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Settlers, miners and tourists guide : from ocean to ocean by the CPR, the great transcontinental short… Chittenden, Newton H. 1885

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   Settlers, Miners and Crisis Guide
-FROM-
®c&axx to dtean-
-BY THE-
THE GREAT TRANS-CONTINENTAL
I IE
I If   *
TP
t      w -
I -M
I JS4
Through a Region of Unsurpassed Attractions
-FOR-
SETTLER, MINER AND TOURIST,
f&xxtxxiav 14
-OF THE—
((
World's Me for Home, Health ail Pleasure Seekers,
-BY-
NEWTON H.  CHITTENDEN.  gtom ®czan to ©££cm
-BY THE-
GAOAQIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
INTRODUCTION.
pTC HEN, a little more than ten years ago, the Canadian Government
\XJ announced its design of building a railway through the several
Province^ and Territories of the Dominion, across the Continent to the
shores of the Pacific, the world stood amazed at the boldness and
magnitude of the undertaking. It was true a trans-continental line of
railway had been completed, and was in successful operation, by the
American people, but they were over fifty million strong, with corresponding wealth, and their road followed the well-known pathway of
twenty years' emigration to California and Oregon. The Canadians,
with less than one-tenth of their population, with a boldness of conception, and exhibition of enterprise and energy unparalleled in the history
of human achievements, have girded the New World with the iron track
through the unknown region of the vast North West, successfully surmounting the most formidable obstacles ever opposed to railway construction. Since 1875, an army numbering at times not less than*thirty
thousand men have been engaged summer and winter in preparing this
great highway from ocean to ocean.
Upwards of three hundred miles have been cut through solid rock :
the granite mountains have been pierced by fifty tunnels, the total rock
displacement exceeding six million cubic yards, hundreds of rivers have
been spanned, several by magnificent iron bridges over a thousand'feet
in length, and one by the highest wooden bridge in America, 286 feet
above water ; fifteen streams have been diverted from their original
beds by tunnelling through the solid rock. Upon the Nipissing Division, H. Abbott, Esq., manager of construction, under the immediate
supervision of Mr. K. Marapole, assistant manager, six thousand men and
"^ 4 From Ocean to Ocean
seven hundred horses lived in canvas tents on the North Shore of Lake
Superior, in the dead of winter, grading and laying the track upon 190
miles of road, between the first of November and the 30th of April over
two miles a day on an average, with the thermometer ranging from
10 1 to 40 ° below zero. On the 28th of January, 1885, they performed
the unprecedented feat of laying nearly three miles of track with the
thermometer 40 ° below zero : and on the 2nd of February of the same
year, 11,700 feet of track were laid in one day while the thermometer
was below registering point. With such astonishing energy was the
most difiicult portion of the stupendious work prosecuted, that two
hundred and fifty miles were graded and the track laid thereon, between
the first day of June, 1884, and the 20th of March, 1885.
Railways are the most-potent agencies in the marvellous development
of the Western portion of the New World. Stretching from shore to
shore they have extinguished frontier lines, and rapidily created along
their track, settlements representing the best civilization of our age, in
which the school house and church are among the first buildings
erected. By affording cheap and rapid means of communication they
have united the most distant communities in bonds of common interest,
and removed the strongest objection to old time pioneering, the severing
of family ties. Line after line of iron rails have been laid across the
continent, until Los Angeles and New Orleans, San Francisco and
New York, Portland and Minneapolis, and, lastly, Victoria, Montreal,
Quebec and Halifax, formerly separated by a perilous journey of months
are now brought within a few days ride of eaeh other.
The Canadian Pacific and its -branches penetrating the heart of
Manitoba, and traversing the Great Valleys of the Red, Saskatchewan and
Assinaboine Rivers, open up to settlement the most extensive area of
farming and grazing country in America. From the Rocky Mountains
to the Pacific, it passes through a region very rich in precious minerals
coal, lumber, fish and fur-bearing animals, with large bodies of excellent
pastoral, agricultural and fruit growing lands.
