BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

British Columbia. An essay Brown, R. C. Lundin (Robert Christopher Lundin), -1876 1863

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Colonial Secretary's Office,
11th March, 1862.
Whereas it appears from a report from the Board appointed to
adjudicate upon the Essays called for by this Government, by public notice dated the 29th day of October, 1861, that none of the
Essays received in consequence of that notice can be adjudged to
fulfil the specified requirements.
Notice is hereby given that a premium of fifty pounds sterling
will be paid by the Government of British Columbia for an Essay
which shall be adjudged to set forth, in the clearest and most comprehensive manner, the capabilities, resources, and advantages of
British Columbia as a Colony for settlement.
The following rules will govern the award :—
1. Competitors must send their Essays in a sealed cover, directed
to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, on or before the
30th day of June, 1862.
2. No name or mark is to be attached to the Essay, whereby the
writer can be known by his Essay; but a distinctive motto is to be
3. A duplicate of the chosen motto is to be sent to the Chief
Commissioner of Lands and Works, marked on the outside of a
separate sealed Envelope, upon the inside of which is to be given the
name of the writer of the Essay bearing such motto.
4. The Essays will be submitted for selection to a Board composed of three independent persons, and after they have signified
their decision to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and "Works, the
Chief Commissioner will forward to them the sealed Envelope bearing the motto corresponding to that of the chosen Essay. The Envelope will be opened by the Board and the name of the writer
communicated to the Chief Commissioner.
5. The Envelopes of unsuccessful competitors will be returned
unopened if desired, but all the Essays will remain the property of
the Government.
An award of Ten Pounds will be made for the second best Essay.
By order of the Governor,
mm£mz&: PREFACE
Although a meagre account of so great a subject, this Essay
excuses its appearance before the world on the ground that
others, whose knowledge of British Columbia is greater than
the author's, probably lacked leisure to write.
The picture drawn is true at the present date, but in the
ever shifting aspects of a new Colony much of the filling in will
ere long be found defective, and perhaps erroneoxis: stili it is
to be hoped that the general outlines will remain correct.
The description of New Westminster (at the beginning of
Chapter II.) is from the pen of the Rev. J. Sheepshanks, Rector
of Holy Trinity Church in that town; as is the account of the
country thence to Yale, where I have not been myself. To
Colonel Moody, R.E., for the use of the MS. of his tour to
the Okanagan Country, my best thanks are due; and also for
valuable information and assistance to Captain Parsons, R.E.,
to A. C. Elliott, Esq., Magistrate of Lillooet, and to T. Elwyn,
Esq., late Gold Commissioner of Cariboo.
St. Mary's Parsonage, Lillooet,
March 19th, 1863.
CHAPTER I. Historical Introduction   -
,,        II. General Description of the Country
II. Physical Geography and Meteorology   -
IV.*J!Mjneral Resources -
"V. Agriculture -
VI. Natural Productions—Animal and Vegetable
VII. Commerce and Statistics -
VIII. Political and Social Aspects
IX. Emigration -
X. Prospects   - . - - -
[^(Government reserves the right of translation.]
■SEa^g&sasHaih CHAPTER I,
It is the object ef the following pages to give some accouni
of British Columbia, the youngest, but not the least promis-'
ing, of the Colonies of that Empire on which the sun never"
In the Act passed by the Imperial Parliament in August.
1858, "to provide for the Government of British ColuirroiaA
the limits of the Colony are defined as follows: " British Columbia shall, for the purpose of this Act, be held tc^omprisj^
all such territories within the dominions of Her Majesty ^r
are hounded to the south by the frontier of the Jiiited States
of America, to the east by the main chain or the Rocky
Mountains, to the north by Simpson's River and the Finla§^
Branch of the Peace River, and ro the west by the Pacific
Ocean, and shall include Queen Charlotte's Island, and all
other islands adjacent to the said territories, except as hereinafter excepted."
These islands will not now engage our attention^ Whe"
territory on the continent of North AmerkicV^mprmended
in British Columbia, extends from the 4$m parallel to the
55th, north latitude. Its length is 420 miles in a straight
line, and its breadth varies from 250 to 400 miles. Its greatest length, taken from corner to corner, is 805 miles. The
area of the whole colony, including Queen Charlotte's Island,
is computed by Mr. Arrowsmith at somewhat more than
200,000 square miles.
To the illustrious naviga
Sir Francis Drake, is due th
honour of the first discovery of these regions. Whether indeed he came further north than the 48th paral^l is uncertain, but the region extending along the coast<jpetween latitudes 43° and 48° was, as is generally conceded, discovered
by him, and by him taken possession of in the Queen's name,
uMtgjj the designation of New Albion, in the summer of 1579,
Vancouver, who made his celebrated v»yage to these waters
-in 1792, when the Island which bears his name was discovered, named the continent, between parallels 45 and 50, New
Until late years however, the country west of the
Rocky Mountains has, by Hudson's Bay traders, been known
o ■ ■W#-ri>-i
as New Caledonia, a name by which the Alexandrian district
of British Columbia is still designated.
The origin of the native Indians, whose present number
probably does not exceed 8000, is veiled in obscurity. They
wer^found in possession of the country by the earliest explorers. From the berries which cluster on its bushes, the roots
which j^|w in its soil, the salmon which frequent its seas,
and ascend its rivers, the grouse which abound in its woods,
and the deer, mountain sheep, and other animals which inhabit its mountains, these children of nature drew the means
of subsistence. The skins of bears or deer furnished their
rude clothing, nor were they unprovided with useful medicinal herbs, among others the bearberry (uva ursij known in
the country as kinikinik, the leaf of which is used by the
mitifcs as tobacco. Like all savage nations, whose faculties
cultivation has not trained, they are an indolent race; unwilling to spore themselves any trouble that they can avoid, they
Care roused to action only by the pangs of hunger. Yet since
the white immigration, they have acquired a taste for the
comforts ofSeivilization, and a disposition to work for the
means, to procure them. They have accordingly proved very
serviceable to the colon® in hewing wood, drawing water,
packing, working on steamboats, &c. In character they are
cowardly, suspicious, and ungrateful, yet on the other hand
they have strong tendencies to religious faith, and offer a
promising field for the labours of the Christian Missionary.
TilKShe yeaf^l858, British Columbia was subject to the
dominion ofWOrludson's Bay Company: that society was
^-incorporated under charter of Charles II. in 1670, under the
designation of " A company of Adventurers of England ti-af
ding with Hudson Bay." They were to enjoy "the sole trade
and commerce, together with the lands and territories upon
the countries, coasts, &c, not possessed by British Subjects
in the northern portion of the continent of North America."
In 1821 they received a license for the exclusive trade in
these regions. Under the dominion of the Hudson's Bay
Company tjjgp country was nothing but a vast preserve. To
the forts w^ph. they established on the face of the land, Indians, who acted as their hunters, brought the furs of the black
and silver fox, the bear, the sea-otter, the fisher, the marten,
the beaver, the musk rat, the lynx, &c. These furs wej§*m-
nually shipped to E/igland in large quantities, to the great
profit of the Company.
But British Columbia w^pdestined to nobler uses than
to he the home of fur-hearing animals. In the spring of 1858,
it was known in California tha/lbld had been discovered
the banks of the Fraser River. The Fraser, it need scarcely
be mentioned, is the great river of British Columbia. From
the Rocky Mountains to the Gulf of Georgia it flows a distance of 1000 miles, remarkable not less for the grandeur of
its scenery, the rapidity of its current, and the volume of its
waters, than for the gold which has been found along its
course. The fact that there was gold in the country had indeed been known some years before 1858. In April, 1856,
Mr. Douglas, the Governor of Vancouver Island, and Chief
Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company, reported to the Homo
Government that gold had been discovered within the British
Territory on the Upper Columbia. Miners, he writes, were
washing gold on Fraser River, although the number was
small, they being chiefly retired servants of the Hudson's
Bay Company. However, in the"autumn of 1857, some persons^
chiefly adventurers from the adjoining states, found-their way
into the country on the upper Fraser, where they mined with*
great success. On the approach of winter they withdrew ten
Victoria and San Francisco, where they spread&glowing tidings of the richness of Fraser River.
The excitement catised by this news amongst the miners>
of California was unbounded. And not the miners only; all
classes of the community seemed smitten with the gold epidemic. "None are too poor," says the Times correspondent,
writing from San Francisco, in June, 1858, "and none too
rich to go. None too young, and none too old to go, even
the decrepit go. Many go with money, many go without;
some to invest in real estate, some to see 'what may turn up';
some out of curiosity, some to steal, and unquestionably some
to die." In short never in the history of the migrations
men has been seen a "rush" so sudden and so vast. It is ca
culated, that by the middle of July some 20,000 men had left
California for the new Eldorado. But unfortunately by- far
thg greater number were doomed to disappointment. The
asRved too early. The river-was swollen and the bars (by
which term are understood the auriferous banks formed at
angles of the river) were flooded by the stream. Only a feW
met with success. The greater part, discouraged by failure,
by scarcity of food, and by the impenetrability of the forests,
made haste to abandon the inhospitable Fraser. On their return to California, their disappointment found expression in a
wholesale condemnation of the country^ which they stigmatized as a'lgross imposition, coupling it with the South Sea
bubble, the Mississippi scheme, and other celebrated hoaxes.
!Mose however who remained on the Fraser reaped the re-
wlrd of th&r fortitude and patience.   The river fell, and the
miners were able to work, and with very good average success.
The Home Government now proceeded to revoke the grant,
by virtue of which the Hudson's Bay Company had exclusive
right to trade in these territories. The new colony, under
the name of British Columbia, was thrown open to the world.
An Act was passed by Parliament providing for its government, and Mr. Douglas was appointed to administer its affairs.
In the dispatches of the Secretary of State for the Colonies,
entire confidence was expressed in his ability and knowledge
of the country. The Civil and Criminal laws of England were
declared in force in British Columbia. But Mr. Douglas was
empowered to govern to a great extent on his own authority.
It was judged that the best form of government for a Colony
in its earliest years, was one which placed the reins of power
in the hands of one man. At the same time Sir Edward
Bulwer Lytton gave it to be understood that this was only a
temporary measure, and that it was the anxious desire of Her
Majesty's Government that rej>resentativeinstitutions, without
which they were convinced peace and order cannot long prevail, should be established as soon as practicable. Provision
was also made for the military requirements of the Colony
by sending out a party of Royal Engineers, who arrived early
in 1859. These troops, so superior in discipline and intelligence to ordinary soldiers, besides being ready to discharge
military duty, were intended also to act "as pioneers in the work
of civilization, in opening up the resources of the country by
the construction of roads and bridges, in laying the foundations of a future city or seaport, and in carrying out the numerous engineering works which, in the earlier stages of
colonization, are so essential to the progress and welfare of a
Thus furnished and equipped, the Colony began its career.
Its progress up to the summer of 1861 was dubious and slow.
Its resources were but partially known, hence its future was
veiled in uncertainty. But since its mineral wealth is better
ascertained, and its agricultural capabilities proved, it bids
fair to advance with rapid strides. 7Tt\ttm^Um>m
No one sailing from the green island of Vancouver, can
have crossed on a fine day the Gulf of Georgia, which separates it from the mainland, without admiring the beauty of
that-scenery. The waters sheltered by Vancouver Island
are generally tranquil. The islands around present a picturesque appearance of rock and dense wood. The snow capped coast range of British Columbia lift up their bold jagged
peaks. The scene is enlivened by numberless waterfowl of
many species. A mile or so to the east of Plumper Pass-
the narrow channel between Galiano and Mayne Islands,—-
the vessel passes suddenly into a stream, turbid and clay coloured, in which are seen floating masses of driftwood. This
is the volume of water which the noble Fraser pours into the
Gulf of Georgia. The sand banks caused by the deposit of
the stream, extend some five miles to the westward of the
entrance. There is no formidable bar to cross as in the case
of the Columbia and so many other rivers; a narrow channe
having been forced through the shoals bv the struggles of
the river.. With an entrance sheltered from storms, and a
depth of water sufficient for any vessels save of the very largest class, the Fraser seems intended to be a gate through
which the wants of a great country may be supplied, and its
riches distributed to all lands.
Proceeding onward we soon leave the low and marshy lands
at the mouth of the river, and come to where the forest bristles along each bank. Above the brush rise the maple, the
alder, and the cottonwood trees—yet higher are the cedars,
and above them all tower the mighty pines, truly the giants
of the forest. Viewed from a distance, however, their extreme height is not apparent. The truth is that all being so
tall, and everv thing in sight being on so large a scale the
eye finds nothing with which to compare them. It is only
when standing beneath them we measure their trunks, or
compare them with a building, or pace the length of one that
is fallen, that we perceive how vast they really are. The majority of the pines exceed 200 feet, and many of them are
over 300 feet; the cedars, though less in height, are often of 6
amazing girth.
Turning a bend in the river 15 miles from the mouth, the
traveller comes in sight of New Westminster. Four years
ago all was forest here; .in 1859 the spot was selected as the
site of the capital, and there is now a town of some size and
importance. (Population,including the Royal Engineers,1000.)
New Westminster contains, besides stores and residences,
three churches (Church of England, Roman Catholic, and
Wesleyan, in addition to which a Presbyterian place of worship is now in course of erection,) Colonial Hospital, and the
Government Buildings. Here also reside all the heads of
Departments excepting the Governor, Colonial Secretary, and
Auditor, and here a large proportion of the revenue of the
Colony is collected. A mile and a quarter above the town
is "The Camp" where the Royal Engineers under the command of Colonel Moody, have their head quarters:—a most
efficient body of men who have materially aided in the devcl-
opement of the Colony.
As a port New Westminster possesses great advantages.
There is plenty of water, excellent anchorage, and abundance
of room for wharves. During the flood tide a vessel is borne
up with ease, and in the summer, when the freshets are strong,
there is daily a fine breeze up stream which will bear her
safely into port; so that with the river entrance well buoyed,
and provided with a light-ship, this place might become an
excellent seaport.
It is but fair to add that the value of the harbour is contested by the inhabitants of Victoria, Vancouver Island, who
assert that the navigation of the Fraser is impracticable on
account of the so called Bar at its mouth; this is a mistake,
with ordinary care the Fraser may easily be entered by vessels drawing from 18 to 20 feet.
Indeed New Westminster only requires a few firms possessed of capital, to induce direct communication with England
and San Francisco, and put an end to the present roundabout
and expensive trade through Victoria.*
Among the commercial advantages of the capital may be
mentioned the proximity of Burrard Inlet, where there is an
excellent harbour, easy of access to vessels of any size or class.
As regards agriculture there are several farms in the neighbourhood. The soil, though not everywhere deep, is generally
very fertile. Of its fertility, the luxuriant vegetation is at the
same time the cause and the effect. The land has been found
to bear abundantly whatever has been tried; especially vege-
tables and fruit; but owing to so great a portion of the dis-
trict being densely wooded, the portion of available land in
this section of the country, is at present but limited.
Leaving New Westminster the traveller into the interior
of the country, ascends the Fraser in one of the river steamboats. The Camp first attracts his attention from its fine situation. Here the river is fully three quarters of a mile wide.
Up stream a long reach (called the Queen's Reach) stretches away before the eye, apparently terminating in a small
island, clothed with luxuriant vegetation. The banks on either side are thickly wooded, while in the distance snow-clad
mountains bound the view. Proceeding up stream the next
spot worthy of mention is Fort Langley, 16 miles from New
Westminster. This has been for many years a station of the
Hudson's Bay Company, established both as a trading post
for the Indian traffic, and also as a farm for agricultural purposes. The soil is excellent, and wheat has been grown year
after year, without the use of manure.
The traveller up river will next pass the extensive and fertile prairies at Sumass and Chilukweyuk (left bank). Much
of this land indeed is flooded during the summer freshets,
but only for a few days. These and many other similar tracts
are admirably adapted for stock raising. The floods and mosquitoes are their only drawback. With the exception of these
prairie lands, the banks on either side are clothed with the
forest. It is indeed a strange sight for the traveller fresh
from the Old World to see the exuberance of the vegetation
on this humid soil. He enters the wood by the trail or path
which has been cut through the dense bush, and gazes silently at the wonders of the forest. The damp soil deprived of
the sun is covered with moss, ground creepers, and a rich
growth of ferns of various species, and of rare luxuriance.
Mingled with them are the berry bushes, the salall, the sal-
monberry, the raspberry, the huckleberry, loaded with their
luscious and many coloured fruits. Above the bushes rise
the hazel and the maple, their light green leaves relieved by
the mass of darker foliage. Verdant pendants of moss hang
from the lower branches of the forest trees, which stretching
upwards, tower far above all things else, permitting glimpses,
and but glimpses, of the blue sky overhead.
Thirty five miles above Langley, the Fraser receives the
waters of Harrison River. Here is the first divergence in
the route to the Cariboo mines;—one road going by way of
Harrison River, Douglas, the lakes and Lillooet—the other-
by way of the Fraser, Hope, Yale, and Lytton. The former
is the more convenient, and the more direct. From the mouth
of Harrison River to Douglas is a distance of 50 miles, 7 by fcgpp-
the river, the remainder by Harrison Lake. This is a noble
sheet of water, remarkable for its rugged beauty. At the end
of the lake is the town of Douglas, the termination of the
river carriage, and commencement of the waggon-road.
Douglas lies in a narrow valley between two ranges of mountains, and though small, much traffic daily passes through it.
The trees round the town are remarkably fine, and the white
pine lumber cut by the saw-mill is much esteemed, some of
it having been already exported to San Francisco. A magistrate and toll collector are resident here; and a pretty little
church has lately been erected.
The first portage from Douglas to Lillooet is 29i miles.
Roadside houses abound on it, where food and shelter may
be obtained. The cost of each meal is one dollar*. At the
inn 20 miles from Douglas, there is a hot mineral spring,
said to be very efficacious in cases of rheumatism. Its chief
constituents are sulphur and soda. The portage terminates at
the Tenass Lake, across which the traveller is conveyed in a
small boat; thence a portage of a mile and half conducts him
to Lillooet Lake. The inconvenience of this portion of the
route will shortly be obviated. The Tenass Lake is connected with Lake Lillooet, by a short and rapid river of 1 £ miles
in length. It is expected that the powerful steamer just
built on Lillooet Lake, will be able to stem its strong current,
at least during the summer months when the water is high,
and thus navigate the whole distance from the foot of Tenass
Lake to the head of Lake Lillooet, a distance of 25 % miles.
The general direction of Lake Lillooet is N. At the head
of Lake Lillooet stands the village of Pemberton. Next a
waggon-road takes the traveller over a second portage 26
miles long. There is a fine tract of prairie land in the neighbourhood of Pemberton known as "the meadows," it is 7 or 8
miles long, and from half a mile to a mile wide. The land
is fertile and produces grass abundantly; it is also well suited for cultivation. There are now 12 farms taken up. The
road starting in a westerly direction presently approaches the
river, which flows from N. E. to join Lillooet Lake. A little
beyond the Half-way-House we pass the watershed of this
district, which is 1482 feet above the level of the sea. From
the road, the traveller will see on his right, a roaring cataract
descending the mountains from their snowy summit. The
stream divides on reaching the valley, part flowing S. W. and
part flowing N.E.; the former running down the valley we
have been ascending, through Lakes Lillooet and Harrison
* The American dollar equals 4s. 2d. of our money, but for convenience sake it is reckoned in these pages as 4s,
into tbe Fraser, the latter making its way through Anderson
and Seton Lakes into the river just below Lillooet. The road
■now descends to Lake Anderson. The name is not romantic,
but few scenes in nature can surpass its beauty, at once sublime and tender, especially as seen in the freshness of a spring
morning as the sun crests the mountain peaks, ere his rays
descend upon the calm waters of the Lake below. Its length
is 16 miles, direction nearly N. and S. Lake Seton, the last
in the series, is 14 miles long, general direction W. and E.;
it is winding, rugged and picturesque. Probably this lake
will be connected with Lake Anderson by a canal some future
•day: they are only a mile and a half apart. A new steamer
is building on Lake Seton. Four miles further on is the
iown of Lillooet.* Hitherto our way from Douglas has been
up a defile or pass hemmed in by stupendous mountains, but
as we approach Lillooet the hills recede on either hand, and
the eye rests once more on an open expanse. A valley lies
before us, forming an irregular circle with a diameter of from
3 to 4 miles, bounded by lofty mountains. Through this
valley or basin the Fraser winds,—the river bed being 190
feet below the plain. A series of benches rise terrace-like,
regular and level, and according to the season, snow-clad,
grassy, or grey. These singular benches remind us of the parallel roads of Glenroy, and suggest the idea that the whole
valley was once a lake, whose waters gradually fell as seme
obstruction that barred their egress was removed. On one of
these benches stands Lillooet, right bank of the river, latitude
50° 4L' N., and close upon the 122nd parallel of west longitude;
its altitude is 1036 feet. The town consists of a fine broad
street, at the southern extremity of which stands the church.
The situation is romantic. From the flat immediately behind
the town, the spectator has as fine a view of highland scenery
as he could wish. To the left the golden sanded Fraser rolls
his impetuous current, some distance off a mountain range ( a
branch of the Cascade) skirts his left bank. Westward to the
right St. Mary's t Mount lifts its pine-clad peaks far into the
clear blue sky. Farther south stands Mount Brew, (3000 ft.)
a noble mountain: his mantle varies with the changing year,
light green in the spring time, and yellow when autumn paints
the deciduous trees on his flank with gold, but his lofty brow
* Stage coaches ply on all the portages from Donglas to Lillooet,
the fare through being $20, including the steamboat fares, which
are $1 each. The whole journey which now takes 2 days will, it
is expected, shortly be accomplished in 24 hours.
f This name, identical with that of the church at the foot of the
mountain, has received the sanction of the Governor, i
remains crowned with snow during most of the year. In front
beyond the town the spectator observes a series of plains, partly enclosed and blossoming into gardens, while far away the
view is bounded by the mazy windings of the Fraser, as he is
lost to sight among the distant hills.
Lillooet, though by no means a large town, shows signs of
progress. Its average white population is 350. Much traffic
passes through this town, as Lilloof t divides with Yale the
business of forwarding goods to the mining districts. The soil
in the neighbourhood is light, but when watered proves abundantly fertile, cereals thrive, and eVen tomatoes, melons, &c.r
come to perfect maturity in the open air. Indications of mineral wealth are traced in the surrounding mountains, and coarse
gold has been found both in Bridge River to the N., and in
Cayoosh Creek to the S. of the town; probably important discoveries will be brought to light as soon as the Cariboo excitement abating, miners give themselves time to prospect in these
parts. Lillooet is the most central town in the colony; it has-
the advantage of being a most agreeable place of residence.
The climate is clear and regular; generally speaking the sky i's-
without a cloud throughout most of the year. The winters are
severe, the summers hot, but the v inters are for the most part
clear, and cloudless, while the summer heat is tempered by the
mountain breeze. I must acid, lhat it is remarkably health}7; nor
in enumerating the advantages of Lillooet as a place of residence,,
must we forget these two, that while some of the other towns
are enclosed by mountain or forest, here is ample room te-
walk or ride; and while many other places are in summer infested with mosquitoes, Lillooet is free from these tormenting
Having thus brought the traveller to Lillooet via Douglas,
I must now conduct him by the other route, through Hope
and Yale to the upper country, from the point where tbe
lines diverge, viz: at the mouth of the Harrison River.
From that point there is nothing worthy of mention until
Hope is reached, at a distance of 95 miles from the mouth of
the river. Until lately it was a flourishing little place, but
the gold-bearing country to the east, Similkameen, havin°-
now been deserted by the miners for Cariboo, and it havino-
been found impracticable for the present to open a route direct to the upper country from Hope, via Kamloops, most of
the traders have left the place, and repaired to Yale 15 miles
above. No one however doubts that Hope will flourish a<>ain
as soon as the Okanagan country to the east, of which it is
the natural outlet to the Fraser, beoomes inhabited. A short
distance from Hope, a silver mine is being worked, which is GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY.
expected to prove highly remunerative. Yale {right bank)
the head of the river navigation, is situated in a narrow gorge
of striking grandeur. Though not verv large, Yale is a thri-
ving and busy place, and large quantities of goods and not a
few passengers pass through it daily, in the summer, to the
upper country. From the bars on the river near the town,
a large quantity of gold has been taken, chiefly from Hill's
Bar, so famous in 1858. These bars have however ceased to
yield any large returns, and are consequently abandoned to
Chinamen; the whites being drawn away by the attractions
q| the northern gold-fields. This town like most of the others
in the Colony, possesses a resident magistrate and a clergyman.
Leaving Yale by the mule-road, now being converted into
it waggon-road, the traveller passes through a gorge or cleft
in the mountains, known as the little canon, where the Fraser forces its way through the Cascade Range. The road is
hewn in many parts out of immense slides from the mountains, and one of solid granite rising abruptly from the river.
When completed this road will be reckoned among the triumphs of engineering skill and human art. The precipitous
mountains of the Cascade Range stand steep and stern around:
below the surging Fraser hurries along
ij Though much he fret and. chafe and toil,
Till all his eddying currents boil."
Here the Indians maybe seen catching salmon; their picturesque wooden platforms suspended above the stream, they sit
with ropes tied round their waists to prevent them falling to
certain destruction. They thrust into the eddies long poles
with nets or running gear attached, bringing up rapidly and
successfully the shining fish, their winter's food.
