Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

British Columbia, and Vancouver Island; comprising a historical sketch of the British settlements in… Hazlitt, William Carew, 1834-1913 1858

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0221896.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0221896-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0221896-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0221896-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0221896-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0221896-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0221896-source.json
Full Text

Full Text

Array   35* Representative lien.   By E.
W. Emerson.
38. Monk and Washington .J^By
«7U.     Aiiv
leasures, ATl
jftswpwraraBB^ Objects, and
Advantages of Literature.   1
BytheEev .^   |  MgfBp-
Price Is. each, jcloth boards,
Edited and Selected by J. E. CABtiSTEB-X
Selected by J. E. CAB^^^EE.
Also, the above bound togetherypribe 2&f 6dL, cloth gilt, the
Modem & ^<?pw^Song-Book.
Selected and M^A ty /M- CARPENTER.    ..."'
The above collection j& Sfegs and ^allads will, it is hoped, supply a
want that has long been man|festyViaf, that there was no book of modern
songs entirely free from ver|^ue^tijmable productions. The plan adopted
in the present work jiasbeen toindmde only such songs as have been popular during the last $ve-and-tw/njy years.   Many of them are, however, of
much old^r date, some havingyaept their places in public estimation, others
owing thijrpoffalar^tytfe recent setting; but the great majority are modern.
iLoisW:/ dEQEaE EOTJTLEDGE & CO., 2, Earringdok Street,
t i, 72. The History of the
of Ferdinand and Ii
Tlj^ History of the Reign
of Ferdinand and Isabella
(2 vols. 45.). By W. H.
4ilttUVij of the Conquest
of Mexico   If
82, 83. History ^
of Mexico   (2  vols.   4s.)
By W. H. Prescott.
85, 86, The History of the Con-
quest of Peru (2 vols. 4s.).
By W. H. Prescott.
92. Burmah and the Burmese,
By K. H. E. Mackenzie.
95. The War; or, Voices from the
146. EnglishTraits. By Emerson.
160,161. Charles the Fifth (2 vols.
4s.). By Eobertson and
169. The Mutiny in India.   By
a former Editor of " The
Delhi Gazette."
170. Parthenia;    or,    the   last
Days of Paganism (Is. 6d.),
By E. B. Lee.
17o. Eobert Burns and Sir Waiter
Scott. Two Lives (Is. Gd.).
By Eev. James White.
174. The Eoyal Princesses of
England (2s.). By Mrs.
Matthew Hall.
V   IT	
—— *&&j^i^i-^~
P OMMWAUBM ,','  'twg'^^.'^aigan'.li. . -■■ .<»^w,SMr.L'--repCTCT
In fcap. 8vo, price Is. each, cloth limp, unless expressed.
The great dearth of Boohs of a thoroughly practical nature, suitable to
the wants of that numerous class who really wish to become acquainted
with common things, has induced the Publishers to commence the
Useful Library,
I; A NEW LETTER WRITER, for the Use of Ladies and
Gentlemen; embodying letters on the simplest matters of life, and on various
subjects, with applications for Situations, &c.
(\ Thi6 book must prove welcome and highly useful to many."—Liverpool
((Is the most complete and best work of the kind that has been published."—
Nottingham Journal*
mestic Hints for Persons of Moderate Income.   Containing useful directions for
the proper Labours of the Kitchen, the House, the Laundry, and the Dairy.
We confidently recommend it to all heads of families, especially young wives,
and those young ladies who wish to become wives themselves."—Portsmouth Guardian*
By the Rev. James White, Author of " The -.Eighteen Christian Centuries."
1*. 6d.
cf We hold this to be a pattern volume of cheap literature. It is so written that
it cannot fail to amuse and enlighten the most ignorant; yet it is also a book
which may be read with pleasure, and surely with profit too, .by the most polished
scholar."—The Examiners
By the Rev. James White, Author of " The Landmarks of England."   1*. 6d.
" Should find a place in every library where there are readers-able to appreciate
the genial writings of a man who, having taste and knowledge at command, sits
down to write, in the simplest wiy, the story of a people for a people's reading."—
The Examiner.
Book for Mothers and Daughters.   By Anne Bowman.
General Contents:—Household) Economy and the Duties of a Wife and
Mother—the Laundry—the Nursery—Health, and the Means to Preserve it—
Management of Simple Disorders—Clothes : how to Wear, Make, and Pack them
—and last, not least, Home Education.
" We recommend this book to all mothers or sisters who are entrusted with the
management of a household."
6. THINGS   WORTH   KNOWING.    By Martin Doyle,
Author of *' Rural Economy," (< Small Farms," &c. &c
General Contents:—Information upon Home Employment—Food: Meat—
Bread—Hunger and Thirst—Water—Fermented Liquors—Habitations—Bodily
Exercise—Sports—Walking—Swimming— Tea — Coffee — Sugar — Soap — Indian
Corn—The W eather— Minerals—Medals—Gold—Silver—Mining—Money—Glass,
&c.—The Use and Abuse of, and the Culture of, Tobacco and Snuff.
copious Collection of Useful Forms.   ByW. A* Koldsworth, Esq.  (of Gray's
Inn), Barrister-at-Law.
" We should be neglecting our duty as journalists if we did not give this book
all the publicity in our power, so completely does it appear to us^to meet those
vexed questions and irritating differences which are perpetually occurring between
landlord and tenant.''—Manchester Examiner.
,fj .iyrn>  M1HMIM. m„l,slJBl'.tti; /  J3 XL XXX
/ /
I J   iS ^j
^niralcfr from ©Atrial mtir o%r ^nt^etttic Hmxrccs.
[The Author reserves the rigid of Translation.~\ L0KD0H" :
The following manual, compiled from the latest
and best authorities to which access could be
gained, is designed to serve as a guide to all
persons who may be desirous of obtaining the
most recent and accurate information on a subject of which the interest grows greater day by
day. It is offered to the public at a price which
will place it within the reach of every class of
The acknowledgments of the compiler are due to
Dr. Shaw, Secretary of the Royal Geographical
Society, for the kind and ready courtesy with which
he accorded him permission to avail himself of the
valuable paper by Colonel Grant, on Vancouver *1B
Island, read before the Society in 1857, and
also of the map which appeared with the paper
itself in the last volume of the Society's Journal.
The reprint of the admirable letters of the Times'
correspondent at San Francisco and Victoria (Aug.
4th and 28fch, 1858), has received the liberal sanc
tion of the conductors of that journal.
Geography of British Columbia—First discovery of the
coast by the Spaniards—Hernando Cortez—Earliest
operations of the English on the coast—Voyage of
Drake................      1
f '    '   '■■    CHAPTER II.
The story of Juan de Fuca—Behring's Voyage    ...    16
Expedition of Juan Perez in 1774—Search-for the Strait
of Fuca—Expedition of Captain Cook in 1776—He
effects a landing at Friendly Cove—Character of the
natives—Cook's accurate survey of the coast—He
reaches the 59th parallel—His return (1780)      ...    21
Discoveries of the Fur-traders      .....    .    .    *    30
Voyages of Berkeley and Vancouver     ......    35
Fuca's Strait and the Coast     .........    41
Description of the Interior .......    A    «•    52
fW I   ■   I
The Population of British Columbia .
anguage of the Natives—Their Feasts, &e,
Canoes— Singular details as to the Chiefs
Houses of the Natives    .
. . .. .. .. . v \J
Capabilities of the Region   .
The Gold Discoveries
. 104
^-_. \    .       CHAPTER XIII.
Animals, Products, &c., of British Columbia .    .    .    .116
Progress of the Gold Fever—The Times Correspondence 134
Vancouver Island 150
A Trip to Vancouver
The way thither   .    .
•    .    •    »
•     .     .     *  ££o BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
Geography of British Columbia—First discovery of the coast
by the Spaniards—Hernando Cortez—Earliest operations of the English on the coast—Voyage of Drake.
British Columbia (formerly known as -NTew Caledonia) comprises | all such territories within the
dominions of Her Majesty, as are bounded to the
south by the frontier of the United States of America, to the east by the main chain of the Rocky
Mountains, to the north by Simpson's River, and
the Finlay branch of the Peace River, and to the
west by the Pacific Ocean." It also includes
Queen Charlotte's Islands, and all other islands
adjacent to these territories, with the exception,
until otherwise provided by the Queen in Council,
of Vancouver Island.
The region thus described in the Statute 21 and
22 of the Queen, cap. 99, s. 1, is the New Caledonia which, as a district of the Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay territories, was classed
by that Company amongst their richest possessions.
During the time it was in their hands, it extended
much farther south'; at present, under the treaty
of 1846, its southern limit is at parallel 49° N.,
while its northern boundary runs in about parallel
55°. It is about 420 miles long in a straight line ;
its average breadth about 250 to 300 miles. Taken
from corner to corner, its greatest length would be,
however, 805 miles, and its greatest breadth 400
miles. Mr. Arrowsmith computes its area of
square miles, including Queen Charlotte's Islands,
at somewhat more than 200,000 miles. The denomination New Caledonia dates no earlier than the
time of Captain Cook; by "Vancouver the coast
between parallels 45° and 50° was called New
Georgia, and that between 50° and 54° New Hanover. In 1806, the North-West Company formed
the first settlement in this district ever made by
British subjects, on a small lake called, after the
person by whom the expedition was headed, Fraser's
Lake, and since that time British traders have
applied the designation New Caledonia to the
whole region extending from 48° to 56° 30', between the Rocky Mountains and the sea.
These mountains, which are also known as the
Stony, and, more southerly, as the Oregon Mountains, form part of a lofty chain, which divides
N orth-Western America from the other portions of
the continent, running continuously in a northwest direction, from the Mexican Andes to the
shores of the Arctic Ocean,    Between this great EARLY DISCOVERIES.
ohain and the Pacific, an ample territory extends
in main breadth loosely calculated at 500 miles;
the northern portion terminating at 54° 40' N.
belongs under treaties between Russia and the
United States of America in 1824, and between
Russia and Great Britain in the following year, to
Russia; the next portion, extending to a line
drawn east from the Gulf of Georgia south of
Fraser's River in parallel 49 to the Rocky Mountains, belongs under the treaty of 1846, between
the United States and Great Britain, to the latter
Power; the remainder, to the Mexican frontier,
has been absorbed by the United States. In the
negotiations which ensued upon the seizure of
British vessels in Nootka Sound, and terminated
in the Convention of the Escurial, the Spanish
Government designated this territory " the Coast
of California, in the South Sea ;" later, it has been
spoken of as the Oregon or Columbia River Territory.
There is no doubt that the pioneers of discovery on
these coasts were the Spaniards, whose explorations
in that direction were the result of endeavours to
reach, by a Western course, the shores of India,
from which Europe chiefly derived its gold, silks,
precious stones, and spices, and those of China and
Japan, of the wealth of which empires vague accounts had been brought by travellers. The Pacific
Ocean was discovered by Vasco Nunez de Balboa,
in the year 1513 ; Magellan's Strait, by Fernando
Magalhaens, in 1520.    In the earlier part of 1532,
b 2
——= I
the northernmost point on the Western coast of
America, occupied by the Spaniards, was Culiacan,
at the entrance of the Gulf of California ; beyond
this town, toward the North and West, the lands
and the seas of North-Western America were
wholly unexplored.
An expedition made by order of Cortez, under
the command of Mendoza and Mazuela, in 1532,
produced no result \ but a second expedition, under
Grijalva andBecerra, in 1533 discovered California,
of which peninsula Cortez, on the 3rd May, 1535,
took possession in the name of the King of Spain.
The last expedition sent forth by Cortez, now no
longer Viceroy, was under the command of Francesco de Ulloa, who sailed from Acapulco on the
8th July, 1539 ; and, having first surveyed the
shores of the Gulf of California, and thus ascertained that California was not an island, proceeded
north, as far, according to some writers, as the 30th
degree of latitude, whence he returned safely to
Mexico ; though Herrera states that he reached
only the 28th parallel, and that he was never
thereafter heard of   "'•■'* " #,-
Two expeditions dispatched by Cortez's successor,
Antonio de Mendoza, in 1540, resulted, the one, a
maritime expedition, in the discovery of the Colorado River, the other, a land force, in the acquisition by the King of Spain of a region, identified
by Mr. Greenhow as the beautiful district now
called Sonora, a corruption of Senora, the title
given to the country by the chief of the expedition, THE  BULL  OF  ALEXANDER  VI.
Coronado, in honour of the Viceroy, who bore on
his arms an image of Nuestra Senora de Buena
Guia, "Our Lady of Safe Conduct.5' p
In June, 1542, two vessels were dispatched
under Juan Cabrillo from the port of Navidad in
Xalisco. He examined the coast of California as
far north as 37° 10', when he was driven back by
a storm to the island of San Bernardo, where he
died. His pilot, Ferrelo, continued his course northward, as far, according to Mr. Greenhow, as the
point now called Cape Mendocino ; though Humboldt and other authors maintain that Ferrelo discovered Cape Blanco in 43°, to which Vancouver
gave the name of Cape Orford.
; These explorations had been made by the Spaniards on the strength of a Bull, by which Pope
Alexander VI. had conferred on Ferdinand and
Isabella of Spain and their successors all the New
World to the westward of a meridian line drawn
a hundred leagues west of the Azores, the other
portion having been conferred by the Holy Father
on the Portuguese. When England threw off her
allegiance to the Pope, she repudiated also the validity of this preposterous concession, and asserted
the right of Englishmen to navigate any part of the
ocean, to settle in any country not occupied by
another Christian nation, and to trade with any
customers who desired to trade with them. The
Great Queen " did not understand," as she said to
the Spanish ambassador, "why either her subjects,
or those of any other European Prince, should be "■HP
debarred from traffic in the Indies : as she did not
acknowledge the Spaniards to have any title by
donation of the Bishop of Rome, so she knew no
right they had to any places other than those they
were in actual possession of: as to their having
touched here and there upon a coast, and given
names to a few rivers and capes, these were such
insignificant things as could in no way entitle them
to a proprietary, farther than in the parts where
they settled, and continued to inhabit."*
In accordance with this policy—the principle of
which has been the rule acted upon by nearly every
European nation—Sir Fralicis Drake obtained,
through the interest of Sir Christopher Hatton, the
Queen's approval of an expedition projeoted by him
to the South Seas. Sailing from Plymouth on the
13th December, 1577, with only five vessels, the
largest of which was of but one hundred tons, he
carried three of these safely through the Straits
of Magellan. A storm, however, then dispersed
the little squadron, and Drake was left with only
one schooner of one hundred tons burden, and about
sixty men, to prosecute his enterprise against the
whole power of Spain on the western coast of America. Nothing daunted, the bold navigator went on,
and realized immense booty. In the spring of
1579, being apprehensive that the Spaniards would
intercept him, should he attempt to return through
Magellan's Straits, he resolved to S6ek a north-east
* Camden's "Annals of Queen Elizabeth." DRAKE S VOYAGE.
passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, by the
channel called the Straits of Anian, which, discovered by Gaspar Cortereal, a Portuguese, in 1499,
was long supposed to reach from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, and to be the north-west passage so
much desired by European navigators; it is now,
however, considered to be merely that Hudson's
Strait which connects the Atlantic with Hudson's
It has been a point warmly contested, as having
weight in that long and menacing controversy, the
Oregon question, whether Drake, in this attempt,
reached the parallel of 48°, or only that of 43°.
Dr. Travers Twiss, in his able work on the Oregon
Territory, has, however, manifestly established
that Sir Francis attained the higher parallel; and
is consequently entitled to be regarded as the
discoverer of that territory which, until conceded
to the United States by the treaty of 1846, was,
as in policy and justice it should have remained,
the southern portion of that region which is
the subject of this volume. *It is probable, indeed, that Sir Francis himself would have been
by no means anxious to secure this honour unattended as it was to him by any profit, had he anticipated the very disagreeable circumstances under
which the parallel was reached, and which are thus
lamentably set forth by the Rev. Francis Fletcher,
chaplain to the expedition :—
" The land in that part of America bearing
farther out into the west than we before imagined,
(i -*«Mgi
we were nearer to it than we were aware, and yet the
nearer still we came unto it, the more extremity of
cold did seize upon us. The 5th day of June we were
forced by contrary winds to run in with the shore,
which we then first descried, and to cast anchor
in a bad bay, the best road we could for the present
meet with, where we were not without some danger^
by reason of the many extreme gusts and flaws that
beat upon us; which if they ceased and were still
at any time, immediately there followed upon their
intermission other most vile, thick, and stinking
fogs, against which the sea prevailed nothing, till
the gusts of wind again removed, which brought
with them such extremity and violence when they
came, that there was no dealing or resisting against
them. In this place there was no abiding for us,
and to go farther north the extremity of the cold
(which had now utterly discouraged all our men)
would not permit us, and the winds being directly
against us, having once gotten us under sail again,
commanded us to the southward, whether we would
or no; from the lieight of forty-eight degrees, in
which now we were, to thirty-eight degrees, we found
the land by coasting it to be but low, and reasonably plain; every hill (whereof we saw many, but
none very high) though it were in June, and the
sun in the nearest approach unto them, being covered
with snow." r
Whether or not Sir Francis Drake discovered
New Georgia, or approached Fuca's Straits, it is not
disputed that he  discovered and appropriated, as
mmmmm drake's voyage.
English territory, the region extending along the j
coast, between latitude   43° and 48°;   and which ill
received from him the name of New Albion.    The j
manner of this discovery is thus set forth in the
graphic language of the " Famous Voiage happily j
perfourmed round about the World by Sir Francis !
Drake." j
" We came within 38 degrees towards the line,
in which height it pleased God to send us into a \
fair and good bay,* with a good wind to enter the j
same.        •
" In this bay we anchored, and the people of the
country close by the water-side showed themselves WM
unto us, and sent a present unto our general.
I When they came unto us, they greatly wondered  at  the  things  that   we  brought,   but   our m
general (according to his natural and accustomed m
humanity), courteously treated theui, and liberally
bestowed on them necessaiy things to cover their
nakedness, whereupon they supposed us to be gods,
and would not be persuaded to the contrary; the
presents which  they  sent   to   our   general   were                     '    P
feathers and cauls of net-work.                                                              U
" Their houses are digged round about with earth, '    m
and have from the uttermost brims of the circle, fl    m
clifts of wood set upon them, joining close together 111
at the top, like a spire steeple, which by reason of • ]■
that closeness are very warm.
" Their beds are the ground, with rushes strewed 1
# 1 Since identified as the Porto della Bodega in 38° 28'.
J0 f*
on it, and lying about the house, have the fire in
the midst. The men go naked, the women take
bulrushes, and comb them after the manner of hemp,
and thereof make their loose garments, which being
knit about their middles, hang down about their
hips, having also about their shoulders a skin of
deer, with the hair upon it. These women are very
obedient and serviceable to their husbands.
| After they were departed from us, they came and
visited us the second time, and brought with them
feathers and bags of tobacco as presents; and when
they came to the top of the hill (at the bottom
whereof we had pitched our tents) they stayed
themselves; where one, appointed for speaker,
wearied himself with making a long oration, which
done, they left their bows upon the hill, and came
down with their presents.
" In the meantime, the women remaining on the
hill, tormented themselves lamentably, tearing their
flesh from their cheeks, whereby we perceived they
were about a sacrifice. In the meantime our
general with his company went to prayer and to
reading of the Scriptures, at which exercise they
were attentive, and seemed greatly to be affected
by it; but when they were come to us, they restored to us those things which before we bestowed
on them.        ' 1
" The news of our being there being spread
through the country, the people that inhabited
round about came down, and amongst them the
king himself, a man of goodly stature and comely
person, with many other tall and warlike men; before
whose coming were sent two ambassadors to our
general, to signify that their king was coming, in
doing of which message their speech was continued
about half an hour. This ended, they, by signs,
requested our general to send something by their
hand to the king as a token that his coming might
be in peace ; wherein our general having satisfied
them, they returned with glad tidings to their king,
who marched to us with a princely majesty, the
people crying continually after their manner | and
as they drew near us, they strove to behave in their
actions with comeliness.
" In the forepart was a man of goodly personage,
who bore the sceptre or mace before the king,
whereupon hanged two crowns, a less and a bigger,
with three chains of a marvellous length : the crowns
were made of net-work wrought artificially with
feathers of divers colours : the chains were made of
a bony substance, and few are the persons among
them that are admitted to wear them. Next to
him that bore the sceptre was the king himself,
with his guard about his person, clad with cony
skins and other skins : after them followed the
naked common sort of people, every one having his
face painted, some with white, some with black,
and other colours, and having in their hands one
thing or another for a present, not so much as their
children, but they also brought their presents.
" In the mean time our general gathered his men
together,  and  marched  within   his fenced  place,
J 12
making against their approaohing a very warlike
show. They being trooped together in their order,
and a general salutation being made, there was
presently a general silence. Then he that bore the
sceptre before the king, being informed by another,
whom they assigned to that office, with a manly and
lofty voice proclaimed that which the other spoke
to him in secret, continuing half an hour ; which
ended, and a general Amen as it were given, the
king, with the whole number of men and women
(the children excepted), came down without any
weapon, who descending to the foot of the hill, set
themselves in order.
" In coming toward our bulwarks and tents, the
sceptre-bearer began a song, observing his measures
in a dance, and that with a stately countenance3
when the king with his guard, and every degree of
persons following, did in like manner sing and
danoe, saving only the women, who danced and
kept silence. The general permitted them to enter
within our bulwark, where they continued their
dance and song a reasonable time. When they had
satisfied themselves, they made signs to our general
to sit down, to whom the kiilg and divers others
made several orations, or rather supplications, that
he would take their province and kingdom into his
hand, and become their king, making signs that
they would resign unto him their right and title of
the whole land, and become his subjects. In which
to persuade us the better, the king and the rest
wit h otie consent and with great reverence, joyfully
singing a song, did set the crown upon his head, encircled his neck with all their chains, and offered
to him many other things, honouring him with the
name of Hioh, adding thereto, as it seemed, a sign
of triumph, which thing our general thought it not
meet to reject, because he knew not what honour
and profit it might be to our country. Wherefore,
in the name and to the use of Her Majesty, he took
the sceptre, crown, and dignity of the said country
into his hands, wishing that the riches and treasures
thereof might so conveniently be transported to the
enriching of her kingdom at home, as it aboundeth
in the same. \
"The common sort of people leaving the king |     a
and his guard with our general, scattered them- w
selves, together with  their  sacrifices, among  our j
people, taking a diligent view of every person; and
such as pleased their fancy (which were the youngest) they, enclosing them about, offered their sacri- |§
fices to them with lamentable weeping, scratching, |
and tearing the flesh from their faces with their
nails, wherefrom issued abundance of blood. But
we made signs to them that we disliked this, and
stayed their hands from force, and directed them
upwards to the living God, whom only they oup-ht
to worship. They showed us their wounds, and
craved remedy for them at our hands; whereupon
we gave them lotions, plasters, and ointments,
according to the state of their complaints, beseeching God to cure their diseases. Every third day
they brought their sacrifices unto us, until they un-
It r
derstood that we had no pleasure in them; yet they
could not be long absent from us, but daily frequented our company till the hour of our departure,
which seemed so grievous to them, that their joy
was turned into sorrow. They entreated us that
being absent we would remember them, and by
stealth provided a sacrifice, which we disliked.        >
" Our necessary business being ended, our general with his company travelled up into the country
into their villages, where we found herds of deer
by one thousand in a company, being very large
and fat of body.
" We found the whole country to be a warren
of a strange kind of conies, their bodies in bigness
equal to the Barbarv conies, their heads like our
conies, the feet of a want, and the tail of a rat,
being of great length ; under her chin is on either
side a bag, into which she gathers her meat, when
she has filled her belly abroad. The people eat
their bodies ; and make great account of their
skins, for their king's seat was made of them.
"Our country called this country Nova AIbion;
and that for two causes, the one in respect of the
white banks and cliffs, which lie towards the sea;
and the other, because it might bear some affinity to
our country in name which sometime was so called.
"There is no part of earth here to be taken up,
wherein there is not some probable show of gold or
" At our departure hence, our general set up a
monument of being there, as also of her Majesty's
right and title to the same, namely a plate, nailed
upon a fair great post, whereon was engraven her
Majesty's name, the day and year of our arrival
there, with the free giving up of the province and
people into her Majesty's hands, together with her
Highness's picture and arms, in a piece of sixpence
of current English money under the plate, whereupon was written also the name of our general.
" It seems that the Spaniards hitherto had never
been in this part of the country, neither did they
ever discover the land by many degrees to the south
of this place."
<1 fl*^
The story of Juan de Fuca—Behring's Voyage.
In 1587, Thomas Cavendish took, near the
southern extremity of California, the Manilla
galleon, plundered her, and having first with
unusual consideration landed the crew on the coast,
set her on fire. The vessel was driven ashore, the
flames having been extinguished by a storm, and
the crew sailed in her to a port of Mexico. Among
them was Sebastian Viscaino, who in 1598 surveyed
the coast north of Acapulco up to parallel 42°, with
unprecedented care and intelligence. There was
also present—according to his own account—a
Cephalonian pilot, named Apostolos Valerianos,
better known as Juan de Fuca, and the hero of a
narrative published in 1625, in the third volume of
" Purchas his Pilgrimes," " touching the strait of
sea commonly called Fretium Anian in the South
Sea, through the north-west passage of Meta Incognita." This narrative has been the subject of much
controversy in relation to the question, now practically of little interest—Who discovered Fuca's
Straits ?    Dr. Twiss, after an able summary of the
':  mm..  U.IWMI
w- JUAtf  DE   FUCA.
controversy, rejects De Fuca's claim, though not
altogether to our satisfaction j the narrative, however, is in itself interesting.
Mr. Lock, its author, relates that he met at
Venice, in April, 1596, "an old man about sixty
years of age, called, commonly, Juan de Fuca, but
named properly Apostolos Valerianos, of nation a
Greek, born in Cephalonia, of profession a mariner
and an antient pilot of ships;" who " in long talis
and conferences" declared that he had been in the
naval service of Spain in the West Indies forty
years, and that he was one of the crew of the
galleon Santa Anna, when she was taken by Cavendish, near Cape San Luca, in 1587, on which occasion he had lost 60,000 ducats of his own goods.
After his return to Mexico, he was dispatched by
the Viceroy with three vessels, " to discover the tBIH
Strait of Anian along the coast of the South Sea, j       m
and to fortify that strait to resist the passage and ,||
proceeding of the English nation, which were feared   |f I        *
to pass through that strait into the South Sea.*' f I       ■
This expe<$ition having proved abortive, De Fuca
went on to relate, " that shortly afterwards having
been sent again, being in 1592, by the Viceroy of j
Mexico with a small caravel and pinnace, armed 1       9
with mariners only, he followed the coast of North || fr   1
America until they came to the latitude of 47°; I 1
and there finding that the land trended east and I j
north-east,  with  a   broad  inlet t>f sea %etween |      m
47 and 48 degrees of latitude, he entered thereinto, I
and sailed therein more than  twenty days,  and j
0 I    m
--—— - -    - — -   - — - - —  —       -^
found that land trending still, sometimes northwest, and north-east, and north, and also east, and
south-eastward, and very much broader sea than was
at the said entrance, and that he passed by divers
islands in that sailing ; and that at the entrance of
this said strait, there is on the north-west coast
thereof a great headland, or island, with an exceeding high pinnacle, or spired rock, like a pillar
"Also, he said, he went on land in divers
places, and there he saw some people on land, clad
in beasts' skins, and that the land is very fruitful,
and rich of gold, silver, pearls, and other things,
like New Spain.
"And also he said that he, being entered thus
far into the said Strait, and being come into the
North Sea already, and finding the sea wide enough
everywhere, and to be about thirty or forty leagues
wide at the mouth of the Straits, where he entered,
he thought that he had ••well discharged his office ;
and that not being armed to resist the force of the
savage people that might happen, he therefore set
sail, and returned homewards again towards New
Spain, where he arrived at Acapuieo."
Then follows an account of his disappointed
hopes of reward, disappointments leading him to
this proposition :
" Also, he said, that understanding the noble
mind of the Queen of England, of her wars against
the Spaniards, and hoping that Her Majesty would
do   him   justice  for  his   goods  lost  by  Captain
Candish, he would be content to go into England,
and serve Her Majesty in that voyage for the discovery perfectly of the north-west passage into the
South Sea, if she would furnish him with only one
ship of forty tons burthen, and a pinnace, and that
he would perform it in thirty days' time from one
end to the other; and he wished me so to write to
Mr. Lock did so write to England, and endeavoured to interest Sir Walter Baleigh in the
ancient pilot's favour, but without effect. It has
been said to be very questionable whether any such
voyage was ever performed, and indeed, whether
any such person as Juan de Fuca ever existed ;
and Humboldt is relied upon as distinctly stating
that he himself had found no such pilot named in
any document with which he was acquainted. It
is now as futile to discuss, as it would be impossible
to decide, on which side the truth is ; but certainly
many of the circumstances stated by the ancient
pilot in Mr. Lock's narrative are sufficiently near      ' jBJ   -J
the since ascertained facts of the case, to entitle
Juan de Fuca at all events to the honour of giving
a name to these Straits.
During nearly two centuries, the only expedition
of discovery noticeable as having ventured into
these seas, was that disastrous enterprise which
Behring conducted in 1741 from the shores of
Kamtschatka. Behring's own voyage southward is
not supposed to have extended beyond the 60th
parallel of north latitude, where he discovered a I
c 2 !•••■■ I
1 I
ft :
stupendous mountain, visible at the distance of
more than eighty miles, to which he gave the
name, which it still bears, of Mount St. Elias.
Behring himself died on his voyage home, on an
island of the Aleutian group, on which his vessel
had been wrecked, and which still bears his name.
Tchiricoff, his lieutenant, advanced further eastward, and the Russians maintain that he pushed
his discoveries as far south as the 49th parallel;
but Mr. Greenhow is of opinion, froni the description of the latitude and bearings of the southern-
most point reached by the Russian navigator, that
it was one of the islands of the Prince of Wales's
Archipelago, in about 56°.    |i    |P|      'S       %   '
\ 21
Expedition of Juan Perez in 1774—Search for the Strait of
Fuca—Expedition of Captain Cook in 1776—He effects a
landing at Friendly Cove—Character of the natives—
Cook's accurate survey of the coast—He reaches the 59th
parallel—His return (1780).
In 1774 the Spanish government, with a reviving
anxiety to discover a north-west passage, dispatched
an expedition under the command of Juan Perez,
and the pilotage of Estevan Martinez, to examine
the coasts of Western America, from the 60th
degree of latitude southward to Cape Mendocino.
There is no official report of this expedition, but it
is known to have reached as far north as latitude
54°, where Perez discovered land, which he named
Cape Saint Margarita, and which is supposed to
have been the west side of the island now called
Queen Charlotte's by the British, and Washington
by the American navigators. It has also been
contended that Perez was the discoverer, and,
under the denomination of Port San Lorenzo, the
first Christian nomenclator of the bay called by
Cook St. George's Sound, and now universally
known as Nootka Sound ; but it is now admitted
that the discovery of this important harbour is
due to Captain Cook.     ^flj^H^HRS^»9i^l **i
•I 1 ■
I !
■      K-
i     '
['   E
■ t
•'[   j
On the return of Perez, another expedition was
fitted out by the Viceroy of Mexico, consisting of
two vessels, the Santiago commanded by Bruno
Heceta, and the Sonora, commanded by Francesco
de la Bodega y Quadra, who succeeded Ayla after
the vessel sailed, and who had with him Maurielle
as pilot. Passing Cape Mendocino, they entered a
roadstead, which they named La Trinidad, and
took possession of the country with the usual formalities. Quitting the coast, they did not make
land again until they reached 48° 26', where they
examined the shore southward in vain for the supposed Strait of Fuca, which had been placed in
Bellin's Chart of 1776, between 47° and 48°.
Seven of the Sonoras men having been massacred
by the natives, and the scurvy breaking out, Heceta
returned southward, and on his way observed, on
the 15th August, 1775, an opening in the coast in
latitude 46° 17', from which rushed a current so
strong as to prevent his entrance. This circumstance convinced him that here was the mouth of
some great river, or perhaps of that Strait of Juan
de Fuca, or Strait of Anian rather, of which he had
been in search ; he in consequence remained there
another day, hoping to ascertain the true character
of the place, but being still unable to enter, he
continued his voyage towards the south. The
opening he named, Ensenada de Asuncion—Assumption Inlet, calling the point on its north side
Cape San Boque, and  that  on  the  south  Cape
Frondoso; such is the first notice which we have
of the Oregon or Columbia Biver.
De la Bodega had, in the meantime, stretched
out to 56°, where he unexpectedly made the
coast, and soon afterwards discovered the lofty
conical mountain, in King George III.'s Archipelago, to which he gave the name of San Jacinto,
and which Cook subsequently called Mount Edge-
cumb. Having reached the 58th parallel, he
returned and landed, and took possession of the
shores of an extensive bay in 55° 30' in the Prince
of Wales's Archipelago, which he named Port
Bucareli, in honour of the Viceroy.
In 1776, our parliament offered a reward of
<£20,000 to the discoverer of any practicable passage
by sea between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans,
in any direction or parallel of the northern hemisphere north of the 52nd degree of latitude. Captain Cook, who had lately returned from his second
voyage of circumnavigation, offered to conduct an
expedition for this discovery ; and two vessels were
accordingly prepared and placed under his command for the purpose.
The instructions given to Cook were to proceed
by way of the Cape of Good Hope, New Zealand,
and Otaheite, to the coast of New Albion ; there
he was to put into the first convenient port to
obtain wood, water, and refreshments, and thence
to proceed northwards along the coast to the latitude  of  65  degrees, where he was to begin hi&
l! ■I    K
search for fi such rivers or inlets as might appear
to be of considerable extent, and pointing toward
Hudson's or Baffin's Bay, should he find a passage
of that description/
With these instructions Cook sailed from Plymouth on the 12th of J uly, 1776, in the Resolution,
followed by the Discovery, under Captain Charles
Clarke, who joined him at the Cape of Good Hope.
They arrived in sight of the north-west coast of
America on the 7th March, 1778, near 44°, about
two hundred miles north of Cape Mendocino. Fot
several days afterwards, Cook was prevented from
advancing northward by contrary winds, which
forced him one hundred miles in the opposite course j
but he was ul( imately enabled to see and partially
examine a large extent of coast, and to determine
the longitude of that part of America which had
O A.
been left uncertain by all previous observations.
The weather at length permitting, he took the
desired direction ; and running rapidly northward,
at some distance from the land he was on the
22nd Marcli opposite a projecting point of the
continent, a little beyond the 48th parallel, to
which he gave the name of Cape Flattery, in token
of the improvement in his prospects.
The coast south of Cape Flattery, to the 47 th
degree, was carefully examined by the English in
searoh of the strait through which Juan de Fuca
was said to have sailed to the Atlantic in 1592 :
and as, in the account of that voyage, the entrance
of the strait into the Pacific is placed between the
47th and 48th parallels, over which the American
coast was found to extend unbroken, Cook did not
hesitate to pronounce that no such passage existed.
Passing Fuca's Straits thus unnoticed, the navigators sailed north-westwards, doubled a projection
of the land named by them Point Breakers, from, the
violence of the surf breaking on it, and found immediately beyond a spacious bay, opening into the
Pacific, in the latitude of 49^ degrees. Into this
bay they sailed, and anchored on its northern side,
at the distance of ten miles from the sea, in a safe
and commodious harbour, to Tgjbich they gave the
naf&e of Friendly Cove, and where they remained
nearlv all the month of April.
* Froin the number of articles of iron and brass
found among these people, one of whom had moreover two silver spoons of Spanish manufacture
hanging round his neck by way of ornament—
from their manifesting no surprise at the sight of
his ships, and not being startled at the report of his
guns, and from the strong inclination to trade
exhibited by them, Cook was at first inclined to
suppose that the place had been visited by vessels
of civilized nations before his arrival. He, however, became convinced by his inquiries and observations during his stay that this was by no means
probable : | For though," as he says, || some account
of a Spanish voyage to this coast in 1774 or 1775
had reached England before I sailed, it was evident
that iron was too common here, was in too many
hands, the use of it was too well known, for them
— I
to have had the first knowledge of it so very lately,
or indeed at any earlier period, by an accidental
supply froip. a ship. Doubtless, from the general
use they make of this metal, it may be supposed to
come from some constant source by way of traffic,
and that not of a very late date, for they are dexterous in using their tools, as the longest practice
can make them. The most probable way, therefore,
by which we may suppose that they got their iron
is by trading for it with other Indian tribes, who
either have immediate communication with European settlements or the continent, or receive it,
perhaps, through several intermediate nations : the
same might be said of the brass and copper found
amongst them.'' The iron and brass might, he con-
ceived, have been brought from Canada or Hudson's
Bay, and the silver spoons from Mexico ; and he imputed the indifference of the natives respecting the
ships to their natural indolence of temper and want
of curiosity. 8 The people," writes Captain Cook,
I were docile, courteous, and good natured; but
quick in resenting what they looked upon as an
injury, and like most other passionate people, as soon
in forgetting it. Their stature was rather below
the common size of Europeans, and although at
first, from the paint and grease which covered their
skins, it was believed that they were of a copper
complexion, it was afterwards discovered that they
were in reality a white people. They were well
armed with pikes, some headed with bone, and many
with iron ; besides which they carried bows, slings,
knives, and a short club, like the patow of the New
Zealanders; their arrows were barbed at the point,
and the inner end feathered."
On his arrival in this bay, Cook had christened
it " King George's Sound;" but afterwards he found
that it was called Nootka by the natives, by which
name it has accordingly ever since been known.
The bay is situated on the soulfh-west side of Vancouver's Island, which was, till 1770, supposed to
be part of the American continent; and it communicates with the Pacific by two openings, the
southermost of which, the only one affording a
passage for large vessels, lies under the parallel of
49° 33'.   <a '    &§■-'   4 f ■
Continuing his search for a passage to the Atlantic, on the 1st of May Cook saw the land about
the 55th parallel; and on the following day passed
near the beautiful conical mountain under 57°,
which had received from Bodega, in 1775, the name
of Mount San Jacinto. This peak was called
Mount Edgecumb by Cook, who also gave the
name of Bay of the Islands to the Port Remedios
of the Spaniards on its northern side.
After leaving these places, the English observed
a wide opening on the east, called by them Cross
Sound, and beyond it a very high mountain, which
obtained the name of Mount Fairweather; and as
the latter was situated near the 59 th parallel, they
had then advanced farther north than the Spaniards
or any other navigators had proceeded from the
south along that coast, and were entering upon the
£■ KM m~mm _****
scene of the labours of the Russians. It is unnecessary to trace his course round the coast to the
Aleutian Islands j the voyage may be described
(Dr. Twiss observes) as the first expedition in which
any survey of the coast that caq. be relied on was
made. Although Spanish navigators claim to have
seen portions of the coast of North America between the limits of 43° and 55° prior to his visit,
yet thpir discoveries had not been made public, and
their observations had been too cursory and vague
to lead to any practical result. Captain Cook is
entitled, beyond doubt, to the credit of having first
dispelled the popular errors respecting the extent
of the continents of America and Asia, and their
respective proximity.
On the return of the vessels engaged in this ex-
pedition to England (October, 1780), although its
journals were not then published, on account of the
war then in force between Great Britain and the
United States, and Great Britain and France and
Spain, it became known that there was abundance
of animals with fine furs on the north-west coast of
America, and that there was a large opening for
the fur trade in China ; the ships, on "their return
to England after the deaths of Cook and Clarke,
having put into Canton, and found a ready market
for the skins which the crews had collected, to the
amount of 10,000 dollars. The Russians had early
availed themselves of the information on the subject acquired from Captain King, and an association
had been formed among the fur   merchants of LA  PEROUSE.
Siberia and Kamtschatka to open a trade with the
shores of the American continent. By this asso-
ciation various trading posts were established in
1783, between Eliaska and Prince William's
Sound; and in 1788 other Russian settlements had
extended themselves as far as Admiralty Bay, at
the foot of Mount Elias. Since that time the
Russian frontier has advanced to the coast of
Queen Charlotte's Sound.
