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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Illustrated British Columbia 1884

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  The University of British Columbia Library
IBIA.
of th
? settled
THE
CHUNG
COLLECTION
j end of 1885. The connived for completing the
orts and imports are an-
inities such as a railwa
small capitalist, the real farme
, and himself judge of these op
4
■ates    1
fthc
of Eng-
Mining
>ld mining keeps its place and is capable of great extension.    Fields of 7
lver ledges abound.-  Other valuable mines exist in great variety.    Libei
Fisheries
pp.ratively nntbuch'ed, alrea*
>f Canada, says respecting it;:'■'« No ..-
rbia beat those of California.   Crops
nountains of iron lie side by side, and
ly yield
lout $2,0(j
xport alone.
The fisheries are boundless, aid although
od fish can be had almost anywhere for the takii:
Timber
British Columbia has the most extensive and valuable forests in North America, and although this industry is yet in its
infancy, the annual product of manufactured lumber is about 30,000,000 feet.
The   Country   Along;   the   C   P   R
There are three naturally distinct regions along the line of the railway in British Columbia. (1.) From the Rocky Mountains to Eagle Pass—a mineral and forest region with some good arable and bunch grass grazing tracts. (2.) From Eagle Pass
to Yale—a bunch-grass, stock-raising region, but with fertile lands, for the most part requiring irrigation. Produces very tine
cereals, roots, vegetables and fruits. Contains rich silver ores and extensive coal deposits—anthracite, bituminous and lignite.
(3.) From Yale to the sea-board—comprising the extensive alluvial district of the Lower Fraser. Yields the finest crops and
fruits of all kinds. Has inexhaustible supplies of excellent timber and salmon, and many other fish and fish products. - With
this district Vancouver Island may be classed.
Probable   Traffic   with   the   East §^^&
Lumber from Kootenay. Cattle, horses and fruit products from Yale district. Fish, lumber, peltry and fruit products
from the sea-board.
General   Attractions
All the above districts have great attractions for the "intending resident, the tourist and the sportsman. Taxation is light.
Postal communications frequent.
Schools   and   Churches
A free public school is placed within the reach of ever}' child in the Province, and high schools and colleges are to be
found in the centres of. population. No state church, no tithes, but a fair supply of churches throughout the country, including Anglican, Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist.
Political   and   Municipal   System
The political system is as free as man can desire—full self government and citizenship easy of attainment by aliens. Any
settlement of not less than thirty householders may form themselves, into a municipality and manage their own local affairs.
Administration of Justice.
Law and order prevail. Petit jurors are paid from $1. 50 to $2. 00 a day for every day they attend, and witnesses are
well paid.
The  Land System.
British Columbia possesses one of the most liberal land systems in the world. Crown lands not conveyed to the Dominion
for railway purposes, can be pre-empted at one dollar (four English shillings) an acre, on easy terms of payment. Surveyed
lands may be purchased at $2:50 per acre, cash down; unsurveyed lands at 1-2.50 per acre, 10 per cent, down and 90 per cent,
on survey. Quantity not less than 160 acres, nor more than 640 acres. The settler can have his homestead to the value of $2500,
and chattels $500, registered and thereby effectually secured against all creditors.
ALL   ARE   WELCOME.
Emigrants from every civilized country are cordially welcomed to this " glorious province " (m'de Lord Dufferin's speech.)
Aliens can purchase Crown lands and hold and convey real estate.   May be naturalized after one year's residence.
Those desiring reliable information about British Colombia can obtain the same by applying to H. C. BEETON Esq 36
Finsbury Circus, London, E. C, the Agent-General in England; to J. S. K. DeKNEVETT, Esq., 17, Boulevard de la Madeleine, Paris, Agent-general on the Continent-of Europe; GEO. FAULKNER, Esq., Agent, Toronto, Ontario- S A ROW
BOTH AM & Co., Agents, Winnipeg, Manitoba ; or to JOHN JESSOP, Esq., Immigration Agent for Canada at Victoria. B C-
or WILLIAM ROSS, Esq., Provincial Immigration Agent, at New Westminster, B. C.
Office of the Minister of Agriculture, Victoria, B. C, 1st November, 1884. ^c&SQ
mm
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WEST SHOIfE- THE WEST SHORE.
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273
THE   PROVINCE   OP   BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
BRITISH COLUMBIA is a Province of the Dominion
of Canada, and is the only dependency of the
British Crown bordering the Pacific Ocean on the west
coast of America. No other member of that great confederation has resources so rich, varied and inexhaustible; a climate so healthful, invigorating and agreeable; a
coast line so magnificent, abounding in excellent harbors,
safe entrances to navigable streams and long stretches of
inland sea, or sheltered gulfs, sounds, bays and inlets;
such a wealth of economic and precious metals, timber,
coal and fish; none for which Nature has done so much
and man so little. Now comparatively easy of access
from the great centers of population—and soon, by the
completion of the great Canadian Pacific Railway, to be
rendered even more so—British Columbia stands with
doors wide open, inviting the enterprising capitalist, the
enlightened farmer, the skilled artisan, the frugal and
industrious laborer, and all who understand the use of
hands and brains, to enter and participate in the work of
developing her dormant resources, increase her buddin
industries, and make for themselves homes where they
may enjoy the comforts, and, in time, even the luxuries,
of life. Nor is this invitation extended simply to the
subjects of Great Britain alone, for the intelligent, industrious and law-abiding of every nation will meet with a
cordial reception, and will find his rights of person and
property as well, and often better, protected as they were
in his native land. Citizenship, with all its rights, privileges and honors, is conferred upon the deserving of
every race, those who declare their allegiance to her
Majesty, the Queen of England, and conform to the liberal laws of naturalization. Desirable as this is for the
mutual welfare of the individual and the Province, it is
by no means necessary, full and complete security of
property and person and protection in the transaction of
business being accorded to all.
The Province has the general shape of a parallelogram, 760 miles long and 500 broad, containing a superficial area of 350,000 square miles. The Rocky Mountains, the great " backbone of the continent," form the
eastern boundary, separating it from the remainder oJ:
Canada, and the Pacific Ocean bounds it on the west,
save for a distance of about 300 miles on the extreme
north, where the Alaska possessions of the United States
interpose between it and the sea. Its southern limit is
the forty-ninth parallel, which forms the international
boundary line between the Province and the United
States, and the northern is the sixtieth parallel. The
general surface of the country is mountainous and broken,
consisting of short mountain ranges, detached groups of
mountains, elevated plateaus and many valleys of various
extent. Running parallel with the Rocky Mountains,
and in -many places scarcely distinguishable from them,
are masses of mountains, and along the coast lies a high
range usually indicated as a continuation of the Cascades,
but, in fact, a northern extension of the great Coast
Range. Lying between these two, and extending as far
north as latitude 55 30 degrees, is an irregular belt of
elevated plateau. Beyond this the mountains, except
those bordering the coast, "decrease in height, and before
the limit of the Province is reached the land has a gentle
slope towards the Arctic Ocean, Peace River and other
streams of the Arctic watershed finding their sources
there. Such are the general features of the interior—
high mountain ridges on the east and west, enclosing a
high plateau, down the center of which flows the Fraser
River, its general course being south until almost to the
international line, where it turns sharply to the west and
enters the ocean. The other great streams of the interior
are Thompson River, entering the Fraser from the east,
and the Okanagan, Columbia and Kootenay, the last two
having very eccentric courses. The Columbia rises
almost in the extreme southeastern corner, sweeps northerly around the upper end of the Selkirk Range, and
then flows directly south between the Selkirk and Gold
mountains into the United States. The Kootenay has its
source in the same region as the Columbia, makes a long
sweep to the south, crossing the boundary line, and, returning again, discharges its waters into the Columbia.
One peculiarity of this region is that nearly every stream
of consequence has its origin in, or passes through, one
or more long, narrow lakes, consisting in many places of
simply a broadening of the river, and at others a well-
defined lake of considerable area. Such are Shuswap
Lake, whence flows the Thompson, and Lake Kamloops,
through which the same stream passes; also Upper and
Lower Columbia and Upper and Lower Arrow lakes
along the course of the Columbia, and Lakes Kootenay
and Okanagan, features of the streams thus christened.
Lakes and water courses abound from one end of the
Province to the other, many of them navigable by steamers of a light draught for great distances.
The coast line is the most wonderful in the world.
The mountains border closely upon the sea, the shore
being indented by a multitude of bays and inlets and
fringed by countless small islands, between which run
tortuous, but safe and navigable, channels. Outside of
these, and protecting these inland channels for nearly
the entire length of the coast, are a series of large
islands, the greatest and most southerly of which is that
of Vancouver, on which Victoria is situated. In referring to this peculiarity the Earl of Dufferin, at that time
Governor-General of Canada, said, in a speech delivered
at Victoria on the 10th of September, 1876: "Such a
spectacle as its coast line presents is not to be paralleled
by any country in the world. Day after day, for a whole
week, in a vessel of nearly 2,000 tons, we threaded an
interminable labyrinth of watery lanes and reaches that
wound endlessly in and out of a network of islands, promontories and peninsulas for thousands of miles, unruffled by the slightest swell from the adjoining ocean,
and presenting at every turn an ever-shifting combination of rock, verdure, forest, glacier and snow-capped
mountain of unrivaled grandeur and beauty. When it is
remembered that this wonderful system of navigation,
equally well adapted to the largest line of battle-ship and
the frailest canoe, fringes the entire seaboard of your 274
THE   WEST   SHORE.
Province and communicates at points, sometimes more
than a hundred miles from the coast, with a multitude of
valleys stretching eastward into the interior, while at the
same time it is furnished with innumerable harbors on
either hand, one is lost in admiration at the facilities for
^inter-communication which are thus provided for the
future inhabitants of this wonderful region."
Several Spanish and English exploring expeditions
coasted along the Province and landed at various places
to take formal possession of the country in the name of
their sovereigns before any actual effort was made at
colonization. Finally, in 1788, an English fur trader,
who, for commercial reasons, was sailing under the Portuguese flag, built a small house at Nootka Sound, on the
west coast of Vancouver Island, then considered a portion of the mainland, and constructed a small coasting
schooner. The next year a Spanish officer took possession of the port, erected a fort, seized the three English
vessels, and sent officers and crews as prisoners to
Mexico. This imperious act led to a heated controversy
between Spain and England, nearly precipitating a war
between those powerful nations, which culminated in a
treaty in 1790, by which Spain resigned to her rival all
claim upon Nootka Sound, without prejudice to her general rights in that region. Bodega y Quadra was appointed commissioner on the part of Spain to surrender
the port to England, and Captain George Vancouver was
dispatched by the English government to receive the
transfer and make careful explorations in that portion of
the Pacific. Vancouver arrived in 1792, explored Puget
Sound and the Gulf of Georgia, bestowing the names
now borne by the most prominent objects in that region,
and calling the country " New Georgia." In 1793 he
met Quadra at Nootka and received the formal surrender
of the port. At that time the two commissioners agreed
to name the large island, for such they had learned it to
be, in their own" honor, and both entered it upon their
charts.as the "Island of Vancouver and Quadra," though
in after years the Spaniard's name was dropped from the
title.
During the year 1793, while Vancouver was exploring
the inlets and bays of the Gulf of Georgia, Alexander
Mackenzie, one of the partners of the Northwest Company, made the first overland journey to the Pacific. He
started the previous October from Fort Chipewyan, the
advance post of the great fur company he represented,
and followed up Peace River to the base of the Eocky
Mountains. In the spring he crossed the mountains and
came upon the Fraser River, which he named the " Ta-
coutchee-Tassee." This name was dropped and " Columbia " substituted when, upon his return, he learned that
the mouth of that stream had been discovered the year
le descended the river southward in canoes a
distance of 250 miles,
crossed the mountains I
52 degrees and 20 minu
Vancouver's fleet had i
CanaL" The next ster
1805 by Simon Fraser,
nd then turned to the west and
) the coast at an inlet in latitude
es, arriving only a few days after
xplored and named it " Cascade
towards occupation was taken in
representative of the same com
pany. He left Fort Chipewyan and followed Mackenzie's
route as far as Fraser Lake, where he established a
trading post. The country was then called " New Caledonia." In 1812 he followed the river to the ocean, and
thus learning that it was not the C olumbia, bestowed his
own name upon it. During the next thirty years the
consolidated Hudson's Bay Company founded a number
of trading posts, or forts, and in 1843 established a general supply station for this region on Vancouver Island,
which they named " Victoria," in honor of the young
Queen who had recently ascended the throne of England.
The license of exclusive possession and trade held by the
company expired in 1856, at which time mining operations were being carried on along the Fraser by old
employes of the company, which fact was reported to the
home government. News reached San Francisco in 1857
that there were boundless gold fields along this northern
stream, and a wave of excitement swept over the Pacific
Coast the following year. Thousands hastened to the
new mines, and though the majority of them returned
home disappointed and financially ruined, the mines
proved to be very rich, and for years yielded vast quantities of gold, and are yet being extensively worked. Parliament passed an act in 1858 to "Provide for the
Government of British Columbia," and James Douglas,
Chief Factor of the Hudson's Bay Company at Victoria,
was appointed Governor.
It is needless to follow the Province through the successive stages which have brought it to its present condition. Sufficient to say that, under wise legislation and
able government, it prospered greatly, in spite of the,
neglect suffered at the hands of the home government,
which could neither appreciate the value nor understand
the needs of this far-distant dependency. Victoria, New
Westminster and other prosperous communities sprang
up and flourished; free schools and churches were
founded; other industries than mining were inaugurated,
and the varied and rich resources of the country began
slowly to be developed. In 1871 British Columbia became a Province in the great confederation of the Dominion of Canada, and now not only enjoys the most complete
local self-government, but is fully represented in the
Dominion Parliament at Ottawa, where she is making
her influence felt
Law reigns supreme in the Province. Justice is administered with that inflexible integrity which is characteristic of the British courts. Crime is at a minimum
and lynch law is unknown. In this respect the Province
offers a favorable contrast with the region south of the -
international line. Education receives much attention,
and most excellent free schools are maintained. There
are also higher institutions, for the benefit of those
desiring a more extended and liberal education than can
be obtained in the public schools. Churches are numerous and well attended, and everything indicates that the
people are the moral and intellectual peers of the citizens
of those much older communities on the Atlantic slope.
The population of the Province approximates 70,000,
of which about 10,000 reside in the city of Victoria.    In THE  WEST  SHORE. THE  WEST  SHORE. THE  WEST   SHORE.
275
this are included some 30,000 Indians and from 8,000 to
10,000 Chinamen. The white population is increasing at
a rapid ratio, and it is impossible to determine its number within a few thousands. Of this class the majority
are of English extraction, coming from the mother country or some of the numerous dependencies of the crown.
There are also French, Germans, Italians and representatives of every European nation, as well as many from
different portions of the United States. Apparently incongruous as these elements are, the preponderance of
English influence molds them into a harmonious whole*
and the general and local governments are conducted in
the true British manner, the laws impartially enforced
and justice and protection accorded alike to all. The
magnitude of the Indian population may seem a source
of danger to one accustomed to perusing romantic Indian
literature or to reading of the frequent outbreaks among
the native tribes living south of the line. Such is not
the fact No Indian war has ever called the citizen to
arms, nor, in the nature of things, is it ever likely to do
so. The great Hudson's Bay Company pursued a policy
of justice tempered with firmness. They were treated-
kindly, and no white man was permitted to do them an
injustice without being punished for his conduct. Instances are not wanting of the hanging of a white man
for-the murder of an Indian. At the same time they
were given to understand that swift and certain punishment would follow any wrong-doing on their part. They
were also given employment in pursuits suited to their
nature, which brought to them food, trinkets and clothing they had not before enjoyed, which soon taught them
the value of preserving friendly relations with the whites.
This wise policy has been pursued by the Government
with the effect above noted. Indians derive a considerable income from their labors in various occupations, and
it may be said that but for their aid several flourishing
industries would cease to exist, or, at least, labor under
serious disadvantages. They engage quite extensively in
farming and stock raising on their own account. The
policy of the United States of purchasing the Indian title
to the soil and making annual appropriations for their
support, thus maintaining them as a race of paupers,
with its demoralizing effects, official peculations and frequent wars, has not been pursued in the Dominion. On
the contrary, the Indian title has never been recognized;
but certain tracts most prized by them have been set
aside for their exclusive use, while, at the same time,
they were made to understand that they must earn their
own living the same as the white men they saw around
them. The result fully sustains the wisdom of the policy.
In a recent speech his Excellency the Governor-General
used the following language on this subject: "Besides
the climate, which is so greatly in your favor, you have
another great advantage in the tractability and good conduct of your Indian population. I believe I have seen
the Indians of almost every tribe throughout the Dominion, and nowhere can you find any who are so trust worthy
in regard to conduct, so willing to assist the white settlers by their labor, so independent and anxious to learn
the secret of the white man's power. Where elsewhere
you meet constant demands for assistance, your Indians
never ask for anything, for in the interview given to the
chiefs their whole desire seemed to be for schools and
schoolmasters; and in reply to questions as to whether
they would assist themselves in securing such institutions, they invariably replied that they would be glad to
pay for them. It is certainly much to be desired that
some of the funds apportioned for Indian purposes be
given to provide them fully with schools in which industrial education may well form an important item. But
we must not do injustice to the wilder tribes. Their case
is totally different from that of your Indians. The buffalo was everything to the nomad. It gave him house,
fuel, food, clothes and thread. The disappearance of this
animal left him starving. Here, on the contrary, the
advent of the white man has never diminished the food
supply of the native. He has game as before in abundance, for the deer are as numerous now as they ever
have "been. He has more fish than he knows what to do
with, and the lessons in farming that you have taught
him have given him a source of food supply of which he
was previously ignorant." The intending settler may
depend upon finding the Indians peaceable, intelligent,
eager to learn and industrious to a degree unknown elsewhere among the aborigines of America.