Eleven miles above Yale the river is crossed by means of
a ferry, but a bridge is in course of construction. At a point
43 miles above the town the aspect of the country completely
changes. The underbrush and cedars are left behind, there
is much less moss upon the trees, and here begin the peculiar
benches which mark the course of the river aad its tributaries. On one of these flats, 200 feet above the stream, is
Lytton (altitude 780 feet), named after Sir E. B. Lytton, the
renowned founder of the Colony. This town is situated at the
junction of the Thompson with the Fraser, 48 miles below
Lillooet. The trail up country here turns to the right up the
Thompson River, which is crossed at Cook's Ferry, 23 miles
sibove Lytton. The waggon-road from Yale via Lytton will
probably,.when completed, join the road from Lillooet at a
point 47 miles from the latter place, and about 75 miles from
Lytton, at the town of Clinton, in the Cut Off Yalley..   The is
traveller by the Yale and Lytton route will probably rest the
first night from Lytton at the Ferry, the next at Ashcroffs,
23 miles further, the next day he will either reach Clinton,
or stop at the Buonaparte, Mr. McLean's, 19 miles from the
latter. From Lillooet to Cariboo is a distance of 260 miles r
a waggon-road has been carried to within a short distance of
Williams- Lake (165 miles). As the different sections of the
road are completed, stage eoaehes will be placed upon them i
Crossing the Fraser at Lillooet by a rope ferry, (with a boat
sufficiently large to take over droves of cattle, loaded waggons,
&c.,) the traveller passes N. alonga good waggon-road (18 feet
wide and with easy grades), which for the first 20 miles follows the course of the Fraser, through a grey and gloonyaj
landscape, bounded on either hand by beetling mountains.
Four miles above Lillooet the road passes a well known and;
dangerous slide, now converted into a safe and easy road.
Here the Fraser is joined by a small auriferous river called
Bridge river. Four miles further is the Fountain, where a
large piece of land is under cultivation. Pavilion Stream is
passed 22 miles above Lillooet, at Bridge Inn. Further up
avillon Valley there is an extensive farm, The Grange,
where with a soil derived from the "disintegration of granite,
metamorphie rocks, and erystaline limestone,"* excellent crops
of cereals and vegetables are produced. With such fertility
one would hardly expect to find that the altitude of this valley is 2500 feet, f At Pavilion (the name is French, taken
from the flags there found floating over the Indian burial
grounds, by the Canadian Frenchmen, who first explored it)
the River Trail diverges from the waggon-road. As the former road is 35 miles shorter than the latter, (although it is
also much rougher and more hilly), it may be necessary to
give some account of it. Ten miles from Pavilion will-bring
our traveller to Leon's, on the river side. A good walker
may make it in one day from Lillooet. The next day's journey will be Big Bar, 25 miles further. Hitherto the road has
"ain along the course of the Fraser. The aspeet of that river
and its banks is grey, sombre, and desolate. But after crossing Big Bar Creek, and ascending an elevation of about 1000
feet, we reach a series of plateaux or table-lands, with good
soil and beautiful grass, adorned with myriads of wild flowers, among which the geranium and wild pea are conspicuous.
Here are prairies sufficient to pasture countless herds and
flocks.    Canoe Creek is the next stopping place, 25 miles
* Official report of journey from New
Hache, by Captain R. M. Parsons, R.E.
from Leon's. Here it was that Stewart and Fraser (the discoverers of Fraser River) abandoned their canoe to travel by
land: hence the name. Fifteen miles beyond is Dog Creek.
Two or three farms are taken up here and promise well.
There lived here in times past an Indian Chief, who was in
great favour with the Hudson's Bay Company, and who received the soubriquet of Le Petit Chien. From him the
creek derives its name. There is a mission house at Dog
Creek, which the Roman Catholic priests built and used 40
years ago. Alkali Lake is 10 miles from Dog Creek; the
distance thence to Williams Lake is 34 miles (by St. Peter's
Springs 10 miles). The total distance from Lillooet by this
road is 129 miles»
Returning to Pavilion Valley, let us now proceed thence to
Williams Lake by the waggon-road. Leaving Bridge Inn in
the Pavilion Valley, the traveller begins the second day's journey from Lillooet, by crossing Pavilion Mount nearly 4000
feet above the level of the -sea, covered by excellent pasturage,
and well watered. Inns will be found at Clinton, 47 miles
from Lillooet, pleasantly situated in the Cut Off Valley, a beautiful glen 16 miles in length. This is the point of junction of
the Yale and Lillooet roads. The next day the 70 mile house
may be reached: there are however stopping houses between.
Land poor, soil light, plenty of wood and water. Fourth day
to the 100th mile post, at Bridge Creek. " Here a farming
country begins, superior to anything seen since leaving Langley on the lower Fraser; the soil is good, and there is abundance of water and wood. The waggon -road here follows the
old Brigade trail, so called from the large Hudson's Bay Company's trains. The Blue Tent near Lake La Hache, is 26 miles
farther; 22 miles beyond which is Lake Valley House, at
the head of Williams Lake, and 9 miles from the village of that
name. From Bridge Creek to Williams Lake is a fine country,
well adapted for farming; it is said that late frosts might sometimes injure the crops, but at Lake La Hache excellent crops
of barley and wheat were grown last summer, and at Williams
Lake there is an extensive and productive farm. The farming
land is bounded by low hills, beyond which there are other
prairies and valleys. These hills are undulating and brightly
green, and their grassy carpet is daisied over with countless
wild flowers. The road occasionally crosses some fresh mountain stream, whose cool, clear waters invite the traveller to
drink; now it wends by the bank of a lovely lake, in whose
glassy depths the trees and shrubs along the margin seem to
contemplate their,own symmetry and face.
Here two ways to the mining country are open to the travel- T4
ifer, according as he wishes to enter Cariboo on the eastern side
at Antler Creek, or on the western side at Lightning Creek.
( The term " Creek " is here used in the technical miner's sense,
to denote a tributary stream.) The former route by Quesnel
and Antler is the shorter, though more arduous. Leaving
Williams Lake at Lake Valley House the traveller takes the
trail to the right*. There are various stopping places on the
road to Quesnel;—Deep Creek, the Round Tent, Beaver
Lake, &c. Beyond the Round Tent we reach a beautiful sheet
of water. Lovely indeed is the scenery around this lake, an
open undulating country covered with copious vegetation.
For agricultural purposes the soil is too humid, and would
require drainage; the pasturage however is excellent. At,
Beaver Lake there is a pretty large extent of land capable
of cultivation. Two or three iarms are already taken
up, and prove productive. The whole country N. and N.E.
of Beaver Lake is in some respects different from any which
the traveller has seen in the lower districts of the colony.
Judge Begbie in a note to his map of the district, says " From
Beaver Lake to beyond Keithley's is one continuous, dense,
grassless, mountainous forest, about 5 or 6 clays for loaded animals." The trail leads through forests and swamps, which in
the middle of summer swarm with mosquitoes. Occasionally
where the forest has been subjected to a conflagration, the
charred trunks stand around like the ghosts of the monarchs-
ofthe wood. By a trail leading through these spectral forests,
cut out of the densest forest growth, the traveller plods on
his way over fallen trees and stumps, or through mud holes
often knee deep. But let him take heart he is now approaching the goal of his pilgrimage,—world renowned Cariooo.
The village of Quesnel, 23 miles from Beaver Lake, is situated at the confluence of the two branches of the Quesnel River,
the southern branch of which rises in the Great Quesnel Lake
to the S., 8 or 9 miles from the town. That lake is nearly 100
miles in length, one branch of it extends to the E., the other N.
The north branch of the river flows S.E. from Cariboo Lake.
The town is situated on the low tongue of land enclosed by
these two rivers ere they join: all around are high mountains
thickly covered with timber. Leaving Quesnel for Keithley's
Creek (25 miles) the traveller takes his way along North
Quesnel river: Three miles on this side of Keithley's he gains
Cariboo Lake, now rendered important by the discovery of a
silver mine in the vicinity.   Here begins the Cariboo country
* A short cut however may be made on the waggon-road, at the
Bridge, to a point beyond the Forks at Quesnel: information regarding it will be obtained at Bridge Creek GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP THE COUNTRY.
f^ Cariboo—carri-bceuf, or reindeer frequenting those parts.) Beyond the Lake he reaches Keithley's, where a small village has
sprung up; a great deal of gold was taken out of this stream
in 1860, and although in 1861 a heavy flood destroyed most
of the flumes, and it was accordingly in part abandoned, there
is no doubt that there are still rich claims on the creek. Of
the creeks in the neighbourhood of Keithley's little is now
heard; the probability is they are yet far from exhausted.
Such are Goose Creek, 5 miles, Cunningham's, 12 miles, and
Harvey's, 14 miles distant from Keithley's. All these
•are to the N.E. of Keithley's, and consequently out of the
way to Antler, which lies rather to the N» or N.E.
The journey from Keithley's t> Antler (2.) miles) is somewhat tedious. The trail first ascends a mountain 5 miles in
length, then descends the same, and next plunges through a
swamp. Then there is the Bald Mountain, whose heights once
gained command a magnificent view of mountain scenery.
Immense snow mountains are seen to the N.E. which in all
probability are the Rocky Moturains. An inn will be found
on Snowshoe Creek, below the Bald Mountain. Pursuing
our way over a mountainous and swampv country, at length
after a long descent of 3000 feet, we reach the valley of Antler. Antler Creek which in 1861 yielded considerable treasure, was in 1862 to a great extent abandoned for the now
far famed Williams Creek (12 miles distant); but is still believed to be rich. As the miner crossing to Williams Creek
descends through the forest and brushwood, which thickly
mantle the valley, upon the town of Richfield (4216 feet
above the sea level) a cheering sight will meet his eye. Arriving
say in June, he finds the snow all gone, life and energy, business and stir visible everywhere. The very wheels upon the
stream seem inspired with the excitement which quickens
every pulse, and fires every eye. Here the traveller feels he
has reached indeed the heart of this immense country, the centre from which life and_ commerce radiate to its farthest limits.
Next in importance to Williams Creek, is Lightning Creek,
which is 15 miles distant from the former, across a rough and
swampy country. This creek although very expensive to work,
is supposed to be very rich; it is about 35 miles long. At its
junction with Rip Van Winkle Creek, a town has sprung up, named Van Winkle, which bids fair to become a place of importance.
The other principal creeks are as follows: Lowhee, 3 miles
from Williams Creek, Jack of Clubs, Grouse, Last Chance,
Chisholm, Sovereign, Fountain, Anderson, Nelson, Stevens,
California, Thistle and Sugar Creeks, Maccallum Gulch, Taba-
boo Gulch, &c.   The route to the mines via Quesnel, as well GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP THE COUNTKT.
as the communication between the different creeks will be
much improved this summer by bridle-paths, for which tenders are advertised for by Government.
Supposing one to wish to enter Cariboo by the western route,,
via Fraser River and Lightning Creek, he will not turn to the
right at Lake Valley House on Williams Lake, but continue
on to the village of that name, 9 miles further on. The village of Williams Lake, which is the residence of the magistrate
of tbe district, is one of the prettiest places in the colony.
Here nature appears, not as on the lower Fraser in her subli-
iner grandeur, but in her attractive beauty. The shrubs and
wild flowers, no less than the fenced fields and golden corn, recall the softer landscapes of the mother country. Although
its elevation is 2100 feet, Williams Lake yields exuberant
crops of grain and vegetables. From Williams Lake there
are 20 miles to Mud Lake, the terminus of the first jjortion
of the waggon-road from Lillooet to Lightning Creek—now
nearly completed. Mud Lake, or more properly Clear Lake,
(the original name being "Lac de terre claire," a name given
by the Hudson Bay Company's people, with reference to the
white clay that abounds there), is a fine sheet of Avater, about
5 miles in length, winding like a broad river, clear, deep and
calm; the slopes along its banks rather resemble a gentleman's
grounds than uncultivated wastes. From Clear Lake, or rather
from the mouth of Soda Creek in its vicinity, a steamer, now
nearly completed, will shortly ply to the mouth of Quesnel,
a distance of 50 miles; this will facilitate the journey to Cariboo and the transport of provisions. On its Way the "Enterprise " will pass Alexandria, a Hudson's Bay Fort, where furs
are collected from a vast surrounding district. Its position is-
52° 33' N. Latitude, and 122° 26' W. Longitude, and 1470
J'eet above the sea. Here the river is " from 250 to 300 yards-
in width, and the velocity of its current 5 J statute miles an
hour; the extreme depth of the channel 20 feet at low water,
and the rise at the freshets from 18 to 20 feet."* The land
round Alexandria is for the most part poor, yet the patches
cultivated by the people of the Fort, bear good crops. A few
miles above Alexandria the bunch grass ceases, together with
the terrace-like benches, characteristic of so great a portion of the course of the Fraser, where it usually grows. A
few prairies occur of rich meadow grass and productive soil, f
The mouth of the Quesnel River, 1490 feet, will be the
head of steamboat navigation; as it is likely also to become
* Lieut. Palmer's Report on Bentinck Arm Route, page 23.
f Lieut. Palmer's Report on Cariboo, page 4. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OSLTHE COUNTRY.
the meeting point of the Fraser River route, and whatever
other route may ultimately be made available, it is evident it
must become a point of importance, second only to that of the
several heads of navigation, and perhaps superior to any of
them taken singly. It is a fortunate circumstance that the
point where these roads converge offers an admirable locality
for a town; the climate is genial, the scenery picturesque, and a
sufficiency of open country lies around, a good portion of which
is available for agriculture. All these advantages will probably conspire to build up, on the site already laid out by Government, a city, which it is expected will spring into being,
with a rapidity hitherto unknown in the growth of the Colony.
Twenty-seven miles from Quesnel mouth, Ave leach Cottonwood, at the mouth of Lightning Creek. The country is
wooded Avith varieties of pine and hemlock, and there are occasional valleys of good land. At CottonAvood, Ave pass into
the district of Cariboo, a rugged, Avooded, swampy, dreary region, with scanty pasture unfit for agriculture, and possessed
of no attraction save its gold. The distance from Cottonwood
to Van Winkle is 25 miles, thence to Richfield 16 miles.
The entire distance from Williams Lake to Richfield by the
western side (Fraser River and Cotton Avood) is thus 149 miles,
while the distance via Beaver Lake and the town of Quesnel,
or the eastern route, is 113 miles. But notwithstanding its
greater length, the western route is to be preferred, having far
better trails, better feed for animals, and the great assistance
of the Avaggon-road and the steamer on the river.
Returning to the Fraser River, I haAre to notice a project
recently set on foot, of a new route into the northern part of
the country from Bentinck Sound, on the N.W. coast, to Alexandria or Quesnel mouth, and thence to Cariboo. The neAV
road, it is said, would materially shorten the distance to the
mines, as the journey from the coast thither would not exceed
240 miles, which is nearly the same as Lillooet from Cariboo.
There is, it is said, a good harbour at Bentinck Sound, at the
mouth of the Bella Coola River, and a site for a toAvn. The
road, it is alleged, might be made at little cost, the country
being for the most part level, although in places very marshy.
This project has encountered opposition on the ground that a
new route in this direction Avould injure the towns already established on the present line along the Fraser, and retard the
settling up of the lower part of the country. Admitting, it is
further argued, that the new route would facilitate the journey
to the mines, and cheapen provisions there, the same road
which alloAvs men easier ingress to, furnishes at the same time
a readier egress from the country, yet Avhat is desirable is not 18
to furnish the greatest facilities to the miners to come to l-ifle
its treasures, and then depart as cheaply and expeditiously as
possible, the great thing is to have the country settled; surely
it is unfair, it is contended, to sacrifice the interests of the
Avhole country to the mining population. But to argUe thus is
to forget that it is the miners who are making the coHntry; it
is consequently of the last importance that they should be supplied with provisions as cheaply as possible. Hence if the
Bentinck Arm route is found to be shorter and better than
those at present in use, and Avill cheapen provisions at the
mines, no considerations can prevent it from being carried out.
Government meanAA'hile, being unwilling to divert its energies
into new channels, and to abandon its efforts to open up the
country via the Fraser River, in order to enter upon new labours on a new route, and having no money to spare for this
project, is nevertheless anxious to see the country opened up
in all directions, it accordingly gave a charter to the Bentinck
Sound Route Company, guaranteeing that if they construct a
good waggon-road from the Coast to Cariboo, they might on
its completion be entitled to charge one cent and a half per lb.
on all goods passing over it, and sent Lieutenant Palmer, of the
Royal Engineers, to examine the proposed line of road, and
lay out a site for a town at the mouth of the Bella Coola River.
Mr. Palmer's Report is adverse to the route; the distance of
the trail, from the Coast to Alexandria, he gives as not less
than 270 miles, although in his opinion it might be shortened
by 30 miles.* The harbour is bad, and the country presents
great obstacles to road making. It is very swampy, and being
for the most part very elevated (2000 to 4000 ieet,) the
snow lies on it for 7 months in the j^ear (November to May
inclusive.) There is a general absence of good soil, and the
feed for animals is poor. If, hoAvever, a road be made from
Bentinck Arm to the mines, it will probably cross the Fraser
not at Alexandria but at Quesnel mouth, Avhieh is about equidistant from the coast with Alexandria, and 40 miles nearer
Cariboo. Some such route will, doubtless, ere long be attempted. Another Coast Route, now mooted, is by way of
Bute Inlet, further south than Bentinck Arm. Indeed by last
reports a party of men have been conveyed to Bute Inlet from
Victoria, and have already begun to construct a road. This
route is said to possess the advantage of good anchorage, and
a better geographical position, than Bentinck Arm. But as it
has not yet been properly examined little is knoAvn about it.
* North Bentinck Arm Route. Report of a Journey of Survey from
Victoria to Fort Alexander, via North Bentinck Arm, by Lieut.
P. Spencer Palmer, R.E.   R. E. Press, New Westminster, GENERAL DESCRIPTION OP THE COUNTRY.
Before leaving this part of the country, there is a word to
to be said of the districts to the north of Cariboo, and settlements already existing there. Various Hudson Bay Company's Forts are dotted about the northern regions. Fort George
is 136 miles above Alexandria, where the land under cultivation produces wheat. A hundred miles beyond there is another
Fort at Stuart's Lake^ from which flows Stuart's River, a
tributary of the Fraser. Beyond Fort George, the Fraser makes
a great bend to the eastward. It rises near Mount Brown, in
the Rocky Mountains, in 53° North Latitude, 118° 40' West
Longitude: not far distant is the source of the Columbia, floAV-
ing south, the Peace River, flowing north, and the Stickeen
River, Avhose main course is Avest, all gold-bearing rivers. At
the outset of its course, the Fraser floAvs N.W., then W. to
Fort George, about 290 miles from its source, Avhence it flows
S. and S.W. as far as Hope. Within the remarkable curve
just indicated—let a straight line be drawn across the map
from the source of the Fraser to Alexandria, and a just idea
will be obtained of the locality—within that singular bend lies
the golden region of Cariboo.
Peace River, where great discoveries were made in 1862,
flows N., through the Rocky Mountains. At present the only
way of getting there is by the Hudson's Bay route, viz: from
Fort George, 120 miles up the Stuart River, to Fort James,
thence by land to the head waters of Peace RiA'er (90 miles),
and down that stream 130 miles to the mines.
It may be well to give noAV a brief account of that southern
portion of British Columbia, known as the Similkameen and
Okanagan country. The entrance into this interesting and
valuable district is by Hope. From this the road will lie, for
about 25 miles, in a S.E. direction, up the valley of the Ni-
coloom and doAvn the valley of the Sumallow, a tributary of
the Skaget. On the Nicoloom the land is thickly timbered;
on the Sumallow it is of a superior quality. Thus far there is
an excellent waggon-road, constructed by the Royal Engineers,
in the summer of 1861. Hence a mule-road, 35 miles in
length, leads to Princeton, at the junction of the Sulameen and
Similkameen Rivers. This is carried over very rough and elevated ground, the altitude at one point being close upon 4,000
The Cascade range, running in general in a N.W. and S.E.
direction, is here so cut up by interlacing valleys, that it can
scarcely be termed a "range"; the country lying between the
Fraser and Princeton, is better described as a vast sea of mountains. Through some one of these valleys, as yet undiscovered, a
road will at some future date be made by Nicola Lake and
Ss 20
Kamloops to the north: and looking southward, there can be
little doubt that at no distant period there will be an important line of communication with Washington Territory through
the valley of the Skaget.
About 15 miles from Princeton the highest ridge is crossed.
Here the country becomes more open; covered With bunch-
grass, and with firs at intervals; there are but few deciduous
trees, and the soil is very light. There is however plenty of
feed for cattle, and though not good for agriculture, much of
the land is suitable for pasture; and Princeton may one day
become the centre of a pastoral and mining country: good prospects of gold have been made in the neighbourhood, and indications have been found of silver and copper. From Prince-
t<jn>the valley of the Similkameen lies in a S.E. direction, until
the frontier is crossed, a distance of about 55 miles. The landscape is grassy, and there are patches of rich land AvhereArer
Avater has passed. Tavo miles below Princeton a trail, some-
Avhat over 40 miles in length, branches off to the great Okana-
gan Lake. The country round the Lake is well adapted for
forming: open and grassy with rolling hills, and sufficient
Avood for agricultural purposes. On the west side of the Lake
runs the Hudson's Bay trail, the line by which the upper
country is supplied with cattle from Washington Territory.
The trail runs along between the lake and a low mountain
range, from, which detached spurs press upon the lake, and rise
above the water in precipitous bluffs. There is excellent feed
for cattle all along this route, especially on small spits of land
which jut out into the lake. These have, been formed by an,
alluvial deposit brought down from the mountains by the numerous streams, and consisting of rich soil, are covered with
luxuriant grass. They are favourite spots with the drovers,
Avho camp between their herds and the trail, and thus prevent
the risk of the animals straying. The lake itself is about 70
miles long, and about 1 to 1^ miles wide, and lies almost directly N. and S. About the centre, on the eastern side, is the
Roman Catholic Mission, in the midst of an extensive farming
district. There are here about 10,000 acres of clear land,
haA'ing an excellent soil, adapted for raising stock, or growing
corn, or any other kind of produce. The climate in summer,
is warm, the thermometer ranging as high as 98° in the shade.
There is a little _Alkali in the neighbourhood; it may be seen
in small quantities in the Mission Garden, but the vegetables
do not seem injured by it. *   Some gold is found over all this
* "Alkali" is a saline efflorescence which is found in patches in many
parts of the country. It contains sulphate of soda, common salt, and carbonate of soda. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY.
region,—on the trail from Osooyos Lake, and on the streams
thai; fall on either side into the  Okanagan Lake.    Last year
there were paying diggings on Mission Creek, but the miners
have been enticed away by the more glittering prospects of
Cariboo.    There are a feAv small farms taken up in the neighbourhood of the Mission.    Arrived at the northern extremity
of the lake, the traveller comes upon a piece of ground which
has perhaps the finest soil that he has yet seen in the Colony.
This is called TSte d'Epinette, and is claimed by the Nicola
Indians, and has accordingly been reserved for their use.  Still
folloAving the Hudson's Bay Company's trail, Avhich here takes
a westerly and slightly N. direction, Ave arrive at a fine tract
of country, called the Grand Prairie, Avith excellent soil, and
clothed Avith luxuriant bunch-grass; its  extreme length 16
miles, breadth from lg to 2J miles, bounded on either side by
hills,  between Avhich flows the  Salmon River.    Admirably
adapted for a grazing station, the altitude of the district (1250
feet) acts as a diawback in causing nocturnal frosts as early as
the month of September.   The ride from the Grand Prairie to
the Thompson River is one of exceeding beauty.  A glittering
stream Aoavs merrily doAvn the valley, and by the margin the
alder and the willoAv dip their branches in the clear wafer.
On either side green meadows stretch along, studded here and
there with clumps of trees that giA-e a grateful shade through
the hot summer day, and every mile or two a small lake reflects the rocks and trees, and passing clouds on its glassy surface.    Here the farmer will find good soil, fit at once for culti-
A-ation, and Avhat renders it of greater value is the fact that the
recent discoveries of gold on the Thompson and North RiA'ers
seem to promise that this part of the country will prove extremely rich, and thus attract an abundant population for the
consumption of all the agriculturalist can produce.    From the
extremity of Okanagan Lake to the Thompson River is about
45 miles, and hence to the junction of the North River and-,
the Thompson about 16.    This latter portion of the journey
offers nothing specially Avorthy of remark.    The low grounds
still present many spots well suited for farming.
At the confluence of the North River and the Thompson
stands Fort Kamloops, the Hudson's Bay Company's Post for
the district; and having arrived at this point, Ave will pause to
notice the economic importance of the country through Avhich
we have been passing. Its value consists in this, that it is
the highway through which the mines of the north are supplied with cattle. The droves are purchased in Oregon, and
are -driven by the Dalles, Columbia River, Okanagan River,
Osooyos Lake, western shore of Okanagan Lake, Thompson GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE COUNTRY.
River, Buonaparte River, and thence to the Cariboo country. The profit obtained by persons employed in this business
is very large, as may be seen at once from the fact that beasts
purchased in Oregon at $10 per head are sold three or four
months afterwards in the north at $50 per head, and cost literally nothing for food by the way. At the same time it may
be mentioned that they by no means deteriorate during the
journey, but arrive at their destination in as good condition
as they started. The only expense is the wages and keep of
the drivers, and this is'but small, the owners themselves
being able to drive a large herd without difficulty. But this
country will be used not only as one convenient for the transit of stock, but also for cattle raising. Land taken up here
will be at once supplied with stock by the droves passing
through, and at a very moderate price. Here cattle thrive
wonderfully: and (a fact of some importance) they may
safely be left out during the winter. If besides we take into
account the many thousands of acres, capable of raising good
crops of wheat for the supply of the mines, the importance
of this beautiful district must at once be discerned.
Tlie Fort is situated a few miles from the head of Kamloops Lake, a fine sheet of water 25 miles in length. There
is a trail on both sides of the lake: that on the north bank
rough and hilly, while on the southern bank, the country
consisting of rolling prairie land, the trail is good. On the
west side, half way down the lake, are indications of a copper
mine, at a very romantic spot; thence the trail turns to the
right, leading to the upper country, which is used occasionally by the Hudson's Bay Company. On the southern side
of the lake there are some fertile valleys, where some claims
are taken up.: the rest is pasture land. A ferry will be found
at the west extremity of this noble lake, where the waters
of the Thompson leave it to resume their course to Lytton
and the Fraser, some 75 miles distant. The trail to Lytton
passes the mouth of the Nicola River, which flows into the
Thompson from the Nicola Lake, where there is, it is said, a
fine agricultural country.
