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Seventh report of the committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor, Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson,… British Association for the Advancement of Science 1891

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Array 
CARDIFF  MEETING,   1891
SEVENTH  REPORT
ON THE
NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA 
LONDON
OFFICES   OF   THE   ASSOCIATION
BURLINGTON HOUSE  Section H.l

of Science.
Seventh Report of the Committee, consisting of Dr. E. B. Tylor,
Mr. G. W. Bloxam, Sir Daniel Wilson, Dr. G. M. Dawson,
and Mr. E. G. Haliburton, appointed to investigate the
physical characters, languages, and industrial and social
condition of the North-Western Tribes of the Dominion of
Canada.
Introduction by Sir Daniel Wilson.
The report here presented is again the result of the work of Dr. Franz
Boas in the interesting ethnological field of British Columbia. It consists of two parts, the first being devoted to the Bilqula, a people inhabiting a limited tract in the vicinity of Dean Inlet and Bentinck Arms, the
second dealing with the physical characteristics of the tribes of the Northwest Coast region.
In connection with the Bilqula it is important to note that they, by
reason of their position, have held the most important natural pass and
trade route through the Coast Range, from the ocean to the interior,
which exists between the Skeena River and the Fraser, a distance exceeding 400 miles. This circumstance has rendered their situation a peculiarly
favourable one in some respects. It has induced them to engage in
intertribal trade, and evidently also affords a clue to some of the peculiarities which Dr. Boas points out. From time immemorial, as the writer is
informed by Dr. Dawson, who has geologically examined that part of the
country, a route has been beaten out by way of the Bella Coola River,
thence northward to the Salmon River, and then along the north side of
the Black water River to the Upper Fraser. This is commonly known by
the Tinneh of the interior as the ' Grease Trail,' from the fact that the
chief article of value received from the coast in early times was the oil of
the olachen or candle-fish, though dentalium shells and other things
were also brought in. When trading vessels began to visit the coast,
besides the natural products of the sea, iron and various kinds of manufactured goods found their way into the interior by the same route;
while the fine furs of the inland region were carried back to the coast
and sold to the vessels. It was by this same route, well known to the
natives, that Sir Alexander Mackenzie was enabled to complete the first
traverse of the North American continent from sea to sea and to reach report—1891.
the shore of the Pacific in 1793. As a result of this intercommunication
between the Bilqula and Tinneh it is found that houses essentially similar
to those of the Coast Indians in mode of construction and ornamentation,
though smaller and less skilfully built, occur far inland on the upper
waters of the Salmon and Blackwater Rivers; while, on the other hand, the
practical identity of some points in the mythology of the Bilqula with
that of the Tinneh of the interior is a clear instance of reciprocal
influence.
The second part of the report will be found to contain the most complete series thus far obtained of anthropological measurements relating to
the tribes of the North-West Coast, with a discussion by the author of the
data which these afford, in which several points of value are brought out
and important suggestions are made for further inquiry. In this connection it must be mentioned that the committee are much indebted to the
courteous and enlightened liberality of Major J. W. Powell, Director of
the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology, who has permitted Dr. Boas to incorporate with the measurements obtained in British Columbia those made by
him in Washington and Oregon under Major Powell's directions. It has
thus been possible for Dr. Boas to give to his treatment of this subject a
comprehensive character, which could not otherwise have been obtained,
by enlarging the scope of his discussion so as to include the more or less
intimately related tribes of the Pacific States with those of the Province
of British Columbia itself.
\V':
'Third Report on the Indians of British Columbia.
By Dr. Franz Boas.
The following alphabet has been used in the report:—
The vowels have their continental sounds, namely: a, as in father;
e, like a in mate; i, as in machine; o, as in note ; u, as in rule.
In addition the following are used: a, o, as in German; a—aw in
mw; E=e in flower (Lepsius's e).
Among the consonants the following additional letters have been
used : g-, a very guttural g, similar to gr; k', a very guttural k, similar
to kr; q, the German ch in oach; B, the German ch in ich; q, between
q and H; c—shin shore; c, as th in thin; tl, an explosive I; dl, a palatal
I, pronounced with the back of the tongue (dorso-apical).
Is
THE BILQULA.
The Bilqula, who are generally called Bella Coola, are the most northern tribe belonging to the Salish family. They are separated from the
tribes speaking allied languages by the Chilcotin (of the Tinneh stock) in
the interior, and on the coast by the Kwakiutl. Their language is—considered
grammatically—more closely related to the dialects of the Coast Salish than
to those of the tribes of the interior. A number of terms referring to the
sea and sea-animals are the same in Bilqula and in the dialects of the Gulf
of Georgia; so that we may safely assume that the two groups of tribes
were at one time closely related, and that the Bilqula were differentiated from
this group. They inhabit the coasts of Bentinck Arm and Dean Inlet, as
shown on the map accompanying the sixth report of the committee, and
extend far up Bella Coola River.    Since the end of last century they ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF   CANADA. 3
have dwindled down in numbers, and a few only of their once populous
villages are still inhabited, namely, Satsq, at the head of Dean Inlet;
NutlVl, at the mouth of Salmon River; Nuqa'lkH (which embraces five
villages, at the mouth of Bella Coola River; Stu'iH, twenty-eight miles up
Bella Coola River; and Ta'lio, at the head of South Bentinck Arm. The
dialect of Nutl'E'l and Satsq differs slightly from that of the other
villages. The following is a list of their ancient villages, most of which
are still inhabited at certain seasons, although not regularly :—
1. Satsq.
2. Nutl'E'l.    The tribe of this place is called SotslEmH.
3. Nuqa'lkH, embracing the villages K-omko'tEs and Stske'etl on the
north side, Pe'isEla and NutHe'iHtskone on the south side of the river. .
4. SEnqtl.
5. Tsomo'otl.
6. Snii't'Ele.
7. Nu'kHits.
8. AsE'nane.
9. Nuk-a'aqmats.
10. TsQoaQk-a'ne.
11. Nu'sk-'Elst.
12. Nutltle'iq.
13. Stu'iH, twenty-eight miles from the sea.
14. Snu'tl'Elatl. Nos. 4 to 14 are situated along Bella Coola River,
and are given as they are met with in ascending the river.
15. Sla'aqtl, at the confluence of Bella Coola and Driver (?) Rivers.
16. Ta'lio, at the head of South Bentinck Arm, embracing K-'oa'pQ,
Ta'lio, Nu'ik', A'seQ.
17. K-oa'tlna, at the bay of that name in the southern entrance of
Bentinck Arm. On the north entrance of Bentinck Arm were the
Kilte'itl, but it is doubtful whether they belonged to the Bilqula or to
the He'iltsuk.    The latter call the people of Dean Inlet Ki'mkuitq.
Each of these tribes is subdivided into gentes, which appear to be
arranged in exogamic groups. I learnt the names of the following
gentes, which bear the names of their ancestors -.—
Gentes of the Nuqa'lkmH :
1. Tok-oa'is (=looking down on his family).
2. SpuQpuQo'lEmQ ; Qe'mtsioa name: Ma'lakyilatl (see p. 9).
3. Slatlqela'aq.
4. KE'ltaqk-aua.
5. Po'tlas.
Gentes of the Nusk'VlstEmH :
1. Tl'ak-aumo'ot.
2. K'doqotla'ne.
3. ?
Gentes of the Talio'mH :
1. Ialo'stimdt (=making good fire);   Qe'mtsioa name;  T'a't'En-
tsait (=a cave protecting from rain).
2. Spatsa'tlt.
3. TuniQoa'akyas.
4. Ha'mtsit
H 1—2
X 4 REPORT—1891.
The evidence which I can present regarding the laws of intermarriage
is the following: I inquired of Nusk'Elu'sta (=cold water in face), a
member of the Ialo'stimot gens, whether he might marry a Spatsa'tlt
woman;   this   suggestion  he  rejected with the  greatest   indignation.
Fig. 1.—House-front of the gens Tok-oa'is.
Members of the first two gentes, he explained later on, are not allowed
to intermarry, neither are members of the last two gentes, while the first
and second may marry among the third and fourth.    He accounted for
Fig. 2.—House-front of the gens Trak-aumo'ot, representing the moon.
this by stating that Ialo'stimot's son married Spatsa'tlt's daughter, and I
that consequently the two gentes were related to each other.
The gentes have crests similar to those of the neighbouring coast ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 5
tribes.    The crest is represented in paintings on the house-front and on
dancing implements.
The gens Tok'oa'is has a killer-whale (Delphmus orca) painted on the
house-front (fig. 1).    The tradition says- that the ancestor of this gens
Fig. 3.—Crest of the gens Smo'En, showing the mountain Suwa/kHH, with two
clouds near its summit; above a mackerel sky.
\
one day, when hunting in the mountains, found a house on which a killer
was painted.    The chief who lived in the house invited him and presented  him with  his crest for himself and for  his  descendants,
crest consists of the killer-whale, eagle, swan, and heron.
The crests of all gentes were obtained in like manner.
The m
6 REPORT—1891.
The gens Spatsa'tlt have breakers painted on the house-front, and use
in dances the mask of a large kind of whale (Je^Ents), of the crow, and of
the black bear.
The gens TumQoa'akyas use the mask of OnEstsito'ma (=the sleeper)
and the eagle.
The gens Tl'ak-aumo'ot of the Nusk-VlstEmH use the moon (fig. 2).
The gens Ialo'stimot of the Talio'mH use the raven, robin (ain'a'qone),
eagle, whale, the bird t'eHtlala (genus ?), and s'atlsd'ots, the flood-tide.
They have sun, moon, and stars painted on the house-front, and the
nusqe'mta suspended from the beams of the roof (see p. 14).
The highest gens of Nutl'E'l has the name Smo'En (=the north wind).
He has the mountain Suwa'kHH surmounted by a mackerel sky, and with
clouds on its sides, painted on his house-front (fig. 3). Another object
belonging to his crest represents waves.
The children belong to the gens of either father or mother, the decision being left to the choice of the parents.
Secret Societies and the Potlatch.
The social organisation, festivals, and secret societies of the Bilqula
are still more closely interrelated than they are among the Kwakiutl, and
must be considered in connection. We have to describe here the potlatch,
the Sisau'kH, and the Ku'siut. The Sisau'kH corresponds to the Tloola'qa
of the northern Kwakiutl tribes, the Ku'siut to the Ts'etsa'ek-a. The
Bilqula believe that the potlatch has been instituted by ten deities, nine
brothers and one sister, the foremost among whom is Qe'mtsioa, to whose
care the sunrise is intrusted.    He resides with the others in a beautiful
Fig. 4.—Mask representing Qe'mtsioa.
Fig. 5.—Mask representing
QemqemaM'otla.
house in the far east, and cries 6! 6 ! every morning when the sun rises.
He has to take care that the sun rises properly. The first six of these deities ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA. 7
are grouped in pairs, and are believed to paint their faces with designs
representing moon, stars, and rainbow. In the Ku'siut these deities
make their appearance, and are represented by masks which I have copied.
Qe'mtsioa and Qemqemala'otla wear the design of the full moon, indicated in the mask Qe'mtsioa (fig. 4) by a double curved line in red and
black, the black outside, passing over foi*ehead, cheeks, and upper lip.
Qemqemala'otla has a double curved line in red and black, the red outside, which passes over forehead, cheeks, and chin (fig. 5). Aiumkl'likya
(fig. 6) and Aiumala'otla (fig. 7) wear the design of the crescent, drawn
Fig. 6.—Mask representing Aiumkl'likya.
Fig. 1.—Mask representing
Aiumala'otla.
in red and black, with differences similar to those between the first and
second. The fifth, K-'omk-'omkl'likya, and K'o'mtsloa have designs representing stars (fig. 8), both wearing the same style of-mask. The seventh
is K-ula'qawa, whose face represents the blossom of a salmonberry bush
(fig. 9). The next in order, Kule'lias (=who wants to have blankets
first), wears the design of the rainbow in black and blue (fig. 10). The
ninth, At'ama'k wears on the head a mask representing a kingfisher, and
is clothed in a birdskin blanket. The last of the series is a woman called
Tl'etsa'apletlaua (=the eater), the sister of all the others. Her face is
painted with a bladder filled with grease (fig. 11). She figures in several
legends as stealing provisions and' pursued by the people whom she has
robbed.
The Sisau'kH, which is danced at potlatches and other festivals of
gentes, is presided over by a being that lives in the sun. A man who had
gone out hunting met the Sisau'kH, and was instructed by him in the
secrets of the dance. When he returned he asked the people to clean
their houses, and to strew them with clean sand, before he consented to
enter. Then he danced the Sisau'kH, and told the people what he had
seen. He said that the being had commanded them to perform this dance^
and to adorn themselves when  dancing with carved headdresses with JI
8 REPORT 1891.
trails of ermine skins, and to swing carved rattles. The man, later on,
returned to the sun. Ever since that time the Bilqula dance the Sisau'kH.
Besides this it is stated that the Raven gave each gens its secrets.
Fig. 8.—Mask representing
K:'omk-'Smki'likya.
Fig. 9.—Mask representing
K-ula'qawa.
Each gens has its peculiar carvings, which are used in the Sisau'kH
only, and are otherwise kept a deep secret, i.e.,they are the sacred posses-
FiG. 10.—Mask representing Kule'lias.
Fig. 11.—Mask representing
Tl'etsa'apl etlana
sions of each gens.    All gentes, however, wear the beautiful  carved
headdresses and use the raven rattles, regardless  of  the carving they ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
9
represent. Every time the sacred objects of a gens are shown to the
people a potlatch is given. The sacred objects, although the property of the
various gentes, must nevertheless be acquired by each individual. That
is to say, every free person has the right to acquire a certain group of
carvings and names, according to the gens to which he or she belongs.
Slaves and slaves' children, also illegitimate children, could not become
Sisau'kH. A person cannot take a new carving, but must wait until it is
given to him by his relatives—father, mother, or elder brother. Nusk'E-
Ju'sta, to whom I owe my information regarding the gentes, and who is
a member of the gens Ialo'stimot of the Talio'mH, stated that he had
received the raven when he gave his first potlatch. At his second potlatch
he received the eagle. He hopes that his mother will give him the whale
at his next potlatch, and will at the same time divulge to him the secrets
connected with it. In course of time, he said, he might get even others,
from his brother; but if the latter's children should prove to be very
good, and develop very rapidly, his brother would probably give his secrets
to his children. At festivals, when a person acquires a new secret, he
changes his name. Each person has two names, a Ku'siut name, which
remains the same throughout life; and a Qe'mtsioa name, which is changed
at these festivals. Thus, Nusk'Elu'sta's (which is his. Ku'siut name)
' present Qe'mtsioa name is Atl'itlEmnE'lus'aiH, but at his next potlatch he
intends to take the name of Kalia-'kis. These names are also the property
of the various gentes, each gens having its own names. In the list of
gentes given above, the names enumerated are the Ku'siut names of the
ancestors. In two cases only the Qe'mtsioa names have been ascertained
(see p. 3). When a man possesses several Sisau'kH secrets he will distribute them among his children. When a girl marries, her father or
mother may, after a child has been born to her, give one or several of
their Sisau'kH secrets to her husband, as his children make him a member
of the gens. When a person gets to be old he gives away all his Sisau'kH;
secrets. After any secret has been given away the giver must not use it
any more. The crest and the Sisau'kH carvings must nob be loaned to
others, but each person must keep his own carvings. The only exceptions
