BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Columbia Mission. Occasional paper Hills, George, 1816-1895 1860

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Array AN 
Price One Shilling.
H.  R. MacMillan   COLUMBIA   MISSION.
Drawing of Iron Church and Mission-
house .   • 1
Introduction — Aecount    of   Bishop's
Voyage 2-~4
Arrival of the Bishop—Victoria ...     5
Nature of the Work—Clergy required  . 6, 7
Ministrations already commenced...     7
Organization — Living   and   Material
Agencies .........      8
Visit to the Main Land—New Westminster 10
TheTorest—Pelting Giant Trees. . .
The Miners and the Church ....
The Backwoodsman and the Bishop . .
The Election — Coloured People —
Chinese 13, 14
Romanism—Education—College ...    14
Pemale College—Variety of Races   -.  14,15
The Athelstan—St. John's Church . .
Evening Service—Visits to the Indians .
Death—Contamination—Slavery. . .
Indian Children—Conclusion of Letters
Existing Missionaries—Clergy and Ladies
Special Objects—Clothing—Iron College
Advertisements—Porm of Bequest . .
General Statement—Appeal . . . 23-
Maps—Diocese of Columbia, the World 35,36
Appendix I. Yale, Address and Reply . 3?
„        II. New Westminster, Ditto 3S
„      IH. Hope, Ditto  40
„      IV. Vancouver's Island, Do. 42
Price One Shilling.
sold for the benefit of the mission
Bs Messrs. RIVINGTON, London; HODGES, SMITH AND CO. Dublin.
The Commissary, to whom the Bishop of Columbia entrusted
the chief privilege and responsibility of sustaining and extending the sympathy and support required by the Mission from the
Church at home, feels it necessary and extremely desirable to
circulate as widely as possible the information which has been
supplied by the Bishop since his arrival in the colony. It is
earnestly hoped that the thrilling accounts given in the letters
contained in this paper will strike a living chord in the hearts of
Christian people, and secure that degree of attention, in the
midst of other works of interest in the present stirring times,
which will cause those devoted men who are now pledged to
and engaged in this great work to be remembered and upheld.
The maps here supplied will explain the remarkable position in
the world of this youngest daughter of Great Britain, so rapidly
assuming an amount of strength and influence which must soon
be felt in either grief or joy; they will also show the principal
places in the vast diocese for which Clergymen are immediately
In order to strengthen the public confidence in the manifest
duty of giving assistance to this Mission, a brief account of the
Bishop's voyage to Columbia will be valuable, from the strongly
marked instances of special favour and protection which were
extended to him by Divine Providence. It may, indeed, be
surely felt that no missionary who ever left his native country
was more tenderly guarded, or more evidently preserved for his
work, by the gracious and merciful Spirit in whose service he
went forth. And when this great truth is realized, that the
Mission is not only interesting and practical in its nature and
organization, but also marked by the special approvaJrof Almighty VOYAGE.
God, no doubt can be entertained of the steady sympathy and
enduring support it will receive. May its standing in the very
centre of the world, and its embracing a field of missionary
operation in which representatives of Europe, Asia, Africa, and
America are becoming congregated, arouse the spirit of Great
Britain to a due appreciation of its pressing and paramount
claims for prompt and generous assistance.
bishop's voyage.
The Bishop sailed from Southampton on the 17th of November, 1859, in the West Indian mail-steamer bound to St. Thomas.
When in the midst of the Atlantic, a branch of the great storm
in which the Royal Charter was wrecked fell upon the vessel.
The fury of the wind and the violence of the waves beat so
heavily, that the rudder-chain was broken, and one of the boats
was stove in. For ninety miles the steamer was tossed about
upon the waters, perfectly beyond any species of human control.
In the scenes of suffering and distress which sickness and terror
caused amongst the passengers, the Bishop of Columbia was
preserved from the slightest injury, and enabled to pervade the
excited people with the calm and consoling ministrations which
pointed to the One great Rock of safety, and which strengthened
them* with the Anchor which was both sure and steadfast. The
attaching of another rudder-chain brought the ship again under
man's direction, and, with many feelings of gratitude, all reached
the wished-for island in safety.
After a short delay they embarked in the Solent to cross the
Carribbean sea; in a few hours that fearful disease, the yellow
fever, broke out amongst the passengers, and quickly spread from
one cabin to another, laying prostrate a large number of those on
board. The victim on whom it fell with greatest severity was"
the surgeon of the ship, thus depriving those afflicted of the
medical assistance so much needed at that painful time. In
all that scene of illness and alarm, the Bishop was mercifully
spared from the slightest suffering, and was enabled to supply
spiritual comfort to the sick, in which exercise of his ministry
he attended the surgeon in his last moments, and, after performing the Burial Service at his funeral, had the melancholy pleasure
of writing to give information to the mother who was bereaved.
A journey by railway over the Isthmus of Panama, and a
voyage by steamer up the Pacific Ocean, brought him to San
Francisco on the 26th of December. Nothing could exceed the
kindness and hospitality which were pressed upon him by the
Bishop of California, the American Admiral, and many friends
of influence  and station  in that place.     He was particularly
requested to stay with them for a little, at least until the regular
steamer should proceed. Many causes conspired to induce him
to halt, where he not only received the utmost marks of esteem,
but also much valuable information concerning people very
similar to those amongst whom he was about to labour; but in his
earnest desire to reach his diocese, he resolved to press forward in
an express steamer, which was quickly going on to Vancouver,
and he was favoured to reach the colony in safety; whereas
the vessel which followed was jvrecked on the co#ast, and half the
passengers were drowned, the remainder only escaping with their
lives. Thus was the Divine protection crowned by a signal
instance of special interposition. In relating this circumstance
the Bishop says:—
"It pleased God by a remarkable providence to prevent my
passage in the Northerner. I should have been in that ill-fated
vessel had I hooked through, which all others did, and which I
intended to do; or had there not been a delay in the mails at
Francisco; or had I listened to pressing invitations from Bishop
Kipp and others to wait a few days. The Northerner was
wrecked between Francisco and Victoria, and amongst the passengers lost was poor Mr. Blomfield, son of the late Bishop of
London. I now see a merciful Providence ordering my way for
me. 1 look upon myself as one of the survivors from the wreck,
and trust I may from this mercy arise to greater devotedness in
my Divine Master's service. I must ever thankfully remember
this mercy. May God grant me grace to serve Hipci with more
zeal and faithfulness than I have hitherto manifested."
The best and most graphic description of the mighty work to
be effected through this Mission, will be gained by a publication
of a series of letters'from the Bishop. In assuming the responsibility of placing them without reserve in the hands of all who
can be interested in the matter, the Bishop's Commissary trusts
all expressions, bearing upon persons who differ from the Church
of England, will be taken as being put forth in that true spirit of
Affectionate Toleration which is the very essence of the principles
of the Church. The many-headed form in which unsoundness
and irreligion prevail, requires that firm candour, as well as
affectionate kindness, shall mark each step of those entrusted
with the founding of Christianity amongst so varied and growing
a population. In plainly laying open the true nature of the
wound, the sincere desire of the heart will be not to inflict pain
in any unkind or unfriendly feeling, but to perform.faithfully a
solemn duty, upon which the salvation and happiness of generations to come may largely depend. Indeed, the nature of communications from all parts of the kingdom, press home the
feeling, that a full and forcible statement of the position in which ARRIVAL. 5
the Bishop and his little band of Missionaries ale placed, is
urgently required, to prevent their being partially forgotten by
friends who have already shown some sympathy, and to make the
Church and nation aware of the urgent need there is of prayerful
interest and liberal aid at this important stage in the history of
the Mission.
Victoria, Vancouver's Island, via United States and Francisco,
January 13, 1860.
I arrived here on the 6th of January—the Epiphany of our Lord—
may my humble efforts be indeed for the manifestation of Christ to the
varied people in this interesting land.
The only delay was occasioned by our being stopped by fog in the
Columbia Eiver, and by a rough bar which could not be crossed for
twelve hours. . The steamer Pacific, on voyage from Francisco, goes up
this river about one hundred miles, to Portland. We stopped two days
short of that place, at St. Helens, a small village, but once expected to
be a great point for traffic. I went on shore, and called on the
Methodist Episcopal minister,—there is a pretty church. He lives
here, and takes a circuit, preaching only once a month, at St. Helens.
He gave a poor account of the people. Open scoffers abound. 1 asked
if he gave lectures on week-days. No use, he said, to try. He is intelligent,—of our Scripture Reader class,—his pay is about 100Z., out of
which he keeps a horse.    Every year, or two years, he is shifted.
At the mouth of the river is Astoria,- known to fame by Washington
Irving's book; about 400 people live there. There is no minister of any
sort; a Methodist resided for about a year and then left, no one has
come since. There is only one man a communicant of any denomination, and five women, out of the 400 ! The mass are open infidels!
•This is a specimen, I believe, of many rural places in America,—how
different from our parochial system! We see, too, the evil of an ill-
educated class of ministers; especially when they stand alone, "the
shrewd-headed despise religion,—scoffers1 abound.
Esquimault harbour is beautifully placed, most snug and safe from
all weather. It was refreshing to see four British men-of-war at anchor.
Boats came instantly from the Ganges and Satellite, with offers of attention from Captain Prevost and Admiral Baynes. Mr. Dundas, one of
our special missionaries, also soon appeared, and informed me he had
•secured"a lodging at Victoria. To this latter place we set off to walk;
it is three miles,—such a"road ! that from Balaclava to the camp was
nothing to it. I had on high jack-boots, and so did not mind-; though
the mud was sometimes knee deep. In this plight I entered Victoria.
My first visit was to the Governor. My house is a wooden one,—
small, but enough. The door at which people knock is the one of the
room I sit in,—there is no "hall" or "passage." So I open the door myself.
Victoria must be, I think, %the most dovely and beautifully situated
place in the world. -I never saw anything before like it. In the
summer it must be  exquisite.     I  was   agreeably   struck  with  it BISHOPS
altogether : there is every sort of scenery. Sublime mountains, placid
sea, noble forest trees, undulating park-like glades, interspersed with
venerable oaks, inland lakes and rivers abounding with fish.^ The
climate is thoroughly English—a little milder. It is astonishing to
see the rapidity with which the place grows. The houses at present
are chiefly of wood, but can be made very comfortable and picturesque.
They run up with great speed, and sometimes run along ! for it is
not uncommon to meet a house proceeding down the street to some
other location ! The shops are excellent: there is nothing, no luxury,
no comfort, which you cannot procure. Some things are dearer than
in England, others cheaper; the former, however, predominate.
Servants and house rent are the greatest expense. Very good beef
and mutton at lOd. per pound; butter, 2s.; flour and potatoes, very
good, same price as in England; tea, 2s.; sugar, 4cZ. and (id.; wearing
apparel expensive; but in a little time longer I expect the increasing
trade will introduce supplies, and render it possible to live here as
cheaply as in England. There are discomforts incidental to an early
stage of a gold colony, such as difficulty in getting servants, and having
to labour with one's own hands. This presses most upon ladies.
There are a good many pleasant people, a great scarcity of ladies, but a
sprinkling of them even. On the whole I was surprised to see the size
and rapid growth of the town. There are some thousands of people
who are putting up houses every day. It will be a large city ere a few
years are over.
