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The resources of British Columbia. Volume I, no. 5 1883

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Array RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
$&M] "WESTWARD  THE  STAR   OF   EMPIRE   TAKES   ITS  WAY."
VOLUME I I
No. 5.       i'
VICTORIA, B. C, JULY 1, 1883.
j   PER ANNUM $2.00
I    Per Copy, 25 Cts.
m   W. R. CLARKE,  j|
PORT WARDEN & HARBOR MASTER,
AUCTIONE3BR.,
Appraiser & Commission Merchant,
FIRE-PROOF BRICK BUILDING,
YATES STREET, Victoria, B. C.
Liberal Advances made on Consignments.
JSI1VC
DEALER IN
3sr,
NEW &SECOND-HAND FURNITURE,
Crockery, Glassware, and House Furnishing Goods.
Mattresses and Lounges on hand or made to order.    Washing Machines of
improved make.    The Royal Canadian Wringer, fastens to the tub
without screws.    This is the latest improved Wringer.
ODD FELLOWS' HALL, Douglas Street, ViCTOBIA, B. C.
HENRY    SHORT,
G-TTJXT   cfe   RXFXjIES    MAKER
AJJD IMPORTER OP
Guns, Fishing Tackle, Table and Pocket Cutlery,
Meerschaum & Briar Root Pipes, Etc.
PORT STREET, near Government, Victoria, ~B. C.
BRITISH COLUMBIA GLOVE FACTORY,
E. M. SWICKARD &. CO.
MANUFACTURERS OF
Indian Tanned Buckskin, Goatskin, Dogskin and Blanket
GLOVES   AND   GAUNTLETS.
Corner of Fort and Blanchard Streets,
Victoria, B. C.
Sewing Machine Depot,
THOMAS FLETCHER,
Sells all the Latest Improved Sewing Machines at the most
Moderate Prices.
FORT STREET,   -   -   -    VICTORIA, B. (7.
J.TURNER,
Carpenter and Contractor
ESTIMATES FURNISHED.    JOBBING PROMPTLY
ATTENDED TO.
FORT 8TREET, NEAR THE IN8TITUTE, VICTORIA, B. C.
GEROW &. ROBERTSON,
Blacksmiths 1 Wheelwrights
S. W. CORNER YATES AND BROAD STREETS
VICTOBIA, B. C. ^|p5
Wagons, Carts, Carriages, Buggies, etc., made and repaired, and Black-
smithing of every description done.
G. C. GEBOW.  W. A. BOBEBTSON.
THIES   O JL.I3VT A 7T
Wasliing  I^o^wcaeir.
One Trial will convince the most skeptical that it is the best preparation ever offered to the public.   Testimonials
without number can be furnished.
C. B. BROWN, 8ole Agent for British Columbia.
Office—Yates Street, opposite Evening Post.
LAKE VIEW  HOTEL,
Government Street, next Burt's Bakery, Victoria, B. C.
Board and- Lodging, per week f 5 50.
Board, per week  4 60.
Single Meals 25 cento | Beds 25 cento.
. MRS. B-RAY, Proprietress.
CLARKE   &   NICHOLSON,
Importers and Dealers in Stoves, Metals, Etc.
Manufacturers or
TIN, SHEET  IRON &. COPPERWARE.
YATES ST., Victoria, B. C.
P. O. Box. 77.
J. ISAACS & CO.
DEALERS IN
GUNS,   RIFLES,   AMMUNITION,
*'wh   &x>oxrtlxxg;  Goods,
Corner Johnson & Oriental Streets, VICTORIA, B. C.
MUNROE MILLER,
STEAM BOOK AND JOB PRINTER,
Johnson Street, near Government.
All the Latest Styles of Printing done on the Shortest Notice.
J'ZO'O.    T "El -A. CSV- XT EJ ,
# ARCHITECT.
GOVERNMENT    STREET,
VICTORIA, B. 0.
mmmvmV^mWmWmmmmmWmmmVmWMmm*mmvmmWmmWr-*-~"'   - ' —~"^M—immm~m*~~~.——mmmmmmmt
LETTICE 8l SEARS,
House, Sign! Ship Painters
Glaziers, Paperhangers and General Decorators ; Dealers in Paints,
Oils, Varnish, Brushes, Putty, Window Glass ,Etc.
BROAD STREET, NEAR FORT,       -       -       -      VICTORIA, B. C.
Orders Solicited and Promptly Executed.
FELL & COMPANY,
Importers and Dealers in
GROCERIES, PROVISIONS, FRUIT, &C.
Purveyors to the Marquis of Lome and Princess Louise.
Wine and Spirit Merchants, Gknrhai. Itaijan Warehousemen,
FORT STREET, VICTORIA, B. C.
AU Shipping Orders Completely and Promptly Filled and Delivered per
Express Van Free of Charge.
ROYAL
Cor, Douglas and Fort Streets, Victoria, B. C.
Good Accommodations for Permanent and Transient boarders.
-TERMS :—
Board and Lodging per week $5 00 to $6 00
Board 4 00
Single Meals  25
Beds v 25
Mrs. Godfrey, Proprietress.
MR. & MRS. J. DOBINSON,
Fort St., Victoria, B. C.
Have for sale a general assortment of Fancy Goods, Berlin and Zephyr
Wools, etc. Also?by.
MR. DOBINSON, TAXIDERMIST,
Birds, Animals, Reptiles and Insects, preserved and mounted in the best
manner.    Also, Stuffed Birds and Birds' Wings for sale.
HOTESL,
ilOPcr^ BRITISH COLUMBIA IMMIGRATION  BUREAU.
INFORMATION, EMPLOYMENT AND HOMES FOR EMIGRANTS.
The Government of British-Columbia having established an Immigration and Employment Bureau at
Victoria, all persons desirous of obtaining authentic information about the country are hereby notified to
applv, either personally or by letter, to the Agent. Pamphlets and hand-books descriptive of the country
and 'its resources will be supplied on application, free of charge. Employers of labor (skilled and unskilled)
in the province are hereby invited to place themselves in communication with the Bureau. Office at Government Buildings, James Bay, Victoria, British Columbia.    All communications to be addressed to
J OHN JESSOP, Immigration Agent.
A FEW FACTS ABOUT BRITISH COLUMBIA.
British Columbia is entering upon an era of great prosperity.    Fully $3,000,000 are expended upon
public works annifally.    Thousands of men are employed on the construction of the Canadian Pacific Rail-^
way.    A railway ^ong the eastern coast of Vancouver Island is almost certain  to be under construction•
soon.    A large graving dock is being made at Esquimalt.    The provincial  industries  are flourishing.
Trade is sound, and exports and imports are annually increasing.
LABOR IS MUCH WANTED.
The railway works and many of the provincial industries are hampered by want of labor.    Every man
and woman able and willing to work can find employment.    "Wages are high.    Board and clothing are -
reasonable.    Domestic servants are wanted.    The supply of professional men, clerks and shopmen is perhaps sufficient.
CLIMATE, CROPS AND FRUIT.
The climate is the best in America—serene and invigorating—its varieties ranging from the climate
of the South of England to that of a large portion of France. The Marquis of Lome, Governor-General of
Canada, says respecting it: "No words can be too strong to express the charm of this delightful land?
Soils are fertile. Crops do not fail. No drought. The wheat, barley, oats and hops of British Columbia beat those of California, ^he root crops of British Columbia cannot be surpassed in any country.
Fruit can be raised to anv extent and of almost everv kind.
MINING.
Gold mining keeps its place and is capable of great extension. Fields of coal and mountains of iron
lie side by side, and rich silver ledges abound.    Other valuable minerals exist in great variety.
FISHERIES.
The fisheries are boundless, and, although comparatively untouched, already yield about $2,000,000 a
year for export alone.    Food fish can be had almost any where for the taking.
TIMBER.
British Columbia has the most extensive and valuable forests in  North America, and although this
industry is yet in its infancy, the annual product of manufactured lumber is about 30,000,000 feet.
SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES.
A free public school is placed within the reach of every child in the province, and high schools and
colleges are to be found in the centers of population.    No  state church, no tithes, but a fair supply of
churches throughout the country, including the Anglican, Roman Cotholic, Presbyterian and Methodist.
POLITICAL AND MUNICIPAL SYSTEM.
The political system is as free as man can desire—full self government, and citizenship easy of attainment by aliens.    Any settlement of not less than thirty householders may form themselves into a niunicK
pality and manage their own local affairs.
ADMISTRATION OF JUSTICE.
Law and order prevail to a high degree, and justice is firmly and fairly, administered.    Petit
are poid from $1.50 to $2.00 a day for every day they attend, and witnesses are wt
551 MAIL COMMUNICATION.
Three or foijrMnails a week reach the province from abroad, and the interior mail  service is fc
most part liberal.
THE LAND SYSTEM.
British Columbia possesses one of the most liberal land systems in the world.   Crown lands can be preempted or purchased at one dollar (four English shillings) an acre, on easy terms of payment, and the settler can have his homestead to the value of $2,500, and personal propertv to the value of $500   registered
and thereby effectually secured against all creditors.
ALL ARE WELCOME.
Emigrants from every civilized country are cordially welcomed to this "glorious province" (vide Lord
Duffenn s speech).    Aliens can purchase Crown lands and hold and convey real estate with everv freedom
Aliens canbe naturalized after one year's residence, and thereafter enjoy all the rights of citizenship   Tax'
st freedom compatible with law and order is enjoyed.
fell paid.-
jurors
tor
the
ation is light and the utm RESOURCES     OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  The Resources of British Columbia.
Westward the Star of Empire takes Its -way.'
VOLUME I {
No. 5.       I
VICTORIA, B. C, JULY 1, 1883.
j  PER ANNUM $2.00
I   Peb Oopt, 25 Cts.
Opinions of Eminent Personages.
There is no doubt that any Canadian who visits
this Island and the Mainland shores, and sees the
happiness of the people, the forest-laden coast, the
tranquil gulfs and glorious mountains, can but congratulate himself that his countiy possesses scenes of
such perfect beauty.
No words can be too strong to express the charm
of this delightful land, where the climate, softer and
more constant than that of the south of England, ensures at all times of the year a full enjoyment of the
wonderful loveliness of nature around you.
Agreeable as 1 think the steady and dry cold of
an eastern winter is, yet there are very many who
would undoubtedly prefer the temperature enjoyed
by those who live west of the mountains. Even
where it is coldest, spring comes in February, and
the country is so divided into districts of greater dryness or greater moisture, that a man may always
choose whether to have a rainfall small or great.—
The Marquis of Lome.
Well, I may frankly tell you that I think British
Columbia a glorious province—a province which Canada should be proud to possess, and whose association
with the Dominion she ought to regard as the crowning triumph of Federation.—The Earl of Dufferm.
If any citizen will bring his family here for one
summer he will find the truth to be that Victoria
combines in itself more and rare advantages as a
summer resort than any of the eastern resorts with
which he is probably familiar. Victoria must become the great summer resort of the Pacific coast.—
American Tourist.
