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Eighth report of the committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr.… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1892

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EDINBURGH   MEETING,   1892
EIGHTH  REPORT
ON  THE
NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA
 Offices of  
BURLINGTON   HOUSE, LONDON, W.  Section H.
Eighth Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor,
Mr. G-. W. Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G-. M. Dawson,
Mr. E. Of. Haliburton, and Mr. H. Hale, appointed to
investigate the physical characters, languages, and industrial
and social condition of the North-Western Tribes of the
Dominion of Canada.
Remarks on Linguistic Ethnology : Introductory to the Report of Dr.
A. F. Ohamherlain on the Kootenay Indians of Sonth-Eastern British
Columbia.   By Mr. Horatio Hale.
The report of Dr. Chamberlain derives a special interest from the fact
that it is a monograph devoted to the people of a single linguistic stock,
or in other words to a people differing totally in speech from all other
branches of the human race. In my ' Remarks on North American
Ethnology,' prefixed to the Fifth Report of the Committee (1839)—
which I venture in this connection to recall to mind—the fact was
pointed out that ' in America the linguistic stock is the universally accepted unit of classification.' After explaining how, in my opinion, such
Btocks had originated, namely, ' in the natural language-making faculty
of young children,' who in the earliest settlement of a new country had
been left, orphaned and isolated from all other society, to frame a new
language, and ultimately a new social system and a new religion of their
own,1 I added: 'Prom what has been said, it follows that in our studies
of communities in the earliest stage we must look, not for sameness, but
for almost endless diversity, alike in languages and in social organisations. Instead of one " primitive human horde," we mast think of some
two or three hundred primitive societies, each beginning in a single
household, and expanding gradually to a people distinct from every
other, alike in speech, in character, in mythology, in form of government,
and in social usages.'
Since these remarks were written three publications relating to
American ethnology, each of peculiar value and authority, have appeared. The earliest and in many. respects the most important of these
is the volume on ' The American Race,' by Dr. Daniel Gr. Brinton, Professor of American Archaeology and Linguistics in the University of
Pennsylvania. The general scope of the work is shown by its second
title: ' A Linguistic Classification and Ethnographic Description of the
Native Tribes of North and South America.' The author has condensed within the limit of 400 pages an immense mass of information concerning the numbers and locations, the physical, mental, and
moral traits, and the languages, religions, and social systems of the
tribes of the western continent. It is the first and the only comprehensive work embracing all the septs of the new world, and will doubtless long remain the standard and indispensable authority. Of 'independent stocks or families,' we are told, ' there are about eighty in North
and as many in South America. These stocks,' the author adds, 'offer
ua without  doubt  our  best basis  for  the ethnic  classification of tlie
of Prof. Sayce in the Report of tJie Association
I
1 See the Presidential Adores
for 1887.
a. b BEPORT 1892.
American tribes—the only basis, indeed, which is of any value.' Thej
efforts which have been heretofore made to erect a geographic classifica-l
tion, with reference to certain areas, political or physical; or a cranio-i
logical one, with reference to skull forms; or a cultural one, wit™
reference to stages of savagery and civilisation, have all proved worthj|
less. I select, therefore/ he concludes, 'the linguistic classification onj
the American race as the only one of any scientific value, and, therefore^
that which alone merits consideration.'
The ' introductory chapter' of Dr.  Brinton's work contains many
valuable data and interesting suggestions.    But I am disposed to thin™
that his view of the general resemblance pervading the American tribes*
in their social institutions is rather a reflex of earlier opinions than a
deduction from the facts collected with judicial and impartial accuracy
in the subsequent  chapters.    Thus, while  holding that Mr. Morgan's!
assertions on this subject were too sweeping, he yet remarks (p. 45)^
that ' Morgan was the first to point out clearly that ancient Amerieail
society was founded, not upon the family, but upon the gens, totem, org
clan, as the social unit.'    In the next page, however, farther, considera-,
tion leads him to observe that this ' gentile system' is by no means!
universal, and that ' it is an error of theorists to make it appear so.
Subsequently  (on p. 99), in treating of  the Dakotas, he states thatI
some of the tribes of this stock had no gentes, while others possessed^
them with widely differing systems of descent; and he then adds hiffl
final decision on this point in terms which completely dispose of the
elaborate theories of Morgan and his disciples.    He holds that, according to the evidence we possess, ' the gentile system is by no means a
fixed stadium of even American ancient society, but is variable—present)
or absent as circumstances may dictate.'
Another recent publication of great importance is the paper of Major
J. W. Powell, the distinguished Director of the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology,
on ' The Linguistic Families of America North of Mexico,' which appears
in the ' Seventh Annual Report of the Bureau,' nominally for 1885-86, but j
published in 1891, and actually coming down to that date in its informa-1
tion. The terms ' linguistic families ' and ' stocks ' are used by the author
as synonymous. He finds the total number of such stocks on the conti-j
nent north of Mexico to be fifty-eight; and while he thinks it is, not improbable that this number may on further study be reduced by the fusion
of some of these stocks, it is equally likely, in his opinion, that the number in the list will be made good by the discovery of new stocks in
portions of the region which have not yet been fully explored. A cata-.
logue as complete as can now be obtained is given, not only of the families,
but of their tribes and dialectical subdivisions, with their leading names
and the various synonyms by which they have been known. Major Powell
does not think it necessary to give a reason for adopting the linguistic
classification. He evidently regards the question as settled since the
appearance of Gallatin's great work, the well-known ' Synopsis of Indian
Tribes' (1836), by the general acquiescence of ethnologists. His preliminary remarks are chiefly, but not entirely, devoted to linguistic
subjects, and present many facts and conclusions—the result of twenty
years' study—which students of ethnology will find of special value and
interest. It should, of course, be kept in view that in reminding his
readers that, ' after all, the Indian is a savage, with the characteristics of a
savage,' he must be regarded as
retei'rms" i
n strictness only to the tribes ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OP  CANADA.
.north of Mexcio, and that he is too experienced an ethnologist to hold
■that all savages are alike in their characteristics.1 His paper, it should
be added, is illustrated by a 'linguistic map,' which in clearness and fulness is a model of what such a map should be.
The third recent work of special importance in connection with this
study is the monograph of Mr. A. S.  Gatschet,  the eminent linguist of
the Bureau of Ethnology, on ' The Klamath Indians of South-Western
Oregon,' which fills two quarto volumes  of Over 700 pages each in the
series of 'Contributions to North American Ethnology.'    The work bears
■date in 1890, but was not distributed  until the following year.    It is
doubtless  the  most  complete  and scientifically, exact  account  of   the
.character, language, and mythology of a people composing a single ' stock '
that has ever been published.    Of their social organisation less is told.
rThe author had made large collections on this subject, but lack of space
•has compelled him to defer their publication.    He has, however, told
enough to enable us to compare the main features in the social life of
these Indians, who are surely ' primitive' and ' typical' savages, if there
are any such, with the systems devised by McLennan, Bachofen, Morgan,
and other ingenious theorisers.    Mr. Gatschet, as becomes an investigator,
.is strictly impartial, and has no special system to maintain ; but by a
simple statement of facts he is able in four fines to upset as many theories.
I The Klamath Indians,' he tells us, ' are absolutely ignorant of the gentile
-or clan system  as prevalent among the  Haida,  Tlingit, and  Eastern
^Indians of North America.     Matriarchate is also unknown among them.
Everyone is free to marry within or without the tribe,  and the children
,inherit from the father.'
To those who possess Mr. Gatschet's volumes the comparison between
;their contents and those of Dr. Chamberlain's equally authentic and careful observations will be highly interesting. But probably to most
students the comparison of this report on the Kootenays with the no less
jjcareful and accurate descriptions of the coast tribes of British Columbia
belonging to the Tlingit, Tsimpshian, and Kwakiutl-Nootka stocks, as
.-furnished to our committee by Dr. Pranz Boas in his successive reports,
£will be still more instructive.    The notable difference of character which
11 may be allowed to quote here a note from my ' Ethnography and Philology' of
the U.S. Exploring Expedition (p. 13), which has been thought worthy of citation by
various writers on anthropological subjects:—' Nothing is more common in the writings of many voyagers than such phrases as the following:    " These natives, like all
•, savages,  are cruel and treacherous ";    " The levity and fickleness of the savage
^character"; "The tendency to superstition which is found among all uncivilised
tribes"; "The parental affections which warm the most savage' heart," &c. These
expressions are evidently founded on a loose idea that a certain sameness of character prevails among barbarous races, and especially that some passions and f eelings
are found strongly developed in all.    A little consideration will show that this view
-must be erroneous. It is civilisation that produces uniformity. The yellow and
black races of the Pacific, inhabiting nearly contiguous islands, differ more widely
from each other than do any two nations of Europe. The points of resemblance
between the negroes of Africa and the Indians of America, even under the samelati-
■ tudes, are very few. In delineating the character of the different races of the
Pacific an attempt will be made, by contrasting them with one another, to show
more closely the distinguishing characteristics of each.' And further on (p. 198), in
the description of the tribes of Oregon, a remark, to the same effect is made:—' To
one ascending the Columbia the contrast presented by the natives above and below
the Great Falls (the Chinooks and Wallawallas) is very striking. No two nations of
Europe differ more widely in looks and character than do these neighbouring subdivisions of the American race.'
H G—2
1 REPORT—1892.
is pointed out in my remarks introductory to the Sixth Report (1890),!
on the authority of missionary records and official documents, is fully con-1
firmed by Dr. Chamberlain's observations. The contrast between thel
very complex social system of the coast tribes and the simple organipationj
of the Kootenays is particularly striking. The whole social life and frame
of government of the coast stocks are wrapped up in their totem or clan
systems and their secret societies. Among the Kootenays, according to|
Dr. Chamberlain, ' totems and secret societies do not exist, and probablyi
have not existed.'
It is satisfactory to be able to add that both Dr. Brinton and Major
Powell, in their recent publications, have referred to the reports presented
to the Association by our committee as records of the best authority.    I
may venture to affirm that they will retain this authority with a constantly;
increasing reputation, not merely from my knowledge of the talents and
experience of the authors of these reports, but from the fact, that thejs
have based  their  researches  and  classifications on the only scientific
foundation, that of language—or, more strictly speaking, of comparatives
philology—a  basis  which  in  modern  anthropology  is  too  often  disregarded.
Two  points  of minor importance,  but  still  of  much  interest,   in
Dr. Chamberlain's report seem to merit notice.    His statement that, ' as
compared with white men, the Indians, with rare exceptions, must be|
considered inferior physically,' may be misunderstood.    As regards those
Indians to whom it was intended to apply, namely, the Kootenays and!
their neighbours, it is undoubtedly correct; but the author had certainly?
no purpose of including in his statement all the aborigines of America.
He is well aware that these, like the communities of the eastern continent,■
vary physically as well as intellectually, not only from stock to stock, but/
from branch to branch.    Of the Iroquois Dr. Brinton, in his ' American
Raco' (p. 82), states:—'Physically the stock is most superior, unsursi
passed by any other on the continent, and, I may even say, by any other;-
people in the world; for it stands on record that the five companies (500
men) recruited from the Iroquois of New York and Canada during our
civil war. stood first on the list among all the recruits of our army for.
height, vigour, and corporeal symmetry.'    The other recruits, it should
be remembered, comprised great numbers of emigrants from almost all
the nations of Europe.
In the First and Third Reports of the Committee (1885 and 1887)
are given the reasons for believing that the Kootenays formerly lived east
of the Rocky Mountains, and were driven thence by the Blackfoot tribes
in comparatively' recent times. Dr. Chamberlain's account of the
Kootenay traditions confirms this opinion, and adds a curious and significant circumstance. ' The Kootenays,' he states, ' believe that they came
from the east, and their myths ascribe to them an origin from a hole in
the ground east of-the Rocky Mountains.' My early studies of the myths
of the Pacific islanders disclosed the true origin and meaning of the
legendary stories which have been common among many peoples is
ancient and modern times, from the early Athenians to the Marqaesans
and Iroquois, who have ascribed to their ancestors an autochthonous
origin, bringing them literally from underground. These legends originate in the double, or we might rather perhaps say the threefold, meanii*
given in most languages to each of the words ' above' and f below.' This
point is fully explained in an article contributed to  the 'Journal of ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OP  CANADA. 5
American Folk-lore,' for July-September 1890.J It will be sufficient to
say here that the words in question, when used by any islanders (and
sometimes by coast tribes) in a myth ascribing a celestial or an underground Origin to their ancestors, are found to have meant originally
'from the windward' and 'from the leeward.' When used by inland
tribes they have usually signified, in the first instance, ' down-stream' and
* up-stream.' Thus the Iroquois have two traditions of their origin,
the one purely historical and the other merely mythical—the latter
derived from the former by a perversion of the sense of these terms. The
former describes their ancestors as ascending the St. Lawrence River in
canoes from the neighbourhood of Quebec to the southern coast of Lake
Ontario, at or near Oswego. The mythical legend makes them literally
' come from below ' by finding their way through an opening which led
upward from a subterranean abode beneath a mountain near Oswego.
So the curiously combined tradition and myth of the Kootenays inform
us that, in their opinion, their ancestors formerly dwelt in some locality
east of the Rocky Mountains, and had arrived at that locality by an
earlier ascent, doubtless up the Saskatchewan Biver. That they had
been steadily forced westward by their persistent enemies and supplanters,
the warlike Algonkians of the powerful Blackfoot confederacy, seems
elear from the concurring traditions of both parties.
Report on the Kootenay Indians of South-eastern British Columbia.
By Dr. A. F. Chamberlain.
Introductory.
The present report contains a summary of the results of the investi-
igations of the writer on behalf of the British Association for the Advancement of Science during the summer of 1891 in South-eastern British
i Columbia. The Indians visited were the various'tribes of the Ki'tona'Qa,
Itov Kootenays, about whom comparatively little was previously known.
They were studied in regard to physical characteristics, sociology, folklore, and language.
The investigations were conducted under all the difficulties incidental
|,to scientific research in a new country, and the writer takes this opportunity of thanking Mr. Michael Philipps, the Indian agent, and his good
Ifriends in the Kootenay district who did all in their power to make his
sojourn pleasant and to advance the objects of his visit. Particularly
does he desire to express to the Hon. R. L. T. Galbraith, ex-M.P.P., of
Fort Steele, his gratitude for the many courtesies shown him, and for
the hearty manner in which he endorsed and encouraged the writer in
his movements amongst the Indians ; to Father Coccolo and the Sisters
of the Mission of St. Eugene he returns thanks for their hospitality and
the willingness with which they used their influence with the Indians on
behalf of science. To Mr. David McLaughlin, of Idaho, his thanks are
also due for turning to good use, in favour of the writer, the great
influence which he possesses over the Lower Kootenay Indians, and for
useful information concerning these aborigines.2
1 'Above and Below': a Mythological Disease of Language.    By H. Hale.
2 To Dr. Franz Boas, of Clark University, "Worcester, Mass., the writer desires
to acknowledge his indebtedness for much kind advice, and to express his appreciation of his courtesy in placing at his disposal, during the preparation of this report,
his manuscript vocabulary of the Upper Kootenay language. 6 REPORT—1892.
As material is lacking for comparisons in certain directions, which
naturally suggest themselves, viz., with the Shoshonian tribes of the;
region to the south, as regards language, and with these, and with cer-.j
tain Salishan peoples, with respect to physical characteristics, these questions must be deferred for consideration at another time. It may be
stated, however, that from the examination of his material (only partially^
arranged) there appears to be no reason to displace the Kootenay from
its position as a distinct family of speech.
1
I. ETHNOGRAPHICAL.
Country and People.
The Ki'tona'Qa, or Kootenays, inhabit the country included between
the Rockies and the Selkirks, stretching from the forty-ninth to the fifty- j
second parallel of north latitude, and watered by the Upper Kootenayj
and Upper Columbia Rivers and their tributaries. They preserve, how-j
ever, a distinct recollection of having formerly lived east of the Rocky,]
Mountains.    The ethnic and tribal names are as follows :—
An Indian  is called   dqkts'md'kinik,1 and  a Kootenay Indian, tsEn
dqkts'md'kinik, i.e., ' the Indian.'    The names possibly have reference to
the origin of the Kootenays, according to their legend, from a hole in the i
ground; as the latter part of the word 'md'kimik may be explained as con-
dmdk (ground), -i-, a connective vowel, and the suffix -nik,
people originating from, dwelling at, &c.'    The Kootenay also
Ki'tona'Qa, the etymology of which is unknown.    One
ho'tond'qEne, ' I am lean.'    They are generally
sisting of
signifyin
call themselves
Indian connected it with
divided into two groups, viz., Upper Kootenays and Lower Kootenays,
the subdivisions of these being as follows :—
I. Ki'tona'Qa, or Upper Kootenay : (a) Aqki'sk'Enu'kinik (i.e., ' people of the two lakes '), the tribe of the Columbia lakes, with chief settle-.
ment at Windermere, on the Lower Lake; (6) Aqk'a'mnik (i.e., 'the
people of A'qk'am,' as the region of Ft. Steele is called), the tribe of Ft.
Steele and the Mission of St. Eugene, of whom a large number camp at
a place called Bummer's Flat, Takikats; (c) Ya'k'et aqkinu'qtle'et
aqkts'ma'kinik, or Indians of the Tobacco Plains (Ya'k'et aqkinu'qtle'et);
these are better and more properly termed Aqk'anequ'nik (i.e., ' Indians
o,n a creek or river ') ; (d) Aqklye'nik (' people of the leggings ' ?), Indians
of Lake Pend d'Oreille.
II. Aqkoqtla'tlqo, or Indians of the Lower Kootenay (Aqkoktla'hatl)
River, partly in British Columbia and partly in Idaho.
The number of the Kootenay Indians is uncertain ; they are generally
set down at 1,000, half of whom are in British Columbia, the other half'
in. the United States.    The reports of the Canadian Indian Department
from 1880 to 1886 give the number as about 400.    Mr. A. S. Farwell, in^
a special report to the Legislature of British Columbia 2 in 1883, makeia
the following statement:—' The Kootenay tribe of Indians number about
800 men, women, and children, and are divided approximately as follows :
450 British Indians domiciled north of the international boundary line,!
and 200 American Indians residing in Idaho and Montana Territories j]
1 For the alphabet used ip this report see pp, 45,46,
2 For a copy of this the writer is indebted to the kindness of the Hon. Johttl
Kobson, Provincial Secretarj ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF  CANADA. 7
the remaining 150 Indians are migratory, receiving their share of the
annuities paid by the United States Government, at its agency on the
Jocko River, in the Flathead Reservation, Montana Territory, and claiming to be British Indians when they wander north of the boundary line.'
About 3*,0 of the British Indians inhabit the valley of the Upper
Kootenay and Columbia, the remaining 150 belonging to the Lower
Kootenay. The Lower Kootenays, according to Mr. Farwell, whose information was derived from Mr. D. McLaughlin, ' number 157, divided
as follows: 35 men, 34 married women, 39 boys, 32 girls, 4 widows, with
6 boys and 3 girls between them, and 4 widows without encumbrances.'
In 1887, Mr. Michael Philipps, the Indian Agent amongst the Canadian Kootenays, estimates their number as follows :—
Columbia Lakes        ....... 66
Lower Kootenay  160
St. Mary's  235
Tobacco Plains  30
Total       . ■ .       .490
The report of the Indian Agent for June 30 last (1891) \ states the
numbers of ' the Kootenay Indians in British Columbia' to be. as
follows :—
Columbia Lakes        .    106
Kinbaskets ........     41
Flatbow 159
St. Mary's 312
Tobacco Plains 78
Total       .       .        .       .696
Ethnic Names.
The Kootenays call the surrounding tribes with whom they have
come into contact as follows :—
(a) Blackfeet. Sautla or Saha'ntla (bad Indians). In the past the
Kootenays had many wars with the Blackfeet, but joined them often in
their buffalo hunts on the plains to the east. The Blackfoot country is
called Tla'wati'nak (i.e., 'over the mountains'). The Blackfeet often
visit the Kootenays now, and are hospitably received. Such a visit
■occurred in the summer of 1891.
(6) Cree. Gu'tskia'we (liars). A few Crees occasionally visit the
Kootenays, chiefly in company with the Blackfeet. In the old days of
the Hudson's Bay Company these two peoples came more into contact.
(c) Stonies. These Indians have a very bad reputation with the
Kootenays, and are named Tlu'tlama'Eka (cut-throats).    Also Gutlu'puk.
(d) Sioux.    Ka'tsk"agi'tlsak (charcoal legs).
(e) Shushwap. Tlitka'tuwu'mtla'Et (no shirts). This name was
given because, when the Kootenays met the Shushwaps first, the latter
had no buckskin shirts (aqka^tuwu'mtla'Et).
(/) Okanagan. O'kina'k-en. Some of these occasionally visit the
Kootenays. About ten years ago several came to A'qk'am. They are
also known in Kootenay as KokEnu'k'ke.
(i
1 This information I owe to the courtesy of Mr. Vankoughnet, the Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Ottawa. 8
REPORT—1892.
(g) Kalispelm. Ka'noqtla'tlam (compress the side of the head).
Some years ago the Kootenays and Kalispelms were very unfriendly
towards each other. |
(h) Colville Indians. KQoptle'nik (those who dwell at KQoptle kl).
Some intermarriages with these have taken place.
(i) Yakima. Yaa'kima. A Kootenay explained this as meaning 'foot
bent towards the instep,' but this seems a case of folk-etymology. Some
intermarriage with Kootenays.
(j) Sarcees.    Tsu'qos or Tco'ko, also Saksi'kwan.  In the palmy days
of the Hudson's Bay Company not a few Sarcees came into contact with ]
the Kootenays.
(k) JSTez Perce. Sa'ptet. Said to be so named from the 'grass-
baskets '.which they make. Perhaps related to the word from which comes
the name ' Sahaptin.'
The Kootenay name for ' white man ' is suya'pi, in all probability a
borrowed word (in ' Parker's Journal,' 1840, p. 381, the Nez Perce word!
for ' American ' is given as sueapo).    Another and an old word for white]
man is uutlu'qEne, i.e., ' stranger.'    The Indians employ also (but rarely) j
the term kdmnu'qtlo dqkts'md'kinik ('white man').     For 'negro' the
word is kdmk'dk'd'kotl (lit. ' black ').
A Chinaman is called Goo'ktldm.    The Kootenays are much given to
lording it over the Chinese, and not a few practically live on what they]
make out of them.
Senses and Mental Character.
As compared with white men, the Indians, with rare exceptions, must
be considered inferior physically. The European, when inured to the
climate, is capable of as great physical exertion and able to endure as many
and as lasting hardships as the Indian. In running, jumping, wrestling,
and other tests of strength, a good white man is more than the equal of a
good Indian. There are, of course, exceptions, but the European, given
equal chances at the start, can, as a rule, equal, if not always outdistance,
his aboriginal rival.
Many of the Indians have large bands of horses, and some of them
are farmers.    The chief of the Fort Steele Indians is comparatively well
off and has a good ranch.    Some of the Lower Kootenays do a little!
farming also, but are much more migratory and restless.
As a rule, the moral character and behaviour of the Kootenays are very
good, and the writer, from his residence amongst them of nearly three.
months, can confirm the good words that were spoken of them years ago by
Father De Smet.  They are moral, honest, kind, and hospitable, and it is only ]
when imposed upon by bad Indians of other tribes, or by bad whites, thaq
any of the worse traits of Indian character appear.   But it is exceedingly
difficult to judge of the nature of the Indian, and to determine wherein!
he differs from the white man.    The mental character of the Kootenaysj
is rather high, and the efforts that have been made to educate them are J
not without fruit,    Too much credit cannot be given to the Government'
of the Province of British Columbia for the firm manner in which, aided
by public opinion, they have enforced the law prohibiting the giving or
selling of intoxicating liquors to the Indians.    This is the first and most
necessary basis for any development or betterment of the aborigines.1
Next comes the freedom from contact with lewd and dishonest white*
i ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
men, which the Kootenays have enjoyed to a much greater extent than
have many of the neighbouring tribes.
To educate a moral and sober people ought not to be too difficult a
task, if the right methods are employed. The founding of the industrial
school for Indian children at the Mission of St. Eugene, a few miles from
Fort Steele, has already been productive of good results. The writer
paid a visit to this school, and had the pleasure of inspecting the teaching,
as well as of examining the building and the various appliances connected
therewith. The English language is taught in this school, and the young
Indians learn to read and to write in a remarkably short time under the
guidance of the nuns who have charge of the school. There were about
two dozen boys and girls in the school at the time of the writer's visit;
they were neatly dressed, polite, and intelligent-looking, and the progress
they had made during the few short months they had been there was
very encouraging. This school well deserves all the support given to it
by the Government, and it is to be hoped that the project of extending
its usefulness so as to reach the children of the Lower Kootenays will
meet with a proper measure of success.
The great difficulty in civilising the Indian has been to prevent the
, relapse into old tribal habits when the school is left behind.    The career
•of the future graduates of the industrial school at St. Eugene will be
watched with interest by all friends of the Indian, and Father Coccolo,
jthe head of the mission, and the Sisters in charge of the school, may be
relied upon to do their share towards making the end good.
No opportunities offered themselves for making psychological tests
' upon the Indians, but quick perception and rapid judgment are characteristic of the better portion of these Indians, as their actions in hunting
and travelling plainly show.    The Indian A'mElu, although forgetting
. very often to take away some of the articles from a camp when a new
start was made, had a remarkable memory for places.    One day he left a
knife belonging to the writer about halfway up a mountain some 7,000 feet
high.   The incident was forgotten by him for the time being; but, on being
tasked many hours afterwards where he had left the knife, he described
the place in great detail.    On another occasion he left a knife in the
woods by the side of the trail, and after we had made a journey of 150
miles and back, and had been absent from the spot a whole month, he
was able, on our return, to pick up the knife with hardly a moment's
hesitation.
The Kootenay Indians, especially the young men, are gay and lively,
enjoying themselves as much as their white friends, fond of horse-racing
and bodily exercise. They are of a very inquisitive nature, and the
"Indian A'mElu would run down to the river-bank and stand staring for
almost an hour at the steamboat every time it passed the camp. The
rest of the Indians were just as curious. The Indian A'mElu went (for
the first time in his life) on a trip up the river on the steamboat with the
writer, and the young fellow was so proud that he could hardly contain
himself. No doubt he is now whiling away the winter hours by relating
his experiences to his friends.