How important is our work. The Church of England here is in a
feeble state. Had it been left long so it would almost have been
trampled out. Mr. Cridge, Chaplain under the Hudson's Bay
Company, the only Clergyman, previous to the endowment of
this Bishopric, is an excellent good man, but has been burdened overmuch with work. Consequently, Dissenting Chapels are
rising up; there is a Methodist Church, ecclesiastical, with a tower
and spire, nearly completed, built, I understand, mainly by the subscriptions of Church people ! There are also two other Chapels, being
the fruits of a split already between two Congregationalists. There is
a Roman Catholic Church, with a bishop, priests, and nuns. All these
are of wood Christ Church, our own, stands nobly on a site which
one day may be occupied by a Cathedral This also is of wood. It
contains about 400. So my iron church will come at the most fortunate moment, before our people are .drawn away, and we shall be
prepared for the further influx of people in the spring. I shall
work this myself for a while, and superintend the supply of
all the wants of the town and neighbourhood. Whether my residence will be here permanently or not I cannot say. There
will be constant need for clergy of high character in attainments and
ability. There is no use having anyjtnan out here who is not an
effective preacher; better without him unless so gifted. The class of
men required are those of forcible character, gifted in some way; each £Y
one must also be, without mistake, an earnest man, a soul-loving man.
Too many, alas! seek the colonies because they do not get on in
England. They have much less prospect of getting on here. The class
attracted as colonists to a country like this is remarkable for shrewdness and special abilities. The congregation I am preaching to every
Sunday'here contains a larger proportion of shrewd, thinking, intelligent, educated gentlemen than any in England out of London. It is
a remarkable sight; five-sixths are men. The church holds 400, and is
quite full. If the proper proportions of women and children were
filled up, it would be utterly too small. I am most thankful that we
are even so early in the field. I trust we may, by a faithful exhibition
of the truth as it is in Jesus, draw hearts and win souls to Christ;
and so become rooted in the best affections of the people.
I find there are several important posts immediately requiring to be
filled up.
Tale requires a resident Clergyman. It is the place of supply to a
large mining district, and must always be so. See the enclosed interesting Address and^ my reply. It came from the humbler classes of
the inhabitants, and is highly important. (Appendix I.)
Lytton.—Junction of the rivers.
Cayoosh.—Junction of the Lilloet line with the Eraser; likely to be
very important.
Alexander^—300 miles up ; good climate.
Kamloohs.—Junction of two routes—the Thompson River and the
land route from the South, through the Samilkameen valley.
Besides fixed clergy for these, there should be several moving from
station to station.
Then on Vancouver's Island are several places.
Nanaimo is most important. Captain Nicol, an excellent layman,
residing there, is most anxious, and will do all he can.
Esquimault has already its Mission Chapel. I preached there last
Sunday to an overflowing congregation. The band of the Ganges led
the singing. I walked there and back. On return, two settlers came
with us, and would carry our bags. Mine was carried by a former
captain in Her Majesty's army; Dundas's was carried by a barrister.
There was also a young banker with us, the son of the Baptist
minister who proposed a vote of thanks to me at Edinburgh, who
will, I have no doubt, prove a worthy member of our flock.
Rev. Mr. Dundas, Missionary onour Special Fund, Mission. Chapel
at Esquimault, on the afternoon; and Services in the Court House,
Victoria, morning and evening.
Rev. Mr. Dowson, Missionary under the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel {Craig Rower, three miles from Victoria); he has been
there for learning the Indian language.    He had a deputation of Indians BISHOP S
from the Lanadih tribe, to come and be their minister, and proposes
to go in the spring. He has service at Craig Hower, which must be
kept up when he leaves.1
Rev. Mr. Sheepshanks, Missionary on Special Fund (New Westminster), much liked.    Three full Services on Sunday.
A church will shortly be built here. This place during the present
year is expected to make much progress.
There is a church, I ought to say, built for the camp, where the
soldiers are quartered with their families; two of the Services are
there.    I will describe this place at greater length hereafter.
Rev. Mr. Crichmer, Missionary under Colonial Church and School
Society {Langley). He has not become much known to me, from the
circumstance that when New Westminster became the capital, many
people removed to it and left Langley.
Rev. Mr. Pringle, Missionary under the Society for the Propagation^
of the Gospel {Hope), is doing a great work. The miners requested him
to open Services at three bars. The site for a church is obtained. He
has established a reading-room, where many come. I saw a gentleman
who assisted Mr. Pringle to paddle a canoe from Hope to. Yale, a most
arduous task, against the stream. They had Service in a building
which did not hold many, and he adjourned them to a hill, round
which many gathered. His own first residence has been a hut, with
no window, to it! Some of the people asked him when he was to have
a house ; he said, "Not till after you have built a church."
Rev. Mr. Gammage, Missionary under the Society for the Propagation
of the Gospel {Douglas), is doing well. A paragraph in one of the
local papers speaks of a purse of 150 dollars (30£.) having "been presented to Mrs. Gammage, the wife of our highly respected minister."
Mr. Duncan, Catechist under the Church Missionary Society {Fort
Simpson), is doing a good work among the Indians : at church here on
Sunday were present two of his Indians, candidates for baptism; they
are going back, having come on business. One of them | grieves to go
back to Mr. Duncan," and is " getting sadder and sadder, for the time is
so long." This was the poor Indian's own expression: God grant it
may mean "My soul is athirst for God," a:nd that it is seeking Him
who said, | Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden."
Poor things, they swarm about this town, and know nothing but the
vices of white men.
I look for great blessings to arise from being able to make Lay
Agency an institution from the first. The following is the organization
I propose to carry out:—
1 It is greatly to be regretted that since this letter was written, it has been
arranged for this Clergyman to return home; and the Society hesitates appointing
another to succeed him.
First.—The Living Agency :—
1.. The Bishop. x 5. Lay-Deacons, or Readers.
2. The Priests. 6. Teachers;
3. The Deacons. 7. Visitors.
4. Probationers. 8. Lenders.
1. The Bishop will visit every place each year, and work as a
Parochial Clergyman in some chief place.
2 & 3. A Priest will go rotmd once a quarter to the Deacons, to
administer the Holy Communion.
4. Probationers.—Any sufficiently qualified, by personal piety and
faithfulness, to take some duty,-4—who may be preparing for the
Ordained Ministry. Dissenting Ministers, for instance, allowed.to
visit, exhort, expound the Holy Scriptures, read Prayers in black
gowns, but not preach with authority,—their time wholly given, and
destined for ordination.
5. Readers, or Lay-Deacons.—Laymen, pursuing their secular calling,
but reading prayers and printed sermons in ordinary dress, when
licensed by the Bishop. There are many gentlemen, earnest men, who
would do this, and ride out to spots isolated, and where but few could
meet, to prepare the way and hold the ground. Occasionally the visits
of a Clergyman would be made.
6. Teachers.—Sunday-School Teachers or Catechists, preparing Catechumens for Baptism, and holding regular Schools for educating the
young. B
7. .Visitors.—Females. Attend the sick, look up children, care for
the Indian females, &c.
8. Lenders.—Working people—communicants—taking a district of
so many families, and leaving Religious books with them regularly, as
.a work of charity.
All these will have their work in due order.
Secondly.—Material Agency:—
1. The Consecrated Church.        3. Schoolrooms.
2. Mission Chapels. 4. Mission Stations.
l.%The Consecrated Churches will be set apart for ever for public
worship, and entirely the property of the Church.
2. The Mission Chapels will be some stores or other buildings, lent
for Religious purposes, licensed by the Bishop, and used by the
3. The Schoolroom.—Any place suited for education.
4. Mission Stations.—Any isolated spots in which a few can be
gathered where the Readers will go. Each consecrated church will
have its several Mission Chapels and Mission Stations. The stations
will develop into chapels, and the chapels into churches.
All this system, which I hope, please God, to carry out, and thereby
to reach all the scattered sheep, I have long partly used. It is an
extension of what I have found greatly blessed heretofore.
The work will, I believe, be deeply interesting, and if well supported by the right men and sufficient -means at first, will lay a good
foundation of true Religion in this important colony of Britain.    God 10 bishop's
give us all grace to spend and be spent for Christ's sake and the souls,
of many now scattered as sheep without a shepherd. \    •
A good number of young men are waiting to be employed. Artizans
of any kind can make enormous wages. Even gentlemen are day
labourers, on account of the good income, and doing anything rather
than be idle.
A famous trade might be done in this country in herrings; they
are plentiful beyond measure. The present catchers are Italians, who
go out and scoop them in, along-shore with nets and boats. If they
were to go farther out, they would get larger ones. As it is, many
they catch thus are as large as those at Yarmouth. One gentleman
has turned to curing them, and he makes four hundred per cent, of his
outlay. There would be a vast market all down the coast of the
Pacific. Wood for curing is,, of course, in great plenty. There are
several other kinds of fish—sturgeon and salmon, for instahce. This
latter, of the finest description, you can have daily for a mere song,
2d. or 3c?. a pound. These are cured also. I will welcome any fishermen who will come out with introductions, and can promise them
a lucrative business.
Very rich gold-beds have been discovered within the last two
months, and it is expected there will be a great influx of people in the
spring.    I hope to have my iron church ready for them.
We begin now to expect the -Athelstan, with the iron church and
house, and the Heather Bell, with two more of my special missionaries.
Some ships are out a long time; so they may be a month or two
months before arrival.
The Gomelza arrived safe. It was reported when I left England
that she was lost.
I must conclude. Thank God, I am well. Greet all kind inquiring
friends with my best wishes, and desires for^ their prayers. No Mission, I feel sure, has left the Mother Church with more prayerful
sympathy directed towards it. I am often encouraged by this. We
can expect no prosperity, no success, except we lean alone on our
merciful and watchful Father who is in heaven.
Victoria, March 9th, 1860.
A week or two ago, I visited the main land, British Columbia
proper,—threading the beautiful islands, of which San Juan is one, and
which is close to our shores, and ought by every argument to belong to
England. The distance is about sixty or eighty miles, and is steamed
between breakfast and dinner. In summer I understand the course is
exquisite through the island scenery. I was received most warmly
at New Westminster. I send you an Address which was presented
to me., (Appendix II.) Also one from Hope, which place I was
unable to visit.    (Appendix III.)   New Westminster is the  chief LETTERS. 11
town, the future capital of the country. It is beautifully situated on
the Fraser, about nineteen miles up; the river a mile and half wide.
At present the mighty forest is pushed back not very far. I found
Colonel Moody and his good lady ready to receive me; they have an
excellent house, with every comfort. The view from their drawing-
room is unsurpassed. It looks up a wider reach of the river, in which
are several islands ; the banks are covered with trees. In the distance
are remarkable mountains, glacier clad. On the left a range of hills
nearer. A little river called the Brunette emerges near the house, and
a rising bank behind leads into the dense forest.
It is indeed a mighty forest. The-pines are of vast magnitude. I
measured one at 6 feet from the ground, it was 27 feet in circumference.
I saw another 13 feet in diameter. The height is wonderful, from
180 to 300 feet. I measured one lying down which was 2 feet in
diameter, 200 feet from its base, being 260 feet in all. I heard of
others 400 feet, and can readily believe it. Every wind brings down
many trees. The fall of a tree is like the report of a cannon. There
are huge trees in all stages of decay, some standing erect, without a leaf
and without bark, others on the ground. I have stepped upon what
seemed the firm trunk o£ a large tree, and my foot sunk in, and split
open the soft body almost as pulp. One trunk lay its long length of
some 150 feet, with a diameter of 5, entirely rotten, but complete in
shape, and a ro'w of young trees growing upon the old one—not shoots,
but new" trees. The whole soil for a considerable depth is vegetable
substance, very rich ; thus continually renewed, and sending forth with
rapid growth, a vigorous supply of young trees.
The forest is the settler's enemy. He tries to get rid of it in every
way. In the autumn fires are lighted round and inside the trees, and
they will burn for days, and then come down with a crash. The fall
of a tree is a fine sight, I may say impressive.