This is the most delightful country I have ever
seen; in all my travels 1 have never experienced so
enjoyable a  day.—Senator Edmonds,   Vice Presi
dent of the United States.
There is no doubt that with a smaller amount of
labor and outlay than in almost any other country
the energetic settler may soon surround himself with
all the elements of comfort and even affluence.—Sir
James Douglas.
It remains only for me to add that as years roll
on, and our possessions become developed, the value
of this second Britain will come so vividly before our
four hundred miles of coast line in our western possessions, clothed with a forest growth superior to
anything else in the world at present. Its shore indented with multitudes of harbors, bays and inlets,
teeming with myriads of'fish. Its rocks and sands
containing gold, iron, silver, coal and various other
minerals. And besides all this, a climate superior to
England in every respect, both as regards heat and
moisture, and yet men will ask what is it all worth?
I answer, 'worth more than Quebec and all the maritime provinces thrown in, and sceptics may rest assured that the day is not far distant when my words
will be accepted as truth.'—Prof. Macoun.
THE MODERN ROCKER.
One of the most simple and useful machines
used in placer mining is the Rocker, of which the
above cut is an illustration. The old time miner
whose eyes may fall upon this page will greet the picture as that of an old and familiar friend, one scarcely less dear to him than the trusted "pard" with
whom he shared his well filled sack of yellow nuggets, or, if need be, his last pound of beans and only
slice of bacon.
The Rocker, as its name implies, is simply a kind
of cradle, the bottom of which is perforated or slatted and resting on an inclined sluice taversed by a
number of transverse grooves. From the great difference of density existing between the particles of gold
and the siliceous and ferruginous gravel with which
it is commonly associated, its separation from these
bodies becomes an extremely simple operation. The
same principles which regulate the fall of solid bodies
through a liquid medium in a state of rest, are equally applicable to their removal by the action of a
stream of running water. The gravel or earth to be
washed is placed in the Rocker which is agitated to
and fro, water being poured on at the same time,
until the gold, together with a small portion of fur-
iuginous sand, alone remains in the furrows, after
which the matrix is removed and treated with quicksilver by which the precious   metal  is    separated
people that men will ask with astonishment why such
ignorance prevailed  in the past.    To-day there  are I from the" sand  or other base matter THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
$jLtn®muft iff 11? itkli aCotomWa
PUBLISHED AT VICTORIA, B. C„ ON THE FIRST OF EVERY MONTH.
A. A. McARTHUR,
Editor and Proprietor.
TERMS TO SUBSCRIBERS:
One Copy, one year -
One Copy, six months  -: - - - -
All subscriptions payable invariably in advance.   Postage
free to all parts of the world,
$2.00.
1.00.-
^5-All matter intended for publication should be sent in not later
than the 25th of the month.   Correspondence solicited.
NO QUESTIONABLE ADVERTISEMENTS INSERTED IN THIS JOURNAL.
Provincial Progress.
At no time in the past history of this province
was it possible to find such indubitable evidences of
material progress afl the whole country presents to
■day, the asseverations of croakers and malcontents to
the country notwithstanding. On every side are we
confronted with the most convincing proofs of this
general prosperity. The volume of business transacted has. increased immensely, a fact fully borne out
by the largely augmented number of steamers and
other vessels making regular trips to our ports and
plying updh our inland waters. New vessels, to
meet the rapidly growing demand for transportation,
are being constantly added to existing lines. We
have now a weekly, instead of a tri-monthly steam
service between this port and San Francisco; a daily,
instead of a tri-weekly, line of steamers connecting
our ports with those of Puget Sound, the mediterranean of the Occide/bt, while the number of vessels
plying between dojnestic ports lias" been largely increased to meet the requirements of internal traffic.
The western portion of the C. P. R. is rapidly approaching completion, and is already adding mile
after mile to a continuous line of transportation extending far into the interior country—opening up
fresh avenues of 'trade, creating new homes and estab-
lishing extensive and permanent industries' in its
wake. Many substantial buildings are being erected,
new enterprises have been entered upon, and a lone
of general prosperity pervades the entire community.
These.facts are becoming known abroad, especially
in the neighboring pacific states whose people are in
a position to form correct opinions as to the degree
of progress obtaining here. A recent number of the
Oregonian contains the following:'
"Our neighbor on the north, British Columbia,
is jnst now enjoying a season of activity strikingly in,
contrast with its afore-time slowness. An almost
complete isolation has regarded its growth in the past,
but an era of development has at last reached it. The.
work of building the Canada Pacific Railroad has
alone added to the population of the province at least
ten thousand persons, all of whom draw their support
from outside while they disburse great.sums for  supplies, etc.    The income to the  province from this
source alone is  very great,' while the opportunities
for employment afforded by building operations have
given  the  country an   industrial   'boom.'    But the
greatest advantage from the railway work is the confidence in the future prosperity of the province which
it inspires'.    Fearful that the road would not be built,,
capital has held back and the resources of the country,
many and great as they are, have been allowed to rest
and Wait.  ' Now no doubts about the road are entertained and many of the advantages expected  from   it
are felt in advance.    One has but to look about Vie-;
toria to see signs of new life.    Many new buildings;
are going up in all directions,  a great   increase  of'
steamboat traffic is noted, and the general movements^
of business exhibit an unaccustomed energy. The advance is even more noticeable on the mainland than
on Vancouver  Island,  as  the influences  of railroad
building are more directlv felt there.    The mainland
towns are busy and thrifty, while the  country, under
the benefit of a certain market for its produce at high j
prices, is  prosperous  to  an  unprecedented   degree.
British Columbia, too,   is  getting  its   share   of -the
immigration now coming to   the Pacific Northwest.
Many British immigrants prefer the old government'
and associations, and other opportunities being eaual,
they settle on, British soil.    There is every indication
that the. new prosperity will continue through a  long
course of years."
Effect of Sunlight on Plants.—Or. Hermann
Vogel, in his treatise on "The Chemistry of Light
and Photography," points out the. chemical effect of
sunlight on plants,, and especially the modified growth
of plants owing to differences in the intensity of
light, stating, that these variations in the chemical
intensity of light are very important to the life of
plants. The green leaves of plants inhale carbonic
acid and exhale oxygen under the influence of light,
but this breathing process does not take place in the*
dark. Without light, plants develop only sickly blossoms, like the well known white germs of potatoes
kept in cellars. The necessity of light for the life of
plants is also seen in the effort made by plants kept
in darkened rooms to reach the apertures which admit light, growing, as it were, toward them. The
plant, therefore, develops with an energy proportioned to the intensity of the light, and the greater fruit-
fulneess of the tropics is to be ascribed not only to
the higher temperature, but also to the greater chemical intensity of the sunlight. Recent observations
have established that the red and yellow rays, and not
the blue and violet, produce the greatest chemical
effect on the leaves of plants. THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
3
Hints To Emigrants.
Of all countries inviting immigration at present,
British Columbia seems to possess, in the greatest
degree, the climatic conditions, and that variety and
extent of natural resources adapted to the requirement of the future settler, be his vocation what it
may.. The man of wealth will here find a broad and
inviting field for the profitable investment of his
capital; the miner will find rivers flowing over golden sands, and in the hills, ledges of untold mineral
wealth; the lumber merchant and ship-builder will
find immense forests of stately trees, that have been
growing for centuries to attain their present grand
proportions, and whose, dim corridors have not yet
been invaded by the sturdy woodsman nor echoed to
the ringing blows of his destructive axe; the farmer
will find thousands of acres of virgin soil which he
may convert into broad fields of smiling plenty—the
seed time and the bountiful harvest being equally
sure; the invalid will find a climate health restoring
and invigorating; the sportsman will find everywhere
an ample field for his practiced hand with rod or gun,
whether his quest be the nimble trout, the plumed
pheasant, the bounding deer, or the growling bear:
while the tourist or the landscape painter will be at
once charmed and surprised with the fresh beauty
and surpassing grandeur of the combination of
Alpine, and Italian scenery, the delight of every
beholder.
While it is true that this Pacific province—won-
derously pacific and patient as well—was before confederation, a kind of neglected waif of the British
"Empire, and has since recieved only abuse added to
neglect from her ultramontane but unscrupulous
sister provinces of the Dominion, who have broken
all their most solemn pledges and ruthlessly trampled
upon,her defenceless rights, thereby ignoring common honesty; to say nothing of the claims of sisterhood, yet, although all this has been exceedingly
detrimental to those who were here, it is much in
favor of the settler in the immediate future. Now
that the interests of Canada demand the completion
of the C. P. P. as soon as practicable, this province
will receive a large portion of her just dues, so long
and so unrighteously withheld from her. As we have
said, the delay in opening the country has operated
»to the advantage of those now coming here, inasmuch
as the, lands may be obtained at a merely nominal
price, which would not be the case if the country
had been generally. settled.
Now the immigrant can pick out his choice
-from a thousand farms, pay h-rs dollar per acre and
**eeeive a title in fee simple txTthe land.
A  country of  such vast  extent, with the finest
of climates, and so rich in  natural resources,  where
frugality, industry and a small  amount of capital are I
only necessary-to insure eminent  success,  it is very
apparent  that  British Columbia  affords  to day the
most inviting field for immigration of  any  portion
of the' world.
Already the tide has set in this way; but they
are only the energetic and more enterprising who
travel so far to establish themselves in homes and
business of their own, and we are very glad of it, as
such men always prove to be helps, not hinderances,
to progress, wherever they may cast their lots. After
the Railway is completed and when fares will be low,
there will doubtless be a great rush, but they will-
then come, only to find that the choicest locations
have all been taken up by the more energetic and
deserving who have preceded them. Those tardy
comers will then regret their unwise procrastination.
An exchange thus hits off the situation to a hair line:
"It is the energetic class alone that comes to this
country as yet; loafers and dry-goods-box whittlers
will come after the hard work of developing the country is over. They are the class that, metaphorically
speaking, may be likened unto the locusts of ancient
Egypt, which ate up the fruit of industry. A man
who has the 'sand' to pull up stake in the land of his
fathers and come out to the far Northwest has the
essential elements of success. He is not afraid to
work nor fastidious about the style he maintains.
Besides he has the encouragement of so many acres
of land of his own selection, and where he may plant
and gather, sow and reap, without the dictation of a
landlord. The land is his own, in the possession and
use of which none dare to molest or make him afraid.
He is monarch of his own survey and his right there
is none to dispute. The young woman who comes to
town with an ox team now will in a few years travel
over the same road in a carriage of her own. The
man who lives in a shack now Will in a few years be
living in a farm mansion. The family who now can
hardly afford to pay postage on a letter to their
friends back East will in a few years travel in a palace
car to visit them. But those who stand around with
their hands in their pockets, waiting for something to
turn up, will probably be found in the same condition
twenty years hence. If you cannot secure a clerkship
in a store you can hold a plow on a farm. If you
cannot make $5 a day at your usual vocation, you can
make $2 at something else. It is not the wages you
can get nor the kind of work you do that is your
recommendation, but the industry and energy with
, which you prosecute whatever you undertake to -do.
Let the world see that you have the sand and you will
not want for profitable employment. Do not attempt
to compass your work by your salary. Do your work
well and your salary will regulate itself."
