS.
67
In addition to this, the Hudson's Bay Company
imported some few cargoes of English goods, principally for their own trade, and which constituted the
only shipments of consequence from England.
LIST OF GOODS  SHIPPED FROM  SAN   FRANCISCO TO VICTORIA, V. I.
AND  BRITISH  COLUMBIA   IN   1859.
Absynthe, cs.   .
72
Corn, sks.
98
Agricultural implements,
pes.  .    32
Corn meal, puns.
4
Alcohol, bbls. .
.  136
do.      bbls.
40
do.      cs.    .
.  172
do.      sks.
38!
Anchors, no.    .
.     56
Coffee, bags
544
Bacon, hhds.    .
. 225
do.    cs.
360
do.      cs.
. 447
Cordage, coils,
251
do.      pkgs. .
.  554
do.     pkgs.
95
Barley, bags
16.937
Cheese, bxs.
95
Beans, bags
11,065
do.    pkgs.   .
118
Beef, bbls.
.    99
China goods, pkgs.   .
1613
do. cs.   .
21
Chocolate, cs.  .
26
Beer, csks.
. 858
Clothing, pkgs.
666
do.  kegs
.     11
Clocks, pkgs.   .
3
do.   cs. .
.  101
Crockery, csks.
9
Bitters, cs.
.  122
do.      pkgs.
35
Boilers, no.
2
Drugs, pkgs.    .
904
Boots and shoes, pkgs.
1321
Dry goods, pkgs.
1633
Buckwheat, bags
3
Fancy goods, pkgs.   \
4
Butter, firkins .
1028
Fire crackers, bxs.   .
450
Building materials —
Fish, drums
19
Lumber, feet
287,206
do. bbls.
6
do.    pes.
.  131
do. kits
140
Blinds, bdl. .
1
do. bxs. ....
.    28
Doors, bdls. and no.
. 748
Flour, bbls.
2654
Sash, bdls. and no.
.  369
do. hf. sks.   .
4620
Pickets, Ml..
1
do. qr. sks. ...      3
9,761
Bran, bags
2473
Fruit, green and dried, bbls.
145
Brandy, hhds. .
.     13
do.      bxs.   do.
481
do.    | pipes
3
do.      pkgs. do.
.    64
do.   \ pipes
.    27
Furniture, pkgs.
1136
do.    octaves
. 442
Gin, pipes and puns.
.    57
do.    cs.
.    45
do.    bbls.
9
Bread, bbls.     .
. 477
do.    kegs
2
do.  cs.
. 767
do.    cs.          ...
. 248
do.   pkgs.     .
. 473
Glass, bxs.       .        .    '   .
.   168
Bricks, M.
. 203
Glassware, pkgs.
. 131
Brooms, doz.   .
.  179
Groceries, pkg-:.
2567
Camphene, cs. .
,i 857
Guns, cs.
4
Candles, bxs.   .
2920
Gunnies, bdls.
.  104
Carts, no.
6
do.     bales
-    48
Cement, bbls.   .
.  148
Hams, casks    .
.     15
Cider, bbls.
.  139
do.     bbls.     .
. 260
do. cs.
. 491
do.     pkgs.    .
.     33
Cigars, cs.
.   157
Hardware, pkgs
225D
Coal, csks.
4
Hay, bales       ...
2911
Copper, cs.      •
2
1   Hollow-ware, pkgs. .
.     10 8                                    -IMPORTS
ANALYSED.
Hollow-ware, pes.    .
.    56
Rice, mats
10,209
Hops, cs. and bales .
.    23
do. csks.
.    36
Iron pipe, pes.
. 200
Rum, puns.
.    23
Lard, bbls.
6
do.   bbls.
.    45
do.   cs. .
. 397
do.   keg
1
Leather, rolls   .
.    21
Saddlery, pkgs.
. 139
Lead, white, kegs
.  172
Safes, iron, no.
.    17
Lime, bbls.
. 423
Salt, sks. .
. 518
Liqueurs, cs.    .
.  104
do. bbls.
14
Liquors, unspecified, octaves
.     59
do. bxs.
'.    44
do.         do.       bbls.
.    71
Sardines, cs.
.  101
do.          do.        kegs
. 250
Saw mills, no. .
2
do.          do.       cs.
. 400
Ship chandlery, pkgs.
.* 255
do.          do.        pkgs.
. 248
Shot, bags
.    19
Maccaroni, bxs.
.  132
do. kegs
9
Machinery, pes. and pkgs.
. 393
Soap, bxs.
*5095
Malt, sks.
. 386
Spices, cs.
. 489
Matches, cs.
.  103
do. pkgs.
.    50
Matting, rolls .
.     62
Spirits turpentine, cs.
.     A3
Merchandise, pkgs. .
1017
Starch, bxs.
.   112
Metals, bars
. 600
Stationery, pkgs.
. 169
do.    cs. and bdls.
. 409
Steel, pkgs.
. 239
Molasses and syrups, bbls.
.    15
Stoves, no. and pkgs.
. 816
do.     kegs .
1252
Sugar, mats
2132
do.     cs.
.  153
do.   bbls.
. 465
Nails, kegs
. 751
do.   bxs. and cs. .
348
Nuts, pkgs.
.    37
do.   pkgs.    .
.    56
Oats, bags
1416
Tar, bbls.
2
Oakum, bales .
.    96
Teas, pkgs.
.  802
Oars, no. ....
. 442
Tin, plate, bxs.
.  180
do. pkgs.
.     38
Tin ware, pkgs.
.     12
Oil, bbls. ...
.    65
Tobacco, bales
.      7
do cs	
.  176
do.     cs. and bxs.
.  855
do. pkgs.
.    31
Tools, pkgs.    .
.     10
Paints, pkgs.    .
. 937
Trunks, no.
.    79
Paper, pkgs.    .        .        .
.    97
Tubs, nests
.    38
Pianos, no.
.      7
Twine, pkgs.   .
7
Pickles, preserves, &c.
1484
Vinegar, bbls. .
.     32
do.   kegs   .
. 350-
do.     kegs .
.    81
do.   pkgs. .
.     29
Waggons, no. .
3
Pipes, cs	
.    95
Wheat, bags    .
. 177
Pitch, bbls.
.    38
Whisky, puns.
.    39
Piaster, bbls.   .
.    90
do.    cs.
. 236
Pork, bMs.
. 316
do.    bbls. .
.   136
Potatoes, bags
. 394
do.    kegs  .
.    51
Powder, kegs .
.    34
Wine, pipes
3
do.      bxs.   .
.    23
do. csks.
.  187
Printing materials, pkgs  .
7
do. bbls.
.    32
Provisions, unspecified, pkgs.
. 174
do. kegs.
.    32
Pumps, no.
.     11
do. cs.
1258
Pure spirits, pipes    .
.    12
do. bskts.
.  242
do.          bbls      .
9
Yeast powders, cs.   .
.  128
Quicksilver, flasks   .
.    19
Zinc, rolls.
.         .17
A close examination of this list will throw a flood of
light on the present condition of the colonies. In the
first place the total amount is astonishingly large, nearly EXPORTS  OF  SAN  FRANCISCO.
69
equal in value to that of the entire export of the staple
commodities of San Francisco, such as hides, horns, oil,
wool, &c\ to New York, and far exceeding the exports
of San Francisco to any other port.
The annexed table, showing the aggregate value of
the exports of San Francisco, and among what countries
distributed, for the past four years, according to returns
made to the custom-house, will corroborate the statements last made.
To
New York . . .
Australia . .
Mexico ....
Peru ....
Great Britain. .
France ....
Sandwich Islands
China ....
Russia in America
Russia in Asia .
Chile ....
Society Islands .
New Grenada
Ports in Pacific .
Johnson's Island.
Vancouver Island
Costa Rica . .
East Indies . .
Batavia....
Nicaragua. . .
San Salvador . .
Manilla ....
Japan ....
Guam (Ladrone) Isl's
Total
dollars.
1,418,100
730,427
682,490
156,616
29,100
7,000
358,538
252,061
15,640
55,505
347,034
52,606
205,952
2,155
1,147
1,199,380
13,779
1,455
3,912
514
1858.
dollars.
1,284,000
380,099
702,112
137,872
273,535
224,568
3,875
53.174
150,495
54,523
46,617
1,413,221
38,025
278
I   6,779
*   ■  797
10,193
5,533,411     4,780,163
1857.
dollars.
2,158,000
314,604
744,055
139,700
295,200
313,896
36,545
68,607
157,698
51,576
40,000
30,149
2,999
7,086
7,143
1856.
dollars.
1,113,500
1,123,367
781,059
337,693
249,303
239,942
127,911
116,787
61,819
43,126
35,453
23,376
12,000
2,750
2,430
4,270,516
Examining the goods' list in detail, we find that it
includes every kind of agricultural produce, not even to
the exclusion of hay. Freights are high on the coast,
and hay is bulky and liable to heat and set fire to the
ship. Notwithstanding all this, in winter when hay is
indispensable at Victoria, and sells at prices ranging 70
SAN  FRANCISCO  PRICES.
from SI. to 16/. per ton, Californian hay is the only hay
in the market, a fact exceedingly encouraging to intending emigrant farmers from this country. The list includes every kind of building material, lumber, bricks,
&e. At the close of 1859 there was but one saw-mill at
work, or I believe, in existence, and not a single brick-
making machine in the island. The bulk of the lumber
we consume is supplied from Puget Sound, as seen by
a former tabular statement.
While on this subject I would mention, the retail
price of anything in San Francisco is about four times
as much as it would be in London; and although
cargoes frequently arrive there to find an overstocked
market, and are sold at a loss to the owners at auction
or otherwise, still these retail prices vary but little from
time to time. In Victoria retail prices are generally
15 per cent, higher than in San Francisco. The
Hudson's Bay Company sell lower considerably, but
generally send a stock of goods unsuited to the market,
selected, as they are, for a special purpose.
Passing on to Allegation No. 3, let us inquire to what
extent distance from England retards the settlement of
these colonies, and whether this is an element so
damaging that it cannot be overcome.
The Atlantic can now be crossed at an expense,
ranging from 21. 10 s. upwards, and for that small sum
the British emigrant can be carried to the eastern
coast of the American continent. If, therefore, a road
to the British colonies on the western coast were
constructed, emigrants from Great Britain and from
the United States would, with the exception of that
small difference, be on an equality with respect to the
expense of locomotion. DISTANCE  FROM  ENGLAND.
71
The American territories" south of the British are
principally peopled vid San Francisco, where 30,000
to 40,000 people arrive within the year, and we have
the evidence of Mr Horace Greely* and others, that the
great mass of this increase of population comes from the
Atlantic slope direct, and that these territories are not
progressively populated. The passenger statistics of the
port of San Francisco and of the overland routes corroborate this statement; and it may safely be asserted,
that three out of four arrivals at San Francisco have
either crossed the continent or the isthmus. But, in
addition to a route by which the colonies can be
reached, internal communications are indispensable to
the success of the emigrant; for instance, the difficulty
of transport only was removed, in the case of emigrants
sent by the Hudson's Bay Company to Vancouver
Island, the majority of whom took leave of the British
settlements shortly after their arrival, and found occupation on American farms, or work in American
mills.
The difficulty of transport only was also removed in
the case of hosts of deserters, Irish, Germans, and others
from the American army of the west, whose interests
would have led them, if possible, to settle out of their own
country, in Vancouver Island or in British Columbia,
* " Of course these (the annual increase) were not all from the
Atlantic slope, vid the Isthmus or Nicaragua ; but the great mass of
them were." — Overland Journey to California, 1859, p. 369.
In 1859, arrivals at San Francisco by sea were .        .        . 38,183
Departure        ....... 24,781
By various overland routes
Addition to the population
f 4
13,402
25,000
38,402 72
LANDED  INTEREST.
on the same principle as our deserted seamen settle in
American territory ; but I cannot call to mind a single
instance of their having done so.
In 18 5 8 and 18 5 9, a considerable number of Canadians,
after suffering great hardships by coming by the overland trails, to my own knowledge went back discouraged.
These men had spent all the money they had, in travelling to the island vid Bed Biver : their intention was
to farm, which, without some capital to commence
with, is not remunerative — had they been labourers
they would no doubt have remained, as it was, they
returned impoverished and exhausted.
From the considerations above stated, it may be
gathered that until these colonies are traversed by a
main road, and internal communications established,
even if carried there free of expense, emigrants may
still find it more profitable to settle elsewhere.
That the price of land has hitherto been too high in
these colonies, particularly when America was in many
places " donating " contiguous lands, and that the preemptive law, recently promulgated in British Columbia,
will have the best effects, I am fully prepared to admit.
And while regarding this as the best measure up
to the time of a governor of acknowledged ability,
and hoping that its benefits will soon be extended
to the island, I cannot believe that it is alone sufficient
to relieve these colonies from the stagnation under
which they suffer.
For the last five years, land, although too dear,
has not been oppressively so on the island. . To be
sure the nominal price was 1^. per acre; but a liberal
allowance for rock' and  swamp, payment  by instal- SPECULATORS  IN  LANDS.
7a
ments, allowing an interval of two years to elapse
before the payment of the second, greatly modified those
terms to the advantage of the early settler; still the
country lands continued unoccupied; but in addition
to this, in 1852 and 1853 the governor tried to establish frontier villages, offering free grants of twenty
acres to persons of his own selection, with no other
restriction than the stipulation of receiving their combined services in the event of Indian disturbances in
the neighbourhood, which there was then some reason
to apprehend—but without success. The fact is, in
these, as in every other new colony, speculators in
land are a class who clamour against and assail, under
the cloak of advocating liberal measures, every act of
Government which has not a tendency to place the
lands of the colony in their hands in anticipation of
settlement; and attacks on Government on this head
should be examined into with caution and even with
mistrust. The settlers in the new American states,
not satisfied with a very liberal preemptive law, ask to
have the land for nothing.- The Secretary of the
Interior, in his annual reports of 1859, alludes to the
expectation in the public mind that Congress would
pass a law making a "gratuitous distribution of the
public domain:" and again, " should, however, the
new policy of a gratuitous distribution of the public
lands be adopted," &c, which is enough to show that
whatever enactments on this subject are made, land
grievances will still continue.
Again, where skilled labourers can earn 300/. a
year, and common labourers 150/., it is impossible
that 5<s. to 10s. an acre, the price at which lands have
been hitherto offered, can have been the bar to their
settlement; fully admitting at the same time as I do, 74
PRICE  OF  LAND.
the sound policy, but not the absolute necessity, of
making this first tax on the settler as moderate as
possible.
Again, at the prices first named, the cost of fencing
a piece of land is much greater than the price of it;
the oxen and plough required to break it up will be
worth more than a hundred acre section * and on going
in this way further into particulars, we at length find
that the price of land is but an item, and a comparatively small one, in farming expenditure; and yet it
is not contended that the other and greater items
alluded to prevent the settlement and development of
a country.
The last allegation (No. 5) touches reciprocity.
I do not meddle with the question, Whether free
trade between the British and Americans on the west
coast, would or would not benefit either or both, but
merely undertake to show that the want of it has
not been as yet influential in retarding the former.
The following consideration ought not to be lost sight
of; the extravagant prices of American merchandise
of every description on the coast is attributable, in
some measure, to their exorbitant port dues, but
mainly to the 24 per cent, tariff which of course
prevents American merchants from procuring their
goods in the cheapest markets.
Suppose Victoria with its free port once to become
the depot of British merchandise. She must command
the retail market of the entire Sound and British
Columbia, and undersell the Americans in the Eussian
settlements and Sandwich Islands, to say nothing of
the opposite Asiatic coast. RECIPROCITY.
15
Hitherto, as before explained, Victoria has had no
trade worth mentioning with England; her wants were
supphedfrom San Francisco, and ruled by San Francisco
prices ; the desired result has not yet taken place.
If we had had a surplus of agricultural produce,
lumber, wool, fish, &c., there was nothing to prevent
our sending it, as San Francisco has done, to the
Bussian settlements, South America, Australia, Sandwich Islands, China, and even Japan. Why complain
of the want of a market for goods of which we are
consumers only, and not producers? After the communication to and within the colonies shall have been
estabhshed, and commerce with England result from
population, the Americans themselves will be the first
to find the disadvantage of their restrictive duties in
competing with us at the more distant markets.*
* Extract from the Government Address on opening the General
Assembly at Victoria, August 12, 1856 :—
" Gentlemen, I am happy to inform you that Her Majesty's Government continue to express the most lively interest in the progress and
welfare of this colony.
" Negotiations are now pending with the Government of the United
States, which may probably terminate in an extension of the reciprocity treaty to Vancouver Island.
" To show the commercial advantages connected with that treaty, I
will just mention that an import duty of 30Z. is levied on every
lOOZ.'s worth of British produce which is now sent to San Francisco,
or to any other American port; or, in other words, the British proprietor pays as a tax to the United States, nearly the value of every
third cargo of fish, timber, or coal, which he sends to any American
port. The reciprocity treaty utterly abolishes those fearful imposts,
and establishes a system of free trade in the produce of British
colonies.
" The effects of that measure, in developing the trade and natural
resources of the colony, can, therefore, hardly be over-estimated.
" The coal, the timber, and the productive fisheries of Vancouver
Island, will assume a value before unknown; while every branch of 76
RECIPROCITY.
It was an admitted maxim of the customs' department in England that when an import duty exceeded
30 per cent., to prevent smuggling was impossible. If
this was true in England, with a fleet of revenue cutters, and picketed with coast guards, how much more
forcibly will the argument apply to the frontier that
separates the British colonies from America, exposed
and extended as that frontier is! As soon as we
commence to undersell our neighbours, we shall supply
them independently of tariffs.
I do not say that a removal of those duties would
not benefit both, but merely that our neighbours will
first have cause on that score to complain.
At a public meeting of the inhabitants of Minnesota
at St. Paul's (July 10th, 1858), the following resolution was passed : — " That the people of Minnesota
will join heartily with the people of Canada in the policy
of colonising the western districts of British America,
which is about to be established ; and that relations
of reciprocal trade with the United States, if not now
existing, should be extended over that region of North
America."
trade will start into activity, and become the means of pouring
wealth into the country.
" So unbounded is the reliance which I place in the enterprise and
intelligence possessed by the people of this colony, and in the advantages of their geographical position, that, with equal rights and a
fair field, I think they may enter into successful competition with
the people of any other country.
" The extension of the reciprocity treaty to this island once gained,
the interests of the colony will become inseparably connected with
the principles of free trade, a system which, I think, it will be sound
policy on our part to encourage."
It is hardly necessary to say, the proposed measure did notta
effect. RECIPROCITY.
77
I doubt if an exception can be raised even in the
matter of coals. The greatest portion by far of the
coals consumed in San Francisco is English, and they
also consume for domestic purposes as much Vancouver
Island as Oregon coal. The observations previously
made on this head show that the prospects of finding
. coal, suitable for steam purposes, in Vancouver Island
are much more promising than in Oregon. At present
say San Francisco pays 5/. a ton for English coal, while
Nanaimo coal is sold at 1/., and adding #3 to $4 freight,
and 24 per cent, duty on the cost of production, Nanaimo
coal will still be the cheapest in the market; and we
see a certainty of sale for all the coal suitable for
steam purposes that Vancouver Island or British Columbia can produce * : and how great the consumption
is, may be conjectured from the fact, that a year ago
the aggregate tonnage of San Francisco steamers ex-
CD      O D
ceeded 35,000 tons, a figure which must since then
have materially increased.
The greatest anomaly under this head existing is,
that British Columbia should impose 10 per cent, duties
on the produce imported from Vancouver Island ; for
although many articles are exempt from this regula-
tion, it applies to the supplies which the miners principally require ; such as flour, beans, salt meat, &c,—
a source of revenue for which it is probable a direct
tax on gold exported will ultimately be substituted.
From the enumeration and discussion of alleged
causes of non-settlement of these colonies, I have
omitted altogether one that has been occasionally as-
* This view is in fact confirmed by a letter received lately from the
island, mentioning that the tonnage carrying coal from Nanaimo in
the month of January last had increased to 2000. The price of
Nanaimo coal at the pit's mouth varies from $4 to $6.
1 POLICY  OF  GREAT  BRITAIN AND   U. STATES  COMPARED.
signed, viz. that the Hudson's Bay Company used their
influence systematically and intentionally to discourage
and retard settlement in the country, because I thought
it useless to enter upon or refute a charge which has not
been accredited, by any unprejudiced person familiar
with the facts, although my intimate acquaintance with
the subject, and absence of all connection with the Company, would fully enable me to do so. Underselling
merchants of less capital, by whom they are surrounded,
is a very unpopular avocation, and whether they do so
in Oregon or the colonies, it will have the same effect,
a chorus of denunciation will attend them wherever
they trade.
Having disposed of our first inquiries, we are here
naturally led to ask why is it that America has succeeded so well with her colonies in the north-west,
where England has comparatively, I might almost say
signally, failed ? The cause is, on examination, sufficiently obvious. Each nation asserts and acts upon a
policy towards its colonies there, diametrically opposite
to that of the other.
England proposes to the first emigrant, land to occupy with free institutions, and leaves it optional to
them to establish for their own benefit, and that of
their successors, all leading communications, execution of
survey, public works, and postal arrangements, or to omit
to do so if they feel unwilling or unequal to the task.
America, on the contrary, insists on the execution of
those works of magnitude which she considers essential
to begin with, holding the lands and the revenues
derivable from customs and posts, until fully indemnified for the outlay incurred.
To show that this case is correctly stated, I shall first
quote from"  the despatches  of  Sir  Edward  Bulwer POLICY  OF  GREAT  BRITAIN.
79
Lytton the principle on which the colony of British
Columbia was founded, and which, I may add, has
been as strictly as possible adhered to, up to the
present time.
" October 29th, 1858.— Now as the Mother Country
expects all colonies, not conquered nor founded for
purely imperial purposes, to be self-supporting, &c.,"
and again, "Dec. 30th, 1858.— I cannot avoid reminding you, that the lavish pecuniary expenditure of the
Mother Country in founding new colonies has been
generally found to discourage economy, by leading the
minds of men to rely on foreign aid instead of their
own exertions; to interfere with the healthy action by
which a new community provides step by step for its
own requirements ; and to produce at last a general
sense of discouragement and dissatisfaction. For a
colony to thrive and develope itself with steadfast and
healthful progress, it should from the first be as far as
possible self-supporting.
" No doubt it might be more agreeable to the pride
of the first founders of a colony which promises to
become so important, if we could at once throw up
public buildings, and institute establishments on a scale
adapted to the prospective grandeur of the infant
settlement. But after all, it is on the character of the
inhabitants that we must rest our hopes for the land
we redeem from the wilderness ; and it is by self-
exertion, and the noble spirit of self-sacrifice which self-
exertion engenders, that communities advance through
rough beginnings to permanent greatness. Therefore
it is not merely for the sake of sparing the Mother
Country that I invite your cordial and intelhgent cooperation in stimulating the pride of the colonists to
submit to some necessary privations in the first instance, 80
POLICY  OF  GREAT  BRITAIN.
*and to contribute liberally and voluntarily from their
own earnings (which appear to be so considerable),
rather than to lean upon the British Parliament for
grants, or for loans, which are rarely repaid without discontent, and can never be cancelled without some loss
of probity and honour. It is my hope that when the
time arrives for representative institutions, the colony
may be committed to that grand experiment unembarrassed by a shilling of debt, and the colonists have
proved their fitness for self-government by the spirit of
independence which shrinks from extraneous aid, and
schools a community to endure the sacrifices by which
it guards its own safety and provides for its own
wants," &c.