For the better convenience of those seeking information about the Province, the various districts, resources
and industries are here treated of in separate articles,
the advantage of such arrangement being too obvious to
require comment.
VANCOUVEB  ISLAND.
The Island of Vancouver is separated from the extreme northwestern portion of Washington Territory by
the historical Straits of Juan de Fuca, through the center
of which runs the international line. It is oblong in
shape, extending northwesterly parallel with the mainland, from which it is separated by the narrow and island-
dotted channel of the Gulf of Georgia, a distance of
nearly 300 miles, and has a width varying from thirty to
fifty miles. Its area of 12,000 square miles is heavily
timbered and generally mountainous, the highest peaks
attaining an altitude of from 6,000 to 9,000 feet. The
area of low and level land is comparatively limited,
though in the aggregate amounting to many thousand
acres. The chief arable tracts are found in the extreme
southeastern portion, where a margin of low and tillable
land, varying from two to ten miles in width," lies between
the mountains and the water. This extends for some
distance along the eastern coast line; the extreme northern end also possesses an extensive area of comparatively
level land. Along the western, or ocean, coast there is
but little arable land in comparison with the total area,
though here and there are considerable tracts. The coast
line, especially on the ocean side, is much broken by bays
and inlets which indent it, often penetrating many miles
into the interior, and offering numerous safe harbors.
The soil of the cultivable lower lands is generally mmm
276
THE   WEST  SHORE.
drift deposits of clay and sand, over which, for the most
part, there lies a brownish-black surface soil, varying
from two to four feet in thickness, and containing a large
proportion'of vegetable matter. In the Cowichan and
Comox districts, as well as many other localities, rich
loams appear. Owing to the necessary shortness and
rapid descent of the streams, there are but few acres of
alluvial bottom lands, though here and there small tracts
exist. The soil generally is very fertile. When properly
cultivated the average yield per acre of cereals is 25
' bushels of wheat, 50 of oats, 40 of Chevalier barley and
50 of rough barley. Rye, buckwheat, corn, hops (in cer
tain places), beans, peasj potatoes, melons and garden
vegetables produce abundantly.' All fruits of the tern
perate zone thrive and bear prolifically. Cattle in small
bands do well and support themselves the year round by
grazing upon the edible plants and grass of the more
thinly wooded districts, and browsing on the tender
brush and the .nutritious lichens which hang from the
tree branches. Little care is required, except to provide
a shelter where a dry bed may be found by the animals
during the rainy weather. Vancouver Island cannot
however, be termed a stock country, since the land is
more valuable for agricultural purposes. The quality of
beef, mutton and pork is equal to that produced in
England.
Attention might be called to the various sections of
the island upon which settlements can be advantageously
made. The Alberni District lies 130 miles above Victoria. ' The arable portion is eight by four and one-half
miles in dimensions. There are a score of settlers
there now, and a hundred more could find good locations.
Salmon River, sixty miles further north, has much desirable land open for occupation and purchase. There are
also the Cowichan, Saanich, Chemainus and Sominoes
districts, all on the east side. On the west side practically no settlements have been made, though along the
multitude of bays and inlets there are many acres of valuable land, besides which lumber, fish and coal are there
in abundance. The chief drawback is a lack of sufficient
communication with Victoria, which will probably be
obviated in the near future by the establishment of a
regular steamer route. During the next decade Vancouver Island will settle up rapidly, and the close of that
period will see a continuous line of flourishing settlements encircling the island, with extended railway and
steamer transportation routes linking them together.
Victoria, the chief city and seat of government of the
Province, is situated at the southeastern extremity of the
island, and occupies a commanding commercial position.
The harbor of the city proper offers accommodation
only for vessels drawing eighteen feet of water and under,
but improvements are continually being made, and the
adjacent and supplementary harbor of Esquimalt supplies all that may be lacking here. A fine macadamized
road connects the two ports, along which also is stretched
a telephone line. These ports are by no means strangers
to deep water craft from the four corners of the world;
and when the completion of the great Canadian Pacific
Railway shall furnish a new trans-American route for
the commerce of Asia and Australia, vessels from every
Pacific port will find their way hither, and the flags of
every maritime nation will be seen floating from the
masthead of ships lying at anchor in the Royal Roads,
just without the entrance to Esquimalt.
The universal verdict of travelers is that Victoria is
the most pleasing and delightful city on the Pacific
Coast. There are several which are larger, possess more
imposing structures, and are more noisy and bustling,
exhibiting in its widest scope that general -spirit of
"rush" which is so dominant in the American character;
but none so charming in all its adjuncts and surrounding, so delightful as a place of residence or so attractive
to visitors. Not that there is no business transacted
there, for an examination of her commercial enterprises
will show them to be numerous and extensive; but there
is a pleasant absence of that hurly-burly which attends
the transaction of business on the American side, and
that general restlessness which seems to pervade, even
the loungers on the streets. The avenues of the city
furnish most excellent drives, while splendid roads have
been constructed in every direction, leading through the
most charming of scenery and to many elevated points,
whence views of the Straits of Fuca and the white-capped
Olympic Range, on the one hand, vie in picturesqueness
with the island-dotted Gulf of Georgia and its background of Cascade Mountains. The Gorge, reached by
a charming drive from the city, is but one of the many
attractive spots frequented by natives and visitors.
From the time the Hudson's Bay Company first
established a post here, Victoria has been the general
supply point for the whole Province of British Columbia.
She sprang suddenly into great commercial activity in
1858, when the endless throng of miners poured into the
Fraser River gold fields, 30,000 of whom wintered in and
around the city. When, as the excitement abated, the
greater portion of them departed, and the tented city
vanished like the camp of a moving army, it was demonstrated that a city had been founded which was destined
to live, to grow with the Province, and to become metropolitan as the resources of the surrounding region were
developed. From that time its history has been one of
steady progress. Population has increased, business has
expanded and property values have steadily ascended.
The steamer lines of the Province all center in Victoria,
whence they reach all the coast ports where sufficient
settlements have been made, and penetrate far into the
interior by ascending the Fraser River. The trade of all
this extended region centers in the metropolis, and increases annually as the tributary settlements and industries expand.
The business portion of the city is, in the main, well
built of stone and brick, numerous substantial edifices
testifying to the solid character of its commercial enterprises. The numerous public buildings are also of a
superior character, some of them displaying much taste
and architectural skill. The Government buildings, on
James' Bay, are five in number, and are constructed of "\
THE  WEST  SHORE.
277
red brick in the Swiss style of architecture. They are
reached by a substantial bridge across the bay. An
obelisk of gray granite stands at the foot of the well-kept
lawn, erected in memory of Sir James Douglas, first Governor of the colony. The buildings belonging to the
Dominion, comprising the Custom House, Post Office and
Marine Hospital, are solid, serviceable structures. The
school buildings and churches are also attractive edifices.
The public school, which is under the general supervision
of a board of trustees and has an efficient corps of
instructors, occupies a two story brick building commanding a fine view of the harbor. The class rooms, play
grounds, etc., are well appointed. The school is maintained free of expense to the parents of children attending. A high school, where all the advanced grades are
taught, occupies a large and handsome brick edifice
recently completed. From this school are graduated
many of the teachers of the Province. There are several
private seminaries; and a movement is now well progressed for the erection of commodious buildings in
which to establish a college, under the auspices of the
Anglican Church. The Sisterhood of St Ann have an
excellent institution for the education of girls, occupying
a large and attractive structure in the southern purlieus
of the city. Eleven religious congregations, representing
various denominations, are regularly organized, nearly
all of them having good houses of worship. They are
divided as follows: Two Anglican, one Reformed Episcopalian, two Roman Catholic, two Presbyterian, two
Methodist, one Baptist and one Jewish synagogue. The
general air of the city is one of neatness, cleanliness and
quiet taste. The residences, notably that of the Lieutenant-Governor, are attractive and often elegant, both as
regards the buildings and their surroundings. Lawns
are well kept, flowers abound on every side, and shade
and fruit trees exist in profusion. Great building activity is now being olisplayed on all sides, both in the
matter of business structures and residences. A stock
company has just subscribed $50,000 for the erection of
an imposing opera house, which will be commenced immediately. The Driard House will also begin the erection of a building adjoining the one now occupied, which
will give them double the present capacity. Tourists
will find superior hotel accommodations in Victoria.
Victoria is well served with newspapers, the various
journals being large, well conducted and enterprising,
furnishing complete local and telegraphic news. The
Colonist, daily and weekly, is the most complete establishment in the Northwest It occupies all of a new and
handsome building recently erected by the proprietor,
and does a general job printing business, a specialty
being the printiag of the hundreds of thousands of colored
salmon labels used by the canneries of British Columbia.
The Standard is a well-established daily and weekly
journal, and the Post is an evening daily, well conducted.
The Times, daily and weekly, has recently been founded,
and exhibits enterprise, neatness and good business
ability in the management The Resources of British
Columbia is a monthly illustrated journal, devoted to the
development of the Province, and is doing good work
in making known its advantages both at home and
abroad.
The city enjoys the fullest mail, telegraph and telephone facilities, is connected with San Francisco by a
regular line of steamers, and with Portland by the way of
Puget Sound and the Northern Pacific Railroad, and
within two years will have direct communication with the
Eastern Provinces of the- Dominion over the Canadian
Pacific Railway. A splendid system of water supply has
been obtained at an expense of $200,000, water being
brought from Elk Lake, seven miles distant. An efficient
fire brigade is thus enabled to furnish the fullest protection from extensive conflagrations. Coal and wood for
fuel are both plentiful and cheap. Gas works supply
light foi both public and private uses, and several powerful electric lights are suspended upon high masts in
different portions of the city. The Mechanics' Institute
has a valuable library and spacious reading room, and
there are a number of fraternal and benevolent associations. Iron works, brass works, planing mills, soap
works, boot and shoe factory, match factory, cigar factory, glove factory and a number of other manufacturing
industries are in full operation. Four banks and two
express companies are of great assistance in the transaction of business. The universal impression of all visitors
to Victoria is that here will grow up a city, so combining
commercial importance with beauty of location and elegance of appointments, asxto make it the most attractive
on the Pacific Coast
The town of Esquimalt is distant three and one-half
miles from Victoria, and lies on a peninsula separating
Esquimalt Harbor from the Royal Roads. The superiority of its harbor facilities caused the British Admiralty
to select it for a naval station many years ago. Here are
an arsenal building, where large quantities of naval and
ordnance supplies are stored, a naval hospital, a dockyard and a powder magazine, the latter on an island in
the northern portion of the harbor. The Dominion Government is building an immense dry dock, the second
largest of the public works undertaken in the Province.
Its dimensions are: Length, 400 feet; depth, 26 feet;
width of entrance, 90 feet. It is being substantially
built of concrete, faced with sandstone. Three hundred
and fifty thousand dollars have already been expended,
and its completion is confidently expected within three
years. Esquimalt has two churches, a public school and
a number of business buildings and residences. Its advantages as a terminal point for a railway are well known
and appreciated, and will soon be utilized by the construction of the Island Railway. The possibility of its
becoming the practical terminus of the Canadian Pacific
is also being considered.
In the Esquimalt District are the agricultural districts of Colwood, where are a public school and the large
tannery of the Belmont Tanning and Boot and Shoe
Manufacturing Company; Metchosin, including the farming settlements of Rocky Point and Happy Valley;
Sooke,  containing a sawmill, barrel factory, numerous 278
THE   WEST  SHORE.
good farms, also placer gold deposits; Highland District
and Gold Stream, agricultural and grazing sections.
The second most important settlement on Vancouver
Island is that of Nanaimo, situated on the east coast,
seventy miles above Victoria. The city has for its background a dense and continuous forest, beneath which lie
vast deposits of bituminous coal, the mining and shipping
of which is the chief business of the settlement. The
extent of the coal fields and mining operations will be
spoken of in a separate article, to which the reader is
referred. The town of Nanaimo lies along the bay, its
streets being quite irregular and conforming to the sinuosities of the indented shore line. The town was founded
by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1852, as a mining
village and trading post; but with the growth of the
mining industry, which has increased tenfold in the past
few years, a town has sprung up possessing considerable
commercial importance. The adjacent harbor of Departure Bay has accommodations for a vast amount of
shipping, and a number of vessels may always be seen
there, loading with coal or waiting for cargoes. This is
connected with the Nanaimo harbor by a long, deep
channel, which offers no obstacle to the passage of the
largest vessels. There are a number of wharves at Nanaimo belonging to the Vancouver Coal Company, to
Nanaimo Sawmill and to several private individuals.
The business portion of the town lies on a rocky peninsula, separated from the'residence part by a deep ravine,
spanned by two substantial wooden bridges. Much attention has been paid by the city officers, during the eight
years since it was incorporated, to the improvement of
the streets.
As is usually the case in mining towns, but few buildings of an ornamental character have been erected, though
the indications are that the future will see a change in
that respect The Court House and Jail are wooden
structures, which will no doubt soon be supplanted by
more substantial ones. A handsome stone Post Office
and Custom House has recently been erected by the
Dominion Government. There ar&four church edifices—
Episcopalian, Methodist, Presbyterian and Roman Catholic, the last named forming, with the parsonage and
convent school of the Sisterhood of St. Ann, the most
striking group of structures in Nanaimo. The church is
a handsome edifice of Gothic architecture. Two excellent schools—one for boys and one for girls—are supported at the public expense. The Literary Institute is
a large two story building, containing a public hall and
reading room, and was erected in 1866. The people are
connected by telegraph both with Victoria and the mainland, the usual means of communication being by
steamer, though a government road traverses nearly the
entire distance from Victoria to Nanaimo. Aside from
the extensive coal interests, there is a sawmill, cutting
45,000 feet per day; a shipyard, which enjoys fine natural advantages; a brewery, soda water factory, a tannery,
and the usual number of commercial and industrial
enterprises. A regular water supply has recently been
introduced by means of wooden  pipes, and a vigilant
volunteer fire company is ever ready for duty. An institution of the city is the Free Press, a weekly journal
devoted to the interests of Nanaimo and its great coal
industry. The population somewhat exceeds 2,000, and
is steadily increasing.
The towns of North and South Wellington lie near
Departure Bay, opposite to the Nanaimo harbor, and are
less than a mile distant from each other. These are supported entirely by the coal mines known as the " Wellington Collieries" and the " South Wellington Mine."
North Wellington has a population of 1,200. Besides
the residences of the miners,, there are a public school
and Methodist church. A narrow gauge railroad runs
from the mine to the wharves on Departure Bay, having
a length of nearly five miles. South Wellington lies also
three miles from the southeast corner of the bay, at which
are the extensive shipping wharves and coal bunkers of
the company, connected with the mine by a narrow gauge
road four and one-half miles in length. The town consists of the company's works- and the cottages of the
miners and other employes.
Comox is the name of a settlement sixty miles above
Nanaimo, situated in quite an extensive agricultural region,
embracing both the large district on the east side of Vancouver Island and the adjacent smaller islands. The
population of the district is about 400. Coal abounds,
iron is mined on Texada Island, and copper is found at
Howe Sound. These combine to render Comox a good
point for smelting works. The town is situated at Port
Augusta, and is connected with .Victoria by steamer.
There are hotels, stores, shops and all the adjuncts of a
thriving village. A sawmill is in operation three miles
from the town.
Cowichan is the name of an extensive agricultural
district lying midway between Victoria and Nanaimo, and
including the neighboring islands. Besides its arable
lands, it contains much undeveloped mineral wealth and
many seams of both anthracite and bituminous coal.
Excellent oysters are found at Oyster Bay. The lumber
interests are quite extensive, and several sawmills are at
work in different portions of the district. Public schools
and stores are located at Maple Bay, Quamichan, Cowichan and Salt Spring Island. Other localities in the
district as Chemainus, Burgoyne Bay and Vesuvius Bay.
There is a flourishing agricultural society, and the Sisters
of St Ann maintain a day school in the valley.
The Saanich Peninsula, comprising the districts of
North and South Saanich and Lake, lies due north of
Victoria, and covers an area of sixty square miles. Excellent roads connect it with the city, as well as do the
steamers running up the east side of the island. The
population is about 600. There are good hotels, several
churches, exceUent schools and a grist mill. Though
this is strictly an agricultural settlement, there is plenty
of good timber, and croppings of a superior quality of
coal have been found.
Fort Rupert is an old post of the Hudson's Bay Company, near the northern extremity of the island. It
occupies a central position in that large district of com- THE   WEST   SHORE.