Taking the trail on the right bank of the river, we descend
the basin of the Thompson, along a series of table-lands,
'"he soil is somewhat light, but the herbage is good. The
trail next crosses over into the fertile valley of the Buonaparte, whence we may either proceed northwards to the upper
country, or west towards Lillooet. ■OKia
The Rocky Mountains which may be termed the spine of
North America, run from N.W. to S.E., forming the eastern
boundary-of British Columbia. They are part of the mighty
chain which as the Andes transects South America, which crossing over into Asia, at Behring'sfitraits, may be followed as far
as Arabia, and again traced in Africa; while a branch appears
in Europe as the great Ural range. ■ The range which is composed mainly of igneous rocks, is found to contain auriferous
strata at various points of its world encircling course.
From a spur of the Rocky Mountains, rise the Fraser River,
flowing first towards the North, and the Columbia flowing
South, th|$r sources being only a few yards apart. It is
probable that the mountains of which Cariboo forms a part,
run nearly parallel to the Rocky Mountains, at a distance of
100 to 150 miles, but of these little is known.
The great Cascade Range runs almost parallel to the Rocky
Mountains, at a distance of from 250 to 300 miles. It has
ramifications in all directions, and from various points
sends down rugged mountain spurs which meeting the
sea form deep inlets*. The Cascade Mountains are composed chiefly of igneous and metamorphic rocks with dykes of
trap. In some places crystalline limestone appears in contact
Avith other rocks. There are mountains of this crystalline
limestone 2000 feet in height, as in that magnificent gorge
called the Marble Canon 30 miles N.E. of Lillooet. No trace
of fossils occurs in these rocks, which evidently belong to the
igneous series. Huge granite boulders are found along the
Fraser, but granite is not so abundant as limestone. Between
Similkameen and Lake Okanagan, one sees scattered every
here and there small rounded masses of vesicular lava; having the appearance of vitrified sponges.
The district of the lower Fraser from Harrison River to
the mouth, and from Burrard Inlet S. was, probably once an
estuary. The geological feature of this section of country
is loose friable sandstone and alluvium; this sandstone oc-
* See Dr. Forbes's Essay on Vancouver Island, page fmtm
curs in alternate layers with lignite; at Burrard Inlet 4P'iS
found to contain fossils of leaves and branches of trees.
Sandstone is found also cropping out on the Brunette near
New Westminster, such as would be excellent fbr building
To the north of Burrard Inlet, the coast is, says Dr. Forbes, "a rugged mass of plutonic trappean and quartzose rocks,
Avith associated semi-crystalline limestone" much the same,
in fact, as the Cascade Range.
The' coast is deeply indented with numerous inlets and
arms of the sea, many of which afford excellent anchorage;
" The Colony of British Columbia, "says Dr. Forbes, " has a
noble barrier for the protection of its shores. An outlying
ridge, another parallel chain of mountains cut off however by
the sea from the continent, with which in its physical geography it is connected, forms an archipelago of islands, the
chief of which is the sister Colony of Vancouver." He further adds with reference to the country round the mouth of
the Fraser, that but for the protection given by Vancouver
Island against the storms and currents on these coasts, " the
loose friable materials of that district must have been long-
since swept away, and what will eventually be a rich agricultural country lost to the industry of man."
As already observed the districts on the E. and on the W:
of the Cascade Range are vastly different. The great "divide"
between these two districts is passed on the several routes
near the Half-way-House on the way to Lillooet, and at Boston Bar on the Yale.route. The country to the W. of this
is thickly wooded, the soil is moist and loamy, vegetation is
luxuriant. Beyond the Cascade Range on the other hand
the timber is, generally speaking poor, the soil is lighter, but
the herbage is excellent. Nor is the difference in climate
less remarkable west of the Cascade Mountains, the climate
tempered by the ocean is more equable and mild, the winters
are less rigorous than on the eastern side, the summer sun
less powerful. In the northern parts again we find the features of the landscape changed. The country from Williams
Lake to Cariboo seems to resume the aspect of the lower
Fraser. Trees abound and grass is more rare. Much rain falls.
It is not easy to give satisfactory information on the very
important subject of climate. The recent origin of the colony, and the want of proper instruments for observation at
different points over the country, render our knowledge exceedingly limited. Indeed there is only one district concern-'
ing which we possess any definite information whatever, viz:
the southern corner east of the Cascade Range; for this we PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND METEOROLOGY
have the observations taken at the observatory at New Westminster by the Royal Engineers; (see appendix B.) It were
greatly to be desired that Government would cause observations to be taken at all the principal towns.
Generally speaking it is a notorious fact that to the west of
the Rocky Mountains, the climate is much more moderate
than on the eastern side.
No Arctic currents Wash these coasts similar to those which
render the winters of the countries of the Atlantic so intense.
The following data given by Dr. Forbes, apply to the
Whole of the North Pacific coast:
"The winter of 1846 was remarkably severe, the cold setting in on the 5th of January, and continuing with severity
until the middle of March, during which time the Columbia
River was frozen, the thermometer ranging 5° below Zero.
1847. Very mild throughout.
1848. The cold weather began on the 17th December, the
Columbia River froze over, but the ice broke up before New
Tear's day, the River remaining open.
1849. The cold weather set in on the 27th of November,
when the moon was at full, clear days and sharp frosty nights
■continued till the 10th of December, when the Columbia was
covered with floating ice, and snow began to fall heavily,
this continued till the 18th (7 inches of snow on the ground),
when it became mild, with S.E. winds and rain, and open
Weather continued to the end of the month."
The climate to the west of the Cascade Range is genial and
moderate, though rather humid; the summer beautiful with
some rainy days; the autumn bright and fine; the winter
frosty and rainy by turns; and the spring very wet.
The winter of 1859 was very mild, the frost came November 10th, then went away; snow in December 1860, January,
February, March were mild and damp, April and May fine
days, but a good deal of rain fell, June, July, August, and
September were very fine, October rainy, November and
December fine winter weather.
In 1861 as the appended abstract will show the maximum
'temperature at New Westminster was 84°; and the minimum 20°.
January was wet and frosty.
February very wet: rain fell on 18 days out of the 29.
March and April also wet.
May fine days, but a good deal of rain.
June, July, August, September, very fine, with a little rain.
October, fine, snow appeared upon the mountains in November, and until shortly before Christmas, the weather was ■#*?
good. A little before Christmas there was hard frost increasing in intensity till January 9th 1862, when the River froze
over opposite New Westminster, remaining so till the early
part of March. The minimum temperature was 16J° below
Zero. Such a winter has not been known in the country for
13 years.
The difference in the physical aspects of the countries on
either side the Cascades, extends as already remarked to the
climates. As a sample the last four winters at Lillooet may
be described.
In 1859 winter began on the 7th November, and continued
fill the middle of March.
In 1860 winter commenced on the 7th December, and lasted till the end of February. There were three or four days
of severe cold with wind from the N., and the thermometer
fell to Zero. There was a long spell of bright clear frosty
weather with an occasional thaw; little snow fell.
In 1861, the severest winter known for 20 years began on
the 27th of November, and may be said to have lasted till the
end of March, although the River did not break up till April
15th. The thermometer attained a minimum of 25° below
Zero. There were 10 weeks of continued frost, when the
thermometer frequently got below Zero in the evenings and
mornings. But the weather was always clear and sunny.
The snow was at one time 12 inches deep, but at other places
in this section of country there were last winter 2 feet of
snow, a depth however very unusual. Notwithstanding this,
most of the stock left to winter out and* find their own food
as best they might, survived.
The winter of 1862-3 w?s extremely mild, with the exception of two or three days in November, and ten days of severe
cold in February.
January and February are usually cold months, March
and April variable—the plains begin to be clothed with verdure. May to October, and sometimes November, fine, clear
warm weather: in the last two months the evenings are frosty.
December is cold and wintry. In summer on the other hand
the mercury sometimes shows 100° in the shade.
In this section of country little rain falls, More rain fell
in 1862 than in 1861, more again in 1861 than in 1860.
In the Okanagan district there is a great supply of rain; at
Williams Lake a sufficient quantity. At the latter place the
winters are more severe than at Lilloost, the thermometer
sometimes ranging as low as 40° below Zero; yet the weather
is clear, and without wind: and in the experience of those
accustomed to cold climates, any cold is bearable and even
enjoyable, so long as the sun conies out during the day and
the winds are still.
At Alexandria and Quesnel mouth, snow appears in the
end of November, and lies to a depth of 18 inches for three
or four months; January is the coldest, August the hottest,
June the rainiest, August, September and October the driest
months in the year.
The climate of Cariboo is severe, there the winters are long
lasting from November till the end of April; yet the weather
is usnally clear and calm, snow falls principally in January or February, sometimes to a depth of from 7 to 10 feet, so
that snow shoes are used for winter travelling.
But with the exception of Cariboo, the climate of British
Columbia is universally regarded as one of the finest in the
world. Nor can the fact of its extreme healthiness be too much
insisted on. Cases of sickness are rare, and many who suffered at home from feeble health, have here inhaled new life
from the bracing mountain breeze.
Of the resources of the country, the' most important are
the mineral, and among these first comes the noblest of
British Columbia is pre-eminently a gold country. To its
gold it owes its existence as a Colony. Only that mighty
magnet which attracts man with so potent a spell, because it
represents to him all that earth can bestow—could have drawn
a populatidn into regions so inhospitable and so remote.
But for these gold discoveries it is more than probable that
the unclaimed acres of other more attractive lands would have
been occupied by the settler, ere enterprise and endurance
forced a path through these forests, or laid bare the treasures
of these mountains.
The " colour" of gold has been found in parts of the country the most dissimilar in appearance and the most remote
from each other.    By the "colour" being found is meant, ■HBfr
that when all the earth has been "washed" or removed by
water out of the pan or basin used for the purpose, some
specks of tne heavy metal are found to remain Behind. The
"colour" then has been found on the bars and* banks of the
Fraser River and its tributaries, and in the benches which
run parallel to the Fraser. The country is almost surrounded by
auriferous mountains: gold being found on the Stickeen and
Peace Rivers to the N.; in the mountains which transect the
eastern as well as in streams flowing through the western
portions of the country.
The gold found on Fraser River and its benches is remarkably fine, and cannot be obtained without the use of quicksilver; when thus procured it is subjected to the action of
heat to remove the quicksilver, some of the latter however
still remains in it, and this kind of gold from its admixture
with the quicksilver, is called amalgam dust.
Along the whole course from Hope to beyond Alexandria,
there are certain remarkable gold-containing benches. These
benches are well described in a letter in the Times from its
"own correspondent" in British Columbia.- He says; "The
Fraser and many of its tributaries are skirted or bordered by
terraces, all of which yield gold. These terraGes, or benches
as the miners eall them, run at intervals along both sides, of
the rivers for miles in length; and they recede where the
mountains retire, for distances back into the valleys varying
from a few acres to a few miles in breadth. They are objects
of curiosity and speculation, and add much to the beauty of
the rude scenes in which they occur from the regularity and
evenness of their structure. They generally occur on both
sides of the river, and in some places are multiplied into several successive level plateaux, rising one above the other as
they recede from the bank."
The claims on the river have been mostly abandoned by
white men, the attractions of Cariboo proving more inviting:
these claims are now worked by Chinamen whose wages average $2 to §5 a day.
The further one goes up the Fraser and its tributaries, the
coarser the gold becomes. The first pioneers of the country
expected to find it so. Where, they asked themselves, as
they examined the fine gold of the lower Fraser, does this
dust come from ? It must be formed by the disintegration
of coarser gold—where then is the coarser gold, and the quartz
veins whence coarse gold comes? So those enterprising men
went up the river and its tributaries in quest of coarse gold.
This was discovered in 1859, first on the Quesnel River, and
late in 1860 followed the discovery of Cariboo.
Cariboo is unquestionably the richest part of the country
yet explored. In that region the gold is found both in the
beds of the creeks, and in their banks. The bed-rock from
which it is taken is very irregular, being "struck" sometimes
near the surface, sometimes at a depth of from 12 to 50 feet.
The bed rock itself consists of slate, which is generally of a
bluish colour, though sometimes of a yellowish white. For
the primary or igneous rocks which form the marked geological feature of the whole couutry are, in Cariboo, of a schistose or slaty character. The gold is found in the bluish clay
which is on and in the slaty bottom, sometimes as far as a
foot deep; streaks of yellowish clay are also found, which are
sometimes very rich. The gold appears to have been held
in the ridges of the slate, (which lie generally at an angle
of 45°,) as in a natural riffle. No quicksilver is used, so that
"the tiny particles are allowed to escape. But these "tailings"
will all be washed over again with quicksilver at some future
The gold of Cariboo is frequently found mixed with quartz.
Sometimes the quartz is in the centre of the specimen protected by the gold; sometimes the specimen shews only the
slightest admixture of quartz, or again it is almost all quartz
with a bright spot of gold offering a fine contrast with the
white stone. It is interesting to note the history of this combination. In order to understand it, we must go back to the
fountain-head, viz: the rocks from which this gold, with its
quartz has come. Here is an igneous metamorphic slate-rock,
one of those giants primeval, who bear the world on their
shoulders; it is in a state of intense heat, it cools: and, in
cooling, cracks: through its cracks or fissures water passes
containing silica. It deposits its silica in the rent of the fire-
rock, probably on both sides of the rent; and so the sides of
the rent or fissure are coated with quartz. Up from beneath
rushes a stream of molten gold; the fluid metal mixes and
combines with the quartz and remains in union with it, when
it cools and hardens. In process of time the rock which holds
this gold and quartz is worn away.
The gold-pieces have been scattered and subjected to various inflnenees. Where they have been driven to a distance
or subjected to the aetion of water, sand, &c. they become
rounded like many of the Cariboo specimens (e.g. Williams
Creek:) sometimes the pieces are more jagged and angular,
as if they had not been driven far, but left where they fell,
the quartz which encased them having decayed and fallen
away from about them.    Such is the Lowhee gold.
In the early part of the season of 1851, the most important 80
be carried on throughout
creek in Cariboo was Antler. This creek yielded at one time
at the lowest $10,000 a day. The writer was present when
on one claim $1000 were taken out of the sitrree-boxes, as
the result of a day's work. Later in the season Williams
Creek came into notice, and ere long wholly eclipsed Antler.
One claim, Steele's, gave on one day 387 oz. and even reached
a maximum yield of 409 oz.: the total obtained on that claim
on an area of 80 feet by 25, was a sum of £21,000. The experience of 1862 has confirmed the opinion of the great wealth
of Williams Creek, and shown it to be one of the richest
creeks in the world. In 1861 gold was found on that creek
only in 6 claims, but now the valley is taken up for 6 miles,
both in the creek and in the hill side. In 1861 the only mining was in surfacejdiggings. The mining of 1862 assumed a
new character, and shaft sinking, drifting, and tunnelling are
now vigorously prosecuted; a system of mining be it observed which unlike the former can
the entire year.
In the summer of 1862, the highest amount taken out by
any Company in 24 hours was $9050 (£1810): this was in
Cunningham's claim. The same claim averaged nearly $2000
a day during the whole season. There were 4 full shares,,
having 600 feet frontage, the claims being discovery claims,,/
and consequently larger than others. On several days 521bs.
were taken out. The Bishop of Columbia witnessed 600 oz.
taken out in one day on a claim. Adams's claim yielded to
each of its 3 partners $40,000 (£8000) dear of expenses.
In Barker's claim 8 partners realized £1400 each. It is believed that on this creek last year 155 claims paid expenses,
which would average $2000 each, making a total of $310,000,
and about an equal amount was cleared. The entire yield of
the creek for the season may accordingly be estimated at
$620,000.    The gold of this creek gives in fineness .830.
Yet the results of the season of 1862, brilliant as they were,
were in the main disappointing, for only a few, a very few,
gained any large harvest of gold: a dozen claims, it is said,
paid beyond expectation; half a dozen paid enormously. The
season, it must be remembered, was very severe and very
late. It was not till late in August that shafts were sunk;
previously provisions were so dear and scarce that nothing
could be done. After the summer season, mining operations
were carried on, in a few claims, during the winter. A new
part of the creek j below the canon,' hitherto unprospected,
was found to pay as richly as the famous claims above the
canon, and $300,000 were taken out of three claims, between
October and January 1863: in attestation of which 150 lbs. kfegftfej
of gold were brought to Lillooet on the 21st of February.
Later in the spring of 1863, Dillon's claim gave the extraordinary yield of 102 lbs. in one day, or about £4,000 sterling.
There is thus every ground for the anticipation (a general
one,)that the present year will far surpass the last, and yield
tehJ times the amount. Many claims are now in working or-
der, shafts sunk, everything ready, and the season promises
to be an early one.
A word on the other creeks.
Lowhee Creexhas paid very well: a great many claims are
taken up, and much is expected from this creek. The quality
of the gold on this creek is .920.
Lightning Creek (the colour is found all over it) has not
however yielded much this year. It is difficult to work, the
soil being loose and gravelly. The bed-rock is found from
8 to 30 feet below the surface. The prospects for next year
are excellent. One claim (Campbell's), which it cost $25,000
to open, paid over $100,000 in three months.
Antler Creek is said to have disappointed many last year, as
only some half dozen claims paid, yet in the opinion of
miners, this creek is by no means exhausted, and it is confidently expeeted that a good deal will be done on it in the
ensuing year.
Generally speaking, the maximum fineness of British Columbian gold is 940, or $19.48.15 per ounce; the minimum
$17.15.76. In the colony, however, Cariboo gold can he
bought for $16 or $16.50; a lucrative trade could thus be
done in exporting gold dust.
Nuggets of pure gold have been found weighing 5 oz., and
with an admixture of quartz weighing 16 oz. (Lowhee.)
The diggings hitherto described are more or less of a transient character. True, on Williams Creek the mining is generally expected to last for ten yeas at least- But more permanent diggings are essential to the establishment of the
Colony on a lasting basis; and such diggings have at last
been dScovered in the quartz leads, of which intelligence was
received late in the autumn of 1862. One of these, which is
situated within 10 miles of Keithley's Creek, is reported very
rich. The vein, which is 18 inches thick, is said to contain
$10 worth of gold to the pound of quartz. In the vein there
is also some galena, and a large per eentage of silver. These
mines will probably be worked this spring, and thus will he
introduced a more elaborate and more desirable system of
mining than the present. In California where most of the
surface diggings are exhausted, quartz mines are still extensively worked.    Everything seems to indicate that the Cari- asaa
boo Mountains are a continuation of the California Range,
and will prove equally rich and equally lasting.
Cariboo imperfectly as it is known—for last year but little
prospecting was done,—is thus seen to be one of the richest
gold-fields in the world. Notwithstanding, it cannot be denied, that it labours and has laboured under great disadvantages. Chief among these is the dearness of provisions.
Flour, beans, and bacon, the main articles of food at the
mines, have seldom been sold for less than $1 per ft>., generally more: in January 1863, flour was 90 cents (3s.9d.) per
lb. at Richfield.* (Only beef has been cheap at Is. to 2s.
per lb.) No doubt mines must be rich when men can afford
to pay so highly for the necessaries of life. But although
this dearness of provisions is no hardship for the rich claim-
owner, it falls heavily upon the miner on his first arrival in
that rugged country, seeing that he has yet to find and open
a claim, and is perchance provided with only a scanty purse.
Worse than all, there was a time last summer when owing to
a "great rush" of people to the mines, there was an absolute
dearth of bread. It is probable that provisions will continue
high during part of the present season.
The causes of this state of things, have chiefly been the
great distance of Cariboo, the want of roads which rendered
it necessary for everything to be packed on mules into the
mining district. These causes are however being removed,
as waggon-roads are in course of construction into the very
heart of the mines. Another cause of the dearness of provisions is assuredly to be found in the fact that all the carrying trade har hitherto been in the hands of a few men, of
narrow means and many of still narrower spirit. There is no
reason in the nature of things why flour should not be sold at
Williams Creek at ls.6d. to 2s. per lb. But this will scarcely be the ease, until the trade of the country is in bettej
hands. If however a great forwarding company were organised to convey goods through from Victoria via New Westminster and Lillooet, or by any other way which is found
practicable, the present unfortunate state of things would
come to an end, and provisions in the mines brought within
the reach of all. It is indeed scarcely likely that any such
great and beneficial scheme will be attempted, until a new
set of enterprising English capitalists come into the country.
Hitherto there has been but little capital: what little is in
Victoria appears to be frittered away in trifling land investments, rather than expended inopening up the vast resources of these mines.
Other disadvantages which Cariboo labours under are, the
shortness of the mining season and the inclemency of the
weather. The shortness of the season in which prospecting
can be undertaken, or surface diggings worked, (from June
to October) is indeed a disadvantage to the individual miner
that will probably prove ultimately beneficial to miners in
general, and the country at large. Surface or placer diggings
which could be worked all the year would be soon exhausted;
this happened in those parts of the Californian mines where
the climate wa§ temperate. In Cariboo on the other hand
the surface diggings will hold out for many years; and not
merely give as in California splendid fortunes to the few but
a competency to thousands. Meanwhile time will be given for
the country to be settled. But the operations of drifting and
tunnelling now entered upon are such as can be carried on
through the whole year; and will be no doubt, so soon as a
supply of provisions sufficient for the maintenance of a large
number of men can be carted into the mines in summer, or
taken in on sledges during winter.
The climate of Cariboo is irregul
and un genial in
?he summer season is more accurately defined as
the rainy season, and not infrequently does a storm of snow
and sleet mar the sunshine of an August day. In the matter
of climate, Van Winkle is however superior to Richfield.
Usually September and October are fine throughout the whole
of Cariboo. Yet even where the weather is least propitious,
British Columbia proves as salubrious as in those districts
where she is blest with sunnier skies; sustained by the
buoyant mountain air, the miner goes unscathed through
countless hardships, brings a keen appetite to his beans and
bacon, and rarely indeed suffers from rheumatism, although
often compelled to lie down in wet clothes from Sunday to
Saturday. Again, with all its drawbacks,. Cariboo enjoys
the advantage of having abundance'of wood for mining purposes, and numerous streams of water. The miners of Australia were often hindered from want of water, and in 1862
many came to British Columbia from New Zealand, because
there they could not mine from want of wood. It thus seems
that every gold field must have some disadvantages; but
amongst those of Cariboo, want of these necessaries cannot
be reckoned.
It were vain to attempt any computation as to the extent
and duration of the mines of Cariboo. As already remarked,
its mountains appear to belong to an auriferous range,
extending both to the north and south of Cariboo.
That the latter form part of a great gold region, is clear from
w 34
the fact that several auriferous rivers take their rise in that
section of country. About 150 miles from Cariboo rise the
Fraser and the Columbia, both gold-bearing streams. Not very
far distant are the head waters of Peace River, flowing N.W.
through the Rocky mountains. On this river gold was found
last summer, some 200 miles from its source. The gold is
described as fine in quality, like that of Fraser River. The
explorers found good diggings,—4 men taking out in 8 days
$3,300,—but their provisions being exhausted they had to
leave. It is confidently expected that a number of miners
will be at work there next season.
The Stickeen River also, on whose banks fine gold was
discovered last summer, and to which so great a "rush" of
people repaired that it was deemed necessary to create there
a new British Colony—the territory lying beyond the northern boundary line of British Columbia;—takes its rise in
the same mountains. Everything in short seems to indicate the existence of wealthy mines in and beyond the district of Cariboo, to the north.
The North River flows into the Thompson at Kamloops,
perhaps 200 miles from Cariboo, S.E., as the crow flies. This
river takes its rise in the neighbourhood of the Cariboo
mountains. It has been but slightly explored, but is believed
to be auriferous, and would doubtless repay the labour of
prospecting. It is navigable for nearly 60 miles N. of Fort
Kamloops, where it joins Kamloops Lake; and it is not impossible that one of the great roads to Cariboo may be via Fort
Kamloops and the North River. The Tranquille River flows
into Lake Kamloops out of the North, some 5 miles west of
the Fort. A considerable quantity of gold has been taken
out of this little river. The writer found a crowd of Chinamen working there in June, 1861; their wages averaged
$7-15 a day. Looking S.E. towards Okanagan, we find the
streams everywhere auriferous. And beyond from Okanagan,
at Similkameen, S.W. of the lake, and to Rock Creek on the
frontier to the S.E. we find traces of gold. Eight streams
which flow into the lake, and the two small lakes adjoining,
rive the "colour." Indeed in 1860 this country was the
and though now abandoned for Cariboo,
its wealth is very far from exhausted. In July, 1860, as
many as 200 white men were at work in these localities, and
many claims paid from $25 to $100 (£5 to £20) a day.
Nor is the gold-field confined to the eastern section of the
country; from Peace River to the Border, even to the west of
has been found; the quantity hitherto obtained on Bridge River, Lillooet, Last Chance (streams enter-
ing the Fraser on its right bank) has been small, but its
gold has been partially coarse, one piece found on Bridge
River weighing an ounce and a half.
Of the other Mineral Resources of British Columbia little
is known. The country is believed to be very rich in many
minerals. Indications have been found of Silver, Copper,
Tin, Platinum, Plumbago, Galena (Lead), Iron, Limestone,
Coal, &c. To the silver mine at Hope allusion has already
been made. Indications of rich silver leads have been found
in various parts of Cariboo. Pieces of copper ore have beeu
found at several places. Galena has been obtained at Williams Lake and elsewhere. Plumbago near the Northern
Coast, &c. Indications of iron and limestone are visible at
many places. Outcroppings of lignite or tertiary coal are
found at Alexandria, the Similkameen, and Burrard Inlet.
At the last named place a small shaft has been sunk for trial,
but the mines have never been worked. When the country
becomes thoroughly explored and prospected, the number and
value of its minerals will be found to exceed alfanticipations.