The writer had occasion to notice two excellent exhibitions of Indian
character; in one case of pride and triumph, in the other of anger and
disappointment.
A young Indian had been convicted of a crime and sent to jail at New
Westminster, where he remained some months.    Owing to the exertions
u 10
REPORT—1892.
of a clever lawyer, his conviction was quashed on a technicality, and the \
authorities were obliged to return him to Fort Steele, where he belonged.
The writer saw him the day after his arrival. He was dressed in all the |
finery he could command, and took the greatest pleasure in parading j
himself about and letting people see that he knew he had won a triumph
over the whites. He was in the very highest state of pleasurable excite- j
ment, and continued in this frame of mind for a long time.
The other case was that of an Indian of about sixty years of age whom
the writer was measuring. The Indian, however, after two or three
measurements had been taken, demanded a large sum of money, and, on I
being refused, pushed the instrument away from him, and, angrily -4
muttering, went outside the store, where he had been standing, sat down J
on the verandah in front, where he remained all the afternoon, glowering |
and muttering, and doing his best to impede matters. He continued in I
this morose mood for days, and even at the expiry of a month would not I
have anything to do with the writer.
There is also another case in point. While the writer was at Barnard,
B.C., he visited Mr. David McLaughlin's often, and one morning, while
seated parleying with the Indians, a middle-aged Indian suddenly entered
the house, threw his hat on the floor in a most excited manner, and for
twenty minutes poured a perfect flood of abuse and threatening on the I
head of the writer, accompanied by most expressive gestures. After he
had unburdened himself of his wrath, he picked up his hat and departed.
Several similar, though not quite so animated, exhibitions of anger came;?
under the writer's notice during his stay in the Lower Kootenay, most of
them being traceable to the Indian trouble at Bonner's Ferry, Idaho,
which had aroused the resentment of the Kootenays.
While in the territory of Chief San Piel, of the Lower Kootenays, one
day the chief and some dozen Indians came into the writer's tent and,
seating themselves around him in a circle, demanded a large tribute for
having intruded into their territory. A refusal to comply with the
outrageous demand led to a very interesting display of Indian resentment
and anger, as made known by speech and gesture, the faces of some of the
savages being given at times an almost demoniacal expression, and their
gestures just stopping short of actual assault. Still, in spite of these
disturbing outbreaks, which sometimes occur, the white man who behaves
himself is perfectly safe amongst the Indians, and need fear no treachery.
The Indians have a keen sense of the ridiculous, and go so far as to
laugh at the misfortunes which befall their fellows.    If an  Indian is
thrown from his horse, misses the animal he shoots at, trips up and falls
down, his mishap is always greeted with laughter by the bystanders.    A
few hours after the excited speech of the Indian at McLaughlin's, the
writer was engaged in measuring another of the same tribe, when the
Indian suddenly rose to his full height, drew his knife from his sheath, I
and made a motion to strike the measurer, which somewhat disconcerted .;
the latter, who, however, was almost immediately reassured by the loud^
laughter of the Indians who were present.    The Indians take great
delight in tricks such as this.
A favourite amusement of the Lower Kootenay Indians on Sundays isj
furnished by horse-running. All the horses are assembled in a large open]
space near the camp, and the Indians form a large circle round them,
and, provided with long whips, they drive the horses to and fro for an,
hour or so, laughing and yelling to their hearts' content.    Even the littlJ ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
11
Ijoys.take part in this sport. They also take great delight in breaking
stubborn horses, and the whole camp looks on until the young man has
succeeded in controlling his animal, guying him unmercifully if he makes
mistakes.
The Kootenay Indians have marked artistic ability, although picture-
writing upon rocks, &c, appears not to be found in their territory, or, if
found, is not attributed to them. Their skill in ornamentation appears
in their various objects of dress and the implements of the chase. The
writer took the care to have a series of drawings made by Indians (young
and old) who had in no way received from the whites instruction in the
draughtsman's art. Very good maps of the country in which they lived
were made by these Indians, who seemed quite to have grasped the idea
contained in such a delineation. Some of them were also able to recognise
with ease the various physical features prominent in the printed maps of
the Kootenay district. Their drawings of weapons, implements, &c,
were excellent, and those of the Indian A'mElu, in particular, would never
be suspected of being the product of aboriginal genius. Pictures of
houses, railway trains, &c, have a certain conventionality that is charac-
Tteristie of savage races. Several of the Indians were able to draw an
excellent and easily recognisable picture of the little steamboat that plied
up and down the Columbia River. In their drawings of human beings
especial stress is laid upon the distinguishing features, and any peculiarity
or abnormality is brought out with full force. Thus a Stony Indian
woman has no nose, a Chinaman has an immense single braid of hair, a
white man an enormous beard, a certain Indian a colossal nose, and
the like.
Colour Vocabulary.
the Kootenays, as  tested by a card of
kd'qilu'iyi't'ka.
The  colour vocabulary  of
' Diamond Dyes,' is as follows:
White, karnnu'qtJu.
Black, kamk'ok'd'kdtl.
Red, kdno'hos.
•Crimson,
Uardinal red,
Magenta, y keik dp
Cardinal,
Violet,
Dark violet, tsod'q'nokaQd'rnek.
Fast pink, ko'pqaqtle'et.
Fast brown,   ~|
Maroon, >dqkd'qtlako'Qoq.
Dark brown, J
The colour perceptions of these Indians would appear from these
names to be fairly well developed. The explanations of these colour-names,
which are no doubt compounds, have not yet been possible. The prefixes
Mm- and yd- are worthy of note, and the words for ' white 'and ' black '
may possibly be related to those for ' snow ' and ' fire ' respectively.
The following colour-names for horses may be given:—
Green,
Dark green,
Fast bottle green,
Light blue,
Olive green, to'ed kd'qtlu'etka.
Blue, ydmi'nkan.
Orange,   "I
Yellow,     ykama'qtse.
Old gold, J
Scarlet, yawo'Enek.
Variegated, gdktle'tl.
TT ifw   V  (kamk'd'k'dguitlQd'tletl.
Kdmnu'qtlu k'd'tla
Kdmk'dk'o'kotl
Qd'Etltsin, a white horse,
a black horse.
mtii 12
REPORT —1892.
Ka'tldQ&'tletl
ICka'sEno'stlam
Ka'nokdyu'kao,b
Ka'notstld'aka't'
Kd'makts 'k■ o'wdt
I'ntcuk k' o'wdt
Etltsi/n,
a horse half white, half black (Pinto),
a roan horse.
a ' buckskin ' horse,
a ' blue ' horse.
a sorrel horse (lit. ' yellow hair ').
a   mouse-coloured horse   (lit.   'mouse
hair').
Y
Social   Organisation.
The social system of the Kootenays seems a simple one.    As far as
could be learnt totems and secret societies, so characteristic of some other |
British Columbian peoples, do not exist, and probably have not existed, J
amongst them.
The head of each tribal or local community was the chief (ndsu'kwen,%
'the good one'), whose office originally was hereditary.    Women were j
not allowed to become chiefs, and it is probable that the age of thirty hadl
to be reached before the chiefship could be held.   One method of selecting"!
the chief appears to have been this : All the men, women, and children J
gathered together around a large fire.    The medicine men then conferred'!
with the spirits, and in some mysterious way the chief was named.    In|
the time of the great buffalo hunts a 'buffalo chief was elected, whol
had authority overall during the expeditions.   The selection of the chiefs |
by direct election has been of late years introduced by the authorities of
the Roman Catholic Church, whose influence is now greater than that of
the old chiefs, and whose power is much more feared by the Indians than*
theirs.    When the chief wished to consult with his people he called them
in a loud voice to come to his large tepee.    It is probable that from early
times   a   sort   of advisory   council   existed.     Each  of the  divisions
(Columbia Lakes, Fort Steele, Kootenay Lake, Tobacco Plains) has its':
own chief; in the case of the Kootenay Lake tribe there is a deputy-chief
also, and the Tobacco Plains Indians possess two chiefs.
. Isidore, the Fort Steele chief, inherits his dignity from bis father
Joseph. The chief (by right) of the Lower Kootenays is said to have
refused the position, giving as a reason for his action that wars were now
all over, the buffaloes were dead, and there was now nothing left for a chief
to do.
Slavery (g-d'naQd'ka, 'a war-party,' tci'kudtE'mdtl, 'a slave') was
customary in the old days, and the Kootenays had amongst them many <
Blackfeet women and children, who were captured in their wars with!
that nation. A curious custom, which has existed from time immemorial!
amongst the Kootenays, is the payment by the relatives of the debts of a j
deceased person. Debts outstanding for ten years have been known to
be paid in this way.
Terms of Relationship.
As far as ascertained, the  Kootenay terms of relationship are as
follows:—
Father (utB'\nam (said by male).
' Xso'nam   (   „   „  female).
Mother, md'enam.
Grandfather, pajp&'nam.
f tite'nam. (said by m ale)
Grandmother, < papa'nam    „       „
(_    or female).
Great-grandfather, a'tsemitl. ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
13
Great-grandmother, d'tsemitl.
Uncle (father's brother), Qd'nam.
„     (mother's brother), hatsd'nam.
Aunt (mother's sister), hooht.
„   (father's sister), U'tltet.
Father-in-law, nuwa'spdtl.
Mother-in-law, ,,
Husband, nUtld'Tusna.
Wife, titlna'mu ( = old woman).
Brother-in-law, skat.
Sister-in-law, atca'ivats.
Brother (elder), tate'nam.
„      (younger), tod'nam.
„       hd'&dQd'm.dtl.
Sister (elder), tso'nam.
„     (younger), ndnd'nam.
„      (general term), dtlitsJie'tlnam.
Cousin (m), atlko'kdQd'mdtl.
„     (f), dtlatlitske'tlnam.
Son, aqhrdtle'na/m,.
. Daughter, sul'nam.
Nephew (brother's son) = brother.
„       (sister's son) = brother.
Niece (brother's daughter) = brother
„     (sister's daughter) = brother.
Grandson, papa'nam ; d'tldqhd'tle.
Granddaughter, papa'nam ; Qdtle.
Married man, ttatli'tet.
Unmarried man, tli'ttldtli'tet.
Marry, Jio'ndtld'QOMe, hond'tlatli'tine (I
marry).
Widow, tlutlM'mdtl.
Widower,       „
Orphan, na'nhd.
Young unmarried man, ntsta'hdtl.
„ „        woman, ndu'te.
Boy, ntsta'hdtl na'na.
Girl, ndu'te na'na.
Infant, tlkd'mu.
Twins, kdsu'ko.
Woman, pa tike.
Man, ti'tJi'dt.
Marriage (hond'tlatli'tine, I am married).
The social position of woman amongst the Kootenays seems to have
been about the same as that which she held in the surrounding tribes.
-In the old days polygamy seems to have been in vogue, and wives were
.purchased by presents of horses, &c.    The marriage age for girls was
fifteen; for young men, twenty.    Intermarriage of first cousins appears
, not  to  have  been  allowed.    The   preliminaries  to  marriage  were  as
' follows:—The young Indian went at night to the lodge where slept the
object of his affections, and quietly lifting up the blanket, to make sure,
lay down beside her.    The girl's people soon found him there, and threats
were made.    The young man's father meanwhile inquired where his son
;was, and, on being told that he was in such-and-such a lodge, went
thither with his friends and discovered the young people together.    The
girl then left, and went with her husband to his own people.    The latter
was at liberty to send back his wife to her relations within a year if she
turned out to be bad or he was dissatisfied with her.    When guilty of
adultery she was punished by having one of the braids of her hair cut
off by her husband.    A divorced woman was allowed to marry again, and
widows also.    Descent seems to be traced through the mother.
Children (tlkd'mu, young child).
The Indians are fond of their children, and rarely punish or beat
them. The children are usually very shy of white men, but amongst
themselves are merry and lively. Parturition is easy amongst these
Indians. Delivery was hastened by the efforts of several old women,
who seized-upon the pregnant woman and shook her. The after-birth
was always hung on a tree. Mothers carry their children either in
shawls at their backs or in cradles. The Kootenay cradle (dqkink'o'mdtl)
is made of deerskin drawn over a thick board, about 3 feet long, and
tapering from 1^ foot at the widest to 6 inches at the lower end. Near
the top is a flap which can be fastened over the head of the child, which,
when in the cradle on the mother's back, is in an upright position.    The 14
REPORT—1892.
cradle is often ornamented with beads, bits of fur, silk, &c.    In oldenj
times the cradle was a piece of; board to which the child was fastened
Fig. 1.—Indian cradle, ornamented with bead-work and strips of weasel fur.   Thg
original is 37 inches long by 14 inches broad (at the widest part).
with buckskin thongs.    The cradle is supported by straps around fhji
breast and a band around the forehead.    See fig. 1.
Adoption.
Adoption into the tribe by marriage, or by residence of more than a
year, was in practice. When the parents of small children died the'
relatives came, each taking a child and bringing it up as his own. The
elder children seemingly had to take care of themselves. A very friendly
feeling between brothers and sisters existed, and the latter were well
taken care of on the decease of their parents.
Property and Inheritance.
Private property in land was unknown, the country belonging to the
tribe collectively. The Lower Kootenays still make, through their chief,
a demand for money of any stranger who intrudes upon their domain.
The hunter had no absolute right in the product of his skill in the
chase; it was distributed amongst the camp in order that all might have
food.
Women could hold property as well as men.    The horses were the
property of the grown-up male children, as well as of the father, and
could be gambled away by any one of them.    The lodge seems to have
been secured to the widow and children on the death of the father; the
women inherited also the kettles and other utensils, besides their saddles,'
blankets, 'parfleshes,' &c.    The horses, canoes, weapons, &c, went to the
male children, if of age.     In early times it seems that the dead man's
relatives swooped down upon the lodge, soon after his death, and apprca
priated the property pretty much as they pleased.    The exact nature ofI
this seizure could not be ascertained.    If the dead man left no relatives 9
' strong man ' of the tribe took possession of his property.
Crime.
Stealing (na'iine, he steals) is little practised by the Kootenays; anal
though amongst them for months, when, they had every chance to pilfeB ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
15
from him, the writer never lost even a trifle. In the olden times it seems
not to have been punished, and probably existed but to a very slio-ht
extent. Adultery was not severely punished. In case of murder, the
relatives of the victim were bound to avenge his death on the slayer.
Members of the murderer's family were also liable to be killed. A wergild was customary; the compensation depended upon the rank and
importance of the victim. This compensation did not, however, entirely
relieve the slayer from danger of being killed by members of his victim's
family.
Religion and Superstition.
The sun-worship of the Kootenays, as described by Dr. Boas (' Report,'
1889, p. 848), which seems to indicate a belief in an over-ruling and
beneficent spirit—though this is not certain—is confirmed. The belief
that the dead go to the sun was strong with the ' pagan' Indians. They
also believed that the dead would come back from the sun at Lake Pend
d'Oreille, where the Indians will meet them some time in the future.
The Kootenays believe in the existence of spirits in everything
animate and inanimate; even little stones, bits of rag, shavings of wood,
have their nipi'k'a or tcdk'd'ps, as these spirits are called. These spirits
can go anywhere, through glass, wood, or any substance, as through air.
The touch of the nipi'k'a causes death and disease. At the death of
Indians their spirits may enter into fishes, bears, trees, &c.; in fact, into
anything animate or inanimate. While a man is alive his nipi'k'a may
exist in the form of a tomtit, a jay, a bear, a flower, &c. The nipi'k'as of
the dead can return and visit their friends; and while the writer was at
Barnard, B.C., one Indian declared that the night before the spirits of his
children had come to see him. The spirits appear very frequently in the
folk-tales.
. In the olden times sacrifices appear to have been made to the nipi'k'as
of the mountains and of the forests to secure success in hunting, and to
appease them when angered. The language of the nipi'k'as differs
somewhat from the ordinary Kootenay, but the writer was unable to
ascertain in what respects, or to obtain examples of it. A great or strong
man has many spirits.    See also p. 18 of this report.
Medioine-men, or Shamaits.
In the old days there were many medicine-men amongst the Kootenays,
and they were very powerful, as it was their business to commune with
the spirits. In the camp they had special lodges, larger than the rest, in
which they prayed and invoked the spirits, who often would make their
appearance in the form of a bird or the like in response to their
entreaties.
There existed, until recently, a tree in the Lower Kootenay region, in
Northern Idaho, from which, on two successive occasions, Indians had
jumped off in obedience to the promise of the medicine-men that they
should be able to fly like the birds if they did so. In the presence of the
assembled camp, men, women, and children, several Indians were hardy
enough to do this, which was, of course, certain death to them. The
invocation of spirits by the shamans now survives amongst the Lower
Kootenays only.
These shamans were also the doctors of the tribe.    They treated the
V 16
REPORT—1892.
sick by pressure upon various parts of the body, by pinching, &c. The)!
also practised blowing upon the patient, and extracted the supposed causel
of the malady by suction with the mouth. Blood-letting at the wrisn
was also in use. The shaman was called ni'pik'ak'd'k-'d, from his having
to do with the nipi'k'as.
Death and Burial.
The Kootenays usually buried their dead in shallow holes amidst thel
rocks and boulders, and often left them exposed to the air.    Sometimes!
they buried them on low lands, subject annually to be covered by thel
river at high water.   In the. early days the Indian was buried with all hist
finery, and the members of the tribe seemed to have followed in the';
funeral procession.    Before the Church authorities put a stop to it, the|
Indians used to betake themselves to the hills and shriek terribly over thel
dead.    They appear to have taken good care of their dead, and never
disturbed the graves of their people.    It is impossible to obtain osteo-
logical material on account of the strong prejudice the Indians have in
this matter.
Painting and Tattooing.
The Upper Kootenays do not now paint (gi'tEnii'stik) or tattoo (kdtlku)
their faces or persons, except in very rare instances. In the past, however, \
they practised the same very much. It is said lovers' wooings and
challenges to fight were made known by painting the face in a peculiar
manner, and the answer was conveyed by the same means. Some of
the Indians are tattooed on the arms with small black dots, often
accompanied by black lines. In one case, which the writer investigated,
it turned out that the tattooing was done by Lum Kin, a Chinese doctor,
to cure a sore arm. The Indians, however, admitted that in the past
they had similar practices.
Numbers of the Indians have on their arms one or several circular
scars, evidently made by burning. These, the Indians said, were
produced by pressing a hot tobacco-pipe of stone to the flesh. No reason
for so doing was assigned.
The Lower Kootenays are still much given to painting the face, ears,
neck, and exposed portions of the breast in gaudy colours. Many, whom
the writer saw, had their whole faces, necks, and ears daubed thickly over
with bright red paint. Some had the face painted red and the forehead
yellow; others, again, had the colours laid on in bands of red and yellow,
giving them a weird appearance as they danced by the huge fire at night.
Not the men alone, but the women also, were thus decorated, and with
the same variety.    The children, as a rule, seem not to be so much
bepainted as their elders.    Some of the Indians contented themselves-
with a few daubs here and there.     One metis, who assured the writJS
that he was a 'Boston man,' and not an Indian, was seen the very next
day with as mnch paint on as the most Indian of them all.
The red ochre used for paint is called ndmi'ta. Other terms for
* paint' are : kdno'su'mme, red paint; kdmd'ktsu'mms, yellow paint. The
word gi'tenu'stik, ' to paint,' is derived from nus or nos, the radical off
kdno'hc
red,' that being the colour. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
Music and Song (hd'ndwasao"mek, I sing).
17
The absence of musical instruments is very noticeable amongst the
Tipper Kootenays, but they appear to have possessed several in the past.
Among these were a sort of reed pipe and a kind of flute (?) made of the
leg-bone of a large species of bird. The Lower Kootenays still possess
the Kootenay drum, made as follows :—A rather large stick is bent into a
circle by the aid of fire, and over this is stretched, tambourine fashion, a
piece of deer-skin. The Aqk'aye'nik Kootenays are said to be the only
ones who now make these drums (kitdmd'hdtl); they are beaten with a wooden
stick called kitd'mdhd'mdtl. In their gambling songs the Lower Kootenays
nse wooden sticks, called dqse'et, with which they beat upon a log.
In the old days the Kootenays had very many gambling, dancing, and
medicine songs. The Indians, under mission influence, have abandoned
most of these, their places having been taken by the religious exercises of
the Church. The children at the mission sing well, both in Indian and
in English. In the evening the older people sing mission songs in their
^native tongue. Amongst the Lower Kootenays some of the old songs
still survive.
While travelling on horseback some of the younger Indians sing refrains like this : To to to to! turn turn turn! td td id td I tai tai tai tai!-
accompanying it with rhythmic motions of the hands or with slaps with
the hand upon the flanks of the horse. Another refrain, chanted with
an infinite variety of inflexion and intonation, is the following :—
Hai yd ! hd he yau!
E     yd ! hd ha hai yau !
He   yd! ho yd ! &c.
The Indian A'mElu. was very fond of repeating in rhythmic fashion the
word tcina'tlue'tEin, which he declared to be nothing but ' cultus wawa '
(Chinook jargon for 'mere chatter' or 'idle utterance'), having no
Signification.
The Lower Kootenays are very much in love with gambling, which
gvice, through the efforts of the missionaries, has been entirely suppressed
Amongst the. Upper Kootenays. In the gambling dance they chant
Hai yd ! hai yd ! hai yd he, repeated an infinite number of times, interspersed with yells of hd hd ! hd hd ! he he hai hai ! hu hu ! &c. Another
gambling refrain is % 11! yd e e e !
The gambling consists in guessing in which hand one (on which a
ring of bark is left) of two sticks of wood is hidden. The players sit in
two rows facing each other, and a number of them keep beating on a log
in front of them with sticks, while the sticks are passed from hand to hand.
Prom time to time some of the players sing or contort their limbs in various
ways. In its essentials the game is the same as the Chinook game
described by Paul Kane (' Wanderings of an Artist,' p. 193), who has not
failed to note ' the eternal gambling song he hah ha ! '
The following songs were obtained from Paul, a Tobacco Plains
Kootenay, and were stated by him to be very old :—
I.
Kl'tamu'Qotl    ka/kuwe'tl    titk'at    pa'tlke.
Drum dance man      woman.
mm 18 REPORT —1892.
Ka'tlkok'atlma'QEnam   na'matiktci'tlne
Kissing give.
Se'tis      tla'kitlak       natlkok'a'tlmaQa'tlne.
Blankets   divers things kiss.
Na'matiktci'tlne   yu'naka'ne   k'a'psins.
Give many things.
They beat the drum and dance ; men and women kiss; they present
blankets and other things ; they kiss and give many things.
Ni'titlana'mna
He makes a lodge
na'ksak.
the marten (Mustela).
II.
tsQatla'nkoQo'tlne
makes a big lodge
tsi'sini'nkoQo'natlka'Eng
and invokes spirits
III. Medicine Song. '
Kika'Qna'mnan ni'sinwisQa'tlne na'kine    kaki'ksi ni'pik'a'isj
The Indian covers himself with a blanket      swims    speaking   his spirit.
Tlati'k'mi'tetl kaki'ksi ni'pik'a'is.   TsQa'dlQaka'iyEka'mik.
Enters the top of the lodge speaking   his spirit.   Rolls over onthesnow(f)
Paul elaborated this song thus:—An Indian is crouching in the corner i
of his lodge beneath blankets, invoking the spirits. Soon the spirit enters j
through the top of the lodge, passes.beneath the blanket, and enters the'
Indian, who then flies away on high ; by-and-by returns, and, sitting under
the blanket, causes the spirit to depart again.
IV.  Medicine Song.
Ta'moQo'tlne      tsitlwanu'knanu'kanamna'mne.
They beat drums sing very much.
4
Tu'nak'a'psl   k'a'psins  kEtcu'kwat   Qa'tkina'kine.
Many things get he recovers.
Drums are beaten, songs are sung, many gifts are made, the things
are removed, and the man recovers.
V. Gambling Song.
Ka'tluwa'tsinam   yu'naka'ne    ke'skaQrai'tetl    k'a'psin.
Gambling many are lost things.
K'k'a'tlaQa'stltsin    se'tis      aqka'tuwu'mtlaEt   ta'wo
Horses blankets shirts guns
ni'tlko.
money.
K'a'pe   k'a'psin    ne'skaQmitr'tlne.
Every       thing lost.
aqktca'matl
knives
41 ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
19
k'a'tlaQa'Etltsin.
horses.
VI. War Song.
Netlawa'tinak        ni'natlutluni'sinam.
Across the mountains    they go far away.
Atno'nitli'tlne sa'ntla        a'tkonka'tlawusQo'niya'mne.
They are much afraid of     Blackfeet ?
Atslo'nltli'tlne sa'ntla; tlsQa'tlal
They are much afraid of   Blackfeet;    they will steal
Atnu'pslati'yitlka'nlki'tine.
They keep singmg a long time.
Ni'natlho'tloni'sinam tla opka'tloni'sinam.
They go far away ;     they cross the mountains again*
No'kwankik'i'tlaqk'ni'yam.   Ta'aQas      atka'kaskini'tlne.
Kill all the buffaloes.        Enough of svnging.
This song Paul explained as follows:—-The Indians cross the mountains
to go to the distant Blackfoot country, where there are great prairies and
many buffaloes. The Indians are much afraid of the Blackfeet. The
youths form circles and sing. The Kootenays are much afraid of the
Blackfeet. They are going to steal horses. They sing for a long time.
Then they hasten to return across the mountains, having finished killing
buffaloes.
VII. Children's Song.
Kitki'nitl kane'he tla'kitlak ka'wiska'kana'nam.
Kiktci'Jrina'mnam atsli'tkini'tlne ka'ktlinka'iyam.
Atsli'tkini'tlne k'a'tla 'tlka'mu niktci'kebl.
Hinnen netsta'hatlna'na atawu"te aqkinu'tlams.
Nau/t'na'na atni'nsl kiyu'k'mu'tles atni'nse aqkinu'tlam.
Paul gave the following explanation of this song :—The children join
•hands in a circle, and bending the knees assume a sitting posture, the
whole weight of the body resting on the legs below the knees. They
keep rising up and sitting down, never actually sitting on the ground,
however. One of them closes his eyes, and the game consists in the
others stepping on his toes, &c, and pretending to be women, snakes,
guns, or the like.