Two men will take a day for some of the largest. They use their
axes with great precision. Every stroke tells, and they can lay the
tree in any direction they please. They cut behind and before; the
side on which the tree is to fall has- the lower cut. When the time
comes, there is a crack—then a quivering of the mighty thing to its
topmost twig, which is up in the clouds almost—then slowly and
reluctantly it moves over; crack, crack—on, on—and down terribly
on the earth, and again, in settling, it strikes and beds itself, and the
branches stand up like arms, and shake convulsively as in the agonies
of death; and then the giant is still, and the vacant sky is seen
through where for ages he has proudly stopped the light and warmth
of heaven's orb from the earth beneath.
An incident of tree-felling will please you. At New Westminster,
I visited the site of the church we are about to build.    It was still BISHOPS
occupied by these' ancient giants; but five sturdy men weTe at work.
I stood and watched. They were felling the trees on the church site.
I witnessed the fall of two. Two or three days' labour cleared the
site. It is a most expensive work, and labour costs much; the skilled
axeman will make his £1 a day.
There was standing by these five men the zealous pastor of New
Westminster, the Rev. J. Sheepshanks, whose support is- derived from
our Columbia Mission Fund. These five men were gold miners. Two
days after they we're going up to the mines. That labour of theirs was
a free-will offering, as their contribution to the church. They said
they had not any money, as they had a long journey to the mines, and
were compelled to save their boat and lay in a stock of six months'
provisions; but they would give a few days' labour—and good as gold
it was, and better. Those five men had lived in a hut hard by all
winter. Mr. Sheepshanks had early visited them, and won them.
They had never missed one service the whole winter; they had all
obtained Prayer-books,—had requested him to furnish them with
Testaments,—and they told me they hoped to come back after the
mining season, and winter again at New Westminster.
It was. delightful to see these rough men giving their confidence to
their Clergyman, and making a sacrifice cheerfully, under his teachings
for the glory of God. ,
I must give you another incident. I visited a backwoodsman. He
was clearing the forest for cultivation. I liked his looks. He greeted
me with respect. I asked for his family. He had sent for them. He
said, "The people in Canada,",whence he came, "write me, sir, that
I must-be foolish to go where so little is known, and where there are
no matters of population yet. But now, sir, I shall tell them that the
Bishop has been to see me, and I am sure they will be satisfied then.
When I was confirmed, years back, by the Bishop of Quebec, there
was only one Bishop in Canada—now there are Bishops all over; and
so it will be here.
I do feel most thankful that we are sent out even thus early. We
take up the best feelings of the people. They are struggling, they are
scattered, and frequently isolated. Those who visit them are welcomed.
They have not yet got their families. We talk of their families, and
touch tender chords, and so reach the hearts of many, who a few
months hence might have grown callous if neglected.
I sincerely trust my friends in England will continue to keep up the
Special Fund. We should be powerless without it; but if continued
for a few years by annual efforts, we shall, by God's help, lay a good
foundation—broad, solid, and secure—for the time to come. '
Victoria, March 14th, 1860.
I wrote to you last on the 9th of March.    I thank God I have had
encouragements which fill me with more and more desire" to spend and 1
be Spent in this glorious work. The address, of which I send you a copy
(Appendix IV.), was signed by above 800 male inhabitants of Vancouver's Island, and I am told would have had more signatures if time
had been given.    This is gratifying, and will help my work.
My answer has reference to some questions agitated here.
When I arrived, I found the papers full of warfare about the
"attempt" to have a "State Church," the idea of an English Bishop
being apparently inseparable from tithes, Church-rates, &c. In my
first sermon I proclaimed for liberty, and told the people of the Church
that upon them rested the burden, and that I did not dream of resting
upon the State. This had the desired effect. The movement was
crushed. There has not been a syllable since. You will understand
the allusion: in Jthe address and my reply.
Another subject of agitation here is the non-residence of British
Columbia officials at New Westminster. The judge and others reside
at Victoria—hence my allusion to giving a large share of attention to
British Columbia.
When I arrived it was election time. The borough and county
election produced vast excitement. The Americans tried to obtain
a majority in the local Parliament, to vote for annexing this colony
to the States. They were, however, quite checked,—the finishing
stroke was given by the immigration of coloured (African) families,
who are very respectable, and faithfully loyal to Great Britain. I hire
this house of one. Some of them are steady communicants of the
Church. They are pleased to contribute to our objects ; one of them
gave «£4 at a recent collection in church for the hospital. They come
here in great numbers from California, where they are not well treated..
I hear that many more intend coming. May they not only find in this
colony of Britain political freedom from earthly slavery, but may
England's Church here supply them with true Gospel comfort, and
may they always find in her a sheltering care for their immortal souls.
There has been a sharp contention on the question of colour; the
Americans requiring that the coloured people should not be allowed
to occupy the same place with them in worship. One Independent
Minister, a Mr. McFye, favoured their unchristian narrowness ; another
maintained the English principle, that there should be no difference in
the house of God. He has, however, been thrown over by the Society
in London who maintained him, the "British Colonial Missionary
Society." Mr. Clark nobly upheld the Christian and English sentiment ; but his patrons have decided against him, and he has to leave
the place: he seems a very respectable man, too good for his
This intercourse with the descendants of former African slaves is
a deeply interesting feature in this Mission. Who can tell, if our
hands are strengthened in time, the blessed effects which .some Missionaries from-this people may in future bring to the land of their
fathers. 14 bishop's
We are busy in preparing for the erection of a second church in
Victoria. The appeal has been fairly responded to, and a famous Lay
Committee are at work. Amongst other contributors is Mr. Quong
Hing, a Chinese merchant, who has given .£10. There are many-
Chinese. I trust this is ominous of a door of entrance within their
hearts. I believe this act was suggested by kind teaching imparted by
one of my clergy, Mr. Sheepshanks, at New Westminster, to some
Chinese men. He has several under regular instruction. May we be
privileged to train up natives of that vast heathen people, who will
carry the lamp of truth on from our infant Church to the Eastern
nations. We have the golden opportunity, if the necessary means are
supplied to us in time. Contributions to this Mission now will do
three times as much practical benefit as in five years hence.
The Roman Catholic Bishop Demas has not seemed pleased at the
cordial reception I have met with, and in consequence voted against
the Government at 'the election. I imagine he has incensed his people
against me. I have had to endure little inconveniences, in the
stoppage of my supply of milk, and other trivial matters. I think it
likely I may have trouble from the Romanists. At present they are.
not strong. They are, however, forward in the matter of education,
both in the cases of boys and girls.
I am anxious to find a good man to take the headship of a Collegiate
Institution. It will be well supported, I doubt not. I believe I
could promise him 600£. per annum and a residence. It is considered
probable that a good English education here would attract the sons of
many English people in California. The building will be erected on a#
fine site overlooking the town and harbour, near the public park and
the sea. I should like to plant here a germ of sound Religious learning, which might hereafter be the great Northern University of these
Western regions; and which might send forth Missionaries onwards
to lighten even China itself. The Americans think highly of education. It is much valued by them, and our English system is more
substantial than theirs. I must have a man of high character and
calibre, who would wisely secure the Institution on a sound basis.'
Boys of the upper class go at present to the Roman Catholic Bishop's
school, who engages not to teach Religion.   The case therefore is urgent.
It is quite true that the Roman Catholic Sisters of Mercy are the
only persons here engaged in the education of girls of the better
classes. And our Church people send their children! They have
recently opened a second establishment in the town, their first being
situated a short way out. The only way of meeting them is by a
Female College, or Upper School, for the daughters of merchants and '"**to*""  "**-
professional people. Governesses it is impossible to get, and if gofy
most difficult to retain, on account of the scarcity of the sex and the
number of worthy aspirants. I hope to establish something at once,
and hope the wife of one of my clergy may be willing to undertake
the office of Principal even for a time. The whole question of Female
agency in the Mission is most important, in order to prevent the sapping of the very lifeblood of the future population with unsound
religion and infidelity.
The account we gave at meetings of the great variety of races here
is more than verified. I have seen myself every class. I give you an
instance from one place, Douglas, a rising town on the route to the
upper mines : it is from Mr; Gammage, our Missionary there.
Coloured men  8
Mexicans and Spaniards  29
Chinese  37
French and Italians  16
Central Europe  4
Northern     „          4
• Citizens of United States  73
British subjects.    .    .  35
Of these the sexes are thus :—
Males     204
Females ,         2!
As to children :—
Adults 205
Child         1!
The Athelstan, with my iron church and mission-house, arrived on
the last day of February. The cargo has come safe, and is now nearly
The captain and crew, being mostly Yarmouth men, came up
bodily to church, like a school, headed by my worthy servant, Bridg-
man, who - went down to show them the way, and said it was the
proudest day of his life.
We hope to have a Special Service on board, as was the case when
she sailed from Yarmouth, before leaving this port.
st. John's church.
The foundations are being dug; the situation is good, on the north
side of the town.    I divide the town into two parishes.   There is great 16
want of a second church. The other is now quite full: last Sunday
some went away, as they could not find seats. The congregation is an
interesting sight; it is composed principally of men, at least five-sixths
are men, and men, too, of education and great shrewdness. When the
proper proportion fill up, and wives and children are added,, the accommodation would, of course, then be utterly too smalL Then there are
many who must be looked up, who now go nowhere, who have lived
strange and wandering lives; sheep withoutJshepherds : them also we
must bring. Every steamer brings increase. So that it was a wise
precaution to have sent out a church, and I augur from it the greatest
The people, I must say, have come forward well. The principle I
lay down with regard to the fund is, never to exceed in any grant a
third of what is required; the people to supply the two-thirds. It
will draw out £2 here to meet every £1 of our fund. This is, in the
present instance, a hard pull for them; they are, however, I think,
doing very well. The subscription for the ne*w church amounts to
somewhere about £800!
I am very fortunate in Mr. Cridge, the original Clergyman here.
He is a truly good man, a sincere and devout Christian. He enters
into all my plans, and is a great support to me. At my suggestion,
he has just opened his church for Evening Service. It stands on
a hill, and is a striking object over the whole town—lighted up, it
was a beacon, the invitation of which could not be resisted, and from
the first the congregation has been good. I* preach every morning,
and sometimes in the evening. We have seven Sunday Services for
this district and neighbourhood now. The first collections at Christ
Church were for the Hospital. We collected at the three serviced
above .£60.    This would be respectable even in Old England.
I will conclude this letter with a few extracts from my Journal
respecting the Indians.
The Indian subject is one of great anxiety, mingled with hope and
encouragements. There are very many, and they are fast becoming"
corrupted by European vices. I stood and-watched a poor Indian the
other day who was intoxicated. He ran frantically round and round
in a circle, and kept uttering loud talk in English ! He repeated continually the same few words—perhaps all he knew; they contained a
low and blasphemous oath ! Yet these poor creatures.are intelligent,
and capable of reverence and thoughts of God.
Tuesday, Jan. 17.—Mr. Pemberton, the magistrate, and Mr. Cridge,
accompanied me to the Indian reserve. We met the chief of one
tribe—the Songish. His name is I Freesy." He invited us to his
hut. It was placed in the Indian village, which is composed of about
twenty large square wooden erections, of plank boardings and flat, ill-
made tops, through which air and water could plentifully enter, each
about fifty feet square. LETTERS. 17
Freesy's dwelling was in one of these. It was partitioned off, the
front open to the inside. On three sides were recesses, under a sub-
roofing or canopy, in which were layers of matting for beds. In the
centre was a small wood fire, at which were two women and a little
boy. We took seats at once. I was placed in the middle, as the
Tyhee, or chief. Three friends, the counsellors, came in, wrapped in
their blankets; also several boys. Mr. Pemberton was interpreter;
the language Chinooh—this is the trading jargon, composed of English,
French, and Indian words, with cant terms.
