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Lands of plenty. British North America for health, sport, and profit. A book for all travellers and settlers Hall, Edward H. (Edward Hepple) 1879

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(All rights reserved.} LONDON:
Of books professedly on Canada there
are a great number. Of works which
treat of Canada there are, on the other
hand, comparatively few. Belonging to
the latter category, and interesting to
the home reader for the amount of useful
information they contain rather than for
any intrinsic merit in the works themselves, the number is still less. How
many of the latter class there really are,
it might appear invidious on my part to
state. Whatever that number may be,
I have striven to make this little volume
worthy  of being  added to it.    As its VI
title indicates, it is intended for the use
of those who journey to or through the
New Dominion for purposes of colonisation and settlement, as well as for the
guidance of that larger number who go
thither either in search of health or
sport, or simply for pleasure.
Hitherto Englishmen have known
more of the North Grerman Ocean or the
Mediterranean than they have of the
North Atlantic or the G-ulf of St. Lawrence, and for every British traveller who
has seen the Yosemite, Mount Baker,
the Saguenay river, or the Canyons of
the Columbia or the Fraser rivers, there
are hundreds who have visited Lucerne
and the Bigi, or made the acquaintance
of Vesuvius and the Bay of Naples. Yet
neither Switzerland nor Italy possesses
the elements of the grand and sublime
in Nature on so vast and imposing a
scale as Canada; neither do they present   so   many   or  varied   attractions
If! 11
to the tourist in search of the picturesque, as may be witnessed by the
observant traveller in many parts of
Quebec and British Columbia. Ontario,
Manitobah, North-West Territory, and
British Columbia are unquestionably the
most attractive fields now open to the
British settler in Canada. They constitute our "Big Farm," so to speak,
1 across the pond " ; and form a region
grand enough for the seat of a mighty
empire, and a fitting home for a homogeneous and powerful people. We shall
know them better in the future than we
have known them in the past.
Much of what is recorded in the following pages has already appeared in
various periodicals on both sides of the
Atlantic, from the pens of others as well
as from my own. The whole is now
presented for the first time in a condensed and continuous form for popular
use. VU1
The Map is a new feature. I venture
to think it will prove a welcome addition
to my original design, which was that of
a smaller work at a cheaper cost. It
has been prepared, with considerable
care, wholly from official sources, and
cannot, I think, fail, if intelligently used,
to greatly enhance the interest and
utility of the work. At a period of
almost unparalleled depression throughout the kingdom some safe outlet for
our pent-up and but half employed
population is urgently needed. My
little craft is launched to point the
way—if it may—to fresher fields and
smoother waters.
Sept. 15, 1879. m
British North America
Dominion of Canada.—Its divisions, area,
and population.—Cities and chief towns.
Climate.—Land system.—Its mines, minerals, and fisheries.—Its sporting-fields and
pleasure-resorts, visited and described      .     5
Quebec.—Its climate and soil.—Divisions and
productions.—Stock-farming.—Centres of
colonisation.—Tourist resorts, &c    .
Ontario.—Boundaries and area.—Climate.
Stock - raising. — Dairy - farming. — Free
Land Grants.—Conditions of settlement.
—The I G-arden . of Canada."—Toronto
and Hamilton described.—Georgian Bay
and Lake Superior.—Routes to the West .
Manitobah.—The | Prairie Province."—A
British grain-centre.—Divisions.—Indian
treaties and " reserves." — Rivers and
means of communication.—A | Lacustrian
Paradise."—Climate.—Sport.—What the
Homestead Law has done.—Winnipeg,
past and future.—Crops.—Routes, &c.
North - West Territory. — Keewatin. —
Gimli and the Icelandic Settlements.—
Divisions. — Climate, seasons, &c.—The
Saskatchewan country. — The " Fertile
Belt."—Lands for settlement. — Rivers
and lakes.—Sport.—Settlements, &c
86 *m
British Columbia.—Position, boundaries,
and divisions.—Climate.—The gold region.
—Vancouver's- Island.—Its coal deposits.
Its mountain and shore scenery.—Forests.
—Mounts.—Baker and Hood.— Puget
Sound.—Jaw-breakers.—The salmon fisheries of the Fraser and Skeena rivers.—
Game, sporting, &c.—Routes, fares, &c.—
The Canadian Pacific Railway's proposed
termini. — Esquimault and Victoria as
naval coaling and outfitting stations.
Dominion lands, homestead rights, colonisation, &c.    ....... 137
Land scrip and reserves       .... 149
Emigrant fares and transport       .        .        . 153
Government Immigration Agents in Canada 155
Government  Immigration Agents in Great
Britain and Europe ..... 156
Lands now open for settlement in Manito-
bah, &c 156 /
Railway lands—Order in Council respecting
the settlement of     ....
Moose-hunting—the hunter's pocket dictionary      .......
Across the continent from ocean to ocean
Distances, fares, &c.—General summary
Panoramic Map.—Canadian Overland Route,
embracing the Provinces of Quebec, Ontario,
Manitobah, North-West Territory, and British
Map of parts of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick,
Quebec, and Prince Edward Island; showing the
Intercolonial Railway from Halifax, N.S., to its
intersection at Riviere du Loup, with the Grand
Trunk Railway, Sea Shore, and Fishing Grounds.
=S—_=»0«-_-  &g__^&3S^9S!P- LANDS OF PLENTY.
To the mind of the geographer, or the eye of
the prospective traveller—as delineated on maps
and charts, and illustrated in geographies—
British North America may be fitly described
to be all that portion of the North American
continent bounded by the Atlantic ocean on
the east, by the Pacific ocean on the west, by
the United States on the south, and by the
Arctic ocean on the north. But such a description of the Canada of the present day is
but an outline portrait of it, and gives only the
faintest conception of its vastness and resources.
Charts, atlasses, and statistical tables, though
interesting in themselves and valuable to the
student, fail to convey to the popular mind
either just or adequate ideas of the countries
they embrace and are intended to represent. LANDS  OP  PLENTY.
This is especially true of Canada. In the maps
it looks a mere terraqueous maze—a labyrinthine waste of rivers and lakes from which
escape would seem aU but impossible, and in
which tradition teaches us life is well nigh insupportable. How opposite such a presentation of it is to actual fact the reader need not
now be reminded. Much of the popular mis-t
conception entertained in regard to Canada is,
no doubt, due to ignorance; quite as much, or
more, however, is certainly due to prejudice.
Stretching from ocean to ocean, with its magnificent prairies and its heavily-timbered forests,
its exhaustless fisheries, and its limitless mineral
wealth, it forms a region grand enough for the
seat of a great empire, and a fitting home for
a p<|werful people. Within the present decade this1 magnificent country has taken a
gigantic stride forwards. The addition of
British Columbia, Manitobah, and of the
great and fertile North-West territory to her
former extensive and valuable domain has
greatly multiplied her advantages as a productive field for colonisation, and enabled her
to cope—and to cope successfully—with the
United States in the work of western immigra- BEITISH  NOETH  AMEEICA.
tion and settlement. These splendid accessions
of territory form a | new departure | in her
history as a political confederation. As was
well remarked by Lord Dufferin, the late
Governor-General, in a recent eloquent speech,
" Manitoba may be regarded as the key-stone
of that mighty arch of sister provinces which
span the continent from the Atlantic to the
Pacific. It was here Canada received the
afflatus of a more imperial inspiration, and
felt herself no longer a mere settler along the
banks of a single river, but the owner of half
a continent, and in the magnitude of her possession, in the wealth of her resources, in the
sinews of her material might, the peer of any
power on earth."
It is, indeed, only when regarded as the
future home of unnumbered and numberless—
because yet unborn—colonists that we can
measure the extent and capacity of such a
country, or adequately estimate her wealth and
power in the near future. For purposes of
settlement it embraces upwards of two million
square miles of agricultural and timbered
lands. Of these, the cereal-producing tracts—
comprising what  is  known  as the Canadian
1 *
" wheat zone I—occupies fully one-half; an
area equal to 600,000,000 acres. If we except Labrador on the east coast, and Alaska,
a narrow strip of infertile and inhospitable
territory on the western or Pacific coast north
of Vancouver's island, which belongs to the
United States, the whole northern half of the
American continent is now embraced within
the Dominion of Canada. CHAPTER I.
Thje Dominion of Canada, as now constituted—
first by the voluntary confederation of 1867, and
subsequently under the Act of 1873—embraces
eight principal divisions, called the British
North American Provinces. Each province
has a government and parliament of its own.
Divisions, Aeea,
Square Miles.
.       107,780
.      193,355
Nova Scotia
.    *|§L,731
New Brunswick
.        -7,322
Prince Edward Island
North-West Territory
British Colombia
.     220,000
Indians (36 tribes) in 18
Population (1784)
Estimated population (1879)
* Census
of 1871. 6 LANDS  OP PLENTY.
Each province is divided into counties, and
each county into townships.
Money is calculated in dollar's and cents, as
in the United States, and not in pounds, shillings, and (pence as in England. The dollar,
equal to 4s. 2d. sterling, is the standard. The
coinage is silver, but gold is the legal tender.
The notes in circulation are mostly of the denominations of 1 dollar and 2 dollars.
Cities and Chief Towns.—Montreal, Toronto, Quebec, Halifax, St. John, Hamilton,
Ottawa, London, Kingston, Cobourg, Belleville, Windsor, Stratford, Cornwall, Goderich,
Prescott, Brockville, Paris, Port Hope, St.
Catherine's, Guelph, Sorel, Sherbrooke, Truro,
Frederickton, Charlotte-town, Victoria, Winnipeg-
Government.—A limited monarchy, framed
on the principles of the responsibility of
ministers to Parliament, is vested in a Governor-General as executive, appointed by the
Queen but paid by Canada, and a Cabinet of
thirteen members, who form the Queen's Privy
Council. Each Cabinet officer presides over a
department. ■^
These are known as the—
Militia and Defence.
Privy Council Office.
Crown Law Office.
Djland Revenue.
Public Works.
Postmaster- General.
Minister of Interior.
Agriculture and Arts
Secretary of State.
The seat of the Federal Dominion Government is at Ottawa, on the Ottawa river.
The Parliament consists of the Queen, an
Upper House of seventy-eight members
appointed by the Governor .for life, styled the
" Senate" ; and a Lower House of two hundred and six members, elected for five years,
styled the | House of Commons." Sessions
are held annually, and the Governor-General
has power to dissolve the House before the
expiration of the five-year term.
The several provinces have lieutenant-
governors, paid by the Dominion, and systems of xesponsible local government, formed
on the model of that of the Dominion.
The counties and townships have also their
local governments or councils, which regulate
their local taxation for roads, schools, and
other municipal purposes.
m 8
Exports and Imports.—The total values for
the fiscal year ending June 30th, 1878,
amounted to—exports, 79,323,667 dols.; imports, 93,081,787 dols.
The   Public   Debt    (1st   July   1877)
amounted to
Repayable in London
,,        in Canada
Net debt per capita
Interest       „
Climate.—The public mind, though less
abused than formerly, is nevertheless still
greatly prejudiced in regard to the climate of
Canada. Furs are suggestive of frost and
snow, and in the opinion of some people these
are worn the year round in Canada. The
summers and winters are equally decided, and
in some sections are rather trying to those
accustomed to milder and more equable temperatures. On the whole, however, they are
remarkably dry, bracing, and healthy. It has
been urged, and justly, that the climate of a
country which perfects the production of the
most valued grains, fruits, plants, timber, and
animals—induding man—cannot be other than
a good one. That of interior Canada is greatly
influenced by the vast extent of her lake waters. DOMINION  OF   CANADA.
The prairie region has a mean summer temperature of sixty degrees, with abundance of rain.
Land System.—Next to his health, the most
important question for the settler in a new
country to consider is the easy acquisition of
land. Agriculture now forms the chief industrial interest of the Dominion. Next to this
rank the products of the forest and their manufacture. As every intelligent and thrifty immigrant will, sooner or later, become a landowner,
it is important that he should, as soon as possible, make himself acquainted with the system
of buying, holding, and improving land. The
laws of primogeniture and entail are abolished,
and the transfer of land is cheap and easy.
British tenant farmers, anxious to change their
condition o£ leaseholders to that of owners,
have in Canada, more particularly, in the
prairie country, a wide and promising field for.
investment. The drainage system of the Dominion is threefold, viz. eastward to the Atlantic, westward to the Pacific, and northward
to the Arctic ocean and Hudson's bay. In the
provinces of Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick,
Nova Scotia, and British Columbia, the grant
to   the   Canadian Pacific Railway  alone ex- wmmmm^m
cepted, the lands are held by the several provincial governments.
' Dominion lands are surveyed in blocks of
twelve miles square. These are subdivided
into four townships of six miles square each;
these again into thirty-six sections of one mile
square, or 640 acres each; and each section
into quarters of 160 acres each.*
Dominion lands to the extent of 640 acres
may be bought at 4s. 2d. sterling per acre, cash
down.f Unoccupied Dominion lands will be
leased to neighbouring settlers for cutting hay,
&c, but not to the hindrance of the sale or
settlement of such lands. Improved farms
(advantageous for tenant farmers newly arrived
and unacquainted with the country and its requirements) may be purchased in almost every
part of the Dominion. Such farms are either
partially or entirely cleared of timber and
under cultivation, with dwellings and farm-
buildings on them, and are therefore at once
available for agricultural purposes.   The prices
* For full   particulars  see  " Dominion Lands  Act,"
in the Appendix.
t See Appendix for list of Government agents. DOMINION   OF   CANADA.
of such range from i_4 to ,£10 per acre, according to productiveness and situation. The
utmost caution should be observed by settlers
in the selection and purchase of land.
Free Grants.*—Canada is the only British
colony, excepting Queensland and West Australia, that grants land free to settlers. Quarter
sections (160 acres) of untenanted Dominion
lands—in all the provinces—are made to any
person who is the head of a family, or to any
person, not the head of a family, who has
attained the age of twenty-one years, on condition of three years' settlement from the time
of taking possession and the payment of the
entry fee of 10 dols. (£2. Is. 3d.).
Pastoral farming, which includes stock-
raising and dairy-farming—next to agriculture
—is the most important industry of Canada,
both soil and climate being favourable for its
prosecution. The high quality of Canadian
dairy produce is now everywhere acknowledged.
Ontario  and Quebec  offer perhaps the best
* As the system of procuring free lands varies slightly
in some of the provinces, the points of difference will be
found noted in the respective chapters.
j 12
openings for those wishing to engage in this
branch of business. Manitobah and the North-
West territory will, however, offer increased
advantages as soon as railway communication
is established through it. The quality of the
wool, mutton, and beef raised on the grasses of
the north-west prairies is even finer than that
produced in the eastern provinces and townships. The foot and mouth disease is unknown
throughout the Dominion.
Mines and Minerals.—Canada having an
extremely diversified geological formation, is
rich in minerals. The following ores have been
worked: gold, silver, copper, lead, iron (magnetic, hematite, chromic, and titanic), coal
(lignite and albertite), assatite (phosphate of
lime), graphite, mica, barytes, asbestos, slate,
gypsum, petroleum, rock salt, antimony, iron
pyrites, and manganese. The total exports for
1876 amounted to 3,731,837 dols., or to rather
more than three-fourths of a million sterling.
Fisheries.—The fisheries constitute an important and lucrative branch of Canadian
industry, more especially in the sea-board provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and
British Columbia.    Upwards of fourteen hun- DOMINION   OF  CANADA.
dred vessels and twenty-two thousand boats are
thus engaged; and the total yield for 1876
was valued at eleven millions of dollars.
Education, Religion, &c.—There is no
State Church, and the utmost religious liberty
prevails throughout the Dominion. The means
of education by free public schools, both
secular and religious, are abundant, each province directing its own system.
Railways.—At the close of 1878 Canada
had 5,800 miles of railway in operation, or
about one mile to every 690 inhabitants.
Added to this there are upwards of 1,200
miles under construction, exclusive of the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
Lakes, Rivers, &c.—Owing to her physical
features Canada possesses the most extensive
lake and river system on the globe. The great
lakes, Superior, Huron, Erie, and Ontario,
forming the largest and purest continuous
system of fresh-water navigation in the known
world, though generally claimed by and popularly credited to the United States, flow mainly
within British territory. They embrace an
area of 90,000 square miles, vary from 100
to 800 feet in depth, and from 200 to 600 feet _^£_Z_-£^^^_&_^__g-2-zS?"
above sea-level. The lake system of the central
prairie region embraces, among many smaller
bodies, Winnipeg, Manitobah, Winnepegosis,
Cedar, and Dauphin, with an area of 12,818
square miles, and an average elevation of 675
feet. The principal rivers are the St. Lawrence
on the east, the Saskatchewan and Nelson on
the north, and the Mackenzie and Frazer rivers
on the west. The canals are five in number, viz.
Weiland (28 miles); the St. Lawrence System
(41 miles); and the Chambly, Desjardins, and
Burlington bay, embracing about 250 miles
upon the St. Lawrence, Rideau, and Richelieu
rivers. Thus Canada possesses a continuous
waterway from the Atlantic to the head of
Lake Superior, a natural highway of travel,
and the best, because the cheapest and healthiest, emigrant route across the American
continent. The entire distance between Winnipeg city and Halifax, N.S., is, however,
now traversed by rail, and the travelling time
reduced to four days.
Telegraph, Money Order, and Postal
System.—The telegraph is within easy reach
of the poorest settler in the Dominion. There
are three main lines, viz.  the "Montreal" DOMINION  OF  CANADA.
(12,044 miles), the " Dominion " (7,824 miles),
and the Canadian Pacific, between Fort William and Battleford, N.W.T. (970 miles, and
still in progress) .* The tariff on messages to
places twelve miles and under is 15 cents for
ten words; beyond twelve miles, 25 cents for
ten words, and 1 cent for each additional word.
The postal system extends to every village in
the Dominion. There are upwards of 5,000
post offices in addition to 278^ Post Office
savings' banks. The rate of postage is 3 cents
for half an ounce prepaid; unpaid, 5 cents.
Newspapers and postal cards 1 cent each.
Money orders may be drawn throughout tbe
Dominion except in Manitobah and British
Columbia, for sums from 1 dol. to 100 dols., at
a charge of half per cent. The same regulation applies to offices in the United Kingdom
at a charge of 2 per cent., or 1 dol. on £10.
Sport, &c.—Canada has been well termed
the I Sportsman's Paradise." Scarce a section
or district of the entire Dominion that does
not offer attractions of some sort to the lovers
* The Dominion Company's lines are now operated by
the American Dnion Company under lease for 99 years,
at a yearly rental of 52,500 dols. 3_3-____£g___2-3
of sport. Excellent hunting, shooting, and
fishing may be enjoyed in almost every locality
and at any season not excepted by law. The
woods abound with wild animals, including
moose, deer, bears, foxes, otter, and beaver.
Feathered game are found in abundance—
geese, ducks, woodcock, snipe, plover, curlew,
partridges, pigeons, and many other birds.
The lakes and rivers abound in bass, dory, &c.
Lakes Beaufort, Joseph, and St. Charles, in
the neighbourhood of Quebec, literally swarm
with fish.
Nova Scotia, though, according to. Lord
Dunraven, so nearly " settled up," and the
moose-supporting portions of the country becoming very hmited in extent, is still perhaps
unexcelled as a sporting field for large game.
Vast tracts being yet primeval forest, the moose
(Cervus alces) and cariboo (Cervus rangifer)
are scarcely molested by the hunter.*   They
* To the true lover of this exciting sport—moose-
hunting—we commend the perusal of a portion of a
masterly and characteristic paper from the pen of the
Right Hon. the Earl of Dunraven which has just appeared
in the " Nineteenth Century," from which it is copied by
permission. DOMINION  OF  CANADA.
are the principal large game to be found in
Canada. The moose is by far the biggest of
all existing deer. It is identical with the elk
of Europe, but attains to a greater bulk, frequently weighing 1,200 lbs. and upwards. The
cariboo answers to the reindeer of northern
Europe, on a somewhat larger scale and with far
finer horns. Cumberland county is described
by competent authorities as | one of the finest
moose-hunting grounds in the world." There
are no private game-preserves in the province, so
that all are allowed to hunt, shoot, or fish ad
libitum. The close season for moose or cariboo
extends from mid-February to 1st September.
Within twenty miles of Halifax trout and
salmon fishing can be obtained in every phase
which the gentle art is capable of assuming.
Shelburne, Queen's, and Lunenburg counties—
the lake region of Nova Scotia—offer, perhaps,
the greatest attractions to the patrons of | the
rod and reel." The salmon rivers are mostly
short, running in parallel lines to the sea only
a few miles apart. The fishing grounds seldom
extend more than ten or twelve miles from
their mouths. Sea or tide trout, averaging
about 3 lbs. in weight, commence running up
2 ^^^^mimmm^mm^mi,
these streams at the end of June, and the best
sport is to be had at that delightful season.
At Rimouski, on the river of that name, fifty-
four and a half miles by rail south-east of
Riviere du Loup on the St. Lawrence, there is
good salmon-fishing.
Pleasure Resorts.—The principal and most
popular resorts for Canadian tourists and pleasure seekers lie in the sea-board provinces of
Lower Canada and mainly on the St. Lawrence river and its tributaries. They are all
readily reached by steamboat, or by railway over
the Grand Trunk and Intercolonial lines from
the chief centres, Halifax (N.S.), St. John's
(N.B.), Portland (Me.), Quebec, and Montreal.
From Portland the famed White Mountains of
New Hampshire are distant only ninety miles,
and are readily reached in three to four hours
by Grand Trunk railway vid Gorham Station.
Mount Washington, "the monarch" of the
White mountain range, is best approached by
turnpike and the mountain railway, three miles
in length, from the Glen House.
The city of Quebec occupies the centre of
picturesque Canada. Though shorn by recent
changes of all its political and much of its DOMINION  OF  CANADA.
commercial importance, it is still historically
one of the most interesting and remarkable
cities on the continent of North America.
It is the first landing-place of a large majority of Canada-bound travellers not reluctant
to " step ashore" and once more tread terra
firma after experiencing the e' ups and downs i
of "life on the ocean wave." This fact alone
will serve to render a short stay desirable.
The drives in the neighbourhood are varied
and charming, each in its own peculiar way.
The most attractive are those to Montmorenci
falls and battle-ground, Chaudiere falls, Lorette
Indian village, Montcalm's cottage, Wolf's
monument, &c. A sleigh and "toboggin"
party to Montmorenci in winter constitutes
the " sensation " of that delightful season, and
should not be omitted from the visitor's programme.
During the summer months (June to September) boats leave Quebec daily for the
Saguenay river, Tadoussac, Grand bay, Falls
of Ste. Anne, Murray bay, below Quebec; and
for Sorel, Three Rivers, and Montreal, above
the city. From Montreal the most picturesque
portions of  Canada   and  the New  England
2 * wmm
States of the adjoining Republic are within
easy reach by railway or steamer, and furnish
a series of delightful tours. They may be
arranged as follows: Route 1. To Lakes
Champlain and George vid Rouses point.
2. Franconia mountains, Lakes Memphrema-
gog and Willoughby, Mount Orford vid New-
port (65 miles). 3. To Saranac and Chazy
lakes and Adirondack mountains (the sporting
region of northern New York) vid Rouse's
point (50 miles), Plattsburg (82miles), Ausable
(102 miles). 4. To Cornwall (67 miles),
Ottawa city (the capital) (166 miles), Kingston (172 miles), Cobourg (264 miles), Toronto
(333 miles). The Thousand isles form the
most picturesque feature of the Upper St.
Lawrence. They commence near Kingston,
and extend nearly to Brockville, a distance of
fifty miles. The latter town, named after
General Brock, the hero of Queenstown, is
one of the prettiest places in Canada. Alexandra bay and the neighbourhood abounds in
good shooting and fishing.
There are few countries more splendidly
watered than Ontario, of which Toronto is
the capital and chief city.    Its  innumerable DOMINION  OF  CANADA.
lakes and streams, as well as the great freshwater seas which form its southern boundary,
abound with excellent fish, and form a very
paradise to the enthusiastic angler. Good
sport may also be found for the gun in the
backwoods, where bears, wolves, lynxes, deer,
and many other wild animals, are commonly
met with.