Hunting (ho'nana'qS, I hunt).
The Kootenays have always been great hunters. In former times they
used to cross the Rockies to join the Blackfeet and other tribes in the
great annual buffalo hunt. Since the disappearance of these animals they
have been forced to confine themselves to the pursuit of bears, deer,
wolves; and the smaller fur-bearing animals. The Indians are very skilful in the chase, and it is said that in the old days certain families hunted
only some particular animal; the bear or the beaver, for example. The
flesh of most of the animals killed is eaten by the Indians, and the hides
are disposed of to the whites. The Upper Kootenays kill a large number
of skunks (Qd'Qas), which they sell to the Chinese miners, who use them
for medicinal purposes-
h 6—4
if I Ijf
20
REPORT—1892.
Since the introduction of firearms amongst the Indians, the old bows
and arrows have in great part disappeared.    Some of the children usej
them to shoot birds, and here and there may be still seen a few old men
with bow and quiver slung across their backs (the- quiver being made of
skin, and often profusely ornamented with beads, strips of fur, <fcc).    Inj
using the bow the Kootenays hold it sometimes horizontally, sometimes!
perpendicularly.    The arrow rests between the first and second fingers of
the left hand, which grasps the bow-'stick, while the notch-end of the;
arrow is held between the thumb and first finger of the right hand.
The  bow-stick  (dqktld'kud)   was  made  of cedar  (itsEnd'Et,  Thuya
gigantea) or maple (mitskik, Acer glabrum).   The bow-string (t'dwu'm'kd%
Fig. 2.—Bow and arrow (with flint point) made by Indian.
long.
The bow is 28A inches
<$P*
was made of the sinews (dqkinJcd'tlkd) of various animals (chiefly of thel
deer), and sometimes of strips of skin.    The arrows used for shooting!
birds were entirely of wood, with a thick, blunt end.    Other arrows!
(dqk) had points (ndtlko'tsap) of bone or stone, and, latterly, of iron]
obtained from the whites.    The stone arrowhead (ndtlkd'tsap) was of flint!
(dqkd'tskd) obtained by the Lower Kootenays from a mountain about]
twenty miles from Barnard, B.C., and by the Upper Kootenays of the!
region about Port Steele from the vicinity of Sheep Creek.    The point of]
the  arrow   is   called  dqkink'd'kd,  the   feather   dqk'd'n'k'd,  the   notch]
dqk'd'n'k'dk, the quiver idts'dk, or d'qkank'd'nam, the whole bow and
arrows dqkd'k'mdtlihet t'a'wd.  Long ago the Lower Kootenays are said to
have caught ducks by means of a pole, to which was attached a net made
of the fibre of the plant known as d'qkdtla'kpis.    The Indians used to j
lasso the ' fool hen'  (kld'wdts) by means of nooses made of the same
material.
It was  customary for  the hunter  to  distribute  the product of his
prowess amongst his relatives and friends, and this hospitality was almost
a law of the tribe.    It is not quite certain whether an Indian would kill a:
bear or a fish into which he thought one of the spirits of his departed
relatives had gone.
Pishing (ndtlu'ktlauwa'te, he fishes).
The Lower Kootenays are, to a great extent, canoe and fishing Indians.
The Upper Kootenays, for the most part, on account of their situation,
are less given to travelling by water or to the procuring of fish, excepting salmon (mwd'kEmd), as a food supply.      Many methods of catching-
fish are in use, of which the following are the chief:—
Before the advent of the whites, the Indians fished with a hook
(tco'wak) made of a bit of bone fastened to a piece of wood, the whole
having much the shape of an ordinary hook.    To this was attached a line ON'THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
21
made of the fibre of d'qkdtla'kpis. Por hooks to catch small fish the
Spines of a species of gooseberry called kisyl'tin, were sometimes employed.
Pishing through the ice was practised thus : Over a hole cut in the
ice was laid a branch or stick of wood, upon which Was let down a branch
having two prongs, the ends of which were tied together, and from them
hung the hook and line of d'qkdtla'kpis. This method of fishing was
termed nd'usdntlu'ktlukwd'tsene.
Another mode of obtaining fish in the winter time was to pound on the
ice with a club or heavy piece of wood, and so drive the fish into the
shallows near the shore, where repeated blows stunned or killed them.
This was called gd'kpaki'tdwi'tEQd'mdtl.
Gaffing (gud'kdmi't'wum'k'd'md) by means of a large hook attached to
a slender branch or pole is now much practised by the Indians, who are
very skilful at it.
The Lower Kootenays, depending upon fish as a chief source of their
food supply, have certain devices for obtaining them in large quantities,
jThe chief of these are the dam or weir and the basket-trap.
The first of these (dqk' wv/kQo) is a sort of dam of sticks and wicker-
work built across a stream or at the entrance of a ' slough,' so as to prevent the escape of the fish when the water falls. Attached to these dams
are often wicker-work traps, cone-shaped, sometimes 10 feet long by
8 feet wide, into which the fish fall and are caught. Fishing by means
of this is called wd't'kd'tlik.
The basket-trap (yd'ka) is of wicker-work and cone-shaped (often as
large as 10x3 feet) : within it is ingeniously placed or worked another
cone, called d'qkitlivi'is yd'ka ('the heart of the yd'ka'), or yd'ka na'na
('little yd'ka'), which effectually prevents the exit of the fish, while
iaffording them an easy entrance. Along one side of the yd'ka are placed
rings of bark, generally three in number ; to these are attached stout
Kprings, which are held by three or four Indians. To fish with the yd'ka
is nd'witskd'ene.
There are three kinds of fish spears in use amongst the Kootenays.
fThe first, called dqktla'na, closely resembles the spear of the Eskimos;
|bhe second, d'qkinu'kmdk', has three fixed points like a trident; the third
has a point of wood, headed with metal, shaped like an arrow-head, to
Which is attached a string, so that the point is released when a fish is
struck and can be retrieved. The third sort is used for salmon and other
large fish.    To spear fish is called gu'ak'd'md.
Fig. 3.—Head of fish-spear called dqUla'aa.   The original is 18| inches long by 2£
inches at widest part.
lij
1 1
1!
II I
4
The Lower Kootenays dry immense quantities of the fish called ma'tit
and dpd't' for use during the winter. The fish are dried (ki'tkani'tltlitl)
on stages called d'qkuwd'skd, which are erected near the lodges.
mm 22
REPORT —1892.
Canoes.
The Kootenays have three names for canoes: tci'VEno, a canoe made
of pine or spruce bark; std'tldm, a ' dug-out'; ydk'tsd'metl, a term for
other than dug-out canoes. A steamboat is d'qkink'd'k'o ydktsd'metl
(' fire canoe '), and a large ferry-boat is called std'tldm.
The bark canoe of the Kootenays is of peculiar construction.    It is
made for the most part of white pine (d'qkdm) or spruce (gi'sitsk'd'dl, Picea
alba) bark (dqk'wdk), with the outer side turned in and chipped off, so as to
be fairly smooth.   The upper rim, of about 4 or 5 inches in width, is made of
birch bark.   The Lower Kootenays use the bark of the tree called d'qkdm,'
to make their canoes.    The sewing is done by needles of bone (did), and
split roots serve as thread.    The pitch (i'dluwas) used is obtained from
several of the conifera.    The boat is much shorter at the top than along
the keel, and at both ends runs down towards the keel, terminating in
sharp points (d'qkd), thus rendering it quite unique in appearance.    Thea
rim around the top is made of bent strips (dqkd'k'yu) of hard wood, and
is well secured by lashings of split roots and bark fibre.    The edges off
these strips cross at the ends.   Prom the ends to the keel run two binding j
strips (dqku'nwok) for each end of the boat, which are fastened in the]
same way.    The boat, besides being pitched, is often plastered over with 1
a sort of mud (a'mdk).    The inside framework consists of longitudinal J
strips (dqki'kdlak) on the bottoms and along the sides, and the curvedl
strengtheners (dqkd'dbnd) running from top to top along the bottom and I
Fig. 4.—Canoe of Lower Kootenay Indians.   This drawing is after a model made
by Chief Eustan.    The model canoe is 22 inches from tip to tip by 4§ inches I
wide at the centre, and is perfect in its details.
up the sides.    The bark fibres or strips used for tying and lashing the
various parts together are called ndp'tsu'nQd.    The thwarts, three or four
in number, are called d'qkE.    The paddle (dli'sin) is generally of cedar; ■
the blade is called dqkd'm, and the handle dqkd'n.    The paddler kneels
upon a number of flat pieces of cedar or other similar wood tied together, I
' 3rmed goT'nidl.
These canoes are very' cranky,' but the Indians can navigate one of them
in the wake of a large river steamer with ease.    The canoe is anchored I
by sticking the handle of the paddle into the mud of the shore and tying
the boat to it by a string of bark, &c.    The Lower Kootenays make very!
good models of large canoes, reproducing in miniature the features of the]
original.    See fig. 4.
Houses.
The houses (d'qkUla'nam) of the Kootenays consisted of a frameworkj
of converging poles (dqkits) over which were laid the skins of various] ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
23
• wild animals. The number of' poles used varied from five or six to nine
or ten. There was no particular separation of men and women in the
lodges; communal houses were unknown. In the old days it was
considered a grave offence to let the fire in the tepee go out. Larger
lodges for the chief and for the medicine-man were the rule. Lodges
were also constructed of the rush called tandtl.
Sweat-ho uses.
The sweat-houses (wise'ydtl) were made of willow sticks bent over
one another so as to form a dome-shaped structure from 2A- to 4 feet high
and some 4 feet in diameter. This dome is covered with blanket, grass,
bark, &c. A hole is dug in the ground in the centre, in which the bather
crouches. Near to the sweat-house is built a fire, in which stones are
heated red-hot and placed within the wise'ydtl, when water is poured
upon them, and the naked Indians stand the almost suffocating temperature for a long time, until suddenly they rush out and plunge into
the stream close by. The Kootenays are very fond of these sweat-baths,
•and the writer has seen more than a dozen of the wise'ydtl in close
proximity on the banks of one of the many creeks of the country.
Implements, &c.
The use of the name dqku'tdtl for both ' flint' and ' axe * seems to
indicate of what material the Kootenays made axes in the past.    Axes
I were also made of dt er or elk horn called d'qkdtle'et. Knives (dqktcd'matl)
were of similar materials.    Needles and awls (tld'd) were made of the
I sharpened small bones of the leg of the moose (nets'nd'pku) and other
[animals.    Hammers (pu'pio) of stone are still in use.
Manufactures.
Water-tight baskets, made of split roots and known as yi'tski, are still
[manufactured by the Lower Kootenays, but the art appears to be nearly
Fig. 5.—Eoot-basket. The original is
5\ inches high, 5|. inches across
bottom, and 3| inches across top.
Fig. 6.—Moccasin, beaded and ornamented. The original is 10 by 5
inches.
lost amongst the Upper Kootenays of British Columbia.    The larger 24
report—1892.
varieties of these ' kettles' are called yi'tski, the smaller yi'tski na'na.,
The terms yitski'mi, d'teu, and d'gatld'sk are also in use, the last amongst
the Lower Kootenays. These root vessels are often stained and ornamented in curious fashion. The Kootenays also make baskets or ' kettles 'j
of birch bark. These, which are sometimes very large, are called n&'hSkA
All the Kootenay women make moccasins, gloves, and shirts from thel
skins of various animals, and these are often artistically embroidered andj
ornamented with silk and   beads;   also pouches,  bags,  &c,  of like]
Fig. 7.—Gold dnst bag.
Original is 7^ inches
long by 2^ wide : made
of buckskin, and ornamented with bead-
work.
Fig. 8.—Ochre-bag of
Indians, heavily beaded.
Original is 6£ inches by
3 k inches.
Fig. 9.—Glove, * made to
order,' by Indian woman.
Original is 8 A inches by
4 inches.
material. The skins used, after being deprived of the flesh and fat
adhering to them, are stretched over hoops of willow and a fire built
under them. After this treatment they are tanned with deer's brains, so
that they become very soft and pliable.
Dress (d'qkdktld'ntes,biB clothes).
The dress of the Kootenays varies considerably. Very many of the
women and a large number of the men have, to a greater or less extent,
adopted civilised attire. But perhaps the majority of the men still cling
to the old blanket-legging (aqk-atu'kthik), the blanket (se't) formerly so
much in use, and the customary moccasins (tld'En). The shirt of
buckskin (aqkd'tuu'mtldEt) is replaced by one procured from the store,
which, as a rule, is worn over the breeches and not tucked in. The Lower
Kootenays in dress, as in several other respects, are more primitive than
the Upper. Some few of them dress like white men, but in summer most
of them go bare-foot and bare-legged, having frequently no other garment
than an old shirt. In this guise they wade through the swampy meadows
or urge their horses over the grassy plains.
The girls and women are, as a rule, attired like the whites.   The boys
wear nothing but a shirt and a very narrow breech-clout, tBskap'ukwd-I
nimo.   In the winter the dress of the Lower Kootenays varies, some
clinging to the old blanket, others dressing like the white man.
Those Kootenays who do not go bare-headed wear felt or straw hats ON  THE   NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
25
^aqkd'iyukwd'nam, felt hat; dtld'tlqd, straw hat) adorned with various
charms or ornaments. The Indians frequently pierce these felt hats with
many holes or whiten them with a sort of pipeclay.
In the olden time the dress of the Kootenays was different. The skin
of the moose (ne'ts'nd'pku) furnished them with shirt and leggings. They
also made ornamented shirts of buckskin, and the women had a special
dress for festal occasions. The Lower Kootenays still make these fine
shirts, which are often punctured with holes and highly ornamented with
bead-work, bits of silk, and strips of otter and weasel skin. The
moccasins were made the same as those in use now. The Lower
Kootenays used to make them out of the skin of the horse. No hats
were in use. The Indians wore broad bands' of wolf (kd'qkm) or coyote
(ski'nkuts) skin around the forehead and sides of the head, leaving the
top bare. This probably survives in the narrow band of cloth which
some of the older Indians still wear in like manner. More recently, the
Upper Kootenays made little caps of  skunk (Qd'oas) skin, and very
'beautiful ones from the skin and feathers of the loon (ndk'tlu'kwen).
Very many of the Indians wear a breech-clout even when they assume
phe European dress.
Hair-dressing (hdtcu'ktldm.d'mek, I comb my hair).
Many of the Kootenays wear their hair long and flowing. Numbers
of the Lower Kootenays wear their hair cut short: this is less common
[amongst the Upper Kootenays, although favoured by the Mission. Most
.of the adult Kootenays braid (hd'nitli'tltlukwa'tcktland'mek, I braid my
fiiair) their hair in one or more braids (kd'tltlukwa'tcktldm, my braid),
fend ornament these with silk, bits of fur, &c. Three braids, one down
the middle of the back and one over each ear, are common. In the old
[days the rule for both men and women was two braids, one over each
[ear.    The hair was not cut.
Pi
Ornaments and Charms.
The Kootenays are profuse in the ornamentation of their persons,
pTromthe hats, belts (dqk'd'mtam), shirts, and leggings of the men are suspended twisted silk, beaded cords, gay ribbons, strips of fur, &c.    Strings
of weasel (md'iyuk) fur appear to be most in favour, one Indian having as
many as twenty dangling from various parts of his dress.    Around the
Fig. 10.—Knife-sheath of leather studded with brass tacks.
white workmanship.
This is possibly of
hats strings of beads, silk, strips of fur, and bands of bright-coloured
cloth are worn. The belts, pouches (a'qkdtld'kd), moccasins, &c., are
often finely worked with designs of leaves of plants, animals, &c, in silk
or beads.    Prom the necklace (d'na) and belt are suspended bits of ore or, 26
REPORT—1892.
wood, perforated shells (obtained from the store), and little trophies of the
chase.    Peathers of the owl and chicken-hawk are highly prized as oraa-
Fig. 11.—Indian quirt or whip.   Handle of wood, 15| inches long by 2£ at widest \
part, studded with brass tacks.   The lashes are 19£ inches long.
ments.    Earrings (d'qkokwd'tskak'u/nd/m) of shells with serrated edges are
much worn by both men and women, and some seem to have their ears]
disfigured by reason of these ornaments.
Fig. 12. Necklace of Kootenay Indian.   Contains two bears' teeth, a few beads, and j
in the centre a stone charm.    The material is dark, slaty stone.   The teeth are
2& inches long, and the stone 2J inches.
Many of the Indians still carry about their persons the horse-shoe
steel (dqkte'motl) for striking fire, which the Hudson's Bay Company'
distributed long ago, and the nippers (tluqilu'tUh-d'pkme'mda) used fori
extracting the hairs on the face and body. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
21
The Indians are fond of brass finger-rings (d'qkdkwa'tsitsqa'i'ndm).
One young fellow wore six: three (on first, third, and fourth fingers) on
the right hand and three (on first, second, and fourth fingers) on the left.
Many of the ornaments are undoubtedly charms, and the Indians are
very loth to part with these. One blind Indian had more than a dozen
bits of stone, wood, fur, &c, besides a sort of needle made of the small
bone of the leg of a grizzly bear. Bear's teeth and claws are much worn,
either in necklaces or pendent from the hair or some part of the dress.
In the olden times necklaces of dqku'p'mak, a shell found in the rivers
of the Lower Kootenay region, and wristlets of the same material were
worn. Men, women, and children wore earrings made of these shells, the
child's ear being pierced very early in life. No evidence of the existence
of labrets, nose ornaments, or the practice of knocking out certain of the
teeth could be found.
Tobacco, Pipes.
The Indians call store tobacco ya'k'et, and their own sort, made of the.
leaves of certain willows and plants, tcaka'u. They have a remembrance
of having obtained tobacco from the south-east. The principal plant
which they use for making their native tobacco is that known as tcakd'wok
| (the kinnikinnik plant, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi). The pipe-stems (dqku'tla)
are made of a'qkumd"wdk (Viburnum opulus) and other woods. The pipe
itself (kds) is made of stone procured from the Lower Kootenay.    These
gpipes differ very much in form and size, and are but little ornamented.
I Very few of them are now made.    The Indians are very fond of cigarettes
I (lyu'q'd'iit), and in making them prefer to U3e printed paper. See figs.
13,14.
POOD (kiketl).
Much of the food supply of the Kootenays is now purchased.    They
lare very fond of such sweet things as sugar, sweet-meats, jellies, and preserves.   The Upper Kootenays obtain the refuse when cattle are killed by
the Chinamen and the ranchers.   The Lower Kootenays will eat horses, and
have been known to eat the dead bodies of cattle that have been drowned
I and have remained for days in the river.    The Kootenays do not eat
I skunks (ad'Qas), cats (pus),frogs (wE'tak),crows (aa'Qd),ravens (kd'kwen),
^certain hawks, various kinds of  woodpeckers, owls, robins  (tci'kEku),
t plover (kd'ue'ts), jays (k'dk'u'sk% blue jay; wd'kdks, white jay), although
the children  occasionally eat the  red woodpecker (md'Eka), and a few
Indians will eat the owl (k'u'pi), and the hawk called i'ntldk (Accipiter
Cooperi).    The Indians eat the eggs (d'qkimu'qan) of a few birds whose
: flesh, they do not use as food, such as the yi'kets'nd and the tcdk'tldtltld.
The Kootenays have the reputation of being enormous eaters, and the
writer's experience fully corroborates this.    The Kootenays have the
disgusting habit of eating the vermin (hd"ke) which infest their heads,
and even the chief has been seen picking the lice from one of his tribesmen's head and devouring them with evident relish.
Pood Plants.
A large portion of the food of these Indians is of a vegetable nature,
consisting of berries, roots, moss, &c.    The following are the principal:—
Berries : sk'd'md, service-berry (Amelanchier alnifolia); kisyi'tin (Ribes
oxycanthoides),   wild  gooseberry;  dqkd'kd  and   gdtsilagd'kd,  raspberry; 28
REPORT—1892.
„Jf§**;
mm.:
Fig. 13.— Carved and pitted
Indian pipe. Natural size.
Broken at top, but held together by wire. The stem of
this pipe is much longer
than the figure in the engraving.
Fig. 14.—Indian pipe, bowl, and
stem. Natural size. Bowl of stone
with lead covering at junction
with stem.
w-
mi
mm ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
29
tldwi'ydtl, huckleberry; nd'mkdknu'matl (Ribes viscosinum), species of
gooseberry; aqkdkop' (Fragaria virginiensis), strawberry; gdpd'tetl (Shep-
Jiardia canadensis), soap-berry (little eaten by the Kootenays, but much
by the Shushwaps) ; ndhdk, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium) ; gd'tlwd
(Rosa pisocarpa) rose-hips ; nupaa'mdtl (Vaccinium ccespitosum).
Roots: dgd'wdtl (Allium cernuum), wild onion (eaten raw or boiled) ;
nitlku'md (Lilium philadelphicum), root of the orange lily; pu'lulu'tsd
(spec. ?), boiled and eaten; wu'mdtl (Heracleum lanatum) ; ndsa'it (Cali-
chortus elegans), boiled and eaten; dqkitskakam (spec.?); gutskd'kun
(spec. ?), chewed, but not eaten.
Varia: The mushroom, called wa'tdk d'qkdtld'qdes (frog's ?), is eaten
by the Blackfeet, but hardly ever by the Kootenays. The hairy tree-
mosses, known as a'ttld, emgo'tlna (Evernia vulpina), are eaten after being
left in the ground under a hot fire for some days.
The gum and inside bark of the larch g''d'stet, (Larix occidentalis) are
much relished, as also is the sap exuding from the a'qkitstld'tlutld'tl, or
'gum-wood.'
Por making tea the leaves of the shrubs called dqkdtla'kpekd'nam
(Linncea borealis), kitkdutli'ilkdad'lnik, gdkidQd'pu'uk (Ceanothus sanguineus), gdpdte'tluwdk (Shephardia canadensis), gustlutla'tl (Juniperus
;communis), md'ttd (Mentha canadensis).
Plants used Economically.
Prom the fibre of a species of hemp d'qkdtla'kpis (Apocynum canna-
binum), fishing-lines, ropes, &c, are made. The spines of the kisyl'tin, or
wild-gooseberry, served as hooks for small fish.   The bark of gldnuqtld'uwdk
'(Elcegnus argentea) is used to make ropes for catching horses. The wood
of the maple, miiskek (Acer glabrum), was in the old days used to obtain
! fire by friction. Prom the plant emgo'tlna (Evernia vulpina), by boiling,
a red dye for moccasins, root-baskets, &c, is obtained, and the little seeds
called gdku'tlwan of the plant gdku'tlwanmd'os (Purshia tridentata) furnished
a reddish dye.
Plants Admired for their Smell or Beauty.
The plant called aqku'dktl'D,'ound'Etet is much admired by the Kootenays
on account of its scent. They may often be seen applying it to their
nostrils, or, where it is found in great abundance, rolling about on the
ground in evident delight. They fill bags with the plant called and'nam
(Matricaria discoidea), and use them as pillows. The flowers of the
k'sd'k'nd'k'ydk (Arenaria pungens) are much admired. The plant nisna'pd'tl
(Oryzopsis asperifoliens) is thrown on the fire in large quantities on account
of its good smell.
Medicinal Plants.
The principal vegetable remedies of the Kootenays are as follows:—
Por sore eyes: The inside bark of the birch, dqk'ud'tluwdk (Betula
papyrifera), boiled ; the peeled and boiled root of the naho'kdwdk, or
Oregon grape ; the bark of the shrub md'kvjd'k (Gornus stolonifera) boiled ;
the root of the wu'mdtl macerated and boiled ; the plant ndmtld'suk
(Gicuta maculata ?) pounded in a mortar; the burnt leg bones of deer
pounded in a mortar.
For horses, the Indians chew the tops of the plant mitskd'kdtli't'nd
(Apocynum androscemifoliens), and spit it into the animal's eyes.
II 30
REPORT 1892.
Por consumption, coughs, colds, sore chest, &c. Strong decoctions of j
the various tea-plants, wu'mdtl, ma'tta (Mentha canadensis), &c; the]
grease in the tail of the otter; plasters made of the leaves of the tea-plant, j
For horses the plant dqkinu'ktlu'qdnd'ska (Bigelovia graveolens) is used.
For belly-ache: Gd'imdwiistla'kpek (Spircea betulifolia) boiled in
water; nd'md''t (Abius).
As a purgative: A decoction of the root of the ndhofkowdk, or Oregon
grape plant.
For wounds, cuts, bruises:   Qd'tl (Balsamorrhiza sagittata) boiled and
applied to hands, &c.; the leaves of the dtlu'mdtl (Populus tremuloidea) \
macerated, boiled, for burns, &c.; the pounded and macerated bark or j
leaves of the various tea-plants;  the  gum or resin of several of the ]
conifera}.1
Disease (sd'nitlqo'ne, he is sick).
A very stringent and well-enforced law of the Province, which has the j
cordial approval of the settlers and of the Boman Catholic missionaries,
keeps the curse of liquor from the Kootenays, and not a little of their present good character is due to this fact. By common consent of travellers,
missionaries, and settlers, the morality of these Indians is very high, and
they are practically free from venereal diseases, and the licentiousness
prevalent amongst some of the coast tribes is unknown. The experiences
of Mr. Robert Galbraith, who for some years acted as the medical adviser
to these Indians, bears out to the full this statement. The institution of
the sweat-bath and other helps to personal cleanliness has its good results.
The Indians suffer most from consumption and allied affections, and
diseases of the eye. The latter are mostly caused by the smoke of the
lodges, and terminate not infrequently in complete blindness. Scrofula is
also prevalent. Some cases of goitre have been noted (one, that of a
woman, came under the writer's observation), due, it is said by the settlers,
to the immoderate use of snow-water. The Indian dogs are stated to be
subject also to goitre.
Running sores on the face and neck and in the ears are rather common, especially with the children, and the cause of a recent death was given
as cancer of the brain supervening upon a sore in the ear. Some of the
Indians are disfigured by warts ; one deaf and dumb individual had his
hand covered with them, and in the case of a little boy the face, thick
with warts, was gradually being eaten away by cancer.
Toothache, though very rare, is not unknown, and Mr. McLaughlin
stated that he had known several Indians to suffer terribly from it.
Besides their numerous native remedies, the Indians have frequent
recourse to the supplies of the white man and the Chinaman.