279
paratively low land, and with the settlement of the upper
end will probably become an important point At Quat-
sino Sound, connected with it by trail, coal has been
found. At Alert Bay, on Cormorant Island, twenty
miles south of Fort Rupert, is a salmon cannery. Opposite this is the mouth of the Nimkish River, a prolific
salmon stream on Vancouver Island. Gold has been
found in this vicinity. At Beaver Cove, five miles farther
south, an extensive formation of excellent marble, both
white and colored, exists. Several tons were quarried
and brought to Victoria, monuments manufactured from
which ornament the public cemeteries. It is believed
that, with an open market in the neighboring States, the
property will prove to be a valuable one when it comes
to be developed.
The Island Railway is an enterprise set on foot a
number of years ago for the development of the island
by furnishing it much needed transportation facilities.
The line is projected to run up the east side of the island
from Esquimalt as far as Discovery Pass, though at
present it is located only as far as Nanaimo, the road
beyond that point being left for-future consideration. A
substantial grant of land has been made to further the
enterprise by the Provincial £rovernment, and for several
years all land along the route, both granted and crown,
have been withdrawn from sale. This has served to
retard the settlement, as nothing but squatter rights could
be acquired. The project has, for various causes, remained dormant for several years, but recently a company
was organized by Mr. Robert Dunsmuir, a well-known
capitalist of Victoria, and Mr. Charles Crocker, of San
Francisco, which will at once begin the construction of
the road and complete it to Nanaimo as speedily as possible. This will result in throwing the lands, greatly enhanced in value by the railway, open to occupation, and
the rapid settlement of the agricultural districts along
the route will follow, as well as the springing up of many
new industries. The advantages of such a road to Victoria, Nanaimo, and, in fact, the whole island, cannot be
overestimated.
NEW WESTMfNSTEB DISTEICT.
The District of New Westminster consists of the
country lying on both sides of the Fraser River for a
distance of 100 miles above its mouth, extending on the
south to the international line. In it is embraced some
of the most "extensive and valuable tracts of arable land
in the Province, which are spoken of elsewhere. The
lumber and fishing interests are also very great. Through
it runs the terminal division of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, already constructed.
The largest settlement in the district, and the second
most important in the Province, is the city of New Westminster, lying on the north bank of Fraser River, fifteen
miles above^its mouth. Its advantageous situation as
the natural commercial center of the district has"given it
a steady and permanent growth, its business increasing
with the development of the surrounding country. Nor
is this the only [element of w prosperity, for the whole
region of Fraser River is, in a measure, tributary to it.
The town was an outgrowth of the gold excitement in
1857-8, whiclr filled the country with miners, and rendered a government necessary. Vancouver Island being
at that time a separate colony, the seat of government for
the mainland was located at Lower Langley, or Derby,
but in 1859 was removed to New Westminster. In 1868,
the two colonies having been united, the capital was
located at Victoria. Loss of the capital had no effect
upon New Westminster as a business point. Several
roads connect it with Burrard Inlet, the chosen terminus
of the Canadian Pacific, and a charter has been granted
to a company for a branch line from New Westminster
to the town of Port Moody. If, however, as now seems
certain, a new terminus be established at Coal Harbor,
the line will pass within two miles of New Westminster,
and a branch road to the terminus will be quite unnecessary.
The site of New Westminster is happily chosen on
ground rising gradually from the river, affording splendid
drainage and pleasant building sites for residences. The
business portion of the city occupies its natural position
near the river, the great highway of traffic and travel to
the interior. There are a number of quite imposing
structures belonging to the Dominion and Provincial
governments, which add much to the general appearance
of the city. The building recently erected for the Post
Office and other Federal offices is constructed of brick,
with stone facings, and is three stories high, surmounted
by a mansard roof. The Provincial" Penitentiary stands
on an eminence in the northeastern portion of the city,
and is a substantial stone structure of pleasing architec-"
tiire. The Insane Asylum is a brick and stone building,
commanding a fine view of the river. About these two
are quite extensive grounds, well laid out and neatly
kept. The District Court House is a wooden structure,
which, being now too small for the growing needs of the
district, will probably soon be supplanted by a larger
building of stone or brick. There are many handsome
residences, surrounded by tasteful flower gardens and
neatly kept lawns, and many shade and fruit trees.
The Church of the Holy Trinity (Episcopal) is a
handsome and costly stone edifice, possessing a large
chime of bells, presented to the parish by Baroness
Burdett-Coutts. Good wooden edifices are occupied by
the Roman Catholic, Presbyterian and Methodist denominations. The Roman Catholic Indians have a church
built exclusively by their own contributions. The Episcopal and Catholic bishops of the diocese reside here.
An excellent public school is maintained, occupying a
large two story building, centrally located, and having
ample play grounds. There is also a high school for instruction in the more advanced studies. The St. Louis
College, an institution for boys, sustained by the Roman
Catholics, and the St. Ann Convent, in which a girls'
chool is kept, are both handsome brick edifices, with
cement facing. A schoolfor girls is conducted under
the auspices of the Episcopal Church, and the Methodist
and Presbyterian denominations jointly support a colleg- 280
THE  WEST   SHORE.
iate institution.    These most excellent schools draw to
the city pupils from throughout the entire Province,
Several systems of water works supply the city with
an abundance of pure water. The reservoirs being on
elevated ground, the lower, or business, portions of the
city enjoy ample protection from fire by possessing
liberal supply of hose. The industries of New Westminster are considerable. Four salmon canneries in or near
the city give employment to 1,200 men in the fishing
season. Two saw and planing mills employ 250 men.
Besides these there are two breweries, a shipyard, a tannery, a soda and syrup factory, a foundry and several
bakeries. The city's permanent population exceeds 3,000.
exclusive of Indians. Two excellent semi-weekly papers,
the British Columbian and the Mainland Guardian, are
published here. They are ably edited and give much
attention to news from the entire Province. The hotel
accommodations are excellent and ample, and for this
reason, as well as because of the great beauty of the surrounding scenery and the splendid fishing and hunting
in the immediate vicinity, it is a favorite place of resort
for those seeking a few weeks of pleasure.
The second most important portion of New Westminster District is Burrard Inlet, the principal harbor of
the mainland, thirteen miles north of the entrance k>
Fraser River. This is the chief center of the lumbering
interests of the Province, while, also, important fishing
industries have established themselves there. Along the
inlet, which extends twenty miles inland, lie the lumbering villages of Granville, Hastings and Moodyville, and
Port Moody. The Inlet varies from 150 yards to two and
one-half miles in width, affording safe anchorage for the
largest vessels over the greater portion of its area. It' is
destined to become a harbor of vast importance, in view
of the natural results following the construction to its
shores of the great transcontinental railway. Near the
entrance to the inlet, just beyond the first narrow passage, lies Coal Harbor. Mr. W. C. Van Home, Vice-
President and General Manager of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, visited the coast in August, for the purpose of
selecting a terminus for that gigantic railway. After
visiting Port Moody, Mr. Van Home decided that as that
place did not possess sufficient accommodation for terminal purposes, a change to Coal Harbor and English
Bay was necessary. This sets at rest forever the terminus question. It is understood that the railway company is negotiating with the Provincial Government for
a large tract of land contiguous to Coal Harbor, False
Creek and English Bay, where ground can be procured
with a deep water frontage for wharfage, docks and other
shipping facilities. The locality is pronounced as unrivaled anywhere as the site for a large commercial seaport city. The harbor accommodations are unexcelled.
It is commodious, easy of access at all stages of the tide,
possesses excellent anchorage, is perfectly land-locked
and free from gales or rough water. The ground is
gently undulating, receding gradually from the water on
an easy grade, and covers many thousands of acres of
land, not .very heavily timbered, which can be cleared at
a trifling cost as compared with other localities. Mr. Van
Home is confident that the terminal city will be one of
the two largest cities on the Pacific Coast—San Francisco
being the other. It is the intention of the company to
dredge out False Creek, so as to give tthem inner docks
in the center of the city. On the completion of the line
in 1885 a line of powerful steamers are to ply to the
Orient in connection with the railway. No effort will be
spared by either the British or Canadian governments to
induce an extensive traffic for this route, which will be
many hundreds of miles nearer the Atlantic seaboard
cities of New York, Boston and Philadelphia than any
other line that crosses the continent The public works
to be carried on at Coal Harbor will entail an expenditure of many millions, as the wharves, docks, the immense
workshops, etc., to be constructed and erected by the
railway company and the Dominion Government will be
first class in every particular. The site is being surveyed
into lots, which will be put on the market in a few weeks.
The terminal town has been named " Vancouver."
The Municipality of Richmond embraces nearly all
that region about the delta of Fraser River commonly
known as the " North Arm," which is the name of the
post office. The general occupation of the 300 people
residing permanently in the settlement is agriculture and
dairying. There are two salmon canneries, employing
500 men in the packing season, and a cheese factory.
The municipality possesses a Town Hall, used also by
the public school, and a church stands just without the
limits, where services are held by various denominations.
The Delta Municipality consists of that portion of the
low lands along Fraser River and the coast lying south
of the South Arm of the river, embracing 40,000 acres of
rich delta lands. Agriculture is the one great industry,
though four canneries in the fishing season give employment to about 800 men. The chief outlet of the settlement is Ladner's Landing, a small village on Fraser
River, whence are shipped large quantities of salmon and
farm products. There are a church, post office, store,
hotel and cannery at this point. Another church and a
public school are maintained in the settlement
Just east of the South Arm settlement, and extending
from Fraser River to Boundary Bay and the international line, is the Municipality of Surrey. There are
three distinct settlements—Hall's Prairie, Clover Valley
and Mud Bay, the first being situated three miles inland,
on Campbell River, a stream discharging into Semiahmoo
Bay near the boundary line. Clover Valley lies north of
the Nicomekl River, which flows into Mud Bay and is
navigable by large vessels a distance of ten miles above
its mouth. Mud Bay is the name of an eastern extension
of Boundary B&y, also of a settlement lying between
Nicomekl and Serpentine rivers. In this settlement
there is a post office. Mud Bay possesses fine oyster
beds, and supplies a large quantity of salmon for the
canneries on the river.
Maple Ridge Municipality lies above New Westminster, on the north bank of Fraser River, between Pitt and
Stave rivers.    The Canadian Pacific runs through its THE  WEST  SHORE.
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285
entire length, some sixteen miles, a station having been
established at Port Hammond, which is a landing point for
all river steamers plying above New Westminster; above
this point there is a public wharf where the mails are
landed, and where stores are situated. There' are in
Maple Ridge three churches, a good public school and a
cheese factory. Agriculture and dairying are the leading pursuits.
Langley Municipality has a frontage of ten miles on
the south side of Fraser River, and is a most prosperous
agricultural settlement Salmon and Nicomekl river
flow through it in opposite directions. Fort Langley, the
outlet, is situated on Fraser River, seventeen miles above
New Westminster, and is a regular stopping' place for
river steamers. A church, two public schools, two stores
a sawmill and a grist mill are adjuncts of the settlement
Chilliwhack is the name of a municipality lying along
both sides of the Fraser River, just east of Langley and
Maple Ridge. It contains a number of good agricultural
settlements, most of them south of the river and back
from it some distance, hidden from the view of travelers
on the steamers and cars. At Popcum, in the upper end,
are a sawmill, tannery and a handsome residence. As
most of the land in that vicinity is Indian Reserve but
little is cultivated. This is a regular steamer landing
Two miles below is the Indian village of Cheam, consisting of good wooden cottages and huts and a neat church
Eight miles from this point is Cheam School District, in
the center of the most thickly settled portion of this
region. Near by is the Episcopalian Church of St
Michael. Four miles below is the village of Centerville
at a regular landing on the river. It contains two
churches, hotel, flouring mill, town hall, stores and a good
public school. The steamboat landing for Chilliwhack is
just a mile distant, where there are three stores, a hotel
and post office. A short distance below Centerville is a
settlement in which are a grist mill and shingle mill.
Seven miles below is the scattered settlement of Lower
Sumas. At the steamboat landing there are a store anc
post office. There is a good school in the settlement.
Dairying and stock raising are the chief occupations, the
land being subject to occasional overflow from the river
Below this point the valley is partly occupied by a large
shallow lake. Upper Sumas, or York's, is about ten
miles south, where there are a government school, hote.
and store and a number of good farms. There is from
this point a trail across the mountains to Wade's Landing, on the Fraser, where there are a hotel and store.
Seven miles from York's, on the road to Langley, is the
settlement and post office of Matsqui, or Riverside, in
quite an extensive stretch of good arable land, but partially occupied. The railway runs down the north side
of the river, passing through the settlements of Ferny
Coombe, Harrison Mouth, Nicoamen and St Mary's
Mission. There is much good unoccupied land on than
side of the river, settlements in the past having been
chiefly confined to the south side of the stream. The
railway, however, is now attracting many settlers to that
portion of the district.   At the Mission is a good flour mill.
YALE DISTKICT.
Yale District comprises more than one-half the southern interior, extending from the Fraser to the Columbia,
and from the international line to the fifty-first parallel,
embracing an area of 24,000 square miles. Through it
run the Thompson, Nicola and Okanagan rivers, with
their many tributary streams and lakes, and along either
side flow the Fraser and Columbia. The Cascade Mountains occupy the southwest section and the Gold Range
lies along the eastern end. Between these lies a high
plateau 150 miles in width. The surface of the plateau
is broken by short ranges and detached groups of mountains crossing and recrossing each other, rendering it
very broken and irregular, and creating many narrow
valleys, through which run the streams, generally in
deeply eroded beds, or in which lie many long, narrow
lakes, some of them alkaline. On the benches, which
rise in terraces from the streams and lakes, is good soil,
well situated for agriculture, being an admixture of
boulder clay and alluvium. Above this the general character of the soil is boulder clay, fertile in its nature, but
situated too high for successful cultivation. Here and
~there the soil is impregnated with alkali. Bunch grass
covers nearly the entire surface below an altitude of 2,000
feet, and sage brush abounds. Timber is not abundant,
being confined to limited groves of red pine on the uplands, and cottonwood and aspen along the streams.
There is considerable mineral land in the district, which
will be spoken of on another page. Stock raising is at
present the leading occupation. Moderately good roads,
constructed by the government, lead through the district,
connecting the various settlements. The Canadian Pacific runs through the western and northern ends, following
the course of the Fraser and Thompson rivers. For
about twenty-one miles above Yale the Fraser is not
navigable, but from that point it is passable by steamers
for some distance. The Thompson, also, beginning twenty
miles above Spence's Bridge, is navigable through Kamloops Lake as far as the Clearwater on North Thompson,
and up the South Thompson through Shuswap Lake to
a considerable distance up Spallumcheen River, whence
a canal of sixteen miles would give the steamers access
to Lake Okanagan. The other streams in the district
cannot be classed as navigable.
The most considerable town in the district, and, next
to New Westminster, the largest and most important in
the interior, is Yale, situated on the west bank of Fraser
River 110 miles above its mouth. The city has a
white population of about 1,000, and an Indian village is
close by, whose occupants engage in salmon fishing and
supply the town with firewood. This was an old post of
the Hudson's Bay Company, and was named in honor of
one of its well-known officers. Besides the offices of the
government, there are several wholesale and retail stores,
a number of good hotels, Episcopalian and Catholic
churches, an excellent public school, post office, telegraph
office, etc. The town is constructed entirely of wood, and "
is protected from fire by a good_engine. Its location is
among some of (the( grandest of the remarkable scenery of 286
THE  WEST  SHORE.
the river, as is indicated by our engraving. Its position
at the'very entrance to the vast interior gives to it special
interest and advantages as a commercial point, especially as it is at the head of navigation on the Lower
Fraser. Stages leave this point for Cariboo on the north
and Okanagan on the south. Already the railway has
been constructed beyond Yale, from the west, and has
been placed in. operation. A few miles below Yale is
Emory, where a sawmill is in operation.
The town of Hope lies on the south side of Fraser
River, nearly 100 miles above its mouth, and is a most
thriving business community. A sawmill, several stores,
hotels and churches, a telegraph office, post office and
excellent school are features of the town. The site consists of a beautiful flat on a bend in the river, opposite
which passes the railway. There is quite an extensive
mineral region tributary to Hope, as well as a considerable area of agricultural and timber lands.
The great highway leading north from Yale is that of
the Yale-Cariboo Wagon Road, constructed by the Colonial Government in 1862-3 at an expense of over $500,000,
and maintained in repair at an annual cost of many thousands. It extends north to the Cariboo mines, making a
graded highway over 400 miles in length, the great main
artery of the interior. Twelve miles above Yale it crosses
the ^Fraser by the Trutch suspension bridge, built at a
cost of 150,000, and standing eighty-eight feet above low
water mark. From this point nearly to Lytton, fifty-
seven miles from Yale, and just below the mouth of
Thompson River, the wagon road and railway run on
opposite sides of the stream, through a grand and picturesque canyon Lytton was named in honor of Lord
Lytton, formerly Colonial Secretary, and owing to its
location is a prosperous business point. Great quantities
of flour and dry goods are sold there annually, the purchasers being the great number of Indians in that region
and the inhabitants of outlying districts, especially of the
rich" Lillooet country further up the Fraser. The trade
of freight teams is also a large item in the general business of the place. The town consists of several large
stores, hotels, shops, livery stables and warehouses, a
sawmill, grist mill, post office, telegraph office, railway
station, public school, court house and many neat residences.