Can British Columbia support an agricultural population ?
Up to a recent date, the general notion in Europe was, that
the country from one end to the other was little better than
a "howling wilderness, wherein half-famished beasts of prey
waged eternal war with a sparse population of half-starved
savages, where the cold was more than Arctic, the dearth
more than Sahajan", and that to quote the words of the
Chancellor of the Exchequer in the House of Commons four
years ago, "these territories were bound by frost and banked
by fog, and woe betide any unfortunate individual who
might be so far diverted from the path of prudence, as to
endeavour to settle in those parts."
And a stranger on his first arrival is apt to imagine that
there is truth in this description. As he looks upon the seemingly impenetrable forests, which cover the banks'of the lower suss
Fraser, as he sees far in the distance the snow-topped peaks;
and is told that yonder mountains traverse the country in all
directions, he is not unlikely to question the existence of any
agricultural land in the Colony.
But the country round about the lower Fraser, is not by
any means the locality where farming can at present be most
successfully undertaken. Yet even here there are many broad
acres of excellent land. Behind the belts of forest there are
open spaces where grass grows luxuriantly: as already remarked, some of these lands require draining; they invite
the investment of the capitalist with a sure prospect of a rich
return, whether laid down in hay or cereals. There are thousands of acres of good prairie land on the lower Fraser well
adapted for stock-raising, which is the chief thing to be done
in farming in this district.   A farm b(
New Westminster
comprises 1,500 acres; there cattle fatten rapidly, and whatever is sown grows well. Close by, is an island with many
thousands of acres of clear land: the whole comprising 25,000
acres. There is also prairie land at Mud Bay, 10 miles S.
of New Westminster; at Pitt River 6 miles to the N., at
Fort Langley 15 miles up stream, &c.
But to reach, the best agricultural lands we must penetrate
further into the interior. They will be found scattered up
and down throughout the vast area beyond the Cascade Range.
Most of the country is occupied by arid mountain chains,
rolling hills, or high grassy table-lands. Between the mountains we find fertile and well watered valleys. The Okanagan and adjoining districts possess an extent of land capable
of supporting an agricultural population of 10,000 souls (allowing 160 acres for 9 persons.) Above this lies the country around Shushwap Lake, which is described as containing
an extensive area of arable land. The district around Kamloops Lake and the North River, is described as extending
"80 miles from S. to N, and 100 miles from E. to W.—a
pastoral country of high table-land, with abundant pasture,
free from forests, and only interspersed with timber." Adjacent lies the land around Nicola Lake, the head-quarters of
the Indian tribes: a district little known, but said to possess
great agricultural capabilities. The basin of the Thompson
River has good pasturage, and its tributary the Buonaparte
excellent arable land. The country through which the waggon-road passes to Williams Lake, must ultimately become a
valuable agricultural district. The soil is excellent, requiring little clearing, and will prove most fertile. With no more
timber than is needed for farming purposes, it has also a good
supply of water and plenty of the best of feed for stock.   The AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL RESOURCES. 37
•same remarks apply to Williams Lake, Clear Lake, Mouth of
Quesnel, and Mouth of Cottonwood. Nor is this the limit of
the agricultural district: for at Fort George 100 miles further
up the Fraser, excellent wheat is raised; and further north still
at the Hudsons' Bay Forts, barley and Aregetables are grown.
The soil is of three kinds: first—black, rich, and loamy,
consisting of decayed vegetable matter, and alluvial deposits.
This is the character of the soil by the banks of streams or
lakes, and in the bottoms of valleys, and wherever land has
been formed of deposits brought down by the streams from
the mountains.    This soil is rare.
The second kind of soil (which characterizes the basin of
the Fraser) is lighter and more sandy. Being formed by the
disintegration and decomposition of rocks (a process that may
be seen any rainy day,) it contains a great deal of lime (the
mountains being frequently limestone) and to this fact together with the strong sun, is probably to be ascribed its fertility, notwithstanding its lightness. It is found to a depth
varying from one to three feet, and beneath it, is a sub-soil
of gravel, sometimes of clay, which by the way makes excellent brick.
The third description of soil is neither so good as the first
nor so light as the second—it rather resembles ordinary land
in the mother country: such is for instance the soil around
Williams Lake, on the Brigade Trail &c.
Compared with the area of the countiy so far as it is yet
explored, the quantity of good land is small. It is indeed
chiefly to be found in valleys of greater or less breadth bounded by hills. Still, these valleys are so numerous that the
quantity of land aArailable for agricultural purposes mounts
up to not a few acres. The table-lands may also be arable, if
not too high. It is a question still to be solved, to what extent late frosts may there interfere with cultivation. Most
of the valleys however, are safe from this risk. Again it has
been thought that the presence cf alkali would obstruct the
growth of cereals; a fear likely to prove utterly chimerical.
In many places the supply of rain is inadequate, and irrigation has to be resorted to: for which purpose streams
abound everywhere. This want is it must be admitted a
drawback, but by no means a fatal one, seeing that many of
the most fertile countries in the world are watered by artificial means.
Wherever the soil has been cultivated, it has been found
highly productive, and I shall now give a few illustrations of
its capabilities. My samples are taken from farms and gardens in different parts of the country, chiefly those of Messrs. 38
Brady and Hory at Lillooet, and Mr Herring at Ne\v Westminster. At one farm oats produced 50 bushels to the acre
with 4 tons of straw, the straw being from 3 to 5 feet high.
At another oats and barley grew to the amount of 60 to 70
bushels to the acre. Wheat has not yet been extensively
tried, but fields of it at Fort Langley, on the Buonaparte, and
elsewhere have borne good crops, which promises well for its
cultivation. It is said that whereArer the service-berry is found,
AA'heat can be grown. Spring wheat would indeed require irrigation; not so, wheat sown in the autumn; receiving all
the necessary moisture from the rains of autumn and spring,
it would come quickly to maturity and yield an early harvest
in July. For some years the virgin soil would produce it
Avithout manure. Maize or Indian corn yields from 60 to 70
bushels to the acre.
The vegetables of British Columbia are unsurpassed by any
in the world. Its potatoes (thriving best on the continent of
their birth) excel those of the "Old Country". On one farm
the yield to an acre was 7 tons, on another as high as 15.
The average size of many was a pound, but there were not a
few weighing 2Jfts. each, and one or two even attained a
weight of 31bs. Turnips both Swedish and white produced
25 tons to the acre. On Brady's farm some grew to the enormous size of 201bs. Rarely I believe are they seen so large
in England. The average size on the New Westminster farm
was 7ibs. Onions produced from 4 to 6 tons to the acre.
Many weighed ljfts., a few 2fts., one (grown at the Fountain, 2ibs. loz. Cabbages weighed frequently 12 to lifts.:
at one garden a cabbage was produced weighing 25fts., this
prince of cabbages worthy to grace the table of the Titans,
AA'as disposed of to an Indian for 6 bits (3s.) Last autumn
the writer saw a beetroot lifts, in weight, 2 feet in length
and 20 inches in girth, and at another farm a carrot weighing 4fts., with 17 £ inches girth. But—not to trespass too
much on the patience of the reader—suffice it to say, that
every kind of vegetable which has been fairly tried has grown
With regard to fruits, it is worthy of note that melons grow
in the open air without manure, attaining great size and fine
flavour: tomatoes also come to full maturity when sown not
too late. The orchard at Fort Langley is a great success,
and it cannot be doubted that this is a good country for apples : orchards are in course of being planted in various localities, which may one day vie with those of California and
Oregon. That the soil is adapted for pears and cherries, the
growth of the wild cherry and wild pear sufficiently testify: AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL RESOURCES.
and probably the grape itself would ripen on the sunny Rhine-
like terraces of the Fraser.
It is not less important to state that the farmer or gardener may reckon upon a ready market for his produce. Although
the prices of farm and garden produce must fall below the
present excessively high rates as settlers increase, it will be
long before grain and vegetables cease to command a high
price. In the interior the great price of freightage acts as a
high protective duty. Hitherto all the flour used in the colony has been imported, its' present prices being at New Westminster £3 per barrel; at Lillooet °£4 per barrel, in Cariboo
£40 per barrel more or less. Barley will always be in great
demand, where so many horses and mules are employed; its
price in June 1862 was 12s. per cwt. at New Westminster;
£3 per cwt. at Lillooet—further up the waggon-road £5 per
cwt. The price of hay ranges from £6 per ton, to £20 or
even £25 per ton: according to the locality.
Prices of vegetables ATary exceedingly according to the supply, the season of the year, &c; the following are the average
prices throughout the past year.
Prices of Vegetables at New Westminster, Lillooet,
and Cariboo, in 1862.
Potatoes 6s. to 16s. per cwt.
Beans 60s.      "
Turnips 8s.      "
Onions 40s. to 80s.      "
Carrots, &c.     10s.
Cabbages Id. to lid.
Teas Is. 6d.
Corn (Indian) 3s. per doz.
per cwt.
per cAvt.
£12 to l- i
M8s.'to 20s
16s. "
|3£ to 4£        "
!20s. "
16s. "
2s.      per lb.
4s.      per doz.
For stock-raising this country is unrivalled. The grass is of
great excellence. There are" various kinds, but the best is
also the most abundant, extending over vast tracts between
the Cascade range and the Rocky Mountains. It is termed
"bunch-grass," as it grows in tuffs or bunches. In proof of
its highly nutritious character it is only necessary to mention
the fact that the common horses of the country fed on it alone
perform journeys such as a grain-fed English hack could
not, without difficulty, overtake. On one of these hardy animals 40 miles a day may be ridden without difficulty: the
expressman's daily distance is 50 miles. Pack animals too
in the upper country, although they have to carry three and
* The reader will bear in mind that throughout this Essay t
cwt. represents One hundred pounds, being the American com
putation. 03UBE   II      I    111-
even four hundred pounds over trails sometimes hilly, stony,
or marshy, are fed exclusively on this bunch-grass. Cattle
thrive wonderfully on it. A well known cattle-dealer, who
has brought in several droves from Oregon, has stated in the
British Columbian (Nov. 28th, 1861) that after two years'
experience of the country, he could say that his stock had
thriven better here than even in Oregon and California.
Cattle thrive better and increase more rapidly in British Columbia than they do in England. I shall give a single instance shewing the value of this kind of property: two years
ago a man bought a cow, for which he paid $140: that summer he made $350 by the sale of her milk and butter: now
she has three calves, each of them worth $100.
In summer the cattle need little care, and no feeding-
even in winter they have till last year been left to forage for
themselves. Yearling calves and foals, not 6 months' old,
haATe weathered the wintry blasts. But to make no provision
whatever against seATere weather is at once imprudent and
inhuman. Much is not required to be done: a log-built shed
for shelter, and six weeks' feed, would save all risks. And
the settler can easily obtain hay, grass being everywhere
For sheep the country is found to be admirably suited. It
is only a year since the experiment has been made, and it has
been attended with complete success. The Southdowns thrive
purchased at Victoria, or cheaper
Oregon. On the grass of the midland country they fatten
and increase amazingly. By a simple calculation it might be
shown that 100 ewes and 2 rams would, in the course of 5
years, supposing the produce to be one half lambs, and the
Avethers to be sold, increase to the number of 10,00. This
calculation supposes the ewes to lamb twice a year, and to
svhich is under the aver-
have twins
Sheep cost, in
time in  three,
Victoria, £2, a
rams jt
10 (Southdowns.)
The animals would cost little, summer or winter, and the
wethers being sold for mutton, the proceeds would cover the
wages of a shepherd. As mutton cost Is. to Is. 3d. per ft.
(and the sheep average 50 lbs.), it is easy to see that even
allowing a wide margin for casualties, a small fortune could
thus be realized in the course of a few years. The fleeces
might either be turned to account in the country itself, or
exported: the price of wool at San Francisco is 40 cents per
number of sheep imported in 1862 was 6,946; of cattle 5,640; of horses and mules 6,427.
The small cactus, which some have erroneously supposed AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL RESOURCES.
would prove an insuperable obstacle to the raising of sheep,
is most serviceable in the fattening of pigs. In fact these
animals require no other food ia the summer time than the
roots, grasses, and fruits which abound in the woods and
plains. They would of course require to be kept up and fed
during the winter. Pigs are a very profitable investment,
bacon being one of the great staples in the mines.
Average prices of farm yard produce in 1862: Beef Is.
per lb., Mutton Is., Butter (fresh) 4s., Milk 4s. per gallon,
Cheese 3s. per lb., Bacon Is. 5d. per lb. (in the mines 4s.),
Hens 4s. to 16s. each, Eggs, 4d. to Is. each.
These figures may seem high, but even the articles
which in a new country are counted luxuries, .such as milk,
fresh butter, eggs, people are always glad to purchase, and the
supply by no means equals the demand. At the Grange,
near Lillooet, 30 lbs. of butter were sold weekly at 6s. per
lb., and a farmer at New Westminster weekly disposes of 30
lbs. for 4s. per lb.
The conclusion as regards the agricultural aud pastoral capabilities of British Columbia then is: (1) as an agricultural
country, it never can be great, or ever vie for instance with
California or New Zealand. British Columbia is chiefly not an
agricultural but a mineral and a mountainous countiy. On
the other hand it is perfectly able to maintain an agricultural
population, and grow grain for the support of a large mining
community. There are many thousands of acres scattered up
and down even in that portion (not exceeding one third) of her
territories which has been explored. These acres enjoy great
advantages of soil and climate. So far at least as the first
settlers are concerned, their comparative scarceness is itself
in favour of the colonist: for the fewer they are the more profitable they will be. (2) As a pastoral country, on the
other hand, British Columbia has great capabilities.
Other more established Colonies, like Canada or Australia,
may present to the settler broader lands for cultivation, an
fewer hardships in the first years of his settlement, but none
offer so sure a market, or such high returns for all produce,,
whether of the garden, the field, or the farm yard. .42 NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE.
No coasts or rivers are more abundantly supplied with fish
lan those of British Columbia.   These are so numerous and
so varied that to become thoroughly acquainted with their
habits would almost involve the study of a lifetime.
Taking them in their order, the first fish that visit our
shores are the herrings that come in shoals into the harbours
in the month of Mareh. The herring caught in Burrard Inlet is small but good. There are larger and finer fish, equal
indeed to those of our own seas, in the Gulf of Georgia, were
there only skilful fishermen to catch them.
Next, in the month of April, come the famous hoolicans.
They enter the river in millions, and their presence is at once
made known by the sea-gulls which wheel above the shoals;
and dart about among them for their prey—startling the
usually still Fraser with their shrill cries. The immense
numbers of this fish are shewn by the mode in which the Indians catch them: they make an instrument about four feet
long of a piece of wood armed with a row of sharp nails on
either side like a two-edged iron comb. This they pass
through the water as they do their paddles, and in general at
each sweep two or three fish are impaled upon the nails.
le hoolican is somewhat larger than the sprat, and is a very
delicate and delicious fish; so full of oil that it is said those
caught in the north will burn like a candle. There can be
little doubt that they would make excellent Sardines: they
could be preserved in their own oil.
The salmon begin to enter the river in March, and species
after species continue to arrive until October, the successors
mixing for a time with the last of their forerunners. There
is a greater degree of certainty in periodical arrivals of each
kind in this stream than at the coast and islands. The most
valuable kind, the silver or spring salmon is sure to make his
It is impossibe to say how many species there are. During
the summer of 1861 five or six different kinds passed up the
Fraser to a greater or lesser distance from the mouth. A
considerable portion of them (chiefly those of the silver and
hook-bill species) make their way up the river to a distance
of a thousand miles—even forcing themselves up the streams
on the sides of the Rocky Mountains. With such rapidity
do they travel that they have been known to reach Lillooet
within ten days of their arrival at the mouth of the river.
Many perish on their toilsome journey: faint and weary
they will not pause nor turn back, but press onward and upward, battling still with the mighty current until at length
exhausted with the contest they are driven ashore to die.
Their grand object is to propagate their species, and an instinct impels them to deposit their spawn in the very headwaters of the stream; whereby they fulfil the design of Pro-
A'idence, supplying food on their way to thousands of human
beings in the interior.
The spring or silver salmon begins to arrive in the river
in March or early in April: it is most plentiful in June, and
by the early part of July has mostly passed up the riArer. It
is a remarkably fine fish, weighing 4 to 25 lbs.: it has been
known to reach as high as 72 lbs. The fish sent to the exhibition of 1862 weighed 40 lbs. Of those that arrive first, the
greater portion are red; the next are red and white (the flesh
of the back above the sidelines red, belly white), the last are
principally white. This fish is easily cured and stands well
at market.
The second kind arrives in June, continuing till August;
a small handsome fish, back green, belly white, flesh red,
average size 5 to 6 lb., easily cured, and brings the highest
price at market. The third coming in August, weighs on an
average 7 lbs.: also an excellent fish. Next the noan or humpback salmon, which comes CATery other year, arriving in
August and remaining until winter; size 6 lbs., seldom 14
lbs. The male has a hump or arched back and hooked upper
jaw; the back is covered with skin, the belly with small
scales. The hoan is not much esteemed when pickled, but
dried and smoked it does well.-
The fifth is the hookbill, a hideous animal, which arrives
in Septernber,'rernaining'\intil winter, when many of them return to the sea (size 12 to 15 lbs., they even attain to 45 lbs.)
the flesh is white; the female is without the extraordinary
hooked snout and teeth which characterise the male(not edible.)
The smelt arrives in the lower Fraser early in spring, and
after spawning, returns to the sea.
An excellent trout is caught in the lower Fraser, weighing
7 and 8 lbs.; a smaller one of 3 or 5 lbs. abounds in its tributaries. Twenty mountain trout were recently caught in a
stream near Hope, whose aggregate weight was 146 fts: two 44  NATURAL PRODUCTIONS^—ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE".
of them weighed lifts, a piece. Trout of various species are
found in most of the lakes, rivers, and streams of the country;
Nor is the Royal fish wrnting in these waters.
The sturgeon abounds in the rivers and lakes throughout
the year: he has been found as far up as Eraser's Lake, and
near the Rocky Mountains. In winter he retires to the bottom in deep water, and sometimes goes out to sea to return in
attain a size ranging from 100 to 5001bs.
The female is- the larger—as she lies in the deep
Avater sue is-rarely caught: hence the comparative rarity of
caviare, Avhich is made from her roe. A female sturgeon contains great quantities. From one killed in the Fraser recently
a bushel was taken. The flesh also of the sturgeon is by some
considered good Avhen properly cooked.
It is believed that there are extensive cod-banks in the Gulf
of Georgia. In the northern seas whales and seals abound.
Indeed the extent and variety of the fisheries of British Columbia are immense.
Oysters abound in Burrard Inlet, good but small—they only
require a little care—transplantation, feeding, to equal those
for which Britain lias so long been famous.
It is evident that in these fisheries British Columbia possesses
a source of immense wealth. Her countless salmon (to speak
of them alone) must form one day a very important article of
export. Unfortunately no one has as yet taken up this branch
of trade.    Here, as elseAvhere, it is capital that foils."
The process of curing is a work of care and time. But thero
must come ere long to these shores men of practical knoAvledge
and capital sufficient to give this business a start, and there is
no fear that a market will be Avanting. In California there is
a good market, for her oaati rivers do not supply all the salmon she needs: so too eventually no doubt the Colony will be
able to export its fish to the Sandwich Islands, Australia, and
Ne.Av Zealand, perhaps even to England.
The fur-bearing animals haA'e already been incidentally
mentioned. Tbe country is rich in these. To sheAv how largo
a trade the Hudson's Bay Company still carries on it need onfv
be mentioned that £50,000 worth of furs Avere taken out of
the country last year. With their organization no individual
or company could successfully compete, although many silver-
grey foxes are obtained from Indians, Avho receive for them
apiece—the value in England of a good skin
from £2 to £3
being from £20 to £30.
In this country there is an ample field for the adventurous
sportsman.    There is an abundance of bears: grizly, black, and
broAvn, the last being bv far the
most common.
however these animals must be sought; they are usually as
anxious to shim the peaceful colonist as he them. Only she-
bears with their cubs arc known to attack spontaneously the
■passing traveller. There are also large quantities of deer and
mountain sheep: tl*e latter dwell in the almost inaccessible
strongholds of the mountains. The deer are stalked by the
Indians in the winter, and many are slain. In the winter of
1861, when the stock of beef was exhausted in the upper
country towns, the Indians supplied its place with venison.
But that food, so highly prized at the tables of the great, Avas
soon found to pall upon the appetite, and another illustration
was given of the truth that; man's most common blessings are
after all the best.
The panthers, wolves, &c, usually keep far from the haunts
of men. There is a wild dog, called a Cayote, with curled-up
tail, sharp nose, and pointed ears; a cowardly cur, which is
hoAvever available for sledging, as a couple of them will draw
•250 lbs, a distance of20 miles in 2 hours.
The lakes and marshes in some localities teem Avith water-
foAvl: duck of various kinds, snipe, teal, widgeon, geese, SAvans;
the woods have pheasants, grouse, partridges, and prairie-
chickens. In some places these are numerous, and often furnish a meal to the wayfaring miner, who shoots the unsuspecting -creature with his revolver, or knocks him over with a stone.
The fblloAving are a few of the other principal birds: eagle,
sparrow-haAvk. mosquito-hawk, owl, wood-pecker, hummingbird, king-fisher, swallow, robin, raven, crow, pigeon, p!oArer,
crane, magpie, thrush, jay, blue-bird, &c.
A peculiar kind of hare or rabbit is found on the Buonaparte
and elsewhere. Squirrels abound of various kinds. The rats
and mice display often an ingenuity Avhich does not characterise those vermin at home. One species of rat has a great
bushy tail like a squirrel.
Snakes are rarely met with: a peculiarity of the country is
the utfer absence of Avorms.
In the insect kingdom we have" varieties of splendid butterflies, dragon-flies and beetles, Avhich would be dearly prized
by the naturalist. Of interest to a^ll (but by no means a plea -
sant .interest) are the varieties of venomous insects, mosquitoes,
sand-flies, blaek-fiies, and horse-flies. These have been and
still are a real plague in many parts of the country. Fortunately smoke is driving them from the tOAvns, but not till the
lands are cleared and ploughed, Ayill these troublesome insects
wholly disappear.
In the vegetable kingdom two things specially demand notice, the trees and the berries.    The timber of British Colum-
M m
bia like that of Vancouver Island is unsurpassed by any in the
world. Chief among the trees, and monarch of the woods,
rises the Douglas Pine, a tree peculiar to the Pacific coast,
round, massive, straight like a majestic column, it towers far
above the surrounding forest. This tree sometimes attains the
enormous height of 300 feet, with 10 feet of diameter at the base.
Sections of a Douglas Pine 309 feet in height, cut at Ne\v
Westminster, have been sent to the Exhibition of 1862, which
Avill make known more eloquently than words can do, the forest wealth of British Columbia.
Already a trade in this wood is springing up between Vancouver Island and the SandAvich Islands, the South American
coast and Australia. Dr. Forbes in his Essay on Vancouver
Island states that " the French, Sardinian, and Dutch Governments haAre been supplied with masts and spars, by a company
Avhich has established Sawmills &c. at the head of the Alberni
Canal in Barclay Sound, V. I. In the English Merchant Service, they have been largely used, and have given great satisfaction, being usually considered the finest masts ever imported."
He adds "the extraordinary size, straightness and uniform
thickness of the trees, their strength and flexibility, the regularity and beauty of their grain, their durability, freeness from
knots and sap-wood, place them almost beyond competition in
point of quality, and especially fit them for the masting of large
vessels."    ( See Appendix E.)
The White Pine is another valuable wood, clear, smooth and
easily Avorked, it is AVell adapted for finishing purposes. The
White Pine of NeAv Westminster is not of so fine a quality, but
that which grows at Douglas is superior to any on the Pacific
coast. Thus in these two Avoods, the Douglas Pine and the
White Pine, the Colony possesses two invaluable sources of
supply, the hard wood adapted for masts of vessels, for rafters of
houses and other heavy Avork, the softer wood unrivalled for all
Avork of a finer description, sueh as the internal furnishings
of a house, &c.
Among the other pines may be mentioned the Balsam, Hemlock, Black spruce; Scotch Sr; all valuable trees.
The Cedar attains even greater dimensions than the Pine.
The author measured one at Douglas in 1860, which was 33
feet in girth some 4 feet from the base. Tbis wood is very
useful ior domestic purposes: easily chopped, it makes a bright
and warm fire. From this tree it is that shingles (the slates
of wood built houses) are made.
Of the deciduous trees the following are some of the principal : Maple, Hazel, Cottonwood, Alder, Dogwood, Cherry, Indian Pear tree, and Crab-apple. NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE
Wild fruits grow in great profusion.  The variety and num
ber of its berries constitute a marked feature of the country.
These form a staple of lie food of the .natives, who dry them
for winter use. They are vastly superior to the wild fruits of
Europe, often attaining a size and a flavour such as only cultivation can impart in England.
The service berry is twice as large as a ripe black currant;
it grows in profusion, everywhere beyond the Cascade Range.
The other principal berries are the sallal, the hucHe-berry
or blue-berry, the wortle-berrv, the salmon-berry, the raspberry, strawberry, Oregon grape, gooseberry and currant: delicious fruits, whieh make excellent preserves. The best berry
for preserves is however the cran-berry, which grows in swampy
places. Picked in the proper season (towards the end of September) cran-berries Avill keep well for more than a year, by
being simply put into a water-tight cask,' filled with water.
There are great quantities near the mouth of the Fraser: and
this fruit already forms an article of export. 250 casks (each
containing 30 gallons) having been exported in 1861, from
New Westminster to San Francisco.
The country is rich in roots, which form another chief article of Indian consumption. Some of them possess important
medicinal properties.
Both hemp and flax grow in this country wild, a fact which
promises well for their cultivation.
Many shrubs and beautiful flowers grow wild, which are
much prized in England, such as the honeysuckle, arbutus,
myrtle, seringa, hawthorn, rhododendron, wild rose, a species
of lily of the valley, calceolaria, &e.