The writer met with two deaf mutes and two blind Indians.   Amongst
the Lower Kootenays there is said to be an hermaphrodite, who keeps I
constantly in the society of the women.
Illustrations of Articles op Kootenay Manufacture.
The drawings which  accompany this report  I owe to my brother,
T. B. A. Chamberlain, who made them, at my request, from the originals.
1 For the determination of the scientific names of plants, &c, the writer is indebted to the courtesy of Professor John Macoun, of the Geological Survey, Ottawa,!
Canada, to whom he begs to return his thanks. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OP   CANADA.
31
II. Mythology and  Folklore.
Astronomical.—The moon (natd'nik, k'tci'tlmi'yit natd'nik) is regarded
as a man, the sun (natd'nik) as a woman. There was no sun in the beginning, and after the Indians had vainly endeavoured to discover it the
coyote (ski'nkuts) was successful in making it rise above the mountains.
Another version makes the chicken-hawk (i'ntldk) cause the sun to rise,
and the coyote, getting angry, shoots an arrow at the sun, but misses,
with the result of setting the prairie on fire and making him run for dear
life.
The moon is said to have been found by the chicken-hawk. The man
in the moon is an Indian, who once chopped wood all the days of the
week (including Sunday), whereupon the moon came down and seized
him, and he has been in the moon ever since. This myth may be of
European origin.
The stars are mostly Indians, who from time to time have got up into
the sky. The Great Bear is called tld'utld (i.e., grizzly bear), and
was an Indian woman. Being a female grizzly she is at times very
angry, and the stars in the tail are Indians, upon whom she has seized.
The Milky Way is dqlcEmd'is tid'Etltsin,' ' the dog's trail.'
The thunder (nu'ma) is caused by a great bird that lives far up in the
sky. The lightning (ndqka'tlimu'qudtiUlek) is made by the shooting of
its arrows.
At first there were no clouds (dqk'dtl). The daughter of the coyote
married the thunder, and her father gave her the clouds for a blanket.
Ethnic Origins, Sfc.—The Kootenays believe that they came from the
East, and one of their myths ascribes to them an origin from a hole in
the ground east of the Rocky Mountains. Another account says the
Kootenays sprang up from the hairs of the black bear (ni'pkd), which fell
on the ground after he came out of the belly of the great fish which had
swallowed him. There were no women at first. By-and-by an Indian
went up into the mountains, and from a spirit who lived there received
; the first Kootenay woman.
Horses were made as follows :—A medicine-man took a piece of stick,
made it into the shape of a horse, and threw it away, whereupon it became
a horse.
The Indians have a belief that the white men get their cattle from the
sea. They say the white men go every year to the shore of the Pacific
Ocean to receive the cattle which come out of the waters.
Deluge Legend.—Sukpe'ka (a small grey bird, species ?■), the wife of
Intldk (Accipiter Cooperi), is forbidden by her husband to go to a certain
lake, to drink of its waters, or to bathe in it. One day her husband goes
out after deer and repeats the warning before leaving. Sukpe'ka busied
herself picking berries, and, what with climbing the mountain and being
exposed to the hot sun, she feels very warm, and goes down to the lake.
Suddenly the water rises, and a giant called Yawd'Enek comes forth, who
seizes the woman and ravishes her. Intldk is very angry when he learns
of this, and, going to the lake, shoots the monster, who swallows up all
the water, so there is none for the Indians to drink. Intldk's wife pulls
the arrow out of the giant's breast, whereupon the.water rushes forth in
torrents, and a flood is the result. Intldk and his wife take refuge on a
mountain, and by-and-by the water sinks to its proper level.
" is a ' bier fish.'     Intldk sees the
In a variant of this legend the ' giant
t 32
REPORT—1892.
conduct of his wife, kills her and the monster; it is the blood of the fish|
that causes the deluge; and Intldk escapes by climbing to the top of a
tree.    The scene is localised as the Kootenay River, near A'qk'am (Port|
Steele).
In another variant the ' giant' is a ' lake animal,' and Intldk stops the
deluge by placing his tail in the water, the flood ceasing to rise when it
had reached the last row of spots on his tail. Hence the spotted tail of
the chicken-hawk.
Fish swallows Bear.—Long ago there was in the Kootenay River, near
A'qk'am (Fort Steele) a huge fish. One day this fish swallowed the black
bear (ni'pkd), who had been an Indian (?). The bear remained in thel
belly of the fish about two months, when he was vomited out. The bear!
lost all his hairs, which, falling to the ground, became Kootenay Indians.!
The big fish is finally killed by the bird called ydmd'kpdtl, a species of]
woodpecker.
ANIMAL   TALES.
The folklore of the Kootenays consists mainly in animal tales,
lowing is a sketch of the principal characters and their actions :—
Fol-
Animals.
Bear (black).—Given above.
Bear (grizzly).—Appears frequently in tales; is often deceived by the
coyote, who induces him to attempt to cross a creek on a log, and when
the bear is half-way over shakes the log, causing him to fall into the
water and be drowned. Then the coyote boils the grizzly in his kettle,
which tumbles over, and the coyote, getting angry, throws the whole into
the river.    In another tale the grizzly (tld'utld) is killed by the spirits.
Beaver (ti'nd).—Appears in tale with turtle. Throws turtle into river.
Beaver grease is a dainty of frequent mention in the stories.
Buffalo (ni'tltsik).—Appears often in tales with the coyote. Asks the
coyote to smoke his (buffalo's) pipe, which he does, and gets his mouth
burned in consequence. Buffalo-skulls (inhabited by spirits) lying on the
prairie are often mentioned in the tales.
Caribou (na'qane).—Appears in tales with the coyote or the wolf. Is
killed by the coyote, and in another tale by the tomtit.
Chipmunk.—Two species of chipmunk appear in the tales.    The one
called k-d'tcdtc is killed by the owl and the frog, who put him into ' sour':
dough.'    The other, known as nd'mtldst, appears as an unimportant personage in the tale in which the toad and eagle take part.
Coyote (ski'nkuts).—The coyote is the chief figure in Kootenay mythology. His principal exploits and adventures are as follows \—He set||
out with the chicken-hawk to find the sun, gets angry and shoots an^
arrow at the sun, thereby starting the first prairie fire; kills the caribou^
the owl, the white-tailed deer, the grizzly, the cricket, the moose, &c. He \
is thrown into the fire by the chicken-hawk and gets his coat singed;!
Smokes the buffalo's pipe and gets his mouth burned. Quarrels with his
wife, the dog, and kills her. Is represented as carrying his younger!
brother, the cricket, about with him. The cricket has a broken leg,|
and one day the coyote breaks his own leg to be like him. The cricket!
tries to injure the coyote, who finally kills him. After being for a long!
time supreme amongst the animals the coyote is beaten and killed by thel ON  TnE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OP  CANADA.
33
fox, who takes his place. Among the services rendered by the coyote to
the Indians was the appeasing of the spirit of the mountains, who became
angry and killed all those who started to hunt in his domains. In return
for this benefit he was given a wife from the tribe, and from that time to
this the Indians have been allowed to hunt in peace.
Deer.—The white-tailed deer (tcu'pk'd) is killed by the coyote. The
young deer are cheated in a race by the frogs.
Dog.—The dog (Qd'Etltsin) appears as the wife of the coyote, who kills
her in a fit of anger.
Fox.—The fox (nd"kEyu) is often represented as carrying a root-
basket. Scares the skunk by whistling; kills the wolf and restores him
to life again ; induces the wolf to try to beat the shadow of the sun ; kills
the coyote, and becomes chief of all the animals.
Moose (nets'nd'pku).—The male moose (nets'na'pku) is killed by the
coyote, and the female moose (tld'wd) by the tomtit.
Mountain Lion.—The mountain lion (sud's) is feared by many of the
other animals, especially by the skunk, whom he at last killed.
Rabbit.—The rabbit (gi'anu'qtlu'm'nd), with the snow-bird (niskd'Et),
^kills the female moose and biings some of the meat to the frog.
Skunk.—The skunk (ad'eas) is represented as a very clever animal,
and is associated often with the fox. He carries a root-basket, and is
afraid only of something that whistles ; is scared by the fox's whistling
and runs off, but afterwards tries to kill the fox; is finally killed by the
mountain-lion.
Squirrel.—The squirrel (t'a'kdts) appears a few times, and in one of
the tales is killed by the spirits.
Wolf.— The wolf (kd'qkln) appears often in the tales.   Kills the tomtit
and the caribou.    Is occasionally carried by the coyote; is killed by the
fox and brought to life again ; wagers the fox that he can outrun the
shadow of the sun, but fails to do so ; and a long quarrel with the fox
. results.
Birds.
Duck.—Some ducks (gid'qtld) are seen by the coyote on a little lake;
by-and-by they rise up, and the lake dries up. The coyote afterwards pulls
out some of the ducks' feathers, so that they cannot fly too high.
Eagle.—The eagle (gld'k'dnu'kudt) appears in a tale along with the
toad and hawks. Is found sitting on a tree by a star, and is killed by
the latter.
Goose.—The goose (kdou'tldk) is represented in one tale as a child
eating dirt.
Grouse.—The ' fool-hen ' (kid'wats) has a large family of young ones:
these are stolen by the coyote, who puts them in his sack. They escape,
however, by scratching holes in it. The ' ruffed grouse ' (t'd'nkuts) takes
the place of the ' fool-hen' in another tale.
Hawks.—The male chicken-hawk (i'ntldk, Accipiter Cooperi) is a very
important character in these tales. He is the companion of the coyote in
the search for the sun ; in a fit of anger he throws the coyote into the fire.
He is the hero of the deluge, which is indirectly caused by the infidelity
of his wife, sukpe'kd, whom, in one version of the story, he kills.
Associated with him, sometimes, is a young hawk (gi'dkd'tldk). His wife
is a small grey bird called sukpe'kd. It was her amours with the giant
ydwd'mek that brought on the deluge.
h 6—5
1 '34
REPORT—1892.
Magpie.—The magpie, called dndn, tries to pick out the eyes of the
coyote while the latter is lying down apparently dead.
Qwl.—The owl  (ku'pi) is represented often as an old woman who
steals children.    She helps to kill the chipmunk, and is herself killed by|
the coyote, who helps the children she carries in a basket at her back tw
.escape. j j
Snow-bird.—The snow-bird (niskd'Et) is represented as the wife of the
rabbit, whom she helps to kill the moose.
Tomtit.—The tomtit (mitskd'kas) is the grandson of the frog; after
killing the caribou he is killed by the wolf.    In another tale he induces
the moose to come across the river to him, and then kills him with a|
knife.
PlSH.
Trout.—In one of the tales the coyote changes himself into a tron«
(q'u'stet), and is caught by the Indians, who are about to hit him on thel
head with a club, when he calls out that he is the coyote, and not a fish I
whereupon they laugh much and let him go.
Whale, or Big Fish.—The big fish (guwi'tlkd gid'kqd) swallows thel
black bear.    He is finally killed by the bird called yama'kpdtl.
Insects.
Butterfly.—In one of the tales the coyote tries to run off with thel
butterfly (kdli'lu), thinking it to be a woman. The butterfly, however,]
turns out to be a man, and the coyote is ridiculed.
Cricket.—The cricket (dqkd'ktldkd'wdm) is represented as the younger \
brother of the coyote, who carries him about with him, and is at times,
advised by him.    He is sometimes mentioned as having a broken leg, 1
and in one story the coyote breaks his own ]eg so as to be like his brother.
The cricket seeks to kill the coyote, but is at last killed by him.
Mosquito.—There was originally one mosquito (gdtstsa'tld), who was
fed with blood by the spirits until his belly became so large that it burst,
and from it came forth the myriads of mosquitoes that exist to-day.
Reptiles.
Frog.—The frog (wn'tdk) is the grandmother of the chipmunk. In
one tale he takes to wife two of the children of the grouse (t'd'nkuts).
The most interesting exploit of the frog is the race with the deer. The
method of procedure is the same as that by which the tortoise wins in
the ' Uncle Remus ' story. The frogs, in large numbers, are stationed in
hiding at various points in the track, and when the deer approaches them,
hop on ahead, so that the deer always sees the frog ahead of him. They
look so much alike that he never suspects the trick, and consequently the
frog wins the race.
Toad.—The toad (k'd'ko) appears in a tale with the eagle, and is killed
by the chicken-hawk.
Turtle.—The mud-turtle (kd'ad) appears in a tale with the beaver
chief, whom he kills by cutting off his head. He is afterwards thrown
into the river, and escapes.
Other characters appearing in these tales are Indians, white men,
giants, spirits, the heavenly bodies, &c. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OP   CANADA.
35
Most of the. tales are old, and in but two or three the white man
appears, and in these he is represented as doing something ridiculous or
obscene.
The Indians and the animals are so confused at times that it is
impossible to say where the human and where the animal character predominates.    Old men and women appear very often.
The spirits, who appear with \ great frequency, are represented as
giving advice, being consulted by, or interfering with the actions of, the
various  characters.    In one  tale a mountain spirit is  represented  as
['harassing the Indians very much, depriving them of game, and killing
the hunters who ventured up the mountain.    He is finally outwitted by
5$he coyote.
There are several giants, the principal being the monster ydwd'Enek,
who is represented sometimes as human, sometimes as a fish, and sometimes  as a huge  lake animal.    He  is  shot by the  chicken-hawk for
Iputraging his wife, and this brings on the deluge.   One of the giant tales
gs as follows :—A woman was out picking berries, and her child was
lying on the ground near her. A giant (ekd) came along, and said to her,
■' How is it that you have made my brother (i.e., the child) so white and
smooth ? ' ' Oh ! I roasted him,' said the woman. Then said the giant,
I Roast me too ; I want to be white and smooth.' So she set the giant to
foerk to dig a big hole, put plenty of wood into it, and lay stones on top.
X)n this grass was placed, and the giant lay down, and the woman piled
grass, earth, and stones on him, so that in spite of his efforts he could
not rise, and was roasted to death. The woman then went home, saying
to her people, ' I have killed the giant.'
As mentioned above, the moon and the stars (d'qkitlnd'hds) are represented as occasionally visiting the earth. In one tale the star kills the
eagle, who is found sitting on the branch of a tree.
Two very interesting tales are those of ' Seven  Heads ' and ' Lame
knee.' The first tale in abstract is this:—There was a young man,
and his name was 'Bad Clothes' (Sd'nuk'dld'Ent), and he determined
to find 'Seven Heads'  (Wistddld'dlam) and kill him.    After searching
por some time he met him, and the two fought, and ' Seven Heads '
was slain.    The youth returned home in triumph, carrying with him the
Btongues of the monster as a trophy.
The outline of the story of ' Lame Knee' is as follows:—Kd'mdtlk'a'nkd,
|or ' Lame Knee,' runs off with the wife of a chief and outrages her. The
chief pursues, and, overtaking ' Lame Knee,' cuts off his head with a
Iknife and throws it away, but as it rolls along the ground the  head
Icppears to laugh very much.    He then cuts off one arm at the shoulder.
Etnd afterwards the other ; and also the two legs are cut off one after the
lother. Only the trunk of the body is left, and this the chief gashes all
»ver with his knife.    At night singing is heard, and ' Lame Knee,' having
Irisen to life again, kills the chief and departs, taking the latter's wives
with him.
Regarding the relations of Kootenay mythology to the mythologies of
Mother Indian tribes, not much can at present be said.    The coyote myths
seem to point to the mythic cyclus of the Indians to the south-east, from
the Nez Perces to the Navajos; the Deluge legend has an Algonkian
aspect;  and some  of the other legends  point to  the  Sioux, and the
tribes of Western British Columbia.     But more study is necessary ±"
make out definitely any points of contact. i
h 6—6
I
to 36
BEPORT—1892.
I might here add a note on bird-cries. The Kootenays claim to
interpret the following :—
Owl says: kd'Ukdki'il pa'tike; or, ktse'tlkenetl pa'tike.
The bird called yi'kitsnd calls out: iske'tld kd'ndqyu'qad=l no more
buckskin horses.'
The tomtit says: tld'maiyet! tld'maiyet ! = ' spring ! spring ! (No
more snow ! no more snow !).'    The Indians like this bird very much.
The robin says : dkwd'nukte'tlamtcl'yd ! = ' by-and-by plenty of rain ! j
SIGN LANGUAGE.
Sign language is still in use to a considerable extent amongst the
Upper  and   Lower  Kootenays.     The  writer  was  able  to  obtain  the-,
following, known to members of both tribes :—
1. Across.—Same as first sign, described under ' Across,' in Clark's"!
'Indian Sign Language ' (1885), p. 24.
2. Afraid.—Hands extended in front of body, back of hand outwards J
index finger extended, rest of hand closed; the hands, which approach!
quite close to each other, are withdrawn with a downward movement tol
a distance, and in a degree corresponding to the fear to be expressed.   See
Clark, p. 25.
3. All.—Right hand held in front of breast, palm downwards, moved
around horizontally.    Same as Shushwap sign for ' all.'    See \ Report,'!
1890, p. 639.
4. Angry.—Right hand  closed, moved  rapidly before and close to \
forehead, keeping back of hand always to right.    See Clark, p. 31.
5. Axe.—Left forearm extended in front of left side of body, hand
bent at wrist and fingers inclined downwards; then right hand withl
thumb and forefinger (rest of hand generally closed) seizes left hand just ]
above wrist.    See Clark, p. 56.    Downward motion of hand to imitate I
chopping.
6. Bad.—Same as sign described by Clark, p. 58, except that the
downward motion is not very marked.
7- Bark.—Index of left hand held up stiffly, rest of hand closed or
fingers drooping ; right hand, limp, is then passed around index finger of
left.    The idea is 'stick-around.'    See Clark, under ' Grass ' and ' Tree,' i
pp. 192, 383.
8. Basket.—Elbows resting against sides of body, bring points of
fingers together, so as to form rude half-circle. See Clark, under ' Kettle,'
p. 227; 'Basket,' p. 62.
9. Beads.—Bring right forearm horizontally in front of body above
breast, thumb touching index near the end of the latter; pass hand to and!
fro across neck, other fingers drooping.    Compare Clark, p. 63.
10. Bear (Grizzly).—Close the hands (or sometimes let the fingers
droop) and hold them close to side of head, near ears, with backs to wards!
head.    Sometimes the hands  are  shaken or moved about slightly, to]
indicate better the ' ears,' which are the basis of the sign.    Clark says a
similar sign is used by the Crows (p. 63).
11. Bear (Black).—Same sign as for grizzly bear, with the addition of
raising hands, with thumb and index placed together, to the level of thel
eyes, and pointing to the outer corners of the latter.    The conceptionl
' small eyes' is at the base of this sign.
12. Beaver.—Same as  Shushwap  sign described   by   Dr.  Boas in ON  THE   NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OP  CANADA.
37
i Report,' 1890, p. 639, with the addition that the right hand is given an
up-and-down motion to imitate the movement of the animal's tail.
13. Bell.—Right hand, with fingers drooping, brought close in front
of neck and given a wagging motion.
14. Belt.—Bring the hands (flat) together at middle of waist, then
move them gradually backwards across body.
15. Berrhes.—Same as sign described by Clark under 'Rosebud,'
p. 321. Sometimes, however, the sign for ' small' is made with right hand,
by bringing thumb and index of right hand together a short distance from
end of index;'then the motion of picking something off the back of the
left hand is gone through.
16. Bird.—Crook arms at elbows, hold hands up with palms turned
somewhat outward, and give hand an upward and downward motion,
fingers drooping, gradually increasing the elevation of the hands.
17. Black.—Touch hair with right hand, and rub back of left hand
with right hand.
18. Blanket.—Same as sign described by Clark, p. 73.
19. Blind —Shut eyes, bend the head slightly, and with hands closed,
backs turned upwards, touch the eyes with the thumb and forefinger of
each hand.
20. .Blood.—Hold hands together (forefingers parallel, other fingers
and thumb drooping) near mouth ; make slight motion of hands forwards
and upwards.    See Clark, p. 74.
21. Boat.—Both hands brought close together in front of body, and
then moved alternately to right and to left and downwards.
22. Bone.—Rub with forefinger of right hand the left hand at bony
part of wrist.
23. Bow and. arrows.—Left hand extended in front of body, palm
towards breast, then pass right hand backwards over left, for motion of
drawing arrow and shooting.    Compare Clark, p. 76.
24. Bread.—Hold hands, fingers closed, palms up, in front of body,
I then alternately move hands together and open and shut them.
25. Break.—Same as sign described by Clark, p. 81.
26. Bullet.—Hands extended in front of body, fingers and thumb
drooping, forefingers held parallel; then right forefinger is made to touch
left forefinger, and to pass quickly forward, touching its whole length.
27. Colour.—Same as sign for ' black.'
28. Come.—Same as sign described by- Clark, p. 122.
29. Come here.—Raise right hand, palm down, above head, give hand
an up-and-down motion, and then move it backwards more or less
quickly.
30. Deaf.—Press both ears with palms of hands, then raise them a
little and move them to and fro over ears.
31. Drink.—Same as sign described by Clark, p. 156.
32. Dumb.—Place right forefinger or palm of right hand on lips.
33. Evacuate the bowels.—Assume stooping position, pass right hand,
index extended, rapidly across region of buttocks in the direction of the
ground.
34. Fish.—Same sign as described by Dr. Boas for the Shushwaps,
' Report,' 1890, p. 640.
35. Fly.—See ' Bird.'    Same sign used for both.
36. Great, large.—Hold the arms extended at full length, fingers
stretched in front of body, so as to give idea of large half-circle. 38
REPORT—1892.
37. Hungry.—Touch or rub abdomen; or open mouth and movej
fingers of right hand, so that the ends, fingers drooping, are just withinj
the mouth. 1
38. Lake.—Same  as  Shushwap  sign, described in 'Report,' 1890,
p. 640.
39. Length.—Extend the left arm in front of body, and with index
finger of right hand mark off on the left arm, beginning with the endsj
of the fingers for small objects, portions corresponding to the distance
meant.
40. Mountain — Same as sign given by Clark, p. 262. • Rocky Mountains.—Same action performed with both hands at once.
41. Night.—Same as sign for 'nightfall' amongst the Shushwaps.j
' Report,' 1890, p. 640.
42. Paddle.—See 'Boat.'
43   Red.—Move right hand, palm inwards, towards cheek, rub cheek
with ends of fingers.    This sign arose from the red paint used by the j
Kootenays.    Another sign is to touch the tongue with the forefinger of
the right hand, to which is added sometimes the sign for ' colour.'
44. Ride.—Same as sign for 'rider' with Shushwaps. 'Report,';
1890, p. 640.
45. Rock.— -Same as Shushwap sign.    'Report,' 1890, p. 640.
46. Sleep.—Bring the hands, palms inwards, close to sides of head,
close eyes, and incline head towards the left and slightly downwards, so ]
as to appear resting on palm of left hand.
47. Small.—Extend right hand in front of body, press second, third,
and fourth fingers against palm ; extend index finger, and place thumb
against it a short distance from the end.
48. Snake.—Stretch out right band in front of body, palm inwards ;
press thumb, second, third, and fourth fingers against palm, extend
index, and with it make sinuous motion to imitate movement of snake.
49. Sunrise.—Same as Shushwap sign.    'Report,' 1890, p. 640.
50. Sunset.—Reverse of sign for ' sunrise.'
51. Water.—Same as sign for ' drink.'
Following are a few of the signs used to denote individuals of various
Indian tribes:—
Flatheads.—Palms of hands, fingers pointing upwards, pressed against
sides of head.
Pend d'Oreille.—Sign for 'boat' or 'paddling.'
Nez Perce's.—Index finger of right hand pressed against cartilage of
nose, to give the idea of ' pierced nose.'
Shoshoni or Snake Indians.—Sign for ' snake.'
III.  PHYSICAL  CHARACTERISTICS.
The Kootenay Indians are physically well-developed, and between the
various groups there appear to be no well-marked differences. Their
stature places them amongst the tallest tribes of British Columbia, nine
out of thirty-six adult males, or one-fourth, having a height of more than
1,739 millimetres, and one individual actually measuring 1,846 millimetres, while three others were 1,767, 1,760 and 1,770 millimetres
respectively. Two-thirds, of the individuals measured are included between 1,660 and 1,779 millimetres, with an average approximately at 1,690.
The women, if we may judge from the few cases here recorded, are much ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
39
shorter than the men: three females, aged 14, 18, 40, measured respectively 1,557, 1,570, and 1,582 millimetres. There appears to be not so
great a difference between the heights of the boys and girls.
The index of finger-reach seems to be slightly less than that of the
Bilqula and some other tribes, two-thirds being found between the indices
102 and 106, but nearly one-third falling below 102.
The index .of height-sitting is also lower, two-thirds having an index
of from 50 to 53, and but ten cases out of thirty-five having an index of
more than 53.
The index of length of arm has the largest number of cases at 45, and
two-thirds of the total come within the limits 43 to 46.
The indices of height and width of shoulder are more variable. The
index of height of shoulder shows the greatest grouping (ten cases out of
thirty-four) at 85, and between 82 and 84 two-thirds (twenty-two cases)
occur. Of the indices of width of shoulder two-thirds (twenty-one cases)
are found ranging from 18 to 20.
The indices of face show a range from 77 to 93, with the greatest
accumulation (nine cases out of thirty-two) at 88, and having nearly one-
/half (fifteen cases out of thirty-two) the number of cases with an index
of between 86 and 89.    The facial index of the Kootenays is therefore
^higher than that of the western tribes of British Columbia.
The indices of the upper part of the face have their greatest grouping
Lat 55 (eight cases out of thirty-three), and nearly two-thirds are contained
; between 52 and 57, while eight cases, or nearly one-fourth, are above 57.
The nasal indices show the greatest grouping (six cases out of thirty-
ifour) at 70, and there is none below 58.
Thus far we have dealt with adults alone. It seems allowable in the
case of the cephalic index to include all individuals of five years and over.
| This gives us, of pure blood Kootenays, seventy males and fourteen
females. Of the females, thirteen have an index of oyer 78 (corresponding to 76 on the skull), and eight have an index of more than 83 (81 on
the skull). If one is to judge from these fourteen cases, the Kootenay
women are brachycephalic; a fact which would correspond with their
seemingly much shorter stature. This apparent brachycephalism may,
however, be the result of the comparatively small number of individuals
measured.