Eloquent as the despatch from which the foregoing
is extracted is, and matchless as a piece of literary
composition, I cannot avoid thinking that the principles
laid down in it might with. advantage be re-considered.
If, as Adam Smith says, the same reasoning may, in
cases of this kind, be applied to communities as to individuals, it would be equally impolitic for an individual to borrow money at interest, on the security of
a large landed estate, for its improvement; repayment
of such a loan would occasion discontent: and, if the
lender should propose to cancel the bond and with it
the debt, the borrower would experience a certain
twinge of moral degradation. Colonial infancy is
ignored : the chrysalis must fly at once. Placed in the
heart of a country of great promise and capabilities, but
at present inaccessible and . uninhabited, the reader,
if he were to commence as a farmer or merchant,
would, in this view, succeed better without, roads to
travel or traffic upon, or postal communications to
distract; and the habit of self-reliance thus engendered, POLICY  OF  GREAT  BRITAIN.
81
would be more valuable to him, far, than the profit of
capital, however judiciously expended.
On the other hand it may be possible, that if a tract of
country is adapted by nature for early settlement, its
lands, and the revenues derivable from the population,
which, with reasonable facilities and access, its resources
may, within the first year or two, attract and enrich, may
afford ample security for the capital required to develope
and place those resources within the reach of the immi-
grants intended: that otherwise such a country is not fit
for early settlement, and-the attempt ought not to be
made ; and that when a country is, in the opinion of our
wisest statesmen, thus eligible, imperial and colonial interests being so intimately blended as they are, it may in
certain cases be to the interest of England to encourage
the expenditure of, and in some instances even to provide, the capital required to make the country habitable,
or at least accessible, and to control that expenditure,
the debt being a charge against the lands and revenues
of the country generally, recollecting that when the
time should arrive, proper in the opinion of England, to
grant free institutions to the inhabitants (which when
granted in advance of population, tend merely to benefit
some party or clique), it is unreasonable to suppose
that a colony of Englishmen would then object to accept
with them their just responsibilities, or desire to repudiate advances made for their benefit if judiciously and
honestly expended.
Many public works, of the greatest utility, however,
carry with them the capability of defraying, when executed, their own expenditure, a principle that should
be taken advantage of wherever it exists, of which a
detailed instance is given in Chap. VII., in speaking of a
proposed British emigrant route to the Pacific.
G m
POLICY  OF  UNITED  STATES.
Public opinion on this subject in America, as we
may gather from the President's last message, which
may generally be regarded as an echo of the popular
voice, is widely different from the policy above described.
In speaking of the financial condition of the country, he
-says, " We ought never to forget that true public economy consists, not in withholding the means necessary
to accomplish important national objects confided to us
by the constitution, but in taking care that the money
appropriated for these purposes, shall be faithfully and
frugally expended." In practice, these maxims are
usually effectuated as follows : —
In the States, until the population of a territory
is sufficient to justify its admission into the Union, a
government is provided for it by the parent state.
The President, with the concurrence of the Senate,
appoints all the principal officers, under whose direction the roads at first most required are made, customs
and postal arrangements established, the necessary
public buildings erected—even lunatic asylums and
libraries are not forgotten*—at the sole expense of the
Federal Government. A local legislature is formed
with limited powers to tax, the application of the
proceeds being controlled by the officers of the Federal
Government, which is kept well informed by a delegate
to Congress, who is allowed to speak in the House of
Bepresentatives, but not to vote. The Federal Government usually cedes to the territory some small tracts
of wild land to practise upon, under certain restrictions
as to sale.    When the territory is admitted into the
* It is said that Iowa for a considerable time after her population
;was sufficient to secure her admission as a state into the Union,
evaded the distinction so as to reap the full benefit of immaturity. POLICY  OF  UNITED  STATES.
83
Union as a state' these grants are increased in all to
500,000 acres for internal improvements, but even
then the Federal Government continues to retain the
principal appointments and reimburses itself for the
previous outlay by continuing to receive the proceeds
of customs, post office, and land sales, in the latter
case less ten per cent, per annum of the net proceeds
or balance which remains after paying the civil lists,
which percentage or balance becomes the property of
the state.
The system appears in many respects inferior to our
own, especially as many of the principal officers are
liable to be removed by a change of the ministry at
Washington, but it has this advantage in a remarkable
degree, that by rapidly opening up communications
and removing the most formidable impediments to the
first settlers, a sudden impetus is given to emigration,
the wilderness is quickly converted into a territory,
and the territory into a state.
G 2 CHAP. VI.
ROUTES  TO  THE  PACIFIC BY LONG  SEA. BY   ROYAL  MAIL  LINE,   OR
Vid NEW YORK, ACROSS THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA, TO SAN FRANCISCO, AND THENCE TO THE BRITISH COLONIES. THE FOUR OVERLAND  AMERICAN  ROUTES. POSTAL.
There are at present seven routes open to the traveller,
by any one of which he can reach the colonies on the
Pacific. Of these, three are by water or chiefly so, and
the others across the continent. In the order mentioned,
I shall shortly describe each of these routes.
The only direct way to reach Vancouver Island and,
British Columbia at present, is to take advantage of any
vessel sailing from London or Liverpool that may offer.
Exceeding 17,000 miles, this passage is the longest that
can be taken from England to any known port rounding
either cape, unless it be to some place in the neighbourhood of Sitka, or Petrapaulouski; little short of five
months *, it occupies a considerable fraction of a man's
life time: let us cherish the idea that it will be superseded, before the surface gold of British Columbia
begins to be exhausted, or the country converted into
a succession of distorted ridges and unsightly mounds,
by a North Pacific British Emigrant and Postal route,
* Sir- E. B. Lytton to Gov. Douglas, Sept. 2, 1858: " I may
further observe, that a ship has been chartered, and is in course of
preparation for the conveyance of the larger portion of this detachment by the Horn; but as the passage will consume nearly four
months, and it is desirable that you should have the" &c. (This
should have read five months.) ROUTES:
BY  LONG  SEA.
which, as is elsewhere shown, could be opened at an
expenditure of about 250,000/. and by which the
colonies could be reached at least a week sooner than
now by Panama, the quickest route, and at a fraction of
the expense of the latter.
All long sea voyages are monotonous, and in this case
remarkably so, as land is seldom seen or visited from port
to port; the only variety, and that not an agreeable one,
being met with in coming round the Horn.* For any
one who can go aloft and work his passage through, such
a voyage seems sensible enough; but, for an unoccupied
passenger to vegetate for five months at sea is a matter
of much greater difficulty.
In short, if the reader will take up any published
account of a very long sea voyage and read it two or
three times over, he will have read what I must have
written, had I described in detail the only British route
existing to Her Majesty's colonies in the North Pacific.
This voyage is very nearly as expensive as that by
Panama, without taking into account the value of the
passenger's time.
In addition to this, supposing an emigrant bound to
British Columbia to have arrived by sea at Esquimalt
Harbour, he is obliged to retrace his steps eastward a
considerable way in order to reach his destination.
This countermarch, as it were, will cost him as much
as it would have cost him, in the first instance, to have
crossed the Atlantic.
The difficulties and even dangers which the traveller
had to encounter in crossing the isthmus, previous to
the partial opening of the railway in 1852, or its completion at a cost exceeding a million sterling, in 1855,
are still fresh in the recollection of many.
* See Appendix, page 154.
g a BY NEW YORK AND  PANAMA.
I
It
Who that crossed it then can forget the heat and
filth of Chagres, the packs of curs and flocks of buzzards,
the struggle in bungos and with boatmen up the river,
the scenes of riot and debauchery at the villages, jungle
fever, and the bones that marked the mule tracks
through the plains of Panama, and stamped that short
but fatal route of fifty miles, as the Golgotha of the
West?
All this is changed now: after an interesting voyage
of seven or eight days from New York, in a first-class
steamer, supplied with every comfort and luxury that
can be desired, Aspinwall is reached. During the
voyage, the traveller will have seen the low coral islands
of the Bahamas, and coasted along the shores of Cuba,
in colour and elevation contrasting happily with the hills
of San Domingo and the blue mountains of Jamaica.
Luckily there is no detention at the town of Aspinwall, where all the inconveniences of Chagres are met
with in a milder and mitigated form. Once in the cars
—the railway passes through a deep marsh which it
quits at Gatun on the Chagres: thence traversing a
dense tropical forest, with occasional clearances and haciendas, and arriving at Barbacoas, it crosses the river,
and the summit from which Balboa discovered the
Pacific is seen. As the traveller advances, he obtains
views of the river, reflecting from its bright surface the
deep rich greens of the tropical jungle or forest, or the
blossoming parasites which hang in festoons above the
banks. Having passed the summit level, the scene
changes, and at a distance the level savannahs and the
spires of Panama are descried.
In the meantime the telegraph has done its work,
and the Pacific steamer is in readiness to convey the
passengers to San Francisco.    So that the whole time BY W.   INTHA  OR ROYAL MAIL  STEAMER.
occupied in the transit of the isthmus, does not exceed
five hours.
By these very expeditious arrangements, the passenger loses the chance of seeing many a magnificent pile
of Moorish architecture, half overgrown with tropical
vegetation; the remains of old Panama, its broken
down bridges, and the bay in front, the resort of
innumerable sea-fowl, from the sand-piper and sea-gull
to the red flamingo and stately pelican. But in missing;
these, and many other objects of the greatest beauty
and deepest interest, the dangers of taking Panama,
fever, to which Europeans on a first visit are particularly
liable, is greatly diminished; as well as the mk of being;
riddled with jiggers and gahpatos, or on waking some
morning to find one's hair converted into a flourishing
nest of ants.
Aspinwall can be reached in about the same time, sixteen to twenty days,, by the Boyal Mail line of steamers,
vid St. Thomas from Southampton, as it can, vid New
York from Liverpool. But as the connection between
the Boyal Mail Line and American conveyances is very
imperfect, I recommend travellers, unless very patriotic*,
to avoid it. Having been myself a victim, and in consequence of doing so, detained fifteen days on the
isthmus, I speak from experience. Besides which, the
British line is dearer for passengers, and twice as dear
for letters.
Panama to San Francisco occupies about fourteen
days. Being a coasting voyage, in a steamer resembling a floating hotel, in the still waters of the Pacific,
if not overcrowded, the passage is a very agreeable
one. Having passed the beautiful islands of Tobagcv
and Taboquilla, the Pearl Islands loom in the distance-
The views of the mountains of Mexico and the isthmus
g4 88 TEHUANTEPEC  AND  NICARAGUA.
are constantly changing. Half-way is Acapulco, where
the steamers stop to coal. The city, beautifully situated
among groves of cocoa and palm, at the base of mountains which rise from the edge of the harbour, one of
the most perfect in the world, is still a relic of the
former times of Spain. The colouring is exquisite : the
Mexicans in the market-place, selling fruits, shells, and
pearls, which seem to be the staple commodities ; the
old Spanish churches and wells ; divers swimming round
the steamers ; and coaling by torch-light, are studies of
peculiar interest.
The traveller will do well to avoid the Tehuantepec
route vid New Orleans, semi-monthly, as in its present condition the road is comparatively useless alike
for purposes of travel and postal communication. The
land portion of the transit across the isthmus — being
upwards of a hundred miles in length — consists of
an unpaved and imperfectly graded road, passing over
a precipitous mountain, and barely practicable for
wheeled vehicles ; and, in consequence, a mail made up
of a few light sacks is all that the contractors have
carried, and all, it is presumed, that they have been
able to carry since the commencement of the service.*
But as the Nicaragua route, likewise from New York
to San Francisco, is about to be reopened, and as I passed
over it twice, I shall here shortly describe it, although
not counted among the seven routes mentioned at the
commencement of this chapter.
Compared with the Panama route, there is a saving
by it of 700 miles. The whole distance from San
Juan del Nor, on the Atlantic, to San Juan del Sud, on
the Pacific, is 212 miles.
Vide also Panama Star and Herald, Jan. 17, 1860. THE   SAN  JUAN  RIVER.
89
Ascending, in a small but comfortable steamer the
river St. Juan, in nineteen hours the traveller reaches
the Castilio rapids, and changes steamers ; five hours
more take him to Port- Carlos, where the river joins
Lake Nicaragua ; there, changing steamers again, twelve
hours take him across the lake to Virgin Bay, connected with the Pacific by a very agreeable mule ride
of three or four hours, the last figures depending to a
great extent upon the natural disposition of the animal
the traveller may happen to select.
In Central America generally, extending into Mexico,
the rainy season commences about the 1st of May, and
continues almost without intermission from 5, or 5^
months in the former, to 4 months in the latter ; at
any other time, to any one unaccustomed to tropical
scenery, nothing can be more enjoyable than a tour
through this country. The banks of the San Juan are
clothed with evergreen forest, the dense foliage of
which, thickly interwoven with blossoming . vines,
blossoming parasites, and blossoming cactuses, hangs
over the water and hides the banks. The infinite
variety of this forest is indescribable; mahogany and
logwood, looking like ash and acacia ; mangroves, each
supported by innumerable stems ; extending branches,
bound to the earth by what look like ropes and perfectly
twisted cables ; bamboos like feathers, and palms like
plumes ; cocoa-nuts and palmettos, bananas and plantains, with their gigantic leaves and dangling fruits,
bewilder the beholder. Nor is the scene wanting in
animation, enlivened as it is by flights of macaws,
parrots, buzzards, &c. ; in the trees, monkeys, nearly all
ring-tailed; egrets and cranes pacing the sand-bars, and
huge alligators basking in the mud. Where the banks
are clear, occasional haciendas are passed ; the houses 90
OVERLAND  AMERICAN ROUTES.
two-thirds roof, built of bamboo and thatched with
palm, are more hke hermitages or moss-houses than
anything else, and the dusky inmates invariably rush
out to hail the steamers passing. The lake is beautiful;
the conical islands of Omatepec, some 4000 or 5000 feet
high, with distant mountains rising majestically in the
back-ground, and the crumbling fortresses built to
repel the Buccaneers, buried in vegetation as they are,
form the most beautiful pictures conceivable.*
The passage from San Francisco to Vancouver Island
in an American steamer occupies four or five days. It
thus appears, allowing for shght detentions at New
York and San Francisco, London to Vancouver Island,
vid the isthmus, is made in about forty-five days, and
that the enormous expenses, 80/. to 100/., and the fact
of their being so very circuitous, are the main objections to the routes vid Panama, Nicaragua, or Tehuan-
tepee, as thoroughfares to the British Colonies.
In shortly describing the four overland routes in
American territory by which travellers can reach San
Francisco, it should be premised, that although it is
customary to admit that the unremitting- efforts of
America to spread her republic in the West have been
very successful, the gigantic character of the works
undertaken with this view, and to connect the Eastern
States with the Pacific, and the enterprise and liberality
with which they are, in the teeth of obstacles almost
insurmountable, carried out, are by no means so generally understood.
Of this truth a very remarkable illustration occurs in
(No. 1), the great overland route from St. Louis and
*  An interesting account of the town of San Juan will be found
in Harper, Dec. 1854. ST.   LOUIS TO  SAN  FRANCISCO.
91
Memphis, vid El Paso, to San Francisco, which is now
more used than any of the other continental routes.
The mail service by it is semi-weekly during the travelling season; it is subsidised by the United States
Government at $600,000 per annum, and is the longest
mail-coach road in existence, being, from St. Louis to
San Francisco, 2765 miles. It is travelled night and
day by four-horsed coaches, and with perfect regularity;
the distance is accomplished in twenty-two days. The
cost to a passenger is about 20/., and 5/. or so in addition, incurred for meals, which are obtained at regulated
charges and fixed stopping-places along the road.
Each passenger is allowed 50 lbs. of baggage, and can,
at any place he pleases, await the next coach, of which
he is three days in advance. For the first few days
the process is found excessively fatiguing, but after a
little practice the traveller sleeps regularly and soundly
in the carriage, and finds enjoyment in the constant
change and varied scenes experienced. This route is
admirably provided with horses, mules, and coaches.
Military stations have been established at regular intervals along the entire route ; each station has a guard of
twenty-five men, well armed; this force is thought ample,
considering the manner in which the buildings themselves,
on a principle similar to that of the martello towers in
Ireland, are constructed to resist effectually any number of hostile Indians, at one time likely to collect in a
single body. Each train of emigrants, who seldom use
the coaches, but drive their own teams and carry their
own Penates, is guarded through the wilderness by
twenty-five men, who take this duty in rotation, and
are thus kept fully occupied. In this way the emigrant is provided with information as to halting
places, water and provender for his cattle, fuel, &c, as
he advances. 92
SAN ANTONIO- TO  SAN  DIEGO.
- The vehicles used upon the road from Fort Smith,
westward, are of the description known as "celerity
coaches." Built like a common coach, the body is hung
on springs in the usual way; instead, however, of the
heavy wooden top, with iron railings round, in common use, they are roofed with canvass, lightly supported, as in the case of a common waggon. This
covering .affords ample protection against the weather,
while it greatly diminishes the weight of the vehicle,
and its liability to upset. The rolling stock on this
fine consists of 100 such coaches. The route in some
places passes through long stretches of the Great American Desert, quite destitute of water; in one case there
is seventy-five miles of barren sand. In these localities
the stations are supplied by regular water-trains, fitted
up expressly for the purpose. The waggons used carry
large tanks, which resemble the boilers of a steam-boat,
and, for sake of lightness, are made of block tin; each
waggon is drawn by four mules. These teams convey
water regularly to the different stations, where reservoirs are built to receive and preserve it for the use of
passengers, and the employees and stock of the company contracting. This is, of course, a very expensive
way to get water, but as every effort to procure it
otherwise has failed, there is no alternative. Workshops and smithies are, of course, established at intervals along the road.
Of the next route (No. 2), from San Antonio, vid
El Paso, to San Diego, semi-monthly, (weekly from San
Antonio to El Paso and Fort Yuma), it will be sufficient to mention shortly, that the San Diego and San
Antonio route consists of a weekly mail service,;
receiving- a subsidy from the government of $200,000
per annum i that the distance between the two places SANTA  FE  AND   SALT  LAKE  ROUTES.
93
named is by it 1570 miles, travelled by the stages in
28 days ; the most serious objection to this route is
that passengers are detained at one place on the road
before being carried through to San Francisco.
The third route (No. 3) opened to San Francisco, is .
the Kansas and Stockton, passing through Santa Fe.
The service is monthly, and the subsidy from the United
States government is $80,000 per annum; the entire
distance from Kansas city to Stockton is 2026 miles; it
is generally regarded as an exceedingly level and rather
monotonous road.
The last route (No. 4) is from San Joseph and Placer-
ville, vid Salt Lake City. By this route the distance
from San Joseph to San Francisco is 1770 miles, and
lime taken to travel there, 38 days. It is a weekly
mail service, for the carrying of which the United States
government pays $320,000 per annum. This is the
high road to Utah, and is said to be better connected
than the other routes with Washington and Oregon, the
stretches of sand seldom exceed twenty miles, and it is
the highway over which nearly all the earliest emigrants to California travelled. These routes are coloured
pink on the annexed map, mere branch roads being
^coloured blue.
To describe minutely each of these routes, the proper
time to start, the country traversed, and the equipment
required, would far exceed the limits of this publication.
To those interested I would recommend the perusal of
a small book, the " Prairie Traveller," by Capt. Marcy,
published in New York in 1859, which contains
"itineraries " of the principal routes from theMississipi
.to the Pacific.
I have, in the foregoing, omitted to include among
the routes to British Columbia and Vancouver Island, 94
VERA  CRUZ  TO  ACAPULCO.
the trail vid Bed Biver, North Sascatchewan, and the
Punch-bowl Pass in the Bocky Mountains, or other similar trails usually travelled by the brigades of the Hudson's
Bay Company. To hardy trappers, lightly equipped,
and confident in their knowledge of the passes of the
country and its resources, as well as from their skill in
woodcraft and mastery over the Indians, these routes
are perfectly safe, but should not be encountered by
strangers or emigrants. The Fort Benton route I omit,
as unfinished and described in another place. The
various routes through Mexico are rendered unsafe by
brigands, who take advantage of internal dissensions
and perpetual insurrections to pillage travellers where-
ever they meet them; one-third of the nation are highway robbers, and, whether Castileon and Chemorrow or
Juarez and Miramon contend, under cover of the
political darkness which always pervades that beautiful
country, practise their avocation with unparalleled
audacity and impunity : otherwise, something would
have to be said of the stage route from Vera Cruz
through the ancient and beautiful city of Mexico to
Acapulco, connecting with steamers on either side.
Meagre as the sketch above given of the principal
American overland emigrant routes is, it is sufficient
to show that America has already connected her possessions on the Pacific with the Eastern States, by 8131
miles of mail-coach road, opened and maintained by the
nation at a gross expenditure of $1,196,447 per annum.
And when to the postal subsidies paid by the American
government to the four overland lines just described,
are added $738,250 annually paid to the contractors to
carry the mails from New York and New Orleans vid
Panama to San Francisco semi-monthly, and from New
Orleans to San Francisco, via Tehuantepec, also semi- UNITED  STATES  POSTAL EXPENDITURE  TO  PACIFIC.     95
monthly, $250,000 per annum, on the same account;
and for local mail service, $508,697 per annum, which
was the case in 1859, we find that America has been
disbursing, on the plea of carrying the mails to the
North Pacific, but in reality, to open up communication
to the country and to colonise it *, in round numbers
550,000/. annually, and incurring an annual loss on this
account of 377,000/. This expenditure is quite independent of the cost of her military roads, such as the
Fort Benton route, described in the next chapter,:—that
from Fort Smith to the Colorado, &c.; and as, according
to the statements of the Postmaster-General (of this year),
the population in whose favour this enormous outlay is
incurred does not exceed 650,000 f persons, the American portion of the coast of the Pacific is peopled at a
cost to the Federal Government, amounting to 17s.
annually for each settler or emigrant, including all ages
and conditions.
* A comparison of the expenses and products of the routes named,
leaves no room for doubt that the postal communication which they
afford is not looked to by the government as an end, but as an instrument for the advancement of ulterior objects. Indeed, it has not
been concealed, but openly avowed by the friends of the policy
which maintained these routes, that they were intended as the
pioneers of civilisation; as the means of rapid and regular communication between remote military posts and the government, and
most especially as an instrumentality for promoting the settlement
of our frontiers, and thus appreciating the value of the national
domain.—Report of Postmaster-General U. S., Dec. 3, 1859.
In England also, " The decision on Post-Office contracts is not
a mere Post-Office question, but frequently involves considerations
of an imperial character, affecting our political relations, our colonial
empire, the efficiency of our army and navy, and the spread of our
commerce." — First Rep. Sel. Com. Packet and Telegraphic Contracts.—May 22, 1860.
f I am, however, of opinion that those figures are understated. —
J. D. P. 96 BRITISH  POSTAL  EXPENDITURE  TO  PACIFIC.
Under these circumstances, it is not surprising that
the Americans should, for a long time back, have carried,
without caring for remuneration, from San Francisco
to the British colonies, our little mail bag, the moderate dimensions of which are preserved by a high
charge on letters, a charge on newspapers equal to
their cost, and a practical prohibition of pamphlets,
and of books however small.