Beyond Lytton the road turns up Thompson River,
and crossing the Nicomin reaches Cook's Ferry, or
Spence's Bridge, twenty-three miles beyond, where it
crosses the Thompson. Here are a post office, telegraph
office, hotel, stores, shops, railway station, etc. A road runs
up the Nicola River to the valley and lake of the same
name, forty-seven miles southeast, from which region the
town derives much support. Cook's Ferry has always
been an important station on the Cariboo route, and the
miners who crowded the trail in the early days made the
fortune of the first proprietor. The river, which is here
300 feet wide, is spanned by'a substantial bridge resting
on several piers. Here the wagon road crosses and follows up the north bank to Cache Creek, passing several
fine estates, the most notable that of Cornwall Brothers
at Ashcroft, the home of the Lieutenant-Governor of the
Province. At the mouth of the Bonaparte, of which
Cache Creek is a tributary, is a flour mill and steamer
landing, where produce is brought by steamers from far
up the Thompson and Spallumcheen. There is quite a
settlement around Cache Creek, as well as shops and a
school. From this point the Cariboo road continues
northward and soon passes out of the district.
Twenty-two miles east of Cache Creek is Savona's
Ferry, at the lower end of Kamloops Lake, where there
are a good store, hotels, steamer landing, etc. A road
passes around the north side of the lake by which the
Tranquille Valley is reached, where is quite a settlement, containing a flour mill and sawmill. Another road:
crosses the Thompson just below the lake and follows up
the south side. A third route of travel is up the lake by
steamer. By all these Fort Kamloops, a Hudson's Bay
post at the upper end of 'the lake, is reached, and just
south of it the town of Kamloops. Opposite this point
is the junction of the North and South Thompson, and,
conseauently, this is an important place on the steamer
routes of both of those streams. Several stores, one of
them belonging to the Hudson's Bay Companv, hotels
and shops, telegraph and post offices, a sawmill, grist
mill and tannery, are the business features of the town,
which is a place of considerable commercial activity.
The Inland Sentinel, an excellent weekly paper, the advance guard of journalism in the interior of British
Columbia, is now published here. Opposite Kamloops is
an Indian Reserve of 10,000 acres, including a village and
neat church. Settlements extend up the North Thompson a distance of fifteen miles, and up the South Thompson as far as Shuswap Lake, which are tributary to
Kamloops. Logs for the mill are rafted from the lake.
The town is also connected by road with the settlements
in Nicola Valley. This is the last town in the district
along the route of the railway.
The Nicola Valley, to which allusion has been made
in speaking of Spence's Bridge and Kamloops, is distant
fifty miles from the former, sixty from the latter and
eighty from Fort Hope, with all of which it is connected
by good wagon roads. A branch line of railway is projected from the Canadian Pacific at Spence's Bridge, to
pass up Nicola River and continue south to the Similka-
meen Valley. In Nicola Valley are four stores, three
hotels, four saw mills, three flouring mills, several shops,
one church, two public schools, one private school, and
some seventy-five families. General agriculture and stock C
raising are the occupations of a majority of the settlers.
Coal and magnetic iron ore are found, the former in
abundance, croppings of it being used by the blacksmiths.
The Spallumcheen Valley, which is connected by
steamer with Kamloops, by way of the South Thompson,
Shuswap Lake and Spallumcheen River, lies along the
river of the same name, extending from the head of Lake
Okanagan to Shuswap Lake, a distance of thirty miles.
This is one of the largest and best agricultural districts
in the Province, requiring no irrigation for the crops,
which yield enormously.    Rivaling this are the valleys of THE  WEST  SHORE.
287
Pleasant and Salmon rivers, a little further to the west,
where the most extensive farming in British Columbia is
carried on.    From Kamloops to Spallumcheen by wagon
-road it is sixty-five miles, and 125 by the steamer route.
Grand Prairie lies still further to the west, thirty-five
miles southeast of Kamloops and seventeen from a landing on South Thompson, with both of which it is connected by a good road. It contains several thousand
acres of arable prairie land, not all settled upon.
Okanagan Valley is one of the most important agricultural districts in British Columbia, and extends, generally speaking, from the head of Okanagan Lake south
along the lake and river to the junction of the stream
with the Columbia in Washington Territory, sixty miles
south of the line. Lake Okanagan is seventy-five miles
long, the river flowing from the lower end and passing in
its course through several smaller lakes. With the exception of a fall of eight feet in the river at one point,
there is nothing to prevent steamer navigation from the
; head of the lake to the Columbia. It is expected that .a
canal will be cut from the"" head of Lake Okanagan to
Spallumcheen River, opening the lake to the steamers
plying on Thompson River, and giving a water outlet to
this whole region. The principal portion of the farming
land in the Okanagan region, lying within the Provincial
limits, is a stretch of forty miles, extending north from
the mission to the head of the lake, on the east side, and
is known as " Mission Valley." It is distant 160 miles
by trail from Fort Hope and 100 by road from Kamloops
via Spallumcheen. In the valley are a store, shops, four
flouring mills, a saw and planing mill, school, post office
and church, the last being a fine edifice belonging to the
Roman Catholics, who established a mission here many
years ago. Sixty miles east are, the Cherry Creek silver
mines, and to.the south the rich mineral region lying
along both sides of the international line. Coldstream is
the name of a valley branching off to the east from the
upper end of Mission Valley. It is sixteen miles from
the head of navigation on the Spallumcheen, and contains two stores and a post office.
South of Lake Okanagan, on the border line of the
Province, is a rich mineral region as yet undeveloped,
which will in time become of much importance. There
are also several arable valleys, in which the land will be
exceedingly Valuable when a mining population springs
up to give a better market At Osoyoos Lake, which
stretches across the boundary line, is a Dominion custom
house. Kettle River, a stream to the eastward, flowing
into the Columbia, and lying chiefly in Washington Territory, has much good farming and grazing land. It is
170 miles from Fort Hope, on the Fraser, and eighty
from Fort Colville, on the Columbia, in Washington Territory. Similkameen Valley lies along a stream of that
name flowing northeasterly from the international line a
distance of seventy mi'js, and then turning to the southeast to discharge intj Okanagan River. There is much
good agricultural an 1 grazing land in the valley. A flour
mill, two stores and blacksmith shop represent the business industries.    Gold is found along the stream and
many rich but undeveloped quartz ledges have been
located. Goods are packed from Fort Hope to Kere-
meeos, the chief settlement, a distance of 100 miles.
KOOTENAY  DISTBICT.
The southeast portion of British Columbia, known as
the Kootenay country, has of late attracted considerable
attention by reason of the efforts of a transportation
company to secure charter and land grants for a railroad
and steamboat line to open it up and develop its resources. For years it has been known to the men connected with the great Hudson's Bay Company, and more
than twenty years ago attracted general notice throughout the West by the discovery of valuable placer diggings.
Placer mining has been carried on along the Kootenay
River quite extensively ever since, and the discovery of
exceedingly rich quartz ledges is the primal reason for
the formation of a railroad and steamboat company. The
Kootenay River rises in British Columbia, flows southerly into Montana and Idaho, and then sweeps north
again, across the international line, and discharges its
waters into Kootenay Lake, and thence again into the
Columbia. The project of the company is to navigate
the lake and the Columbia River with steamers, and to
connect the two by a railroad forty-five miles in length.
The farming country consists of a belt along the Kootenay River from the forty-ninth parallel north fifty miles,
with a varying width of two to ten miles, being rolling
hills and bottom lands, covered with bunch grass, and
having a light, sandy soil. Along a series of lakes near
the river is a valley thirty by fifteen miles, one of the
most beautiful portions of British Columbia, having a
rich soil, good grass, water and timber. Wheat, oats,
potatoes, corn, onions, beans and all kindred products of
the finest quality can be produced in abundance. Salmon
reach this point in countless numbers from the Columbia,
despite the rapids and falls that are encountered on their
journey from the ocean. The severe winter of 1882 was
the only one in the two decades of its settlement that
cattle and horses did not survive in good condition without other feed-than the ranges supply. The few Indians
who live there are friendly, peaceful and self-sustaining,
do a little farming, and raise cattle and horses. They
hunt in winter, the surrounding region abounding in
bear, deer, elk, mountain sheep, white goat, fox, fisher,
mink, marten, beaver, lynx and otter, and the streams in
salmon, salmon trout and the delicious mountain trout.
Timber of the finest quality stands on the hills in
abundance.
A company of English capitalists are engaged in a
reclamation scheme in the valley of the lower Kootenay.
The valley at that point is about five miles wide, and is,
for the most part, subject to overflow in the spring, water
rising over twenty feet It is proposed to reduce the
volume of water in two ways: first, by cutting a canal
from the river to Columbia Lake, where the two approach
within less than a mile of each other; second, by widening the outlet of Lake Kootenay. These improvements
will cost between $100,000 and $150,000, and will reclaim 288
THE   WEST  SHORE.
40,000 acres of splendid alluvial land. The company's
representative thus states the object aimed at: "Concerning our intentions regarding the river lands, which
we have leased, with the option of purchase from the
Government, I may say that we propose forming on them
the Kootenay colony for immigrants of the best class—
that is, men of means, chiefly English army officers who
have capital of their own, and who desire to live in a
beautiful country under the English crown, where sport
is of such exceptional excellence as it is around Kootenay."
The other agricultural portion of the district is the
valley along Columbia Lake, in which there are many
thousand acres of arable and grazing lands open to settlement. Within less than two years^ the Canadian Pacific
' will have been constructed across the district, some distance north of these agricultural portions, and will render
them much more accessible than at present The projected
lines of the Columbia & Kootenay Transportation Company will be even more effective in that respect. The
mineral wealth of Kootenay is pronounced marvelous by
those who have examined it, and it only needs these
transportation facilities to render its development possible.
LILLOOET  AND  CLINTON.
On the west; bank of the Fraser, about thirty miles
north of the mouth of Thompson River, in a valley about
six miles long and four wide, lies the town of Lillooet,
once a place of much importance on the route to the
Cariboo mines. A change in the route of travel has
affected it disastrously, though the surrounding agricultural country renders it considerable support At present
it consists of a broad business street, a number of residences, an Episcopal church and public school. Much
prospecting is being done in the vicinity, and the future
may witness a great change for the better in its fortunes.
Two miles south is a good flouring mill. At the south
end of this valley is Seton Lake, fifteen miles in length,
connected with Lake Anderson by a mile portage. The
greater portion of the arable land in this region is occupied, except in Pemberton Meadows, on Lillooet Lake,
lying southwest of Lake Anderson, and connected with it
by Mosquito River. Lillooet District embraces also
Bridge River, a stream entering the Fraser north of the
valley, as well as 100 miles of the Fraser itself, along
which there are auriferous deposits which are being
worked, though not on an extensive scale. The government maintains a wagon road to "Clinton, a point on the
Cariboo road fifty miles to the northeast, by which mail
is received. There is a trail down the river to Lytton,
the supply point for goods.
The town of Clinton lies in Cut-off, or Clinton, Valley,
on the wagon road to Cariboo, 126 miles north of Yale.
It was laid out on a magnificent scale in 1862, during the
mining excitement, but its great hopes were never realized. It is now an important point on the stage line, and
a distributing point for mails to the surrounding settlements. The population somewhat exceeds 100. The
altitude of the valley is 3,000 feet, yet agriculture is car
ried on very successfully, vegetables, and especially potatoes, being quite prolific. The valley of the Bonaparte,
a neighboring and tributary region, contains much valuable agricultural and grazing land. Pavilion Mountain,
on the road to Lillooet, is another agricultural district
At Big Slide, Dog Creek and Big Bar, on the Fraser, "are
many settlers engaged in both farming and mining. The
numerous lakes, streams, gorges and mountain peaks in
the vicinity render this a region of most picturesque
beauty.
CAEIBOO AND  CASSIAR.
Cariboo District embraces the whole region of the
upper Fraser above the Lake La Hache country, and
since 1861 has been noted as the great mining region of
British Columbia, since which time fully $40,000,000 have
been taken from the ground. Mining is still being carried on, the annual product exceeding $500,000.- Near
the southern end of the district is Lake Quesnel, a long,
narrow body of water, with two arms branching out to
the east and north. Many other lakes, though much
smaller in size, are scattAred through the district The
chief town is Barkerville, on Williams Creek, at the
northern terminus of the wagon road from Yale. The
population, including Chinese and Indians, is about 300.
Three hotels, seven stores, six saloons, several shops, a
school, two churches, post and telegraph offices, a hospital, theater and a good fire brigade are features of the
town. In the flush times of mining Barkerville was a
bustling place, and even now the business transacted is
very large in proportion to the population and building
improvements. At Richfield, one mile south on the
same creek, are the court house and Government office
for the district, a saw mill, a church and the usual adjuncts of a small town. Thirteen miles distant is Stanley, on Lightning Creek, once a very thriving business
place, and still an important mining campr At the confluence of the Quesnel with the Fraser is Quesnel, a town
of about 100 inhabitants. There are two hotels, four
stores, three Chinese stores, "two saloons, shops, telegraph
and post offices, and a school.. This is a central depot
for the Hudson's Bay Company, and furs are collected
here, from the surrounding country for many miles in all
directions. A steamer plys from this point down the
Fraser to Soda Creek, fifty-three miles below, passing
Alexandria, an old -Hudson's Bay post, about midway.
Soda Creek has two hotels, stores, shops, telegraph and
post offices, and a flour mill. West of the Fraser for
many miles is an elevated, rolling plateau Ipiown as the
" Chilcotin Country," through which runs a river of the
same name. It is a vast tract of rolling prairie and
lightly timbered country almost wholly unoccupied. The
chief agricultural section of the district is near its southern end, including the land along the beautiful Lake La
Hache, San Jose River and Lake Williams, and at Soda
Creek and Alexandria. At the One Hundred and Fifty
Mile House, near Lake Williams, is a flouring mill.
About sixty miles northeast is a small-town at the forks
of the Quesnel, chiefly-populated by Chinese. THE  WEST  SHORE.
289
The district of Cassiar occupies the upper end of the
Province, that lying north of the fifty-fourth parallel and
west and north of Fraser River. It is bordered on the
coast side for nearly its entire length by the United
States Alaskan possessions. Through it run the Stickeen,
Skeena, Nass and other streams falling into the Pacific,
numerous small tributaries of the Fraser, and Peace and
Laird rivers, confluents of the great Mackenzie. This
region has come into prominence during the past decade
as a rich and extensive mining region. The population,,
chiefly engaged in placer mining, is about 500. About
$20,000 worth of furs are collected here annually by the
Hudson's Bay Company. The climate in winter is extremely rigorous, and the summer season is only five
months long; yet, in places, agriculture is carried on
successfully. Along the Stickeen hardy cereals and vegetables are cultivated. Potatoes and vegetables thrive at
Dease Lake and on Dease River, McDame Creek and
Deloire River. The timber is spruce and pine of a diminutive growth and possessing no commercial value.
UPPEK COAST AND ISLANDS.
From the head of Vancouver Island to the southern
extremity of Alaska the coast presents the same indented
and tortuous line, flanked by innumerable islands, though
without the great outlying land, except in the extreme
north, where the Queen Charlotte group shelters for
many miles the inner islands which fringe the coast.
The mountains border closely upon the sea, their sides,
as well as the mountainous surfaces of the adjacent
islands, being densely covered with timber. The population of this region is chiefly Indian, and they are both
intelligent and industrious, performing nearly all the
labor of the two industries—salmon canning and lumbering—which have gained a foothold there. The climate is
mild, the thermometer in the southern portion never falling below zero, and but seldom doing so in the extreme
northern end. The rainfall is very great, the mountains
of the coast causing the first precipitation of rain from
the warm, moisture-laden air moving inland from the
Japan current.
In going north, passing by many inlets, channels and
bays, Rivers Inlet is the first reached where industries have
been established. At its head is situated the village of
Weekeeno. On the inlet are two salmon canneries and a
saw mill. Bella Coola is situated at the head of Burke
Channel, on the North Bentinck Arm. It is the site of a
Hudson's Bay Company post, and years ago was the landing place for the Cariboo mines. Bella Coola River is a
considerable stream entering the arm from across the
mountains. Here is a tract of some 2,000 acres of rich
delta land, which is partially cultivated by the Indians.
Bella Bella is a Hudson's Bay post on Campbell Island,
near the head of Milbank Sound, 400 miles north of Victoria. There are three Indian villages, with a combined
population of 500. The next important point is the
mouth of Skeena River, a large stream flowing from the
interior. It is a prolific salmon stream, and there are
three canneries on its banks—one at Aberdeen, another
at Inverness Slough, and a third at Port Essington, nea r
its mouth, where there is a small village of=traders, fishermen and Indians. The river is navigable for light
draught steamers as far as Mumford Landing, sixty miles
inland, and 200 miles further for canoes. There are two
missionary stations on the river, and along its course are
many spots favorable for settlements.
Sixteen miles beyond the mouth of the Skeena is the
town of Metlakahtla, on the Tsimpsheean Peninsula.
There are a store, salmon cannery, a large church and
school house. This is an Indian missionary station,
about which are gathered fully 1,000 Tsimpsheean Indians, who have been taught many of the mechanical arts.
