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The church and the Indians. The trouble at Metlakahtla 1882

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Last evening at 8 o'clock an interesting
meeting was held in the Reformed Episcopal Church, Humboldt street, for the
purpose of hearing an aecount by Bishop
Cridge and Senator Macdonald of their
late visit to Metlakahtla, and the present
condition, of the missionary field there.
The meeting was largely attended, the
chair being occupied by Mr. James W.
The meeting having been opened with
prayer by Bishop Cridge, the chairman
briefly stated that they were met to hear
an account of Mr. Duncan's labors at
Senator Macdonald on rising said *.
Ladies and gentlemen—Before going
on with my address I wish first of all to
dispel a delusion under which many are
laboring with regard to thetrade at Metlakahtla. Many say and suppose that Mr.
Duncan is enriching himself and hoarding
up money. It is also supposed that I am
in partnership with him. The whole
thing is utterly without foundation. I
have nothing to do with his trade, more
than helping him all I can without fee or
reward. If there are profits in the trade
they are all spent for the benefit of Metlakahtla, and I am of opinion that there
are few poorer men in the province than
Mr. Duncan. The trade was established
entirely for the benefit and convenience
of the village, and one great object was
to keep the people at home and free from
the temptations and contaminations of
towns. No doubt all of you have heard
something of Metlakahtla. It is a name
not confined to the boundaries of British
Columbia. It is well known in England
and in many other parts of the world as
one of the most successful missions in the
world. A young man, not a priest or a
bishop, but a layman like ourselves, and
formerly a commercial man, went into the
wilderness among a lot of; heathen and
barbarous savages, who had never heard
the word of God—a people steeped m
vice, degradation, and darkness—and he,
single-handed with God's help, carved
out a monument to Christianity, and a
civilization most rem-arkablf considering
it3 age. You now find a community with*
hopes, and ambitions,, and breathing aspirations, like yourselves.
Many of you have heard rumors about
the unfortunate divisions at Metlakahtla,
some of them exaggerated and some without any foundation—rumors circulated by
Mr- Duncan's enemies ; some of them
being persons he has had to chastise for
offences at some time or other. Hearing
those reports, Bishop Cridge and I were
induced to pay a visit to that place to
hear and see for ourselves how matters
really stood. We had also the hope that
we might be able to strengthen the heart
and hands of our dear friend Mr. Duncan, and be of some sej^ice to him. We
also hoped, although a very faint one,
that. something might be done to bring
the two parties together. Our first hope
was certainly realized, Mr. Duncan and
his people being delighted to see us and
giving us a right hearty welcome. It had
been given out that he had no friends,,
that he was a rotten branch cut off by the
society, without influence or friends, consequently they were the more pleased to
see us, knowing that we were friends.
But with regard to effecting a reconciliation, we soon discovered from the tone of (2j
the people that such a thing was impossible without an entire surrender of the
principles Mr. Duncan had inculcated for
the past twenty years-—principles which
have made him conqueror over stupendous obstacles and difficulties. We could
see that there was room for one church
only at Metlakahtla.
Many  willing  hands   were   ready and
pleased to help us on shore, and to carry
our baggage to Mr. Duncan's house.  One
is at once struck with the respectful and
respectable appearance of the people, who
form a marked contrast with Indians seen
at other parts of the coast.    The village
presents aNneat, trim appearance with its
beautiful   church   standing   in   a  square
with   streets  on the four sides—the uniformly built houses,  the  paved  streets,
the   trade   shop,   the   workshops,  warehouses  and   cannery, all  show a master
hand and great judgment.  Near the landing   place   is  a large building called the
market house, where strange Indiaus can
tmd   warmth   and   shelter, whether thev
come to  trade, or happen to be detained
from  any cause.    This shows great care
and   forerhought   on   Mr. Duncan's part,
whilst  in  other places  they are left like
dogs on the beach.   We had many visitors
the evening of our arrival, and were serenaded  by a  brass  band.    The next day
being Sunday, we attended divine service.