Having briefly described the prominent and
distinguishing features of the Dominion as a
whole and distinct dependency of the Crown,
and the nearest field open to British travel
and settlement, we will now indicate the
portions of the vast colony which at the present time offer the greatest inducements and
most solid advantages to those in search of
health, sport, or profit. 22
Area.—193,355 square miles; 129,000,000
Population (in 1871) .—1,191,516. Chief
city, Quebec; population, 76,500.
History.—Settled in 1586. Council of
Aobninistration appointed in 1663. Ceded to
England by Treaty of Paris 1763. Constitution granted 1791. Confederated in 1867, up
to which time it was known as Lower Canada.
Quebec is the central commercial province
of the Dominion, and offers advantages to
small manufacturers and traders unable to
compete with the capitalists of the great European centres.
The rural population thrive mainly by agriculture and the product of the forest. QUEBEC.
Climate and Soil.—The rigour of the
Canadian winter has been very much exaggerated. Its people are certainly amongst the
hardiest and most vigorous. The snow, far
from being a disadvantage, is almost as valuable a covering as manure, and under the spring
thaws the effect of the winter's frost and snow
is to make the land more friable, and to impart
to the soil the vigour which makes our northern
vegetation so sudden and luxurious. The soil
is rich, and susceptible of the highest cultivation. In point of quantity and quality the crops
in Quebec compare favourably with those of
other parts of the continent. An instance
illustrative of climate is that the sparrow at
all seasons of the year may be seen flitting
about. The soil of Quebec is extremely rich,
and susceptible of the highest cultivation.
Divisions, &c.—There are five main centres
of colonisation—the Valley of the Saguenay,
the Valley of the St. Maurice, the Valley of
the Ottawa, the Eastern Townships, and
Gaspe. There are sixty counties and twenty
judicial districts in the province. The
Crown offers for sale a large quantity of
land on the south shore of the lower St. Law- J?
rence. Lands taken from the Crown, whether
for purchase or as a free grant, are subject to
easy conditions of payment or settlement. In
1868 an Exemption Law came into force,
giving full and fair protection to settlers.
The province has also introduced, in a limited
way, a system of colony settlements, by which
lots of 100 acres each, prepared in designated
townships, are offered to settlers who appear
to be in a position to succeed.
Stock-raising.—Cattle-breeding is becoming quite an occupation in Quebec, and the
province has sent back to England a class of
cattle unsurpassed by her own best breeds.
The lands in the eastern townships, " the Garden of Quebec," and north of the Ottawa, for
pasturage, are of special excellence. They embrace nearly one million acres, and are offered
at from 2s. to 2s. 6d. an acre. Dairy-farming
is yet in its infancy, but the active co-operation and aid of the Government is giving to
agriculture an impulse which must result in
very important consequences to the province.
Productions.—Cereals, hay, and green crops
grow everywhere in abundance.    The  total QUEBEC.
quantity of wheat grown is about 2,068,000
bushels; barley, 1,668,208; oats, 15,116,262;
rye, 458,970; peas, 2,205,585; beans, 79,050;
buckwheat, 1,676,078; corn, 603,356 bushels.
This is the produce of about 242,726 acres.
A total of 128,185 acres produces 18,068,323
bushels of potatoes, of turnips 812,073, and of
other root crops, 597,160 bushels. An acreage
of 1,211,953 produces 1,224,640 tons of hay
and grass, and of clover seed about 143,535
bushels. The melon and tomato grow and
fully ripen in the open air. Indian corn,
hemp and flax, and tobacco are grown in
Quebec, and yield good returns. The extent
of the farms in Quebec average about 100
acres. These farms in the older settlements
are worth from 2,000 to 4,000 dols. a-piece.
In the new settlements a partially cleared
farm may be purchased for about 200 dols.
The settler can also purchase the Crown lands
at a cost of between 30 or 40 cents. (Is. 3d.
to 2s.) per acr©i or have a free grant along
one of the colonisation roads.
Manufactures, &c.—The geographical situation of the province, added to its great water
power and cheap living, and the fact that its wmmmmm
ports are situate at the foot of inland and the
head of maritime navigation, make Quebec a
field where manufacturers with some means
can do well. As the province is the leading
mercantile and financial section of the Dominion, so is it declared to be the leading
manufacturing centre. The principal articles
manufactured in the province are cloth, linen,
chemicals, soap, boots, cotton, and woollen
goods, and all descriptions of agricultural implements. In looking at the figures representing
the export and import trade of Quebec, it will
be well to consider its importance as the central province and assorting market of the Dominion. The export trade in 1876 amounted
to 37,876,815 dols., and the import trade to
35,035,091' dols. It may be asserted in all
fairness that the banking and financial institutions of Quebec are the chief institutions of
the kind in Canada. The shipbuilding industry
of the province is well known, and so, too, is
the manufacture of timber; but a summary
statement of the exports will, perhaps, give a
better insight into the commerce of Quebec
than mere words. The figures in 1876 stood
thus:— QUEBEC.
The Mines yielded    .
The Fisheries   .
The Forest
Animals and their produce
Agricultural products
Manufactures  .
Miscellaneous articles
365,546 dols.
714,534 1
11,047,082 „
7,487,027 „
8,672,358 „
2,389,446 „
225,802 „
This does not include corn and bullion.
Education, &c.—The separate school system prevails to the utmost satisfaction of all
creeds and classes in the province of Quebec.
Primary education is obligatory in so far as
every taxpayer is bound to contribute to it a
moderate sum. To poor municipalities 8,000
dols. per annum are allowed. There are three
normal schools in Quebec, two Roman Catholic
and one Protestant, where school teachers are
trained. There are nearly 4,000 primary
schools, attended by about 20,000 pupils;
about 300 secondary and model schools, attended by at least 40,000 pupils. Besides
these there are special schools, lyceums, commercial schools, and schools of agriculture.
These number about 150, and are attended
by 3,000 pupils.    There  are fifteen superior WtmamzmMmmzi.
schools in Quebec, where the classics are
mainly taught; twelve are Catholic and three
Protestant. The Roman Catholic schools owe
their existence to the generosity of the Catholic
clergy. The professors are nearly all ecclesiastics, and are content to receive a remuneration of 40 dols. per annum. This explains the
low rate paid by pupils for board and tuition,
which is about 100 dols. per year. There are
three universities in Quebec, two of which are
Protestant and one Roman Catholic. The Catholic University of Laval was founded in 1854
by the Seminary of Quebec, and is maintained,
without State aid, by that important college.
The religious and charitable institutions
form a pleasing feature in Quebec. With
the earlier missionaries came the Sours Hos-
pitaliers to care for the sick, and the Ursuline
Sisters to attend to female education and assist
in civilising the Indians. By the side of the
Roman Catholic institutions have grown up
and prospered those of other religious communities, between which and the Roman Catholic institutions no rivalry exists except in
doing good. The province devotes a large sum
to the support of charitable institutions. QUEBEC.
Time to Arrive. General Directions.—
The intending settler should arrive in Quebec
early in the spring. Unless he is going
to join friends already settled in the province, or have some capital, the agricultural
labourer should not leave England after August.
Farm labourers should proceed at once to the
agricultural districts. The intending settler
should consult the emigration agent at Quebec
for the provinces, who will give him full information on all points, and direct him as to the
various centres of colonisation and labour.
Wild Lands may be purchased on the following conditions. One-fifth of purchase-
money on day of sale, the remainder in four
equal annual instalments, with interest at
6 per cent. The purchaser must take possession within ||ix months from the date of
sale, and must reside on the land for two years.
During the first four years the settler must
clear and cultivate ten acres for every hundred
acres so held, and erect a habitable home at
least sixteen by twenty feet in extent. In the
case of free grants the exceptions are trifling.
The emigrant who enters upon the occupation
of an uncleared farm must expect that eighteen LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
months, or a year at the very least, will expire
before he can get a return from his land. Such
being the case, it would be highly imprudent
for a family of five or six persons to settle on
a lot of wild land, unless they possessed at
least 200 dols. While he is clearing his own
lot, the settler will find occasional work, either
in working for a more fortunate neighbour, or
on a colonisation road, or by hiring for a
month or two during the winter season with a
lumber merchant. Fish and game are very
abundant, and with these, at certain seasons,
the settler may •furnish his tables. The cost
of clearing, when it is done by contract, is
about 10 dols. per acre. A skilled farmer who
has not the means of purchasing a farm, or
settling at once upon uncleared land, will find
many proprietors prepared to lease their farms,
or to farm on shares. The English emigrant
who selects as his home the Eastern Townships, or land north of the Ottawa, will find
himself in the midst of his own countrymen,
and in sections of Canada which, in every
respect, are unsurpassed on the continent of
The chief attractions and points of interest QUEBEC.
of this province, and indeed of the whole St.
Lawrence valley, for the tourist and sportsman, are readily accessible from Quebec and
Montreal as centres of travel. They are (in
Quebec) the citadel of Cape Diamond, Plains
of Abraham, and Wolfe's monument, fortifications, gates, &c, and Montmorenci and Chau-
diere falls. Both the latter are a short distance
from the city. In and round Montreal the
chief objects of interest to visitors are the
Victoria tubular bridge, the mountain, cathedral of Notre Dame, and Bonsecours market
and quay. The Saguenay river, Riviere du
Loup, Tadousac, Murray bay, and Cacouna,
and the Thousand islands—the former 130
miles below Quebec, and the latter 130 miles
above Montreal—afford two of the most picturesque tours in the province.
\M Wm mmm.
wzm®   WMk
Ontario—| the beautiful," as the Indians in
their significant and sonorous language called
it—is the name by which the western portion
of the old or settled portion of Canada is now
officially and generally known.
Prior to the Confederation in 1867 it was
familiarly spoken of as Canada West, Upper or
Western Canada. It is the most populous and
wealthy of the seven divisions ofthe Dominion,
and occupies the fertile country to the north of
the great lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and Superior. The river Ottawa, the principal tributary
of the St. Lawrence, and the centre of the timber
industry of Canada, separates it from the pro- ONTARIO.
vince of Quebec on the east. As an evidence
of its growing commerce, it may be stated that
Government customs are collected at no less
than fifty-five ports in this province. Its precise boundaries to the north and west have
long been, and still are, in dispute, and until
they are definitely settled and officially announced the exact area of the province cannot
be stated. For general purposes, however, the
usually accepted estimate of 121,000 square
miles will be found sufficiently near the mark.
This gives it an area about equal to that of
Great Britain and Ireland.
Climate.—It may as well be admitted in
the outset that as regards climate Ontario
suffers from the prejudice under which her
sister province Quebec, and indeed the whole
of Canada, has so long unjustly rested.
Not, however, to the same extent. The climate is no doubt greatly and most favourably
influenced by the great bodies of fresh water
to the south and west of it. Though its average
winter temperature is unquestionably much
lower than that of the British Isles, yet the
cold of an Ontario winter is | more bearable,"
as the popular phrase expresses it, than that
3 ■
of an English winter, and is, moreover, probably less trying to the aged and infirm. This
is greatly owing to the comparative dryness of
the Canadian atmosphere.
It will doubtless sound strange to English
ears to be told that the keen and protracted
frost and snow which would be so much dreaded
on the east side of the Atlantic, is welcomed as
a real blessing in Canada. In England such
visitations paralyse out-door labour, block up
roads, or render them dangerous, and carry
privation and misery into countless homes.
In Canada they directly promote one of the
greatest national industries, namely, lumbering
or timber-getting. This important work can,
in fact, only be carried on effectively by their
powerful co-operation. Frost and snow make
good " sleighing," and that means everywhere
splendid roads, rapid, easy, and pleasant travelling, brisk internal trade, and enhanced
social enjoyment. The heaviest loads can then
be drawn with ease, even over swamps and
streams, which at other times are quite impassable.
The Ontario farmer attempts no out-door
work which can be very materially interfered ONTARIO.
with by the wintry elements, which are his
servants rather than his masters. Frost and
snow are not only found to be the best road-
makers, but their general effect on the soil is
beneficial. Frost pulverises the earth even if it
sometimes kills the young wheat; whilst snow
is found to be a good fertiliser as well as a protection to plant life. The period of extreme
cold, or I cold snaps " as they are called, seldom
lasts more than two or three days at a time.
It is followed by much longer intervals of
moderate frost, with a bright sky overhead,
and a carpet of dry snow underfoot. Occasionally there are disagreeable thaws in the
course of the winter, which break up the roads
and block business. Sometimes the winter is
unusually mild and open, with little or no
snow. This, for the reason already mentioned,
is always a great loss to the country. In short,
the winter season in Canada has its advantages
and compensations, as well as its disadvantages
and drawbacks ; and its inhabitants, natives as
well as immigrants from the British Isles, generally regard it as the pleasantest part of the
year. Many of the latter greatly prefer it to
the winter of the | old country."    The other
3 * 36
seasons have also their peculiarities in Ontario.
The spring awakes suddenly in April, and
speedily merges into summer. During its
short career vegetation makes marvellously
rapid progress. The summer has extremes of
heat, but, like those of the cold in winter, they
are usually, of short duration. Autumn, or
the "fall" season, embraces September, October, and November, and is usually the most
delightful season of the year for tourist and
sight-seeker. But whatever may be thought
of the summer and winter extremes of temperature, there is no question of the healthiness
of the climate of Ontario.
Productions.—Another test of its character
may be found in the range and quality of the
productions of this province. Nearly all the
ordinary agricultural and horticultural products of the United Kingdom are raised in
perfection. The white wheat of Ontario took
the first prize at the Paris Exhibition of 1867,
and still maintains its high reputation; whilst
Ontario-grown barley is held in the highest
estimation by the brewers of the United States.
In fruit generally, especially apples, it is not
excelled by any other country.   A writer in the ONTARIO.
New York " Graphic," in describing the fruit
exhibition at the Philadelphia Centennial,
says :—| Probably the finest show of various
fruits is made by the Fruit Grower's Association of Ontario, Canada. This exhibit occupied two tables extending the entire length of
the hall, which was about 200 feet long, and
comprised not less than 1,480 plates of apples,
200 plates of peas, 290 plates of plums, 173
plates of grapes, 26 plates of peaches, 86 plates
of crab apples, and some 20 plates of miscellaneous fruits," &c. Maize, tomatoes, melons,
and many other products requiring a high
summer temperature to bring them to maturity, grow in abundance and perfection in
nearly every part of the province.
Stock-raising, &c.—Much attention has of
late years been paid by the leading farmers of
Ontario to the breeding of superior stock,
and with very marked success. The largest
herd of shorthorns in the world ip said to be
at Bow Park in this province, and their breed
is being gradually spread over the country.
Only a very few years ago the experiment
of shipping dead meat and live cattle to England was commenced, with some misgivings as
mtmm 38
to the result. Fortunately it turned out favourably, and the trade has ever since been rapidly
increasing, and has already attained large dimensions. For example, the imports into the
United Kingdom in 1876 were 2,767 cattle,
2,607 sheep, and 332 horses I in 1877, 7,412
cattle, 6,325 sheep, 298 horses, and 372 pigs.
For the first half of 1878 the figures were—
8,010 cattle, 4,281 sheep, 1,041 pigs, and 787
horses, thus showing an enormous and rapid
growth in this important trade. The shipments of Canadian beef during the present
year have averaged six and a half million of
pounds weight monthly. These figures, which
are quoted from the " Live Stock Journal" of
5th July 1878, refer to the returns for the
whole of Canada, but Ontario shares most
largely in the credit which they reflect on the
resources of the Dominion.'
Ontario is also a large exporter of dairy products, besides poultry, eggs, hams, &c. Cheese
factories are now established in all parts of the
province, and creameries for the wholesale
manufacture of butter by the most approved
methods and with the best appliances are also
coming into favour. It is a significant fact that ONTARIO.
the very best " American " cheese sold in the
London market is made in Canada, and most
of it in Ontario. The export cheese product
of Canada for 1877 amounted in round numbers to thirty-six millions of pounds.
Agriculture is now, and will probably ever
remain, the chief attraction and staple industry
of the province. The cultivation of her soil
the utilisation of her broad forest lands and
her rich rolling prairies is, and must long continue to be, her paramount interest. Her
" manifest destiny "—to use a favourite American colloquialism—is to make meat and bread
and butter for the mother country, the fatherland. It is well to remember, too, in this
connection that she has a School of Agriculture connected with a Model Farm near the
town of Guelph, at which scientific and practical agriculture in all their branches are
taught. This institution is intended specially
to instruct the rising generation of the province—immigrant as well as native-born—in
all the I details of western farming, and its
influence is widely felt and appreciated.
Timber, Minerals, &c.—Ontario is richly
endowed with forests of valuable timber, the 40
export of which, though greatly diminished
during recent years, still forms one of the main
sources of provincial revenue. The timbered
areas from which the best qualities are obtained, are found in the Ottawa valley, on the
shores of the Georgian bay, and in the " backwoods" of the Muskoka district. Its mineral
resources are also very great and valuable. As
yet they have not been developed to any considerable extent, except salt and petroleum,
which for several years have been produced in
immense quantities and of most excellent
Land System, Free Grants, &c.—Of the
twenty-five millions of acres of surveyed land
in Ontario, nearly three millions still remain
to be disposed of as free grants to settlers,
under the provisions of the Free Grant and
Homestead Act of 1868. The lands so appropriated are embraced in seventy-eight townships of what is known as the Muskoka and
Parry Sound district, situate between the
Ottawa river and Georgian bay, and chiefly
northward of the forty-fifth parallel.*
* For routes thither wA Northern and Midland railways
of Canada, see Appendix and accompanying Map. ONTARIO.
Beside the above, there are twelve more
townships appropriated but not yet opened,
making in all ninety. Other townships will be
opened as railways and colonisation roads are
constructed. The Georgian Bay branch of the
Canada Pacific Railway will pass through
townships in Ontario that will be open, during
its construction, to settlers as free grants.
Thus the domain of the poor but industrious
immigrant will be open to him for many years
to come in the very heart of the new Dominion.
Fifty to sixty per cent, of this land is fairly
good, and will grow good crops of wheat, but it
is, as a rule, better adapted for the coarser
grains, or for grazing purposes. The remainder
of the land is not of much value for agricultural
purposes, being composed largely of rocks and
swamps. The country abounds with lakes, and
is in many places exceedingly picturesque. The
amount of land granted to the head of a family
is 200 acres, and to each unmarried person of
either sex who has attained the age of eighteen
years, 100 acres. The conditions are that each
settler shall erect a habitable house on his lot,
at least sixteen by twenty feet, and reside there
at least six months in the year.   When fifteen 42
acres have been cleared and put under crop, the
settler is entitled to a deed making the land
absolutely his own. Many emigrants have
settled in those districts with but little capital,
and are doing well. Others have failed, partly
for want of sufficient means to tide them well
over the initial difficulties, or for want of capacity or adaptability for the undertaking. Native
Canadians make the best pioneers in such districts, and the old-countryman would do well
to follow in his track, buying out a partially
cleared lot rather than attempt to clear one for
himself. In no case should a person possessed
of less than £100 attempt a settlement in the
free grant district. If he has more, so much
the better, provided he has learnt how to employ it.
The Western Peninsula known as the
" Garden of Canada," and mostly settled and
held by private persons, extends from Toronto
westward to Lake St. Clair and the town of Windsor, opposite Detroit in the state of Michigan.
Municipal Affairs, &c.—Ontario has an
admirable system of municipal government
which gives the people complete control over
their own local affairs.    The same remark ap- ONTARIO.
plies to the political institutions both of the
Province and the Dominion, which are modelled
after those of the mother country. The principle of responsible government is observed in
all. But if there is one of their institutions
of which the Ontario people are more proud
than another it is their system of public instruction. This not only recognises the right
of every child in the country to be educated,
but makes ample and generous provision for the
purpose. The public or elementary schools, of
which there are upwards of five thousand, are all
free and non-sectarian. Upwards of three millions of dollars were expended in 1876 for public
school purposes. The teachers are of three different grades, and have all to undergo examination before being licensed to teach. The schools
are supported partly by local rates and partly
by grants from the Government, which are proportioned to the average attendance of pupils.
There is also in every town and considerable
village a high school where the superior
branches, including Latin and Greek and one
or more modern languages, are taught. These
schools are also free, with the exception of a
small fee charged at some of them to non-re- '^mmmm
sident pupils. Thus the children of the poorest
in the land may obtain an education that would
fit them for entering a miiversity or a profession free of expense. Besides the public and
high schools there are several normal and model
schools for the training of teachers. Also several universities and colleges with staffs of able
professors. The administration of the educational system is in the hands of the Minister of
Public Instruction, who is a member of the
Religion, &c.—In matters of religion, Ontario is situated much the same as the mother
country, except that there is no Established
Church. All denominations are on a footing
of equality in the eye of the law. Hospitals
and other benevolent institutions have been
established by the Government wherever there
was felt to be a need for them, and are liberally
All villages throughout the province having
750 inhabitants may be incorporated under the
provisions of the Municipal Acts, and any incorporated village which contains a population
of 2,000 or upwards may be created into a
town.    When such town contains 15,000 people ONTARIO.
it becomes a city. The gradation of municipal
and civil honours, from the position of a squatter
or backwoods settler to that of a full-fledged
citizen, is therefore in Canada easy and rapid.
The qualifications for voters at municipal
elections are freehold, household, income, and
" farmer's son" ; the real property qualification ranging upward from 100 dols. in townships to 300 dols. in towns and 400 dols. in
Railways.—Much of the progress and present prosperity of the province is due to its
railway system, which has been wisely and
judiciously promoted by Government subsidies
and by municipal bonuses. Its ramifications
are wonderfully extensive for so young a
country. This result has been brought about
by adopting in their construction the narrow
gauge of 3 feet 6 inches. Lines of this gauge
can be constructed at a far less cost than those
of the ordinary width, and are found to answer
the purpose of a new country just as well.
Manufactures, &c.—Although Ontario is
mainly and essentially an agricultural country,
yet its extensive natural facilities for manufacture have been largely, and to some  extent 46
successfully, utilised. In the city of Ottawa,
the seat of the Dominion Government, some
of the largest saw-mills in the world are to be
found. Owing, however, to existing tariff regulations and to the late severe and protracted
depression in the United States, which for
many years was the principal market for Ottawa-sawn lumber, these great establishments
have, for a long time, been but partially employed. Ontario also manufactures woollen
goods, especially tweeds; furniture, machinery,
agricultural implements, edged tools, sewing
machines, carriages, clocks, &c. Of these the
manufacture of agricultural labour-saving machinery offers perhaps the safest and quickest
return for invested capital.
Chief Cities, Towns, &c.—Toronto, the
capital and commercial centre of Ontario, and
the second city of the Dominion in population
and wealth, has many attractions for the pleasure-traveller. Situate upon a level plateau
overlooking a beautiful bay at the head of
Lake Ontario, from which it is separated by
Gibraltar Point, it occupies a position at once
singularly prominent and picturesque. Its
streets are broad and well paved.    Its public ONTARIO.
buildings are substantial and architecturally
conspicuous. The best general view of the
city, suburbs, and surrounding country is obtained from the lofty spire of St. James Cathedral in King Street. The University, a noble
Norman-Gothic edifice, the Queen's Park, Os-
goode Hall, Normal School and Horticultural
Gardens, Knox College, and the New Custom
House, Post Office buildings, will each repay a
visit. The valley of the Don, and Todmorden
on the east, and New Park and Humber bay
on the west of the city afford pretty drives.
There are numerous hotels, but the Queen's
Hotel and " Hossin " House furnish the best
accommodation for tourists. Next to Toronto,
Hamilton is the largest town in the province. It
is forty miles distant by railway from the capital,
about the same distance from Niagara falls,
and is reached by the Great Western Railway
from either point in an hour and a half. It
has a population of nearly forty thousand, and
has some pretty drives in the neighbourhood.
Next to Toronto and Hamilton the most important places in the province are Ottawa city,
the Dominion capital, Kingston, St. Catherine's,
London,  &c.    The Government buildings at LANDS   OF  PLENTY.
Ottawa occupy four acres of ground, and cost
about four millions of dollars. They form one
of the handsomest ranges of public buildings
on the American continent.