They have a sawmill, barrel factory, blacksmith shop,
live in good wooden houses, do the work at the cannery,
and are industrious in many other ways, the women having learned the art of weaving woolen fabrics. Fifteen
miles beyond Metlakahtla, on the northwest end of the
same peninsula, is the important station of Fort Simpson,
separated from Alaska Territory by the channel of Portland Inlet. This is one of the finest harbors in British
Columbia, and was for years the most important post of
the Hudson's Bay Company in the upper country, furs
being brought there from the vast interior. Besides the
company's post, the Methodist mission has buildings
valued at $9,000. There are about 800 Indians in the
village, most of them living in good shingled houses and
wearing civilized costumes. They are governed by a
council, and have various organizations, including a temperance society, rifle company, fire company and a brass
band. They earn much money in the fisheries. Forty
miles up the Portland Channel is the mouth of Nass
River, a very important stream in the fishing industry,
being the greatest known resort of the oolachan. Two
salmon canneries, a saw mill, store, two missionary stations and several Indian villages are situated along the
stream. The climate is favorable to the growth of fruit,
cereals and root crops near the coast, and there are a
number of quite extensive tracts of bottom lands requiring only to be cleared to render them fit for agriculture
or grazing. Further up the stream there are a number
of good locations, and several settlements have been made.
Gold is found in small quantities along the river, and it
is probable that thorough prospecting would reveal the
presence of the metal in paying quantities.
A special feature of the Province is the outlying
group of large islands known as the Queen Charlotte
Islands, the upper end lying nearly opposite the southern
extremity of Alaska. They are three in number—
Graham, Moresby and Provost—and are about 170 miles
long and 100 wide. They are mountainous and heavily
timbered, and the climate is more genial and the rainfall
less than on the mainland coast. Along the northern
end of Graham, the most northerly of the group, is a
tract of low lands thirty-five miles in extent, and much
level, arable land is to be found elsewhere, which only
requires clearing. There are also many extensive marshy
flats requiring drainage to render them fit for cultivation.
The mineral resources of the islands are undoubtedly (T
290
THE  WEST  SHORE.
great The Government has dispatched several exploring parties into this region, one of which has been engaged in the work since early in the summer. There
will undoubtedly soon be considerable development of its
resources. The only industry now established is the
works of the Skidegate Oil Company, on Skidegate
Island, in a good harbor at the southern end of Graham
Island. In connection with this is a store. The Hudson's Bay Company has a store and trading post at Mas-
sett, near the upper end of Graham Island, where there
are a Protestant mission and a large Indian village. There
are several villages on each of the islands of the group,
occupied by the Hydah Indians, the most intelligent of
thfi aboriginal inhabitants of the coast.
CLIMATE  OF  BBITISH  COLUMBIA.
One of the first considerations of a person contemplating a complete change of residence—a location for
life in a new and distant country—is that of climate. Is
it radically different from that to which he is accustomed; is that difference in the direction of an improvement or the reverse; and what effect will the change
probably have upon the health of the-individual? These
are the leading questions to be considered. The writer
will not undertake to decide these points, but simply to
supply the data by which a decision may be reached by
competent authority. He will give a plain statement of
meteorological facts, permitting each inquirer to compare
them with those of his own locality and decide for himself, or to submit them to a physician for a professional
opinion.
In the first place, it must be understood that the
climate varies considerably, owing to atmospheric conditions and local causes. The Province is naturally divided
into two districts, insular and continental—and these,
owing to the vast area and mountainous surface, are again
subdivided into districts with more or less distinctly defined boundaries. Taken as a whole, the climate is much
more moderate and equable than that of any other portion of Canada, each district enjoying cooler summers
and milder winters than any region of a corresponding
altitude lying east of the Rocky Mountains. Primarily
the one great cause of this prevailing characteristic's the
great ocean stream of warm water known to hydrogra-
phers as the " Japan current." This great volume of comparatively warm water flows northerly from the Japan
coast until it strikes the islands of the Aleutian Archipelago, when it is deflected eastward, crossing south of the
Alaskan Sea and striking the upper end of the Queen
Islands, where its course is again changed, and
south along the cOast of British Columbia,
summer reigns wherever the full influence of
ocean river is felt Even in the midst of win-
Hyperborean blasts sweep the plains east of
j Mountains, the warm breezes from the sea
the islands and mainland, and penetrate far
nterior among the many valleys of the moun-
Lr modifying influence gradually lessening as
C
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ter, when
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tains, the
flowers bloom, vegetation remains green and bright, and
there is little save the almanac to inform the stranger
that winter is at hand, though the native knows it from
the increased rainfall. The warm, moisture-laden currents of air coming from the southwest meet the colder
atmosphere from the north, and the result is frequent and
copious rains during the winter season, the rainfall being
much more abundant on the mainland coast than on the
islands or in the interior. Observations taken at the
meteorological station at Esquimalt, near Victoria, for
the three successive years of 1874r-5-6, show the following results:
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they advance.    In the regions fully subject to them
Of the climate the Marquis of Lome said in 1882:
"No words can be too strong to express the charm
of this delighful land, where the climate, softer and more
constant than that of the south of England, insures, at all
times of the year, a full enjoyment of the wonderful loveliness of Nature around you. Agreeable as I think the
steady and dry cold of an Eastern winter is, yet there are
very many who would undoubtedly prefer the temperature enjoyed by those who live west of the mountains.
Even where it is coldest, spring comes in February, and THE  WEST  SHOBE.
^qrth-Wellington-
B.C.
liiiiiiiiyJl- .it
WEST SHORE- THE  WEST  SHORE. THE  WEST  SHORE.
291
the country is so divided into districts of greater dryness
or greater moisture, that a man may always choose
whether to have a rainfall small or great."
The climate of the southeastern portion of Vancouver
Island, the region in which Victoria is situated, is universally conceded to be the most delightful on the Paeific
Coast Here much less rain falls than,on the adjacent
mainland or upon the island further north, or the numerous small ones and the large ones of the Queen Charlotte
group still further to the northward. Much of the moisture is ta^en from the atmosphere by the mountains
lying between Victoria and the ocean, and the second
precipation does not occur until the winds strike the high
lands of .the opposite coast Snow seldom falls, and then
- lies but a short time. The climate of that point is truly
delightful, and is at all times invigorating, the rainy
season never having the depressing and enervating effect
so often observed in regions possessing somewhat similar climatic conditions.
The climate of the mainland coast opposite Vancouver Island differs somewhat from that just described.
In the summer the temperature averages slightly,higher
and in winter somewhat lower, while the rainfall is
greater immediately along the coast, decreasing towards
the interior. The lower Fraser Valley (New Westminster District) does not receive in summer the cold breezes
from the Olympian Mountains- which blow across Victoria, nor does it receive in winter so much of the genial
warmth of the warm ocean air. As a general thing ice
forms on the river for a short time, and snow begins to
fall in January and continues to do so intermittently till
March, the ground not being continuously covered with
it There are occasional severe winters, so called by the
residents, though by no means severe as that term is
understood on the eastern slope of the continent The
rainfall at New Westminster is somewhat greater than
on the flats at the mouth of Fraser River. It is also less
as the river is ascended until Hope is reached, where it
is about the same as at New Westminster. These variations are due solely to local causes. Above Yale it
decreases rapidly as the interior is penetrated. Observations for seven consecutive years—1874 to 1880—at New
Westminster give the following means and extremes:
Highest Lowest Mean
Maximum Minimum Mean Rainfall*
Temp. Temp. Temp. Inches.
January.  57.0 7.0 34.3 8.16
February  57.0 16.0 37.3 7.19
March  65.0 18.0 39.7 6.27
April  81.0 20.0 47.9 2.92
May.  82.0 34.5 54.2 3.49
June  90.0 38.0 58.0 2.32
July  92.0 45.5 63.3 1.78
August  84.0 44.0 60.2 1.96
September  81.5 39.5 56.5 3.44
October  75.0 26.0 48.1 5.70
November  59.0 14.0 39.9 6.95
December  56.0 8.5 35.8 9.48
Totalmean  .... .... 59.66
♦Including snow reduced to water. Greatest yearly rainfall, 69.15; least,
49.43. Greatest yearly snowfall, 101.3 in.; least, 1.7 in. Mean for seven years,
51.2.   Greatest in one day^ 11.5.
The climate of the interior, that portion of the Province lying above ? and to the east of Yale, is radically
different from that of the coast, being drier and subject
to greater extremes of temperature, though not entirely
beyond the soft influences of the Japan current.    In the
Province the Coast Range Mountains are, so far as location is concerned, a practical continuation of the Cascades, the whole having a general trend towards the
northwest. To the east of this the general surface of the
country is more elevated than on the west, and the atmosphere much drier, as the mountains relieve the air of its
load of moisture. The flora is different, the trees of
smaller size, and" everything indicates a change in climatic conditions. The mean annual temperature does
not differ much from that of the coast region, but the
summer and winter extremes are much greater, and there
is also much variation in different districts, owing to
situation and local causes. The total precipitation of
rain and snow is very small. Wherever there occurs a
mountain barrier, there the fall of rain and snow is
heavier at its western base and correspondingly light on
the lee side. In the Gold and Selkirk ranges, in the
southeastern portion of the Province, the winters are
more severe and snowfall heavier than in the lower and
more open portions. In that part which may be clashed
as the "Southern Inteior," the climate, as a whole, is,
milder than the more northern districts. In summer the
heat is sometimes very great, though sunstrokes are unknown, and the evenings and nights are rendered comfortable by cooling breezes. Winter weather continues
about four months, the remainder of the year being quite
agreeable and enjoyable. Snow seldom exceeds, two and
one-half feet in the open, and occasionally, in some localities, stock remain out the entire season, though the
prudent farmer keeps a good supply of food for their use
when necessary. As compared with Eastern Canada the
snowfall is much lighter, the " cold snaps" are less
severe and of shorter duration, and the winter season is
by no means so long. Observations made in 1875 at
Spence's Bridge, on Thompson River, are contrasted in
the subjoined table with those at Esquimalt during the
same period:
I     Maximum    i     Min
Months.       Tempebatuke. Tempe
S-- B.  J   Esq.      S. B.
April	
May	
Jufy-' '■'■'.'.'■'.'■
August	
September..
October	
November...
December...
94.0
84.0
73.0
62.0
47.0
—29.0
49.0
4.0
48.0
6.0
64.1
15.0
66.9
35.0 •
69.9
40.0
79.4
47.0
76.9
43.0
69.9
45.0
66.9
31.0
54.9
12.0
54.9
—12.0
45.4
45.4
42.9
61.2
51.9
24.0
50.2
54.7
60.9
41.0
48.0
51.0
51.0
39.0
42.0
50.0
27.8
Extreme range of thermometer: Spence's Bridge, 127.0; Esquimalt, 71.4.
The climate* changes materially as we proceed north
from the region just considered. . The general surface of
the country has a higher elevation, and the Cariboo and
other mountain masses fender it quite broken and rugged. The summers are quite warm, but of shorter duration; winter continues longer, and the fall of snow and
rain is heavier. The forests are denser and the trees of
a larger growth. In the valley of the Fraser, within this
district, the climate is milder than that of the surrounding higher altitudes, and the atmosphere is drier, the
valley and the benches and rolling hills and valleys of
the western tributaries being covered with bunch grass. 292
THE  WEST   SHORE.
Taken as a whole, the climate, widely differing as it
does in places, is salubrious and invigorating. No ague-
breeding marshes- nor miasmatic infection taint the
atmosphere. The individual may choose for himself the
character of climate he may prefer, feeling certain that
everywhere, be it on the islands, along the coast or in the
interior, he will find one that is conducive to health,
invigorating and calculated to inspire physical activity.
AGRICULTURE IN BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Although in proportion to the entire area of the Province the land suitable for agriculture is small, there are,
in the aggregate, about 10,000 square miles of arable
soil, so diverse in character, location and climatic conditions as to be suited to the production of every fruit, cereal,
vegetable, plant and flower known to the temperate zone.
The mind must be primarily relieved of the idea, so
common and so natural, that this region lies too far north
for the success of general agriculture. -The conditions
are entirely distinct from those which exist on the Atlantic Slope of America, as will be understood by reading
the remarks on climate in these pages. The difficulty
encountered in the agricultural development of British
Columbia has never been a climatic one, but has been the
result of the extremely rugged and mountainous character
of the country, rendering the agricultural areas comparatively small, far removed from each other, and difficult of
access. There are in the Province thousands upon thousands of acres of good fertile soil, to cultivate which has
been impossible because of the absence of either a local
market or facilities for shipping produce to any point
where it is in demand. These conditions are now rapidly
changing. New transportation routes are constantly
being opened. Especially will a revolution be created by
the Canadian Pacific Railway, whose route passes from
end to end through the very heart of the Province.
Agriculture will share with other industries the beneficent
effects of that great enterprise.
The Government holds out most tempting inducements for settlement upon the public lands, requiring
only good faith and compliance with the very liberal land
laws on the part of the settler. There are two classes of
land,—exclusive of mineral land, which will not here be
considered,—that belonging to the Province and that
donated to the Dominion Government in consideration of
railway improvements. The latter consists of a belt
forty miles wide, twenty each side of the Canadian Pacific
Railway; outside of this the Province owns all land not
now the property of private individuals or corporations,
and all is open to settlement except certain tracts reserved
to aid enterprises for the public benefit. The naturalization laws are very liberal, even more so than in the
United States. All that is necessary to become a citizen,
possessed of all political and other rights, is a declaration
of intention to become such, supplemented by three
years' residence and the oath of allegiance. An alien
can transact business and hold real estate.
A pre-emption or homestead claim east of the Cascades, or Coast Range, is limited to 320 acres; west of
the mountains to 160 acres. Partners to the number of
four can pre-empt in one body not to exceed the' above
limit for each person. Any surveyed or unsurveyed
Crown lands, not already occupied or recorded, may be
entered as either a pre-emption or homestead by any
head of a family, widow or single man over eighteen
years of age, who is a British subject or an alien who has
declared his intention to become such. The homestead
law protects duly registered real and personal property
to the amount of $2,500 (£513 13s. lid. sterling) from
seizure and sale. The price of lands is $1 (4s. l^d. sterling) per acre, payable in four annual installments, beginning at the end of the 'first year. Patent will be
granted when full payment has been made, upon proof of
continuous residence upon the land, in person or by
agent, for two years from date of record, and of the existence of permanent improvements to the value of $2.50
per acre. Aliens must complete their naturalization before they are entitled to receive a patent. Unsurveyed
lands may be purchased in tracts of not less than 160
acres, at $1 per acre, payable at time of purchase, land to
be surveyed at the expense of the purchaser. A person
is deemed to have resided continuously upon his land
when his absence therefrom does not extend to two consecutive months, or amount in the total to four months
during the year. These are the principal features of the
law, upon which the intending settler can readily more
fully inform himself. The Government has agents in the
various districts, who look after the interests of immigrants who desire to settle upon the public lands. There
is at Victoria a general Immigration Office, at which*
strangers should apply for information and advice. Here
will be found Mr. W. M. Halpenny, the Government
guide for Vancouver Island, who will not only supply all
needed information, but will accompany parties into the
country and aid them in selecting suitable locations.
To one who has perused the preceding pages there is
no need to again describe the location of the various agricultural districts. On Vancouver Island are to be found
splendid locations for hundreds of families, and the
opening of the railway reserve will supply hundreds
more. It is estimated that there are 389,000 acres of
arable land on the island, of which 300,000 are well suited
for agriculture, the greater portion, however, being
densely timbered. The nature of the soil and products
has already been spoken of. This mammoth island and
the numerous smaller ones along the coast will in a few
years be settled upon by thousands. The New Westminster District, of which much has been said, is not
exceeded in fertility by any tract of land on~4he Coast.
The productiveness of the delta lands is marvelous.
Statistics carefully prepared give the return, per acre, at
75 bushels of oats; hay, 3£ tons; barley, 40 bushels; turnips, 40 to 50 tons; potatoes, 80 tons. Roots and vegetables attain an enormous size, and the yield to the acre is
prolific. The growing and ripening seasons being slow,
the farmer is given ample time to prepare the soil to
receive the seed, and, after it has ripened, to harvest and
house the result of his labor and toil.   A ready market is THE  WEST  SHORE.
297
found almost [at his door for the products of his farm, at
very good prices, as the following list of ruling rates will
demonstrate : Hay, per ton, $15 to $18 ; wheat and oats,
$40 to $50 ; barley, $35 to $40 ; potatoes, $30 to $35 ;
carrots, $10 to $15 ; mangolds, $8. The dairy and poultry business can be rendered exceedingly remunerative.
Fresh eggs are always in demand at figures ranging from
40 to 75 cents per dozen. A large quantity are imported
annually. Ghickens, by the dozen, realize $8 to $10 ;
turkeys, 30 to 35 cents per pound ; geese, from $2.50 to
$3.50 each; ducks, $1 per pair; dairy butter, 50 to 60
cents per pound ; cheese, 25 to 30 cents pei pound.
The progress of settlement is very much retarded by
. the fact that a considerable quantity of the delta, as well
as the alder, cedar and pine bottom lands, are held by
speculators, who, beyond paying their taxes, do nothing
by way of improvements. Many of these are anxious to
sell, and purchasers, at times, can, secure capital farms at
fair figures. A considerable amount has been expended
.in dyking and reclaiming delta lands. Much in this way
can still be done with profit to the investor and advantage to the country.