The publication, however, of the journals of
Cook's expedition in 1784-5 brought various competitors of Russia into these seas. The earlier expeditions were mere trading visits. La Perouse,
indeed, on leaving his country for the Pacific in
1785, was specially instructed "to explore the parts
of the north-west coasts of America, which had not
been examined by Cook, and of which the Russian
accounts gave no idea, in order to obtain information respecting the fur trade, and also to learn
whether, in those unknown parts, some river or
internal sea might not be found communicating
with Hudson's Bay or Baffin's Bay." But the geography of North-Western America" gained little by
this expedition ; for of the three months passed by
La Perouse on its coast, one-third was spent at
anchor in a bay at the foot of Mount Fairweather,
and the remainder in visiting various points of the
coast as far south as Monterey.
<* 30
Discoveries of the Fur-traders.
At the tinle of the publication of Cook's journals,
the British trade in the Pacific was divided between two great commercial corporations, each possessing peculiar privileges, secured by Act of Parliament, to the exclusion of all other subjects of the
same nation. Thus no British subjects, except
those in the service, or bearing the licence of the
South Sea Company, could make expeditions for
trade or fishery, by way of Cape Horn or Magellan's
Straits, to any part of the west coast of America, or
the seas and islands within three hundred leagues
of it: while no British subjects, not employed or
licensed by the East India Company, could proceed
for either of those purposes, around the Cape of
Good Hope, to any seas or lands east of that point,
between it and Magellan's Straits; with the provision, however, that the privileges conferred on the
East India Company should not be considered as
interfering with those previously granted to the
other association. All British vessels found trading
or fishing contrary to the Acts by which these privileges were conferred, became liable to confiscation, THE  FUR-TRADERS.
and the persons directing such expeditions to heavy
In the several expeditions made by the English
to North-West America, immediately after the time
of Cook, nothing of importance was learned respecting the geography of that coast and country.
| In order to convey a clear idea," writes Mr.
Greenhow, § of the extent and value of the discoveries effected by the fur-traders in the three years
next ensuing, it should be premised that, in the
beginning of that period, the coast of the American
continent was supposed, according to the best accounts and charts, to run in a regular and almost
unbroken line north-westward from Cape Mendocino
near the 40th degree of latitude, to Mount St.
Elias near the 60th; the innumerable islands,
which are now known to extend in chains between
the continent and the open Pacific Ocean, from the
48th degree to the 58th, being regarded as the
mainland of North America. The western sides of
the most western of these islands had been examined,
though inrperfectly, in their whole length by the
Spaniards in 1774 and 1775. Cook had in 1778 seen
the portions about Nootka Sound and Mount Edge-
cumb, leaving unexplored the intermediate shores,
which were represented—as expressed in the charts
attached to his journals—according to the accounts
of the Spanish navigators; and those coasts had
also been seen by La Perouse, who seems to have
been the first to suspect their separation from the
continent, though he took no measures to ascertain
the fact, by penetrating any of the numerous openings which he observed in passing there in 1786.
The first discoveries worthy of note made on the
north-west coast of America after Cook's voyage,
were those of Captains Portlock and Dixon, in the
service of an association called the King George's
Sound Company, whose object was to monopolize the
trade between the North Pacific coasts and China.
Portlock and Dixon left England in August, 1785,
in the ships King George and Queen Charlotte, and
reached Cook's River in July, 1786. Thence they
proceeded to Nootka Sound, from which they were
driven by stress of weather to the Sandwich Islands,
where they remained till the spring of 1787, when
they again went to the coasts about Cook's River
and Prince William's Sound. At the latter point
Dixon separated from Portlock, and proceeded
along the coast eastward to the inlet on the south
side of Mount San Jacinto, or Edgecumb, to which
he thought proper to give the name of Norfolk
Island. Dixon claimed the discovery of the land
between the 54th and 52nd degrees of latitude, on
the ground that it had not been seen by Cook,
though it is specially marked on the chart of that
navigator as found by the Spaniards in 1775; and
having become convinced from the reports of the
natives that this land was separated from the
American continent by water, he bestowed on it
the name of Queen Charlotte's Islands, and on the
passage immediately north of it that of Dixon's
In the year subsequent to the expedition of
Dixon and Portlock, Captain Duncan, commanding
the Princess Royal, ascertained the separation of
Queen Charlotte's Island from the mainland, which
had been assumed by Dixon ; he also explored the
sea between that island and the continent, in which
he discovered the group now known as the Princess
RoyaVs Archipelago.
,,. In 1788, under the auspices of an association of
the leading mercantile men in Bengal, Meares in
the Felice, accompanied by Captain Douglas in the
Iphigenia, after traversing a portion of the coast
not visited by Cook (of which it is observed the
chart by Maurielle was so inaccurate that it seemed
almost certain that he had never surveyed it in person), continued his examination as far north as latitude 49° 37', after which he retraced his progress,
and on reaching the Straits of Juan de Fuca,
took possession of it with the usual ceremonies,
in the name of the King of Great Britain. The
attempt of the English to land at a point up
the strait was, however, resisted with success by
the natives, who displayed the utmost ferocity in
their behaviour ; and the long boat was obliged to
As a general result of his observations, Captain
Meares thought he had seen enough in his range of
navigation, extending from Nootka Sound to 49° 37/
north latitude, to form a decided opinion that the
entire space from St. George's Sound to Hudson's
Bay and Davis's Strait, instead of being occupied
0 34
:<■-    I
by a continent, was an immense archipelago, through
which might be a passage from the Pacific into
the Atlantic Ocean. | In the channels of this
archipelago," says he, "there are islands of ice,
which we may venture to say could never have been
formed on the western side of America, which
possesses a mild and moderate climate; so that
their existence cannot be reconciled to any other
idea than that they received their formation in the
eastern seas, and have been drifted by tides and
currents through the passage for whose existence we
are contending."
The expedition of Captain Meares is politically
remarkable for the seizure in 1789 of the Iphigenia,
and other British ships, at Nootka, by the Spanish
captain Martinez; a seizure which led, at the close
of a long and menacing controversy between Great
Britain and Spain, to the Nootka Treaty or Convention of the Escurial (1790), by which the navigation
and fisheries of the Pacific Ocean and the South Seas
were declared to be free to the subjects of the two
Crowns, and their mutual right of trading with the
nations on the coast, and of making settlements in
places not already occupied, was fully recognised,
subject to certain restrictions.
».•: t#
wmm 35
Voyages of Berkeley and Vancouver.
In 1787, Captain Berkeley, an Englishman, commanding a vessel called the Imperial Eagle, which
had sailed from Ostend in the preceding year,
under the flag of the Austrian East India Company,
discovered immediately north of I Cape Flattery,
between 48° and 49°, a broad arm of the sea,
stretching eastward from the Pacific. To this passage Captain Meares in the following year gave
the appellation of Fuca's Straits, in commemoration of the old Greek pilot, whose story has been
related. Berkeley did not, however, explore the
passage, and nothing else worthy of note occurred
during his voyage, except the massacre of his boat's
crew by the natives at a point of land which
Berkeley called Destruction Island, and which for
a similar reason had, in 1775, been christened by
the Spaniards Isla de Dolores.
The independence of the United States having
been now acknowledged, the Americans engaged actively in the trade of the North Pacific, and the
Voyages made on this account *were the origin of
the Oregon question, which led to the controversy
I d2
w 36
between Great Britain and the United States,
which terminated, very much to the advantage of
our opponents, in the treaty of 1846. In 1789, an
American trader, named Gray, sailed round the
island now natned Queen Charlotte's, and gave it
the name of his sloop, Washington ; he afterwards
entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and sailed in it
east-south-east for fifty miles; it is also stated,
though not wholly on satisfactory evidence, that
the same sloop under the command of one Kendrick,
subsequently sailed through the whole length of
the strait to 55° N., ascertaining the insular character of the country in which Nootka Sound is
situated. In 1790, the Spaniards having previously
taken possession of Nootka and the coast generally,
two vessels, the Discovery and the Chatham, under
the command of Captain Vancouver and Lieutenant
Broughton, were despatched on the authority of a
convention with the Spaniards, to receive the cession
of the territory from their officers in the Pacific,
although, in point of fact, the cession was not finally
made till March, 1795. Prior to their arrival on the
coast in 1792, the Spaniards had made progress in
ascertaining the character of the Strait of Juan de
Fuca; one of their officers, Lieutenant Quimper,
having, in 1791, proceeded to its eastern limit, and
ascertained the position of the principal openings of
the coast in that direction, though it does not appear that he entered them. In the autumn of the
same ysar Captain Gray, in the Columbia, visited VANCOUVERS  VOYAGE,
the more northern coasts, and explored a canal in
latitude 54° 33', which is supposed to have been
that*afterwards named by Vancouver Portland
Canal ; and in the spring discovered Bullfinches'
or Gray's Harbour, between the Strait of Fuca
and Columbia River in latitude 46° 58', and the
day following entered the mouth of that river,
and sailed up it about ten miles, from whence
he proceeded in boats fifteen miles further, and
after some delay, succeeded in his endeavour
to get to sea. He gave it the name it now
" On the 1st May, 1792, Vancouver and Broughton
left Cape Flattery, and sailed slowly along the
coast in an easterly direction about a hundred
miles, until reaching the extreme point to which
it extended eastward, they entered the harbour,
already known as Port Quadra, to which they
gave the new name of Port Discovery. At
a short distance beyond Port Discovery, the na-»
vigators found another opening in the coast
toward the south, corresponding to Quimper's
Canal de Caamano, through which they entered an
extensive arm of the sea with several branches,
stretching in various southerly directions. On this
arm they bestowed the name of Admiralty Inlet;
its western branch was called Hood's Canal; its
eastern Possession Sound, while the southern received the appellation of Puget's Sound; and all
having  undergone a minute  survey, the  naviga-
w si
tors were in a position to deny the possibility
of reaching the continent through these channels^
Speaking of this section of the country, Vancouver
says : " The soil principally consisted of a rich,
black, vegetable mould, lying on a sandy or clayey
substratum ; the grass, of excellent quality, grew
to the height of three feet; and the ferns which in
the sandy soil occupied the clear spots, were nearly
twice as high."
A fter this examination of the coast in an easterly
direction, the navigators proceeded to take possession, in the name of the King of England, of all
that part of New Albion, from 39° 20' south latitude, and 236° 26' east longitude, to the entrance
of the inlet, supposed to be the Strait of Juan de
Fuca, as also of all the coasts, islands, &c, within
the said strait, and on both its shorfes; and this
territory they christened in honour of his Majesty,
on whose birthday (June 4) the occupation took
place, New Georgia*
On their return to the Strait of Fuca, Vancouver
and Broughton proceeded through one of the inter-
insular channels opening into that strait nearly
opposite Admiralty Inlet, into a long and wide
gulf, having its course in a north-westerly direction ( and pursuing their way for a few days toward
the close of the same month, they fell in with the
Spaniards, who had sailed from Nootka on the
very day (June 4) on which the English were
entering into occupation of New Georgia. It was
during the three weeks that the two expeditions 1
remained in company, that the shores of the newly
explored gulf, of which we have spoken as opening
into the Strait of Fuca opposite Admiralty Inlet,
was surveyed by Vancouver and his associates.
From the English the discovery received the name
of the Gulf of Georgia; the Spaniards called it
the Canal dd Rosario. The Gulf of Georgia was
found to extend north-westward as far as the
fiftieth degree of latitude.
The English navigators, having taken leave of
Quadra on the 13th July, effected a passage into
an inlet which they distinguished as Johnstone s
Strait; and at length, on the 10th August, upward
of two months from the time of their departure
from Possession Sound, they entered the Pacific at
Queen Charlotte's Sound, about one hundred miles
north of Nootka. Thus the hope, which the English had long continued to entertain, of discovering
on the eastern shore of the Pacific an outlet into
Hudson's Bay or the Arctic Ocean, was almost
entirely destroyed; the leading result of their
explorations having been to enforce the conviction
that no such passage existed.
The Spaniards, who had separated from Vancouver and Broughton prior to the passage of the
latter through Johnstone's Strait, arrived at Nootka
shortly afterwards (September 4). Having carefully
compared their charts, which exhibited the result
of their respective voyages through the Strait of
Fuca, the British commander came to an understanding with Quadra, that the island, which was
divided from the continent by that channel, should
henceforth bear the name of the Island of Quadra
and Vancouver* The motive of delicacy or gene^
rosity on the part of the latter, which prompted
such an inconvenient denomination, is tit present
hardly appreciated; and the island of Quadra and
Vancouver   is  now  generally  termed   Vancouver
stand* 41
Fuca's Strait and the Coast.
The coast of North-Western America, north of the
Columbia or Oregon River, is everywhere penetrated by inlets and bays, stnd along it are thousands of islands, many of them extensive, lying
singly, or in groups, separated from each other and
from the continent bv narrow intricate channels.
The entire length of this coast is, as already observed, bordered by the Rocky Mountains, which
having their northern extremity in the Arctic
Ocean, lat. 70° N., long. 140° W., run nearly
S.S.E. parallel with the coast, sending off, at
different places, spurs and buttresses, and dividing
the rivers that flow into the Atlantic from those
that flow into the Pacific.
Mount Browne, 16,000, and Mount Hooker,
15,700 feet high, are two of the loftiest peaks of
these mountains.
A range of intermediate hills between the Rocky
Mountains and the sea, called the Cascade Range,
runs past the inland navigation of the branches of
Juan cle Fuca Strait, till it loses its identity in the
confusion of the mountainous region north of
Frazer's River.
I! ;**
" This range," writes Mr. Nicolay, | obtains its
name from the difficulties it opposes to the passage
of the Columbia to the sea, breaking its course in a
succession of rapids and falls. It has also been
called the President's range by the citizens of the
United States, who have given to its principal peaks
the names of the chief magistrates of that commonwealth. From lat. 421° to about the forty-seventh
parallel, these keep the line of the coast, at about
150- miles distant, and spurs from them and the
Rocky Mountains occupy the territory of New
Caledonia about the head-waters of the Columbia
and Frazer's River, and a branch striking out of the
confusion north of the Gulf of Georgia, Broughton's
Archipelago, and Queen Charlotte's Sound, and
running in a north-west direction, divides the headwaters of the tributaries of Frazer's River from
those of the Salmon and Mackenzie Rivers, falling
into the canals of the coast of the great Western
Archipelago, under the parallels 52° and 54° north
lat., and then trend east. Most of the mountains
are clothed with timber trees to their very
summits, consisting principally of spruce and other
kinds of fir, birch, poplar, aspens, cypress, and,
generally speaking, all those which are found on
the opposite side of the Rocky Mountains.
I From Whadbey's Bay, forty-five miles north of
the Columbia River," continues Mr. Nicolay, | to
Cape Flattery, about eighty miles, but two streams
break the iron wall of the coast, which rising
gradually into lofty mountains, is crowned in hoary
IE   I
grandeur by the snow-clad peaks of Mount Olympus.
Cape Flattery, called also Cape Classet, is a conspicuous promontory in lat. 48° 27'; beyond it,
distant one mile, lies Tatouche's Island, a large flat
rock, with perpendicular sides, producing a few
trees, surrounded by rocky islets ; it is one mile in
length, joined to the shore by a reef of rocks, and a
mile further, leaving a clear passage between them,
is a reef named Duncan's Rock. Here commences,
in lat. 48° 30', the Strait of Juan de Fuca."
| The Strait of Fuca," writes Commodore Wilkes,
% may be safely navigated. The wind will be
found, for the greater part of the year, to blow
directly through them, and generally outwards;
this wind is at times very violent. The shores of
the strait are bold, and anchorage is to be found
in but few places, We could not obtain bottom in
some places with sixty fathoms of line, even within
a boat's length of the shore." _       ,      ... ■_
" The entrance is about ten miles in width, and
varies from that to twenty with the indentations of
its shores, running south-east for upwards of one
hundred miles; its farther progress is suddenly
stopped by a range of mountains. The southern
shore of this strait is composed of sandy cliffs of
moderate height, falling perpendicularly into the
sea, from the top of which the land takes a farther
gentle ascent, where it is entirely covered with
trees, chiefly pines, until the forest reaches a range
of high craggy mountains, which seem to rise from
the woodland in a very abrupt manner, with a few
0 i'*i
11 Ml
scattered trees on their sterile sides, and their tops
covered with snow. On the north the shore is not
so high, the ascent more gradual thence to the top
of the moifntains, which are less covered with snow
than those to the south. A point up the strait about
seventy miles was, by Vancouver, from its resemblance to Dungeness in Kent, named New Dunge-
ness : it has within it good anchorage in from ten to
three fathoms : beyond, the coast forms a. deep bay
about nine miles across; and three miles from its
eastern point lies Protection Island, so named from
the position it occupies at the entrance of Port
Discovery." " On landing on the west end," writes
Vancouver, "and ascending its eminence, which
was a nearly perpendicular cliff, our attention was
immediately called to a landscape almost as en-
chantingly beautiful as the most elegantly finished
grounds in Europe." Commodore Wilkes, who
visited this spot in 1841, writes : " The description
of Vancouver is so exactly applicable to the present
state of this spot, that it is difficult to believe that
almost half a century has elapsed since it was written. The beautiful woods and lawns of Protection
Island remain unchanged. The lawns produce the
same beautiful flowers and shrubs. This island
covers Port Discovery completely to the north, and
would render it easily defensible against the most
formidable attack.'5
From Protection Island, says Vancouver, commences the maritime importance of the territory,
with as fine a harbour as any in the world.    In
ear FUCAS  STRAIT,   p 45
addition to the roadstead, which, protected by the
island before named, affords secure anchorage in
deep water without rock or shoal, the harbour
itself extends above nine miles inland in a partly
winding direction north and south, with an average
width of something less than two miles, shoaling
from thirty-six fathoms at one-half its length, to
28f, and thence gradually to seven at its extremity,
where it receives the waters of a considerable stream.
Its shores and scenery are thus described by
" The delightful serenity of the weather greatly
aided the beautiful scenery that was now presented;
the surface of the sea was perfectly smooth, and the
country before us presented all that bounteous
Nature could be expected to draw into one point of
view. As we had no reason to imagine that this
country had ever been indebted for any of its
decorations to the hand of man, I could not possibly believe that any uncultivated country had
ever been discovered exhibiting so rich a picture.
The land, which interrupted the horizon below the
north-west and north quarters, seemed to be much
broken, whence its eastern extent round to the
south-east was bounded by a ridge of snowy mountains, appearing to lie nearly in a north and south
direction, on which Mount Baker rose conspicuously,
remarkable for its height and the snowy mountains
that stretch from its base to the north and south.
Between us and this snowy range, the land, which
on the seashore terminated like that we bad lately
^t* 46
passed in low perpendicular cliffs, or on beaches of
sand or stone, rose here in a very gentle ascent,
and was well covered with a variety of stately
forest trees: these, however, did not conceal the
Tfchole face of the country in one uninterrupted
wilderness, but pleasantly clothed its eminences
and chequered the valleys, presenting in many
directions extensive spaces that wore the appearance
of having been cleared by art, like the beautiful
island we had visited the day before. A picture
so pleasing could not fail to call to our remembrance certain delightful and beloved situations in
Old England.'3 Both the approaches to this port,
round the extremities of Protection Island, are
perfectly free from obstruction, and about a league
in breadth.
" Separated from Port Discovery only by a narrow slip of land/* continues Mr. Nicolay, |* from a
mile and a half to two miles broad, which trending
to the east protects it from the north and west, is
Port Hudson, having its entrance at the extremity
of the point on the east side, but little more than
one mile broad; from which the harbour extends
in a semicircular form, for about four miles westward, and then trending for about six more, affords
excellent shelter and anchorage for vessels in from
ten to twenty fathoms, with an even bottom of
mud. Its eastern side presents a very peculiar
feature, being formed of two narrow tongues of
land, enclosing a narrow canal of equal length with
the harbour, and having ' a snug little port' at thG
mm fuca's strait.
northern, and a passage for boats at their southern
extremity, practicable from half-flood to half-ebb,
but dry at low water. In latitude 48° 16' the
waters of the strait are divided by a high white
sandy cliff, with verdant lawns on each side, named
by Vancouver, Point Partridge. From Point
Partridge the southern branch extends about fifteen
miles below the island: this Vancouver named
Admiralty Inlet. Here the tides begin to be sufficiently rapid to afford obstruction to navigation ;
and hence it parts in two arms; one named Hood's
Canal, taking a south-west course; and the other,
after keeping a southerly course for forty miles,
also bending to the west, where it terminates in a
broad sound, called by him Pugefs Sound, affording
a communication with the Columbia, from which
the latter is distant only about sixty miles.
1 The narrow channel from Possession Sound, at
the back of the long island lying at its mouth,
which Vancouver named Whidbey's Island, affords
some small but convenient harbours. Its northern
entrance is so* choked by rocks as to be scarcely
practicable for vessels; but its southern is wide
and the navigation unimpeded. Here the country
wore the same appearance, presenting a delightful
prospect consisting chiefly of spacious meadows,
elegantly adorned with clumps of trees. In these
beautiful pastures, bordering on an expansive sheet
of water, the deer were seen playing about in great
numbers. The soil principally consists of a black
rich vegetable mould, lying on a sandy or clayey 48
substratum. The country in the vicinity is represented as of th© finest description, its natural productions luxuriant, and well supplied with wells of
"The northern arm of fch<v straits commences in
jut archipelago of small islands, well wooded and
fertile, but generally without water: in one of
thorn, however, Vanoouvej.* found good anchorage,
though exposed to tho south, having wood, wator,
and every nocossary; this ho named Strawberry
uovo, from that fruit having boon found there in
groat pletitv \ and tho island, from tho trees which
oovorod it, Cypress Island. About this part the
continental shore is high and rooky, though covered
*wiili. wood ; and it may bo remarked gonorallv*
th&t tho norl hern shore of the gulf booomos more
rooky and sterile, showing gradually a loss and less
Variety of trees, until thoso of the pine tribe alone
are found. Abovo tho Arohipolago the straits
widen, swelling out to tho east in a double bay. af-
fording good anohorago. beyond whioh the shores
booomo low and saudy. and a wide bank of sand
extends along thorn about ono or two miles, closely
approaching tho opposite sido of the gulf, leaving a
narrow but dear channel. This bank, affording
largo sturgeon, was named by Vancouver after that
jfish; and keeping to the south round it, ho did not
observe that here tho gulf reoeives the waters of
Frazer's I liver from the north.
I l u this part of tho gulf in tho month of Juno
Vancouver saw a great number of whales*   The FUCAS  STBAIT,
peculiar feature of this continental shore lies in the
long narrow channels of deep water, which wind
circuitously round the base of its rocky mountains*
Towards the north-west they get longer and moro
intricate; the gulf becomes contracted and blocked
up with islands, and the shores rise abruptly, in
high black perpendicular rocks, wearing on the
whole so barren and dreary an aspect that this part
of the gulf obtained the name of Desolation
Sound. ,
| It is, however, probable," continues Mr. Nicolay, "that the general feeling of the dreariness of
this region proceeds in a great degree from the
contrast it affords to the rich and beautiful country
to the south; for it is described as highly romantic
in character, cleft by deep dells and ravines, down
which torrents rave with foam and thunder, high
rocks of every variety of fantastic \ shape, and
above all, snow-covered mountains of massive
grandeur; yet escaping the imputation of being
i sublime in barrenness' from the number of fir-trees
which, proceeding from every crevice, clothe with
dark verdure their rocky and precipitous sides.
Among the natural features of this part of the
north shore of the gulf," continues Mr. Nicolay,
"must not be omitted, on account of their singularity,
the small salt-water lakes which are found divided
from the sea only by a narrow ledge of rock, having
a depth over it of four feet at high water. They
are consequently replenished by the sea every tide,
d form salt-water cascades during the ebb and
0 50
rise of the tides; some of them, divided into several branches, run through a low surrounding wood-
land country. There also are streams of water so
warm as to be unpleasant to the hand; and every
feature of this district evidences the violent effort
of nature in its production.'
"The great depth of water, not only here, but that
which is generally found washing the shores of this
very broken and divided country," Vancouver states,
| must ever be considered a peculiar circumstance
and a great convenience to its navigation; w&, however, found a sufficient number of stopping-places to
answer all our purposes, and in general without going
far out of oXfcfc way. From this archipelago, extending about sixty miles, the strait widens into a broad
expanse, which swells to the north in a deep sound,
filled with islands, called Broughton's Archipelago.
This part was named by Vancouver Queen Charlotte's Sound; and is here fifteen miles broad, exclusive of the archipelago, but it contracts imme*
diately to less than ten, and sixty miles from Johnstone Straits joins the Pacific, its northern boundary,
Cape Caution, being in lat. 51° 10'. The entrance
to the sound is choked with rocks and shoals.
I The southern shore of Queen Charlotte's Gulf
and Johnstone's Straits, and the Gulf of Georgia
and the northern shore of the Strait of Juan de
Fuca proper, are formed by the east and south sides
of Vancouver Island,"
The maritime importance of this coast, observes   Mr,  Nicolay,  is entirely confined  to  the
Strait of Juan de Fuca and southern extremity of
Vancouver Island — the entrance to the ports
south of that limit being embarrassed with sandbanks, and of those to the north impeded by the
rapid currents, depth of water, and rocky shores.
Here, however, are presented a series of harbours
unrivalled in quality and capacity, at least within
the same limits. As Commodore Wilkes emphatically expresses the matter :—" Nothing can exceed
the beauty of these waters and their safety; not a
shoal exists within the Straits of Juan de Fuca,
Admiralty Inlet, Puget's Sound, or Hood's Canal,
that can in any way interrupt their navigation by
a 74-gun ship. I venture nothing in saying there
is no country in the world that possesses waters
eaual to these."
e 2
*?> 52
Description of the Interior.
The internal discoveries in North America have
been largely due to the hunter of the eastern
forests and lakes, the voyageur of the northern
rivers, and the trapper of the western prairies. An
investigator; of a higher and more intelligent class,
presented himself for the exploration of the district
west of the Rocky Mountains, in Alexander, afterwards Sir Alexander, Mackenzie, who in 1789 undertook the task of examining the country north of
the extreme point then occupied by the fur-traders,
in order to discover a passage by sea from the
Atlantic to the Pacific. Departing from Fort
Chippewayan, he proceeded above Hearne River,
through Hearne Lake, entered a river, until this
time unknown to Europeans, except by report,
which has been called by his name, Mackenzie
River ; and following its course, arrived in the end
of July at its mouth, in lat. 69°. Having thus
established the fact of the continuation westward
of that northern ocean which Hearne had, in
1771, discovered more to the eastward, he returned
Mackenzie's second expedition, more directly
affecting the region now under consideration, was
commenced in October, 1792, when, leaving Fort
Chippewayan, he ascended the Peace, or, as the
Indians call it, Unijah River, for upwards of 200
miles to a point in latitude 56° 9', where he built a
log-house and spent the winter. Departing thence
on the 9th May, 1793, he proceeded up the river,
and in June reached its source. This he found in
a small lake situated in a deep snowy valley, embosomed in woody mountains. The lake is about two
miles in length, and from three to five hundred
yards wide : he found in it trout and carp, and its
banks were clothed with spruce, white birch, willow,
and alder: it is in lat. 54° 24', long. 121° W., by
his computation.
This is the principal water of Mackenzie River;
which, after its junction with the Elk River below
the Lake of the Hills, having already run a distance
of upwards of 500 miles, reaches, under the
names of Slave River and Mackenzie River,
the Arctic Ocean after a further course of 1000
From this lake he found a beaten path leading
Over a low ridge of land of eight hundred and
seventeen paces in length to another lake rather
smaller than the last. It is situated in a valley
about a quarter of a mile wide, with precipitous
rocks on either side, down which fall cascades,
feeding both lakes with the melting snows of the
mountains.    Passing over this lake, he entered a 54
small river, which, however, soon gathered strength
from its tributary mountain streams, and rushed
with great impetuosity over a bed of flat stones :
these are the head waters of the Tatouche Tesse,
or Frazer's River.
Continuing his journey to lat. 52£°, he then returned up the stream to lat. 53^°, whence he proceeded toward the Pacific by land. On his way, he
noted women clothed in matted bark, edged with the
skin of the sea-otter. In July he found the mountains covered with compact snow,and yet the weather
was warm, and the valleys beautiful. Descending
the main chain of the Rooky Mountains, he found
the country covered with large trees, pine, spruce
hemlock, birch, elder, and cedar. It abounded
with animals. After awhile, continuing his course
down the river in a large canoe, he arrived on
the 19th July at its mouth. Thence he went
on along the coast, and aoross the sound to Point
On the south-east face of the rocks bordering
what he subsequently ascertained to be the Cascade
Canal of Vancouver, Mackenzie inscribed in large
characters with vermilion, mixed in melted grease,
this brief memorial:—" Alexander Mackenzie, from
Canada, by land, the twenty-second of July, one
thousand seven hundred and ninety-four." He computed the latitude at 52° 2V K On the 23rd he
reached the mouth of the river whence he had set
out, and from thence returned by the Tatouche and
Peace Rivers to Canada*
In 1806, Mr. Frazer, an employ^ of the North-
West Company, crossed the same chain, and established a post on a lake at the head of the Tatouche
Tesse, called, after him, Frazer's Lake and River,
one hundred miles north of Mackenzie's track.
Still later, Mr. Harmon, a partner in the same company, made an expedition in the same direction,
the results of which he published, in a thin volume,
at Vermont, in 1822. /
The passage through which this gentleman entered Caledonia was in latitude 56° 30'. The northern
boundary of the district, he says, may be taken in
latitude 57°, close to the southernmost of the
Russian settlements. The length, therefore, will be
about 550, and the breadth from the mountains to
the Pacific from 300 to 350 miles. :3
The height of the passage he gives at not more
than 1000 feet, but the two chains are so lofty as
to be generally covered with snow. The river, he
says, is not very rapid ; few falls occur, and the
portage is not more than twelve miles in the whole.
Two branches (one from the north, the other from
the south) unite at the mouth of the passage ; the
latter having held its course along the foot of the
mountains about 200 miles; the former, or Finlay's
branch, having its source in the Musk-qua Sa-ky-e-
quin, or Great Bear's Lake, nearly west from the
junction, at a distance, as it has been supposed, of
150 miles.
The whole of this vast district is so intersected
with lakes and rivers of various dimensions, that it
I 58
1        K     S
y i
has been computed that one-sixth of the surface is
water. Of these lakes, one of the largest—Stuart's
Lake—is about fifty miles in length, and from
three to four miles in breadth, stretching away to
the north and north-east for about twenty miles,
and studded, in this direction, with beautiful islands.
The circumference is supposed to extend about
400 miles. The western shore is low, and indented by a number of small bays, formed by wooded
points projecting into the lake, the background
rising abruptly into a ridge of hills of various height
and magnitude. On the east, the view is limited
to a range of two or three miles, by the intervention of a high promontory, from which the eye
glances to the snowy summits of the Rocky Mountains in the distant background.
Here the Hudson's Bay Company established a
- Fifty miles west from this is Frazer's Lake, about
eighty-five miles in circumference. Here, too, a
post was established. M'Leod's Lake, in latitude
55°, is in circumference about fifty-five miles, and
was also furnished with a post. The waters of this
lake fall into the Peace River; those flowing out
of the other two lakes are supposed to empty themselves into the Pacific. The immense quantity of
salmon which annually visit them, leave no doubt
whatever of their communication with the Pacific ;
while the absence of this fish from M'Leod's Lake
makes it almost equally certain that its outlet is
not into that ocean.   The river flows out of Stuart's
in./ !iE»B.   11   m
Lake, passes through the populous tribe of the
Nate-Ote-Tains, who informed Mr. M'Leod that
white people came up in large boats to trade with
the A-te-nas—a nation dwelling between them and
the sea ; a statement fully confirmed by the guns,
iron pots, cloth, tar, and other articles found in
their possession. Speaking of the lake scenery o
this district, Mr. M'Leod writes : % The different
parts of the country, towering mountains, hill and
dale, forest and lake, and verdant plains, blended
together in the happiest manner, are taken in by
the eye at a glance. Some scenes there are which
recall forcibly to the memory of a son of Scotia the
hills and glens and J bonnie braes' of his own poor
yet beloved native land. New Caledonia, however,
has the advantage over the Old, of being generally
well wooded, and possessed of lakes of far greater
magnitude; unfortunately, however, the woods are
decaying rapidly, particularly some varieties of fir,
which are being destroyed by an insect which preys
on the bark."
The principal rivers of New Caledonia are Frazer's
River, Salmon River, Thompson's River, Quesnel's
River, Ohilcotin River. The head waters of the
chief of these, Frazer's River — called by the
natives Tatoutche Tesse—rise near those of Canoe
River, the most northern branch of the Columbia. After a western course of about 150
miles, it receives the Salmon River from the north,
and somewhat lower the waters of Stuart's River
are added from the north-west.   The stream is then 58
swollen by tho Quesnel River, rishig from a ridge
of the Rooky Mountains, and running west into the
main river of the district. Next oomes tho Chil-
cotin Ivtver, so called from a cognominal lake, in
winch it has its source. This stream runs in a
S.S.E. direction from Ifort Alexandria; its cours6
is serpentine, and its whole length 180 miles,
tho breadth varying from forty to sixty yards.
f| It is quite shallow," says Mr. Cox, i( and lull of
Further on, this main stream is joined, on the
left shore, by Thompson's River, whioh, rising near
the souroe of Quesnel's River, flows at the base of
the mountains which bound the Columbia to the
west; tliis receives the waters of several lakes in
a course of above 300 miles. The principal of
these is Thompson's, above whioh it is joined
by the Shousohwap, whioh has its rise between
tho Okanagan Lakes and main streams of the
Of these rivers, Mr. Cooper, a resident in Vancouver Island for six years, ssbid in his evidence before the Hudson's Bay Committee (1857):—u \ have
not myself personally visited Thompson's River, but
I have my information from persons who have lived
there themselves for thirty or forty years in tho
servioe of the 11 udson's Bay Company. They say
that it is one of the most beautiful countries in the
world; aiul that gold is discovered in that athd the
neiohbouriii'j district now* ]} hni I l$fl, the miners
were </eUifia from four to twenty dottqvs a day*   I
.A.'J "H.". 1 FRAZERS   RIVER.,
believe, from all I have heard and seen, that it is
capable of producing all the crops that we produce
in England. Its climate bears no comparison to
Canada; it is much more mild, much finer; decidedly as much as Great Britain to the eastern
States of America." ■  '$
"Along Thompson River," says Col. Grant, "at
a distance of about 200 miles from the sea-coast,
there is a magnificent extent of pasture land : it
may be said to extend from Frazer River to Lake
Okanagan, at one of the sources of the Columbia
River. It may comprise some 300 miles, all of it
nearly excellent open pasture; there are, however, no means yet known of getting to it, except
up Frazer River, and from that up Thompson
River." J
The place at which the Thompson's River joins
Frazer's River is called f The Forks." In parallel
490 this now important river breaks through the
cascade range of mountains, in a succession of falls
and rapids, and then running westward about ninety
miles, falls into the Gulf of Georgia, six miles N. of
49° N., that parallel being the boundary line between the British territories and those of the United
States. The whole length is stated at about 400
miles. Of the country along its shores, Mr. Dunn
supplies this description :—I The country along its
lower section is hilly, and covered with forests of
white pine, cedar, and other evergreen trees, and
the soil is generally well fitted for pasturage, and,
in many places, for tillage.    But along the other
if JKifcffl
and more northern sections the country is more
ungenial and unproductive—being cut up by mountains, ravines, torrents, lakes, and marshes. Yet it
is well wooded, yielding all the varieties of trees
growing in that region—fir, spruce, pine, poplar,
willow, cedar, cypress, birch, and elder."
$* At its mouth, Frazer's River is about a mile
wide, with a serpentine channel leading through a
mud flat. $ Fort Langley, the lowest j>ost of the
Hudson's Bay Company on the river, is situated on
the left bank, thirty-five miles from the mouth. Thus
far the stream is navigable for vessels of considerable
burden. The next post is Fort Hope, at the mouth
of Que-Que allon River, sixty-five miles above Fort
Langley. Between Fort Hope and Fort Yale, sixteen
miles, the river presents no difficulties whatever to a
canoe ascending—except in one place, where there is
a rapid, which, however, is no great obstacle, as close
to the shore, in the eddy, a canoe is easily towed
past it. But, about one half mile above Fort Yale,
the river finds its passage between huge rocks—the
sides almost perpendicular—and a canoe cannot be
taken any farther. From thence, all goods have to
be packed. Now and then a stretch of a mile or
so is found, where the canoe can be of service.
fp'Mr. Wilmer, a reGent (May, 1858) miner on
Frazer's River, states that, " at Fort Yale they went
on about twelve miles, and came to rapids, where
they had to make a portage of about eight miles—
one mile of which they were compelled to pack even
their canofc upon their backs.    At I Sailor's Dig-
% -*-??^8ftfiSji.r
gings' they camped, and mined; and continued to
move slowly up the river, prospecting, as they went
along, the river's banks, if They found gold everywhere. At some places more, at others less—sometimes they took out as much as four bits to the
pan, at other times five cents. They went up about
25 miles further than Fort Yale, and were prevented from ascending higher by some rapids, or
falls, where the water fell nearly 15 feet over the
rocks. It was impossible to take a canoe higher.
Near the falls they prospected and found gold very
plenty. They noticed as a characteristic of the mines,
that the higher up the river they went, the coarser
was the gold. The trouble is to get up the river.
One place between Fort Yale and Sailor's Diggings,
where everything had to be packed, they had to
crawl on their hands and knees over a deep ravine
of 200 feet, upon four sticks, when a single slip
would have precipitated them to the bottom. From
Sailor's Diggings it took him a day and a half to
get down to the mouth of the river in a canoe-
floating down with the current, without labour."
From Fort Yale to the forks of Thompson and
Frazer Rivers is ninety miles; aild from these to
the Grand Falls, thirty. ^|^H^^^Hv^[^^^|H
The accounts we have of the climate of the colony
are very various—a variation arising, no doubt, in
large measure from the different circumstances
under which they were written. Upon the whole,
however, the oondition of British Columbia, in this
highly important respect, appears to be favourable.
A recent communication to a Canadian paper of
high character, supplied by a gentleman who had
resided in the district for eight years, states that
" in the salubrity of its climate, the territory on
the shores of the Pacific cannot be surpassed by
any country in the world : the soil, too, is fertile:
in the highest degree, and possesses great agricultural capabilities. The face of the country presents
a succession of mountain ridges, valleys, and plains
—the more fertile districts lying, for the most part,
between the Cascade Mountains and the ocean.
That portion of the country which lies between the
Cascade Mountains and the Pacific is subject to a
remarkably equable temperature, the mean being
about 54° Fahrenheit. The equable character of
the climate is probably occasioned by the circumstance of the prevailing summer winds being from
the north, and laden with the cooling influences of
the Polar Sea; and that the winter winds, coming
from the west, the south, and the south-east—except
the latter, which comes from the snows of the mountains—tend to prevent that degree of cold which
would otherwise prevail. There are about four
months of winter, generally beginning in November
and lasting till March. Snow seldom lies for more
than a week on the ground; and, though there are
frequent rains, they are not heavy. Slight frosts
occur as early as September. The air, however, is
pure and healthy. The eastern section, under the
snows of the Rocky Mountains, cannot be praised
for its climate.    It is subject to great and sudden
changes of temperature, occasionally going through
all the gradations of summer, autumn, and winter
in a single day." #
Mr. M'Lean speaks of the climate as being very
variable. "I have experienced at Stuart's Lake,
in the month of July, every possible change of
weather within twelve hours—frost in the morning, scorching heat at noon, then rain, hail, and
snow. The winter season is subject to the same
vicissitudes, though not in so extreme a degree :
some years it continues mild throughout. These
vicissitudes may, I think, be ascribed to local
causes—proximity to, or distance from, the glaciers
of the Rocky Mountains, the direction of the winds,
the aspect of the place."