Mr. P. explained I was a King George or English Tyhee, come to
try and do them good He interpreted my expressions of good-will
towards them, and my desire to educate their children. He also, as
well as the Chinooh could express, told them my desire for their
spiritual welfare, and wish to show them the way to heaven, and to
learn them the only true God and Jesus Christ.
They spoke several times in reply, and said they were glad any one
would be their friend, and do them good, and they would like to be
educated and have better houses. They had heard it said they were
going to be removed. This grieved them much. What could they do
if sent away ?—here they could get work, and dollar, and food, but if
sent away, they must starve !
We then examined the little boy Peter, Freesy's son. He and
several other boys came to church on Sunday, and are instructed in a
class. They gave answers—their letters, numbers, small words. I
was struck with the facility of pronunciation. The parents and those
present seemed delighted and proud at their children's answers,
Freesy's dress was a shabby coat and trousers.
The women were making a rope. In other lodges the women were
making mats, weaving rushes and grass. One had bracelets, and
hands covered with rings. I was struck with the industrious character
of these poor people.
January 18.—An Indian came to call He looked like a respectable
English young man, of pleasing countenance ; he could speak English
a little. He was a Chymsyan from Fort Simpson. I visited his lodge
yesterday. It was neat and clean, and had comforts : a nice stove,
bedstead; there was also a desk. The wife, named Tarx, neat and
He is called John Clark; a pure Indian. He has come to trade,
and keeps a stall. He complained of the Hyder Indians near his
lodge, another tribe, more fierce : " Fight all day, all night—drink
bad—I get no sleep—my wife frightened—my little boy cry." He
told me he prayed. He knew some of the leading points of the
Christian faith. He asked for a Prayer-book. I promised I would
bring one.
January 21.—I went with Mr. Dundas to the Chymsyan village.
The Indians there come from Fort Simpson to trade. Found the lodge
of John Clark, to whom I gave the Prayer-book. It was Saturday.
There were beautiful white loaves of bread which he had brought
home; the whole interior resembled that of a cotter in England on
Saturday night.
B 18 bishop's
He placed seats. He was pleased with his book. : He brought out
a box with writing-books and account-books. He writes a good hand,
and spells fairly in English. He repeated the Lord's Prayer in a most
reverend and touching way. , He could tell of the dying of Christ for
us, and said he loved Christ. We had interesting conversation, in
which he evidently took pleasure. We all knelt down; he put his
hands together, made his wife and child do the same, and I prayed our
heavenly Father's blessing upon our plans, and upon these poor
Indians, that He would cause his truth to be known by them, that
all might be brought to have the same hope, and be meet partakers o£
heaven through his dear Son.
I see John Clark occasionally at church. This pleasing result is
owing a good deal to the zealous and successful exertions of our Church
Missionary Catechist, Mr. Duncan.
February 3d.—I visited to-day Mr. and Mrs. Hall, who take interest
in the Indian. The children come to them for instruction. They are
uncertain in attendance, and must have rice and treacle sometimes.
In a neighbouring house is an Indian woman, the wife of a respectable white man named Cotsford. She is a nice, clean, and well ordered
person, understands, but will not speak English. You would not
know her. pretty little girl of seven years from an English girl of
superior parentage.    The child speaks English.
The other day the mother of Mrs. Cotsford went out at 8 o'clock,
got drunk, and died at 10. Mrs. Hall saw the preparation for the
burial. The body was placed in a coffin with fifteen blankets. Under
the head were placed two new ones ; a work-bag, with needles and
thread, a looking-glass, a box of matches, and sundry other things
were put inside.
The language uttered by Indians is sometimes very bad. They will
exclaim in violent oaths when put out; but to our shame, the oaths are
in the English language, which they have learned from Englishmen
and Americans.    They have no oaths in their own language !
Even the children catch quickly and use readily these horrid sounds.
Two Indian children, who come to the Sunday School, were striving
together the other day, when the older said to the other, "What the
h—11 are you about?" Alas! that their first English words should
be such as these. Let us make haste and bring Christ amongst them,
that of them it may be said rather when their lips resound the praise
ggj|the Lamb, " Out of the mouth of babes and sucklings hast thou
perfected praise."
The tribes have much decreased since 1846. More than half of the
Songish are gone—these live here—their destruction is occasioned
principally by drink and dissolute habits. Those nearest the whites
are worst. Slavery has increased. Female slaves are in demand. Distant LETTERS. 19
tribes make war upon each other, and bring their female slaves to
the market. You will hardly credit it, but it is strictly true, women are
purchased as slaves to let them out for immoral purposes. A female
slave has been known recently to be purchased for 200 dollars (40?.).
The Indians buy their wives, but slaves are more costly. Upon an
Indian woman recently killed in a brawl was found 300 dollars {601.)
—the wages of iniquity.
There is a white man, we trust not an Englishman, near Langley,
who owns such slaves, and hangs out a sign over his door to signify
the horrible iniquity there pursued. An Indian named Bears'-Skin
makes large profits by the traffic^ female slaves.
I gathered together the children of the Songish tribe, who live in a
village close by. A treat of rice, molasses, and buns was the attraction!
There were twenty-nine—sixteen girls, thirteen boys. They were
like little gipsies, with their sparkling black eyes, long black hair, and
very dirty skins; their dress, a tattered garment and a piece of
The first thing I did was to take down all their names—hard work,
as the pronunciation is extremely difficult.
The following are some of the names ;—
Kalatch-tehah, Ickcloose.
How-was. Tchall.
Kah-kelah. Soveya.
Salak-tSnah. Nink-h.
Tese-otya. Ttchayel
Yia-kotya. Sepoc.
Some had evidently European names,—Susu, Cecil, Peter Freesy.
This operation was evidently pleasing to them.    Some were very
bright and superior; and, on the-whole, they were a good-tempered
set.    Their manners were quite as good as ordinary children, and the
old ones reproved the younger when making a noise.
We had only a dozen bowls.    Those who had to wait showed no
impatience, but meekly bided their turn.    Spoons were held beautifully, there was no haste or scrambling, and they assisted each other.
The elder girls were modest and shy. The ages were from twelve to six.
The little ones were very shy, and occasionally looked as if they would
have run away to some hole had there been means,of escape.
Before the meal, I said grace. We had put on our hats, in order to
take them off in token of solemnity. They stood up, and I said in
the Chinooh language :—
Sdckally Tyhee Papa Mercie klosh muckmuch.
Almighty Great Chief Father, thanks for good sweet things.
The Chinooh is the trade jargon, made up of different languages and
We afterwards sang "Praise God," to the Old Hundredth. I first
pronounced the words, which they repeated.    The Revs. Mr. Cridge
andllundas, and Mr. Pemberton, the police magistrate, then sung.
We sang heartily, and the little voices mingled with our own; and
when we finished, we found a remarkable impression to be produced.
All were reverently hushed in a fixed\ and thoughtful manner. They
were evidently touched in their little spirits, and not one broke the
silence till one of us did so.
At the close we sang the same again, and the effect was just as before.
We thought how joyful will be the day when, out of the mouths of
these babes and sucklings, the praise of Jesus shall indeed be perfected.
We had an omen of that happy day in the way these little ones were
touched by the songs of Zion.
I thank God I am well. The work at times before me would cause
a deep depression, from its. magnitude and variety, did I not endeavour
humbly to look to the Divine Grace promised for our only strength.
I trust you will, in all your addresses, urge upon the Church the
need we feel for their prayers.    Praying that God may be with you,
Believe me, my dear Garrett, ever affectionately yours,
(x. Columbia.
It appears desirable to give here a list of the Missionaries now
engaged under the immediate oversight and patronage of the Bishop.
First.—Those who proceeded by the quick overland route, and
who reached the colony a few weeks previous to the Bishop :—
Rev. J. R. Dundas, B.A.;—Rev. J. Sheepshanks, B.A,
Second.—Those who proceeded by long sea voyage in the Heather-
Bell, who reached the Sandwich Islands in safety, and whose arrival
in Columbia was daily expected when the Bishop last wrote:—
Rev. Alexander C. Garrett, B.A., with Mrs. Garrett and two children;
Rev. R. L. Lowe, B.A, with Mrs. Lowe.
Third.—Those who are appointed to proceed by the shortest route
on the second of July, and who hope to reach Victoria in the middle
of August:—Rev. Octavius Glover, M. A., Fellow of Emmanuel College,
Cambridge; Thirteenth Wrangler, (1854), late Crosse and Tyrwhit
Hebrew Scholar, &c; who devotes himself and his private means, without stipend, to assist in the College, as Mathematical Professor, or otherwise, as the Bishop may think desirable;—Rev. Charles T. Woods, M.A.,
with Mrs. Woods and three children;—Rev. R. C. L. Brown, B.A.
Ladies engaged on the Mission Staff:—Mrs. C. T. Woods, Principal
of Female College or Ladies' School. Miss Catharine Penrice, and
Miss Ann Penrice, Female Missionaries, under the special patronage
of Miss Burdett Coutts; these ladies laboured heartily as District
Visitors, under the superintendence of tlie Bishop of Columbia, during
the ten years of his Incumbency of Great Yarmouth.
Clergymen directly connected with the Bishop    ...    7
Ladies officially engaged in the Mission 3
Female Servant 1
Total staff engaged from England n —-
Besides the sum of 3,0'OOZ., which, at the least, is required from
Great Britain during this year, there are four special objects, for either
of which, contributions will be extremely valuable, as will appear
by the preceding letters from the Bishop.
1. Clothing, especially for the heathen children and women. In
three weeks, a party of ladies at Black Rock, near Dublin, have
made eleven dozen of garments for boys and'girls, of an approved
pattern and material. Some ladies at Southport have also very kindly
contributed about sixty articles of clothing, all of which will be most
valuable, especially during the first stages^bf civilization.
2. Apparatus for Male and Female Colleges,—books to form libraries,,
pianos, music, stationery, maps, &c. &c.
3. Articles of fitting and furniture for Churches,—bells, organs,,
harmoniums, communion plate, carpets, cloths, &c. &c.
4. An iron Mission House, for the Clergy and others connected with
the College. This would set the iron house, which the Bishop took out
with, the church, free for the use of the Female College and Mission.
And if extra contributions were sufficient to provide two school
rooms, with a class-room attached to each, to be sent out, of iron,,
together with this second iron house, it would give a most important
assistance in the essential work of sound education.
N.B. All special gifts should be selected of the best quality and
most choice description of each article, because the distance is so great ^
it would be wrong to forward anything for use in the mission which
is not of a superior kind.
Small parcels will be received by Messrs. Rivingtons, 3, Waterloo-
place, London, S.W.
Heavy packages should be forwarded to the care of Messrs. Fry and
Davison, Shipping Agents, 60, Fenchurch-street, London.
I§SF Dear Christian reader, will you not help on this great work of
faith and labour of love 1 In what way will you help it 1 by earnest
sympathy and prayers ;—by your annual subscription and donation;—
by collections in churches, meetings, or on cards;—by special gifts and
contributions;—or by circulating this paper amongst your friends t
Surely, in some or all of these methods, you may add much strength
to this interesting channel for promoting the Glory of your gracious;
God, and the welfare of your fellow-man.
N.B.—Communications may be addressed to Rev. John Garrett, Vicar of
St. Paul, near Penzance, and Commissary to the Bishop of Columbia; G. P. Arden,
Esq. Halstead, Essex: Secretaries to the Columbia Mission, 3, Waterloo Place,
S.W. London.
Contributions may be paid to the account of the Columbia Mission, at Messrs.
Coutts & Co., 59, Strand; Cox & Co., Craig's Court, Charing Cross; Smith,
Payne & Smiths, 1, Lombard Street; Sir John W. Lubbock, Bart., Foster
& Co., Mansion House Street, HHj; 79, Pall Mall1; and at Messrs. D. La
Touche.& Co., Castle-Street, Dublin.	