When the bell rang the people could be
seen   flocking in  from two sides into the
fine large church, about double the size
of  this   building.     A   more   impressive
scene   could not be—the wrapt attention
of the large congregation (about 600) was
in marked contrast to that of more civilized  worshippers.    The   men were comfortably  and   cleanly  dressed,   and  the
women clad in plain dresses, shawls, and
handkerchiefs for head dresses, gave one
the impression that they came to worship
—sedate,   quiet, and   earnest—not  as  if
they came to see and be seen.    The responses   were  repeated by all in a loud
and distinct voice, as if they meant what
they were saying.    The organ was played
by a native like a professor;  the singing,
heartily joined in by all, was truly grand.
In the afternoon Frederick Ridley, a native, preached  in  an  easy, fluent  style,
reading  a  chapter in English first, and
preaching in Chimsean.    The service is
as near that of the Church of England as
possible, without vestments or outward
adornments, which in ether communities
have so much attraction for frivolous
On the following Monday evening we
were invited to attend a meeting in the
church, at wh'ch ab<*>ut 500 persons were
present. One of the native eiders opened
the meeting with Drayer. Then many of
the most prominent men made speeches
in an easy, eloquent manner, offering us
a hearty welcome, and all expressing -sorrow at the divisions in their once united
and happy village, where a short time
ago they all worshipped under one roof.
I am afraid they attributed a power to us
which we did not possess—that of restoring peace and harmony, and helping
them to remove the cause of their troubles. The control those people exercised
over their language in speaking to a question on which they feel so deeply and
keenly was truly wonderful. No harsh
words, no threats of violence, no inviting
to a breach of the peace—affording a very
marked contrast between their behavior
and that of white people under similar
We replied to their speeches, commending them f >r their moderation and
excellent conduct, for their devotion to
their friend and teacher; counseled them
to go on as they had done in their faith
and religion, and as law-abiding citizens,,
and on no account to take the law into
their own hands, but to place their complaints and grievances by petition before
the governor general. This they agreed
to do, and we left them preparing memorials and petitions.
Indians from different parts of the
country on hearing of our arrival left
their hunting and fishing and came distances of from 50 to 60 miles to see us to
give us a welcome and to express sympathy with Mr. Duncan. Frequent messages of sympathy came to him from the
surrounding heathen tribes, all condemning Bishop Ridley for attempting
"to reap where he had not sown." They
say Mr. Duncan gave his life to us, toiling and laboring to break our heathen
customs and bring us to the light. He
ploughed the land, sowed the good seed
which is growing and  ripening, and now crfi*^'«
I t£>Vjim*+
a stranger who has not toiled or done
anything wishes to step in and take all
the fruit. "Let him take example by
what Mr. Duncan has done and cultivate
new fields for himself." One of the most
marvelous things is the influence the
work at Metlakahtla has had on all the
surrounding nations. The word spoken
there has leavened the whole coast, made
Hydahs and other warlike tribes forsake
many of their heathen and evil habits,
and now they can visit each other in confidence and peace, instead of meeting as
they used to do as deadly foes. Another
great work done by Mr. Duncan has been
the suppression of the whiskey traffic
along the coast. Although some of the
heathen Indians manage to smuggle bottles now and then in bags of flour and in
other ways, yet the trade, so far as white
men are concerned, is crushed out. A
short time ago the managers of the canneries on the Skeena were greatly opposed to Mr. Duncan and very bitter
against him simply because he insisted
on the Indians being treated properly
and justly and because they would not
work on Sunday. Now those very men
are among his warmest friends, because
they see that he and the Indians acted
on good and conscientious principles.
I wish you all to   understand  clearly
and unmistakably that all the work done
at   Metlakrhtla   has   been done by  Mr.
Duncan, a layman,   my impression being
that the help given  by his asssstants was
not of much account; and I wish it to be
understood  clearly that Mr. Duncan h^s
gone on for over  twenty years  without
change or vacation, teaching and preaching the same truth  and  the same gospel.