Mr. Cox writes that the climate is neither unhealthy nor unpleasant; and he expresses the
opinion that the natives, if they but used common
prudence, would undoubtedly live to an advanced
age. " The spring," adds this writer, u commences
in April, when the wild flowers begin to bud; and
from thence to the latter end of May the weather
is delightful. In June it rains incessantly, with
strong southerly and easterly winds. During tho
month of July and August, the heat is intolerable;
and in September the fogs are so dens£ that it is
quite impossible to distinguish the opposite side of
the river any morning before ten o'clock. Colds
and rheumatisms are prevalent among the natives
during this period : nor are our people exempt from
them.    In October, the falling of the leaves and
1 A
occasional frost announce the beginning of winter.
The lakes and parts of the rivers are frozen in
November. The snow seldom exceeds twenty-four
inches in depth. The mercury, in Fahrenheit's
thermometer, falls in January to 15° below 0;
but this does not continue many days."
Mr. Dunn, whose long residence in the country
should be a guarantee for his statements, writes :—
" The climate is very variable," and the transitions
are, though periodically regular, remarkably sudden,
if not violent. During the spring, which lasts from
April till June, the weather and face of the country
are delightful. In June there are almost incessant
rains, drifted furiously along by a strong south
wind. In July and August the heat is intense,
and the ground, previously saturated with moisture,
produces myriads of annoying flies and insects.
This heat and glaring sunshine are succeeded in
September by fogs of such palpable darkness that
until noon it is seldom possible to distinguish
objects at a longer distance than one hundred yards.
In November the winter sets in speedily, freezing
the lakes and smaller rivers. The cold, however,
is not so intense as might be imagined in such a
ountry and climate."
John Anderson, another servant of the Hudson's
Bay Company, in a communication to the Geographical Society, states that, although in a pretty
high latitude, this district shares, in common with
all places on the west side of the Rocky Mountains,   perfect    immunity   from   protracted   cold. CLIMATE.
Generally speaking, the mean temperature on the
Pacific coast of British North America is, as stated
by Mr. John Richardson, about 20° higher than
what it is on the Atlantic coast in the same
latitude. Commenting on the influence of the
climate, as described by Mr. Dunn, upon mining
operations, a recent Canadian journal observes :—
| How many months out of the twelve mining
operations can be carried on in such a climate,
time alone can develop. In this particular, the
new El Dorado can never equal California. Here
the miner, if he has water, can work to advantage
for very nearly eleven months out of the twelve;
but if he should have 130 or 140 working days,
in the British possessions, out of the whole year,
it is probable that he will have reason to be
The Population of British Columbia.
The Indian tribes in and about the region under
consideration are thus approximately enumerated
in an official report of Lieutenants Warre and
Vavasour, " Census of the Indian Tribes in the
Oregon territory from latitude 42° to latitude 54°,
derived from the trading lists of the Hudson's Bay
Company, and from the best obtainable informa-
Name of the Tribe.
Where situated.
Quacott.—Nuvette and 27 From lat. 54° to lat. 50°,
others. Tribes speak- including Queen Charing generally the Qua- lotte's Island; North
cott language, end    of   Vancouver's
Island, Milbank Sound
and   Island^   and  the
Main Shore 	
Massettes and 13 tribes,   On    Queen    Charlotte's
19,020 20/215   1,570
not included with the
above, and speaking different languages.
Nass Indians, 4 tribes,
speaking the same language.
Chymsyans, 10 tribes, all
of whom speak the same
language, with a different idiom.
Skeena Indians, 2 tribes.
Labassas Indians, 5 tribes.
Island, not included in
the above I 3,232   3,381
Nass River on the Main
Chatham Sound, Portland
Canal, Port Essington,
and the neighbouring
At the Mouth of the
Skeena River 	
Q-ardner's Canal, Canal
de Principe, Canal de
la Reida	
3 22
Name of the Tribe.
Milbank Sound. 9 tribes.
24 tribes, speaking the
Challam and Cowaitz-
chim languages^
New Caledonia Indians.—
(8 tribes known).
Sanetch Indians, 3 tribes.
Children under
Hallams, 11 tribes.
Children under
Sinahomish, 1 tribe.
Children under
Skatcat, 1 tribe.
Children under
Cowitchici, 7 tribes.
Children under
Soke Indians, 1 tribe.
Children under
Cowitciher, 3 tribes, not as
Cape Flattery.—Grulf of
Georgia Indians, exact
numbers not ascertained
Where situated.
Milbank Sound, Caceade
Canal, Deane Canal,
Salmon River, and the
Islands on the Coast ...
From lat. 50° along the
Coast South to Whitby
Island in lat. 48°; part
of Vancouver's Island
and the mouth of Fr anq' s
M'Leod's Lake, Cheler-
tins, Fort George, Alexandria, in Frazer* sRiver,
Conally Lake, Babine
Lake, Frazer's Lake,
Stuart's Lake	
Straits of St. Juan de Fuca
an d Vancouver* s Islands
12years    99
12 years  467
12 years  230
12 years  191
12 years  585
12 years    12
yet ascertained  say
■    39
• • *
«  *  •
The leading tribe in New Caledonia is the Takel-
lies, or Tacullies, a name importing | carriers," who
among themselves are divided into eight tribes of
.various extent. The character attributed to these
Indians by the travellers who have visited them is
by no means flattering. | Of all the Indians,"
writes Mr. M'Lean, " these are the most sensual and
gluttonous. They gorge themselves at their feasts
to such a degree as to endanger their lives; after
these debauches they frequently remain ill for a
•f2 £■   ^    •■     ■ 1 -    •
considerable time, yet this does not prevent them
from gormandizing again at the first opportunity.51
The fair sex, it appears, are of no great utility in
the way of example. Mr. M'Lean proceeds:—
| The women are lewd almost beyond conception,
and give the reins to the indulgence of their passions from an early age. Marriage is seldom
thought of until both parties begin to be sensible of
satiety j and even under these circumstances the
bonds of matrimonial union are frequently broken,
after a short experience of the ties and restraints of
conjugal life, at the request of the woman, or by
mutual consent. To this profligacy, there cannot
be much difficulty in believing that the gradual and
steady decrease of the native population of British
Columbia is largely due. But for this cause, the
decrease in question would form, in the absence of ordinary diseases and of intoxicating drinks, a circumstance for which it would be difficult to account."
This is, undoubtedly, a very grave charge to
make against the sex in our new colony. It is to be
hoped that the new colonists will inculcate a higher
condition of morality. Unhappily, the frail Takel-
lies appear from Mr. M'Lean's account to have had
but indifferent advisers, as to spiritual things, in
the | Two commissioned gentlemen, the chief factor
and chief trader, and the six or seven clerks in
charge of posts, and the forty men, principally Iroquois and half-breeds," who, at the various posts
represented the Hudson's Bay Company, and Christian civilization j   for Mr.  M'Lean admits, that THE TAKELLIES, 6$
despite f as poor fare as civilized men subsist on in
any part of the world, and which has, in fact, at
first, the same effect on most people as Glauber
salts, the Hudson Bay employes generally continue
in this wretched condition for many years; the
indulgence they find among the females being, I
grieve to say, the principal inducement."
Gambling is another vice to which these poor 11]
Indians apply their untutored minds, in unconscious
emulation of their betters. It is, indeed, so ruling
a passion with them that a man will continue to
stake on and on until he has reduced himself to absolute nakedness and starvation. There is this circumstance, however, remarked by Mr. Dunn, and
which is in their favour, that upon all occasions umpires are appointed to see that each party pjays fair.
The Takellies are described as a sedentary people, Bs
being much in-doors, particularly in  the  winter, |    Wt
when there is often so little stir in an encampment     '%. R[
or lodge, that one may approach within the shortest
distance of the huts before one is aware of their I
existence.    At the same time, they are very social |
in their habits, and very fond of conversation when I
they are not sleeping ; they are frequently in the I?
habit of exchanging visits, and of passing their time |j
at each other's huts.    When it happens that a large li
number assembly in one place, the noise is incredi- ii
ble ; all make a point of talking or bawling at one H
and the same time, and the convocation becomes a 1
mere confusion.   Mr. M'Lean thus describes further H
features of a pleasing and recommendatory charae- /      if
x5** SBfaSBBB
F     1
I    1
i i i
i; |
1 .11
• 11
ter in these Takellies. "All the Indians with whom
I have come in contact, Christian as well as Pagan,
are addicted to falsehood; but of all herein the
Takellies excel; they are perfect adepts in the art,
telling their stories with such an appearance of
truth, that even those who know them well are
often deceived. They were the greatest thieves in
the world when the whites first settled among them.
The utmost vigilance failed to detect them. Some
of our people have been known to have their belts
taken off them without perceiving it till too late;
and many a poor fellow, after passing a night in one
of their encampments, has been obliged to pass'the
remainder of the winter with but half a blanket,
the other half having been cut off while he slept."
Mr. M'Lean, however, adds that theft has become
not quite so prevalent as formerly ; and he concedes
that no Indians can be more honest in paying their
debts. The company, doubtless found means to
show them that honesty, in this respect at least, was
their best policy. Commodore Wilkes informs us
that the Takellies are of a lighter complexion than
the more northern tribes, and their features larger,
particularly in the case of the females. They resemble, he says, the Indians of the Columbia, but are
a taller and better-looking race, He corroborates
the account of their extreme filth, physical and
moral, and states facts, as to the sanitary condition
of the women, that should render our colonists of
the brown sex very careful as to liaisons with these
northern Thaises and Laises.    Formerly, he writes, THE  TAKELLIES.
they dressed in robes made of marmot skins; but
they are now (1845) clothed in articles of European
manufacture, of which they obtain a plentiful supply. The commodore states another circumstance,
illustrating the thinness of the partitions which, in
many matters, divide savages from civilization.
* They all prefer their meat putrid, and frequently
keep it until it smells so strong as to be disgusting.
Part of the salmon they bury underground for two
or three months to putrefy, and the more it is
decayed, the greater delicacy they consider it.
" They have some kind of roots as vegetable food,
which, with the berries, are formed into cakes.
They are exceedingly fond of oils, and drink large
quantities of them, which they procure from fish,
bears, &c. These they also use outwardly, mixed
with pigments." '.     #:
In common with other Indian nations, the Indians of this region have priests or medicine-men,
who practise incantations. When a body is burned,
the priest pretends to receive the spirit of the deceased into his hands, which he does with many
gesticulations. This spirit he is thought to be able
to communicate to others living, and when he has
selected the person, he throws his hands towards
him, and at the same time blows upon him, after
which the person takes the name of the deceased
in addition to his own. In case of the death of a
chief, or man of higher rank, this belief affords the
priest an opportunity of extending his influence and
It "'   CHAPTER IX." ;'  m
Language of the Natives—Their Feasts, &c.
The language of the Takellies is a dialect of the
Chippewayan family, so largely extended over
North America, Mr. M'Lean notes "a singular
fact that the two intervening dialects of the Beaver
Indians and Tsikanies, kindred nations, should differ
more from the Chippewayan than the Takelly language j the two latter nations being perfectly intelligible to each other, while the Beaver Indians
and Tsikanies are but very imperfectly understood
by their immediate neighbours, the Chippewa-
*: The Takellies, like most of the tribes in this
quarter, redeem, to a certain extent, their grossness
and brutality in other respects, by their almost
universal taste for music, and indeed, as musicians,
are described by Mr. M'Lean to possess a superior
ear to their neighbours. It is not impossible that
this quality in the savage population of British Columbia may be made efficacious towards their civilization ; for like the children in our own school,
they may be  induced   to   listen   to  instruction, TARELLY  AMUSEMENTS.
cantillately conveyed, to which otherwise, they
would pay no attention. Mr. M'Lean tells us that
there is considerable variety and melody in the
airs they sing. In common, again, with more refined people, they have professed | composers," who
turn their talent to good account on the occasion
of a feast, when new airs are in great request, and
are purchased at a high rate. As to their dancing
it is performed in circles ; men and women promiscuously holding each other by the hand; and
keeping both feet together, hop a little to a side all
at once, giving at the same time a singular jerk to
their persons behind. The movement seems to be
difficult of execution, as it causes them to perspire
profusely ; they, however, keep excellent time, and
the blending of the voices of the men and women
in symphony has an agreeable effect. " Many of
their airs," says Mr. Harmon, in his journal, "are
pleasing, and resemble those which one hears in
Catholic churches."
In connexion with the social condition of the
Takelly Indians, a curious fact is related by Mr.
Cox respecting the law of hospitality prevalent
among them. " They are fond of feasting, and on
particular occasions invite their friends from thirty
or forty miles distant. When the entertainment is
over, the guest has nothing more to expect; and
no matter how long he may remain, there is no
renewal of hospitality." Another writer furnishes
testimony nearly to a similar effect. | These
Indians," observes Mr, McLean, " are not given to
o 6SS|
hospitality in the proper sense of the word. A
stranger arriving among them is provided with
food for a day only; should he remain longer, he
pays for it ; for that day's entertainment, however,
the best fare is liberally furnished." The same
writer gives us the following graphic account of a
Takelly feast:—"In the beginning of the winter of
1827 we were invited to a feast held in honour of a
great chief who died some years before. The
person who delivered the invitation stalked into
the room with an air of vast consequence, and
strewing our heads with down, pronounced the
name of the presiding chief, and withdrew without
uttering another syllable. To me the invitation
was most acceptable ; although I had heard much of
Indian feasts, I never was present at any.
" Late in the evening we directed our steps
towards the c banqueting house,' a large hut temporarily erected for the occasion. We found the
numerous guests assembled and already seated
around the (festive board f our place had been left
Vacant for us, Mr. Deare taking his seat next to the
great chief Onaw, and we his Meewidiyagees
(little chiefs) in succession. The company were
disposed in two rows ; their chiefs and elders being
seated next the wall formed the outer, and the
young men the inner row, an open space of about
three feet in breadth intervening between them.
Immense quantities of roasted meat, bear, beaver,
and marmot, were piled up at intervals the whole
length  of the building;  berries mixed up with
mbswsw" A  TAKELLY  FEAST.
rancid salmon oil, fish-roe that had been buried
underground a twelvemonth in order to give it an
agreeable flavour, were the good things presented
at this feast of gluttony and flow of oil. The
berry mixture and roes were served in wooden
troughs, each having a large wooden spoon attached
to it. The enjoyments of the festival were ushered
in by a song, in which all joined :—
I approach the village,
Ya ha, he ha ! ya ha, ha, ha !
And hear the voices of many people,
Ya ha, &e.
The barking of dogs,
Ya ha, &c.
Salmon is plentiful,
Ya ha, &c.
The berry season is good,
Ya ha, &c.
After the song commenced the demolition of the
mountains of meat, which was but slowly effected,
notwithstanding the unremitting and strenuous
exertions of the guests. The greatest order, however, was maintained; the relatives of the deceased
acted as stewards, each of thern seizing a roasted
beaver or something else, squatted himself in front
of one of the guests, and presenting the meat, which
he held with both his hands (males and females
officiating), desired him to help himself. If the
guest appeared backward in the attack, he was
pressed in the politest terms to eat. * Now, I pray
you, tear away with a good will f—! I am glad to
see you eat so strongly f—' Come, now, stuff your-
r I
self with this fine piece of fat bear.' And stuff
himself he must, or pay a forfeit, to avoid a catastrophe. But having paid thus, and acknowledged
himself fairly overcome by his hosts' politeness, he
is spared any further exertions, and his viands are
no longer presented to him in this way, but placed
in a dish beside him.
"Well aware of our inability to maintain the
honour of our country in a contest of this kind, we
paid our forfeit at the commencement of the onslaught, reserving our portions to be disposed of at
" The gormandizing contest ended as it began,
with songs and dances ; in the latter amusement,
however, few were now able to join; afterwards
ensued a rude attempt at dramatic representation.
Old Quaw, the chief of Nekaslay, first appeared on
the stage in the character of a bear, an animal
which he was well qualified to personate. Rushing
from his den, and growling fiercely, he pursued the
huntsman, the chief of Babine portage, who defended himself with a long pole; both parties
maintained a running fight until they reached the
far end of the building, when they made their exit.
Enter afterwards a jealous husband and his wife
wearing masks (both being men). The part these
acted appeared rather dull; the husband merely
sat down by the side of his I frail rib,' watching her
motions closely, and neither allowing her to speak
to nor look at any of the young men. As to the
other characters, one personated a deer, another a DIST  OF THE NATIVES.
wolf, a third a strange Tsckany.    The bear seemed
to give the spectators most delight.
" The scene was interesting, as exhibiting the
first rude attempt at dramatic representation of a
savage people ; and it served, in some measure, to
efface the impression made by the somewhat disgusting spectacle previously witnessed. The affair
concluded by an exchange of presents, and the party
broke up."
Except for the curiosity of the thing, however,
European settlers in British Columbia will scarcely
desire to tread a measure with the dancers of that
region; for, according to Mr. Cox, " they are
supremely dirty, and full of vermin, which they
take great pleasure in eating. They never bathe,
or wash their bodies, which, with the interior of
their dwellings and the surrounding neighbourhood,
present a shockingly repulsive appearance of filthy
nastiness, which we never observed among any other
tribe. When reproached with their want of cleanliness, they replied that the dirt preserved them from
the intense cold of winter, and protected them
equally with the scorching sun of summer.
I The women," he adds, " are, if possible, worse
than the men; and when they wish to appear very
fine, they saturate their hair with salmon oil, after
which it is powdered over with the down of birds,
and painted with red ochre mixed with oil. Such
another preparation for the head is certainly not used
by any other portion of the copper-coloured subjects
of the Crown.    While in this oleaginous state, they BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
are quite unapproachable near a fire ; and even the
voyageur, whose sense of smelling is not over-refined,
cannot bring his nasal organ into a warm apartment
with one of those bedizened beauties."
| They are generally about the middle size, and
few of them reach to the height of five feet nine
inches. Their colour is a light copper, with the
same long lank hair and black eyes which distinguish the other aborigines of America. Their
features are good, and were it not for the barbarous
incrustation which surrounds them, might be called
prepossessing. The women are stouter than the
men, but inferior to them in beauty. The dress of
both consists of a robe made of marmot or rabbit
skin, tied round the neck and reaching to the knees,
with a small strip of leather or cloth covering
underneath. In the summer months the men dispense even with this slight covering, and wander
about in a complete state of nudity. They are fond
of European clothing; and such of them as can
procure a coat, trousers, or shirt, take great pride
in appearing in them."
Both sexes perforate the cartilage of the nose,
from which the men suspend small pins of brass or
copper; but the young women run a wooden pin
through it, on each side of which they fix a shell-
bead, of about an inch and a-half in length, and
about the thickness of the stem of a common tobacco
pipe. If they can procure European beads, however,
these are infinitely preferred. The young women
wear the hair long, and emulous here too, however TALKOTIN INDIANS*
unconsciously, of their European sisters, paint their
faces with a kind of red ochre.
The Talkotin Indians occupy the territory above
Fort Alexandria, on Erazer Biver, and are described
by Mr. M'Lean as being on terms of deadliest
enmity with the Chilcotins. These reside about the
Cognominal Lake and Biver, and are somewhat
more numerous than the Naskotins. Their district
abounds in beavers and other fur-bearing animals,
but they are described as indifferent hunters, and
as relying for their chief sustenance on the produce
of the lake and the river. They appear to be well
acquainted, observes Mr. Cox, with the use of firearms, and this traveller specifies 1 one particular
gun of excellent quality which he saw among
them, marked Barret, 1808." From these circumstances, and from the superiority of their general
conduct and behaviour, from their greater cleanliness and comparative refinement, Mr. Cox was led
to imagine that they must have had considerable
intercourse with the whites. The dress they wore,
common to both sexes, and which is a kind of
blanket, favoured the supposition with Mr. Cox,
who considered that these articles had been obtained
from Russian travellers. , .
Of the natives generally of the north-west coast,
Dr. Scouler, who has lived among them, says :
" The north-west Indians, especially the coast tribes,
have made considerable progress in the rude arts of
savage life. Their canoes are constructed with
much skill, their houses, being for permanent resi-
dence, are erected with some forethought and attention to comfort, and their fishing apparatus and
articles of domestic economy are far more numerous
and elaborate than can be found in the temporary
lodge of hunting tribes. From this settled mode
of life they are more accustomed to continuous
labours, and even show considerable aptitude for
passing into an agricultural state." Of feome of the
tribes nearly all the men are six feet or upwards in
height, and are well made in proportion; while,
according to Dixon and other voyagers, the people
of one tribe on the coast are as white as Europeans,
and have handsome features with florid complexions. Marchand also speaks of the large-eyed,
fair-skinned natives of the north-west coast of
America, living in 54° and 58° north latitude,
whom Humboldt supposes to be descended from the
Usuns, an Alano-Gothic race of Central Asia.
All the natives of the north-west coast are skilful
and enterprising traders. At Queen Charlotte's
Island they not only dispose of furs and fish, but
they cultivate potatoes, and hold, at stated periods,
potato fairs, which are attended by the native
traders from other islands, who again supply these
and other vegetable products to the more remote
traders inhabiting some of the rocky islands in
Behring's Straits. Si
Canoes—Singular details as to the Chiefs.
The canoes of the natives vary, writes Mr. Dunn,
in size and form.    Some are thirty feet long, and
about three feet deep, cut out of a single tree—
either fir or white cedar,—and capable of carrying
twenty persons.    They have round thwart pieces
from side to side, forming a sort of binders, about
three inches in circumference, and their gunwales
incline outwards, so as to cast off the surge ; the
bow  and  stern  being decorated   sometimes  with
grotesque figures of men and animals.    In managing their canoes, they kneel two and two along the
bottom, sitting on their heels, and wielding paddles
about five feet long; while one sits on the stern
and steers with a paddle of the same kind.    The
women are equally expert in the management of
the canoe, and generally take the helm.    " It is
surprising," says Mr. Dunn, from whom we have
borrowed these details, " to see with what fearless
unconcern these  savages venture  in  their  slight
barks on the most tempestuous seas.    They seem
to ride upon the waves like sea-fowl. Should a surge
-** 1
i:   i
1| I I
throw the canoe on one side, and endanger its overturn, those to windward lean over the upper gunwale, thrust their paddles deep into the wave—
apparently catch the water, and force it under the
canoe, and by this action not merely regain an
equilibrium, but give the vessel a vigorous impulse." Their houses, most of them, have large potato
gardens; this vegetable was first given to them by
an American captain, and is now grown in abundance, and traded by them to the vessels entering
their harbour, and to the traders at Fort Simpson,
The chiefs of the tribes are described by Mr.
MLean are stiil regarded with much respect, though
a large share of their ancient authority has been
usurped by the Europeans. Much of their retained
power seems to be owing to the magical influence
which they are reported if> possess. "It is firmly
believed," writes Mr. McLean, | that they can at
will inflict diseases, and cause misfortunes of every
description, and even death ; and so strong is this
impression that they will not even pass in a direction where the shadow of a chief, or a man of medi-
cine, might fall on them, least, say they, he should
bear us some ill-will, and afflict us with some disease." In working their cures, the Takellies are
never in the habit of employing medicines ; of the
virtues of herbs and plants indeed they are profoundly ignorant; and the only remedy wilh which
they are acquainted, is an operation into which
pantomimic gesture and rough handling of the
patient enter most largely.    It seems probable that
■■taataBi*nF-<siime*«i '
they have some strong faith ifi the efficacy of the
vapour-bath or sweating-house. These houses are
constructed so as to present in their interior the
aspect of a beehive j they are covered over in such a
manner that the heat cannot escape, and the patient
remains in the midst of the steam engendered by
the pi*peess of pouring water over red-hot stones,
until he is compelled by a feeling of suffocation to
rush out of the sweating-house and plunge into I
the adjoining river. t
Mr. Dunn gives the following curious account of I
the special performance of a chief in a dramatic (
way ;—" In the winter months these, as well as I
the neighbouring tribes, assemble in great numbers 1
in the chief's house, for the purpose of witnessing I
the chief imitate various spirits whom they are
supposed to worship. He puts on at intervals
different dresses, and large masks of different kinds        j I      m
entirely covering his head and neck.    The masks    j I
are made to open at the mouth and eyes by means of
secret springs, invisible to the spectators, and dif- /1  JfH
ferent noises are sent forth. He dresses for each
character behind a large curtain, drawn quite across
the room, like the drop curtain in a theatre; and
then comes forth, and stands on a sort of stage in
front of it, while the spectators are ranged on
benches placed along the side walls. In one of his
character^ he imitates the rising sun, which they
believe to be a shining man, wearing a radiated
Grown, and continually walking round the earth,
which is stationary.    He wears, on this occasion, a
g2 I f i  t H 'WW
most splendid dress of ermine and other valuable
furs, and a curiously constructed mask, set round
with seal's whiskers and feathers, which gradually
expand like a fan ; and from the top of the mask
swandown is shaken out in great quantities, according as he moves his head. The expanding seal's
bristles and feathers represent the sun's rays ; and
the showers of down, rain and snow ; the Indians
chanting at the same time in regular order, and in
a low key, showing reverence, devotion, and awe.
" Sometimes the various divine personages are
represented by one man ; sometimes there are two
or three personators on the stage all at once, representing different divinities. Our men were often
invited to witness these religious exhibitions; but
the greatest silence, attention, and decorum were
expected from them. Our attendance they considered a high compliment; and they invariably
made us presents, generally of skins, before we departed. One of our people, a half-breed, a funny,
volatile boy, a son of Mr. Manson, used to imitate,
on a sort of many-barred fife, the noise made by the
sacerdotal chiefs on the stage. The Indians, when
they used to come to the fort and hear this, seemed
much amazed, and often begged of me to check
him. After the conclusion of the ceremony they
have a feast, generally of seal's and dog's flesh,
salmon boiled and roast, and different kinds of
berries. During the representation and the feast,
there is a large wood fire in the centre of the room.
»'■.   1 There is one very remarkable peculiarity of
■■HI   I   ■gUMBJgpWP
their religious customs," continues the same graphic
writer, " which deserves to be noticed; and if I
had not personal evidence of its reality, I should
be slow to bring myself to a belief of its actual existence. The chief, who is supposed to possess
' the right divine' of governing and to be the inter-
mediate agent between the great Solar Spirit—the
Creator and Supreme Kuler—and his creatures here
below, retires at times, whenever he fancies himself
summoned by the divine call, from the tribe, without giving them any previous intimation of his
mission, and takes up his abode in the lonely
woods and mountains, taking with him clandestinely a small stock of dried salmon for sustenance.
When he is missed by his family, the report is
spread abroad, and then it is known that he has
gone to hold familiar converse with the Great
Spirit, who will, within a short time, descend to
give him an interview. Intelligence has then been
procured from the Indian, who saw him last on that
day, as to his route, and the district of the woods
and hills to which he is likely to confine his wanderings, and a sacred boundary-line is drawn round
this district, within which it is a crime of profanation to pass on hunting or fishing excursions, on
pain of death. Should any unlucky Indian even
meet this compound of priest and chief in his ex*
cursions, he is sure to be put to death, either by
the chief himself (for he must be perfectly passive
in the infuriated chief's hands), or should the chief
in his abstracted mood not attack him, he must, on
^ \J
his return to the tribe, acknowledge the guilt and
resign himself a voluntary victim. Should he conceal the fact of hii meeting the chief, and should
the chief on his return charge him with the fact,
then he would undergo the most shocking torture.
The duration of the chief's absence on this mission
is irregular—at least, it is long enough to exhaust
his small stock of food, even with the utmost economy. It is often three weeks. When hunger
pinches him (and he generally selects the most
desert and dreary region, destitute of esculent fruits
or roots), his imagination becomes inflamed, and
what was before religion or superstition, becomes
now frenzy, during which the fancied interview
with the Great Spirit occurss He returns at last
to the village the most hideous object in nature,
with matted hair, shrunken cheeks, blood-shot eyes,
and parched lips—his blankfet, whifch is his sole
covering, all hanging in shreds about him, torn by
boughs and brambles—his face all begrimed with
filth; animated with all the unnatural ferocity of
a demoniac* His return is by night, and as uncertain as hii departure. He does not first arrive
generally at hii own house, but rushes to some
other, according to the blind caprice of his Wildne^
and, instead of entering it by the door, he ascends
the roof, tears off one of the cedar-board coverings,
and plunges down into the centre of the family
circle j he then springs on one of thf full-grown
inmates, like a famished wolf, wrenches with his
teeth a mouthful of his flesh from hii limbs or
I. imna.bwmw INDIAN  DEMONlACIgM. 87 ' j
body, which he considerately bolts down without [
any process of mastication, but barely chopping the
lump once or twice for the purpose of easier diges-        |i       11
tion.      No resistance is made;  for  the  sufferer 11
thinks that he has been ordered by the Great Spirit
to yield up a part of his flesh and blood, as a sort
of sin or peace offering to the priest.    The chief -j
makes the same hurried repast.    He continues this
process along other houses, until, in a few hours,
he becomes exhausted from the quantity of human
living flesh that he has devoured. He is then taken
home in a state of torpor, and thus remains, like
an overgorged beast of prey, for a couple of days.
After his resuscitation he is languid and sickly;
and as he must not partake of the usual food for a
certain time after he has got his fill of the human HtllH
sacrifice, he goes on but slowly to convalescence. I      m
" I have been more than once in close connexion
with one of these chiefs after his restoration, and
his breath was like an exhalation from the grave.
The wounds inflicted by his bite, though held as
trophies, often proved mortal. . Their mode of cure
is this ; they apply eagle-down as a styptic to check
the haemorrhage, and then apply a plaster made of
pine-tree gum. So much importance and pride
do these Indians attach to these lacerations, that
±he youngsters who have not had the good fortune
to be thus scarred, apply lighted gunpowder to
their limbs, and use other means to procure a
holy gash." - M-
k  r
We cannot better conclude these observations
upon the native population of British Columbia
than by quoting the hopeful language of Mr. Alfred
Koche, in his able " View of Russian America,"*
as to the possible future of the Indians of the
north-west coast of that continent. " It may reasonably be hoped that if the | fire-water' be kept
from them, they may neither diminish in number,
nor degenerate in body or mind. Many Indians
who are less adapted for becoming soldiers under
J. o
European training than these tribes serve in the
armies of the South American powers ; and recently
Brazil has organized and taken into pay a body of
six thousand Indians as regular soldiers. Though
there are many instances of tribes of red men
having diminished in number, or become extinct,
since they were brought into .contact with white
men, whenever they learned the vices, without acquiring any of the virtues of the latter, yet the
popular belief which exists, that such must invariably be the result of all intercourse between the
two races, is far from being correct." Not only does
Bancroft, but other writers, describe the advancement, in numbers, in intelligence, and in wealth of
several tribes of Indians since they have been
brought within the influence of the Christianitv,
the civilization, and the industry of Europe. Alluding to some of the Indian tribes of the United
States, Bancroft says : " The Indian of to-day ex-
1 Published at Montreal, 1855,
eels his ancestors in skill, in power over nature, and
in knowledge. Within the century and a-half
during which the Cherokees have been acquainted
with Europeans, they have learned the use of the
plough and the axe, of herds and flocks, of the
printing-press and water-mills. And finally, in
proof of progress, that nation, like the Choctas, the
Creeks, the Chippewas, the Winnebagoes, and other
tribes, has increased, not in intelligence only, but in
numbers." It may be added here, that the Indians
settled as agriculturists upon the banks of the
Grand River of Upper Canada, have also increased
in numbers, in intelligence, and in wealth. Of their
prosperous condition, and of their gratitude to
England for its enjoyment, we have a recent proof,
in their contribution of one hundred pounds sterling to the Patriotic Fund. By leading the fine and
intelligent tribes of the north-west coast to enter
into some of the settled and profitable pursuits
which have already been alluded to, far greater results would doubtless be obtained among them,
than Bancroft can bring forward, as the effects of
civilization upon certain tribes who have become
tillers of the soil in the United States. Some of
the north-western American tribes are physically
and mentally quite equal to the 3STew Zealanders;
yet what can be more gratifying than the results
which the introduction of order, of civilization, and
Christianity have effected among the latter!
jA!& II
Houses of the Natives.
Of the houses of the Indians, Mr, Dunn gives the
following account :-*-Their houses are constructed
of wood, and vary in length fit>m twenty to seventy
feet, and in breadth from fifteen to twenty-five feefci
Two or more posts of split timber, according to the
number of partitions, are sunk firmly into the
ground and rise upwards to the height of fifteen or
eighteen feet. They are grooved at the top so as to
receive the ends of a round beam or pole, stretching from one end to the oth^r. On each side of
this range is placed another row much lower, being
about five feet high, which form the eaves of the
house. But as the building is often sunk to the
depth of four or five feet in the ground, the eaves
come very near the surface of the earth. Smaller
pieces of timber are then extended, by pairs, in the
form of rafters from the lower to the higher beam,
and are fastened at both ends by cords of cedar
bark. On these rafters two or three ranges of
small poles are placed horizontally, and in the same
way fastened with similar cords. The sides are
then made, with a range of wide boards sunk a
iWilMW p
small distance into the ground, with the upper ends
projecting above the poles of the eaves, to whioh they
are secured by a pole passing outside, parallel with
the eave poles, and tied by cords of cedar bark
passing through the holes made in the boards at
certain distances* The gable ends and partitions
are formed in the same Way; being fastened by
beams on the outside parallel with the rafters.
The roof is then covered with a double range of
thin boards, excepting a space of two or three feet
in the centre, which serves for a chimney. The
entrance is by a hole cut in the boards, and just
large enough to admit the body.
The largest houses are divided by partitions, and
three or four families may be found residing in a
one-roomed house.    In the centre of each room is a
space, six or eight feet square, sunk to the dppth of
twelve inches belo^v the rest of the floor, and enclosed by four pieces of square timber; here they II
make the fire, which is of wood and  fine  bark.
The partitions in the houses are intended to sepa- II   j
rate different families.    Around the fire-place mats 1
are spread, and serve as seats by day, and frequently                       I     ,
as beds at night ; there is, however, a more perma-                        jj    ]
nent bed made, by fixing in two, or sometimes                       I     '
three sides of a room, posts reaching from the floor                        II M
to the roof, and at the distance of four feet from the                    ||;ls
Wall.    Erom these posts to the wall one or two
ranges of boards are placed so as to form shelves, on                           jl
which they either sleep or stow their various arti-                     |    m
pies of merchandize.    In short, they are like berths                    1   1 8
vtf 92
in a ship. The uncured fish is hung in the smoke
of their fires; as is also the flesh of the elk when
they are fortunate enough to procure any.
Their culinary articles consist of a large square
kettle, made of cedar wood, and a few platters and
spoons made of ash. Their mode of cooking is expeditious. Having put a quantity of water into
their kettle, they throw into it several hot stones,
which quickly cause the water to boil| then the fish
or flesh is put in; the steam is kept from evaporating by a small mat thrown over the kettle. Bv this
method a large salmon would be boiled in twenty
minutes, and meat in a proportionably short space of
time. They occasionally roast their fish and flesh
on small wooden skewers. There is generally a door,
notes Mr. M'Lean, at each end, which is cut in the
wall after the building is erected. These apertures
are of a circular form, and aboqjb two and a half
feet in diameter, so that a stranger finds it very
awkward in passing through them. In effecting a
passage you first introduce a leg, then bending low
the body you press in head and shoulders : in this
position you will have some difficulty in maintaining
your equilibrium, for if you draw in the rest of the
body too quickly, it is a chance but you will find
yourself with your head undermost. The natives
bolt through them with the agility of a weasel.
During! the severity of winter, adds Mr.
Cox, they make excavations in the ground sufficiently capacious to contain a number of persons,
and here they burrow until warm weather,     They
preserve their dry salmon rolled up in baskets of
birch bark, in holes of a similar description, but
somewhat smaller. The smell from these subterraneous dwellings, while thus occupied, is horribly
offensive, and no white man could stand within its
.   Marriage among the natives of British Columbia
is a matter of previous negotiation, and attended
with solemnity.    When a young man has made his
choice and obtained consent,  the parents, or other
natural guardians of the girl,  are next to be consulted.     These are to receive a certain quantity of
presents,—staves, axes, kettles, trinkets, &c. When
the amount is agreed on they repair to the house
intended for the young couple, to which the most
respectable inhabitants of the  village are invited.
The young man having distributed the presents,
receives, in the style of the heroes of the Homeric
age, an equal, often a greater, number of presents
from the girl's relations.    Then the bride, decorated
with various ornaments, is led forth by a few old
women   and   presented  to  the  bridegroom,   who
receives her as his wife.   The company after partaking of hospitality and wishing the young couple
every happiness, a numerous progeny, abundance,
and peace, retire.     Though the union is generally
lasting, it is not indissoluble;   as a man may, for
infidelity, repudiate his wife,  who is after that at
liberty to take another husband.    Polygamy is not
only allowed, but is a mark of distinction.     The
greater the number of wives a man can maintain,
A Hi
n II11
the higher is he esteemed. In fact, the respectability and influence of the chief depends on the
number of wiv§s, slaves, and other property
which he possesses ; and his election to the office
depends on this qualification. Though the wives
generally live in harmony together, the first wife
takes precedence of all the otheri, and is considered
a»s mistress of the house.
The doctor, or man § of medicine, writes Mr.
Cox, differ^ little from the same personage on the
Columbia; except that the profession here is rather
dangerous. The same mode of throwing the patient
on his back, beating the parts affected, singing in a
loud voice to drown his cries, &c, is practised
here ; but in the event of his death, hii relatives
generally sacrifice the quack, or some one of his
connexions—a summary way of punishment, admirably o&lculated to keep the profession free from
The mention of the doctor naturally leads to the
ceremonies attending the interment of the dead,
and these, according to Mr. Cox's description, in
relation to the Takellies, are very singular, and
quite peculiar to this tribe. The body of the debased is kept nine days, laid out in his lodge, and
on the tenth it is burned. For this purpose, a rising
ground is selected, on which are laid a number of
sticks, about seven feet long, of cypress neatly split,
and in the intg rstices is placed a quantity of gummy
wood. During these operations, invitations are da-
spatched to the natives of the neighbouring villages
requesting their attendance at the ceremony. When
the preparations are perfected, the corpse is placed
on  the  pile, which  is immediately ignited ;  and
during the process of burning, the bystanders appear  to be in a high state of merriment.    If a
stranger  happen   to  be  present,  they  invariably
plunder him; but if that pleasure be denied them,
they never   separate  without  quarrelling   among
themselves.    Whatever property the deceased possessed, is placed about the corpse; and if he happen H! 1IIH
to be a person of consequence, his friends generally
purchase a capote, a shirt,   pair of trousers, &c,
which articles are also laid round the pile.    If the % •
doctor who attended him has escaped uninjured, he
is obliged to be present at the ceremony, and for
the last time tries his skill in restoring the defunct 1
to animation.    Failing in this, he throws on the 1
body a piece of leather, or some other article, as a      |l§it         fjl   h
present, which in some measure appeases the resentment of his relations, and preserves the unfor-                           j '
tunate quack from being maltreated.    During the 1
nine days the corpse is laid out, the widow of the                             |j
deceased, or his widows, if he had more than one                             V
wife, is obliged to sleep alongside it from sunset to                             M
sunrise ; and from this custom there is no alterna-                      ijii    p
tive,  even  during  the  hottest days  of   summer.                        [I fci
While the doctor is performing his last operation, *
she  must lie  on  the pile;   and  after the fire is m
applied to it, she cannot stir until the doctor orders
her to be removed; which, however, is never done
until her body is completely covered with blisters,                    ijllj   !
jif 96
After being placed on her legs, she is obliged to
pass her hands gently through the flames, and collect some of the liquid fat which issues from the
corpse, with which she rubs her face and body.