are the carved headdresses and the raven rattles, which are not the
property of any particular gens.
The laws regarding the potlatch are similar to those of the Kwakiutl.
The receiver of a present becomes the debtor of the person who gave
the potlatch. If the latter should die the debts become due to his
heirs. If the debtor should die his. heirs become responsible for the
debt. Property is also destroyed at potlatches. This is not returned,.
and serves only to enhance the social position of the individual who
performed this act. It is not necessary that all the property given
by a person in a potlatch should be owned by him. He may borrow
part of it from his friends, and has to repay it. with interest. I was
told, for instance, that a man borrowed a large copper-plate and
burnt it at a potlatch. When doing so he had to name the price which
he was going to pay to the owner in its stead. Since that feast he died,
and his heirs are now responsible for the amount named at the potlatch.
The Ku'siut is presided over by a female spirit, called Anaulikutsai'H.
Her abode is a cav&in the woods, which she keeps shut from February
till October, remaining all the while inside. In October she opens the
door of her cave and sits in front of it. A woman is said to have been
the first to find her.   Anaulikutsai'H invited her into her cave and taught
Hi—3
\ 10
REPORT—1891.
her the secrets of the Ku'siut. She wore ornaments of red cedar-bark
around her head, wrists, and ankles ; her face was blackened, her hair
strewn with eagle-down. She commanded the woman to dance in the
same way as she saw her dancing. The people should accompany her
dance with songs, and, after she had finished, they should dance with
masks. She said, ' Whenever a person sees me your people shall dance
the Ku'siut. If you do not do so I shall punish you with death and
sickness. In summer, while I am in my house, you must not dance the
Ku'siut.'.
Ever since that time the Bilqula dance the Ku'siut. When a man has
seen Anaulikutsai'H sitting before her cave he will invite the people to a
Ku'siut. A ring made of red and white cedar-bark is hung up in his
house, and the uninitiated are not allowed to enter it. Only in the
evening, when dances are performed, they may look on, standing close to
the door. As soon as the dances are over they must retire from the
taboo house.    Each Ku'siut lasts three days.
The various dances performed by members of the Ku'siut are also the
property of the gentes, and the right of performing them is restricted
to members of the gens. They must not be given to a daughter's husband,
as is the case with the Sisau'kH dances (see above), but belong to the
members of the gens alone. They may, however, be loaned and borrowed
by members of the gens, who have a right to a particular dance, but who
do not own it. Permission to use a mask or dance is obtained from the
owner by payments. The owner may reclaim the dance or the borrower
may return it at any time. Membership of the Ku'siut is obtained through
an initiation. At this time the novice is given his Ku'siut name, which
he retains throughout life. Each gens has its peculiar Ku'siut names,
which are inherited by young persons from their parents or from other
relatives. Thus a young man who had the name of Po'po until he was
about seventeen years old obtained at his initiation the name of Tl'ako'otl.
I have not reached a very clear understanding of the details of the initia-
tion; it seems that the dance is simply given to the novice in the same
way as the Sisau'kH, this initiation being connected with a potlatch. But
still it seems possible that he must ' dream ' of the dance which he is to
perform. Only the highest degrees of the Ku'siut have to pass through a
religious ceremony of some importance. The highest degrees are the
Elaqo'tla (the Ha'mats'a of the Kwakiutl), the O'lEq (the Nu'tlmatl of
the Kwakiutl), and the Da'tia (the No'ntsistatl of the He'iltsuk). These
grades are also hereditary. A Ku'siut novice may acquire them at
once at his first initiation.
When the Elaqo'tla is initiated he goes into the forest, where he
encounters his guardian spirit. It is believed that he goes up to the sun,
and formerly he had to take human flesh along for food. The chiefs held
a council the night preceding the beginning of the ceremonies, and anyone who wanted to show his liberality offered one of his slaves to be
killed, in order to serve as food for the Elaqo'tla. The offer was accepted
and a payment of from ten to twenty blankets made for the slave. The
latter was killed, and the members of the Elaqo'tla order devoured one-
half of the body before the departure of the novice to the woods. There
the latter is tied up and left to fast. He may stay there for twenty or
thirty days until the spirit appears to him and takes him up to the sun,
where he is initiated. Early one morning he returns, and is heard outside
the houses.    He has lost all his hair, which, it is believed, has been torn ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
11
out by the strong breeze blowing in the higher regions. He is quite
naked, and bites everyone whom he can lay hold of. If he cannot catch
anyone he will bite his own arm. It is believed that he has lost his soul,
which fled from the body when the spirit came to him. Therefore the
shamans must try for four days to recapture his soul. The night after
they have recovered it the Elaqo'tla dances clothed in a bear-skin and
wearing a large headring, heavy bracelets and anklets, all made of red
and white cedar-bark. Some Elaqo'tla do not bite people, but merely
devour raw salmon, or tear dogs to pieces and devour them. Those who
bite people will also eat corpses. The Elaqo'tla has to observe a number
of regulations. For four years after his initiation he must not gamble.
He must stay away from his wife for one year, but this period is being
reduced to one month. For two or three months he must not leave his
house.
The O'lEq (= the laugher) and the Da'tia (= the thrower) do not go
into the woods to be initiated, but both must fast three days before their
first dance. The O'lEq ' makes fun of everything ' and scratches people
with his nails. The Da'tia carries stones and sticks, and breaks household
goods and canoes. If he has destroyed some object during the day he
pays for it at night when he dances. The OlEq and the Da'tia must stay
for one month, after they have danced, in their houses.
If a person transgresses the laws of the Ku'siut, for instance when the
Elaqo'tla gambles, or when a man performs a dance to which he has no
right, also when a person derides the ceremonies or makes a mistake in
dancing, his punishment is death. The chiefs assemble in council and the-
offender is called before the court. After his offence has been proved he
is asked whether he is willing to suffer the penalty of death. If he is not
willing, and one of his relatives is found willing to take the penalty on
himself, the guilty party is spared, and the substitute is killed in his stead.
The execution of the judgment is entrusted to the shaman, who bewitches
the condemned person by throwing disease into him, or by poisoning him
in some other (supernatural ?) way. The object thrown by the shaman
is a shell, bone, or finger-nail, around the middle of which objects a human
lhair is tied. If this object strikes the offender he will fall sick. Blood
collects in his stomach, and if it so happens that he vomits this blood, and
with it the disease-producing object, he will recover, and is not molested
any further. The masks (not the whistles and other ornaments) used in
the Ku'siut are burnt immediately at the close of each dancing season.
Novices must wear a necklet of red cedar-bark over their blankets for a
whole year. The masks used in the dances represent mythical personages,
and the dances are pantomimic representations of myths. Among others
the thunder-bird and his servant Atlqula'tEnuin, who wears a mask with
red and blue stripes over the whole face from the right-hand upper side
to the left-hand lower side, and a staff with red and blue spiral lines,
appear in the dances. Prominent masks are also Qe'mtsioa and his
brothers and his sister (see p. 6), Masmasala'niq and his fellows, the raven
and the Nusqe'mta, and many others.
Customs regarding Birth, Pitbertt, Marriage, and Death.
When the time of delivery approaches, the woman leaves the house
and resorts to a small hut built for the purpose.    She is assisted by pro-
Hl-4 T
12
REPORT—1891.
fessional midwives. The child is washed in warm water. For ten days
the mother must remain in this hut. Father and mother must not go
near the room for a year (according to Nusk'Elu'sta, for ten days), else
the salmon would take offence.
The child is soon given its first name. On this occasion the whole
tribe is invited to a feast, the name is made public, and the guests receive
small presents. The child retains this name until it becomes a member
of the Ku'siut, when it is given its Ku'siut name. This ceremony takes
place after puberty has been reached. About this period the young man
gives his first potlatch and assumes the Qe'mtsioa name.
When a girl reaches puberty she must stay in the shed which serves
as her bedroom, where she has a separate fireplace. She is not allowed
to descend to the main part of the house, and must not sit by the fire of
the family. For four days she must remain motionless in a sitting posture. She fasts during the daytime, but is allowed a little food and
drink at a very early hour in the morning. After this term she may
leave her room, but only through a separate opening. She must not yet
come to the main room. When leaving the house she wears a large hat,
which protects her face against the rays of the sun. It is believed that
if the sun should shine on her face her eyes would suffer. She may
pick berries on the hills, but must not come near the river or sea for
a whole year. She must not eat fresh salmon, else she would lose
her senses, or her mouth would be transformed into a long beak. She
must not chew gum or eat snow (see Fifth Report of Committee,
1889, p. 42).
If a young man wishes to marry a girl he goes, surrounded by his
friends, to the house of the girl's father and states his intention. His
friends carry food and presents, and if the farther accepts the suit he
sends out a young man, who receives the food and presents and carries
them into the house. Sometimes the father does not accept the offer at
once. In such cases the young man may repeat the same ceremony until
he is finally rejected or accepted. After the time of the marriage has
been agreed upon between the contracting parties, and the day preceding
the marriage has arrived, the young man invites all the people to a feast,
during which he states that he is to be married on the following day.
He asks a number of men, generally from twenty to thirty, and four
women to assist him. On the following forenoon they assemble, and
accompany the bridegroom to the girl's house. They sing outside, and
four of the men dance. All of them have their faces painted red. Finally
they enter, and the bridegroom gives a large amount of property to the
girl's father. Then the girl leaves her parents and goes to the bridegroom, bringing him also a large amount of property which has been
given to her for this purpose by her parents and. relatives. He in turn
gives her blankets and other apparel of the best quality, and distributes
presents among her relatives. This is repeated after some time. All he
has given to his bride and her relatives is repaid to him with interest.
A rich girl will repay twice or three times the amount given by the man.
At the time of the marriage the bride's father may promise the groom to
give him his Sisau'kH secrets as soon as the pair have their first child.
The children may belong to the father's or mother's gens, as the parents
may choose.
In case of a separation the wife refunds the amount of purchase-
money.    The children may stay with either parent, or part of them may ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBBS  OF  CANADA.
13
The decision is left to the
go with the mother and part with the father,
parents and children.
When a person has died the corpse is washed, the face painted red,
the legs are doubled up, and the arms folded over the breast. The nose-
ornament of the deceased is put into his nose; his shirt is put on, the
back part covering the breast and the front part turned backward. The
body is placed in a box and the latter is either fastened on the lower
branches of a tree or placed in a little house, which is set on posts, above
the level of the ground.    The face of the deceased is turned eastward.
• Part of his property and gifts from his friends are deposited near the
grave. The masks of the deceased are burnt. His crest is carved on a
memorial column, which also shows how many canoes, coppers, head-
.dresses, and slaves he had given away at potlatehes. These objects are
painted or carved on the columns. Formerly slaves were killed at the
burial of chiefs. The number of slaves killed was also indicated by so
many human figures on the memorial column. After burial food for the
use of the deceased is thrown into the fire. This is repeated frequently
during a prolonged period after the death has occurred. Whenever the
friends of the deceased partake of a meal a little food is thrown down at
a place between the fire and the door, where the entrance to the lower
world, the home of the dead, is believed to be.
The bed of a mourner must be protected againt the ghost of the deceased. His male relatives stick a thorn-bush into the ground at each
corner of their beds. After four days these are thrown into the water.
Mourners must rise early and go into the woods, where they stick four
thorn-bushes into the ground, at the corners of a square, in which they
• cleanse themselves by rubbing their bodies with cedar-branches. They
also swim in ponds. After swimming they cleave four small trees and
creep through the clefts, following the course of the sun. This they do
on four subsequent mornings, cleaving new trees every day. Mourners
cut their hair short. The hair that has been cut off is burnt. If they
should not observe these regulations it is believed that they would dream
of the deceased. Women when mourning scratch their cheeks with
shells or stones.
The mourning regulations for a widower or a widow are especially
. strict. For four days he (or she) must fast, and must not speak a
word, else the dead wife or husband would lay a hand on the mouth of
the offender, who would then die. They must not go near water, and
are forbidden to catch or eat salmon for a whole year. For the same
length of time they must not eat fresh herring or olachen. Widow and
widower cleanse themselves in the same way as other mourners. Their
shadows are considered unlucky, and must not fall on any person.
Some time after the death of a rich or influential person his nearest
relative invites the whole tribe to a potlatch.    On this occasion he sings
a mourning song for the deceased and gives away presents to his guests.,
It was explained to me that this ended the mourning, and that it was
j the same as giving away the bones of the deceased.'
Religion and Shamanism.
The mythology of the Bilqula differs greatly from the mythologies oi
the other tribes of the North Pacific coast.    It is impossible to say to
M
_ T
n
tV
14
REPORT—1891.
what cause this divergence is due. Mythology and religion are so closely
connected that a few words on the former must be added here. The
principal deity of the Bilqula is Snq,' the sun-god (compare sonq, sun).
The rays of the sun are his eyelashes. When prayed to he is called
Taat'au. In praying the Bilqula look heavenward. I obtained the following formulas: AtlkuH itWtlsuq, Taat'au, ' Look on us where we are
going, Taat'au;' and Taat'au, attknaltnomd&tlq,' Take care of us, Taat'au.'
Snq is pre-eminently the ruler of the world, and does not interfere with
the actions and thoughts of men. These are given by Masmasala'niq.
According to the tradition of the Bilqula, before the liberation of tbe
sun, and before the world was made as it is nowadays, four deities lived
on the earth: Masmasala'niq, Yula'timot, Mablape'eqoek, and Itl'itlu'lak.
The raven wished to obtain the sun, but he was unable to liberate it.
Then he went to these deities and asked their help. They ascended to
the sky, and tore the curtain, which, up to that time had been expanded
between heaven and earth, hiding the heavenly orbs. The sun appeared,
but he shone dimly, as though darkened by clouds. The raven ascended
to heaven through the rift made by Masmasala'niq, and found there a
beautiful prairie country in which all the birds lived. Masmasala'niq and