Trade with those advertising in the besources. £__  !
THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Companion Pictures.
The scenes represented by the engravings on the
two nages before us are striking portrayals of two of
the most important and interesting episodes m mining
life often experienced in British Columbia. The one
shows a party of adventurous gold seekers, preparing
to start on a prospecting tour. The mule, already laden is seen vigorously protesting against the load or
the proposed journey or both, and as is his wont,
presents his demurer, and urges his objections in the
unmistakable logic and conclusive argument of his
heels. In "sinching up" the other hybrid, it will be
observed that great care is taken by the men not to
stand in the way of any "objections" that may be
raised, at any moment, by one so proverbial for knock
down arguments.
Leaving our friends to settle their disputes with
their long eared
companions, and
to complete their
preparations for
the journey, and
wishing them
oon voyage we
will now, if the
reader please,
take a glance at
the next page
and note the
scene there presented. Here
they have arriv-
ed safe and
sound, and again
pitched their
oft moved tents.
Railroad Rumblings.
OFF ON A PROSPECTING   TOUR.
The old man of the party, who has been engaged
in the gold quest since the "fall of '49 and spring
of '50," has sunk a prospect hole, and is now engaged in washing the first pan. To judge of his success, it is not necessary to examine the large nug-
get of the precious metal displayed in his open palm,
for the bright gleam of his practised eye and the
broad smile on his hopeful, honest face, sufficiently
attest the fact, that he has, indeed, "struck it rich."
The "Resources" in Europe
During the last month we have received a large
number of orders for this publication from Europe,
especially from England and Wales. We feel that
we are indebted to our friends here for this welcome
increase to our already large circulation, as those thus
favoring us with their orders invariably state that
they have received one or more copies already; and
are desirous of having it come regularly to them.
Montreal, June26.-The contract for another
great railway enterprise was given out today, to build
a new line, called the Ontario and Pacific Railway,
from Cornwall, on the bank of the St. Lawrence, to
Sault Ste. Marie, to connect with the Northern Pacific
Railway, over a big bridge, to the western terminus
700 miles. It is claimed this will make the most direct and shortest line to the west from the Atlantic
seaboard, and will give the Northern Pacific an advantage over both the Canadian Pacific and the Grand
Trunk from ocean to ocean. The Dominion government's charter gives the company power to • build a
bridge over the St. Lawrence, and American connections are already secured from the border line to
Portland, Maine, Boston, and New York. A large
part of the new road will run almost parallel with the
Canadian Pacific, to Sault Ste.
Marie. It will
receive subsidies
from municipal
and several other
sources. The
contract was given to Philadelphia men, and
the promoters
are American
and Canada capitalists. Bonds
to the extent of
$12,000,000 will
be issued. Duncan Mclntyre, B.
R. Angus, direc_
tors, and Van Home, general manager, went off in a
hurry to meet President Stevens of the Canadian
Pacific relative to this threatening scheme. How
they can counteract it without purchasing the charter
is a mystery. The project, which has been kept a
secret, produced a sensation here to-day. It is popular, as the Canadians have been crying out against
the Canadian Pacific men.
We sincerely hope that the proposed connection
will be built and operated, thus practically giving
British Columbia, which is interested only in througFi
rates, the advantage of competing lines and consequent minimum rates for thi
The C. P. R. magnate
rough transportation,
will doubtless now become
convinced that no time is to be lost in pushing their
road through to the Pacific seaboard, as it is found to
be a matter of great difficulty to divert traffic from
its accustomed channel. By vigorous work the C. P.
R. can be completed one year before the other road. THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
[correspondence.]
-The Cottonwood Tree
Editor Resources.—We notice in The Resour-
ces of British Columbia, published by you, dated 1st
March, you speak of a "Cottonwood" which grows
very extensively in the country, and which is suitable
for paper making. We will be obliged if you will
give us some information about this. We expect to
have a vessel shortly loading a cargo of timber at
Burrard Inlet for this country, and we would like to
bring a few tons in her as a trial if it will answer
for paper making in this country. You are no doubt
aware there is a large
quantity of Esparto iB
grass imported, from
the Mediterranean for
this purpose, and it
has struck us from
your discription that
the Cottonwood might
be used. as a substitute. Will you please
inform us whether it
could be got in quantity, and whether i t
can easily be got to a
port of shipment, also
if you have any idea
what it would cost
per ton delivered at a
porl <of shipment?
Please also say
if it is a plant peculiar
to British Columbia,
or the Pacific C o_a s t.
STRUCK   IT   RICH.
water, and attains to 150 feet in height and from
four to six feet in diameter. The bead-like cotton
pods are arranged on nodding or erect racemes, seeds
white, capsules three to four valved. The timber is
somewhat less white than the Aspen which is extensively- used in the Eastern States for the manufacture
of paper, and when thoroughly dry looses more than
half its weight. All sorts of wooden vessels, clothespins,
spools and similar turners' ware are made of it, but it
has heretofore been regarded as one of our least valuable kinds of wood. However the despised Cottonwood may yet become the most popular as well as
the most valuable tree. Late inventions and discoveries have revealed
the fact that the finest polish and strongest household furniture can be made out
of paper. It can be
pressed so hard that
no instrument short
of a diamond can
scratch it, and it can
be  given   the  finest.
O
shades in imitation of
wood, and produced
cheaper than walnut,
mahogany or ebon.
I And   late  discoveries
J m p a per maiung  es
tablish   the fact  that
Cottonwood m a k e s
the whitest and
strongest fiber pulp
yet manufactured out
of  wood.    There  are
Do you mean that the whole of the plant is suitable fur this purpose or only a description of cotton
that grows on it? Can you give ns the botanical name
of the plant? If you think there is any chance of the
wood being of value here, we will be much obliged if
you will send us by parcel post a few pounds of the
wood so that we can have it examined here, provided
the cost will not exceed $5 or $6, including the carriage here. Messrs. Welch Rithet & Co. will reim-
burse you any outlay for this on our account. We
have already asked these gentlemen to subscribe for
us to the Resources. We are Yours truly,
John S. De Wolf & Co.
1, Tower Chambers, Liverpool, 23rd May, 1883.
[This large tree is known here as Fremont's Cottonwood, or by the botanic name, Populus FreinonUz.
It is found all over the Pacific Coast and also east of
the Rocky Mountains. Flourishes in rich light alluvion,   near river banks or where its roots  may reach
vast quantities of pulp imported into the United
States, and some newspaper men are clamoring for
its admission free of .duty. Paper mills in Delaware,
Pennsylvania, and other Northern States, are shipping thousands of cords of poplar wood fron the
Chowan river in North Carolina, one.mill in Delaware contracting for 30,000 cords.
Here Cottonwood is abundant, and as its habitat
is in the vicinity of the inlets, lakes and rivers, it
is therefore very convenient for shipment. By improved methods, and machinery recently invented, it
can be ground into pulp, and manufactured into paper
with astonishing rapidity; and it has been demonstrated by actual experiment, that a growing tree of this
wood may be cut down, reduced to pulp, pressed into
sheets of the desired size and a newspaper printed
I upon it, all within twenty four hours, in view of
these facts, there would seem to be no need for farther tests as to the practicability of making cheap and
excellent paper from the Cottonwood tree.—Ed.J
IKkCOSSDM THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Suburban Homes.
The history of all cities proves conclusively that
where good roads are built and maintained there the
suburbs are more quickly settled and the cities less
densely crowded. This remark is particularly applicable to the outlying lands which surround Victoria,
where good macadam roads are built and kept in repair by the government. The same history also warrants the assertion that those who availed themselves
of the opportunity of purchasing suburban lands by
the acre have amassed wealth by the growth of the
city. The rule is an infallible one, and the experience of the past in all other cities, shows the wisdom
of its adoption. Besides the pecuniary advantages
to be derived from such investments in outside property, statistics prove that the procurement of a home
tends directly to the promotion of health, happiness
and sequent longivity, by affording awhile from the
perplexing anxieties of a migratory existence, and it
further tends to the encouragement of economic hab-
its, the stability and good order of the family and of
society in general. It is inherent in the relation we
sustain to the family and to society to provide a home
and plant the vine and fig tree, under the protecting
shadow of which our children may feel that there is
indeed no place like home, the very thought of which,
even after they have grown up into ripe manhood
and womanhood, will cause a thrill of pleasure, and
recall some of the thousand and one cherished memories that cluster about the dear old home and the fond
recollection of the loved ones theiiv lisping tongues
x      o o
first named.
The  advantages of living  away  from   business
after business hours, of having a home and  grounds
to improve and beautify, and  something to  relieve
the mind from  the  cares   and  annoyances   of  city
j life—from   its   circumscribed  limits  and    miasmat-
: ic  influences-have  long  since  became  apparent  to
| the business men of  the great  commercial  marts;
j and we find that  places   even sixty miles  from Lon-
j don, such as Brighton, Norwood, Sydenham and Croy-
\ den, are not considered too far from that city for
' the suburban villa residences of those who have occa-
i sion to be in London daily during business hours; so
! in Eew York, Philadelphia, Boston and San Francis-
■ co, from  which latter named city, morning and even-
j mg) the boats and cars are crowded with city business
| men.    In many of these suburban retreats their beautiful residences  and parks were built  and improved
long before  other than ordinary  facilities and means
I of conveyance for making them were afforded, havinp-
been purchased in  anticipation of the growth of the
^ity, aud the natural  enhancement of adjacent proper ty.    In  a few  years the land  thus bought by the
old at prices per lot in subdivisions in
(	
acre  could 1
excess of tin
Victoria as an extensive manufacturing center
and a city of great commercial importance in the immediate future is no idle nor visionary dream. The
signs of the times indicate changes of great moment.
The white winged messengers of commerce are al-
ready thronging our harbors. Soon we will hear the
shrill whistle of the locomotive, waking up the echoes
of the long sleeping past;' the smoke from the chimneys of our factories and work shops, will rise in a
thousand turbaned columns into the empyrean; while
the bustle of busy trade, the whirr of machinery and
the ceaseless din of countless tools, proclaim the industries and activities of the hour. Then will Victoria become what she is destined and fitted to be, a
commercial and manufacturing center second to none
on the Pacific Coast-Communicated. «
>rmer acre once
Physical Properties of Gold.
Around the miner's camp fire conversation naturally leads to the all absorbing subject of gold and
its origin. Each prospector has a theory of his own,
but all are based on the vague idea that gold in the
placers is brought from some general source, which
the miner searches for, but never finds. What is
true of the present was true in early times. It was
the universal belief, as far as we have history, that if
the source of gold be found it would be possible to
quarry it out like granite; but this idea seems never
to be realized.
"El Dorado" is Spanish for "golden region."