He  gave   satisfaction to the  society, to
the Indians and to his friends,  and  they
are many, who were and are justly proud
of him and his work.    The Church  Mis--
sionary Society were proud of his success
and held his  work and mission up as an
example to other  missions, and all went
well and smoothly until  Bishop   Bompas
visited   Metlakahtla   a   few   years   ago,
when the question  for  the   admission of
some of the people to  the Lord's Supper
was brought forward.    This was no new
question;   it had   been discussed by Mr.
Duncan and the  elders, who saw many
difficulties in the way, owingto   the  In
dians   not  sufficiently understanding the
meaning of that sacrament.   If those who
were most fit to go to the Lord's Table to
partake of what the Indians would call a
feast went up before the whole congregation   they   thought   it   would   lead    to
jealousy and ill feeling, and   if  the non-
participants left the church whilst others
remained for the   sacrament they   would
fancy that some   wonderful,  mysterious
ceremony was going on.    They therefore
came to the conclusion   that  it would be
wise to delay that rite for   a  time  until
the Indians were more fully instructed in
its meaning and freedom from  mystery.
I do not know what the report of  Bishop
Bompas to the   society was, but  the  impression seemed to take hold of   its mind
that Mr. Duncan   had  kept the   Indians
from coming to the Lord's  Table,  which
is an entirely erroneous  impression.    It
is also said that he refuses baptism to infants.    It is true  that   he   does not approve of baptising   infants   of   heathen
parents, who attach a superstitious   importance to the ceremony without having
any knowledge of its true meaning;   but
infants of baptised  parents he  willingly
admits to that visible sign of Christianity.
I wish you to understand that in any
remarks  I  shall  find necessary to make
about Bishop Ridley, there is no ill feeling or animosity.    So far as I know him,
he   is   agreeable   and   entertaininar,   and
might  be   useful   in   other  parts of  the
country    where    there   are   no   missionaries;   but at Metlakahtla I consider him
useless.    I do think, and say in the most
emphatic manner that it has been a great
and serious mistake sending a bishop to a
diocese  like   Caledonia   where there   are
very few whites and very   few missionaries  to oversee;  church  dignitaries being
generally  fonder of  power and authority
than   of  performing   simple   missionary
work.   What are required in this country
are  hardworking,   self-denying Christian
men, and not bishops with elevated ideas
of    church    ceremonies.      On  the    arrival of Bishop Ridley at Metlakahtla, he
made  a  speech   to the people in which
he stated that he had not come  to interfere with Mr. Duncan, but would willingly  work  with  him; that was  just  as it
ought  to  be  had  it  been  acted  up to.
Soon  the  bishop  began to show that he Wm
wished to be master. Not being allowed
to build a house on the public park at
Metlakahtla, he took a jump of
17 miles to Fort Simpson where he built
a house at a cost of between • $2,000
and $3,000, in which he does not live,
and whether paid for by him or the so
ciety, it may be looked upon as an entire
waste of money, having no adherents,
school or church there, the whole thing
showing a lack of judgment and a desire
to act without tljlfe advice of practical and
experienced men who have a knowledge
of the country and the Indians. The
bishop also finds fault with Mr. Duncan's
translation of the prayers, and revives
the question of admitting some of the Indians to the Lord's- Table. The elders
and Mr. Duncan holding the same opinions and giving the same reasons they
gave Bishop Bompas for not participating.
Mr. Duncan could see that the full
ritual and ecclesiastical accompaniments
of the Church of England were not suited
to a primitive people—(and here I will
mention how noticeable is the hold Christianity takes of a primitive people, and
the confidence and faith they have in
God's word; and the love with which they
treasure their bibles is beautiful to behold)—and that what they required wa«s
the most simple form of gospel preaching.
Those ideas he communicated to the Society, with the request that Metlakahtla
should be allowed to manage its own
•affairs. In reply they requested Mr.
Duncan to come to London to talk matters over. That he could not do owing
to pressure of business. A conference of
the missionaries, clerical and lay, in the
northern part of the country was held
last year, to which Mr. Duncan submitted the question, " Whether they
would recommend the Society to allow
Metlakahtla to become a free mission1?"