his brothers painted them beautifully and sent them down to earth,
giving each his song and his arts. The raven was not content with the
sun, and resolved to try and find a better one. He flew to the house of
a great chief, who kept the nusqe'mta (nu-ta=place of, sqem=thB
day is dawning). The nusqe'mta was a small round receptacle closed all
around like an egg. The chief guarded it jealously, and kept it suspended from one of the rafters of his house. The raven knew that he
could not obtain ib by sheer force, and resorted to a ruse. He assumed
the shape of the leaf of a spruce tree, and let himself drop into the pond
from which the chief's daughter used to take water. The girl drank
from the pond, swallowed the leaf, and thus became with child. She
gave birth to a boy, who was the raven himself. The old chief loved the
boy dearly, and allowed him to play with the nusqe'mta. This was what
he desired. He ran out of the house, broke it, and flew away in the
shape of a raven.
After the sun had thus been obtained Masmasala'niq said: ' Let us
make man.' He made the image of a man out of wood, but he was
unable to endow it with breath. Matlape'eqoek and Itl'itlu'lak tried
likewise to carve human figures and to give them life, but they failed.
Finally, Yula'timot carved the figure of a man and endowed it with life.
He made a man and a woman in each country, and they became the
ancestors of all tho numerous tribes. Then Masmasala'niq gave them
their arts. He taught them to build canoes, to catch salmon, to build
houses. He made rivers everywhere, that man should have water to
drink, and that the fish might go up the rivers to be'caught by man.
The Bilqula believe that Masmasala'niq and his brothers still continue
to give new ideas to man. They say that any new design of painting or
carving, or any other new invention made by a member of their tribe,
has been given to him by Masmasala'niq.
The religious side of the potlatch and of the secret societies has been
referred to above.
The soul is believed to dwell in the nape. It is similar in shape to a
bird inclosed in an egg. If the shell of the egg breaks and the soul Hies
away its owner must die.    Shamans are able to see and to recover s mis. . ON THE NORTH-WESTERN TRIBES OF CANADA.
15
By laying their hands on the nape of a person they are able to tell
whether his soul is present or whether ib has left the body. If the soul
should become weak they are able to restore it to its former vigour. If
a person swoons it is believed that his soul has flown away without
break
ins
its she!
T
le shaman hears its buzzing wings, which give
sound like those of a mosquito. He may catch and replace it in the nape
of its owner. If the soul leaves the body without breaking its shell the
owner becomes crazy.
The art of shamanism is bestowed by Snq. It is impossible to obtain
it by means of fasting and praying, as is the case among the neighbouring
tribes, but it is a free gift from the deity. A person who is to become a
shaman will fall sick, and, during his illness, Snq will give him a song
which must be kept a deep secret. After this he is able to cure diseases.
If a person falsely pretends to have received the gift of shamanism, and
tries to suck out diseases from a patient, he will fall sick himself.
When asked more closely about the curious difference between this
method of obtaining the power and that of the neighbouring tribes my
informant said : ' When an Awiky'e'noq wishes to become a shaman he may
go to the mountain where the deity of their shamans resides (probably
.Ma'tem) who will initiate him. No Bilqula can obtain the art in such a
way.'
Sickness is caused by a disease entering the body or by witchcraft
(see p. 11). The shaman is able to extract the disease by sucking. A
peculiar method of witchcraft, somewhat similar to the ' ek-'a' of the
Kwakiutl (see Sixth Report of the Committee, p. 60), was described to
me as follows : The person who wants to bewitch his enemy endeavours
to obtain some of his old clothing, portions soaked by perspiration being
considered especially effective. After it is obtained a wolf is killed, and
the, clothing is put into its month, which is then tied up. Then the wolf
is placed in a box. This procedure is called sHak. Sometimes the
clothing or some hair is inclosed in the bone of a wolf or of a dead person.
'No shaman can counteract these charms.
If a person has been murdered, and a string is tied firmly around the
neck of the corpse, the murderer's neck will become diseased and he will
be unable to breathe and will die. If sand is strewn in the corpse's eyes
and the lids closed over it the murderer will die. If a person has been
killed with a knife or arrow, or another weapon, to which some of his
blood adheres, the latter is brought into contact with a wolf's head, dog's
hair, or anything else that is bad, and then thrown into the fire or put
into a frog's or snake's mouth ; then the murderer will die.
I add here a few current beliefs :—
Sneezing indicates that people are talking about one.
Slight ringing of the ears indicates rain, loud ringing good weather.
Twitching of the muscles of the left side of the body is unlucky; of
the right side lucky. Twitching of the skin under the eyes indicates
that one will cry.
If a dog dreams and howls in its sleep its owner will die.
The breaking of a box without an apparent cause is unlucky.
Wars.
When a war party was organised the warriors did not paint  their
faces, but they put on headbands of white cedar-bark and strewed their r
16
REPORT 1891.
hair with white eagle-down. Warriors when on a war party must not
drink more.than four mouthfuls of water, else they would be killed. A
watchman was appointed in each canoe, who sat in the bow. On landing
near the village of their enemies they divided themselves into a number
of parties, one house of the village being assigued to each. Then, early
in the morning, when all were asleep, they rushed up to the village uttering their war cry ewai!° They took a stand at the fire which burns
in the centre of the house, and if any one of the enemies succeeded in
taking up his arms and came out of his bedroom they killed him. Then
they entered the bedrooms, killed the men, and took the women and children
along as slaves. The heads of the dead were cut off, the houses burnt,
and they returned home singing war-songs. The heads which they had
taken along were then scalped, and the scalps tied to each end of a pole.
When they approached their village one man stood up in the bow of each
canoe and swang the pole to which the scalps were attached, and they all
sang songs, in which their deeds were recounted. The scalps were
valued the higher the longer and fuller the hair. They were used in the
Sisau'kH.
The following tales of war expeditions offer some points of interest.-
About thirty or forty years ago there was a famine at Bella Coola. The.
people went overland to Knight Inlet, which belongs to the Tenaqtaq, a
tribe of the Kwakiutl, to fish there. The Tenaqtaq made fun of them,
took from them the fish they caught, tore the blankets from the backs of
tbe women, and seduced many of them. Finally the Bilqula returned
home. There they held a council and resolved to make war upon the
Tenaqtaq. The Tinneh joined them in this expedition. They crossed the
mountains in four days. When they approached Knight Inlet they sent
two spies in advance, who were to count the number of houses in the
village of the Tenaqtaq. Early in the morning they attacked the houses
and killed a great many men. The Tenaqtaq could not escape, as they
were hemmed in by the river. The Bilqula slew them with knives,
lances, and stone axes. They took away the clothes of the women,
leaving them naked, and subjected them to shameful insults in revenge
for the disgrace put upon their wives and daughters. Then they burnt
the village.
About thirty-five years ago the Talio'mH were attacked by the
Kwakiutl. Originally they intended to attack Nuqa'lkH, but the raven,
according to tbe narrator, changed their mind, as he always protects the
village of Nuqa'lkH. They came in many canoes, while most of the
Talio'mH were at the lake, which is situated above that town, fishing.
Four men were in charge of the village, and a number of old men and
women had also remained at borne. The father of Nusk'Elu'sta, who told
me of these events, happened to be out picking berries, accompanied by
his wife. He saw the canoes passing by and kept himself hidden. The
village of Talio was at that time surrounded by a strong stockade, which
consisted of a double row of palisades crowned with thorns. At each
corner there was a strong box fastened on the stockade like a.tower.
Here watchmen were stationed, who were able to shoot at the enemy
while being themselves protected. At that time the Talio'mH had only
four guns. The Kwakiutl sent out two spies, who reported that the
village was well fortified. The Talio'mH had seen the canoes coming and
were on their guard. The Kwakiutl thought that they would not be
able to enter the village until after the stoekade had been destroyed. ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
17
They resolved to make an attempt to burn it and to break open the door.
On the following day they came up to the village, but the guard on the
towers used their guns to such good effect that the enemy had to retreat
with severe losses. They made still another attempt, but with no better
success. They had lost many m<m, while only two old men of the Talio'mH,
TumHa'akyas and A'lkius by name, and one woman had been hurt. The
latter had been killed. When the Kwakiutl turned back a messenger
was at once sent up to the lake to call the young men, who then went to
Nuqa'lkH to ask for help. The Kwakiutl passed close to Nusk'Elu'sta's
father's, canoe, but they were so terrified by the losses they had sustained
that they passed by without so much as noticing it. Two of their number
were so ashamed of their defeat that, they would rather remain in the
enemy's country than return with their friends, and they stayed ashore.
Meanwhile the Talio'mH and the Bilqula were pursuing tbe fugitives.
They had reached the outlet of Bentinck Arm without overtaking them.
Then their chiefs resolved to return, as they believed that their enemies
had a long start upon them. Later on they learnt that the Kwakiutl
were at that moment only a few miles from them, about to continue their
homeward journey, after having encamped at the outlet of the channel.
Afterwards the Talio'mH found the two men who had remained ashore.
They called them and promised to send them back to their friends, saying
that the war had ended, and that they had no grudge against them. The
men were, however, too much afraid, and finally starved to death.
Later on the Talio'mH and Bilqula organised an expedition against the
Kwakiutl to take revenge for the unprovoked attack. A chief named
.KoaHi'la, whose father was a Talio'mH, while his mother was a Kwakiutl,
was their leader. They intended to attack the Le'kwiltok" and the
Kwe'k-sot'enoq. When they approached the village of the latter they
sent a canoe ahead to search for the village, and to report the number of
houses. For two days they were unable to find the village, which lies in
a labyrinth of islands ; but finally they found it, and saw that it consisted of.
sixteen houses. On the next morning they attacked it. The tribe was
wholly taken by surprise and almost all of them were killed. KoaHi'la's
mother lived at this place, and when she heard the Bilqula coming she
asked at once for her son, and was taken care of by him. Only five men
and four women escaped. The Bilqula allowed these to run away, as
they had killed as many as they desired. AnukHl'tsem, a chief of the
SEnqtlE'mh, was the only man of the Bilqula who was wounded. He
died on the way home. They returned, but in the country of the
Na'koartok- they were overtaken by four Kwakiutl canoes which pursued
them. The Bilqula were victorious, but Koaai'la induced them to desist.
During the fight two of the women, whom they had taken as slaves, and
one boy jamped overboard, and were reseued by the Kwakiutl.
Medicine.
Boils are treated by cauterisation with dry bark or with gunpowder.
Sometimes a series of parallel cuts is made over swellings or boils.
Fractured bones are set, and fastened between splints of cedar-bark.
Enemata of shark oil or olachen oil are given by means of a kelp tube,
with a mouthpiece made of the wing-bone of an eagle. Snake poison is
collected and used as a poison.    Women wear tight anklets I to prevent
H I—5 18 REPORT 1891.
the calves of their legs from slipping down.'     During their  monthly
periods women place soft cedar-bark in the vagina.   The bark is afterwards^
burnt in the woods.    The smoke of this fire is believed to be poisonous.
It is evident that the culture of the Bilqula is very greatly influenced
by that of the Kwakiutl. The secret societies and the potlatch ceremonies
are almost a copy of those of the Heiltsuk-. This influence has been so
deep that names of even deities and of the mythical ancestors of certain
gentes are purely Kwakiutl words, or have at least Kwakiutl endings. Thus
the name Aiumkl'likya (see p. 7) is purely Kwakiutl, meaning 'good all
over the world.' K-'6mk-'omkI'likya is also a Kwakiutl word, meaning
' the rich one of the world.' The chief's name, Ma'lakyilatl (see p. 3)
belongs to tbe same class of Kwakiutl names. On the other hand, the
religious ideas of the Bilqula are very curiously developed, and apparently
but slightly influenced by their neighbours. The whole Masmasala'niq
tradition is peculiar to them, but has been partly adopted by the Awiky'-
e'noq, with whom the Bilqula have intermarried.
t
PHYSICAL  CHARACTERISTICS  OF THE  TRIBES  OF THE
NORTH PACIFIC  COAST.
The following tables embrace a considerable amount of material which
I collected on a journey in Oregon and Washington, undertaken for the
U.S. Bureau of Ethnology, together with material which I collected in-
British Columbia. Thanks to the liberality of Major J. W. Powell,
Director of the Bureau of Ethnology, I am enabled to present here
the results of all the measurements which I made on the North Pacific
coast.
The tribes of this region proved to be so heterogeneous that it was
necessary to subdivide the material into eleven groups, each embracing a
number of closely allied tribes. I have distinguished the following
groups :—
1. Tribes of British Columbia, north of Dean Inlet.
2. Kwakiutl and Nootka.
3. Bilqula.
4. Lower Fraser River.
5. Harrison Lake and Lillooet.
6. Tribes of Washington, including the whole coast of that State west
of the Cascade Range.
7. Columbians, including the tribes in the immediate neighbourhood
of Columbia River and in the Lower Willamette Valley.
8. Northern Oregon, including the Yakonan and Salish tribes between
Umpqua and Columbia Rivers.
9. Oregonian Tinneh and Coosan.
10. Crosses between Oregonian Tinneh and Northern Californians.
11. Northern Californians.
Only a short series of measurements of each individual was made, such
as could be taken by the removal of only a small portion of the clothing.
Following is a list of the measurements. 
I
39
,Number
Name Tribe eight of seventh vertebra
Height of acromion ....
Height of point of second finger
421
559
597
571 i
620
55
7
346
Byidth between acromia 
260
356
370
381
393
35
3
834
Height, sitting.....
651
819
870
876
889
86
9
676
Length of arm .....
512
700
730
727
783
75_
51
169l
Length of head        ....
168-5
184
186-5
196
196
185-
31
157"
Width of head	
148
166
160
158
154
149-
m
127'
Height of ear 128
140
141
144
142
12
5
146
Width of face	
126
147
147-5
157
146
14
4
121
Distance from chin to naso-frontal
96
117
125
127
125
13
suture
7
82
Distance from mouth to naso-frontal
61
74
75
80
76
8
suture
5
58
Height of nose....
39
53
51-5
55
52
:-; -|j
9
26
Width of base of nose
25
27
27
32
28
a
3
32
Maximum width of nose .
31
37
35
41
40
3_
21
92-9j
Cephalic index.     
87-9
902
85-8
80-6
78-6
80-
91
75-1'
Index of height of ear
76-0
76-1
75-6
73-5
72-4
69
5
82-9
Facial index     .....
76-2
79-6
84-7
80-9
85-6
89i
6
56-2
'  Index of upper part of face
48-4
50'4
50-9
51-0
52-1
56.
0
!   55-2
Nasal index     .....
79-6
69-8
68-0
74-5
76-9
70
{7
!   44-8
Index of base of nose
—
50-9
52-4
58-2
53-8
m
\2
103-7
t
Finger-reach, in per cent.        .        .   100-6
105-7
104-5
106-2
105-3
106-
7
!   53-8
Height, sitting,       „       .        .        .
55'6
52-9
53-4
54-7
51-9
53
8
43-6
1 Length of arm,       „
43-7
45-2
44-8
45-4
45-7
46  3-3
84-5
81-2
83-0
84-9
t6-9
777
67-2
82-4
68-6
ll-5
85-9
85-1
87-1
84-8
(0-7
53-3
57-1
54-3
0-5
—
60 4
56-6
63-5
&5-1
103-8
1   99-2
104-2
107-0
S5-7 1
54-9
55*5
54-3
52-6 j
U-9
44-7
44-4
44-0
46-1
.
	