1 When, a contributor remits money through 79, Pall Mall, it is particularly\e-
quested that instructions be given to place it under the Administration of the Bishop?
as mistakes will probably otherwise occur. 22
Price One Shilling',
A SERMON, preached at the Farewell Service celebrated in St. James's
Church, Piccadilly, on Wednesday, November 16,1859, the day previous to his-
departure for his Diocese, by George Hills, D.D. Bishop of Columbia. With
an account of the Meeting held on the same day at the Mansion House of the
City of London, in aid of the Columbia Itffrssion. With correct Reports of
Speeches delivered by the Bishops of London, Oxford, and Columbia; also, by
the Lord Mayor, Hon. Arthur Kinnaird, Sir George Grey (late Governor of the
Cape), and others.
London : Rivingtons, Waterloo* Place.
Dublin : Hodges, Smith, & Co. Grafton Street.
Price One Shilling,
REPORT OF THE SPECIAL FUND obtained during a Ten Months"
Appeal by the Bishop of Columbia since his consecration in Westminster
Abbey, on the 24th of February, 1859. With a statement of the urgent need
which exists for sympathy and support in aid of the Columbia Mission.
Contents of Report :—Committee—General List—Dioceses of Bath and Wells, Canter
bury, Carlisle, Chester, Chichester, Durham, Ely, Exeter, Gloucester and Bristol, Hereford,
Lichfield, Lincoln, London, Manchester, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Ripon, Rochester,
S"aKsbury, Winchester, Worcester, York.—Scotland, General List—Diocese of Edinburgh,
Glasgow—Isle of Man.—Ireland, Province of Armagh—Diocese of Down* &c.—Province of
Dublin—Diocese of Cashel, &c. Cork, &c. Dublin, &c. Killaloe, Limerick, Ossory, &c.--Form of
Bequest—Summary—Balance Sheet.
London : Rivingtons, Waterloo Place.
Dublin : Hodges, Smith, & Co. Grafton Street.
Sold also by R. Clay, Printer, Bread Street HiU, London.
Igive unto the treasurer for the time bemg of " The Columbia Mission Fund "'
formed in London, by the Lord BisKop of Columbia, in the year 1859, the sum of
Pounds sterling, to be paid out of such part only of my
personal estate as shall not consist of Mortgages or Chattels real, for the purposes of
the said Mission, and for which the receipt of such Treasurer shall be a sufficient
The startling rapidity with which the Anglo-Saxon race has
been privileged, during the last twenty years, to enter upon,
spread over, and bring into cultivation, large regions of the earth
previously only known as abodes of desolation, is now commanding as well as deserving the careful consideration of those
who are constrained to be thoughtful on the subject. History
tells of no such swarming forth of any people, carrying with
thein everywhere a firmness and individuality of character, which
is stamping the new nations they are founding with the marks
of successful enterprise and the blessings of well-regulated
As in former times ambition, war, rapine, and other causes
drew branches of the human race from one territory to another;
so now, while many have disregarded it, a new and silent cause
has been powerfully operating upon the busy, moving, working
family of Great Britain; attracting its unsettled members to
distant shores, where all the natural elements of greatness
awaited development by their industry and skill. This cause
of immigration being the discovery of gold, gives to the lands
thus adopted, not only a native source of wealth, but also a
special and exciting character of interest, which leads a number
and a class of men to occupy them, such as no other reason has>
ever brought from one country to another.
Perhaps few are fully alive to the great results which are
flowing from this peaceful means of spreading an English-
speaking population over vast territories which a few years ago
were wild and desolate. Gold was sought for in California some
years previous to its discovery, under circumstances which would
probably have led to that land being occupied by a preponderance of a different people, if at that time such a treasure had
been found. Had the Jesuit Missionaries, who sunk shafts in
searching for it near where it was afterwards discovered, been
successful, the colonization might have been, in the main, from
the French nation. But the time, which in Divine counsels was
arranged,' did not arrive until the year 1847, when France was 24 GENERAL
agitated with the throes of another revolution; and so this
modern attraction, for the moving and spreading of people upon
fhe earth, has been felt, so far as its chief practical effects are
concerned, by one family alone amongst mankind—and that
family is the English-speaking people. Within twelve years,
California has risen from being almost uninhabited to have
within it over 600,000 people; and Francisco, a | ten-year-old
city," has grown so rapidly, and yet so steadily, as to be now
exercising great influence in America, supplying a large depdt
for trade on the shores of the Pacific.
Following closely upon California, came the discovery of gold
in Australia, the results of which are so wide-spread, in the
growing prosperity of that Continent, as to extend beyond the
limits of possible estimate and calculation. Those results are to
be traced by the increase of wealth and influence in districts
holding various relations with the- gold-fields, as well as in those
immediate parts where the people, attracted more especially by
gold, have been raising up communities of prosperity and influence. But one spot stands so prominently forward as to deserve
special notice. Port Phillip has sprung up in seven years to
be one of the most rising Colonies under the British Crown,
already possessing in Melbourne a capital of great splendour,
together with a population of over 500,000 souls. Thus are we
given to see, through this new and peaceful means of popular
attraction, not the slow growth and settlement of one people
in another land, amidst the various checks and tumults of
destructive war, but the wonderful development, under the
force of their special enterprise and industry, of several | nations
born in a day," from the vigorous stem of the Anglo-Saxon
While Australia has been gathering its people, raising its
cities, and establishing its position in the world, and while
California has been gaining strength and preparing its materials
for becoming a market to supply other regions within its reach,
a long and interesting train of discussion has been attracting
public notice to a vast territory in North America, whose natural
capabilities for becoming the home of a great people have been
hitherto strangely unknown. While one Arctic expedition after
another has been supplying evidence that no practicable passage
existed by water through the New Continent (by which direct
traffic could extend a more frequent commerce with Eastern
nations) \ and while the mechanical application of steam-power to
locomotion has been bringing long distances on land within the
limits of rapid transit; the desire of Canadians to press their
colonization westward, together with the Oregon boundary discussion; and speculations in favour of a great railway to carry
traffic from one ocean to the other, have been pointing the minds
of men to that space which has recently been constituted the
Colony of British Columbia. The journals of voyagers who
touched on those shores, and the surmises of many who thought
on the subject, have told, as in stories, of forests and lakes, islands
and bays, sunny valleys and mountain ranges impenetrable by
man ; but such descriptions only surrounded the country, in the
minds of men of business, with a visionary romantic interest of
no practical value; and so distant, wild, and difficult of access
did it appear to be, that men habitually regarded it as only
suited for the last refuge of the Indian with such animals as
delight in wild freedom and desolation.
Through a variety of considerations, in which the mingling
of Providential guidance may be clearly traced, the British
Government were led to set in order the legal steps required to
give the position of a settled colony to a territory, on the
continent adjoining Vancouver's Island, 500 miles in extent from
north to south, and 400 miles from east to west; bounded on
the south by the 49th line of latitude, on the east by the
Rocky Mountains, on the north by the rivers Finlay and
Simpson, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean,—being the
exact size of France. The various officers received appointments. A governor, deputy-governor, judge, and attorney-
general; together with soldiers, ships of war, and all other
machinery necessary in a well-regulated state, were liberally
supplied; and British Columbia stood forth as an additional
region, reduced to civilized government from the remaining
waste places of the earth. But, with its trackless forests and
uncultivated soil, it seemed at first a vain project to bestow
such an arrangement upon a place almost without inhabitants.
Just then it was, after the appointment of a means of
government, and when authorities had been constituted, that
England was aroused by tidings of gold being discovered in
Columbia, and of 30,000 people having flocked into it in a few
weeks. Since that time, the more it has been explored, the
deeper and greater its resources have appeared. Not only
is a supply of gold found to be certain and inexhaustible,
but other elements of native wealth and prosperity are discovered to exist, which justly give rise to the reflection, that a
land so richly favoured must surely be destined to grow into
a prominent position of influence amongst the nations surrounding
it. A climate in all respects similar to that of Great Britain,
harbours capable of sheltering the fleets of the world, rivers and
Jiakes abounding in fish, forests containing spars and timber almost
unequalled, large tracts of land suitable for cultivation, beds of
coal ready for immediate use, and an archipelago of islands, 26 GENERAL
conspire, with other advantages too numerous to mention, Id
render it a site in every way suited to become the home of
a strong, enterprising, and maritime people.
So circumstanced as to its internal capabilities, many reasons
lead to the belief that British Columbia, from its remarkable-
position on the Pacific Ocean, must become the centre of an
extensive and influential commerce. The President of the
United States, when sending a special message to Congress,
in December, 1858, setting forth the national advantages to be
derived from an immediate construction of a railway from New
York to Francisco, had no idea of the position in which the
explorations and surveys of last spring would place the question
which he then so strongly ttrged; and when, after disagreements
in Congress caused his suggestion to be laid aside, the State of
Minnesota appointed engineers to survey the districts under consideration, and report where the railway ought to run, it was
little thought that scientific inquiry would point to Columbia-
as the natural terminus of the long-sought pathway to the
East. But so it has been; surveys on the side of Canada have
brought to light an extensive valley stretching from the Red
River settlement, along the Sascachevan River, close up to the
Rocky Mountains, through which a railway can be run with the
greatest ease; which valley, when opened out by easy means of
communication, is calculated to become suitable for colonization
to a highly valuable extent. On the other side also, the explorations of Captain Palliser have made it clear, that nature has
placed the right passage for the inter-oceanic railway, in that part
of the Rocky Mountains which lies in the territory preserved to
Great Britain. He has discovered five passes in the mountain
range not known before, two of which are each 2,000 feet lower
than any pass in the United States. So the question now seems*
settled that British Columbia is destined to possess the influential position of the centre, through which must flow a chief
part of the communication and traffic from the Atlantic to
the Pacific, from Europe to Asia, from Great Britain to India,
China, and Japan.
And verily it need not be considered a matter likely to require
a long time for its accomplishment;—the infant Parliament,
which two years ago enjoyed a revenue not exceeding 400Z. per
annum, sends to the mother country an estimate of revenue
for this current year little short of 100,000Z., a stride in progress
unequalled by any other new-country in so short a time. Within
this last month, a gentleman of great intelligence entered a railway carriage at Dawlish station—he was the Postmaster-General
of Canada, and his statement gave strong confirmation of the
expectation that a route from Canada to Columbia will shortly STATEMENT. 27
be practicable. He is now in communication with Government,
ready to contract to have all the British mails to Columbia conveyed, within a few months from the present time, straight
through the Pass in the Rocky Mountains; and his persuasion
is strong, not only that "it is practicable, but that the facilities
and advantages are such as to ensure the Mails for Columbia
passing that way within a very short period; which when once
established, nothing can prevent the Mails for China, Japan,
and even India going by that route. Experience tells us that
when communications are once laid open for the conveyance of
Mails, passengers very soon follow, and general traffic is not
afterwards long delayed. This gentleman also gives information
to the effect that, as coal has been discovered on the eastern side
of the Rocky Mountains as well as in Columbia, the extension
of the Grand Trunk Railway, in order to bring that commodity
to the markets in Canada, may be looked upon as a matter
speedily to be accomplished, especially as the greater part of the
distance is " prairie," along which it is the custom in America
to lay down sleepers and rails on the surface, without the delay
or cost of fences. He also says that, even if passes in the Rocky
Mountains could be rendered practicable within the territory of
the United States, an almost insuperable difficulty to their
working a railway would be found in the absence of coal
throughout the entire route; so that little doubt exists of the
Americans being anxious to extend their railway now running
northward, to join the British Line going westward between the
Red River and the Rocky Mountains, so as to pass all their
Northern traffic to California and the. Pacific over the British
Railway, thus increasing to a vast extent the intercourse and
commerce with which Columbia must be favoured. It may be
seen therefore that Providential circumstances are now brought
to bear upon British Columbia, which are developing a country
whose future influence in the world the wisest statesman cannot
venture to estimate, and whose prospects, in days of such rapid
progress as the present, are both wonderful and solemn.