This they declined to do; but resolved to
recommend that it should be kept as it
always had been, a lay mission. The
bishop was strongly opposed to such a
recommendation, and wished it rescinded;
but the conference adhered to its opinion
and forwarded the resolution to the Society; and probably the bishop sent a report and a different recommendation, and
it is now self-evident that about
this  time   the   Society entertained   the
idea of dispensing with Mr. Duncan's
services on the ground that he would not
allow some of his people to partake of the
Lord's supper, and that he did not approve of infant baptism, and tha£ he had
declined at their request to visit England—none of those charges being in ac-
cordance with facts. Last November the
bishop came into Mr. Duncan's room, and
after some conversation handed him a
hitter of dismissal from the society, and
giving expression to words to the effect
that he was master now, and would take
charge of the society's property.
Mr. Duncan at once prepared to leave
the mission house, and when what had
just transpired became known in the vil
lage a house was placed at his disposal by
one of the Indians, and hundreds of loving hands carried his furniture and books
to his new quarters. There was great excitement; but, to the credit of the Indians be it said, there was no breach of
the peace. A meeting was held that
night, at which resolutions were passed
requesting Mr. Duncan to continue with
them, to be their minister and teacher.
He said he would not give them an answer then, as they were excited and many
of the people were away. Shortly after
this another meeting was held, and the
same resolution come to; but Mr. Duncan
would not even then give them an answer, wishing first of all to be certain
that all the people were with him.
Just about last Christmas a large meeting was held in the church, the first time
it had been opened since Mr. Duncan's
dismissal last November. A deputation
waited on Mr. Duncan, requesting him
to come to the church. He did so, and
found 600 or 700 persons there, and a
seat placed for him at the head of the
centre aisle. One of the elders then approached, carrying a bible in his hands,
and, facing the congregation, said: "You
are now asked to confirm with your own
voices your action at the different meetings, and to say whether you wish Mr.
Duncan to continue as your teacher and
minister." With one voice they said:
" We desire him to be our teacher and
minister." The elder then turned to Mr.
Duncan, placing the bible in his hands
and saying: "Continue to be our minister, and go on teaching the Word of God 1
as you have done for the last twenty
years." Mr. Duncan, seeing that they
were all of one mind, consented to continue with them. Such was his ordination, and in my opinion a very complete
Directly after Mr. Duncan's dismissal the bishop wont to England, and evidently he and the Society came to the
conclusion that they had acted too hastily,
for on his return we find him writing a
letter to Mr. Duncan asking him to come
back; and that same letter contains one
of the most insulting proposals which
could be made to a man like Mr. Duncan,
viz., that he could retain the monopoly
of the trade. Such a bait, and to a man
like Mr. Duncan, who has given his
whole life to the spiritual instruction of
the Indians, and who cares nothing for
the trade excepting so far as it harmonizes
with the spiritual work, and continues
to be a marked benefit to his people!
If Mr. Duncan was wrong in his teaching, or in any of his acts, how is it that
the bishop seeks to enter into a compact
with him to return—a high and mighty
bishop offering a bait of that kind to a
man whose spiritual work he evidently
despises? What is the meaning of it alM
lis clearly this, that-the bishop and the
Society find that they are in the wrong;
that they have acted on unfounded accusations hastily and without judgment,
and that they would like to have Mr.
Duncan's services again.
How could he, whose work is so great
and so manifest, and who has labored so
unceasingly for the last 25 years, allow
any oue to take the spiritual work of Metlakahtla, and he retain only the temporal?
It would be an acknowledgment that he
was in the wrong, and had been wrong all
those years, and that now he had to surrender to a stranger, who so far had done
nothing, and whose only claim to spirituality seemed to be that he wore different
clothing to that worn by Duncan. No! no!
He could not hand over his people or his
work for any such childish reasons. I
ask again, if Mr. Duncan has done no
good work, why does the bishop ask him
to return?