—
1
.— i
	
|        	
J
1  ON  TSE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
1. Stature.
2. Finger-reach.
3. Height of ear.
4. Height of 7th vertebra.
5. Height of acromion.
6. Height  of   point   of   second
finger. ,
7. Width between acromia.
8. Height, sitting.
9. Length of head.
10. Width of head.
11. Width    between
arches.
12. Distance   from
suture to chin.,
13. Distance    from
suture to mouth.
14. Height of nose.
15. Width of base of nose.
16. Maximum width of nose.
19
zygomatic
naso-frontal
naso-frontal
In measuring the '■ stature,' the subject was asked to stand ersct, but care
(was taken to avoid excessive stretching, as in these cases the stature during
Ithe process of measuring would undergo material changes. The ' finger-
ireach' is the greatest distance between the tips of the second fingers, the
iarms being extended horizontally. In this case the subject was encouraged
to make the strongest possible effort. The measurements of stature, height
foif acromion, height of point of second fioger, were taken in rapid suc-
ffission, in order to avoid changes of position as much as possible. In
►measuring the point of the second finger the arms and hands were
ffiretched out downward, so that hand and arm formed as nearly as pos-
gble a straight line. A glance at the tables will show that the results of
the measurements of ' height of ear' (being the difference between the
•stature and the height of ear above the ground") as obtained by this
method are very unsatisfactory. In most cases it was difficult to obtain a
Eifficiently level surface for a satisfactory comparison of the two measure-
jnents. Only among the Bilqula and the last three groups this difficulty
Bid not present itself. But even in these cases I do not consider the
results very accurate, mainly on account of the unavoidable movements
Pf the subject. I should prefer, at another time, to measure the distance
Erectly by Topinard's method. The difference between the heights of the
gcromion and of the point of the second finger gives the length of arm
Kith greater accuracy, because I was able to take these two measure-
apents without moving the scale. The length and width of the head are
Baaximum measurements ; the former is always taken from the glabella ;
Ihe vertical measurements of the face were taken from the naso-frontal
suture.
The indices require little explanation. The cephalic index is the
[proportion between length and width of the head, the latter being
Expressed in per cents, of the former. The index of the height of ear is
the proportion between the length of head and the difference in height
of the ear and vertex. The facial index is the proportion of the naso-mental
line to the width of face, the index of the upper part of the face the proportion of the naso-oral line to the width of face. I have given two
[nasal indices, the proportions of the basal width and maximum width of
[the nose, the former being measured at the insertion of the ate, to the
[height of nose. The last three columns contain finger-reach, height sitting,
and length of arm, expressed in per cents, of the stature.
Before discussing the measurements I give the tables. The descriptions are withheld for the present, as it is desirable to gain some new
data. 1
I
20
REPORT—1891.
1. Various Northern Tribes.
	