I 97
CHAP. VII.
PROPOSED    BRITISH    EMIGRANT     AND    POSTAL    ROUTE   TO    THE    PACIFIC
FROM   CANADA,   SOUTH   OF   THE    LAKES,    THROUGH    RED   RIVER   AND
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,    TO   VANCOUVER   ISLAND.  TRADE   WITH   CHINA
AND   JAPAN. POSTAL    COMMUNICATIONS    WITH   AUSTRALIA. CONCLUSIONS ARRIVED  AT.
Centuries* have elapsed since England first entertained
the dream of a north-west passage for her vessels
trading to India and the China seas, and during no
portion of that period was the search more energetically
conducted than within the last thirty years. That dream
is now dispelled; and in passing through those icy
portals in 1850-'51, M'Clure, more fortunate than his
gallant competitors, may be said, as far as mercantile
interests are concerned, to have closed the gates behind
him. The apathy that usually succeeds expectations
disappointed, where every effort has been made to
ensure success, did not in this case last long; for in 1857
our legislators and the public seem to have been struck
with the fact, that in searching for a north-west passage
in the Polar seas, they had overlooked the true northwest passage which exists in British territory, north of
49°, and that-if a tithe of the exertion and expenditure
incurred in investigating the former route had been
applied to the latter, the original intention would long
before this have been realised, f
* 1495.
f The expenditure of Great Britain on Arctic expeditions from
1800 to 1845 alone exceeded 1,000,000/. sterling. 98 A  RAILWAY  IMPRACTICABLE  AT  PRESENT.
True, however, to the principle that inventions in
their earlier stages assume the most complicated forms,
every project that has been hitherto brought prominently under the notice of the public or of government,
having in view the connection of the Atlantic with the
Pacific, has been wanting in the essential requisite practicability, and has been set aside, not owing to want of
interest in the subject, but to the complexity of arrangements involved. Beports of exploring parties sent out
by our own and the Canadian governments, by the
Hudson's Bay Company, and the United States, furnish
us with evidence in itself sufficient not only to reason but,
better still, to act upon; and, I shall endeavour to show
how, by divesting this subject of the incumbrances
which have been hitherto supposed properly to belong
to it, the attainment of the desired end is quite within
our reach, and that the communication to, and connection of, the north-west colonies, of the kind most
required, can be effected at an outlay inconsiderable
when compared with the great national interests at
stake.
It is hardly necessary for me to commence by stating,
that, however desirable an interoceanic railway, passing
entirely through British territory, might be, it is impracticable at present, and will continue to be so, until the
population in the country through which it should pass
shall be sufficiently numerous to justify its construction.
At present the country north of 49°, through which
it would have to pass, may be said to be uninhabited,
and it would take a season to estimate how many
years would elapse, and how many millions be expended, before such a work would be finished.
Great stress has been laid on the advantage English
merchants would derive from it, shortening, as it would, EMIGRANT ROUTE  PROPOSED.
99
the route to China and the Asiatic coast by some 3000
miles; but it may reasonably be doubted whether to
them the saving of interest on capital would not be
more than counterbalanced by the additional cost of
transhipping the goods, and of land carriage for 2500
or 3000 miles, and whether, after all, our teas and
silks might not continue to be transmitted by sea.
To the emigrant speed is not so much an object as
certainty and economy. On the great overland route
from St. Louis to California, fewer emigrants travel in
the stages than on horseback, driving before them the
cattle that are to stock their future farms ; attending
waggons carry the wife and children, and pack mules
the provisions. They choose the best time of year,
and the cavalcade proceeds leisurely along; double
time is occupied in the journey, but the stock and
merchandise which they take with them are worth more
than double, when they reach the west coast, what
they cost in the States, which amply compensates for
the delay. The advantage of a railroad over a good
waggon road, would be felt more by tourists than by
emigrants; and with regard to postal arrangements,
since in either case a line of telegraph would be established, the superiority of the railroad is, even in this
respect, not so very considerable ; and, lastly, for the
conveyance of troops in the event of a war, so long a
track would be so liable to interruption, that for war
purposes a railway could not be depended upon. But
since, from its utter impracticability at present, it is
needless further to discuss the advantages or disadvantages of a railroad that cannot now be made, I shall
proceed at once to describe, in a general way, the
nature of the communication required to connect the
colonies, how easily this might be effected, and then to 100
MIXED CHARACTER OF PROPOSED ROUTE.
explain in detail the grounds on which the opinions
brought forward, or assertions made, are based.
Looking at the map of the Canadas, their railroads
extend westward as far as Sydenham on the Ottawa
Biver and (the Grand Trunk) to Detroit, on the southern
shore of Lake Huron; from this point a railway in
American territory extends to La Crosse. Whatever
line of communication is adopted, must pass through
the Bed Biver country, somewhere between Pembina
and Lake Winnepeg. Assume, therefore, that Assina-
boia is a point in this fine of communication. As soon
as it is a fact that the Bed Biver and the Pacific are to
be connected, the people of Wisconsin and Minnesota
will lose no time in extending their communications to
the junction of the Siouxwood Biver with the Bed
Biver, which, as the river is there five feet deep, we
shall call the head of steam navigation. Put a few short
river steamers, of the class that can be built from
1000/. to 5000/., on the Bed Biver to connect these
communications (180 miles) with Assinaboia. Open a
waggon road, for which the country is particularly
favourable, from Assinaboia, vid Assinaboine Biver and
Quapelle Biver and Lakes, to Elbow on south branch
of the Sascatchewan Biver in lat. 51° long. 1071° (430
miles).
Put a few steamers of the class before mentioned on
the South Sascatchewan, to complete the communication (300 miles), to the base of the Bocky Mountains ;
here taking advantage of the Vermilion Bass, open a
waggon road in the best route obtainable (400 miles)
to Hopetown, which may be considered the head of
navigation on the Fraser for steamers of at all considerable size.
Such is  the skeleton plan or bare outline of the DISTANCES AND  TIMES.
101
proposal made, the distances and times being given in
the following table : —
«   Miles.
Time.
days.
hrs.
Portland to Chicago, Canada Grand Trunk      .    .
1008
2
0
Chicago* to St. Paul's (if by railway)	
350
1
6
St. Paul's to Pembina (if by railway)	
450
0
15
Pembina to Elbow, waggon road    .......
500
10
0
On South Sascatchewan, by steamer	
300
1
12
From pass of Rocky Mountains across stream to
Hopetown by waggon road	
400
8
0
Hopetown to Victoria by steamer	
Portland to Victoria        ....
170
1
0
3178
24
9
In short, the advantages of this route might be
summed up as follows:—that by opening it in the
cheap way suggested, while you connect together all
the colonies of British North America, an emigrant
from England could reach Victoria in one week shorter
time than he can now do by Panama, the quickest and
most expensive route.
I am confident that the roads on this route can be
opened for traffic with 100,000/., and 100,000/. more
ought to be ample to construct half-a-dozen river
steamers (at 5000/. each) to build workshops, stabtes,
and defences, sufficient to commence with, as well as
to pay for superintendance of works in process of construction; the total estimate being 200,000/., the expenditure of which would be spread over an interval of
three years.
For, as I shall show, the link between Chicago and
* At present two trains daily from Chicago to La Crosse (thirteen
hours) connect'with two lines of steamers on the Mississippi to St.
Paul's, in summer; and in winter stage coaches on the roads replace
the steamers. Hi*:.'■'-
h 3 M
102
ESTIMATE.
Bed Biver would not cost any thing to the promoters ;
a waggon road from Pembina or Assinaboine to the
Elbow is already travelled by wheeled carriages, and
50/. per mile would make the road a tolerably good one.
The road connecting the Sascatchewan with Fort Hope
would cost 200/. per mile; Hopetown is already connected by steamers with Victoria.
Before entering further into detail, the reader may perhaps be disposed to admit, that the fine is a very promising one, and the sum comparatively small; but to ask,
Where is the 2 0 0,0 0 0 /. to be obtained ? The answer is as
follows;—Government would only have to encourage and
suggest, and contractors would be found ready to compete to open this road and maintain it on some such
terms as the following : — The contractor or private
company to find the capital required, and establish the
fine. To run bi-weekly conveyances both ways, while
the season should be open ; passengers' fares and freight
being liable to revision, bound to carry horses, cattle,
&c, in the steam boats across the Sascatchewan
plains, as want of fuel, &c., would make this part of
the route difficult to emigrants. The contractor to
have a right to levy small tolls, also liable to revision,
on travellers using the road but not the vehicles. The
Government on their part to guarantee 6 per cent, on the
capital, which at the worst could not exceed 12,000/.
per annum, diminished by whatever postal assets the line
should realise,— to pay the contractor something for
carrying the mails, which would diminish the risk of
loss to him; and, with regard to the termination of the
contract, the Government would of course reserve the
right, notice having been given, to pay off the contractor
at any time, at a valuation of his works and stock. If
the line paid more than 12 per cent., the surplus might COMPETITION. 103
form a sinking fund. The effect would be, that the
lands all along the fine of road to be opened, 1200
miles, would be so enhanced in value, that the proceeding -might be made a source of revenue, instead of a
loss to the country.
There can be no grounds to apprehend that the
receipts of this road would be liable to be diminished
by a competing fine south of 49°. On the contrary,
I shall have occasion to show that it is more reasonable
to suppose that the British line would draw off a considerable proportion of the traffic of the valley of the
Columbia Biver.
To enter more into detail, let us examine first the
principal obstacle, to the route, -— the Bocky Mountain
Chain.
For the last ten years the talent of Westpoint has
been concentrated upon this subject, endeavouring to
solve in a practical manner, within American territory,
the problem we are now considering; and we cannot
examine the reports of their numerous explorations,
without admitting that, although baffled by the natural
barriers, which,exist for a distance of 1200 miles south
of 49°, their military engineers have done their duty
admirably.
In endeavouring to connect the Mississippi with the
Pacific, they have thoroughly explored eight different
routes, and for 1000 miles south of 49°, no single pass
in the Bocky Mountains has been detected less than
6000 feet high, and which does not present difficulties
far greater than are met with in the passes north of
49°, — a result very clearly expressed in the following
table: —
BSBHH w*
104      PASSES IN ROCKY MOUNTAINS SOUTH  OF  49°.
j3
#
1
a
O
3
O   .
3
6
o
%
m
pjj
rS
Q
»   •
■2 2
5.2
H
|
t3
© cl
o2
.2?°
Description of Route
examined.
£
O
%
oS
ol
OjS
Remarks.
a
£>
«
S g
J-a
£ c
c
5
<
"3
o
o
o o
a '
®
5
g
3
72
1
Miles.
6
a
s
GO
Miles.
Miles.
Feet.
Miles.
Feet.
C Cadotte's    Pass.
Route   near   47th ~\
and 49th parallel. \
St. Paul to Seattle. J
1410
2025
19,100
535
1490
6044
J (If a railway)Tun-
1 nel proposed at elevation of 5219 ft.
i Cadotte's    Pass.
St. Paul to Van-  1
couver.          J
1455
1864
18,100
374
1490
6044
J (If arailway)Tun-
1 nel proposed at elevation of 5219 ft.
Route near 41° and"]
42°-      Via   South 1
Pass from Council f
1410
2032
29,120
632
1400
8373
Bluff to Benicia.   J
Route near 38° and"
39°.   Westport to
San Francisco by
theCoo-che-to-pah
and Tala-ee-chay-
1740
2080
49,986
620
1660
10032
f Tunnel proposed
< at elevation ol
L9540 ft.!
pah Passes.
Route near 38° and'
39°.    Westport to
San Francisco by
the     Coo-che-to- *
pah and Madelin
1740
2290
56,514
670
1620
10032
r Tunnel proposed
< at elevation of
L9540 ft.!
Passes.
35°.    Fort Smith I
to San Pedro.        J
1360
1892
48,812
416
1476
7472
35°.     Fort Smith?
to San Francisco, j
1360
2174
50,670
644
1530
32°.   Fulton to San)
Pedro.                   \
1400
1618
32,784
408
1210
5717
f Average estimate
32°.   Fulton to San "1
Francisco.             J
>     of foregoing
1620
2039
42,008
759
1280
5717
1 routes exceeding
I 20,000,000/. steri
le ing (if for railway.)
To determine the places in the Bocky Mountains
where the first and second of the routes mentioned in
the table should cross, seven passes were examined:
1st. Maria's Pass, tunnel at 8000 or 8500'ft. (limit of KANANASKIS  AND  VERMILION  PASSES.
105
perpetual snow in that latitude); 2nd. Lewis and
Clark's, 6323 elevation, 2^ miles of tunnel through rock
proposed, so as to obtain approaches 40 ft.—60 ft. per
mile (1 in 132) ; Cadotte's Pass, tunnel 4^ miles long, to
obtain approaches 40 ft.—60 ft. per mile. The remaining passes are even worse than these.
North of 49° the depressions in the Bocky ^Mountains
are much greater. Of the Kananaskis pass, Captain
Palliser says that with but little expense it could be
rendered available for carts. He describes it as a gorge
winding through the mountains, among cliffs of a
tremendous height, and adds that his onward progress
was not impeded by obstacles of any consequence, the
only difficulty he experienced being occasioned by
quantities of fallen timber, caused by fires. The extreme
height of this pass is 5985 ft. In descending on the
western slope, he writes, " This portion of our route
continued for several days through dense masses of
fallen timber destroyed by fire, where our progress was
very slow, not owing to any difficulty of the mountains,
but on account of the fallen timber, which we had to
climb over and then to chop through, to enable the
Here he learned from
a very plain and easy
eight days from their
horses to step or jump over it."
the Kootanies, that there was
road to Fort Colville, distant
camp.
Without dwelling longer on the advantages of
this pass, I turn to that described by Dr. Hector, a little
to the north of the former, called Vermilion Pass, of
which the extreme elevation is 4944 ft. "Dr. Hector
followed the S. Sascatchewan Biver right up to the main
watershed of the continent; then followed it until he
reached a transverse watershed, which divides, the
waters of the Columbia and K Sascatchewan Biver, on
the one hand, from those of the Kootanie and S. Sascat- 106 FORT BENTON ROUTE.
chewan Bivers on the other. There he found the facilities
for crossing the mountains so great as to leave little
doubt in his mind of the practicability of constructing
even a railroad connecting the plains of the Sascatchewan
with the opposite side of the main chain of the Bocky
Mountains." Dr. Hector, writing of this pass, says, "The
ascent to the watershed from the Sascatchewan is hardly
perceptible to the traveller, and no labour would be
required, except that of hewing timber to construct
an easy road for carts, by which it might be attained."
And again, "A  road for  carts down  the valley of
Vermilion   Biver  from   the
2;ht  of   land  to  the
Kootanie Biver, could be cleared without difficulty; for
supposing the road to follow a straight line along the
river, and the descent to be uniform, which it almost is,
the incline would only be forty feet in a mile." To gain
a similar grade in American territory would require
several miles of tunnel through rock as before shown.
AH idea of constructing a railway within the limits
of the barrier described having been abandoned,
America is now endeavouring to open the second route'
in the table, on a principle similar to that I am now
advocating within British territory ; a special appropriation having been made by Congress to connect
Fort Walla by a military road with Fort Benton on
the Missouri. The work has been commenced, and
260 miles of the road completed. Steam-boats can
navigate Oregon Biver to Fort Walla Walla, and the
Missouri to Fort Benton, thus affording, except for
the interval of GOO miles, a fine of steam-boat communication between the Atlantic and Pacific, across the
widest part of the States*, being 250 miles south of the
This is after all a rather roundabout arrangement.    Railways ROUTE  TO  SEATTLE.
107
line proposed, and passing through the great American
desert; an additional difficulty, so well understood,
that Congress made a special appropriation for the
purpose of sinking artesian wells there; which was
done, but without success, in reporting upon which the
Secretary of war writes, Dec. 1. 1859: "It may
be considered now as demonstrated, that to bring
water from subterraneous streams to overflow the
surfaces of the great western plains is, for any reasonable amount of expenditure^ impracticable." In short,
taking into consideration the mountain pass, the
hopelessly barren nature of the country traversed, and
the circumstance of its having for its outlet the bar of
the Columbia instead of the Straits of De Fuca, this
route cannot compete with that proposed to be made
in British territory.
It cannot be urged that the extension of the American
line to Seattle, a port on the east side of Puget Sound,
as talked of, would make the comparison more favourable to the American fine ; by it the distance of St.
Paul's from Seattle, is 2025 miles, of which, 1152 miles
would pass through an uncultivated region, " affording
but little game at uncertain seasons, and at a late season
not a sufficiency of grass for animals.*
Governor Stevens f of Minnesota, "believes that the
most desirable route to the Pacific will be found in the
possession of Great Britain, and that a great interoceanic
communication is more likely to be constructed through
the  Sascatchewan  basin   than  across   the  American
westward to the Missouri end at Council Bluffs. The distance by
train from St. Paul's to Fort Union, is 700 miles. Vide Itinerary of
Capt. Marcy, W. S., published in 1859, in " Prairie Traveller."
* Mr. Martin McLeod, an American authority.
f Report Select Committee to House of Representatives, Leg.
Minnesota, 1858. 108 THE GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY.
desert — the cretaceous and comparatively rainless
areas of the southern latitudes within the territories of
the United States."
As there is nothing to apprehend from competition,
let us examine a little further into the detail of the
line proposed, and the soil and climate of the country
through which it passes.
The construction of a road from Canada round the
north shore of Lake Superior, is not proposed, on account of the engineering difficulties, severity of the climate compared with that to the south of the lake, and
because the country through which it would have to
pass is utterly useless for settlement. On these points
Dr. Bae's evidence in 1857 was conclusive. But adopting the" more southern route will not prevent the business of Bed Biver and Sascatchewan, as well as that of
Minnesota and Wisconsin passing through Canada. On
this point nothing can be more conclusive than the
Beport of the United States Postmaster General to his
own Government, dated December 3, 1859. When
writing of the Canadian line of steamers, between Portland and Liverpool, he says, " This line is hereafter to
run weekly, Portland being the terminus on this side
during the winter, and Quebec during the summer
season; and in connection with the Grand Trunk Bail-
way over the Victoria Bridge at Montreal, now completed, it will afford the means of the most direct and
probably the most expeditious communication between
Chicago and Liverpool. Arrangements have been made
with the Canadian Post-office department to transport,
for the sea-postage, any mails it may be desirable to
send by this line; and, in order to give them as much
expedition as possible, it is intended to have Chicago
and-Detroit, as well as Portland, constituted Offices of
■iHB ROUTE  SOUTH   OF  THE  LAKES.
109
Exchange, for United States and British mails. Bags
will then be made up at each of these offices, and will
not be opened until they reach Liverpool. The running time from Chicago to Portland, vid Detroit, Toronto, &c, is not expected to exceed forty-eight hours,
and either from Portland or from the contemplated
terminus of the railway, near the mouth of the Biver
St. Lawrence, where the mails are to be transferred to
and from the steamship, the distance to Liverpool is
several hundred miles less than from New York." Besides, there is nothing to prevent Canada from extending, in connection with her steamers on Lake Superior,
road or railway communication westward to Pembina;
which with her usual energy, would, if practicable, be
likely to follow as a sequence to the plan proposed,
which (proposal) if encumbered with this additional
consideration must necessarily be greatly delayed in its
execution. It is further to be recollected that all the
works proposed to be executed are confined to British
territory. The objection that a small portion of the
route proposed must at first pass through American
territory cannot stand, for this is reciprocally the case
in a dozen other instances. The traffic between Montreal and Liverpool is virtually through the State of
Maine, &c., but, the telling argument is this: the entire
traffic of England with her colonies in P. W. America is
now carried by a circuitous route on American roads or
railroads, or (the Atlantic excepted) in American steamboats ; and will it not, under those circumstances, be
desirable to adopt a plan by which for the present but
a fractional part of that traffic will be excluded from
British territory ?
Bailways   now  connect  Chicago  with  La  Crosse,
steamers and Goaches ply from La Crosse to St. Paul's ; 110
MINNESOTA  AND   PACIFIC  RAILWAY  COMPANY.
so that 450 miles which separate St. Paul's from Pembina are the next consideration. North of Crow Wins;
to Pokegamma Falls, for 250 miles, the Mississippi is
navigable for steamers drawing three feet of water, and
the North Star steamer is said now to ply between the
points. Also, as before mentioned, Bed Biver is navigable to its junction with Siouxwood Biver. So that the
head of navigation on the Mississippi is separated
from the corresponding point on the Bed Biver, by an
interval of less than one hundred miles of country, particularly favourable for the construction of a road or
railway. But if the British road were once commenced,
it is more than probable that a railway from La Crosse
to Pembina would keep pace with it, my authority for
the latter statement being as follows. By an Act of Congress (March 3, 1857), a grant of land was made to
Minnesota, to aid in construction of a railroad, from Stillwater vid St. Paul's, to Bed Biver. In May following,
the Minnesota and Pacific Railway Company was incorporated^ and the above-mentioned lands provisionally
transferred to them, one of the conditions being the construction of the railroad under consideration. This
company, it appears, has actually contracted for the
construction of eighty miles of the road, of which fifty
miles was to be completed by the 25th of May (1860).
The population through which this fifty miles passes, was
estimated at 67,000 two years ago, and if its progression
has been as rapid as before, that 67,000 has now become 200,000. St. Baul's had then a population of
16,000 ; St. Anthony and Minneapolis, 10,000 ; and the
Valley of the Mississippi and Crow Wing, is said to
have now population and business enough, unassisted,
to execute and maintain the work proposed, with profit to the promoters. THE  RED
111
From* the foregoing it is evident, that while every
effort ought to be made to form a rapid communication
between Bed Biver and the Western colonies on the
Pacific, there is no necessity to encumber the undertaking at first, by considering or discussing the communications most required, from Bed Biver eastward,
to the Atlantic,—communications which are certain to
spring into existence', contemporaneously with the
execution of the portion of the route westward from
Bed Biver.
The Bed Biver flowing from south to north is navigable
from 46° 23' lat., gradually deepening to sixteen feet at
Lake Winnepeg, from soundings taken by Captain Pope.
Captain Palliser writes of it: " My descent of the whole
of Bed Biver, from its principal source, has enabled
me to judge of its great- facilities for steam boat navigation." Professor Hind says that, owing to some
sharp turns in the river, steamers intended for it should.
not exceed 120 feet in length.
The great natural advantages for settlement of the
valley of the Bed Biver are too familiarly known to
require notice here; it is enough to say that its
prairies, covered with long red grass, extend far up the
Assinaboine Biver, to the junction of which with the
Moose Biver there is, for upwards of 400 miles, a well
defined track over the plains, over which the cart that
accompanied Sir George Simpson passed without inconvenience. " On the east, north, and south," he says,
" there was not a moun'd or tree to vary the vast expanse of greensward; while to the west were the
gleaming bays of the Assinaboine, separated from each
. * There is now considerable traffic in spirits and furs between
St. Paul's and Pembina. The number of ..carts .that arrived, at St.
Paul's from Red River in 1858, was 400. 112
QUI-APPELLE  RIVER.
other by wooded points of considerable depth." Captain Palliser appears also to have taken carts with him
westward as far as the Elbow, and says that, as far as
106° W., long, he had suffered no inconvenience from
want of wood.