When the friends of the deceased observe the sinews
of the legs and arms beginning, to contract, they
compel the unfortunate widow to go again on the
pile, and by dint of hard pressing to strengthen
those members. &v
If during the husband's life she had been known
to have committed any act of infidelity, or omitted
administering to him savoury food, or neglected his
clothing, &c.,^he is now made to suffer severely for
such lapses of duty by his relations, who frequently
fling her on the funeral pile, from which she is
dragged by her friends ; and then, between alternate scorching and cooling, she is dragged backwards and forwards until she falls into a state of
insensibility. - . , i|f
After the process of burning the corpse has
terminated, the widow- collects the larger bones,
which she rolls up in an envelope of birch bark,
which she is obliged for some years afterwards
to carry on her back. She is now considered and
treated as a slave : she must obey the orders of all
the women, and even of the children, belonging to
the village, and the slightest mistake or disobedience subjects her to the infliction of a heavy punishment. The ashes of her husband are carefully
collected, and deposited in a grave, which it is her
duty to keep clear from weeds with her fingers.
        IS L   III I
"*■«?» RELIGION.
During the weeding, the husband's relatives stand
by, and beat her in a cruel manner. The wretched
women, to avoid this misery, in many cases commit
suicide. Should the widow, however, linger on for
three or four years, the friends of her husband re-
lieve her from her painful mourning. This is a
ceremony of much consequence, and the preparations occupy a considerable time. Provisions and
presents are collected, and invitations are sent to
the inhabitants of the various friendly villages.
When these have assembled, the feast commences
and the presents are distributed. The object of
the meeting is then explained, and the woman is
brought forward, still carrying on her back the
bones of her late husband. These are now taken
from her, and placed in a carved box, which is
fastened to a post twelve feet high. Her conduct
asa faithful widow is then eulogized, and her manumission is accomplished by one man powdering on
her head the down of birds, and another pouring
on it the contents of a bladder of oil; and she is
then at liberty to marry again."
This terrible custom, however, was abolished by
the Hudson Bay Company, within the wide sphere
of their influence. i?
On the all-important subject of religion, it is
deeply gratifying to find, from the testimony of
several writers, that, with the divine assistance, there
is every reason to hope that the now savage heathen
of these districts may be brought, by due zeal and labour, within the pale of Christianity.     " In the
o 'It
I        19
?*.  I
I' 11
countries of the Columbia and New Caledonia," writes
Mr. Dunn, "westward of the Great Rocky chain,
the labours of the missionary will have a rich field.
There the climate is softened by the influences of
the Pacific j food is abundant; the numerous natives
do not lead the same solitary and ferocious lives as
the north-eastern tribes, but dwell together in
villages. They are endowed with a greater capacity
and quickness of apprehension ; are more pliant and
tractable in temper; appreciate more the talents,
attainments, and social arts of the white men \ and
are fonder of imitating and adopting their customs
and principles ; and are not indisposed to embrace
the doctrines of Christianity."
They appear to have some vague notion of a future
state, and they have their notion also of the transmigration of souls ; it being a part of their creed
that a departed soul can, if it please, return to earth
in a human shape; and further, that the priest, a
cunning man, can, when a corpse is about to be
buried, blow the soul of the departed into one of
his relatives, whose next child will be invested
They have also their tradition of the flood, their
Kitchia-tesoka, or great tale, as .they call it, and
which runs thus :—The world having been over-
flowed by water, all mankind perished but one
family, who embarked in a large canoey taking
a variety of animals, along with them. The
canoe floated about for some time, when a. nyask-:
rat, tired of its confinemeut, jumped overboard and A  NEW  RELIGION.
dived; it soon reappeared with a mouthful of mud,
which it deposited on the surface of the water, and
from this.beginning the new world was formed.
f I often conversed with these people," Mr. Dunn
writes, | on the cardinal points of religion, and they
always seemed glad to hear the subject. They used
to say, | We know the Great Spirit is good, and
that he made us and the world; that the evil spirit
is bad, and has hoofs and horns, and that the bad
will be punished hereafter.'"
There seems a desire for some change among
themselves. Some years ago, two young men,
natives of Oregon, who had received a little education at Bed Biver settlement, on their return home,
introduced a sort of religion, the ground-work of
which was Christianity, accompanied by some of the
heathen ceremonies of the natives. This religion
spread with amazing rapidity all over the country.
It reached Fort Alexandria, the town post of the
district, in the autumn, and extended widely. The
ceremonial consisted chiefly in singing and dancing.
As to the doctrines of our holy religion, their minds
were too gross to comprehend, and their manners
too corrupt to be influenced sufficiently by them, at
that time ; but infinite good may be expected from
the new state of circumstances which has arisen.
Even at that time some impression was made, and
had there been some Protestant missionaries at hand
to improve the occasion, large success might have
attended their efforts. There is, of course, much to
be overcome in the adverse influence of the medicine
h 2
men, who naturally oppose every amendment which
has the tendenoy> in exposing their tricks, to lessefi
and ultimately put an end to their knavish gains*
With regard to th© Indians on the coast, Mr.
Dunn makes the following remarks, the importance
of which is of wide ex ten t.
u Their ideas of religion do not differ much from
those of the natives! of the interior. They believe
in an omnipotent and benevolent Spirit, th© Creator
of all things. They represent him as assuming various shapes at pleasure, but generally give him the
accompaniment of wings. Though he usually in*
habits th© suto, he occasionally wings his way
through th© ethereal regions, and sees all that is
doing on earth i and thunders, tempests, and lightnings are the mod© in which he exhibits his displeasure. To propitiate hid favour, they offer to him
as sacrifices th© fhfst fruits of their hunting and
fishing. They also believe ifct an evil spirit, who
inhabits the fir©, who is less powerful than th©
first, and is occasionally employed to do his sef*
viceSi Therefor© they endeavour in all their uil-
dertakings to propitiate him by frequent offerings.
(i They have a belief in I future state of rewards
and punishments* Those who h&ve well and faithfully
discharged the duties of this 1 i lb will go to a mild and
happy region, teeming with All th© oomforts of existence j whil© thos© who pursu© an opposite oourse
Will be consigned to a cold and drefctfy region, where
bittefc fruits and  salt Wfci©r will form their prin* KELIGIOUS  VIEWS  OF  THE NATIVES.
cipal means of subsistence. TSiey have also a tradition about the origin of mankind. They believe
that man was originally created by the Superior
Deity, but in an imperfect state, being rather a
statue of flesh than a perfect being ; but a second
divinity, less powerful, in pity of his helpless condition, opened his eyes, gave him motion, and
taught him all the functions and arts of life.
" Perhaps on the whole surface of the earth," proceeds Mr. Dunn, " there is not a wider and more H1! SU
easy field for the operation of the missionaries, or
one from which a richer harvest could be reaped.
The natives are, generally, of a yielding and plastic                  I ■
character j and the principles of their belief, ab-                  1
stractedly from their various superstitions, harmonize                   lit
in some measure with the elementary truths of the                   I
Bible.                ■ •           #                              I                               I :   I
I Without enumerating the various points in their       | 1 /< fifj
natural theology,   or   giving a repetition of  the I • >  ,
several heads of creeds professed by the different I jj|  '
tribes, it will be quite enough for my purpose to jf    •   9
say that they believe in the existence of a great I      IJ
superintending Spirit, who created the world and all jf;  i |fH
beings in it, rational and irrational; who still ex- 1 jjp   ,
ercises a power and supervision over his creatures;
that they believe in the existence of a subordinate I Hi;1  j
spirit, whose motives are evil, and whose dwelling I l|f
is in fire, and whose whole aim is to neutralize the I Sri   i
beneficence of th© Great Good Spirit towards his I ||Ufl
earthly creatures, and to tempt these creatures to I   ft 1
evil j that they believe in the immortality of the soul,
and in a state of future rewards and punishments,
commensurate with their earthly merits or demo*-
rits; that they believe these merits consist in the
faithful discharge of all the domestic and social
duties; that they believe it is incumbent on them
to offer daily homage to this Good Spirit; that they
believe this Spirit sometimes condescends, on great
occasions, to hold converse with their great and
good men, or communicate his will by nocturnal
visions. Some of them go farther, and believe in
the fallen state of man ; some in a subordinate
agent, identified with the Good and Great Spirit,
doing his earthly work. Some, again, in their
belief approach the historical truths of the Old
Testament. They believe that this world was, in
its primeval state, a fluid mass, enveloped in darkness, and yielding no living or growing thing,
animal or vegetable, but that the Great Spirit
descended upon it in the shape of a huge bird, and,
by brooding over it gave it consistency and solidity,
created the sun and moon, and all animate things
on the earth (this is the scriptural account: in
which the words—'the Spirit of God moved on
the surface of the waters,' strictly means—'the
Spirit of God brooded [like a bird] on the surface of
the waters')—that there soon arose a general corruption among mankind; and then men lived a
long time; that there was a general deluge, that
swept away almost all men and animals ; that some
few were saved ; and after that men became wicked
again; and then our ancestors came from the rising
sun a great distance."
Thus it will be seen that the missionaries have an
easy field, inasmuch as they will not have to root
out any fundamental principles of religion, but
only to give these principles a proper direction.
in ^^Sk
* i'r s'\
I   |P
Capabilities of the Region.
(i There is a large portion of the surface of the earth,"
said Mr. Gladstone, on the 21st July, in this present
year, on Mr. Roebuck's motion respecting the Hudson's Bay Company ; " there is a large portion of the
earth with regard to the character of which we have
been systematically kept in darkness; for those
who had information-to give, have also had an interest directly opposed to their imparting it." The
right hon. gentleman was contrasting the glowing
picture of the Hudson's Bay territories, given by
Sir George Simpson, as an author, with the deplorable account of those territories which the same
gentleman had sought to impress upon the Committee of the House of Commons, as Governor of
the Hudson's Bay Company, when the rights asserted by that Company were impugned. It is to
the cause so eloquently stated by the right hon.
gentleman, that we must, in considerable degree,
attribute that paucity of information under which
we labour, as to the actual producing capabilities of
British Columbia. Few persons competent to communicate such information, knew anything about the
m*m*mmrm~m*mmw'*93m CAPABILITIES  OF  THE  REGION.
district;   and the   selfish  interests  of employers,
whether in a public or a private capacity, kept that
knowledge for the most part concealed.    It is no exaggeration to say that, up to a recent date, the general
notion in  Europe  about  New Caledonia,  in the
minds of those who had ever heard of the country,
was that, from one end of the district to the other,
it  was little  better  than  a  howling  wilderness,
wherein half-famished beasts of prey waged eternal
war   with   a   sparse   population   of   half-starved
savages; where the cold was more than Arctic, the
dearth more than Saharan| that, in the words of
Mr.   Gladstone/ "these territories were bound by
frost and banked by fog, and that woe wTould betide
any unfortunate individuals who might, by a reckless
spirit of adventure, be so far diverted from the path
of prudence as to endeavour to settle in these parts."
Now the northern limit of the colony is placed
by the Colonial Minister, in his able exposition of
the British Columbia measure, at latitude 55°.    If
matters south of latitude 55° N. were so desperate
as the persons referred to by Mr. Gladstone have
desired to show, what must be the state of things
higher north?    What must  be  the  condition   of
that  Russian   America which  commences  immediately north of British Columbia, and occupying
500 miles of coast,  running thirty miles inland,
between British   America, above the new colony
and the Pacific, extending in the whole over no
fewer than 900,000 square miles, island and continent, of North-Western  America?     Yet  from 10G
the information collected in Mr. Roche's valuable
pamphlet already cited, we find that this district
so much higher towards " the rugged north" than
our own new colony^ " contains many mountain
ranges of great height, and fine valleys, magnificently watered and fertilized by large lakes and
rivers; the mountain ranges in the upper and
broader portion of the territory having a transverse direction, and therefore sheltering the valleys
from northerly winds, which in that quarter are
cold winds in summer, while, extraordinary as it
may appear to many, in winter they invariably
cause a rise in the thermometer. At both these
seasons southerly winds produce effects directly ops
posite to the former, being warm winds in summer,
and cold winds in winter. A great portion of this
vast region (in some places to within a short distance of the Arctic circle), is covered with forests
of the largest and most valuable trees." 1 The hill
of Westerwoi, near Norfolk Sound, in north latitude 58°, which is 3000 feet, Prench measure, in
height, is clothed to its summit," writes Bongard,
as quoted by Sir John Richardson, | by a dense
forest of pines and spruces, some of which acquire a circumference of twenty-one feet, and the
prodigious length of 160 feet, and the hollow
trunk of one of these trees, made into a canoe,
is able to contain thirty men, with all their
household effects." Sir John Richardson adds :
The climate of Sitka" (the name of the bay as
veil as of the island upon which is situated New
Archangel, the chief post of the Russian Company,
lying in 57° N. latitude) 1 is very much milder
than that of Europe on the same parallel, the cold
of winter being neither severe nor of long continuance; the humidity of the atmosphere gives
astonishing vigour to the vegetation; but although
the forest, nourished by a very moist atmosphere
and a comparatively high mean temperature, is
equal to that of the richest woodlands of the
northern United States, yet corn does not ripen
there." | This," Mr. Roche observes, | is doubtless,
occasioned by the humidity of the surrounding sea ;
for some distance in the interior of the continent,
as far east as the Mackenzie, in the territory occupied by the Hudson's Bay Company, the cereals
are successfully cultivated, up to 60° north latitude,
and occasionally in some spots situated 5° further
north." In the neighbourhood of the Mackenzie,
Sir John Richardson says that, " Fort Laird, or
the sixtieth parallel, may be considered as the
northern limit of the economical culture of wheat.''
At Cook's Inlet (in 60° N.), Mr. George Simpson
tells us potatoes may be raised with ease; and deer,
fish, game, and hay, are abundant. The mildness of
the temperature along this coast, when compared to
the eastern coasts of this continent, is pointed out
by Sir John Barrow, who, in his " Arctic Voyages
of Discovery," says :—1 On the western coast of
America, up as far as Cook's River, between the
latitudes of 55° and 60°, the certhias and the
humming-birds are said to be chirping and singing,
.1,1 J    II
when, from Newfoundland, in 50°, down to Philadelphia, in 40°, frost and snow cover the water and
the ground." Thus, both in soil and climate, a
great portion of Russian America, bordering upon
the sea, is not inferior to Europe in the same latitude. Sitea, for instance, which is in 57° north
latitude, has a climate almost as temperate as that
of London in 51° north latitude (the mean annual
temperature of the former being 45° 44', and that
of the latter 49° 70')) and it has also about as mild
a winter as the southern portions of Japan, situated
in a much lower latitude. Nor are the trade capabilities of this region such as to suggest that it will
be useless to think of profitable occupation for emigrant industry in a region somewhat more south fjjf
position, but in character to a large extent analogous. Besides the infinite supply of fur-bearing
animals of the most valuable kinds; besides the
immense variety of fish with which, as Sir George
Simpson testifies, all the waters are alive; besides
the inexhaustible yield of timber, this region possesses in its minerals and ores far greater riches,
as Mr. Roche points out, than its furs, or its
fisheries, or even than its forests can ever be made
to yield. I From the time of the earliest explorations of the north-western frontiers of this continent, to the more recent visits of Franklin, Beechey,
Lutke, the younger Simpson, Richardson, and Mac-
lure, the finest coal and the purest copper have
been found along the Mackenzie, from the mouth
of that river to Point Barrow and Icy Cape, and CAPABILITIES  OF THE  REGION.
thence down to Sitka and Vancouver Island, the
presence of the one giving double value to tho
other. Several valuable minerals, such as fine
jasper, porcelain clay, semi-opal, plumbago, gypsum,
various coloured ochres, amber, sulphur, petroleum,
galena, porphyry, variegated marble, and also iron
ore, have been already discovered in many parts of
the territory."
In speaking of the Hudson's Bay Company's territory in the same direction, Mr, John Richardson
says : 8 It would be true economy in the Company
to ascertain without delay the mineral treasures it
contains. I have little doubt of many of the accessible districts abounding in metallic wealth of
far greater value than all the returns which the fur
trade can ever yield." As to the mineral resources
of all this regio^ it is to be observed that, as Mr.
Roche points out, " the mountains along" this coast
are a continuation of the vast chain running along
the west coast of this continent through Chili,
Peru, Mexico, and California, and they are no doubt
continued by one branch through the Peninsula of
Alaska, the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, all of
which are rich in minerals, to the islands of Japan,
which abound in the precious metals and gems;
proceeding through which, they pass on to Formosa
and the Philippine Island!, and terminate in New
Guinea, or perhaps in Australia; while the main
branch, with two or three intervals in the highest
latitudes, proceeds up to Icy Cape, and is continued
to the same quarter, from the western side of Beh-
ring s
Straits, by the vast ranges of the Yablonni
(lately found to be the richest in minerals in the
wrorld), and the Alti Mountains of Siberia, the
Thian-chan and the Kuenlun of Thibet, the Himalaya of India, and the mountains of Burmah, Siam,
Sumatra, and Borneo. Thus a complete arc may be
traced upon the surface of the earth, extending
over half the globe, presenting similar features, and
containing similar treasures."
Having thus indicated the large and profitable employment for industry in the regions immediately
contiguous to British Columbia, we will proceed to
arrange such information as we have collected on
the quality of the territory more immediately under
consideration. The soil and climate, it is well
known, improve rapidly on these coasts as we
descend southward, and this improvement is emphatically manifested on the arrival of the traveller from higher latitudes in British Columbia.
This subject has already been illustrated in the
notices which have been given of the climate of the*
region. As to the natural productions of the
colony, we find in a recent Canadian paper the following observations by a gentleman who resided
for eight years in the district :—
ff The western section is peculiarly well adapted
for agricultural operations. In some places there
is a deep black vegetable loam, in others a light
brown loam. The hills are of basalt, stone, and
slate.    The undulating surface is well watered and CAPABILITIES  OF  THE  REGION.
well wooded, bearing pine, spruce, red and white
oak, ash, arbutus, cedar, arbor-vitse, poplar, maple,
willow, cherry, and yew, besides underwood of hazel
and roses. All kinds of grain can be procured in
abundance. Pears and apples succeed admirably,
and the different vegetables produced in England
O J. O
yield there most abundant crops. In the middle
section, which is 1000 feet higher than the western,
excellent crops and large stocks of cattle have, it
is said, been raised by the missionaries near the
Cascade Mountains."
Lieuts. Warr and Vavasour inform us :—| The
specimens of lead found in the mountains on the
coast are very fine. The fisheries of salmon and
sturgeon are inexhaustible ; and game of all descriptions abounds. The timber is extremely luxuriant, and increases in size as you reach a more
northerly latitude; that in 50° to 54° "being considered the best. Pine, spruce, red and white oak,
cedar, arbutus, poplar, maple, willow, and yew, grow
in this section of the country; north of the Columbia River the cedar and pine particularly becoming of immense size."
Mr. Blanshard, late Governor of Vancouver
Island, in his examination before the House of
Commons' Committee last year, said of the country
about Eraser's River : " I have heard it very highly
spoken of by everybody who has been there, as
being extremely fertile, and a soil of much the same
quality as Vancouver Island." -      -- 1
f; if 1]
i i
*' i *
ip i
From Mr. John Richardson we learn that good
crops of wheat are raised with facility at Fort
George on Frazer's River, in about 54° north
latitude, and at a height of about 500 feet above
the level of the sea. 8 The big horn sheep," he
adds, 9 are very numerous in the mountains of this
region, and are as good eating as the domestic
But let us read what the Colonial Minister himself
has collected on the subject, as stated by him to
the House of Commons, in his eloquent and highly
instructive speech on introducing the British
Columbian Bill :—
1 I will give the house,*' said Sir Lytton Bulwer,
"a sketch of the little that is known to us through
official sources of the territory in which these new
gold fields have been discovered. The territory lies
between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific ; it is
bounded on the south by the American frontier
line, 49° of latitude, and may be considered to
extend to the sources of Frazer River, in latitude
55°. It is, therefore, about 420 miles lon^fin a
straight line, its average breadth about 250 to
300 miles. Taken from corner to corner its greatest
length would be, however, 805 miles, and its
greatest breadth 400 miles. Mr. Arrowsmith
computes its area of square miles, including Queen
Charlotte's Island, at somewhat more than 200,000
miles. Of its two gold-bearing rivers, one, the
Frazer, rises in the northern boundary, and, flowing
south, falls into the sea at the south-west extremity CAPABILITIES  OF THE REGION
of the territory, opposite the southern end of Vancouver Island, and within a few miles of the
American boundary; the other, the Thompson
River, rises in the Rocky Mountains, and, flowing
westward, joins the Frazer about 150 miles from
the coast.... It is on these two rivers, and chiefly at
their confluence, that the gold discoveries have been
made. Honourable gentlemen who look at the
map may imagine this new colony at an immeasurable distance from England, but Ave have already
received overtures from no less eminent a person
than Mr. Cunard for a line of postal steam-vessels
for letters, goods, and passengers, by which it is
calculated that a passenger starting from Liverpool
may reach this colony in about thirty-five days by
way of New York and Panama. With regard to
the soil, there is said to be some tolerable land on
the lower part of Frazer River. But the Thompson
River district is described as one of the finest
countries in the British dominions, with a climate
far superior to that of countries in the same
latitude on the other side of the mountains. Mr.
Cooper, who gave valuable evidence before our
committee on this district, with which he is thoroughly acquainted, recently addressed to me a
letter, in which he states that f its fisheries are most
valuable, its timber the finest in the world for
marine purposes. It abounds with bituminous
coal, well fitted for the generation of steam. From
Thompson River and Colville districts to the
Rocky Mountains, and from the forty-ninth parallel
'■      i      !
Ill                  I
some 350 miles north, a more beautiful country
does not exist. It is in every way suitable for
colonization.' Therefore, apart from the gold fields,
this country affords every promise of a flourishing
and important colony."
Let us add from a recent pamphlet:—
% One word as to ,ihe prospects held out by the
new colony for agricultural emigrants. Lying near
the banks of Frazer River there is a vast tract of
low pasture-land, which might be made available
for the breeding of cattle. Near Fort Langley,
which is situated some sixty miles up Frazer River,
about four miles of open land exist ; and in the
neighbourhood of Point Roberts, which is close to
the line of boundary between the American and
British territory, there is an additional tract of
green, smiling prairie. About 200 miles from the
seacoast, along the banks of Thompson River, a
magnificent extent of pasture-land stretches for
some 300 miles till it reaches Lake Okanagan, at
one of the sources of the River Columbia. If
native report can be relied upon, large tracts of
level pasture-land are to be met with near Tschesatl,
or Jarvis Inlet, which lies near the coast, midway
up the Gulf of Georgia, and opposite Vancouver
Island. A fine seam of sound workable coal has
been discovered cropping out of the surface of the
soil at Bellingham Bay, which is about twenty
miles south of the boundary line, and is, consequently, an American possession.    However, when
the country shall come to be Iprospected/ a continuation of this seam will doubtless be found
extending through the British territory. Already
a small vein of the valuable mineral has been discovered lying on sandstone between Burrard Canal
and Home Sound."
i2 te
LxiAr ILxt .2Lx.lI.
Animals, Products, &c, of British Columbia.
Mr. M'Lean, writing in 1849, informs us concerning the country about Frazer's River and
Lake :—
" The district is still rich in fur-bearing animals,
especially beavers and martens, which are likely to
continue numerous for many years to come, as they
find a safe retreat among the fastnesses of the
Rocky Mountains, where they multiply undisturbed. This is the great beaver nursery, which
continues to replace the numbers destroyed in the
more exposed situations; there is, nevertheless, a
sensible decrease in the returns of the fur since
the introduction of steel-traps among the natives.
There are also others, musk-rats, minxes, and
lynxes. Of the larger quadrupeds, bears only are
numerous, and in all their varieties, grizzled, black,
brown, and chocolate : numbers of them are taken
by the natives in wooden traps. A chance moose or
rein-deer is sometimes found. The mountain sheep
generally keeps aloft in the most inaccessible parts
of the mountains, and is seldom ' bagged' by a
Carrier, though often by the Tsekanies,    Rabbits ANIMALS  OF THE  REGION.
abound : and in the neighbourhood of Fort Alex-
andria, the jumping deer, or chevreuil, is plentiful.
A small animal, called by the natives Quis-qui-su,
or the Whistler, from the noise it makes when surprised, and which appears from the description to
be the marmot, is also largely contributory to the
sustenance of man, and the clothing of his person
in a valuable fur. There is also the far less welcome animal, the wood rat, which fixes itself in the
crevices of rocks, but has a preference for the dwellings of men ; they live under the floors of outbuildings, and, forcing their way thence into the
inside, carry off or destroy everything within their
reach. The difficulty of getting rid of them almost
amounts to an impossibility. Their colour is grey*
and in size and shape they differ little from the
common rat; but the tail resembles that of the
ground squirrel."
• There are plenty of dogs. They are of a diminutive size, and strongly resemble those of the
Esquimaux, with the curled-up tail, small ears, and
pointed nose. They are valuable dead as well as
living, their flesh constituting a chief article of food
in the feast of the natives. " Dog Tray" seems
well to deserve every consideration at the hands
of the British Columbians. | When the natives,"
writes Mr. Harmon, " do not travel on foot, in their
snow shoes made of two bent sticks interlaced with
thongs of deerskin, they ride on sledges drawn by
dogs. A couple of these tractable animals will draw
a   load   of  250   pounds,  besides   provisions  for
SB 118
themselves and their driver, twenty miles in five
Fish are plentiful in all the lakes and rivers, as
well as on the coast. The principal varieties of the
former kinds of fish are salmon, trout, carp, white-
fish : the pike, Mr. Harmon informs us, % which is so
common in all the lakes on the easterp, side of the
Rocky Mountains, is not known in the western
territory; but to make amends for its absence, they
have plenty of the finest sturgeon in the world. A
sturgeon of 250 lbs. weight is not at all uncommon :
and I have seen one caught in Frazer's Lake of twelve
feet two inches in length, and four feet eleven inches
in circumference, which must have weighed from
550 to 600 pounds."
Other writers, again, describe the sturgeon as of
rare occurrence.
Of salmon, which Mr. M'Lean emphasizes as the
•New Caledonian staff of life, there are four kinds,
differing in the conformation of the head. The
largest species is the same with that found in Great
Britain. These fish ascend Frazer's River and its
tributaries, from the Pacific, in immense shoals,
proceeding towards the sources of the stream until
stopped by shallow water* Having deposited their
spawn, their dead bodies are seen floating down the
current in thousands; few of them ever return to
the sea; and, in consequence of the old fish perishing
in this manner, they fail, in this quarter, every
fourth year, and then the natives starve in all
The salmon fishery commences about the middle
of July, and ends in October. This is a very busy
time with the natives; for upon their success in
securing a supply of salmon for the winter depends
their main support. Their method of catching the
salmon is this : a certain part of the river is enclosed by a number of stakes, about twelve feet
high, and extending about forty feet from the shore.
A netting of rods is attached to the stakes, to prevent the salmon running through. A conical
machine, called a vorveau, is next formed; it is
eighteen feet long and five feet high, and is made of
rods about an inch and a quarter asunder, and
lashed to hoops with whattap, a tough fibrous root
used in sewing bark. One end is formed like a
funnel, to admit the fish ; two smaller machines, of
nearly equal length, are joined to it. It requires a
number of bands to attach these vorveaus to the
stake, but they are very effective for their purpose.
As soon as a cargo of salmon is caught, the natives
bring it to the trading post in their canoes. A
number of Indian women are employed by the
trader, seated on the beach, with knives ready to
cut up the fish. The salmon are counted from each
Indian, for which a ticket is given for the quantity,
large or small. After the whole of the salmon are
landed, the Indians congregate round the trading
shop for their payment, and receive ammunition,
baize, tobacco, buttons, &c.
The.women employed by the trader commence
cutting out the back-bone, and cut off the heads II  I
of the salmon. They are then taken to the Salter,
and placed in a large hogshead, with a quantity of
coarse salt. They remain there for several days,
until they become quite firm. The pickle produced
from these is boiled in a large copper kettle; and
the blood, which floats by the boiling process to the
top, is skimmed off, leaving the pickle perfectly
clear. The salmon are then taken from the hogs-
head, and packed in tierces, with a little more salt ;
the tierces are then headed up, and laid upon their
bilge, or widest part, leaving the bunghole open ;
the pickle is next poured in, until the tierce becomes
full; a circle of clay, about four inches high, is then
made round the bunghole, into which the oil from
the salmon rises. This oil is skimmed off, and,
according as the salmon imbibes the pickle, more
pickle is poured in, so as to keep the liquid sufficiently on the surface, and afford facility for skimming off the oil. After the oil ceases to rise to the
circle round the bunghole, the salmon is then supposed to be sufficiently prepared ; the clay circle is
cleared away, and the hole is bunged up. Salmon
so cured will keep good for three years. This,
soaked in a little water for a few hours previous to
using, is delicious eating; but of course much of its
deliciousness depends on its original quality when
taken, and its freshness when put in salt. <fcs
The ornithology of the district appears to comprise the bustard, wild goose, swan, goose, duck,
hawk, plover, crane, white-headed eagle, magpie,
crow, vulture, thrush, woodpecker, pelican, part-
JUUMi!       ' i
ridge, pheasant, &c. Of the entomology of New
Caledonia, one writer denounces" "three different kinds of venomous flies, the musquito, the
black fly, and the gnat—the latter the same as the
midge in England—who relieve each other regularly
in the work of torture. The mosquitos continue
at their post from dawn to eight or nine o'clock
a.m. ; the black flies succeed, and remain in the
field till sunset; the mosquitos again mount guard
till dark, and are finally succeeded by the gnats,
who continue their watch and incessant attacks till
near sunrise.
Of vegetable edibles Mr. M'Lean thus writes :
" Such parts of the district as are not in the immediate vicinity of the regions of eternal snow, yield
a variety of wild fruit, grateful to the palate, wholesome, and nutritious. Of these, the Indian pear is
the most abundant, and most sought after, both by
natives and whites; when fully ripe, it is of a black
colour, with somewhat of a reddish tinge, pear-
shaped, and very sweet to the taste. The natives
dry them in the sun, and afterwards bake them in
cakes, which are said to be delicious. When dried,
these cakes are placed in wooden vessels to receive
the juice of green fruit, which is expressed by
placing weights upon it, in wooden troughs, from
which spouts of bark draw off the liquid into the
vessels containing the dry fruit; this being thoroughly saturated, is again bruised, then reformed
into cakes, and dried again ; and these processes are
repeated alternately, until the cakes suit the taste
o .
11 |
1 fill
of the maker. Blueberries are plentiful in some
parts of the district; there is a peculiar variety of
them which I preferred," writes Mr. M'Lean, ff to any
fruit I ever tasted; it is about the size of a musket
ball, of a purple colour, translucid, and in its taste
sweet and acid are deliciously blended." Mr. Cox
adds to the list, choke cherries, gooseberries, strawberries, and red whortleberries, but the service
berries, he says, are with the Indians the great
favourite. There are various kinds of roots, whiGji
the natives preserve and dry for periods of scarcity.
There is only one kind which we can eat. It is
called Tza-ohin, has a bitter taste, but when eaten
with salmon imparts an agreeable zest, and effectually destroys the disagreeable smell of that fish,
when smoke-dried. St. John's wort is very common, and has been successfully applied as a fomentation in topical inflammations. A kind of weed,
which the natives convert into a species of flax, is
in universal demand.
The various quadrupeds, as well as the fish, found
in New Caledonia, are all used for the purposes of
food. They are caught in strong netg made of
thongs, or shot with arrows, or taken in traps made
with large pieces of wood, which are so set as to
fall and crush them while nibbling at the bait. The
beaver and the bear are considered the most valuable of these edibles, and are served up at the
feasts which they make in memory of their deceased
relatives, as companion plats with the dogs. When
all other food fails, the natives make shift with a
m it *jS3
species of lichen, which is found in abundance on
$he sides of the rock.
The currency of British Columbia, in its native
simplicity, has consisted of haiqua, a round shell of
extreme hardness, found in the neighbourhood of
Nootka Sound. It varies in length from one to
four inches, and is about half an inch thick—hollow,
slightly curved, and tapering a little towards the
end. It is highly estimated, the longest being
the most valuable. It resembles the top shank
of a common clay smoking pipe ; they are
valued in proportion to the number that, when
ranged on a string passing through their hollow tubes, extend a fathom's length. Forty
to the fathom is supposed to be the fixed standard
of excellence and worth ; for instance, forty which
make a fathom are worth nearly double fifty
which make a fathom. Their extreme fragility,
lightness, tenuity, and delicacy of colour, are what
appear to give them their importance. They are
thus caught in Nootka Sound, and along Vancouver
Island :—-a piece of deer's flesh or fish is dropped
by a line to the bottom; this they cling to ; and
they are then drawn up, and carefully gutted and
In connexion with the question of currency we
may introduce a few remarks on the fur-trade
of this district, considering that, in the hands
of men who understand and who exercise the
teade upon the ordinary principles of commerce,
and without the heavy incumbrances which have
Mm II1 1
so weighed upon the Hudson's Bay Company, apart
from their position as traders, there is no doubt
that the fur trade can be rendered a source of large
commercial success. Profitable as the fur trade has
already been (to quote once more the pamphlet of
Mr. Roche), " there is a certain prospect of its value
becoming greatly enhanced by the opening to general commerce of the markets of Japan. In those
wealthy and densely populated islands, where the
temperature of winter ranges almost as low as it
does in the north of China, direct and comparatively near markets for the furs, the fish, and probably for the timber of these regions, will ere long
be opened out, the importance of which to the latter
country it is impossible to over-rate. Probably
those highly cultivated islands will be found to be
so cleared of their forests that they will afford the
most lucrative markets for the valuable timber of
North-western America. In a large portion of
China timber has already become very scarce. Mr.
Earl, in his work upon the ' Eastern Seas,'says,
that timber has become so dear in China, that the
junks of the Chinese are generally built in other
countries where wood is plentiful. There can,
therefore, be no question of the profit of establishing a trade between that country and the northwest coast, in this staple production of the latter.
The greater portion of the south of Persia, which
is wholly barren in timber, and a great part of
South America,  which is equally so, might also TRADING PROSPECTS.
afford excellent markets for the useful timber of the
north-west coast."
Again, as Mr. Roche points out, "the harbours
at Queen Charlotte's Islands, Vancouver Island,
and the entrance of Frazer's River, are peculiarly
adapted for the fitting out of whalers; being in the
neighbourhood of very valuable fishing grounds,
and the country in their vicinity affording everything that is required for the construction of vessels,
such as excellent timber, iron and copper, coal for
forges, water power for driving saw-mills, and even
flax, growing wild in the interior, for the manufacture of sails and cordage. Thus the whale fishery
alone, by creating a demand for many articles into
which these products could be manufactured, might
be made to give employment to numbers of persons
of various trades and callings."
■ ■ j |
The Gold Discoveries.
Such, then, in outline, as we have described it, is
the country which, long neglected by England, is
now iattracting  so much attention.    Nature, as a
recent  able   pamphlet   tersely   points  out,   | had
favoured the Pacific coast of British North America
in an eminent degree, with a delightfully temperate
climate and fertile soil, inexhaustible forests of the
finest timber,  rich undulating  prairies,   safe   and
spacious harbours, the only ones, with one exception, upon a coast of 3000 miles, and which are
capable of sheltering in their waters the fleets of
the whole world—long and numerous rivers, the
richest fisheries, extensive regions of coal, iron, and
other valuable minerals, near proximity to a good
market (San Francisco), and the very centre of
what must become the great highway of commerce
between the Eastern and Western worlds; yet these
unparalleled and natural advantages did not even
attract the notice of Englishmen, much less their
colonization and settlement, until there occurred THE  GOLD  DISCOVERIES.
one of those marvellous gold discoveries which have
tended so much of late years to extend the trade
and commerce, and enrich the Old World, actually
adding to the European stock of gold .£107,500,000
sterling within the last seven years, and destined
to raise up great and powerful nations of the Anglo-
Saxon race in countries hitherto considered inhospitable and unfit for colonization and settlement by
civilized man."
Gold had been discovered in Queen Charlotte's
Island in 1850, but only in small quantities; and it
has been long well understood that this precious
metal existed not only on Frazer River, but throughout the Central Cascade Range in this direction.
As matter of actual discovery, Captain McClelland,
in 1853, while surveying the military road from Fort
Walla Walla, on the Columbia River, to Fort Steil-
acoom, on Puget Sound, through the Nachess Pass,
found gold in considerable quantities, his men
making two dollars a day, sometimes, with a pan.
The discovery, whenever first made, or wherever,
was not reported to the Home Government until
June, 1856, when Mr. Douglas, who so ably occupied the double position of Governor of Vancouver
Island and Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company in that region, and who has now been fitly
appointed Governor of the new colony, addressed the
following despatch to Mr. Labouchere, then Colonial Secretary, furnishing, at the same time, the same
information to the secretary of the Company. K   I
V 9i
Fsn I
Victoria, Vancouver Island, April 16, 1856.
"Sir,      '  - • ■ : •   •    -
11 hasten to communicate, for the information
of her Majesty's Government, a discovery of much
importance, made known to me by Mr. Angus
McDonald, clerk in charge of Fort Col vile, one of
the Hudson's Bay Company's trading posts on the
Upper Columbia district. - '    :
" That gentleman reports, in a letter dated on the
1st of March last, that gold has been found in considerable quantities within the British territory on
the Upper Columbia, and that he is moreover of
opinion that valuable deposits of gold will be found
in many other parts of that country. He also states
that the daily earnings of persons then employed in
digging gold were ranging from 21. to 8L for each
man. Such is the substance of his report on that
subject; and I have requested him to continue his
communication in respect to any further discoveries
" I do not know if her Majesty's Government will
consider it expedient to raise a revenue in that
quarter by taxing all persons engaged in gold digging, but I may remark, that it will be impossible
to levy such a tax without the aid of a military
force; and the expense in that case would probably
exceed the income derived from the mines.
"1 will not fail to keep you well informed in respect
to the extent and value of the gold discoveries made ;
and circumstances will probably be the best indication of the course which it may be expedient to take, OFFICIAL  CORRESPONDENCE.
that is, in respect to imposing a tax, or leaving the
field free and open to any persons who may choose
to dig for gold.
u Several interesting experiments in gold-washing
have been lately made in this colony, with a degree
of success that will no doubt lead to further attempts
for the discovery of the precious metal. The quantity of gold found is sufficient to prove the existence
of the metal, and the parties engaged in the enterprise entertain sanguine hopes of discovering rich
and productive beds,"
In his reply, dated August 4, 1856, Mr.
Labouchere intimated that not at present looking
for  a  revenue  from  that distant quarter of the
British dominions, the Government were not prepared to increase any expense on account of it.
He, however, desired further information. To this,
Governor Douglas, on October 29, 1856, answered
that "the number of persons engaged in gold-
digging is yet extremely limited, in consequence of
the threatening attitude of the native tribes, who,
being hostile to the Americans, have uniformly opposed the entrance of American citizens into their
| The people from American Oregon are therefore
excluded from the gold district, except such as,
resorting to the artifice of denying their country,
succeed in passing for British subjects. The number of persons at present engaged in the search of
gold are chiefly of British origin, and retired servants of the Hudson's Bay Company, who, being
>swi !
well acquainted with the natives, and connected by
old acquaintanceship and the ties of friendship, are
more disposed to aid and assist each other in their
common pursuits than to commit injury against
persons or property.
" From the successful results of experiments made
in washing gold from the sands of the tributary
streams of Frazer River, there is reason to suppose
that the gold region is extensive : and I entertain
sanguine hopes that future researches will develop
stores of wealth perhaps equal to the gold-fields of
California. The geological formations observed in
the ' Sierra Nevada' of California being similar in
character to the structure of the corresponding
range of mountains in this latitude, it is not unreasonable to suppose that the resemblance will be
found to include auriferous deposits."
On December 29th, 1857, the anxious Governor
" Concerning the gold-fields in the interior north
of 49° parallel of latitude, which, for the sake of
brevity, 1 will hereafter speak of as the ' Oouteau
Mines' (so named after the tribe of Indians who
inhabit the country), I have received further intelligence from my correspondents in that quarter.