The sublime grandeur, unsurpassed beauty, and great variety of
scenery presented, the incomparably rich fields for the hunter and
sportsman, rendered accessible, make it the Royal Tourist's Route of
the continent.
Possessing the healthiest and the most enjoyable climates the year ■
round, Manitoba, the North-West Territory and British Columbia, are
destined to be inhabited by millions of the strongest people of the Anglo
Saxon race. ^
By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 5
The Canadian Pacific Railway is the shortest line between the
navigable waters of the Atlantic and Pacific, and Europe and Asia, and
the only trans-continental road owned and operated by one company.
For these reasons it possesses unrivalled advantages for commanding the through traffic of the North American coasts and from Asiatic
ports.
As a perpetual bond of union between the several Provinces of the
Dominion, and means of defence in time of foreign or civil war, the
wisdom of its construction has already been fully demonstrated by the
rapid transportation to the remote valley of the Saskatchewan of Canadian volunteers for the prompt overthrow of the recent half-breed
rebellion.
The completion of this great enterprise inaugurates a new era of
development for the Dominion of Canada, and the able minds which
conceived it, and the able men who have so rapidly and successfully
engineered and built this great trans-continental highway, have justly
earned the admiration of mankind.
N. H. C.
Ottawa, Can., Sept. 5th, 1885. From Ocean. to Ocean
THE   BUILDING
—OF  THE—
TITHE necessity for such a road through the several Provinces of the
1 Dominion for their better security and more rapid development
becoming apparent, in 187.1 surveying parties were sent out to explore
the comparatively unknown region through which, if possible, it should
pass, and report upon the most favorable route. Over $3,500,000
has been expended upon these preliminary surveys. The location of
the road east of the, Rocky Mountains being much the less difficult, the
work of construction was commenced on the Eastern section in 1874,
and 264 miles completed and in operation in 1880; but from the Rocky
Mountains to the Pacific coast no less than eleven lines, aggregating
upwards 10,000 miles, have been surveyed before determining the best
terminal point and route thereto. Burrard Inlet, has finally been selected as the Mainland terminus, the road crossing the Mountains through
Kicking Horse and Eagle Passes. In 1880 a contract and agreement
was made between the Dominion of Canada and John S. Kennedy of
New York, Richard B. Angus and James J. Hill of St.. Paul, Minn.,
Morton, Rose & Co. of London, England, and John Reinach & Co. of
Paris, France, forming an incorporated company, known as the Syndicate, for the construction, operation, and ownership of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. By the terms of this agreement, that portion of the
railway to be constructed was divided into three sections, the first
extending from Callander Station, near the east end of Lake Nipissing,
to a junction with the Lake Superior section then being built by the
Government, was called the Eastern section ; the second, extending
from Selkirk, on the Red River, to Kamloops, at the Forks of the
Thompson River, was called the Central section, and the third, extending from Kamloops to Port Moody on Burrard Inlet, the Western
section. The company agreed to lay out, construct, and equip in running order, of a uniform guage of 4 ft. ?>% in., the Eastern and Central
sections by the first day of May, 1891.    The company also agreed to By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 7
pay the Government the cost, according to existing contract, for the
100 miles of road then in course of construction from the city of Winnipeg Westward. The Government agreed to complete that portion of
the Western section between Kamloops and Yale by June 30th, 1885,
and also between Yale and Burrard Inlet on or before the first day of
May, 1891, and the Lake Superior section according to contract. The
railway, as constructed under the tenns of the agreement, becomes the
property of the company, and pending the completion of the Eastern
and Central sections the possession and right to work and run the
several portions of the railway already constructed, or as the same shall
be completed, is given by the Government to the company. Upon the
completion of the Eastern and Central sections the Government agreed
to convey to the company (exclusive of equipment) those portions of
the railway constructed, or to be constructed by the Government, and
upon completion of the remainder of the portion of railway to be constructed by the Government, to convey the same to the company, and
the Canadian Pacific Railway thereafter become the absolute property
of the company, which agreed to forever'efficiently maintain, work, and
run the same. The Government further agreed to grant the company
a subsidy in money of $25,000,000, and in land of 25,000.000 acres, to
be subdivided as follows :—
MONEY SUBSIDY—CENTRAL  SECTION.