In this district there are 250,000 acres of prairie, or
lightly wooded lands, including some 15,000 acres lying
between Chilliwhack and Hope. The lands not already
occupied are the property of the Dominion Government,
being the railway lands. Many have already located on
these lands. Their claims, according to priority, will be
duly considered.
| The great abundance of land open to settlement is in
the interior, which has remained unoccupied, chiefly because of its isolation from market. This will soon be
changed by the completion of the great railway, whose
route, happily, is an intermediate one, affording an outlet
to the greatest number of districts. Dr. G. M. Dawson,
a man whose investigations make him the best authority
on the subject, estimates the whole area of agricultural
lands east of Fraser River, in the southern portion of the
Province, at 1,000 square miles, which may be easily utilized. In the Spallumcheen, Salmon, Okanagan, Kootenay
and Columbia, regions there are thousands upon thousands
of acres of arable land yet to be claimed. Some Of this is
so situated as to require irrigation, but the greater portion yields abundant crops without artificial watering of
the soil. There are quite extensive bench lands, where
the-soil is fertile, but the rainfall too light and the land
too [high for successful irrigation. What can be done
upon such lands by means of artesian wells has yet to be
ascertained. They are, however, covered with the nutritious bunch grass peculiar to that portion of the American
Continent, and make unexcelled ranges for cattle. The
bunch grass cures on the roots, as it stands, and remains
as hay until it is renewed in the spring ; cattle graze upon
it all winter. They do not require other food except in
exceptional seasons, when the snow may for a short time
be too deep for them, or have a crust upon it With a
Mttle food on hand for such emergencies, the stockman is
prepared for the hardest winter. The grass is so nourishing that stock are fat and in condition for market early
in the spring. The ranges in the southern portion of the
Province are pretty well occupied, but there are others
further north. Stock can be raised for shipment to Europe as soon as all rail connection is made with the East.
The country possesses, of course, the same advantages for
sheep that it does for cattle and horses.
There is a large agricultural section, an extensive
area of low land, lying west of Fraser River and chiefly
north of the fifty-first parallel, which Dr. Dawson estimates at 1,230 square miles. Of it he says : " The soil
is almost uniformly good ; but, being to a great extent
covered with trees, it cannot be utilized so readily for
agricultural purposes, and it lies, besides, off the route of
the railways, and is not likely to be opened up for some
time. Still, it is a country which I have every reason to
believe will be occupied eventually by an agricultural
population." The same authority says that there are on
Peace River, at an average elevation of 2,000 feet above
the sea, 23,500 square miles of good arable land, of which
about 6,000 lie within the limits of British Columbia.
Wherever wheat, oats and barley have been tried in that
region, they have produced excellent crops. Potatoes
grow to great size and perfection. There is no doubt
that the whole area will eventually be cultivated. Professor Macoun, botanist of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Survey, says of the same region : "I consider nearly all
of the Peace River section—including the portion in
British Columbia—to be well suited for raising cereals of
all kinds, and two-thirds of it fit for wheat. The soil is
as good as any part of Manitoba, and the climate, if anything, milder."
There is another considerable agricultural area, as yet
wholly unoccupied—the Queen Charlotte Islands. Little
as the topographical features of the group are known, it
is certain that at the upper end of the most northerly one
there are about 70,000 acres of cultivable land, where the
climate is such as to render a residence pleasant, and
agricultural pursuits highly successful. A number of
cattle have been sent to the Islands the present season,
and it is probable that the land will be occupied by stockmen before they are devoted gradually to the purposes of
more general agriculture.
Fruits of the temperate zone grow to perfection on
Vancouver Island, along the Lower Fraser and in the
mountain valleys of the interior. The Province is capable of supplying the Dominion with the choicest of
apples, pears, plums, peaches, grapes, cherries, etc., and,
though no effort has been made to raise these for export,
the market soon to be opened by the completion of the
railway will no doubt stimulate the fruit industry and
cause the planting of many extensive orchards. The
settler who possesses a bearing orchard will find that he
has a source of income his neighbors are deprived of.
MINERAL   RESOURCES.
There exist within the limits of British Columbia large
deposits of the precious and useful metals, many of which
have been systematically and profitably mined for years,
while others are only awaiting the development of which 298
THE   WEST  SHORE.
they are capable to become a source of great wealth to
the Province. The list is a long one, embracing gold,
silver, copper, iron, coal, lead, cinnabar, platinum, antimony, bismuth, plumbago, limestone, marble and salt.
Of these the most extensively worked and valuable are
gold and coal.
Gold mining first brought this region into prominence,
gave it population and started it upon the highway of
prosperity. It was for years the only important industry,
that upon which all others depended, and is to-day the
leading one of the many that have sprung up around it.
Mining first began on the Fraser about 1856, and this was
the cause of the great Fraser River excitement which
swept the Coast two years later. The gold on the river
bars and benches is very fine, and requires the use of
quicksilver. From Hope to above Alexandria the river
is bordered by a series of benches, one rising above
another, throughout which this fine gold is found. The
early ^miners, used to the coarse gold of the California
gulches, were severely disappointed in their expectations,
and this, combined with the fact that water in the river
was high and prevented the working of the bars, caused
the majority of them to hasten back to their abandoned
claims, loudly proclaiming Fraser River a humbug.
Those who remained, however, took out large quantities
of dust, and the Fraser still yields its annual supply of
gold. The mining along the stream at present is carried
on chiefly by Chinamen and by the white settlers, who engage in it at favorable opportunities, at times when their
labor is not required on their farms. It was soon noticed
that the gold further up the stream was coarser, and this
led to prospecting, which discovered the Quesnel mines
in 1859 and the rich gold fields of Cariboo in 1860. The
report of this new discovery caused another excitement
nearly as great as the first one. Cariboo has remained to
this day the great placer mining region of British Columbia. The Omineca minej3, still further north than Cariboo, have also added their quota to the gold product, but
the amount of land travel necessary to reach them, and
the consequent high price of everything, has served to
keep back their development. Rich diggings were discovered about ten years ago on Dease and Thibert creeksj
in the Cassiar region, the extreme northwestern corner of
the Province. These have since been worked with good
results, being more accessible than Omineca. The route
is by sea to Fort Wrangell, thence up the Stickeen river
by steamer to within eighty-five miles of the mines.
In the southern end of-the province are the Similka-
meen and Kootenay quartz regions. The former lies along
the international line west of Osooyos lake, and has of
late attracted great attention from quartz miners. Exceedingly rich prospects have been found and capital from
both sides of the line is being invested for their development. The same is true of the ledges of Kootenay, to
reach which is the chief object of the transportation
scheme spoken of in connection with that region on another page. Silver ore yielding high assays has been
found near Hope and Yale, on the Fraser, at Cherry
Creek, a tributary of the Shuswap, at Omineca, Koote-1
nay, Upper Columbia and Similkameen. These prospects
give every promise of development into rich silver mines
in the future. Mining laws are liberal and strictly enforced. Peace and order prevails in the mines, and the
rights of all are fully protected by law. The era of
quartz mining is just beginning to dawn in British Columbia, following the appearance of cheaper and quicker
methods of transportation.
The condition of mining in the Province is thus set
forth by Dr.  Dawson, the authority quoted on agriculture, whose practical knowledge and unrivalled opportunities make him the best authority on the subject :    " The
country is, to a large extent, covered with forests, which
makes it much more difficult to prospect for mines.   Then
the present cost of living, and the difficulty of getting at
all to some of those places which are most promising in
their metalliferous deposits, and also, I may add, the fact
that many of the efforts made in the first instance have
been very injudicious, and have led to the discouragement
of the people of the country to  prosecute further enterprises of the same kind.    Gold, however, is known to be
almost universally distributed in the Province of British
Columbia.    There is scarcely a stream of any size in any
part of the Province that one cannot wash a few ' colors,'
as they say, out of, at the very least, and in 105 localities,
which I catalogued in 1877, actual mining had been carried
on for gold.    The main auriferous belt of British Columbia runs from  southeast to northwest, just inside the
Rocky   Mountains,  and  includes  the  mining  localities
which have been called Kootenay,   Big  Bend, Cariboo,
Omineca and Cassiar.    From south to north, from 1858
to 1882, the gold produced in British Columbia amounted ,
to $46,685,334,   (about £9,337,000 sterling)   which is  a
great return, considering that the average population of
the Province, taking the period altogether, would not exceed about 10,000 whites.   The average number of miners
employed in these placer diggings has been 2,9.40, and
the average yield per man employed, obtained by dividing
the total by the number of miners, $683 per man per annum.    It should be also considered that these placer deposits, are, as a rule, only to be worked in summer, and
that the sum stated was earned in less than half the year
of actual work.   The greatest yield of any one year was in
1864, when $3,735,850 was sent out of the country.    Last
year the total yield was only $1,013,827.   Since 1864, with
occasional fluctuations, the yield of gold has shown a general tendency to decline, and the state of the country at
present is simply this :   The richer placer mines, so far
discovered, having been more or  less worked out,  the
yield is falling off.    Such placers have been more or less
completely exhausted early in the history of gold mining
countries,  as in  Australia and  California.     Then the
period comes when the miner goes to work on the quartz
lodes, whence the gold in the placer mines has been derived.   That period has not arrived yet in British Columbia.    There is not a single auriferous quartz vein worked
there yet, and the present is the interim period between
the full development of placer mines and the beginning
of the quartz mining, which is a more permanent indus- THE   WEST   SHORE.
299
try. There is no doubt that before long auriferous quartz
mines will be worked. An attempt was made some years
ago to work them, but, as far as I know, there is no mine
now in operation. The difficulties are very great in some
parts of the country, owing chiefly to the cost of transport
and supplies. Until very lately, it cost from 7^ to 12^
cents a pound to freight goods and supplies to Cariboo
from Tale, according to the season, and such prices are
so heavy a tax on the expensive mining operations that it
renders it impossible to work any but very high grade
ores. In Omineca, still further north, it costs fifteen
cents a pound to carry supplies into the district, and thus
it is almost impossible for private miners to continue
prospecting on their own resources, and, unless they have
a very rich claim which they can work, they must leave
the country. One advantage of the construction of the
railway and opening up of the interior will be that the
poorer placer deposits will be extensively worked. It is
my opinion that when the country is opened up and the
cost of labor and supplies lessened, it will be found capable of rapid development, and may soon take a first place
as the mining province of the Dominion, and ultimately
as second to no other country in North America."
Coal mining is an industry which of late years has undergone a wonderful development. Coal has been found
in places over a very wide area of both the mainland and
islands. At Nanaimo, on Vancouver Island, is found the
best quality, and there the industry has reached great
proportions. The- quality varies in different localities
from the common lignite to anthracite, the latter being on
Queen Charlotte Islands, and the only vein of anthracite
yet discovered on the Pacific Coast. No effort has yet
been made to work it, however. The coal at Nanaimo is
the best quality of bituminous coal to be found on the
Coast, and is shipped in quantities to all points, San
Francisco being the best market, Vancouver Island coal
forming about two-thirds of the total imports of that article, notwithstanding the high tariff. The quality of this
coal especially adapts it for ocean steamships, as a ton
will generate more steam than a like quantity of any other
coal to be found on the Coast, thus economizing in the
carrying space required. When the Island Railway shall
have been completed, it is probable that Victoria will become a coaling station for steamers plying between San
Francisco and China. The large steamers to be placed
on the China route, to connect with the Canadian Pacific,
will certainly draw their supplies from this source. The
superiority of Vancouver coal has not only been settled by
years of practical experience, but by an official test made
by the War Department of the United States, in which it
was ascertained that 1,800 pounds of it were equivalent in
the production of steam to 2,400 pounds of Seattle coal,
and 2,600 of Coos Bay or Monte Diablo coal. From 1860
to 1875, inclusive, there were imported into San Francisco 320,000 tons. They began then to increase rapidly,
and during the past five years the average has been
153,000 tons per annum. Cargoes are also sent to the
Sandwich Islands and China. The mines producing this
coal are those of the Vancouver Coal Mining and Coke
Company and the Wellington Collieries. The former are
five in number and are situated in Nanaimo and vicinity.
The operations of this company are very extensive. Their
wharf at Nanaimo, which is supplied with coal chutes,
have a shipping capacity of 1,000 tons per day, and are
connected with the mines by a narrow gauge railway.
The company gives employment to about 800 men. It
has a machine shop well supplied with machinery necessary for the repair of its engines and to do all other necessary work. The Wellington Collieries are situated at
Wellington, a few miles from Nanaimo, and are connected
with their shipping wharves on Departure Bay by a narrow gauge railway nearly five miles long. About a mile
distant are the South Wellington mines, which are also
connected with shipping wharves on Departure Bay in a
similar manner. The Wellington Company employs about
900 men, of whom some 400 are miners at work in the
various shafts. The company has loading facilities at its
wharves for 1,500 tons daily. Dunsmuir & Sons are
the proprietors..
The coal beds at that point cover a wide area. At Comox, still further north, it is estimated that they occupy
300 square miles. They are also found at other points
on the ^island. Large, fields of lignite exist near New
Westminster, in the Nicola Valley and along the North
Thompson and Skeena rivers.
On Texada Island, situated in the Gulf of Georgia,
and only twenty miles from the Comox coal fields, and
consequently not far from the mines at Nanaimo and
Wellington, are great masses of rich magnetic iron ore,
assaying 68.4 of iron and having a low percentage of
phosphorus and other impurities. This ore is now being used by the smelting works at Irondale, just across
the line in Washington Territory, where it is mixed with
the brown hematite ore found in that vicinity. The existence of great bodies of superior coal and iron in such
close proximity suggests the springing up ere long of
large smelting and iron works. Such industries are certain to come; but how soon none can tell. Copper has
been found in a number of places, the most promising
ledge being one on Howe Sound. It also appears as a
base in quartz containing the precious metals, as, also,
does galena. Salt springs exist in various places, but
have never been put to practical use.
FISH AND  LUMBER  INDUSTRIES.
Aside from mining and agriculture, the leading industrial pursuits are the preparing for market, in various
forms, of the timber which clothes the hills with a green
garment and the multitudes of valuable fishes which swarm
in the adjacent waters. Of these the most important is
the salmon industry. Salmon of [several varieties crowd
into the inlets and streams of the Province, ascending as
far inland as possible to deposit their spawn in the shallow fresh waters of the interior. Those entering Fraser
River ascend the main stream and branches to their very
sources, some of them reaching a point nearly 800 miles
from the sea. With powerful leaps they scale rapids,
falls and whatever obstructions they encounter, bruising
themselves against the rocks in their frantic efforts until
the banks are lined with their dead carcasses. The survivors of their progeny, only a small per cent, of the billions of eggs which are deposited, descend the streams to
the ocean, whence, at the proper time, they in their turn
ascend again to the place of their birth, to exercise the
pro-creative power. It is while thus making their annual
pilgrimage from the sea that they are caught, generally
near the entrance to the streams, though often many miles
inland, and prepared for market.   The salmon has always 300
THE   WEST   SHORE.
been one of the most important of the various forms of
food used by the Indians of the Pacific Coast, who annually gather along the streams and catch thousands of
them, drying them in the sun for winter use. Years ago
the Hudson's Bay Company began salting them for its
own use, and of late years many canning factories have
been established at favorable points, where thousands of
cases are prepared for market annually. There are many
good locations yet to be found, where salmon are abundant, and these will no doubt be occupied as soon as the
rapidly increasing demand for the product assures it a
reliable market. In 1876 there were but three canneries,'
with a total pack of 8,247 cases, which had increased in
1883 to thirty-one canneries and 196,292 cases, about
60,000 less than were packed the year before. In this
branch of the fishing industry about 5,000 hands are employed.
The scene of the greatest activity is on Fraser fiiver,
where twelve canneries are located. Five distinct varieties enter the river during the season, eachi seeking different .spawning grounds. The run of the silver salmon
begins about the 1st of April and continues till the end of
June. These fish are often caught weighing seventy
pounds, though the average weight is from ten to twenty-
five pounds. Beginning in June and contining till
August is a fish of five or six pounds' weight. In August a
most excellent salmon, weighing generally about seven
pounds, enters the river. The fourth species is the
humpback, a fish weighing from six to fourteen pounds,
which is caught from August till winter every second
year. The last to appear is the hookbill, a salmon weighing from twelve to forty-five pounds, which arrives in
September and remains till winter. For fifteen miles
above its mouth the Fraser is dotted with boats of the
salmon fleet during the season, and the river and canneries present a busy scene. North of this point establish-
lishments are located at Burrard Inlet, Alert Bay,
Rivers Inlet, Skeena River, Metlakahtla and Nass River;
large quantities of salmon are also salted and packed in
barrels. The majority of fishermen, especially in the
northern canneries, are Indians, who are expert and
reliable, and are preferred to any other kind of labor. On
the steamers they are employed almost exclusively for
roustabouts, and are paid higher wages than white men,
because they can do more work and are more reliable and
steady. Mr. Alex. C. Anderson, Inspector of Fisheries
for British Columbia, located a hatchery in 1883 on the
south bank of Fraser River, four miles above New Westminster, on a tract of land donated by Messrs. B. Haigh
& Sons. The undoubted success of this effort of the
Government to foster one of the most important industries will enable the canning establishments to make
improvements and invest additional capital with the assurance of a permanent and liberal supply of fish. One
establishment is a floating cannery and oil factory combined, which can be moved about from place to place, and
is known as "Spratt's Ark." On board are complete
canning appliances, machinery for manufacturing oil from
the offal of the fish caught, and accommodations for the
hands. The vessel and its adjuncts cost $60,000. The
shipment of fresh salmon to the East in refrigerator cars
will no doubt become an important feature of this industry
as soon as the Canadian Pacific is completed, as the business has already been successfully inaugurated from the
Columbia River, by way of the Northern Pacific.