, "It appears from their reports that the auriferous
character of the country is becoming daily more
extensively developed, through the exertions of the
native Indian tribes, who, having tasted the sweets
of gold-finding, are devoting much of their time and
attention to that pursuit. OFFICIAL  CORRESPONDENCE.
" The reputed wealth of the Couteau Mines is
causing much excitement among the population of
the United States territories of Washington and
Oregon, and I have no doubt that a great number
of people from those territories will be attracted
thither with the return of the fine weather in spring.
| When mining becomes a remunerative employment, and there is a proof of the extent and productiveness of the gold deposits, I would propose
that the licence fee be gradually increased, in such
a manner, however, as not to be higher than the persons engaged in mining can readily pay."
On the 6th April, 1858, Governor Douglas informs the Colonial Secretary :—
"The search for gold and prospecting of the
country had, up to the last dates from the interior,
been carried on by the native Indian population,
. . . . and who are extremely jealous of the whites,
and strongly opposed to their digging the soil for gold.
.... It is, however, worthy of remark, and a circumstance highly honourable to the character of those
savages, that they have on all occasions scrupulously
respected the persons and property of their white
visitors, at the same time that they have expressed a
determination to reserve the gold for their own benefit.
" Such being the purposeof the natives, affrays and
collisions with the whites will shortly follow the
accession of numbers, which the latter are now
receiving by the influx of adventurers from Vancouver Island and the United States territories in
Oregon;   and there is no doubt in my mind that
m 78fc
sooner or later the intervention of Her Majesty's
Government will be required to restore and maintain the peace.
"The boundaries of the gold district have been
greatly extended since my former report.
" In addition to the diggings before known on
Thompson's River and its tributary streams, a valuable deposit has been recently found by the natives on a bank of Frazer's River about five miles
beyond its confluence with the Thompson, and gold
in small quantities has been found in the possession
of the natives as far as the Great Falls of Frazer's
River, about eighty miles above the Forks, The
small quantity of gold hitherto produced—about
800 ounces*—by the native population of the country is, however, unaccountable in a rich gold-producing country, unless we assume that the want of
skill, industry, and proper mining-tools on the part
of the natives sufficiently accounts for the fact,
" On the contrary, the vein rocks and its other
geological features, as described by an experienced
gold-miner, encourage the belief that the country is
highly auriferous.
"The miner in question clearly described the
older slate formations thrown up and pierced by
beds of quartz, granite, porphyry, and other igneous
rocks; the vast accumulations of sand, gravel, and
shingle extending from the roots of the mountains
to the banks of Frazer's River and its affluents,
which are peculiar characteristics of the gold districts of California and other countries." official Correspondence.
On May 8th, 1858, Douglas writes :—"The merchants and other business classes of Victoria are
rejoicing in the advent of so large a body of people
in the colony, and are strongly in favour of making
this port a stopping point between San Francisco
and the gold mines, converting the latter, as it
were, into a feeder and dependency of this colony.
" Victoria would thus become a depot and centre
of trade for the gold districts, and the natural consequence would be an immediate increase in the
wealth and population of the colony.
" To effect that object it will be requisite to
facilitate by every possible means the transport of
passengers and goods to the furthest navigable point
on Frazer's River; and the obviotls means of accomplishing that end is to employ light steamers in
plying between, and connecting this port with the
Falls of Frazer's River, distant 130 miles from the
discharge of that river into the Gulf of Georgia,
those falls being generally believed to be at the
commencement of the remunerative gold diggings,
and from thence the miners would readily make
their way on foot, or, after the summer freshets, by
the river, into the interior of the country.
"By that means, also, the whole trade of the
gold regions would pass through Frazer's River,
and be retained within the British territory, form-
ing a valuable outlet for British manufactured
goods, and at once creating a lucrative trade between the mother country and Vancouver's
Ill |
; !.i: ';'
S fi
Prdgress of the Gold Fever.—The Times Correspondence.
We cannot better illustrate the progress of the gold
fever than in the words of the "Own Correspondent" of the Times at San Francisco. The narrative is somewhat extended; but the style is so
graphic and so vigorous, there is so much incidental
landscape and manners prevailing, and the subject
so full of interest in every respect, that the reader
will think the space well appropriated.
" San Francisco, Thursday, June 14th, 1858.
" On the morning of the 5th, just as the last mail
steamer was about to leave for Panama, a steamer
arrived from Vancouver's Island with further news
of the most glowing and extravagant tenor as to
the richness of the new gold country in the British
possessions.    My last letter was then posted	
" The only way in which I can give an intelligible statement in a moderate compass is to sift tlie
facts from the mass of correspondence and personal
details at hand. The following is the experience of
a man from San Francisco, well known here, connected with a business firm in this place, and whose
statement is worthy of credit. He left San Fran-
cisco in April, and, in company with seven others,
ascended the Frazer River 275 miles. I will let
him tell his story in his own way, interposing only
such remarks of my own as will be explanatory of
his \ terms' and of the localities mentioned. I We
prospected all along coming up from Fort Hope to
Sailor's Bar, several days' travel, and in some places
got two bits to the pan and in some places five
cents.' Two ' bits' may be set down as of the
value of a shilling sterling. ' We camped and commenced mining at Sailor's Bar,' about twenty-five
miles above Fort Yale, I which has rich diggings, in
some places paying as high as six bits to the pan.'
The 'pan,' most readers know by this time, is a small
tin basin with which the miner | washes' the gravel
containing the gold. I When I arrived miners were
making as high as six ounces a day to the rocker.'
These are enormous earnings. Six ounces of gold,
at its market value of $16 the ounce, would be
nearly 201. sterling as the product of the daily labour of two men, which a f rocker' should Have to
work it efficiently—one to c fill' and another to
1 rock,' and not hard work either, barring the inconvenience of being in the water. Such results
were frequent in the early times of California
mining, when the soil was fvirgin.' 'We mined
along the banks of the river (the Frazer), and the
average was from two to three ounces per day to
the rocker. Miners are at work all along the
banks of the river,' for twenty-five miles above Fort
Yale. c They average from two to four ounces a
day.' These returns refer to mining carried on on
such (bars' of the Frazer River as were exposed ;
but the rise of all of the water from the melting
of the snow in the mountains far up rendered the
work uncertain till August, when the waters sub-
side for the season. (The river sometimes rises
three feet in a night/ and, as a consequence, 'a
man cannot make his expenses there.'
" It appears from the concurrent testimony of all
who have been up the Frazer and Thompson Rivers,
that the higher they go up the more plentiful the
gold becomes. This corresponds exactly with Cali-
fornian mining experience. The gold is retained
where the bed of the stream is gravelly.
" This man describes the country as f very rich
and beautiful, but high and mountainous. You are
surrounded by mountains entirely. There is plenty
of timber, and everything a miner can wish for,
except game and provisions.' This is rather a
grave desideratum, as even miners cannot eat gold.
However, there is some 'balni in Gilead.' i There
are plenty of salmon in the river, and brown bears
in the woods. They (the bears) are very good
eating.' They are much more accommodating 'bears'
than their • grizzly! brethren of California, whose
flesh is as tough as shoe-leather. \ Wherever we
i prospected' (above Fort Yale) we found gold—at
some places more, at others less; but we found gold
everywhere? \ At the Rapids or Falls,' twenty odd
miles above Fort Yale, ' where the water fell near LETTERS OF THE " TIMES " CORRESPONDENT. 137
fifteen feet over the rocks and prevented our ascending higher (in their canoe), we prospected and found
gold very plenty.' ' Near the Falls, and from Sailor's
Bar up, many miners were at work, all with rockers.
Gold very fine—requiring blankets to be spread in
the bottom of the rockers to save the fine particles.'
' There are, undoubtedly, plenty of ' bars' containing
gold.' j By the use of quicksilver twice as much
gold could be saved, as some of it is as fine as flour.'
The person from whose narrative I have been
quoting left his mining j claim' in charge of two
partners. He brought down to San Francisco some
of the ! dust' dug by him above Sailor's Bar. It is
in fine scales of a dark brownish colour, as if
alloyed with copper. He has returned to the Frazer
River with supplies of provisions, &c.
" The special correspondent of the San Francisco
Bulletin, a reliable authority, writes from Fort
Langley, twenty-five miles up the Frazer, under
date May the 25th, that he had just come down
from Fort Yale—the locality above spoken of—I
where he found 60 men and 200 Indians, with their
squaws, at work on a ? bar5 of about 500 yards in
length, called 'Hill's bar,' one mile below Fort
Yale and 15 miles from Fort Hope, all trading
posts of the Hudson's Bay Company. ' The morning I arrived two men (Kerrison and Co.) cleaned
up 5^ ounces from the rocker, the product of half
a day's work. Kerrison and Co. the next day
cleaned up 10^ ounces from two rockers, which I
saw myself weighed,'    This bar is acknowledged to
o *
be one of the richest ever seen, and well it may be,
for here is a product of 15^- ounces of gold, worth
$247^, or 501. sterling, from it in a day and a half,
to the labour of two rockers. ' Old Californian
miners say they never saw such rich diggings. The
average result per day to the npan was fully $20;
some much more. The gold is very fine ; so much
so that it was impossible to save more than two-
thirds of what went through the rockers.' This
defect in the ' rocker f must be remedied by the
use of quicksilver to ' amalgamate' the finer particles of gold. This remedy is at hand, for California
produces quicksilver sufficient for the consumption
of the whole world in her mountains of Cinnabar.
Supplies are going on by every vessel.
v " At Sailor Diggings, above Fort Yale, they are
doing very well, averaging from $8 to $25 per day
to the man. I am told that the gold is much
coarser on Thompson River than it is in Frazer
River. I saw yesterday about $250 of coarse gold
from Thompson River in pieces averaging $5 each.
Some of the pieces had quartz among them. Hill,
who was the first miner on the bar bearing his
name, jusb above spoken of, with his partner, has
made some $600 on it in almost 16 days' work.
Three men just arrived from Sailor Diggings have
brought down $670 dollars in dust, the result of 12
days' work. Gold very fine.' Rising of the river
driving the miners off for a time.
" Another authority, a Californian miner, known
in San Francisco, also lately returned from the Frazer
and Thompson Rivers, testifies to the existence of
gold in great quantity. ' This statement,' he says,
' is true; gold does exist in this new country, and
there is no doubt in my mind that the upper mines
are much like the upper mountain mines of California. The first diggings are not far from the Sound
(Puget Sound) ; but there, as in California, the
richest mines will be found far up in the mountains.'
"He advises the multitudes now rushing up in
such mad haste ' to be the first there,' that ' there
is no occasion to hurry, as the gold wont run
away, nor be dug up in a day, nor in years.'
" Correspondents from several places on the Sound,
both in the English and American territories, men
of various nationalities, write that the country on
the Frazer River is rich in gold, ' and equal to any
discoveries ever made in California.' \ This is the
burden of every song from Victoria, Vancouver's
Island; Port Townsend, Bellingham-bay, Olympia,
Whatcom, S6home, Portland, and other places.
Wherever a letter can be posted, or a steamer
boarded in the north-western countries of Oregon,
Washington, and the British territory, the same
news is wafted to San Francisco.
" Of the existence of gold as reported I have no
doubt, but I have no information as to the extent
of the auriferous country except what I can gather
from two letters written at Bellingham-bay, describing and advocating a land route or ' trail' from
the coast to Thompson's River and the higher por-
tions of the Frazer. The writer of one of these
letters asserts that I there are rich diggings in the
Cascade Mountains, between Fort Hope and Fort
Yale, as well as to the southward and eastward of
Fort Hope.' And the writer of the other letter
reports that ' Mines have also been discovered in the
interior, at a great distance inland from the Frazer
River,'—-some 190 miles to the north and east of
the mouth of that river, as well as I can make out
the locality from the description. He augurs that
when a route by land shall have been opened to
them, ' these mines will cause the Frazer River
mines, which only last some six months in the year,
owing to the freshets of ice, to be almost forgotten.'
This is most important, if true, as upon the extent
of mineral region must depend its ultimate success
and permanency as a field for the labour and support of a large mining poptdation. In short, we
have no reliable information of the existence of a
gold-field in the interior, as we have of the existence
of gold in quantity on the rivers. I cannot suppose
that the gold is confined to the beds of the rivers :
and believing it to exist in the latter, leads one to
the conclusion, judging from California experience,
that there is a gold-field in shape of 'placers/
iravines,' and 'hill-diggings' in the country tra-
versed by these same rivers. Of its extent I can
say nothing at present, but the problem will soon
be solved.
" The preceding imperfect sketch describes the
sutmy side of the picture.    But the sun does not LETTERS OF THE " TIMES 1 CORRESPONDENT. 141
always shine upon the miner in New Caledonia;
and so, to be impartial, we must have a look at the
shady side. Overlooking the disagreeables and
risks of the voyage from San Francisco, made at
high rates of fare, in crazy old vessels, not one of
which is really seaworthy, where men and women are
crowded ' like herrings packed in a barrel,' to borrow a comparison from one of the 'cargo,' as a
misery of short duration—only five to six days—
we come to where the miner finds himself dropped
on the beach at Victoria, Bellingham Bay, or else-
" ISTow his real difficulties and hardships commence, and his helplessness becomes painfully apparent. He is from 100 to 250 miles from the mines,
without food and without shelter, in a variable
climate. Several of his fellows tell the tale of his
troubles in a few short but significant items:—
' Canoes are very scarce; the price has risen from
$50 and $80 to $100 each. Many parties have
built light boats for themselves, but they did not
answer.' ' We have got up, but we had a hard
time coming.' \ Jordan is a hard road to travel ;
lost all our outfit, except flour. Our canoe was
capsized in the Falls, and was broken to pieces.
Six other canoes capsized and smashed the same day
near the same place. Four whites and two Indians
belonging to these six canoes drowned.' Pro^
visions high up the river are exorbitant, of course,
as they can only be brought up. in canoes requiring
long 'portages.'    Here's the tariff at Sailor's Bar
and other bars:—'Flour, $100 a barrel, worth in
San Francisco $11 to $12; molasses, $6 a gallon;
pork, $1 per lb.; ham, $1 25c. per lb.; tea at one
place, $1 per lb., but at another $4; sugar, $2 per
lb.; beans, $1 per lb.; picks, $6; and shovels, $2
each. There were no fresh provisions.' I should
have been greatly surprised to hear that there had
been. ' At Fort Hope there was nothing to be had
but dried salmon.' ' At Fort Langley, plenty of
black flour at $9 a hundred, and salt salmon four
for $1.' What lively visions of scurvy these provisions conjure up ! The acme of extravagance was
not arrived at, however, until the poor miner came
to purchase auxiliaries to his rocker. At Sailor's
Bar 'rocker irons were at an ounce of gold each
($16), and at Hill's Bar $30.' This t iron' is simply
a plate of thin sheet-iron measuring eighteen inches
by twenty inches, perforated with round holes to
let the loose dirt pass through. I priced one of
them, out of curiosity, at a carpenter's shop in San
Francisco this morning—$2 A. In England this
thing would be worth 2s. At Sailor's Bar it would
be worth 31. 4s., and at Hill's Bar it would fetch 61.
Quicksilver was also outrageously high, but not being
of such prime necessity as ' rocker irons,' didn't come
up to their standard of value. At one place it was
sold at $10 per lb.; but at Fort Langley a man
bought one pound, paying $15 for it/ and had to
carry it a great distance. The price in San Francisco is 60c. the pound (half-a-crown)? and on the
Frazer River 31.    ' Nails brought from $ 1 to $ 1
50c. per lb. One lot of a dozen pounds brought
$3, or two bits a nail,' which, being interpreted
into Queen's English, means Is. a nail! These are
some of the outgoings which tax the miner's earnings in a new unpeopled country; but these are
not his only drawbacks. 'There being no boards
to be had, we had per force to go in the woods and
hew out our lumber to make a rocker,' causing
much loss of time. Then came the hunt for nails
and for the indispensable perforated ' iron,' which
cost so much. But, worst of all the ills of the
miner's life in New Caledonia, are the jealousy and
the audacious thieving of the Indians, ' who are
nowise particular in seizing on the dirt of the
miners.' ' The whites,' being in the minority, and
the Indians being a fierce athletic set of rascals,
' suffered much annoyance and insult' without
retaliating. What a trial to the temper of Oregon
men who used to shoot all Indians who came
within range of their rifle as vermin in California
in 1848 and 1849 !
" The difficulties of access to the mines will soon
be ameliorated, as small steamers are to be put on
the river, to ply as far up as the rapids will permit
them ; but as to the Indian ' difficulties,' it is much
to be feared they will increase until a military force
is sent into the country to overawe them. The
prices of provisions and of mining tools and other
necessaries will soon be regulated by the competition
of the San Francisco merchants, and the miners
will not   be  long subjected to exorbitant rates.
jlitjfl 1
ffiSiiiii i
They have a vast advantage in the proximity of
San Francisco, abounding, as it does, in supplies for
all their wants. When I recall our early troubles
and victimizings, I almost cease to pity the victims
of the 'rocker irons,' at 61. a-plate. In 1849 I
paid $1 50c. for the simple luxury of a fresh egg,
I might have had one laid on the Atlantic boatd,
or in Chili or the Sandwich Islands for less, it is
true; but these required French cookery to ' dis*
guise' their true state and condition, and I being
then f fresh' myself was somewhat particular. Even
this did not cap the cli max, for I paid a sum in
American currejioy equal to 161* sterling for a pair
of boots the day I was burnt out by the first fire in
the same year. And such a pair 1 They were
'navvy's* boots, and worth in England about
15^. The New Caledonians must not complain,
for we have endured more (and survived it too)
than they are likely to suffer.'5
I Wednesday, June 16th.
I The permit business is the first ground of complaint, and they may be in the right for aught I know
at present. Matters cannot long rest in peace and
quietness as they are now, The Government will
act wisely in taking prompt measures to meet the
emergency which has so suddenly arisen.
"I believe I stated in a former letter that Victoria was a free port, No duties are levied on
merchandize. This, independently of its favourable
portion, carries all British and other foreign goods, LETTERS OF THE " TIMES *' CORRESPONDENT.    145
liable to American duties, to Victoria, in preference
to all the American ports on the North-West Coast,
an important fact which will be duly appreciated in
England by ' the men who go down to the sea in
" When I add to the statement of facts from the
Frazer Biver, already given in this letter, that we
have received many more accounts of mining having
been carried on in April and May in several other
places besides those mentioned in my statement,
and with the like good results; that sundry persons
have reported having seen returned miners on the
coast of Puget Sound and elsewhere in the British
and American territories with considerable quantities of gold, the usual 'parcels of dust,' 'big lumps,
' bags of gold, fine and coarse,' ' rich specimens,'
'sums of from $300 to $500 worth' in the hands
of so many persons, ' exchanging gold for goods to
take back into the mines;' and when I add further,
what two of the principal San Francisco papers
have told us—namely, that the truth of the stories
of the fabulous richness of these mines was verified
by ocular demonstration—' glittering evidences' in
the possession of two or three passengers who arrived
here on the 5th inst. ; that two (other) miners had
$6000 between them, one of whom said his last
day's work amounted to $144, both statements
given as ascertained facts; that one man had a shot
bag filled with gold, and another 50 ounces, the
two latter statements given on hearsay—when I
add all this to my statement, I shall have given a ■   >r   5   t ■
pretty complete summary of all that is known here
as yet concerning the new gold country. : - -
1 " My own conclusion is that the Frazer and its
tributary the Thompson are rivers rich in gold,
and that I have no reliable evidence of the existence
of a gold-field beyond those rivers.
" Only a very inconsiderable quantity of gold has
come down to San Francisco in the regular channels
of trade—there have been but very trifling consignments, the bulk having come in private hands; but
the paucity of consignments, although it has caused
some suspicion of the truth of the reported wealth
of the mines in the mind of the more cautious (I
must confess a small class with us), yet the stories
of what was seen and heard, and could be earned,
have sufficed to unhinge the masses, and to produce an excitement which results in an unparalleled
"From the 1st of this month till to-day (June
17th), seven sailing vessels and four steamers have
left San Francisco, all for the new mines. They all-
went to Victoria except two of the sailing vessels,
which went to Port Townsend and Bellingham Bay,
but the final destination of all was the same,—-
' Frazer Biver.' All took passengers in crowds.
One of the steamers carried away 1000 person^
and another upwards of 1200, and multitudes are
left behind waiting for the next departure. There
are still thirteen vessels on the berth for the same
destination, all filling with passengers and goods.
One of these is a steamer, five of them are large
clippers, three ships of considerable size, and the rest
barks, brigs, and schooners, so that if the next news
from the North is favourable this fleet will carry
away a goodly crowd.
" From San Francisco itself a great many have
gone, and more are going. Common labourer^,
bricklayers, carpenters, printers, cabinet-makers, &c.
—in short, all the mechanical arts are already
represented in Vancouver's Island. Other classes
go as well; in fact, the major portion whose interests can permit are going. People seem to have
suddenly come to the conclusion that it is their fate
to go. 'Going to Frazer's Biver V 'Yes; oh, of
course, I must go.' ' You going V ' Yes, sir; I'm
bound to go.' None are too poor and none too rich
to go. None too young and none too old to go ;—
even the decrepit go. Many go with money, many
go without; some to invest in ' real estate,' that
arrant representative of humbug and swindling on
this continent; some to see what may turn up—
these are men cunning in the ' Micawber' theory;
some out of curiosity, some to gamble, and some to
steal, and, unquestionably, some to die.
" Merchandize of all sorts, building materials,
mules, and sundry necessaries to supply immediate
wants, are, of course, being sent on in ample quantities. People of all nations are going. Men who
can't speak a word of English are going, accompanied by interpreters.
" This feverish state of the public mind cannot
last long.    As the rivers had risen so that the
1 l 2 1    I
; }
' bars J could not be worked after the latter part of
May, and as the waters will not abate till the
beginning or middle of August, and as thousands of
miners who went up without spare money are idle
on the coast, we shall, no doubt, soon hear that
jnany of them are dying of hunger. This will cool
the ardour of many in this country.
" The fares up by the steamers are—for the
'nobs' $60, and for the 'roughs' $30; the fare so
so ; and the attendance and other comforts can
easily be guessed when I state that the decks of
the steamer which I left to-day were so crowded
with passengers that it was almost impossible to
move through them. I suppose the waiters will
have to fight their way when serving 'the quality.'
- "A gentleman who w^ent down to the wharf and
on board to see the sight, says the crush actually
lifted him off the deck. It resembled a crowd at
one of the London theatres on a ' star' night. The
paper of to-day says, ' She appeared perfectly black
with human beings, crowded in every part of her
when she drew away from the wharf.' Her proper
complement is 800, and she would not be comfortable with more than 600 passengers. She took
to-day 1600 'atleast,' it is commonly said. Persons
in the way of knowing the fact estimate that of the
labourers in every class in the State, all the unemployed and  one-half the  employed  have already
"June 19th, 1858.
"The amount of Frazer Biver gold received at
the mint in San Francisco since the 19th of May
was only 385 ozs. ; average fineness, 837 ; worth
$17 30c. the oz., making in all $6676 59c. in
value. .
" Everything is redolent of Frazer River, the
boxes and cases at all the doors have it painted on
them. No one speaks of anything else. Wages
have jumped to-day from $4 to $7 in consequence
of it. The editor of the Bute Record, an up-
country paper, says waggishly of his fellow-townsmen, 'Every joke that is cracked is mixed in
Frazer River water, and Frazer forms a part and
parcel of everybody's meat, drink, and apparel.' I
Vancouver Island,
It has been seen that power is reserved to the
Crown in Council, on address of Parliament, to
annex Vancouver Island to the colony of British
Columbia. There can be little doubt that this
course will be taken at a very early date.
In this portion of our subject, the urbane liberality of Dr. Shaw, Secretary to the Royal Geographical Society, has enabled us to enrich these
pages with a large extract from the Description of
Vancouver Island, by its first colonist, Col. W.
Colquhoun Grant, which was read before the Eoyal
Geographical Society of London on the 22nd June,
1857. Colonel Douglas, it must be confessed, does
not altogether confirm the enthusiastic eulogies
which were bestowed on the island by Vancouver
and Wilkes. Some allowance perhaps should be
made for the circumstances of discouragement
under which he wrote.
" The position and natural advantages of Vancouver Island," says Colonel Grant, " would appear
eminently to adapt it for being the emporium of an
extended commerce. It contains valuable coal
fields, and is covered with fine timber. The soil,
where there is any, is rich and productive ; the
climate good; and the singular system of inland
seas bv which it is environed teems with fish of
every description. Capable of producing those very
articles which are most in demand in neighbouring
countries, and offering, in its numerous safe and
commodious harbours, almost unrivalled facilities
for import and export, it would seem to require
but a little well-directed exertion of energy and
enterprise to make it the seat of a flourishing
colony. ■ .    . ■,
"The island is situated between the parallels
48° 20' and 51° north latitude, and in west longitude between 123° and 128° 20'; its coast trends in
a north-west and south-east direction ; its extreme
length from Cape Scott to Point Gonzalez being
270 miles, with a general breadth of from forty to
fifty miles ; its greatest breadth is seventy miles,
being from Point Estevan, at the south entrance of
Cl&yoquot Sound, to Point Chatham, at the northern
extremity of Discovery Passage ; its least breadth,
namely, from about twenty miles south of Woody
Point to Port Bauza, is twenty-eight miles. There
are, however, several places in which the arms of
the sea, running inland from opposite sides of the
island, approach very closely to each other. In the
north, for instance, from Beaver Harbour to Kos-
kiemo, the extremity of an inland loch, running in
immediately opposite, the  distance is only  eight
o 152
miles.    From the Alberni canal on the west, to
Valdez inlet, called by the natives Saatlam, on the
east, the distance is only twenty-two miles ; again,
in the extreme south, a rough journey of about
seven miles brings the pedestrian from Sanetch, on
the Canal de Haro, to the end of Esquimalt harbour
on the Straits of Fuca ; and from Nitinat, between
Barclay Sound and Port St. Juan on the southwest, in a day and a half the savages pass over to
the valley of the Cowichin in the south-east.    The
general aspect of the country throughout the island
from the seaward is peculiarly uninviting.    Dark
frowning cliffs sternly repel the foaming sea, as it
rushes impetuously against them, and beyond these,
with scarcely any interval of level land, rounded
hills, densely covered with fir, rise one above the
other in dull uninteresting monotony; over these
again appear bare mountains of trap rock, with
peaks jagged like the edge of a saw, a veritable
Montserrat, forming  a culminating ridge,   which
may be said to run with little intermission, like a
back-bone, all down the centre of the island, from
the northern to the southern extremity ; nor does
a nearer approach present one with many more
favourable features in the aspect of the country.
% The whole centre of the island—as far as it has
been at present explored-—may be said to be a mass
of rock and mountain, and of the little available
land which is found in patches along the sea-coast,
by far the greater part is densely covered with
timber, the removal of which would be go laborious GEOLOGICAL  STRUCTURE.
1" B? tf
as to make the bringing of the said land under cultivation scarcely a profitable undertaking. The
little open land which there is, however, is in general
rich, and had the British Government thrown the
island open to the exertions of individual enterprise,
the greater portion of such open land would doubtless, ere this, have been settled. It is not, however,
always that the wooded land is capable of cultivation along the sea-coast; on the contrary, the
reverse is the rule ; the greater portion of the land
on the southern, and nearly all on the western
coast, as far as it has yet been examined, consisting
of barren rock, barelv affording sufficient holding
ground  to the  stunted  timber with which  it is
" The geological structure of the island corresponds
with its physical aspect. The prevailing formation
is that generally known as the gneiss and mica-
schist system :—these rocks produce a broken and
rugged surface, without being attended with any
picturesque effect. Along the sea-coast on the eastward, from Nanaimo to Sanetch, the principal surface rock is sandstone of the coal formation. From
Sanetch to Esquimalt gneiss prevails, diversified
with beds of dark-coloured limestone. Westward
of Esquimalt mica slate occurs, whilst from Rocky
Point to Port St. Juan the principal rocks on the
sea-c&ast belong to the clay slate and greywacke
systems, interspersed however at intervals, few and
far between, with cliffs of a white coloured close-
grained sandstorie.
Via II '"
" These strata of sandstone lie generally tolerably
tevel, with a dip of about 7° to the south; they are
covered with beds of lightish yellow finely laminated
clay, of from 100 to 20 feet in thickness, over
which is generally to be found a layer of from two
to four fe$t in thickness of rich black vegetable
mould; the sandstone beds do not occur often on the
south coast, seldom extend at a time for more than
two miles along it, and in no case that I know extend beyond that distance into the interior. At
Soke Harbour the rocks on the east side are a coarsegrained highly-indurated greywacke, interspersed
with crystals of hornblende and iron pyrites; on the
west side a tolerably level bed of sandstone reaches
to a distance of about one mile inland; at the back
of this rises an amorphous mass of hornblende schist,
which reaches an elevation of 700 feet. Ascending
the bed of Soke River, we pass for a mile and a half
through the sandstone strata, these again give place
to greywacke. About four and a half miles up, a
dyke of greenstone runs across our course, over the
irregular traps or steps in which the river precipitates itself in a series of foaming cataracts; this
irruptive mass runs in a north-west south-east
direction, and is about two miles in thickness.
After passing it, the slaty formation again present^
itself, the quality being a close-grained chlorite slate
of a bright green colour. The stratification is not
clearly defined in this rock, but the general dip may
be about 30°, the direction being to the south-west.
At ten miles up the river we com© to a beautiful GEOLOGICAL  STRUCTURE.
blue fine-grained argillaceous slate, with the cleavage
very clearly and regularly expressed. The surface
of these rocks has been so broken and distorted by
some great subterranean convulsion, that the apparent plane of stratification is sometimes horizontal,
at others quite perpendicular to the horizon. Some
three miles beyond the commencement of this formation, we come to a trough of greywacke slate, containing a lake of about six miles in length, and with
a general breadth of a quarter of a mile. On either
side of this, with little or no level land intervening,
rise steep mountains to a considerable elevation—
one of those on the eastern side reaching an elevation of 2015 feet. The sides of this mountain are
so entirely covered with detached blocks or fragments of granite, that it is impossible to see below
them any solid foundation; on the top a level platform extends for some 300 feet in an oval shape.
Although the rock contains aggregated crystals of
quartz, felspar, mica, and hornblende, and no laminated structure is apparent, I am induced to call
it a granitic variety of gneiss, partly because contiguous mountains decidedly exhibit the structure of
the gneiss formation, and partly owing to the almost
total absence of soil or any earthy substance—gneiss
being a rock of much slower decomposition than
granite proper: I have not indeed seen any pure
granite on the island, except in detached blocks
lying on other rocks along the sea-coast. These
erratic blocks, sometimes of granite proper, but
more frequently of syenite, are to be met with all
- 13    UP «*
along the sea-coast, in cubical masses of from six to
twenty feet in thickness ; they generally lie close to
the sea-shore, within a few yards of high-water
mark; smaller blocks of similar quality arc also
found in the interior, frequently on the tops of the
lower hills.
" From the above particular account may be deduced a tolerably accurate idea of the general geological formation, on the south coast of Vancouver
Island. It is, however, difficult to convey upon
paper a correct impression of the interior, the sight
of which, seen from the first eminence that he
Ascends, causes to the explorer a hopeless elongation
of visage. The prevailing rocks in the higher parts
of the island are gneiss and mica schist, in the
lower greywacke and clay slate, the whole being
interspersed and intersected in every direction by
dykes of greenstone and hornblendic trap, the
upheaving of which has produced such a distortion
and dislocation to the surrounding strata as to give
to the whole the appearance of a vast boiling mass,
which had been suddenly cooled and solidified in its
bubbling position. The hills are steep and rugged ;
the valleys narrow and shallow; the rocks are sometimes bare, sometimes covered with a scant growth
of timber : but in no case, that I have seen, does
the surface of the interior of the island, either in
its nature or its position, admit of being applied to
any more useful purpose than to furnish matter for
the explorations of a geologist.
"From these regions, which are wild without VICTORIA.
1   *■ FT
being romantic, and which, from the absence of any
bold outline, never approach to the sublime or the
beautiful, the traveller loves to descend to the
smiling tracts which are occasionally to be met with
on the sea-coast. In one of these Victoria is situated, and it is from a visit to it and its neighbourhood, that tourists deduce their favourable ideas of
the general nature of the island.
"In 1843; early in the spring of the year, the
Hudson's Bay Company first effected a settlement in
Vancouver Island. They landed about forty men,
under charge of Mr. Finlayson, and in a very short
time constructed a picketed enclosure, containing
the buildings usually appropriated by the company
to the storing of goods and to the accommodation of
their servants. ; They landed at Victoria, called
then by the natives Tsomus, from the name of the
tribe which lives there : here they met with no opposition from the Indians, and, as soon as they had
finished their buildings, they commenced bringing
sufficient land under cultivation for the support of
the establishment.
I As in settling there no idea was entertained by
the Hudson's Bay Company beyond starting a fresh
trading post with the Indians, the establishment
remained in statu quo until the year 1849, when
the granting of the whole island to the company
opened out a fresh field for their exertions; and
about this time, viz., in the commencement of the
year 1849, there were some eighty acres in cultivation round Victoria.    The draft of the charter for
1 p
.^£j 158
the granting of the island to the Company was
laid before Parliament in August, 1848, but the
grant, however, was not confirmed until the commencement of the year 1849 ; and it was then
given to the Hudson's Bay Company under condition
that, within five years, they should have established
satisfactory settlements on it for the purpose of
colonization. '
" The population of the island in the end of the
year 1853 was about 450 souls, men, women, and
children; of these, 300 are at Victoria, and between
it and Soke ; about 125 at Uanaimo; and the
remainder at Fort Rupert.
" The gross quantity of land applied for in the
island up to the end of the year 1853, was 19,807
acres and 16 perches, of which 10,172 had been
claimed by the Hudson's Bay Company, 2374 by
the Puget Sound Company, and the remainder by
private individuals.
"Of this land 1696 acres 2 roods and 16 perches
are occupied by individual settlers, sixteen in
number ; 973 acres claimed by absentees and unoccupied ; 471 acres occupied by the agents of absentees ; 3052 acres reserved by the Hudson's Bay
Company ; and 2574 acres occupied by bailiffs of
the Puget Sound Company, four in number. Altogether, under the three above classes, there are
fifty-three different claimants of land, about thirty
of whom may be said to be bond fide occupying and
improving their land. The system of paying a
deposit of one dollar per acre, only lately intro-
duced, has now been abolished, and parties have to
pay at the rate of «£1 per acre previous to occupying their claims.
" The soil under cultivation is sometimes a rich
vegetable mould, in other places a clayey loam, and
in others somewhat sandy. It produces excellent
wheat crops. Mr. Baillie has raised forty-four
bushels to the acre off some land which he farms
for the Hudson Bay Company, about three miles
from Victoria. Heavy crops of peas have also
been raised in the same place. I myself, at Soke,
raised excellent crops of wheat, barley, oats, peas,
beans, turnips, and potatoes ; Swedish turnips in
particular did remarkably well, and produced a
very heavy crop. I imported all the seed, except
for wheat, peas, and potatoes, from Van Diemen
Land, through the Sandwich Islands. In all arable
portions of the island the land is favoiu^able to the
production of green crops of every description;
vegetables also grow particularly well, and esculent
roots of all sorts attain a great size. Oats have
generally been a failure, probably owing to their
having been sown too late in the season.
" The climate, as usual on the coast of the Pacific,
is divided into two seasons of dry and rainy; it
generally rains and snows from October to March,
and during the rest of the year a parching heat
prevails, which dries up all the small streams. In
the commencement of autumn dense fogs prevail,
enveloping everything in obscurity, and preventing,
as I think, the rays of the sun from having a due
V   IWKl
"P 160
vivifying effect on the crops. These fogs also tend
to absorb the dews which would otherwise fall; the
consequence is, that all the crops which are not
taken in early are apt to be parched up, and run to
straw for want of moisture.
" Although the thermometer sometimes reaches
a height of 90° and 92°, that is, only during the
few hottest days in August, the usual thermome-
trical range during the dry season is from 60° to
80°. The natives all along the coast have a custom
of setting fire to the woods in summer, which doubtless adds to the density of the fogs, and increases
the temperature of the atmosphere, I have never
seen a drop of rain fall from March till October;
the seasons, however, are uncertain.
" The prevailing winds along the coast in winter
are from the south-east, varying from that to the
south-west, and with occasional heavy northerly
gales; the prevailing winds in the summer are from
the north and north-west. Generally speaking, the
climate is both agreeable and healthy; and not a
single death that I am aware of has occurred among
adults from disease during the six years that I have
been acquainted with the island.
" The most northern station occupied by whit6
men is Fort Rupert. This post, situated on Beaver
Harbour, on the north-east corner of the island, was
established by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1849,
for the purpose of working the coal which they
were led to suppose existed in large quantities in
its vicinity, as a quantity of superficial coal had
--•■ •— COAL  DEPOSIT.
been worked there by the Indians, which, however,
was of loose and op§n structure, interspersed with
slate, and of so inferior a quality that they have not
yet been able to find a market for the whole of it.
All efforts to find workable coal under the surface
of Beaver Harbour have hitherto proved totally
unsuccessful; and the country in the neighbourhood
has been so thoroughly examined by Mr. Gilmore,
that there appears little reason to hope for any further discoveries in that quarter.    A shaft was sunk
to the depth of ninety feet by the Messrs. Muir, the
miners who were first sent out from Scotland by
the Hudson Bay Company; they principally worked
through sandstone and shale, and passed through
one or two little seams of coal, the thickest not
above four inches in thickness.   This shaft was continued by Mr. Gilmore to a depth of 120 feet, until
he struck the whinstone rock, when he gave up
farther search as hopeless.   Another bore was sunk
directly at the back of Fort Rupert to the depth of
forty-seven and a half fathoms.    Two other bores
were sunk behind Fort Rupert, towards the interior;
one some four miles to the north-west, where the
borers were stopped by loose quicksand at a depth
of 30 fathoms; another two miles to the south-west
to a depth of forty fathoms ; again, ten miles distant
from Port Rupert, along the sea-coast, two bores
were sunk through sandstone to depths of forty-
seven  and forty-seven and a half fathoms respectively, without any signs of workable coal; these
were sunk at some distance back from the shore,
Close to the shore two pits we're sunk, one seventeen the other thirty fathoms. Nearly all these
bores were sunk down until the whinstone rock
was struck, and in none of them were they successful in discovering any workable seam of coal,
although several small veins were passed through,
the thickest not exceeding six inches. There are
now no miners' at Fort Rupert, and the establishment consists of twenty officers and men. As the
Indian trade there is unimportant, and as it was
principally fixed on with a view to the coal, it is
probable that it will ere long be abandoned.
" There is some very fine timber in the neighbourhood of Fort Rupert, and a considerable quantity of it has been cut for exportation as spars and
masts for vessels. Coasting along Vancouver Island
to the south-east, a canoe or steamer will lead us
through Johnson Strait and Discovery Passage to
Cape Mudge.    This strait is almost impassable to a
sailing vessel, except with great danger, as a tremendous tide runs, and there is no good anchorage
nor place of shelter along the coast.    Cape Mudge
was lately found by Mr. Pemberton to have been
placed, in charts previously constructed, fourteen
miles too far to the westward.    In its neighbourhood the savages report some prairie land, but I am
not aware of any having ever been seen there by a
white man.    The coast from Beaver Harbour to
Cape Mudge, and for some miles to the south, appears rocky woodland, quite unavailable for purposes of settlement.    Fifteen miles south of Cape COAL DEPOSIT*
Mudge we come to Point Holmes, where there are
some ten or twelve miles of rich open prairie land
close to the coast, offering probably a more favourable field for agricultural settlement than any
other section of land which has as yet been discovered on the island. South of this the coast
again assumes its natural sterility. Between this
and Nanaimo we come to Valdez Inlet, called by
the natives ' Saatlam.' This may probably become
a place of some importance, as it is the nearest point
to the end of the Alberni Canal, said to run from
Barclay Sound on the opposite or west coast of the
island. No favourable place for settlement offers
itself on the coast between this and Nanaimo, in
lat. 49° 15', long. 123° 45'. Here the Hudson
Bay Company have established one of their most
flourishing posts. The coal at Nanaimo was first
discovered by Mr. Joseph M'Kay, in May, 1850,
who was directed to it by the Indians of the neighbourhood.