This same letter which the bishop
wrote to Mr. Duncan he parades and holds
up as an evidence of His wish  for  peace
holding that
and harmony, and whilst
olive branch in one hand he undermines
Mr. Duncan with the other—seducing his
school teachers, his organist and others
by offering pecuniary advantages, and
trying to tempt the people with cheap
goods; but they are not to be bought and
sold like children. Where is the Christian consistency of such acts? I am credibly informed that the bishop despises
the spiritual work at Metlakahtla. If so,
why does he wish the people to come to
the Lord's table? Where is the consistency?
I hope you all understand that there is
no change in Mr. Duncan's manner of
teaching; he is going on as he has done
for the last 25 years, and that whatever
may happen at Metlakahtla he is not to
blame. All went smoothly and well until
ecclesiasticism stepped in. Those unfortunate divisions are doing great injury to
the spiritual and temporal work and destroy all discipline, which Mr. Duncan
found so beneficial formerly in dealing
with the young men and young women.
Now, if they are chastised or corrected
they will find a refuge with the opposition party, and the uncertainty hanging
over affairs retards the improvement of
the village.
To sum up, the present condition of
affairs stands thus: That the Society
have dismissed Mr. Duncan on groundless
accusations, and they would like very
much to have him back again; but he prefers to be free and untrammeled by any
society. That a church has been established called the "Christian Church of
Metlakahtla." That the whole village,
excepting about 40 adults and some children, are with Mr. Duncan, and that
nearly all those who have left him are
persons or friends of persons he had to
punish for offences at some time or
other. That he has services in the church
three times on Sunday; Sunday school;
service on Wednesday evenings; day
school each day.
Attending to the sick of the village is
the most arduous work of all, giving him
no rest from 6 o'clock in the morning till
12 at night—not even time for his meals;
yet he never speaks a harsh word or sends
an Indian away, but listens patiently to
all they have to  say.    There can be no
!**■—. (6)
doubt that God created and raised him
up specially for the work he is now doing
so well.
The cannery established to furnish employment for the people of the village he
has to superintend, owing to the sickness
and inefficiency of his manager. The
cannery is a sight worth seeing. Men,
women and children, clad in the cleanest
cotton clothing and aprons, going about
their work in a quiet, business-like way;
no harsh language, no swearing, no confusion or noise; all showing admirable
training and management, and a great
contrast to many other places where a
different class of laborers is employed.
My hope is, that with all these burdens
on his mind and shoulders he may continue in good health, and I have to ask
you to give him your prayers and sympathy.
Bishop Cridge referred to his first visit
to Metlakahtla fifteen years ago. A great
work had been done. Four years previously about fifty of the converts had
been removed from Fort Simpson to separate them from old associations. The
store—an absolute necessity—had already
yielded over $3,000 profit, the whole of
which, together with grants of materials
from Governor Douglas, had been spent
in rebuilding the village and other improvements. Two things especially struck
the speaker: Mr. Duncan's care in spiritual matters, especially in admitting converts to baptism; and his entire self-sacrifice. The mission house was open from
early rising to late taking rest; none were
denied access; none cut short in their
business, however trivial it might be. On
revisiting Metlakahtla last month, after
the lapse of fifteen years, Mr. Duncan
was found -doing the same work on the
same combined plan of industry and religion, with the same self-sacrifice and
toil, and with no change but that of
progress along all the lines of his work.
On Saturday, the day of the visitors' arrival, the elders met to arrange the services for. the following day, and requested
Bishop Cridge to preach in the morning.