Three hundred years ago Francis Oreliana, a companion of Pizarro, conceived the idea that gold found in
the valleys must have been washed down from some
vast deposit in the mountains. He spread the report
that he had discovered such a deposit near the summit of the Andes, which he called "El Dorado. "
He described it as being a valley, beautiful, not only
for its scenery, but for its streams and fountains,
grassy slopes, and groves of pines and cedars. A
vail of enchantment hung over th'e valley; the trees
were graceful; the skies were never obscured by
clouds, and gold and gems were as plentiful and
common as rocks and pebbles in other lands. He
said he had seen at Manoa immense treasures of gold
and precious stones, brought from "El Dorado," and
temples roofed with gold. Oreliana is said to have
discovered the Amazon in 1549.
There is probably no metal more generally distributed over the earth's surface than gold, but its
physical properties are such that it can only exist in
comparatively small quantities within the reach of
man. Iron and most other metals have such an affinity for oxygen that they form compounds with that
element, becoming oxides, which form secondary compounds with other elements and compounds and become part of the rocks  which constitute the earth's
-3 THE RESOURCES OF
crust; gold, and a few other metals, having little or
no affinity for oxygen, and for that reason called "noble metals," retain their metallic state and are seldom found otherwise.
The love of gold is, without doubt, the result of
education. As an example, a savage in possession of
a gold coin will willingly exchange it for a nail or a
fishhook. Even those knowing the value attached to
gold will receive a counterfeit with perfect satisfaction
and retain it until its true character is discovered.
When the ports of Japan were first opened to Europeans, the relative value .of gold to that of silver was
less than with us, which was taken advantage of with
©
serious loss to the Japanese. Those who think that
gold is valued for itself alone have neglected the study
of political economy, and should be told the story of
the man who, for a wager, undertook to sell sovereigns
at a shilling a piece on London Bridge and found to
his surprise that he could not find a customer.
The color of pure gold is bright yellow, tinged
slightly with red. It has a higher luster than copper, but less than silver, steel, mercury, or platinum.
It is softer than silver, and more ductile and malleable than any other metal. Although its malleabilitv
is so remarkable when pure, it is rendered brittle by
the slightest admixture of lead. It also becomes so
when suddenly cooled. When passing from a liquid
to a solid state it contracts more than any other metal. The atomic weight of gold is 196.5, hydrogen
being taken as' unity. It fuses at a temperature of
2016 fahrenheit. Gold may be distinguished from
all  other  substances  by the following  simple  and
J O x
characteristic tests: It is yellow; is not acted on by
nitric acid, and it fuses to a bright bead on charcoal
without incrustation. In sufficiently large pieces, it
may be recognized by being malleable under the
hammer, and cutting with a Tcnife without crumbling.
Domestic Fowls.
In view of the fact that the ruling prices of
fresh eggs in the markets of this province are from
50cts. in summer, to 75cts. in winter, per dozen, it
is apparent that the business of a "chicken ranch"
would be a very profitable one. Here, as elsewhere,
eggs form an important and almost indispensable
part of our daily nutriment, being largely used both
from the fshell and in conjunction with a myriad
toothsome preparations known to the culinary art by
as many different G-aulic appellations. The facilities
for entering upon and successfully carrying on the
business of poultry raising, are varied and abundant.
Cheap and convenient locations, admirably adapted
to this purpose, may easily be obtained within a-
radius of two or three, miles of the principle business
>centres; and the ready money necessary for a good
Istart in the business is comparatively  trifling, when
BRITISH COLUMBIA. 7
compared with the quick returns, and large profits
sure to accrue to the investor under such favorable
circumstances.. A knowledge of the best methods
employed by successful poulterers may be readily ob- I
tained from a study of any of the many excellent
works published on this important subject, so that
almost any person may engage in this pursuit with a
fair prospect of ultimate success, while the manual
labor necesary to carry it on is scarcely more than
that of an agreeable pastime.
For the guidance of those intending to engage
in the business we give the
o
QUALITIES   OF   DIFFERENT   BREEDS   OF   FOWLS.
Before raising chickens, the question   naturally
arises,   What  is the   best breed?    We  may  divide j
them into two classes—egg producing and  market- j
able fowls.    Different  experiments give  the following results:
Varieties. Eggs to lb.    No. per year.
Leghorn 9 170*
Plymouth Rock 8 155
L. Brahma and P. Cochin 7 185
DarkBrahma 8 135
Houdan and Hamburg 9 155
B. W. and Buff Cochin .7 130
Black Spanish 8 150
Game and Dominique 9 145
Polish , 9 135
Bantam 15 130
This shows that the Leghorn takes the lead   as
©
an egg producer.    Of these we have brown, white,
Do   X
black and Dominique. They are all quite hardy,
mature quickly, and commence laying at a very
early age, sometimes at four months old. On account
of their small size they are not much used.as a table
fowl, but their meat is fine and juicy.
To this class of egg producing fowls belong the
Houdan, Hamburg, Dominique, Game, Black Spanish,
and some others. Most of these are larger than the
Leghorn and good layers, but none equal the Leg-
horn on the laying score.
Among breeds raised for market, the most prominent are the Brahma and the Cochin. In principal
points these two breeds resemble each other, both
being large and of a quiet disposition, and .will bear
confinement well; a fence two or three feet high is
sufficient to keep them within bounds.
The Plymouth Rock combines the qualities  of
the ess producing and marketable fowls.    They are
bo   x p ^
better layers than the Asiatics and larger than the
Leghorn. A full grown male will weigh 10-J pounds.
They dress well, have nice juicy meat of finer quality
than the larger breeds. The hens are good sitters
and make as good mothers as can be found in
any other breed. The breed was originated in the
eastern states by a cross between the Dominique and
the Dark Brahma. THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
"OLD TOMORROW."
Characteristic Dealings with the
Mainland Railway Belt.
A Prod o'the Thistle Needed.
The chronic procrastination evinced bv the Dominion Government in its dealings with all matters
connected with the interests of this Province has become proverbial, so much so that even the stolid Indian has long since learned to expect only repeated
delays in the fulfilment of promises from that quarter. Sir John, being nearly always at the head of
that government, the aborigines have, we think very
© © v
properly, laid the blame of these tardy practices at
his door, and, when speaking of the Premier, invariably refer to him as "Old Tomorrow," a somewhat
inelegant subriquet by which he has long been known
among them. Nor can our white population congratulate that gentleman upon anything like Napoleonic
promptitude in dealing with matters affecting the interests of this Province, notably in the opening up of
the Mainland Railway Belt to settlement. Early in
May last, Sir John promised that this would be done
at once, and that Mr. Trutch would be instructed to
open a land office here for the purpose of disposing
of these lands at a nominal price to settlers, but we
are sorry to say that upon inquiry at the proper office,
we were informed that no such order has, as yet,
been received by the resident agent of the federal
government. It is said that the Scots chose the thistle as the emblem of their country on account of its
signal efficacy, when used as a prod, in arousing the
sleeping soldier to immediate action, and we believe
that there are some very wickedf?) people in British
Columbia, who, if opportunity favored, would actually try the experiment on the Ottawa Premier.
HOW  TO   PROCEED.
While awaiting the manipulation of red tape at
Ottawa, those desirous of settling on lands within the
railway belt can do so with the assurance that when
these lands do come into the market they may purchase them at a merely nominal price per acre, not
taking into account any improvements made in the
meantime. Besides such settlers will not be required to pay anything for them until they are regu-
larly open for settlement, a matter that cannot be
much longer delayed.
After selecting any location desired the intending settler should not fail to file in the Office of the
Dominion Agent at Victoria, a local discription of
the tract, say such as is required for similar applications in the land office. Although a record is kept
of all such applications, it is apparent that it will be
absolutely necessary for the settler, the moment these
lands come into the market, to make such farther application and such payments as may be required by
the Dominion Government, in order to acquire title
to such lands. While it would be much more satisfactory if these lands were surveyed and regularly open
to settlement, so that immediate title could be obtained, yet there can be no doubt that the bona fide
settler may acquire title in the manner above stated,
It is the speculator, alone, who is effectually barred
out for the present.
Apart from the railway belt, there is any quantity
of excellent land, belonging to the Province, now ob-
©       ©
tainable for one dollar per acre, both on the Island and
Mainland, and concerning which tlie Immigration
Agents at Victoria and New Westminster will, on
application, cheerfully give, free of charge, the fullest
information to intending immigrants and settlers.
© ©
We advise all interested in this subject to interview these gentlemen, or, if this is not practicable, to
w/ite to them for the information desired.
Our Table.
The Pacific Bural Press is a large and beautifully illustrated weekly publication containing an unusual
amount of fresh, original farm, household and family
circle literature, besides giving full and reliable market reports, and is one of our most valued exchanges.
It is published by Messrs. Dewey & Co, 252, Market st.
San Francisco, Cal. Price $3.00 a year.
The Daily Oregonian, of Portland, Ogn. another
welcome visitor comes regularly to hand. Besides its
able editorials and interesting locals, its columns are
©
replete with the latest telegraphic news from all quarters and it is justly regarded as the leading newspaper
north of San Francisco. It has a considerable number
of readers in this Province who take it on account of
its telegraphic dispatches.
The Daily Evening Post, published in this city
by the Mc Dowell Bros., is rapidly gaining in public
favor. Being printed immediately after the arrival of
the mail steamers, it is thus enabled to give the latest
news from abroad/while its local department is always
spicy and interesting.
The Daily Standard of this City, which is the
leading journal of the Opposition in Provincial politics is also the largest daily paper in the Province,
and besides containing a great amount of general
news, is especially interesting and valuable for its correspondence from the interior of the Province.
A number of other exchanges, not less valued
and welcome, will be noticed in our next issue.
J^^SUBSORIBE   FOR  THE
IT  TO YOUR FRIENDS.
k-esources
AND    SEND WW
THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
POINTED PEN PICTURES
Of Prominent Self-Made Men of British
Columbia.
SOME OF THE NAMES ON THE RESOURCES' ROLL OF HONOR.
It is not in oar stars, but in onrselves
That we are underlings.
~Shtikspeare.
Among the many profound and pithy aphorisms
of the illustrious bard of Avon, which have so enriched and adorned our English literature, there are,
perhaps,  none  containing   more of wisdom and of
worth than the one above cited.    Its force and truthfulness are evidenced in the lives of those whose names
are written  high, and stand out in bold relief on the
emblazoned record of the most brilliant achievements
of individual life.    Truly, "it is noi in our stars," nor
in any favoring or cruel  fate, but  largely, if not en-
|. tiixily, in the energies and  activities, or in the sloth-
fulness and  improvidence of our  own lives, wherein
we make  or mar  our fortunes.    While it is doubtless,   true,  as  the  same great author tells   us, that
"There's  a divinity doth shape our  ends,   rough-hew
them how we  will," yet, as divinity implies  a power
for  good, not evil, and as God is said to help only
those who help themselves, it is evident that every
man must become the architect of his own  fortune.
This is especially the case in a new country like ours,
possessing   such  great  and  varied   natural wealth,
where the opportunities for advancment  are strewn
on every side;  where the citizen  is not constantly
jostled by the eager, greedy throngs of the more populous centres, and where he may enjoy, in the fullest
manner   consistent with law and order, his heaven
born rights to   liberty and the pursuit of happiness.