Who should go, and when.—The Ontario
Government has not encouraged promiscuous
immigration for some time past, because the
demand for emigrant labour, both skilled and
unskilled, which was formerly so brisk, has,
for some time past, been less brisk, with the
sole exception of that for female domestic servants, who still continue much in demand and
receive good wages. Of professional men, and
of book-keepers and clerks, Ontario has enough
and to spare. The kind of persons who would
be certain at all times to improve their position
and prospects by emigrating to Ontario are
tenant-farmers and others with capital, who
desire to adopt agriculture as a pursuit; and
persons with small but independent incomes,
especially those" having families to educate and
set up in life. Money can be invested with
perfect security at from 7 to 8 per cent, interest, and as most of the necessaries of life
axe very much cheaper in Ontario than they
are in England, and education is free, it is ONTARIO.
obvious that for families in the circumstances
referred to Ontario is a most desirable place to
settle in. Food being everywhere abundant
and cheap, the cost of living is low as compared with that of similar fare in Great Britain. Rents in Toronto and other large towns
are likewise moderate. Clothing, except such
as is produced in the province, is about one-
fourth more than in England. As to agriculturists with capital, the inducements afforded
settlers in Ontario are even stronger. Cleared
farms, with every improvement, including
buildings, can be purchased at prices ranging
from £5 to £10 per acre, in the older settled
districts of the province. Thus for a sum of
money not greater than the present yearly
rental of many farms in England a man may
become in Ontario the absolute owner of the
land he tills, and be for ever free from uncertainty of tenure and the sense of dependence
on the favour of a landlord.
Routes, &c.—To all parts of Ontario there
is at all times ready access from British and
most North European ports by the | Allan,"
" Dominion," " Temperley," and various other
Atlantic steam lines, by way either of Quebec,
4 50
Halifax, or Portland, and thence by i Grand
Trunk" and " Intercolonial" railways.
From Toronto the still westward-bound
pleasure and health seeker has choice of a
great variety of pleasant tours. Collingwood,
at the southern extremity of the Georgian bay,
is reached by the Northern Railway from
Toronto, distant ninety-six miles, in about
five hours. The route thither, as far as Lake
Simcoe, lays through a fine and fertile land—
too flat, perhaps, to be considered picturesque,
but sufficiently rolling for farming purposes.
Clumps _of stately elms with noble stems
shooting high before their fan-shape commences, relieve the monotony of the scene,
while here and there a field dotted with huge
pine stumps shows the character of the old
crop. While the traveller is in the neighbourhood of Toronto and Collingwood the Muskoka
Lake district may be most advantageously
visited. The Georgian Bay district is emphatically a country of forests, lakes, and
rivers. The lakes vary greatly in extent, the
larger ones being thirty to forty miles in
length, while the smaller ones are little more
than ponds, but clear and deep, and abounding ONTARIO.
in salmon-trout, black bass, speckled trout, and
perch. Lakes Simcoe and Couchiching are
charming pic-nic resorts, while Trading lake
and Sparrow lake swarm with almost every
variety of fish, and afford good duck-shooting.
West of Collingwood rises a range of hills,
once thickly wooded to their summits, but
now showing in their seamed and scantily-
covered sides the rapid settlement of the past
few years. Though scarcely one thousand
feet high, they are mainly noteworthy as
being the highest mountains in the great
province of Ontario. During the summer
months steamers run through the Georgian
bay vid Great Manitoulin island, Sault Ste.
Marie, and Lake Superior to Duluth, calling
at the various points of interest on either shore.
Duluth is the eastern terminus of the Northern
Pacific railway and the northern terminus of the
St. Paul and Duluth railway, and its principal
interest for the overland traveller centres in
the facilities which its present railway system
affords. For those fond of fresh-water and
steamer-travel, no more refreshing or delightful
trip can be found on the American continent.
Lake Superior, as is well known,  swarms
4 *
Ycrawtirfrr"""-'""""'-'"'" 52
with fish, and good shooting may be indulged
in at many of the steamer stations on its picturesque shores and bays. It is, however,
mainly as a field presenting openings for
agriculturists and stock-farmers with sufficient
capital to compete for the export trade, that Ontario possesses especial interest to the English
reader. Its advantages may be thus summed
up. A good climate and fertile soil, cheap
living, ample and inexpensive means of education, free lands to actual settlers in the
Georgian Bay districts,* and an easy distance—
ten to twelve days steaming, with low rates of
passage—from England.
For farmers, both stock and grain—especially of the tenant class—it offers very decided
advantages; and for farm labourers with large
and growing families it presents good openings.
The Bruce mines of Lake Superior and other
mining districts offer employment to a limited
number of miners of the more hardy and persevering type.    Capitalists will find safe and
* Full directions as to Free Grants of Land, and the
means of obtaining and reaching them, will be found in
the Appendix. ONTARIO.
lucrative employment for all their surplus
funds in almost every department of productive industry, and in every section of the province. To all these and many more beside,
provided proper caution and energy are employed, Ontario offers opportunities for the
investment of capital and labour which entitle
her to a proud position among the lands of
plenty in British North America. 54
Manitobah, though often mentioned, and
during recent years much written about, by
travellers, is even now, to the general reader,
comparatively an ullknown country. It is the
smallest and youngest province of the Canadian
group, having been carved out of the vast
North-West territory in 1870. Up to and even
subsequent to that date it contained a very
mixed population, formed of Lidians, Scotch,
English and French half-breeds, and a few
whites. Its early history dates from 1812,
when Lord Selkirk planted the first colony
in the valleys of the Assiniboine, Saskatchewan,
and Red rivers.   After experiencing many vi- MANITOBAH.
cissitudes, and in fact being at one time completely uprooted, the infant settlement became
more firmly established in 1816, when Lord
Selkirk revisited it, bringing with him a large
number of Scotch immigrants.
The settlers, however, continued to meet
with determined opposition from the " North-
West" Trading Company, for this gigantic
monopoly, knowing that civilised men and
wild beasts could not dwell happily together,
feared the loss of its trade in furs which would
surely follow the cultivation and settlement of
the country, and • resisted settlement to the
utmost. Matters generally continued in an
unsatisfactory and uneasy state, with but little
intercourse between the colonists and the rest
of the world, till 1870, when, as we have just
stated, the segis of the Dominion Government
was wisely extended over the whole of the
north-west territory, out of which the province
of Manitobah was formed. The'Russian Men-
nonites arrived in 1871-72. The Icelanders
followed in 1874-75. During the past three
years, with the extension of the American and
Dominion railway systems to its borders, its
growth has been very rapid.   Its present popu- a__2_     ggp
lation is variously estimated at from 40,000 to
50,000. Of this number the whites are numerically much the strongest, an approximated
estimate setting them at 22,000. The Indians
rank next with about 10,000. The French,
Scotch, and English half-breeds claim nearly
as many more. Next to these in point of
number, and far excelling them in general intelligence and material prosperity, are the
Russian Mennonite settlers, who may be
roughly computed at 9,000. Following these
are the Icelanders, Scandinavians, &c.
The whites are, as a matter of course, found
scattered everywhere throughout the province,
and the adjoining Saskatchewan country. For
the half-breeds four townships on the Red
river are reserved, and the land office is located
at Emerson, near the United States boundary,
one mile and a half from Dufferin, and
seventy miles south of Winnipeg. Their
settlements are, however, found on the Assini-
boine and Red rivers in and around Winnipeg city and Old Fort Garry, and on the
Stinking river. They are under the general
charge of the Manitobah Colonisation Society
of St. Boniface, where a building for their ac- MANITOBA!!.
commodation on arrival has been erected at a
cost of 2,500 dols. The Mennonite settlements or I reserves" are at Rat river, on the
east side of Red river, and on Scratching river.
There is also a considerable settlement, on
Dufferin reserve, of seventeen townships. Altogether these hardy, thrifty settlers have
nearly 10,000 acres of most productive land
under successful cultivation. They are distributed in fifty-five villages.
Situation, Extent, &c.—Situate in the
middle of the great American continent,
nearly equi&tant from the equator and the
north pole, and the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans, Manitobah occupies a conspicuously
central position. Some of her citizens profess to believe that the day is not far distant
when Winnipeg will be the centre of British
bread-stuff production, as London already is
the centre of British consumption—a consummation which, from a Manitobian or Win-
nipegian point of view, is no doubt among the
things I devoutly to be wished," but which the
competing claims of other equally ambitious
rival grain-centres serve to render somewhat
problematical and difficult of attainment.    It LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
is certainly a grand country for the overbur-
thened and well-nigh discouraged farmers of
Great Britain and Northern Europe to emigrate to, and its future is full of what may
now seem extravagant possibilities, but which
the westward march of population and her own
prolific soil may speedily win for her. Considered in connection with its adjoining I fertile belt/' it embraces about fifty millions of
the richest wheat-producing prairie-land in
the world. To such a country, under the influence of the nineteenth century labour-saving
machinery and Western pluck and energy, no
result need appear impossible. More strictly
defined, Manitobah proper is 135 miles long
and 105 miles in width, and contains, in round
numbers, 14,000 square miles, or about
9,000,000 acres of land. It is divided into
five counties, viz. Selkirk, Provencher, Lisgar,
and East and West Marquette. It is further
divided, for legislative purposes, into twenty-
four districts, each of which returns one
member to the Provincial Assembly. These
constituencies are as follows :—
St. Paul. Winnipeg.
St. James. Springfield. MANITOBAH.
Baie St. Paul.
St. Vital.
St. Francois Xavier.
Rock Wood.
Lake Manitobah.
Portage la Prairie.
St. Agatha.
Poplar Point.
High Bluff.
St. Boniface.
St. Andrew's N.
St. Clements.
St. Charles.
St. Anne.
St. Andrews.
St. Francois Xavier W.
Treaties, Reserves, &c.—Since the confederation of the provinces in 1867 the following treaties have been negotiated between the
Dominion Government and the various Indian
tribes :—
1. (Aug. 1871) Manitobah and a portion of the
adjoining territory    .....
2. (1871) N.W. of Manitobah ....
3. (1873) Keewatin	
4. (1874) South of Saskatchewan river, from
Lake Winnipegosis to Cyprus Hills .
5. (1875) Territory around Lake Winnipeg    .
6. (1876) Main Saskatchewan river to Rocky
Mountains ......
7. (1877) Cyprus Hills to Rocky Mountains   .
615,000 ggg£ggg^^%2%^%^^-5&^^^
Under these treaties very considerable tracts,
embracing some of the best lands in the province, have been set apart as reservations.
In order to properly understand the land
system of Manitobah and the means of acquiring and holding land in that province, it is
necessary to inquire into the nature of these
" reserves.'' It is almost needless to say that
their existence has hitherto greatly retarded
settlement in Manitoba proper.
Whatever may have been the influence of
such migration on the more adventurous and
speculative land-hunter from " the States," the
act of leaving the settled districts, and passing
these reservations to the new or
back settlements, cannot but have discouraged
the best class of old country settlers. With
the rapid introduction of new capital and
labour these obstacles will quickly be removed.
The character and. extent of these reserves may
be summarised as follows, viz.:
For Half-breeds
„   Hudson's Bay Company
„   Railway purposes
„   Mennonites
4,250,000 MANITOBAH.
In addition to the above, sections 11 and
29 in each township are appropriated to
the Indians and for educational purposes,
so that less than one-half of the province is
immediately available for settlement under the
liberal provisions of the Homestead Act. But
this grievance will undoubtedly right itself ere
long. Indeed, the half-breed reserves have
already been brought into market, and others
must shortly follow. The future progress and
prosperity of the province demands that these
fine lands be thrown open for public settlement. Lands which will produce everything
good for food, either of man or beast, and
practically feed a kingdom in arms; cannot
long be held from market and cultivation.
Steam ploughs, reaping, sowing, and thrashing
machines will soon solve the labour problem
which has so long vexed the soul and tied the
hands of the enterprising Manitobah yeoman.
These far-stretching and silent reserves will,
under the stimulating influence of the Canadian Pacific Railway, quickly become the scenes
of an active and profitable industry, the abodes
of happy husbandmen, and in time, there is
little doubt, the homes of the prosperous landed wmmmrn.
proprietors of the province. Intending land-
buyers and settlers in Manitobah should bear
in mind that sections 8 and 26, being Hudson
Bay lands, and sections 11 and 29, being school
lands, are specially reserved, and therefore not
open to the public.
Internal Communication.—Added to fertility of soil and special adaptation to the
growth of cereals, more particularly of wheat,
Manitobah and the adjoining territory enjoys
facilities for a most extensive system of land
communication. It is magnificently watered
by rivers and lakes which, from their great
length and depth, afford easy and rapid means
of transit and transport throughout its entire
Foremost in importance is the Saskatchewan
river, with its two branches rising in the Rocky
mountains, which cross no less than 18 degrees
of longitude, and afford about 1,400 miles of
steamboat navigation. It flows in an easterly
direction, and discharges its waters into the
north-western end of Lake Winnipeg. The
Red river, which, having its source in Minnesota, not far from that of the Mississippi river,
runs almost due north, and, after affording about MANITOBAH.
four hundred miles of steamboat navigation,
also falls into Lake Winnipeg, but at its southern or opposite extremity. The Assiniboine is an
important affluent of the Red river, and with
a few improvements could be made navigable
for steamboats for about 200 miles. It drains
the great plain between the Saskatchewan and
Red rivers, and joins the latter at Winnipeg.
Lake Winnipeg, 264 miles in length, and
Lakes Manitobah and Winnipegoosis together
being of about the same length, and connected together by navigable channels, give
another 600-mile stretch of navigation. East
of these are " Lake of the Woods," Lake She-
bandowan, and Raine lake. West of these
are the Mackenzie, the Arthabaska, the Frazer,
and the Thompson.
Speaking of his recent tour through the
province, the late Governor-General, Lord
Dufferin, remarked: " For the last eighty miles
of his voyage the traveller will be consoled by
sailing through a succession of land-locked
channels, the beauty of whose scenery, while it
resembles, certainly excels the far-famed Thousand islands of the St. Lawrence."
"From this lacustrian paradise of sylvan
i-ffianrnwifriBi-a-g LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
beauty we are able at once to transfer our
friend to the Winnipeg, a river whose existence in the very heart and centre of the continent is in itself one of nature's most delightful
miracles, so beautiful and varied are its rocky
banks, its tufted islands, so broad, so deep, so
fervid is the volume of its waters, the extent
of their lake-like expansions, and the tremendous power of their rapids.''
Climate, &c.—With regard to climate,
Manitobah presents the same positive features
as the older provinces of Canada, viz., bright,
clear, warm weather in summer, and decidedly
cold in winter, but very clear and dry. Neither
the extreme heat in summer nor the severe
cold in winter is found to be so trying to the
constitution as the ever-changing and humid
atmosphere of England and Ireland. Snow
disappears and work begins on the land in
April. Crops are harvested in August and
September. Wheat is the best crop, the soil
being specially adapted to its production. The
average yield is thirty bushels to the acre.
Manitobah and the north-west country are
unquestionably among the finest wheat-producing countries in the world.     Barley is a MANITOBAH.
favourite   alternate    crop,   and   oats    thrive
The chief characteristic of this province is that
it consists almost wholly of prairie land, yielding, in its wild state, most nutritious grasses.
It is therefore admirably adapted for pasturage
and grazing purposes as well as for the cultivation of wheat. There is none of the tree-
felling, log-burning, stump-extracting, land-
clearing operations to be gone through, which
occupy so much of the backwoods' settler's life
in other parts of Canada and the United States.
Once at the plough, indeed, there is no limit
to the extent of land the settler may break up,
except the limit imposed by lack of time or
capital, or his own sense of moderation. It is
now a generally accepted fact, in this section
of Canada at least, that farming is a most profitable pursuit in itself, and that it pays, and
pays well, to make land.
Of forests proper to the Canadian standard
there are none, but trees of various descriptions,
affording timber sufficient for most farming and
domestic purposes, grow on the banks of the
many rivers. Much of the lumber and building timber used in and around Winnipeg   is
5 66
still rafted from Pine river and from Red
Lake county, Minnesota. Flax is very luxuriant, and hops grow wild. Cattle can be wintered without grain. The usual yield in hay
is from three to four tons per acre, the cost of
cutting and curing which ranges from 1 dol.
per ton upwards.
Minerals.—Thus far minerals have not been
discovered within the boundaries of Manitobah,
but rich deposits of iron ore and gold have
been found on the slopes of the Rocky mountains. As to coal, the large beds of the Saskatchewan river appear practically inexhaustible, it having been ascertained that a belt over
200 miles in width underlies several thousand
square miles, so that fuel need never fail the
home, and there will also be ample supplies for
the requirements of the Canadian Pacific Railway when that road is completed.
Sport.—In the way of sport, Manitobah is
perhaps less attractive than some of her sister
provinces, yet there is game enough and to spare.
The prairie land abounds with prairie chickens,
and in the spring and fall months ducks and
geese are found in immense numbers. At
times large numbers of pigeons are to be found. MANITOBAH.
In the forests are different kinds of deer, including the moose and the elk. Rabbits by the
hundreds. The Canadian partridge is also very
numerous. Of the fur-bearing animals there
are the fox, beaver, otter, mink, and musk-rat,
and a few stray black bears; the buffalo is plentiful in the North-West. The large lakes, rivers,
and streams abound with white-fish weighing
from three to five pounds.
The rapid growth and present prosperity of
Manitobah may be attributed to three causes,
viz.: first, the extraordinary fertility and adaptability of its soil- second, the liberal homestead law in force% and third, the Dominion
Lands Act.* The soil, it may safely be stated,
is as fertile as any the sun shines on in this
world. It consists of from three to four
and in some parts even nine feet deep of rich
black earth, mostly organic matter, and is of
inexhaustible richness. The subsoil is mostly
clay or gravel, which would be considered a
fair soil in Ontario. Wheat of most excellent
quality has been grown upon the same fields
* The complete text of these two important measures
will be found in the Appendix.
5 * 68
for twenty to thirty years, without variation,
and without the stimulus of a shovelful of
manure of any kind, and these fields are reported to yield as much now as when they were
first cultivated. The average crop throughout
the province reaches 30 bushels an acre. Its
wonderful capacity for the production of wheat
points to it as the future wheat-field of the
world. Evidence was given before the Committee of the House of Commons, in Canada,
that 60 bushels of spring wheat had been
raised to the acre, and that the wheat weighed
66 lb. to the bushel; also, that one bushel
of wheat sown had produced 70 bushels.
Other cereals sown showed similar results, the
average yield throughout the province having
been as follows :—Oats, 40 bushels; barley, 35
bushels; and peas, 50 bushels to the acre.
Prairie grass, when cut and made into hay,
averaged over three tons per acre. Owing to
the light rainfall the uncut grass is almost as
good as hay when winter sets in, and it remains good all the winter, as the snow being
so light and dry it does not rot. Horses and
cattle, in fact, are left out all the winter with
no other food than what they procure by paw- MANITOBAH.
ing the snow aside and eating the grass they
find beneath it.
The Homestead Law.—In 1872, in its first
session, the Legislature of Manitobah passed a
homestead law, which, in addition to exempting from seizure for debt the debtors' goods as
follows—furniture, tools, farm implements in
use; one cow, two oxen, one horse, four sheep,
two pigs, and thirty days' provender for the
same—contains a clause enacting that the land
cultivated by the debtor to the extent of 160
acres, and the house, stables, barns, and fences
on the same, are declared free from seizure by
virtue of all writs issued by any court of the
province. Whatever accident or misfortune,
therefore, may happen, the farm, the residence,
&c, are secured to the family. It remains
their home from which no creditor can drive
them whatever betide. They have thus a roof
to shelter them, land to cultivate, cattle to multiply, tools to work with, and, in fact, every
necessary to enable them to make a new start
under favourable circumstances. Many of the
States of the American Union have passed
liberal homestead laws, but that of Manitobah
excels them all in the liberality of its provisions. 70
The Dominion Lands' Act, which, after regulating the administration, management, survey,
terms of sale, reservation for school and other
purposes, &c, provides that free grants of land,
to the extent of 160 acres, be made to every
head of a family, male or female, and a further
grant of 160 acres to every child, boy or girl,
on their attaining eighteen years of age, on
the following simple conditions, viz., that they
erect a residence upon their property, that
they reside upon it at least six months in the
year, and that year by year they place an increased acreage' under cultivation. These
simple duties being performed for three years,
a Crown patent is then issued, and the settler
is free to sell, exchange, or deal with his land
in any way he sees fit. Every person entering
upon one of these grants can pre-empt a
further lot or quarter section of 160 acres, for
which he must pay at the rate of 1 dol., or
4s. 2d., per acre, at any time within three
years from the time of his entering into possession of the land.
Should the settler, however, have the necessary capital, and desire further to enlarge the
area of his domain, he can purchase from the MANITOBAH.
Government another half-section, or 320 acre-
more, for cash at 1 dol. per acre. This would
give him an estate of 640 acres, or one square
mile, for an immediate payment of about £65
and a deferred payment of about £32 more in
three years. The object sought by the Government is to introduce and establish a population of permanent settlers on the land, to
whom every facility and encouragement is
shown; but in its far-seeing wisdom, and taking
warning from past experience, Government
has endeavoured to guard against allowing
large tracts of land to pass into the hands of
land companies and large capitalists, by enacting that no sale or grant, or the two combined,
of more than 640 acres shall be made to the
same individual.
On these favourable conditions becoming
known, farmers and others in the older provinces of Canada, in England, Scotland and
Ireland, in the United States, in Iceland, in
Germany, and in Russia, hastened to take
advantage of them, so that a tide of emigration
to Manitobah has set in far surpassing the
most sanguine expectation even of those gentlemen who advocated this liberal land policy.   In I
1878 over 30,000 souls are stated to have
been added to the population by immigration
alone. During nine months of the present
year this number has been largely exceeded.
Already there are between 8,000 and 9,000
German Mennonites, or Quakers, comfortably
settled in their new homes on reservations
allotted to them near the southern boundary
of the province. These frugal industrious
people left comfortable homes and a flourishing
district in Southern Russia for conscience sake.
The cottages of over 2,000 Icelanders now dot
the picturesque shores of Lake Manitobah,
where a large reservation has been granted to
them. Colonies of Englishmen and Scotchmen have planted themselves on the Little
Saskatchewan and on the shores of Lake Winnipeg. A most thriving settlement, chiefly of
Canadians and Scotchmen has lately been established near the Red river, close to the
southern boundary line of the province, while
a mixed lot of various nationalities, including
a considerable " sprinkling" of Americans
chiefly from Minnesota, Dakotah, and adjoining states, have spread themselves over the
length  and   breadth   of  the  country.     The MANITOBAH.
Indians  number about 10,000 and the half-
breed population nearly as many more.
And now we must close our short sketch
of Manitobah. Though scarcely ten years old,
as a member of the Canadian Confederacy,
and but sparsely settled, the wave of westward
emigration already extends far beyond it. The
completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway to
Selkirk, at the crossing of Red River, will in
fact make Manitobah the front door through
which the great tide of North-Western and
Pacific bound travel must pass.