Often 'the wanderer through the unpeopled waste is cheered
by the sight of a geranium, or it may chanee a daisy or some
well known flower looking up to him from its grassy bed with
a kind of mysterious sympathy, and recalling to him the verdant plains and flowery gardens of his own dear land. nam
A Colony possessed of such resources cannot fail to become
a commercial country o^. importance. At present gold is her
sole export of importance, besides the furs of the Hudson Bay
Company. But when her mineral resources are developed,,
sheswill expert largely various ores, gold, silver, copper, lead,
possibly too iron and eeal. Her agricultural resources will with
difficulty^maintain herself, but her "pasture-lands may supply
hides and fleeces for export. Fdrner natural productionsth^ce;
is a demand all over the Pacific. For preserved fish a market
in^y be found in Chili, Peru, &c, for dried or salted fish in
China and Japan ; probably also in New Zealand and Australia. Oils, isinglass, caviare, &c, may also form articles of export. The splendid timber of this Colony and Vancouver
.Island, alsS'promises for both Colonies a commercial future.
Spars may be exported to England and France, timber to South
America^Shina and Persia, countries where wood is scarce.
Potash or pearl-glass, turpentine, &c, may also become artfcles-
of export. Ice may be shipped to India, Australia, and the
islands of the Pacific.
Irmay be long' before British Columbia will accomplish
much in manufactures, excepting for the partial supply of her
ewn necessities. But as she will probably be found to have
better coal-fields, and more numerous harbours than are now
known, there is no reason why Avith a large population
she may not ultimately become important also as a manufacturing country. Meanwhile her active little neighbour, Vancouver Island will probably far outstrip her in this respect.*
For the goods she manufactures her mighty sister will furnish
her with varieties of raw material, and then become a purchaser of the articles she manufactures.
As regards imports, these are steadily increasing; those of
1862 shewing an increase of 98 per cent on those of 1861.
The latest published list will be found in the Appendix F.
* For a valuable sketch of the manufacturing prospects of.;.Van-
couver Island, the reader is referred to Dr. Raitray's interesting-
treatise on Vancouver Island and British Columbia, (SmitnTElder.
& Co., 1862,) chapter VI.
The large bulk of the imports consists of articles of consump-
Ktfon, which will probably ere long be raised in the Colony
itself, e. g. flour, bacon, beans, &c.
It Avill be noticed that the value of goods importe&siiL Vancouver Island for the last year is £102,650, Avhereas those imported from the United States direct amounts only to £157,568.
The transfer of goods by Victoria causes a great additional
expense and loss of time which might be avoided if these goods
came direct. There is hoAvever nothing to prevent British
Columbian merchants receiving their goods from San Francisco, New York, and England. The ideatthat Fraser River
cannot be entered except by the smallest class of vessels is noAv
happily exploded. The statement of Captain Richards, R.N.,
contacting the nautical opinion upon the subject is of the
highest importance, (vide Appendix A.) Many vessels have
with ordinary care successfully passed and repassed the so-
called bar at the mouth of the Fraser. A prejudice, itjh-said. ;
exists, or has existed, hi England against this river *in consequence of which shippers .wishing to insure direct to New
Westminster may be required to pay an add^onal premium.
But Captain Richards's st^|ement .shews such a prejudice to be
unfounded, and that Avith vessels of 1500 to 2000 tons, draAV- .
ing from 18 to 20 feet, the risk would not be increased by
their coming direct to NeAv Westminster.
The great obstacle to direct importation is not the navigation, but the want of capital, among the merchants of British
There are not in the Colony merchants able to charter ships
inregular succession. When opportunity offers they combings
and^harter an isolated ship from San Francisco; for instance
in May 1862, a ship brought a large cargo of flourjand barley
from San Francisco to New Westminister direct: the freightage was $2g per toitpwhile the freightage from Victoria alone
wo'ald have been $3 per ton. Doubtless as the Colony advances, and capitalists resort to it, and the increasing demand requires increased supplies, merchants Avill settle there, and have
their goods consigned to New Westminster and brought^thither
by a regular line of ships.
\f. A table of the duties collected at New Westminster, will be
found in the Appendix.* Every article imported is taxed,
with.£he exception of fresh meat, fresh? vegetables, fresh fr»i%*
coin, baggage of passengers, Government Stores, salt, and books;
a further duty of \ cent per lb., is levied on all goods leaA'ing
Douglas,. Hope and Yale. The Tonnagei^ues amount to 12s.
per ton on all goods leaving New Westminster.
* Appendix G. 50
The" HSrbour Dues on entering and on clearing are 3d. per
ton register for sailing vessels; for steam-ships 2d. per ton register.*
A personal tax of 4s. is levied on all persons entering the
Colony, for the relief of the sick.
The Revenue of the Colony up to last year Avill also be found
in the Appendix.-)-
j- The Revenue of 1862 falls not far short of £120,000.   This
V\is a large revenue for so small a population, but in truth the
^.' taxes are little felt, being lost sight of in the high prices pai
l^T 1wj&.r g00^8 hi the upper country.    It is a healthy sign that the
^ jft/'^nagisterial districts are self supporting, the receipts at the different towns (from sale of land, of miners' licenses, recording
Thus the entire
claims, &c.,) fully covering the expenditure.
revermej':with the exception of the salaries of Officials at New
Westminster, can be expended on improving and developing
the country. The great means of improvement is manifestly
the construction of roads; and accordingly to this object the
largest proportion of the revenue is devoted. And not "without
result. By the end of the present year the colony will probably possess two good Avaggon-roads into the heart of the mines.
Whatever grumblers may say, this is do mean achievement for
the Government of so young a Colony. Five or six hundred
miles of road through the roughest country under heaven—
why there are parts of civilised Europe (such as Spain ) without waggon-roads to this day. Yet the revenue is bv no
means adequate to the wants of the Colony. Public works of
essenthfl*utility ate in abeyance, for want of means. There is
no Gold Escort from the mines. At least two-thirds of the
country is unknown, because unexplored. With the exception of the main routJ&'-Kttle of it is surveyed. No bridge yet
spans the Fraser either at Lillooet or Yale. The Douglas Lillooet road is in poor repair. The Cariboo district requires to
be intersected with roads. The majl service is defective and
irregular both on the ocean, and within the Colony itself. For
these and many other public requirements essential to progress
money ©needed.. In a Avord Ave need a loan from England..
It is said that the Governor has applied for a loan of £80,000t 1
Heartily is it to be desired that no obstacle or delay may oc-rf
cur in obtaining it: for such a sum judiciously expended would
prove an incalculable bcten.
It is thought by many that the revenue might be advantageously increased without detriment to the interests of the
community at large, by substituting for some portion of the
import duty, an export duty on gold.   If a duty of, say 2s. an
* Appendix Efe
^punCe^were imposed, a handsome addition'would be made to
the revenue, even alloAving for the expenses of collecting it.
Nor Avould th& tax be in any way unjust to the miners, who
might Aveli be called upon to contribute to the developement of
the country, a fraction of the wealth it gives them. Further
it is argued, such a tax would touch onljNhe sut?@essful men
Avho could well bear it.
Others howeArer are of opinion that such a duty could not
be collected without difBculty*and expense, and that for the
present things had better be permitted to remain' in statu quo.
•*The affairs of the Colony are administered by a Governor,
who, with the Colonial Secretary, usually residesin Victoria.'
In New Westminster the other Heads of Departnxehts reside^'
A'iz: the Chief Commissioner of Lands and'Works^'the J'tMg*e,
the Treasurer, the Attorney General, the Collector of Customs, the Chief Inspector of Police, the Postmaster General,
the Registrar General. The Treasurems'also Master of the
Mint, his staff consisting of a Chief Assayer and Chief Mel-
ter, with their Assistants. I
The country is divided into districts, each of which is under the care of a Resident Stipendiary MagRfcrate;   these
districts are as fdl'low:   New Westminster, Douglas, Yale,
Lytton, Hope,  Similkameen, Lillooet, and  Cariboo.
Magistrates also discharge the duties of AssWtaht Gold Commissioners, County Court Judges, Assistant Commissioners
of Lands and Works—in a word they are General Agents of
the GoA^erhment.  New Westminster is the only incorporated
town.     Its Town  O^Shcil is   composed  of nine members*
elected annually.    The improvements which this body have
effected in the 'short period of their administration would
seem to indicate that the same privilege might with advatfg
tage be conferred upon the other towns.
-ThJemanner in which the Government is carried ori,i^fd'
the laws administered, gives general satisfaction.   So long as (fc;-*■
the Colony progresses, and its new necessities are met by new
^enactments, the colonists (with the exception of an uninflu-
ential clique at New Westminster) are satisfied; they have hot
ithe wish, as in the present circumstances they would not
have the time, to legislate for themselves.    Yet, although
British Columbia has flourished under her present Governor,
it is evident that her interests can never receive that exclu-
- sive attention which is essential to her rapid developement,
.so long as His Excellency has also charge of the neighbouring Colony of Vancouver Island, and resides there.
The white population of the whole Colony in the summer
of 1862 probably did not exceed 7,000: in the Avinter it fell
to 8,000..-*
In the autumn most of the miners left to winter in Victoria or San Francisco. Such will continue to be their practice
until winter-labouiyit the mines and elsewhere becomes more
The Chinamen number about 2,500. A peaceable and industrious class, they have hitherto as consumers proved a
benefit, and fortunately their numbers are not increasing.
The colonial population is very varied, comprising men
from all the nations of the earth, and from many grades of
society. Until recently the Americans have had the ascendancy in point of numbers: but the immigration of 1862k,
from England and the Colonies,"has turned the scale: and
now the British Subjects decidedly preponderate. As in all
new communities, the character of the population is somewhat rough. A sprinkling of the refuse of society may be
found amongst them; but the majority are respectable and
well conducted. The amount of crime committed in the
Colony is wonderfully small. A list of the commitments at
Jbhe House of Correction at New Westminster is given in the
Appendix.* It will be seen that the total number of commitments at this, the principal prison of the Colony, during
a period of 19 months, only amounted to 164, and of these
81 were discharged, while of the 83 left, a number were only
cases of drunkenness. Another table will shew the character
of the crimes committed in the course of a year, the punishments awarded, and the nationalities of the several criminals:
from all which we can draw but one conclusion, viz: that our
calendar of crime is singularly light. That so large a number of
men, many ofwhom have previously dwelt in lands where scenes
of license and bloodshed were daily witnessed, and where the
law was often set at defiance because the criminal could buy
himself off from Justice, should conduct themselves so peace-
* Appendix K. Political and social aspects?
I ably is a matter of wonder and of thankfulness. This Happy
state of things is to be ascribed, under God, to the purrcy sShd
impartiality with which Justice is administered, and to the
wholesome sense entertained by all of the majesty and inflexibility of the English Law.
But the existence of certain grave social evils is not to be
f. denied: such is the degrading concubinage with native women, ajjyice which is happily on the decrease. Gambling,
that curse of minkig communities, has been hitherto largely
^ practised at the mines.
It is earnestly to be desired that the Magistrates of Cariboo will soon be in a position to put a stop to the practice of
that debasing vice. There is no doubt that the thing can be
done, for the large body of the miners themselves are opposed
to it, and will readily assist the efforts of the Magistrates.
These social evils will, let us hope, be crushed in their infan^
ey; nor can one fail to mark already various signs of improve-
ment in general society, among which not^hhe least is the arrival of more families in the Colony. Dissevered from the
softening influence of women, men generally become more or
less rough: Often Religion itself does -not seem permitted
to effect the needed reformation without'this instrumentality
To many men the Son of Mary still revears Himself through
Avoman,.and through her puts forth His healing and civilizing grace. The recent increase of families is therefore a
matter for congratulation. At New Westminster there is a
small and choice society; at the other towns there are the
germs of society in the presence of a few families; and even
beyond the towns we find occasionally a family " squatted"
in the wilderness, where ladies (with young children too) are
braving the toils and hardships of the "bush"—toils and
hardships which seen from a distance appear high as mountains, yet when approached in a strong and courageous spirit
become more easy and endurable.
The religious wants of the community are not negleeteq.
The Church of England, with a Bishopric founded in 1859,
by the illustrious munificence of an English lady, has taken
root in the land. The Bishop resides in Victoria, Vancouver
Island, which' for the present forms part of his Diocese, but
already during his brief episcopate, he has travelled throughout most of his vast Diocese and penetrated into the heart of
the mines., The Archdeacon resides at New Westminster.
Churches have been erected at New Westminster, Hope,
Douglas, and Lillooet, whilelthe ministrations of the Church
are carried "by a series of itinerary services throughout the
mining  district  of Cariboo.     Trie  Church  of Rome  has 64
Churches at New Westminster and Okanagan. Its Minjgtersjj
however devote themselves chiefly to the Missionary work
amongst the Aborigines. For half a century the Roman
Catholics have been amongst the Indians: their sphere of labour is now confined to the lower Fraser, and the Okanagan
district. The Wesleyans have Churches at New Westminster
and Yale, and the Presbyterians have now regular services at
New Westminster. In all the settled towns of the country
Sunday is admirably kept.
Families meditating emigration to British Columbia will
not unnaturally inquire what provision there is for the education of their children. Now it must be confessed that the
subject of education has not as yet received much attention.
This is owing to the very limited number of children in the
Colony. New Westminster is the only exception: there, at
the R.E. Camp, e%itiguous to the town, is a good Military
School, attended by a large number of children, and efficiently conducted. In the towns in the interior the necessity for
schools does not yet exist. There can however be no doubt
that so soon as twenty children are settled in a town provision will be made^for their education. As for boys and girls
^beyond the yearajpf childhood, they must for the present be
left at Victoria, where there are excellent schools: let the
reader refer to the Collegiate School ably conducted by the
Rev. C. J. Woods.
For a long time the want of suitable accommodation for
the sick was sorely felt. Now however, thanks to the energetic movement made by New Westminster, seconded by the
liberality of the colonists, a large and handsome Hospital, situated on a commanding site, has arisen in the capital, where
the sick and infirm of any nation, colour, or creed are admitted, and attended with care and skill.
Thus, one by one, the institutions of the Mother Country
transplanted here take root, being destined one day to cover
the land. Her Religion, her Laws, her Charitable Institutions, we have already. Her Education will follow soon, soon
too the Home life of the old country will characterize the
new.. Nor, may we be sure, shall the political life be wanting, or Representative Institutions be withheld, whenever,
by an unanimous expression of its Avish to possess them, the
community gives evidence of its capacity to use them.
Utti?- ■' w-
It is not the object of the Avriter of this Essay either to induce or check emigration to the Colony whose advantages and
hardships alike he is endeavouring to portray. If any persons
unfit to encounter the difficulties of a new country, are so far
led astray by hopes of wealth, as to emigrate to these shores,
they will have only themselves to thank for their folly. The
classes of emigrants that the Colony needs are capitalists and
labourers; yet even the latter should not come without means
to maintain themselves for a time, in case of not immediately
procuring work.
For want of men of capital the Colony is hindered in its de-
velopement: to such it presents strong attractions. It is a common saying that- money makes money: the remark especially
applies to neAV countries, most of all to the neAvest. In British
Columbia at its present stage, a man possessed of some capital
may within a period of say 5 years realize a competency; while
the larger capitalist may multiply his means a hundred fold.
To enumerate within the limits of a publication like this, all
the varied fields of enterprire here opening up, would be impossible. A few however may be hinted at: a man with means
may for instance go to Cariboo and purchase a share in a mining claim. Miners often dispose of claims which promise
well for a comparatively small sum in cash. There have been
cases where a claim has yielded the day after its purchase gold
enough to reimburse the outlay. Such cases are exceptional.
Not every one lights on a pocket of gold; one claim costing
little or nothing yields a fortune: another for which a large
sum is paid, yields little or nothing. Mining, like life, is a lottery, (as in our ignorance we say,) whereof the blanks are
many, and the prizes few. All that I can say is, at Cariboo
the "chances'' are good.
Again the man of capital may hire men to prospect in new
and unexplored parts of the country, and share the profits of
their discoveries. Capital can open mines of silver, copper, &c.
Or take trade. At present there are many traders, few merchants.
Goods on their way to Cariboo, pass through many hands,
and at each transfer the price swells, until it attains large pro- EMIGRATION.
portions.    Merchants possessed of capital sufficient to establish
their own line of communication between the port of entry ancr
Cariboo, would, while reducing the present high rate of provisions, and thus conferring a boon on the whole population, soon^
realize a large fortune.,"
An easy but inglorious way to wealth open to one possessed
of some means, is by lendingmoney. At some peaces 5 per
cent a month is the ordinary rate of interest. But there are
tways of investing which do not savour so strongly of usury.
Take for instance the timber trade. Lumber may be squared
for transportation. A good trade in squared lumber will ere
long spring up Avith Australia, and also Avith China. There
are many in the Catony who understand the squaring business,
especially New Brunswickers and Canadians. Again, much
may be done as regards the fish AA*hich abound—Herring, Salmon, Cod, for which a ready market Avould be found in the
Colony itself, at San Francisco, the Sandwich Islands, ■&c.
Should such projects he beyond the^capacities of the immigrant, he may turn to othewwiings, for^mstance he may erect
a saw-mill or a flour mill. Tbe price^raTumber'at present is,
at New Westminster £3 8s. ( dressed £7) at Lillooet £10 and
atWilliams CreeF?B25;^- 1000 feet.
A reference to the chapter on agriculture, will show how
profitable are |JH3hing and stock raising. For the latter the
pasture-lands are free to all, and for farming liberal allowance
of land is made; 160 acres almost given away (so small is the
price) to each bona fide settler, beingsa British subject, or an
alien Avho has taken the oath of allegiance. For particulars
the reader is referrecrto the Pre-emption Act given" in the
A free grant of land is made to retired Officers of the Army
and Navy. Particulars respecting this peculiar (but substantial) reAvard of valour Avill be found in the Appendix.f
Besides tbe men of capital, the class of men for British Columbia are the men of muscle.   For miners, labourers, artisans,
there is an opening; yet even they require in most cases some«
means to begin upon.
What openings there are for the miner, the account already
given of the mines will amply show. Cariboo has already
made a feAV affluent, many well off. Now be' it remembered,
any man can be a miner, Avho is gifted Avith pluck, strength,
and a good constitution. True the novice does not know AA'here
to look for the gold; he must therefore ally himself with an
experienced miner: a good partner is half the battle.
There are many discouragements in mining life, and a man's
* Appendix L.
■j- Appendix M.
w\w%#mmnm' EMIGRATION.
fortitude and patience are often sorely tried, especially at Cariboo,'—what with bad weather, poor food, and sometimes sAvarms
of mosquitoes buzzrhg about him as he Avorks. But he who
.means to succeed must set all those things at defiance; keep a
good heart, and not be cast down by hardships or disappointments. I Avould also recommend him if he hopes to be successful, to have«apthing to do Avith the>bad liquors, which are
frequ|jntly sold mete, the ruin 'alas of many. To take the
trouble of going to Cariboo, to undergo all the hardships of
mining life, and then to'-'spoil everything by drink would be
indeed a pity.
Ng»miner in search of a claim need be in Cariboo before
June: a man may indeed find work earlier by hiring himself
out, as yet the deniand for hired labour is limited: as claims
are opened there Avill be a larger demand for labour. The
proprietor oi»a waiin must be on the ground by the first of
June, ohhenvise his claim is "jumpable" i. 6. may be jumped on, and taken possession of by others; such is now the
law, but as. soon as, provisions are abundant at the mines,
claims will no longer Be laid over during winter: the owner
or his representative will then have^o remain on his claim
all the year round.
It is possible that the miner, even if he should not arrive
too eariy, may not succeed at once in finding a claim. Perhaps his means become exhausted, what then is. he to do?
First He will naturallyJffy to hire himself out hi the mines.
Nor if he is a man of sfrfse will he be too proucuto work for
another man. He who .is not willing to take any honest employment that offers'bread and wages, ts quite unfit for the
work of this Colony. Such an one had better remain at home
or emigrate elsewhere.
If unsuccessful at the diggings, the miner is not left without a resource; he can work on the public roads, or engage
in farm labour, or ply his own trade in any of the tOAvns.
There was indeed a time last year, when men wanted work
.and could not obtain it. But it is very unlikely that such a
combination of misfortunes as the country then suffered from
will occur again.
There are a few berths open for carpenters, axemen, blacksmiths and labourers. Tbe present wages are,—carpenters 12s.
a day at New Westminster, 20s. a day in the central towns,
in Cariboo 60s., blacksmiths 20s. to 40s. a day in the season,
axemen 10s. to 16s. a day at Lillooet, 40s. to 60s. in Cariboo. The wages of ordinary labourers vary, ranging from
12s. a day to 16s.: at the mines 40s. Where there is work,
men will have high wages.   The wages received on the pub- sB
lie roads last summer were £6 a month and board: for farm
labour at present £10 and board, in the central districts.
Wages are smaller at New Westminster, and living cheaper.
The latest prices of provisions at New Westminster, Lillooet and Cariboo, will be found in the Appendix.*
At present living costs af, New Westminster 3s., at Lillooet 4s., in Cariboo 20s. a day; or if one boards at an hotel, at
New Westminster £2 a week, at Lillooet £z, in Cariboo £6 :
or for single meals at an hotel oaetpays at New Westminster
4s., at Williams Lake 6s., at Williams Creek 10s., but in
Cariboo the cost of living will it is expected be less before long.
The demand for labour is comparatively small because there
is not as yet sufficient capital to employ a very large number
of labourers. When it is brought, the field of labour will be
seen to be unbounded. The number of situations is increasing every month. But it were best that no great 'rush' of
emigrants took place. Let the country be peopled little by
little. A new colony is like a child. Feed the infant-
state with crowds of emigrants, and it will reject the indigestible mass, but let the wholesome food be administered by
degrees, and so become absorbed into the social system, then
the state will thrive and grow.
Capitalists then are wanted, and in limited numbers, labourers. To other classes the country in its present stage
offers no inducements. There are as yet no large towns with
numerous situations for clerks, bookeepers &c, going a begging, consequently such a class of young men are out of their
element here, and will not readily find employment in their
own business. Hard bodily work is the chief labour to be
done, which few can undertake, who have not been brought
up to it: to this there are however exceptions.
To a certain class of tourists British Columbia offers a
field. True the distance, the expense and length of the voyage, are such as to place it beyond the reach of most: but the
nobleman or gentleman, who can command sufficient means
and leisure, might well exchange for a time the beaten tracks
of European travel, for a tour of exploration and adventure,
where the world assumes a new and to some minds not unattractive phase. To the observant traveller nothing could be
more instructive, than to witness the beginnings of a noble
Colony. In the magnificent scenery of British Columbia
the lover of nature would see much that would remind him
of Switzerland and the Rhine. The naturalist and botanist
would find hundreds of specimens not known in Europe.
The geologist would witness a panorama to which the old
mvm Emigration.
j world presents no parallel. The sportsman would find abundance of adventure, and game of all kinds. While for general tourists the novelty of roughing it in the bush, would
possess singular charms.
Having thus far spoken of the inducements which the
Colony offers to emigrants, the next thing is to show how a
man may reach it.
There are three principal routes to British Columbia from
England: one by the West India steam packets and Panama;
another by New York and Panama, and a third by sailing
vessels round Cape Horn. The first two routes are the shortest and most expensive. The fares by the West India steamers and Panama are as follows, (provisions included): Southampton to Victoria, first class £75 10s., second class £59,
third class £45 5s.
The Company give through tickets to Victoria, which also
cover the Railway fare across the Isthmus. The steamers
leave Southampton on the 2nd and 17th of each month; the
steamer leaving on the 17th is to be preferred, as there is
less risk of being delayed at Panama. By this route the
voyage takes about six weeks: three weeks to the Isthmus,
and about three weeks more for the voyage up the N. American coast. The safest time to cross the Isthmus is winter
or spring.
The journey by New York may be performed somewhat
more economically. There are I believe screw steamers from
Liverpool to New York, with fares as low as £12 for the
voyage.    The following will then be the fares by this route.
Cabin.   Steerage.
Liverpool to New York,   £26 £12
New York to San Francisco,      50 30
San Francisco to Victoria,         10 5
Total ...  £86 £47
Every miner should have £20 in his pocket on arriving at
Victoria, which is over 500 miles from Cariboo.
The great objection to these routes is the risk of being detained for some days at Panama and San Francisco, through
the overcrowding and inconvenience of the American steamers from the Isthmus. This evil would be obviated, and the
expense lessened, were an English Company to put a line of
steamers on the Pacific side to run from Panama to Victoria
direct. Indeed such a project is talked of, and may soon be
carried out. It is calculated that by placing a line of screw
steamers on the lines from England to the Isthmus of Panama, and from Panama to Victoria, the fare might be brought
as low as £20. 60
With regard to the route round Cape Horn the fares ar^Jfc
£50 for the cabin, and by some ships as low as £20 for the
steerage.    The voyage takes five months, but a steamer or
even a good clipper ship can make ikin about 100 days.
There is an overland route from Canada across the Rocky '
Mountains. The last expedition which entered the country
by this route reached Cariboo late last autumn. The party
which consisted of 150 men accomplished the journey from
Lake Superior to Cariboo in five months. They do not encourage others to follow their example. The hardships encountered, the risks of Indian attack, the toils of the road
from Edmonton to the Rocky Mountains, (where the men
had to cut their own trail through very marshy ground) the
dangers of the descent of the Fraser, and the length of time
expended, all conspire to make this route objectionable. Until a waggon-road or railway unite the two great divisions of
the North American Continent, the sea must continue to be
the highway to British Columbia.