Although Captain Palliser writes, " I have been able
to ascertain that there exists a valuable water communication between the south Sascatchewan and the Bed
Biver, and that a good-sized boat, and even perhaps a
small steamer, might descend from the south Sascatchewan, ascend the west Qui-Appelle Biver, cross the
Qui-Appelle Lakes, and then descend the Qui-Appelle
into Bed Biver." In the proposal made, a waggon road
is preferred, as the above statement'is too insufficiently
supported to act on. Still this water communication
might be of some use in connection with freight.
The navigation of the south branch of the Sascatchewan is probably better than the north * ; if so, being in
the direction required, it is preferable to the latter. As
on this point uncertainty still exists, it is to be regretted
that by the exploring parties engaged it was not thought
necessary to launch a raft or boat, properly provided, at
the western end, and by a proper examination extending
to the Elbow, to remove or confirm existing doubts on
the subject. It is also to be regretted that none of the
many military engineers, who have within the last
couple of years been sent to the Western colonies, and
whose talents aiid education so preeminently qualify
them to conduct such an investigation, their instructions
taking them through American territory instead of
across the mountains by the Hudson's Bay Company's
trail (as Captain Palliser went), had an opportunity to
. examine the country on the passage outward.    Captain
* See note at end of chapter. SOUTH  SASCATCHEWAN.
113
Palliser, writing in September, of the south branch, in
109° long., says, " This magnificent river rivals the Missouri in size and volume, and even at this, the lowest state
of water during the whole year*, was navigable for craft of
any size, as I found by sad experience, having been so
unfortunate as to lose one of my waggons in the channel of the river, at a depth of sixteen feet."    In another
place he says of the south branch, " We found it very
deep in lat. 50° 55', our horses as well as ourselves being
obliged to swim."    Of the south branch, Sir G. Simpson says, " It is of considerable size without any impediment of any moment, one-third of a mile in width
at  twenty miles  above  its junction with the  north
branch."    " A smart ride of four or five hours brought
the party, through a country very much resembling an
English park, to the north branch in lat. 53°, long.
108.°    The Sascatchewan is here, observes Sir George
Simpson, upwards of a quarter of a mile wide, presenting, as its name implies, a swift current.  It is navigable
for boats from the Bocky Mountain passes in long. 116°
to Lake Winnepeg, upwards of 700 miles in a straight
line, but by the actual course of the stream nearly
double that distance."  From these remarks I infer that
the volume of water in the south branch is greater and
more lasting than in the north, an inference which is
strengthened by examining their relative positions on
the map.
Mr. James M'Kay, an intelligent partner of the Hudson's Bay Company, who is in charge of Fort Ellis,
and from his long residence in the neighbourhood ought
|p be good authority, insists that both branches of the
* Here the Captain is evidently in error; the water is lowest
early in spring*    Rep. Sel. Com. H. B. C. 1857. No. 788.
I mmmmm
114
RED  DEER  AND   BATTLE   RIVERS.
Sascatchewan are as navigable as the Mississippi at St.
Paul's, quite to the vicinity of the Bocky Mountains.
From early in May until late in October*, the
river would probably be navigable and full. There is distinct evidence that on the southern branch there are
" fewer rapids," if any, and long reaches wholly without rapids.f While we have evidence of the prevalence
, of curves in the north branch, and in the south branch
from Elbow to its junction with the former ; as far as
the south branch has been examined, from the Elbow
towards the Bocky Mountains, it appears straight. J
From the nature of the ground through which it passes,
obstacles, if any, would consist of mud flats or sandbars at sharp turns in the river, which might easily be
removed by dredging, or the application of a little
engineering skill.
The absence of timber on the banks is a decided advantage ; floating timber on a swift river, snags, and
"sawyers," are exceedingly dangerous, troublesome,
and expensive impediments to steam navigation.
Fuel cannot be wanting : on Bed Deer Biver a group
of coal exists, in which three beds measure twenty
feet, twelve of which is pure coal. At Souris Biver
coal is found, and at Edmonton in abundance ; but for
a long time the steamers on the south branch would,
no doubt, burn wood, taken down with a favourable
current, from Bed Deer Biver, which is navigable (Battle
Biver is not), or from some other point equally favourable on the western side of the river to be navigated. §
* Sub. Com. H. B. C, 1857, p. 49.
•f  Sir G. Simpson, Ev. H. B. C, 1857, Nos. 778 and 788.   '
J Parliamentary  Papers,  relating to  Lake  Superior  and  Red
River Settlement, p. 151.
§ In regard to transporting wood for fuel, as 1300 lbs. of coal SOURCE  OF THE  COLUMBIA.
115
- The route proposed would be quite near enough to
the valuable agricultural land that borders on the" north
branch to answer as its outlet, and this remark will
refer equally to the " rich soil so well adapted for
pasture and agricultural purposes " so abundantly distributed on the banks of Battle Biver; and we should
not omit from the consideration the large district west
of the Bocky Mountains, watered by the Columbia and
its tributary, the M'GiUivray or Flatbow Biver. It
is estimated at 20,000 square miles, and has been described in enthusiastic terms by the Catholic Bishop
of Oregon, De Smet in his Oregon missions. The territory of the Kootonais Indians would seem, from his
glowing description, to be divided in favourable proportions between forests and prairies. Of timber, he names
birch, pines, cedar, and cypress ; speaks of specimens of
coal, and " great quantities of lead," apparently mixed
with silver.* The source of the Columbia seemed to impress him as a very important point. He observes that
the climate is dehghtful, extremes of heat and cold seldom
known, the snow disappearing as it falls. He reiterates
the opinion that the advantages nature seems to have
bestowed on the source of the Columbia, will render its
geographical position very important some day, and
that the magic hand of civilised man would transform
it into a terrestrial paradise ; that it can be reached in
waggons from Salt Lake City, along the western base
of the Bocky Mountains ; and that Brigham Young
proposed to lead his next Mormon exodus to the source
of the Columbia river : considered in connection with
make as much steam as 4500 lbs. of wood (if pine), coal can be
with economy transported three and a half times as far as wood,
other considerations being balanced.
* An ore similar perhaps to that at Washoe.
i 2 116
VERMILION PASS  TO HOPETOWN.
the Mormon establishment, a sort of half-way post on
the Salmon Biver, a branch of the Columbia, it seems
not impossible that such a move may have been contemplated by the Mormons.*
That a good road can be made from Vermilion
Pass to Colville has been already shown; that a road
equally favourable can be found south-westward to
Hopetown, will appear probable from the following
remark of Dr. Hector; that looking from the pass
across Brisco range, from south-west to south, mountains are not seen, " so that if any portion of that
country is occupied by any, they must be of very
inferior altitude." Mountains do intervene, but not in
unbroken ranges, and the road would have to be
traced through the valleys of the Flatbow, Arrow, and
Okanagan lakes, successively to that of the Similka-
meen Biver, and thence to Hopetown. What is
known of this road is excellent, with the exception of
the crossing at Manson's Mountain, twelve miles from
Hope, which (I had no means of measuring it) to
me did not appear more than 1800 feet or so high;
but all the country in the immediate neighbourhood of
it looks so broken, that I have no doubt, when properly looked for, a better crossing in the range to
which this mountain belongs will be found. The
valley of the Similkameen and Flatbow rivers are
\nown to be fertile^ and to abound with excellent
pasture. The Okanagan and Arrow valleys will, I
apprehend, be found more rugged, but by no means
formidably so.
Vide Report Sel. Com..: Leg. Minnesota, 1858. .CLIMATE.
117
Climate of proposed Route.
As some very erroneous impressions regarding the
climate of the different localities through which the
proposed fine must pass prevail, I may be excused for
making the following remarks. It is commonly said
that in point of temperature, in North America, the
same effect is experienced by travelling through 1° of
long, westward as by travelling through 1° of lat.
southward. This is manifestly an exaggeration ; still it
is a fact that, as we move westward, the climate
becomes milder, and the average annual temperature is
increased. This increase of temperature, in the region
we are speaking of, on the same latitude, amounts
probably from side to side of the continent, to 15°
Fahr.*, an effect, perhaps, produced by the summer
winds of the Pacific, which blow almost constantly
from west or north-west, wafting warmth and moisture
through the passes of the rocky chain. But whatever
the cause, the fact is certain ; the south part of Vancouver Island, for instance, having a climate much
milder than in England, is a hundred miles north of
Quebec. An isothermal f line drawn across the continent would, of course, be far from straight, but the
general obliquity of such a line may be judged of in
this way:—If such a fine were drawn from New York
it would pass through Lake Winnepeg to Fort Simpson ; in other words, if New York were, with respect to
latitude, similarly placed on the west coast, Fort Simpson, a thousand miles north of it, would enjoy a tempe-
* Sir John. Richardson makes this 20° Fahr.
j-  Vide Physical Geography, Maury, Plate VIII.
i 3 118
CLIMATE.
rature equally favourable with it. Mr. Blodget, who has
published an extensive work on the climatology of the
United States, remarks that nine-tenths of European
Bussia,—the main seat of population and resources
—is farther north than St. Baul; that, in fact, Pem-
bina is the climatic equivalent of Moscow, and for that
of St. Betersburg (which is in 60° north), we may reasonably go to lat. 55° on the American continent. Like
European Bussia, also, the Sascatchewan district has a
climate of extremes, the thermometer having a wide
range ; but it is well understood that the growth of
the cereals and of the most useful vegetables depends
chiefly on the intensity and duration of the summer
heats, and is comparatively little influenced by the
severity of winter cold, or lowness of the mean temperature during the year. Therefore, it is important to
observe that the northern shore of Lake Huron has the
mean summer heat of Bordeaux, in Southern France,
namely 70° Fahr., while Cumberland House, in lat. 54°,
long. 102, on the Sascatchewan, exceeds, in this respect, Brussels and Baris. The United States Army
Meteorological Begister has ascertained that the line of
70° mean summer heat crosses the Hudson Biver at
West Point, thence descends to the latitude of Pittsburg, but westward is traced through Sandusky,
Chicago, Fort Snelling, and Fort Union, into British
America. " It is warmer," he says, " at Fort Benton
on the Missouri, in long. 110^° west, and lat. 47^° north
for every season, than at St. Paul, Minnesota. The
mean winter temperature at Fort Benton is 25°, and
the same as that of Chicago, Toronto, Albany, and.
Portland, Maine. At St. Paul it is but 15° or 10° less.
It is not so cold as this on the main (south) branch of
the Sascatchewan." CLIMATE.
119
Allowing the 15° Fahr. before mentioned; considering
1° lat. south equal to 1° Fahr.; also, as usual, 300 feet
of altitude equal to 1° Fahr.; the average climate of the
Vermilion Pass would probably resemble that of
Moose or York factories in the southern part of
Hudson's Bay, of which Dr. Bae* says the summer
there extends from early in June to early in November,
five months. Mr. A. C. Anderson's opinion on this
subject, from his long residence in the country, is entitled
to attention: of the Upper Fraser he says : —
" The regular freshets begin at the latter end of
April, and last during May and June. About the 15th
of June may be regarded as the culminating point; and
by the middle of July the waters are generally greatly
subsided. There is rarely a freshet of much consequence at any other season; but this sometimes happens,
and I have known a sudden freshet from heavy rains,
in October, raise the river beyond the summer limit.
" Snow begins to fall in the mountains early in October.
In July there is still snow for a short distance on the
summit of the Fort Hope trail, but not to impede the
passage of horses. From the middle of October, however, to the middle of June, this track is not to be
depended upon for transport with pack animals.
"The summer climate about the Forks is dry, and the
heat is great. During winter, the thermometer indicates
occasionally from 20° to 30° of cold below zero of
Fahrenheit; but such severe cold seldom lasts on the
upper parts of Eraser's Biver for more than three days;
the thermometer will then continue to fluctuate between
zero and the freezing point, until, possibly, another
interval of cold arrives.
"But the winters are extremely capricious throughout
* Ev. PL B. C. Affairs, 1857, No. 435,
i 4 120
CLIMATE.
these regions, and no two resemble each other very
closely. In general the snow does not fall deep enough
along the banks of the main streams to preclude winter
travelling with pack animals. The quality of the pasture is such (a kind of bunch grass in most places) that
animals feed well at all seasons. There are many spots
between the Similikameen Valley and Okanagan that
are specially favourable for winter ranches. In some
the snow never lies, however deep it may be around."
Mr. John Miles, on May 1st, found the Sascatchewan
country completely free from snow, and the river very
full of water.*
Of a climate known to be capricious, whether we compare seasons or localities, it is of course impossible to
speak with certainty; but, we have evidence enough to
justify the inference that Vermilion Passwould be open at
least five or six months, (perhaps seven) out of the twelve,
and the remaining portions of the route much longer.
One peculiarity of the climate of the country it requires in England an effort to realise. Surrounded by
snowy peaks, the air is often not only warm but sultry.
Even at Victoria, where snow seldom exceeds a few
inches, or Langley, we have evidence of this every day.
The snow itself is not of the damp, compact nature
we are accustomed to, it is light, dry, and "drifting; on
this account, when it does come to thaw, it disappears
with astonishing rapidity, f
The annexed data extracted from the reports of the
Secretary of War, U. S., 1853—1854, record some
particularly interesting facts on this point.
' * Ev. H. B. C. Affairs, No. 4684. Jan. 9th, 1858, " Little or no
snow on the ground" from Edmonton to Rocky Mountain House,
Explor. British North America, p. 25.
j  Vide also Pari Rail. Report, vol. i. p. 47. CLIMATE.
Mr. Pinkham crossed the mountains from Walla-Walla
to Seattle, by the Yakima pass, the summit of which he
crossed on the 21st of January. For about six miles on
the summit, the snow was found to vary from 4 ft. to
6 ft. in depth—occasionally 7 ft. The area covered
by snow exceeding 12 in. in depth, was somewhat
less than 70 miles; of this 45 miles were 2 ft.
and upwards; 20 miles were 4 ft. and upwards; and
5 miles were 6 ft. and upwards. All the snow was
fight and dry; it was the accumulated snows of the
winter to January 21st; deposited in successive layers
of 2 in. to 2 ft., which have generally lain undisturbed
since their fall, and they present little obstruction to
removal in comparison with the compact drifted snows
of the Atlantic states. The winter and spring temperature of the Yakima pass, 3000—4000 ft. elevation, are
given as follows :— Nov. 36°; Dec. 28°; Jan. 28°; Feb.
30°; March 31°; April 38°. The mean temperature
at Puget Sound, from observations extending over four
years, is exactly 10° higher than these; at the Sound
the winter rain is 20*6 in., and since more rain usually
falls in the neighbourhood of mountains than on plains,
and snow occupies from ten to twelve times the bulk of
an equal quantity of rain, it is probable that the accumulated snows of winter, in the Vermilion Pass, would
exceed twenty or twenty-one feet, but that the pass
would frequently be open in December and passable in
May.
There was no necessity to consider, in connection
with the foregoing statements, any questions connected
with unextinguished claims of the Hudson's Bay Company to the lands required. First, because the Directors
have distinctly stated, that they are already prepared
to recommend to the shareholders of the Company to 122
TRADE  WITH  THE  ASIATIC  CONTINENT.
cede any lands which may be required for such purposes;
and, that the terms of such cessions would be a matter
of no difficulty between Her Majesty's Government and
the Company * : but principally because it is clearly to
the interest of the Hudson's Bay Company to co-operate
with and promote any plan of colonisation, the onus and
responsibility of which is not imposed upon them; since
any such plan, if carried into execution, must raise immensely the value of the improved lands adjoining
their numerous forts, the legal title to which, it may
be conjectured, would be confirmed to them.
In relation to China, Japan, and Australia.
I before mentioned my doubts of the trade of the
Asiatic continent with England being carried over the
line, if constructed. But there can be httle doubt that
if Victoria should become a depot of English goods,
trade with China must result, and the island become in
this respect a " half-way house." Its geographical position is more commanding than even that of San Francisco. Becollecting that in the North Bacific the
westerly monsoons blow strongest all the summer
north of 45°, and that, during the same period, the
north-east tradewinds south of the Sandwich Islands,
and the calms of Cancer in the latitudes of Shanghae
and Canton, prevail; and that in a straight fine China
may be said to be equidistant from Vancouver Island
and San Francisco ; a steamer from the island would
reach Canton in about the same time as from San
Francisco,—say forty or forty-two days ; a sailing ship
from the latter would be five or six days in advance; but
*  Vide Papers relative to the H. B. Cs Charter and Licence of
Trade in April 1859, pp. 15-aad 16. POSTAL  COMMUNICATION  WITH  AUSTRALIA.
123
since, on the return voyage, in either case a vessel must
keep so far to the north; while the average passage
from Hong Kong to San Francisco is fifty-five days, it
would not exceed forty days to Vancouver Island.
The overland route suggested involves, however, a
consideration of even far greater magnitude than the
foregoing. I allude to the increased rapidity of postal
communication between England and the Australian
colonies. In transmitting intelligence, to or from, the
saving of time, compared with that now required,
would not fall far short of a month. Vancouver
Island is nearer to Sydney by 900 miles than Pa-
nama is, which any one can test with a map and
compass. In November last (30th November 1859),
the legislative council of New South Wales unanimously resolved " that the house continuing to maintain
its opinion on this unfortunate subject, in which
it considers the future interests of this colony are
deeply involved, will not entertain any question in
regard to a postal subsidy, which shall ignore the
deliberate conviction respecting the Banama route, to
which this branch of the legislature gave expression in
February last; and at the same time expresses its readiness to concur in fulfilling any obligations devolving
upon this colony, so long as it is compelled to avail
itself of the existing arrangements." Would not the
proposed route, if executed, remove this difficulty,
and happily unite all the colonies so disconnected at
present ? As Judge Haliburton, on a similar subject, remarked, " Here is the bundle of sticks ; all they want is
to be properly united." If, as anticipated in the depth
of winter, the overland route should be interrupted,
the connecting steamers could, during the interval, run
to Panama. I; MH
124
POSTAL SUBSIDIES.
Conclusions arrived at
From a perusal of the facts stated in this and the
foregoing chapter, and bearing in mind that the trade
of the West Indies is a declining one, and that of the
North Pacific Colonies is every day more promising ;
that from London, the West Indies and Panama, can
be reached as quickly, vid Halifax, Portland, or New
York, as at present by the Boyal Mail line of steamers;
that the commerce of England with North America,
generally steadily increasing, is more than double that
of the West Indies, Central and South America, put
together; — the following very important conclusions
will, I think, be drawn, that, if the northern route
through British territory can be opened as easily as
described ; and if a fine of steamers were encouraged
to run between the Australian Colonies and Vancouver
Island, while the land route might be open, and the
same steamers were to run between Australia and
Panama in winter ; and if one of the fines of steamers
at present subsidised to Canada or the States, were
extended to Aspinwall*, the postal subsidy of 238,500/.
per annum to the Boyal Mail fine, might be dispensed
with without injury to any existing interest; and the
steamers themselves, if withdrawn, would not be
missed; the postal subsidy of 135,000/. to Australia,
vid Malta, Alexandria, Suez, and Ceylon, applied to
the shorter Pacific route; and, if that portion of the
subsidy of 122,625/. to Alexandria, Calcutta, and China,
which applies to China only, were withdrawn, and applied to encouraging a line of steamers from Vancouver
- * £14,700 per ann. is paid to the Cunard line for extension to
Bermuda and St. Thomas. INFERENCE.
125
Island to China, British commerce would benefit immensely by the change ; the colonies of Great Britain
in North America would be united, rendered accessible,
and their trade developed ; a great saving to the
nation at large, and in the million which is annually
expended in postal subsidies, by England, would be
effected; and it is even highly probable, that the
interests of large steam companies, which, at first sight,
would appear to suffer, might benefit from a cFange
which could, after all, be to a great extent accomplished
by a transfer of steamers from one path on the ocean
to another.
P.S. Since the foregoing was written, it is reported that Captain
Palliser has examined the course of the South Saskatchewan river,
and has ascertained that it is not so straight as was conjectured;
that it forms a deep loop or southerly bend between 110° W. long,
and 113°. If so, an alteration in the detail of the proposed route
might be required : more land travel and less by water.
It is also said that the south branch is more divided than the
north branch at equal distances from the mountains; it does not,
however, follow from this, that the main stream of the former, its
lower level being taken into account, may not contain a greater body
of water than the latter. The principal objection to using the north
branch as the thoroughfare from west to east is its indirectness,
adding 300 miles to the entire distance.
Traversing, as the north branch does, a country fertile and available
for early settlement, which a considerable portion of the south branch
does not, steamers would no doubt soon be placed upon the former
as a consequence of the occupation of the country, which the opening
of the more direct communication must occasion.
Laden batteaux, or light canoes, may pass the grand rapids in
safety, but these oppose a serious barrier to the more northerly
navigation, as it would be premature to talk of the construction of
two or three miles of expensive canals and locks, besides which an
accumulation of ice often obstructs the navigation at the head of 126
NOTE.
Lake Winnepeg for weeks after the rivers that flow into it are
free.
It is true that light carts have frequently passed between Red
River and Edmonton, but as the whole country is well adapted to
the construction of waggon roads, this circumstance alone should
have little weight in determining a preference for one route over
another.
Whatever route may be adopted, it should be recollected that in
this country, while navigation is uncertain before the 1st of May and
later than 31st of October, traffic on roads would be a certainty for a
longer period of the year.  E.WeHsr, Tilth. RedJion. Square, 127
CHAP. VHT.
SOCIETY   IN  THE  COLONIES.
It is fortunate for these colonies that notices of the
society, which an emigrant or tourist may expect to
meet with in them, are rare. Such as have found
their way into print present anything but a flattering
picture or exalted idea of the social elements of the
place. The following passage, for instance, occurs in
a book already referred to : —
" Of small birds, there is the Mexican woodpecker,
and a large mis-shapen species of bullfinch—note it
has none; and indeed aves vocales may, generally
speaking, be said never to be met with on the west
coast of America. The settler in these parts misses
equally the lively carol of the lark, the sweet cheerful
note of the thrush, and the melancholy melody of the
nightingale; still more will he of gentle mind, as he
wends his solitary way through these distant wilds,
feel impelled to hanker after the pleasures of society,
and to long for the charm of conversation with the fair
daughters of his country."
To classify ladies with birds, singing birds especially,
is at once novel and poetical. In this light, for the
rosy robin, the gentle dove, the musical linnet, (but
never for the mis-shapen bullfinch,) unfeathered representatives might easily be conceived. Indeed the suggestion will naturally occur that, instead of the very limited
number of birds now worn in hats, a dive into natural 128     A NEWSPAPER  CONCEPTION  OF A  GOLDEN AGE.
history would lead to the number being vastly extended: the bird worn could be emblematic of the
wearer, and a new and very beautiful system of feminine heraldry result. But the fact that the category
commences with small birds is sufficient to show,
modern fashions being taken into account, that the
allegory was written some years ago. This must have
been the case, for at the present time (although when
away from the settlements one must not expect to
meet ladies, like so many Moseses, in the bush) society
in the colonies will, in this respect, compare favourably
with that of any locality in Great Britain where the
numbers are on a par. Nor is the place so intolerably
dull as it's painted; for in this, as in most other
colonies, Bhilharmonic concerts, balls, theatricals, and
social entertainments of a quieter character, are not
neglected.