1,350 miles.—1st 900 miles, at $10,000 per mile $ 9,000,000
2nd 450      "        x3!333      "            6,000,000
$> 1,5,000,000
EASTERN  SECTION.
650 miles at $15,384 61 $10,000,000
$25,000,000
LAND  SUBSIDY—CENTRAL  SECTION.
1st 900 miles at 12.500 acres per mile  , •  11,250,000
2nd 450      "     16,666.67 acres   "         7,500,000
18,750,000
EASTERN  SECTION.
650 miles at 9,615.35 acres per mile  6,250,000
25,000,000 8 From Ocean to Ocean
Upon the construction and completion of, and regular running of
trains upon any portion of the railway, such as the traffic should require,
not less than twenty miles in length, the Government agreed to pay and
grant to the company the subsidies applicable thereto. The Government also granted to the company the lands required for the road-bed
of the railway, and for its stations, station grounds, work shops, dock
ground, and water frontage, buildings, yards, etc., and other appurtenances required for its convenient and effectual construction and operation, and agreed to admit, free of duty, all steel rails, fish plates, spikes,
bolts, nuts, wire, timber, and all material for bridges to be used in the
original construction of the railway and of a telegraph line in connection therewith.
The Company's Land Grant comprises every alternate section of
640 acres, extending back twenty-four miles deep on each side of the .
railway from Winnipeg to Jasper House, and where such sections (the
uneven numbered) are not fairly fit for settlement on account of the
prevalence of lakes and water stretches, the deficiency thereby caused
to make up the 25,000,000 acres, may be selected by the company from
the tract known as the fertile belt lyirg between parallels 49 and 37
degrees of North latitude or elsewhere, at the option of the company,
of alternate sections extending back twenty-four miles deep on each
side of any branch line, or line of railway by them located. The company may also, with the consent of the Government, select any lands
in the North-West Territory not taken up to supply such deficiency.
The company have the right, from time to time, to lay out, construct,
equip, maintain, and work branch lines of railway from any point or
points within the territory of the Dominion. It was further agreed by
the Dominion Parliament that for the period of twenty years no railway
should be constructed South of the Canadian Pacific Railway, except
such line as shall run South-West, or to the Westward of South-West,
nor to within fifteen miles of latitude forty-nine degrees, and that all
stations, and station grounds, work shops, buildings, yards, and other
property, rolling stock, and appurtenances required and used for construction and working thereof, and the capital stock of the company,
shall be forever free from taxation by die Dominion, or by any Province hereafter to be established, or by any Municipal Corporation
therein, and the lands of the company in the North-West Territory,
until they are either sold or occupied, shall also be free from such taxation for twenty years after the grant thereof from the Crown.
The Canadian Pacific Railway now comprises the following roads By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 9
the Pembina Mountain Branch of which is being extended 60 miles
the present season :—
TRUNK   LINE.
Miles.
Montreal to Callander  34c
Callander to Port Arthur  657
Port Arthur to Red River, opposite Winnipeg  428
Red River to Savonas' Ferry  ^252
Savonas' Ferry to Burrard Inlet  213
2,895
BRANCH   LINES   ACQUIRED   AND   BUILT.
Miles.
St. Lin, (Ste-Therese Junction to St. Lin)   15
St. Jerome, (St. Lin Junction to St. Jer6me)  n
St. Eustache  8
Aylmer, (Hull to Aylmer)  7^
Brockville  45/^
Perth  12
Algoma  94^
Pembina (Emerson to Winnipeg)  64^
Colville Landing  2
Selkirk -.  22
Stonewall, (Air Line Junction to Stonewall)  18^4
Pembina Mountain  102^
Gretna  14
Emerson, West Lynn  15^
43 2^
Total Main Line and Branches 3,327^
The road-bed, bridges, rolling stock, and general equipment are excellent, imsurpassed by any railway on the continent.