It may be proper to say, en passant, that in presenting to our readers,  the  following brief  notices,
as well as the illustrations on   another page, of some
of our more prominent citizens, we do so without the
solicitation of any  one of   them, our object being  to
show  to  the   outside world, to which we are so little
known,  that  with little or no capital save being possessed of fair intelligence, coupled with moral, industrious and frugal habits, a competence if not affluence
is within   easy reach of all such who may cast their
lot in   British   Columbia.    It is also  hoped that our
young people will be benefitted by such examples.
EDGAR CROW BAKER, ESQ., M. P.
The senior member for Victoria District in the
Canadian House of Commons, is the third surviving
son of Edward William Whitley Baker of Liscard
Park, Cheshire, England, who was an Officer in the
Royal Navy. Mr. Baker was born in '43, at Lam
beth, Surrey, England, andjs of an old English f
I
am-
ily that traces its descent from 1310.    He was edu
cated at the Royal Hospital Schools, Greenwich, and
in '60 obtained nomination by competition into the
Royal Navy, haying held the first place in the first
class, nautical, for fifteen months previous to examination; and passed with honors at the head of a class
of 400 competitors at the general examination, winning the first prize in mathematics, navigation,
nautical astronomy and scripture history; and on
passing final test examination at the Royal Naval
College, Portsmouth, was awarded the silver medal
and thirty five guineas in coin, also fifteen guineas
worth of nautical instruments and books. He was
then appointed to. H. M. S. Victory, but in a week
was transferred to the Rolla, a ten-gun sailing brig in I
© © ©
which he continued until the spring of 1861, when
r ©
he was appointed to H. M. S.. Cygnet on the North
American and West Indies station and was present
at the bombardment, of the Haytien Capital when H.
M. S. Bulldog was lost, also at the Jamaica insurrection during the time of Governor Eyre. Went up
the Mississippi during the American civil war to
protect British interests. Was sent away as prize
-Officer in '63, in charge of the ship Dalhousie of
Glasgow, salved by the Cygnet in the Strait of Belle
© «/ */ ©
Isle and navigated her thence to St. Johns, Newfoundland. Was paid off from Cygnet at Halifax in
October '64, and joined H. M. S. Duncan, flagship of
Vice Admiral Sir James Hope, a ninety-one-gun line-
o'battle ship, on same station. During the Fenian
scare, took troops to St. Andrew, Bay of Fundy, and
landed for service with Naval Brigade. Passed ex-
amination, recieved first class certificate and obtained
first  commission  as   navigating   sub-Lieutenant   in
© ©
Sept, 1865. Returned to England in June '67, and
in March '69, was married at the parish church, Beb-
ington, to Frances Mary, eldest daughter of Capt.
Richard Jones of Halifax, Nova Scotia. lias issue,
one daughter. Subsequently Mr. B.aker served in H.
M. S.Hibernia at Malta, and in H. M. S.Cockatrice
up the Mediterranean and the river Danube, enforcing the rules of the European Commission and during this time made a survey of St. George's Channel,
River Danube and several of the places where grain
vessels had been sunk. Came home across the continent and remained on half pay until March '72,
when he was appointed to H. M. S. Royal Alfred,
but exchanged into the "Niobe" and took that vessel
• from Bermuda to Halifax, and thence to the various
ports in Prince Edwards Island, Newfoundland and
the Gulf of St. Lawrence, protecting the fisheries.
At his own request, again going on half pay in Sept.
'72, he served for six months on the Board of Examiners of Master Mates, and being superceded by
a political nominee, accepted a position as accountant
in the store department of the Intercolonial Railway
in which lie continued until March, '76, when he left
en famille, for British Columbia.. -J = -J-U^..
IP
10
THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Since his arrival here Mr. Baker has been engaged in various business pursuits, having occupied
the position of accountant at the Victoria Agency of
the Hastings Mill Co. for three years, and afterwards
similarly employed for nearly two years in the Provincial Treasury. Under the Dominion Act of 1873,
he organized the pilotage system of British Columbia and has been Secy, and Treasr. of the Pilot Board
since 1875' and has filled a like position in the B. C.
Board of Trade since its incorporation in October
'78; Secy. Treasr. of the Victoria and Esquimalt
Telephone Company since its incorporation in March
t80; Secy, of the Howe Mining Co. since Dec. '78;
Hon. Secy, of the Art Union of London, and is also
a Conveyancer, Notary Public, Master Mariner and
Marine Surveyor. His name is prominently connected with more than half a score of fraternal, patriotic and benevolent societies, notably as Vice President of the B. C. Benevolent Society, a member of several Rifle and Marine Associations and Grand Master
of Masons in British Columbia. In January of last
year he was elected a member of the City Council
from Yates Street Ward, and in July following was
returned at the head of the poll, by the electors of
Victoria District, to a seat in the Canadian House
of Commons.
Being only in his fortieth year, in the pr
lme
and vigor of life, energetic and industrious, with
large and varied  experience of the  world,  a ready
O X J
writer and fluent speaker, Mr. Baker's future career
in British Columbia,  can scarcely fail to  be one of
great usefulness and signal advancement.
HON. JOHN A. MARA,
Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of British Columbia, was born in the City of Toronto, the Capital
of the banner Province of the Dominion of Canada,
and came to this country in 1862, attracted bv the
t/ J
great gold discoveries of that time. He and Mr. Geo.
Wallace came overland with a large party that crossed the plains that year. They travelled a great part
of the way alone, overtaking the main portion of the
party at the crossing of the Athabasca, in the Rocky
Mountains. Many of our readers will remember Mr.
George "Wallace. He started the Evening Express
newspaper in this City in 1863 and afterwards published the Cariboo Sentinel. He was elected to represent Yale District in the Legislative Council in
1866, but left the Province before the Council met.
At Tete Jeanne Cache the party divided, one
portion taking the horses, proceeded by the North
Thompson river to Kamloops, while the other built
large rafts and placing the oxen upon them floated
down the Fraser to Quesnel. After trying his luck
in the different miningcamps, Mr. Mara entered into
partnership with Mr.lV. B. Wilson at Klamloops, in
■""■ has siuce been engaged in business there
and
as a general merchant.    He was one of the promoters
©
of and is a director in the Shuswap Milling Company [Limited] and is interested with Capt. Irving and
Mr. Barnard in the line of steamers now plying on
the Thompson River. He represented Kootenay District in the first provincial parliament after confederation, and at the general election in 1875 was returned for Yale District, and has ever since represented
that important constituency in the Legislative Assembly. Recognizing in Mr. Mara a gentleman of
long parliamentary experience, able and impartial,
the house, at its last session, paid him the graceful
but well deserved compliment of unanimously choosing him to preside over tis deliberations, and it is
only proper to add that he has discharged the important and often delicate duties of the office of Speaker, in a manner at once creditable to himself and satisfactory even to that discriminating body.
HIS WORSHIP THE MASDR OF VICTORIA.
Charles E. Redfern, Esq., the Chief Magistrate
of the commercial and political capital of British Columbia, was born in London, England, in 1839. Af-
ter completing his education at the Brewer's School of
that city, was apprenticed to the watch and chronometer business in which he served the full term of seven years; a term that to-day seems very long indeed
when compared with the three years, now deemed
sufficient to learn almost any trade in this country.
But the pre-eminence of England in all departments
of applied scienee—the machanic arts—is doubtless,
largely due to this long and thorough drill of her arj-
prenticed artizans, a rule as beneficial to the learner
as it is inflexible in its application. Soon after finishing his term of apprenticeship, Mr. Redfem took
passage for British Columbia in the steamer Tyne-
month and arrived in Victoria in September, 1862.
In the following year he commenced the business of
watchmaker and jeweller in this city, which he has
continuously carried on, up to the present time. The
"Town Clock," at his well known establishment, whose
clear ring announces the demise of each fated, fleeting hour, has long been a prominent feature of Government Street, and one that is as useful as it is conspicuous. In '75, Mr. R. revisited the scenes of his
youthful days in the world's metropolis, and, two
years after his return, was married to Miss Eliza
Arden Robinson, a union that has since been blessed
with four bright and interesting pledges of their mutual affection. A pioneer resident of Victoria, of
recognized business integrity and social standing coupled with no small degree of executive ability, he
has, on several occasions, been chosen to fill important civic positions, having represented James Bay
Ward in the city council during two successive terms
and in the contest for the mayoralty in the early part
of the current  year, was elected to the, office of Chief THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Magistrate,  the highest honor in the gift of the municipality.
ROBERT PATERSON RITHET, ESQ.,
President of the British Columbia Board of Trade
and resident partner in the large importing and shipping house of Welch, Rithet & Co. is a native of Ec-
clefechan, Dumfries Shire, Scotland, and came to this
Province   in  1862, when   a young lad of   eighteen
years.   After filling several positions of trust in leading   commercial   houses   here,  Mr. Rithet, in 1871,
commenced business here in partnership with Andrew
Welch, of San Francisco, under the name of Welch,
Rithet & Co., and has been the managing and resident
partner of the firm since its commencement.    The
business of the house  in Victoria is very extensive,
and   is   steadily   increasing  under  the tireless  energy and skillful management of  Mr. Rithet,  who,
as   a  leading merchant and citizen, is  widely  and
favorably known throughout the province.    He has
always taken  an  active and prominent part in the
promotion  of the general  interests  of the country,
notably in   his  connection  with the Board of Trade,
of which  he  may  be said to be the founder, and of
which he has been president since its incorporation
in   October,  1878.     This   organization,   numbering
nearly ninety members,  and representing the  financial, commercial and industrial interests of the country, has been the most potent of all instrumentalities
in the advancement of the   country, having obtained
for the province, such recognition, however little, of
its claims as has been accorded by the government at
Ottawa.   By bringing our leading business men—capitalists, merchants  and manufacturers—together, the
Board of Trade has, either directly or indirectly, been
the  means of inaugurating and afterwards fostering
almost every important  business enterprise in   the
country.
Besides being interested in a number of other
local enterprises, Mr. Rithet is a director in the Canadian Pacific Navigation Company; one of the finest
steamers of this line being the "R. P. Rithet," plying
between Victoria and Yale at the head of navigation
on the far famed Fraser. He is also Vice-President of the Albion Iron Works Company, (Limited),
who now employ one hundred men. In 1875, Mr.
Rithet was married to Elizabeth, eldest daughter of A.
Munro, Esq., of the Hudson Bay Company, and they,
with their three children now live in their elegant
family residence, in the charming neighborhood of
Beacon Hill, Victoria's grand natural park.
Parnell visited  Lynn, and while there he was- shown
about the city by Mayor Sanderson and three or four
other gentlemen.    The party visited the shoe manufactory of C. S. Sweetser & Co., and the proprietors
decided to show Mr. Parnell how quick a pair of boots
could be made.    It was decided to make a pair of
women's grain polish and the work  commenced, Mr.
Parnell closely watched every movement. He saw the
stock for the  uppers and the top linina6 cut out, the
eyeleting done  and the passing of the  uppers from
one stitcher to  another; he saw the sole leather died
out for the bottoms, and the stock fitted.    Up to this
time the uppers and bottoms had been kept separate.