. " On the 15th of September, the same seam, called
the Douglas seam, was discovered on Newcastle
Island, and the Indians soon got out 200 tons. A
pit was commenced by Mr. Gilmore, with ten
regular miners, on the 17th September, and a shaft
sunk to a depth of fifty feet, being through twelve
feet of alluvium, eight feet of sandstone, and thirty
feet of shale; the situation of the pit is at the
north-west extremity of Nanaimo Harbour. Here
they struck another seam of from six to seven feet
in thickness, lying on conglomerate; they are now
m 2
regularly working this seam in several parallel galleries, extending to a considerable distance already
underground. The seam here runs nearly level,
with a dip of only some seven degrees to the southwest ; the greatest quantity of coal that has been
raised from it was at the rate of 120 tons per week
with ten regular miners.
"The same seam, 'the Douglas/ which was worked
by the Indians on Newcastle Island and Commercial Inlet, has been discovered by Mr. M'Kay, who
plied the pick and shovel indefatigably in search of
it, cropping out on a peninsula at the upper end of
Nanaimo Harbour; to this they are working a gallery on a tevel from the beach, and have already
progressed several yards with it; the gallery is
some six feet high and four or five feet broad. It
is solidly lined and roofed with square timber; they
excavate at the rate of about one yard per diem,
one miner picking and propping, and two shovelling
and carrying the dirt, &c, away.
"Work has thus been done at four different places:
by the Indians at Newcastle Island and at Commercial Inlet, and. by miners on the peninsula above
mentioned. These were all on the same seam of
coal, which is called the Douglas; the greatest
thickness which has been anywhere seen of it is
eight feet, its average may be six; it is distinguished
by containing eight inches of fire-clay, and in the
lower part of it are some seven or eight inches of
cannel coal. In the other seam through which the
pit is sunk, and which is the only one now worked,
the coal is of a precisely similar quality, though
without the fire-clay. Doubts having been entertained as to whether all these seams were not identical one with another, though raised by various
causes, in different places, and at different elevations, a bore has been sunk close by the pit to endeavour to discover whether the other seam, called
the Douglas, does not exist below: they have already
gone through some sixteen feet nine inches of conglomerate, and forty-five of soft sandstone with layers of shale ; they then reached a coal of similar
quality to that in the Douglas seam, and after
boring twenty inches through it came to a fire-clay,
through which they had gone twelve inches when
the writer of this letter left on the 20th December.
These strata lie at a considerable inclination, and
are nearly similar to those which overlie the
Douglas coal at Commercial Inlet, which are as
follows :—
" Conglomerate, twenty feet; siliceous sandstone,
eight feet; shale, two feet; alternate layers, shale
and sandstone, fourteen feet; sandstone, two feet;
shale, one foot four inches; sandstone, two feet;
shale, four inches ; sandstone, four feet. Total:
fifty-three feet eight inches.
" It is therefore probable that the coal which has
been reached in the bore will be found to be identical with the Douglas seam, in which case there will
be two seams, each of an average depth of six feet,
overlying each other, at an interval of from fifty to
sixty feet.    The pit is situated within a few yards
of the water-side, and vessels drawing sixteen fe$$
can anchor close to it; the Hudson Bay Company
have brought out an excellent engine, by which
they raise the coal, and pump out such water as is
accumulated in the pit; they are not much troubled
with water, and all the pumping that is necessary
does not keep the engine going above a quarter of
the time.
" It is the opinion of the head miner that coal
may be found anywhere within a circumference of
two miles from Nanaimo, at a distance of fifty feet
below the surface. Altogether there are few places
to be met with where coal can be worked as easily
and exported as conveniently as from Nanaimo, and
it will be the Hudson Bay Company's own fault, if
they do not make a very profitable speculation of
their possessions there.
" Altogether about 2000 tons of coal have as yet
been exported from Nanaimo, of wdiich one half
may be said to have been worked and loaded by
Indians, the other worked by the miners. The
first coal exported from the pit was brought by the
William to San Francisco, in May, 1853; it is sold
by the Hudson Bay Company at Nanaimo at eleven
dollars per ton, the Indian women bringing it alongside the vessels in their canoes. At San Francisco
it now (January, 1854) sells at 28 dollars per ton.
The greatest objection is that it burns too quickly,
and leaves behind a good deal of slag, which makes
it difficult to keep the furnaces clean; it is, how- NANAIMO  SETTLEMENT.
ever, a very strong rich coal, and full of sulphurous
" Nanaimo altogether is a flourishing little settlement, with about 125 inhabitants, of whom thirty-
seven are working men, the remainder women and
children; there are about twenty-four children at
a school presided over by Mr. Baillie. There is
good anchorage all over the harbour, which is commodious, and sheltered from all winds; there is a
rise and fall of fifteen feet at spring tides, and of
about twelve feet at ordinary times; it is an excellent place to lay up and repair vessels: the
bottom is in general a soft mud. About twenty-
four houses have already been put up by the
Hudson Bay Company, and several more are in
process of erection. For food they are principally
dependent on the Indians, who bring sometimes as
many as sixty-three deer in a day from Schesatl or
Jarvis Inlet, situated a little to the north of
Nanaimo, and opposite to it on the main land.
The land in the immediate neighbourhood is poor
and sandy, but there is a prairie about two miles off
of some three or four miles in extent, on which the
soil is rich and the surface tolerably level. At the
south-west extremity of the harbour, a river flows
in; it is about fifty yards wide at the mouth, with
an average depth of about five feet, and a current
of four knots per hour. About seven miles northwest of Nanaimo along the coast, is another excellent harbour, called \ Tutuis,' where also the car-
boniferous strata prevail, and there is a seam of coal,
reported by the Indians to be some four feet thick.
-  "South of Nanaimo there are three ranges of
islands, running parallel with each other, between
the mainland  of Vancouver Island, and what is
generally laid down as such on all charts hitherto
published.    The channels between these islands are
too intricate for a sailing vessel of large size to
attempt with any certainty or security.    The outer
one, between two ranges of islands, is p¥obably the
best; it expands occasionally into open bays, some
four miles wide, but is twice contracted into narrow
channels, through which the tide runs with frightful velocity.     It   m   quite  a  mistaken   (though
general) idea that there is good anchorage throughout these inland passages.    I can only say from
experience  that  I  found  no   bottom at  twenty
fathoms in any part between Nanaimo and Sanetch.
As a general rule, wherever the navigator can see
a clay bank on the shore, he may there be certain
of finding arichorage ; where the shore is rocky,
anchorage is uncertain.    The bottom throughout
these passages is rocky and uneven,  and  in the
narrows the current sets a vessel towards the rocks,
without her helm having any power to guide her
away from them.
" There is no available land between Nanaimo
and Sanetch, a distance of forty miles; all the seaboard consists of rocky woodland, and the mountains come down close to the coast; there are some
spots  on the  opposite  islands   which   might  be
brought under cultivation, the whole, however, is
at present densely covered with timber.    Sanetch
is a long arm of the sea running inland some ten or
twelve miles;   there  is not good anchorage,  the
water being deep, the arm, however, is perfectly
land-locked, sheltered from all winds, and by going
close to the shore vessels may anchor in tolerably
shallow water.    Within 400 yards of the shore in
many places there is no bottom at twenty fathoms ;
the country all around is densely wooded; there
are three or four small prairies;  perhaps, taken
altogether,  some  three   square   miles in   extent.
The savages are numerous, but quiet and peaceable,
and any one settling among them would find them
very useful.    Within an average distance of a mile
all round the arm the mountains rise in a perpendicular manner, which quite forbids all hope of a
settlement in the interior.    At the north of the
arm, however, on its northern shore, the Cowitchin
River discharges itself.    This is the largest river
yet known on the island, and flows through a long
narrow valley containing a good deal of open land,
and a considerable portion of available woodland.
About three miles up the river there is an extent
of some ten or twelve miles, by perhaps half a mile
broad on either side, of rich open alluvial land ;
this tract, next to the land at Point Holmes, is the
most extensive uninterrupted tract of available open
land yet seen on the island.    About twenty miles
up, the Cowitchin River, in the month of May, is
160 feet wide, and from three to four feet deep,
with current at rate of three knots per hour;
there is a little level and some open land occasionally appearing on. its banks here; the soil,
however, is poor and useless, and overflowed by
the water in winter. The river takes its rise
from a large lake in the centre of the island;
it runs in a south-westerly direction : the source
of it is not many miles from Port St. Juan.
From Sanetch, rock and mountain again take up
the sea coast until we arrive at Gordon Head, some
fifteen miles to the south, when the presence of clay
cliffs on the beach betokens the probability of some
available land existing in the interior : from here
to Victoria across the distance is only six miles ;
round the coast it is considerably longer. In the
neighbourhood of Victoria there are altogether
about seven square miles of open land, on which
the great majority of settlers above alluded to are
located ; besides the open land, there may be in the
district of Victoria about ten square miles of available woodland. Victoria itself is situated on a
small but well sheltered harbour; the entrance is
intricate, and the harbour cannot be said to be suitable for large vessels : the village consists of some
sixty houses, principally log cabins.
" About six miles westward of Victoria is tho
harbour of Esquimalt; a safe and commodious harbour for vessels of all sizes, and combining the
advantage of sufficient shelter, with that of an open
entrance, into which a line-of-battle ship might
beat without difficulty, .   -
" There may be about 350 acres of prairie or open
land in the neighbourhood of Esquimalt harbour to
the westward; all the remaining land between it
and Matchousin is woodland, in some places improvable, but generally worthless.
* " Rounding William Head, where there is a little
patch of open land, occasionally browsed on by
sheep belonging to the Puget Sound Company, we
come, at the distance of five miles westward of
Esquimalt, to Matchousin, where we have some 620
acres of fine open land; generally speaking, however, the soil is poor and sandy, and neither produces grasses nor crops with much luxuriance.
Matchousin is an open roadstead, sheltered from the
north-east, but open to the south and west. On
leaving Matchousin, dreary rock again becomes the
order of the day on the sea coast, and leads us
round Albert Head into Peddar Bay, a nice safe
little harbour, running about three miles inland;
at the head of it are two small streams, and just
sufficient available open land to swear by. On the
west side of Peddar Bay is a fine open prairie
extending nearly across to Becher Bay. It contains
some 700 acres, and is interspersed with oak trees ;
the soil is rich, and it is well watered, there being
several springs throughout it. The land is level,
and consists of a rich black mould, some three feet
in depth, with a subsoil of yellow clay lying upon
mica slate.
" Rounding Rocky Point, or Bentinck Island, we
come to Becher Bay, about two and a half miles
wide at the entrance, and the same in depth, with
a good anchorage in sixteen fathoms of water,
behind an island opposite the Indian village: shelter
may be had there from all winds. Leaving Becher
Bay, or as the natives call it Chuchwaetsin, and
proceeding along the coast, some eight miles further
to the westward we come to Soke Harbour.
" Soke Harbour is as perfectly sheltered a harbour
as it is possible to conceive, though the entrance is
somewhat intricate. Along sandy spit runs almost
completely across the entrance, leaving only an
opening of 300 yards; in this are three rocks,
which, ljowever, when known, are easily avoided ;
the harbour runs northward for about two miles,
with a breadth of about half a mile; it then contracts to a narrow passage, and then bends round to
the east, where it expands into an open sheet of
water, some three miles long by one and a half or
two broad, with a depth of from four to six fathoms nearly all over it. The general depth of the
harbour is from five to ten fathoms. The Soke
river takes its source from two lakes, one about
twelve miles in a direct line to the north, the other
about twenty-five miles up; there are a few
patches of open meadow-land near the mouth of
the river, on which the Indians grow considerable
quantities of potatoes. Small canoes can go up the
river to a distance of three miles; there is a little
level land along it at intervals for that distance,
consisting of a rich alluvial soil, covered with a
magnificent growth of timber ; this land, however, SURVEY  OF  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
where it exists at all, merely extends for a few
yards back from the banks of the river, and beyond
the whole country is utterly unavailable. From
the mouth of the river all along the west coast of
the harbour the land is rich and level, and though
at present covered with woodland, may doubtless
some day be brought into cultivation.
" The timber round the harbour is very fine and of
several varieties; there are no less than six varieties of fir, and one of pine found high up the river.
" From Soke, for a distance of some forty-five
miles there is no appearance of open land or
prairie, neither, with the above exception, is there
any available woodland, until arriving within ten
miles of Port St. Juan, the mountains coming down
close to the sea-shore. Here they trend off a little
to the northward, leaving a tract of level woodland,
some two miles broad, between their base and the
" Port St. Juan is a fine harbour with excellent
anchorage of from three to five fathoms all over it :
it is, however, much exposed to the south-west. It
runs about four miles inland, and would make an
excellent fishing station, the fish there being nu-
merous and in great variety. Sturgeon, turbot,
salmon, herring, cod, and flounders, are caught by
the natives. There is good shelter for vessels round
a point on the eastern side of the harbour, towards
its northern extremity ; but there is no prairie land
round Port St. Juan. The timber is very fine, and
suitable either for piles or spars. .    •
* 174
" A fine seam of coal has been discovered between
Port St. Juan and Cape Bonilla. It is however
almost worthless, as, though it crops out on the sea
coast, there is no shelter for vessels near it, and no
possibility, except at considerable expense, of making a road between there and Port St. Juan.
" At Port St. Juan there is a native population of
about 150, called the Patcheena Sinatuch, who are
a quiet race, living by fishing, and favourable to intercourse with the whites.
" Twenty-five miles westward of Port St. Juan, we
round Bonilla Point, and emerge from the Straits of
Fuca into the open sea.    A  strong current  sets
along  the coast in  a north-west direction,  particularly during winter ; so strong is this current
that in making the coast in the month of October,
the Lord Western, a British ship, was in two days
carried forty-three miles to the westward of where
her reckoning  placed  her.    Northward of  Point
Bonilla, is an inland salt-water loch, to which, however, no passage practicable for vessels exists from
the  sea; there  is  merely a  narrow, shallow entrance for canoes and small boats.    In the interior
it expands some two or three miles in extent, and
runs inwards for several miles ; from its extremity a
passage exists to the Cowitchin Valley, to which
the savages travel in a day and a half.    Round
it are settled some 300 savages, called the Nitteena-
tuch or Nitteenats.    They are expert whale fishers,
and in one season killed as many as twenty-four.
There is very little available woodland round this SURVEY  OF  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
locality, and only a small patch of open land, extending to some forty acres*
j " Fifteen miles northward of Cape Bonilla is Cape
Carrasco, the southern point of the entrance to
Barclay Sound, a broad bay open to the south-west;
its breadth at the entrance is about fifteen miles, and
it runs inland with nearly the same breadth to a
distance of seventeen miles. A number of rocky
islets stretch across the entrance; leaving, however,
two broad open channels, both towards the south-
east side : one of these channels is about a mile and
a half broad, it is close to the eastern shore of the
Sound ; the other is about three miles and a quarter
broad, and is a little farther to the north-west; it
cannot be mistaken, being clearly visible from the
outside, and also distinctly marked by a very singular rock, with only three fir-trees on it, appearing
precisely like the three masts of a vessel. The
channel is immediately to the north of this rock,
and the Sound is more open after entering within it.
There are, however, a few islands interspersed all
over it, most of them inhabited by small fishing families of the savages. There is anchorage near all
these islets, with good holding-ground, but the
water deepens suddenly, and vessels in search of
anchorage have to stand very close in-shore. The
Honolulu anchored in ten fathoms water within
sixty yards of the beach, under the lee of an island
called Satchakol, about two miles within the Ship-
Rock above mentioned,
" On the eastern shore, about four miles from the
,1 ru
r a
outside, there is a small inlet, called by tho natives
f Tsuohotsa/ with a small tribe living on it, the
chid of whom is called ' Klayshin.' The inlet is
about 800 yards broad at its entrance, and branches
out into two arms from seventy to eighty yards
wide oaoh. The first of these arms extends in an
easterly direction for about one mile istnd a half,
sometimes narrowing to a breadth of forty yards,
sometimes expanding to 200 ; it ends in an open bay
500 yards broad. The land on oil her side is broken
and rooky, though not high; there appears little
soil, and the timber is stunted and scrubby. 1 here
is no open land either on this or on the other arm,
whioh runs in for about a mile to the south, parallel with tho shores of the Sound. The land on
either side of that arm is level woodland, but the
soil is not rich and the wood worthless, being principally stu n ted Canadensis, Generally speaking (he
country all round Barclay Sound is broken and
rooky, thiokly covered with useless wood, and unfit
for cultivation or settlement. There is no truth in
reports whioh have been oiroulated of there being
ooal on Harolav Sound : the Indians, however, de-
scribe some ooal its existing at Mun&ht&h in th©
oountry of the Ooiuelclesatuoh, some three days'
If w * '
iourney into tho interior, at tho back of Barclay
Sound.    At the baok of Barclay Sound, on a small
river, about two days' iourney into the interior,live
•    « *
tho only inland tribe whose existence is known of
in Vancouver Island. They are called the
' Upatse Satuoh,' and consist only of four families, f
the remainder having been killed by the Nanaimo
Indians. '.■■■'• '"  : . '       J|§
" About seven miles to the south-east of Barclay
Sound, and between it and Cape Flattery, is a bay
which has never yet been mentioned, called by the
natives ' Chadukutl.' This bay is about three
miles broad, and runs back a considerable distance.
A rocky barrier runs across the entrance, leaving a
channel only about 100 yards broad, which no vessel
should attempt to enter for the first time without
having an Indian pilot. At the upper end of the
bay runs in a fine river, about 200 yards broad at
the mouth, and there is a frontage of about three
miles of fine level woodland, running apparently a
considerable distance inland. The bay is about
eight miles deep, and its shores are inhabited by one
tribe about 400 in number.
"The next harbour north of Barclay Sound is
Clayoquot, where there are established 3000 Indians,
who are anxious to trade with the whites, but
as yet none but Americans have been among them.
A bar with from four to six fathoms on it runs across
the entrance to the harbour. There is good anchorage inside, and shelter from all winds; the arm
runs a considerable distance into the interior, but
there is no open land that I am aware of, and the
surface of the woodland is rocky and broken.
Clayoquot is distant about sixty-five miles from
Port St. Juan. From this northward to JSTootka
there is no land along the sea-board that has the appearance of being available for any useful purpose.
N m
"At Nespod, a little north of Nootka, coal is
reported by the Indians. ItNespod is called Port
Brooks on the charts*
w At Koskeemo, north of Nespod, and opposite to
Beaver Barbour, a seam of coal, two feet in thick*
ness, has also been discovered, but neither from its
situation I tor its nature can it be worked to any advantage. There are three arms iii Koskeemo, in
either of whioh there is good shelter and anohorago
for vessels. Immense quantities of fish are caught
here by the I ndiatis. Between Clayoquot and Nootka
is Fort San Raphael or Achosat, whioh is a bight of
the sea, running inland three or four miles. There
is no available land near it, the Water is ddep, but
olose in to the inner end there is anchorage near
the shore and good shelter.
" Krom Koskeemo round the north to Beaver
Harbour there is no land that we are aware of fit
for purposes of colonization or settlement; the
coast is rocky, though not high, and a vessel would
do well to keep clear of it in winter. A very
heavy sea is constantly running there, and there
is no known harbour to whioh. vessels can put in
for shelter.
"It will bo thus seen that the most favourable
places for settlement are to be met with only on
the east and south coast; the west coast, north of
Barclay Sound, has all a most unfavourable aspect,
and e\(Mi|within Barclay Sound we have only •
I udian reports at present to trust to for there being
land of a nature fit for settlement. SURVEY OF VANCOUVER ISLAND*
" The Indian population of the whole island is
stated at 17,000; they are in general favourably
disposed towards the whites, and with proper superintendence are capable of being made very useful;
they all live by fishing, but take kindly to any kind
of rough agricultural employment, though their
labour is not generally to be depended on for any
continued period.
" The lands at present surveyed by the Hudson
Bay Company, are included in a line, which may be
taken from Sanetch to Soke Harbours; the quantity
of land surveyed in detail is 200 square miles, of
which one-third is rock or unavailable, the remainder is principally woodland. The quantity of
open land bears a very small proportion to the
woodland; but where it exists at all it is almost
invariably rich; and the woodland, where it is at
all level, is richer than the prairie ground, from
the increased quantity of vegetable deposit.
" The Flora of Vancouver Island is poor, and no
new varieties of plants have been discovered in the
country. The open prairie ground, as well as the
patches of soil which are met with in the clefts of
the hills, are principally covered with the camass,
a small esculent root about the size of an onion,
with a light-blue flower, the Camassia esculenta
of botanists. The camass constitutes a favourite
article of food with the savages, and they lay up
large quantities of it for winter consumption, burying it in pits in the ground in the same way as
they keep potatoes.  This root has strong astringent
n 2
'¥.■■ If
/                             ;     j'lj
1 ill
' 11!
qualities; the savages prepare it for food^by digging large holes in the ground, throwing in hot
stones, on the top of the stones placing quantities of
camass, and covering the whole up with sticks and
mats until the root is sufficiently baked. The
camass-digging is a great season of ' reunion' for
the women of the various tribes, and answers with
them to our hay-making or harvest home.
" The Graultheria shallon, called by the Canadians
'salal,' is, next to the camass, the most common
plant in Vancouver Island; it is a small shrub
bearing a dark-blue berry, a little larger than the
cranberry. The berry is very sweet and wholesome, and the savages are very fond of it; it is
called by them kungcholls, and it generally grows
on dry and poor soil.
" The Arbutus uva ursi is another plant which
abounds on the low hills, and, as its name implies,
together with the salal, constitutes a favourite food
of the bear; the leaves of it are dried by the
natives and smoked in their pipes, mixed with
tobacco when they can get it; the mixture is not
unpleasant to smoke, and acts slightly as an opiate.
" In the marshy grounds in particular districts is
found the Equisetum hyemale, or, as the Canadians
call it, ' La Prele.' This, in the scarcity of natural
grasses, and in the absence of artificial substitutes,
forms excellent food for the cattle in winter. They
are very fond of it, and will desert their pastures,
and make paths of several miles through the woods to
places where it is to be met with.    Several varieties PRODUCTIONS  OP VANCOUVER ISLAND.
of Campanula and Lupinus are found in the woods and
low grounds, and most fruits generally cultivated in
Great Britain abound, both in the lowlands and hill-
g^ies, wherever they can find any soil to support
them. Among these may be mentioned the straw-
berry, black currant, gooseberry, and raspberry, a
small variety of crab apple, and a small black wild
cherry. It must not be omitted to mention that
the potato is almost universally cultivated by all the
savage tribes on the south of Vancouver Island, as
well as on the opposite mainland. They have had
this valuable root for a long time among them, but
as it is never found except among tribes who have
been at some time in the habit of trading with the
whites, it is most probable that it has been introduced among them by early traders, and that it is
not indigenous to the country; the qualities vary
according to the nature of the soil; they are, however, generally speaking, of the kinds ordinarily
cultivated in Europe, and of these are eight or nine
varieties ; the root generally is of a larger size than
that attained by any potatoes cultivated in Europe.
Potatoes and dried salmon form the staple food of
all the natives who can procure them, the camass
being by them considered more as a delicacy. They
consume little animal food, being too lazy to hunt
for it, except during winter, when they capture in
nets and shoot great quantities of wild-fowl.
"Two species of bear are found in the island, the
black and brown ; such of the natives as have muskets occasionally kill them, and bring their skins
for barter to the Hudson's Bay Company ; they are
numerous in most parts of Vancouver Island; the
flesh of the bear is very coarse, and the foot is the
only part of the animal which, if well cooked, can
be eaten with satisfaction by a white man, unless he
be very hungry, #
"Of deer three species are to be met with, the
Cerphus elaphus, or elk, the Lencurus, or large
white-tailed deer; and a smaller species of black-
tailed deer. The flesh of the elk is good nourishing
food ; that of the other kinds of deer is tasteless and
insipid, and contains but little nourishment.
"Black and white wolves infest the thick woods, as
also a small species of panther, but none of these are
very numerous. Squirrels and minxes are found
everywhere in great numbers, and both land and sea
otters are occasionally to be met with ; the latter is
only found on the north coast of the island; the
animal is generally from four to eight feet long,
reaching, however, sometimes to a length of twelve
feet, and its fur is very soft and delicate, being by
far the most valuable of that of any other animal
found on the north-west coast; it is generally of a
jet-black colour, though sometimes it has a slightly
brownish tint. Signs of the beaver have occasionally been seen by old trappers on Vancouver Island,
but the animal has never actually been met with.
Altogether there are very few animals producing
valuable furs on Vancouver Island, and I should
conceive the value of the furs actually trapped and
traded on the island cannot exceed 4:01. per annum. BIRDS  OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
" Of birds, they have the Tetrao obsgurus ; the
male a beautiful bird of bluish colour, rather larger
than the Scottish grouse; he has a loose outer
throat like that of a turkey, of yellow colour, which
he inflates when he utters his peculiar cry, This
cry, something like that of an owl, is heard at a long
distance ; in uttering it while perched on one of the
lofty fir-trees of the country, he frequently sounds
his death-knell, as the creeping savage, lured by the
well-known sound, is guided by it in his approach
to hjs beautiful victim, whom, however, he never
attempts to bag unless he sits quietly to receive
him : the savage, although he has a very quick eye,
never dreams of taking a flying shot at either bird,
beast, or man.
" Here is also another species of grouse, the Tetrao
Richardsonii, and the drum partridge completes the
varieties of feathered game. The Obscurus is found
in the highest grounds, like the ptarmigan of Scotland ; the other two varieties frequent the low
woods; none of them are found in numbers, and it
takes a very good shot, and a still better walker, to
make up a game bag of three brace in a day.
" Of sqiall birds, there is the Mexican woodpecker,
and a large misshapen species of bulfinch—note it
has none; and indeed aves vocales may, generally
speaking, be said never to be met with on the west
coast of America.    The settler in these parts misse
equally the lively carol of the lark, the sweet
cheerful note of the thrush, and the melancholy
melody of the nightingale;   still more will he of
gentle mind, as he wends his solitary way through
these distant Wilds, feel impelled to hanker after the
pleasures of society, and to long for the charm of
conversation with the fair daughters of his country.
" Of aquatic birds there is a vast variety. They
have the Scaup duck, the Anser Canadensis, the
golden eye, the common mallard, the teal, the crested
grebe, and numerous others. They completely cover
the lakes and inland salt-water lochs in winter, but
altogether leave the country in summer. There is
also a large species of crane which frequents the
marshes and open ground, and furnishes 'material'
for capital soup if you can bag him; they are, however, very shy. A sportsman will also occasionally
kick up a solitary snipe; these latter are, however,
extremely rare and migratory ; they are never
met with except during a few days in the beginning
of February.
" There are several varieties of fir in the woods.
There are the Douglasii {breve braccatd) and the
Grandis, which are the most common; the former
furnishes material for excellent spars; the latter j$f
a soft wood, very white, and open in the grain, it is
difficult to season it, and, from the irregularity of
its growth, is cross-grained, and does not make good
timber. The Canadensis, the Mitis, and the Alba,
which flourish well wherever there is any depth of
soil, all make excellent timber, but are none of
them adapted for finishing work. There is also the
large cedar of America, which grows into a noble
tree ; the Abies nobilis, and the Cupressus thyoides. mifir
The largest and most picturesque tree of the fir
Wibe in Vancouver Island is the Nobilis ; it is not,
however, often met with, growing only in rich
alluvial bottoms, and in no place that I have seen
conveniently situated for export. This tree sometimes reaches a height of 250 feet, with a circumference of 42 feet at the butt; j the bark is from 8
to 14 inches thick. The white maple grows in all
the low woodlands, and is abundant, but never
reaches any great size. Wherever there is any
open prairie land, two kinds of oak, the Quercus
suber clavigata, and another similar species somewhat darker in the bark and harder in the quality
of the wood, are found ; the quality of the wood of
both these kinds of oak is hard and tough, and they
are excellently adapted to form the knees and timbers for vessels; the trees, however, are small and
scrubby, and hide their abashed heads before the
towering Coniferse by which they are surrounded.
A large species of Arbutus grows on the sea-coast
and on the banks of rivers; it grows to a height of
from 30 to 40 feet, the bark is smooth and of a
bright-red colour, the wood is hard and white, and
takes an excellent polish. Only one kind of pine
has as yet been found on the island j the Monticola.
I have only met with it near the source of the
Soke River, and there in a position where it never
could be made available for either use or export.
" The above-mentioned kinds of fir all grow to a
great height, from 150 to 200 feet and upwards,
wherever the land is at all level, and where there
&mY*mmW+ i
it I'D
is any depth of soil; generally speaking, however,
the quality of the timber of Vancouver Island may
be said to be of an inferior description, and, witli
the exception of the cedar, much more adapted for
spars or piles, than for lumber or for any finishing
work, To the spectator from the sea-board, the
Island appears one mass of wood; by far the
greater portion, however, of that wood which so
pleases the distant eye is utterly worthless, as well
from its nature as from its position. The trees,
chiefly Abies Douglasii and Grandis, which form so
imposing an appearance en masse, when examined
in detail prove to be mere crooked stunted scrubs,
full of knotty excrescences, and, exoept in the few
lowlands previously mentioned, they grow on the
sid^s and tops of rocky hills, where it is surprising
that they oan maintain their own footing, and from
whence, owing to the singularly broken face of the
country, they may wave defiance to the attempts of
any engineer to dislodge them.
" Among the natural productions of Vancouver
Island the native hemp must not be omitted. Specimens have been sent to England, and on its
quality being tested it was found to be superior to
Russian hemp. There is no great quantity of it
growing on the island, it being more properly
speaking a natural production of the banks of
Frazer River, on the opposite (British) mainland.
There is, however, no doubt that it might be very
extensively cultivated, in Vancouver Island, and in
its cultivation is probably the way in which, next NATIVES  OF VANCOUVER ISLAND.
to salmon fishing, the labour of the native population might be most profitably 'employed.   Jf
" The native population of Vancouver Island has
been roughly estimated at 17,000.
" Of these, by far the most powerful tribes live o
the west coast or on the outward sea-board of the
island. The Clayoquots are the most numerous and
powerful; their sole intercourse with the whites
hitherto has been carried on through the medfem
of Brother Jonathan, who for the last three or four
years has been poaching on our preserves, and
trading oil and salmon from the natives situated at
a distance from British establishments. The Clayoquots are, however, friendly disposed, and profess
themselves extremely anxious to traffic with King
George instead of wdth Boston, ' which latter,' say
they, ' cheat us amazingly.5 The Comux and Yuk-
letah tribes, savage uncivilized dogs, are the only
tribes on the north and east coast amongst whom
a boat's crew of half a dozen white men, if well
armed, might not trust themselves alone. On the
south coast the tribes are all perfectly friendly, and
with the exception of the Patchenaa Senatuch, accustomed to daily intercourse with the whites. A
single armed man may safely go alone among them.
On the west coast, a small vessel on a trading ex-
pedition has nothing to fear from any tribe but the
Nootkas, who are awkward customers, and not to
be trusted. The tribes who have establishments of
white men fixed among them are as follows : the
Quackolls (Hudson Bay Company's coal establish-
ment, at Fort Rupert); Suanaimuch (Hudson Bay
Company's Nanaimo coal mines); the Tsomass
(Hudson Bay Company's factory of Victoria); and
the Sokes.
" The lands of the Sanetch, Tsomass, Tsclallum,
and Soke tribes have been purchased from them
by the Hudson Bay Company in the name of the
British Government, leaving to the natives only a
few yards of ground reserved around the sites of
their villages. The tribes were paid in blankets
for their land; generally at the rate of a blanket to
each head of a family, and two or three in addition
to petty chiefs, according to their authority and
importance. The quantities of blankets given to
the various tribes were nearly as follows :—to the
Tsotnass or Sougass 500, to the Sanetch 300, to the
Tsclallum or Clellum and Soke Indians together
about 150—total 950. The value of the blanket
may be about 5s* in England, to which if we add
100 per cent, profit, we have a value of 10s., or two
dollars and a half nearly, as the price at which they
were sold in the country in 1849-50, when the distribution was made:—1000 blankets at this rate
does not seem a large price to pay to the aborigines
for some 200 square miles of land, but it was fully
an equivalent for what the land was or ever would
have been worth to them.
| Four distinct languages may be said to prevail
among the natives of Vancouver Island, and these
four principal languages are divided into a variety
of dialects, so that each petty tribe speaks a patois
■ "Mil
of its own, almost, if not quite, unintelligible to its
nearest neighbours. From Cape Scott to Johnston
Straits, the northern, or what may be called the
Quackoll language, prevails; from Johnston Straits
to the Sanetch arm, the eastern language is spoken,
the base of which is the Cowitchin; from Sanetch
to Soke, the Tsclallum or Clellum language is used
with very slight variations, the root of that language being that spoken by the Tsclallums or
Clellums, whose principal abode is on the American
shore, opposite to the southern coast of Vancouver
Island, from which they probably originally invaded and peopled it; from Patcheena or Port St.
Juan, again we find another and totally different
language, which extends thence with several varieties of dialect all along the western or outward seaboard, as far as Clayoquot; from whence to Cape
Scott, a language similar to the Quackoll prevails.
These four principal languages, the Quackoll or
northern, Cowitchin or eastern, Tsclallum or southern, and Macaw or western, are totally distinct
from each other, both in sound, formation, and
modes of expression. The Cowitchins and Tsclallums can, however, understand each other occasionally, though with difficulty; the Macaws and
Quackolls can neither understand each other, nor
can they make themselves understood by any of the
other tribes; the Macaw language is not unlike
that spoken by the natives of the Columbia River.
" Their habits, inasmuch as they all exist by fishing and pass the greater portion of their time in
I i n
It' i
o canoes, are nearly similar. Nearly all the tribes
are at variance with each other, and annually indulge in petty wars and predatory expeditions for
mutual annoyance, and for the purpose of procuring
slaves. Their feuds -are chiefly hereditary, but sometimes also spring out from an occurrence of the
moment. Sometimes, though not always, two
neighbouring tribes have made an alliance offensive
and defensive with each other, and keep up their
friendly state by annual meetings, and interchange
of presents; this circle of amity, however, seldom
extends beyond the two tribes nearest to each
other, and sometimes the two nearest tribes are
those which are in most deadly hostility to each
" Slavery is common among all these savages, the
prisoners of war being invariably either enslaved
or decapitated. Wars, however, have become much
less frequent among them since the arrival of the
white man in these parts. Decapitation used previously to be a favourite amusement; they cut off
the heads of the prisoners, and placed them on
poles as ornaments in front of their villages, where
they remained as long as wind and weather permitted. Generally speaking, the natives of Vancouver Island, particularly of the southern portion,
are by no means courageous : their character may
be described as cruel, bloodthirsty, treacherous, and
cowardly. They are ready to receive instruction,
but are incapable of retaining any fixed idea. Reli-
gion they have none;   they believe in no future CHARACTERISTICS OP THE NATIVES.
state, neither had they, until some Jesuit missionaries came among them, any idea of a Supreme
Being. They are, however, superstitious: they believe in the existence of spirits, and are much
addicted to omens. Each tribe has its Tomannoas,
or juggler, whose business it is to perforin certain
incantations when any one of the tribe is taken ill;
these principally consist in performing various ridiculous antics, accompanied by singing and howling,
not unlike the dancing dervishes of the East; the
ceremony is accompanied with much noise, as the
beating of boards, the knocking of sticks together,
&c. Some of their ceremonies are of a disgusting
nature; I think there is no design in any of them,
nor anything worthy the inquiry of an ethnologist,
"The most numerous tribes are, with the exception
of the Cowitchins, those which are situated on the
western coast; these are also the finest formed and
tallest race of men ; and, as a general rule on both
sides of the island, the farther north we go, the finer
men we meet with, as well in form as in stature
and in intelligence. The colour of the hair of the
natives of Vancouver Island is invariably either
black or dark brown; it is coarse and straight, and
allowed to grow to its full length, falling over the
neck, and forming not unfrequently the sole covering to the head of the savage in all weathers.
Some few wear a hat shaped like a mushroom, or
limpet shell-fish; it is made of twisted cedar bark,
or sometimes of hemp. Their features are those
which generally characterize the North-American
Indian—long nose, high cheek-bones, large i%1y
mouth, very long eyes, and foreheads villanously lo#.
The physical development of the upper part of their
bodies is good; they have broad shoulders, and deep
well-developed chests. Their limbs are generally
small and misshapen, probably from their being constantly in the habit of being so much cramped up in
their canoes. Their only general dress is a blanket,
made either of a coarse material woven bv the wo-
men of the tribe from the wool of the white dogs,
which are attached to every Indian encampment,
and are annually shorn for the purpose, or in some
cases it is made of the inner bark of the cedar, torn
into small strips and plaited together, and trimmed
with the fur of the sea or land otter. Some have
no other covering but a bear-skin, with their arms
thrust through the arms of the skin; all however
who can, now clothe themselves in some portion of
the European costume; and of it, a shirt is considered quite sufficient to complete the toilette.
The women were dressed precisely similar to the
men, viz., wrapped in a dirty blanket, with the
addition however of a killicoat suspended from the
waist in front, like a Highlander's purse. This
garment solely consisted of about seven narrow
strips of red or blue cloth, or of cedar bark, about
an inch broad, hanging loosely in front to about
half way down the thigh, and joined together at the
top by a piece of seaweed or of twisted cedar bark,
by which they were bound round the waist. Now,
both dames and demoiselles have, among most of ft*
the tribes, been enabled by trade or otherwise to
adopt the chemisette and gown, made of navy blue
cotton, in which they look sufficiently hideous
objects. The women of Vancouver Island have
seldom or ever good features ;||they are almost
invariably pug-nosed; they have however frequently a pleasing expression, and there is no lack
of intelligence in their dark hazel eyes; they are
more apt to receive instruction than the other sex;
they are ready with the needle, naturally industrious in their habits, and of their own accord
weave very ingenious patterns from the coarse
materials above enumerated; they perform all the
cooking work, and cut up and dry the salmon
caught by their savage helpmates. Where there are
no slaves in the tribe or family they perform all
the drudgery of bringing fire-wood, water, &c.; they
take readily to the lighter portions of agricultural
labours in the service of the white man, and I
make no doubt that with proper management,
under well-educated members of their own sex, who
would take a pleasure in instructing them, a great
and permanent improvement might be effected,
both in their physical and in their moral condition.
" The colour of the natives of Vancouver Island is
a reddish brown, like that of a dirty copper kettle.
The features of both sexes are very much disfigured
by the singular custom prevalent among them, and
among all nations between them and the Columbia
of flattening their heads. This is effected during
infancy, when the child is a few weeks old, and
o 191
while the skull is yet soft, by placing three or four'
pieces of the inner bark of the fir or cedar on the
top of the forehead, and binding them tightly round
the head : here they are left until the desired distortion has been thoroughly effected. This process
completely flattens the forehead, and indeed flattens
the whole front face; the effect is hideous, and it
is a question whether it does or does not interfere
with the intellect of the child. I am inclined to
think it does not, as the brain is not injured,
though its position in the head is undoubtedly
altered. This important process once over, an
Indian baby is a most independent little fellow,
and a happy individual withal, if we may judge by
his scarcely ever being heard to cry or sob, or to
express his grief in the many ways usually chosen
by other mortal babies. Swathed in his covering
of soft bark, and bound tightly up in an outer case
or hammock of stronger bark, he is suspended by
a hempetti string to the extremity of one of the
lower boughs of an overhanging fir or cedar tree;
and there, while his mother strays to a short distance through the woods in quest of roots or
berries, the gentle zephyr rocks him to sleep, and
sings to him a sweet lullaby, as it murmurs through
the leaves of his natural bower. He is soon able
to trot about, and to accompany his heedless parent,
either in her woodland rambles, or as she scrambles
over the rocks, or wades through the shallow water,
seeking for the shell-fish which form a principal
article of their food.    As soon as able to hold the MANNERS  OP  THE  NATIVES.
fish-spear and paddle he has them in his hand, and
anon the father becomes his instructor, and teaches
him to provide himself with the simple necessaries
of his life. They have no marriage ceremony, but
as soon as they arrive at the age of puberty, they
take unto themselves a wife, if they can afford it,
i. e., if their father can buy one for them; and
subsequently they add to this one, an unlimited
number, according to the number of their blankets.