Native preachers in turn occupied the
pulpit once on each of the four Sundays
the visitors were there, and their earnest
scriptural exhortations were listened to
with  every sign of  devout  attention by
their native brethren. Mr. Duncan
preaches twice each Sunday, and on
Wednesday evenings. Bible classes and
Sunday schools are conducted in part by
Mr. Duncan and in part by native men
and women. The church, built entirely
by native hands, will hold eleven hundred worshipers. Its noble proportions
and majestic simplicity, Mr. Duncan's
own design, strike the eye on entering;
but when you hear the hymn sung by the
whole congregation with remarkable
sweetness and fervency, and the responses
like low thunder rolling through the
aisles, and reflect what this people once
were, it is impossible not to feel deeply
moved. The service is liturgical, quiet,
and deeply solemn. At the request of
the natives and Mr. Duncan Bishop C.
baptized thirty-three adults, after careful
examination and inquiry, and twenty-
three infants. Referring to the troubles
at Metlakahtla, while avoiding acrimony,
it would be necessary to speak plainly.
It was common to regard troubles of this
kind as often little more than personal
quarrels. Nothing could be further from
the truth. The battle at Metlakahtla, if
the term could be used of a strife where
one party stood wholly on the defensive,
was one of principles not of men; and,
the names being changed, the incidents
are much the same all through the Christian world. He would let the natives
speak for themselves rather than use his
own words; and he thought it would appear that they were capable of judging
their own affairs—in fact took a common-
sense view of the situation unobscured by
theological mystification. He would first
give a brief outline of the crisis through
which Metlakahtla had recently passed,
and then fill up the picture from the native speeches. On the news of Mr. Dun-
ean's dismissal (Nov. 28th) flying through
the village, the natives were overwhelmed
with amazement and surprise. They prepared a house for his reception, and
straightway, without asking his leave,
transferred his effects from the mission-
house with wonderful celerity. The elders
next called a meeting of all the people.
Mr. Duncan, having at their request
stated the facts, and having charged the
natives not to consider him, but only
their  own   welfare,   withdrew  from the ( 7)
meeting. With every demonstration of
feeling, and after the delivery of many
fervent addresses, the people, without a
dissent iont voice, resolved, first, that Mr.
Duncan should not leave them; and sec
ondly, that they would belong to no denomination, but be a free native church
though on brotherly terms with all. At
length, on Christmas day, the elders conducted Mr. Duncan into the ciiunh, whor<s
a large congregation was assembled, and
having placed him in a chair in front of
the Lord's table, another elder advanced
up the middle aisle bearing a bible. He
paused and addressed the congregation,
and then turning to Mr. Duncan placed
the bible in his hands and with gre*at
solemnity requested him, in the name of
the congregation, to minister to them the
word of God as heretofore. This may
not be an ordination, viewed from the
ecclesiastical stand-point, but who will
question the propriety, validity, and justice of this commission ? It would be
difficult to give an exhaustive account of
tho causes which led to these demonstrations. It must suffice to observe the important fact that the natives had for many
years been intelligently noting the evils
of religious divisions both within and without the Church of England. They had been
forced upon their attention in both those
aspects by special circumstances. The
non-administration of the Lord's Supper
has been prominently put forward as an
objection against the work at Metlakahtla. He could emphatically state that it
was not the divine memorial itself that
the natives refused. There were things
connected with it which they could not
understand in the light of God's word—
their only rule of faith. The presence of
the Lord's table in the church is a proof
that they were only waiting till those difficulties should be removed. He would
observe, also, that the refusal of the Episcopal administration of this ordinance
was the act of the natives themselves. Passing to the speeches of the natives, Bishop Cridge would observe that they were
delivered in his presence and that of Senator Macdonald, that "the chiefs" might
know their mind. Twenty-nine of the
elders and chief men of the village spoke
on two evenings. One chord of sorrow
at their being   divided   was touched by
each speaker. They are not yet inured,,
as we are, to this kind of strife. One testimony to Mr. Duncan's unchanging love,
devotion and blameless course was borne
by all. They had known his work, but
not the work of those who were dividing
them. He " had gone through the fire
for the Isimsheans;" he had "walked
through blood and the smoke of guns,,
following his Master.' Each ex, ressed
decided disapprobation of the course pursued by the church party, and almost
every speaker made some scriptural quotation or allusion in support of his remarks; but each address also contained
some distinctive feature. One spoke of
their migration to Metlakahtla from their
old homes to avoid divisions, and now
they were incurring divisions again. Another said that there was work enough
for the churchmen to do in preaching to
the surrounding tribes, without trying to
divide the Metlakahtlans. Several spoke
of the evil effects of their divisions on
tribes, in that some were beginning to
"blame the work of God," which hitherto
they had thought good; others spoke of
the evil effects on their own body.