The point to which all comers gravitate is
Winnipeg the capital; and naturally the reader
will desire to know something about it. Its
growth has been truly wonderful, surpassing in
the opinion of many the early growth of even
that modern marvel of material progress,
Chicago. Prior to 1870 it was a frontier"
trading station or "post" of the Hudson's
Bay Company, under the name of Fort Garry,
and will be chiefly remembered by the distant
reader as the scene of Louis Riel's fiasco and
the collapse of his rebellion on the approach
of the Red River Expedition, led by the hero
of Ashantee and Zululand, Sir Garnet Wol- 74
seley. In 1869 the Hudson Bay Company's
rights to all its remaining territories (except the
" reserve " of 450,000 acres before referred to)
were purchased by the Dominion Government
under Imperial authority. From that time as
a monopolizing and semi-sovereign power this
company, which had flourished for two hundred
years under the charter granted in 1669 to
Prince Rupert and his associate " company of
adventurers," ceased to exist. "The beginning
of the end,"—to quote the words of Governor
Dallas, when shown some gold washed from
the sand-bars of the Saskatchewan river—| had
come," to the last of the great English monopolies. It could not long withstand the combined opposition of miners, merchants, free
trade, and farmers' rights. The " Star of
Empire," in its westward flight, guided forces
against which the charter and the vested rights,
the discipline and the etiquette, of this gigantic
corporation with its 3,000 officers and servants,
were equally powerless. From the period of
its consolidation with the rival " North-West"
Company in 1821 down to 1870, it was all but
impossible for a party, however formidable in
point of numbers and equipment, to cross the MANITOBAH.
country from Fort Garry to the Pacific without the co-operation of the Hudson Bay Company. Its forts were the only stations on that
long route where horses could be exchanged,
provisions bought, and guides or information
procured. The | fertile belt " was then and for
many and long years after unknown to the outside world. The rich alluvial plains of the Red
river and of the Assiniboine and North and
South Saskatchewan rivers formed the grazing
grounds of the buffalo. Here the hardy Hudson Bay men hunted them, and maintained
their " posts " mainly for the purpose of supplying their far-northern stations with pemmican
or cured buffalo-meat. But the sweeping tide of
immigration has changed all this, and the rush
of the locomotive and its swiftly moving train of
carriages, and the clack of the steamer's paddle,
have long since silenced the monotonous creaking of the primitive Red-river cart, which was
the only mode of summer land conveyance in the
country when the writer first visited it in 1849.
The position of Winnipeg at the confluence
of the Assiniboine and Red Rivers secures to it
great commercial advantages, while its central
situation on the proposed line of the Canadian 76
Pacific Railway will give it additional prominence as a centre of land transit and transport. Its growth, as already stated, has been
In 1870 the newly fledged Winnipeg contained a population of 253 all told. In 1873
the number of its inhabitants had risen to
2,200. In 1878 the settlement numbered
nearly 9,000, and, as we write, an estimated
return gives the figures at between 11,000 and
12,000. If this rate of growth is maintained
for the next ten years, when the city will, so
to speak, have " attained its majority," it will
contain a population of 50,000, and the province little short of 250,000. The main
thoroughfares of the " city" are 132 feet in
width, and numerous stone and brick blocks,
hotels, and public offices give it quite the air
of a Western metropolis. Opposite the city
the Red river is about 1,000 feet wide—
rather wider, in facfg than the Thames at London Bridge.
The increase in the value of land in Winnipeg
has kept pace with the growth of population, and
building-lots in certain portions of the city are
held at high figures.   From present indications MANITOBAH.
the current year will witness another influx of
settlers surpassing in number that of last year.
Agriculturists with sufficient means to make a
start are the class of immigrants most wanted
now. But very little knowledge of farming
is required to make a successful settler, and
even that is easily acquired. Persons leaving
England early in March or April next will
arrive in time to sow and realise a crop during
the coming year, provided they make no delay
in choosing their location.*   The land is not
* Local opinion seems to be pretty equally divided as
to the best time to arrive in Manitobah. The special
correspondent of the Toronto Daily Globe, writing from
Winnipeg in July 1879, says:—" It is the universal opinion
here that emigration in the spring is a great mistake.
The male members of the family should come up in September or October, when the weather is fine and the
country dry; the land should be selected; some temporary
shelter shonld be found, or board secured from a neighbour. The houses and sheds should be erected during the
whiter, and the family should follow in the spring. The
animals and implements, having been procured in the
winter, would be ready for active work with the plough
from the very opening of the season. Three months
might be employed at this work by the man prepared for
it by his winter's labour, whereas no one, however active
or industrious, can get more than one month's ploughing
if he emigrates in the spring. Be it remarked that fall-
breaking of the prairie is considered to be of no value. It
is necessary that the soil should be exposed to the in- LANDS  OF PLENTY.
arbitrarily allotted, but every applicant for a
free grant is at liberty to roam about, see for
himself, and then make choice of any lot not
already conceded. The Canadian Pacific Railway between Fort William, Thunder Bay, and
Selkirk, 410 miles long, is all under contract,
and being rapidly pushed forward, and as each
section is completed extra means of transport
will follow, and the land will advance in value.
Winnipeg, however, is already connected to the
south-east by railway through to Quebec and
Halifax, from which ports it is distant only
from four to five days' travel, so that the entire
journey from London to Winnipeg can be easily
made in fifteen days.
Routes, Rates of Fare,&c.*—From Toronto
vid Northern Railway to Collingwood (94 miles),
thence by Lake Superior Line steamers (semi-
weekly) vid Bruce mines, Sault Ste. Marie,
Neepigon, Silver islet, Fort William, to Duluth.
Thence by Northern Pacific Railway to Moor-
head (252 miles), Glyndon or Fisher's landing,
fluenoe of the summer's sun in order that it may be rotted.
The sod broken in the fall is as tongh as ever in the
* For detailed routes and tables of distances to Winnipeg, see Appendix. MANITOBAH.
and thence by steamer during navigation in
Red river vid Pembina (72 miles) to Winnipeg ;
or vid Glyndon (243 miles) with St. Paul and
Pacific and Red River and Manitobah Railways
to Winnipeg.
Route 2.—From Toronto vid Collingwood,
&c, to Thunder bay. At Prince Arthur's
landing (532 miles) stage connection is made,
by what is known as " Dawson's hue," to Lake
Shebandowan (45 miles), thence by steamer
and portages vid Kettle falls, Fort Francis,
Rainy (Rene) river, to Lake of the Woods (N.W.
angle, 310 miles), and thence by stage or waggon
(95 miles) to Winnipeg. Total distance 1,033
miles; time, twelve to fourteen days. Immigrant fare 10 dols., and 5 dols. for provision.
Vid Duluth the fares from Toronto or Hamilton
are—to Winnipeg, first class, 42 dols. 50 cents.;
second class, 21 dols.
Route 3.—All rail through United States
vid Chicago or Milwaukie to St. Paul, and
thence by St. Paul and Pacific Railway vid
Breckenridge and Glyndon to Pembina and
Winnipeg; or same route to Glyndon, and
thence, vid Fisher's Landing, by steamboat on
Red river, as in Route 1. II
Route 4.—From Toronto by Grand Trunk
Railway to Port Huron, Michigan, and thence
vid Grand Haven (Lake Michigan steamer),
Milwaukie, and St. Paul, to Winnipeg.
There is also a fifth route vid Sarnia,
Ontario, by Beatty and Co.'s packet line on
Lake Superior to Duluth, and thence by continuous railway, as in Routes 1 and 2. Large
numbers of the French-Canadian immigrants
have reached Winnipeg by this route.
The boats on Red river are small, and are
usually overcrowded during the summer "rush"
of immigration. The cost of conveyance per head
for intending colonists, including the ocean passage-money between Liverpool, or other British
seaport, and Quebec or Halifax, may be computed at from £10 to £15 for steerage and
third class, or emigrant, accommodation; and at
from £25 to £40 for saloon and intermediate
cabin, or first and second class. The best times
to arrive in Manitobah are from April 10th to
May 1st, and between the middle of September
and the end of October. To facilitate reference,
a list of the districts and more recent settlements in Manitobah will be found in the
succeeding chapter. MANITOBAH.
Drawbacks.—No country is quite perfect.
This, we think, will be everywhere admitted,
from the settler's point of view. 'Tis perhaps
hard that such a "poor man's Paradise" as Manitobah should present any bar to perfect bliss;
but even there everything is not couleur de rose.
There are obstacles which must, for a time at
least, create prejudice and retard settlement.
Briefly stated, these are—First, its remoteness
and consequent present difficulty of access and
egress. Home markets only can be counted on
for the staple product of the soil for the next
two years, that is, until the Pacific Railway is
completed and in operation to Selkirk, or the
promised "short cut" by way ofthe Nelson river
and Port Nelson on Hudson's Bay is opened to
commerce. Second, the visitations of grasshoppers or locusts, which at times have proved, and
may therefore again prove, very destructive to
the grain crops. I am aware that in approaching this subject I am treading delicate ground;
that whatever opinion I offer in regard to these
visitors I am certain to be challenged by the
champions either of the hopper or the no-hopper
party. I feel, however, that I have a duty to
discharge to my reader, and that I cannot serve
the cause of truth better, than by quoting from
competent authorities on the subject.
Mr. James Trow, MP., in one of his letters
on the subject, says Manitobah and the North-
West are not breeding-grounds;  the  locusts
are foreigners, and much more liable to
over-run Nebraska, Kansas, Minnesota, and
Dacotah than Manitobah. Manitobah had an
immunity of thirty-seven years. From 1820
to 1857 not a single grasshopper was in the
country. In 1873, 1874, and 1875 crops were
partially destroyed, more particularly in 1874,
but none have since appeared, and, in all
probability, may not again for half a century."
Professor Macoun, on the other hand, in his
evidence before the Dominion House of Commons, stated that " grasshoppers are almost
certain to be occasional visitors." Judging
from my own experiences in neighbouring Dacotah in the autumn of 1876, I am mclined to
side with the last witness. A few stragglers from
the invading locust army reached the South
Saskatchewan in 1875, but none have yet been
seen, Professor Macoun says, on Peace river.
Thus far the Mennonite settlers, of whom
there are now upwards of 8,000 settled on the MANITOBAH.
Red river and in the various sections of the
province, appear to be the only people who
understand how to treat these troublesome
During the summer that social pest the mos-
quitoe also makes its appearance, and " leaves
its sting behind." Though not quite so large
or so venomous as the Mississippi " galley-
nipper"—which is said by travellers on that
far-famed river to flap its wings like a prairie-
fowl, and to bite through a copper or cast-iron
kettle—they are described as being very troublesome. Black and sand flies and other insects
of this species are also common in some parts.
Weeds are likewise troublesome to wheat-
growers and stock-raisers.
Among the hindrances to rapid settlement in
Manitobah and in some sections of the adjoining North-West territory, should also be
mentioned the scarcity and consequent difficulty of procuring timber for bunding purposes
on anything like a large scale. That in most
general use is spruce, of which there is a good
supply on the Saskatchewan and at the head
of the Duck mountains. Sawn pine timber
is imported largely from Minnesota, and fetches
high prices. Poplar serves as fuel, and spruce
and tamarac are used for fencing. As a whole,
the province, in common with most prairie countries, is but scantily supplied with building
timber, and this fact may increase the difficulties of providing adequately for the large agricultural population the province is otherwise
adapted to sustain.
The following were the average prices of
horses, cattle, provisions, &c, in the city of
Winnipeg in 1878, and may be accepted as the
standard for the next four years :—
30 to 35
80 to 85
15 to 20
7 to   9
25 to 30
10 to 16
25 to 40
10 cents to 15
18 to 25
.   1 dollar 50
•   1      I
.   1     „    25 MANITOBAH.
Sawn timber for building, per thousand feet,
fetches from 22 to 35 dollars.
Average Yield of Crops grown in Manitobah.*
Wheat, per acre
35 bushels.
Barley        „
.       .       .       40      „
Peas           „
.       .       .       40      „
Oats           „
.       .       .       50      „
Potatoes    „
.     200      „
The total yield of the province for 1876 has
been thus stated:—Wheat, 480,000, Barley,
173,000, Oats, 380,000, Potatoes, 460,000
* These statistics are the result of observations at
thirty different settlements in the North-West; during the
harvest season of 1878. Reports thus far received for
1879 of the crops in the valley of Red River and throughout the settled districts of the North-West territory are
highly favourable. Of wheat, it is believed an average of
30 bushels to the acre will be obtained; of barley 40
bushels, and of oats 60 bushels. THE
fertile belt.      land and homes for
the million.
Roughly speaking, the territory belonging to
and embraced within the Dominion of Canada
in the North-West covers 2,750,000 square
miles, an area equal to twenty-six times that of
the province of Manitobah. It was erected into
a separate1 Government by the Act of October
7th, 1876. Its boundaries extend from Lac
Seul (long. 92° W., lat. 50° N.) to the base of
the Rocky mountains, in lat. 60° N., thence
along the base of the Rocky mountains to lat.
50° N., thence to the western boundary of Manitobah, thence along the said western boundary
to Lac Seul. That portion or segment known as
the district or territory of Keewatin adjoins
Manitobah on the north and east, extending as K31EWATIN,   ETC.
far as Big island, thirty-five miles on the west
shore of Lake Winnipeg. The district was
organised in 1876, and embraces an area of
395,000 acres, lying between 91° 8' and 100° 8'
West, and between Manitobah and the American boundary and the Northern limit of Canada.
It is principally occupied by Icelandic colonists,
who are settled in six townships along the west
border of the lake. The colony numbers about
1,800 souls, and is known as New Iceland. The
chief settlement is at Gimli. Icelanders River
and Sandy Bar (Sand Bay) are the names given
to smaller villages in the infant colony. These
colonists are a hardy, happy, and harmless race
of people, and, as might be expected, subsist
largely on fish. After enduring great hardships
in their own country, they exhibit a docility
and desire to adapt themselves to New World
ways and Western fashions, that is not a little
surprising. They are well educated, and manifest a high degree of intelligence and ability.
"I scarcely entered a hovel at Gimli," said
Lord Dufferin, in his famous Winnipeg speech,
" which did not contain a library."
A good winter road has been constructed
between these settlements and the road system
saasastnaaasaii 88
of Manitobah, so that this really interesting little
community of Norsemen and women, bred amid
the snows and ashes of an Arctic volcano, is at
all times accessible to the traveller and sight-
seekegShrough Manitobah.
But Keewatin or Manitobah, or even both
combined, form but a very small portion of
Her Majesty's dominions in North-Western
Canada. West of Portage-la-Prairie, on the
Assiniboine river, stretches
Essl *   •   farther far than human eye can reach,"
for 250 miles, the magnificent country known
as the " Fertile Belt." This vast tract, when
fully cultivated, will be the granary of Great
Britain, the wheat-field of the world.
The eccentric John Randolph's well-known
and oft-quoted description of Washington as a
city of "magnificent distances," holds with even
greater force and fitness to the country we are
now seeking to describe, than to the stately but
solitary capital on the banks of the Potomac.
" Distance!" said a Yankee traveller, when appealed to on the probable width ofthe apparently
limitless expanse oflrolling prairie wh®a everywhere confronted him, i Distance! I should think
so.    Distance till you can't see!"    Westward NORTH-WEST TERRITORY.
and northward ofthe " Fertile Belt" stretch the
I Great Lone Land," the "Wild North Land,"
"No Man's Land," "Ruperfs Land," "Fur
Land," and no one knows how many more
lands.    Verily this is a great country.
For purposes of exploration and of present or
future settlement, this vast territory, covering
two and three-quarters millions of square miles,
may be thus classified and distinguished:—
Wheat Area.
1. General boundaries: from Lac
Seul (say long. 92° W., lat. 50° N.)
to foot of Rocky mountains, lat.
60° N.; thence along base of Rocky
mountains to lat. 50° N.; thence to
the south bend of Mouse river;
thence to the Lake of the Woods,
lat. 49° N.; thence along Rainy
river, and thence to Lac Seul. This
area, embracing Manitobah, unbroken
by mountains or rocks to any material extent, with streams and small
lakes which but fertilize, may be
stated at .        .        .        .        .
2. Beyond it, northwards, are also
areas   of   richest   vegetable   mould
Sq.. Miles.
mtftmmmr'<v(«(m((m«(V-' LANDS   OF PLENTY.
(humus), on warm Silurian and Devonian bases, and with marly clays of
utmost fertility. They are found on
the lower reaches of the Rivers
Peace, Hay, and Aux Liards (Arctic
streams, tributaries of the great Mackenzie river), and embrace at least    .
Sq. Miles.
Vegetable, Grass, and Timber Area.
3. Hudson's   Bay  basin   (portion
Silurian, so far as known, and fairly'
predicable) east side (E. of meridian
80° W.) 100,000 square miles.   West
side (W. of meridian 80° W.) 300,000
square miles 400,000
4. Winnipeg basin, east side, from
English river to Nelson river    .        .     80,000
5. Beaver river (middle and lower
parts) 50,000
6. Methy lake and Clear Water
river, and Athabasca river from Clear
Water river to Athabasca lake, east
side ......    30,000
7. West of Mackenzie river (Devonian, with coal measures) to wheat
line as above stated, and from Fort
Chipweyan, Lake Arthabasca, to Fort
Resolution on Great Slave lake, say,
from lat. 58° to 61° N.     .
8. East side of Mackenzie river to
Fort Good Hope, or say lat. 68° N. .
9. West of the Mackenzie river
from lat. 61° N., northwards, to American (late Russian) boundary, along
141° W., and American Pacific shore
strip, viz.:—all north of lat. 60° N.,
except area No. 5 aforesaid
10. Rocky mountain eastern slope
beyond wheat line   ....
1J. Outlying areas, amongst others
the extensive but undefined ones between the Hudson's Bay Silurian,
and northern rivers of the St. Lawrence valley; say from Lake Mis-
tassini to Lake Nepigon   .
12. Add, the "American desert"
of our latitudes; say, between lats.
Sq. Miles.
1,330,000 LANDS  OF PLENTY.
Sq. Miles.
49° and 50° N., where maize thrives
and buffaloes fatten—a favourite
Indian hunting ground
Total area   .
13. The rest of our North-West
and Rupert's Land territory, including the immense "Barren Grounds"
of our Laurentian system, and the
Labrador Rocks of eastern Rupert's
Land, and the great wilds and islands
of the Arctic, estimated at another
million square miles
.   470,000
That portion of it more properly designated
the Saskatchewan country is bounded on the
south by the 49th parallel, west by the Rocky
mountains, north by parallel 55°, and east by
The best known and most settled section of
this immense region lies between Point du
Chene, 30 miles east of Winnipeg, and Lake
St. Anne, 40 miles west of Fort Edmonton,
forming the "Fertile  Belt" of the North- SASKATCHEWAN  COUNTRY.
West. It is 960 miles in length (east to west)
with an average width of 250 miles. This
would embrace 240,000 square miles. One
fourth of this area, equal to 40,000,000 acres,
it is estimated, will produce wheat, barley, and
potatoes of good quality and in great abundance. In the language of the hopeful Colonel
Sellers, 1 There's millions in it."
Climate, Seasons, Temperature, &c.—The
climate and ranges of the thermometer in the
North-Western territory are marked by the
same general features as those already described
in our chapter on Manitobah. The winters are
steady and uniform, and the atmosphere bright,
transparent, and exhilarating. It is without
question one of the healthiest sections of the
It is a curious fact that spring seems to advance from north-west to south-east, at the rate
of about 250 miles per day, and that winter is
felt in Manitobah first and thence travels
westward at about the same rate. It is worthy
of note also that Halifax on the Atlantic seaboard is nearly as cold in spring and summer
as inteipbr points situate more than twelve
degrees further north.
'(matenmm LANDS   OF  PLENTY.
The following table, compiled by Professor
Macoun, exhibits the comparative range of the
thermometer at various points throughout the
Dominion :—
**"*•*•   to.
Cumberland House,
Fort Simpson, N.W.T. .
Fort CHpewyan, N.W.T.
Fort William, N.W.T.  .
Montreal, Quebec .
39-03   1 45-18
Toronto, Ontario   .
42-34      46-81
37-58      40-07
Halifax, N.S. .
31-67   1 46-67
Belleville, Ontario .
( temp
erature nearly that of
Dunvegan, Peace River
f average summer six \
Edmonton, N.W.T.*     .
Carlton            „
Winnipeg, Manitobah   .
Mean of the Tear 35'51.
* The western curve of the Fertile Belt, extending for 300 miles
south of Edmonton, has an average winter temperature 15° higher
than that of Western Ontario.
By an analysis of the figures contained in
the right-hand column, it will be seen that the
temperatures of the months when grain ripens
is remarkably uniform throughout the Dominion, from Nova Scotia and Quebec to the
north of Great Slave lake. The mean summer
temperature of the great prairie region we are
specially interested in and now describing is
60°, with ample rain-fall. SASKATCHEWAN  COUNTRY.
Lands for Settlement.—It is estimated
that fully four-fifths of all emigrants to British
North America now proceed westward of Lake
Superior. They go to what is known as the
"Central Prairie Land." Under this title is
embraced the vast tract stretching from 49° to
60° N., a distance of 760 miles, and embracing
an area equal to 480,000 square miles. The
lands are watered by the Red, Assiniboine, Saskatchewan, and Peace rivers, and are among
the most valuable in the Dominion.
The south and larger half of this area lies
upon the waters of the Saskatchewan, Red, and
Assiniboinegrivers. North of this the Beaver
or Churchill tract occupies a triangular area of
50,000 square miles. Ofthe remainder, 120,000
are situate on the Arthabasca and on the Peace
river to the north; and 30,000 square miles,
forming the north-west corner of the tract, lie on
the waters ofthe River of the Mountains and Hay
river, branches of the great McKenzie river.
The valleys of the Assiniboine and Saskatchewan embrace 40,000,000 of acres of rich
soil and pasturage, 18,000,000 of which are.
immediately  available   for farming purposes.
The western district of Manitobah, which in- LANDS   OF   PLENTY.
eludes all the land laying between Rat creek
and Poplar point, and between Manitobah lake
and the Assiniboine, is probably the very best
in the province for farm purposes. The average price of farms fronting on the Red and
Assiniboine rivers is from 7 dols. to 10 dols. per
acre. In the newer settlements, lots have
changed hands at 2 dols. and 3 dols. per acre,
while in favoured spots near Winnipeg small
tracts are held as high as 40 dols. per acre.
The land between the North and South Saskatchewan rivers is  nearly all  good.    From
Long lake to the Little Saskatchewan river,
the country, for a distance of 150 miles, contains many fine sections of rich fertile land,
interspersed with poplar groves, well adapted
to the wants of English tenant-farmers. The
" lay ofthe country" in this section is thus described by C. J. Whillams in his last report to
the Dominion Minister of Agriculture:—
" Near the Little Saskatchewan, the prairie
of the slopes, valleys, ridges, and table-land to
the agriculturist is an ocean of wealth; acre
after acre, mile after mile, so far as the eye can
see, the landscape is beautifully waving, the
rolls are like the billows of the mighty Atlan- SASKATCHEWAN  VALLEY.
tic so far as they sweep in a continuous wave
for miles in one direction. Whatever nature
has produced it has done so most luxuriantly;
the colour and variety of wild flowers is so
great that the prairie presented the appearance
of a huge flower-bed; wild rose trees from
six to twelve inches high are so numerous that
the resting-place while camping on the prairie
is literally ' laying on a bed of roses.'"
Professor Macoun, from whose evidence we
have so often quoted, has stated that " a continuous farming country extends from Point
du Chien, 30 miles east of Winnipeg, to the
Assiniboine at Fort Ellice, a distance of 230
miles, without a break."
Next to the Saskatchewan district west and
northward is a very extensive district, forming
the watershed between the Saskatchewan and
Peace rivers. Through it flows the Arthabasoa
river. This is all forest, and but little more
than its name of " Thickwood country" is
known of it.
Adjoining this is the Peace River section, extending along the Rocky mountains from a point
a little north of Jasper's House to Fort Liard
and the west end of Little Slave lake, thence to
_-H__-_a-2Bfi-a 1
the forks of Arthabasca, and down that river
to Arthabasca lake.
The Peace River country, indeed the whole
prairie region situated between Manitobah
and the Rocky mountains, is described by all
travellers and settlers, professional and unprofessional, as capable of successful cultivation,
though varying greatly, as do all lands of equal
extent, in capacity for production. In general
character it is very like that of Manitobah west
from Portage-la-Prairie to Pine creek. The
hindrances to the settlement and permanently
successful cultivation of these vast prairies have
been already briefly stated. Certainly neither
climate nor soil can be fairly numbered among
them. They are unquestionably capable of
sustaining a large and active population, and
with the increased facilities for transport, and the
tide of immigration which the Dominion and
American railway systems are sure sooner or
later to bring, they are not likely to remain
long unoccupied. Five-sixths of all the timber
in the Peace River country is poplar. The river
scenery is described as " enchanting."
One parting word of advice, my reader, while
on this important branch of my subject.   Avoid NORTH-WEST  TERRITORY.
land speculators as you would the plague, especially those of the " Winnipeg " species. Population invariably follows the course of navigable
rivers. The best lands and most advantageous
situations for wood and water are thus rapidly
appropriated. The intending settler in the
North-West territory will, therefore, be repaid
by an attentive study of the following.