Into this new land, which is to carry forth Britain's name and
institutions to the nations beyond it, a population is gathering,
of a varied character, intensely interesting, and well deserving
sympathy and attention. Unlike the cases of New Zealand, Australia, parts of Africa, and other colonies, which received their
European people chiefly from the British Islands direct, and so
had the benefit of a fresh love in the settlers for the institutions
so recently left at home, Columbia has been receiving a mixture
of races, in which, however, the English-speaking population
largely predominates; and amongst them are many^ who in
California and the neighbouring States, were unsettled in homes 28 GENERAL
of industry, and, alas! too frequently of reckless habits. Still
those who devote themselves to seek their fortune in such a life,
have an energy of character, and a daring spirit, capable of imparting vigour and hardihood to the community which springs
from them. It is not necessary here to mention particularly, the
several features imparted to the inhabitants by numbers of
Negroes, Chinese, Sandwich-islanders, Mexicans and other
people who are settling there; it will be sufficient to mention
that the variety of races must add a peculiar difficulty in dealing
with the colony in a Religious point of view; especially as
its first impress must be received from those of whom a great
majority have retained but little, if any, affection for the home
institutions of Great Britain. There is, however, a considerable
emigration from home gradually going on. Some of the cases
are very affecting; amongst many who could be referred to,
an instance of a lady, the widow of an Indian officer, is
worthy of special sympathy and notice. She has been bereaved
and left with a family of nine young children, with only a
life income derived from pensions to rely upon for their education and outfit in life. Within the last few weeks, her eldest
child, a youth of nineteen years of age, has sailed for British
Columbia, with the noble purpose, if spared and prospered, of
making a new home in the colony, to which he may draw out
after him his younger brothers and sisters, and so relieve the deep
anxiety of his mother. How full of interest is a land which is
now receiving amongst its gathering people such youths as this.
What terrible temptations he must encounter. What pressing
need he will be under of some kind Christian minister to warn,
to instruct, and to encourage him!
But the assembling of a new and varied people, chiefly of British
origin, and destined to be constantly increased directly from
home, is only one branch of the source of interest which Columbia
presents as regards its inhabitants. During the last half century,
America has been the scene of a contact between the white and
the red man, which is marking the page of history with records
of a painful nature. Charged with the Gospel of peace and love,
the British nation was directed to that continent, there to meet
face to face a fine heathen family of fourteen millions ; a class of
heathen too, who, in their state of simple ignorance, presented
but few of the impediments which render it so difficult to
penetrate the darkness and prejudices of more learned heathen.
But the first settlers were so bent upon their worldly cares,
and the Church at home was- so feeble in her missionary
efforts, that not only: were the natives entirely neglected,
but large communities of British people were seen to grow
up.without those ministrations of Religion, which alone could "*B
keep and guide themselves in the paths of moral rectitude and
Christian safety: so that, when the pious zeal of individuals led to
the commencement of a mission from the Church of England,
infidelity and heathenism combined to present so dense and large
a field, that the isolated Missionaries could but struggle to reclaim
some families of Europeans in such spots as they could occupy.
Thus, in the early years of British occupation, the Church was
almost powerless even amongst her own members, and the tribes
of suffering natives were wholly neglected in their Spiritual and
highest interests. Great Britain saw, when too late, the baneful
results of neglecting to secure the growth of her Religion together
with the increase of her people in America. During the war of
Independence, the Church on the one hand did the utmost in her
power to restrain the spirit of rebellion, and the native Indians
on the other side threw their lives and prospects into the scale of
the mother country, manifesting a faithful loyalty to Great
Britain by many a deadly contest in her behalf. But it was too
late to repair the neglect of past years, and the separation of the
fairest colony she then possessed, in England's hour of need, was
permitted to take place. Since then a deep stain of blood has traced
the line of contact between the white settler and the perishing
native. In former times the ground was red with blood when
Christians met the heathen who surrounded them; but it was the
Christians' blood which flowed in the days of persecution. As
the martyrs' spirits went away in peace, the heathen heard the
words of prayer and blessing with which their victims' lips were
closed in death; and those manifestations of the power of Christianity, in the moments of suffering and agony, bowed down the
hard heart from its cruelty; thus the blood of the saints became
a fruitful seed which sprung into a harvest of immortal souls, who
embraced the Religion which could give such calmness in the
midst of tyranny and pain. Alas! in America it has been the
heathen's sorrow to bite the dust in death and agony beneath the
hands of professing Christians. True it is, excuses have been
built upon the assertion that " it is their fate to die out and make
room for the stronger race." Without entering into the causes
which have reduced them, without dwelling upon the starvation,
European diseases, and sporting murders, by which they have
been mown down, it is enough to ask the question—if a tender
sister is in consumption, and cannot be retained in life, is this a
cause for withholding every drop of comfort, and hastening her
departure with torture and neglect ? Reflecting then with grief
upon the terrible history of the first family of America, it cannot
fail to add a lively interest to the opening colony of Columbia to
find within it a remnant of 75,000 natives. There, behind the
Rocky Mountains, in their last refuge upon earth, they stand 30 General
with painful wonder, while the smoke of the white man is rising
up all around them; and Britain has before her another opportunity, on the same great Continent, while pursuing the path laid
before her to further influence and prosperity, to give a different
treatment to the Indian whose fair lands she is called upon to
occupy and govern.
In the midst of so intense an interest in the two classes of her
population, Columbia stood forth a perfect blank as regarded the
means by which English feeling could be best implanted,
and England's Christian mission performed. A solitary church
at the corner of Vancouver's Island represented the fabric
of England's temples, and a solitary chaplain to the agents of
the Hudson's Bay Company represented the clergy of her
Church. Not so the zealous Church of Rome. The foundation
of 100Z. per annum, allowed for a priest to minister to the French
Canadian servants of the Company, was sufficient to induce and
enable her to appoint a Roman Catholic bishop. He, supplied
with funds from the Propaganda, soon drew around him a staff
of priests and the several persons of whom the machinery of his
system is composed; and when England was constrained to look
at her new colony, the chief institution she had to behold was a
vigorous establishment of the Roman system of Religion, ready to
inoculate the people, as they land and settle down, with her
principles of policy and Religious teaching. What was to be
done ? England would not agree to endow her Church from her
national revenues; no State aid whatever cotdd be applied, no
matter how terrible might be the consequences of neglect of the
heathen, apostasy of the British settlers, and the unchecked
growth of the foreign community of Rome. In that anxious
moment a means was found from the ready heart of the Church
of England:—to a gentle daughter, reared in her principles and
endued with her spirit, was given the fine Christian resolution
that by her individual gift a fit foundation should be laid for a
branch of the Church of England in Columbia; and the munificent grant of 25,000Z. was given for the purpose. This grant
was hailed with gratitude, not only by the Church, but also by
the British Government, and one of the chief of England s
working parish Clergymen was called to the arduous and diffi-
cult post of heading the mission so urgently required.
When Dr. Hills found himself invested with so grave a
responsibility, and when he examined into the existing means
for working his Mission, a less practised mind might well have
recoiled from a task in which a vast effort was promptly required,
and for which no appliances whatever were within his reach.
He found on inquiry the practical nature of the idea so well
expressed in the following forcible letter, which his Grace the —^—
Archbishop  of Dublin has* thought it right to address to his
" I wish to recommend strongly to the clergy and laity of my Diocese
the claims of the new Mission to British Columbia, which appears to me
peculiarly entitled to sympathy from the mother country till the infant
colony shall have become sufficiently well established as to supply its own
pastoral wants.
" The rapid growth of a large population of our own race, together with
the presence of 75,000 native Indians, must require a supply of clergymen
which the funds of our existing Missionary Societies cannot provide.
The noble example of Miss Burdett Coutts, who has endowed the Mission
wifch the munificent grant of 25,000£ deserves to be followed up with
such additional aid as is required for ensuring success.
" I shall be glad if any encouragement I can give towards so important
an object should induce you to afford your co-operation to the,Committee
which has been formed in this Diocese to collect contributions during the
few years;the colony is dependent on external aid.
I Palace, December 2, 1859. | Richd. Dublin."
The Bishop of Columbia saw that the state of their funds, and
existing engagements of the  established Missionary Societies,
prevented their being able to hold out a prospect of a staff of
clergy, and other requirements for founding a new Church in
such a land, by any means adequate to the immediate necessities
of his position; he felt that if he were to go amidst so varied and
rapidly increasing a population, with no definite supply of men and
apparatus guaranteed to him, he would be destined to stand in
the  colony looking at  the isolated efforts  of the five or  six
Missionaries supplied by all the existing means of support, and
in sorrow to witness the spreading of unsound principles, and the
steady alienation of the affections of the people from the Church.
He heard of large  towns already  growing up, of masses of
people occupying the country in every direction, of the entire
absence of means of Education in the principles he was appointed
to uphold; he knew of the large and interesting body ot natives,
who have been for years under British rule, and for whose spiritual welfare no steps had hitherto been taken; and he came to
the conclusion that he could not safely leave England, and rely
upon existing Societies supplying that aid which was so immediately required.    The Bishop also felt that the remarkable circumstances which led  to  the  formation of this Mission were
wholly unknown throughout the country; the very name and
position of the colony being strange to the country at large ; he
knew how the minds of the friends of missions had been bent
upon the south, west, and now the east of Africa; he knew how
India, New Zealand, and Australia were engrossing with Africa*
the attention of the Missionary Societies; and, on a careful review
of his position, he resolved to make a rapid tour throughout the
United Kingdom, to make known the nature and urgent need 32 APPEAL,
for sympathy and support of the great work with which he had
been charged.
In forming this resolution, he was encouraged by the knowledge, which few could better possess, that there were many
Christian hearts, who would not only feel sympathy, but who
would rejoice to follow the liberal example of the foundress
of the Mission, and respond with pecuniary contributions to such
a call as he had to make; he knew also, that personally a large
circle of friends would assist him in his tour, having himself
always rejoiced to receive deputations in his house and pulpit,
and to help forward the applications for assistance which the
several Societies make, by which the Church of England is rooted
and represented in the colonies of Great Britain and the heathen
world around us; so, in full confidence of success, he issued the
11 Appeal for the Spiritual Wants of the new Diocese of Columbia.
| The formation of a new British colony is at all times a subject of
interest to Englishmen.
I Circumstances of a commercial and political nature give British
Columbia a special importance, while the gold discovery, judging from
other places, promises it a rapid and populous growth.
| Situated between the 49th and 55th parallels of north latitude, with
Russia on the one side, and the United States on the other, the only
British territory pn all the western coast of America, with a climate like
England, soil fruitful, timber and coal abundant, fish plentiful, and good
harbours, there seems scarcely a doubt of its future prosperity and
| Already in the providence of God multitudes have been attracted to its
"Not less than 25,000, during a few months, passed into it from
California, Oregon, and other neighbouring states.
"Ere another year, these and more distant countries will contribute
their stream of emigrants, to be numbered in a short period by hundreds
of thousands.
| For these the spiritual provision at present is totally inadequate to the
emergencies of the colonies. Columbia is the size of France, and Vancouver
about the size of Ireland, and there is no church in either. The' nupiber
of square miles in Columbia and Vancouver is computed at 200,000 ; the
number of clergy, including those arrived in the colony, on their way, or at
present about to go out, is nine ! Considering the varied people who are
congregating, the character of many of these, thirsting only after gold, the
terrible temptations to vice which are sure to abound, loud is the call
upon Christian people for instant attention and prompt exertion in
providing the means of true religion.
| Happily it has pleased God to put it into the heart of a noble-minded
Christian lady at this important crisis to commence the foundation in that
colony of a branch of the Church of England, by the munificent offering of
25,000/. for the endowment of a bishopric and two chaplaincies.