If the resources of British Columbia are such as they have
been described in these pages, we may safely predict for her
a brilliant future. When capital begins to flow into the
country, and labour grows cheaper and more abundant, districts now unknown will be explored. Mineral wealth, of
which only the out-oroppings^p to speak are apparent, and
commercial resources, which are still latent, will be revealed
and developed. The lands which are adapted for agriculture
will be occupied, and new valleys and plains fit for settlement
discovered. Although as an agricultural country alone,
British Columbia will not become great, she has, nevertheless, as we have seen, arable and pasture lancfe sufficient to
maintain a large mining and commercial population. That
population will come, unsteadily perhaps at first: by ebbs
and flows the tide will advance. If the population should
increase but slowly, this will be all the more advantageous.
That it will increase, the fact of the wealth of the country
• renders certain. Drawn by the resistless power of gold, men
will penetrate into the desert; and while the miner compels
py^lffT-ji    m\mwFSrxxv**:i PROSPECT
the earth to unfold her secrets, the farmer will constrain
Hands, seemingly barren, to yiera abundant harvests. Cities
will spring up wherever mines of gold or silver, of copper,
load, iron, or coal are opened, as well as at the ports of entry
ana^ong the lines of route. Then the lonely places shall be
lively with the sounds^rlabour, and shores now silent echo
back the seaman's call. Busy commerce will descend into
harbours now unvisited, and thence dispatch her fleets across
the seas to Europe and to Asia. British Columbia will send
her spars and timper to South America, China, and Japan;
her fish, her silver, lead, and copper ores to English ports;
and her gold to all the world; and receive in return the produce- of the States, the manufactures of England, and the
luxuries of India and China. Religion and civilization, following in the train of commerce, will extend to these new
lands the sceptre of their ancient rule,—and British law and
liberty find a new home in the west.
But in an attempt to view the future of British Columbia,
the eye is forced to range beyond her limits, and see her
linked Wth her sister colonies—Vancouver Island, already
as one witiiJierself, and Canada so distant. Connection with
Canada is essential to her full developement. In a political
point of view, it is of the utmost importance that Her Majesty's dominions in North America^hould be united by road,
telegraph, and railway. Commercially, this is important, for
it is now understood that the connection of the two shores of
the North American continent would open a new highway
for the commerce of England with Asia and Australia: even
now the want is felt. Free and regular postal communication
is essential to the existence of commerce and the advance of
civilization. At present British Columbia is denied this
boon. Englisja. mails reach the colony, via New York and
Panama, in Amljican ships, or overland from New York to
San Francisco. Not to speak of the delays and risks to which
the mails are subjected on these lines, it is unseemly that a
great naval Power should be indebted to foreigners for the
transmission of itg mails to its own Colonies. Were communication opened between Canada and British Columbia, the
mail service to the latter Colony and Vancouver Island would
be regular, expeditious, and safe. Nor would these Colonies
alone be benefited: such a line once established, the postal
service of England with Australia and Asia could not fail to
be carried through British Columbia^
It is computed * that by a railwayjwiross the North American continent, there would be a gain on the present route to
Appendix P. 62f
British Columbia of 22 days from England.
"Panama to Canton  about 10,000 miles,
British Columbia to Canton ,,       6,900    ,,
Panama to Sydney   ,,       8,200    ,,
British Columbia to Sydney ,,       7,200   ,,     "
I By transmitting the Australian mails from England to the
Pacific across British North America, a saving of 5 days
would be effected, as compared with the route by Panama,
between England and the Pacific, and of 1000 miles, or say
5 days more, in the passage across that ocean—ten days saved
in all."
The following remark is extracted from VEcho du Pmti-
fique, a French newspaper, published in San Francisco, "In
case of war with the United States, the only possible postal
line for England would be through her own territory, across
the Rocky Mountains,"—a consideration which ought to be
conclusive, but the writer adds, "mats le tre'sor anglais est
peu liberal pour sa Colonie," ("the English Government is
not too generous in its treatment of its Colony.")
The difficulties of constructing a railway across the North
American continent in British territory have been greatly exaggerated. Taking a rapid survey of the route, we find there
is steam communication to the head of Lake Superior; thence
to the Red River Settlement, a road could be made, without
much difficulty. From the Red River to Edmonton, the way
lies up the valley of the great Saskatchewan River, navigable
for 700 miles. This is described as a splendid and extensive
valley, capable of supporting a large agricultural population.
At Edmonton the difficulties begin. Thence to Jasper House,
in the Rocky Mountains, the country is swampy and bad. There
is a coalfield here, and the seams appear on the surface, at some J
places on fire. Here the party from which this information is obtained (the party of Canadians who entered British Columbia
by this route last autumn, already alluded to) built their
nightly camp fires oficoal. The gorge through which this road
enters British Columbia is the New Caledonia or Jasper Pass.
It is described as a natural roadway through the mountains,
which rise on either side like a wall to a height of many
thousand feet. From Jasper House to Tete Jaune Cache, at
the head of the Fraser, the country around is rugged and
mountainous: yet there is a valley through which a road or
railway could be carried. From T£te Jaune Cache the road
would probably take a direct course for Cariboo, hy one of
three valleys as yet unexplored, which appear to connect the
latter with the head waters of the Fraser.    It is of course
iweffiiPspwsifci PROSPECTS.
impossible to define the distance, but the probability is that
it does not much exceed 150 miles. From Richfield the line
would be taken to the mouth of Quesnel River,- where it would
join the great highways from the lower Fraser, and (should
such be ultimately constructed) from Beaatinck Arm or any
other sea port on the North West Coast.
..Lake Superior to Red River Settlement   380
Red River to Edmonton, by valley of Saskatchewan.. 800
Edmonton to Jasper House, Rocky^ountains  400
Jasper House to Tete Jaune Cache'   144
Thence to Richfield  150
Total distance from Canada to Cariboo 1,874
Richfield to Quesnel mouth     60
Mouth of Quesnel to Bentinck Arm, circa     250
(Mouth of Quesnel to Douglas, Yale, or Hope, circa .... 300)
Total distance between Heads of Navigation 2,184
Such is the line which in all probability the waggon-road
and railway will follow. It is preferable to those dwelt upon
by previous writers. Its preference over the route by St.
Paul's, Minnesota, consists in this that its whole course lies
through British territory! Indeed the possibility of war with
the States is a sufficient objection to any line which passes at
any point within their border. Jasper Pass possesses advantages both over the Kananaski Pass recommended by Captain
Palliser,* and the Kootanie Pass preferred by Captain
Blackiston.f Its advantages are: (1) The road from Edmonton to the Rocky Mountains is more free from Indian molestation, than the others by the more southerly passes. (2) It
opens up the settlements of St. Albert's and St. Ann's. (3)
4The Jasper Pass is pronounced easily convertible into a waggon-road or rfaway. (4) This route leads directly to the
great gold fields of Cariboo.
When, in addition to these important advantages, it is remembered that the distance from Lake Superior to the Coast,
by Jasper Pass^b apparently less than by the Kootanie, or
other passes, to New Westminster, it will be seen that the
fact of the former passing through Cariboo must decide the
question in its favour.
• That communication across the continent is desirable, the
very fact of the existence of British Cjxrambia is enough to
prove: thafSfSfis practicable, the accounts of reliable travellers
sufficiently shew.   To many however the idea appears vision-
*Papers relating to the Explorationjjby Captain Palliser, June,1859.
f Quarterly Review, vol. cix.. Article" on Canada and the North West. u
ary and remote. Yet»rem'Ote as it may seem, it gaust be
brought near, taken hold of, carried out, and that soon if at
all. The United States have long been endeavouring to
achieve a trans-continental railway through their own territory. Hindered, first by party interests, and more lately by
pecuniary difficulties, this cherished scheme will nevertheless
ultimately be executed by that enterprising people. But the
national honour as well as interest require that England
should take the lead across the continent, and English capital renders this to her a comparatively easy task. Millions
of money and many precious lives have been expended on
the North West Passage. The way by sea to the Pacific is
now found to be barred by ice, but here is a safer and cheaper way^by land, which invites immediate attention from
statesmen and capitalists.
When, in 1858, British Columbia was made an English
Colony, the following sentiment was expressed in the speech
from the throne: "I hope," said Her Majesty "that this^ew
Colony in the Pacific may be but one step in the career ofsteady
progress by which my dominions in North America may be
ultimately peopled in an unbroken chain, from the Atlantic
to the Pacific, by a loyal and industrious population." To
the fulfilment of this sublime hope, a railway across the continent would infallibly lead. When by its construction England
shall have solved one of the greatest problems of the age, and
made another stride in that career, whieh as the great civili-
ser of the world she seems called to pursue, then British Columbia will assume the importance which her geographical!
position and her resources conspire to bestovv. As one of the
great highways of the world, she will be the scene ofta busy
tuaffic between Europe and Asia. Passengers, mails and at
least the lighter goods will pass through her Jgiritory between .
England and Australia, China, perhaps India. In conjunction with Vancouver Island, she^will become a eentre-point
where the commerce of the Pacific and the Atlantic will
meet, and receive the produce of the one for transmission to
Europe; the goods o#*he other for dispersion over the Pacific*
In the march of'Christianity and civilization which still
moveSstowards the western Sun, British Columbia and Vancouver Island are in the van. The torch of truth they shall
raise, shall yet flash along the shores of the ;igaeific, till the
degraded millions of China, and the benighted'idplaters of the
Isles, beholding, shall arise from their darkness and supersti-'
ticn, and rejoice in the light of God.
*See Appendix P.    Compare Rattray,   Vancouver Island and,
British Columbia, p. 128. APPENDIX. ^W&Mt&lKVm > Mfe
Eraser River, in point of magnitude and present commercial importance, is second only to the Columbia on the North West Coast of
America. In its entire freedom from risk of life and shipwreck, it
possesses infinite advantages over any other river on the coast, and
the cause of this immunity from the dangers and inconveniences
to which all great rivers emptying themselves on an exposed coast
are subject, is sufficiently obvious. A sheltered strait scarcely 15
miles across, receives its waters; and the neighbouring Island of
Vancouver serves as a natural breakwater, preventing the possibility
of any sea arising which would prove dangerous to vessels even of
the smallest class. To the same cause may be attributed in a
great measure the fixed and unvarying character of the shoals
through which this magnificent stream pursues its undevious course
into the Gulf of Georgia; and there can be little doubt that it is
destined, at no distant period, to fulfil to the utmost, as it is already
partially fulfilling, the purposes for which nature ordained it, to be
the outlet for the products of a great Country, whose riches in
mineral and agricultural wealth are daily being more fully dis*-
covered and developed.
Vessels of from 18 to 20 feet draught may enter the Fraser and
proceed as high as Langley, or a few miles above it, with ease,
provided they have, or are assisted, by steam power. The only
difficulty is at the entrance, and this is easily overcome by providing
pilots, and the means of maintaining the buoys in their positions.
The great quantity of deposit brought down by the freshets of
summer has created an extensive series of banks, which extend 5
miles outside the entrance proper of the river. The main stream
has forced an almost straight, though somewhat narrow, channel
through these banks, and at its junction with the current of the
Gulf of Georgia, which runs at right angles to it, has caused the
wall-edged bank before alluded to, extending to Roberts Point on
the South, and Gray Point on the North.
BY   ORDER   OF   COL.   It.   C.   MOODY,   B. E.,
Latitude 49° 12' 47" North.   Longitude 122° 53' 19" West.
The highest reading of the Barometer,
corrected for temperature, was  30.565-9.30 a.m., 4th Feb.
The mean height   do.   do., at 9.30 a.m. 29.943
The lowest   do.
3.30 p.m. 29.889
  29.272 9.30 a.m. 3rd Dec. 11.
20.0 21st January.
24.0 23rd December.
10.0 21st January.
Maximum temperature of Air, in shade,
at 9.30 a.M  74.3 9th July.
Do. do. do. do.   3.30 p.m. 84.0        ,,
Mean temp, of Air, in shade... 9.30 a.m. 48.8
Do. do. do. do.   3.30 p.m. 52.2
Minimum temp, of Air, in shade 9.30 a.m.
Do. do. do. do.   3.30 p.m.
Minimum temperature on the Grass	
Greatest amount of Humidity     1.000
Mean do. do. 9.30 a.m. .764
Do. do. do. 3.30 p.m. .854
Least do. do.  422 3.30. p.m. 9th July.
The cistern of the Barometer is about 54 feet above the level of the sea.   All the
observations were made at 9.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m. daily throughout the year.
There were several frosty nights in April, one on the 20th May,
and'they recommenced on the 20th October.
Thunder and Lightning occurred on the 27th May, and 5th, 21st,
22nd, and 29th August.
During the months of June, July, August, and September the
amount of Ozone was inconsiderable. On the 10th July the test
paper gave no indication of its presence. The mean daily amount
for the year would be indicated by 5 on the scale.
Table shewing the depth of rain, the number of days on which it
fell, the mean humidity and mean temperature of Air at 9.30 a.m.,
3.30 p.m., and the lowest temperature on the grass in each month.
January _. 7.190 ...
February ' 6.485 ...
March 3.270 ...
April 5.265 ...
August ,
September .
.... 15
.4.575 12
4.770 15
.0.390    3
.3.180   8
1.075    6
 788 ....
9.30 a.m. 3.30 p.m. min. (
October 6.145 16	
November... 11.620 23	
December 7.520 20	
.797 .
.915 .
. 38.2....
.59.1 ....
.59.9 ....
.48.8 ....
.39.1 ....
. 35.4.
.42.3 .
.57.7 .
.68.9 .
, 68.0.
.40.6 ,
, 10.0
. 22.0
. 29.0
Total... 60.485        164
Rain fell on 12 days when the wind was S., 5 when S.W., 9 when
W., 2 when N.W., 14 when N.E., 64 when E., 26 when S.E., and
32 when calm.
The greatest fall of rain in 24 hours measured 2.150 inches, on
the 4th of November.
The average fall for every day of the year, was 0.166 inches.
The average fall for each wet day was 0.369 inches.
A comparison of this abstract with that for the year 1860, shews
that 6.065 inches more Rain fell in 1861 than in 1860.
Rain fell on 13 more days, in 1861 than in 1860.
The mean height of Barometer .070 less  " M
The mean amount of Humidity was .008 greater " I
The mean temperature oftheAir in shade wasS.lgreater "
The absolute limiting nights of Frost, were nearly at the same
date in both years.
In the six winter months, January to March, and October to December, 41.230incb.es of rain fell in 1861, and 40.586 inches in 1860. MC-H
In the remaining months 19.255 inches fell in 1861, and 13.834
in 1860. Of the entire quantity of rain 26 inches fell in January,
November, and December, in each year.
The prevailing direction of the wind during rain in both years,
was E. and S.E.
June was the driest month, and August the warmest in 1860.
July was both driest and warmest in 1861.
The-Fraser River attained its highest level at New "Westminster,
for the year 1861, on the 8th of June, and its lowest, being a difference of 9 feet 6 inches, on the 17th March ; between 19th May and
10th August, Ships did not swing to the flood tide. These periods
and difference of level correspond very closely with the observations
for 1859 and 1860.
There was floating ice in the Fraser River opposite New Westminster 7th January 1861, it increased until 22nd January, and
disappeared on the 2nd February. The Navigation to the mouth of
the River was'not impeded.
There was no ice in the Fraser, at New "Westminster, in 1860.
The Observations were taken by 2nd CorporalP. J. Leech, and Lance
Corporal J. Conroy, R. E.
R. M. Parsons, Captain R. E.
The highest reading of the Barometer,
corrected for temperature, was 30.517 9th February.
, The mean height  do.,  do., at 9.30 a.m. 29.983
Do.        do.
The lowest do.
do., at 3.30 p.m
29.071 22nd January.
1 104.0 29th August.
.    88.5 do.
73.9 23rd July.
86.0 28th August.
2.0 below zero, 15 Jan.
6.0 15th January-
16 Jan.
Max. temp, in sun's rays (black bulb)
Do.      do.   of Air, in shade       	
Do.      do.      do.      do     9.30 a.m.
Do.      do.      do.      do    3.30 p.m.
Mean temp, of Air,  in  shade   -9.30 a.m.
Do.      do/Hh"do.      do    3.30 p.m.
Minimum tern, of Air, in shade  9.30 a.m.
Do.      do.      do.      do    3.30 p.m.
Minimum temp, on the Grass         15.0 belowzero
Greatest amount of Humidity      1.000
Mean        do. do    9.30 a.m. .842
Do. do. do    3.30 p.m. .772
Least       do. do 320
There were slight frosts nearly every night in the month of April,
and once in May (16th); they did not recommence until the 9th of
October. The severe frosts of January and February have been unknown for many years.
Thunder and Lightning occurred on the 24th May, 24th July,.
and 22nd, 29th, and 30th August.
Table shewing the depth of rain, the number of days on which'
it fell, the mean humidity (9.30 a.m. and 3.20 p.m.), mean temperature of the air in shade, and the lowest temperature on the grass
in each month. KtjWKgmiMMMi
DATS.  HUMIDITY.  9.30A.M. 3.30P.M
..  3.480 ..
...    9 855 19.0 23.0
.. - 5.727 ..
...    8 S15 80.3 34.2
..  5.830 ..
...   17 862 38.0 41.7
..   2.345 ..
...   14 767 45.5 51.3 ■
..' 3.415 ..
...   13 718 57.1 62.1
..   2.760..
..   2.709 ..
...   1l' 713 C3.2 07.7
..   2.930 ..
...    8 7S7 63.6 69.8
..   1.625 ..
...     9 751 58.4 62.7
..   4.605 ..
...   10 869 49.3 52.9
..  4.050 ..
December ..
..  7.990 ..
...   17 948 86.7 39.7
Total:.. 47.466 135
Rain fell on 8 days when the wind was South, 4—S.W., 3—W.,
5_-N.W., 8—N.E, 43—E., 26—S.E., and 38 when calm.
The greatest fall of rain in 24 hours measured 2.260 inches, and
was on the 20th March. The average fall for every day of tbe
year was 0.130 inches, and for each wet day it was 0.352.
The amount of Ozone this year was very small, its mean daily
number would be represented by 3 on the scale, and it seldom exceeded 6. During the greater part of October, November, and December there was little indication of its presence. In November
and the early part of December there were heavy fogs, during which
there was no Ozone.
Mean h
sight of
9.30 A.M
9.30 a.tu
Bain was more equally distributed throughout all the months
this year than in 1860 or 1861.
In the winter months, January to March and October to December, 31.682 inches of rain fell in 1862, 41230 in 1861, and 40.586
in 1860. In the remaining months 15.715 inches fell in 1862,
19.255 in 1861, and 13.834 in 1860.
The prevailing direction of the wind during rain in each year
was E. and S.E. The absolute limiting nights of frost in the three
years were nearly the same.
12th June
Sth June
14th June
4th Mar.
17th Mar.
19th April
Difference I
of level.
10.5 feet   22 May to 12 Aug, ships did not swing to
9.5 feet  19 May to 10 Aug, do. do. [the       I tide.
10.5 feet I 1 May to  2 Sept, do. do.
Ice appeared on the 1st of January, 1862, and the river at New
Westminster was unnavigable on the 4th ; it was completely frozen
over on the 9th, and the ice attained a thickness of 13 inches in the
channel opposite the R. E. Camp, on the 12th ef February. Sleighs
were running from Langley to several miles below New Westmins- APPENDIX.
-l^A- -#*
ter, and persons walked from Hope to the latter place, a distance
of 80 miles, on the ice, at the end of January. Lake Harrison and
the other Lakes were frozen. Navigation from New Westminster
was]open to the mouth of the river on the 11th of March, and from
Yale on the" 12th of April. Again on the 5th of December, there
was ice in the river at New Westminster for one day. In January,
1861, there was ice at New Westminster, but the navigation to the
mouth of the river was not impeded.    In 1860 there was no ice.
The observations were taken by 2nd Corporal P. J. Leech and
Lance Corporal J. Conroy, R.E.
R. M. Parsons, Captain, R.E.
January.—Average Temperature for 22 days 14° above zero.
Do. do. 9    ,,      9° below zero.
Coldes t day, 29th - -   22°       do.
Hottest   ,, - - -   26° above zero.
Ten cold windy days ; wind from N.W. and N.E.
Amount of snow fell during the month, 28 inches ; 18th
10 in. fell, 22nd llin fell.
February—Average Temperature for 18 days 26° above zero.
Do. do 10    ,,     4° below zero.
Coldest day, 1st - -     6°       do.
Hottest   ,,   11th - -   45° above zero.
11th, heavy rain and thaw ; 4 days heavy rain and thaw,
three cold windy days.
Amount of snow fell during the month, 14 inches.
March.—Average Temperature for 31 days 37°
Coldest day, 10th - 20° (sharp frost.)
Hottest   ,,    31st - 50°
Three cold windy days; two rainy days, 14th and 23rd,
Amount of snow fell, 10 inches.
April.—Average Temperature for the month 54°
Coldest day, 4th     - - 31°
Hottest   ,,  30th     - - 84°
Seven cold windy days ; 14th, gale of wind from S.E.
May.—Average Temperature for the month 78°
Coldest day, 6th     - - 64°
Hottest   ,,   11th     - - 100°
Two windy days, 7th and 11th; 4 rainy days; 5th, eight
hours heavy rain.
June.—Average Temperature for the month 81°
Coldest day - - 60°
Hottest day - - 104°
Three windy days ; rain fell on 4 days.
July,—Average Temperature for 12 days 97°
Coldest day, 2nd - 80°
Hottest   „    5th - 106°
September.—Average Temperature for the month 81°
Coldest day, 30th        - - 60°
Hottest   „    2nd - - 98°
Bain fell on 6 days; 25th, rain and snow; 5 windy days;
30th, cold S.E. wind. November
-Average Temperature for the month 71°
Coldest day     - - - 50°
Hottest   ,,       - - - 81°
Rain fell on six days ; six windy days.
,—Average temperature for the month 48°
Coldest day 30°
Hottest   ,, - - 56°
Rain fell on two days, 1st and 3rd.
—Average Temperature for the month 38°
Coldest day, 6th - - 25°
Hottest   „ 25th - - 50°
Rain fell on four days; 9th, eight hours rain; five inches
snow fell during the month.
.—Average Temperature for 23 days
Coldest day, 28th
Five coldest days average Temper.
Rain fell on 23rd for 24 hours, Thermometer 40°.  40 inches snow fell during the month.
—Average Temperature for the month 26°
Coldest day, 29th - - 14° below zero.
Hottest   ,,    13th - - 42°
Rain fell with sun and thaw, Thermometer 42°.    Thirty
two inches of snow fell during the mouth.
81st Dec, 1862.
20° below zero.
13° below zero.
Issued in conformity with the GoldPield's Act, 1859.
WHEREAS, it is provided by the Gold Fields' Act, 1859, that the
Governor Tor the time being, of British Columbia, may, by writing
under his hand and the Public Seal of the Colony, make Rules and
Regulations, in the nature of By-laws, for all matters relating to
Mining. Now therefore, I, JAMES DOUGLAS, Governor, &c, do
hereby make the following Rules and Regulations, accordingly :—
I, In the construction of the following Rules and Regulations,
unless there be some contrariety, or repugnancy thereto in the
context, the words "Governor" "Gold Commissioner," "mine,"
"to mine," shall have the same meanings as in the Gold Fields'Act,
1859. The expression "Bar diggings " shall mean every mine over
which a river extends when in its most flooded state. "Dry
Diggings " shall mean any mine over which a river never extends.
" Ravines " shall include water courses, whether usually containing
water or usually dry. " Ditch " shall include a flume or race, or
other artificial means for conducting water by its own weight into
or upon a mine. "Ditch head " shall mean the point in a natural water course or lake, where water is first taken into a ditch.
And words in the singular number shall include the plural, and
the masculine gender shall include the feminine.
II. All claims are to be, as nearly as may be, in rectangular forms,
and marked by four pegs at the least, each peg to be four inches
square at the least, and one foot above the surface, and firmly fixed
in the ground. No boundary peg shall be concealed, or moved, or
injured, without the previous permission of the Gold Commissioner.
III. The size of a claim, when not otherwise established by a
by-law, shall be, for bar diggings, a strip of land twenty-five feet
wide at the mark to which the river rises when flooded, and thence
extending down into the river indefinitely. For dry diggings, a
space twenty-five feet by thirty feet. For ravine diggings, a space
of twenty-five feet along the bank of the ravine and extend up to
the top of each bank. In quartz claims the size, when not otherwise established by by-law, shall be one hundred feet in length,
measured along the vein or seam, with power to the miner to follow
the vein or seam, and its spurs, dips and angles, any where on or
below the surface included between the two extremities of such
length of one hundred feet, but not to advance upon or beneath
the surface of the earth more than one hundred feet in a lateral
direction from the main vein or seam, along which the claim is to be
measured. All measurements of area are to be made on the surface
of the earth, neglecting inequalities. Every claim is to have a distinguishing number marked on its boundary pegs.
IV. If any Free Miners, or party of Free Miners, shall discover a
new mine, and such discovery shall be established to the satisfaction of the Gold Commissioner, the first discoverer, or party of
discoverers, if not more than two in number, shall be entitled to a
claim double the established size of claims in the nearest mine of
the same description, (i. e. dry, bar, or quartz diggings.) If such
party consist of three men, they shall collectively be entitled t»
five claims of the established size, on such nearest mine; and if of
four or more men, such party shall be entitled to a claim and a
half per man. A new stratum of auriferous earth or rock, situate
in a locality where the claims are abandoned, shall for this purpose be deemed a new mine, although the same locality shall previously have been worked at a different level. And dry diggings
discovered in the neighbourhood of bar diggings shall be deemed a
new mine, and vice versa.
V. The registration of claims shall be in such manner and form
as the Gold Commissioner shall in any locality direct, and shall
include, besides the matters mentioned in the Gold Fields' Act of
1859, all such other matters as the Gold Commissioner shall think
fit to include.
VI. No transfer of any claim or of any interest therein, shall be
enforceable, unless the same, or some memorandum, thereof shall
be in writing, signed by the party sought to be charged, or by his
lawfully authorized agent, and registered with the Gold Commissioner.