The next notice taken of the society of the place
occurs in the Illustrated London News, the pictures
in which, as in this instance, do not always remind
one of the originals : in it (March 12th, 1859) the
Editor characterises the population as " the offscourings
of the civilised world;" the place as " bereft of the
humblest needs of existence;" and the Indians as
" savages of the lowest types of humanity." The annexed statement of the able Judge of British Columbia,
extracted from a recent and interesting letter of The
Times' Correspondent, places this matter in a very
different light.
The Judge writes : —
" It is a legitimate subject of no small congratulation
that in a country so wild and almost pathless (certainly
roadless) as this, with a population generally pointed
at as the refuse of California—with a magistracy weak A  CALENDAR  OF  CRIME.
129
in numbers, weaker in their great inexperience, from
the. judge downwards, every one of them new to
judicial and magisterial business—with a police never
twenty in number, and never more than four or five
in one place—the population all armed, and all engaged in the most exciting and demoralizing pursuit
which man can follow (namely, gold-hunting) — there
should have been in the whole of the present (now
last) year not one murder, not one attempted murder,
not one duel, and but one assault with a deadly weapon
at all in the whole of British Columbia. Under Bro-
vidence, this wonderful result, unexampled in the
history of new gold-mining countries, has been without
doubt produced by the firmness of the Governor, and
the unhesitating sternness with which one or two ' difficulties ' which occurred at the close of the past year
had been met and punished. It has been thoroughly
impressed upon our whole population that the cowardly
and ruffianly outrages perpetrated to so lamentable an
extent elsewhere, under the above euphonism, will
here consign the offenders without the hope of mercy.
to the gallows, or a life-long imprisonment."
The Judge remarks with reasonable pride that
Blackstone is more regarded in his jurisdiction than
Judge Lynch; and while he draws an accurate and
just comparison between " the statistics of blood" on
the south and those on the north side of the 49 th
deg. of north latitude favourable to the latter, yet he
does ample justice to the Californians who have come
to British Columbia. Of them he reports that they
have always—"Manifested a great desire to see justice
fairly done, and great patience with the difficulties
which the magistrates and the judiciary have had to
contend with.    T have frequently complimented  my
K COLONIAL  PRIVATIONS.
rough auditory—sometimes 150 miners:—on the good
order and manly respect observed in my court."
As a class, the miners of British Columbia have a
much worse character than they deserve. Generally
speaking, they are not only civil and sober in their
habits, but well read and intelligent. On their first
arrival in the country, however, they were accompanied with the usual proportion of gamblers and "Bow-
dies ;" but for these, the place was soon made anything
but a desirable residence by the firm and uncompromising attitude of the British authorities. The fact
is, it would be as unfair to identify the miners with
the black-legs who follow them as it would be to
class the British army with the suttlers who hang*
about the camp.
Again, it is rather difficult to attach a definite meaning to the expression, " humblest needs of existence,"
of which the people are bereft; beef and mutton, and
fish and game, milk and vegetables, appear to be
within the reach of the poorest—the native fruits of
the country make excellent pastry. The best teas at
Is. and Is. 4:d. per lb. find their way, vid Sandwich
Islands, from China. Wines round the Horn and cigars
from Manilla pay no duty. English fruits are grown,
and those of the tropics imported. Grapes are Is. per
pound. Every restaurant prints an elaborate bill of
fare. There is no want of public baths. Saddle-horses
can be hired, and vehicles to drive about in. The
blacks make excellent cooks. The editor must have
had an uncomfortable dream.
Again, these Indians are far from being the lowest
types of humanity, notwithstanding their moral de-
Or rather, who ought to be hanged. INDIAN*
gradation, where visited by the whites. On the contrary, many of them are remarkably good looking,
with aquiline features —make useful servants—are
sometimes strictly honest to their employers only—can
plough and drive oxen—are exceedingly hospitable in
their own homes, and teachable when dwelling amongst
the whites; they lack neither courage nor intelligence.
Some are exceedingly ingenious. One Indian made
a ring for me out of a five-dollar piece, and in it set
the stone; and the workmanship of the whole was
perfect.
I have known an Indian stock a gun, making the
ramrod and screw at the end of it, the fitting and finish
of the whole being unexceptionable. They weave
blankets, carve their own pipes, construct canoes, and
raise enormous weights in the construction of their
dwellings. They are eminently commercial, and can
quickly understand the intricacies of a tariff; give a
pencil and sheet of paper to an Indian, and he can
generally make a rude map of a country he has travelled
through. As guides, fishermen, and hunters they are
extremely useful. In the same tribe intermarriage is
generally prohibited, and to prevent war between tribes
they have a law that relationship follows on the
mother's side. The wealth of each is periodically distributed for the benefit of all; they scorn to profit by
the leavings of the dead, and bear pain heroically.
By the way, who are the Aborigines Protection
Society ? The Blue Books of 1858 teem with excellent
advice and pathetic appeals from them to Secretaries of
State and Governors of Colonies, on behalf of the red
man, illustrated with dissertations on the feuds of the
Gryphons and Arimaspians, whoever they were, and
the faults of the treaty made by William Penn.    The
K 2 132
ABORIGINES  PROTECTION  SOCIETY.
fireside newspapers report their meetings and their
views; but does the Society, ever by raising subscriptions, send out persons to give vitality abroad to the
admirable doctrines which they inculcate at home ? It
is unreasonable to suppose that the high officers of the
crown should undertake duties that ought to devolve
upon the benevolent community at large, and such as
are usually accomplished by general opinion acting upon
private enterprise.
In both colonies there are said to be some 80,000
Indians, and wherever the whites have been brought
into contact with them, steamers and rockers have
banished the fish, and hunters for market the game;
spirits are traded in the camps, disease and famine have
thinned their numbers, and whole tribes have been reduced to immorality and want.
From England one missionary only, the indefatigable
Duncan, has appeared among them as an instructor, (the
efforts of the priests being directed rather to their spiritual than to their intellectual necessities,) but even he
has shown that Indians are eminently capable of being
taught. It is hopeless to expect that the Bishop can do
much to ameliorate their condition; the moral and intellectual wants of the European population are quite
enough to absorb his attention.
The Bishop of British Columbia is said to have been
singularly successful in achieving the influential position
which ought to belong to his office, by instituting educational establishments, founding a collegiate school, a
want previously much felt, and by otherwise energetically promoting the moral and social welfare of the
inhabitants immediately upon his arrival. This success
is the more signal because but a short time before
considerable outcry was raised in the colony against THE  CHURCH.
133
anything bordering upon a state church. The local
newspapers declaimed against it, and the House of
Bepresentatives passed resolutions opposing it. The
very title of bishop seemed a serious impediment to his
success. It is impossible not to admire the tact and
judgment with which he met and overcame those diffi-
-, culties, and literally, if I may be allowed to use the term,
" turned the tables," converting those who would have
otherwise ranked as opponents into supporters of the
church of the most useful kind, by informing them that
he asked for no assistance from the state ; that his was
the voluntary system ; and that therefore he was prepared to receive contributions in support of the church,
from all who were opposed to its receiving assistance
from the state.
The latest advices show that the Celestials are rapidly
finding their way into British Columbia. If in California, where undisguised antipathy to the race has
always existed, where special enactments have been
framed to expel them, and where they have been for
years the victims of organised or casual oppression,
their numbers increased from 15,000 in 1855 to 50,000
in 1860 ; it may be conjectured that the influx of them
to the gold fields of British Columbia, where they are
certain, in common with all foreigners, to meet with
protection as well as toleration, from California and
China direct, will be remarkable. In California they
are disliked, because they are regarded as a people
who tell fearfully on the surface digging of the country,
who extract large quantities of gold, and who, living
as they do on a handful of rice and a few nondescripts,
and ultimately carrying back with them to China the
wealth which their matchless industry has enabled
them  to  acquire,  are  in reality detrimental  to  the 134
CHINESE.
country. To them a month's wages in China is not
more than the ordinary wages of a labourer for one
day in British Columbia. An experiment was tried
some years ago, to test the practicability of importing
Chinamen as labourers into Cuba, and found successful.
There 600 of them were apprenticed at $4 per month.
A British merchant, settled at Amoy, describes the""
scene of despatching a vessel with 400 labourers, at
#3 per month and rations to Honolulu as follows : " The
only sorrowful persons were those whom from disease
or deformity we were compelled to reject. These we
placed a distinguishing mark upon, but this they removed, and presented themselves for selection three or
four times. We were obliged to send them from
alongside in hundreds; and the last day, so great was
the rush, that we thought they would have taken the
vessel from us."
The Chinese are adepts in the art of washing clothes,
and monopolise that business wherever they go.
With the Indians they appear to get on well, having
9 many points in common ; foremost among which may
be reckoned immorality, and absence of cleanliness in
their dwellings. I do not know whether or not they
are such inveterate gamblers among themselves as
Indians are.
See Appendix, page 170. CHAP. IX.
A  FEW  SUGGESTIONS  TO  DIFFERENT  CLASSES  OF  INTENDING
EMIGRANTS.
Persons emigrating frequently form too high anticipations of becoming suddenly wealthy, and therefore
become too soon disappointed; and some who, from
some cause or other, do not carry with them the
elements of success, reason thus: that because they
have failed in everything they undertook at home, the
time has come to repair their fortunes abroad. Never
was there a greater fallacy. They forget, that of any
family with whom they are acquainted, the members
who have emigrated are the boldest and the most enterprising ; that from home " the stronger sex, the stronger
age, the stronger hands, the stronger will, are ever
flying; " and they are, therefore, on their arrival in the
colony, disappointed to find superior competitive talent
in every walk of life.
Of the former class, the best illustration I can give is
to select, almost at random, one from a bundle of
letters from enquiring emigrants, which will convince
any indifferent person, that the caution is not misplaced.
The following is an extract:—
" Dear Sir,— Confident that, you will do for me the
best you can, it is, I know, almost idle for me to specify
any particulars as regards my own views; but I may
mention, I would of course like to get a spot of land as 136
GOVERNMENT  OFFICES.
near as possible to the site of a new town, near a good
harbour, or on a good river, where trade would be
likely to be actively carried on; and having a taste for
. beauty in scenery, and delighting, as well as all my
family, in the sea, I would, if practicable, like to have
with approximation to the sea, beauty in scenery, a
place having a constant supply of fresh water, well
wooded, lying well to the south aspect, with land of
good quality, having shelter from any prevailing winds,
free of marsh or swamp, having a limestone or other
quarry upon it, whereby building materials could easily
be got; but there are many, many other advantages
which you might see, which would outbalance any
ideas or suggestions of mine, such as a coal mine, a
good mill site with good water power, which in a
new country is not a bad speculation; building ground
or the probable site of a ship's quay, or a locality
where a town is likely to spring up. . . My fortune
would be made in a short time, &c.
" I have, &c.
The writer will not be angry with me, I am sure, for
publishing a portion of a letter which affords no clue
to his identity; particularly as, knowing him to be
both talented and deserving, in doing so I express a
sincere wish that he may become possessed of the quay
and the coal mine too.
I shall here take the liberty of addressing a few
remarks to the different classes of persons likely to
contemplate emigration.
First, persons seeking government offices, and whose
names are written down on fists, are very numerous in
the colony.     The salaries are generally inadequately PROFESSION.
137
low. With such an object in view, I would recommend any one not to emigrate until he. had first
procured an appointment to whatever office he might
be in quest of.
All the professions are overstocked ; this, of course,
includes the bar, the church, engineers and surveyors,
&c. Private tutors, governesses, and anybody that
can teach any thing would do remarkably well in the
.country.
I am not aware of there being any ladies' school in
the island, — a want much felt.
Artists are seldom met with. It seems strange that
it does not occur to some enterprising publisher in
England, to commission an artist, so as to reproduce in
England some of the majestic views of the country.
Those published by Dickenson and Co., New Bond
Street, and one of Victoria, by Day and Son*, alL which
are very true and characteristic, are the only views I
have seen. If it pays newspapers to depute special
correspondents, seedsmen to employ collectors, &c.,
why should not art pay also ? Let us hope that some
of the talent so assiduously expended on the Cam and
Isis may yet find a profitable vent abroad. Bichmond
is very beautiful, but rather confined and flat; it only
wants the cascades in the foreground, and Mount Hood
or Mount Browne glittering in the distance, to make
a picture of it.
To capitalists these colonies offer the greatest inducements. As a rule, the newer the colony the higher is
the rate of interest, and the more numerous the openings for investment. For instance, a good brewery
would succeed well, judging by the immense consump-
Lithographers to the Queen,- Gate Street, Lincoln's Inn. 138
FARMERS.
tion of bottled ale and stout in the colony. Hops
thrive remarkably well. Many of the productions of
the country might be traded in with advantage ; such
as timber, salmon pickling, oils, bear's grease, large
quills, hemp, porpoise leather, deer horns, skins, &c.
Money in Vancouver Island can be lent on good
security, at rates ranging from 25 to 30 per cent.
per annum; and the opportunities for investment
are so varied, and the field so immense, that I should
altogether exceed hunts allotted in attempting to
specify.
The admirable openings that exist for farmers with
small capital in Vancouver Island and in British Columbia, will appear evident from a perusal of the
foregoing pages.
Assisted by every circumstance which at home
would be an encumbrance or an impediment, with a
market close at hand, and high prices for every thing
he can produce, the farmer's prospects are extremely
promising; and, in consequence of the dearness of
labour in every department, the larger his family the
wealthier he is. There is nothing to deter a farmer
in the fact that the extent of prairie land is small compared with that occupied by forest, lake, and mountain.
At the present time there is abundance of open land in
both colonies not taken up. If there is a preponderance
of timbered and waste land, compared with land ready
for the plough, this condition must make the latter »all
the more valuable, as population, and with it the
demand for land, increases. So that, regarded in a
self-interested fight only, the less the good land the
better for the farmer, provided he loses no time in
taking advantage of the very liberal land regulations
recently adopted ; otherwise, every season of postpone- RATES  OF   LABOUR.
139
ment must inevitably, on his arrival, push him farther
from the chief towns and settlements.
As the rates of labour are of course regulated by
those of San Francisco, the annexed schedule, taken
from the Mercantile Gazette, San Francisco, Jan. 4th,
1860, is here appended.
RATES OF LABOUR IN SAN FRANCISCO.
Dollars.
Dollars.
Blacksmiths, per diem
4
Lapidaries,    per diem
5   to    8
Do. helpers,    „  .
2|
to   3
Lumbermen, per month .
35
50
Brass founders,   „  .
3
4
Millwrights,  per diem    .
5
7
Boiler makers,   „   .
4
5
Metal turners,       „
3|
4i
Boat builders,     „  .
5
6
Machinists,            „
3i
4§
Ballast men,       „  .
2|
3
Moulders,              „
4
5
Bricklayers,        „   .
5
7
Marble cutters and polishers
Bookbinders,       „  .
3|
6
per diem,    .
2
4
Do. Folders,    „ .
2
3
Millers,                  „
4
6
Brickmakers, per month .
40
75
Mattress makers   „
5
Brickburners,        „
50
75
Mates of vessels, per month
50
75
Bakers,                  „
40
75
Mill sawyers and planers,
Barbers,                 „
50
100
per month .
50
75
Butchers,               „
60
100
Plumbers,     per diem
5
6
Cheesemakers,      ,,
35
75
Pump makers,   „
3§
4i
*2
Choppers,             „
35
60
Pile drivers,        „
4
5
Coachmen,           „
35
50
Painters, house, „
4
Coppersmiths, per diem .
4
5
Do. sign, gold, per ft.
30
60c
Carpenters,            „
41
5
Do. do. plain,     „
35
45c
Do.    Ship,        „
5
6
Pilots,           per month .
150
Caulkers,               „
5
6
Porters,                 „
30
100
Carriage makers,  „
2|
4
Printers, per 1000 ems
75c
hoopers,                „
2|
3|
Riggers,       per diem
4
5
Cartmen,               „
4
3|
Shipsmiths,         „
4
5
Chasers,                „
7
10
Do. helpers,   „
2
4
Cooks,        per month
35
80
Sailmakers,         „
5
6
Coal-heavers        ' „
75
Stevedors,          „
4
5
Chambermaids,     „
25
30
Stonemasons,     „
4
5
Day labourers, per diem
2
3
Shoemakers,       „
2
3
Deck hands, (riv. nav.)
Stewards,   per month
40
80
per month,   .
40
50
Seamen,             „
. 30
Draymen,             „
50
75
Seamen, coastwise, do.
. 25
30
Engineers,             „
75
150
Shoemakers, per month
80
Polishers,         per diem
2
3
Servant girls,       „
. 20
35
Freestone cutters,  „
4
Tin-workers,   per diem
4
Firemen,   per month
50
60
Tin-roofers           „
.    3
5
Gardeners,         „
35
60
Tanners and Curriers,
3er
Granite dressers, per diem   2§
3|
month
. 40
75
Hodmen,                   „
2
3
Tailors,        per diem
.    3
5
Hatters,      per week,
25
40
Upholsterers       „
.    5
Harness makers, per diem   2
4
Woodsawyers,   „
ol
4
Hostlers,     per month
30
50
Wheelwrights,    „
42
5
Jewellers,     per diem
5
Watchmakers,   „
.    5
Locksmiths,      „
4
Waiters,       per month
. 25
50
Limeburners, per month
40
50 140
DOMESTIC  SERVANTS.
I presume labour is dearer on the north-west Pacific
coast than anywhere else; referring to some statistical
papers, I notice that while for several years past the
general rate of increase of population on the coast has
been something hke 6 per cent, per annum (not 20
per cent., as stated by the editor of the New York
Herald), the wages of labour have fallen in the same
porportion, so that from year to year the variation in
this respect is not remarkable, which to workmen proposing to emigrate is a very important. consideration.
It will be noticed that, from this schedule, farm servants
are omitted; the reasons for this is, that as a class they
can scarcely be said to exist. Shepherds, ploughmen,
gardeners, ostlers, &c., command the highest rates of
skilled labour. The miners seldom turn their attention
to these pursuits, for engaging in which, want of early
training, wandering habits, and a speculative turn of
mind unfit them.
But perhaps the greatest want of all is felt in the
absence of female servants. Colonists have ceased to
endeavour to remedy the defect, by importing them, as,
whether they possess personal attractions or not, they are
certain to get married soon after their arrival. It is
much to be regretted that as yet none of those princely,
benevolent, energetic individuals, who are more frequently met with in England than anywhere else, have
taken the matter up, or endeavoured to effect for the
surplus female population of England, and for the distant
colony, what was done at New South Wales by Mrs.
Caroline Chisholm, whose courage, perseverance, and
success in conducting a great enterprise of this kind,
will be referred to with affection and with pride by
future generations of the colony she so signally assisted
to plant. GOLD  HUNTERS.
141
Persons who understand a trade, such as saddlers/
shoemakers, tailors, and watchmakers, &c., with capital
enough to start a shop, and make themselves known,
would be certain to succeed.
Persons desirous to try gold digging will find all the
reliable statistical information on the subject, procurable
in the Chapter on Minerals, and will there find that to succeed at it, a man must be strong, and capable of encountering fatigue and even hardship with patient endurance.
In fact, it is a sort of labour that our " navvies " would
succeed in, and have succeeded in, to perfection. For
example, " Bendigo " and his companions have, by their
excavations near Ballarat, written their names on the
sands and in the maps, in a very indelible way.
I am the more particular to mention this, because I
have met with many young men, who, not acquainted
with the practical processes of gold mining, form romantic ideas about what is in reality very hard work.
To such, I should suggest, get Harper's Magazine, of
April last * ; it contains a practical account of the
various processes resorted to, and woodcut illustrations
of implements used in mining; construct a " rocker," the
materials of which will not cost many shillings. Place
the rocker under the pump, and fill the box that is on
the top with gravel. Now, recollecting that a few halfpence worth of gold to a (milk) pan of gravel pays the
miner 2/. a day, file three-pennyworth from a half-
sovereign into the box; rock away with one hand and
pump with the other, only stopping to shovel gravel
into the box, as often as you empty it; in this way you
will be able not only to acquire a good idea of the
amount of physical exertion required, but also to test
1860. 142
ALIENS.
your skill in the art, before you have occasion to practise it many thousand miles from home. By attentively
reading the article in question, you will also see that
the art of " prospecting," on which so much depends,
can be learned quite as well at the duck-pond in the
garden, as on the banks of the Fraser or Saskatchewan.
And if, after counting the cost, you still determine to
try your fortune, I should say the surface diggings of
British Columbia, or the gold deposited from disintegration that has been going on for ages past, are as yet
unexhausted. Be early in the field, and may success
attend your adventure!
The steps that have been taken to facilitate the purchase of lands by aliens will be found in the Appendix. APPENDIX.
To J. D. Pemberton, Esq.
Port Rupert, July 9th, 1859.
Dear Sir,
I beg to forward a copy of my rough journal to Nootka, and with
it a chart *, unfinished, but pretty correct, of the Koskimo Inlet,
Portage, and coast of Vancouver Island, as far as Nimkish River.
Regarding the opposite coast (the mainland), I have little to say;
grizzly bears are found there as far north as Lynn's Canal (lat. 59°);
but I heard of but one instance of their being found on Vancouver
Island, namely, one shot last winter up the Nimpkish Lake. He
had most probably found his way across from the mainland.
Dear Sir,
Yours truly,
Hamilton Moffat.
Journal of a Tour across Vancouver Island to Nootka Sound viei
Nimkish River, in the year 1852, by Hamilton Moffatt, Hudson's
Bay Company's Service.
Thursday, July 1st.—About 10 a.m. left the Fort for the Nimkish
village, en route to the Nootka tribe. Having arrived at the Nimkish River at 7 p.m., I procured guides and got everything in readiness for an early start in the morning.
Friday, 2nd.—Left the village at daybreak in a canoe with six
Indians; at 9 a.m. reached the Nimkish fishing village, on the
borders of the T'sllelth Lake ; entered the lake about 10 a.m. The
shores on either side at this end rise perpendicular from the water's
edge to the height of some 1500 or 1600 feet, and from 4000 to 5000
feet a little inland, and in many places capped with snow; the
width of the lake at the entrance is about half a mile, gradually
* See Map, No. L 144
APPENDIX.
widening to one and a half miles; I endeavoured to ascertain the
depth with a forty fathom line, but did not succeed. Our course
through the lake was about south-east, and the length I have since
ascertained to be fully twenty-five miles. In the evening we encamped at the River Oakseey, distant about a mile from the head.
Discovered a tree resembling the walnut, having a trunk about
four and a half feet in circumference, and emitting a fine perfume.
Saturday, 3rd.—After passing a most unpleasant night, on account
of the rain which poured down in torrents the whole time and until
10 a.m., we again embarked in our frail craft for the ascent of the
River Oakseey ; stopped for a short time at the mouth to examine a
large beaver's dam, the finest I have yet seen. The whole of this
day was spent in working up the rapids, of which the river is one
continuation; encamped iri the evening at Waakash, the half way
house to the second lake, a distance of twelve miles. The banks of the
river are rather low, and abounding in splendid red pine and maple
of all sizes, but not the slightest vestige of cleared land to be seen.
.The country a short distance inland from the river is very high.