Males
Number	
Samuel
Getlgalgao
2
3    1
4
5
l   6
7
|
CD
ft
a
c3
CO
"cS
CP
OQ
ci r^
> fe  J
1
33
■CP
|
S3
.bo
Name        ....-(
a
o
1-3
a
CP   CO   I
M
bo
a
*
1-5
£_
Tribe	
n-S
n-S e8
[aida,
idegate
mshian,
Simpson
9.3
ill
or. X
a
HH
43
a
4a
t-H M
CD
En o
|
3.3
P.
Age	
25
50
32
28
25
21
20
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
'  Stature     .....
1,689
1,603
1,637
1,649
1,589
1,628
1,619
Finger-reach     ....   1,705
1,692
1,727
—
1,676
1,747
1,713
Height of seventh vertebra
—
1,362
—
1,400
1,353
1,390
1,356?
Height of acromion  .
1,382 {
1,3 Ur
1,2862
} 1,313
1,329
1,321
1*330
1,333'
Height of point of second fin-
612
670Z
571
614
697
698
600
Width between acromia   .
381
368
Height, sitting ....
—
873
876
—
—
908
895
Length of arm ....
770
716
742
715
724
732
733
Length of head
192
203
201
192
199
196
200
Width of head ....
149
159
154
160
159
155
166
Height of ear   ....
149
—
127
127
126
133
127
Width of face   ....
154
142
151
146
151
151
158
Distance  from   chin  to  naso
130
118
128
126
122
125
124
frontal suture
Distance from mouth to naso
76
86
90
81
74
81
75
frontal suture
Height of nose ....
58
—
57
62
54
54
66
Width of base of nose
—
—
	
	
	
31
31
Maximum width of nose  .       ,
38
41
38
33
38
42
38
Cephalic index ....
77-6
78-3
76*6
88-3
79-9
79-1
83-0
Index of height of ear
776
	
63 2
66 1
63-3
67-9
63-5
Facial index     ....
84 4
831
84-1
86-3
80'8
82-8
78-3
Index of upper part of face
49-4
60-6
596
55'5
49-0
53-6
47-6
Nasal index
65'5
—
66-7
63-2
70-4
77 8
67-9
Index of base of nose
	
—
—
—
—
57-4
55'4
Finger-reach in per cent. .
1010
105-5
105-5
105-5
107-3
1058
Height, sitting    „       „
—
54-6
63'5
	
	
55-8
65-3
Length of arm    „       „
45-6
44-7
43-5
43-4
45-6
45-0
453 • ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
2. Kwakiutl and Nootka.
21
' I
Males
II. Females
1   1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
co "■
1
9
S3
CO
3
c8
o
3
a
cd
r4
oi
H
43
43
CO
13
a
ES
43
9
4^
j3  -
o
N
«p
00
X
eS
"cS
fc
03
O
H-r
a
fc
.SI
a
CP
<5
Ph
CO
'3
a
•4
c8
CO
s
H
a1
2o3
cy
O c«
43
43
43
43
cp M
i§ "(3
o
CP
ts
$
+3
cS
43   O
cs s
<3 Jg
3 2
'%\4
tH
03
O
P4
S3
O
rH
cy
o
3
O
o3
43
o
o
CO OQ
fi
31
M
§
^
cci
?•""*
c8
ci
Eh
fc
O
fc
a
O
O
fc
O
O
24
34
40
50
40
48
55
25
52
55
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
1,647
1,695
1,633
1,575
1,612
1,574
1,565  -
1,711
1,441
1,471
1,756
1,833
1,780
1,664
1,651
1,791
1,742
1,829
1,655
1,571
—
1,450
1,380
1,299?
1,365
—
1,626
1,475
1,225
1,238
1,330
1,381
1,314
1,292
1,313
1,276
1,254
1,403
1,191
1,191
574
629
578
571
589
496
524
618
521
536
387
397
371
_
370"
386
386
 ,
330
340
889
, 876
898
873
876
838
838
914
799
804
756
752
736
721
724
780
730
785
670
655
201'
195'
200'
206'
193
196
193
189
177
187
161'
158>
164'
175l
149
150
155
162
143
151
139!
144»
136 >
130'
136
120
140
135
138
126
1.46
152
157
138
150
154
150
152
139
152
116
127
140
121
127
121
141
127
113
119
73
84
90
81
79
78
87
78
75
81
53
57
63
54
50
- 55
63
60
51
53-5
33
30
30
—
37
39
34
—
31
33
39
35
39
35
41
40
76'5
37
41
32
37
80-11
81-01
82-0l
85-0>
77-2
803
85-7
80-8
80-7
69-2'
73-8'
73-0i
63-1>
70-5
612
72-5
71-4
78-0
67-4
79-6
83-5
89-2
87-7
84-6
78-6
94-0
83-6
81-3
78-3
600
55-3
57-3
58-7
52-6
50-6
58-0
47-3
54-0
53-3
73-6
61-4
61-9
64-8
82-0
72-7
58-7
68-3
62-7
691
62-3
52-8
47-6
—
74-0
70-9
54-0
—
60-8
61-7
106-6
108-1
109-0
1056
102-4
113-8
111-3
106-9
107-9
106-8
54-0
51-7
55-0
55-4
54-3
53-2
53'5
53-4
55-4
54-7
45-9
44-4
45-1
45-8
44-9
49-6
46-6
45-9
46-4
44-5
1 Head deformed.
Hi—6 22
REPORT —1891.
4.—Lower Fraser River.    Males.
Number
Name
bo
<
9
|
hi
ft
ci
Tribe
Age
Stature ....
Finger-reach .
Height of 7th vertebra .
Height of acromion
Height of point of second
finger
Width between acromia
Height, sitting
Length of arm
Length of head
Width of head
Height of ear
Width of face
Distance   from chin  to
naso-frontal suture
Distance from mouth to
naso-frontal suture
Height of nose
^—Maximum width of nose
\._ Width of base of nose   .
Cephalic index
Index of height of ear   .
Facial index .
Index of upper part of
face
Nasal index   .
Index of base of nose
CO   CO
♦3     CO
3 cS
MS.
fcS
mm.
1,219
1,238
1,020
974
432
273
684
542
170
145
119
125
102
64
41
28
35
85-3
70-0
81-6
51-2
85-3
68-3
Finger-reach, per cents.
Height, sitting,     „
Length of arm,     „
101-5
56-1
44-5
cd
43
O
cy
OQ
9-10
mm.
1,260
1,279
1,062
1018
451
289
705
559
cy
ss
a
OS
pj
m Sf
co  r?
0
r^ rr
cn tZi
10
mm.
1,378
1,435
1,168
1108
493
322
733
615
1721 183
164M 155
112 132
128 142
106 105
64
41
29
34
64
43
28
34
o
o
CD
3
a
w
CP CCS
p,43
fc'S
10
mm.
1,324
1,364
1,117
1,062
469
289
717
593
77-5
151
125
127
106
65
46
22
29
89-51
84-7
65-1
72-1
82-8
73-9
50-0
45-1
82-9
79-1
70-7
65-1
101-5
104-1
56-0
53-2
44-4
44-6
85-1
70-4
83-4
51-2
630
47-8
103-0
64-1
44-8
dJ
fort
10
mm.
1,332
1,378
1,125
1,079
486
316
724
593
170
152
126
133
105
68
44
25
33
89-4
74-1
78-9
51-1
75-0
56-8
103-4
54-4
44-5
a *m
< °
.2h3
■£ o
ft   f-
S3  rO
pq
9
a
o
S3
cf
OQ
a
cS
g &
te 43
wfc
fori
12
12
mm.
1,381
1,462
1,167
1,095
475
314
749
620
mm.
1,368
1,419
1,156
1,105
504
318
743
601
178
155
129
132
110
69
44
28-5
35
R7-1
72-5
83-3
52-3
79-5
64-7
105-8
54-2
44-9
1651
1541
130
135
104
67
43
28
33
93-31
78-8
77-0
49-6
76-7
65-1
103-7
104 6
54-3
54-7
43-9
44-5
Doubtful whether head deformed. ON
THE
NORTH
-WESTERN  TRIBES
OF  CANADA.
23
4
.—Low
er Fraser Biver.    Males (continued).
9
10
n
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
1   19
20
03
t»
CO
CP
a
p
c3
"»
a
CQ
9
M
CD
bo
M
t>>
&H
cp
CO
1-3
CP
"3
1
J-t
"cp
fc
CP
1
o
cp
fc
ts
a
43
ft
bo
tH
CP
o
r-3
a
-02
a
'3
43
a
cd
1
B
o
cd
<
O
CP
CD
O
1
1
9
o
1
CP
ft
a
CQ
S
CP
a
43
a
CP
Q
CO
CO
CO
.2
P>>
O
a
03
cci
3
CP
fc
CP
cp
O
o
a
OQ
6
o
o
OQ
OQ
CO
fc
ce
o
M
CO
E-i
CP
CQ
CP
CQ
EH
CD
CQ
H
12
12
14-15
15
15
31
35
48
50     50-55
65
70-80
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
1,403
1,397
1,549
1,576
1,600
1,657
(1,663)
—
1,649
1,606
1,651
—.   .
1,438
1,419
1,614
1,682
1,634
1,720
1,807
—
1,750
1,701
1,867
—.
1,191
1,184
—
1,359
1,359
—
|1114ri
111242 J"
1,125
1,272
1,279
1,289
1,343
—
—
1,349
1,321
1,359
—
6112
532
586
568
596
617
(581)
—
557
581
540
—
286
277
348
371
349
406
_   -
	
378
370
381
744
749
825
849
851
898
—
—
900
870
—
—
613
593
686
711
693
726
—
—
792      741
819
—
176-5
171
180
185
183
191
2001
1882
183-51
187-51
1901
1871
153
152
157-5
158
155
158
1811
1662
1831
1701
1711
166'
131
131
130
141
138
130
—
—
138
133
138
—
129
129
144
143
137
151
167-5
157
162
161
161
160
103
105
121
116
114
122
119
122
137
132
130
124
70
68
77
73
72
76
74
85
89
86
83
81
45
42
46
49
51
55
52
56
62
58
56
60
31
33
28
35
31
33
32
35
37 1
31
33
32
37
37
34
41
36
39
41
40        45
38
38
39
86-7
88-9.
87-5
85-4
84-7
82-7
90-51
88-32
100-01
90-6'
89-51
88-81
74-2
76-6
72-2
76-2
75 4
68-1
—
—
75-2
70-9
72-6
—
79-8
81-4
84-0
81-1
83-2
80-8
71-0
77-7
84 6
82-0
80-8
77-1
54-3
52-7
53-5
510
52-6
50-3
44-2
541
54-9
53-4
51-6.
50-6
82-2
88-3
73-9
83-8
70-7
70-9
78-8
71-4
72-4
6B-5
67-9
65-0
68-9
78-6
60-9
71-4
60-8
600
61-5
62-5
59-7
53-4
58-9
53-3
102-5
101-6
104-2
106-7
1021
103-7
108-7
—
io6-i:
105-9
113-1
\
530
53-6
53-3
53-9
53-2
54-2
—
—
54-6
64-2
—
43-7   .
42-5
44-3
45-1
43-3
43-8
—
48-1
46-1
49-0
I
1 He
ad defc
lined.
1 Dout
>tful wl
lether 1
lead de
formed J
24
REPORT—1891.
7. Columbians.
I. Males
Number
Name
Tribe
rt
o3
P
c3
o
H
Ag-e
12
Stature  ....
Finger-reach .
Height of seventh vertebra
Height of acromion
Height of point of second finger
Width between acromia.
Height, sitting
Length of arm
Length of head      .       .
Width of head
Height of ear .
Width of face.
Distance from chin to naso-frontal suture
Distance from mouth to naso-frontal suture
Height of nose
Width of base of nose   .
Maximum width of nose.
Cephalic index
Index of height of ear   .
Facial index .
Index of upper part of face
Nasal index   .
Index of base of nose   .
Finger-reach in per cent.
Height, sitting,      „
Length of arm,      „
mm.
1,447
1,466
1 222
L168
517
310
775
651
178
147
133
131
116
76
50
24
31
82-6
74-7
88-6
58-0
62-0
48-0
101-3
53-6
45-0
o.
cd  w
te rt
o 9
o S
O cci
a xi
oo
15
mm.
1,634
1,713
1,296
652
375
867
743
179
160
129
140
116
72
52
32
38
fcJO
tao
rA
-2 oN
Tjfcd
|o<gfc
ftcp  °
o   g   CO
^ J3
ijo3
*-H e-i
PM
17
mm.
1,666
1,708
1,336
622
889
714
184
149
146
135
118
69
48
33
83-8
72-1
82-9
51-4
731
61-5
104-8
530
45-5
81-0
79-3
87-4
511
63-5
102-5
53-5
42-8
3%
OO
fc S
21
mm.
1,747
1,833
1,501
1,400
613
426
952
787
191'
164'
154'
153
129
84
59
29
37
85-9'I
80-6'
84-3
54-9
62-7
49-1
104-9
54-5
45-1
1 Head deformed. ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   ©E   CANADA.
25
Columbians (continued).
I. Males
II. Females
1 Head deformed. \zt
26
REPORT 1891.
8. Alsea and Tillamook.
t
I
I. Males
Number ...•••■•
1
2
3
4
5
(
GO
CP
43
3
o
o
43
CO
o
03
P
CQ
£
1
m
Name     ....•••        \
GO
CD
'>
M
cn
\
fc
<
P
es
O
(
u
3
M
o
.rH
o _g
Tribe i
c*
CP
CQ
■<
O
9
H
rt".
S-H
rt
O
a
"c8
cS
<D
to
p
H <p
cd S
•rH an
r^
I
OQ
fc
Age	
8
8-9
12
20
22
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Stature 	
1,238
1,270
1,384
l,676v
1,698
Finger-reach	
1,247
1,311
1,364
1,708
1,752
Height of seventh vertebra   ....
1,038
1,048
1,152
1,422
1,427
Height of acromion       .....
981
991
1,101
1,374
1,378
Height of point of second finger   .
443
419
511
649
640
Width between acromia        ....
260
283
310
360
402
Height, sitting	
687
690
754
941
924
Length of arm       ......
538
572
590
725
738
178
Length of head	
169-5
185
181
182'
Width of head	
163'5
145
154
164'
149
Height of ear	
121
127
146
140!
135
Width of face                 	
128
131
—
155
138
Distance from chin to naso-frontal suture    .
102
97
116
126
112
Distance from mouth to naso-frontal suture.
66
61
—
80
73
Height of nose	
44
40
53
55
52
Width of base of nose	
27
28
28
28
30
Cephalic index       ......
90-6
?8-4
851
90-1
83-7
Index of height of ear   .....
71-4
68 6
80-7
76-9
75-8
Facial index .......
79-6
74-0
—
81-3
81-2
Index of upper part of face   ....
51-6
46-6
—
51-6
52-9
Index of base of nose	
61-4
700
103-2
52-8
50-9
57-7
Finger-reach in per cent.       ....
100-7
98-6
101-9
103-2
Height, sitting,       „             ....
65-6
54-3
54-5
561
54-4
Length of arm,        „             ....
43-4
451
42-7
43-3
43-5 1
1 Head deformed. ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN
TRIBES
3F   CANADA.
27
8. Alsea and Tillamook (contin
ued).
I. Males
II. Females zj
28
REPORT—1891.
10.  Crosses- between Oregonian Tinneh and Northern Californians.
	