Rivers and Lakes.—The extent of the river
and lake system of the North-West territory—
briefly outlined in our sketch of the inland
communications of Manitobah in the foregoing
chapter—may be thus sunApaed up.
Red river has 400 miles of navigation, and
steamers ply throughout the season between
Lake Winnipeg and Breckenridge, Minnesota,
a distance of 288 miles.
The Saskatchewan* river is 1,864^ miles in
length. The north and south branches rise
in the Rocky mountains within a few miles of
each other. The south or main branch is 1,Q92
miles! in length, and the north branch 772^
miles.   In ascending the river from Lake Win-
* Indian name is Kisis-kah-chewan (" the river that runs
7 *
-a^-jaBB^Ba-i-iB-B-a ■■■
nipeg, Grand Rapids, three miles long and 43^
feet descent, are first reached.
Pas Mission, at the mouth of the Pasquai
river, 85 miles, is a fairly prosperous settlement, with a soil well adapted to agriculture.
Prince Albert Mission, on the south side of
the North Saskatchewan, 45 miles below Carleton, extends a distance of about 30 miles, and
numbers nearly 1,000 settlers, who are in a
highly prosperous condition.
Edmonton is the centre of a fine section of
farming country, rapidly settling up, with an
enterprising population. The country drained
by the north branch and its tributary, the
Battle river, is considerably wooded. Edmonton is the centre of the gold-washing fields of
the North Saskatchewan.
Battleford, the capital of the North-West
territory, situate 700 miles by road west of Winnipeg city, occupies the tongue of land between
the Battle river and the north branch of the
Saskatchewan. The Canadian Pacific Railway
will probably cross the river at this point, and
doubtless will greatly add to the future prosperity of this ambitious three-year-old town. A
fortnightly express and postal service is main- NORTH-WEST  TERRITORY.
tained between Winnipeg, Battleford, and Edmonton. There is also direct telegraphic communication opened with Ottawa and other points.
Fort Jarvis, 30 miles north of Edmonton, is
a French-Canadian settlement and headquarters of the Mounted Police.
Fort Edmonton stands on the North Saskatchewan, about 20 miles to the north of the proposed railway line. Sturgeon Creek, Lake St.
Anne, to the westward, abounds in white-fish.
On the south branch above " the forks " of
the Saskatchewan spreads the "park country,"
" natural fields of rich land dotted with lakes
and groves." At St. Laurent, 60 miles from
the forks, is a considerable settlement of French
half-breeds. Duck Lake, 20 miles west, is also
the nucleus of an improving colony. The
I Moose Woods," 35 miles beyond, and "Cyprus
Hills," abound in nutritious grasses, and are
well watered, and adapted for stock-raising.
Red Deer, Bow, and Belly rivers are tributaries of the South Saskatchewan, and drain a
fine region, estimated to contain an area equal
to eight times that of Manitobah.
Fort Calgarry is at the confluence of the
Bow and Elbow rivers, and Fort McLeod, on the
rrrfffrrfrrffffirffrrrrrrfrTrr--rrrr^rrrr LANDS   OF  PLENTY.
Belly river; a short distance south of Fort Cal-
garry, are natural sporting grounds. Buffalo
herd on them in large numbers. The land in
the neighbourhood of the former station is described by travellers as being "as level as a
The Assiniboine river, the principal tributary
of Red river, which it joins at Winnipeg, is
usually navigable as far as the portage, 65 miles
from its mouth. During high waters boats
run up to Fort Ellice, 350 miles. Its entire
course is upwards of 600 miles.
The Qu'-Appelle, 250 miles long, and entering it 220 miles west of Winnipeg the Souris
and Rapid rivers are its principal tributaries.
Peace river is navigable for 500 miles from
the Rocky mountains, with an average depth of
six feet.
The following list embraces the chief points
on this river east of the Rocky mountains.
Hudsons' Hope, Fort St. John (60 miles),
Dunvegan (180 miles), Battle river (280), Fort
Vermillion (480), Little Red river (580), Fort
Chipweyan, Lake Arthabaska, French Mission,
Fort $p_pson, and Fort Liard.
The Arthabasca river is navigable for 180 NORTH-WEST  TERRITORY.
miles above the lake of this name. It drains
what is known as the " Thickwood" country.
Between Lake Arthabasca and the Arctic sea,
a distance of 1,300 miles, there is but one
portage necessary, and that is only fourteen
miles in length.
McKenzie river runs 1,400 miles almost
due north from Lake Arthabasca to the Arctic
ocean. The Winnipeg, Nebron, and Beaver,
and the Hudson Bay rivers and streams generally south of York Factory are navigable for
canoes and small craft. The total river navigation within Dominion territory in the North-
Wesipis variously estimated at between 10,000
and 11,000 miles.
When on the Red river in 1849,1 was shown
the identical bark canoe which, twenty-four
years before (1828), carried Governor Simpson
and his staff from Hudson's Bay, vid Peace
river to tide-water on the Pacific at the.mouth
of the Frazer river, probably the longest transcontinental canoe trip ever accomplished by
European voyageurs. It was a noble craft, and,
when manned by a picked crew of eight Canadian
voyageurs, brought vividly to mind the records of
the palmy days of ancient Hochelaga, the brave
tnMmmm<iwmmmm((m<('(«(«vm" 104
adventures of Jacques Carrier, and the missionary exploits of Hennepin and La Salle. It is
still remembered by many an old Hudson Bay
trapper in these far northern regions.
Thirty years ago, when the writer first visited
the country, the Assiniboines, Saulteaux, Sioux,
Ojibbeways, Blackfeet, and Crees roamed undisturbed from the Rocky mountains eastward
to the Red river and the Mississippi. These
once populous and powerful tribes now number
scarcely 25,000. They are rapidly fading away
before the combined influence of European and
American settlement, and must soon altogether
disappear. Half-breeds from Manitobah are
taking their places, only in their turn to be
supplanted by the whites.
Sport.—The prairies and forests of this vast
domain abound in wild game. Among the
most common are deer, including moose, elk,
and cariboo; bears, wolves, foxes, racoons,
wild cats, and rabbits. Of the fur-bearing animals the fox, otter, beaver, mink, and musk-
rat are the most numerous. Buffalo roam
through the Saskatchewan valley and between
the Arthabasca and Peace rivers. Anions*
feathered   game  may be  mentioned   grouse, NORTH-WEST TERRITORY.
pigeons, partridges, and prairie fowl, while in
the spring and autumn geese, ducks, and
pigeons are plentiful.
The lakes abound with white fish of a delicate
variety, and the rivers and smaller streams in
pike, pickerel, sturgeon, cat-fish, &c. During
the breeding season only are game and fish
protected by law.
The new settlements in Manitobah are contained in three districts.
1. Winnipeg, the chief centre, contains the
Riviere Sale.
Cook's Creek.
Prairie Grove.
Springfield, east of Winnipeg.
2. Dufferin contains—Melbourne, Poplar
Heights, Clear Spring, Dufferin, Stinking
river, Boyne, and Emerson.
3. Westbourne embraces—Burnside, West-
bourne, Woodside, Golden Stream, Totogon,
and Palestine (now Blake). LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
In the adjoining North-West territory the
principal settlements are found at varying distances along the banks ofthe North and South
Saskatchewan rivers, a district of country
bounded on the south by North Saskatchewan,
and north by the watershed between that river
and the Beaver and Arthabasca rivers, where
the land is described as being all good. They
may be thus enumerated:—Star Mission
(Church of England), situate on the North
Saskatchewan, on the Green Lake road, 60
miles north of Carleton. Lac la Biche (Roman
Catholic), 100 miles from Fort Edmonton.
Victoria Mission (Wesleyan), 80 miles east of
Edmonton. St. Albert Mission (Half-breed,
Roman Catholic), 9 miles north of Edmonton.
At Prince Albert Mission, on the North Saskatchewan, English, Scotch, and Canadian
half-breeds form a majority. 107
Area, 220,000 square miles.
Population, 65,000, of whom 25,000 are
Capital: Victoria, V.I. Chief towns: Yale,
Clinton, Kamloops, Quesnelle, and Barkerville
on the mainland, and Nanaimo, Comox, and
Nanoose on Vancouver's Island.
fine province occupies the extreme north-west
corner of the Dominion of Canada, being
bounded northward by Alaska, south by the
49th parallel, Oregon and Washington territory
(U.S.), east^^ple Rocky mountains, and westward by the North Pacific ocean.*
It is distinguished for its geographical and
* By reference to the map it will be seen that an archipelago extends for nearly twenty miles; south from the
International Boundary to the Fuca Straits.   This archi-
wffcdxmmmm^r^mmcm LANDS  OF PLENTY.
climatic features, which divide it into three distinct sections or districts, known as—1, West
of the Cascades; 2, East of the Cascades; and
3, the Islands of Vancouver, Queen Charlotte, &c.
Climate. — The climate of each of these
several divisions varies greatly. The islands
and whole coast section have a climate closely
resembling that of England. The southern
wind prevails, and the temperature is lower
than that of the mainland. The rainfall west
of the Cascades exceeds that usually experienced
in England. East of the Cascades the heat and
cold are more decided, accompanied not un-
frequently by drought. In the neighbourhood
of Victoria, and generally throughout Vancouver Island, good roads are found, and
regular communication is maintained by stage.
Government steamers ply regularly between
Victoria and all the points of importance or
interest on the coast and rivers.
The scenery on the Columbia, Fraser, and
Thompson rivers is  exceedingly picturesque,
pelago breaks up what wonld otherwise be one main
channel into three distinct channels or passages. These
are known as the Eastern, or " Rosario " Strait, the Middle,
or | Douglas " channel, and the " Haro " Strait. BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
and no more attractive country can be found on
the whole American continent for the pleasure-
tourist or sportsman.
Land Laws, &c.—Free grants of land are
made, as in other provinces of the Dominion,
to heads of families, widows, or single men of
eighteen years. East of the Cascades 320
acres is the limit of the grant, and 160 acres
in either of the other divisions. After registration, under the Homestead Law, the farm
and buildings are free from seizure for debt to
the value of £500. Goods and chattels are
also free to j£100. At the end of two years, the
regulations as to cultivation and improvement
being complied with, the land becomes the
property of the pre-emptor under Crown grant.
Or the land may be purchased outright at four
shillings per acre, to be paid in full, or in two
annual payments. Military and naval officers
are entitled to free grants. Timber lands can
be leased at nominal rates, and gold-mining
licenses are granted at £5 per annum.
Gold, &c.—The discovery of the precious
metal, first on the Fraser, or '' Crazy," river, in
1858, and at Cariboo in 1862, led to the formation of the Vancouver cplony, and gold-mining
still forms the chief industry of the province.
r^.r.Mw//^^^^^ ■  L   »-'
The yield for 1875 was 2,474,904 dols., which
sum, divided among 2,024 miners, gave 1,222
dols. (,£251) per man employed; a fact worthy
the consideration of English miners of the present day.     McDames, Deases   and Thiberts'
creeks are the principal mining centres, and the
best route to them is by steamer from Victoria to
Fort Wrangel, thence up the Stickeen river, and
the remainder of the journey by trail.   Gold in
paying quantities is found at Okanagan, at Shuswap lakes, and the country lying generally between the Rocky and Cascade mountain ranges.
The working of the various gold-mining districts during 1877 has resulted as follows:—
In the Cariboo district 179 claims were worked
by an aggregate force  of 930 men,  600  of
whom were Chinese, with a total yield of over
half a million dollars.    The Big Bonanza ledge,
which includes the " American," I Pinkerton,"
and "Enterprise " mines, is also worked by the
" Cariboo Quartz Mining Company."    In the
Cassiar district 123 claims were worked, and
about the same amount obtained.    On Fraser
river littie was done in the way of mining,
owing to the low water in the creeks.    The
total yield for 1877 is computed by the mining
bureau at 1,608,182 dols. 72 cents. BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
The area of the Cassiar gold-field thus far developed is eflimated at about 300 square miles.
Gold also exists in paying quantities on Neech
river, Vancouver, and other parts of the island.
Silver ore of good quality is obtained from
the Eureka mine near Fort Hope on the Fraser
river. On Texada island a " mountain of iron
ore" exists, copper leads have been found at
Sanich and elsewhere on Vancouver island,
Howe sound, and Pitt lake, while lead is found
in several localities. Nanaimo is the centre of
the coal industry of the province. Several
mines of bituminous or soft coal have been
profitably worked for years, and fresh seams
are being constantly opened. The quality is
pronounced superior to Scotch, but inferior to
Welsh. The output of the Vancouver Coal
Company and Wellington Colliery for the last
four years has averaged 100,000 tons annually.
Upwards of six hundred men (Whites, Chinese,
and Indians) are employed, and their earnings
range from 10s. to 20s. a day. Freestone of good
quality is plentiful on Vancouver, and anthracite coal is found on Queen Charlotte's island.
The scarcity and high price of labour is the
main obstacle in the way of further developing
v//y//y/y/y'AOrX//'AL 112
the coal and other mining resources of the
At Baynes' Sound and Burrard Inlet the
croppings of coal give evidence of extensive
deposits. At the former point one mine is in
active operation, and coal of fair quality is
shipped. Next to gold, coal, timber, and fish,
furs form the most valuable article of British
Columbian export.
For the convenience of those seeking the
respective sections of the province, what I
have to say in regard to British Columbia will
be stated under one or other of the natural
divisions j ust referred to. Its coast line, extending a distance of nearly 400 miles on the Pacific,
is certainly one of the most deHghtful and picturesque imaginable. The brilliant descriptive
writer and orator from whose published accounts
and speeches we have so often culled for these
pages, in his speech at Victoria, said :■—
II Such a spectacle as its coast line presents
is not to be paralleled by any country in the
world. Day after day, for a whole week, in a
vessel of nearly 3,000 tons, we threaded an
interminable labyrinth of watery reachesMhat
wound endlessly in and out of a network of BRITISH   COLUMBIA,   ETC.
islands, promontories, and peninsulas, for thousands of miles, unruffled by the slightest swell
from the adjoining ocean, and presenting at
every turn an ever-shifting combination of
rock, verdure, forest, glacier, and snow-capped
mountains of unrivalled grandeur and beauty.
" One is lost in admiration at the facilities
for inter-communication which are thus provided for the future inhabitants of this wonderful region."
Leaving the Oregon shores and approaching
the province by steamer from San Francisco,
the traveller obtains his ffflt view of Vancouver Island, not long after leaving the clear
rapid waters of the Columbia river. The island
is 240 miles in length, with an average breadth
of about 55 miles, and contains about 20,000
square miles. It is not an agricultural country
and never can become such. It is, however,
a natural tourist-ground, abounding in good
roads, and, with one ofthe most delightful climates on the continent, has abundant facilities
for communication, sight-seeing, and pleasure-
taking. The harbour of Esquimault is the best
on the Pacifife north of the famed Golden Gate,
through which is poured the cereal and auri-
■////Sy/S/y-SSS/S/S//////, LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
ferous wealth of California. It is thirty-six feet
deep, almost land-locked, and, with the " Royal
roads" outside, spacious enough to give safe
anchorage to a whole fleet of shipping. A strip
or tongue of land, 750 feet wide, alone divides
it from the harbour of Victoria, which though
picturesque is somewhat narrow and intricate.
The small tracts of land under cultivation in
and round the city, consist of alluvium, closely
resembling the patches of rich soil found among
the Laurentian rocks of Ontario. The surface
of the ground in that and other neighbourhoods
is, however, so much broken by rock, that it is
next to impossible to accurately estimate the
amount of good arable land on the island.
Victoria, the capital and principal town of
British Columbia, is debghtfully situated at the
extreme sou|p|-eastern extremity of Vancouver
island. The picturesque character of the town
and its surroundings, the climate, scenery and
sport, all combine to render a stay here desirable. Originally the depot of the great Hudson Bay Company, it assumed commercial prominence and population during the Fraser river
gold excitement. The population numbers
about 8,000, and it is not likely to be largely BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
increased until the long-promised and long-deferred Canadian Pacific Railway reaches it. Its
narrow harbour, which is scarcely so large as
the St. George's or Huskisson dock, Liverpool,
is rock-bound, and sentinelled by the most
charming miniature bays, exhibiting grassy
knolls, and here and there clumps of evergreens
in all the luxuriance of tropical foliage; a
river opening out above the town into a kind
of lake and spanned by pretty bridges, invites
you to a boating excursion; and the fresh green
of the lawn-like grassy reaches which stretch
into the bay, the rocky promontories with boats
anchored near them, the fine snow-covered
mountains in the background, and the picturesquely winding roads leading deviously into
the country, combine to form a landscape whose
soft and gay aspect immediately impresses
itself on the mind of the stranger fresh from
the blue waves of old ocean or the sombre-hued
fir tops of Washington territory. Time need
never hang heavily on the least enthusiastic or
sympathetic sight-seeker, for the Indians still
roam around, and lessons in the Chinook language, which is used by]the various tribes in
their   multifarious   dealings] with    the  white
8 *
rszzrs/777/JSS££/j&//t&. wis
population—may serve as a profitable way of
" breaking the ice " in a new country.
Communication, Tourist Routes, &c.—The
visitor to British Columbia reaching it coastwise from Washington, Oregon, or California,
should not fail to spend some time on the
island. The Government roads in and around
Victoria are, for the most part, well built and
in good repair. Steamers ply regularly on the
waters of the Georgian gulf and the Juan de
Fuca straits. A Government steamer leaves
Victoria weekly for Cowichan, Maple bay,
Admiral island, Chemanio and Nanaimo, situate
on the east side of the island, sixty-five miles
north-west of Victoria. Fortnightly the same
service is extended to Comox, and occasionally
to Fort Wrangel and even to Sitka. From
Nanaimo tbe traveller may proceed by steamer
to New1 Westminster on the mainland, or if he
prefer he may reach Westminster direct from
Victoria, the steamer making semi-weekly
trips. At New Westminster, the former provincial capital, excellent accommodation for
travellers may be procured, and the extensive
salmon fisheries there will render a short stay
interesting.    Stern wheel steamers ascend the BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
Lower Fraser river twice a week, 100 miles to
Fort Yale, whence travellers may proceed by easy
stage to Barkerville, Cariboo (gold mines),
Kamloops, and Okanagan. There is also coach
or stage communication between New Westminster and Burrard inlet, one of the proposed
Pacific termini of the great Canadian overland
route, and the centre of the lumber trade and
timber-shipping interests of British Columbia.
The inlet is nine miles long, deep and safe, and
has doubtless a great future before it. Howe
sound, divided from Burrard inlet by Bowen
island, and further north Bute inlet with Valdes
island rising between its mouth and Vancouver, are prominent features on the coast landscape. Milbank sound, still further north, has
lately attracted some attention in connection
with the Peace River gold mines. The river
Skeena is now navigated by steam vessels from
Nanaimo, and furnishes perhaps the best route
to the gold mines of Ominica. Both this and
the Nasse river near the Alaska frontier are,
however, more interesting to the pleasure tourist for the fish they contain, and the occasional pretty bits, of scenery their banks affor d
them as short cuts to the gold mines. Once
fairly housed in Victoria, the whole ocean and
gggggFgggaggggjgjgg 118
river system of British Columbia, Washington
territory, Oregon, and Northern California, unfolds itself to the astonished yet aspiring voya-
geur, and, if his time and purse permit him to
indulge his fancy, his facilities for sight-seeing
are practically limitless. Puget sound is a remarkable sheet of water in itself, but still more
noteworthy as the vantage ground from which
may be best viewed the wonders of Washington
territory, Northern Oregon, and the Columbia
river. " On your way to Olympia from Kalama
by rail," says a recent graphic writer, " your
ears begin to be assailed by the most barbarous
names imaginable. You cross a river called
Skookumchuck, your train calls at places known
by the jaw-breaking titles of Newaukum, Tou-
tle and Tumwater, and if disposed to push your
geographical inquiries further, you will learn
that whole communities are delightedly dwelling in countries respectively labelled Klikatat,
Wahkiakum, Snohomish, Cowlitz, Nenolelops,
and Kitsap. But we are now in the territory
of Uncle Sam, where, following true liberty
fashion, the people not only have a perfect
right to call their towns after what fashion they
please, but also to exercise it in the most absurd
and arbitrary manner.   Those desirous of push- BRITISH COLUMBIA,  ETC.
ing their explorations into United States territory will do well to consult one or other of
the numerous guide-books to the Columbia and
its lovely tributary the Wallamette, easily procurable at Astoria or Portland. The distance
from Olympia to Portland is ninety-two miles.
It is indeed something to be gifted with taste and
sense for the beautiful, and both will be refreshed (to use the mildest form of expression)
by the magnificent scenery of these noble rivers.
Port Townsend, where the boat calls on its
way from Olympia to Victoria, is on the boundary line between Queen Victoria's and Uncle
Sam's dominions, in the North-West. Commercially or historically, it presents nothing
of interest, but it is a fine point of observation. Mount Rainier (Tacomd), and the grand
Olympian mountain range is seen to great advantage. Mount St. Helens to Mount Baker,
near Bellineham bay, the latter of which
was in active eruption in 1860, are also visible,
their summits covered with perpetual snow.
South and east lie Seattle, Steilacoom,
Tacoma, and Port Ludlow and Port Madison,
and far in the north the famous little island of
San Juan, which formed the subject of so much
diplomatic fencing and newspaper discussion
y/x/y/Mevyjr/w&y'/j LANDS   OF  PLENTY.
a few years ago. From Port Townsend, the
respected old gentleman who is popularly supposed to carry the keys of the great American
continent in his " pantaloons pocket," despatches a Government mail steamer to this
island, whence it proceeds with passengers and
freight as well as mail bags to Fort Tongass,
Fort Wrangle, and Sitka. Barclay sound, Alberni channel, and Sumap river on the west
coast should be visited.
On Vancouver Island and the lower Frazer
river beautiful open prairies occur amidst the
forests, and here the soil being rich and deep,
astonishing root-crops are raised. The valley
of the Fraser below or west of the Cascades
has a climate closely resembling that of Vancouver, except that during the summer months
there is a slightly heavier rainfall. Twenty-five
miles above Yale, and 125 above New Westminster, the outer Cascade range is passed, and
in the passage the rain-line is crossed. About
twelve miles further another mountain is
climbed, and a region of complete aridity is
Forests, Timber, &c.—British Columbia,
west of the Cascades, including Vancouver and
Queen Charlotte's islands, may fitly be termed BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
the Arcadia of the Pacific coast. More than half
its area is covered with one of the finest forest
growths in the world. For hundreds of miles
the whole surface of the country is densely
wooded, gigantic pines clothing the sides and
slopes of the mountain ranges in perpetual
green, and disputing the mastery of the dizzy
summits with the eternal snow. The immensity of the forests cannot well be exaggerated,
and the height of the trees, reaching 300 feet
and upwards, must, like those in the famed
Calaveras and Mariposa groves of California,
be seen to be believed.
The monarch of the British Columbian
forest is, unquestionably, the Douglas Fir
(Abies Douglasii). It is a most valuable
timber, and 'is used throughout the western
province for building purposes and for export
under the name of " Oregon Pine." It attains
its primest growth in the vicinity of Victoria
and alone; the west coast of Vancouver. White
cedar (thuga gigantea) is another giant of the
Fraser valley and Coast region, much used by
the Indians in the construction of their houses,
and of those large canoes which are the wonder
of the Eastern people.  On Vancouver a species 122
of oak (quercus gayrrana) grows plentifully.
Hemlock spruce (abies mortensiana) is common
on the mainland; while maple of two varieties
(acer macrophyllum and circinatum), two
species of pine, and one each of alder and
yew, are frequently met with. The arbutus
grows to a fine size, and in colour and texture
resembles English box. In the second or arid
district a pine (pinus ponderosa), closely resembling the Ontario red pine, takes the place,
though by no means the form, of the Douglas
fir of the coast. Poplar, and black pine (pinus
contorta), and occasional patches of black and
white spruce and balsam fir, all inferior in
quality, are about the only timber trees found
in the third or East Cascade region. Fruits
of almost every kind popular in England may
be grown to perfection around Victoria. The
soil of Vancouver is well suited to the growth
of grapes, and apples and pears are a prolific
crop. Wild berries of various kinds grow in
profusion, and form a staple article of food
among the coast Indians.