" Such an example must inspirit the hearts of Christian men and
women to do likewise. At least it should call forth a liberal response
from all parts of the Church to support and carry out to a happy
completion, if it may be, by God's blessing, a work so well begun. .APPEAL. 33
" In addition to the white population of settlers and gold miners,
Columbia and Vancouver are especially the abode of the North American
Indian. There in the far West, beyond the fastnesses of the Rocky
Mountains, are some 75,000 natives, as in a last resting-place, and there at
length the white man has reached this remnant of a fading and unhappy
yet noble race. They he trembling at the feet of Christian England, her
last opportunity of mercy to the Indian.
I Their conversion and settlement is a subject of the deepest interest.
I If they are to pass out of the family of man, let history tell of
Christian efforts, and of sympathy towards them, and not of massacre and
blood, a result, alas ! hitherto, of the contact between the Red man and
the European settler.
" The Bishop fervently hopes the Church at home will enable him to
commence the work with not less than twenty fellow-labourers. He
invites also true-hearted, able, faithful, fervent, and enduring men to come
forth with him into this harvest-field of souls.
| May the Lord of the harvest send forth such labourers !
I Under a deep sense of the importance of anticipating the religious
wants of the colony by supplying the ordinances of the Church of
England in their fulness and spirituality, from the beginning, the aid of the
patriotic and the faithful is earnestly entreated in raising/unds for the
following purposes:—
" 1. Maintenance of the clergy in part, until full support is provided
by offerings and endowments in the colony.
1 2. Provision for outfits   and passages of missionary clergy and
candidates for the ministry.
p 3. Building churches,  mission-houses, residences, and college for
I 4. Provision by purchase of land, or otherwise, for gradual endowment of churches.
| 5. Erection and support of mission institutions for the settlement,
conversion, education, and industrial training of the natives.
| The whole sum required for these objects is necessarily large.   Considering, however, what is promised by societies and other sources, and
calculating upon a reasonable response in the colony itself, .the portion to
be raised in England is as follows:—
« q     • i T?    a \ Donations 10,000/.
special j? una j Annual Subscription of 2,000/.
" George Columbia."
Unceasingly, and with rare energy and labour, the Bishop
prosecuted his tour, commencing at Canterbury on the Sunday
after his consecration, and ending it in one of the chief churches
in Westminster, as also in the Mansion House of the City of
London, on the day previous to his departure. Thus, from the
24th of February to the 17th of November, he spoke everywhere
of the spirit in which the Mission is commenced, and of the necessities which press for prompt and liberal support and assistance
in the work.
\ The balance sheet attached to the Report1 will tell of the
generous response which his appeal received. Still he left England with many anticipations of the calls for Clergy, churches,
schools, and other machinery, which the colony will make, and
1 See Advertisement, page 22.
for which he will need increased and continued assistance, to
enable the Mission to maintain its ground amongst the difficulties
which are sure to surround it. After he first issued an appeal,
stating the smallest amount with which he could hope to begin
successfully, fresh accounts reached him from week to week of
new towns being marked out and quickly filling with people.
For several of them two clergymen^ and for each of them one
at least, ought to be immediately supplied, besides itinerating
clergy, missionaries to the heathen, teachers, and buildings of
every description. A college for training up young men' in the
colony for the several parts of the missionary work is urgently
required, together with industrial and other schools. In truth,
the need for contributions is unlimited, and the fruits which are
sure to follow are beyond all calculation.
The Bishop did not feel himself strong enough in promises of
support to engage more than six clergymen on his special fund;
he felt no doubt he would find at least eight more immediately
required. He has entrusted to some friends the special charge
and privilege of keeping alive the interest which is felt in his
mission, and of calling out further assistance wherever opportunities arise. Remembering the position of this colony, destined
to hold so many important. relations with China and the other
heathen nations of the East; reflecting upon the solemn duties
which call for a supply of Gospel ministrations to the new population ; and deeply impressed with the painful neglect of the native
tribes in past times; those who have undertaken to continue his
appeal at home most earnestly request a generous consideration
of the claims and pressing wants of Columbia. It is a field of
missionary labour, combining all the thrilling interest of direct
missions to the heathen, with the strongest feelings of promoting
the highest and best interests of British families, who are
constrained by various circumstances to find a home in such far
distant lands. |
N.B.—Communications may be addressed to \
REV. JOHN GARRETT, * Secretaries to the
Vicar of St. Paul, near Penzance, I Columbian Mission.
And Commissary to the Bishop of Columbia. )
3, Waterloo Place, S.W.
G. P. ARDEN, ESQ. I London.
Halstead, Essex. I
Contributions may be paid to the account of the COLUMBIA MISSION", at
Messrs. Coutts & Co. 59, Strand; Cox & Co. Craig's Court, Charing Cross;
Smith, Payne, & Smiths, 1, Lombard Street; Sir John Lubbock, Bart.,
Foster & Co. Mansion House Street, City; 79, Pall Mall1; and at Messrs.
D. La Touche & Co. Castle Street, Dublin.
1 Wlien a contributor remits money through 79, Pall Mall, it is particularly requested that instructions be given to place it under the Administration of the BisJwp,
as mistakes will probably otherwise occu/r. *4=*=*L
'Mm     .   ..   :   i ifti  i.\i i i timmmmmimmmmmmmmmimmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmmimmm^Kmmm^^mmmmmm
^!r*—».  mS^mmm^^mmg^mm^
==-=« r
Address from the Married Inhabitants.
The respectful petition of the married inhabitants of Tale,
Humbly showeth,—
That your petitioners hail the advent of your Lordship to British Columbia,
both as a social and religious blessing, aud look forward with hope and confidence to the establishment of schools, as well as churches, in its various
That such institutions, besides the education of the children at present in
the colony, would conduce to other most desirable results, in encouraging
numerous isolated individuals here to bring their wives and families to join
them, whereby speedy and wholesome settlement would be promoted, and the
moral tone of our present rude society reformed and elevated.
That actuated by these sentiments, your Lordship's petitioners made an
endeavour to form a school here last summer from their own local resources;
but the attempt was only an exemplification of the old adage, | What's everybody's business, is nobody's business," an axiom which is all potent in gold
gathering communities, amongst whom the keen*perpetual strife for worldly
acquisition tends to overmaster the higher and holier duties of parent ana
neighbour—they might almost say of Christian.
That your petitioners anticipate the inauguration of a new era in British
Columbia from the expected arrival of your Lordship in the sphere of your
glorious mission, distinguished as you are known to be for zeal and energy;
and they earnestly trust that the lamentable condition of their benighted little
ones may be one of the earliest- matters to engage your Lordship's sympathy
and consideration.
That your petitioners respectfully beg leave to refer your Lordship to his
Excellency, Governor Douglas, as to the suitableness of Yale as a site for a
seminary, and also as to character and claim of its inhabitants.
And your Lordship's petitioners will ever pray, &c.
Signed by the married men, and stating the number of children amongst
Victoria, February 6, 1860.
Gentlemen,—I have received with great pleasure your letter on the subject
of education at Yale.
I have for some time felt interest in your welfare, and have seen the importance of an early attention to your educational wants.
I will do all I can, and am encouraged and strengthened by your letter,
seeing in the spirit that actuates you the prospect of a hearty co-operation.
I am happy to say that a gentleman1 and his wife are on their passage from
England, whose residence will probably be at Yale.
1 The gentleman referred to resigned the appointment after holding it for some
months, but another has been appointed, and hopes to reach Columbia in August. 38 APPENDIX.
The education of your children will be one of his first cares.
You will find him, I trust, ready to be useful in many matters where his
assistance may be desired; and to those who may feel it their duty to attend
his ministrations he will be found a diligent and faithful pastor.
When in addition to him you have an efficient teacher, Yale will, I hope, be
fairly supplied as to these important matters.
Trusting ere long, God willing, to give myself the pleasure of a visit to Yale,
when I hope to make your acquaintance,
Believe me, Gentlemen,
Your faithful servant,
G. Columbia.
Address to the Right Reverend George Hills, D.D. Lord Bishop of British
We, the undersigned inhabitants of New Westminster, beg to offer your
Lordship our hearty welcome upon your arrival in this country, and to express
our sense of the Christian zeal which has brought you so far from home to
minister amongst us.
We are thankful that, through your Lordship's instrumentality, a deep interest
in the spiritual and temporal welfare of the colony has been excited in the
mother country, as has been manifested in crowded and influential meetings
held throughout the kingdom.
Believing, as we firmly do, that a brilliant future is before this as yet young
colony, and that British Columbia is destined in due^ time to take no mean
place amongst the nations of the eartji, and feeling that the happiness and prosperity of a country depend in a great measure upon its moral and spiritual well-
being, we rejoice at every attempt for the furtherance of true religion amongst
us; we revert with pleasure to the scene of your past labours, and trust that
you may obtain a similar blessing in the discharge of the high office to which,
by God's providence, you have been called.
It must needs happen that in a country situated like this, where the population is thinly scattered over a large extent of country, many obstacles will
occur to those who desire the ministrations of religion. Miners and'settlers,
the hardy pioneers of civilization, will be found in isolated companies, unable of
themselves (however desirous they may be) to provide for their spiritual wants;
we have heard, therefore, with great satisfaction, that it is your Lordship's intention to visit the remote parts of your diocese, and to assist and co-operate
with all those who desire a share in the comforts and privileges of the Gospel.
We understand it is your intention to promote the erection of schools
throughout the country, and to organize some plan for the spiritual instruction
of the native Indians. We recognise the high importance of these subjects. The
well-being of the colony is bound up with the education of the young \ while
the dictates alike of humanity and sound policy proclaim the necessity of ameliorating, as far as possible, the condition of the aboriginal inhabitants; we are
happy to think that on both those points we shall have the advantage of your
energy and experience.
We take this opportunity of expressing our heartfelt thanks to that most
estimable Christian ladjr, Miss Burdett Coutts, and all others who have testified
their generous interest in the welfare of their fellow-Christians in this country. h
Hoping that the course of your duties will bring you much amongst us, we
would conclude with an earnest prayer that He, through whom alone human
objects can be crowned with success, will prosper you in your arduous *and
important work.
We are, my Lord,
Your Lordship's faithful obedient servants.
The above address was signed by Colonel Moody, Chief Justice Begbie,
Judge Brew, W. R. Spalding, Esq. J.P., Rev. E. White, and upwards of 200
of the inhabitants. The officers of the Sappers and Miners in camp did not
sign it, as they thought as military men they ought not to take part in it, and
that it would be more natural coming from the people, than if they or their
men's signatures were attached.
Gentlemen,—I much appreciate the kindness and the honour you have
shown me by this address.
I accept it gratefully as a welcome to myself personally on my arrival
amongst you to take my part with you in the self-denying struggles of an infant
colony, and to share with you, in due time, the satisfaction of success.
I rejoice, however, to believe that you wish chiefly to express respect for the
sacred office which I unworthily fill, and to declare your deliberate desire that
true religion should take root in the land, and your conviction that without
that inestimable blessing no country can become truly great, no people be
really prosperous and happy.
Such an expression on your part will, I know, gladden the hearts of many
who, in the mother-land, are deeply interested in our progress, and to none will
it be more acceptable than to that noble-minded Christian lady to whom you
have alluded.