Sunday, 4th.—Left encampment about 4 a.m. for another of the
Nimkish fishing villages, at which we arrived at noon, where we
landed to obtain a supply of fresh salmon, but were only able to
procure three and a few trout, as it was rather early for the fish to
be up the river. The river at this place branches off in two different
directions; the distance from Waakash to this place is about seven or
eight miles, and the river, as yesterday, nothing but rapids. We remained only a short time here, and started for the Lake Kanus,
distant about six miles. The Indians having told me that this part
of the river was very shallow, and that the country through which
we had to pass to the lake pretty open, I started on foot with a
portion of my crew, and arrived at the lake after a very pleasant
walk; the country through which I passed was clear, with occasional belts of wood and brush, and abounding in partridges, of
which I shot a good many. I also noticed a pond of cold spring
water, of great depth, without an outlet, similar to what are at home
called blow-wells.
During my walk I was informed of a tribe of Indians living
inland, having no canoes or connection with the sea-coast whatever.
I have since learned that these people sometimes descend some of
the rivers for the purpose of trade with the Indians south of Nootka,
and they offered to guide me to the place at anytime I should wish;
the name of the tribe is Saa Kaalituck; they number about fifty or
sixty | mem, and were only discovered 'a few years back, by one of
the Nimkish chiefs while on a trapping expedition. The .following
is the Indians' story of their discovery : — ——
APPENDIX.
145
Our party while sitting round the fire on the banks of a small
rivulet, observed a beaver playing in the water, and having followed;
the course of the stream in hopes of falling in with a dam, came
suddenly.upon a lake, and the first thing which struck our attention
was a small village situated at the opposite side. Upon entering the
camp we were well received by the Indians, and opened a trade for
skins, of which they had an abundance, and which they used for
clothing. They informed us, that southern Indians (as we supposed
the Sanetch) had been there on war parties, and killed a good number of them. This tribe are known to the Nootkas, who have a
superstitious idea that they are the spirits of their dead, on account
of their speaking the same language. From the time the Nimkish
say it.takes to perform the journey, and from the Sanetch (or more
probably the Comox) having knowledge of these people, I have not
the least doubt that a road might with little difficulty be discovered
from here to Victoria, through the very centre of the island.
After passing through this lake, which is probably ten miles long,
we encamped at the base of a snow-capped mountain, two very fine
cascades falling several hundred feet from its summit; and the streams
which they form abound in trout of excellent quality and great size,
numbers of which we caught.
■ Monday, 5th.—Early this morning I started, accompanied by an
Indian, for the summit of this mountain, which I named Ben Lomond,
but did not succeed in reaching any further than the second tier of
snow, on account of the ascent being so steep; so having been disappointed in my walk, I returned to the camp at 9 a.m., and set out
for the walk across the portage (which was a succession of mountain
defiles), to the head waters of the Nootka River. This river, during
its course of three or four miles from its source, disappears three.
different times. Stopped about noon to dine, and after half an hour's
rest recommenced our journey, and arrived in Nootka Sound at
7 p.m., after passing over sixteen or eighteen miles. I have not,
however, reached my destination for the night yet, the Indians
wishing to encamp further down the sound, on account of some
superstitious fear of ghosts. Stopped for a short time at the fishing
village, where I saw the wheel of a ship. The Indian houses here
are very large, in fact more so than those of the Indians near Fort
Rupert.
Tuesday, 6th.—Having passed a very comfortable night under
cover of a large quantity of salmon frames, we started early for the
Nootka village in Friendly Cove, passing through a long inlet that
runs about south-east, surrounded by lofty mountains covered to the
very top with timber, but of stunted growth.   We arrived at our desti-
L 146
APPENDIX.
nation at 4 P. m., having occupied five days on our journey from the
Nimkish village.
Upon entering Friendly Cove we were received by a discharge of
cannon from the chief's house ; until we were about to land scarcely
an Indian was to be seen, but at a given signal the whole tribe
darted from their houses and commenced a grand dance in honour of
the arrival of a white man to visit them, after which a sea otter was
presented to me by the chief, and we landed amid the welcome
shouts of the Nootkas. In the evening a grand fancy dress ball was
given, and a large quantity of blankets and other property distributed.
Wednesday, 7th.—Nothing strange or new; time mostly spent in
feasting and smoking in the houses of the different chiefs, all of
whom seemed to be on the highest terms of friendship.
Remarks.
The timber in the interior of the island is very fine, in fact the
banks on both sides of the Nimkish river, from the first lake almost
to the Nootka inlet, are lined with splendid red pines, large and long
enough for the spars of the largest men of war; the water communication is also a great consideration; spars could be squared, rolled
into the water, and floated down without difficulty to any depot, such
as the anchorage at Illece or even Beaver Cove. Other timber is
also abundant.
The various kinds of rock along the bed of the river, as far as I
could see, were granite, sandstone, conglomerate, and hard dark
boulders.
The various berries of the country grew in great abundance, with
the exception of the small dark berry resembling a beaver shot; I
am unacquainted with the name; it is plentiful down south and at
Comox. Salmon of various kinds, of splendid quality, are found in
abundance on the coast, as well as halibut and other sea fish.
Rock oysters of large size I procured to the north of Nootka, some
fifty miles, but saw few other shell-fish, except the large sea
mussel and the barnacle. Crabs and sea egg were plentiful, also
the sea cucumber, and the various species of star-fish and sea
anemones.
The zoology is the same as the other parts of Vancouver Island,
except that the purple marmot is occasionally found at Koskimo, but
not the common grey marmot. The white land otters which have at
various times been forwarded from here, were killed near Kio-
quettuck.
The Indians from Nootka to Newittee number probably about APPENDIX.
147
1500 men. The depth of the Nimkish Lake I have since sounded;
and got no bottom at seventy-five fathoms, from the stern of a canoej
her bow being aground on shore.
EXCURSION FROM QUALLCHUM (LAT. 49° 23'), via. LAKE HORN  AND
ALBERNI  CANAL,  TO  THE  PACIFIC.
To His Excellency the Governor.
Sir,
Victoria, Vancbuver's Island,
December 15th, 1856.
I had the honour, in the middle of October last, to receive your*
instructions to examine a part of the island from a point north of
Nanaimo to an inlet of .the sea reached by Mr. Home, and beg to
submit for your information, and that of the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, the result of such observations
as I was able to make, together with a map on which they are laid
down.
As it was rather late in the season, I was not able to take many
observations, and the map must be regarded as a mere reconnaissance, which would, however, materially assist in any future survey,
the part about Barclay Sound being the least accurate.
The principal observations attempted being as follows; and the
filling in is by compass and estimation.
A correction is made in the coast-line between Valdez Inlet and
point Leonardo.
The track from Quallchum to Home's Lake is principally through
burnt woods; soil gravelly. Home's Lake is probably 150 feet
above the sea; the summit level between Home's Lake and head of
Alberni Canal is 800 to 900 feet above the sea; the track through
forest, soil gravelly, and indifferent. A better road might be cut a
little to the south of the lake : for a road from Nanaimo to the head
of the canal the country is not yet examined. A ridge of mountains
(some snow on them) occupying- the middle of the island in the direction of its length, but not unbroken, is shown on the map.
Alberni Canal.—Deep ; perfectly free from rocks, or any impediment to navigation; one mile wide; hills 1500 to 1800 feet high
on both sides, covered with pines, and springing from the water's
edge ; small waterfalls from great heights frequent; sandstone met
l 2 Hi III
148
APPENDIX.
II imbi
with at the head of the canal, and occasionally in the rivers; pine
tops on the hills bent from the south-west.
Barclay Sound*, when properly .examined and surveyed, will, I
should think, be found capable of affording admirable shelter to
vessels of any class. The coast between Barclay Sound and Point
Bonilla is dangerous (sunken rocks and heavy seas when wind is
westerly).
Head of Canal to Opochesath.—River broad (say eighty yards) and
(shallow. River to central lake exceedingly rapid—several waters
falls, forty or fifty yards wide—and contains two or three times as
much water as the Nanaimo River does at the same time of year ;
quantities of white cedar on the banks: the scenery about Opochesath and head of the inlet is often very beautiful; but there is no
great extent of valuable or open land.
Central Lake is surrounded by mountains, covered with pines.
Ice said to be very thick on it in the winter; length not ascertained;
after ten miles no bottom at 100 fathoms. Occasional soundings at
low-water in fathoms, in the canal and lakes, are marked on the
map. Fish (trout excepted) and game of all kinds are scarce in the
interior in winter time. Salmon is found in great abundance in the
canal and in the stream falling into it; halibut also; and elk and
deer are plenty on the coast, even near the Indian villages.
Timber.—In the immediate neighbourhood of Barclay Sound, the
land is low and rocky, or swampy, and timber indifferent. Some of
the valleys extending from the canal contain fine timber, and in the
neighbourhood of Opochesath spars of large size. Woods oftenest
met with are, P. Menzies, P. Inops (Hooker), P. Douglasii, hemlock spruce, Weymouth pine, white cedar, and arbutus.
The precautions you were good enough to suggest with regard to
the Indians on the sea-board, who are numerous, were quite necessary, and by availing myself of your better judgment and greater
experience in those matters, I had no difficulty with them. Your
opinion that no confidence is to be placed in them is quite correct.
I have, &c.
J. Despard Pemberton.
* Was subsequently visited by Captain Prevost of H.M.S.S. "Satellite,"
whose opinion of the entrance to Barclay Sound was unfavourable. When
there, I looked for Port Effingham, so highly spoken of by Mears, and confess
I could not find it. Mears' map of the sound bears but little resemblance to
the original. APPENDIX.
149
FROM  COWICHAN  HARBOUR  TO  NITINAT.
To His Excellency the Governor.
Sir,
Victoria, Nov. 12th, 1857.
Early in September last I was honoured by your instructions to
examine and report upon the country between Cowichan Harbour
and Nitinat of the Indians (not the Nitinat usually marked on maps
of Vancouver's Island in Barclay Sound).
The party consisting of myself, Lieutenant Gooch, of H. M,'S.
Satellite, who joined as an amateur, but was afterwards of much
service in every emergency; two marines, and two seamen, selected
from the Satellite by Captain Prevost; two men of the Surveying
Department; and Antoine an Iroquois hunter, — nine men in all;
taking with them ten or twelve days' provision, which with their
arms and ammunition was as much as they could carry ; left Cowichan Harbour on the 4th of September, and reached the Nitinat
camp, on the west coast, safely on the 19th of the same month.
I might have given more time to the examination of this exceedingly interesting section of country, but from the unavoidable
scarcity of hunters in our party, it was necessary to reach the coast
when we did. Game, consisting of elk, black bears, deer and grouse
are to be found on the route, as well as fish in* the rivers and lakes,
but for the reason mentioned our party killed nothing of much use
on the way, except one deer and one bear, another badly wounded
by Antoine having got away.
The principal instruments and chronometer I carried myself, but
as the country is heavily timbered, after passing Mount Prevost, and
the fallen trees slippery to walk on, occasional falls was a thing
unavoidable, which so damaged the instruments that I regret to say
the observations, though taken with the utmost care, proved useless,
and the map annexed a compass sketch.
The valuable tract of country extending from the sea to Mount
Prevost and the Somenos village, you have yourself examined, and
will therefore not require a description of from me. After passing
the Somenos Plains the Cowichan River becomes more rapid, and
the country eovered with pines of different kinds; between the
Somenos Plains and the large lake, several tracts of country eligible
for settlement will be found, but they will require to be cleared.
The situations alluded to will have all the advantages of a fertile
soil, good water, game and fish, variety of timber, the appearance I
150
APPENDIX.
of the surrounding country being generally pretty and cheerful, often
grand. The same remarks will apply to the land in many places
bordering upon the large lake.
In the valleys, Douglas pines, twenty-three feet to twenty-eight
feet in circumference, are not uncommon. Indians occasionally hunt
and fish on the border of the large lake, and the stumps of huge
cedars, cut down at its western extremity, show that they once
manufactured their largest canoes there. We met no Indians between
Somenos village and South River. In rounding Mount Gooch we
passed through a forest of hemlock-spruce, larger than any I. had
seen before, often eight or nine feet in diameter.
South River contains a large body of water, has several falls, a
considerable quantity of flat land on its banks, particularly on the
right bank; pine-trees (P. Menzies) six feet to nine feet diameter,
of corresponding height, standing at regular intervals; the undergrowth of raspberries, ferns, &c. being exceedingly thick. The
banks of Nitinat Inlet are rocky on the west side, and mountainous
on the east. Off the entrance, which in one place does not look
more than one hundred feet wide, there appears to be a bar. I
was not able to take soundings.
The tide rushing out through this narrow entrance with great
velocity, and meeting the tide coming in, makes a whirlpool, which
has a very remarkable appearance. Perhaps at high water a vessel
of large size could be floated in, as the water then is still.
Gold-bearing rocks are met with in the mountains, sandstone is
frequently found in the beds of the rivers ; the coast about Nitinat
is formed of sandstone, and small seams of coal are occasionally
met with in it; in the inlet I noticed one large cliff of bluish primitive limestone.
Trusting that the circumstances mentioned in the earlier part of
this report will somewhat excuse its incompleteness,
I have, &c.
J. Despard Pemberton.
EXTRACT  FROM  JOURNAL  OF CAPTAIN  VANCOUVER.
" Fetched five miles to the S. E. of the breakers, into the entrance
of an opening that had the appearance of admitting us a considerable
way up, though in the Spanish charts this inlet is not noticed.
" In this neighbourhood there is a greater extent of low country APPENDIX;
151
than about Nootka or Clayoquot; it produces forest trees of many
sorts and of considerable size; and, on examination, there might
probably be found a more eligible situation for an establishment
than at either of those places."
This place ought, if only in compliment to the great navigator,
to be carefully examined.
FORT  SIMPSON  TO  THE  INTERIOR  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Extract of a Letter from Mr. William Downie, giving an account of
his Journey from Victoria to Queen Charlotte's Island^ and thence
by Fort Simpson to Fort St. James, Stuart Lake.
Sir,
Stuart's Lake, Oct. 10th, 1859.
I beg to make the following report of my trip to Queen Charlotte's
Island, and my journey thence by Fort Simpson to the interior of
British Columbia.
I left Fort Simpson for the Skeena river on the 5th of August.
From Fort Simpson to Port Essington is about forty miles. The
salt water here appears a light blue colour, and runs inland about
thirty miles; the coarse grained quartz of Fort Simpson is no longer
seen here; granite appears. The banks of the river are low, with
small hard wood, and cotton-trees on its margin, with some good-
sized white oaks, the finest I have seen west of Fraser River.
Vessels drawing more than four feet of water cannot go more
than twenty miles up the Skeena river, and it is very unlike the
deep inlets to the southward. At our camp here some Indians
visited us; they told us they were honest, but in the morning the
absence of my coat rather negatived their statement. Next day we
found the river shoal even for loaded canoes, as it had fallen much.
I went up a small river at our next camp, called Scenatoys, and the
Indians showed me some crystallised quartz, and to my surprise a
small piece with gold in it, being the first I have seen in this part.
The Indian took me to a granite slide, whence he asserted the piece
of quartz in question had come from; I found some thin crusts of
fine quartz, but nothing like a rich vein. Ten miles further I
found more fine grained quartz, but no gold. I am of opinion, however, that good paying quartz will be found here.
From the small river just mentioned at the mouth of the Skeena
or Port Essington, it is seventy-five miles; a little below it, an Indian
trail leads to Fort Simpson; it is through a low pass, and the distance
is not great.
l 4 wmm
te&tt
152
APPENDIX.
•ibf
From this, ten miles further up, is a small river called the Foes,
on the south side; hence is an Indian trail to Kitloops, on *the
Salmon River. The south branch of Salmon River is called Kit-
tama.
By this time we were fairly over the coast range of mountains, arid
those ahead of us did not look very high. The current here wate
strong, and much labour required to get the canoe along, and we
had to pull her up by a rope from the shore.
Gold is found here, a few specks t© the pan, and the whole
country looks like a gold country with fine bars and flats, and clay
on the bars. The mountains look red, and slate and quartz can be
seen.
Our next camp was at the village of Kitthalaska; and I started
in a light canoe ahead of my party, as our canoe, by all accounts,
could not get much further; I then determined to penetrate to Fort
Fraser (supposed to mean establishment of H. B. Company).
The Indian who was with me informed me that*a large stream
called the Kitchumsala comes in from the north, the land on it is
good, and well adapted for farming; the Indians grow plenty of
potatoes here. To the south a small stream, called the Chimkootsh,
enters, on the south-west of which is the Plumbago Mountain; I
had some of it in my hand; it is as clear as polished silver, and runs
in veins of quartz. Near this are the words " Pioneer H. B. C." on
a tree nearly overgrown with the bark. The Indian told me this
was cut by Mr. John Work, a long time ago. From here to the
village of Kitcoonsa the land improves, the mountains recede from
the river, and fine flats run away four or five miles back to the
mountain sides, where the smoke is seen rising from the Indian huts;
they are occupied in picking and drying berries for the winter.
The Indians here were very kind to me, and wished me to build a
house and live with them.
Above the village of Kitcoonsa the prospect of gold is less; below
it, a man could make a dollar a day. As the season was so advanced I was not able to prospect the hills which look so well about;
here, and unless the Government take it in hand it will be a long
time before the mineral resources of this part of British Columbia
are known. I think this is the best looking mineral country I have
seen in British Columbia.
From here to the village of Kitsogatala the river is rocky and
dangerous, and our canoe was split from stem to stern.
Here we enter an extensive coal country, the seams being cut
through by the river, and running up the banks on both sides, vary-*
ing iu thickness from three to thirty-five feet. APPENDIX.
153
The veins are largest on the north-east side, and sandstone
appears; it is soft, and gives easily to the pick.
The veins dip into the bank for a mile in length, and could be
easily worked on the face by tunnels, and also by sinking' shafts at
the rear on the flats, as they run into banks of soft earth. I have
seen no coal like this in all my travels in British Columbia or Van-?
couver Island. Here Me had some danger from Indians, but a small
present of tobacco, and putting aside all fear, or even appearance of
it, succeeded in quieting them. I find it best to be cool and determined in the prospect of a fight.
The land around Naas Glee is first rate, and wild hay and long
grass abounds. Potatoes are not grown here. There is no heavy
pine timber in the neighbourhood, and the canoes are made of
cotton wood.
Our course from Naas Glee to Fort Killamaurs, was N. E, and the
distance about fifty miles. The land is good the whole way, with
long grass on the benches near Fort Killamaurs. This is a very
lovely place, and no sound to be heard save one,—our voice. It
seems a great pity to see this beautiful land, so well adapted for the
wants of man, laying waste, when so many Englishmen and Scotchmen would be glad to come here and till the soil. Babine Lake is
deep, and in some places five or six miles wide; there are islands
and points of land to afford shelter from the storm, wherever the
wind blows from.
At the head of Babine Lake there is a fine site for a town, and
a good harbour could be made. A stream runs down here which
would supply water for the town. This is what I call the head
waters of Skeena River. There is plenty of water in the lake for
steamers, and it is a hundred miles in length. From here to Stuart's
Lake there is a portage over a good trail, and through the finest
grove of cotton wood I have ever seen, to Stuart's Lake; the ground
was thickly strewed with golden leaves, giving the scene an autumnal
appearance, altogether different to what we expected to find in
British Columbia.*
William Downie.      . ;
To His Excellency, Oovebnob Douglas, C. B., &c. &c.
* The harbour of Fort Simpson is a very safe, though not a perfect, harbour;
the anchorage is good. It is apparently exposed to the west and south-west,
but it is protected from the swell by a reef, covered at high water and exposed
at half tide. This harbour may be by and by of importance, especially if it
shall be found necessary to open a road into the northern part of British Columbia, direct from the coast.—J. D. P. ■j&'M
154
APPENDIX.
DOUBLINGS CAPE HORN.
For the information of persons intending to emigrate by long sea,
Who will naturally wish to know at what times and under what circumstances the voyage round the Horn is most favourably made, the
following remarks, extracted from " Navigation of the Pacific," by
Captain A. B. Becher, R.N. F.R.A.S. &c. 1860, are here inserted:—
Doubling Cape Horn from the Atlantic.—-Seamen who have
doubled Cape Horn have given different directions on some points
of the subject, but those will be adopted here which appear to be
the most trustworthy. But before pointing out the proper routes it
may be right to say a word or two on the most favourable season for
entering the Pacific from the eastward.
Captain J. Weddel grounds his opinion on the experience of five
years in navigating these parts, and considers the months of March
and April as the worst for doubling Cape Horn. He says the difficulties of doubling this cape may be greatly dimuiished by choosing
the proper season for it, and loss of time may be avoided as well as
injury to the ship.
In the beginning of November northerly winds set in and continue
till the middle of February, when they are succeeded by those from
S. W. During these months the westerly wind is not of long duration, and then the passage is easily made. From the 20th of February, or thereabouts, to the middle of May the winds generally vary
between S.W. and N.W., and are very strong. During this time,
therefore, a badly-found ship and one that is not tight should not
attempt the passage. But from the middle of May to the end of
June the prevailing winds are easterly, with fine weather; and these
six weeks offer a good opportunity for doubling the cape, even in
sight of the island of Diego Ramirez. Then in July, August, September, and October the prevailing winds vary from S.W. to N.W.,
and August and September are especially stormy months.
These remarks appear conclusive as to the best time for doubling
Cape Horn.
As to the route to be adopted when from the eastward, continues
Capt. Weddle, this greatly depends on the time of being off the cape,
and on the strength of the westerly winds which prevail in these
latitudes. I prefer, under all circumstances, to pass west of the
Falkland Islands. In the summer the Strait of Lemaire may be
taken, as it shortens the passage by fifty or sixty miles; and this may
be done without danger, provided we have daylight for clearing it,
admitting that at the southern end we meet with southerly winds.
Cape Horn is about thirty-one leagues from Cape Good Success, APPENDIX.
155
with Barnevelt Island between them. If desirous of anchoring near
Cape Horn the route S.b.W.JW. (compass) during the night will take
a ship clear of the N.W. current, which sometimes sets among the
islands at the entrance of Nassau Strait. If not intending to anchor,
the most advantageous route after leaving the Strait of Lemaire
would be to make to the southward, passing south of the cape and
Diego Ramirez at a distance of several miles.
In the summer, when working westward in the vicinity of the cape,
towards evening take care to be near the coast,of Terra del Fuego,
because during the night northerly winds often come off the land and
veer west in the morning. This, however, depends in a great
measure on the seasons mentioned for passing Cape Horn. In fact,
during those months when the wind is most violent, as in March,
August, and September, the seaman should follow the directions
given by Anson and King, who recommend standing to the south as
far as 60°, where a smoother sea and more moderate and steadier
winds will be found. Nevertheless, when a ship is obliged to make
her passage along the coast, the places where she may anchor with
safety are Wigwam Bay, Port Maxwell, Indian Cove, New Year
Sound, and Clear Bottom Bay.
Such are generally the remarks of Captain Weddel. We will now
see what others say on doubling the cape.
As we have already observed, Captain King recommends a ship
from the Atlantic intending to double Cape Horn to run down the
coast of Patagonia at a hundred miles distance. Captain Fitz-Roy
does not agree in this opinion. I do not think, he says, that it would
be important for a large well-built vessel to keep near the east coast
of Patagonia. The sea, it is true, is smoother there, but the current
near the coast sets northward, with more strength than out at sea.
But, when in sight of the coast no ice is met, while further east it is
found even north of the parallel of 40° S. Instead of going to the
south as far as the parallel of 60° S., as Captain King says, I prefer
to work to the westward near Terra del Fuego, towards Nassau Bay.