"Their children were beginning to quarrel over the name of God;" "Brethren
were beginning to hate one another;"
"They were afraid to speak to their children and their brothers." The work
which did all this harm could not be of
God, they said. While it continued.
" there could be no progress as heretofore." • One asked Mr. Macdonald to represent their case to the governor-general.
His Excellency (Earl Dufferin) when at
Metlakahtla some years ago had told
them " to apply to him when in any
trouble, whether from white men or Indians, and he would help them." Another alluded to the church party opening
a store, though they had blamed Mr.
Duncan for doing so. This, he said, was
to tempt them; it was like "holding up a
flower to catch a humming bird/' God
did not so deceive them. The church
party, said another, had told them that
they were only children; " but they, too,
were children, for they were crying to
get something which belonged to their
fellow-children." The same party, said
another, had told them that the " Society I   had right and power over Metla- ~^7T
kahtla. In this, said the speaker, they
surpass our forefathers: our ancestors
sold individual slaves, but these "are not
afraid to buy a whole village." He
would give an extract from his notes of
the peaceful effects of Mr. Duncan's
work and of its appreciation by the natives all around. At a tea given by Senator Macdonald about four hundred sat
down, including a party of Hydahs who
had come to trade, and who were also invited. The band played during the repast. After tea, according to custom,
several speakers, both Tsimsheans and
Hydahs, addressed the meeting. I Before Mr. Duncan came," said one, " the
Tsimsheans and Hvdahs were always at
war. We were always in mortal fear, and
could never meet without bloodshed.
Now all that is changed. We meet as
brethren and are not afraid. It is the
Word of God which Mr. Duncan brought
us that has done this." About thirty
years ago a party of Hydahs lay in ambush on the site of the present village of
Metlakahtla and rushed on a party of
Tsimsheans passing by. After a bloody
fight the Hvdahs carried off a Isimshean
boy and girl. Some years afterwards the
Tsimsheans bought back the boy. He is
now a Christian, and was the interpreter
for the Hydahs at this feast. The girl
became the slave-wife of the Hydah chief,
and bore a son, who, according to custom,
was also a slave. At the request of the
Tsimsheans Mr. Duncan sent to the Hydahs to deliver up the boy. After some
negotiation he was sent back. He is now
a Christian, and one of the fishermen.
JliBtead of receiving a ransom for the boy
the Hydahs themselves had to make com
pensation for the original outrage. "We
know Mr. Duncan," said one of the Hydahs at this meeting, "and will do what
he says. He has punished us, but it has
been for our good. Who are they that
want to send Mr. Duncan away ? We do
not understand it."
It was was moved by Mr. B. W. Pearse
and seconded bv the Rev. J. B. Chan-
That in view of the successful working
of Mr. Duncan's plan of combining industry with religion in his labors at Met-
lakatla, this congregation strongly deprecates the commencement of a rival trade-
store in that village, as tending to
weaken and divide the natives in their
prosperous advance under that plan in
civilization, order, and temporal well-
being.    Carried.
It was then moved by Mr. A. A.
Green, seconded by Mr. W. Wilson,
That while passing no opinion on the
respective merits of church organizations,
this meeting is strongly of opinion that
the endeavor to establish a rival church
at Metlakahtla, contrary to the expressed
will of a large majority of the natives is
not only inimical to the peace and harmony of the village, but also to the
spread of the gospel among the surrounding tribes.    Carried.
Senator Macdonald moved a vote of
thanks to the chairman, Jas. Douglas,
Esq., which being seconded was carried
Similar votes of thanks were moved to
Bishop Cridge and Senator Macdonald.
for their excellent addresses.
The meeting was then closed with a


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