The next he saw was the two parts come together, the
uppers lasted to the bottoms,  then the uppers were
sewed to the soles by a Mckay stitcher, and in rapid
succession followed the work of beating out, trimming
and setting  the edges, nailing on the heels, shaving
and finishing the same, buffing the bottoms and channeling.    Mr. Parnell   then took the boots, which had
been manufactured in just twenty minutes before his
own eyes,  and carried them with him to England.
These boots, in process of manufacture, passed through
no less than thirty hands, and  the work was perfect.
ON A LARK.
Rising With The Bird Proverbial.
A Pair of Shoes in Twenty Minutes.
Fiolit hours consumed in making a pair of boots
and shoes when working for a record would be considered terrible slow time in Lynn. Twenty minutes
is the best time on record.    In 1880-Charles Stewart
Presumably and in spite of what scientists may
say, people will peel off their garments and lie down
in their beds with the going down of the sun, and
get up again in .time to see that proverbially early
bird,  the lark—where there are larks—soaring away
© v
to fill his exhausted heart at the fountain of the skies,
or they will go to bed at midnight and get up again at
J r"> & r^ x    To
NOON THE NEXT DAY,
just as long as there are people in the world. And
that too without caring a tinkers term whether it is
best or not. Still it may be well enough for The
Resources to intimate, that there is an old gentleman
buried away among the dust and cobwebs of one of
the German Universities who has spent his life there,
in studying the effect of late and early rising upon
the health. He affirms in the most positive way that
the idea that early rising is conducive to health, is
all bosh.- He says that it is the sun's business to get
up first, do all the outside housekeeping, warm up
the atmosphere, and dissipate the fogs, then call man. I
He has a long array of names of men who have lived
to a ripe old age because they spent the early morning hours, in bed. To these men, sunrise was a novelty. And we believe that, in conjunction with our
invigorating climate, the habit of spending the early
hours of the morning on the sleeping couch, has had
something to do with the excellent health enjoyed by
Victorians, who. notwithstanding this indulgence in
the sweets of an extra morning nap, manage to transact with ease, as much real business during each day
as their more nervous, high-pressure neighbors, who
call them "slow people." 12
THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The Bonus on Iron Smelting.
There is no metal of so much importance in th.:
material progress and prosperity of any country as
iron, and it is to be found in great abundance and
variety in all the provinces of the Dominion of Canada. The iron deposits of Eastern Ontario and the
western portion of the province of Quebec are especially noteworthy, as they are destined, at no distant
day, to attract the attention of capitalists from all
parts of the world. There are to be found, in eve-
ery direction throughout this part of Canada, strong
indications of the presence of the metal, and many
veins of magnetic and hematite ore have been opened
to a small extent by prospectors and owners of property for the purpose merely, of establishing the fact
of its existence in paying quantities, and of procuring
specimens for analysis. In nearly all cases the result
of assays has proved the ore to be of unquestionable
richness, without deleterious . properties common to
that in many other localities; to be comparatively free
from impurities, and the presence of titanium is almost imperceptible. *****************
But the Canadian Government is alive to the importance of encouraging home manufacture of iron, and,
as an inducement to miners in the country to do so,
Sir Leonard Tilley, in his budget speech, delivered in
the House of Commons, on 30th March, said: 'The
government will submit a resolution to the Committee
o
that on and after the 1st July next, and for three
years, one dollar and fifty cents per ton will be paid
on all pig iron produced in Canada during these threa
years, one dollar per ton during the next three years,
as a bounty for the encouragement and devolopment
of this indusiry.'
The bounty mentioned for the three years from the
first of July (one dollar and fifty cents per ton) should
be ample to defray the  cost of mining,   and-to go to
-I «/ ©' ©
wards paying for fuel as well. This should be sufficient to induce capitalists in the Dominion to inaue--
' ©
urate this new enterprise, and, if due advantage be
taken of the Government's liberal offer, it will have
the effect of bringing Canada prominently among
the extensive iron prodncing countries of the world.
The above is from the Canadian Mining Review.
©
and we beg to inform our esteemed contemporary
that Texada Island, in the Gulf of Georgia, and about
thirty miles from the coal mines of Nanaimo and
Departure Bay contains mountains of first class iron
ore. At present large quantities of this ore are being
taken to the  smelting works in the adioining Ameri-
V ©
can teritory. It is to be hoped that this bonus may
be an inducement to capitalists to open up smelting
works in this Province. We have an abundance of
excellent iron ore, coal and timber, and the demand
he Mining Review
can rest assured that British Columbia offers very
superior inducements for the investment of capital in
iron smelting works.—Nanaimo Free Press.
The Jordan Valley Meadows.
Mr. W. D. Patterson, C. E. has just returned from
the locality above named, where he has been on an
exploring expedition for several weeks, and reports
the discovery of a large tract of very fertile land, suitable for grazing or agricultural purposes. The valley is situated at the head of San Juan River in about
latitude 48, 30 on the south west coast of Vancouver
Island and about fifteen miles in a northeasterly direction from San Juan Harbor. Here he found a
series of meadows, from one to two miles wide, covered with heavy grass from two to three feet high,
each meadow separated by a narrow strip of timber,
from those contiguous to it, the whole extending in
this manner for a distance of fourteen miles, while
the slopes on either side were clothed with magnificent fir and cedar trees. The soil is a rich black
mould averaging a foot in depth. Mr. Patterson estimates that in these meadows and the adjoining rolling lands, which, he says, wOuld not be difficult to
clear, there is sufficient to form two good townships
of excellent farming lands.
Here is afforded a grand opportunity for the -establishment of an agricultural colony within fifteen
miles of a harbor, and only about thirty miles from
Victoria.
As yet, we have not among us the proper class
of persons to form such settlements—those accustomed to clearing up land, and who are willing to endure
comparative isolation for a time, in order to acquire
homes of their own.
We mention this tract as being one of those now
©
entirely unoccupied, and not within the railway belt
or any other reservation, and is, of course, open to
purchase or pre-emption.
for iron is rapidly
Cariboo Quartz.-—Cariboo is sustaining her gold
en reputation. Yesterday Mr. John Kurtz received
from the Burns Mountain.lead some splendid specimens of free milling gold ore, which give every indication of the richness of the mine. The specimens
were sent down by Mr. Rogers and will assay high.
The gold is virgin gold, embedded in a matrix which
will admit of the precious metal being very easily
worked. It is to be hoped that the specimens are
merely the precursor of the hidden wealth believed
by expert pioneers to exist in the monntain from
which the quartz came.—Standard.
increasing.
The Mid-summer examinations, recently held
afforded conclusive evidence of the "excellence of our
free public school system. u  ?HE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
13
A Grand and Excellent Scheme.
mi
-i ne proposed construction of a canal to connect
the waters of Shuswap and Okanagan lakes, or rathei
to connect the waters of the latter with those of the
Spallnmcheen Rirer, which flows northward and empties into the former, would, if carried out, open up
an  immense area of the finest agricultural and grazes o
nig lands in the province and afford a continuous line
for steam navigation not less than 240 miles in
length. This would render the extensive coal deposits at and near the- southern portion of Okanagan
lake available and, besides enhancing the value of the
rich silver mines on Cherry Creek, it would become
an important feeder to the C. P. R, the line of which
crosses the Spallumcheen near its mouth.
Mr. L. B. Hamlin, C. E., who was employed by
the federal government last year to examine and report upon the cost and feasibility of the proposed
canal, states that he found the river to be 20| feet
higher than the lake, and that a canal, fifty feet wide,
eighteen miles long and carrying a depth of five feet
of water, could be constructed at a cost of less than
half'a million of dollars.    The draining of the marsh
©
by this canal would reclaim ah extensive tract of
land, the soil of which is alluvial and very rich, the
enhanced value of which, would more than pay for
the total cost of the canal. The report concludes as
follows:
"The importance of this canal scheme cannot be
over-estimated. It would establish an unbroken navigable water stretch of over 240 miles, opening up a
rich agricultural country, which is unsurpassed in
British Columbia for its fertility, and which, in many
sections, has a sufficient rainfall to enable farmers
to produce crops without irrigation. The neucleus
of a thriving settlement is already formed, most of
the prairie land having been taken up and occupied.
.Several tine farmes are cultivated on a large scale
with all the modern appliances, particularly that of
Mr. Lumby, which is.equal to anything of the kind
in the Dominion of Canada. The grain crops of this,
year were magnificent, both as regards yields and
samples, the estimated average of grain to the acre
reaching to the large amount of thirty-five bushels,
and this I am informed is considerable below the usual average. Winter wheat has been tried and prov-
ed  a great  success.    Messrs.   O'Keefe and Grenow,
©
who  reside at Okanagan Lake, have a large stock of
cattle.    They harvest a large qnantity of wild hay in
the  meadows  and  marshes of the valley, which answers for winter foddor.    The general character of
j the country is rolling and lightly timbered, with the
I exception of the prairies.    The soil consists of rich
i clay."
The  canal, as an  economic means of  internal
transportation, is now receiving a degree of consid-
eration and practical adoption of a more extensive
character than has ever been accorded to it at any
previous time in the world's history. The New York
Sun points out this truth and'produces a long list of
such enterprises now under \ way that abundantly
prove the growing popularity of water routes. The
great success of the Suez canal has induced the construction of another artificial channel by its side at a
cost of $150,000,000. At Manchester, England, a
great ship canal is under way that will cost $40,000,-
000. In Scotland, a canal eighty- miles long, connecting the Tyne and Solway Frith, is being constructed at an enormous expense. In France a ship
canal from the bay of Biscay to the Mediterranean to
cost $200,000,000 has been commenced. In Denmark one between the German ocean aud the Baltic,
and in Greece one across . the Isthmus of Corinth
have recently been undertaken. In Asia a canal across
the Malay peninsula, which will bring Europe closer
to all Chinese and Japanese ports, is also projected.
These facts show plainly that the canal is being mure
widely recognized by the first engineers and nations
of the world as the most useful and indispensable
adjunct to inland commerce.
The Island"Railway Lands Reserved.
From the following   announcement in the   Office
cial Gazette dated 13th ult. we learn that all the
public lands in the electoral districts of Victoria and
Esquimalt exclusive of the Island Railway belt, will
be open for purchase and settlement on the 13th of
this month:
"All the vacant public lands which are situated within the electoral districts of Victoria and"'
Esquimalt, and which are not included within the
tract reserved for Island railway purposes, will be
open for- purchase and settlement thirty (30) days
from the date hereof; and that all persons claiming
any of these lands must prove their title to the same
prior to that date. The Order in Council of July 1st,
1873, reserving the Island Railway Belt is rescinded
by the'government; but the Order is re-enacted as
follows; A tract bounded on the south by a straight
line drawn from the head of Saanich Inlet to Muir
Creek, on the Strait of Fuca; on the west by a
straight line drawn from Muir Creek aforesaid, to
Crown Mountain; on the north by a straight line
drawn from Crown Mountain towards Seymour
Narrows, to the 50th parallel of latitude; thence due
east, along said parallel of latitude, to a point opposite
Cape Mudge; and on the east, by the coast line of
Vancouver Island to the point of commencement."