The cephalic indices of the males range from 72 to 86 (corresponding
to 70 and 84 on the skull), with the greatest grouping at 77 (75 on the
skull). Fifty-five cases are found below 80 (78 on the skull). More
than half are thus mesaticephalic. It is just possible that we have here
an intermixture of a brachycephalic type, but this would perhaps be sustained if several hundred measurements had been taken.
The cephalic indices of the half-breeds show considerable variation,
and the females tend towards brachycephaly, as was the case with the
pure Indians.
It is usually impossible to obtain the weight of aborigines owing to
the lack of weighing apparatus ; hence the few cases here recorded will be
of considerable interest. They are presented on next page rearranged
according to age:—
These measurements were taken when the Indians had a normal
amount of summer clothing on.
The average weight of thirteen adults (from 19 to 59 years of age) is
151 pounds.
I
\~J 40
REPORT—1892.
Name
Age
Wfightin 1
Pounds
Name
Age
Weight in j
Pounds
Samull Piel
2
25
Joseph
20
153
Andr6
4
31
AmElu
22
177
Sku'kEm Joe Nana .
5
46
KaplO
26
150
Pol Nana .
H
48±
P01 .
28
1501
Piel ....
10
64
Salwa Q .
31
147
Piu   .
14
100
Sku'kEm Joe
33
156£
Baptiste   .
15
123
BimO K.  .
51
141i
Andre
16
134i
Wilvam Q
51
147J
Piel  ....
19
142
Dominick
59
149|
Eusta
19
177£
Blaswa
60 +
146
Eustace Benwll
19
137
1 Old Joe   .
65
135
Joseph
• 20
134J
1
The eyes of the Kootenays are dark-brown, the hair straight andl
black. There are, however, quite a number of cases of brown hair ; but j
as these seem to occur with children and those adults who habitually go I
bareheaded, the difference in colonr may be attributed to exposure to the j
air and sunlight. In a few cases also the hair is quite wavy, in some, I
even curly; and one of the Port Steele Indians is nicknamed ' Curly'
(Kdntlu'mtldm) from this fact. But one or two cases of the ' Mongolian
eye' were observed, the Indian Giaqkatl Salo being one.
The colour of the skin is, in general, brown, varying from rather dark
to a dirty white. Many of these Indians, as far as colour of skin is concerned, would be quite indistinguishable from the dark-skinned natives of
Southern Europe. The contrast between them and the Chinese—the
writer had the opportunity of seeing them very often together—is marked,
and they would never be mistaken one for the other by experts.
Hair on the face and body is not common on account of the practice
of removing the hairs which the Indians more or less practise. Still,
beards and moustaches are possessed by some of the Indians. Kootenay
Pete, an old Indian of Columbia Lakes, had a white beard, small in size,
but at least 60 millimetres long; Chief Eustan, of the Lower Kootenay,
had a number of white hairs on his chin; and another Indian of the same
tribe, aged about 60, had a slight beard and moustache, both whitish, and
dark and heavy eyebrows ; an Upper Kootenay, aged 31, had also a slight
beard.    An Indian, named Blasois, aged 17, had a few hairs on his nose.
The noses seem rather flat. The shape of the nose itself varies; the
largeness of the nostrils is very striking in many cases, as is also the
depressed root of the nose with prominent glabella. The nose of one
Indian was so perceptibly large that it formed a constant point for the
merriment of his fellows, and one of the names of the Indian Patrick!
(Ga'tlEmd'kastld'Ekdk) refers to his ' big nostrils.' The point of the nose is
in most cases short.    Straight noses with pointed ends are not unknown.1
In a few cases the ears of Indians are distorted and lengthened by
heavy earrings.    The ears of the great majority are, however, medium-l
«ized, most often with round and attached lobe.
The mouths of many of the Kootenays seem disproportionately large,
and the lips are often very thick, as in the case of the Indian A'mElu,
whose ears, it might be remarked, were rather small.
The teeth of these Indians are remarkably well preserved, the writer;
having seen but a single case of caries, and that in a boy.    The ohins are, 1 III. Mixed Upper and Lower Kootenays.
Metis, Lower Kootenay
and Whites.
	
Males
Females
Number   ......
1
2
'
2
3
4
a
i      a
■S
Name    ....                . -1
o
"ft
co
5 5?
S.2"
1-S     i
be   .
0   O
coz
\               1
1
Guwitlk
(Don
it
_ (D
co.«J
CO \^s
OQ
CO   »
^3  co
Angi McI
(sister of
and
letis
nay
i
	
co 2
-
S   "
t^i^j <» ,—,
S   <t>
co   „+? a>
•wE
» 9.
o .9
\s W&v
Tribe J
WW
Q)   CD
, Upper Koo
ower Kooter
'.. Flathead S
(Part Col
1
j
1
j
^^3
Age	
26
59
|
J        5
9
14
mm.
mm.
Height, standing     ....
1,745
1,680
I    mm.
mm.
mm.
Height of shoulder  ....
1,436
1,420
1,175
1,386
1,661
Height of point of second finger
668
615
960
1,142
1,373
Length of arm	
768
805
385
612
622
Finger-reach	
1,799
1,714
675
630
761
Height, sitting.....
910
819
1,185
1,412
1,703
Width of shoulders ....
375
375
636
730
856
241
277
292
Length of head        ....
195
195
Breadth of head      ....
150
152
176
186
200
Distance from root of nose to chin .
132
125
136
136
141
Distance from root of nose to be
79
81
89
103
120
tween lips
64
73
76
Width of face	
145
143
Height of nose         ....
55
62
116
119
133
Width of nose	
43
45
38
50
48
30
31
81
Weight in pounds    .
150
1491
	
     1
Indices:
Height of shoulder .
82-3
84-5
Index of length of arm   ,
44-0
47-9
81-7
80-5
82-7
Index of finger-reach      ,       .          ;
.03-1
102-0
48-9
46-4
45-2
Index of height, sitting   .
62-1
48-8
1009    1
01-9    1
02-6
Index of width of shoulders    .
21-5
22-3
54-1
52-7
51-6
Cephalic index                                  "
769
77-9
20-5
20-0
17-6
Index of upper part of face
54-48
56-64
77-3
73-6
70-5
Facial index    ....
9103
84-71
65-17
61-34
66-Hfi
Nasal index
■
78-17
72-58   !
76-72
78-9.3
86-56   90-22
| j   „., uu      u»oo i r
 J
Number   ...•••
1
2
3
26
27
/
/*~\
CO
1
Scs
tH
-:    ^*\
^"7*
L
o
C3 —i
/~\
1
CO
o
iz;co
CO
1
F—i
jz
Tfl
o
Name ...-••     |
d *h
CO
'3 o
9 *
CD   O
3
CO   6
g
^o
j
CO   o
CO a
o
CO
1—1   CD
o
,0
Sku'kEn
(son o
Q
O ew
d
o
CO
1-5   H
CD
43
o
!
^->fe»
d
CO
d
co ce
d d
CD   CD
1?
CO
&
CD
CD
O   O
d
d
O   O
CD
Tribe <
O
O
MM
O
o
M
u
CD
%
o
|
CD
i
o
Lower
Upper
o
M
CD
1
o
M
CD
i
i
§
^'a
o
►5
,3
Age .......
3
5
5
I
27
28
mm.
mm.
mm.
	
Height, standing     ....
Height of shoulder ....
832
638
1,051
810
1,097
880
L
mm.
1,710
1,449
652
797
1.791
903
321
mm.
1,724
1,465
659
806
1,772
919
328
Height of point of second finger
293
347
382
Length of ann	
345
463
498
Finger-reach    .....
831
1,053
1,111   1,
Height, sitting	
Width of shoulders ....
503
190
589
206
596
272
Length of head        ....
165
185
176
191
159
188-5
151
Breadth of head       ....
134
139
143
Distance from root of nose to chin .
83
100
90 i
Distance from' root of nose to be
50
65
61
112
71
127
88
tween lips.
Width of face	
108
123
124
Height of nose.....
37
41-5
42
140
144
Width of nose	
28
32
30
] 62-5
40
61
40
Weight in pounds    ....
—
46
1 —
-
Indices :
,
Height of shoulder  ....
76-7
77-1
802
8
or n  1
Index of length of arm    .
41-5
44-1
45-4
4
J84-7
85-0 1
Index of finger-reach
99-9
100-2
101-3
10
te'^
46-8
Index of height, sitting   .
60-5
56-0
54-3
5
]04-7
102-8
Index of width of shoulders    .
22-8
19-6
24 8
2
J52-8
53-3
Cephalic index .....
81-2
751
81-2
8
J18-8
19-0
Index of upper part of face
4630
52-85
49 19
5
^83-24
83-2
Facial index
7685
81-30
72-58
8
151-71
61-11
Nasal index      ....
75-68
7710
71-43
6
teo-oo
88 19
J72-38
65-57 i
Si,*
I .*■ 
Number   

Name               


Tribe	

Age
2
mm.
1,673
1,381
614
767
1,738
875
400
mm.
1,675   ]
1,430
638
792
1,760
816
354
Height, standing     ....
Height of shoulder ....
Height of point of second finger
Length of arm	
Finger-reach	
Height, sitting	
Width of shoulders ....
mm.
782
606 ,
250
356
790
218
l
L
193
152
128
81
145
61
48
199
155
130
81
145
58
42
Length of head        ....
Breadth of head      ....
Distance from root of nose to chin .
Distance from root of nose to between lips
Width of face	
Height of nose....
Width of nose	
170
132
82
58
112
40
30
Weight in pounds   .
Indices:
Height of shoulder .
Index of length of arm   .
Index of finger-reach
Index of height, sitting   .
Index of width of shoulders
Cephalic index.
Index of upper part of face
Facial index
Nasal index
25
77-5
45-6
101-02
27-9
77-6
Cl-78
73-21
76-00
17
0
4
73
0
2
4
74
81
69
163
82-6
45-9
103-82
52-3
23 9
78-8
65-86
88-27
70-49
-
85-4
47-3
105-07 1
48-7
21-1
77-9
65-86
89-65
72-41 ON   THE  NOltTH-AYESTERN   TBIBES   OF   CANADA.
41
as a rule, well formed, hoth in men and women. The foreheads appear to
he broad and straight. In the case of an Indian (Andre) aged 16 the
distance from chin to the hair-line was 187 millimetres. The glabella
is generally 3 to 4 of Broca. The superciliary ridges are quite prominent
in many cases'. The faces seem broader than they really are, and the
cheekbones often prominent. The limbs appear to be well-shapen, but
in not a few cases the hands are rather large, the shoulders stooped, or
the legs bandy.
To distinguish a Kootenay from an Indian of some other tribe may be
i at times difficult: mix one  Shushwap amongst a few dozen Kootenays,
or vice versa, and he may remain perhaps undetected ; but arrange twenty
! Kootenays in a line facing twenty Shushwaps or twenty Stonies, and the
| great difference that really exists between them will flash on the observer
: in a moment, and if another Shushwap or a Kootenay happens to come
i along he will unhesitatingly be assigned to his proper place.    The writer
j had no difficulty in picking ont two Crees from a number of Blackfeet,
i who were in a line opposite a number of Kootenays.    The ensemble of the
I Blackfeet was broken by the presence of these two Orees, and the convic-
j tion that they were not Blackfeet came at once.    Many of the mistaken
theories of Indian origins and. of the exact resemblances of far distant
tribes may arise from the fact that the observer who relates his experiences has never seen, say, a hundred individuals of each tribe drawn up
in line opposite each other, and  been able to get, as it were, a  mental
composite photograph  of each ethnic group.    When twenty Chinamen
land twenty Kootenays are placed opposite each other in like manner, no
one would for a moment judge them to be the same, or even similar.
The tables opposite contain measurements of forty Upper Kootenays,
forty-nine Lower Kootenays,  four Kootenay  Metis,  eleven  Kootenay-
"white Metis, making a total of one hundred and four individuals, of ages
tranging from two to seventy years, and coming from all parts  of the
Kootenay country.
The measurements were taken in a manner similar to that described
iby Dr. Boas, in 'Report,' 1891, p. 425, and the indices calculated in like
Imanner. Very few females could be measured on account of the prejudices
i of the Indians.
The measurements were as follows :—
Height, standing.
,,       of acromion.
„        „ point of second finger.
Finger-reach.
! Height, sitting.
[.Width between acromia.
i Length of head.
Breadth of head.
Distance from naso-frontal suture to
chin (height of face).
Distance from naso-frontal suture to
between the lips (height of upper
part of face).
Width   between   zygomatic   arches
(width of face).
Height of nose.
Width of nose.
%
II.
The length of the arm is obtained by subtracting the height of the
! point of second finger from the height of the acromion. The weight
-which was obtainable in but few cases is given to quarters of a pound,
from an excellent scale in the store of Mr. Gralbraith.
The ages, especially of the Upper Kootenays, may be relied upon as
being as nearly correct as possible, the margin of doubt being very small.
Iff 42                                        beport—1892.
The tribes of the father and mother are given, where such could be ascertained, and the relationship of the various individuals is indicated.
The following tables exhibit in a more condensed form the measurements contained in the preceding pages, and need no special explanation:
Stature, Kootenay Males (19-51 years).
Tribes
Centimetres
Number
of Cases
160 162  1641166  168  170
161 163   165   167  169   171
I'll
172
173
174
175
176
177
178 180
179 181
1
182 184
183 j 185
Lower Kootenay       .
Upper Kootenay
Mixed Upper andLower Kootenay
Total
2
1
1
2
1
1
5
4      4
4
2
3
1
3
1
—
1
24
11
1
3       1
3
6
4      4      6
4
.
— 1    1        36
Index
of
Finger
-reach,
Males
(IS
-51 years
)•
Tribes
Percent, of Stature
Number
i       .
97    98    99   100
101
102
103
104   105
106
107  108  109
110
Ill
of Cases
Lower Kootenay
Upper Kootenay
Mixed    Upper    and
Lower Kootenay
_
—
l
3
1
3
2
3
1
3
2
1
3
1
i
2
4
1
1
—■
—
—
—
22
10
1
Total .
!§|j
—
l
4
5
4
6
4
3
6      1     —    —
—
33
Index
of Hei
ght,
sitting
Tribes
Percent, of Stature
Number:'
47
48
49    50
51
52
53 : 54 | 55
66
57
58
59
60
of Cases)
Upper Kootenay
Lower Kootenay
Mixed Lower and
Kootenay
Total.
Upper
2
—
3
2
2
3       2
5      5
1     —
3
2
3
—
2
—
—
11
23
1
2
.—
3
4
9       7       3       5
—
2
—
—
—
35           }
Index of Height of Shoulder:
Tribes
Percent, of Stature
Number]
77
78
79
80
81    82    83
84
85
86
87
88 ■ 89
of Cases
Lower Kootenay
Upper Kootenay
Mixed Upper and Lower Kootenay
Total
—
1    -
—
3
2
6
2
7
1
5
5
-
—
— |   1
23  j
10
1
—
—
1 1 —    —      6      8      8    10
1
—
—
—       1 |     34 ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
43
Index of Width of Shoulders.
Percent.
of Stature
Tribes
•
16
17
1
18
	
8
19
8
20
1
21
22
23
24
25
of Cases
Lower Kootenay	
1 Upper Kootenay	
Mixed Lower and Upper Kootenay.      .       .
1
\
2
1
1
—
	
22
10
1
■ -,
'
1
8
8 1    5 I    7      2      2
-1      33
Index of Length of Arm.
Percent, of Stature
1
Tribes
Number
1       1       1       1
40    -41     42     43     44    45     46     47    48
49
50
of Cases
1  Mixed Upper and Lower Kootenay .
Total    ....
1
1
2
2
4      4
£8
3 5       2
4 —      1
—
1
1
1
22
10
1
—
4
5
5       7       5       3
—
2
1
33
Cephalic Indices (Males over 5 years).
Indices
Tribes
Number
of Cases
72
73
74
75     76     77 | 78
79    80 | 81    82    83
84
85
86
Lower Kootenay       .      2
Upper Kootenay       .    —'■
Mixed    Upper    and    —
Lower Kootenay
2
1
3
3
3
6
1
1
1
5
3
4
3
2
2
W&
2
3
3
2
1
o
2
1
2
44
24
2
■
Total     .       .2
2
4
6
7
9
8
7
4
3
5
5
3
3
2
70
Cephalic Indices (Females over 5 years).
Tribes
Indioes
Number
of Cases
2
12
72
73
74
75
76
77
78    79
|
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Lower Kootenay
Upper Kootenay
Total
	
—
	
—
1
1
—
—
1
1
3
3
2
2
1
5
~
1
6
-
"   .
\w
ill
U
F 44 report—1892.
Cephalic Indices (Metis, Kootenay and Whites, Males over 5 years).
Tribes
Indices
Number
of Cases
72
73
74
I
76    76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
Lower Kootenay Metis
Upper Kootenay Meiiis
Total
i
1
—
—
2
1
—
—
— i
i
1
xS
~l~
—
1
i|
—
—
3
Cephalic Indices (Metis, Kootenay and Whites, Females over 5 years).
Tribes
Indices
Number
of Cases
70
71
72    73
|
74
75 1 76
77
78
79    80
1
81
82
83
84
85
86
Lower Kootenay Metis
Upper Kootenay Metis
Total
1
—
—
1
—
—
—
1
1
—
1
—
1
—
—
4
3
j
1
1
!§
1
1
7
Index of Upper Pari
of
Face
[Ma
les,
19-
51
yec
MV
)•
Tribes
Indices
Number
of Cases
47
48
49 50
': ■ '
51
52
53'54
55
5
3
8
56
2
2
57
1
1
58
2
2
59
1
1
60
2
1
3
61
1
1
62
63
64
65
66
1
1
67
Lower Kootenay	
Upper Kootenay	
Mixed Lower and Upper Kootenay
Total   ....
-
1
1
1
1
1
1
l
l
2
1
3
3
3
2
1
1
4
22
10
1
33
Index
of
Fac
e
[Male
?19
-51
years
)•
Indices
Tribes
Number
of Cases!
76
77
2
78
79
80
1
81
1
1
82
2
83
2
84
2
1
85
86
3
1
87
1
88 89
1
90
91
-
1
1
92
1
93
1
1
94
95
Lower Kootenay      .
Upper Kootenay
Mixed Upper and Lower
Kootenay
6
3
1
-
—
22
9
1   ;
Total
•      •
•
-
2
i
1
2
2
2
3
—
4
1
9
1
—
2
1
2
—
-
32   | ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
Index of Nose (Males, 19-51 years).
45
Tribes
Indices
Number
of Cases
23
10
1
58
59
2
2
60
61
62
63
64
65
2
2
66
1
1
2
67
1
1
68
1
1
69
1
1
70
3
3
6
71
2
2
72
2
1
3
73
P
1
74
1
1
76
76
76
77
1
1
78
1
1
2
79
80
1
1
81
82
83
84
1
Lower Kootenay
Upper Kootenay
Mixed    Upper    and
Lower Kootenay
Total .
—
if
1
1
2
1
1
3
1
4
—
1
34
IV. LINGUISTICS.
The Kootenay, spoken in two slightly differing dialects, the Upper Kootenay and
| the Lower Kootenay, forms a linguistic stock hy itself. The writer's examination of
! the material he obtained does not lead him to expect any serious modification
Kt. this position. No traces of connection with, or relation to, the Blackfoot
jjptongue were discovered, and except a seeming similarity in a few points of general
Istructure to the Shoshonian and to the Siouan tongues, no points of resemblance
jexcept of the vaguest and pan-American kind have been found with the neighbouring languages.
The Kootenay is incorporative (both as regards the pronoun- and the noun-
object), abounds in prefixes and suffixes, both in the verb and in the noun, has
fcertain inflections of adverbs, nouns, and pronouns by suffixes, and possesses an
felaboration of structure which the writer hopes to be able to explain and illustrate
latter a more thorough study of the linguistic material in his possession.   The incorporation of the objeot-noun in the verb is characteristic of Shoshonian tongues, but
ithe Kootenay is remarkably free from forms by reduplication, and so marks itself
off from these languages in which that peculiarity is highly developed.
The few details that the writer has been able to work out will be found in the
following pages.
As examples of the exceedingly composite character of the Kootenay language, a
noun and a verb analysed into their component elements may be given here:—
Crown of head = dqMnhdnu'Mld'mnam = dqki'nkan (top) +uk (point) + tldm
(head) + nam, ( = somebody's). Aqhinkd'n is further to be decomposed into dq +kin
+ Ifdn, the last being probably the radical for j top.'
•He is going to bite Tas = tSQdtli'iQandwa'sine=ts+Qdtl (prefixes of future tense)
+ itoa(n) [to bite=it, to do + Qa(ri), with the teeth] + -^-(verbal ?)+ dwas ( = he . . .
us) +1 (verbal)+ne (verbal).
' Phonetics.
The Kootenay language possesses the following vowel sounds :—
as in English pique.
„      bond.
„      bone.
„      wood.
„      boot.
„      aisle.
„      brown.
»      boil,
si as in French f auteuil.
There is a frequent, interchange of vowels in Kootenay, the chief equivalents
being as follows:—
B=a, a, a, e, e, u, o, 0, i. 6 = u (very common).
l = i = e = e. i = o, u, o, u, a.
a as in
German Mann.
? a
d as in
English father.
0
d    „
„     all.
o
a    „
„     am.
u
e    „
p    „
1   ,,
„     pen.
„     they.
„     fresh (exaggerated).
u
ai
au
*   ,.
„     flower.
AI
*   »
|    pin.
SI 46
REPORT 1892.
The consonantal sounds of the Kootenay are:—
d, t, as in English.    Often pronounced, however, more forcibly as t\ d\
g, k, as in English.    Often pronounced, however, more forcibly as g\ h'.
g: fc, very guttural g and h, written by some authorities gr and kr. Uttered more
forcibly as g-\ &•'.
gy, ky; q, German cli in Bach; q approximately the same sound, but slightly less
guttural; b, German ch in ich; h as in English; y as in English; p (uttered
more forcibly as p'),m, to; »; s as in English; c= English sh; ts; tc = English ch
in church; dj= English j; tl, explosive I, dl (dorso-apical); I.
The chief consonantal equivalents are :—
q=Q-=B — h; ts = tc = s = c;
tl = dl; d = t; g-=g; k-=k.
The Kootenays can pronounce some of the letters which are not in their own
language. The following lists, the one of French proper names bestowed on the
Kootenays and their phonology as given by them, the other of English words, which
the writer had the Indians pronounce after him time and time again in order to be
sure of the phonetics, may be of some value:—
French
Pierre
Joseph
Gabriel
Sophie
Paris
Francois
St. Louis
Nicholas
Kootenay
Piel.
Sosep.
Kdplle'l.
Sopl.
Palls.
Blaswd.
SaVwd.
Nikmd'la.
French
Fabien
Adrien
Urban
Marie
St. Pierre
Antoine
Patrick
Kootenay
JBa'Men'.
Atlle'n.
ITlbdin).
Mali.
Saplel.
Aturvu'Qi).
Patlik.
English
bacon
Bob
Bonner's Ferry
bread
buffalo
caribou
chipmunk
cigarette
coffee
corn
crackers
croak
damn
den
deer
eleven
ferry
fire
fish
five
flour
%
fork
Fort Steele
frog
good
grass
hiss
hit
horse
Kootenay's
rendering
pe'lttm..
Bop.
Bs'mss Fa'll.
hied,
bu'palo.
ka'llau.
tci'tmsf.
sigla't.
"ko'pi.
Jt'a'Eri.
tla'has.
tluh.
tdm.
dan.
di'E.
le'oBn.
td'lt.
pd'is ; fd'iE.
pis; Jis.
fdi.
pld'iiE.
pldi.
t'ah'.
Fo'ts SM.
Hoh.
gut.
glas,
Ms.
ket.
hd'BS.
II.
English
Kootenay's
rendering
Johnnie
Tco'nz.
log
lo'k.
lumber
Wmbs.
mission
mi'ssn.
mush, (i.e.
porridge)   mss.
Nelson
No'lsEn.
nine
ndi'.
owl
d'usl.
pepper
pe'pEn.
pere (Fr.)
pal.
pocket
p'd'hEt.
potato
pEte'tE.
rain
ten.
rapid
la'pit.
rice
lais.
ride
laid.
river
Whs.
rock
lok.
run
Isn.
Bykert
la'ikst.
salt
sd'sl.
Sand Poinl
San Po'l.
seven   .
se'bEn.
six
sik.
skunk
shEn'h (no g sound)
sleep
sip.
snore
snu'El,
spring
splin.
store
sto'sl
straight
tret. ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBE.
English
Kootenay
renderin,
sugar
su'hsn.
tamarack
td'mlok.
thick
fik.
thin
fin.
three
trl.
tired
tait.
IBES OF"
CANADA.
Snglish
Kootenay's
rendering
trail
fel; tvel.
tree
til.
twelve
twel.
weasel
wi'zsl.
whistle
rci'sEl.
wild
wail.
47
The most interesting points brought out in the pronunciation of these words are :
French: r = l; f(ph)=p; j = s;f<=b.
English: r = I; f=p; b=p; d=t; cr = tl; sh=s; g = k; r = n; th=f; and
amongst the vowel sounds English i — e.
We have also Kootenay tll'kapo' = likapo' (French, le capot).
In this report the accent is marked thus,', the sign immediately following the
syllable accented.
Grammar.
NOUN.    GENDER.
Grammatical gender does not exist in Kootenay.    Some words are used of males
and females alike, with no change of form, e.g.:—
tlu'tl/u/md/tl= widow; widower.
nd'nkd = orphan (boy or girl),
tlkd'mu = infant (boy or girl).
Gender is distinguished in the following ways :—
1. By the use of entirely different words for the male and female :—
Buffalo bull, ni'tUsik. Elk (male), k'i'tlk-d'tle.
cow, tlu'kpu.
(female), tld'wu.
2. By suffixing or (rarely) prefixing ks'sko (male) and sto'kwdtl (female) :—
Duck (male), mallard, ka'nk-usko'ik'dk kE'sko.
,,     (female), „ sto'kwdtl.
Horse, k'd'tlacia'Etltsin kE'sko.
Mare, „ sto'kwdtl.