VII. Any person desiring any exclusive ditch or water privilege,
shall make application to the Gold Commissioner having jurisdiction for the place where the same shall be situated, stating for the
guidance of the Commissioner in estimating the character of the
application, the name of every applicant, the proposed ditch head,
and quantity of water, the proposed locality of distribution, a~J Till.
such water shall be for sale, the price at which it is proposed to
sell the same, the general nature" of the work to be done, and the
time within which such work shall be complete; and the Gold
Commissioner shall enter a note of all such matters as of record.
"VTII. Unless otherwise specially arranged, the rent to be paid for
any water privilege shall be in each month, one average day's receipts, from the sale thereof, to be estimated by the Gold Commissioner with the assistance if he shall so think fit, of a jury.
IX. If any person shall refuse or neglect to take within the time
mentioned in his application, or within such further time (if any)
as the Gold Commissioner may, in his discretion think fit to grant
for the completion of the ditch, the whole of the water applied for,
he shall, at the end of the time mentioned in his application, be
deemed entitled only to the quantity actually taken by him, and
the Gold Commissioner shall make such entry in the register as
shall be proper to mark such alteration in the quantity, and may
grant the surplus to any other person, according to the rules herein
laid down for the granting of water privileges.
X. Every owner of a ditch or water privilege shall he bound to
take all reasonable means for utilizing the water granted to and
taken by him. And if any such owner shall wilfully take and
waste any unreasonable quantity of water, he shall be charged with
the full rent as if he had sold the same at a full, price. And it shall
be lawful for the Gold Commissioner, \f such offence be persisted
in, to declare all rights to the water forfeited.
XL It shall be lawful for the owner of any ditch, or water privi-»
lege, to sell and distribute the water conveyed by him to such persons, and on such terms as they may deem advisable, within the
limits mentioned in their application. Provided always that the
owner of any ditch or water privilege shall be bound to supply wan
ter to all applicants, being Free Miners, in a fair proportion, and
shall not demand more from one person than from another, except
■when the difficulty of supply is enhanced. Provided further, that
no person, not being a Free Miner, shallJje entitled to demand to
be supplied with water at all.
. A claim or any mine shall, until otherwise ordered by some
valid by-law, be deemed to be abandoned, and o.pcn to the occupation of any Free Miner, when the same shall have remained un-
worked by some registered holder thereof for the space of seventy-
two hours, unless in case of sickness, or unless before the expiry
of such seventy-two hours, a further extension of time be granted
by the Gold Commissioner, who may grant further time for enabling parties to go prospecting, or for such other reasonable cause
as he may think proper. Sundays, and such holidays as the Gold
Commissioner may think fit to proclaim, arc to be omitted in reck-1
oning the time of non-working.
XIII. Whenever it shall be intended, in forming or upholding
any ditch, to enter upon or to occupy any part of a registered claim,
or to dig or loosen any earth or rock within [4] feet of any ditch
pot belonging solely to the registered owner of such claim, three.
mwa^Mnms a* AM
days notice in writing, of such intention, shall be given, before entering or approaching within four feet of such other property.
XIV. If the owner of the property about to be so entered upon
or approached, shall consider three days notice insufficient for taking proper measures of precaution, or if any dispute shall arise
between the parties as to the proper precautionary measures to be
taken, or in any other respect, the whole matter shall be immediately referred to the Gold Commissioner acting in the district, who
shall order such interval of time to be observed before entry, or
make such other order as he may deem proper.
XV. In quartz claims and reefs each successive claimant shall
leave three feet unworked to form a boundary wall between his
claim and the last previous claimant, and shall stake off his claim
accordingly, not commencing at the boundary peg of the last previous claim, but three feet further on; and if any person shall stake
out his claim, disregarding this rule, the Gold Commissioner shall
have power to come and remove the first boundary peg of such
wrong-doer three feet further on, notwithstanding that other claims
may then be properly staked out beyond him ; so that such wrongdoer shall then have but ninety-seven feet. And if such wrongdoer shall have commenced work immediately at the boundary peg
of.the last previous claim, the Gold Commissioner may remove his
boundary six feet further on than the open work of such wrongdoer: and all such open work, and also the next three feet of such
space of six feet shall belong to and form part of the last previous
claim, and the residue of such space of six feet shall be left as a
boundary wall.
XVI. Every such boundary wall shall be deemed the joint property of the owners of the two claims .between which it stands, and
may not be worked or injured, save by the consent of both such
XVII. In staking out plots of land for Free Miners and Traders,
for gardening and residential purposes, under the powers of the
said Gold Fields' Act, 1859, contained, the Gold Commissioner is
to keep in view the general interests of all the miners in that locality, the general principle being that every garden benefits indirectly the whole locality, and also the earlier application is to be preferred; but where the eligible spots of land are few, or of scanty
dimensions, and especially where they are themselves auriferous,
it may be injudicious that the whole or the greater part should fall
into the hands of one or two persons ; and therefore, in such cases,
the Gold Commissioner may, in the exercise of his discretion, allot
small plots only to each applicant.
XVIII. Any person desiring to acquire any water privilege, shall
be bound to respect the rights of parties using the same water, at
a point below the place where the person desiring such new privi-.
lege intends to use it.
' XIX. Any person desiring to bridge across any stream or claim
pr other place, for any purpose, or to mine under or through any
ditch or Hume, or to cam' water through or over any land already
occupied by any other person, may be enabled to do so in propel*
cases, with the sanction of the Gold Commissioner. In all such
cases the right of the party first in possession whether of the mine
or of the water privilege is to prevail, so as to entitle him to full
compensation and indemnity. But wherever due compensation by
indemnity can be given, and is required, the Gold Commissioner
may sanction the execution of such new work on such terms as he
shall think reasonable.
XX. Applications for leases are to be sent in triplicate to the
Gold Commissioner having jurisdiction for the locality where the
land desired to be taken is situated. Every such application shall
contain the name and additions of the applicant at full length, and
the names and addresses of two persons residing in the Colony of
British Columbia, or Vancouver Island, to whom the applicant is
personally known. Also, a description accompanied by a map of
the land proposed to be taken.
XXI. Leases will not be granted in general for a longer term
than ten years, or for a larger space than ten acres of alluvial soil
(dry diggings,) or half a mile in length of unworked rjuartz reef, or
a mile and a half in length of quartz, that shall have been attempted and abandoned by individual claim workers, with liberty to
follow the spurs, dips, and angles, on and within the surface for
two hundred feet on each side of the main lead or seam, or, in bar
diggings, half a mile in length (if unworked,) along the high water
mark, or a mile and a half in length along high water mark, where
the same shall have been attempted and abandoned by individual
claim workers.
XXII. Leases as above, will not in general be granted of any
land, alluvium or quartz, which shall be considered to be immediately available for being worked by Free Miners, as holders of individual claims. Nor will such a lease in any case be granted,
where individual Free Miners are in previous actual occupation of
any part of the premises unless by their consent.
XXIII. Every such lease shall contain all reasonable provisions
for securing to the public rights of way and water, save in so far
as shall be necessary for the miner-like working of the premises
thereby demised, and also for preventing damage to the persons or
property of other parties than the lessee. And the premises thereby demised shall be granted for mining purposes only, and it shall
not be competent for the lessee to assign or sub-let the same, or any
part or parts thereof without the previous license in writing of tbe
Gold Commissioner. And every such lease shall contain a covenant by the lessee to mine the said premises in a miner-like way,
and also, if it shall be thought fit, to perform the works therein defined within a time therein limited. And also a clause by virtue
whereof the said lease and the demise therein contained may be
avoided in case the lessee shall refuse or neglect to observe and
perform all or any of the covenants therein contained.
XXIV. Every applicant for a lease, shall at the time of sending
in his application, mark out the ground comprised in the applica- APPENDIX.
lion, by square posts firmly fixed in the boundaries of the land, and
four feet above the surface, with a notice thereon that such land
has been applied for, stating when and by whom, and shall also
fix upon a similar post at each of the nearest places on which miners are at work, a copy of such notice.
XXV. Objections to the granting of any such lease shall be made
in writing, addressed to His Excellency the Governor, under cover
to the Gold Commissioner, who shall forward all such objections,
together with his report thereon.
XXVI. Every application for a lease shall be accompanied by a
deposit of Twenty-five pounds sterling, which shall be refunded in
case the application shall be refused by the Government, and if the
application shall be entertained, then such sum of Twenty-five
pounds shall be retained for the use of Her Majesty, her heirs, and
successors,^whether the application be afterwards abandoned or not.
Issued under the Public Seal of the Colony of British Columbia,
at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this seventh day of September,
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and fifty-
nine, and in the twenty-third year of Her Majesty's Reign, by me,
By Command of His Excellency,
William A. G. Young,
Acting Colonial Secretary.
Issued in conformity with the Sold Fields' Act, 1859.
WHEREAS it is provided by the Gold Fields' Act, 1859, that the
Governor for the time being, of British Columbia, may, by writing
under his hand and the Public Seal of the Colony, make Rules and
Regulations, in the nature of By-laws, for all matters relating to
And whereas, in conformity with the said Act, certain rules and
regulations have already been issued, bearing date 7th of Septem- i
ber, 1859 ;
And whereas, since the issuing of such rules, extensive mines
have been discovered on the high level benches, lying on either
side of Fraser River, Thompson River, and other rivers, which
benches are generally terminated by abrupt and steep descents or
cliffs, the general direction of which is parallel with the general
direction of the Rivers;
And whereas, such mines cannot be conveniently worked in small
rectangular subdivisions, but the convenient working thereof requires a large size of claim, and may, in some cases, require that
each claim should reach from the cliff in front of each bench to the
cliff in the rear, or when there is no cliff in the rear, then to the
general slope of the mountains in the rear ; 111.
And whereas, it is also expedient to make further provision with
respect to the regulation of claims, and to adopt one general rule
for determining the measure of the quantity of water in any ditch
or channel,
Now, therefore, I, JAMES DOUGLAS, Governor, &c, do hereby
make the following Rules and Regulations accordingly:
I. The mines in the said level benches shall be known as "bench
diggings," and shall, for the purpose of ascertaining the size of
claims therein, be excepted out of the class of " dry diggings," as
defined in the Rules and Regulations of the 7th of September last.
II. The ordinary claims on any bench diggings, shall be registered by the Gold Commissioner according to such one of the two following methods of measurement, as he shall deem most advantageous on each mine, viz: One hundred feet square, or else a strip
of land 25 feet wide at the edge of the cliff next the river, and
bounded by two straight lines, carried as nearly as possible in each
case, perpendicular to the general direction of such cliff, across
the level bench, up to and not beyond the foot of the descent in
the rear, and in such last mentioned case, the space included between such two boundary lines when produced over the face of the
cliff in front, as far as the foot of such cliff, and no further; and
all mines in the space so included shall also form a part of such
III. The Gold Commissioner shall have authority in cases where
the benches are narrow, to mark the claims in such manner as he
shall think fit, so as to include an adequate claim. And shall also
have power to decide on the cliffs which, in his opinion, form the
natural boundaries of benches.
IV. The Gold Commissioner may, in any mine of any denomination where the pay dirt is thin or claims in small demand, or where,
from any circumstances, he shall deem it reasonable, allow any
Free Miner to register two claims in his own name, and allow such
period as he may think proper for non-working either one of such
claims. But no person shall be entitled to hold at one time more
than two claims of the legal size. A discoverer's claim shall for
this purpose be reckoned as one ordinary claim.
V. All claims shall be subject to the public rights of way and
water, in such manner, direction and extent, as the Gold Commissioner shall, from time to time direct. No mine shall be worked
within 10 feet of any road, unless by the previous sanction of the
Gold Commissioner.
VI. In order to ascertain the quantity of water in any ditch or
sluice, the following rules shall be observed, viz :
The water taken into a ditch, shall be measured at the ditch head.
No water shall be taken into a ditch, except in a trough whose top
and floor shall be horizontal planes, and sides parallel vertical
planes; such trough to be continued for six times its breadth in a
horizontal direction from the point at which the water enters the
trough.   The top of the trough to be not more than 7 inches, and
law* APPENDIX. xni.
the bottom of the trough not more than 17 inches below the surface
of the water in the reservoir, all measurements being taken inside
the trough, and in the low water or dry season. The area of- a
vertical transverse section of the trough, shall be considered as the
measure-of the quantity of water taken by the ditch.
The same mode of measurement shall be applied to ascertain the
quantity of water running in a trough, or out of any ditch.
/-*->      Issued under the Public Seal of the Colony of British
■f l  s 1      Columbia, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this 6th day
I   "   ' J       of January, in the year of Our Lord One Thousand.
"-y-1 Eight Hundred and Sixty, and in the Twenty-third Year
of Her Majesty's Reign, by me,
By His Excellency's Command,
William A.G. Young.
Whereas, under the "Gold Fields'Act, 1859," the Governor for
the time being of British Columbia is empowered by writing under
his hand and the Public Seal of the Colony, to make rules and regulations, in the nature of By-laws, for all matters relating to
mining ;
And whereas, in conformity with that Aet, certain Rules and
Regulations have been issued, bearing date the 7th September, 1859
the 6th Jan., 1860, and the 29th Sept., 1862, respectively;
And whereas it is expedient to make' further provisions for the
working of gold mines;
Sec. I—Repeals rule 3, of 7th Sept., 18.59.
The Rule No. 3 of those dated 7th Sept., 1859, declaring the size
of mining claims, is hereby repealed, so far as it is inconsistent
Seo. II—Size of claims. —Bar diggings.
From and after the date hereof, the size of a claim shall be, for
bar diggings, a strip of land 100 feet wide at the mark to which the
river rises when flooded along such high water mark, and thence-
extending down direct to the river, to the lowest water level.
Dry Diggings.
For dry diggings, 100 feet square.
General Diggings.
For diggings not herein otherwise specially described 100 feet
Quartz Claims.
In quartz claims the size shall be 150 feet in length, measured
along the lode or vein, with power for the miner to follow the lode APPENDIX.
or vein and its spurs, dips and angles, anywhere on or below the
surface, includedbetween the two extremities of such length of 150
feet, but not to advance upon or beneath the surface of the earth,
more than 100 feet in a lateral direction, from the main lode or vein,
along which the claim is to be measured. All measurements are to
be made on the surface of the earth, neglecting inequalities.
Every claim is to have a distinguishing number marked on its
boundary pegs. Every individual claim, whether part of a company
claim or not, shall be staked out with 4 corner pegs of at least 4
inches diameter, the same as defined in rule 2 of the rules and regulations of 7th September, 1859.
Tunnel Claims.
In tunnel-ling or sinking, each miner shall be allowed a frontage
of 100 feet, irrespective of depth. The Gold Commissioner shall
have the power to regulate what number of the miners, holding
such claims shall be employed prospecting, until gold in paying
quantities shall have been discovered, after which the fuLV number
of authorized miners must be employed on the claim. The side
boundaries of each claim shall be distinctly marked off by 2 parallel
lines or rows of pegs, fixed in the ground at intervals of 5 feet or
thereabouts, the said boundaries or parallel lines shall be carried
in a direction as straight and square as possible to the summit level.
No party shall sink or drive ahead between the said parallel lines,
saving with the consent of the party first in possession, until gold
shall have been found as under mentioned.
Extent of Claim.
The extent of claim to each miner shall be 100 feet square, and
he shall be allowed to mark off the claim ahead of the spot, where
gold in paying quantities shall have been obtained, beyond the
limits of the claim so marked out.
Bights of Prospecting
Beyond these limits any other party may prospect by shaft and
tunnel from the bottom thereof, and until a lead is struck in paying
quantities, shall have the exclusive right of prospecting within two
such parallel lines as aforesaid, and shall then mark out his claim
as above mentioned.
Tunnel Under Hills.
In tunnelling under hills, on the frontage of which angles occur,
or which may be of an oblong or elliptical form—no party shall be
allowed to tunnel from any of the said a,ngles, nor from either end
of such hills, so as to interfere with parties tunnelling from the
main frontage of such hills. In case of two or more parties tunnelling from opposite sides of the same hill, and their side boundary
lines meet or intersect, or their claims meet, the party that first
marks off their claim shall be entitled to priority of claim thereon.
In case of tunnelling under hills, or fronts of hills, such as occur
at the junction of creeks in which there may be two leads, all parties
shall, if required, take their claims on the lead nearest the side of
the hill at which their tunnel commences.
m«ff%#aw?,w APPENDIX.
Forfeiture of Claim involves Tunnel, &c.
The right to the tunnel aud the ten feet of ground on either side
of it, in addition to the above claim, shall be considered as appurtenant to the claim to which it is annexed, and be abandoned or
forfeited by the abandonment or forfeiture of the claim itself to which
it appertains.
Deposit of Leavings.
The Gold Commissioner may, where deemed desirable, mark out
a space in the vicinity for deposit of leavings and deads from any
Sec. m.—Definition of Miners' Rights in a Claim.
Whereas it is expedient better to define the rights of registered
free miners in their claims, it is hereby declared, enacted and proclaimed ;
That clause 7 of the Gold Fields' Act, 1859, is hereby repealed.
Every free miner shall, save as against Her Majesty, have during
the continuance of his certificate, the exclusive right to take the
gold and auriferous soil upon or within the claim for the time being
duly held registered and bona fide not colourably worked by him
and the exclusive right of entry on the claim for the purpose of
working or carrying away such gold, or auriferous soil, or any part
thereof. And also as far as may be necessary for the convenient
and minerlike working and security of his flumes and property of
every description, and for a residence—but he shall have no surface
rights therein for any other purpose, save as next hereinafter mentioned, unless specially granted.
Sec. IT.—One record covers necessary water and claim.
In addition to the above rights, every registered free miner shall
be entitled to the use of so much of the water flowing naturally
through or past his claim as shall in the opinion of the Gold Commissioner be necessary for the due working thereof.
Sec.V.—Inclusive water privileges? preliminary notice.
Where application is intended to be made for the exclusive grant
of any surplus water to be taken from any creek or other locality,
every such applicant shall, in addition to the existing requirements,
affix a written notice of all the particulars of his application upon
some conspicuous part of the premises to be affected by the proposed
grant, for not less than five days before recording the same.
Power to Gold Commissioner to modify the Grant.
The Gold Commissioner, upon protest being entered or for reasonable cause, shall have power to refuse or modify such application
or grant, either partially or entirely, as to him shall seem just and
Saving of future miners' rights to water.
Every exclusive grant of a ditch or water privilege in occupied
or unoccupied creeks shall be subject to the rights of such registered
free miners as shall then be working or shall thereafter work in the
locality fromjwhich it is proposed to take such water.
Sec. VI.—Gold penalties "recoverable by Distress.
Whereas it is expedient to confer additional power for enforcing
penalties recoverable for infraction of the Gold Laws under Section
40 of the Gold Fields' Act;
It is hereby declared, enacted and proclaimed thatsuch penalties
may, if deemed proper, be ordered to be recovered by sale and distress,
to be levied forthwith or at any convenient interval after conviction
and nonpayment within so many hours, or such longer time as shall
be allowed by distress and sale of any claim or ditch or any personal
property whatsoever of the person on whom such penalty may have
been imposed.
Seo. VH.—Certified copy of any Gold record to be evidence.
Every copy of or extract from any record or register under or by
virtue of this Act or the Gold Fields' Act, 1859, or any other Act
which shall be made in relation to Gold mines or Gold fields, or any
of the Rules and Regulations made in pursuance thereof, respectively
required to be kept by any Gold Commissioner, and certified to be
a true copy or extract under the hand of the Gold Commissioner, or
other person entrusted to take and keep such record or register,
shall in the absence of the original register be receivable in any
judicial proceeding as evidence of the matters and things therein
Sec. VIII.—Pees on recording claims.
So much of section 6 of the Gold Fields' Act, 1859, as imposes
a fee of 4s. on the Registration or Re-registration of Claims shall
be and is hereby repealed.
In Jieu thereof it is hereby declared, enacted, and proclaimed,
there shall be paid to the Gold Commissioner for the use of Her
Majesty, her heirs, and successors, the following fees : That is to
say:   '
Upon every Registration or Re-registration on record")
of any Claim, j*  10s.    3d.
And no person not being a free miner, shall be entitled to record
a claim or any interest therein.
Gold Commissioner may enlarge Ditches.
The Gold Commissioner shall have power whenever he may deem
it advisable, to order the enlargement or alteration of any ditch or
ditches, and to fix what (if any) compensation shall be paid to the
parties to be benefitted by such alteration or enlargement.
Settlement of Districts—As to Boundaries, &c.
In case of dispute as to boundary, or measurements, the Gold
Commissioner shall have power to employ a surveyor to fix and
mark the same, and cause the reasonable expense thereof to be paid'
by or between such of the parties interested in the question at issue
as he shall deem fair and just.
Served under the Public Seal of the said Colony, at Victoria,
Vancouver Island, this 24th day of February, A.D. 1863, and
in the twenty-sixth year of Her Majesty's Reign, by me,
By His Excellency's Command,
Willi \m A. G. Young.
Colonial Secretary
1859 $259,815
1860 349,292
1861 602,734
Total $1,211,841
or about £1,028,164
FOJ3. 1861-2.
Amount of Gold Dust Assayed 74,173 ounces.
Approximate value $1,223,854.
The following statement on the Flexibility and Resistance, and
Density of Masts from Vancouver Island, compared with masts from
Riga, is taken from Dr. Forbes' Essay on Vancouver Island.
" The timber of British Columbia possesses similar qualities.
The principal quality of these woods is a flexibility and a tenacity
of fibre rarely met with in trees so aged ; they may be bent and twisted several times in contrary directions without breaking.
Several poles of the greatest length having the end at the foot,
and the top of the tree cut off, were tried comparatively with poles
of the same dimensions cut from a Riga spar of first class, and the
following results were found :
Maximum degree of bending    "1    Vancouver Pine.      Riga Pine.
before rupture at the foot    / 0m 025 0m 028
Atthe head  	
,0     019 0    016
Mean, 0
Charge of rupture (per centimeters)   \
squared at the foot J 23k  75.
At the head 16    11.
022 0    022
,21k 00
, 19   68
19 93                        20    23
Density of the wood          \
at the foot of the tree  J  0    636 0 726
Density at the.head 0   478  0 532
0    557
0 629 XV1U.
These experiments give a mean almost identical, for the bending
and breaking of the two kinds of wood, while the density differs
notably to the advantage of the Vancouver wood.
The only question still undecided is that of durability, the masts
and spars of Vancouver are woods rare and exceptional for dimensions and superior qualities, strength, lightness, absence of knots
and other grave vices.
Toulon, September 21st, 1860, Signed L. A. Silvester, Du
Perron, Chief Engineer of 3rd Section."
The following extract from a London Paper, is given by a recent
number of the British Columbian newspaper :
"The remaks lately made in our columns on the very great value
of the douglas fir, have led one of the most skilful of our judges
of timber to favour us with the following highly important information. This fir wood, Mr. Wm. Wilson Saunders, F. R. S., of Lloyd's,
has had many opportunities of examining carefully ; and, in order
to satisfy one of our largest importers, he has made some careful
experiments on its strength and flexibility in comparison with other
similar woods. The following table, with which he has favoured
us, gives the result, which is in the highest degree satisfactory.
Mr Wilson Saunders has a regular machine for these experiments,
and the results can be implicitly relied on.
Lengths of the woods enumerated in the following table, carefully squared to lj- inch, were submitted to pressure of weights
pendent from the centre, the lengths being supported between standards exactly 6 feet apart. The weight at which each broke and
the amount of deflection from the horizontal line at the time of '
breaking, are given in the following table :
Douglas Fir,
rough and long.
Pitcn Pine,
short and even.
Canada Spruce....
short and rough
Red Pine,
short and even.
Deodar from )•
Himalaya,    j
..    154
The specimens experimented upon were carefully selected from the*
best description of wood, and free from all defects. The deflection
is given in inches and tenths of an inch. Each wood had two trials,-
and the figures give a mean result."
Dr. Lindley commenting on these tables goes on to say :
"It will be thus seen that none of the firs approached in strength
the Douglas or the Pitch Pine; it having required the weight of 280 lbs
to break a small bar of their wood, no more than an inch and a quarter square. A hundred and sixty-eight pounds broke a piece of
British Larch of the same scantling. Moreover between the Douglas Fir and Pitch Pine, whose strength was equal, there is this
great difference, that while the latter snapped short under a pres-
mwwwK»wTOM* i -a
sure of 280 lbs, the Douglas yielded unwillingly with a rough and
long rend.
Since our last a further example of this tree has arrived at the
International Exhibition, from British Columbia. It consists of 10
horizontal sections of that tree, 309 feet high, to which we formerly
alluded, and of which a drawing has been suspended in the building.
They are about to be displayed in the Court of British Columbia, and
serve to show unmistakeably what a noble tree this is, and how
superb an ornament as well as inexhaustible source of wealth to
the two Colonies."
From Vancouver Island.
From Uni
ted State.
j    Value.
Al,e and Porter
in wood	
Do. in bottle...
Agricul. Impts
Bacon & Hams
Beef, salt 	
Billiard & Bag
atelle Tables
Boots & Shoes
China merdze.
H a
From Vancouver Island.  I   From United States.
Cordials  |
Drugs & Chms. |
Dry Goods 	
Earthenware ..
Fish, preserved
Do., dry & salt
Fire Arms	
Fruits, pres'vd
Do., dried	
Do., fresh	
Glass & Glassware	
Harness and
Iron and Steel
Live Stock,
Horses and
Mules and 21
Beef Cattle..
Do., fresh	
Nuts, Almonds
Oils, Sweet	
Do., various ...
126 pkgs.
440 cs
442 cs
1635 pkgs
140 pkgs
3324 doz
732 cs
437 pkgs
38 pkgs
24700 brls
319 cs
1241 pkgs
2074| ,,
17031 ,,
25969 fibs
4614 pkgs
89 tons
72.2 pkgs
1459 bds
97228 lbs
107 ro:is
353    „
551 cs
gals 1
Value.       Quantity.