Manitoba's aggregate lumber cut last winter was
78 500,000 feet.   It now sells for $25 per thousand ft. THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
FINDING HOMES.
New Settlers in Spallumcheen
Valley.
Elsewhere in this issue will be found an article
on the proposed canal to connect the waters of the
Spallumcheen .River and those of Lake Okanagan.
The Inland Sentinel,, published at Yale, a journal,
as its name implies, well posted on, inland matters,
contains the following relating chiefly-io the northern
portion of the district refered to in our remarks upon
the proposed waterway:
"Among the arrivals of late to this country were
a number of young men from Manitoba and North
West. On their arrival here in April a scheme was
at once set on foot to send two representatives up the
country in search of land for settlement of twelve
parties; the representatives appointed were Messrs.
J. H. Sydney and Donald McEdwards. Leaving Yale
on the 20th of April and having traveled through
about 175 miles of country they arrived on the 30th
at Grand Prairie, which was the first valley of any
account; there they found about 1,300 acres of prairie
land, slightly timbered, unoccupied; this land requiring irrigation, which'could be easily accomplished as
it is very level and a plentiful supply of water m a
creek that flows down one side; at this place there is
quite a settlement with six good farms well under
cultivation and which carry considerable stock. Passing on to the next place, about 20'miles, is Salmon
River Valley, which is very fine, but the land apparently is all taken up by settlers, with the exception of
one or two pre-emptions, slightly wooded. Six or
seven miles further on is the Spallumcheen Valley,
which is by far the best and largest in the country;
the valley is well settled up, there not being one
piece of choice land now available. Among the settlers more particularly are Messrs. Lumby & Bennett,
two very industrious and inteligent gentlemen, who
t. D ©
have the most improved farm in the vallev, having
400 acres under crop with implements and machinery of the latest kind, and which is worked in a thorough businesslike way. Mr. A. L. Fortune at the
head of Spallumcheen Lake, has a very choice location
of land being well under cultivation; this gentleman
being the oldest and one of the most esteemed settlers in the district. In-the valley there is a saw
mill erected by Mr. Postill in conjunction with the
Lamby Bros., which is now capable of turning out
several thousand feet of lumber per day. Here by
the unceasing aid and kindness of the Govt. Agent,
Mr. Lamby, they were able to find a considerable
tract of land adjoining the Indian Reserve and extending to the Salmon River Valley, about two miles
.from the Spallumcheen Valley, open for settlement,
consisting of about 3,500 acres of prairie land slightly timbered with Douglas Pine, which will not require a great deal of clearing; this as well as other
small stretches of land Was personally shown to them
by Mr. Lamby, who thoroughly understands the
situation and requirements of the country in that district. The whole of this land, together with one
or two smaller plots have been pre-empted by the following persons.
J. H. Sydney, D. McEdawrds, R.  Wilson, Wm.
Scott, J. H. Shirley, J. R. Park, R. C. Coates, H.
Bradley, A. Revesbeck. R. McKeuzie, P. W. McGregor, and A. Crawford.
©
These parties are now being equipped so far as
necessary and will leave Victoria on Saturday for this
place where they will be joined by one or. two parties
and proceed to their destination, takfig with them
provisions, etc., where they intend tofVjointly fence,
clear, build houses and make homes; -wrking the land
to best advantage. These men are a most desirable
class of settlers being all mechanics, and men who
have farmed more or less in Manitoba, but who have
been driven hence in search of a more genial climate
and a country where farming may be carried on
with some degree of pleasure and not subject to the
long severe cold weather, excessive heat and mos-
quitoes without number.
Let us now add a word or two about the climate
of the country: The winter varies from 6 to 12
weeks, during which time about two feet of snow falls,
© a
and the glass has been known to go as far down as
45 below zero, with no wind. The cold snaps never,
or seldom, last more than two or three days, while
the remaining part of the winter is very much like
the old country.. In the summer it is hot during the
middle of the day, say from 12 to 3 o'clock, before
and after which time it is pleasant; cool nights and
mornings, being always able to sleep comfortable with
your blankets. No irrigation is required and yields
are above the average. The country there abounds
with game of all kinds and to the sportsman cannot
be surpassed, there being Cariboo, Moose, Deer, Partridge, Blue Grouse, Prairie Chicken, Beaver, Bears,
©
Mountain Sheep, and Goats, together with a large
variety of other animals and a beautiful selection of
small birds, also, fish are plentiful. The land in this
part of the country is like most parts of British Columbia, limited, but there is considerable of timbered
lands, which no doubt will be soon taken up by settlers, and after one or two years of labor be able to
make very comfortable and profitable homes for themselves. The country is very thinly settled and need
hardly say there is a good demand for the gentler sex
and married persons, who will be most heartily
received by the now residents in that district, and
every inducement will be held out to them by the
settlers. We are glad to say
addition there will be at least six
Eve's fair daughters.
©
At Spallumcheen they met Mr. Efcwse, the Indian Agent, while going his rounds; he kindly invited
them to see the Nicola country with a view to settlement. The Nicola district is more like civilization
as there is a good supply of the fair sex and many
families, with the finest climate in the whole of British Columbia; with very little winter and sometimes
no snow at all, and when it does it only remains a
very short time on the ground. As a stock raising
country |t cannot be excelled, but for agricultural
purposes it is not so well adapted, there being considerable labor and trouble attached to raising grain
for even home consumption, on account of irrigation. The Bunch grass there, is in much greater
quantities than
which the cattle
that  by   the  new
more of   Mother
for tl
any  other places,  and  the way  in
fatten on it is astonishing.
©
We are indebted to the politeness ofMr. Sydney
le above information." THE RESOURCES-OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
15
From Helena, Montana.
Editor Resources.—Enclosed you Will find P.
O. Money Order for one dollar for which' please send
"Resources op B. C." The March and April numbers with which I am highly pleased have been received. The circulation of such information as it
I contains concerning your favored country will undoubtedly attract many to your shores who are seekr
ing homes on the Pacific Coast.
I sincerely thank the gentleman who has kindly
furnished me with the copies already received which,
after a careful perusal, I mailed to Scotland of which
I am a native.
I am engaged in gold mining, and am owner of
a lode of considerable value, and if I can sell out or
arrange my affairs in a -satisfactory manner, I intend
visiting B. C. in a few months and will very likely
make it my future home.
I have of late talked with many, working on the
N. P. R. who have already started or are about to
leave  here for the C. P. R.    Others are attracted by
the Kootenay mines and those of the big bend of the
Columbia.—Yours Respectfully,
M. A. Tuxloch.
Helena, 5th May, 1883.
[We print the foregoing as a sample of the many
letters received every month at this Office—Ed.]
Agents for the "Resources."
The following firms and persons are duly authorized to receive subscriptions and advertisements for
this publication:
Victoria, B. C—T. N. Hibben & Co., M. W.
Waitt & Co., Henry Gribble, F. L. Tuckfield.
Nanaimo.—E. Pimbury & Co.
New Westminster.—T. R. Pearson & Co.
Yale.—T. R Pearson & Co.
Kamloops.—Geo. C. Tunstall.
Bakkerville.—John Bowron.
Cassiar.—Oallbreath, Grant & Cook.
Portland, Oregon.—Northwest News Co.
San Francisco, Cad.—L. P. Fisher, 21 Merchants' Exchange.
The North Arm.—This settlement was never
in a more prosperous condition than now. Land is
increasing in value, and crops are looking extremely
well In addition to his other large purchases, Mr.-
Vermelyea has bought 200 acres from the McMann
Bros for which I understand he paid $6,500. The
crops this year will probably run about one quarter
over last year. They principally consist of oats, barley, hay, and roots.-There is very little fruit here,
our farmers having planted very few trees. Lately
more attention has been given to this branch, however, and it is believed this will yet become one
of the best fruit districts in the provmoe. Mr.
Sexsmith's cheese factory is turning out 100 lbs. ol
cheese per day.—Columbian.
To Business Men.
Inasmuch as our terms to advertisers are as reasonable as those of any other regular publication in the
province, and as its cirulation will be not only local
but also world wide, The Resourges cannot fail to be
an excellent medium for business men through which,
to make their announcements. Besides assisting to
render self-sustaining a publication so advantageous
to the best interests of the country, and in promotion
of which all will be mutually benefitted, the advertiser will, at the same time, secure that extended publicity
of his business which the very large circulation of the
magazine necessarily guarantees. In view of these
facts, we hope that business men throughout the province will cheerfully give us a share of their advertis-
ing patronage. The reading matter of The Resodrces
O   X o o
will not be materially decreased to make room for advertisements, as the paper,  if necessary, will  be en-
larged for that purpose.
JAMES   MILLAR,
GENERAL BLACKTMITH AND WAGON MAKER.
Improved Combination Iron Beam Plows and'Y el-
land's Celebrated Patent Harrows always on hand.
Carts, wagons and buggies manufactured to   order.
T O Do
Horse shoeing executed with neatness and despatch.
Cor. Government and Pandora Sts., Victoria, B. C.
KURTZ & CO.,
MANUFACTURERS OF CIGARS.
Tobacco Imported Direct from Havana and only White Labor
Employed.
Office, Store and Factory:  Corner Government and
Trounce Streets, Victoria, B. C.
WM.  CRAFT,
Importer   of   Staple   and  Fancy  Dry  Goods.
VANCOUVER   HOUSE,
Corner of Yates and Broad Streets, Victoria, B. C.
Read the advertisements in this number.
Pen Cleaning.—A writer in a German paper
states that it is a custom in offices-in that country to I
have a sliced potato in the desk in commercial houses.
He does not state whether the esculent should be raw
or not, but the probability is that it is not boiled.
The use of the potato is to clean steel pens, and generally act& as pen-wiper. It removes all ink crust?
and gives a peculiarly smooth flow to the ink. He |
also states that the Hamburg clerks pass new pens
two or three times through a gas flame, and then the
ink will flow freely.
MRS. BRAY'S
BOARDING & LODGING HODSE,
Board and Lodging $5.50 per week.'
Meals 25 cts., or $1. per day.
Corner of Jolmson and Broad Streets. Victoria, B.C. ■*HKT
16
THE RESOURCES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
Classified Directory of Leading and Reliable Business Firms of Victoria, B. C.
•AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS.
Fellows & Prior,  Government Street.    Easy and
profitable farming a certainty by using our machinery,
'AUCTIONEERS & COMMISSION MERCHANTS.
Davies, J. P. & Co., Wharf St., near Yates.    Liberal
advances on consignments.
o
BAKERIES.
Victoria Bread and Fancy  Cake  Bakery,   Fell's
Block, Fort Street.    Bread delivered to any part
of the city.    M. R. Smith, Proprietor.
CIGAR MANUFACTORIES.
Kurtz & Co.    Office, store and factory, corner Government and Trounce Streets.    Tobacco imported direct from Havana and only white labor employed.
BANKERS.
Garesche, Green & Co.    Also agents for Wells,
Fargo & Co.    Cor. Government and Trounce Sts.
o
BOOKS AND STATIONERY.
ibbex, T. N., Importers.    Established 1858.    Masonic Building, Government Street.