I. Males
Number      .       ...
1
2
3
4
5
6
/
CQ
a
CD
pq
o
bo
-   rt
a
CO
Name       .      ..      ..       .       .       [I
■T3
1
CQ
r-3
>*
T3
Sri
ft
CD
CO
43
ig
cd
>
cd
P
P
1-5
4"
t-3
cd
1-1
':$(:.
cd CO
M
cp Xi
I-t   43
O cd
cp
xi "S
43   S.'
o3-bO
CD
Is
tn
CD
5"|
CD
43     -
cd J
bOm
Tribe	
cd M
rt ft
a g
rt bo
Cd   CD
.rt fl
OQ bp
o
<B cd
ft-3-
S=o
SSI
\
fcS
CD  •.
fc
fcg
fc .
fc-p3
i
fc
Age 17
22
22
24
26
45
mm.
mm,
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Stature
1,593
1,681
1,570
1,636
1,636
1,647
Finger-reach
1,717
1,747
1,615
1,703
1,676
1,753
Height of seventh vertebra
1,355
1,441
1,322
1,390
1,371?
1,438
Height of acromion
1,297
1,352
1,265
1,352
1,330
1,362
Height of point of second finger
549
624
571
619
600
592
Width between acromia   .
360
386
375
362
—
376
Height, sitting	
841
173
892
886
881
908
876
Length of head .
187
181
177
1931
184
Width of head
155
149
155
154
149
148
Height of ear
149
146
135
133
116
133
Width of face
144
135
143
136
142
148
Distance from chin to naso-frontal
121
125
119
122
122
120
su ure
Distance from mouth to naso-frontal
	
76
80
78
71
	
suture
Height of nose  .
53
62
55 -
54
50
53
Width of base of nose
32-5
27
28
24
32
31
Cephalic index  .
89-6
79-7
85-6
87-0
77-2
80-4
Index of height of ear
86-1
77-5
74-6
75-1
	
72-3
Facial index
84-0
92-6
83-2
89-7
85-9
81-1
Index of upper part of face
	
56-3
55-9
57-4
50-0
	
Index of base of nose
61-3
52-0
5(.-8
102-9
44 4
104-1
64-0
102-4
58-3
106-4
Finger-reach, in per cent. .
107-8
103-9
Height, sitting,       „
52-8
531
56-4
53-9
55'5
53-2
Length of arm,       „
47-0
43-3
44-2
44-8
44-6
46-7
Minimum width of forehead
108
Maximum width of nose
—
—
—
41
—
—
1197 from glabella. ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
29
11. Southern Or
zgon and Northern
California.
	
1
!. Males
II.Fe-|
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Number
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Age        ....
16
18
35
40
48
mm.
50
60
mm.
45-50
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
mm.
Stature  ....
1,606
1,615
1,622
1,666
1,612
1,551
1,570
1,554
Finger-reach .
1,665
1,756
1,681
1,719
1,714
1,651
1,630
1,525
Height  of seventh ver
1,365
1,374
1,381
1,437
1,365
1,313
1,349
—
tebra
Height of acromion
1,282
1,303
1,301
1,359
1,317
1,227
1.238
1,241
Height    of     point     of
565
559
581
619
576
557
557
611
second finger
Width     between     ac-
—
400
373
—
362
367
340
325
romia
Height, sitting
870
847
881
889
854
795
813
889
Length of head
189
194
183
190
190
187
189
187
Width of head
150
154
149
152
152
155
154
146
Height of ear
130
133
133
127
141
146
158
142
Width of face
139
144
147
148
145
142
148
148
Distance from   chin   to
120
128
123
121
121
123
128
116
naso-frontal suture
Distance from mouth to
76
79
76
71
72
79
85
74
naso-frontal suture
Height of nose
52
51
55
53
47
65
62
52
Width of base of nose   .
29
31
31
34
80-0
30
31
36
31
Cephalic index
79-4
79-4
814
80-0
82-9
81-5
78-1
Index of height of ear  .
68-8
686
72-7
66-8
74-2
78-1
83-6
75-9
Facial index .
86-3
88-9
837
81-8
83-5
86-6
86-5
81-1
Index of upper part of
54-7
54-9
51-7
48-0
49-7
55'6
57-4
51-7
face
Index of base of nose
55-8
60-8
56-3
641
63-9
56-3
58-1
59-8
Finger-reach in per cent.
103-7
108 7
103-6
103-2
106-3
106-4
103-8
98-1
Height, sitting,      „
54-2
52-4
53-7
53-4
53 0
51-3
51-8
57-2
Length of arm,      „
44-7
46-1
44-4
44-4
46-0
43-2
43-4
40-5
Minimum width of fore
102
	
—
100
—
—
—
—
head
Maximum width of nose
35
—
—
36
—
m 30
REPORT—1891.
In order to discuss the material contained in the preceding tables, I
have arrano-ed it in series. The series for ' Stature,' ' Cephalic Index,. ■
< Facial Index,' ' Index of Upper Part of Face,' ' Finger-reach,' < Height, j
sitting,' and ' Length of Arm,' are given here. In selecting the cases to j
be included in each series, it was necessary to exercise some criticism, j
The ages of all individuals are estimated more or less incorrectly. In J
order to fix the lower limit, I assumed nineteen years for males and seven- |
teen years for females as the limit. For the facial index I assumed the J
limits as twenty and eighteen. Only in such cases where the measure- ,
ments of a male of about eighteen years exceeded the corresponding j
most frequent measurements of adults, I included the case in the series, J
as the probability is, that such an individual had reached approximately j
its maximum growth. By this method the total results cannot be i
depressed. It is more difficult to decide on an upper limit. It appears 1
clearly from the tables that the changes incident to old age begin very j
early among these Indians. The stature decreases, and the facial index 1
diminishes on account of the wearing down of the teeth. But there arol
great individual differences regarding the time of the beginning of these.!
changes. A decrease of stature will always tend to increase the relative
length of arm, because the absolute length of the latter does not decrease 1
proportionately. In the same way the proportional part of the ' height,!
sitting' decreases as the trunk loses more rapidly, through the increasing!
curvature of the1 spine, than the legs do. I have, therefore, excluded alll
such individuals over forty-eight years (estimated), in whom these!
indices differ from the most frequently occurring indices in such a sensej
that they might be explained as caused by loss in size.
A comparison of children's cephalic indices and of those of adults
does not seem to bring out any typical differences between the two; fori
this reason, which is entirely in accord with Welcker's investigations of
the growth of the skull (' ITntersuchungen iiber Wachsthum und Baul
des menschlichen Schadels,' Leipzig, 1862), 1 have not separated children!
and adults. Neither do I find an appreciable difference between the!
indices of males and females, and consider it therefore justifiable to lump!
all the observations on this point. If, in Table 9, the measurements ofl
Oregonian Tinneh, north of Rogue River, are tabulated separately [fori
what reason this separation is made, will appear later], the following!
result is obtained, which shows how nearly the maxima of frequency off
occurrence of values of the cephalic index coincide among boys, girls!
adult males and adult females:—
Cephalic Index
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88.
89
90
Average
Boys
1
1
2
87-7 1
Girls
—
—
—
	
	
1
.—
—
	
1
	
1
—
	
—
—
83-9
Adult males   .
1
2
1
2
1
4
—
1
—
:—
1
83-8  :
Adult females.
—
—
—
—~
—
—
2
—
2
1
—
2
—
—
—
—
83-8 1
The following tables give the number of occurrences of certain values
of stature and various indices among the different tribes. I havta
refrained from reducing the figures in such a way that they wouldl
indicate how many individuals among a thousand would have a certain
stature or a certain index. Although apparently by such a procedure
the figures become more easily comparable, there is no justification for
such a reduction, as the frequency of occurrence of certain values is notj
proportional to the number of observations.    With an increasing number ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
31
i of observations great variations become more probable, and smaller ones
consequently less probable. Or the same fact may be expressed in this
way:—the limits of variation are probably the wider, the greater the
series of observations. Therefore the curve computed from a long series
is by no means the same, not even theoretically, as that computed from
a shorter series.
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REPORT—1891.

Northern tribes and V
Bilqula    .
Fraser Biver   .
Harrison Lake.      .
'Washington    .
Columbians     .       .
Northern Oregon   .
Oregonian Tinneh .
Crosses between Orego
- nians
Northern Californians
Bilqula	
Harris-on Lake	
Washington	
Northern Oregon	
Oregonian Tinneh	 So
si's
ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
33
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REPORT—1891.
Fmger-reach of Males
Per cent.
Tribes
Number |
|
of Cases
99
100
101 102
103
104  105   106  107
108
109
110   111   112  113
Northern tribes and
1
1
	
—      5      2
1
1
1
—
1
—
1
13
Vancouver Island
Bilqula       ...    —
—
1
1
g
2
5      1
5
4
2
1
1
—
—
26
8
Harrison Lake   .
—
—
—
—
2
1
4      2
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
9
Washington
—
—
—
—
—
3
1      1
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
6
Columbians
—
—
—
1
—
4
1      2
—
—
8
Northern Oregon
—
—
1
—
1
1
1      2
1
—
—
—
—
—
—
7
Oregonian Tinneh
—
—
3
2
4
3
2       1
1
1
17
Crosses between Ore
—
—■
—
—
3
—
—
2
1
—
—
—
—:
—
6
gonian Tinneh and
Californians
Northern Californians
~
-      2
1
• }■'■
—      1
5
Finger-reach of Females
Per cent.
Tribes
Number
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
, 1
110  111
112
113
of Cases
Bilqula
Harrison Lake   .
—
—
—
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
|
6
7
Washington
Northern Oregon
z
z
—
2
1
1
3
1
1
—
—
—
—
          	
—
—
6
3
Oregonian Tinneh
1
1   -
3
1
2
1
—
—
I
—
—
9
Height, sitting, of Males.
Tribes
Per cent.
60    51    52    58    64
56    57
rlsl
and
Northern tribes and Vane
Bilqula
Fraser Biver
Harrison Lake .
Washington
Columbians
Northern Oregon
Oregonian Tinneh
Crosses between Oregonian Tinneh and Call
fornians
Northern Californians     ....
4
8
9
6
—
3
6
	