In Orange Bay a ship may await a favourable moment to make a long
board to the west. If disappointed of this, she may return to her
anchorage under Black Island in Euston Bay, or elsewhere, and
await a more favourable time. To make westing is the principal
object to be kept in view till we reach the meridian of 82° west.
We do not find ice near Terra del Fuego, but frequently meet with
it seaward from this island. In the route here pointed out near
Cape Horn and the land many dangers and injuries to the vessel will
be avoided by remaining quietly at anchor during the bad weather,
and profiting by any change of weather or wind to make westing. It
appears from this that Fitz-Roy prefers in all cases the route nearest Igggj
P! ll !
156
APPENDIX.
the land. Weddel's opinion differs from his, for he advises this route
during summer, and the sea route down to the parallel of 60° or
thereabouts during winter.
Fitz-Roy's opinion is here supported by that of Cook, La Perouse,
and Krusenstern, as well as Capt. Beechey. I do not see, says this
officer, the necessity for going far south to double Cape Horn. One
thing I only recommend, namely, to adopt that tack on which most
westing is made without thinking of latitude further than to pass
twenty leagues south of this cape. With north-west winds I should
run south-west, and with south-west winds north-west, and in case
neither board is favourable, I would stand to the southward, unless
I was in too high a latitude. The strongest winds are not found
near the coast, as is supposed; quite the contrary: and at thirty
miles from it, the sea breaks from the inequality of the bottom.
There is, however, one serious objection to approaching the coast
east of Cape Horn, and that is, the rapidity with which the current
sets across Lemaire Strait, particularly with southerly winds. This
is not the case west of Diego Ramirez, and I do not see any objection
in this part to approach the coast to about forty or sixty miles. Near-
Diego Ramirez I found little or no current.
When doubling Cape Horn from the eastward, we should pass
inside or west of the Falkland Islands, and pass east of Staten Island,
but as near as possible to it, because south-west winds are often met
with as soon as the Pacific Ocean is open. North-west winds off
the Falklands generally become west or south-west as Staten Island
is approached, and'with the wind from west off this island we have
only to run south. However, this course need not be taken unless
we can make westing. Even if we gain little or nothing on the other
tack, we should keep near the shore, for there is no advantage in
making southing if it is not to avoid losing in the westing.. We
should not, however, take much liberty with the coast while east
of Cape Horn. Such are the most general rules for doubling this
cape;
As to passing through Lemaire Strait, or outside Staten Island,
opinions differ. The prudent course is to adopt the latter, although
the passage through the straits gains to windward and shortens the
route. But with a southerly wind it should never be taken, for with
the tide running against the wind,, the sea in the strait becomes boisterous. With a calm it would still be wrong to adopt it, unless the
west coast of the strait (for anchorage) cannot be reached, on account
of the tide setting toward Staten Island. Everywhere else the anchorage is in deep water and close to the shore. However, with
northerly winds, this route appears to be very advantageous. Such
is King's opinion, and Captain Fitz-Roy's also, whose opinion is un- APPENDIX.
157
questioned, and who considers that there is no difficulty in taking
Lemaire Strait. The only danger to be apprehended is calm. Vessels
from the southward are not very liable to this danger, in south-west
Winds at least; and in this case they would probably find north-west
winds in the northern part of the strait. The Bay of Good Success
is, however, admirably situated for affording shelter should wind or
tide fail.
In passing Staten Island from the southward, the tide rips, extend-:
ing some distance off the north-east part of the island, should be
avoided; but there are no dangers near the island. The foregoing
is sufficient to convey an idea as to how to double Cape Horn from
the eastward.
Most seamen who have frequented these latitudes (as King, Basil
Hall, Beechey, La Perouse, &c.) agree that the barometer does not
give any certain indications near Cape Horn, and that it can only be
depended on in middle latitudes. That although the mercury often
rises or falls before a change in the weather, the rising or tailing
more often follows the change. The mean height of the barometer
is 29-5 inches. With north-west winds the mercury is low; if it
falls to 29'0 or 28'8 inches, expect south-west winds, which only
commence when the mercury ceases to fall. But again, a fall in the
mercury often occurs without being followed by any change in the
weather.
Magellan Strait.—In reference to the Straits of Magellan, King's"
directions for the Patagonian coast must be followed by vessels from
the Atlantic to the Pacific. For steamers, especially if small, this
passage will be advantageous; but with a sailing vessel it is both
tedious and dangerous.
For a small vessel coming from the Pacific to the Atlantic, the
passage of Magellan Strait is very advantageous. It is always safe,
very nearly as quick, and not so dangerous as the route by Cape Horn.
Thus: entering by the Gulf of Trindad, she would take Conception
Strait, Sacramento or St. Esteban, then Smyth Channel, and the
strait at Cape Tamar. In these channels northerly winds prevail,
and anchorages are at hand to pass the night in.
The winter months are undoubtedly the best for the Straits of
Magellan when going west. When coming from west the summer
months are preferable; the nights being short and westerly winds
prevailing.
Doubling Cape Horn from West.—Passing from the Pacific into the
Atlantic Ocean by Cape Horn, the principal objections are: dark
cloudy weather, a heavy sea, and floating ice. For a large ship the
passage is easy enough, and the summer months (January and February) are considered as the most favourable for it.    A small vessel 158
APPENDIX.
having doubled the cape, would do better, and find a smoother sea,
by passing inside the Falkland Islands from Lemaire Strait. For a
large vessel, Beechey considers it preferable to pass east of the Falkland Islands, especially in the winter, because the wind has then a
hankering for the eastward, and thus, when past the islands, she would
be in a good possition for reaching the River Plata.
One of the most formidable dangers of doubling Cape Horn is
that of smashing a low iceberg at night, when it is blowing fresh and
a heavy sea running. According to all seamen it appears that in the
winter and spring months (July, August, and September) they are
most commonly met with. Sometimes these floating masses are only
a few yards above the water, and therefore very difficult to discover
in the night. In the dark nights of winter these dangers therefore
are to be provided against by the best look-out that can be kept: for
they are mostly met in fresh winds and a heavy sea. And as Captain
Basil Hall advises, it will be best at night under such circumstances
to lie off the cape. With fine weather and a quiet night small sail
may be carried, but the look-out should be doubled, the greatest possible precautions adopted, the sails being set so as not to prevent
the watch from seeing all round. The following precaution is recommended by him. Having reefed the topsails and courses, the
yards should be braced nearly sharp up, bowlines hauled, and every
thing ready for going about in the night, however the wind might
come. Then when an iceberg is seen near ahead it may be avoided
by putting the helm up or down. In all cases the yards braced in
renders either plan easy of execution.
The foregoing are the best instructions seamen can have for doubling
Cape Horn under all circumstances; and we will now consider the
navigation of the western coast of America.
Navigation of the West Coast of America.—The navigation of the
western coast of America presents no difficulties, care being taken, if
going north, to keep in Humboldt's Current; and in running along the
north coast during summer advantage should be taken of the Mexican
Current. Thus the passage may be easily made from the Straits of
Magellan to Acapulco, by taking care to profit by the monsoons of
the Chili coast; and the passage will be shorter or longer according
as the monsoon is favourable or not.
i
II mm
APPENDIX.
. REPORT OF ANALYSIS OF TWO SAMPLES OF WATER FROM VANCOUVER
ISLAND.
Sample A, marked March 17,1854, taken from Salt Spring Island,
(Admiral Island.)
Sample B, marked March 30, 1854, taken from a Salt Spring at
Nanaino.
Summary,
The results of the analysis show the following to be the constitution of the two waters: —
In the Imperial Gallon.
Soluble. A. B.
Grains. Grains.
Chloride of sodium, and traces of other salts . 4994 3446
Insoluble.
Impurity        .....
Total contents in Imperial gallons
Saline matter (chiefly salt)
Water
160
nil
5154
3446
■    '
	
eight per
cent:—
A.
B.
6-5
4-9
935
95-1
100-0
100-0
The quantity of common salt in the imperial gallon of B. is about
twice as great as in Atlantic sea-water, and it could much more
easily be obtained pure, as it is not contaminated with the salts of
magnesia.
The water B., although less rich in salt than A., is preferable to the
latter for the extraction of salt. The product from B. is purer. The
springs are far from being saturated brine. Water will dissolve
four times as much salt as is eontained in B. I have found the
water of the Dead Sea in Palestine to contain as much as twenty-four
per cent., three-fourths of this being common salt.
Alfred Swaine Taylor, MX). F.R.S.
Lecturer on Chemistry, &c, in Guy's Hospital.
Chemical Laboratory, Guy's Hospital,
October 21st, 1854.
Samples of the salt extracted from A and B are at the laboratory,
under the care of the assistant, Mr. Andrews.1
1 Those interested in the manufacture of salt from brine springs I would 160
APPENDIX.
PROFESSOR JAMES TENNANT ON THE ROCKS OF VANCOUVER
ISLAND.
• Sir,
149 Strand, November 29th, 1852.
I send the names of the specimens; those marked with a * are
on the first page. Several of these, viz. 5*, 8*, 9*, and 13* contain
gold, although I do not find gold in Nos. 6*, 10*, and 14*. I believe the vein from which the specimens were taken does contain it.
I have not found gold in any of the specimens from No. 1 to 43
without a * on page No. 2.
I have, &c.
James Tennant.
To the Secretary,
Hudson's Bay House.
Page 1.
No. 1*.      Dark coloured compact limestone, with veins of calcareous
spar.
2*.      Veins of quartz partly crystallised) in which no gold is to
be seen.
3*.      Serpentine.
.4*A.    Quartz crystallized.
4*b,    Clay slate, or killas.
4*c.    Clay slate, with minute crystals of iron pyrites, and veins
of quartz..
5*.      Part of quartz vein, with particles of gold disseminated.
6*d.    Clay slate, containing crystals of iron pyrites, and veins of
quartz.
6*e. Clay slate.
7*.      Dark coloured limestone rock,  with   calcareous spar,
similar to No. 1.
refer to the Prize Essay on the Manufacture of Salt, by Mr. H. Owen Hus-
kisson, which obtained the Society's medal; Parliamentary Report on the
subject in 1836; Fownes's Chemistry; and Ure's Dictionary of Arts and Manufactures ; also, Utah and the Mormons, by Ferris. The American Patent
Office Reports of 1857 (vol. Agricultural) contain an interesting article on the
manufacture of salt from brine springs, as practised in America, copied from
the Illinois Journals.—J. D. P. APPENDIX,
10*.
11*.
12*.
13*.
14*
Part of a vein of quartz imperfectly crystallised, containing
gold.
Clay slate, with small crystals of iron pyrites and veins of
quartz partly crystallised, the latter containing a small
quantity of gold.
Clay slate, with numerous small crystals of iron pyrites,
and veins of quartz crystallised.
Clay slate; this with Nos. 4, 6, 9, 10, 13, and 14 contains
much silica.
Serpentine.
Clay slate, containing  numerous  small crystals of iron
pyrites and veins of quartz; in the latter particles of
gold are distributed.
Quartz, partly crystallised, containing a small quantity of
auriferous iron pyrites.
(Signed)
James Tennant.
THE   PACIFIC   SQUADRON.      NAVAL  STATION.
(From The Times Correspondent, June 26, 1860.)
It is true, that if all that is required for a naval station be so
much water for so many ships to float and to anchor in, and so
many acres of ground for docks in a wilderness, these essentials are
obtainable in Burrard's Inlet, which is about five miles across
country from New Westminster. But, as the naval station placed
in that locality involves the navigation of a portion of the Straits of
Fuca, of the whole of the Canal de Haro (under the guns of the
American batteries if San Juan be given up), together with the
crossing of the Gulf of Georgia, often a tempestuous sea, as well as
the other inland waters which intervene between Burrard's Inlet
and Esquimalt and the ocean, all of which navigation would be an
addition to a voyage long enough already, and which would be
avoided by leaving the squadron to rendezvous at Esquimalt, where
the ships now lie, most competent judges prefer Esquimalt for the
head-quarters of the .squadron. Esquimalt is near the ocean, easily
accessible by day and night now that a lighthouse is placed at its
entrance. It has good anchorage in Royal Bay, just outside, where
a fleet could ride. Besides these conveniences, it possesses great
facilities for fortifications over every other harbour in the Pacific
M 162
APPENDIX.
Ocean, It could be made impregnable at less cost than any other
harbour in these seas could be rendered partially secure ; and it is
well situated for supplying ships to defend the entrance into the
Straits of Fuca—a measure to the accomplishment of which " Port
San Juan," situated on Vancouver's Island, near the entrance, possesses important facilities in having a good harbour three miles long,
and capable of anchoring a fleet in safety. From this port one or
two ships could, blockade the entrance, and make Fuca's Straits a
British lake, while Esquimalt is close at hand to afford supplies and
all necessary assistance.
While these are some of the advantages of Esquimalt, let us
glance at the disadvantages and inconveniencies of making Burrard's
Inlet the head-quarters.
The tedious navigation to and fro between Esquimalt and the
inlet I have already mentioned. There is also the additional expense of provisioning the squadron. At Victoria the men-of-war
get all they want, and at Esquimalt itself there is a bakery which
supplies them with biscuit. The Admiral's communications .with
England would be delayed considerably if he were on the coast of
British Columbia. Shut up in the inlet the squadron would be out
of the way, and distant from the points in the Straits of Fuca where
its services must always be most needed. Vancouver's Island will
be the point of attack, if an attack is made on one of these colonies
by any hostile power, as it must be secured to make the continent
tenable if taken, so that if Burrard's Inlet were made the naval
station it would involve this anomaly, — that while the headquarters were over there, the ships would always be stationed here.
The naval station must be at Esquimalt.
HORSE-RACING  IN  CALIFORNIA.
From Bell's Life, July 1st., 1860.
Sacramento Races (Contreville Course').
First day, Tuesday,.April 24.—A purse of 800 dollars, for all ages;
Metairie Club weights ; heats, one mile.
H. Peyton's gr. f. Susy Hawkins, by Jack Hawkins out of Lola
Montez, by Gray Eagle, 2 yrs. . . . .11
M. Morison's ro. f. Kate Mitchell, by Ned Murray, dam ,
2 yrs.   . . . ..    •        . . . .2    dis
J. Merritt's (A. F. Grigsby's) b. c. Billy Hood, by Imp. Lawyer,
dam , 2 yrs. . . . . . .3    dis
Time, 1: 52—1: 53|. APPENDIX.
163
Second day, April 25. — A purse of 600 dollars, free for all ages ;
Metairie Club weights; heats, two miles.
N. Coomb's ch. h. Billy Cheatham, by Cracker out of Lucy, by
Mingo, 6 yrs.   . . . . . .11
E. S. Lathrop's (W. M. Williamson's) b. m. Bonny Belle, by Belmont out of Iiz Givens, by Imp. Langford, 6 yrs.       . .22
First heat             .           .           .    1: 51|—1: 56 —3 : 47|
Second heat         »           .           .    1: 55 —1: 52|—3 : 47§
Third day, April 26.—Great Match for 10,000 dollars (four
heats), between the CaHfornian-bred colt Langford and the
tucky-bred colt Ashland.
E. S. Lathrop's ch. c. Langford, by Belmont out of
Liz Givens, by Imp. Langford, 4 yrs, 100 lb. up  .   W. Pierce    1
Hon. N. Coomb's b. h. Ashland, by Imp. Glencoe
out of Mary Bell, by Sea Gull, 5 yrs., 1101b. up . J. Williams    2
First heat . . .    1:52
Second heat . . .    1: 54 —3 : 46
Third heat . . .    1: 57|—5 : 43|
Fourth heat . . .    2:00^-7:43f
Match for 100 dollars ; heats, one mile, to rule.
J. Merritt's b. c. Billy Hood, 2 yrs. . . .1
J. B. James's gr. g. Jim Thurnan, 3 yrs.. . . .2
Time, 1: 56—2 : 08i
mile
Ken-
Fourth day, April 27.—The Proprietors' purse of 300 dollars; free-
for all ages; heats, one mile ; best three in five.
Capt. H. Peyton's gr. f. Susy Hawkins, 2 yrs„ (pedigree, &c.
as above)    . . . . . . .111
E. S. Lathrop's (W. M. Williamson's) b. m. Bonnie Belle, 6
yrs. (pedigree as above)     . . . . .222.
• Time, 1: 51|—1: 52—1: 50^
LAW OF  LAND SALES IN THE  COLONIES..
As the law itself is short, and to  intending  settlers  particularly
interesting, it is inserted here, omitting the preamble :—
1. That from and after the date hereof, (January 4th, I860,)
British subjects and aliens who shall take the oath of allegiance to
Her Majesty and her successors, may acquire unoccupied and unreserved, and unsurveyed Crown land in British Columbia (not being
the site of an existent or proposed town, or auriferous land available.
m 2 164
APPENDIX.
for mining purposes, or an Indian Reserve or Settlement,) in fee
simple, under the following conditions.
2. The person desiring to acquire any particular plot of land of
the character aforesaid, shall enter into possession thereof and record
his claim to any quantity not exceeding 160 acres thereof, with the
magistrate residing nearest thereto, paying to the said magistrate the
sum of eight shillings for recording such claim. Such piece of land
shall be of a rectangular form, and the shortest side of the rectangle
shall be at least two-thirds of the longest side. The claimant shall
give the best possible description thereof to the magistrate with
whom his claim is recorded, together with a rough plan thereof, and
identify the plot in question by placing at the corners of the land
four posts, and by stating in his description any other land marks on
the said 160 acres, which he may consider of a noticeable character.
3. Whenever the Government survey shall extend to the Hand
claimed, the claimant who has recorded his claim as aforesaid, or his
heirs, or in case of the grant of certificate of improvement hereinafter
mentioned, the assigns of such claimant shall, if he or they shall have
been in continuous occupation of the same land from the date of the
record aforesaid, be entitled to purchase the land so pre-empted at
such rate as may, for the time being, be fixed by the Government
of British Columbia, not exceeding the sum of ten shillings per acre.
4. No interest in any plot of land acquired as aforesaid, shall
before payment of the purchase money, be capable of passing to a
purchaser unless the vendor shall have* obtained a certificate from
the nearest magistrate that he has made permanent improvements on
the said plot to the value of ten shillings per acre.
5. Upon payment of the purchase money, a conveyance of the
land purchased shall be executed in favour of the purchaser, reserving the precious minerals, with a right to enter and work the same
in favour of the Crown, its assigns and licencees.
6. Priority of title shall be obtained by the person first in occupation, who shall first record his claim in manner aforesaid.
7. Any person authorised to acquire land under the provisions of
this Proclamation, may purchase in addition to the land pre-empted,
in manner aforesaid, any number of acres not otherwise appropriated,
at such rate as may be fixed by the Government, at the time when
such land shall come to be surveyed, not to exceed ten shillings per
acre ; five shillings to be paid down, and the residue at the time of
survey.
8. In the event of .the Crown, its assigns or licencees, availing
itself, or themselves, of the reservation mentioned in clause 5, a
reasonable compensation for the waste and damage done, shall be
paid by the person entering and working, to the person whose land APPENDIX.
165
shall be wasted or damaged as aforesaid, and in case of dispute, the
same shall be settled by a jury of six men to be summoned by the
nearest Magistrate.
9. Whenever any person shall permanently cease to occupy land
pre-empted as aforesaid, the Magistrate resident nearest to the land
in question may in a summary way, on being satisfied of such permanent cessation, cancel the claim of the person so permanently
ceasing to occupy the same, and record the claim thereto of any
other person satisfying the requisitions aforesaid.
10. The decision of the Magistrate may be appealed by either
party to the decision of the Judge of the Supreme Court of Civil
Justice of British Columbia.
11. Any person desirous of appealing in manner.aforesaid, may
be required, before such appeal be heard, to find such security as
may be hereafter pointed out by the rules or orders hereinafter
directed to be published.
12. The procedure before the Magistrate and Judge respectively,
shall be according to such rules and orders as shall be published by
such Judge with the approbation of the Governor for the time of
British Columbia.
13. Whenever a person in occupation at the time of record aforesaid, and he, his heirs, or assigns, shall have continued in permanent
occupation of land pre-empted, or of land purchased as aforesaid, he
or they may, save as hereinafter mentioned, bring ejectment or trespass against any intruder upon the land so pre-empted or purchased,
to the same extent as if he or they were seized of the legal estate in
possession in the land so pre-empted or purchased.
14. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as giving a right
to any claimant to exclude free miners from searching for any of the
precious minerals, or working the same upon the conditions aforesaid.
15. The Government shall, notwithstanding any claim, record, or
conveyance aforesaid, be entitled to enter and take such portion of
the land pre-empted or purchased as may be required for roads or
other public purposes.
16. Water privileges and the right of carrying water for mining
purposes, may, notwithstanding any claim recorded, purchase or
conveyance aforesaid, be claimed and taken upon, under or over the
said land so pre-empted or purchased as aforesaid by free miners
requiring the same, and obtaining a grant or licence from the Gold
Commissioner, and paying a compensation for waste or damage to
the person whose land may be wasted or damaged by such water
privilege or carriage of water, to be ascertained in case of dispute in
manner aforesaid.  .
17. In case any dispute shall arise between persons with regard 166
APPENDIX.
to any land so acquired as aforesaid, any one of the parties in difference may, (before ejectment or action of trespass brought,) refer the
question in difference to the nearest Magistrate, who Is hereby
authorised to proceed in a summary way to restore the possession of
any land in dispute to the person whom he may deem entitled to
the same, and to abate all intrusions, and award and levy such costs
and damages as he may think fit.
That the measure before detailed will require some modification
and amendment appears probable.
For instance, if Clauses 1 and 2 were carried out in their integrity,
the future survey of the country would prevent the confusion of
posts and land landmarks, and the kaleidoscopic appearance exhibited
in figure No. 1.
Fig. I.
And in point of economy, a decided mistake would be made,
viz. that the marking of allotments and survey of the country would
fail to be executed in a single operation.
I should recommend instead the decimal system of allotment,
adopted with perfect success in Vancouver Island. Main lines are
run, 1J mile apart, forming squares of 1000 acres each, within which
allotments of any size required can be arranged ad libitum to suit any
frontage. Where the land is valueless, the detailed surveys within
the great squares are omitted; and in this way, with the greatest
facility, any part of the country is surveyed roughly or minutely,
according to its value, and connected with the rest, which will be
at once understood by a glance at fig. 2. APPENDED
Fig. 2.
167
.00 CHS.
IOO CHS.
IOO CHS.
>OOCH«.
]
i
IOOAC  j   ICO AC
IOO AC.   i
:iii;i |
p|p!p j p! o
|
I20AC.   j       J
i
K
I
I-
|
|
I
Adopting this view, the claimant would of course have to be
content to accept the lines of the allotment which might include his
improvements.
In Clause No. 3. I should think it will be ultimately found necessary to name *an exact time when the survey may be expected to
take place, and the claimant be required to pay for the land.
And in Clause 17. If the dispute should be one of boundaries,
one would suppose that the difficulty ought to be referred to the
Surveyor-general; that a magistrate, unless he brushed up his
mathematics to some purpose, might have considerable difficulty in
settling it.
AS  TO  THE  PURCHASE  OF LANDS BY  ALIENS.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island, November 25, 1858.
1. According to the law of England, which is also the law of
British Columbia, an alien may hold lands, but is liable to have
them declared forfeited to the crown at any time.
2. No alien can be disturbed in the possession of lands by any
other person than the Crown authorities by reason only of his being
an alien. 168
APPENDIX.