Facilities for reaching an interior market
are alone wanting to render this branch of
industry profitable. BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  ETC.
The Cascade Range.—The Cascade range
of mountains, the natural division of the province, merits more than passing mention in
any work professing to adequately describe its
peculiar features as a field for British settlement. It includes some of the loftiest mountain peaks on me North American continent,
the honours being pretty equally divided between the British and American territories.
The view from the summit of Mount Hood
has been thus described by one who essayed
and accomplished the toilsome climb.* " From
south to north," he says, | its whole line is at
once under the eye from Diamond peak to
Rainier, a distance of not less than 400 miles.
Within that distance are Mounts St. Helen,
Baker,f Jefferson, and the Three Sisters, making
with Mount Hood eight snowy mountains.
Eastward, the Blue mountains are in distinct
view for at least 500 miles in length, and
lying between us  and   them  are the broad
* The following are the altitudes of Mount Hood as
computed by Professor Wood:—Summit of cascade range
and foot of Mount Hood, 4,400 feet; limit of forest trees,
9,000; Tii-nit of vegetation, 11,000 ; summit of mountain,
t Named (1792) after Capt. Vancouver's 3rd lieutenant.
i<ravra?yg,raaMass2ttsg^^ LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
plains of the Des Chutes, John Day's and
Umatilla rivers, 150 miles in width. On the
west the piny crests of the Cascades cut clear
against the sky, with the Willamette valley
sleeping in quiet beauty' at their feet. The
broad belt of the Columbia winds gracefully
through the ever-green valley towards the
ocean. Within these wide limits is every
variety of mountain and valley, lake and
prairie, bold, beetling precipices, and graceful
rounded summits, blending and melting away
into each other, forming a picture of unutterable magnificence. On its northern side Mount
Hood is nearly vertical for 7,000 feet, there
the snows of winter accumulate until they
reach the very summit; but when the summer
thaw commences, all this vast body of snow
becomes disintegrated at once, and, in a
sweeping avalanche, carrying all before it,
buries itself in the deep furrows at its base,
and leaves the precipice bare."
Perhaps the best view of this monarch
mountain of the North-West is to be obtained
from the neighbourhood of the dalles on the
Columbia river. There is no doubt that both
Mount Hood and its twin brother, St. Helen's, BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  ETC.
have still smouldering fires, though ashes only
fill their craters. Of the latter there are evidences that the fires come dangerously near
the surface. Not long since, two adventurous
Washingtonians, compelled by sudden fog and
sleety storm to spend the night near its summit, and seeking some cave among the lava
wherein to shelter, discovered a fissure from
which issued so glowing a heat that they
passed the night in alternate freezings and
scorchings—now roasting at the sulphurous
fire, and anon rushing out to cool themselves
in the sleet and snow.
East of the Cascades, which forms the third
provincial grand division, the traveller enters
the " sage brush country." At Lytton, where
the waters of the Fraser and Thompson rivers
meet, he finds himself fairly in the interior
basin, and from that point to Clinton, 70
miles, the waggon-road passes through a region
where nothing can be raised save by processes
of irrigation. Over much of this tract the
ground during three-fourths of the year is
scarcely moistened by a shower. The whole
region from the United States boundary on
the Columbia river vid Okanagan, the Shuswap
lakes,  and Kamloops, north-westward  across
mm& 126
the Fraser to and beyond the Chilcoten
plains, is to a great extent only suited for
a grazing country. On the hill-sides and
plains between the Fraser and Thompson rivers
"bunch grass,'' so much esteemed for its stock-
fattening qualities, is found in considerable
quantities, and on this the cattle and horses
feed through the winter months. In the vicinity of Quesnelle, and in the Nechaco valley
between Quesnelle and Fort St. James on
Stewart's lake, the land improves slightly, but
" farming " is a precarious business even there,
and this remark will fairly apply to the whole
section between the Cascade and Rocky Mountain ranges. Professor Macoun says, " British
Columbia above the Cascades can never export her agricultural products with profit, and
whatever is raised in the country must be consumed there."
Fisheries, &c.—Next to gold and coal
mining and the timber products, its fisheries
constitute the most valuable and prosperous
interest of British Columbia. From the
Washington coast boundary line to Alaska
there is not a bay, fiord, or river that does
not literally teem with fish. Fish swarm the
sea, the lakes, the rivers. As a waggish Cantab BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
professor once remarked when fishing at the
dalles of the Columbia river, "There's no
finis to the finny tribe hereabouts."
'' We shall never forget an hour's fishing in
the clear waters of an inlet of the Pacific
embosomed in the midst of densely wooded
mountains. With a most primitive hook, and
bait collected from the mussels which lay thickly
on the rocks, we filled a basket of most capacious dimensions with a miscellaneous collection which would have gladdened the hearts of
the frequenters of the Brighton Aquarium.
Ferocious dog-fish, useful for their oil, delicate-eating rock-cod, whiting, hideous devilfish, gigantic crabs, ugly bull-heads swelling
themselves into preternatural forms, and brilliant sea-dace were a few of the results of our
hour's sport."
Salmon are so plentiful that fish weighing
30 lbs. have been sold for 6d. Establishments
for the " canning" of these fish, similar to
those on the Columbia river, are now in successful operation, and capital might be most
profitably employed in their extension, as the
European and American and Australian markets are all open to them.    Chinese labourers
•MrfS/A/SSWWSSSySS/SS2PS'SS/jtM//fi&Wffi 128
are largely employed at the | canneries," and
a visit to one of them and an inspection of the
process will present much that is interesting
as well as valuable to the traveller in this part
ofthe world. That of Messrs. Booth and Co.,
near Astoria, is, perhaps, the most complete.
Salmon ascend the Fraser as high as Stewart's
lake, which they usually reach by the middle
of August. The fish taken in Babine lake at
the head of the Skeena are, however, the
finest, being both fatter and larger than the
Fraser river " catch." They are dried in large
numbers, and form the winter food of the
soldiers and others stationed at Fort St.
James and other frontier stations. There are
five varieties, three known as '' silver," the
noan or humpback, and the hook-bill. The
silver salmon begin to arrive in March or
early in April, and last till end of August.
The humpback makes its appearance every
second year between August and winter. This
and the hook-bill, which comes about the same
time, furnish the bulk of the fish for canning:
and commerce and are largely exported. Enormous sturgeon are frequently taken.
Oolachans, or " Houlican," a small fish of a BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  ETC.
most delicate flavour, run up the Fraser and
other rivers twice a year; higher up the coast
they are called candle-fish, as being so full of
oil, the natives dry them, and burn them as
candles.    Anchovies are also plentiful.
Halibut, cod, herrings, and numberless other
varieties of fish abound, while oysters of good
flavour are abundant and cheap.
There is every reason to believe that the
fisheries of British Columbia will in time
prove as profitable as those of Nova Scotia
and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Nanaimo, V.I.,
is the headquarters for the deep-sea and whale
fisheries. The production of the entire province for 1877 was valued at 583,432 dols.
Game, Sporting, &c.—Big game are sufficiently abundant and wild in the province to
afford ample sport to the hunter. For fur
there are the black, red, and silver fox, sea
and common otter, martin, mink, and beaver.
Buffalo are still found on the plains, bears in
the mountains, elk and deer on the coast and
small islands; wild geese and ducks, grouse,
and snipe are found well-nigh everywhere.
Notwithstanding that the Chinese immigration is still maintained, and that the Chinamen
already monopolise many branches of manual
.,,,,,,,,,,,,,,m,,,,*nmx 130
labour, there are good openings for a limited
number of small tenant-farmers with a good
stock of energy and fairly supplied with means.
For carpenters, joiners, cabinet-makers, able to
start business for themselves and utilise the magnificent timber resources of the province, there
are good openings. These and such as these,
with a few miners, blacksmiths, choppers, loggers, and backwoods labourers who have plenty
of backbone to them and are not afraid of rough
work, will find ample employment in Western
British Columbia for generations to come.
Professional gentlemen and clerks of the
needy or " expectant" class will do better elsewhere. The cost of living is about the same
as in England. Clothing and most descriptions of groceries are dearer than in England,
while meat, game, and fish are cheaper. House-
rents in the two countries are about the same.
As hay, potatoes, and other farm products are
still largely imported from the United States
in spite of customs duty and cost of freight, it
is quite evident that there are eligible openings
for a few farmers who understand their business. A late resident in, and writer on, the
province, says: " A really good farmer, with a
capital of £1,000, could make a fortune in five BRITISH  COLUMBIA,   ETC.
years by taking a cleared prairie farm near
one of the towns, and using American agricultural machinery to reduce the cost of labour,
which is the all-absorbing item of expense in
British Columbia." Something more than the
money will be found necessary, but there is no
doubt about the result if the right means are
Routes, Fares, &c.—These will greatly vary
according to the means and time at the disposal of the traveller. Those wishing to see
Canada or the United States en route from
the old country will of course proceed by
Atlantic steamer to Quebec, Halifax, Boston,
or New York, and thence by rail vid Chicago
and Omaha, to San Francisco, whence a
steamer plies weekly to Victoria, V.I. This
is the shortest and most direct route, but
it is at the same time the most expensive.
The journey may be made comfortably in
three weeks, though four should be allowed, at
a cost of from £35 to £50 exclusive of hotel
Route 2 (vid Portland) is same as Route 1 to
Sacramento, California, and thence vid Redding, 169 miles, and Roseburg, 275 miles, by
stage; and thence 200 miles by Oregon and
9 *
California Railway to Portland, distant 728
miles from San Francisco. From Portland,
Victoria can be reached in about two days vid
Tacoma and Port Townsend, by Northern
Pacific Railway and steamer on Puget Sound,
as already described.
For those fond of sea life and coast-steaming
there are also the American all-steamer routes
vid Panama and San Francisco. While to the
enthusiastic and adventurous land-hunter, or
the hunter, angler, or artist, who, with knapsack or " kreel" on back, and gun or rod and
net in hand, is bent on the pleasures of the
lake, river, forest, and field, and of pourtraying
as well as partaking ofthe beauties of nature (nowhere perhaps more prodigal of her picturesque
charms than on the border-lands of British
dominion in North America), there is left the
romantic, though often rugged, overland route
described at intervals in the foregoing pages, viz.
that vid Duluth, Winnipeg, and Edmonton.
To those to whom sight-seeing is not an
object and the saving of money is, I would
recommend the sailing vessel direct from a
British port to Victoria There are one or two
fast-sailing clipper ships belonging to various
well known lines, which are occasionally de- BRITISH  COLUMBIA,  ETC.  .
spatched from London and Liverpool. On these
saloon cabin, and sometimes emigrant passages
may be secured on shfajt notice and at slightly
reduced rates. The voyage out, in favourable
seasons, is usually made in five to six months,
and the intending colonist arrives at his "destination with the best possible preparation for
going to work.
We have dwelt at increased length on what
British Columbia has to offer to the traveller
or settler in search of health, sport, or profit,
for two reasons — first, because it has had
little said about it, comparatively I mean with
other provinces and states to the south and
east of it; and, second, because it has been
misrepresented. We have endeavoured to
point out its advantages, and they are not
few. We will now, and in conclusion, speak of
its wants. Though few, they are both positive
and pressing. The paramount needs of British
Columbia are population, capital, and increased
means of transport and communication with
the outer world. In no way can these be supplied so completely or so liberally as by the
completion of the Dominion Railway. No
wonder, then, that the loyal and sober colonists
made the permanent  construction of such a
&*nfXjfrtffjffifrrtJlJ*j^rj}f7JJ?j£?JMyHE&27M&jeAK£}, llilf
road through a portion of their fine province a
condition of their joining the Dominion Confederacy, and its completion within the specified
time of ten years a subject for urgent appeal
to the Ottawa Government. With the building
of this great inter-provincial and international
highway, affording an outlet to either side of
the continent, and the further opening up and
development of her undoubted resources by
railway lines within her own territory, both
these wants will be supplied, and this grand
province, concerning which so little has been
hitherto known, will take its appropriate place
among the Lands of Plenty in British North
America. In Vancouver alone she possesses an
inexhaustible mine of wealth. Esquimault will,
in time of need, prove a valuable coaling station for our North Pacific squadron, and, when
adequately defended, a splendid naval station.
The recently appointed Royal Commission on
our Colonial Defences have a special duty to perform in that quarter, which British Columbians
will rejoice to see promptly performed. APPENDIX.
■,,,m,,sm,S''''M/rrsss/rmx»limm  N
The administration and management of the
Public Lands in Canada is effected through a
Branch of the Department of the Minister of
the Interior, known as " the Dominion Lands
The only lands now held by the Federal Government in the older provinces are Ordnance
and Admiralty reserves.. In Manitobah and
the North-West territories, however, it holds
vast tracts of rich agricultural land, which are
open to settlement.
The surveys divide the lands into quadrilateral townships, containing thirty-six sections
of one mile square in each, together with road
Y/y,jy///&Z/,/]W/'/. divided into
The area of
Patent shall
allowances  of   one chain  and  fifty links in
width, between all townships and sections.
Each section of 640 acres is divided into half
sections of 320 acres. All townships and lots are
rectangular, vide accompanying map. . To facilitate the descriptions for Letters Patent of less
than a half-quarter section, the quarter sections
composing every section in accordance with the
boundaries of the same, as planted or placed in
the original survey, shall be supposed to be
quarter sections, or forty acres,
any legal subdivision in Letters
be held to be more or less, and
shall, in each case, be represented by the exact
quantity as given to such subdivision in the
original survey; provided that nothing in tbe
Act shall be construed to prevent the lands
upon the Red and Assiniboine rivers, surrendered by the Indians to the late Earl of Selkirk,
from being laid out in such manner as may be
necessary in order to carry out the clause of the
Act to prevent fractional sections or lands bordering (on any rivers, lake, or other watercourse
or public road from being divided; or such lands
from being laid out in lots of any certain frontage and depth, in such manner as may appear
desirable; or to prevent the subdivision of sections, or other legal subdivisions into wood lots;
or from describing the said lands upon the
Red and Assiniboine rivers, or such subdivisions
of wood lots, for patent, by numbers according
to a plan of record, or by metes and bounds,
or by both, as may seem expedient. APPENDIX.
Unappropriated Dominion lands may at present be purchased at the rate of 1 dol. 30 cents
per acre; but no purchase of more than a
section, or 640 acres, shall be made by the
same person. Payments of purchases to be
made in cash. The Minister of the Interior
however, from time to time, reserve
of land, as he may deem expedient, for
or village plots, such lots to be sold
by private sale, and for such price as he
may see fit, or at public auction. The Governor in Council may set apart lands for other
public purposes, such as sites of market-places,
jails, court-houses, places of public worship,
burying-grounds, schools, benevolent institutions, squares, and for other like public purposes.
Free grants of quarter sections, 160 acres,
are made to any male or female who is the
head of a family, or to any male not the head
of a family who has attained the age of 18
years, on condition.of three years' settlement,
from the time of entering upon possession.
A person entering for a homestead may also
enter the adjoining quarter section, if vacant,
as a pre-emption right, and enter into immediate possession thereof, and on fulfilling the
conditions  of his homestead,  may obtain a
SKW/jM^-,^^^^ 140
patent for his pre-emption right on payment
for the same at the rate of one dollar per acre.
When two or more persons have settled on,
and seek to obtain a title to, the same land, the
homestead right shall be in him who made the
first settlement. If both have made improvements, a division of the land may be ordered
in such manner as may preserve to the said
parties their several improvements.
Questions as to the homestead right arising
between different settlers shall be investigated
by the Local Agent of the division in which
the land is situate, whose report shall be referred to the Minister of the Interior for his
Every person claiming a homestead right
from actual settlement must file his application
for such claim with the Local Agent, previously
to such settlement, if in surveyed lands; if in
unsurveyed lands, within three months after
such land shall have been surveyed.
No patent will be granted for land till the
expiration of three years from the time of
entering into possession of it.
When both parents die without having devised the land, and leave a child or children
under age, it shall be lawful for the executors
(if any) of the last surviving parent, or the
guardian of such child or children, with the
approval of a Judge of a Superior Court of
the Province or Territory in which the lands
lie, to sell the lands for the benefit of the
infant or infants, but for no other purpose; APPENDIX.
and the purchaser in such a case shall acquire
the homestead right by such purchase, and on
carrying out the unperformed conditions of
such right, shall receive a patent for the land,
upon payment of the office fees, 10 dollars.
The title to lands shall remain in the Crown
until the issue of the patent therefor, and such
lands shall not be liable to be taken in execution before the issue of the patent.
If a settler voluntarily relinquishes his claim,
or has been absent from the land entered by
him for more than six months in any one year,
then the right to such land shall be forfeited.
A patent may be obtained by any person
before three years, on payment of price at the
date of entry, and making proof of settlement
and cultivation for not less than twelve months
from date of entry.
All assignments and transfers of homestead
rights before the issue of the patent shall be
null and void, but shall be deemed evidence
of abandonment of the right.
These provisions apply only to homesteads
and not to lands set apart as timber lands, or
to those on which coal or minerals, at the time
of entrv, are known to exist.
Unoccupied Dominion lands may be leased
to neighbouring settlers for grazing purposes;
but such lease shall contain a condition making
such land liable for settlement or for sale at
v,™^™,,,^*™?. 142
any time during the term of such lease, without compensation, save by a proportionate deduction of rent, and a further condition by
which, on a notice of two years, the Minister
of the Interior may cancel the lease at any
time during the term.
Unoccupied Dominion lands will be leased
to neighbouring settlers for the purpose of
cutting hay thereon, but not to the hindrance
of the sale and settlement thereof.
As respects mining lands, no reservations of
gold, silver, iron, copper, or other mines or
minerals will be inserted in any patent from
the Crown, granting any portion of the Dominion lands. Any person may explore for
mines or minerals on any of the Dominion
public lands, surveyed or unsurveyed, and,
subject to certain provisions, may purchase the
same. As respects coal lands, they cannot be
taken for homesteads.
Provisions are made in the Act for disposing
of the timber lands so as to benefit the greatest
possible number of settlers, and to prevent
any petty monopoly. In the subdivision of
townships, consisting partly of prairie and
partly of timber land, such of the sections as APPENDIX.
contain islands, belts or other tracts of timber,
may be subdivided into such number of wood
lots, of not less than ten and not more than
twenty acres in each lot, as will afford one such
wood lot to each quarter section prairie farm in
such township.
The Local Agent, as settlers apply for homestead rights in a township, shall, if required,
apportion to each quarter section one of the
adjacent wood lots, which shall be paid for by
the applicant at the rate of 1 dol. per acre.
When the claimant has fulfilled all requirements of the Act a patent will issue to him
for such wood lot.
Any homestead claimant who, previous to
the issue of the patent, shall sell any of the
timber on his claim, or on the wood lot appertaining to his claim, to saw-mill proprietors,
or to any other than settlers for their own
private use, shall be guilty of a trespass and
may be prosecuted therefor, and shall forfeit
his claim absolutely.
The word timber includes all lumber, and
all products of timber, including firewood or
The right of cutting timber shall be put up
at a bonus per square mile, varying according
to the situation and value of the limit, and
sold to the highest bidder by competition,
either by tender or by public auction.
The purchaser shall receive a lease for twenty-
one years, granting the right of cutting timber
on the land, with the following conditions: LANDS  OF  PLENTY.
To erect a saw mill or mills in connection
with such limit or lease, of a capacity to cut
at the rate of 1,000 feet broad measure in
twenty-four hours, for every two and a half
square miles of limits in the lease, or to establish such other manufactory of wooden goods,
the equivalent of such mill or mills, and the
lessee to work the limit within two years from
the date thereof, and during each succeeding
year of the term;
To take from every tree he cuts down all the
timber fit for use, and manufacture the same
into sawn lumber or some other saleable
To prevent all unnecessary destruction of
growing timber on the part of his men, and to
prevent the origin and spread of fires;
To make monthly returns to Government of
the quantity sold or disposed of—of all sawn
lumber, timber, cordwood, bark, &c, and the
price and value thereof;
To pay, in addition to the bonus, an annual
ground-rent of 2 dols. per square mile, and,
further, a royalty of 5 per cent, on his monthly
To keep correct books, and submit the same
for the inspection of the collector of dues
whenever required.
The lease shall be subject to forfeiture for
infraction of any of the conditions to which it
is subject, or for any fraudulent turn.
The lessee who faithfully carries out these
conditions shall have the refusal of the same APPENDIX.
limits, if not required for settlement, for a further
term not exceeding twenty-one years, on payment of the same amount of bonus per square
mile as was paid originally, and on such lessee
agreeing to such conditions, and to pay such
other rates as may be determined on for such
second term.
The standard measure used in the surveys of
the Dominion is the English measure of
Dues to the Crown are to bear interest, and
to be a lien on timber, cut on limits. Such
timber may be seized and sold in payment.
Any person cutting timber without authority
on any Dominion lands, shall, in addition to
the loss of his labour and disbursements, forfeit
a sum not exceeding 3 dols. for each tree he is
proved to have cut down. Timber seized, as
forfeited, shall be deemed to be condemned in
default of owner claiming it within one month.
I of do   hereby   apply to   be
entered, under the provisions of the Act respecting the Public Lands of the Dominion for
quarter sections numbers and forming part of
section number ofthe Township of
containing acres, for the purpose of securing a homestead right in respect thereof.
•777ZZ77Se5mttZZZ5SZ0SZ 146
I, A.B., do solemnly swear (or affirm, as
the case may be), that I am over eighteen
years of age; that I have not previously obtained a homestead under the provisions of
the IDominion Lands Act" ; that the land in
question belongs to the class open for homestead entry; that there is no person residing
or having improvements thereon; and that my
application is made for my exclusive use and
benefit, and with the intention to reside upon
and cultivate the said land—So help me God.
On making this affidavit and filing it with
the Local Agent, and on payment to him of an
office fee of 10 dols. he shall be permitted to
enter the land specified in the application.
If any person or persons undertake to
settle any of the public lands of the Dominion
free of expense to the Government, in the proportion of one family to each alternate quarter
section, or not less than sixty-four families in
any township, under the Homestead provisions
of the Act hereby amended, the Governor in
Council may withdraw any such township
from public sale and general settlement, and.
may, if he thinks proper, having reference to
the settlement so effected and to the expense APPENDIX.
incurred by such person  or   persons
curing the same, order the sale of any
and agreements
the passage-
out . an im-
buildings on
m pro-
and additional lands in such township to such
person or persons at a reduced price, and may
make all necessary conditions
for carrying the same into effect.
The expenses, or any part thereof, incurred
by  any person  or persons,  for
money or subsistence in
migrant, or for aid in
the homestead, or in providing farm implements or seed for such immigrant, may, if so
agreed upon by the parties, be made a charge
on the homestead of such immigrant, and, in
case of such immigrant attempting to evade
such liability by obtaining a homestead entry
outside of the land withdrawn under the provision of the next preceding section, then, and
in such case, the expense incurred on behalf
of such immigrant, as above, shall become a
charge on the homestead so entered, which,
with interest thereon, must be satisfied before
a patent shall issue for the land; provided as
follows :—
(a.) That the sum or sums charged for the
passage-money and subsistence of such immigrant shall not be in excess of the actual cost
of the same as proved to the satisfaction of the
Minister of the Interior;
(b.) That an acknowledgment by such immigrant ofthe debt so incurred shall have been
filed in the Dominion Lands Office;
(c.) That, in no case, shall the
10 *
i™w!ii™iswimB™i LANDS   OF   PLENTY.
principal moneys advanced against such homestead exceed in amount the sum of two hundred
(d.) That no greater rate of interest than
six per cent, per annum shall be charged on
the debt so incurred by such immigrant.
Any person, male or female, being a subject
of Her Majesty by birth or naturalization, and
haviug attained the age of eighteen years,
shall be entitled to be entered for one quarter
section or less quantity of unappropriated Dominion lands as a claim for forest tree
Application for such entry shall be made in
the forms prescribed in the Dominion Lands
Act, which may be obtained from the local
agent, and the person applying shall pay at
the time of applying an office fee of 10 dols.,
for which he or she shall receive a receipt and
also a certificate of entry, and shall thereupon be entitled to enter into possession of
the land.