BRICK MAKERS.
Coughlan & Mason.   Office, corner Government and
Broughton Streets.    P. O. Box 210; Telephone
147; Works, Saanich Road.
COMMISSION AND BROKERAGE AGENTS.
Engelhardt, J., Custom House, Shipping and Commission Agent.^"Office on Turner's Wharf, Yates
Street.    P. O. box 167.
CONFECTIONERY.
Tippins,W. J.  Trade supplied at lowest rates.    Fort
Street, between Douglas and Broad.
FURNITURE, UPHOLSTERY, ETC.
Salmon, E. J. & Co.,  Johnson   Street, opposite H.
Saunder's grocery.    Furniture, crockery, tinware
and Indian curiosities.
H
W
eiler, John.    Also a magnificent stock of crockery and glassware.    Fell's Block, Fort Street.
GENERAL MERCHANDISE—Wholesale,
trouss, 0. & Co., Commercial Row, Wharf Street.
Importers and dealers in general merchandise.
GROCERIES—Wholesale and Retail,
ell & Co., Importers.    Also wine and spirit merchants.    Fell's Block, Fort Street.
aunders,  HENRY,r'Johnson Street.     Large stock,
fresh goods, also fine wines and liquors.
GROCERIES—Wholesale,
ppenheimer Bros.,  Importers, Finlayson's Block
Wharf Street.    P. O.fbox 239.
MEAT MARKETS.
Peek's, byTGoodacre & Dooley.    Wholesale and re-
• tail.    Purveyors to H. M. Navy. Government St.
MERCHANT TAILORS.
Newman & Lease, Fort Street, one door from Douglas.      Clothes   made   to order    in   the latest
English and American styles.
F
0
Q
REAL ESTATE AND  INSURANCE AGENTS.
Allsop & Mason, Real Estate Agents and  Conveyancers.       Fire   and  accident  insurance  agents.
Town and country property for sale.   Government St.
Heisterman,  H. F. & Co.,  agents  Phenix    (fire),
Fireman's Fund (marine), Equitable (life), and
Lloyds (marine).    Langley Street.
SALOONS.
Market   Exchange,   Geo.   ThompjOn,   proprietor.
Fine wines,  liquors  and  cigars.    Corner   Fort
and Wilcox Streets.
STOVES, TINSMITHSJETC.
Wilson, A. & W.    Fort Street opp. Broad.    Established 1864.    Best cooking afd heating stoves.
Plumbing, gas-fitting and tin-smithing.
Leading Provincial  Newspapers.
BRITISH   COLUMBIAN.    Semi-weekly.    Terms:
by mail, $3 per year; by carrier, $1 per quarter.
Robson & Co., Publishers, New Westminster, B. C.
FREE PRESS.    Semi-weekly.    Terms: $4 per year,
Geo. Norris, publisher, Nanaimo, B. C.
INLAND   SENTINEL.    Weekly.    Terms: e$3 per
I annum in advance. M. Hagan, publisher, Yale, B. C.
POST.    Daily evening.    Terms: per year, $10; delivered by carrier, 25 cents per week.    W. J. &
M. C. McDowell, sole proprietors, Victoria, B. C.
STANDARD. Daily and Weekly. Terms: daily per
annum, $10; per week, 25 cents. Weekly, $3 per
year.    C. McK. Smith, proprietor, Victoria, B. C.
M. WRIGHT.
GEO.  Kl'DGKE;.?
Victoria Marble Works,
Monuments, Tablets, Tombs, Mantels, Furniture
Work, Etc., Etc.
Also Furnish Stone foriBuildingt-Purposes.
DOUGLAS    STREET,    BETWEEN   CORMORANT   AND   FISGARD.
WRIGHT & BUDGE, Proprietors.
All Orders Promptly Attended to and Satisfaction Guaranteed.
DAVID   HEAL,
Manufacturer of Tin, Sheet Iron & Copper Ware.
CONTRACTOR AND JOBBER.
Johnson St., bet. Fort and Douglas, Victoria, B. C.
A. <fc W. WILSOK,
(established 1864.)
Best Description of Cooking and Heating Stoves.
Plumbing, Gas-fitting and Tinsnii thing executed •
under our own supervision with neatness and despatch.
Fort Street, opp. Broad, Victoria, B. C.
THE METROPOLM REAL ESTATE OFFICE.
ROOM 53, UNION BLOCK,
Stark Street Entrance, - - Portland, Oregon.
Negotiating City Property of and kind a St
)ecialty.
European Passes procured on short notice and at nominal cost by the Veteran Notary A. S. Gross. JOHN WEILEE,
Importer and Wholesale Dealer in
Furniture, Carpets, Glassware,  Etc.
Upholstery in all its Branches.
Carpets Sewed and Laid. Wall Paper Hung. Lounges
and Mattrasses Made to Order and Repaired.
Post Office Box 218.
FELL'S BLOCK, FORT ST. - VICTORIA, B. C.
SPENCER & HASTINGS,     .
PORTRAIT & LANDSCAPE PHOTOGRAPHERS.
Dealers in Photographic Material.   Enlargments
a Specialty.
FORT STREET,  - VICTORIA, B. C.
THE BLUE RIBBON CLUB
GIVES AN ENTERTAINMENT   EVERY SATURDAY NIGHT AT
OMINEOA HALL, YATES STREET, VICTORIA,
COMMENCING  AT 8 P. M.
THE CHOIR AND ORCHESTRA LED BY PROF. FRANCIS.
ISliP The Public, Cordially Invited.
LORNE RESTAURANT
Geo. Crossmaii. Proprietor.
MEALS AT ALL HOURS—25 CENTS.
JOHNSON ST. OPP. SHOTBOI/FS
Victoria, B. C.
YALE RESTAURANT,
Pp?        Mrs. E. Merryfield, Prop.
Board & Lodging, per week, $5.50; Board, per week,
$4.50; Single Meals, 25 cts.; Beds, 25 cts.; Tea
or Coffee and Hot Rolls, 15 cts., also
Temperance Drinks.
DOUGLAS STREET, OPPOSITE CITY HALL,   VICTORIA, B. C.
Wm. Irvine. F. Clarke.
IP VIJYG <& CLARKE,
Ornamental & Emblamatic Sign Writers; House Painting,
Graining, Frescoing, Paper Hanging
And Wall Tinting.
13^ Only First Class  Workmen Employed.
GOVERNMENT ST. bet. BROUGHTON & COURTNEY, VICTORIA, B. C.
SAN FRANCISCO BATHS,
HAIR DRESSING AND  SHAVING SALOON.
GOVERNMENT ST., OPPOSITE POST OFFICE.
CEICER & BECKER, Proprietors.
V ictoria, British Columbia.
J. & J. FLETT,
FAMILY    GROCERS,
Farm, Produce Always in Stock.
Southwest Corner of Fort and Douglas Sts., Victoria, British Columbia.
GOODS    DELrVERED     FREE     OF     CHARGE.
A. B. Francis,
IMPORTER AND DEALER IN
Hardware, Cutlery, Crockery, Ship
& House Carpenters Tools, Tin
& Wooden Ware, Lamps,
Oils, Twines Etc. Etc.
CORNER OF JOHNSON & STORE STS. VICTORIA, B. C.
VICTORIA   BAZAAR,
Government Street, Victoria, B. C.   Post Office Box 94.
HENRY GRIBBLE,
Importer and Dealer in
British   and   Foreign  Toys,  Fancy  Goods,   Lamps^
Stationery, Etc., Etc.
C H A 87 H~A Y W ATfDT
Funeral Director and Embalmer.
Cor. Fort and Government Sts., Victoria, B. C.
The Largest and Best Appointed Undertaking Establishment north of San Francisco.   Agent for Patent Metallic Burial Caskets.   The Trade Supplied.
FELLOWS & PKIOE,
Iron, Hardware and Agricultural Implements.
GOVERNMENT  STTEET,   VICTORIA,   B.   C
Try Tippins' Infallible Cough Drops.
Colt's Foot Rock for Conghs and Colds, for Children nothing equals it.
W. P. Tippins,
VICTOKIA CANDY FACTOEY.
Fort Street,       -      Above Fell's Block,        -      Victoria.
QUEEN'S MARKET.
Government Street,
Victoria, British Columbia.
Goodacre & Dooley,
WHOLESALE AND RETAIL BUTCHERS.
Contractors to Her Majesty's Royal Nary
Shipping Supplied at the Lowest Rates. Opposite Post Office, Victoria, B. C,
HAVE THE LARGEST AND BEST SELECTED STO0K IN ||
BRITISH  COLUMBIA, OF J.
CLOTHING, HATS, UMBRELLAS
AND GENTS' FURNISHING GOODS.
wdrW &.J W will be happy to give information concerning Britisb. Columbia to^visitors and intending settlers.
«=»"•«-• . (Established 20 years.   Becommended for best value on the Coast.)
OCCIDENTAL HOTEL
Corner Wharf and Johnson Streets,
VICTORIA.
ife^TheXiargest and most Convenient Hotel in the
City.   Board and Room from $1 to $1.50 per day.
J, FINLAYSON,
Family Grocerjea and Coffee Dealer
Government St., Victoria, B. C.
Ships supplied with Stores.    Goods denyjered to any
part of the City!
Allsop & Mason,
EIAi ESf ATE AGEHTS
(Established 1863)
VICTORIA,/?. C.
Town Lots^nd Farming Lands for sale on reasonable
t^j Terms.
S  C. BURRIS
_as£
fe
L
Plans and Specifications furnished and the general business
of an architect attended to.
Office, Cor£@overnment <md Broughton Sts.,  Victoria.
fil Willi lilil
Government Street, Victoria.
HUTtHESON, young & CO,,
IMPORTERS OF
STAPLE AND FANCY DRY GOODS
Coughlan & Mason,
Brick Makers and Asphaltum Roofers
Building Material, Lime, Bricks, Drain Pipes, Vitrified
Sewer Pipes, Plaster Centres, Cornices, Fire
Clay, Fire Brick Dust, Cement, Etc.
P. O. Box 210.        Telephone, 147.        Works, Saanich Boad.
Office: Cor. Government and Broughton Sts., Victoria, B. C.
A. OFNER,
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in
Groceries, Tobaccos and Cigarettes
Corner Government and Fort Sts., Victoria.
Especial attention paid to orders from the Country.
ALBION HOUSE,
l Government St. Victoria.
Brown & White,    -    Props.
The cheapest place for Dry Goods ot every description, Staple and Fancy.   Country orders
promptly attended to.
¥s
IM€B HOTJt
Government Street, Victoria, B. C.
DAVID SPENCER,
Importer of Dry Goods,  Millinery and Parpets.
Terms—Cash only.
*.-■«, Mt®BE;M &
*a?
Importing Booksellres ^ Stationers
Arid News Agents.
Old Masonic Building, Government Street, Victoria, B. C.
A. L. FRANCIS,
prof al Tuner and Repairer of Pianos Organs and
Musical Instruments Generally.
RESIDENCE COR. CHATHAM and DOUGLAS STS. 

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