3. The Colonial Government proposes to secure to aliens the full
rights of possession and enjoyment of any lands which they may
purchase at this sale for the space of three years. A# the end of
that time they must, if they wish to continue to hold the lands,
either become themselves naturalised British subjects, or else convey
their rights to British subjects. Such conveyances it is the intention
of the Colonial Government not to disturb on the ground of any
vendor being an alien.
4. It is the intention of the Colonial Government to endeavour to
-obtain from the Home Government their sanction to measures for
carrying into effect the above views, which measures are now in
preparation; but they must depend, for their full effect, on the
ratification by the Home Governmeut.
The above was issued by the Chief Justice.
Extract from Despatch from Sir E. B. Lytton to Governor Douglas,
August 14, 1858.
4. Foreigners, as such, are not entitled to grants of waste land of
the Crown in British colonies. But it is the strong desire of Her
Majesty's Government to attract to this territory all peaceful settlers,
without regard to nation. Naturalisation should, therefore, be
granted to all who desire it, and are not disqualified by special
causes, and with naturalisation the right of acquiring Crown land
should follow.
RULES  AND   REGULATIONS   FOR   THE  WORKING   OF  GOLD   MINES,
ISSUED IN CONFORMITY WITH THE GOLD FIELDS ACT, 1859.
Whereas it is provided by the Gold Fields Act 1859, that the
Governor, for the time being, of British Columbia, may, by writing
under his hand and the public seal of the colony, make rules and
regulations in the nature of by-laws, for all matters relating to
mining.
And whereas, in conformity with the said Act, certain rules and
regulations have already been issued bearing date the 7th of September, 1859.
1. The mines in the said level benches shall be known as "bench
diggings," and shall for -the purpose of ascertaining the size of claims APPENDIX.
169
therein be excepted out of the class of" dry diggings," as defined in
the rules and regulations of the 7th of September last.
2. The ordinary claims on any bench diggings shall be registered
by the gold commissioner according to such one of the two following
methods of measurement as he shall deem most advantageous on each
mine, viz.: One hundred feet square, or else a strip of land twenty-
five feet deep at the edge of the cliff next the river, and bounded by
two straight lines carried as nearly as possible in each case perpendicular to the general direction of such cliff across the level bench up
to, and not beyond the foot of the descent in the rear; and in such
last mentioned case, the space included between such two boundary
lines when produced over the face of the cliff in front as far as the
foot of such cliff and no farther, and all mines in the space so
included shall also form a part of such claim.
3. The gold commissioner shall have authority in cases where the
benches are narrow to mark the claims in such manner as he shall
think fit, so as to include an adequate claim. And shall also have
power to decide on the cliffs which, in his opinion, form the natural
boundaries of benches.
4. The gold commissioner may in any mine of any denomination
where the pay dirt is thin or claims in small demand, or where from
any circumstances he shall deem it reasonable, allow any free miner
to register two claims in his own name, and allow such period as he
may think proper for non-working either one of such claims. But
no person shall be entitled to hold at one time more than two claims
of the legal size. A discoverer's claim shall for this purpose be
reckoned as one ordinary claim.
5. All claims shall be subject to the public rights of way and water
in such" manner, direction, and extent as the gold commissioner shall
from time to time direct; no mine shall be worked within ten feet
of any road, unless by the previous sanction of the gold commissioner.
6. In order to ascertain the quantity of water in any ditch or
sluice, the following rules shall be observed, viz.,
The water taken into a ditch, shall be measured at the ditch head.
No water shall be taken into a ditch except in a trough whose top
and floor shall be horizontal planes, and sides parallel vertical planes;
such trough to be continued for six times its breadth in a horizontal
direction from the point at which the water enters the trough. The
top of the trough to be not more than seven inches, and the bottom
of the trough not more than seventeen inches below the surface of
the water in the reservoir, all measurements being taken inside the
trough and in the low water or dry season. The area of a vertical
transverse section of the trough, shall be considered as the measure
of the quantity of water taken by the ditch.
N
wmm. 170
APPENDIX.
II
The same mode of measurement shall be applied to ascertain the
quantity of water running in a trough or out of any ditch.
Issued under the Public Seal of the Colony of British Columbia
at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this sixth day of January, in
the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty,
and in the twenty-third year of Her Majesty's reign, by
me,
(L. S.)
James Douglas.
By His Excellency's Command,
William A. G. Young,
Acting Colonial Secretary.
(From The Times of June 26th, 1860.)
From the mines the news was never bettei\ New diggings are
constantly being discovered, and large earnings being made all over
the mining region. The Chinese immigration, which was expected,
is beginning to set in. About 800 Chinamen have arrived within
the last fortnight, some of them in two vessels from China direct,
others from San Francisco. They have nearly all gone up to the
mines.
Accounts from China say that a large immigration may be expected
if the Chinese are well treated.
There are no distinctions made against them in these colonies.
They have the same protection as all other persons, and in the
mines they are allowed the same rights, liberties, and privileges as
all other miners, and the great bulk of the population is very glad
to see them coming into the country. Fears for the result are the
phantoms of a few nervous and ill-informed persons.
From The New Westminster Times of April 11th, 1860.
According to the San Francisco National " arrangements are
making at that port for the conveyance of seven thousand Chinese
passengers to British Columbia ; " and the same authority states that
" it is highly probable that the total departures during the spring
may greatly exceed that number."    Thus we will have during the APPENDIX.
171
summer a Chinese population of at least  10,000,   or more than
double that of our other inhabitants.
" So considerable an accession to the population of the English
possessions, will be very favourably received at this time by our
northern neighbours. The movement of the Chinese in that
direction, affords strong confirmation of the mineral wealth of
British Columbia. This sagacious people do not migrate in large
squads without sufficient preparation and satisfactory assurance that •
they will improve their condition by the change. Their agents
have carefully investigated the Fraser river country, and reported
favourably. It is found to offer better opportunities for the Chinese
than the California gold fields under the present mining regulations.
The sudden exodus of ten thousand or more of Chinese will have
the effect of quieting for a time the irritation against that race
which now prevails pretty generally throughout our diggings."
THE  END. I
LONDON
PRINTED    BY    SPOTTISWOODE    AND    CO.
NEW-STBEET  SQUARE LIST
WORKS IX  GENERAL   LITERATURE
PUBLISHED   BY
MESSRS. LONGMAN,  GREEN, LONGMAN, AND  ROBERTS
39 Paternoster Eow, London.
CLASSIFIED      INDEX,
Agriculture   and   Rural
Affairs.
Bayldou on Valuing Rents, &c.  -
Cecil's Stud Farm
Hoskyns's Talpa   -       -       -
Loudon's Agriculture    -
Low's Elements of Agriculture
Arts,  Manufactures,
Architecture.
"       Legends of Madonna   -
"        Commonplace-Book    -
inig's Picto • lal Life of Luther  -
radon's Rural Architecture
acDougall's Campaigns of Hannibal       -
icDongall's Theory of War
bseley's Engineering -
esse's Art of Perfumery     -
s Art of Horsemanship
i-Eni
aProj.
:s, &c.
,by the Artisan Club
xyofAts,&c.
Biography.
Men
_ s of Scient
Balllie's Memoir of Bate
Brialmont's Wellington
Bunsen's Hippolytus -
Bunting's (Dr.) Life     -
£     Crosse's (Andrew) Memorials
Green's Princesses of England
Harford's Life of Michael Angelo -
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia
*     Marshman's Life of Carey, Marsh-
man, and Ward -       -
8.    Maunder's Biographical Treasury -
■ Morris's Life of Becket
Mountain's (Col.) Memoirs   -
Parry's (Admiral} MeVnoirs  -
Russell's Memoirs of Moore -
"        (Dr.) Mezzofanti -
SchimmelPenninck's (Mrs.) Life -
Southey's Life of Wesley
Stephen'sEcclesiastical Biography
Strickland's Queens of England  -
Sydney Smith's Memoirs
■t Symond's (Admiral) Memoirs
Taylor's Loyola     -
"     Wesley    -      -      -      -
TJwins's Memoirs -       -       -      -
P   Waterton's Autobiography* Essays
I Books of General Utility.
H| Acton's Bread-Book      -      - - 3
"      Cookery    -      -       - - 3
B  Black's Treatise on Brewing - 4
Hf Cabinet Gazetteer 5
a Book    -
: Cust's Invalid's Ow
Hints on Etiquette
I Hudson's Executor's Guide   -      -
■   "    on Making Wills       -
Kesteven's Domestic Medicine
f Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia
| Loudon's Lady's Country Compa-
Pitt's How to Brew Good Beer     -
Pocket and the Stud     -
Pycroft's English Reading    -
Rich's Comp. to Latin Dictionary
Richardson's Art of Horsemanship
Riddle's Latin Dictionaries   -
Roget's English Thesaurus -
Rowton'a Debater -      -       -       -
_   t Whist
Simpson's Handbook of Dinh
Thomson's Interest Tables   -
Webster's Domestic Economy
Willich's Popular Tables
Wilmot's Blackstone    -
Botany and Gardening.
Flora
Theory of Hortic
s Hortus Britannic
Amateur Gardenei
Trees and Shrubs
Gardening
Plants    -
s British Mosse
Chronology.
Brewer's Historical Atlas
Bunsen's Ancient Egypt
Haydn's Beatson's Index
Jaquemet's Chronology
Commerce and Mercantile
Affairs*
Gilbart's Logic of Banking   -       - 8
"       Treatise on Banking      - 8
Lorimer's Young Master Mariner - 13
M'Culloch's Commerce & Navigation 14
Thomson's Interest Tables   -      - 23
Tooke's History of Pi ices     -       - 23
Criticism,    History,    and
Memoirs.
Brewer's Historical Atlas    -   -   - 4
Bunsen's Ancient Egypt 5
"        Hippolytus 5
Chapman's Gustavus Adolphus    - 6
Conybeare and Howson's St. Paul 6
Connolly's Sappers and Miners    - 6
Crowe's History of France    -       - 6
Frazer's Letters during the Peninsular and Waterloo Campaigns 8
Gleig's Essays 8
Gurney's Historical Sketches       - 8
Hayward's Essays                         - 9
Herschel'8 Essays and Addresses - 9
Jeffrey's (Lord) Essays         -       - 11
Kemble's Anglo-Saxons       -       - 11
Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopaedia     - 12
Macaulay's Crit. and Hist. Essays 13
"        History of England    - 13
"        Speeches     -              - 13
Mackintosh's Miscellaneous Works 1
"          History of England - 1
M'Culloch'sGeographicalDictionary I
Maunder's Treasury of History     - I
Merivale's History of Rome -      - 1
"         Roman Republic -       - 1
Milner's Church History       -       - 1
Moore's (Thomas) Memoirs, &c.   - 1
Mnre's Greek Literature       -       - 1
Normanby's Year of Revolution   - ]
Perry's Franks       ...        - ]
Porter's Knights of Malta    -       - ]
Raikes's Journal                             - 1
Riddle's Latin Lexicon - J
Rogers's Essays from Edinb. Review!
"      (Sam.) Recollections     - :
Roget's English Thesaurus  -       - ]
Taylor's Loyola
"       Wesley
Thirlwall>BJHistoi
Vehse's Austrian Court
Wade's England's Greatness
Young's Christ of History    -
Geography and Atlases.
Brewer's Historical Atlas
Butler's Geography and Atlases -
Cabinet Gazetteer -
Johnston's General Gazetteer       -    1
M'Culloch's GeographicalDictionary 14
Maunder's Treasury of Geography   15 |
Murray's Encyclo. of Geography -   16 |
Sharp's British Gazetteer      -      -   ""
Juvenile Books.
Amy Herbert -
CleveHall      -
Earl's Daughter (The) -
Experience of Life
Gertrude        -
Howitt's Boy's Country Book
"      (Mary) Children's Yea
Katharine Ashton -      -      -
Laneton Parsonage
Margaret PercivaF-
Piesse's  Chymical,  Natural,  i
Physical Magic -        -      -
Pycroft's Collegian's Guide  -
Medicine, Surgery, &c.
Brodie's Psychological Inquiries -
Bull's Hints to Mothers -      -
"    Management of Children   -
"     on Blindness
Copland's Dictionary of Medicine -
Cust's Invalid's Own Book    -
Holland's Mental Physiology
"      Medical N otes and Reflect
Kesteven's Domestic Medicine     -   l
Pereira's Materia Medica      -       .   i
Richardson's Cold-Water Cure     -   1
Spencer's Psychology -   2
Todd's  Cyclopaedia  of Anatomv
and Physiology .   o
- LASSIEIED INDEX TO GENERAL CATALOGUE.
Miscellaneous and General I
Literature.
Bacon's (Lord) Works  -       -      -     3
Defence of Eali%>se af Fkifli 7
De Pooblaiajque- on.Asrmy AdminiS!-
Eclipse of Faith - . - - - 7
Fischer's Bacon and Realistic Philosophy - .... 7
Greathed's Letters from Delhi - 8
Greyson's Select Correspondence - 8
Gurney's Evening Recreations - 8
HassaU'sAdulterations Detected,&c. 9
Havdn's Book of Dignities 9
Holland's Mental Physiology - 9
Hooker's Kew Guide -     9
Howitt's Rural Life of England - 10
<i Visi tsto RemarkablePlaces 10
Jameson's Commonplace-Book - 11
Last of the Old Squires - - 17
Letters of a Betrothed -   13
Macaulay's Speeches -    13
Mackintosh's Miscellaneous Works 14
Martineau's Miscellanies - - - 14
Pycroft's English Reading - - 18
Rich's Comp. to Latin Dictionary 18
Riddle's Latin Dictionaries - - 18
Rowton's Debater -    19
. Sir Roger De Coverley - - - 20
Southey's Doctor, &c. - - - 21
Spencer's Essays - - - - 21
Stow's Training System - - 21
Thomson's Laws of Thought - 23
Trevelyan on the Native Languages
of India      -----   23
Willich's Popular Tables      -      -   24
Yonge's English-Greek Lexicon -    24
"      Latin Gradus -       -   24
Zumpt's Latin Grammar      -      -   24
Natural History in general.
Agassiz on Classification      -      - 3
Catlow's Popular Conchology      - 6
Ephemera's Book of the Salmon  - 7
Garratt's Marvels of Instinct - 8
Gosse's Natural History of Jamaica   8
Kirby and Spence's Entomology  - 12
Lee's Elements of Natural History 12
Maunder's Natural History - - 15
Morris's   Anecdotes  in   Natural
History       -       -       -       -       - 16
Quatrefages'Naturalist's Rambles 18
Stonehenge on the Dog         -       - 21
Turton's Shells oftheBritishlslands 23
Van der Hoeven's Zoology   -      - 23
Waterton's Essays on Natural Hfet. 24
Youatt's Work on the Dog   -       - 24
Youatt's Work on the Horse        - 24.
I-Volume   Encyclopaedias
and Dictionaries.
Blaine's Rural Sports    -      -       -     4
Brande's Science,Literature, and Art 4
Copland's Dictionary of Medicine -     6
Cresy's Civil Engineering 8
Gwilt's Architecture 8
Johnston's Geographical Dictionary 11
Loudon's Agriculture    -       -       -    13
"        Rural Architecture        -   13
"       Gardening      -      -      -   13
"       Plants -   13
"       Trees and Shrubs  -      -    13
M'Culloch's GeographicalDictionary 14
"        Dictionary of Commerce 14
Murray's Encyclo. of Geography -   16
Sharp's British Gazetteer     -       -   20
Ure's Dictionary of Arts, &c. -      -   23
Webster's Domestic Economy      -   24
Religious & Moral Works.
Afternoon of Life   -      -      -      - 3
Amy Herbert          -       -       -      - 20
Bloomfield's GreekTestament       - 4
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress       - 5
Calvert's Wife's Manual        -       - 6
Catz and Farlie's Moral Emblems 6
CleveHall     ----- 20
Gon$bea«! an&.Hefwson'B «ft.l**tf 6
Cotton's Instructions in Christianity 6
Dale's Domestic Liturgy 7
Defence of Eclipse of FaWh -      - 7
EariPs-lfaB^ite^(«%E# -     -      - 20
Eclipse of Faith     -      -       - 7
Englishman's Greek Concordance 7
"         Heb.&OaM..GonOT*a. 7
Expertise (The > of Life      -      - 20
Gertrude  20
Harrison's Light of the Forg«      - 8
Home's Introduction tos-Scwptu'Eee 10
"      Abridgmeat'ofdWto        - 10
Hue's Christiaia*y in China-      - 10
Humphreys's Parables Illuminated 11
Ivors : or, the Two Cousins
Jameson's Sacred Legends    -
"      Monastic Legends -
"      Legends of the Madonna
''      Lectures on Female. Employment    ---_.
Jeremy Taylor's Works -      -
Katharine Ashton -
Konig's- Pictorial Life ®f Luther  -
Laneton Parsonage
Letters to my Unknown Friends
Lyra Germanica    -
Magui   ■
Mai
Marshm
t Perc
s Serampore
3 Christian!
Hyi
Studies of Christianity 3
Merivale's Christian Records        - 1
Milner's Church of Christ     -       - 1
J&obirebntheWseofthe Body      - 1
"        "      Soul and Body        - 1
"   's Man and his Motives      - 1
Morning-Clouds                               - 1
Neale's Closing Scene    -       -      - 1
Ptcttison's Earth and Word -       - 3
Powell's Christianity without Judaism                              - 1
"      Order of Nature     -       - 1
Readings for Lent                           - 2
"          Confirmation   -       - 2
Robinson's Lexicon to the Greek
Testament ----- 1
Self-Examination for Confirmation 2
Sewell's    History   of   the  Early
Church       -       -               -      - 2
Sinclair's Journey of Life      -      - 2
Smith's (Sydney) Moral Philosophy 2
"       (G.) Wesleyan Methodism 2
"       (J.) St. Paul's Shipwreck - 2
Southey's Life of Wesley       -       - 2
Stephen's Ecclesiastical Biography 2
Taylor's Loyola     -       -       -       - 2
"      Wesley     -       ... 2
Theologia Germanica   -      -
Thumb Bible (The)               -      - 2
Ursula   -  2
Young's Christ of History    -      - 2
"      Mystery -       -'              - 2
Poetry and the Drama.
Aikin's (Dr.') British Poets    -
Arnold's Merope
"      Poems     -
Baillie's (Joanna) Poetical Works
Goldsmith's Poems, illustrated    -
L. E. L.'s Poetical Works -   '
Linwood's Anthologia Oxoniensis -
Lyra Germanica   -
Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome
Mac Donald's Within and Without   :
" Poems   -      -       -
Montgomery's Poetiee! Works     -   !
Moore's Poetical Works
"      Selections (illustrated)    -   :
"      Lalla Rookh     -
"      Irish Melodies -      -       - -
"      National Melodies   -      -   ■
"       Sacred Songs (with Music)   ;
"       Songs and Ballads  -
Shakspeare, by Bowdler
Southey's Poetical Works      -      -   j
Thomson's Seasons, illustrated    -   :
The  Sciences  in   general
and Mathematics.
Arago's Meteorological Essays     - 3
"       Popular Astronomy -      - 3
Bourne's 'Catechism   of  Steam-
Engine       ----- 4
Boyd's Naval Cadet's Manual      - 4
Brande's Dictionary of Science, &c. 4
" Lectures on Organic Chemistry 4
Conington's Chemical Analysis   - 6
Cresy's Civil Engineering      -      - 6
De la RiveVEfeetricrtj         -      - 7
Grove's Correla. of Physical Forces 8
Hersehel'S Outlines of Astronomy 9
Holland's Mental Physiology       - 9
Humboldt's Aspects of Natur*    - 10
«           Cosmos     --- 10
Hunt on Light                             - 11
Lardner's Cabinet CydopsetMa     - 12
Marcefs (Mrs.) Converssttioirs     - 14
Morell's Elements of Psychology - 16
Moseley'sEngineerinr&Architeeture 16
Ogilvie's Master- Builder's Plan   - 17
Owen*»Let*ttTe«on Comp. Anatomy 17
PereSra on Polarised Light   -      - 17
Peschel's Elements of Physic
Phillips's Mineralogy
"       Guide to Geology
Powell's Unity of Worlds.     •
Smee's Electro-Mietall'argy
Steiam-Engine (The)
Webb's Celestial Objects for
mon Telescopes
Rural Sports.
Baker's Rifle and Hound in Ceylon
Blaine's Dictionary of Sports
Cecil's Stable Practice -
"     Stud Farm -
Davy'sFishing Excursions, 2 Serie:
Ephemera on Angling  -
"        's Book of the Salmon ■
Freeman and Salvin's Falconry   ■
The Hunting-Field    '  -      -
Idle's Hints on Shooting
Pocket and the Stud
Practical Horsemanship
Pycroft's Cricket-Field -
Richardson's Horsemanship -
Ronalds' Fly-Fisher's Entomology
Stable Talk and Table Talk -
Stonehenge on the Dcg -
" on the Greyhound
The Stud, for Practical Purposes -
Veterinary Medicine, Ssc.
Cecil's Stable Practice - 6
"    Stud Farm - 6
Hunt's Horse and his Master - 11
Hunting-Field (The) - 9
Miles's Horse-Shoeing -      - - 15
"   on the Horse's Foot    - - 15
Poefc^SBsd the Stud 9
Practical Horsemanship 9
Richardson's Horsemanship . is
Stable Talk and Table Talk - 9
Stonehenge on the Dog -      - - 21
Stud (The) - 9
Youatt's Work on the Dog  - - 24
Youatt's Work on the Horse - 24
Voyages and Travels.
Baker's Wanderings in Ceylon     - 3
Barth's African Travels        -      - 4
Burton's East Africa     -      -      - 5
"      Medina and Mecca 5
Domenech's Texas        -       -       - 7
"     Deserts of North America 7
First Impressions of the NewWorld 7
Forester's Sardinia and OorsiiESfc. •-.. &
Hinchliff s Travels in the Alps     - 9
Howitt's Art-Student in Munich - 10
"       (W.) Victoria                  - 10
Hue's Chinese Empire   -      -      - 10
Hudson   and    Kennedy's   Mont
Blanc -       -      -        ... 10
Humboldt's Aspects of Nature     - 10
Hutchinson's Western Africa       - 11
Kane's Wanderings of an Artist   - 11
Lady's Tour round Monte Rosa   - 12
M'Clure's North-West Passage - 17
Ma»Dougall'sVoyage of theSesc-lute 14
Minturn's New York to Delhi - 15
Mollhausen's Journey to the Shores
of the Pacific     -       -       -       - 15
Osborn's Quedah   -       -       -       - 17
Peaks, Passes, and Glaciers         - 17
Scherzer's Central America - - 19
Senior's Journal in Turkey and
Greece         ----- 19
Snow's Tierra del Fuego      -      - 21
Tennent's Ceylon -       -       -       - 21
Von Tempsky's Mexico       -      - 23
Wanderings in Land of Ham       - 23
Weld's Vacations in Ireland-       - 24
"      Pyrenees   -       ... 24
"       United States and Canada- 24
Works of Fiction.
of the fia:
aff
Connolly's Ron
Cruikshank's Fi
Howitt's Tallangetta    -
Mildred Norman    -
Moore's Epicurean
Sewell's Ursula     -
Sir Roger De Coverley   -
Sketches (The), Three Tales
Southey's The Doctor &c.    -
Trollope.'s Barehester Towers
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