No patent shall issue for the land so entered
until the expiration of six years from the date
entering into possession thereof; and any
assignment of such land shall be null and void,
unless permission to make the same shall have
been previously obtained from the Minister of
the Interior.
At the expiration of six years the person APPENDIX.
who obtained the entry, or, if not living, his
or her legal representative or assigns, shall
receive a patent for the land so entered, on
proof to the satisfaction of the Local Agent as
follows :—
1. That eight acres of the land entered had
been broken   and  prepared  for tree  planting within   one  year   after  entry,   an   equal
the second year, and sixteen
within the third  year  after
additional acres
such datej
2. That eight acres of the land entered had
been planted with forest trees during the second
year, an equal quantity during the third year,
and sixteen additional acres within four years
from the date of entry, the trees so planted
not being less than twelve feet apart each way;
3. That the above area, that is to say, one-
fifth of the land, has, for the last two years of
the term, been planted with timber, and that
the latter has been regularly and well cultivated and protected from the time of planting.
The entry of a quarter section for pre-emption
in connection with homestead may be substituted in whole or part for tree planting.
There are three kinds of scrip:—
1. The  certificates   issued   to  soldiers  for
military services performed to  the Dominion
—in other words, military bounty land warrants. LANDS   OF   PLENTY.
2. Similar certificates are issued by the
authority of law for services rendered to the
Government in the North-West Mounted
These two certificates, if located by the
owner, may only be entered in quarter sections of land, 160 acres intact.
A number of these warrants, however, may
be acquired by any individual, and may be
used to pay for land in the same way as cash.
Both military and police warrants may be
purchased and are assignable, and whoever
holds them for the time being, under a proper
form of assignment, can exercise full ownership over them either in the locating or paying
for land; but the first assignment from the
soldier or policeman, as the case may be,
must be endorsed on the back of the warrant.
No affidavit is necessary where the assignment is endorsed, but the execution of the assignment must be witnessed either by a Commissioner for taking affidavits or by a justice of
the peace.
Any subsequent assignment may be upon a
separate paper, but must be regularly attested
before a Commissioner, and accompany the
warrant in its transmission to the Land Office.
3. The third kind of scrip is that issued to
the half-breed heads of families and to old settlers in the Province, under recent Acts.
A claim against the Government for lands
may, by law, be committed by an issue of scrip
which would be in form similar to that issued APPENDIX.
to the half-breed heads of families and old settlers before mentioned.
This scrip is a personalty, and there is no
assignment theieof necessary to transfer the
ownership. The bearer for the time being is
held to be the owner, and we accept it in the
Dominion Lands Office, in payment for Dominion lands, the same as cash.
The Surveyor-General stated further, in
answer to a question, that land scrip cannot be
used in payment of the half-breeds' claims;
and explained that the land set apart for half-
breeds, under the Manitobah Act, was an absolute grant to the children. The extent to
which lands belonging to minors will be tied
up will depend greatly upon whether steps be
taken to appoint trustees who would be able to
make sales, or upon such other measure as the
Government might see fit to adopt, with the
view of bringing these lands into the market.
The only other Reserves in the Province are
those of the Mennonites, which are rapidly
filling up. There is still a very considerable
extent of excellent land in the Province now
available for settlement, but it can easily be
understood the people who have been going
into the Province for the last four or five years
have selected the most favourable locations,
and, consequently, the most of the good land
in those localities have been taken up. The
lands remaining, although generally desirable,
are not so conveniently situated.
^^^^■^^^^ IW
1 il
The Province of Manitobah contains nearly
nine millions of acres.
The Railway Reserve contains about
1,900,000 acres, and the Mennonite townships
about 500,000 acres.
The Hudson's Bay Company's one-twentieth contains about 430,000 acres.
There are granted for school purposes two
whole sections, or 1,280 acres, being sections
11 and 29 in each township, which are, by law,
dedicated throughout the whole North-West
for educational purposes, and the grant amounts,
in Manitobah, to 400,000 acres.*
In Manitobah the greatest quantity of land
available for settlement is in the west and
The extent of railway located in the Province
is about 158 miles; the main line of the Canada
Pacific Railway about 77 miles, and the Pembina Branch about 81 miles.
Road allowances are laid out on the ground
in the townships in Manitobah, which correspond to concessions and side roads in Ontario
and Quebec. Each section or square mile there
is surrounded by an avenue of 99 feet, or a
chain and a half, in width, resulting in a magnificent dedication to the public for highways.
Q. Are any of the lands fronting on the
main river in Manitobah available for settlement ?—None, with the exception of lands on
* Sections 8 and 26 (Hudson's Bay lands) and 11 and
29 (school lands) are specially excluded from settlement. APPENDIX.
the Assiniboine river, above Prairie Portage.
As a rule, the lands on the Red river and Assiniboine river were laid out and settled upon,
previous to the transfer, in narrow frontages,
running back two miles, called the " Settlement
Belt," and the township lands available for
sale and settlement lie outside of this Belt.
There are many unoccupied lots in the Settlement Belt, but people are not allowed to enter
them, as thev are considered to possess a special value. The intention is, shortly, to offer
the unoccupied lots belonging to the Government, in the Settlement Belt, at public auction,
at an upset price, with conditions of actual settlement upon the land.
(The following Mates were charged during the
Season of 1878. They have been since slightly
From Toronto or Hamilton vid the Lakes
and Duluth to Winnipeg :—
1st Class 42 dols. 50 cents.
2nd or Emigrant Class   21 dols.
From Sarnia, Goderich, Kincardine, Southampton or Windsor to Winnipeg :—
1st Class 40 dols.
2nd or Emigrant Class   20 dols.
-   Weight   of
150 lbs.
Emigrants' effects by the car load are charged
as follows: —
From Brockville to Fisher's Landing, one
car, 200 dols.; at this rate a span of horses
would cost about 35 dols.; or one horse and a
cow about 17 dols. 50 cents, each. They might
be driven from Fisher's Landing to Winnipeg.
From Toronto or Hamilton to Winnipeg,
one car, 260 dols.
From Sarnia, Windsor, Goderich, Kincardine and Southampton to Winnipeg, one car-
245 dols.
Special arrangements have been made by
the Grand Trunk Company for emigrants going
to Winnipeg in parties. To obtain the benefit
of such arrangements special application should
be made in the case of each party. This may
be done either directly to the head, offices of the
Company in London, 21, Old Broad Street,
E.C., or through any of the Dominion Government Immigration Agents.
Special rates will be granted over the Intercolonial and Grand Trunk Railways to emigrants for Manitobah or parts of the North-
West on the order of any of the Dominion
Agents, at the rate of Id. a mile to Toronto,
where the special rates above quoted to Winnipeg begin. Through tickets for Winnipeg (St.
Boniface) may be obtained in England of the
railway or steamship companies or their agents,
at rates ranging from £23 to £28, 1st Class,
and intermediate and steerage for £10 to £15. APPENDIX.
Emigrants may obtain information respecting
Manitobah, Routes, and Rates of Passage,
from Dominion Government, Department of
Halifax, N.S.—Edwin Clay, M.D.
St. John, N.B.—R. Shives.
Quebec.—L. Stafford, old Custom House,
and Grand Trunk Station, Point Levis, where
he is always in attendance on the arrival of the
mail steamers, passenger vessels, and on the
departure of all immigrant trains.
Montreal.—John J. Daley.
Sherbrooke.—Henry Hubbard.
Ottawa.—W. J. Wills, St. Lawrence and
Ottawa Railway Station.
Kingston.—R. Macpherson, William Street.
Toronto.—John A. Donaldson, Immigrant
Depot, cor. Strachan Ave.
Hamilton.—John Smith, Great Western Railway wharf (opposite Station). 156
London, Ontario.—A. G. Smythe.
Winnipeg, Manitobah.—W. Hespeler.
Dufferin, Manitobah.—J. E. Tetu.
Duluth, Lake  Superior.—W. B.  Grahame,
during season of navigation.
London.—Hon. Wm. Annand, Canadian Government Emigration Agent, 31, Queen Victoria
Street, London, E.C.
Liverpool.—John Dyke, Alexandra Buildings.
Belfast.—Chas. Foy, 29, Victoria Place.
Hamburg.—J. E. Klotz (Klotz Brothers).
The Secretary of the Department of Agriculture having, at the request of the Minister
of Agriculture, made an inquiry of the Surveyor-General, respecting the lands now actually
available in the Province of Manitobah, Keewa-
tin, and North-West Territory, for the purpose APPENDIX.
of information of the numerous emigrants who
are now proceeding to the North-West, the
following letter was written to explain the facts.
Department of the Interior,
Surveyor General's Office,
Ottawa, 6th April, 1878.
Sir,—Referring to our conversation of this
morning, I now beg to enclose you a copy of
an Order in Council, dated the 9th November
last, setting forth the conditions upon which
persons will be allowed to settle upon lands
reserved for railway purposes in Manitobah.
I may say that the lands so far reserved for
railway purposes are those for twenty miles on
each side of the main line surveyed for the
Canadian Pacific Railway.
It is probable that lands which may be
settled on within the Railway Reserve outside
the Province, so long as they form no part of a
Reserve for town plot purposes, such as at
Battleford, may, on being included within the
Township Surveys, be acquired on the terms of
the Order in Council.
With regard to your inquiries as to the
lands open for general settlement outside of
townships especially reserved for colonization
or for half-breeds, I beg to remark that a very
large area of desirable lands is open for entry in
the several portions of the Province described
as follows:
1. The lands on each side of the Canadian
V/777//?J^S&BS>n&/tS{£fflSS'/lMJ>SJ7SA 158
Pacific Railway line through the Province not
reserved for half-breeds are open for settlement
upon the conditions set forth in the Order in
Council enclosed.
2. There are a number of townships available to the east and north-east of Emerson.
3. Between the Mennonite Reserve west of
the Red River, and the half-breed Reserve to
the north, and in the townships within and
to the west and south-west of what is known
as the Pembina Mountain Settlement.
4. In the vicinity of Palestine and the
Beautiful Plain.
5. A very extensive district containing valuable lands for settlement is found in the Little
Saskatchewan and Riding Mountain country,
being in the Territories from ten to forty miles
west of the westerly limits of the Province.
6. The land fronting on the north side of
the Rainy River in Keewatin, is of excellent
quality, and presents an extensive field for
It is a wooded country, however, and therefore requires a greater expenditure of labour
to bring a given area under cultivation.
In reply to your inquiry as to the position
of people who may settle upon unsurveyed
lands, I beg to say that in all such cases persons so settling must take their chances of
being found on land which may prove to
belong to the Hudson's Bay Company, part of
the one-twentieth reserved to the said Company by the Deed of Surrender. APPENDIX.
In the regular township surveys, sections
8 and 26 represent this one-twentieth, but in
the river belts the Company's proportion will
probably be determined by lot.
The Dominion Lands Act provides that when
the township surveys may embrace settlements
previously formed (on land open at the time
for general setlfement), such settlers will be
confirmed in their several holdings as homesteads, up to the extent of one hundred and
sixty acres, in legal subdivisions, including
their improvements.
Settlers on land within the limits of the
Railway Reserve having taken up the same
after the date of the 9th November 1877, will
require to pay for the lands in accordance with
the provisions of the Order in Council of that
Those persons who may be found settled
upon the borders of navigable rivers, such as
the north and south branches of the Saskatchewan, outside of the Railway Reserve, will be
confirmed in possession of the lands on which
they may have settled, provided they conform
to such conditions as the Government may
have made in respect of the manner in which
title for such lands may be acquired.
I have the honour, &c,
L. S. Dennis, Surveyor-General.
John Lowe, Esq., Secretary,
Department of Agriculture
and Immigration, Ottawa. 160
Copy of a Report of Committee of the Honourable
Privy Council, approved by His Excellency
the Governor-General in Council, on the9th
November 1877.
On a Report, dated 30th October 1877, from
the Hon. the Minister of the Interior, stating
that in consequence of the rapidly increasing
demand for lands for settlement in Manitobah,
and also of the continued dissatisfaction of the
locking up of the lands withdrawn for twenty
miles on each side of the line surveyed for the
Canadian Pacific Railway by the Order in
Council of the 20th December 1874, he is of
opinion that it is expedient to effect some amelioration of the conditions of the said Order in
Council so far as relates to the lands within
the Province.
He therefore, recommends that the lands in
Manitobah withdrawn as above be thrown open
to actual settlement, but not for homestead
or pre-emptive entry, or for entry by military
bounty or police warrants, or for ordinary sale.
No person to be allowed to acquire more than
one half section or 320 acres, and such land to
be paid for by the occupant at whatever rate
and upon such terms as may be fixed therefor
by the Government when the remainder of the
lands in the Province, of this class, are disposed of. APPENDIX.
He further recommends that persons desiring
to acquire such lands shall, previous to settlement thereon, be required to be entered therefor at the nearest Dominion Lands Office,
and in order to prove their good faith, the
applicants shall be obliged, in each case, to
make a payment, in advance, at the time of
entry, of 1 dol. per acre, in cash on account
of the purchase, and further be required to
settle on and commence to cultivate the land
within one yeaEljrom the date of entry, or in default thereof the payment so made to be forfeited.
No scrip of any kind, or military bounty,
or police warrants to be receivable in payment
of the lands above described.
The Minister observes that the withdrawal
of the lands in question was effected under
section 105 of the Dominion Lands Act,
circumstances not permitting the application
thereto of the Act, 73 Vic. cap. 14, which provides for the construction of the railway, and
as no statute exists authorising the special
mode above suggested of disposing of the lands
withdrawn, it will be advisable to confirm the
action proposed to be taken as above in that
respect by legislation during the ensuing session
of Parliament.
The Committee   concur   M  the   foregoing
Report,  and   recommend   that the  same be
approved and acted on.
(Signed)        W. A. Himsworth, C. P. C.
rmwroMmm ri
New Brunswick and Nova Scotia contain the
best moose-hunting grounds in Canada. As
these countries become settled, and wild land
continues to be brought under cultivation, the
hunting of these " monarchs of the forest and
the glen" will become a less exciting and therefore less attractive sport. But this animal
wonderfully adapts itself to civilisation. A
young moose will become as tame as a domestic
cow in a short time. They may frequently be
seen feeding within a few hundred yards of a
public road. Even the passing of a railway
train at times scarcely disturbs them. " Their
sense of hearing is developed in a wonderful
degree, and they appear to be possessed of
some marvellous power of discriminating be- APPENDIX.
tween innocent sounds and noises which indicate danger. On a windy day, when the forest
is full of noises—trees cracking, branches
snapping, and twigs breaking—the moose will
take no notice of all these natural sounds; but
if a man breaks a twig, or, treading on a dry
stick, snaps it on the ground, the moose will
distinguish that sound from the hundred voices
of the storm, and be off in a second."
The scenery of the Nova Scotian woods cannot be fairly described as either grand or magnificent ; yet there is a weird, desolate, sombre
sort of beauty about her barrens, a melancholy yet soothing loveliness in her lakes and
forest glades in summer, a gorgeousness of
colour in her autumn forest tints, and a stern
sad stateliness in her winter aspects, unsurpassed in any land. But, first, what is a
Barrens.—In Newfoundland this name is
given to high and comparatively dry plateaus
of land manv miles in extent. In Nova Scotia
and New Brunswick the 1 barren," properly so
called, is an open space, varying in size from a
few acres to a plain five or six miles in extent.
They closely resemble the numerous island-
studded sheets of water with which these provinces are so abundantly supplied, and have,
indeed, all the appearance of dry lakes.
Camping out.—Having selected a "barren,"
the first thing for the hunter's consideration is
to prepare a lair for himself—in other words, to
make his bed.    A birch-bark camp is made in
11  *
w<wmm tp
more ways than one. Almost every trapper
has his own peculiar conceit about its construction. The simplest, and perhaps, on the
whole, the best plan is to build it in the form
of a square, adapting its size to the number of
people it is designed to accommodate. A
suitable level spot being chosen, and the shrubs
and rubbish removed, you proceed to make
four low walls, composed of two or three
suitable-sized pine logs laid one on the other.
These form the basement or foundation of your
temporary home. On them you erect the
framework of the camp. This consists of light
thin poles, the lower ends being struck into
the upper service of the pine trees which form
the walls, and the upper ends leaning against
and supporting each other. These poles are
then thatched with large strips of birch-tree
bark to within a foot or two' of the top. The
aperture thus left serves as the chimney.
Other poles are then laid upon the sheets of
birch bark to keep them in their places. A
small doorway is left in one side, and a door is
constructed out of slabs of wood, or out of the
skin of some animal. The uppermost log is
hewn through with an axe, so that the wall
shall not be inconveniently high to step over,
and the hut or " camp," externally, is finished.
Such a camp is perfectly impervious to wind
or weather, or rather can be made so by filling
up the joints and cracks between the sheets of
birch bark and the interstices between the pine
logs with moss and dry leaves.   You next level APPENDIX.
off the ground inside, and on three sides of the
square strew it thickly with the small tops of
the sapin or Canada-balsam fir, for a breadth
of about four feet j then take some long pliant
ash saplings or withy rods, and peg them down
along the edge of the pine tops to keep your
bed or carpet in its place, leaving a bare space
in the centre of the hut, where you make your
fire. Two or three rough slabs of pine to act
as shelves must then be fixed into the wall, a
couple of I portage-straps " or I tump-lines "
stretched across, on which to hang your clothes,
and the habitation is complete.
In the circular camp the pole's on which the
bark is laid are stuck into the ground instead
of into low walls. The material and labour
to be expended is pretty much the same in
both, but nearly double the amount of room is
obtained in the square camp. It may, therefore, be safely recommended. In the depth of
winter it is all but impossible to warm a tent
thoroughly, either from the inside or outside.
The "lean-to" or bed out-doors may then
be resorted to. The name of this backwoods
contrivance explains itself. It is built as follows :—You strike two poles, having a fork at
the upper end, into the ground, slanting back
slightly; lay another fir pole horizontally between the two, and resting in the crutch; then
place numerous poles and branches leaning
against the horizontal pole, and thus form a
framework which you cover in as well as you
can with  birch bark, pine boughs, pieces of Ill
canvas, skins, or whatever material is most
handy. You build an enormous fire in the
front, and the camp is complete. The direction
of the wind is an essential consideration in
erecting this sort of a resting-place, for the
"inmate," as the Irishman said, "is quite out
of doors."
Portage.—This word, literally translated as
and synonymous with "carry," denotes the
piece of dry ground separating two rivers or
lakes over which it is necessary to transport
canoes and
the country
baggage when
travelling through
They are terms of general use
throughout Canada.
Traverse is another French word in common
use among canoeers throughout the Dominion
provinces. It signifies an open stretch of five
or six miles of unsheltered water which it
is designed to cross. A cache is a trapper or
hunter's hiding or storing place.
But before entering further into our hunter's
vocabulary, let us say a few words about the
canoe itself. A birch-bark canoe suitable for
the Canadian waters is a fragile creature, and
must be treated as such. " Fashioned so tenderly," it must be handled with care. Arrived
at your camping-ground or other stopping-place,
you allow it to ground very carefully; step
out into the water, take out all the bales,
boxes, pots, pans, bedding, rifles, &c.; lift up
the canoe bodily, and turn her upside down
for a few minutes to drain the water out.
The Indian then turns  her over, grasps the APPENDIX.
middle thwart with both hands, and with a
sudden twist of the wrists heaves her up in
the air, and deposits her upside down on his
shoulders, and walks off with his burden. An
ordinary-sized Micmac or Melicite canoe, such
as one man can easily carry, weighs about
70 or 80 lbs., and will take two men and about
600 or 700 lbs.*
Hunter's Pack.—The necessary voyageur's
outfit or impedimenta consists of the portage-
strap or "tumpline"—which is most handy in
camp as a clothes-line—his blanket, and such
smaller articles as he designs carrying about
him. The portage-strap is composed of strips
of webbing or some such material, and is about
twelve feet long, a length of about two feet in
the centre being made of a piece of broad soft
leather; you lay your line on the blanket so
that the leather part projects, and fold the
edges of the blanket over either portion of the
strap. You then pile up the articles to be
carried in the centre, double the blanket over
them, and by hauling upon the two parts of
* The Indians of New Brunswick are both Micmacs
and Melicites or AmalStes. They number about 1,500,
and are quiet, inoffensive, and improvident in their habits.
The Nova Scotia Indians are all Micmacs, and are somewhat more numerous and more industrious than those
of the adjoining province. Those inhabiting the eastern
shore and Cape Breton engage themselves in agriculture,
fishing, and other industries. 168
the strap bring the blanket together at either
side, so that nothing can fall out. You then
cut a skewer of wood, stick it through the
blanket in the centre, securely knot the strap
at either end, and your pack is made. You
have a compact bundle with the leather portion of the portage-strap projecting like a
loop, which is passed over the head and shoulders, and the pack is carried on the back by
means of the loop which passes across the
chest. If the pack is very heavy, and the
distance long, it is usual to make an additional
band out of a handkerchief or something of
that kind, to attach it to the bundle, and pass
it across the forehead, so as to take some of
the pressure off the chest. The regular weight
of a Hudson's Bay Company's package is
80 lbs.; but any Indian or half-breed will
carry double this weight for a considerable
distance without showing signs of distress.
Conditions.—To return to the more especial
object of this paper, moose-hunting. The moose
is hunted in several ways. The most difficult
and precarious, and therefore most exciting,
mode is that of moose-calling. It commences
with September, and lasts to mid-October,
and consists in imitating the cry of the female
moose, and thereby calling up the male. Four
conditions are necessary to successful moose-
calling. Briefly stated they are—First, a perfectly calm night. The scent of the moose is
so acute that should there be a breath of wind
astir he will detect the invader before he has a APPENDIX.
chance of seeing the moose, and be off on the
instant. Second, a moonlight night. An hour
before sunset until two hours after sunrise, the
bull moose will answer. No moose will come
up in the daytime. There is, therefore, but
scant time for sport unless enjoyed during
moonlight. Fourth, a dry, well-sheltered spot,
convenient for calling, with a tolerably open
space around it through which to watch the
moose's movements. The following extract
from the pen of that accomplished sportsman
the Earl of Dunraven affords a life-like picture
of this exciting sport:—
" Having made these little preparations, I
sat down and smoked my pipe while the Indian
climbed up a neighbouring pine tree to j call.'
The only object of ascending a tree is that the
sound may be carried further into the recesses
of the forest. The instrument wherewith the
daller endeavours to imitate the cry of the cow,
consists of a cone-shaped tube made out of a
sheet of birch bark rolled up. This horn is
about eighteen inches in length and three or
four in diameter at the broadest end, the
narrow end being just large enough to fit the
mouth. The ' caller' uses it like a speaking-
trumpet, groaning and roaring through it, imitating as well as he can the cry of the cow
moose. Few white men can call really well,
but some Indians, by long practice, can imitate the animal with wonderful success. Fortunately, however, no two moose appear to
have precisely the same voice, but make all
™™x'<z™™ 170
kinds of strange and diabolical noises, so that
even a novice in the art may not despair of
himself calling up a bull. The real difficulty
—the time when you require a perfect mastery
of the art—is when the bull is close by, suspicious and listening with every fibre of its
intensely accurate ear to detect any sound that
may reveal the true nature of the animal he is
approaching. The smallest hoarseness, the
slightest wrong vibration, the least unnatural
sound, will then prove fatal. The Indian
will kneel on the ground, putting the broad
end of the horn close to the earth so as to
deaden the sound, and with an agonised expression of countenance, will imitate with such
marvellous fidelity the wailing, anxious, supplicating cry of the cow, that the bull, unable
to resist, rushes out from the friendly cover of
the trees, and exposes himself to death. Or
it may be that the most accomplished caller
fails to induce the suspicious animal to show
himself : the more ignoble passion of jealousy
must then be aroused. The Indian will grunt
like an enraged bull, break dead branches
from the trees, thrash his birch-bark horn
against the bushes, thus making a noise exactly
like a moose fighting the bushes with his
antlers. The bull cannot bear the idea of a
rival, and, casting his prudence to the winds,
not unfrequently falls a victim to jealousy and
A Moose-yard.—Occasionally a moose will
answer, but nothing will induce him to come APPENDIX.
up. In the morning if there is a little wind
you can resort to the only other legitimate
way of hunting the moose, viz. "creeping,"
" still hunting," or stalking. After the rutting
season, the moose begins to " yard," as it is
termed. What is a yard ? The uninitiated traveller needs to be told that a moose does not
travel straight on when he is in search of food,
but selects a particular locality, and remains
there as long as the supply of provisions holds
out; and that place is called a yard.