The next most important fish, so far as present utility
is concerned, is the oolachan, or candle fish. This is a
small fish, about thp size of a sardine, and is so oily that,
when dried, it will burn like a candle, especially those
caught in Nass River. They enter the Fraser in millions
about the 1st of May.    They are delicious when fresh,
smoked or salted, and their oil is considered superior to
cod liver oil or any other fish oil known. It is of a whitish
tint and about the consistency of thin lard, and is *a
staple food and an article of barter between the Indians
of the Coast and the interior tribes. They begin running
in the Nass about the end of March, and enter the stream
by the million for several weeks. The various Indian
tribes of that region assemble on its banks and catch
them in immense numbers. The fish are taken in purse
nets, frequently a canoe load at a single haul, and are
piled in bins on the shore. - They are then placed in bins
made of planks and having sheet iron bottoms holding
from three to five barrels, and are boiled in water about
four hours. The concoction is then strained through
baskets made from willow roots, and the oil is run into
red cedar boxes of "about fifteen gallons capacity each.
When the run of fish is good each tribe will put up about
twenty boxes of oil. Before the introduction of sheet
iron bottoms for their tanks the Indians boiled the
fish by throwing heated stones into the tank. There is
no doubt that this undeniably valuable article will soon
become one of the regular products of the Province for
exportation in quantity, as it is even now to a limited
extent.
Herring swarm in the waters of the bays and inlets
during the spawning season in the spring. They are not
at that time of as good quality as when taken in nets
from their permanent banks and feeding grounds. They
are somewhat smaller than the herring of Europe, though
fully equal in quality when taken in their prime. There
is a factory on Burrard Inlet where herring oil is pressed
out and fertilizers made from the dried scraps. Halibut
are found in great numbers, especially off the west coast
of Queen Charlotte Islands, where they are frequently
taken upwards of 100 pounds in weight and often twice
that size. Though a great many are caught and sent to
market fresh or dried, halibut fishing has not yet became
one of the regular industries. The Indians of that region
catch and dry them for food. The same may be said
of cod fish, which, no doubt, abound in the waters of the
coast of British Columbia. There are a number of banks
on the Alaska coast where cod fishing is carried on by
fishermen from San Francisco, who salt 2,000 tons
annually. Similar banks no doubt.exist further south.
Deep sea fishing has not yet been introduced, though the
Inspector reports that practical men from Newfoundland
and Norway are investigating the question with the purpose of inaugurating deep sea fishing if they find ?as
favorable conditions as are believed to exist. The black
cod, formerly called "coal fish," abounds in the waters off
Graham Island, where the Indians catch them in great
numbers by the use of an ingeniously contrived spring
hook. The fish are also known to frequent the waters off
the west coast of Vancouver Island and as far south as
Cape Flattery. Mr. Spencer F. Baird, United States Fish
Commissioner, has. taken great interest in this fish, and
has secured a quantity through an assistant, Mr. James
G. Swan, of Port Townsend. The fish is highly spoken
of and is considered far superior to the cod of Newfoundland, the flesh being richer and of finer fiber.
The Skidegate Oil Company is engaged in extracting
oil from the livers of dog fish. The works are [located at
Skidegate, at the southern end of Graham Island, and
give employment to ten white men and a large number of
Indians. In 1883 there were 400,000 fish caught, which-
yielded a total of 40,000 gallons, or an average of one
gallon of refined oil from the livers of ten fish. This oil
is admitted to be superior to any other kind as a lubricant, and is chiefly shipped to the United States, where
it pays a duty of 25 per cent., though small quantities
are consumed in the Province or sent to Honolulu and
V THE  WEST  SHORE.
Custom Hods
AND     J
PostOffice.
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—__—-
THE  WEST  SHORE. THE  WEST  SHORE.
301
China. Whale oil is another product, though whale fishing is not carried on extensively. Whales of the largest
description are found on the outer coast; in the waters
of the archipelago the humpback whale is quite numer-
,ous, and yield from thirty to fifty barrels of oil each.
Porpoise, also, yield a large amount of oil.
Sturgeon are caught in great number and marketed
fresh; also such table fish as anchovey, haddock, rock
cod, flounder and whiting, crab, prawn, cockles, mussels,
etc. Lobster is not native to the waters there, but is
being introduced and will soon be plentiful. Oyster beds
are found in numerous places, but the bivalves are small
and inferior to those on the Atlantic Coast. Several beds
are being planted with large oysters from Boston, and
will ere long supply the market with a superior quality.
The inland streams and lakes abound in salmon trout
and the delicious mountain trout, which are the delight of
sportsmen, and the famous lake white fish. The holo-
thura, a mollusc, generally known as the " sea cucumber,"
abounds in the waters about the islands. These, when
cured and dried, make the article of commerce known as
"beche de la mer," and highly prized in China for food,
where it is called "trepang." A valuable industry might
be built up by preparing this commodity for market
Seals and sea otters are annually caught in great
numbers off the Straits of Fuca and the west coast of
Vancouver Island. In 18*3 there were ten schooners
engaged in sealing, employing forty sailors and 296
hunters, the latter chiefly Indians, who used 148 cedar
canoes. Over 9,000 fur seals and about 3,000 hairy seals
were captured, valued at $93,000. The former are valued
at $10 and the latter at 50 cents. Sea otters are not so
mimerous and are very wary, requiring much patience
and skill in their capture. They are generally shot with
a rifle, and at such long range that only the best marksmen succeed in killing them. But ninety-six were taken,
valued at $50 each.
The lumber.resources of British Columbia are very
great, and, as yet, comparatively undeveloped. Only a
few companies are engaged in lumbering on an extensive
scale, while south of the line, on Puget Sound, are a
dozen large export mills. The islands along the coast, as
well as the adjacent mainland, are covered with a dense
growth of several kinds of most valuable timber, which
grows to immense size by reason of the moist and genial
climate. Here is a source of wealth upon which the
people may draw for generations to come. Of the various
varieties of timber found in the Province, the following
are the most abundant:
The Douglas pine or fir (A. Douglasii) known also
as the " Oregon pine," is the tree most abundant and
possessing the greatest commercial value. It covers the
coast and islands in dense forests, extending as far north
as Skeena River on the coast and Lakes Babine and Tatla
in the interior, and inland as far as the Rocky Mountains.
It grows to gigantic proportions on the coast, under the
influence of the continuously warm and humid atmosphere. The trees are straight, and the wood, though
coarse grained, is exceedingly tough and tenacious, withstanding great transverse strain. It is cut into lumber of
all sizes and shapes, and has few equals for frames, ties,
bridge timbers, etc. For ship building it is especially
adapted, and its great length and toughness make it
peculiarly desirable for masts and spars. Masts have
been shipped which were 130 feet long and 42 inches in
diameter, hewn octagonally. A section of one of these
trees, which stood 305 feet high, was sent some time ago
to Ottawa, where it stands on the grounds of the Dominion Parliament Buildings. The section was cut twenty
feet from the ground and is eight feet four inches inj
diameter.    It is also very useful for butter boxes and
similar purposes. Great quantities of this lumber are
shipped to South America, Honolulu, China and Australia, while spars and masts are also sent to Europe in
large numbers.
About the fifty-second parallel the fir begins to yield
precedence to the spruce (a menziesii) which predominates for some distance further north, when it gradually
gives way to the white, or Alaska cedar, a splendid
finishing wood. It is of this the Indians make their
carved heraldic columns. The red cedar (tsuga gigantea)
grows in special abundance on the lower coast, though it
extends inland to the Roeky Mountains. It is in demand
for railroad ties because of its great durability. Of it the
Indians make their canoes, weave the fiber into blankets
and roof their houses with the bark. The cypress of
yellow cedar (cupr&ssus thyoides) is found on the coast
from the southern end of the Province to Alaska. Owing
to its strong odor the voracious toredo will not attack it,
and for this reason, as well as its extreme toughness, it is
in demand for piling and all submarine purposes. Juniper, or pencil cedar, is found on the east coast of
Vancouver Island, and on the shores of lakes in the
interior. The Weymouth, or white pine, (pinus strobus)
is found on the Lower Fraser, where it attains great size
and beauty. The balsam pine attains a vigorous growth,
but is of little value as timber. Yellow pine (pinus pon-
derosa) flourishes in the interior. The wood is close
grained and durable, though very heavy. Scotch fir
(pinus Bankskiana) is found in the interior; also on
Vancouver Island, though of a smaller growth. Another
kind of spruce (picca Engelmanii) is also found.
Throughout the lower coast the hemlock (abies Canadensis) grows to large proportions, its bark being exceedingly valuable for tanning purposes. The western larch
(larix occidentalis) grows to immense size in the bottoms
along the international line. The yew (taxus brevi folis)'
is found on the coast and as far up the Fraser as Tale.
It does not attain the size of English yew. The natives
utilize it for bows. Oak (Q Garry ana) grows abundantly on Vancouver Islands. It is tough and serviceable.
Alder grows along the streams of the coast, and attains
great size. It is useful for furniture. Maple is abundant on the islands and coast up to latitude 55 degrees.
The wood is very useful for cabinet making. Vine maple,
a very strong white wood, is confined to the coast. Crab
apple grows along the coast. Dogwood is found on
Vancouver Island and opposite coast. The aspen poplar
is found throughout the interior. Another variety of
poplar abounds along the water courses near the coast,
and is the kind so much in demand on Puget Sound for
barrel staves. Two other kinds of poplar—all known as
" cottonwood "—as well as the mountain ash, are found in
the interior valleys.
The seat of the greatest lumbering industries in
the Province is Burrard Inlet, that great inland harbor,
near the entrance to which the Canadian Pacific has its
terminus. Here are two large mills manufacturing for
foreign exportation. The Hastings Saw Mill Company
cuts about 15,000,000 feet annually, frequently filling .
orders for special timbers of enormous size. Some have
been cut twenty-eight inches square and 110 feet long.
The Moodyville Saw Mill Company cuts nearly 20,000,000
feet annually and employs about 100 men, having numerous electric lights for night work. Timber has been
brought to this mill measuring seven feet six inches in
diameter at the butt and five feet 130 feet from the base.
This is the Douglas pine, or fir, and both companies own
large tracts of that valuable timber. The Hastings Mill
Co. own a forest close at hand which, it is estimated, will
yield upwards of 400,000,000 feet, and constitutes
a   property   of -enormous  value.      Cargoes  of lumber r
302
THE  WEST  SHORE.
are sent to China, Australia, Sandwich Islands and all
Pacific Coast ports, and spars to England. Another mill
is located at Port Moody.
The Rock Bay Sawmill, at Victoria, has a daily capacity of 30,000 feet, and has good shipping facilities. At
New Westminster are located the Dominion Sawmills,
which have a daily capacity of 40,000 feet of lumber,
12,000 laths and 20,000 shingles. Adjoining this are the
Royal City Planing Mills, which cut 35,000 feet of lumber, 8,000 laths and 25,000 shingles daily. These two
companies make sash, doors, furniture, etc., in great
quantities. At Nanaimo the Royal City Planing Mills
have a sawmill, which cuts 20,000 feet per day. There
are a number of other mills at various points, chiefly in
the interior, supplying the local demand for lumber.
This industry is only in its infancy, comparatively speaking, and it is evident that it has many years of prosperity
before it
CANADIAN PACIFIC  EAILWAY.
The mammoth enterprise upon which the future development of British Columbia's varied resources so
much depends is the Canadian Pacific Railway, a through
transcontinental line from Montreal to the Pacific, built
under the patronage of the Dominion Government, whose
treasury and credit supplied the means. The advantages,
and even necessity, of such a connecting link between the
Provinces was early recognized, and became more apparent than ever when British Columbia united with the
Dominion. Such an undertaking was too gigantic for
private enterprise, since the country through which the
line would run west of Lake Superior was then almost
entirely unoccupied, and must be gradually developed
under the influence of the railway before it could furnish
local traffic for its support. Private capital could not
afford an investment requiring so long a time to render
it productive. It was a great public necessity which
only the Government could accomplish, and with this
idea the Dominion began its construction. In 1871 surveying parties were sent out to explore the comparatively
unknown region through which, if possible, it should
pass, and report upon the most favorable route. Over
$3,500,000 have been expended upon these preliminary
surveys.^ The location of the road east of the Rocky
Mountains being much the less difficult, the work of construction was commenced on the Eastern Section in 1874,
and 264 miles completed and in operation in 1880; but
from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Coast no less
than eleven lines, aggregating- upwards of 10,000 miles,
were surveyed before determining the best terminal point
and route thereto. Port Moody, at the head of Burrard
Inlet, was finally selected as the mainland terminus, and
Kicking Horse Pass as the route across the Rocky Mountains. Recently, however, Vancouver, a new town to be
built on Coal Harbor, near the entrance to Burrard
Inlet, has been chosen for the terminal point in place of
Port Moody.
In 1880^ a contract and agreement was made between
the Dominion of Canada and an incorporated company,
known as the "Syndicate," for the construction, operation
and ownership of the Canadian
terms or this agreement, thi
constructed was divided i
extending from Callander Stat
Lake Nipissing, to a junction
section then being built by th
the Eastern Section; the seconc
on the Red River, to Kamloc
Thompson River, was called th
third, extending from Kamloop
rard Inlet, the Western Sectio
Pacific Railway. " By the
rtion of the railway to be
three sections; the first,
ion, near the east end of
with the Lake Superior
i Government, was called
i, extending from Selkirk,
ps, at the Forks of the
3 Central Section, and the
s to Port Moody, at Bur-
i.    The company agreed
to lay out, construct and equip, in running order, the
Eastern and Central Sections by the 1st day of May, 1891.
The company also agreed to pay the Government the
cost, according to existing contract, for the 100 miles of
road then in course of construction from the city of Winnipeg westward. The Government agreed'to complete
that portion of the Western Section between Kamloops
and Yale by June 30, 1885, and also between Yale and
Port Moody on or before the 1st day of May, 1891, and
the Lake'Superior Section according to contract. The
railway, as constructed under the terms of the agreement,
becomes the property of the company, and pending the
completion of the Eastern and Central Sections, the possession and right to work and run the several portions of
the railway already constructed, or as the same shall be
completed, is given by the Government to the company.
Upon the completion of the Eastern and Central Sections
the Government agreed to convey to the company (exclu-
sive^-of shipment) those portions of the railway constructed, or to be constructed by the Government, and
upon completion of the remainder of the portion of railway to be constructed by the Government, to convey the
same to the company,'and the Canadian Pacific Railway
thereafter become the absolute property of the company,
which agreed to forever efficiently maintain, work and
run the same. The Government further agreed to grant
the company a subsidy in money of $25,000,000, and in
land-of 25,000,000 acres. The Government also granted
to the company the lands required for the roadbed of the;
railway, and for its'stations, station grounds, workshops,
dock groundy and water frontage, buildings, yards, etc.,
and other appurtenances required for its convenient and
effectual construction and operation, and agreed to admit,
free of duty, all material to be used in the original construction of the railway, including bridges, and of a telegraph line in connection therewith.
The company have the right, from time to time, to lay
out, construct, equip, maintain and work branch lines of
railway from any point or points within the territory of
the Dominion. It was further agreed by the Dominion
Parliament that for the period of twenty vears no railway
should be constructed south of the Canadian Pacific Railway, except such ;line as shall run southwest or to the
westward of southwest, nor to within fifteen miles of
latitude 49 degrees, and that all stations and station
grounds, workshops, buildings, yards and other property,
rolling - stock and appurtenances required and used for
the construction and working thereof, and the capital
stock of the company shall be forever free from taxation
by the Dominion, or by any Province hereafter to be
established, or by any municipal corporation therein, and
the lands of the company in the Northwest territory,
until they are either sold or occupied, shall also be free
from such taxation for twenty years after the grant
thereof from the crown.
Soon after the consummation of the agreement Mr. A.
Onderdonk, an experienced railroad builder, became the
managing contractor for the construction of that portion
of the Western Division extending from Port Moody to
Savona Ferry, a distance of 212 miles. It presented
greater difficulties than have ever been overcome in railway building. The Union and Central Pacific and other
lines have gone over the mountains by gradual ascents,
but no such way of climbing the Cascades was possible,
and the wonderful undertaking of running through them,
parallel with the great canyon of the Fraser, was determined upon. For nearly sixty miles, from Yale to Lytton, the river has cut through this lofty range thousands
of feet below the summits. Mountain spurs of granite
rock, with perpendicular faces'-hundreds of feet in height,
project at short'intervals along the entire passage.    Be- THE  WEST  SHORE.