1
1
6
—    1   —
—   —    1
2
2
4
1
4
1
1
-|
■Number
of Cases
12
25
3
8
7
9
7
18
6
7
Height, sitting, of Females.
Percent.
Tribes
Number
of Cases
50
51
52
53
3
64
9
55
56
57
58
59
Bilqula
1
6
Harrison Lake .
1
	
1
4
?
g
Washington
	
1
1
1
%
2
7
Northern Oregon
	
	
1
	
1.
3
Oregonian Tinneh
—
—
1
1
3
3
—
—
—
8 ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
Length of arm of Males.
35
Per cent.
Tribes
Number
of Cases
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
Northern tribes and Vancouver Island .
2
1
8
1
1
15
—
1
1
5
10
6
1
1
	
25
—
—
1
—    —
1
—.
1
	
3
2
3      2
2
	
H^
	
9
—
1
2
2
1
	
	
	
 :
6
Columbians       .              	
—
—
3
1
4
1
 ..
_
9
—
1
2
3
1
—
—
—.
7
3
1
8
3
1
_
l
	
17
Crosses between Oregonian Tinneh and Califor
—
1
3
IPs
1
1
—
—!
6
nians
Northern Californians	
—
—
2
3
—
2
—
—
7
Lev.gth of arm of Females.
Tribes
i Bilqula
Harrison Lake  .
■ Washington
Northern Oregon
Oregonian Tinneh
Per cent.
■
41
42
43
44
45    46
47
48
49
—
—
1
2
4
3
6
1 1
2 —
—
—
—
1
2
1
1
—
1
—
—
—
1
Ii
i
—
—
Number
of Cases
We will direct our attention to the mazimum of frequency in each of
Itjhese series. It will then appear that in several of the groups two
maxima occur, or are, at least, indicated. The principal maximum in
leach series is indicated by bold type.
Tribes
Northern tribes and Vancouver Island   .
Bilqula	
Eraser Biver	
Harrison Lake	
Washington	
Columbians	
Northern Oregonians        ....
Oregonian Tinneh	
Crosses between Tinneh and Northern
Californians
Northern Californians       ....
Stature in cm.
about 146
159-165
IS8-163
156-164
162-166
- 158-162
160-
about 163
about 161
166- 72
166-170
170
173-177
Tribes
Cephalic Index
Northern tribes and Vancouver Island
Bilqula	
Praser Biver	
Harrison Lake	
Washington	
Columbians	
.Northern Oregonians   ....
Oregonian Tinneh	
Grosses between Tinneh and Northern
Californians
Northern Californians ....
77-81
80-82-5
80-82
80-82
about 79
79-81
83
85-88
84-87
82-84
83-87
83-85
84-87
about 87
87-92-
Pacial Index
—
78-81
78-81
82-85
83-86
about 75
—
81-84
—
—
82-87
—
—
83-86
This  table gives a clue to the understanding of  the types of the 36
REPORT—1891.
various tribes. In looking over the figures given for the Bilqula, it
appears that in the three cases considered here, two maxima of frequency
occur, while cases between the two maxima are quite rare. Furthermore,
it will be seen that the secondary maximum of this series coincides very
nearly with the maximum of the first group, embracing the northern
tribes and those of Vancouver Island. The cephalic indices do not
coincide quite so well as the other measurements, but still sufficiently
nearly. The primary maximum of the Bilqula agrees very closely with
that of the Oregonian Tinneh. It appears that the stature of the latter
varies more than that of the Bilqula, but I shall show later on the cause
of this curious fact. The resemblance of the two maxima of frequency
to the types of the Coast Indians and of the Tinneh is very far-reaching.
As this comparison is entirely based on the occurrence of the two maxima
among the Bilqula, it is desirable to show their actual existence more
evidently. For this purpose I have divided the whole series of the
Bilqula into two parts according to the order of the observations.
Bilqula.
Stature
Cephalic Index
Facial Index
Cm.
Nos. 4-17
Nos. 18-32
Cm.
Nos. 1-16
Nos. 17-32
Cm.
1
Nos. 4r-17   Nos. 18-32
154-157
1
78,79
2
1
76, 77
1
158-161
5
3
80,81
4
3
78, 79
©
3
162-165
2
1
82, 83
2
2
80,81
3
1
166-169
3
6
84, 85
2
3
82,83
—
3
170-173
4
3
86,87
5
4
84,85
5
3
174-177
—
1
88,89
—
3
*<6, 87
1
2
90,91
1
88.89
90, 91
1
1
2
It appears from this table that the distribution of cases in the two
halves of tbe series remains unchanged.
The explanation of these phenomena must be sought for in the
mixture of the two types of people : the coast people of shorter stature,
and with longer heads, and the Tinneh with shorter heads and of taller
stature. We know that a mixture of these two people has taken place
among the Bilqula. We even know, based on linguistical considerations,
that the Bilqula must have lived at one time with the Salish tribes
farther south-east. Therefore the explanation given here appears quite
plausible.
While coming to these conclusions, I read a preliminary notice of
the anthropological investigations carried on in Baden (' Globus,' vol.
lix. p.  51), in which the same point is brought out most clearly.    ON
Ammon, who reports on these investigations, states that in the case of a
mixture of types no middle forms originate, but that the parent forms
are preserved separately.    The same fact has been brought out by Dr.
von Luschan in his investigations in Lycia.    (' Reisen in Lykien,' &c,
Vienna, 1889.)    He found that among the Greeks of that coantry the
Shemitic and Armenian types are preserved without having undergone
any mixture.    If we study among the Bilqula the individual distribution I
of observations, it appears thatthe types of the component forms which j
appear so clearly in a statistical treatment of the material, appear in all \
possible combinations among the single individuals, so that each indivi- \ ON   THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OF   CANADA.
37
I dual, as we might express it, is a mechanical mixture of the features of
the parent types. He may have the face of a Tinneh, and the stature or
head of a Coast Indian, and vice versa. This important fact also tallies
exactly with Ammon's conclusions on the blonde and brunette population
of Baden, and confirms the views which Kollmann expressed in 1883.
(' Archiv fur Anthropologic,' xiii. 79, 179 ; xiv. 1.) The fact that these
conclusions have been arrived at independently on entirely independent;
material seems to give them great strength.
When we turn to a consideration of the Oregonian Tinneh, we shall
find the same phenomena, although apparently somewhat obscured.
Instead of two distinct maxima, we find here a great number of cases
distributed equally over a long interval. The next northern group
differs but little from the Tinneh, but their southern neighbours show
quite a marked contrast, particularly regarding their cephalic index. If
we assume the Oregonian Tinneh to be a mixture of the two, and keep •
the fact in mind that no middle forms originate, the form of the curve
explains itself easily. In looking at the crosses between the two groups,
their distribution according to the maxima of the two component groups
is brought out most strikingly, notwithstanding the small number of
cases.
In order to ascertain in how far these assumptions are justified, we
will subdivide the material in a different way. If the Oregonian Tinneh
contain a Californian element, we may assume that it is more prevalent
in the south than in the north. For this reason we will arrange the
material in the following groups : South of Rogue River, North of Rogue
River, and crosses between the two. We will compare preliminarily the
measurements from Northern Oregon with those of the group north of
Rogue River.
Cephalic Index
Tribes '
75
76     77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
1
1
North of Rogue River
Northern Oregon
1
—
—
1
—
1
4
1
4
2
3
1
5
1
4
1
1
rg
2
Stature.
Tribes
152,153
154, 155
156,157
158,159
160, 161
162,163
164,165
166,167
168,169
North of Rogue River
Northern Oregon
—
—
2
1
2
1
2
1
3
2
2
2
It appears that the two  groups are quite homogeneous, so that we
may be allowed to combine them.   Thus we obtain the following table :—
Cephalic Index
Tribes
75
76
77
78
79
80     81
82
3
1
1
83
1
6
84
2
1
4
85
3
1
6
86
87
88
89
90
91
South of Rogue River    —
Crosses       .      .       . I —
North of Rogue River j  1
1
1
3
1
1
4
7
1
1
4
4
4
1
1
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
t
' M III
38                                                         REPORT 1891.
Stature.
Tribes
152,153
154,155
156,157
158,159
160,161
162,163
1
164,165 166; 16"7
168,169 170,17]
South of Rogue
River
Crosses    .
North of Bogue
Biver
1
1
2
3
1
1
3
3
3
3
4
2
S
4
•j1'!
It appears from these tables, particularly from that of the cephalic
indices, that the individuals south of Rogue River are similar to the]
Northern Californians. But we also recognise distinctly in the series thej
secondary maximum belonging to the Oregonian Tinneh. In the samel
way we see that the tribes north of Rogue River are much more homo-1
geneous, but recognise a secondary maximum corresponding to the!
Northern Califoroians. The table brings out exactly what might bel
expected: a greater admixture of Californian blood in the south than in]
the north. It is also important to note that the crosses in all these!
cases appear more variable than the individual races. This is what
must take place if the crosses contain both the component types,
and are not arranged around a middle type. The measurementsj
in the two groupings discussed above, give tbe following ranges ofl
variation:—
Tribes
Oregonian Tinneh
Crosses.
Northern Californians
North of Eogue Kiver
Crosses.
South of Eogue Biver
Range of
Cephalic
Index
17
13
16
16
14
Number of
Cases
67
6
34
13
30
Range of
Stature
10
7
7
7
10
7
Number of
Ca-ies
19
6
6
18
3
15
If the crosses and the component groups were equally variable, we
ought to expect much narrower limits of variation among the former, as
they embrace only a few individuals; while actually their ranges ofl
variation equal or exceed those of the purer tribes.
I believe all these points, taken in connection with the results of Dr.
von Luschan and O. Ammon, prove beyond a doubt the fact that in a i
mixture of tribes the component types remain unaltered.
The tables of finger-reach, height (sitting), length of arm, do not bring
out these relations, because their ranges are almost the same among all]
the tribes, and therefore intermixture cannot be detected in the compound tribe.
We will try to explain the observations based on these considerations!
Among the Bilqula, in Washington, and throughout Oregon, we find a ■
type present of a stature, ranging from 166 to 172 cm., with a cephalicf
index of from 84 to 87, and a facial index of from 83 to 86. Among thej
Bilqula, and in Oregon, this is the prevailing type, while in Washington! ta
ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF CANADA.
39
lit is of secondary importance. In all these regions Tinneh are the main
mass of the population. They were present in Washington, and form a
(considerable element among the Bilqula. Therefore it must be assumed
that this type represents the Tinneh of the Pacific Coast. We do not
iknow much on the physical characteristics of the Tinneh east of the
imountains. But according to Petitot they are tall (' Dictionnaire de la
langue Dene-DindjeV p. xxi). Quatrefages and Hamy (' Crania Ethnica,'
p. 470) mention seven skulls of Tinneh, and find them to be brachy-
icephalic. Both these facts tally with what we found on the Pacific
Coast. I had occasion to question a number of former officers of the
Hudson Bay Company regarding the general appearance of the Tinneh
of the interior of British Columbia, and of the Mackenzie Basin. According to their descriptions, they resemble the tribes of the North-West
Coast much more closely than the Algonquin. The complete absence of
dolichocephali—at least according to the present state of our knowledge
—distinguishes the Tinneh most clearly from the eastern groups of
Americans, the Algonquin and Iroquois, as well as the eastern and
central Eskimo, so that I am inclined to class them as one of the Pacific
peoples. This view is supported by linguistic and ethnological evidence,
which, however, it is not the place to discuss here (see ' Journal of
American Folk-Lore, vol. iv. p. 13, ff.). It is worth mentioning that the
Tlingit of Alaska, who have intercourse with the Tinneh, appear also
to be taller and more brachycephalic.
The tribes of the northern parts of the coast of British Columbia
appear to be of shorter stature, ranging from 159 to 162 cm., and have
much more elongated heads. They are mesocephalic, the index ranging
from 77 to 81. We find the same type present, although to a lesser
degree, in Washington and on Eraser River, as well as among the
Bilqula. It appears to be absent in Oregon, but, remarkably enough,
reappears as we approach California. Still farther south true dolichocephali appear. I cannot discover any difference of type between the
northern tribes and those of Vancouver Island. This conclusion, drawn
from measurements of living subjects, is confirmed by measurements
of skulls from this region.
I published in the 'Verb, der Berliner Ges. f. Ethn.,' 1890, p. 30,
measurements of a series of ten undeformed crania from Vancouver
Island. All of them were obtained from a burial ground near Victoria,
and belong, therefore, probably to the LkufigBn tribe. I reproduce the
cephalic and. facial indices here for comparison. Besides these, No. III. of
;the Songish crania, described on p. 17 of the Eifth Report of the Committee, may be made use of. To these may be added a skull described by
Flower (' Catalogue of the Specimens illustrating the Osteology,' &c, in
the Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, p. 148), which belongs to
the West Coast of Vancouver Island, and another from the head of
Alberni Channel, from the Museum of the Geological Survey of Canada.
Furthermore, I add a series of measurements of slightly deformed crania
from various parts of Vancouver Island from my own collection; the
Tsimshian skulls, described on p. 16 of the Fifth Report; three Tsimshian skulls described by Barnard Davis, and another, described by the •
same author as a \ round head,' from Vancouver Island (' Thesaurus
Craniorum,' p. 229). Finally, I add a Haida cranium, which I measured
in the Provincial Museum of Victoria. The numbers given here are
those of the catalogues of the various collections. 40
REPORT —1891.
UcufigEn crania
.._        1
1<?
%
3 £    4 9 ? 1  5 Q
6 9
72?
»<?
9<?
10 9
Hint
12 Inf.
Cephalic Index
Facial Index   .
76-4
79-9
77-7
80-1
86-6
77-0
93-5
81-1
86-7
77-4
78-8
92-6
74-6
74-9
78-5
99-2
81-8
76-4    1
	