Sometimes a solitary moose " yards " alone,
sometimes two or three together, occasionally
as many as half a dozen may be found congregated in one place. When a man says he
has found a 1 moose-yard," he means that he
has come across a place where it is evident
from the tracks crossing and recrossing and
intersecting each other in all directions, and
from the signs of browsing on the trees, that
one or more moose have settled down to feed
for the winter. Having once selected a place
or "yard," the moose will remain there till
the following summer if the food holds out and
they are not disturbed by man. If forced to
leave their " yard," they will travel a long distance—twenty or thirty miles—before choosing another feeding-ground. After the rutting
season moose wander about in an uneasy state
of mind for three weeks or so, and are not
settled down again till early November.
g' creeping "
is a most
Moose - stalking,    or
difficult and exciting ■a I
sport. The first thing to be done, of course, is
to find a moose-yard. Having by dint of great
caution and perseverance so far covered the
ground where the moose is feeding that you
feel morally certain the animal is in some particular spot, the real difficulty, the critical
moment is at hand.
It is mere waste of time trying to creep except on a windy day, even with moccasins on;
and it is of no use at any time trying to creep
a moose unless you are provided with soft
leather moccasins.    No human being can
within shot of a moose on a still day; the best
time is when windy weather succeeds a heavy
fall of rain. Then the ground is soft, the little
twigs strewed about bend instead of breaking,
and the noise of the wind in the trees deadens
the sound of your footsteps. If the ground is
dry, and there is not much wind, it is impossible to get near the game. When you have
determined that the moose is somewhere handy
—when you come across perfectly fresh indications of his presence—you proceed inch by
inch; you must not make the smallest noise;
the least crack of a dead branch or of a stick
underfoot will start the animal. Especially
careful must you be that nothing taps against
your gun-stock, or that you do not strike the
barrel against a tree, for, naturally, any such
unusual sound is far worse than the cracking
of a stick. If, however, you succeed in imitating the noiseless movements and footsteps
of your Indian, you will probably be rewarded APPENDIX.
by seeing him presently make a " point" like
a pointer dog. Every quivering fibre in his
body proves his excitement. He will point
out something dark to you among the trees.
That dark mass is a moose, and you must fire
at it without being too careful what part of the
animal you are going to hit, for probably the
moose has heard you and is only waiting a
second before making up his mind to be off.
Cariboo-hunting.—The cariboo is nearly
identical with the reindeer of Europe, though
larger. They are fond of getting on the lakes
as soon as the ice thickens sufficiently, and of
feeding round the shores. They cannot be run
down, and the settlers rarely go in pursuit of
them. They must be " stalked " on the barrens and Lkes or crept up to in the woods,
precisely in the same manner as the moose.
And here we must close our brief and all
too imperfect sketch of backwoods life and
sport in sea-board Canada. 174
The railway system of Canada embraces six
thousand miles of line now in operation, and
owned by forty-nine different companies. Of
the fifty-nine states and kingdoms of the
world possessing railway systems, Canada ranks
eighth in absolute mileage, and fifth in mileage
per capita of the population. In the construction of these 6,000 miles, 2,183 miles, or rather
more than one-third, have been built by the
Dominion Government at a cost of upwards of
£12,000,000 sterling. These are trunk or
inter-provincial lines, and are known as the
j Grand Trunk," 1 Intercolonial," and 1 Canadian Pacific " railways.    The Great Western
* The panoramic map and small map of Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, &c, which accompany this work, should
be referred to by the reader in order to enable him to
fully understand this and the following pages. APPENDIX.
Railway, embracing 866| miles of line within
the province of Ontario, is also a trunk Canadian line; but as at present operated, it serves
less the interests of the Dominion than as a
feeder to the American lines terminating at
Detroit and Niagara suspension bridge, and
has no interest in common with the other
Canadian lines.
Of the three first-mentioned lines the Grand
Trunk is the oldest and longest, the last link
between Quebec and Riviere du Loup having
been opened in 1860, just eight years after
the incorporation of the Company. The Intercolonial, the first section of which was opened
between St. John and Shediac, New Brunswick, in 1860, was opened for traffic throughout its entire length between Halifax and the
St. Lawrence in 1876; and the Canadian Pacific, as the British reader need not be told, is
still in progress.
These trunk lines, with their numerous
branch and connecting roads, traverse the
whole Dominion westward as far as Lake Winnipeg, affording easy and expeditious communication to all points as far as the Great
Lakes. The entire journey across the American
continent within British territory may thus
be properly divided and described under these
several heads, viz. the Intercolonial, Grand
Trunk, and Canadian Pacific lines.
With the aid of the following route and distance tables and the panoramic chart and
smaller map which accompany this work, the 176
reader will be readily enabled to pursue his
travels or inquiries in any and every part of
the Dominion. The route is indicated from
each of the principal steamship ports on the
Atlantic sea-board, viz. Quebec, Halifax, and
Portland. Halifax, being the most eastern, ahd
therefore the nearest home will be treated first.
FROM    HALIFAX,    N.S.,    TO    RIVIERE     DU    LOUP,
The Intercolonial Railway—to quote the words
of its chief engineer and most graphic delineator, Mr. Sandford Fleming—is a work which
realises the national aspirations of half a century by bringing within a few hours travel the
old fortress of Halifax and the older citadel of
Quebec, and which must form an important
section of the railway destined ere long to
extend from east to west " through the entire
Dominion." It forms the first link in our
chain of trans-continental travel.
It is a splendid though circuitous line of
railway, admirably constructed and ably managed, abounding in picturesque scenery, and will
well repay the sight and health seeking tourist
for the expense and possible fatigues of a
journey over it. From an inspection of the
accompanying map, and from the natural
features of the country, it is at once apparent APPENDIX.
that this forms by no means the shortest line
which could have been selected for a railway
route between the Atlantic sea-board and the
St. Lawrence. The distance, between Montreal and Halifax might, indeed, have been
reduced nearly 200 miles below the length of
the present line, but the traveller in search of
health, sport, or pleasure will have little to
complain of in traversing the road as now
operated, unnecessarily long as it may appear
to the practised eye of the engineer or surveyor. The following table exhibits the
stations passed between Halifax and Riviere
du Loup opposite the Saguenay river, where
the Intercolonial and Grand Trunk lines
connect. Much of the scenery passed on the
journey between the sea-board and the St.
Lawrence river is exceedingly picturesque and
attractive. From Riviere du Loup the trip
may be continued by railway or by steamer on
the river. At Quebec the traveller bound for
Toronto and the Great North-West of the Dominion or the American Union, can make choice
between the fine steamers of the | Champlain
Company," which run daily and nightly between
Quebec and Montreal, and the trains over the
Grand Trunk Railway.
KfljfflggBSgg6BMiMBW./.«WJ9gH ;t j
Halifax, N.S., to Riviere du Loup, Quebec.
Windsor June*
River Philip bridge.
Spring Hill.
SackviUe bridge.
Painseo Junction:):
To St
John vid Sussex and Rothesay.
10   Boundary Creek.
13   Salisbui-y.
18   Pollet River.
23   Petitcodiac.
29   Anagance.
38   Penobsquis.
42   Plumweseep.
45   Sussex.
50   Apohaqui.
-    56   Norton.
62   Bloomfield.
63   Passekeag.
67   Hampton.
* Windsor and Annapolis Railway and Western Counties
railway via Kentville (70 miles) to Annapolis, 129 miles.
f Branch to Pictou, 52 miles.
X Connects at Shediac and Snmmerside with the Prince
Edward Island Railway between Tignish and Georgetown. APPENDIX.
Halifax to Riviere du Loup—cont.
Miles.     Miles.
72   Nauwigewauk.
77   Quispamsis.
80   Rothesay.
82 Riverside.
83 Torryburn.
85 Brookville.
86 Moosepath.
89   St. John, N.B.
195 Berry's Mills.
206 Canaan.
215 Coal Branch.
224 Weldford.
235 Ferris.
244 Carleton.
255 Barnaby River tunnel.
259 Chatham June.
265 Miramichi (bridge).
275 Beaver Brook.
286 Bartibogue.
296 Red Pine (bridge).
309 Bathurst.
321 Petite Roche.
329 Belledune.
338 Jacquet River.
347 New Mills (bridge).
353 Charlo.
363 Dalhousie.
372 CampbeUton.
385 Metapediac (bridge).
395 Mill Stream (bridge).
405 Assametquaghan
420 Oausapscal (bridge).
433 Am qui (bridge).
441 Cedar Hall.
448 Sayabec.
458 Tartague.
468 St. Octave.
477 St. Flavie.
485 St. Luce.
495 RimousM (bridge).*
506 Bic.
515 St. Fabien.
525 St. Simon.
gBMi Trois Pistoles (bridge).
544 IsleVerte.
552 St. Arsene.
555 Cacouua.
561 Riviere du Loup.
* And ocean mail steamer station.
12 * 180 LANDS   OF  PLENTY.
Riviere du
Loup to Quebec
Riviere du Loup.
Lake Road.
St. Ale
St. Andre.
Ste. Helene.
St. Pascal.
St. Denis.
Riviere Quelle.
St. An
St. Roch.
Elgin Road.
St. Jean Port Joli.
Trois Saumons.
Xi Anse a Gile.
Cap St
. Ignace.
St. Thomas.
St. Pie
St. Francois ou Berthier.
St. VaJ
St. Michel.
St. Charles.
St. Henri.
St. Jean Chrysostome.
Chaudiere Curve.
Quebec (Point Levi).*
Chaudiere Curve.
Craig's Road.
Black River.
Methot's M.
St. Julie.
St. Liboire.
Britannia. Mills.
St. Hyacinthe.
St. Hilaire.
St. Bruno.
St. Hubert.
St. Lambert.
* Qnebec to Hochelaga by Qaebec, Montreal, Ottawa
and Oooidental Railway, 173 miles. APPENDIX.
Montreal to Toronto.
2   Eachine June.
10   Dorval.
14   Pointe Claire.
21   St. Anne's.
24   Vaudreuil.
31   St. Dominique.
37   Coteau Landing.
43   River Beaudette.
48   Bainsville.
54   Lancaster.
59   Summerstown.
ffl   CornwaU.
72   Mille Eoches.
77   Wales.
81   Farran's Point.
83   Aultsville.
92   Morrisburg.
99   Matilda (Iroquois).
104   Edwardsburg.
112   Prescott June.
14 Prescott June. Switch.
2   Prescott Junction.
9   Spencerville.
16$ Oxford.
22% Kemptville.
31   Osgoode.
39   Manotick.
43   Gloucester.
47   Chaudiere Junction.
54   Ottawa.
120   Maitland.
125   BrocfeviUe.
Brockville and Ottawa Railway.
Brock ville.
1 Grand Trunk Junction.
5 Fairfield.
7 Clark's.
10 Bellamy's.
12 Jelly's.
13 Bell's.
16 Wolford.
21 Irish Creek.
25 Story's.
28 Smith's Palls.*
30 Welsh's.
37 Franktown.
41 Beckwith.
45 Carleton Place Junc.t
* Branch to Perth, 12 miles,
f Branch line to Ottawa, 29 miles. 182
Montreal to Toronto—cont.
29   Carleton Place.
35   Almonte.
44   Pakenham.
52   Arnprior.
58   Sand Point.
71   Renfrew.
86   Cobden.
Miles.     105   Pembroke.*
46   Carleton Place.
52   Almonte.
55   Snedden's.
61   Pakenham.
69  Arnprior.
72   Braeside.
74   Sanclpoint.
Collin's Bay.
Ernesto wn.
■   232
Port Hope.
Midland Railwa/y.
Port Hope.
5   Quay's.
8   Perrytown.
9   Garden Hill.
14   Summit.
18   Millbrook.
5   Fraserville.
IS   Peterboro'.
17   Nassau Ms.
22   Wakefield.
24   Bethany.
26   Brunswick.
* Boats for Des Joachim, Deux Rivieres, Mattawaw, and
the sporting fields of the Upper Ottawa river. APPENDIX.
Montreal to Toronto—cont.
Silver Creek.
Bo wnian ville.
3 Creek.
The through distance by rail from Quebec to Ottawa
via Prescott is 328 miles, and via BrockviUe 361 miles.
The steamers on the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers
during the summer months afford most delightful trips
for pleasure tourists.
Toronto to Collingwood.  Direct route to Free Land
Grant Districts op Muskoka and Parry Sound, &c.
Northern Railway.
5 Davenport.
8 Weston.
14 Thornhill.
18 Richmond Hill.
23 King.
30 Aurora.
34 Newmarket.
* Steamers through Georgian Bay, &c. 184
Toronto to Collingwood—cont.
Holland Landing
63 i Allandale.
64 .    Barrie.
70   "o    Gowan.
78    g    Hawkstone.
87   B I OriUia
100 t
103 i
109 ^
New Lowell.
J Couchich
^ "1 Atherley.
Toronto to
Sarnia via Grand Trunk Railway.
Acton West.
69   Doon.
75   Gait.
* Steamers run to points on Lakes Muskoka, Rosseau,
and Joseph.
t Lake Superior Line steamers depart twice weekly for
Bruce Mines, Sanlt, Ste. Marie, Nepigon, Silver Islet, &o. APPENDIX.
Toronto to Sarnia—cont.
St. Mary's.
98   St. Mary's.
110   Thorndale.
121   London.
Ailsa Craig.
{River St. Clair.)
Pt. Huron.*
Toronto and Ni/ppising, R.R.
9   Scarboro' June.
14   Agincourt.
20   Unionville.
22   Markham.
29   Stouffville.
34   Goodwood.
41   Uxbridge.
49   Wick.
53   Sunderland.
59   Cannington.
63   WoodvUle.
65 Midland June.
— Beaverton.
— OriUia.
— Lindsay.
66 Argyle.
71   Eldon.
74   Portage Road.
76   Kirkfield.
79   Victoria Road.
88   Cobconk.t
* Connects with Chicago and Lake Huron, and Detroit,
Grand Haven, and Milwaukie Railways to Grand Haven
(190 miles), whence steamers ply daily across Lake
Michigan to Chicago and Milwaukie.
t Steamers communicate daily throughout the tourist
season with Fenelon Falls; and with the fishing grounds of
Grill and Burt rivers and Balsam Cameron and Sturgeon
mmmm^mMMzzsgffljffigi^ffl^t^ 186
Toronto, Gray, and Bruce Railway.
Toronto to Tees-water and Owen Sound.
Weston June.
Humber Summit.
Mono Road.
52   Orangeville June.
64   Shelburne.
76   Dundalk.
81   Proton.
86   Flasherton and Priceville.
93   Markdale.
98   Berkeley.
102   Williamsford.
106   Arnott.
109   Chatsworth.
114   Rockford.
122   Owen Sound.*
Orangeville June.
Mount Forest.
,      92
Gorrie and Wroxeter.
* Georgian   Bay and   Lake  Superior  steamers  leave
every Saturday night for KiUarney, Bruce Mines, &c.
+ Stages to Riversdale, Lucknow, &c.
Toronto and Nipissing Railway.
9 Scarboro' June.
14 Agincourt.
20 TTnionviUe.
23 Markham.
29 Stouffville.
34 Goodwood.
41 TJxbridge.
49 Wick.
53 Sunderland.
59 Cannington.
63 Woodville.
65 Midland June.
71 Eldon.
74 Portage Road, i
76 Kirkfield.
79 Victoria Road.
88 Coboconk.
Victoria Railway.
Via, GigE. Ry.
Vid W. P. P. & L. R R.
1   Midland Railway June.
14   Fenelon Falls.
19   Fell's.
24   Rettie's Bridge.
33   Kinmount.
43   Minden Sta.
47   Jmgoldsby.
49   Dysart.
53   Goulds.
56   Haliburton.
Lindsay—With W. P. P. & Lindsay Railway for Port
Perry, Whitby, Toronto and all points on G. T. R. With
Midland Railway for Peterboro', Port Hope, Orillia,
Waubaushene, and all points on the Toronto and Nipissing
and Grand Trunk Railway.
Fenelon Falls—With stage for Bobcaygeon.
Kinmount—With Stage for Minden. LANDS OF PLENTY.
Whitby, Port Perry; and Lindsay R. R.
Port Perry.
Prince Albert.
Whitby June.
Paul and Pacific Railw^
St. Paul.
E. Minneapolis.
Min'touka Mills.
Long Lake.
Maple Plain.
Howard Lake.
Smith Lake.-
Swede Grove.
St. Johns.
De Graff.
St. Paul and Pacific and Red River and Manitoba
17 Manston.
45 Barnesville.
52 Glyndon.
59 Averill.
65 Felton.
75 Borup.
80 Ada.
87 Rolette.
92 Edner.
102 Kittson.
109 Crookston.
200 Northcote.
Duluth.  (Head   of   Lake   Superior)   to   Glyndon-
Northern Pacific Railroad.
Fond du Lac.
X. P. Junction
136 m
Lake Park.
st. Paul.
-gS | E. Minneaps.
S.^-1 Sauk Rapids
? ° I Little Falls.
Ft. Ripley.
IjBrahierd. ]90
Summary of terminal points and intermediate
distances indicated in the foregoing tables and
accompanying panoramic chart:—
Halifax to Quebec      ....
Quebec to Montreal    ....
Montreal to Toronto ....
Quebec to Ottawa       . ,
Ottawa to eastern terminus of Pacific railway on Lake Nipissing, under contract,
and trains running half the distance
Eastern terminus to Fort William via Nipigon
Bay. The work on this section is postponed until the Pacific section are more
advanced    .....
Fort William to Red River (Selkirk),* the
whole under contract, rails laid down, and
construction trains running over half distance; the whole to be open for traffic
before close of 1882
Red River to Pontvincourt (approximately)
Pontvincourt to Livingstone (Fort Pelly)    .
Livingstone to Saskatchewan
Saskatchewan to Battleford .
Battleford to Edmonton
* From Selkirk westward, through Manitobah, a colonization road is under construction to its western boundary, 100 miles distant, to be completed by July 1880. APPENDIX.
Edmonton to Yellow Head Pass of the
Rocky Mountains, 3,626 ft. above sea level
Yellow Head Pass to Tete Jaune Cache,
situated on the western side of the " Great
Divide"       .
Tete Jaune Cache down the Fraser river to
Port Moody (Burrard Inlet)*
Liverpool to Quebeo.«|||fi
The points and distances between Red river
and the Rocky mountains are not definitely
decided on, and are here given as simply indicating the probable location and length of the
road. The whole section is now being tho-
rougly explored for the purpose of selecting
the best route between Lake Winnipeg and
the British Columbia border. From Tete
Jaune Cache the same uncertainty exists as to
the precise location of the line. No less than
eleven different routes have been projected
from the Yellow Head Pass in the Rocky
mountains to the Coast. Ten of these have
been measured, and vary in length from 460
to 560 miles. Three routes are now under
survey. These are respectively known as the
I Burrard," " Bute 1 or Pine River, and § Fort
* Burrard Inlet forms one only of the three proposed
termini of the Canadian Pacific Railway. (See accompanying Map). 192
Simpson " routes. Each has its special merits
and, of course, its friends and champions ; but
until the engineering facilities and difficulties
are relatively ascertained and considered, it is
idle to speculate upon the adoption of one or
the other. Twelve hundred miles of telegraph
connect Edmonton, N.W.T., with the telegraphic system of the eastern provinces vid
Fort William, so that messages may be transmitted hourly to and from London.
Until the Canadian Pacific Railway is completed across the prairie lands of the Great
North-West to the British Columbian border
territory, the overland traveller must follow
the old waggon trail so frequently referred to
in the pages of this work, and which is most
faithfully and graphically described in the
pages of Mr.
I Ocean to Ocean.
Grant's  most charming  book W. H. Allen & Co., 13 Waterloo Place, S.W.
By Edward Mayhew, M.R.C.V.S.
Bvo.    18s. 6d.
Being an Accurate and Detailed Account, accompanied by more than 400 Pictorial Representations, characteristic of the various Diseases
'to which the Equine Race are. subjected; together
with the latest Mode of Treatment, and all the
requisite Prescriptions written in plain English.
■      MANAGEMENT.   ■
By Edward Mayhew.
A new Edition, revised and improved by
J. I. Lupton, M.R.C.V.S.
8vo.    12s.
Containing descriptive remarks upon Anatomy,
Medicine, Shoeing, Teeth, Food, Vices, Stables;
likewise a plain account of the situation, nature,
and value of the various points; together with
comments on grooms, dealers, breeders, breakers,
and trainers; Embellished with more than 400
engravings from original designs made expressly
for this work.
13 W. H. Allen & Co., 13 Waterloo Place, S.W.
By Professor D. T. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S., Ac.
Fifth Edition.
Post 8vo., with Illustrative Maps.    7s.
Contents :—Part I. — Introduction. — The
Earth as a Planet.—Physical Forces.—The Succession of Rocks. Part IT.—Earth.—Land.—
Mountains.—Hills and Valleys.—Plateaux and
Low Plains. Part HE.—Water.—The Ocean.
—Rivers.—Lakes and Waterfalls.—The Phenomena of Ice.—Springs. Part IV.—Air.—The
Atmosphere.—Winds and Storms.—Dew, Clouds,
and Rain.—Climate and Weather. Part V.—
Fire. —Volcanoes and Volcanic Phenomena.—
Earthquakes. Part VI.—Liee.—The Distribution of Plants in the different Countries of the
Earth. — The Distribution of Animals on the
Earth.—The Distribution of Plants and Animals
in Time.—Effects of Human Agency on Jhanimate
Captain H.R.H. the Duke of Edinburgh, E.G.,
in 1867-1868.
By the Rev. John Milner, B. A, Chaplain;
and Oswald W. Brierly.
Illustrated by a Photograph of H.R.H. the
Duke of Edinburgh; and by Chromo-Lithographs
and Graphotypes from Sketches taken on the
spot by 0. W. Brierly. In Preparation.
(By the same Author.)
in the
Including the States of
Kansas, Nebraska, Dacotah, Minnesota,
Colorado, Nevada, Montana, Oregon,
and California.
Health and Pleasure resorts, hunting and fishing
grounds of the Mississippi Valley, Far
West, and Pacific Coast.
With a Map, Tables of Distances, &c. &c. GRAND TRUNK RAILWAY OF CANADA.
Liverpool to Quebec in summer, and Portland,
U.S., or Halifax, N.S., in winter, by the Trans-
Atlantic Ocean Steamship Lines, and thence by
the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal, Ottawa,
Kingston, Toronto, Detroit, Chicago, Buffalo,
Niagara Palls, New York, Boston, Baltimore,
Omaha, Salt Lake, Colorado, Denver, San Francisco.
Manitobah, the North-West Territories, and
all points in Canada and the United States.
Connections are made with the Pacific Mail
Steamship Company's Line to China, Japan,
Australia, New Zealand, and Vancouver Island.
Tickets issued from Europe for tours embracing Quebec, Montreal, Ottawa, River St.
Lawrence, Thousand Islands, Niagara Falls, &c,
and the principal cities of the American Continent. Also the Saguenay River and the Gulf
Ports, White Mountains, Lakes George, and
Champlain, and Saratoga. Through cars to
Pullman Palace Cars are attached to all day
and night trains.
The Grand Trunk Railway has steel rails, new
rolling stock, and is furnished with every modern
appliance for the safety and convenience of
For rates of Passage,—First Class and Special
Emigrant Fares,—or further information, apply
MAIN, & MONTGOMERY, Liverpool, any of tbe agents
for tlie Ocean Steamship Lines in Great Britain or
Europe, and to tne GRABB TRUNK RAILWAY, 21,
Old Broad Street, London, B.C.
Secreta/ry.     Map of
parts ofthe Provinces of


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