2678 lbs
48 pkgs
23    ,,
1349 brls
9,316 92 76 pkgs
6,577 24
62,234 05 357 pkgs
3,038|24 251 bales
4,835 15
898 50
1,051 83
170,549 00
28,950 00
720 00
132 50
40,793 0O
19,669 00
it io
250 _
21 kegs
2 cs
35 gal
87 50
8,202 46
541 72-
81 12
367 98
5,371 34
676 83
7,352 03.
294 40
485 '00
232,5S0 00.
26,785 00
550 00
3,323 00
222 26
12 0O.
21-'8 f — -«"T-	
From Vancouver Island
Quantity.   I     Valu
Pork, salt	
Personal effects
Poultry |
Quicksilver ...i
Rice |
Rope* Cordage
Seeds, Grain...
Do, Garden, &c.
Spirits ,,..
Tar and Pitch
Tin & Tinware
Vegtbls Onions
Do., preserved
Do., fresh	
Wine, Cham...
Do. Chinamed.
Do., Claret |
Do., various...
Window sashes |
and doors ...
Woodenware „
Yeast Powders
205958 fibs
1009 coils
3497 Ibxs
377 pkgi
688918 fibs
23233 gals
10 brls
47749 fibs
350 pkgi
592 pkers
" 435 cs
123 pkgs
481 bkts
3292    „
4452|   ,,
360 pkgs
532    „
73 no
6,170 50
747 07
4,727 94
8,026 00
2,286 60
843 50
654 75
966 37|
43,578 79
2,350 29
8277 lbs
2499 J gals
4 brls
845 lbs
2 pkgs
390 gals
18 bus
56 40
Total value of Imports for the year 1862 $2,800,840.91
Do. do. do.        1861    1,414,399.73
V. I.
Shewing an increase of $1,386,441.18
£14,770 £ 4,049 119
55,254 11,400 337
56,237 12,686 -21
16.025 Appendix. .
Appendix G.
B. D.-
Flour, per barrel,    3 l£
Bacon, salt and dried Pork, per lb.     0 1
eans, per 1001b ,  1 3
Barley, per 100 1b  1 3
Butter,  per lb  0 2$
Candles,    ,  0 2%
Lard, ,,      0 1~
Rice, per 100 lb  3 1$
Tea, per lb  0 2£
Coffee,   ,,      0 l|
Sugar,   ,,      0 1
Ale and Porter in bottle, per doz. 1 8
Ale and Porter in wood, per gallon,    0 7
' Wine in wood and bottle,       ,, 2 1
Bitters, per gallon,   2 I
Blankets, per pair,   2 1
Cheese, per lb  0 2J
Opium,      ,,  2 1
Dried fish, per lb  0 1
Salt fish,      ,,        0 0£
Chinese Medicated Wine, per gallon, 3 1£
Dried vegetables, (Chinese) per lb.       0 1/
Salt vegetables, ,, ,, 0 0J
Spirits, per gallon,   6 3
Horses, Oxen, Mules, per head,  4 2
Sheep, and Goats, ,,          2 1
Tobacco, per lb  0 6J-
Flour, 196 lb. per barrel  3 \\
Oh all other articles a duty of 10 per cent, on the value thereof.
For every Sailing Ship or Vessel above 30 tons register
either entering or leaving the said Port, per ton register, 0
For every'Jsteam vessel either entering or leaving the
said port, per ton register,  0
For every vessel of and under 30 tons, including boats
and canoes,  0
For every vessel clearing for, or entering from parts
bej'ond sea, viz,
If less than 6 feet draught of water,  5
If moretnan 6 feet, and less than 7 feet draught of water, 5
And for every additional foot of water up to 12 feet, 0
And for every additional foot of water above 12 feet, 0
very steamer trading on the Fraser River and not
trading to anypart beyond sea. per ton register per annum, 0
'S.      D.
0     3
0    2
■-mwsM«rgo»! APPENDIX.
The following Tables of the Revenue and Expenditure for the
years 1859, 1860, and 1861 have been kindly given for insertion:
REVENUE FOR THE YEARS 1859, 1860, 1861.
Customs Duties	
Harbour Dues	
Head Money W^i
Seizures and Fines	
Tonnage Dues	
Inland Navigation Licenses
Customs Fees 	
Land Sales	
Land Revenue	
Free Miners' Certificates	
Mining Receipts General	
Spirit Licenses    "l   united
Trading Licenses j in 1859
Road Tolls..	
Rents (inclusive of Land)...
Fines, Forfeitures, and .Fees
Fees of Office	
Rents (exclusive of Land)...
Deposits '.	
Mule Tax	
Sale of Government Prop'ty
Bullion Exchange	
Re-imbursements in aid of
expenses incurred by Go
Excise Duties 	
Road Debentures issued ....
OF 1858
17849 7
572 3
224 12
459 10
508 0
1372 12
4374 3
588 16
157 1
367 10
1356 18
262 4
108 15
S. D.
8 7
3 5
0 0
18 11
5 3
0 0
12 10
8 6
Imperial Government 	
Loan .-	
Treasurer, balance due him
5200 0 0
* 131
S. D.
18 11
6 2
12 0
6 0
8 4
8 0
1 0
15 0
19 9
0 0
6 5
4 58526 11
3 24518 5
£186516 4 7 83044 16 11
1 1
13 5
6 10
18 6
17 0
12 0
15 4
16 11
1 4
8 0 0
34 0 0
2250 0 0
5 60645 17 5
6 18513 0 I
.. 1951 4 5
... 2321 13 3
83431 15 4 APPENDIX,
OF 1858
Salaries, Fixed	
do.     Provisional &Tem.
Office Contingencies 	
Revenue -Service, Exclusive
of Establishments	
Police and Gaols, do	
Works and Buildings	
Roads, Streets, & Bridges...
Harrison River Road	
Surveys and Explorations...
Fines, Forfeitures, and Fees
Administration of Justice...
Charitable Allowances	
Conveyance of Mails	
General, Ex. of E	
Light Houses	
Bullion Exchange 	
Redemption of Bonds	
£  s.
4514 18
17 11
7 0
7 11
4 1
1 0
3726 3 1
2419 10 2
6650 14 10
651 16
56 19
30 4
108 11
8.  D.
7 11
19 2
19 9
9 4
1 7
14 0
19 0
16 10
15 8
9 4
0 10
£  s. ».
7141 16 1
12353 7 3
2081 2 1
530 7 10
221 11 8
2556 9 7
3079 18 5
29010 10 10
1881 12 3
4512 8 4
469 8 10
o oj
0 0
3 Ol
4 7
780 0 0
49 19
3620 0
76823 17 5171859 9 6190076
1  10
39449 11    9147171    2    3 69982 10    2
Military Expenditure  37374   5   8|24688    7   3|20093 18    9
The number of cases entered on the books of the House of Correction, New Westminster, from October 27th, 1860, up to May 31st,
1862, was 164
of these there were discharged      81
Number convicted, 831
And these figures represent, not the crime of New Westminster
alone, but also to some extent of the whole country, seeing that criminals in the upper Towns are usually, after receiving sentence, sent
to the Prison at New Westminster. Cases of light offence, and also
a small percentage of graver ones, occurring in the other towns
are not included, these offenders not having been sent to New Westminster.
Tables shewing the list of persons received into the House of Correction from May 31st, 1861, to May 31st, 1862, with their several
crimes and respective nationalities.
Crimes.                       No. of Cases. Sentence.
Murder, 2
Accessory before fact, murder,. 1
Felony,  1
Larceny, 8
Selling Spirits to Indians, 5
Horse Stealing,
Death; in 1 case reprieved.
7 years imprist. hard labour.
10 years,> do.
24 hours to 2 months'
1 month to 3 months'
or heavy fine.
2 months and 2 years,
14 days, do.
7 days and 14 days,
1 to 3 months, or fine,
Total 29
Of these the nationalities were as follows :
English, ,
Americans,  3
Dane, ,  1
Total,    29
In addition to which there were cases of Drunkenness,    23
General Total
By His Excellency James Douglas, Companion of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of
British Columbia and its Dependencies, Vice-Admiral of the
same, &c, &c.
Whereas, under and by virtue of an Act of Parliament, made and
passed in the Session of Parliament held in the 21st and 22nd years
of the Reign of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, entitled "An Act to
provide for the Government of British Columbia," and by a Commission under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland, I, James Douglas, have been appointed Governor of the said Colony, and have been authorized by Proclamation under the Public Seal of the said Colony, to make laws, institutions, and ordinances for the peace, order, and good government
of the same;
And whereas it is expedient to amend and consolidate the laws XXVI.
affecting the settlement of unsurveyed Crown Lands in British
Now, therefore, I do hereby declare, proclaim, and enact as follows:
Repeal of former Proclamations.
I. The Proclamation issued by me, under the Public Seal of the
said Colony, dated the 4th day of January, 1860, and the Pre-emption Amendment Act, 1861, and the Pre-emption Purchase Act,
1861, are hereby repealed.
Purchasers since the 20th June to hold on the ordinary terms of Pre-emption.
II. All purchasers of unsurveyed land in British Columbia, who
shall have made their purchases subsequently to the 20th day of
June, 1861, and previously to the .27th day of August, 1861, shall
hold the land purchased under precisely the same terms and conditions of occupation and improvement as are mentioned in the
said Proclamation of the 4th day of January, 1860, with regard to
landsPfe-empted without purchase.
British subjects, and aliens who shall take the oath of allegiance, may acquire
the right to hold land, ^and to purchase the same when surveyed, on certain
III. That from and after the date hereof, British subjects and
aliens who shall take the Oath of Allegiance to Her Majesty and
Her Successors, may acquire the right to hold and purchase in fee
simple, unoccupied and unsurveyed and unreserved Crown Lands
in British Columbia, not being the site of an existent or proposed
Town, or auriferous land available for mining purposes, or an Indian Reserve or Settlement, under the following conditions.
The settler shall enter into possession and record his claim to [any quantity
not exceeding 160 acres.
IV. The person desiring to acquire any particular plot of land o f
the character aforesaid, shall enter into possession thereof, and
shall record his claim to any quantity not exceeding 160 acres
thereof, with the Magistrate residing nearest thereto ; paying to the
said Magistrate the sum of eight shillings for recording such claim.
A holder of land may acquire additional land contiguous to the 160 acres,
by paying an instalment of the purchase money.
V. Any person in possession 'of 160 acres of land as aforesaid,
may acquire the right to hold and purchase any further tract of
unsurveyed and unoccupied land aforesaid, over and above the
quantity of 160 acres aforesaid, and contiguous thereto, upon payment to the nearest Magistrate of the sum of 2s. Id. per acre for
the same, as and by way of instalment of the purchase money to be
ultimately paid to the Government upon the survey of the same land.
Proposing purchaser shall hold and record.
VI. Any person so paying such deposit shall enter into possession and record his claim to such last mentioned tract of land, in
manner hereinbefore prescribed.
Description of the land, how to be stated.
VII. The claimant shall in all cases give the best possible description of the land to the Magistrate with whom his claim is recorded, together with a rough plan thereof, and identify the plot
in question by placing at the corners of the land four posts, and
by stating in his description any other land marks of a noticeable
character. APPENDIX.
Rectangular shape, or as nearly as possible proportion of the lines.
VIII. Every piece of land sought to be acquired under the provisions of this Proclamation, shall, save as hereinafter mentioned,
be of a rectangular shape, and the shortest line thereof shall be at
least two-thirds the length of the longest line.
Natural boxmdaries may be adopted in certain cases.
IX. Where the land sought to be acquired is in whole or in part
bounded by mountains, rocks, lakes, swamps, or the margin of a
river, or by other natural boundaries, then such natural boundaries may be adopted as the boundaries of the land sought to be
acquired, and in such case it shall be sufficient for the claimant to
show to the satisfaction of the Magistrate, that the said form conforms as nearly as circumstances permit to the provisions of this
Lines of adjacent claims may be^idopted.
X. If the land sought to be acquired be bounded by a claim, the
line of such claim may be adopted by the person so seeking to acquire, notwithstandng any irregularity in such line which may have
been occasioned by the adoption of a natural boundary by the
claimant of the adjacent claim.
Enclosed spaces may be adopted, notwithstanding any irregularity of shape.
XI. Where a piece of land is partially or entirely enclosed between two or more claims, the claimant may acquire such enclosed
piece, notwithstanding any irregularity of form, or disproportion in
length, of any of the sides.
Boundaries to run as nearly as possible according to the points of the compass.
XII. The boundaries shall run as nearly as possible by the cardinal points of the compass.
Purchase on Survey.
XIII. When the Government Survey shall extend to the land
claimed, the claimant who has recorded his claim as aforesaid, or
his heirs or devisies, or in the case of the grant of a certificate of
improvement hereinafter mentioned, the assigns of such claimant
shall, if he or they shall have been in continuous occupation of the
same land from the date of the record aforesaid, be entitled to purchase the land so acquired, or in respect of which such deposit shall
have been paid as aforesaid, at such rate as may for the time being
be fixed by the Government of British Columbia, not exceeding
the sum of 4s. 2d. per acre.
Certificate of improvement to be issued when improvements have been made
to the extent of 10s. per acre
XIV. When the claimant, his heirs or devisies, shall prove to the
nearest Magistrate by the evidence of himself and of third parties,
that he or they has or have continued in permanent occupation of
the claim from the date of record, and has or have made permanent improvements thereon to the value of 10s. per acre, the said
Magistrate shall grant to the said claimant, his heirs or devisies, a
certificate of improvement in the form marked A, in the Schedule
YThen Certificate of Improvement has been issued the holder may sell or deal
with the land.
XV. Upon the grant of the certificate of improvement aforesaid,
the person to whom the same is issued may, subject to any unpaid XXV111.
instalments, sell, mortgage, or lease the land in respect of which
such certificate has been issued, but no interest in any plot of land
acquired in either of the methods aforesaid, shall, before payment
of the purchase money, be capable of passing to a purchaser, unless the vendor shall have obtained such certificate of improvement as aforesaid.
Conveyance on payment of the purchase money.
XVI. Upon payment of the purchase money, a conveyance of the
land purchased shall be executed in favour of the purchaser, reserving the precious minerals with a right to enter and work the same
in favour of the Crown, its Assignees and Licensees.
Compensation to owner whose land may be taken or injured in certain cases.
XVII. In the event of the Crown, its Assignees or Licensees,
availing itself or themselves of the privileges (other than the taking
of land required for roads) mentioned in clauses 25 and 26, a reasonable compensation for the land taken,' wasted, or damaged shall
be paid to the person whose land shall be taken, wasted, or damaged as aforesaid, and in case of dispute the same shall be settled
by a jury of six men, to be summoned by the nearest Magistrate.
Priority of title.
XVIII. Priority of title shall be obtained by the person who,
being in possession, shall first record his claim in manner aforesaid.
Cancellation of claim on permanent cessation of occupation.
XIX. Whenever any person 'shall permanently cease to occupy
land acquired in either of the methods aforesaid, the Magistrate
resident nearest to the land in question may, in a summary way,
on being satisfied of such permanent cessation, cancel the claim of
the person so permanently ceasing to occupy the same, and record
the claim thereto of any other person satisfying the requisitions
Deposits and improvements forfeited on cancellation.
XX. All deposits paid in respect of such forfeited claims, and all
improvements, buildings and erections thereon, shall, (subject to
the appeal hereinafter mentioned,) on such cancellation, be absolutely forfeited; and such claims, improvements, buildings and
erections shall, subject to the appeal hereinafter mentioned, be
open to settlement by any other person.
XXI. The decision of the Magistrate, may be appealed by either
party, to the decision of the Judge of the Supreme Court of Civil
Justice of British Columbia.
Security on Appeal.
XXII. Any person desirous of appealing in manner aforesaid, may
be required before such appeal be heard, to find such security as
may be hereafter pointed out by the Rules or Orders hereinafter
directed to be published.
XXIII. The procedure before the Magistrate and Judge respectively, shall be according to such Rules and Orders as shall be
published by such Judge with the approbation of the Governor for
the time being of British Columbia.
Ejectment or trespass by holder.
XXIV. Whenever a person in occupation at the time of record
■ v\w aforesaid, shall have recorded as aforesaid, and he, his heirs, or
(in the case of a certificate of improvement) his assigns, shall have
continued in permanent occupation of the same land since the date
of such record, he or they may, save as hereinbefore mentioned,
bring ejectment or trespass, against any intruder upon the same
land, to the same extent as if he or they were seized of the legal
estate in possession in the same lanA.
Saving of right to search and get Gold in favour of free miners.
XXV. Nothing herein contained shall be construed as giving a
right to any claimant to exclude free miners from searching for any
of the precious minerals or working the same, upon the conditions
Power to Government to re-take land for public purposes.
XXVI. The Government shall notwithstanding any claim, record,
or conveyance aforesaid, be entitled to enter and take such portion
of the land acquired in either of the methods-aforesaid, as may be
required for roads, or other public purposes.
Water for mining purposes may be taken.
XXVII. Water privileges, and the right of carrying water for
mining purposes, may, notwithstanding any claim recorded, be
claimed and taken upon, under or over the said land so pre-empted
or purchased as aforesaid, by free miners requiring the same, and
obtaining a grant, or license from the Gold Commissioner, and
paying a compensation for waste or damage to the person whose
land may be wasted or damnged by such water privilege or carriage
of water, to be ascertained in case of dispute in manner aforesaid.
If new claim taken up the old one is lost.
XXVIII. If any person being already registered as a claimant,
register a claim to any other land not being contiguous thereto,
the land so previously claimed shall, ipso facto, be forfeited, and
shall, with all improvements made thereon, be open to settlement
by any other person.
Arbitrament of Magistrate.
XXIX. In case any dispute shall arise between persons with regard to any land so acquired as aforesaid, anyone of the parties in
difference may, before ejectment or action of trespass brought, refer the question in difference to the nearest Magistrate, who is
hereby authorized to proceed in a summary way to restore the
possession of any land in dispute to the person whom he shall deem
entitled to the same, and to abate all intrusions, and award and
levy such costs, and damages as he may think fit.
Short Title.
XXX. This Proclamation may be cited as the "Pre-emption
Consolidation Act, 1861."
Issued under the Public Seal of the said Colony, at Victoria, Vancouver Island, this 27th day of August, in
the year of Our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred
and Sixty-One, and in the Twenty-fifth Year of Her
Majesty's Reign, by me,
By His Excellency's Command,
William A. G. Young .
I hereby certify that has satisfied me by evidence of (naming
the witnesses, and detailing any other evidence upon which the Magistrate has come to his judgment) that of has made improvements to the extent of 1 Os. an acre on          acres of land, situated at
day of
I, James Douglas, do proclaim that from and after the date
hereof (1st Jan. 1863.) Military and Naval Officers in Her Majesty's Service, of the rank hereinafter specified, shall be entitled
without pay to free grants of unoccupied and unsurveyed Country
land in the amounts and manner following, that is to say :
Field Officers, of 25 years' service, in the whole,  600.
Field Officers, of 20 years' service and upwards, in the
whole,  500.
Field Officers of 15, or less, years' in the service,  in the
whole,  400.
Captains of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole, 400.
Captains of 15 years' service or less, in the whole,  300.
Subalterns of 20 years' service and upwards, in the whole, 300.
Subalterns of 7 years' service and upwards, in the whole, 200.
Every person desiring to take advantage of the privileges aforesaid, shall, before obtaining the same, produce to and leave, with
the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for British Columbia,
a certificate from the office of the General Commanding-in-Chief in
England, or from the office of the Lords Commissioners of the
Admiraliy showing that the settlement of the said person in a
British Colony has been duly sanctioned, and showing also the
rank and length of service of such person; but nothing herein
contained shall entitle any person to any of the privileges aforesaid, except such person shall at the time of settling be either
on half pay or full pay, unless the person settling shall have
quitted the service for the purpose of settling in a British Colony as
hereinafter mentioned.
Flour £2 8s. per barrel of 196 lbs., or 24s. per cwt. (the cwt. being literally 100 lbs.), the loaf of 2J lbs. Is.; in cheaper times flour
is 32s. per barrel; Beef Is. to 15d. per lb., sometimes 7$ per lb.;
Mutton Is. 3d. per lb.; Rice 5d. or 6d. per lb.; Sugar 7|d. to 8d
"' to4s.perlb.; Coffee 2s. per lb.; Bacon lOd. and
uwafrtwen* m»s* ' APPENDIX.
Is. per lb.; Beans 8d. per lb., sometim
per lb.
J.O.    kVV.A   A.J.  ,     JL»t>0>l±0   UU,   pCi.   AU.,   bUUHJUlUVr-     ilO.    UC1   1U,  ,     *>LH1V   -±a.    uca
gallon; Salt Bntter 2s. 6d. per lb.; Beer 2s. 6d. to 4s. per gallon; Sherry, in wood or glass, £1 10s. per gallon; Champagne
do.; Claret 6s. per gallon; Whiskey 16s. per gallon wholesale, £1
10s. per gal. retail; Salmon 2d. to 6d. per lb.; Dried Apples 7|d.
to lOd. per lb.; Soap 8d. per lb.; Candles 2s. per lb.; Tobacco 4s.
Tifvr lh
Flour 6d. per lb.; Beef Is. per lb.; Bacon 3s. per lb.; Beans Is.
9d. per lb.; Rice 8d. per lb.; Sugar Is. per lb.; Butter 3s. per lb.;
Coffee 2s. per lb.; Tea 4s. per lb.; Dried Apples 2s. per lb.; Tobacco 8s. per lb.
Flour 3s. 9d. per lb.; Beef Is. 8d. per lb.; Bacon 5s. 5d. per lb.:
Beans 4s. per lb.; Sugar 5s. per lb.; Butter 10s. per lb.; Coffee
5s. 5d. per lb.; Tobacco 16s. per lb.; Candles 16s. per lb.
The following articles"are essential:
2 Woollen Shirts,
4 pairs Worsted Socks,
a pair-of leather top-boots,
a pr. of India rubber miningboots,
a strong pair of trousers,
an India-rubber coat,
2 pairs of blankets,
a small tent.
The following tables of distances are given by Dr. Rattray,
(Vancouver Island and British Columbia, page 134.)
Distance from Hong Kong to British Columbia 6053   21 (steam.)
,, British Columbia to Halifax 2536      6 (railway.)
,, Halifax to Southampton 2532     9 (steam.)
Total... 11,121    36
Distance by Cape of Good Hope (Hong Kong
to Southampton)  12,000 110
,, Overland, by Suez (Hong Kong
to Southampton)     9,467    50-60
,,        British Columbia (Hong Kong
to Southampton)  11,121   36
Sydney to Southampton, by Cape of Good Hope...... 11,880 miles,
do. do. Suez   11,219     „
do. do. Cape Horn 12,746    ,,
do. do. Panama  11,115    ,,
do. do. Vancouver Island 11,794    ,, APPENDIX.
Prepared at the Office of Lands and Works, by order of
Coi. R. C. Moody, R.E.
An absolute value for the Longitude of New Westminster, namely
8h. 11m. 33.3s. West of Greenwich, was obtained by observations
made during six lunations in 1859-60, by Captain Parsons and
Corporal Leech, R. E., the results being corrected for errors in the
moon's places in the Nautical Almanac. The other Longitudes
are chronometric measurements from New Westminster ; those of
Point Garry, Langley Barracks, Hope, Yale, Douglas, and Lillooet
have been repeated, but the value of the remainder of the determinations is that which may be attached to the transport of one
Alexandria, ...
Anderson, -
Antler,    -
Asananny, -
Beaver Creek, Cut Off Valley,
Beaver Lake, Sellers' Hotel -
Beaver Pass house, Lightning Creek,   -
Bridge River, mouth,
Bridge Creek house,
Oampment du Chevreuil,
Cameron's Farm, 12 m. from Cottonwood
Oampment des Femmes,
'Chanthopeen Lake,
Cottonwood, - - *   -
Cokelin, -
Esquimalt, V. I., Duntze Point,
(Fort Colville, U. S.,
Fort George, -
Fountain, -
Garry Point,
Green Lake, opposite Crescent Island,
Harrison River, mouth,
Hat River, mouth,
"Hope,      -
Keithley, -
Ko-om-ko-otz,        -
"Lake La Hache, East end, (camp),
Lake La Hache, West end,   -
Langley Barracks,
lillooet, Court House,
Lillooet Lake, 29 mile house,
Lytton,    -
"Marmot Lake,        -
Nimpoh, (camp),    -
North River, opposite mouth,
50 32
35 22
52 58
26 22
52 24
30 7
51 7
39 59
52 29
55 4
53 3
52 49
50 45
3 53
51 39
24 58
49 20
8 34
53 1
14 28
49 32
45 28
52 8
30 43
53 0
5 7
52 22
50 24
49 45
11 4
48 25
26 46'
48 38
7 19
53 53
45 1
50 44
1 26
49 7
11 17
51 23
29 9
49 14
54 34
50 54
33 30
49 22
27 58
52 45
28 32
52 22
47 34
51 49
35 57
51 51
44 10
49 12
35 14
50 41
2 28
50 3
35 42
50 13
40 19
53 0
35 33
49 12 47
122 53 19
52 22
13 48
50 39
27 20
Okanagan Lake, head of,
Osoyoos Lake,
Pavilion Mountain, North base,
Quesnelle River,, mouth,
•Quesnel River, Lower Ferry, Donaldsc
Quesnell River, Forks,
Round Prairie, Philips' Farm,
'Richfield, Court house,
Salmon River. Grand Prairie,
Seton,      -
'Seton Lake, West end,
Snowshoe house, 7 miles from Antler.
Swift River, mouth,
Tahartee Lake;
Vanwinkle, Court house,
Vermillion Forks,  -
Williams Lake, Coirrt house,
26 35
36 55
58 37
43 15
2 24
27 6
26 52
42 52
23 49
33 55
47 35
5 47
26 43
5 16
27 22
28 34
2 49
44 42
28 52
13 32
25 58


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