III.
5th Bep.;
Nootka
CoTvitohi
n           Comox
Salmon River
Nimkish 1
Flower
Geol. Sur.
94
1
109
111
113
...
122
123
135
Cephalic Index .
Facial Index
85-8
77'4
81-2
78-0         79-6
81-6
78-9
77-4
78-2
79-5
	
1
KwaMutl       Tsimshian 5th Bep., p. 16
Barnard Davis
Haida 0
140
142          1    rt
II. <?
in. 9
76-7
rv. s
1,022
1,023
1,024
1,211
—
Cephalic Index
Facial Index .
81'7     75-8      76-7
—        —       92-1
78-2
83-0
79
76
78
76
82-4
Or arranged in a series :
Indices
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
Skulls	
2
2
1
2
6
1
5
2
7
3
3
1
5
2
1
1
—
1
For the purpose of comparison I have added the indices of the living
subtracting two from each [according to Broca] in order to make them]
comparable to the skulls.    The close correspondence between the twoj
groups becomes at once apparent.
It is of interest to investigate the farther distribution of this form of
head. Turning to the interior of British Columbia we have a series of |
skulls from Lytton, which were described in the Fifth Report. To theseJ
may be added one from the same place which is in my own collection,!
and has an index of 77'4. All these skulls have suffered somewhat by I
post-mortem deformation.
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
1
—
—
1
—
1
1
—
2
.—.
2
This series agrees very closely with that of the coast tribes. Measurements of the long bones from the same place show that the tribe must]
have been a very short one, probably resembling also in this respect the!
coast people.
Besides these, we have the measurements of two Shushwap crania
in Davis's collection (p. 226), which have indices of 76 and 83. A'
single Shushwap, whom I measured at New Westminster, had an index;
of 82*9, corresponding to about 81 on the skull. It seems, therefore, that^
these people resemble the coast tribes, but further investigations are]
necessary to prove this theory.
Among the other groups, the tribe of Harrison Lake is particularly ON  THE NORTH-WESTERN  TRIBES  OF  CANADA.
41
remarkable. _ The prevailing type is exceedingly brachycephalic and
chamasprosopic, and their small stature is also quite unique. Their difference from all the other tribes appears so clearly from our tables that
further remarks seem unnecessary. I have not found any analogy among
the neighbouring tribes, except at the mouth of Fraser River, where the
same type might be expected to occur on account of the intermarriage of
these groups. The question regarding the relationship of this tribe must
remain at present an open one.
Among the other tribes the Columbians appear remarkable on account
of their tallness. It seems that their heads are a little longer than those
-of the neighbouring tribes, but the data do not bring out the difference
with sufficient clearness. There appears to be no reason to suppose that
more favourable conditions prevailed in this region, and should have produced the development of greater stature.
We will finally consider the proportions of the bodies of the various
groups. It appears that the finger-reach of the southern groups, especially of those of southern and central Oregon, is much smaller than that
of the northern tribes. I am inclined to attribute this fact to a difference
of occupation, tbe first-named two groups living on reservations, while
the others are fishermen. Together with this lengthening of the finger-
reach seems to go an increase in the length of the arm. These variations
Tnay be seen in females as well as in males. The women pass also much
of their time in the canoe, which explains the corresponding variation in
their sex. The table also shows that the trunk of these Indians is much
longer than that of Europeans and also longer than that of the Iroquois,
which, according to Gould, is 53'4 per cent. It seems that the trunk of
the southern group is a little longer than that of the northern ones.
I will finally sum up the results of this investigation. We find an
almost homogeneous population on the coast of British Columbia, with the
exception of the region of Dean Inlet. It is characterised by a stature
ranging between 159 and 162 cm.; a cephalic index ranging between 77
and 81, a facial index ranging between 78 and 81. At Bentinck Arm
and in Washington this type is mixed with another, which also prevails in
Oregon, so far as it is inhabited by Tinneh. This type is characterised
by a stature ranging between 166 and 172 cm.; a cephalic index ranging
between 84 and 87, and a facial index of from 83 to 86. In Northern
Oregon this type is found quite pure. Farther to the south the type is
mixed with that of the northern Californians, which becomes the more
prevalent the farther south we go. In Washington the same type seems
to exist, but subordinate to it the northern type is found. It is the
primary element among the Bilqula. We consider this type to be peculiar
to the Tinneh. The type of northern California is characterised by a
stature ranging from 160 to 164 cm.; a cephalic index of from 79 to 81,
and a facial index of from 83 to 86. On the whole this type resembles the
first sO much that I am inclined to identify them. A third and a quite
unique type is found at Harrison Lake. The individuals are short, with
very wide faces and heads. There is no similar tribe known to exist in
this region, and their affinities appear doubtful. On Columbia River we
find a fourth type, remarkable for its tallness, with a cephalic index of
from 80 to 84. I believe that these may be identified with the tall tribes
of the interior, but further evidence is required on this point. 42
REPORT—1891.
Errata m the Sixth He-port of the Committee.
Page   52, line 43, instead of K'ol'kyaqtenoq read K-oI'kyaqtenoq.
„     54,   „    16,        „        Ts'E'ntsEnHk'aiO read Ts'E'ntsEn-Hk'aio.
|     64,   „      8 of footnote, instead of Ts'ets&'ek-a.    Generally read Ts'etsa'ek-M
generally.
„     65,   „   33, instead of sd'latlila read sd'latlila.
„     66,   „     5,        |        h&'mats'a following read M'mats'a, following.
„     66,   „   60,        ,-,        hUe'h-ntse read k-ue'kutse.
„     71,   „   33,        „        Ha'ili'kyilatl read Ha'ilikyilatl.
„     71,   „   49,        „        Ts'etsS'ek-a read Ts'ets&'eha.
„     73,   „    13,     omit     Newette.
„     73,   „   21, instead of ts'e'tseqk'enqelis read ts'e'tseqk'enqelis.
„     73, song I., line 3, instead of Hamats'a's read Harriots'a's.
„     76,   „   VII., last line, instead o/'Si'siutlkyas read Si'siutlkyas.
„     79,   „   VIII., first line, instead o/'Ts'e'k'oa read Ts'e'k'oa.
,,      83, line 14, from much more usually to end of paragraph is a footnote follow!
ing the next paragraph, to be signed G. M. Dawson.
„     86, lines 16 to 18, by G. M. Dawson.
,,     88, lines 9 and 12, instead of wandering read meandering.
„     88, line 34, instead of lower read fore.
„    106,   „      8 of table, instead of matltsmo'ts'utl read matltsmo'ts'utl.
„    107, in table, possessive pronoun, last line, fifth column, instead of qsnts ream
qsnuq.
„    108, in table at head of page, 2nd line, 4th column, instead of o'mduqse read\
o'm.puqsS.
„    109, in table,  read  under thy father, near person  addressed,  instead of
a/u'm/m/puqs read au'nypuqs.
„   110, line 31, instead of ua'qpitse read ua'qpise.
„    110,   ,,   40,        „        ak-fi'stla read naJt-a'stla.
„   111,   „     4 following table, instead of tlelamas'utlsnu'qvtl read tlelamasn-
tlEnu'qutl.
„    111, footnote 5, second line, instead of is read are.
114, line 26, instead of tss read tss.
116,
117,
120,
121,
122,
122,
122,'
123,
126,
128,
130,
130,
131,
132,
132,
139,
139,
35,        „        —ks read —Jrs.
1,        „        dialect read dialect h.
12,        „        waha'Ti read wohaZ'k.
32,        „        hisoitlah-latah read hiseitlak-tlatah.
5, „        k aqssoypa'mi/nie read Tt-aqsapa'minie.
3, last table, instead of MsoVanitic read hiseianitic.
68, instead of mB/ptoqsath read maptaqsath.
31, „ bush read beach.
53,        „        t'd't'da read t'd't'oa.
6, below table, instead of imfitl read nmltl.
6, instead of (n)e-(E)c read (n)e-(E)tc.
11,
48,
6,
23,
7,
29,
k-'aik'eietltEN read k-'a^k^'eietltEN.
lioto't read Itolo't.
tilts&'ha read tiksS/la.
antsS/wa read ntsS/wa.
sqa'qoa read sqa'qaa.
si'bEntsa read si'sEntsa.
143, column mother, dialect 15, instead of skeqeda'a
145,
145,
1451,
146,
147,
MS,
149,
149,
1.">1,
152,
face,
head,
nose,
body,
finger,
blood,
bow,
star,
sea,
valley,
3,
16,
13,
15,
12,
2,
3!
3.
skeqeda'a
read skeQedza'a.
ts'al
ts'al'.
—k'en
,i
k-'en.
nE'k-sEn
,
fiE'k'SEn.
mEa'tc
,1
mEza'tc.
snE'qtsEs
„
snE'qtsEs.
ga-'i
,i
g-a'i.
haukta'k-
1,
haukta'k'.
p'ia'ls
ti
pi&'ls.
man
man'.
nut'E'l
„
nutl'E'l (gorge) ON  THE  NORTH-WESTERN   TRIBES   OF  CANADA.
43
152, column leaf
153, „ salt,
153, „ deer,
154, „ white,
155, „ bird,
155, „ fish,
155, „ lightblue,
155, „ great,
■156, „ strong,
156, „ he,
157, ,, dead,
158, „ near,
169, „ six,
162, „ to kill,
163, „ toliedown,
dialect   2, instead of tleya'ngual read tllya'ngual.
14,
ts'alt
,   ts'alt.
2
!        1,
,,       g'at                ,
,,       tledi'qate'      ,
,   g'at.
,   tledi'qate'.
,      15,
17,
„       spEO'O            ,
„       k'Sk.qu'lQ      ,
,   spEZO'zo.
,   k'ak'qu'lQ.
1.
„       ts'Oyi'qate     ,
,   ts'Oyi'qate.
,      15,
2
•        5,
,,       qEo'm            ,
„       diakuya'        ,
he
,   qszo'm.
,   dakuya'.
,   het.
,      15,
o'uk-
,   zo'uk".
9,
„       dje'e'djimit   ,
,   djie'djimit
8,
,       15,
„       t'aqania'e      ,
,,       Ok*s                ,
,   t'aqamia'e.
,   zoks.
;   i8,
„       -a'k-qka         ,
,   g-a'k'qka.
PHISTRD   BT
HPOI"l'lSrt'001>II   AXD   CO.,   XBW"STUBU-l'   SQL'A&B
LOSDOS   

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