3. Where no ambiguity is liable to occur, the terms ks'slid = ' male, boy, horse,
dog,' &c, and sto'kwdtl=' girl, female, mare, bitch,' &c, are employed without the
class-noun.
NOUN.    DECLENSION.
The Kootenay noun has an indefinite form in -nam (-nam, -nam) thus:—
tito'ndm., father (of a man).
so'ndm, father (of a woman).
dqkltld'ndm, a house.
This -nam does not appear in all words, and some of the Indians never use it
with the word Kdtlu'ndk (tongue), for example, while others do. It may be that its
use was formerly more extensive than at present, as the existence of the Lower
Kootenay pddlke'hdm (woman), titk'a'tBndm (man), seems to indicate.
The uses of a definite article or demonstrative adjective are in some way served by
the particle tcm or tssn.   Thus:—
tcin ni'tlko — iron, i.e., the metal.
tssn dqkts'md'kinik = lndians, i.e., the men.
The substantive seems to have an uninflected and an inflected form, which apparently can be used interchangeably. (The initials U.K. and L.K. stand for Upper
and Lower Kootenay). 4-8
report—1892.
TJninfiected Form.
Indefinite form : jjd'tlke (U.K.); pddlke'ndm (L.K.).
Singular: Nominative,pd'tlke.
Ie||f| Objective and oblique cases, pd'tlke.
Dual: Nominative, a'sne pd'tlkS.
Objective, &c, a'sne pd'tlke.
Plural: Nominative, pd'tlke.
Objective, &c, pd'tlke.
All nouns may be treated in this way, and then the form for singular and plural
remains the same.
There exists also a declension which is as follows :—
Indefinite form : pd'tlke ; pddlke'ndm.
Singular: Nominative, pd'tlke.
Objective, &c, pd'tlkes.
Dual: Nominative,pd'tlkeki'stik.
Objective, &c, pd'tlkekistik(5).$.
Collective: Nominative, pd'tlkeki'ntik.
Objective, &c, pd'tlkekintik(e")s.
Plural: Nominative, pd'lUteni'ntik.
Objective, &c, pd'tlkenintik{e)s.
Distributive: Nominative, pd'tlkekd'ntik.
Objective, &c,pd'tlkekd'ntik(e)s.
The Kootenay seems to possess, therefore, a case-inflection in -s or -es, a plural j
in -ni'ntik, a collective in -ki'ntik, a dual in -ki'stik, a distributive in -ka'ntik. Thel
following examples will serve as illustations :—
o'pQane dqkinmi'tuks ski'nkuts, the coyote sees the river.
o'pctane nd'k'yu yd'wos wu'os, he sees the fox down in the water.
ipi'tlne ne'is na'Qanes, he kills (him) the caribou.
k/ma'ae ski'nkuts ndtloo'ne kz'qkens, the coyote goes along, carrying the wolf.
v'jjQane ni'tltsiks skd'sl, he sees the buffalo bull coming.
Mna'Qe d'qkitlnd'hos, nu'pQame tlkd'mus ni'ksl d'mdks, a star is going along, [and]
sees a little child eating dirt.
dqknnd'wolts kd'v-sak'd'ne k o'tsdts, the chipmunk sits on the willows.
ta'Qas kdntld'tlte ski'nkuts tld'utlus, the coyote struck the grizzly bear.
nd'nakisQi'mne ne tlkd'muki'stek, these two children go away.
nu'pQane yu'nd k'a'psi tlkd'muninte'kls, he sees many children.
ki'ndkd'sakd'tlkd nipi'kdni'ntik ?, where are you gone, spirits ?
tinaQd'mne yu'ndk'd'psl tlkd'muni'ntik, many children enter.
Combined with the possessive pronouns, nouns are declined as follows:—
k'dti'ts, my father (father of man).
tito'nis, thy father.
tito'is, his father.
kdti'tHn-d'tla, our father.
titDni'sketl, your father.
titdi'sis, their father.
When declined with the possessive pronouns, some nouns sometimes lose one or
more of their prefixes, thus :—
'i'qkltld'ndm, house.
Mkltld. my house.
a'qkltld'iis, his house.
The word for j horse ' presents some peculiarities. The Upper Kootenay form is
k'dtlaod'Etltsin, the Lower Kootenay g-itlk'd'tlaQd'Edltsin, the latter Jjeing the morel
primitive. The etymology is apparently ' elk-dog," ' elk' in Upper Kootenay being!
gitlk'd'tle, and in Lower Kootenay gi'dlKd'dU. In declension, however, the word fori
' elk' drops out entirely, and we have only adEtUsin (dog) left. This does not alwaya
occur, however.
horse, k'd'tiaQd'Etltsin.
our horse, ModittUsinnd'tla.
your horse, Qu'Etltslnni'skPtl. ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OP   CANADA.
The noun denoting the object possessed, or in the genitive, may precede or follow
the governing noun.   Thus :—
ws'tdk tite'is ko'tsdtc, the frog, grandmother of the chipmunk.
gi'sin' yu'kwd tito'nis ? is that the hat of your father 1
ene sind dqk'o'tdtls, it is beaver grease.
COMPOSITION.
Some compound nouns are formed by the simple juxtaposition of two substantives,
Hhus:—
d'qkinko'ho y&ktso'metl (fire + canoe), steamboat.
k'tcitlml'yit natd'nik (night + sun), moon.
The qualifying noun precedes.
In other cases the compound consists of radicals, prefixes, and suffixes.   For
example:—
Wklkdvitld'tltemd'tl (that with which striking is done), whip, from kdntld'tlte • strike,'
prefix kl, instrumental suffix -m&tl.
laqklnu'qtiu'tldm (its head is white), white-headed eagle, from radicals nu'qtlu, white,
tldm, head, and prefixes dq- and M-.
NOUN AND VERB.
The following examples will serve to show the relation between the noun and
I verb as regards matters of derivation:—
Bark (of tree) dqMtskrd'tl.
Mtstlu'tsk'dtl<io'ne, I take the bark off a tree.
Bread (baked in pan) kanku'ptce.
PJwtcd'riknptce'te, I bake bread.
Bridge dqko'M.
hd'tsitko'kbpki'ne, I make a bridge.
Brush kupkd'mdtlko'mMl.
ho'tsopk'omatlQd'ne, I brush.
Comb tcuk'tldmdniydtl.
hMcu'k'tldm-d'meA, I comb.
Heart dqki'tl/wl.
h'okdthvl'ne, I think.
Peel tl/utld'Etirnd'tl.
ho'tlutld'timd'ne, I take the peel (rind) off (an apple).
DIFFERENCES  OF  FORM  IN  NOUNS  WHEN USED  INDEPENDENTLY
AND WHEN IN  COMPOSITION.
One of the peculiarities of the Kootenay language is the existence of different
forms when the word is used in composition, and when it is used independently.
—
Form in Composition
Independent Form
Examples of various Compositions
Bag
tl&'kS
d'qkotld'ko
gtyu'ndtld'ks,   ' He   has   many
Pockets' (a personal name).
Belly     .
(o)rvom; mum
dqko'wom
teBmd'komdm,' Strong Belly.'
wvtlmyufmnB, ' his belly is large.'
Clothes .
uktld'Ent
d'qkuk'tld'Ewt
sa'nuk-tld'snt, 'Bad Clothes' (a
personal name).
Ear    psji
k'Sdt (kruwat)
dqk'd'k'odt
gnmitlk'v/redt, ' mule' (lit. \it has
(aqkykuwdt)
big ears ').
Eye
tletl
dqhd'k-tletl
tlittletl,' blind' (lit.' deprived of
JtrtlHtl
eyes').
d'qkonid'k-tletl, i eye-lashes.'
kd'umini'ktletl,' lower eye-lid.'
■md'tlndktle'tlrie, 'he opens   his
eyes.'
h6—7 50
REPORT—1892.,
Finger   .
Fire
Hair   (of
animals)
Head
Horn
House
Lake
Red
River
Sand
Sky
Snow
Star
Tail    (of
animal)
Leaf
Lear
White
Form in Composition
Independent Form       Examples of various Compositions
k'd'indm
k'5'k'd
k'Bwdt
tldm
k-tle
tld ; kltld
k'snuk
no'hos |   not;
nils
mitak
kdkOtl
itlmi'yit
tin
ithio'hSs; nS'ds
k-dt
kotla'kp&k
sdk
nu'qtW .
Tail    (of    nukmdBnd
bird)
d'qMtsk'd'indm
d'qkvnkd'k'd
dqk'o'wdt
d'qkotld'mndm;
dqlttla'mndm
dqko'k'tle
dqkitld'ndm
dqko'hsnuk
kdno'hSs
d'qkinmi'tHk
d'qkvnko'Mtl
dqkitlml'yit
dqktlv,
dqkitlnd'hds
dqk'd'tsndm
a' qkotla'kpe'kEnam
dqksdk
kdmnu'qtlO
d'qkinu'kmd'snam
gd'tsmd'hanskd'indm,  ' first finger.'
sd'ninkdk'd'ne, ' the fire is bad.'
wi'tlink'dko'ne,  'there  is   much
fire.'
■mtcuk'ho'mdt, ' mouse-coloured'
(lit.' mouse hair').
kdn&hdstld'm na'na,  ' little red
head' (a bird, spec. ?).
dqko'tldmk-d'kEiid/m,'heaxl of hair.'
giiwi'tlktle,   'mountain   sheep'
(lit. ' it has big horns ').
kdkltld; ' my house.'
tld'ne, ' the house is.'
skik'k-Enu'ksl, ' there is a lake.'
gopd'k'Enuk, ' bay in a lake.'
ki'tEniisitlme'yit,' red sky at sundown.'
MtsnU'stik, ' to paint the face.'
na'imanmitu'MnS,' there are two
rivers.'
k'o'ndnmi'tuk,-'down stream.'
kdmd'nkdko'tl,' Sand Point' (place-
name).
sdnithni'yit, ' bad weather.'
kdnu'sitlml'yit,    ' aurora'  (' red
sky')
n-dtlu'nS,' it is covered with snow.'
tloma'iyet, 'spring.'
gwdmu'ktlu, ' Chinook wind.'
gU'witlno'hos, ' evening star' (lit.
' big star').
kii/md'ktcand'Os,   ' Yellow   Star'
(personal name).
tlithd'tine, \ it has no tail.'
gi'kotfca'kpS'kd'tl,-' lettuce.'
M'tsk-dM'tlsdk,' Sioux' (lit. 'charcoal legs').
gorod'nsdk, ' to crook the leg at
the knee.'
gl'dnuqtlu'm'nd, 'rabbit.'
d'qki/niiqtlii'tldm, ' white-headed
eagle.'
gowi'tinvkmd'Bnd,' peacock ' (lit.
' big tail').
This use of independent and composition forms, differing in the way indicated!
above, is very extensive in Kootenay, but the manner in which the differentiation of the
two is brought about—simply by the addition or the subtraction of particles, each of
which no doubt will be discovered in time to have some definite signification—marks |
the language off from those tongues in which a similar distinction is brought about,!
according to some writers, by the arbitrary dropping of one or more letters of thel
independent form.   These letters, however, may ultimately be found to have each its
particular meaning, and then the arbitrary cutting down of a word, so much spokem!
of, may be explained as a regular grammatical process.
The independent and the composition forms in Kootenay appear to be from theL
same radical, which fact distinguishes the language from those tongues in which there M
is often no connection between the independent form of a word and the form used in fl
composition. ON THE  NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
51
Onomatology and Sematology.
Explanations of some of the names of individuals and places are given below.
The following list will serve to indicate the nature of very many of the compound
Kootenay names and appellatives:—
apple
axe
bald
blind
\ candy
[ chief
dumb
! horse
light (levis)
mallard
mirror
moon
mule
needle
; peas'
f plant (spec. 7)
priest
quarter of a dollar
rabbit
I'Bpring («r)
■ star
I sugar
thistle
| train
turkey
) watch
whisky
wife
go'thvd (i.e.,' rose-hip').
dqMtdtl (i.e., f flint').
gdmUqiMk (cp. kdmnu'gtJm, ' white').
tli'ttletl (i.e., 'without eyes').
gd'ktletl k'ko'ktd (i.e.,' variegated sugar').
ndsu'kwSn (i.e., 'heis good'?).
tUttlo'kwd (i.e.,' unable to speak').
k'Vd'tlaaa'Etltsin (i.e., * elk dog ').
tli'ttSEmd'kd"ne (i.e., 'notstrong ').
kd'rik-uskd'lk-dk (i.e.,' red foot').
Jd'tsnu'stemo'tl (i.e., 'instrument used when painting the
face').
k'tcitlml'yit natd'nik (i.e., 'night sun').
gu'witlku'wdt (i.e.,' it has big ears ').
tlo na'na (i.e.,' little awl').
dqk na'na (i e., 'little cartridges ; shot').
d'qkdMle'tles skinkuts (i.e., 'eyes of coyote').
Ita'mk'oko'kdtl kd'tuwu'mtldst (i.e., ' black shirt').
q 1'nko (i e.,' muskrat skin ').
gl'dnuqtl'um'na (cp. kdmn/u'qtlu,' white').
tldtli'ttlo (i.e.,' no more snow').
d'qkitlrio'hos (cp. kdnd'hds, 'red').
k'ko'ktd (i.e.,' sweet').
nutld'kine (i.e.,' strange').
d'qkinko'ko gdkd'l (i.e.,' fire waggon).
gorci'tlkd, t'dlnkuts (i.e., ' big grouse').
natd'nik na'na (i.e.,' little sun').
wu'il (i.e.,' water').
ni'pik-d rvu'u (i.e. 'spirit water').
nutld'kine wil'u (i.e., ' strange water ').
suya'pl wu'ii (i.e.,' white man's water').
titlnd'mu (i.e.,' old woman').
REDUPLICATION  AND  ONOMATOPGEIA.
Formations by reduplication and by onomatopoeia seem to be very rare in Koote -
nay.    But a few examples can be given:—
magpie.
blue-jay.    (This imitative word, in various slightly differing forms, is
found, in many Salishan dialects.)
a large black bird (spec. ?).
fish-hawk.
a small river-bird (spec. ?).
crow,
rook.
hammer of stone,
cat.
l&'ndn
\k'ok"u,'sk'l
Mfiiksok
tooted
l wi'tcwitc
QUQd
ndnd'kl
fpu'pu
■pus
It is worthy of note that the word for ' cat' is not reduplicated, as in the
Chinook jargon (pUspus).
Personal Names.
No name-feast appears to have existed amongst the Kootenays. The relatives
gathered together, and some old man or old woman bestowed a name (d'qkltll'ydm)
upon the child ; often, however, the parents named their own child. Frequently the
child was given the name of his parent, and thus many names are now in existence,
the signification of which has been forgotten, but which have been hereditary in the
H 6—8 62
REPORT—1892.
family for generations. The custom of dropping a word which resembled, or was j
the same as, the name of a chief, &c, who had just died appears to have existed!
amongst these Indians in the past, but the writer was unable to obtain any examples
of its application. The Indians are very loth to tell their n'ames, and it is often
even difficult to get an Indian to name a particularindivid-fflal who is pointed out toi
him. Many of the Kootenays now use their 'mission names' to the exclusion of j
their real Indian ones.
The following examples of Kootenay personal names may prove of interest:—
Upper Kootenays: Gowi'tlkd Kd"ken (Big Wolf); K'fcd'tlsdEn Md'iyuk (Three!
Weasels); Gowi'tlktle (Big Horn Sheep); Mdk' (Bone); Ktsd'sntld'Bm (Curly!
Head).
Lower Kootenays : Md'iyuk Ni'dlkd (Weasel Iron) ; Nu'ke (Stone); Ni'dlkd DM'sin 1
(Iron Paddle); Sw'k'nipe'k-d (Good Spirit); Ka'dlsdnokmd'End (Three Bird-tails); j
BjoQd'min (Pismire) : Kamd'ktcdno'os (Yellow Star).
Children are often called after their parents : thus, Kd'mo Na'na (Little Ko'mo) ; ]
Gld'tld Na'na (Little Swallow), until coming of age, when they assume other names. 1
An Indian may have several names referring to personal peculiarities, deeds!
accomplished, and the like. One old fellow, called Patrick, had more than twenty!
names.   The writer was able to obtain only ten of these, as follows:—
1. Gdnkd'tldmmd'tldk.   His head is hurt.
2. Gd'tldnQd'nko.   He carries trees.
•3. GSwo'ktlutla'Qa. He has hair on his chin.
Gdnu'qtlotlutla'Qa. He has a white beard.
Glyu'ndtld'ltd.   He has many pockets.
6. Ku'pslietloni'tletl.   He is feared by all.
7. G'd'kdtli'sdk.    He has no long braid of hair.
8. Gd'tlBmd'ltastld'skulk.   He has big nostrils.
9. KEmd'tlek.   He turns in his toes when walking.
10. Gd'tlogwa'o'niydu'me.    He has little food, and is very angry.
Following are a few names of females : Gd'k'tse, Tlikkest, Kspa'ka, Tlditlnd'tldk- \
wit, K'tsu'kin.
Some of the names given by the Indians to white men are interesting: Ski'nkuts j
(Coyote), Kd'kutsk-d'iyn'kwd (Bad Hat), Kdkd'qtliqki'wmik (the man who takes out ]
his eye, i.e., who has a glass eye), Kdku'mkdk (blind of one eye), Xdnu'qtluk (bald).
The name given to the writer by the Upper Kootenays was Klko'ndki'nkdnd'- j
kasnd'mis, which was said to mean, ' he uses the long stick,' in reference to his 1
anthropological measurements.
4.
Place-names.
The Rocky Mountains, the Columbia River, the Kootenay Lake, are usually called
by the Indians : Aqlto1'/idutlP,'et, Aqkinmi'tilk, Aqkd'k-Bnuk, which mean simply 'mountains,' ' river,'' lake ' respectively.   The two Columbia Lakes (Upper and Lower) are ;
known as Aqki'skEnuk ( = two lakes near each other ?), the Kootenay River, Aqkok- ]
tld'adtl.   Other names of interest are : Ainsworth (B.C.) Aqk'nu'ktle'et na'na (Little-|
The Kootenays call their country Ki'tona'Qa dmd'kis (the Kootenays' land). The|
Lower Kootenays call the United States Ble'ne (the other side) or Bo'stsn d?nd'kist
(country of the Americans), Canada being denominated Kimdjdtc dmu'Ms (the coun-j
try of the British), the two words Bo'stvm, and Mndjdtc having been adopted froml
the Chinook jargon.
1
Seasons, Months, &c.
The names of the seasons are as follows :—
Spring. Tlu'mdiySt.   ' When the snow leaves.' Also tUtli'UlS (no more snow)!
Summer. Gdksu'kit.    « When things are getting warm.'   Also- tlumd'ivet nd'mitik
Autumn. Fteupnd'kot.    • When the leaves', &c, fall.'
Winter. Wd'nuifna'mu.   'When snow and rain come.' ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
53
The month-names are :-
January
February
March
April
black bear with
N&ktd'isBk (U. K. and L. K).   «The beginning (?) month.
Mpkd'isdk (U. K. and L. K.).    'The month of the blai
young.'
f Tlikd'k (U. K ) \    • The month when the water still remains on the
\Dliko'k (L. K.) J ground.'
Gdqku'mek (U. K. and L. K.).   * The month when the earth (a'/ndk)
breaks open.'
/ OtlM'men (&. K.) "1 , ^. .,     ,      ..      .
\ Odlu'men (L. K.) f  The month when the rlvers rlse'
/ Go'kolini'pkd (U. K).    ' Month when the ku'pkd ripens.
\ K-dind'mu (L. K ).    ' The month of the ducks with young.'
f Go'kusk-5'md (U. K.).    ' The month when the service-berries (sk-o'mB')
J     ripen.'
j Ktcidhnv/yitkBdU''qvmd'iitsku'mo (L. K.).   ' When the service-berries
L    ripen at night.'
f KtcithnVUkBtle'kEwd'Et (U. K).   ' When the service-berries ripen at
<     night.'
I Asd'dlsnik (L. K.).    ' Time of fish-spawn (amik)'
September    Kdpa'kpe'k.    ' Month when leaves begin to fall.'
October      f Ktd'tldoktcu'pk'd (U. K.)l ' The month of the rutting of deer Hit.' the
\R'td'dldk tcu'pVd (L. K.)j     white-tailed deer (tcWpk-d) call out').'
/November
•December
May
June
July
August
Mist'dm-il
.   f Gotlmwka ko (U. K.)) , ^,.        £ ,,      .       •        x      j. •   v ,
• \ /~i-n   -»7-7-^r   T7-\>  Time of the ripenmsr of certain berries.
yGodlma'kako (L. K.)J r       &
Both Upper and Lower Kootenays gave but twelve  months.   Possibly their
reckoning has been changed by reason of white influence, or, perhaps, one month
; (January ?) may count for two.   The word now used for month is natd'nik (moon) ;
* year' is rendered by md'k'ot; also by ma'ktet, translating the jargon expression
' snow.'
The days of the week, introduced by the missionaries, are known as follows in
Upper Kootenay:—
Sunday, gokwe'tsin me'yet.
Monday, (tla) o'ksn me'yet.
Tuesday, (tl) di me'yet.
Wednesday, (tld~) yd'tlsan me'yet.
Thursday, (tla) Qd'Etsan me'yet.
Friday, (tld)ye'kun me'yet.
Saturday, (tla) snnd'san me'yet.
Lower Kootenay names the same with substitutions dl for tl, and -mo'yet for
-me'yet.
The name for a clock is natd'nik (sun), and a watch is natd'nik na'na (little sun).
iTime of day is now expressed as follows:—
one o'clock, go'kwe natd'nik na'na.
what o'clock ? k'd'ksd natd'nik na'na ?
eleven o'clock, e'towd'm tla o'kme natd'nik na'na.
half-past eleven, e'towd'm tla d'kwe stldkd'iyakd'wd natd'nik na'na.
Adjectives.
Adjectives usually precede the noun; the exceptions, such as the words for
' male, female' (not always), ' small' (the adjective na'na always), to this rule axe
few.   The adjectives may be classed as follows :—
1. Disjunctive adjectives, which cannot properly be regarded as mere affixes, as;
ke'skd (male), na'na (small), k'd'pe (all), &c.   Examples :—
Qd'Etltsin ks'skd, dog.
Qd'Etltsin sto'kwdtl, bitch.
k'd'pB d'mdk, all the earth.
t&'wd na'na, revolver. r
§4 REPORT—1892.
2. Those used with the verbals -ne, -ine, -kd'ne:—
• su'kine ti'tk'dt, the man is good.
wi'tlkd'ne, he is large, tall.
si'qime, he is fat.
ni'sinS gad'qktlik, my foot is sore.
yu'ndkd'ne tind'mu, there is plenty of grease,
wa'qine, it is thick.
wi'tltldnd'mne, he has many houses.
3. Those used with the prefix gO- (gd-), and with or without a suffix :—
gdmi'tlkd ndsu'lemSn, a big chief.
gdwi'tlkd wB'tdk, a big frog.
guwi'tlk-wwdt, mule (lit. ' big-eared').
gwmd'konmi'tuk, a long river.
guwi'tlk'tle, mountain sheep (lit. ' big horn ').
4. Compound adjectives :—
team na'na, few (cp. tsamd'ketl, ' very').
Kpa'ktsl na'na, thin.
gd'ko na'na, short.
6. Adjectival periphrases :—
sd'nitlul'ne, angry (lit. ' bad-hearted he is').
sd'nitlqd"ne, sick (lit. ' bad-bodied he is').
I
6. Adjectives of colour.   These appear to be mostly compounds, and to contain
a separable prefix, kd-, or kdm- (kdm-~).    Thus:—
kdmnu'qtlu, white.   A'qkmuqtlu'tldm, white-headed eagle.   Perhaps the radical is
tlii (snow).
kd'mkdk'd'kdtl, black.
kamd'qtse, yellow.
kdno'lids, red.   Ndnd'sg'od'te, it is red; d'qkitlnd'hos, star; kitsnu'stik, to paint the
face.
kd'Qtlu'lyit'kd, green.
7. Many adjectives are in constant use as nouns:—
ka'mk'dkd'kdtl, negro.
kdnd'hos, species of dragon-fly with reddish body.
ks'skd. boy, horse, dog.
ftdkwd'tl, girl, mare, bitch.
Diminutives.
As far as ascertained at present, diminutives proper do not appear to exist inj
Kootenay.   Their place is taken—
1. By special words :-
dqktd, a bear one year old.
d'qkinku'mdtl, calf.
tlkd'mu, little child.
2. By nouns followed by the adjective na'na. small, young:—
tld'utld, grizzly; tld'utld na'na, little (young) grizzly.
yak-tso'metl, canoe; yaktso'metl na'na, small model of a canoe.
ndu'te, woman; ndu'te na'na, girl.
tld, awl; tld- na'na, needle.
guwi'tltldm na'na, little big-head (bird, spec. ?).
£d'md (personal name) ; Md'md na'na, young Ko'mo,
gas na'na, the young of the fish called ipat; pus na'na, kitten, &c.
Although Qd'Etltsin na'na, and k'd'tlaQd'stltsin na'na are in 'use, the ordinary]
word, both for 'pup' and for ' colt,* appears to be tci'te na'na, evidently a compound! ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
55
Srith na'na.   For ' colt' the word mi'staka'dld (in which k-d'dla | horse) is colloquial
amongst the young men of the Lower Kootenays.
Diminutives form their plural and dual as nouns.   E.g.:—
ndu'te na'na ki'stik, two girls.
ndu'te na'na ki'ntik, girls.
NUMERALS.
1,
O'ke; O'kwe.
24, a'iwOm tla Qa'Etsa.
0
as; as.
25,       „       „ ie"kO.
3,
k-a'tlsa; k-a'tlsa.
26.       „       „ nmi'sa.
4,
Qa'Etsa.
27,       „      „ wista'tla.
6,
ie"ko.
28,       „       „ wOQa'Etsa.
6,
enmi'sa.
29,       „       „ k-aiki'tuwO'.
7,
wista'tla; wista'tla.
30, katlsa'nuwO.
8,
woQa'Etsa.
31,           „       .   tla O'kwe.
9,
k-aiki'tuwO'.
40, Qa'Etsa'nuwO.
10,
e'tuwo'; i'tuwo'.