All that I have seen and heard impresses me much with the belief that, as you
say, a brilliant career is before our colony. I came out with great hopes and
expectations, and I am not disappointed.
The genial climate, the vast extent, the varied and substantial resources, the
natural beauties of British Columbia, together with the well-proved energy of
the Anglo-Saxon race, combine to assure us that, by God's blessing, our steady
progress is certain, and that it, may possibly be most rapid.
These circumstances inspire us with the greater ardour in laying early the
solid foundations of the Church of Christ, and in rearing up the edifice of a
sound, useful, and religious education. My duty and the warm desires of my
heart are intimately concerned in the promotion of these high and holy objects,
and in co-operation with you I look forward to the day when British Columbia
shall bear comparison with tbe best of the colonies of Britain.
I feel, with you, a particular interest in the welfare of those intelligent and
hardy pioneers of progress who go forward bravely into the pathless forest,
mountain defiles, and river banks, and lay the foundation of towns and cities.
It is true, desire for gain, and for the gold that perisheth, is the strong
inducement; but this gold discovery is one of those remarkable providences,
evidently designed to work out great results in the movement of man, and
these, our fellow-colonists, are but following a Call which is divine, in their
arduous progress, and pursuing an occupation which may be as honest and
honourable as any that can be found.
We would follow them with the gospel of Jesus, and place within their
reach the treasures which moth and rust do not corrupt. We would be beside
them when pressed by temptation, and bowed down by weariness and sickness.
^M^^^M^^^M T
We would watchfully provide religious and educational advantages to enable
them with confidence to send for their wives and little ones, and to establish
their homes of comfort and peace in the neighbourhood of the mines.
The condition of the Indian population must indeed excite the deepest
interest. The call, on many grounds, is strong for benevolent efforts toward
their improvement.
We cannot, ourselves, expect to be free from injury if we permit a considerable number of our fellow creatures to live in degradation and misery in the
very midst of us.
There is no reason why success may not be attained in rescuing the young at
least from destruction, and enabling them to take their place as useful and
happy members of society.
It is only worthy of the high v character and benevolence of Britain to have
especial care for these races whose land we occupy, and to whom, alas! vices have
been taught by contact with us to which before they were strangers.
Their present confidence in our good faith, and even affection towards us, is
a touching and encouraging invitation to us to do them good.
Trusting to have many opportunities of conferring together, and of labouring
with you in these and other useful objects; and joining with you most fervently
in reliance upon the Divine blessing alone for success in any undertaking,
I remain, Gentlemen,
Your faithful friend and servant,
G. Columbia.
New Westminster, Feb. 27th, I860.
Address to the Lord Bishop of British Columbia.
We, the undersigned inhabitants of Port Hope, hearing that your Lordship
is about visiting this colony, take this opportunity of testifying our gratification at your arrival, and our happiness at your appointment as Bishop of the
colony of British Columbia.
We are much pleased to learn from your Lordship's statements, as published
in the public papers, that you propose devoting the greater portion of your
time to the interests of this colony; and we fervently trust that your zealous
labours in the ministry may meet with their merited success.
We have noticed the prominence you attach to the wants of our miners, and
the claims of the untutored Indian population, now suddenly brought from the
depths of barbarism and idolatry into contact with civilization and the light of
the Gospel.
Our miners are the principal source of wealth in this country, and though
isolated and removed from religious privileges, they are.happy to embrace them
when afforded; while their industry, intelligence, and liberality in aiding the
'cause of religion, are well known to all who have had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with them as a class.
With regard to the Indians, we trust that means will be adopted for their
instruction in Scriptural truths, and the arts of civilization; and wre think that
it would be a great benefit to them, and to the colony in general, if some
localities could be selected for their residence, apart from the white population,
whose vices, experience teaches us, they are much more ready to adopt than
their virtues. APPENDIX. 41
We hope the influx of population will soon call for a church among us, and
that at no distant period a school will also be required; and we are glad
to perceive that the maintenance of the church is to be on the voluntary
We trust that your Lordship will soon make it convenient to visit this
portion of your diocese, as it would afford us much pleasure to have the opportunity of meeting you.
We have the honour, &c.
(Signed by) Inhabitants of Hope.
Hope, Feb. 18,1860.
Reply of the Bislwp.
Gentlemen,—It was my intention last week to have proceeded from New
Westminster, and reply to your kind address in person. - The steamer, however, did not go when I expected, and I have been obliged to defer my visit
to Hope.
I look forward, please God, to spend much time in the colony of British
Columbia, and such sympathy and encouragement as you offer in furtherance
of my important work will be much prized by me.
You only do me justice in believing I am most anxious to be of use to that
enterprising and important section of our fellow colonists, the mining class.
I am aware of the good qualities which characterise many of them. I know
how valuable they are to a colony as pioneers of progress, as developing the
rich resources of a land like ours, and as contributors of revenue. I know also
the temptations to which they are exposed, the hardships they frequently
endure, and'the deprivation of religious opportunities to which they are subject. While it is the part of a just, a wise, and paternal Government to guard
their rights, and to encourage their enterprise, so is it the duty of the Church
to follow them with a shepherd's care, and bring within the reach of themselves
and their families the comforts and the guidance of the Gospel of Christ.
I sincerely trust your town may soon be provided with all those institutions
which are for the higher good of the mind and soul of man.
The organization of a new country necessarily demands time for development. What is required cannot be attained without sacrifice, exertion, and
patience on the part of those most concerned. While the chief responsibility is
upon yourselves in bringing about such results, it will be a great pleasure to
me to forward your efforts by such assistance as I can give.
The Indian population forms a subject of the deepest interest. They are intelligent as any other race, and there is nothing in themselves to hinder, in course
of time, through the grace of God, their recovery from barbarism and savage
life. It is the duty of Christians and civilized people to impart to them the
blessings we enjoy.   History tells us not to expect any great change at once.
But much may be done by degrees. We may at least educate their children,
and prepare the way for the improvement of the next generation.
I trust ere long some systematic arrangement will be on foot which may
afford hope of the gradual amelioration of the spiritual and social condition of
this unhappy people.
Wishing you all earthly and spiritual prosperity,
I remain, Gentlemen, ^
Your faithful friend and servant,
G. Columbia. 42
Vancouver's island.
The Address to the Bishop of Columbia, which has been in the course of
signature during the last week, was presented to his Lordship on Monday forenoon. The deputation appointed by the Committee of Management met at
Mr. Pemberton's office, at eleven o'clock, and proceeded to the Bishop's residence in Port Street. Several members of the deputation were unavoidably
absent.   The following gentlemen attended:—
Rev. E. Cridge, Chief Justice Begbie, Mr. Wood, Mr. Prazer, Mr. W. J.
McDonald, Mr. Crease, Captain Gordon, Captain Gossett, Rev. Dr. Evans, Mr.
Southgate, Mr. Cusheon, Mr. Pinlayson, Mr. Munro, Mr. Gibbs, Mr. Gambitz,
Mr. Little, Mr. W. B. Smith, Mr. Mclnnis, &c.
The deputation was received by the Bishop, and the Rev. E. Cridge read the
Address, which was as follows:—
To the Right Reverend George Hills, D.D. Lord Bishop
of Columbia.
The Address of the Clergy, Churchwardens, Members of the Church of
England, and other Inhabitants of Vancouver Island.
We, the undersigned inhabitants of Vancouver Island, beg to approach your
Lordship with the assurance of our heartfelt sympathy for the mission which
has brought you to this portion of your diocese, and tender you our hearty
congratulations upon your safe arrival.
The great public interest in the spiritual affairs of this and the sister colony,
which your Lordship's advocacy was so largely instrumental in awakening
throughout the mother country, merits our warmest acknowledgments: for,
while it ensures the active co-operation of our fellow-countrymen in all that
promotes the best interests of religion among us, it cannot fail to advance the
material prosperity of these colonies.
Had an earnest been wanting for the hopes which we entertain of your
future career, we have happily only to revert to your successful labours elsewhere, to feel every confidence that the zeal and ability which have hitherto
directed you, will, under Heaven, be attended here with similar results.
Your Lordship's prompt declaration, so soon after your arrival, that you had
sufficient confidence in the vitality of the religion we profess to entrust the
Church to the voluntary support of its members, has been received with much
satisfaction; it gives a great stimulus to individual exertion in the cause of
religion, and ensures the devoted co-operation of the laity.
It is with peculiar pleasure we learn your Lordship's intentions to direct your
experience and knowledge to the formation and maintenance of schools for the
education of the rising generation—a benefit which we are rejoiced to find will
be extended to the Indian race.
We cannot conclude this address without expressing our heartfelt thanks to
that Christain lady, who, by the endowment of a Bishopric in these distant
colonies, has testified her generous interest in those who have wandered so far
from their native land.
Hoping that it may please the Almighty to spare you to fulfil your important
and arduous mission, and that you may find it consistent with the effective discharge of your ministration to be much among us, and wishing you health and
happiness, we remain your Lordship's faithful and very obedient servants:— APPENDIX.
The signatures amounted to about 800 in number, representing every class of
the community. The address having been read, was placed in the Bishop's hands,
who proceeded to make the following reply:—
Gentlemen,—I beg to thank you sincerely for this address, and for the
kind welcome you have given me.
Your allusion to my safe arrival leads me to express before you my deep and
grateful sense of the mercy of God, that I was preserved from the sad fate of
those who perished in the Northerner, by which vessel I had intended to come.
The delay in my departure from England was occasioned by my desire to give
such information as I could respecting these colonies. A wide-spread interest
is the consequence, and I am glad my humble efforts have met with your
Your expression of sympathy in my mission encourages me to believe there
will not be wanting an active support of all that is really beneficial and elevating
in a Christian community.
There are many objects in which we may all unite and happily labour for the
common good, and for the glory of God.
As a Minister of the Church of England, I cannot expect the agreement of
all, and must look to those principally who belong to that time-honoured and
greatly blessed portion of the Church Catholic for the support of our own
When we remember the early planting of this Church in Britain, her part in
the reformation of Christendom, her encouragement of the free circulation of
the Scriptures, her preservation in many a storm, and her recen# progress;
and believing in the promise of perpetuity vouchsafed to his Church by the
Divine Head, we accept without fear the circumstances of any land to which
we mav be called, and with confidence can entrust the Church to the willing
support of her faithful laity. Prom the State we seek no exclusive privilege—
we ask only for liberty, a fair field, and no favour.
We desire humbly and lovingly to labour that the principles of the doctrine
of Christ may be established in the hearts of many by the manifold and felt
blessings of the power of the Gospel; and in openly and honestly avowing
those distinctive principles which, as Churchmen, we profess and revere as the
truth in Jesus, with all charity, we are sure we shall have the respect, at least,
of all fair-minded and generous men.
I rejoice to feel my future life is bound up in these two colonies which form
the Diocese of British Columbia, and I trust I may never be wanting iir any
humble exertion I can render for their material as well as spiritual prosperity.
No inconsiderable part of my time must be occupied in this important
island, yet the chief part of my attention will necessarily be required in the
neighbouring colony; where distances being so much greater, the population,
stations, ana clergy likely to be more numerous, and the peculiar circumstances
of tbe gold regions, all promise to require more personal visitation.
Thanking you once more for the kindness and honour you have shown me,
and trusting we may have many opportunities in days to come of conferring
together as friends and brethren, I desire to express my earnest prayer that
God may bless you abmndantly with his choicest gifts.
I remain, Gentlemen, your faithful friend and servant,
George Columbia.
The deputation then withdrew.
A copy of the address and of the Bishop's reply was forwarded to England
by the mail steamer in the afternoon.    Engraved by Jarrees YfylcL, Geographer to the Qiteen,, Charing &oss East, & Z Royal Eocchaiige Londorv. Cape   to  Sydney   6414


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