The total cost of construction is about $140,000,000 of which sum
over $30,000,000 is represented by the rolling stock, workshops,
steamers, elevators, stations and other terminal facilities of the company.
The following table of comparative distance shows the great advantages possesed by the Canadian Pacific Railway, over all competing
lines for the trans-continental and Asiatic traffic ; 10
From Ocean to Ocean
TABLE   OF  COMPARATIVE   DISTANCES.
Statute
Miles.
Main Line—Montreal to Vancouver.    All Rail route  2,898
From New York to Vancouver, via Brockville and Canadian
Pacific Railway  3'T5^
From New York to. San Francisco, via Central and Union
Pacific Railways, and shortest connecting lines through
the United States   3,331
From Liverpool to Montreal  3>°43
From Liverpool to New York  3>43:
From Liverpool to Vancouver, via Montreal and Canadian
Pacific  Railway  '.  5>94x
From Liverpool to San Francisco, via shortest connecting
lines in the United States  6,762
From Liverpool to Yokohama (Japan), via Montreal and
Canadian Pacific Railway 10,977
From Liverpool to Yokohama (Japan), via New York and
San Francisco u>99°
©cmaMitn fjtcwrftc l^itUwmT*
directors:
GEORGE STEPHEN, President, Montreal.
WM. C. VAN HORNE, Vice-President, Montreal.
RICHARD B. ANGUS, Montreal.
Hon. DONALD A. SMITH, Montreal.
JOHN TURNBULL, Montreal.
H. STAFFORD NORTHCOTE, London.
PASCOE DU P. GRENFELL, London.
CHARLES D. ROSE, London.
BARON J. de REINACH, Paris.
R. V. MARTINSEN, Amsterdam and
New York.
W. L. SCOTT, Erie, Pa., U. S. A.
CHARLES DRINK WATER, Secretary, Montreal.
HENRY BEATTY, Manager Steamship Lines, Toronto.
J. M. EGAN, Gen'l Sup't, ARCHER BAKER, Gen'l Sup't,
("Western Division), Winnipeg. (Eastern Division), Montreal.
WM. WHYTE, Gen'l Sup't, (Ontario Division), Toronto.
Agents op the Company in New York :
J.   KENNEDY   TODD   &   CO.,   63   WILLIAM   STREET.
Agents op the Company in London, England :
MORTON,   ROSE   &.   CO.,   BARTHOLOMEW   LANE,   E.   C. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. n
©ije dominion of fficmctim,
WHICH we are about to traverse from ocean to ocean, is a vast
region, 3,500 miles in extent from East to West, and 1400 miles
from North to South, comprising about one-sixteenth of the land surface
of the globe. It embraces the whole of British North America, except
the Island of Newfoundland and the Peninsula of Labrador, containing
an area of 3,470,392 square miles—nearly as large as the whole of
Europe—and consisting of the Provinces of Prince Edward Island,
Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, British
Columbia, and the North-West Territories, comprising the districts of
Keewatin, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Athabasca.
The most prominent physical features of the Dominion are the
great chain of lakes which form the boundary line between Canada and
the United States, and which, with the St. Lawrence River, afford more
than 2,000 miles of inland water communication, the vast plains of
the interior, and the Rocky and Cascade Ranges of Mountains of
British Columbia. Compared with the whole, the inhabited part of the
Dominion is small, consisting mainly of a strip extending from the
Atlantic to the Pacific, and North about a hundred miles from the
international boundary line ; its population being about 4,324,000. The
Dominion of Canada is a Confederation, in which each of the Provinces
has its own Legislature, presided over by a Lieut.-Governor, appointed
by the General Government. There is no established religion, and an
excellent system of free schools are liberally supported by the
Provincial Government. The yearly exports of the Dominion, consisting
chiefly of grain and lumber, amount to about $100,000,000; annual
revenue upwards of $30,000,000, from which subsidies are made to the
several Provinces, as follows :—
o
Ontario  $1,196,87
Quebec  959>252
New Brunswick  427>349
Nova Scotia  4°5>°82
British Columbia  298,019
Prince Edward Island  i53>288
Manitoba  105,653
IBpllB
Montreal, Toronto,  Quebec,  Ottawa  (the capital),  Halifax, St.