41,           „           tla O'kwe.
11,
e'tuwo' tla okwe.
50, ieko'nuwO.
12,
„      „ as.
51,         „         tla O'kwe.
13,
„       „ k-a'tlsa.
60, enmisa'niiwO.
14,
„      „ Qa'Etsa.
61,             „          tla O'kwe.
15,
„       „ ie"ko.
70, wi'statla'nuwO.
16,
„       „ nm'isa.
71,             „            tla O'kwe.
17,
„       „ wista'tla.
80, wOQa'Etsa'nawO.
18,
,,       „ woQa'Etsa.
81,              „             tla O'kwe.
19,
„       „ k-aiki'tuwo'.
90, k-aiki'tuwu'nuwu.
20,
a'iwO; e'tuwo' tla. e'tuwo'.
91,               „                tla O'kwe.
21,
a'iwom tla o'kwe.
100, gi'tuwu'nuwu ;         e'tuwu''
22,
i,       „ as.
nuwu'.
23,
„       „ k-a'tlsa.
101, e'tuwu'tli'tuwu'nuwum
tla O'kwe.
110,
„ e'tuwu'.
120,
„ a'iwo.
195,
„ k-aiki'tuwu'nuwum tla ie"kO.
200, a'sitl(E)i'tuwu'nuwu.
300, k-a'tlsa tlEi'tuwu
nuwu
400, Qa'Etsa tlEi'tuwu
nuwu
500, ie"kO
600, enmi'sa            „
700, wista'tla         „
800, wOQa'Etsa       „
900, k-aiki'tuwO'     „
1,000, M'tuwu'nuwutlEi'tuwu'
nuwti; e'tuwu'nuwutlEi'tuwu'nuwu
In certain cases the letter «-, or g- (k-), is prefixed to the numerals ; the reason
for this is not known.    Thus:—
gd'kwe natd'nik na'na, one o'clock.
QdtlQd'ne dqksd'kes kd'kwes, he carries one leg.
ndsne ni'pine, two are dead.
, nS'tunm'ns ni'tlkd, ten dollars.
Regarding the numeral system of the Kootenays, the following remarks may be
made. The words for three, four, tits, contain a suffix -sa (-sd). Four and eight are
clearly related, the latter being possibly the second four. In the decades a suffix
-too" (-wH) is found, which makes it appear that 'twenty,' di-wS is 'two tens.'
This is confirmed by the fact that a word ai (di) = ' two' does really exist, though
only in certain phrases and compositions.   E.g.:—
kdwnd'kwdt, two years; nd'iman mitu'kind, there are two rivers, &c.
In certain locutions: two rivers running into each other, two trees, mountains,
side by side; two sticks, and especially when speaking of two plates, cups, pails, 56
REPORT—1892.
forks, boxes, &c, set one within the other, or of two pairs of breeches, two coats,
hats, &c, worn one over the other, ai (di) is used.    Examples:—
■na'iman mitu'kind.    There are two rivers.
„      kd'xne. „     „     „   sticks.
„      itsald'sne.        „      „     ,,  trees.
ka'i/man k'u'ndn.   Two teeth.
na'imatli'kme.    There are two tracks in the snow.
na'imanQd'me.   Two logs lying side by side.
Oedinals.
The ordinal numerals are :—
S'smik; d'smJek, first.
kdsd'sd'tl, second.
itlm&'hak ; ka'iydk'd'wdsa'QS, third.
a'nitlmd'kak, fourth.
These ordinals take the inflectional -s like adverbs.
The words for ' third ' and ' fourth' are closely related to itlkd'kak, ' far, at a
distance.'
Above ' fourth,' and sometimes for all above ' one,' the cardinals are apparently in j
use.
Numeral Adveebs.
_,,.    , > once; nd'sne nd, twice; k'dtlsd'nS nd, three times, &c.
In these words nd probably signifies ' here,'' now.'
Another series is :—
gdkwe'ndtl, once.
gdskd'tletl, twice.
k'd'tlsaQd'tletl, thrice.
qd'stsaQd'tlStl, four times, &c.
Another:—
hd'pdk, the first time; kdnd'pak, kdQii'pak, that one first (?).
(tld) kd'sendtl, the second time.
Distributive Numerals.
gdk' kd'ntik, one each.
gds kd'ntik, two each.
kd'tlsa kd'ntik, three each.
Qd'stsa kd'ntik, four each, &c.
Partitive Numerals.
kd'iydkd'wd; tsskusE'k-d, half.
d'ke tlEtsEkusB'k'd, one and a half = d'ke tld kd'iydkd'mS.
PERSONAL PRONOUNS.
The disjunctive pronouns are:—
kd'min, I.
ni'nkd, thou.
ni'nkd'is, he, she.
n8 = he.
kd'mind'tld, we.
ni'nkd'niski'tl, you.
ninkoi'sis, they.
The word for ' he' looks like a genitive of ni'nkd,' thou.'
These pronouns are used where the verb is not expressed, in answer to questions,]
&c.; e.g.:—
ta'oas ni'nkd I you [have said] enough I
kSM'ni i'ntlak«o'smik ka'mim,:   Says the chicken-hawk, • I Twill go] first.*
Mats kd'min I   Not II
The pronoun nS, in the objective case form ne'it, is very frequently used as the] ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF CANADA.
57
■ h
object, or as the complementary object, of verbs, where the incorporated pronoun
does not occur; thus:—
ipi'tlne ne'is tl&'utlds. He kills him the grizzly.
ipi'tlne ne'is na'aanes. He kills him the caribou.
The subject pronouns used with verbs are ;—
hd . . . ne = I.
hin . . . we = thou.
— ... we = he.
hd . . . ndtld'(ne") = 'we.
hin . . . niske'tl/ie =yoa.
j—  ... ne = they.
It is interesting to note that, in the past and future tenses of the verb, the first
personal pronoun seems to be gu- (ku), e.g. :—
gutsQd'tUp, ' I will kill'; md'kutstld'ketl,' I loved.'
The incorporative forms of the personal pronouns as objects have been given by
Dr. Boas,(' Report.' 1889), and the examples given below in treating of the verb will
suffice to illustrate their use.
ADVERBS.
The position of adverbs in the sentence varies, as the following examples show :—
Pi'kdks i'pi/nS kd'md.    Long ago my mother died.
O'pQane dll'nis na'cia/nes.    He sees the caribou on the other side.
Ta'aas tdna'oe wi'tlndm.    He went off early in the morning.
Kdke'ne ski'nkuts: ' d'smik kd'min.'   Said the coyote:    ' I [will go] first.'
K'kdnml'yit wi'tlndm kdki'tlne ti'tlmdmu'is sld'nkuts.   The next day early the
coyote spoke to his wife.
Kana'ae ski'nkuts d'smeks.    The coyote goes first.
Adverbs may or may not take the inflectional sufEx -s.    One can say, for example,
pi'kdk i'pine kd'md orpi'kaks i'pine kd'md. The exact rule for the use of this suffix is
[ not apparent.
I. Time:
Pe'kdk or pi'kdk, long ago.
wi'niki'tine, it is long since.
tdqtd', by and by.
ndta'ad, now. j
d'qkammi'yit, always, every day.
kdnml'yit, to-morrow.
nd'hdsd'nmeyi'tke, to-day.
wd'tlkwd, yesterday.
wi'tlndm, early.
II. Repetition:
tld, again.
d'qkl, again, more.
Place, direction:
III
nd, here.
ne, there.
tla'a, outside.
nd'std, high, up.
u'mml, down.
tle'ne, across, on the other side.
k-d'nan mi'tuk, down stream.
IV. Interrogation:
k'd'a, where ?
k'd'ken, whither ?
k'ds, where is 1
k'd'psi(n), what ? why ?
k'd'k'sd(n), how much? how many?
V. Affirmation, negation:
wa'ad, no.
md'sts, no.
ce, yes, certainly.
nd'qk'an, perhaps.
Adverbial offices are also performed by certain prefixes and suffixes, and by letters
attached to the verb.    These are discussed elsewhere.
.Iterative Adverb.
The adverb tld is used with compound numerals and with verbs denoting repeated
action, e.g.
e'tuwd' tld d'kwe,' eleven ' (lit. * ten again one').
d'.ketlEtsBku'su'k-d, ' one and a half ' (lit. ', one again piece').
tld'wdne'ne,' it bobs up and down.'
tldwa'ae,' he returns.'
tld'tcina'ae,' he goes away again.' 58
REPORT— 1 892.
Negation.
There are two disjunctive adverbs of negation, md'sts (or mats) and wa'ad. The
distinction between them seems to be this : wa'Qd is equivalent to the English ' no, not
that; that is not right; don't do that'; while md'sts is used with pronouns and verbs
in the imperative, and also in cases where a contradiction and a correction is intended.
Following are examples:—
Md'ts kd'min I   Not I ! (i.e., someone else may do it).
Md'Ets itki'nin /   Do not do it 1
Md'Ets kid'w, tld'ne.   Not kld'ne but tlo'nS.
Tcm ni'tlkd md'sts dqkdkpd'd.   The iron [barrel of the gnn] not the stock.
Kinu'was ? wa'Qd.    Are you hungry 1   No.
Kdke'ne tld'utld : ' wa'Qd ! '   Said the grizzly bear : ' Don't do that 1'
Kdke'ne i'ntldk: ' d'smik kd'min.' Kdke'ne ski'nkuts: ' wa'Qd.' Said the chicken-
hawk : ' I [will go] first.'   Said the coyote : ' No.'
In conjugation and word formation the negative particles k'd, 'not,'-and tlit,
' without, deprived of,' are employed. They are sometimes prefixes and at other times
infixes.   Examples:—
Kdi'ne si'nd.   It is not beaver. ho'k'di'kine.   I do not eat.
kd'k'dd'pQcme.   I do not see. hd'k-di'smetld'ne.   It is not my house.
hdtli'ttdwu'te.   I have no gun.
hdtli'ste dqktcd'mdtl.   I have no knife.
tli'ttletl, blind (-tletl= eyes).
tli'ttldtli'tit, unmarried man (tldtli'tit = married man).
tlittsE'md'kd"nS, it is light (tSB'mdkd'ne = it is strong).
The radical tlit is seen in tli'tkEm ' worthless.'
There is still another particle, tld (probably =' none left') used as follows :—
tld'ne ni'tlkd.   There is no money. tld'ne k'a'psin.   Nothing.
tld'ne.  There is no ... . tig k'a'psin.   Nothing.
tld'sl,       „„....'
Conjunctions.
Few conjunctions have as yet been determined. The equivalents of some English
conjunctions are:—
A'qkl, and, more. Kd'min d'qkl ni'nkd. I and you. A'qkl ni'nkd. You too. 'And'
in the numerals is expressed by tld ; etWwdtldo'kwv (ten and one), eleven.
Ka'psin, why. Kdd'pQane k'a'psin tsi'tlep. He does not know why she is dead.
Pd'tlk, because.    Pd'tlk'si'tlep.   Because he was dead.
Nd'pet, if.   Nd'pet hintsi'nam.   If you go.
Interjections.
But little was learnt regarding these words.    A few are real interjections; the
rest are parts of speech used interjectionally.
ha'si hd'B = aha.l (expression of surprise).
d != Get out of the way (used to dogs).   For human beings tlu'nv, I (go away I)
is employed.
d'hd he'l!   Ah, that is good !   I like that.
hd'i 11   That is not good I   I don't like that.
hd'l yu /   Hallo 1   That's strange !
ydhd I   Hurry up I (from English ?)
ms'kdk I   Hold on I   Not so fast I
Ta'Qas I   Stop I   Enough I
VERBS.
The Verb 'ToBe.'
The duties of the substantive verb appear to be performed to some extent by
Ing, -tnS (-ne).   Thus :— ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
59
Hdni'ne Ki'tdnd'Qa = I am a Kootenay.
Kdke'ne ' hdni'ne ski'nkuts' = He says ' I am the coyote.'
I'ne si'nd dqkd'tdtls — It is beaver-grease.
Ni'ne suya'pi = He is a white man.
Tldk-d i'nsl ski'nkuts ti'tlnamd'is g'u'stet = The coyote is not the wife of the trout.
Ni'nsi ti'tlnamd'is g'u'stet.   It is the wife of the trout.
Often no verb or suffix is employed, as kd'min s7ii'nkuts = I am the coyote.
This Ine, -ine (-ne) seems to be the same as the suffix -Ine, -Tie, -nl, found in adjec
jtives and some intransitive verbs, e.g.:—
suki'ni = it is good.
si'qinl = it is fat.
i'pine = he is dead.
wa'qine = it is thick.
The Verb 'To Have.'
The verb ' have ' appears in some cases to be expressed by the suffix -td :—
hd'ie'kd'te k'a'tlaQd' Etltsin = l have five horses.
hdlndsk'd'tlte = I have two children.
hond'te dqkd'tdtls = I have an axe.
hd'yund'te nu'mds = I have many beads.
hdtli'tdwu'te = I have no gun.
The tense-sign for past time is ma
Ets use :—
ma'kutstld'ketl — I loved him.
md'kdd'pQanis = I saw you.
Past Tense.
The following examples will serve to indicate
mdkl'ep = He died.
mdktsekutl = ~E.e drank.
Future Tense.
The future tense-sign is Qdtl.
hd'tsQdtli'kine = I shall eat.
ku'tsodtli'pitl = l shall kill.
tSQdtli'pitl = He will kill.
hdtSQd'tleku'tlne = I shall drink.
tsQd'tlQdna'Qe «= It will go.
hdtSQd'tli'ne = I shall be . . .
gu'tsQdtlkd'ketl^I shall tell.
The desiderative coincides with the future:—
tSQd'tldna'qB = He wants to hunt.
kintsod'tlek = Do you want to eat 1
hd'tsQdtli'kine = 1 want to eat.
k'tsd'tli'tQa = He wants to bite.
Imperative.
In this mood, as is the case in many languages, the radical of the verb is easily
seen.   The following examples will suffice:—
i'ke(n) = eat thou !
dwd'Mn = get up 1
tcekd'ten — take care I
skd'kin = give me !
itki'nin = do it 1
mdts dni'tlin=don't be afraid I
k'k'd'mne(n) = sleep thou I
tld'ne=come!
tlu'nd = go away !
piski'nd — let go I
tcekd'td = look 1
. hd'mdti'ktcu=give I
tld i'tQand — bite me again
isd'kiiidn = sit down I
i'ketl= eat ye I
nu'pketl = sleep ye I
k dmne'ketl= sleep ye 1   .
tsind'Mtl=hurry up I
There appear to be several endings for the imperative, but the ebief are -S, -en, -d,
for the singular, and -HI for the plural. irf
all
60
REPORT—1892.
Interrogative.
The interrogative form of the verb is made up of the particle km (you) and the
radical of the verb, with tense signs :—
kinek ? = do you eat ?
kintSQd'tlek ? = do you want to eat 1   Will you eat 1
kmkd'tlul ? = do you think 1
km d'kdwitl ? = do you dance ?
kin e'tld ? = do you cry 1
kimtsi'tQa'nap f = would you bite me?
km I'ne Ki'tona'Qa ?=are you a Kootenay ?
The inflection of the voice, as in English, indicates that a question is being asked,
thus:—
I'nB si'nd aqk'd'tdtls ? = is it beaver grease ?
I'nB Pol d'qMtld'is ? = is it Paul's house ?
I
Negative.
With verbs in the imperative the negative mats is used :—
mats itki'nin I = don't do that I
mats i'ketl = don't eat 1
The particle k'd is prefixed to the third person of the verb in the indicative mood,
and inserted between the personal pronoun and verb in the other persons.   Thus : —
k'd i'ne si'nd = it is not beaver.
k'd d'pQome ski'nkuts = he does not see the coyote.
k'd tdqd"ne = it is not raining much.
kd'k'Od'pQand = I do not see.
hdk'a'wasQd'mek=I do not sing.
INCORPORATION OF OBJECT.
A peculiarity of Kootenayis the incorporation of noun-objects in the verb, thus :—
hdtstlii'tsk'dtlQd'ne = 1 take the bark off a tree (bark = dqkitsk'd'tT).
gd'tsv.kwd'tldmki'nmek=I smooth down my hair with my hands (dqk-d'tldm = hair).
kd'k'dwu'mdtl=To cut open the belly (dqkd'wom=belly).
tlu'ktsdtld'inS = Re cuts off end of nose (a'qkinuk'tsd'tld = end of nose).
gowa'ntlik=I move my foot about (a'qktlik = foot).
nd'tltldmki'ne = He takes [carries] the head in his hand.
wdnkd'tldmki'ne = He shakes the head in his hand.
Following are examples of the incorporation of the object pronoun in the verb :—
hdtsi'tQani'sine = I bite you (hd-ts-itQa-n-is-i-ne).   Radical is i'toa,' bite.'
I     bite   you
M'ntsQdtlHB'tlpdtlmd'pme = You   will    honour    me   (Mn-ts-Qdtl-tlpatl-n-ap-i-ne)
you hear     me
Radical is hdtlpdtl,' hear.'
tSQd'tlipitli'sinB = He will kill you (ts-Qdtl-ipitl-is-i-ne).    Radical is ipi'tl, ' kill.'
kill you
hdtSQdtlk'd'ntldtli'sinS = l will strike you  (kd-ts-Qdtl-k'dntlatTAs-i-ne).    Radical is]
I strike you
k'dntldtl, ' strike.'
nu'pQamd'pind = He sees me (n-upQO-n-dp-i-ne).    Radical is u'pQa,' see.'.
see      me
Mnu'pQand'pine = Thou seest me (hin-upQO-n-dp-i-nS).   Radical is u'pQa,' see.'
you   see     me
hgnu'paani'sinB = I see thee (hd-n-upqa-n-is-i-ne).   Radical is u'poa,' see.'
I      see    you Pi
ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
61
I ttQd'tlitQa'ndwa'sine = He is going to bite us (ts-Qdtl-itQa-n-dwas-i-ne).    Radical
bite     us
i'tQa,' bite.'
tsQa'tUcu'kwati'sine = ILe is going to  get you   (ts-qatl-tcukwdt-is-i-ne).     Radical
get   you
tcu'kmdt,' get.'
PREFIXES.
The prefixes n- and g- (k-), perhaps the same as those appearing in the numerals,
i are found with certain forms of the verb. In others they do not appear. Their
| signification is not known.   The following examples will illustrate their use:—
Pi'kdks i'pine kd'ma.    Long ago my mother died.
Ta'Qas n-d'sne n-i'pinS tld'utlds.   Two grizzly bears died.
Ski'nkuts ipi'tlnB ne'is k'u'pis.   The coyote kills him the owl.
Kdke'ne hdnipi'tlne ku'pl.    He says [said] ' I kill [killed] the' owl.'
This n- appears in the third person singular of very many verbs, and also in the
first person singular. Examples of the prefix k- (g-) as compared with n-, and the
verb without prefix are—
g-d'ku sk'dmd, month of July (lit.' when the service-berries ripen ')
n-dku'inS dqkd'dktte'et, the berries are ripe.
gutld'ktle, old (senex).
nutla'kine, he is old, an old man.
ki'tsnu'stik, to paint the face.
Adni'tsnu'stik, I paint my face.
nd'u/ma'ne, he barks.
kd'wB ski'nkuts, the coyote barks.
Other prefixes are s-, k-, y-, as exemplified in the following:—
i   kdnk'd'mBk skinkuts, the coyote sits on his haunches.
i  ydnk'd'men, sit down !
'   hd'tsdnk'd'mek, I sit down.
I  kd'usakd'nB i'ntldk dqkl ti'tlnd.md'is.    The chicken-hawk and his wife are there.
sd'usdkd'ne tld'utld.   The grizzly is there.
OTHER  MOODS.
Regarding other moods little can be said at present until the analysis of the
language has progressed further.  The following examples, however, may be given :—
iKd'tlul'nB k'tSQdtli'pitl ski'nkuts.   He thinks to kill the coyote.
mKd'tlui'nS tsQdtli'pitld'ps.   He thinks to kill me.
WPdsd'kitlM'kinS nl' kdk'd'Bp.    I am very glad that I am not dead.
' K-a'dpQanS k'a'psins tsi'tlep.   He does not see why he is dead.
Kdtluii'ne hdtli'kimetl aqk'dktlB'tlBs ski'nkuts pdtlk'si'tlep.   He thinks : I will eat the
eyes of the coyote because he is dead.
; Kd'tlul'ne ke'eps.   He thinks she is dead.
An infinitive, or perhaps a participial form in -si [-se] seems to be indicated in
, the following :—
HdtVpd'tVne k'u'pis tdtld'ksl tld'ne.    I hear the owl saying ' come.'
Kdna'QB a'qJdtlnd'hds, nu'pQane tlkd'mus ni'ksl d'mdks.   A star comes along [and]
sees a child eating dirt.
O'poane ska'si tld'utlds.    He sees the grizzly bear coming.
O'pnane ni'tltsiks skd'sB.    He sees the buffalo buU coming.
O'pQame tldpskd'se pdpd'is.    He sees his grandmother coming.
Occasionally a form in -sin occurs :—
CfpQane ska'sin k'd'qkens.
He sees the wolf coming. 62
REPORT—1892.
These forms in -si [-se] may, however, be dependent forms of the indicative.
The following show another verbal form :—
KdkB'ne k'a'psin gotlB'tkin.   He says : what shall 1 do ?
Kdo'pQane kd'psins tli'tkin.    He does not see (know) what to do.
Following are examples of the verb in the most indefinite form, corresponding
perhaps to a verbal noun or an infinitive:—
kd'nBtl, to fear, fearing.
kiketl, to eat, eating.
gd'k'tSQdtl, to chew, chewing.
gOtla'XQdtl, to chop, chopping.
kitk'a'n7idtl, to cut with shears, cutting.
kitkin, to do, doing.
Mtii'k'tsdtl, to tie, tying.
gitkd'Qutl, to twist, twisting.
kd'kdwl'tlndm, to dance, dancing.
gd'tluwd'tsindm, to gamble, gambling.
gd'tlk'dtB'indm, to gather berries, gathering.
k'k'dmnB'ndmi, to sleep, sleeping.
k'd'indm, to steal, stealing.
glyi'ktdmd'tlndm, to upset a canoe, upsetting
tSQd'ndm, to say, saying.
kdtlB'tcdtB'ydm, to dream, dreaming.
gdna'k'nB'yam, to sit, sitting.
gd'k'ktcB'yam, to bathe, bathing.
gu'tskl'yam, to lie, lying.
gd'qkdtle'ydm, to sell, selling.
mi'tik'ki'mek, to holloa, holloaing.
EXAMPLES OF VERB-COMPOSITION.
Radical d, ' to rub, to paint,'
„       a, ' to come, to go.'
„ ail, 'to carry.'
„ atlas, 'to separate.'
„ ip,' dead, to die.'
„ it, ' to do, to make.'
Derivatives: yil'd ki'ne, he rubs on (yu, on,
kin, with hand).
wa'QB, he comes.
tldwa'QB, he returns.
ska'QB, he comes.
skd'sl, coming.
kdna'QB, he goes along.
tcina'QB, he goes away.
tld'tcvna'qB, he goes off again.
kd'uQua' qB, he starts after.
„ ndtlQd'nB, ' he carries on his
back'  (»-, prefix, qo', 'on
- back').
ndtlki'ne, ' he carries in his
hand'   (-kin,    ' with    the ]
hand').
,, hdnd'tlase'lQd'mek,    'I    cut
stone.'
gd'tlaski'nitl, ' to tear apart.'
„ ni'pine,' he is dead.'
ipi'tlne, ' he kills' (-tl tran-I
sitive suffix).
ipn'kin.B,    'he   is   drowned'!
(=' to die in the water,' a
-w&=in water).
„ kitkin, ' to make (-kin, ' with!
the hand').
nitki'ne, ' he makes, does.'
i'taane, ' he bites' (=' he does!
with the teeth,' -oa, ' withl
teeth'). ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
63
Radical k'B, ' to speak.'
d'poa,' to see.'
tlets, ' to lie on bed, to sleep.'
nitQd'mSk, 'he lies down'(«-,
prefix, -Qd, ' with the back,'
-mBk, verbal suffix).
gi'tsnu'stik, 'to paint the face,
[red] (g-, prefix, nits, red,
-tik, suffix).
kitk'd'skdtl, 'to cut with
shears k-, prefix, k'd, ' with
shears').
hdni'tkinmd'tlnS,' I help' (' I
do with the hand along
with,' -mdtl, 'along with,
together').
Derivatives: kdk'e'ne,''hesa.ys'(kd-,prefix).
kdkB'tlne, he says to ' address'
(-tl — transitive suffix).
gutski'ydm,  'to lie' (g-, prefix, uts (meaning?), -yam,
verbal suffix).
„ d'pQamd'tlnB, 'he finds' («= 'he
sees      together,'       -mdtl,
together).
„ skiktlB'tsine, 'he is sleepy.'
kdtle'tsdtB'ydm, ' to dream.'
It will be observed that many of the radicals, e.g., I (to be), a (to rub), a (to go),
lip (to die), it (to do), k'B (to speak), are monosyllabic, and it is possible that many of
the other and dissyllabic radicals, such as d'poa (to see), dtlpdtl (to hear), dmats (to
slaugh), dwdk (to rise), dnitl (to be afraid), omits (to break), dwas (to be hungry), dku
(to be ripe), dte (to be warm), dtluq (to be tired), dmas (to be dry), &c, may be com-
Ipounds.   The occurrence of the d- in so many of these radicals is worth notice.
As will be seen from the following list, the suffixes which express the idea of per-
; forming an action with a certain portion of the body have nothing etymologically to
do with the name of that member:—
Back =dqktld'kEndm.
Hand = dqkB'lndm.
Teeth = d'qk'dnd'ndm.
at- two
I atl- in terms of relationship
| g-, k-, k'-   in verbs, numerals, &c.
To do with the back = -qo.
To do with the hand = -kin.
To do with the teeth = -Qa.