Polygamy is prevalent; generally speaking, however, it is only the chiefs of tribes, or heads of
families, who have more than one fair one in their
harems, and they sometimes have as many as eight
or ten.
" All the savages of the north-west coast are great
gamblers, and will stake their blankets, their canoes,
and even their wives on the hazard of the turning
up of one side or other of a piece of cut wood, which
is their die. They have several games of chance,
and in their natural state gambling may be said to
be their prevailing vice. They are not nomades,
but have fixed habitations. Each tribe lives together, within a large palisaded enclosure, formed
generally of stakes or young fir-trees, some 12
or 13 feet high, driven into the ground close
together. These palisaded enclosures are sometimes
100 feet long by 30 broad, or larger or smaller
according to the size of the tribe; they are generally roofed-in with large slabs of fir or cedar, and
in the inside each family arrange their own mats
whereon to sleep.    These mats are made of cedar
i  o2
0 linn'iMii   OOLUMMIA.
if   I
baric or of rushes plaited, and when they movo ou
visits or from one fishing station to another, they
paok tliom in their oanoos, and thus oarry a oomplel$,
housoj in their own way, about with them; fome
of tho niats they fix up above thorn for shelter from
the rain, and the remainder they plaoo on the
ground under them j for a short time, those mats
form a very good shelter from the weather, JSTesirlv
every savacte possohmos n bow of vow, End arrows
tipped with jfrggod fish-bone; the use of them,
however, has beon very generally supplanted among
all tho tribes by the muskets of the Hudson l*>ay
( oiiiiciiiv, of which a great number are annually
tnidodj and given as payment for labour. The
bows thoy have aro short; when they fire thov
hold them horizontally, and they are not generally
very expert in the uso of this their natural weapon**
Fishing is their principal pEtstinte, as well as their
principal moans oi I tvelihood, and tho salmon season*
in th,6 months of August and September, is their
ctreat annual jubilee j they oatoh tho salmon with
nets, spo&rs, and hook*
u In October and November the herrings frequent
the bays in jxro&t numbers. End are octuffht by tho
natives with a loujy stiok witli crooked nails on
it, with whioh they liter&lly rake them into their
canoes* 1 he herring is precisely similar in quality
to th&t oaught on tho west ooast of Sootlsind, though
somewhat sm&llei' in size. There are seven different
kinds of salmon; the general run of their size is
ciboiit thirty to the barrel; some fish lire* ho we vert CRUELTY   OF   THE  NATIVES.
much larger, and indeed are as fine both in size
and in quality as any salmon in the world; they
are sometimes caught of a weight of 50 or 60 lbs.
" The natural duration of life amona; the savages
is not long, seldom exceeding fifty years; indeed a
grey-haired man is very rarely seen. This may be
partly accounted for by the horrible custom, universally prevalent, of the sons and relatives killing
their parent when he is no longer able to support
himself. Sometimes the wretches commit this parricide of their own accord unquestioned, but generally a council is held on the subject, at which the
Tomanous or medicine-man presides. Should they
decide that the further existence of the old man is
not for the benefit of the tribe, the judges at once
carry their own sentence into execution, and death
is produced by strangulation by means of a cord of
hemp or sea-weed. Not less horrible" is the custom,
very prevalent among the women, of causing premature births, with a view to extinguish life in the
infant. The object of the creatures would seem to
be partly to save themselves from the pains of
child-birth, and partly to avoid the trouble of
bringing up a large family; from whatever reason
it may be, the native Indian woman seldom becomes the mother of more than two, and very rarely
indeed of more than three little savages or sava-
gesses, whilst, on the other hand, the half-bred
woman is almost invariably extremely prolific.
"All attempts to introduce the truths of the Christian religion among these savages have hitherto
0 198
proved abortive. 'Celui qui va planter les sentences d'instruction dans le cceur sauvage, a choisi
un terrain vraiment st6ril;" such was the remark
made to me by Pere Cheroux, a Jesuit priest, and
he grounded his xemark on reason and experience.      •.??.■■
"A nation of men without a religion appears to
be an anomaly; still the experience of some years
among the north-western savages has impressed me
with the opinion that these beings have no religion ; and that, for some inscrutably wise purpose,
the Almighty Ruler of the Universe has decreed
that. they shall fulfil the daily course of their lives,
wTith the laws of nature for their moral code, and
with no higher motive of action than that which is
furnished by the impulses of instinct.
_ ■ " ' All the trade bon& fide with the island has
been between it and San Francisco, the cargoes of
salmon exported in the Hudson Bay vessels to the
Sandwich Islands having been from Frazer River.
The fisheries all along the outer coast of the island
are no doubt excessively valuable ; salmon abound
in every inlet that I have mentioned, to an extent
almost unknown in any other part of the world ;
herrings, also, are so numerous as to be caught by
the natives with a sort of rake or long stick with
crooked nails fastened on it. Cod has also been
caught at the mouth of the straits and within
them.; also mackerel on the north of the island.
Wli " ' There is a cod bank also in the Gulf of Georgia,
near Nanaimo; and at Frazer River, in the short CAPABILITIES  OF VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
space of a fortnight, during August, the Hudson
Bay Company put up about 2000 barrels of salt
salmon. Hallibut and sturgeon are caught in large
quantities by the natives, both off Cape Flattery
and at Port St. Juan. The Sandwich Islands supply markets for fish to a limited extent^ but San
Francisco and the Spanish Main would consume
any quantity that could be sent down to them, and
fish in barrels might also profitably be exported
to Australia.5 %jfe,   ..•;,..-.-'    :<     ,•-.; '■■■^':
" It will thus be seen, concludes Colonel Grant,
" that Vancouver Island possesses in itself several
resources which, developed by a free people, under
free institutions, would tend to make it a flourishing
colony." ■  L . , :   ;
So Mr. Montgomery Martin writes :—- ||fc
" The position, resources, and climate of Vancouver Island eminently adapt it for being the
Britain of the Northern Pacific. There is no port
between the Straits of Juan de Fuca and San Francisco | it is within a week's sail of California;
within double that distance from the Sandwich
Islands, with which a thriving trade has already
been established; five days' voyage from Sitka or
New Archangel, the head-quarters of the Russian
Fur Company's settlements, where large supplies of
provisions are required, and it is within three
weeks' steaming distance of Japan. This commanding position justifies the expectation tj^at Var^-
couver Island   will  become, not  only a valuable
I it 200
^^k ^B
H(   r
agricultural settlement, but also a rich commercial
entrepdt for British trade and industry."
The Hon. Charles Fitzwilliam, M.P., himself a
member of the Committee, testified as follows :—
" I was in Vancouver Island in the winter 1852-3.
The climate appeared to me particularly adapted for
settlement by Englishmen ; it resembles the clknate
of .England, but not quite so cold ; the soil is genS
rally productive. The country is divided into wood
and prairie. I visited the coal mines at Nanaiino;
they were working a six-feet seam of coal at a
depth of forty feet, and which is close to-the,-sew
shore. The coal is of excellent quality, very like
the West Riding of Yorkshire coal. The soil and
climate is remarkably fine, and produces excellent
wheat, oats, barley, and potatoes; the timber is
magnificent, and the harbour of Esquimault is the
finest I ever saw. Nobody who has not seen the
enormous quantities of fish oan possibly credit the
value and excellence of the fisheries ; the only safe
harbours on the coast exist in Vancouver Island,
with the exception of San Francisco."
The Right Hon. Edward Ellice, M.P., a leading
proprietor of the Hudson's Bay Company, and whs
has taken throughout the most active part in its
home administration and defence, gave as his opinion
before the Committee, that " The sooner the public
x%e-enter into possession, and the sooner they form
establishments worthy of the island and worthy of
this country, the better.    It is a kind of England IMPORTANCE  OF  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
attached to the continent of America. I think it
should not only be on the ordinary system of English colonies, but that it should be the principal
station of your naval force in the Pacific. It is an
island in which there is every kind of timber fit for
naval purposes. It is the only good harbour (and
it is an excellent harbour) to the northward of San
Francisco, as far north as Sitka, the Russian settlement. You have in Vancouver Island the best
harbour, fine timber in every situation, and coal
enough for your whole navy; the climate is wholesome, very like that of England; the coast abounds
with fish of every description : in short, there is
every advantage in the island of Vancouver to make
it one of the first colonies and best settlements of
England. Political questions are connected with
making a settlement in that quarter which I will
not enter into."
The lease, under which the Hudson's Bay Company held Vancouver's Island was granted in 1849,
and will expire next year, and the Colonial Secretary
informed the House that it was not intended to
renew the lease, the management of the companv
g O XT        v"
not having been satisfactory.
A Trip to Vancouver/
" San Francisco, July 15.
" I left San Francisco on Thursday, the 24th of
June, at 4^ p.m., and arrived in Esquimalt Harbour,
near Victoria, on the following Tuesday at six in
the morning—distance, 800 miles. The steamer
was so crowded with gold-hunters, speculators, merchants, tradesmen, and adventurers of all sorts, that
exercise even on the quarter-deck could only be
coaxed by the general forbearance and good-humour
of the crowd. Before starting there were stories to
the prejudice of the steamer, the Oregon, belonging
to tho Pacific Mail Company, rife enough to damp
the courage of the timid; but she behaved well,
and beat another boat that had five hours' start of
her. The fact is* we had a model captain, a well-
educated, gentlemanly man, formerly a lieutenant
in the United States Navy, whose intelligence,
vigour, and conduct inspired full confidence in all.
With Captain Patterson I would have gone to sea
* Reprinted, by permission, from the Times of August 27,
in a tub. Whatever may be the sins of the company as monopolists of the carrying trade on this
coast, justice must award them the merit of having
selected a staff of commanders who atone for many
" The voyage from San Francisco to Vancouver
Island, which in a steamer is made all the way
within sight of the coast, is one of the most agreeable when the voyager is favoured with fine weather.
I know none other so picturesque out of the Mediterranean. The navigation is so simple that a
schoolboy could sail a steamer, for a series of
eighteen headlands which jut out into the ocean all
along the coasts of California, Oregon, and Washington Territory serve as landmarks to direct the
mariner in his course. All he has to do is to steer
from one to another; from Point Reyes outside the
Golden Gate to Point Arena, the next in succession, and so on till he comes to Cape Flattery, upon
rounding which he enters the Straits of Fuca
towards the end of his voyage.
" Having for several years entertained a conviction
of the vast importance to England of the possession
of Vancouver Island, both politically and commercially, and of the absence of any other point on the
coast which can ever rival it north of San Francisco,
I watched with much interest the different bays and
anchorages as we passed them. There is not a safe
harbour, not a spot adapted for a commercial port,
between San Francisco and the island. Humboldt
Bay is capacious, and vessels can lie with tolerable
ii ipi 1
'   w%
u It
safety when once in; but it is inaccessible in heavy
weather, and is difficult of exit.
" There are several harbours along the coast which
are good enough in summer, during the prevalence
of the north-west winds; but in winter the southeast winds blow up the coast, and make them all
unsafe and difficult of access. The captain's remark
was, 'There is either a heavy swell or the access is
difficult.' There are no hidden dangers on the
coast. Steamers can keep close in shore, where the
sea is smooth and little current, but sailing vessels
should keep a good offing, particularly from April to
October, when the wind blows from the northward
and westward and causes a strong current.
" We have now rounded Cape Flattery, and are in
the Straits of Fuca, running up between two shores
of great beauty. On the left is the long-looked-for
Island of Vancouver, an irregular aggregation of
hills, showing a sharp angular outline as they become
visible in the early dawn, covered with the eternal
%J w
pines, saving only occasional sunny patches of open
greensward, very pretty and picturesque, but the
hills not lofty enough to be very striking. The
entire island, properly speaking, is a forest. On
the right we have a long massive chain of lofty
mountains covered with snow, called the Olympian
range—very grand, quite Alpine in aspect. This
is the peninsula, composed of a series of mountains
running for many miles in one unbroken line,
which divides the Straits of Fuca from Puget
Sound,    It belongs to America, in the territory of a Trip to Vancouver island.
Washington, is uninhabited, and, like its opposite
neighbour, has a covering of pines far up towards
the summit. The tops of these mountains are seldom free from. snow. The height is unknown,
perhaps 15,000 feet. We ran up through this
scenery early in the morning, biting cold, for about
forty miles to Esquimalt Harbour—the harbour—
which confers upon Vancouver Island its pre-eminence.      .'    '      ' J|. .  . ;
" From the information of old miners, who pointed
out some of the localities on the northern coast of
California, and indicated the position of places in
Oregon in which they had dug for gold, I had a
strong corroboration  of an opinion which I stated
in one of my late letters—that the Frazer River
diggings were a continuation of the great goldfield
of California.    The same miners had a theory that
these northern mines would be richer than any yet
discovered, because the more northern portions of
California are richer than the central and southern
portions.     '     '...... -...•'
r " The harbour of Esquimalt is a circular bay, or
rather a basin, hollowed by nature out of the solid
rock. We slid in through the narrow entrance between two low, rocky promontories, and found
ourselves suddenly transported from the open sea
and its heavy roll and swell into a Highland lake,
placid as the face of a mirror, in the recesses of a
pine forest. The transition was startling. From
the peculiar shape of the bay and the deep indentations its various coves make into the shore, one see§ 206
but a small portion of the harbour at a glance from
the point we brought up at. We therefore thought
it ridiculously small after our expectations had been
so highly wrought in San Francisco.
" The whole scenery is of the Highland character.
The rocky shores, the pine trees running down to
the edge of the lake, their dark foliage trembling
over the glittering surface which reflected them, the
surrounding hills, and the death-like silence. I was
both delighted and disappointed—delighted with
the richness of the scenery, but disappointed at the
smallness of the harbour. Can this little loch, imprisoned within natural ramparts of rocks, buried in
the solitude of a forest, be the place which I hoped
would become so famous; the great destiny of
which has been prognosticated by statesmen and
publicists, and the possession of which is bitterly
envied us by neighbouring nations ;—this the place
where England is to centre a naval force hitherto
unknown in the Pacific, whence her fleets are to
issue for the protection of her increasing interests in
the Western world ;—this the seaport of the Singapore of the Pacific ; the modern Tyre into which
the riches of the East are to flow and be distributed to the Western nations ; the terminus of
railway communication which is to connect the
Atlantic with the Pacific ? ■'
" A survey of the bay satisfies one that it is a
capacious harbour capable of containing a large
fleet—hundreds   of  vessels  when its  capacity  is A  TRIP  TO   VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
made available by engineering—the building of
wharves, throwing out of jetties, scarping the rocky
shores, &c. And it has the natural advantages of a
good bottom for anchorage, is almost land-locked,
and by a little building at the entrance can be made
completely so; deep water, five, six, seven, and
eight fathoms, easy of access, Victoria Bay, over
which vessels pass in entering, being itself a safe
anchorage, and of great capacity. The harbour is
admirably adapted for fortifications, which could be
buMt at its entrance in such a manner as to make it
impregnable. Guns could be so placed on the promontories and on an island just outside, in Victoria Bay, as to completely command the entrance,
and under the fire of which no vessel could live ;
and—what is of infinite importance—there is a
portion of the harbour which could not be shelled,
and which is well adapted for the building of a
dockyard. The ground on two sides of the harbour
is eligible for a city, and—what is a curious feature
in the landscape, and may become yet of great
commercial importance—an arm of the sea, called
the Victoria Arm, runs up into the country from
Victoria several miles to within 600 yards of Esquimalt Harbour. This is navigable for small vessels ; and should Victoria continue to be the capital
of the colony and the commercial city, nothing is
easier than to carry merchandize in a variety of
craft from the harbour to the city by the Victoria
Arm (which would be an inland navigation) free
Og —J
from the swell of the open sea between the two
places. A short cut or canal would join this arm
to the harbour.   v \fe
■, " Our first impression of solitude was soon dissipated. Shoals of canoes filled with Indians, several
sail-boats manned by Indian fishermen from San
Francisco, and about six or seven shore-boats surrounded the steamer, all ready to take us and our
goods and chattels on shore. The Indians interested
me much. I saw at once that they were far superior in the scale of .humanity to the Californian
aborigines. They are industrious. This alone established their superiority. They are better formed
and more intellectual, too; not good-looking, certainly, but not hideous. How they do manage
their canoes—with what ease, and grace, and skill!
They shot out into the bay from behind promontories, which conceal many coves and inner harbours,
with the easy sailing of a swan, and made for their
point with unerring aim, although they use but
small, short paddles. The form and construction of
the canoe is perfection, and these Indians may be
said to live on the water. Some of the canoes had
two rowers, or rather paddlers. Some had four,
and some had whole families in them—father,
mother, and children in one frail-looking canoe—
but yet ready and willing to receive the heavy carcases of three or four stout miners, together with
their tools, arms, and baggage. ..   ->
; The number of Indians on the island is considerable—as many as 18,000, I have been informed. A  TRIP  TO  VANCOUVER ISLAND.
Most of them live by fishing, but some tribes follow the chase ; and that represented by my friend,
of whom I have been speaking, among the number,
raise large quantities of potatoes. Those around
Victoria depend almost entirely upon fish, of which
there is great abundance, but which is now neglected
since the gold discovery.
"Victoria is distant from Esquimalt, by land,
about three miles; round by sea double the distance.
The intervening ground is an irregular promontory,
having the waters of the Straits of Fuca on the
south, the Bay of Victoria on the east, and the
Victoria Arm encircling it on the north. The pro-
montory contains three farms, reclaimed from the
forest of pines, oaks, alders, willows, and evergreens.
The soil is good, and produces fair crops of the ordinary cereals, oats, barley, and wheat; and good
grass, turnips, and potatoes. *
" I came the first time to Victoria round by
water. The rowing of our boat was much impeded
by kelp. The shore is irregular; somewhat bold
and rocky—two more facts which confirmed the resemblance of the scenery to that of the western coast
of Scotland.
" The Bay of Victoria runs in a zigzag shape—
two long sharp promontories on the southward
hiding the town from view until we get quite close
up to it. A long low sand-spit juts out into it,
which makes the entrance hazardous for large vessels at some little distance below the town, and
higher up
the anchorage is shallow. 210
low tides I saw two or three ugly islands revealed
where ships would have to anchor. In short, Victoria is not a good harbour for a fleet. For small
vessels and traders on the coast it will answer well
" As we are rowing up the bay, all impatience to
catch a sight of the future capital of another Eng-
lish colony, of which our heads are full, we meet
four stout hairy miners paddling a canoe—an ugly
cradle of a thing built impromptu by some Yankee
carpenter, or perhaps by the miners themselves—
but how inferior in shape and construction to the
native vessel! ' Hurrah, for the Frazer !' yelled
the miners as they passed, with a will that made
the mountains echo. ' Poor fellows !' remarked
the captain of the steamer, 'you little know the
voyage of seventy miles you have before you across
the Gulf of Georgia : if a storm arises you will have
a sneezer.' The love of gold and of adventure will
make men dare anything. A thousand such canoes
similarly freighted with provisions have been pad-
%J i~* X X
died out of Victoria—perhaps a great many more,
for it is calculated that there were a thousand of
them on the river last week, all built within the
last two months at Victoria. Some are supposed to
have been lost on the passage.
" I bring you at last to Victoria. It stands nobly
on a fine eminence, a beautiful plateau, on the
rocky shore of the bay of the same name. Genera"
tions yet to come will pay grateful tribute to the
sagacity and good taste of the man who selected A    TTJTP   TA    V AXTPnTTVi?!?    TQ!T A "KTTI
it. There is no finer site for a city in the world.
The plateau drains itself on every side by the natural depressions which intersect it, and there is space
enough to build a Paris on. The views are also
good. Across the Straits you have the Olympian
range washed by the sea ; towards the interior, picturesque views of wooded hills; opposite, the fine
woodland scenery of the country intervening be-
tween it and Esquimalt, the Victoria Arm, glimpses
of which, as seen through the foliage, look like a
* CD O    '
series of inland lakes ; while in front, just at one's
feet, is the bay itself and its tributaries, or arms
rather—James's Bay, &c, always beautiful; *and
behind, towards the south-east end of the island, is
a view of great beauty and grandeur—a cluster of
small islands, San Juan and others, water in different channels, straits and creeks, and two enormous mountains in the far distance, covered from
base to summit with perpetual snow. These are
Mounts Baker and Rainer, in Washington Territory. Such are a few—and I am quite serious when
I say only a few—of the beauties which surround
"XT'    j.        *
" The prominent object in making the approach
by water is the Hudson's Bay Company's fort, built
on a rocky bluff, in the foreground of the picture.
Properly speaking, this is not a fort. A high
wooden enclosure of palisades has wooden bastions
at two diagonal corners, where several guns are
mounted in two galleries.      One of the bastions
r*il ±1 _£* _l 1     ~        J-1 I' ji J?    x 1
©nniclUt/O     OlltJ     XlUxlu    fiiLlKX    oUlll/iX    oxvltJ   Ul     Olio    OLjltcllU,
9 and the other defends the back and north side. In
the ehclo&iire are the buildings for the transaction
of the company's business and for the residence of
some of its officers. A certain degree of military
regime is msdntfthied. The gates £tre closed at
night, arid perfect order and a complete division of
labour exist throughout the establishment. The
arrangements are simple enough, and the men
Who coitduct them quiet and unassuming to a
" The fort possesses an interest of its own independently of the natural be&tity of its position.
Those plain, whitewashed wooden, walls acquired ail
iiliportaiice in my ey<sS when I reflected that this
was the place where was concentrated the moral
power, the tact, energy, and firmness of purpose by
which a few well-instructed Englishmen and Scotch-
men rule 80,000 savages, and turn their labours to
profitable account. While tribes of these savages
are at war with America almost continually, and at
this moment, when a fierce and bloody contest is
actually going on between them and the Federal
forces, whom they have lately beaten, the meanest
of the company's, servants has a safe passport and a
hearty welcome wherever he goes—not a hair of his
head will the Indians touch.
" The system, or treatment, or whatever it is
which has produced this good result deserves some
consideration, and I will by and by revert to it.
" The hostility of the Indian to the American is
due to the cruelty and injustice of the latter en- A Trip to Vancouver island.
tirely. The American Government treats, or wishes
to treat, the Indian well. It gives him food, shelter,
and raiment on the reservations set apart for the
remnants of tribes; but the individual American
treats the poor Indian with the ferocity and cruelty
of a bulldog. One's blood boils with indignation at
the conduct of wretches who pretend to respect the
principles of equality, but who violate every principle of humanity. Their policy towards the Indian
is simple extermination.
" As to the prospects of Vancouver Island as a
colony I would say that if it shall turn out that
thcfre is an extensive and rich gold-field on the
mainland in British territory, as there is every reason to believe, the island will become a profitable
field for all trades, industries, and labour. The
population will soon increase from Canada, whence
an immigration of many thousands is already spoken
of, from Australia, South America, the Atlantic
States, and, no doubt, from Europe also. . If this
happens, the tradesman and the labourer will find
employment, and the farmer will find a ready market, at good prices, for his produce.
" Should the gold suddenly disappear, the island
will have benefited by the impulse just given to
immigration, for, no doubt, many who came to mine
will remain to cultivate the soil and to engage in
other pursuits. If this be the termination of the
present fever, then to the farmer who is satisfied
with a competency—full garners and good larder,
who loves retirement, is not ambitious of wealth, is 214
TP."P fPTdrr    r*ATTtMPf A
fond of a mild, agreeable, and healthy climate, and
a most lovely country to live in, the island offers
every attraction. Its resources are plenty of timber,
towards the northern portion producing spars of
1 X o X
unequalled  quality,  which  are becoming of great
X x J s O o
value in England, and will soon be demanded in
France, now that the forests of Norway and of
Maine are becoming exhausted : limestone in abun-
dance, which burns into good lime for building and
for agricultural purposes; coal in plenty, now
worked at Nanaimo, on the northern side of the
island, by the Hudson's Bay Company; the quality
is quite good,  iudging from the specimens I Saw
X O '     t/ O O X
burning; it answers well for steam purposes, and
would have found a ready sale in San Francisco
were it not subject to a heavy duty (of 30 per cent.,
I think) under the American tariff'; iron, copper,
/ ' ' X X        /
gold,  and potter's clay.    I have no doubt that a
O J x */
goldfield will be discovered on the island as it gets
opened up to enterprising explorers. A friend of
mine brought down some sand from the sea-beach
near Victoria and assayed it the other day. It produced gold in minute quantity, and I have heard
of gold washings on the island. The copper is undeveloped. The potter's clay has been tested in
England, and found to be very good.
- " The character of the soil is favourable to agriculture. It is composed of a black vegetable mould
of a foot to two feet in depth overlaying a hard yellow
clay. The surface earth is very fine, pulverized,
and sandy, quite black, and, no doubt, of good qua- A  TRIP  TO   VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
lity; when sharpened with sheep-feeding it produ
heavy crops. The fallen trees, which are very
numerous, show that the substratum of clay is too
hard to produce anything. The roots of the pine
never penetrate it. In some places the spontaneous
vegetation testifies to the richness of the soil,—
such as wild pease or vetches, and wild clover,
which I have seen reach up to my horse's belly,—
and a most luxuriant growth of underwood, brambles, fern, &c.
" I visited seven farms within short distances of
Victoria. The crops were oats, barley, wheat, pease,
potatoes, turnips, garden herbs and vegetables, fruits,
and flowers; no clover, the natural grass supplying
sufficient food for the cattle and sheep. The crops
were all healthy, but not heavy. The wheat was
not thick on the ground, nor had it a large head.
It was such a crop as would be an average only in
a rich, well-cultivated district of England or Scot-
land ; far lighter than you would see in the rich
counties of England and in the Carse of Gowric. I
was informed that the ground was very badly prepared by Indian labour—merely scratched over the
surface. I believe that with efficient labour and
skilful treatment the crops could be nearly doubled.
The oats and barley were very good crops, and the
potatoes looked quite healthy, and I doubt not will
turn out the best crop of all. The pease were decidedly an abundant crop. Vegetables thrive well,
and all the ordinary fruits—apples, currants, &c.—
are   excessively abundant,   some   of the   currant-
■    ! ft
bushes breaking down with the weight of their
fruit. Flowers of the ordinary sorts do well, but
delicate plants don't thrive, owing to the coldness
of the nights.
" Sheep thrive admirably. I saw some very fine
pure Southdowns. The rams were selling at $100
each (201.) to California sheep farmers. Other
breeds—hybrids of Southdowns, Merinos, and other
stock—were also in good condition and fair in size.
Black cattle do well also. The breed is a mixture
of English and American, which makes very good
beef. The horses are little Indian breeds, and some
crosses with American stock, all very clean limbed,
sound, active, hardy, and full of endurance and high
spirit, until they get into livery-stables.
" During my stay the climate was charm ing ; the
weather perfection,—warm during the day, but free
of glare, and not oppressive; cool in the evenings,
with generally a gentle sea breeze. The long days
—the protected daylight eking out the day to nine
o'clook at night—the lingering sunset, and the am-
^*m* CJ ^mw w
pie " gloaming," all so different from what I had
been accustomed to in more southern latitudes,
again reminded me of Scotland in the summer
" So far as I wandered—about ten miles round
Victoria—the landscape is dotted with extensive
croppings of rock, which interfere with the labours
of the husbandman. Few cornfields are without a
lot of boulders or a ridge or two of rock rising up
above the surface of the ground.    Consequently the A  TRIP  TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
cultivated fields are small, and were sneered at by
my Californian neighbours who are accustomed to
vast open prairies under crop. I have seen one
field of 1,000 acres all under wheat in California.
But then no other country is so favoured as this is
for all the interests of agriculture.
" The scenery of the inland country round Victoria is a mixture of English and Scotch. Where
the pine (they are all "Douglas" pines) prevails you have the good soil broken into patches by
the croppings of rock, producing ferns, rye grass,
and some thistles, but very few. This is the Scottish side of the picture. Then you come to the oak
region ; and here you have clumps, open glades,
rows, single trees of umbrageous form, presenting
an exact copy of English park scenery. There is
no running water, unfortunately, but the meadows
and little prairies that lie ensconced within the
woods show no signs of suffering from lack of water.
The nights bring heavy dews, and there are occasional rains, which keep them fresh and green. I
am told that in September rains fall which renew
the face of nature so suddenly, that it assumes the
garb of spring, the flowers even coming out. The
winter is a little cold, but never severe. I have
heard it complained of as being rather wet and
muggy. Frost and snow fall, but do not endure
" The climate is usually represented as resembling
that of England. In some respects the parallel
may hold good; but there is no question that Van-
ouver has more steady fine weather, is far less
changeable,   and  is   on  the   whole   milder.     Two
IYl'3 T* J-f P {l    ft 1 "Hv-**PCk"n PAQ "PAYY1 nVlT f^(\ "f |'i f\   ]~lf*&i;  \V'\Q  *\}P&'i±t'%
ItXciX IXC'V-L   lUiiOiuilL'Lo  JL   X OXXXobX tVClXj^^^ULit/  XXv_ClU   W cwb XXL/\ XZx
DVt C/Xl/VJi. Xiii» .,  cfco   xo   (OvJilXC/l/XlXlCo   uiXC   vx&Dl/   J1X    i ill^IXcbXXH.. clLXU.
the wind never stings, as it too often does in the
motuer country., ln-e climate is unquestionably
superior in Vancouver.
" To the eye of a European the timber is very
fine  and  well-grown :   but  to   a   Californian   ac-
o p
customed   to  the   gigantic   forms  which   prevail
O  O X •
farther south, the trees appear of very ordinary
" I said there were no streams. My good friends
the islanders are rather tender upon this score, and
so, not to hurt their feelings, I will allow that I
saw one stream about six miles out in the forest,
but it was fast drying up under the influence of the
¥ O X
summer heat. Comparatively little of the island
has been explored, so that the quantity of open land
X ' X t/ X
fit for cultivation is not known. If it is as limited
as I suspect it is, the island will never produce
sufficient cereals for the consumption of a gold-
producing population.
•- ''The known locations which are well adapted
for farming are, first, the district of Saanich, some
seventeen miles northerly from Victoria ; second,
Cowitchin district, joining it on the northern side
of the island, opposite the mainland at Frazer's
River; and third, Sooke district, in the south-west
part of the country. The land in all these districts
is said to be pretty free from trees, or rather not to A TrJP TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
UU   U V Ol 1 till   WXuIl   XUlOfcl',   ct II LI   l/U     UC     UX     iiUv/v.1     ULlctXluy.
7 OX*//
and the scenery beautiful.
" The same hurry-scurry, hurly-burly, dust, dirt,
• * "111** "ITT * 1 i  '
xLLl/vsil V CXXlt/llL't/,      L/<fcUL     XXVlXJci,      Ut/ILL    X1W tlkSXLXi;.     K/xx\/\XvLLl i£«
7 O' O' O7
and   lying.      The  sudden  metamorphosis  from   a
«/ O X
quiet little hamlet of some 400 souls, to a huge
X ' o
hive of some 6000 to 7000 brigands, produced by
the same causes, confirms the comparison. The
life is very primitive, tents being-the habitations of
the majority. The life (and soul) of the place is
imparted to it by the Californians, who have flocked
to it with the view of bettering their broken for-
tunes.    They have run up the price of land to an
absurd figure. £20 a front foot I was asked for a
lot in a side street,—that is to say, for a clay bank,
one hundred feet by seventy feet, 110,000. I told
the owner that ' I wished he might get it.' Every-
thing has risen to famine prices. Flour is $30 a
barrel. In San Francisco it is worth $12. Lumber,
$100 per 1000 feet \ in San Francisco less than
one-fourth that price.
" Two cities were attempted to be founded in
Bellingham Bay, in Washington Territory, on Puget
Nnnnr     i
ound, in opposition to Victoria, but owing to tin
only safe route to the mines being by way of Frazer
River they have not succeeded. In the language of
an American who tried his hand at ' real estate' in
both, Whatcom has ' caved in,' and the \ bottom has
fallen out' of Sehorne. The riff-raff of San Francisco of both sexes congregated there, and converted
them into Pandemoniums.    A good deal  of the BRITISH COLUMBIA.
same material, but chiefly vermin of the masculine
gender, has settled in Victoria, but the place
doesn't agree with them." Perfect order is preserved, and a strong police force is being organized
by the Governor, all of whose measures give satisfaction to the well-disposed who have anything to
" Twenty thousand persons are supposed to have
left California and 10,000 to have gone from Oregon
and Washington Territory, all for Frazer River.
The majority passed through Victoria. There are
some 15,000 at least in the mines. The rest are,
the most of them, dispersed between Victoria and
places across the straits in American territory, and
perhaps 1000 disappointed miners.have returned to
" You can imagine the severe tax which the
sudden influx of such a multitude, composed of such
materials, must have imposed upon the representatives of the Hudson's Bay Company. The full
weight of it fell upon the Governor, for he is not
only Governor of the colony, administering the
Government as the representative of the Crown,
but he is also chief factor for the Hudson's Bay
Company, entrusted with the direction of its affairs.
His is no enviable position, I can assure you—no
sinecure. Plenty of work, of annoyance, of worry,
of unjust and unreasonable blame, of great responsibility and anxiety. I was curious to see how he
bore himself under it all—whether he was flurried
or calm,    He  cultivates  the  latter  virtue.    My A  TEIP  TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
next query was, does he do his work well | A
short enumeration of his measures must answer
this question. I soon saw through his system—
that is, I saw what enabled him to work his way
easily and quietly through such mazes of difficulties
as were continually recurring. He has long been
accustomed to power, to the direction of affairs, to
command, to assume responsibility, and to direct
others. His present duties, suddenly multiplied as
they are day by day, and distracting as they would
be to many less trained officers, come easy to him.
He is an old hand at this sort of thing, in short,
and he is a man of unquestionable talent—| mighty
clever,' as a middy remarked.
" One of the first measures taken was to license
the miners ; British and foreign were treated alike.
The tax is 21s. sterling, commuted to $5 a-month.
The licence is not transferable. Mining is not
allowed where it would destroy roads, impede access
to houses, &c. The proper observance of the Sabbath is enjoined. Claims are allotted in sizes vary-
ing with the nature of the ground, arranged so that
each miner shall have sufficient space to work in,
and to prevent monopoly. These rules have been
modified for the better accommodation of the miner,
and his labours are facilitated by the change.
" The next matter which required attention was
the means of transport to the mines : this was
rather puzzling. There were no British vessels to
be had to navigate inland waters in British territory. But the demand was imperative.  The miners
came in by thousands and were clamorous for
passage to ' the land of hope.' How was the letter
of the law to be observed I It was, in short, impos-
sible. In the emergency American steamers were
licensed on assuming the British flag—a privilege
O o X O
which few shipowners like to avail themselves of,
as, if they once change the American flag, they
can't regain it for the same vessel. Miners were
allowed to carry provisions for private use free of
all duty restriction. The Governor went up to the
mines in person, settled disputes between Whites
and Indians, instructed both parties in their mutual
duties and conduct, appointed authorities, such a^
peace officers, to administer justice on the spot, explained the law to the American miners, and set
matters generally in the best order the circum-
stances would admit of.
" Two steamers were  plying  from Victoria to
X    J o
Fort Hope for some time, but one of them, the Sea
Bird, took the ground in the river several weeks
ago, and still remains below Fort Hope, useless for
the present. . The other, the Surprise, continues to
ply, and several sailing vessels of small size run as
far up as Fort Langley.
" The Governor was on a second trip up the river
when I left Victoria on the 12th inst., carrying out
administrative measures in person ; and I am informed that, finding as many as 10,000 to 12,000
miners on the ground in dread of a scarcity of provisions, it has been determined, or soon will be, to
throw open the trade and navigation of the Fj iizer A   TRIP  TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
River to all vessels of every nation. This measure
is rendered the more imperative as the Surprise
must soon cease to go as far up as Fort Hope owing
to the falling of the water. Therefore small boats
(of which there are none British) must supply her
" To talk of the strict observance of the rules of
international law in this emergency, or to deny or
even restrict the means of life to 12,000 hungry,
reckless, and self-willed miners, is idle. ' Necessity
has no law.' The a23othegm was never more appli-
cable to any case than it is to the present one.
The Governor humanely and wisely takes the responsibility of departing from the letter of the law,
and from his instructions also for aught I know, in
acting as he does for the best, and trusts to the
Government to approve his acts. But the fact is,
to speak plainly, he cannot help himself. Apart
from the calls of humanity and necessity which
impel his line of action, he has no force to maintain an opposite policy. Therefore there is no room
for argument or discussion on his measures. It
seems to me, from what I have seen and learnt on
the spot, that the Governor has done quite right.
His acts maybe judged differently at a distance;
that I care nothing about. I give my opinion without prejudice or partiality.
" In Victoria a commissioner of police and men
under him have been appointed, and the peace and
good order of the place are really perfectly preserved ; the crowds of all nations there assembled ffll
I It
in a state of squatation, to use a new paraphrase,
behaving very peaceably. I have walked several
times through the encampments of tents, filled with
weary sleepers, at late hours—eleven at night to
one o'clock in the morning—without the least molestation, the only sound heard being that of such
of the sleepers as i drive their pigs to market' o'
" Trade is licensed on a scale graduated according
to the character of the business, wholesale and retail. The only heavy licence is upon the sale of
liquors, which is $600 a-year, and none too high,
particularly as its proceeds are to go to the support
of schools, of which one is established already.
Victoria is a free port, and I hope, for the general
good, it will so continue. The rule is liberty to all,
but no violation of law and order. All such are
promptly punished With severity.
•" The effect of the measures adopted and of
which I have given but an imperfect sketch, are
appreciated by all well-disposed persons. The general policy of the Hudson's Bay Company is commented upon by an American merchant, who writes
from Victoria to the San Francisco Bulletin as fol-
lows :—
" ' The Hudson's Bay Company have adopted the
wise and humane policy of selling provisions at very
small profits, and but for this many here and in the
mines would perish for lack of the necessaries of
life. The monopolists, who are ever ready to speculate on the life-blood of their species, grind theif* A  TRIP  TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
teeth in vain against a body of men which their
cupidity cannot influence, while the thousands here
are loud in their praises, and justly so, of the course
pursued by the Hudson's Bay Company.'
• " My tale of the Frazer Piiver Mines is soon told.
The water is too high to permit more than a very
few miners to work on the river. The mass of
them lie idle on its banks, waiting for the water to
fall. Those who have money to pay for provisions
can have enough on the spot, for which they have
to thank the humane and liberal policy of the
Hudson's Bay Company.