303
tween them are deep lateral gorges, canyons and plunging cataracts. On this sixty miles of tunnels, rock work
and bridges the greater portion of Mr. Onderdonk's construction army .of 7,000 men have been engaged since
1880. The loud roar of enormous discharges of giant
powder has almost constantly reverberated among the
mountains. Many tunnels have been bored, one 1,600
feet in length, and millions of tons of rock blasted and
rolled with the noise of an avalanche into the rushing,
boiling Fraser; workmen have been suspended by ropes
hundreds of feet down the perpendicular sides of the
mountains to blast a foothold; supplies have been packed
in upon the backs of mules and horses over trails where
the Indians were accustomed to use ladders, and building
materials landed upon the opposite bank of the river at
an enormous expense and crossed in Indian canoes. It
is estimated that portions of this work have cost $300,000
to the mile.
As the work progressed the cost or! transportation by
such means increased until Mr. Onderdonk determined
to try and run a steamer through the Grand Canyon of
the Fraser to the navigable waters above, to supply the
advance camps. ' For this purpose he built the steamer
Skuzzy. Then came the difficulty of finding a captain
able and willing to take her through. One after another
went up and looked at the little boatj then at the awful
canyon, the rushing river and the swift, foaming rapids,
and turned back, either pronouncing the ascent impossible or refusing to undertake it Finally Captains S. R.
and David Smith, brothers, were sent for, both well
known for their remarkable feats of steamboating on the
upper waters of the Columbia. It took them seven days
%> line through the Black Canyon, through which the
waters rush at a speed of twenty miles an hour. The
hardest tug was at China Riffle, where, in addition to the
engines, the steam winch and fifteen men at the capstan,
a force of 150 Chinamen upon a third line was required
to pull her over. The captains received $2,250 for their
work. It would fill quite a volume to describe in detail
even the more important portions of Mr. Onderdonk's
great work. All of the immense quantity of giant powder
used is manufactured on the line between Emory and
Yale.
One of the greatest feats accomplished was the construction of the cantilever bridge across the Fraser below
the town of Lytton. Besides the one recently completed
across Niagara River, this is the only cantilever in
America; and it is gratifying to- know that the feat was
accomplished by engineers of the Pacific Coast. The
total length of the bridge is 530 feet, the central span
' being 315 feet long. The ends of the span rest upon
piers of solid masonry, ninety-six feet high, and containing 6,480 cubic yards of stone. The superstructure contains 1,200,000 pounds, or 6,000 tons, of cast steel and
iron. The total cost was $280,000. Though the bridge
is not so long as the one at Niagara, the difficulty attending its erection was much greater, owing to the fact that
the site could be approached from one end only. One-
half the material was sent across the river on a steel cable
1^ inches in diameter, several pieces thus transferred
weighing over &| tons each. In this respect the bridge
stands without a parallel in the world. The first iron
was placed in position on the 17th of March, and on the
14th of June a train crossed over the completed structure,
only seventy-three days, including those lost by reason of
bad weather, were consumed in the transfer of iron across
the stream and the erection of the entire bridge. As an
example of speed and skill it is without a parallel when
the difficulties to be overcome are considered. This remarkable engineering accomplishment was performed by
the San Francisco Bridge Company, the only firm of
constructing engineers on the Pacific Coast capable of
recting works of such magnitude. All the bridges on
the Western Division of tLe road, aggregating forty-seven
pans, were constructed by this company, and the bridges
which they have erected on the Coast, if placed end to
end, would span a stream eleven miles wide. The company has under construction at Roseburg, Or., a combination bridge over the Umpqua River which will be the
largest highway bridge in the State. There is another
work of this company in the Province which is deserving
of special mention, both because of its superior character
and its importance to transportation—the Sand Light at,
the mouth of Fraser River, the finest lighthouse on the
Pacific Coast. It stands five miles out from the nearest
point of land, and, like the famous Eddystone Lighthouse, is nearly always surrounded by a rough sea. For
many years the Government deemed it impracticable to
erect a lighthouse at that point, and maintained a lightship there; but the enormous expanse of so doing led to
an effort to erect a lighthouse. A contract was let to the
San Francisco Bridge Company by the Dominion Government, and the work was executed under the immediate
supervision of Mr. J. McMullen, President of the company. Over treacherous and shifting sands the iron
screw pile foundation is an admirable device for bridge
foundations, marine piers and lighthouses. They can be
screwed into the bottom to any desired depth, and offering the smallest possible resistance to the waves, make a
reliable foundation. This device was adopted and the
work performed in the most scientific manner. The
lighthouse cost $43,000, and is an imperishable monument
to the engineering skill of the contractors.
At the beginning of the present season the road had
progressed 975 miles west of Winnipeg, leaving only 300
miles to be built to the point where it unites with the
Western Division at Kamloops. This is all mountain
work, and will not be completed until the end of 1885,
before which time Mr. Onderdonk, whose line has already
been placed in running order as far as Yale, will have
reached the point of junction. It is the expectation that
early in the spring of 1886 a through route will be opened
from Coal Harbor to Montreal. This route will be much
the shortest of any now running across the continent, the
distances comparing as follows:
Miles.
Coal Harbor to Montreal     2,862
Coal Harbor to New York, via Montreal     3,241
Goal Harbor to Boston, via Montreal    3.197
Coal Hnrbor to Liverpool, via Montreal     6,075
San Francisco to New York     3,390
San Franci sco to Boston     3,448
San Francisco to Liverpool, via New York     6,830
Yokohama, Japan; to Liverpool, via Central Pacific  12,038
Yokohama, Japan, to Liverpool, via Canadian Pacific  10,963
It will thus be seen that from China and Japan this
route to Liverpool is more than 1,000 miles shorter than
the one by the Central Pacific; and with the line of
ocean steamers that will be put on as soon as the road is
completed, it requires no prophet to see that all the
Canadian and English trade which crosses the continent
will do so by the Canadian Pacific; and it remains to be
seen, also, if the same will not be true of the New York
and Boston importations from Asia. The grades are
much lighter and less numerous, and at no place does it
reach half the altitude attained at four different points by
the Central and Union Pacific roads. Less difficulty is
expected from snow than is experienced by the Central
Pacific in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. With a shorter
route, easily operated, free from the burden of taxation,
and without enormous interest charges to meet, this road
must surely become a dangerous rival to the older
routes, and ought to be able to give the Province such
low rates of transportation as will foster her struggling
industries, cause the immediate settlement of her vacant
lands, and aid in the development of her varied resources. 304 THE  WEST  SHORE.
I
COAL   HARBOR,
The Western terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, in British Columbia, is a magnificent [sheet of water,
about three and a half miles long by from one to two miles wide, is completely land-locked and accessible at all
stages of the tide by the largest vessels afloat.
The following table of distances will give some idea of the advantages this place possesses over all others as the
site for a commercial city. Taking a common point on the Asiatic Coast, Yokohama in Japan, the distance to points
on the Western shores of North America are (nautical miles):
Yokohama to San Francisco    4,470 | Yokohama to Coal Harbor    4,374
The distance from Yokohama to San Franciseo by the route followed by all vessels is really nearly 800 miles
longer than the above, vessels taking an extreme northerly route in order to obtain the advantage of certain winds
and currents. This distance does not affect the route to Coal Harbor, but should properly be added to the San
Francisco route.
The estimated distance from above points to Atlantic tide water and various places is as follows (statute miles):
San Francisco to New York    3.3901 Goal Harbor to New York, via Canadian Pacific Railway and Montreal 3.241
San Francisco to Boston    3,448   Coal Harbor to "
Coal Harbor to Montreal    2,862
The distance across the Atlantic is (nautical miles):
New York to Liverpool    3,040 | Montreal to Liverpool    2,790
From the above we see that the distance from Yokohama to Liverpool is (statute miles):
Via San Francisco and New York  12,038 | Via Coal Harbor and Montreal  11,111
Or 927 miles in favor of the Coal Harbor route; to this add the 800 miles above mentioned, making the total distance by regular route, from Yokohama to Liverpool, via Coal Harbor and Montreal, nearly 1,800 miles shorter
than the San Francisco route. In a few years a railroad to Hudson Bay will undoubtedly be in operation, making
the distance by this short route about 2,600 miles shorter than by San Francisco.
Therefore, taking into consideration the fact that the Canadian Pacific Railway is the shortest and only one
crossing the continent under one management, a glance at the above table of distances will show that this terminal
city, from a commercial standpoint, cannot possibly have any successful competitors.
The town site is all that could be desired, and it is doubtful if a more beautiful and picturesque location could
be found on the continent. Looking north, across the harbor, a magnificent view of snow-capped mountains is
obtained, and to the south Mount Baker is seen to better advantage than from any other point on the Coast; in fact,
look where you will, an entrancing view of woods, mountains and water meets the gaze. At the entrance to, ana?
fronting on, Coal Harbor, and also on English Bay (a roadstead to the west), is a Government Reserve, which
influential parties are now trying to obtain for park purposes. The land being high, about 180 feet above the sea
level, a grand view of Burrard Inlet, English Bay, Gulf of Georgia and surrounding country can be had. On the
west, or English Bay side of this Reserve, is situated the famous Siwash Rock. This park alone will yet attract
thousands of pleasure seekers. Nature has done much, and when drives and squares have been laid out this
park will become as famous as some of the grand national parks in the distant interior of the continent. The town
site is gently undulating, with just sufficient slope for perfect drainage, and is covered with a growth of fine maple
and other trees. The climate is undoubtedly the best on the Coast; days warm and pleasant, nights pleasantly cool,
rainfall moderate. The country in this vicinity presents great attraction to the sportsman, the lakes and streams
being full of trout; in the woods deer, bears and smaller game, and on the mountains, numbers of goats. Burrard
Inlet and the adjoining waters of Gulf of Georgia and Howe Sound are unrivalled for yachting and boating. In
fact, this district is the sportsman's paradise. General Manager Van Home has stated that the Canadian Pacific
will spend many millions in this place in the erection of wharves, workshops, rolling mills and depot, and has given
it as his opinion that the terminal city will become one of the two largest on the Pacific Coast In the fall of 1885
the Canadian Pacific Railway will be in operation from Atlantic to Pacific, and, as these buildings will have to be
erected by the time the road is completed, the expenditure of so much money will certainly have the effect of building up a large town in an unprecedentedly short time. The Canadian Pacific Railway will employ at least 2,000 men
in their different shops, and these will have to be supplied with the necessaries of life, thus creating first class
openings for business men of all classes. Within the next year and a half large wholesale and importing houses
will spring into existence here, also foundries, woolen factories, furniture factories, etc., and, as a great portion of
the grain grown in the Northwest will be shipped from this port, it will necessitate elevators. Business men of all
classes looking for good openings would do well to consider these points. Plans of the town site are now being,
prepared and in a few days lots will be offered for sale, and, we must say, that better chances for investment were
never offered. Lots that can now be bought for a few hundred dollars will, beyond a doubt, be worth as many
thousands within a year or two. A large number of people are looking for this property to come on the market,
and hundreds of thousands are awaiting investment here, and we have no hesitation in stating that lots must double
in value within a few months after they are first placed on the market. We would therefore advise those looking
for first class investments in real estate to come here and see for themselves, and we feel sure that those who do so,
after a careful inspection, will be more than satisfied with the prospects. Investments now of a few hundred dollars
will yet return fortunes to those who have the foresight to realize the future in store for this place. It is only once
in a lifetime that the public have such a chance as the present, and we would recommend those that have money to
invest to investigate the merits of Vancouver, on Coal Harbor, before making other investments. We will be
pleased to furnish applicants with plans and price lists; also any particulars they would require, but would prefer
to have intending investors pay Coal Harbor a visit, and then call and see us. In a few weeks we will open an
office at the terminus, and will then be pleased to show visitors over the town site and give them every possible information, but all letters sent to present address will always find us.
Innes & Graveley, Real Estate Brokers and Financial Agents, British Columbia Express Building,Victoria, B. C, ~1
THE  WEST  SHORE. ^w
Mmm f
jc^gif^   \V4  J889-
THE WEST  SHORE.
^1
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^
II
mm
m
!#m
m
wm C. D. RAND,
I■ XNoUt¥v Pi
B. LIPSJETT.
RAND AND LIPSETT,
REAL fESTATE   BROKERS
AND
GOVERNMENT STREET,
X3. O. BOX   435.
VICTORIA, B. C.
Have for Sale, DPro^DOirty stt
VICTORIA, NEW WESTMINSTER,It
-^ COAL HARBOR,  PORT MOODY.
Fraser "Vctlley F^rms.
Fine  Chances  for  Investment  Constantly  Occurring.       Capitalists, Investors, and  Speculators  will   do
well  to  communicate  with us.
Representatives on Mainland:
RAND BROS., New Westminster, B.C.
h. o. :b:e:e3to:k3\
IiOXLdOll,
J". ZZ. TURNER.,
Victoria.
il Agent for
h Columbia in Great Britain,
TURNER, BEETON & CO.,
VIOTOTIA, B. C.
H. C. BEETON & CO.,
36 FINSBURY CIRCUS, LONDON.
Commission Merchants and Importers
Guardian   Fire  Assu
_^S AGENTS   T»OH g>--
Company of London;   North  British   and  Mercantile  Fire  Insurance  Company
Commercial Insurance Company, Marine, San Francisco.
ot Loudon;
Inverness, Metlakathlah and Balmoral Salmon Canneries, Skeena River
(Silver Medal, Fisheries Exhibition, London, 18S4)
Wanuck Salmon Cannery (Clipper Brand), RiversJEnlet.
BouteUeau&Co	
G.PreJier&Co	
Coekburn- Smiths & Co.
Williams. Engelbaeh& C
M. C. Foster & Sons... ]
Fredericksburg Brew'g C
W. Jameson & Co...
H. Walker & Sons..
L. Rose&Co	
. .Bottled Ale and Stoi
. .Lager Beer.
. Whiskey.
..Canadian Whiskey.
.. Lime Juice Beverag!
H. Rawlings& Son....
W. Corry & Co	
Goodall, Backhouse....
J. S.Fry& Co	
J. & T. Bell	
Dunbar Mc Masters....
Geo. Wostenholm & Soi
Doulton & Co	
John Hall & Sons	
Sritford. Ireland..
[Shoes.
>es and Pottery
Wholesale Dealers in General Dry^Goods.
Also Agents for People's Steam Navigation Company of Victoria.
ji
tfM$=£ BRITISH COLUMBIA ESTATE EXCHANGE
VICTORIA, B. C.
ROBERTSON, McUAGAN & CO.
WE  BUY AND  SELL  ON  COMMISSION,   AND  HAVE   ON  OUR  LIST
CITY   AND   SUBURBAN   PROPERTIES
FARMING,   TIMBER   AND   MINERAL   LANDS.
WE HAVE ALSO FOR SALE A LARGE AMOUNT OF PROPERTY AROUND COAL HARBOR,
THE TERMINAL POINT  OF  THE CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY,   WHERE A
FEW HTjNDRED DOLLARS INVESTED NOW, MAY SECURE A FORTUNE
IN A SHORT TIME AS  VALUES MUST ADVANCE RAPIDLY J ! !
ROBERTSON, McLAGAN & CO., - - - iS|S        VICTORIA, B. C.
ff%
A REACH ON THE
PUBLISHED AT VICTORIA, B. C..0N THE FIRST OF EVERY MONTH.
MUNROE MILLER,    -     -    Publisher and Proprietor.
TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS:
One Copy, one year - -      ^"^-jf^i ;-^^^S     $2.00
One Copy, six months        waS^IlIa      - - -        1.00
All subscriptions payable invariably in advance.   Postage
free to all parts of the world.
AH
; latei
itter intended for publication should be sent in c
than the 25th of the month.   Correspondence solicited.
NO QUESTIONABLE ADVERTISEMENTS INSERTED IN THIS JOURNAL.
KOOTENAY KIVER
The following will be Mailed on the Receipt
of Price:
A Beautiful Lithographic View of Victoria
and vicinity, 24x36 $1,25
The Hand Book—contaning Map of Victoria and all the Latest Postal and
Travelling Intelligence	
The British Columbia Resources, per yr,  2.00
1 a a r      J dr
oopy     .25
The Souvenir Album—containing a selection of Beautiful and Interesting
Views of Victoria     .75
J. B. FERGUSON & CO.,
DRAWER 23,
Victoria, B. C. Victoria, B. C, Sept. 25th, 1884.
.'essrs. Rand & Lipsett,
T^eal Estate Brokers and Financial Agents,
beg to infom you that they have opened an office on Government Street in this city,
and are now prepared to transact any Real Estate business that may be placed in
their hands.
Both partners have resided in British Columbia for a number of years, and are
acquainted with Real Estate values in the various localities which are now attracting
the attention of capitalists and other investors, and are therefore in a position to
give opinions as to the best places for investment and speculation.
If you wish to buy or sell a farm; to invest in town lots in Victoria or New
Westminster; to speculate in Fort Moody, Coal Harbor, or Elnglish Bay; to search a
title; to borrow or lend money; or in fact if you wish to do any business in
the Real Estate line, you will do well to write to them, or call upon them at
their office.
Don't forget the Place:
RAND & LIPSETT,
Governinent Street,
P.O. Box 435. VICTORIA,    B.   C.

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