Prefixes.
kd-
kdm-
k'd-
kl-\
gi-
ki-
gld-
kia-
kin-
pronominal
in colour-names
negative
in certain verbs and nouns'
in animal names
interrogative particle
a'iwd, twenty;   n-a'i-man miiu'kmS,
there are two rivers.
dqkd'tle, son; a'tldqkd'tlS, grandson.
ki'tkin,     to   do;     Kkd'mne,   sleep!
k'tcithnl'yet,   night;   kd'kwB;   gds-
md'tlne, two together.
kdna'oB, he goes;  kake'nB, he says;
kd'tlui'ne, he thinks; kdndhos, red.
kdmnu'qtld,    white;     kd'mk'dk'd'kdtl,
black.
k'dwi'niki'tsl, not very far.
klyu'kwlet, day; kl'tdktli'tlQd'tl, paper.
(kid'wdts, fool-hen; gla'kqd, fish,;
glamu'kqd, mountain-goat; gid'tld,
swallow; gl'dnuqtlu'm'nd, rabbit;
gl'dnu'k'tle, rhinoceros (word applied to rhinoceros seen in an engraving).
kinSk, are you eating ? kintsQd' tlsk, do
you want to eat ? 64
REPORT—1892.
Prefixes—continued.
ku-
gu-
gya-
kyd-
itl-
nd-
»-
tkikr
tcEm-1
tsam- J
yii-\
yd- j
ywnd-
with certain parts of verbs
with adjectives and verbs
two together, junction (?)
demonstrative
with certain numerals and verbs
demonstrative
tld
agam
tlit-
privative, negative
tld-
negative
witl-
large
on, on top of, up
many
MBp, dead; kick, eaten.
guwi'tlkd,large; gun>i'tlk'tle,big horn
sheep; gudtla'skin, to break in two
with the hand.
gyd'klidmd'Enam,  junction   of   two
trails; kyd'ninmi'tuk, two branches
of a river, round an island. -
itlkd'/iak, very far; d'qkitlno'hos, star.
nd-u'tB,   woman;   ndsu'kwen,   chief;
ndhd'sdn meyi'tke, to-day; ndta'Qa,
now.
no'kwe, one;   ni'pine,   he   is   dead;
ni'kine, he eats; nipi'tlne, he kills ;
nd'sne, there are two.
ski'k'k'Enu'ksB, there is a lake; skik'-
nu'k'sl, there is a stone; skiktle'tsine,
he is sleeping.
tcsmna'na, few; tsama'ketl, very.
tldwa'QB, it returns; di'wdtl&Enmi'sa,
twenty-six.
tli'tkBm.,   vain,    worthless;   tlittletl,
blind; tlittld'kwd, dumb, speechless.
tld'ne   k'a'psin,    there    is   nothing;
tldk'd'psin, nothing.
witlkd'ne, it is large; guwi'tlkdgtd'kqS,
whale ;      hd'witlki'nB,     I     shout ;
wi'tlli'tine, far; wi'tltliti'tine, rich.
yu'dki'nB, he rubs on;   ydQua'oB, he
climbs to the top; Jid'tsyuQua'k'-
nu'ne,   I   climb   the   mountain;
yu'tsiki'n, to press the hand upon
anything.
yu'ndkd'nB, there are many;   yu'ndn-
mitu'kine, there are many rivers;
hdyv!ndhe'k'namd'Ene, I have many
friends; yu'ndk'd'psim, many things.
The Prefix dq-.
The most characteristic prefix of the Kootenay language is the noun-prefix dq-,
the signification of which I have as yet been unable to decide. In some cases it is
omitted, and even in giving the mos* indefinite form some of the Indians did not use
it in certain words, e.g.:—
wd'tldna'kEnam, tongue.
The following list of composition with dq- will indicate the manner of its use
generally, and may suggest possible explanations of its proper functions :—
dqk, arrow. dqks', thwarts of canoe.
d'qke, again, and. dqkd'tskd, gun-flint.
aqk'd'tl, cloud. dqko'wutl, wild onion.
Oqkd'mS, gopher's hole. ugktldm, bat.
aqkd'wd, cord. dqku'tla, pipe-stem.
Oqkted'mdtl, knife aqku'tlak, meat, flesh..
dqk'dt, tail. dqktlii, snow.
dqk'd'tie, son.   - aqiu'tldm, eel.
dqkd'sdk, shore. dqktld'mdk, cotton-wood tree.
dqkam, white pine. dqk-B'i, hand.
dqkd, spider's web. dqkSn, nose.
dqko&'tlgwdk, birch tree. Oqka'nko, smoke-hole of lodge.
dqka'n. handle. ugletsak, leggings.
dqk'a'ndk, ankle. ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF   CANADA.
dqkd'patl, maize.
a'qkvnni'tlQdtl, powder.
d'qkinnu'mdtl, quills.
&'qkinko'mdtl, calf (vitulus).
d'qkinkd'wd, wings.
d'qkinu'k'tle, tomahawk.
d'qkinu'kayuk, flower.
d'qkmndkQd'akd, pitch.
a'qkink'd'mdtl, cradle.
dqkltla'ktcii, cord.
dqklmu'Qd, garden.
dqklyu'kwd, head-dress,
hat.
Oqkd'kd, raspberry. ■
di/kii'mind, creek.
iiqko, pointed ends of canoe.
I dqktd, one-year-old bear.
aqktldk, back.
ti»''qkinmi'tuk, river.
[&'qkink'o'k'd, fire.
d'qkinu'tldm, snake.
' d'qkinka'mdk, dragon-fly.
i d'qkink'd'tl, forehead.
fa'qkinQd'motl, button.
[ Oqld'nndQd'nuk, creek.
Id'qkmu'kmdk', fish-spear.
I a'qkinu'ktle'et, prairie.
^'qMnu-ktluk, Kicking Horse River.
d'qMnkd'tl, sand.
I aqki'nkd, forked stick.
d'qkinkdnu'qtldm, crown of head.
&'qkinu' qmd' xnd, tail of bird.
d'qkitll'yam, name.
a'qkltld'nam, house.
W>'qMyB7nik, thigh.
Jmqkitlwl, heart.
i&'qkitlmB'yit, sky.
s&'qkitlnd'hos, star.
m,1'qkitlmdk'', peach.
dqkd'wdm, belly.
Kqkd'ktldkd'wdm, cricket.
dqkdkd'wdiN. house-fly.
d'qlidtld'kd, bag.
mqkd'wdktle'et, mountain.
■^aqko'ktla'Qa, beard.
■ aqk'd'k'Enuk, lake.
irdqlti'ts, lodge-pole.
gdqkitsk'd'indm, fingers.
dqkitsk'd'tldk, branch of tree.
. d'qkitsk'd'tl, bark.
ffh'qkitstld'in, tree.
The above list of words is not arranged according to any known principle, but
tmerely to illustrate the variety of compositions with dq- in Kootenay.
It is evident that -k, -ke-, -kin-, -kd-, -kits-, -(k)itl-, &c, are qualifying affixes,
but at present it is impossible to state with certainty their several meanings. In
the last group of words in the first column there is the idea of ' tree, branch,' at the
bottom of most of them, and in the case of ' star ' and ' sky' a correlation is certain.
But of the rest of the list nothing «an be stated with certainty.
However, d'qkmu'tlam,' snake,' and dqku'tldm,' eel,' seem related, as perhaps are
| also the words for ' belly,' ' cricket,'' fly.'
It might be mentioned that several words have more than one form, thus:—
tree = d'qkitstld'in ; d'qkimjitstldlin.
head = dqktldm ; dqkd'tlam.
cloud = dqk'dtl; d'qkink'd'tldk.
sand=d'qkinko'tl; d'qkinkdkd'tl.
name = a'qkltll'yam; d'qkdtWydm.
d'qkdwi'tsko, buckle.
d'qkdtd'tl, grease, fat.   '
d'qkd'k'tle, horns.
d'qhdktld'wo, fishing-line.
d'qkd'tdtl, axe.
d'qkd'k'omd'k'd, ashes.
d'qkitsk'd'kitl, soot.
On another occasion the writer may be able to
feature of the Kootenay language.
further discuss this interestin
-dtl suffix in plant names
-u 16-        suffix in animal names
Suffixes.
aqkd'-dtl, onion; tan-d'tl. rush.
g-d'tsdts, chipmunk ; t'a'lidts, squirrel; gld'
roots,' fool-hen.'
eC-9 66
REPORT—1892.
Suffixes—continued.
-St
-it
•yak    \
-k'dk      I
-k
-ka
-idhak
-kd'ntik
-kin
-ki'ntik
-ki'stik
-M
-co"
-oa(n)
-mdtl
-7ii rk
-mik
-me'yet ■
-mB'yit
•ml'yit .
•mdtl
-nd'hak
•ne
Ex in names of objects of wdtlkwd'St, evening; ltdnme'yet, to-morrow;
nature,   and   atmospheric      dqkd'wdqtle'et,   mountain;   a'qkinuqtlB'Bt,
suffi:
nat
phenomena prairie,
suffix in names of parts of  dqke'lg-dk, foot of bird; dqkd'yik'd'k, wrist;[
body
suffix in animal names
with adjectives and verbs
with certain adverbs
suffix of distributive in numerals and substantives
with hand or foot
suffix of collective
suffix of dual
in certain nouns
on, with, the back
with the teeth
together
• verbal suffix
dqkB'&k'a'k, neck.
ntcuk, mouse; md'iyuk, weasel; wa'tdk, frog;
k'u'pdk, woodpecker; kd'kwdk, swan.
mitlka'ne, he is tall,  big;  ka'usdkd'ne, he
abides; yn'ndkd'ne, many.
itlkd'hak, very far; kditlka'hak, far from here.
na'kweka'ntik, one stone each;  kdskd'ntikM
two each.
yu'd'ki'n, to paint; dtlkin, to carry in the
hand ; yu'tstki'n to press the hand or foot
on anything.
pd'tlkeM'ntilt, several women.
pd'tlkeki'stik, two women.
yd'kasmki'nan'd'ski, God; nd'ABsa'nmeye'tkfM
to-day.
ndtlQd'ne, he carries on his back; nitQd'meki
lie down.
i'tQane, he bites.
dsmd'tme, two together; k'tsdmid'tlnB, along
with, together.
itQB'mek, to lie down.
(d'qkitlme'yet, sky; li'tcitlme'yet, night ;
kdn/me'yet, to-morrow; ki'tBnu'sitlme'yet,
red sky at sundown; 7tdki'tcinme'yet,
Sunday. -
suffix with names of imple-  ki'tEnu'ste'mdtl, mirror; dqkte'mdtl, fire-flint; 1
gdnd'nkomo'tl, broom.
itlnd'hak, fourth: itlnd'haks, next.
suffix with names of atmospheric phenomena, names
of days, &c.
ments, instruments, &c.
in certain adverbs and nu
meral adjectives
suffix with  predicate adjec
tives and verbs
-i/tiiii
-ndm
-nik
-ni'ntik
-sa,-sd
•si
■tl
-tU'et
•tlv'k
-iik
■dk
•wok
•yam
ndni'tlne, he is  afraid; i'toone, he bites;
natlQo'ne, he carries on his back; ni'pinS,
he is dead ; witlka'ne, it is big.
Oqkitld'ndm, a house, somebody's house.
tSQd'ndm, to speak.
dqk'd'mnik, Indians of Fort Steele.
pd'tlke, woman; pd'tlkeni'ntik, - women.
k'd'tlsa, three; Qd'stsa, four; nmi'sa, six.
skd'si, coming.
suffix of generality with nouns
suffix   of   infinitive (?)   with
certain verbs
dwelling at
suffix of plural
suffix of certain numerals
•suffix of infinitive or participle (?)
suffix   of   certain   transitive i'pine, he dies; ipi'tlne, he kills him.
verbs
ndmile'et,   echo;     aqkinu'qtle'et,   prairie;
dqko'moktZB'et, mountain ; go'untitle'et, far.
k&Qu'tlB'k, goose; gdspi'tlo'k, crane.
ftWak,   March   (water   left);   ipu'kinS,   he
drowns (dies in the water); taba'ksS, gem
under water; d'qkinmi'tuk, river; dqk'd'-
I    k'snuk, lake; glyd'kdk, water falling oven
^    stones,
woody substance, shrub, tree   aqk-dd'tl'wok, birch tree,
suffix of infinitive (?) in cer- gutslu'ydm to lie.
tain verbs
extent of country (?)
in certain bird names
in the water; water
SUFFIX -mdtl.
The suffix -jnoiZ is a very important one, and is combined with other particles,!
which have the function of further specialising the instrument.   The following list \ ON THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
67
must be
affixes :-
given at present without an exact knowledge of the import of these other
with -te-: Oqkte'mdtl, fire-flint.
ki'tBnu'ste'motl, mirror.
gi'tBmd'tUlupku'ptoSte'mdtl, yeast,
with -k'd-: gi'tuktUtlk'a'mdtl, pen, pencil.
gd'koQdmdk'a'mdtl, weighing-scales.
: k'pitsk-a'mdtl, scythe.
kika'uwk'd'mdtl, tobacco-cutter,
with -k'd-: gdt't'k'S'mdtl, key of metal.
g&nd'nk'dmd'tl, broom.
k'tcdktla'i/tik'd'mdtl, auger.
kitM'tlwitck'd'nidtl. nail,
with -Qo-: kita'kbpQd'mdtl, stick for beating on log.
Mtd'mdQd'mdtl, drumstick.
gitd'ktlitQd'mdtl, branding-iron,
with -we-: ki'tcukd'ne'mdtl, fork.
ki'tisu'kwdkmS'mdtl, handkerchief.
kik'tu'ko-ne'mdtl, soap.
kikd'koneQdne'mdtl, towel,
with -ti'te-: gdpWwdtliM'nate'tvmdtl, broom.
kdnka'tlmdkrBdti'temdtl, candle.
kdmi'tQdtlti'tenndtl, hammer of gun.
k'tcB'ikd'tltliti'temdtl, map.
gitkd'tltliti'tBmdtl, scissors.
The following list of derivatives from one radical will serve to show the power of
|word-formation which the language possesses, and the distinction which it is able to
smake between somewhat similar objects, while considering them all at bottom from
the same fundamental root:—
From radical k'tcdk or k'tsuk, to pierce:
auger, k'tcdktld'ink'd'mdtl.
• borer, k'tsd'kdtl.
fork, k'tcvlkd'ne'motl.
sword, k'tsu'kdtB'ydtl.
DIALECTIC DIFFERENCES.
It can scarcely be said that there are two well-marked Kootenay 'dialects.*
KConsidered in the light of the fact that the entire grammar of the two tribes is the
iBame, such differences as do exist between the speech of the Upper and that of the
Lower Kootenays might better be termed ' provincialisms.'
The peculiarities of the Lower Kootenay language as compared with the Upper
Kootenay are as follows:—
I. Phonetics.—The Lower Kootenays speak more rapidly and have a tendency to
^syncopate words, which retain a purer form amongst the Upper Kootenays. This is
seen in the words for coat, leggmgs, skunk. In some cases monosyllables with long
Ivowels are produced by the contraction of dissyllables, e.g., tas^ta'aas (enough).
Certain vowel-substitutions are made. Thus, in all the Lower Kootenay words in
which the suffix -me'yit of the Upper Kootenay appears, it is uniformly pronounced
-mdyit or -mu'yit. This -mo'yit is, however, occasionally heard amongst the Upper
Kootenays. Another case of vowel difference is Upper Kootenay dpd't = Lower
Kootenay ipd't (white fish).
The tl (explosive I) of the Upper Kootenays is represented always in Lower
Kootenay by dl (palatal-dorso-apical; see ' Report,' 1889, p. 802).   Thus :—
Upper Kootenay.
tlB'nB
dni'tlme
gd'tlwd
dqk'o'tldk
wise'ydtl
Lower Kootenay.
dle'ne
oni'dlne -
gd'dlwd
dqk'd'dlak
wisB'yddl
English,
across
afraid (he is)
apple
beef
sweat-house 68
report—1892.
f  I 1
When the Lower Kootenay half-breeds speak Indian, they tend to make this dim
Bimple 1. English half-breeds of the Upper Kootenay tend to make it kl, as do mosS
Europeans trying to speak Kootenay.
II. Grammar.—The grammatical differences are few indeed. The persistence of
the suffix -ndm in titk'd'tEnOm (man) and. pddlke'ndm (woman) is worthy of note.j
The suffixes -toiya in Qdstaiya (skunk), and -ndk in mitski'kBndk do not appear in J
these words in Upper Kootenay. In Upper Kootenay ' to do ' is kitki'nitl, in LoweM
Kootenay kiti'dhnddlki'nidi, and the insertion of -idlmddl- continues throughout thel
conjugation of this verb in Lower Kootenay speech.
III. Vocabulary.—Some difference is caused by names of things which are notl
found in the Upper Kootenay region, trees, birds, and the like.    There are, however,!
a number of words, e.g., blanket, fish, glove, goose, mallard, many, partridge, plate, sit
down, silk, sleep, swallow, which in Upper and Lower Kootenay are derived from two!
distinct roots, having no relation whatever to each other.   Thus:—
English Lower Kootenay
blanket (my)       gddld'mddl
fish dp
glove pd'dh/a
great • nddld'ne
many wdiyB'nB
There are other differences caused by syncopation of words, as noted above. Thej
cause of the differences between the speech of the Upper and that of the Lower
Kootenays has not been explained. The writer believes this to be the first scientific
record of them.   The following word-list will be of interest:—
Root
dldm
dp
1
nd'dl-
Upper Kootenay
gdcl't
giaqkd
dqkd'tl
witlkd'ne
Root
dt.
1
1
witl-
wdiyB-
yu'ndkd'nS
yu'nd
English
always
bacon
bird
bird (species ?)
bird (species ?)
blanket (my)
blanket-leggings (my)
climb (to—a tree)
coat (my)
creek (rivulus)
day-after-to-morrow
evening-red
few
fish
flap of tent
glove (of buckskin)
go away 1
goose (wild, spec. ?)
great (it is—)
grouse (ruffed)
hen
horse
kneel (to)
make (to)
I make
mallard (duck)
man
many, plenty
maple
midnight
moon
morning (it is—)
move (to)
night
plate (of tin)
quick!
Upper Kootenay
d'qkanmB'yit
kyi'nulftsd'tla (i.e., pig)
td'kutska'niEnB
tci'kEmd'tlkd' Enkd'Eh
■yi'kets'nd
gd'dt
gd-kl'teldlu'kwd
gd'wdha'kEno   •
gd-ka'tuS'mtldEt
d'qkmndQd'nuk
tld'nukoMmB'yit
ki'tEnu''sithnl 'yit
tcu'kdna'na
gld'kqd
giatldoa'nQona'tl
dqkd'tl
ki'ntsndkB'tl
kdou'tlo'k
witlkd'ne
t'd'nk'uts
gutskd'k'mmnu'k'md'Bnd
k'd'tlaQd'Etltsin
gdd'nkimk'd'mik
kitki'nitl
Jid'nltki'nB
kd'nk'uskwe'lkdk
titk'dt
yu'ndkd'nS
mitskik
kd'iydk'd'wdk'tdtlmi'yit
k'tcitlml'yitnata'nik
kd'nmeyi'time
tld'nkd
k'toitl/ml'yit
gdwOi'mu^Qd
tsind'ken
Lower Kootenay
d'qkimmd'yit.
aqk'd'ta'dl.
tsim.mi'nB.
tcik'kd' dlkd' Enkd' sk.
yi'kets'ndnd'qdlo (whitey).
gd-dld'mddl.
gd'-kldln'kwa.
gdwd'anu'kpdm.
gd-k'wu'mdldBt.
dqkd'mind.
dld'nukdnmd'yit.
ki'tsnu' sidhnd'yit.
p'tca'kona'na.
dp.
glhdtmd'nQdnd'dl.
pd'dlyd.
kintsna'kdntS'lkBdl,
md'kdk.
nddld'ne.
tdpi'soo.
gdkdli'dlinu'k'md'Bna
gidlk'd'dlaQd' Edltsin.
gd'dndlu'kpdm.
kiti'dlmddlM'nidi.
Ad'niti'dlmddlki'nS.
mop; mB'kdu.
titk'd'tBndm.
wdiyS'ne.
mitsM'kBna'k.
kdiyak'd'wSk'toidlmS'yit.   .
k'tcidlmS'yitnata'nik.
ka'nmgyi'tme.
no'ks.
k'toidlmd'yit.
gd'kemkB'kdk.
tci'dlka'tse. ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES OF CANADA.
English
Tain (it rains)
sack
sit down
shoes (my moccasins)
silk
skunk
sky
sleep (I—)
he sleeps
we sleep
sleep thou !
sleep ye!
swallow (hirundo)
to-day
to-morrow
white fish (species ?)
woman
Upper Kootenay
wa'tluk'k'o'k'oi'tinS
dtsu'tld
ydnk'd'min
gd-tld'En
aqkitlu'ktcu
Qd'QOS
d'qkitlmi'yit
hd'tsk'dmnS"nS
k'dmne"ne
hdtlk'd'mnBnd' tld
Kd'mnin
k'dmne'ketl
gl(y)d'tld
ndhd'sanmeyS'tke
kdnme'yet
opa't
pd'tlkS
Lower Kootenay
dkd' dl/nlki' dlnS.
d'tsuwd'dla.
tsisd'k'nu.
gd-dlM'md.
dla'swd [French de la soie~\.
Qdstai'yd.
d'qkidlmd'yit.
hdtsnu'p'nB.
nu'p'ne.
liddlnvp'nd'did.
nu'pin.
nu'pkedl.
teidl'dk.
ndhd'scmmdyS'tke.
kd/nmd'ySt.
%pd't.
pddlke'ndm.
The two tribes of the Kootenays, Upper and Lower, converse with each other
with apparent ease, as each knows by heart most of the expressions which are different in the speech of each. Those Upper Kootenays who never visit the Lower
Kootenay territory are very ignorant regarding this dialectic difference.
The result of our linguistic investigation has been to fix the place of the Kootenay
4hus:—
Ki'tona'Qa, or Kootenay.   An independent linguistic stock, with two dialects,
differing slightly in phonetics, grammar, and vocabulary:—
A. Upper Kootenay.
B. Lower Kootenay.
Jargon
ka'tlahd'lein
d'kikld'c
skd'taklBt
klo'klamd'ka
kd'mlnu'pQane
sd'ntloho'n
ni'lko
KOOTENAY JARGON.
As usually happens where intercourse with the whites takes place, a jargon has
sprung up, although its development has been hindered by the use of the widespread Chinook. Many of those who speak this ' Kootenay jargon ' imagine they
are acquainted with the real aboriginal tongue ; but it consists, in fact, of Kootenay
words changed in form and sound to conform to English grammar and phonetics.
A few examples will suffice to indicate its general character:—
English
horse
house (his)
cold (it is)
Stony Indians
see (I)
sick (he is)
money
By means of this jargon, which consists of a Kootenay vocabulary mutilated to
suit European ideas of phonology and grammar, a number of the settlers manage to
get along with the Indians, and to obtain a reputation for speaking the Kootenay
language.
Amongst the young men of the Lower Kootenays a number of slang words are
used, such as—
k'd'did or k'E'dld — horse.
mi'stak's'dla = colt. 70 REPORT—1892.
Colloquial expressions, which are not regarded as quite correct, are the following:—j
ti/nd'mu, ' butter.'
ni'tlkd, ' bell.'   Lit. ' iron, metal.'
tldd'kwB, ' eleven.'   For B'tuwdtlad'kwS.   And so with * twelve,' &c.
dqkmk-g'kd', ' match.'   For dqkte'motl.
kitki'nk'd, ' medicine man.'   For ni'pibdk''a'k'd.
PUNNING AND WORD DISTORTION.
The Kootenay Indians are certainly acquainted with the art of punning, and the \
Indian A'mElu took great delight in repeating over and over again the distortions of j
certain words.   Following examples will show the nature of these puns:—
For papa he would say frequently
„   sdiwa'skg      \
(spec, dragon-fly)/ " "
For ff'd'tcdtc") „ „
(chipmunk)/
pdplyd.
f sduwa'tcko ; sduwa'skd ;
\ sa'iwasu'kw'; 'sduwasS'ko.
g~oca'toko ; g'dtla'tskd. ■
The Indians are very much amused at the mistakes made by whites in trying to j
learn their language, and laugh long and heartily at their expense. A few of these j
errors which came under the writer's notice might be chronicled here.
For kdnku'ptcB,' bread baked in a frying-pan,'was said tdnku'ptee, which reminded
the Indians of t'wrik'uts, ' grouse,' and set them in a roar of laughter. The same
effect was produced by—
Qa'Qas, ' skunk,' said for Qd'od, ' crow.'
a'qkam, 'pine,'        „     A'qk'am, ' Fort Steele.'
ini'sin, 'horsefly,'    ,,     mi'Mmin, ' rainbow.'
k'u'pl,' owl,' „     k'u'pdk, ' woodpecker.'
Even the seemingly trifling mistake of saving d'qkgila'kpSk' for d'qkdtla'kpS'k,
' leaf,' was provocative of much merriment.
BORROWED  WORDS.
There appear to be but very few borrowed words in the Kootenay language,
are as far as ascertained
These
From Nez Perc6 suSapo, Kootenay suya'pl, 'white man.'
„ ? Klikatat nooJisi, ' otter,' Kootenay na'ksah, ' marten,' or vice versa.
„ French le capot, Kootenay tll'kdpo' (dll'kapd'), ' coat.'
„ Chinook jargon Bo'stEn, Kootenay Bo'stsn, ' American.'
,, „           „      Kindzdtc,    „       Kindjdtc, ' Canadian.'
„ French de la soie, Lower Kootenay dla'swd, ' silk.'
„ a Salishan dialect, std'tldm, canoe.
I
Appendix.
SHUSHWAPS.   PHYSICAL   CHARACTERISTICS.
The measurements of the three females here recorded were made at the mission of
St. Eugene, where they were attending the mission school. The measurements of the
Shushwap Antoine were made at the penitentiary of New Westminster, B.C., by Dr.
F. Boas, and were kindly placed at the writer's disposal by him. From so few cases
nothing absolute can be determined. The stature of the women resembles that of
the Kootenay women, and the cephalic indices of the three individuals are practically
identical 84 (or 82 on the skull), the index of the male being 82-9 (or 80-9 on the
skull), all being brachycephalic. These data go towards strengthening the view
that the Shushwaps resemble the coast tribes (see ' Report,' 1890, p. 632). The
females belong to the colony of Shushwaps on the Columbia, within the Kootenay
country. 
ON  THE   NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF   CANADA.    

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