* | Those who have no money must starve. The
alternative is as clear as the sun at noon day. They
can neither buy food nor leave the place. They
cannot spread themselves over the country for the
following reasons :—The banks of the river high up
o o X
where the miners are congregated/ are steep and
lofty perpendicular walls of rock which cannot be
scaled. The other portions of its banks are covered with impenetrable forests, without a track or
trail, which they dare not penetrate for fear of th
There is a trail above Fort Hope known to the
Hudson's Bay Company's people which leads up to
Thompson's Biver and adjacent country, and which
is supposed to be very rich in gold, but there
are no means of transport available as yet. Some
miners have gone up, and their story is this :—
A man has to carry his provisions in his blankets,
v X 7
on his back, up a laborious ascent in hot weather.
o ri
He cannot carry over fifty pounds in weight besides
his traps, aiyl tools, and fire-arms. He takes several
days to perform the journey. At its termination
one-third part or more of his stock of provisions
has been used on the tramp. He digs, and digs
successfully, but, as he is in a wilderness where his
supplies cannot be renewed, after a few days' work
he must hurry down before his little stock of eatables is exhausted ; or if he remains until he shall
have eaten it all, he dies of hunger. There is no
relief for him. So he comes back with some, but
not much, gold. Several are said to have perished
of hunger in this upper region, but I could only
trace this horrid fate to two men. Unfortunately
for themselves, the California miners would not
listen to advice to defer their departure till
the usual season of low water in the river, but
rushed up unreflectingly, and reached the place
long before they could work. The result is misfortune and disaster to most, and disappointment to
nearly all.
" On the other hand, I have the most satisfactory
testimony to the fact, that wherever a miner can
work on the Frazer or on the Thompson Bivers, or
elsewhere, gold is obtained in abundance.
"The river (the Frazer) will fall in September
low enough to admit of washing in its bed, and
miners can work in it till March, as I was informed
by old residents.
" In these untoward circumstances several parties
are returning to California, while others are still GOLDEN  CHARACTER OF THE  EEGION.
going up. I have myself done all I could, in a
limited circle, of course, to dissuade them, but it is
advice thrown away.
" I did not go to Frazer's Biver. As there is no
mining, or only a very little, there was nothing to
see which would repay me for the voyage. The
statement I give of the state of matters on the
river is, however, correct.
11 may add that I have the distinct authority
of Governor Douglas and of one of the chief factors
who has long resided in the interior, for stating
publicly that for several years back they have had
evidences of the existence of gold being found in
many places extending over hundreds of miles of
the country, to which the notice of the world is
now attracted, and that both these gentlemen
believe the auriferous country to be rich and extensive."
Q 2 —ZMMflM
The Way thither.
The ways to this New Eldorado are several; there
is, first, the route to the Isthmus of Fanama. You
leave Southampton on the 2nd of the month, and
reach Colon on the 25th. You get into the train,
and, on arrival at its Pacific terminus, find a
steamer which carries you on to San Francisco in
about fourteen days ; thence steam wafts you on to
the mouth of Frazer's Biver; and thence, again,
the same power paddles you up to the realm of
gold.    According to a recent letter :—
" Frazer River can be navigated by sailing
vessels of considerable size as far as the mouth of
Harrison Biver, or half-way between Fort Langley
and Fort Hope. Vessels sailing from Port Towns-
end charge ten dollars passage to Fort Langley, and
fifteen dollars to Harrison Biver, allowing each
passenger to take three months' provisions without
charge for freight. At the mouth of the Harrison
Biver the rapids commence, but form no verv
serious obstruction. Light steamers can go up to
the very gold mines, fifteen miles above Fort Hope. THE  "WAY  THITHER.
Some rival routes to that of the ascent by the
Frazer Biver have been tried, but experience is
proving that this river affords the safest and easiest
VA]] f A
The total cost of this run, exclusive of the river
fares, is for a first-class passenger from about 70?.
to 100?. ; for a second-class passenger, from about
50?. to 70?., exclusive, also, of the hotel bills on
your way, an item of extreme magnitude : but then
you get to the diggings in probably little more
than six weeks; and before your friend, who has
economized and gone round by Cape Horn, has
made his appearance, you have realized at, according to latest quotations, the rate of 5?, per day,
240?. at the least. Meanwhile the first-class passenger round Cape Horn has paid from 60?. to
73?. 10s., the second-class from 40?. to 521. 10s.;
and it will be four months before he lands at Vancouver. There is another route by which the emigrant may reach British Columbia, through Canada
and the United States, over the Bocky Mountains.
The traveller by this route pays from 13?. to 27?.,
according to class, booking throughout from London
O y o o
to St. Paul in Minnesota, thence to Pembina is
450 miles, thence to Carlton House 600 miles,
thence to Edmonton 400 miles, thence to Frazer's
Biver (a branch of Frazer) 200 miles ; total from
St. Paul, 1650 miles. At a recent meeting held
on this subject at St. Paul, it was estimated that,
"Viewing the facilities afforded by the face of the
country, and the continuous line of the Hudson's
Bay Company's posts, this journey can be accomplished in seventy days, at an expense to a company often persons of 180 dollars each."
Several expeditions, it appears, are already being
fitted out in Canada and the United States for this
overland route. Wagons canSeross the Bocky
Mountains at the Kootanie Pass; the autumn season is the most favourable for this journey; but it
must be clearly understood it will not do to take
any luggage by this route. There appears to be on
this line plenty of grass, water, timber, and game,
and security from Indian attacks.
Such are ihe several ways by which now, at more
or less expense, and in longer or shorter time, colonists may reach British Columbia. And, for some
years to come, these must continue to be the roads
thither. We trust, however, that the survey now
proceeding preliminary to the commencement of
that welcome enterprise, the Halifax and Quebec
Railway, will be hailed as marking out the first
portion of that Great Inter-Oceanic Railway, running wholly through British territory, which shall
not only convey colonization to our Pacific shores,
but which commerce shall adopt as its great
highway between the West and the East. - There
can be no rational doubt, as Lord Bury (who,
as Mr. Gladstone truly said of him, though so
young a man, has, in knowledge and accomplishments, shown himself a master on this as on other
subjects) pointed out '*that our trade in the
Pacific Ocean with   China and with India must THE  INTER-OCEANIC  RAILWAY
ultimately be carried on through our North American possessions; at any rate, our political and
commercial supremacy will have utterly departed
from us, if we neglect that very great and important
consideration, and if we fail to carry out to its fullest
extent the physical advantages which the country
offers to us, and which we only have to stretch out
our hands to take advantage of." It were out of
place to dilate here upon the boundless advantages,
not merely to Great Britain, but to the world at
large, of this Inter-Oceanic Bailway, by means
of which the distance between London and Pekin
would be reduced to 9991 miles, and the journey to thirty days. We may remark, however,
that while, on the one hand, it would lessen the
distance between Liverpool and Vancouver Island
to 5650—the distance between Liverpool and Pa-
$rania alone being 4100—and the expense, for first-
class transit, to probably not more than 35?., it would
secure sea-access at each extremity; for while, on
the Atlantic coast of British North America, the
magnificent harbour of Halifax is the only one safe
port we have accessible at all seasons, the rest being
closed by ice for six months of the year, on the
Pacific we have, in the harbour of Esquimault, in
Vancouver Island, the finest port in the world,
there being atlbng the whole remainder of that coast,
thence to Valparaiso, scarcely a safe and convenient
port. Even that of San Francisco, as Mr. C.
Fitzwilliam, from personal observation, informs us,
is so excessively large that it cannot be said to be
L Inn 11
$afe at all times. Truly, in relation to this great
design, might Lord John Russell exclaim : '•' Tli$
prospect before us is one of immense magnitude !"
Truly might Sir Bulwer Lytton say: " In glancing
over the vast regions devoted to the fur trade,
which are said to be as large as Europe, the first
thought of every Englishman must be that of humiliation and amaze. Is it possible that so great a
segment of the earth under the English sceptre has
so long been abandoned as a desolate hunting-
ground for wandering savages and wild animah
turning our eyes from a trade which, unlike all
other commerce, rests its profits, not on the redemption, but on the maintenance of the wilderness?
It must cheer us to see already, in the great border
lands   of  this   hitherto   inhospitable   region,  the
X O '
opening prospects of civilized life. Already, on
the Pacific, Vancouver Island has been added to
the social communities of mankind. Already, on
the large territory west of the Rocky Mountains,
^2 mf V *
from (he American frontier up to the Russian
domains, we are laying  the foundations of what
y %J CD
may become hereafter a magnificent abode for the
human race. And now eastward of the Rocky
Mountains we are invited to see in the settlement
of the Red River the nucleus of a new colony, a
rampart against any hostile inroads from the American frontier, and an essential one, as it were, to
that great viaduct by which we hope one day to
connect the harbours of Vancouver with the Gulf
of St. Lawrence."
The   conception of an  Inter-Oceanic  Railway TT-TT?    TXrrPPT?   AH1? A "XTT^    PATT WAV
xxxu    xxN X JilXv-UOXiiiV.XNXv/    XIAXXj VY A. X •
(writes an able correspondent of the Times),
commencing at Halifax, and,  after passing, in its
l^XXUXXC   Jv_iJ£LUXX      \J X     <J~J\J\J    XUXXVO.       vllX \J W^ XX    J-'IXUIDXX    L>C7i i X
tory, terminating at the New Liverpool which, we
may confidently hope, will, in a few years, rise up
on the southern shore of Vancouver Island, is one
the magnitude and importance of which cannot be
over-estimated. As compared with the route to British Columbia vid Panama, the Inter-Oceanic line
would effect a saving of twenty-two days, while
CD v %J      J
the position of Vancouver Island, as contrasted with
Panama, in relation to China and Australia, is
lso very significant.
Panama to Canton about 10,000 miles
Vancouver Island to Canton       .    .    .    6,900
Panama to Sydney 8,200
Vancouver Island to Sydney       .    .    .    7,200
.■ "This proximity to Australia,'' continues th
writer, " is especially worthy of note at a time
when the transmission of the mails across the
Pacific is again being prominently advocated.    It
will be apparent from the aforegi ven distances, that
by transmitting the Australian mails from England
to the Pacific across British North America vid
Vancouver Island, instead of via Panama, a saving
s y o
of five days is effected between England and the
Pacific, and of 1000 miles, or say five days more,
y y %l %/ y
in the passage across that ocean—ten days saved
in all.
" The advantages to Great Britain which would
accrue consequent upon the entire service being
XX o
performed   through   British  territory  are  beyond
> i i
all calculation. The construction of the railway
would not merely open up to civilization a large
territory in British North America hitherto almost
unexplored, but it would open up to the cultivators
of the soil in that territory and in Canada a means
of transit to all the markets of the Pacific, and an
open passage to the China Seas and to our possessions in the East Indies. In every aspect, whether
viewed politically, socially, of commercially, the
establishment of the proposed railway would give
a progressive impulse to the affairs of the world,
which, in its results, would eclipse anything which
has been witnessed even amid the extraordinary development of the present century. That the railway
will infallibly be made is as certain as that now is
the time to undertake it. One does not require to
be a prophet to predict that, when the resources of
British Columbia are fully opened up, and a communication established between the Atlantic and
the Pacific, there wBl be enough traffic for a dozen
steamers as large as the Great Eastern on both
oceans. The British empire has now the opportunity of securing that position which it has hitherto
occupied without dispute as the greatest commercial nation in the world."
On the 13th of September a letter appeared in
the Times from a writer desirous of showing
the practicability of speedily establishing, and at
a very moderate cost, a line of electric telegraph
from Canada to the western sea-board, which shall
prove the forerunner of the Great Inter-Oceanic INTER-OCEANIC  TELEGRAPH.
Railway, and the means, in part, of opening up
the vast and yet unoccupied territory east of the
Rocky Mountains.
He observes :—
"Fort William, at the head of Lake Superior,
suggests itself to me as a convenient point of commencement, from the fact of its being in direct
water communication with Toronto, and within a
comparatively short distance of Superior city and
other places, between which and Lake Huron lines
of steamboats are already established.
" From Fort William to Assiniboia, the capital
of the important Red River settlement (the isolation
of which appears to be the only bar to the extension
of the colony), is a distance of, say 500 miles.
With the exception of occasional portages (of which
the longest, probably, does not exceed three miles),
the water communication is continuous, and admits
of the transport by canoes of stores and materiel.
Between Fort William and Assiniboia I would sug-
gest the erection of a telegraph of two wires.
I From Assiniboia to the Punchbowl Pass of the
Rocky Mountains t^D routes present themselves,
the more direct one following a south-westerly
direction, taking the Assiniboine River in its course,
and striking the Lower or South Saskatchewan
River, at or near Chesterfield House ; the other,
y y 7
which seems to me preferable, although circuitous,
skirting Lake Winnipeg, and following the course
of the North Saskatchewan.
" In the former case, the greater difficulty to be
encountered in the transportation of stores and in v
procuring timber on the intervening prairies would,
I think, outweigh the advantage of the superior
shortness of the route | while with respect to the
other route stores to almost any extent could be
shipped, vid Hudson's Bay, to York Factory, and
X X y «/ ' J y
conveyed in barges up the Nelson River to Lake
Winnipeg, and from Lake Winnipeg along the North
JL      O? X      O O
Saskatchewan, which river, as far as Edmonton,
with the exception of one or two rapids, is regarded
as navigable even for steamboats. The district of
the Saskatchewan, moreover, is reported by a Select Committee of the House of Commons as among
those most likely to be desired for early settlement.
| But, beyond these recommendations, this latter
route possesses the far greater recommendation of
including several missionary stations placed at
intervals most convenient for telegraphic purposes.
" For this section of the line one wire would, no
doubt, for some time to come, provide for all requirements.
| The route may shortly be described as follows :—
Fort William to lied River—say  ....
Red River to Fairford (or Lake Winnipeg)—
odiy . . . . . . . . . . . i     J.Ov
Fairford to Cumberland station—say      •    .170
Cumberland to Nepowewin 200
Nepowewin by the 1ST. Saskatchewan or
Battle River to the Punchbowl Pass, on
the Rocky Mountains 600—1,100
" The weight and cost of the staves for the whole
line would be, approximately, as follows :—
Fort William to Assiniboia.
Weight, 272 tons.
Cost of materials and of conveyance from England
by the route of Lake Superior to Fort William £9,500
Inland conveyance 1,500
Assiniboia to Rocky Mountains.
Weight, 298 tons.
Cost of materials and of conveyance from England
by way of Hudson's Bay to Fort York    .    . £11,000
Inland  conveyance 3,000
| The only remaining item of cost to be considered
is that of labour. The amount of skilled labour to
be performed in the erection of a line of telegraph
is so limited that a trained workman would complete
his portion of the work at the rate of from five to
ten miles of line per week. The labour, for the
execution of which no previous training is required,
is simply that of cutting wood suitable for telegraph
posts along the route, and setting these posts in the
ground at intervals of fifty or sixty yards. Possibly
for some hundreds of miles of the whole distance no
pole-setting whatever would be required, the living
trees themselves (of course with proper insulators)
affording every convenience for the due support and
protection of the electric wire. A sum of 51. per
mile would, no doubt, be a liberal allowance to
cover this charge.
1   |
AkfmW 238
" The figures would therefore stand thus :—
Materials and shipment •    •    .    .    . £20,500
Kiland conveyance 4,500
Labour ,    .     8,000
He adds : " Between Fort William and the Canadian capital such an extension as might hereafter
seem desirable could readily be established, either
by the route of Lake Superior or of the River
Ottawa, but the unbroken Lake communication
which now exists would supply in a measure the
hiatus, until the completion of the remaining section should bind together with a link of iron the
mother country and her colonies in the Pacific."
We have seen that Sir Bulwer Lytton on the 1st
July, 1858, had promised that no time should be
lost by her Majesty's Government in the preparation of a measure to preserve order and enforce
tha laws in New Caledonia. That promise was
fulfilled: on the 2nd August, 1858, there received the Royal assent " An Act to provide for
the Government of British Columbia,"—for so, on
the suggestion of her Majesty, was the new colony
entitled—and the preamble thus sets forth the
occasion of the measure. " Whereas divers of her
Majesty's subjects and others have, by the licence
and consent of her Majesty, resorted to and settled
on certain wild and unoccupied territories on the
North-west coast of North America, commonly
known by the designation of New Caledonia, and
from and after the passing of this Act to be named ESTABLISHMENT  OF  THE   COLONY.
British Columbia, and the islands adjacent, for
mining and other purposes; and it is desirable to
make some temporary provision for the civil government of such territories until permanent
settlements shall be thereon established, and the
number of colonists increased." The Act enables
her Majesty in Council to make provision for the
administration of justice in the Colony, and generally to make and establish all such laws, institutions, and ordinances as may be necessary for the
peace, order, and good government of her Majesty's
subjects therein. Her Majesty is further enabled,
" so soon as she may deem it convenient, by order
in Council, to constitute, or to authorize the Governor to constitute a Legislature to make laws for
the peace, order, and good government of British
Columbia, such Legislature to consist of the Governor and a Council, or Council and Assembly.
"No part of the colony of Vancouver Island,
as at present established, shall be comprised within
British Columbia for the purpose of this Act; but
it shall be lawful for her Majesty, on receiving at
any time during the continuance of this Act a joint
address from the two Houses of the Legislature of
Vancouver Island, praying for the incorporation of
that island with British Columbia, by order in Council to annex the said island to British Columbia.
The Act is to continue in force until 31st December,
1862, but its expiration is not to affect the boundaries defined by it, or any title granted, or thing
lawfully done under its authority.
* i I
XjivLXXoXX    KjKJxjV j&xIdxA.*
It is probable, however, that further legislation
on the subject will be found necessary long before
O v <D
1862. Indeed, in her Majesty's speech from the
throne on the conclusion of the session, we read :—•
I The Act to which her Majesty has assented for the
establishment of the colony of British Columbia was
urgently required in consequence of the recent discoveries of sroldin that district ; but her Maiesty hopes
O y O J X
that this new colony on the Pacific may be but one
step in the career of steady progress by which her
Majesty's dominions in North America may ultimately be peopled in an unbroken chain, from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, by a loyal and industrious
y %y- V
population of subjects of the British Crown."
The San Francisco Bulletin of the 4th of June last furnishes a full
vocabulary of the "Chinook Jargon/' as used by the different Indian-
tribes on Frazer and Thompson Rivers and the surrounding country,
with the equivalent terms in English; it is given in the Appendix as
calculated to be of great use to miners and all parties traversing the
Indian country on the north-west coast, who may have occasion to
come in contact with the natives.
Mesiker—Tou (plural).
Tanass man—A boy.
Alta—At present.
Ahyak— Quick.
Siya—Distane e.
Tenas sun—Morning.
Sitkum sun—Noon.
Kakwa—The same.
Yoolkut—Lon g.
S ockally—High
S ecah-hoose—Face.
Lema—The hand.
Lar eh—B arley.
Lekarrot—C arrots.
Klapite—Thr ead.
Percece— Blanket.
Musket—A gun.
Pish-pish—C at.
Kuitan—A horse.
Moos-moos—-A cow.
Namox—A dog.
Kushaw—A hog.
Kimta—B ehind.
Leshawl—A shawl.
Dly Tupso—Hay.
Kettle—A pot.
Oskan—A cup.
Sunday— Sunday,
Mm 212
Lolo—To carry,
Wagh—To spill,
Lej ob—Devil.
Kapo—A relation *
Yachoot—B elly.
Klack—Untie »
Tyhee— Chief.
Klapp—To find.
Kull—Tough, hard.
Lapulla—The back.
Sire saplel—Bread.
Stick shoes—Shoes.
Skin shoes—Mocasins.
Gleece Pire—Candle.
Skullapeen—A riile.
M emoloose—Kill.
Aetshoot—B e ar.
Mo witch—D eer.
Cui tchaddy—Rabbit,
Waii gh-wau gh— Owl*
Skudzo—A squirrel*
Aekik—A fish-hook.
Lehash—An axe*
Opsu—A knife.
Leklee—Keys j
Pillom—A broom.
Lacassett—A. trunk.
Tumolitch—A barrel.
Opkan—A basket.
Lepla—A plate.
La ruble—A table.
Laqueen—A saw.
Cold Illihe--Winter.
Warm Illihe—Summer.
Cold—A year.
Ke waap—A hole*
Klemenwhi t—False.
Klonass—Don't know,
Quass—Fear, afraid.
Olally—B err ies.
Klakeece— Stars.
How—Listen, Attend.
Tin -1 in—l&usic.
Ikt stick—A yard*
Clayl stone—Coal.
Lesack—A bag;
Newha—-How is it-
Tanass  Klootchman — A
Tanass—A child, and anything small.
Wawa — Language,   to
Mamook Chaco—Bring.
Muck-Muck — Anything
good td eat.
Pire-Chuck—Ardent  s^-.
rits of any kind.
King   George — English,
Scotch, or Irish.
Laplosh — A   shiugle   or
Wake nika kumtux—I do
not understand.
Oihe—Sandwich Islander.
Hyasg — Large, or very
Till—Heavy, or tired.
Lazy—Slow, or lazy.
Mammook    Ipsoot — To
Ilalluck   Laport — Open
the cjoor.
Ikpooy Laport—Shut the
Klakany—Out of doors.
Midlight — Sit down, put
down, or stay.
Midwhit— Stand up,  get
up, or move.
Siikum—Middle, or half.
Tenas Poolakly—Sunset,
or dusk.
Cockshut-7-Fight, break,
injure, etc.
Tikke—Want, desire, etc.
Ikta   mika tikke—What
do you want ?
Okaok-^This, or that.
Wake ikta nika tikke—I
do not want anything.
Sow  wash — Indian,  Sa*
Ankuty—Long ago.
Lay-lay—A long time,
Konsick—How much.
, Makook—Buy or sell. APPENDIX.
Kultis—Nothing, or gratis.
Kapitt—Finish, stop.
Kapitt wawa—Hold your
Nanitch—Look, to see.
Sockally Tyhee—The Almighty. '
Keekwoolly — Deep, be-
*J jl-   *
Sick — Unwell, ill, sick,
Leky — Spotted, or piebald.
Olo—Hungry, or thirsty.
Lapushmo — Saddle-blanket.
Chick chick—A wagon, or
Kull-kull stick—oak.
Laplash stick—Cedar.
Legum stick—Pine.
Keleman Sapel—Flour.
Sale—Cotton, or calico.
Kanim—Canoe, or boat.
Klackan—A fence, a field.
Kalidon—Lead, or shot.
Chickaman—Metals of all
Chickaman shoes—Horse
Tanass Musket—A pistol.
Moolack or Moos—Elk.
Salmon or sailo-waek—
Tanass Salmon—Trout.
Lemule ou Hyas kolon—
Man Moos-moos—An ox.
Tanass Moos-moos —A
Henkerchim —I Handkerchief.
Coat—A woman's gown.
Keekwully coat—A petticoat.
Sickilox —
House — A
Hachr    ou
Kata — Why, or what is
the matter ?
Whaab—(Exclamation of
astonishment) Indeed.
Abba—Well then, or, If
that is the case.
Luckwulla—A nut.
Tupso—Grass or straw.
Hoey-hoey—Exchan ge.
Tootosh gleece^—Butter.
Kquttilt—to collapse.
Glass—A looking glass or
Koory kuitan — A   race
Tanass Lakutchee—Mus-
Koppa — From, towards,
Chitch— Grandmother.
Kia Howya — How are
you, or poor, pitiful.
Lapooelle—Frying pan
Appola—A roast of anything.
Quis-quis—A straw mat.
Makook house—A store.
Katsuck —Midday be-
Oloman—An old man, or
worn out.
Lemsei—An old woman.
Hyass Sunday — Christmas day and the 4th of
Pisheck—Bad, exhausted.
Paper—Paper,books, etc.
2um seeabhoose — Paint
tfye face.
Pire olally—Ripe berries.
Cold olally—Cranberries.
Fiil olally—Strawberries.
Lapiaege — A   trap   or
Miami—Down the stream^
Machlay — Towards   the
S taetij ay—Island.
Aalloyma |p Another,   or
Killapie—Return, or capsize.
Kloch-Klock— Oysters.
Lawoolitch—A bottle.
Annah — Exclamation of
Sick turn turn — Regret,
Kooy - Kooy  —  Finger*
Hro wlkult—Stubborn.
Tickaerchy—Althou gh.
Tamanawas —Witchcraft,
Owaykeet—A road.
Tatilum pi ikt—11.
Tatilum pi mox—12.
Tatilum - tatilum  ou   Ikt
Takamon ak—100.
Ikt hyass Takamonak —
S tegwaak—South.
Sun Chako—East.
Sun Midlight—West.
u s*
AN  ACT to provide for   the  Government of  British
Columbia* [2d August, 1858.]
HERE AS divers of her Majesty's subjects and others have,
by the license and consent of her Majesty, resorted to and
settled on certain wild and unoccupied territories on the north-west
coast of North America, commonly known by the designation of
New Caledonia, and from and after the passing of this Act to be
named British Columbia, and the islands adjacent, for mining and
other purposes ; and it is desirable to make some temporary provision for the civil government of such territories, until permanent
settlements shall be thereupon established, and the number of colonists increased : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen's most excellent
Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Lords spiritual
and temporal,, and Commons, in this present Parliament assembled,
and by the authority of the same, as follows :—!
I. British Columbia shall, for the purposes of this Act, be held to
comprise all such territories within the dominions of her Majesty as
are bounded to the south bv the frontier of the United States of
America, to the east by the main chain of the Rocky Mountains,-
to the north by Simpson9s Biver and the Finlay branch of the Peace
River, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean, and shall include
Queen Charlotte's Island, and all other islands adjacent to the said
territories, except as hereinafter excepted.
II. It shall be lawful for her Majesty, by any order or orders to
be by her from time to time made, with the advice of her Privy
Council, to make, ordain, and establish, and (subject to such condi-
tions or restrictions as to her shall seem meet) to authorize and empower such officer as she may from time to time appoint as Governor
of British Columbia, to make provision for the administration of
justice therein, and generally to make, ordain, and establish all such
laws, institutions, and ordinances as may be necessary for the peace,
order, and good government of her Majesty's subjects and others
therein ; provided that all such Orders in Council, and all laws and
ordinances so to be made as aforesaid, shall be laid before both
houses of Parliament as soon as conveniently may be after the making
and enactment thereof respectively.
III. Provided always, That it shall be lawful for her Majesty, so
soon as she may deem it convenient, by any such Order in Council as
aforesaid, to constitute or to authorize and empower such officer to
constitute a Legislature to make laws for the peace, order, and good
government of British Columbia, such Legislature to consist of the
Governor and a Council, or Council and Assembly, to be composed
of such and so many persons, and to be appointed or elected in such
manner and in for such periods, and subject to such regulations, as
to her Majesty may seem expedient.
IV. And whereas an Act was passed iu the forty-third year of King
George the Third, intituled An Act for extending the jurisdiction oftlie
Courts of Justice in the provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, to the trial
and punishment of persons guilty of crimes and offences within certain parts of North America adjoining to the said Provinces : And
whereas by an Act passed in the second year of King George the
Fourth, intituled An Act for regidaiing the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction within certain parts
of North America, it was enacted, that from and after the passing
of that Act the Courts of Judicature then existing or which might
be thereafter established in the Province of Upper Canada should
have the same civil jurisdiction, power, and authority, within the
Indian territories and other parts of America not within the limits
of either of the provinces of Lower or Upper Canada or of any civil
government of the United States, as the said Courts had or were
invested with within the limits of the said provinces of Lower or
Upper Canada respectively, and that every contract, agreement,
debt, liability, and demand made, entered into, incurred, or arising
within the said Indian territories and other parts of America, and
every wrong and injury to the person or to property committed or
■I 46
done within the same, should be and be deemed to be of tho same
nature, and be cognizable and be tried in the same manner, and
subject to the same consequences in all respects, as if the same had
been made, entered into, incurred, arisen, committed or done within
the said province of Upper Canada; and in the same Act are contained provisions for giving force, authority, and effect within the said
Indian territories and other parts of America to the process and Acts
of the said Courts of Upper Canada ; and it was thereby also enacted,
that it should be lawful for his Majesty, if he should deem it convenient so to do, to issue a commission or commissions to any person
or persons to be and act as Justices of the Peace within such pairts
of America as aforesaid, as well within any territories theretofore
granted to the company of adventurers of England trading to Hudson's Bay as within the Indian territories of such other parts of
America as aforesaid ; and it was further enacted, that it should be
lawful for his Majesty from time to time by any commission under
the Great Seal to authorize and empower any such persons so appointed Justices of the Peaos as aforesaid to sit and hold Courts of
Hecord for the trial of criminal offences and misdemeanours, and also
of civil causes, and it should be lawful for his Majesty to order,
direct, and authorize the appointment of proper officers to act in aid
of such courts and justices within the jurisdiction assigned to such
courts and justices in any such commission, provided that such
courts should not try any offender upon any charge or indictment
for any felony made the subject of capital punishment, or for any
offence or passing sentence affecting the life of any offender, or adjudge or cause any offender to suffer capital punishment or transportation, or take cognizance of or try any civil action or suit in
which the cause of such suit or action should exceed in value the
amount or sum of two hundred pounds, and in every case of any
offence subjecting the person committing the same to capital punishment or transportation, the court, or any judge of any such court,
or any justice or justices of the peace before whom any such offender
should be brought, should commit such offender to safe custody,
and cause such offender to be sent in such custody for trial in the
court of the province of Upper Canada.
From and after the proclamation of this Act in British Columbia
the said Act of the forty-third year of King George the Third, and
the said recited provisions of the said Act of the second year of King APPENDIX.
George the Fourth, and the provisions contained in such Act for
giving force, authority, and effect within the Indian territories and
other parts of America to the process and Acts of the said Courts of
Upper Canada, shall cease to have force in and to be applicable to
British Columbia.
V. Provided always, That all judgments given in any civil suit
in Brihish Columbia shall be subject to appeal to her Majesty in
Council, in the manner and subject to the regulations in and subject to which appeals are now brought from the Civil Courts of
Canada, and to such further or other regulations as her Majesty,
with the advice of her Privy Council, shall from time to time
VI. No part of the colony of Vancouver Island as at present es*
tablished, shall be comprised within British Columbia for the purpose
of this Act; but it shall be lawful for her Majesty, her heirs and
successors, on receiving at any time during the continuance of
this a joint address from the two Houses of the Legislature of
Vancouver Island, praying for the Incorporation of that Island
with British Columbia, by order to be made as aforesaid with the
advice of her Privy Council, to annex the said island to British Columbia, subject to such conditions and regulations as to her Majesty
shall seem expedient; and thereupon and from the date of the publication of such order in the said Island, or #uch other date as may
be fixed in such order, the provisions of this Act shall be held to
apply to Vancouver Island.
VII. In the construction of this Act the term u Governor" shall
mean the person for the time being lawfully administering the government of British Columbia.
VIII. This Act shall continue in force until the thirty-first day of
December one thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, and thenceforth to the end of the then next session of Parliament \ provided
always, that the expiration of this Act shall not affect the boundaries
hereby defined, or the right of appeal hereby given, or any act
done or right or title acquired under or by virtue of this Act, nor
shall the expiration of this Act revive the Acts or parts of Acts
hereby repealed.
THE E&D. lokdon:
COYEtfT GARDEN". iSE^v^aaagBBsgB^Maaaaj^^
In Foolscap 8vo, Fancy Cloth Covers, with numerous Illustrations,
1. ANGLING, and WHERE to GO.   By Robert Blakey.
| PIGEONS and RABBITS.   By E. S. Delameb.
3. SHOOTING.   By Robert Blakest.
4. SHEEP.   By W. C. L. Martin.
6. THE POULTRY YARD.  ByE. Watts (of Monkbarns).
7. THE PIG; how to Choose, Breed, Feed, Cut-up, and
Cure.   By S. Sidney.
8. CATTLE ; their History and Various Breeds ; Manage-
ment, Treatment, and Diseases.   By W. C. L. Martin, and W. H. Raynbird.
10. THE HORSE j its History,   Management, and Treatment.   By Youatt and Cecil.
11. BEES ; their Habits, Management, and Treatment.   By
the Rev. J. G. Wood, Author of jf Natural History.'*'
12. CAGE and SINGING BIRDS.   By H. G. Adams.
13. SMALL FARMS ; a Practical Treatise on their Manage-
ment.   By Martin Doysle,
■ 14. THE KITCHEN GARDEN.   By E. S. Delamer.
15. THE FLOWER GARDEN.   By E. S. Delamer.
16. RURAL ECONOMY;   a Treasury of  Information   on
the Horse, Pony, Mule, Ass, Cowkeeptng, Sheep, Pigs, Goat, Honey-bee, Poultry,
&c.   By Martin Doyle.
17. FARM  and GARDEN PRODUCE; a Treasury of In-
formation upon the Principal Farm and Garden Plants; to which is added, a
Cottage Gardener's Calendar.   By Martin Doyle.
18. COMMON  OBJECTS   of the  SEA-SHORE.    By the
Rev. J. G. Wood.   With many Illustrations by W. Sowerby.
19. COMMON OBJECTS of the COUNTRY.   By the Rev.
J. G. Wood.   With many Illustrations by Coleman.
Also, price 3s. 6d. in cloth; or with gilt edges, 4s.f
A superior Edition, priated an fine paper, with the Plates printed in
Colours, and strongly bound, of the
By the Kev. J. G. WOOD.    Illustrated by Coleman.
I*ondon: GEORGE ROUTLEDGE and CO., Farrjn&don Stress.
V » m
In 1 vol. feap. 8vo, price 2s. cloth extra; or in roan, 2$. Gd.,
In which the Accentuation, OrthograpVi and Pronunciation of the English
Language are distinctly shown, according £| che best authorities. The Thirty-
eightb Thousand.
• An English Grammar—a guide to the rules of Pronunciation—the laws of English Versification—Pronunciation of the more important Languages: French,
German, Dutch, Danish, Swedish, Italian, Spanisn, $ ctuguese, modern Greek,
—Chronological Tables—Lists of Cities, Boroughs, a^id Towns in England and
Wales, with the market days.   " It is, in fact, a perfect treasury of knowledge."
" The want of a revised edition of Walker's Dictionar * as long been felt. Upwards of 2000 words which modern literature, science, an* fashion, have brought
into existence have been incorporated, such as, for instance,Telegram, Electrotype,
Lithography, Mesmerism, Photography, Phrenology, Papier Mache, Stereotype,
&c; whilst others are of so common a description as toexcite our surprise at their
omission—as, for instance, Exhume, Descriptive, Incipient, Lava, Playful, Statistics; also many geological terms now in conversational use—as Felspar, Gneiss,
Granite, Quartz, Schist, Shale, Pyrite, Tertiary, &c."
In fcap. 8vo, price One Shilling, cloth,
T IVES OF GOOD SERVANTS.   By the Author of "Mary
-Ll Powell."
" These biographies are twenty in number—their material very various, but all
most delightfully told."—Nonconformist.
In 18mo, price Is. cloth extra,
*J for the Use of Schools and General Students. A New Edition, adapted to the
present state of English Literature, and comprehending the principal Terms of
Military Science, Geology, &c. &c.   By P. Austen Nuttall, LL.D.
In this edition more than 2000 words are included which are not in any other
One Shilling Dictionary.
In 18mo, price 1*. 6d. cloth extra,
JOHNSON'S SCHOOL DICTIONARY ; to which is added,
*J the Principles of English Orthography, and the Origin, Construction, and
Derivation of the English Language—General Rules for the correct Pronunciation
of Foreign Names—Synoptical View of the History, Geography, Constitution,
and Population of Great Britain—and a Compendious Table of Universal History,
divided into Chronological Eras, showing the most important epochs in the annals
of the world.
In fcap. 8vo, price 1*. cloth ; or in roan, Is. 6d.,
* " pendium of Arithmetic for the Use of Schools. A New and improved Edition, to which is added, an Appendix on the Decimal Coinage, by J. R. Young,
late Professor of Mathematics, Belfast College.
H ' Walkingame's Tutor* is especially valuable for its copious variety of examples and extensive range of subjects; and in its present more modernized,
improved, and corrected form, it is hoped that it may continue to rustain the
character it has so long possessed as a favourite school book of practical arith-
London : GEOR3E ROUTLEDGE and CO., Farringdon Street. 7
In 1 vol. fcap. 8vo, price 2s, cloth extra,
■L*   and MANUFACTURES.    By George Dodd, Author  of "Days at the
Factories," " Curiosities of Industry," &c.
(t Th's volume presents a body of facts that have especial reference to what is
new as well as important. Every novelty, invention, or curiosity that modern
science has brought to light is here explained, in an easy and natural style; it not
only forms a wonderful aid to memory, but is at the same time a recreation for
leisure; and is so arranged that any item required can be looked into, and the
latest particulars or improvements in any branch of science examined."
In royal 32mo, cloth, 6d., or roan, Is.,
-*-. Plasterers, Slaters, Painters, &c. The chief design of this work is to furnish,
at a cheap rate, an easy method of calculating the square contents of all kinds of
work, where measurements are taken.   Tables of Wages are also added.
In royal 32mo, price 8d. cloth, strongly bound; or in roan plain 9d.;
or in roan with gilt edges, is.,
V   LANGUAGE.    Improved Edition, with the addition of Three Thousand
In 1 vol. fcap. 8vo, price 2s. cloth extra,
ndell.   A New Edi- |
and adapted to the use of
-*-^   tion.    Formed upon principles   of Economy, ai
Private Families.   With Ten Illustrations.
" Mrs. Run dell's Cookery Book enjoys a reputation superior to any other work
on the subject; and the enormous number already sold, and the continued demand
for it, is the proof of the estimation it is still held in.'*
In 1 vol. price 2s. cloth gilt,
-*- plication to the Fine Arts of Painting, Decoration of Buildings, Mosaic
Work, Tapestry and Carpet Weaving, Calico Printing, Dress, Paper Staining,
Printing, Illumination, Landscape and Flower Gardening. By M. E. Chkvreul.
Director of the Dye Works of the Gobelins. Translated by John Sainton.
Illustrated with Designs.
" Every one whose business has anything to do with the arrangement of colour
should possess this book. Its value has been universally acknowledged, having
been translated into various languages, although but recently into our own."
In demy 18mo, price Is. cloth; or Is. 6d. roan embossed,
"MASTER'S   READY   RECKONER.     The Ninth Edition,
—*J- Revised and Improved, with additional Tables of Interest, Commission,
Wages, Per Centage, and Profit, Time, Weights and Measures. By John
fS The present editor has most carefully inspected the whole work, and believes
it to be perfect in every calculation; it may therefore be relied upon as a most
correct and useful work."
^-t'^OiK.-a^T-gar..-. fjr^ligBCl:ai,aie.~ FC
<iwil» • *      -   ■ — - If
THE RIFLEMAN (ls.6^.) or, Aj)Ybntures o#Percy Blake.
By Captain Rafter.
SAM SLICK (2s.); or, The Clockmaker.
RORY  O'MORE (2*.), by Samuel Loves.
LEONORA D'QRCO (2*.), by G. P. R. Jamebl
LAW AND   rAWYEES (1*.), by Polsbn.
SALATHIEL (2^, by Dr. Cboly.
WILL HE MARRY  HER (2*.), by John Lang.
DEEDS, NOT f^OEDS (2s.), by M. m|Bell.
SAM SLICK  IN  ENGLAND (2*.); or, The Attache.
YOUNG DUKE (1*. 6d.), by B. D'Israelj.
MORLEY  ERNSTEIN (2*.), by G. P. R James.
WILD FLOWERS (2*.), by Spencer Thomson.
THE WOODMAN  or, Thb,|Battle of Bosworth   Field
(2*.)     By G. B?R. Jamls.
FOREST DAYS; or,Robin Hood (Is. 6i.)  By G. P. R. Jambs.
ARTHUR O'LEARY (2*.), by Charles Lever.
PRAIRIE BIRD|||8.), by Murray.
LIFE  IN  A STEAMER (1#. 6d.)t by Sam Slick.
ONE FAULT (2*:), by Mrs. Trollope.
"The Railway Library now comprises the best works of Bulwer Lytton
—B. D'Israeli—Captain Marryat—G. P. R.James—W. Harrison Ainsworth
—James Grant—Charles Lever—Albert Smith—J. F. Cooper—Maxwell, «»te ;
forming a collection of the Jiest Works of Fiction ever published.'
*„*   Complete Lists, gratis, on application..
&dtauoii  Evens. Engraver asa*l  Pitawr. Kaquet Court, l"U*3 3tr««1>
\ *
■PR Engraved bjL.2€BeekerU Tatent Thi
ZoTtrton: Pli£li*hed fy- Heorge Rouiledge & Ct, fkrringdon, St.


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items