John's, Winnipeg, and Victoria are the chief cities of the Dominion. 12
From Ocean to Ocean
ALIFAX.
ALTHOUGH Quebec is at present the Eastern terminus of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, Halifax will be the ocean port of entry
for passengers and freight over this great highway, during that portion
of the year when ice closes the navigation of the St. Lawrence River.
For this reason we shall begin at this Atlantic sea port, and briefly
describe the principal cities and towns along the entire 3,600 miles of
road to Vancouver, on the Pacific, and dwell sufficiently upon the
topography, resources, and climates of the vast region -it traverses, to
enable the newcomer to form an intelligent opinion concerning this
most valuable and interesting portion of the New World.
Nova Scotia, of which Halifax is the capital, contains an area of
20,907 square miles, a population of 440,572, and exports over f>600,000
worth of codfish, mackerel, and salmon, coal, gypsun, &c, valued at
$1,000,000. Halifax, the capital, and next to Quebec, the strongest
fortified city in the Dominion, is situated on one of the best harbor's in
America. It contains many fine public and private buildings, Her
Majesty's Dockyard, and is the Naval Station of the North American
and West Indian fleets. From Halifax to Liverpool is only 2,480 miles,
500 miles less than from New York. Regular lines of steamships run to
the principal European and American ports.
lit I By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
%\t Intercolonial Jjtaidoajr jof (Janata,
—KST> THE—
EASTERN    EXTENSION,    AND   P.   E.   ISLAND    SYSTEM,
0WNED and operated by the Dominion Government, comprise
1,181 miles of road, of which 678 miles is embraced in the main
line, from Halifax to Quebec. The whole is under the management of
Collingwood Schreiber, Esq., Chief Engineer, and Hon. John Pope,
Acting Minister of Railways and Canals, Ottawa. The general offices
are at Moncton, New Brunswick, and D. Pottinger, Esq., is superintendent of the entire system. Those several lines traverse an extensive
sea-board, reaching all of the most popular watering places and
summer resorts of the North Atlantic Coast
Game and fish abound in the region traversed. Cariboo, moose,
deer, bear, geese, duck, brant, trout, and the choicest shellfish.
Bedford, Pictou, New Glasgow, Amherst, Sackville, Dorchester,
Shediac, Moncton, Sussex, St. John's, Chatham, New Castle, Bathurst,
Dalhousie, Campbelltown, Rivier du Loup, St. Thomas, and Point Levis
are the most important cities and towns on this line. The Intercolonial
Railway makes close connection with the Royal Mail Steamers of the
Allan Line at Halifax (fortnightly), for Newfoundland, Queenstown, and
Liverpool; with Cunard Line (monthly) for Bermuda and Jamaica; and
at Quebec with Allan and Donaldson Clyde Lines for Glasgow, and
Dominion Line to and from Liverpool; also for Prince Edward and
Cape Breton Islands, and all connecting lines of railway. r
14
From Ocean to Ocean
CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES ON MAIN LINE,
AND DISTANCES BETWEEN HALIFAX AND QUEBEC.
Stations. Mis.
Halifax  0
Four Mile House  5
Bedford  9
"Windsor Junction  14
Shubenacadie  40
Truro. (Din. R'm)  62
Belmont  70
Debert   ;&;.... 74
East Mines  76
Loudonderry  79
Wentworth  91
Westchester  96
Greenville  97
Thomson  104
Oxford  108
River Philip  Ill
Salt.Springs  115
Spring Hill  122
Athol  127
Maccan  131
Nappan  143
Amherst. (Din. R'm).. 139
Aulac  145
Sackville  148
Dorchester  160
Rockland  163
Memramcook  168
Painsec Junction  180
Moncton (Din. R'm) A 188
St. John D 0
Moncton A 89
Moncton D 188
Berry's Mills  196
Canaan  207
Coal Branch  216
Stations. Mis.
Weldford   255
Kent Junction  234
Rogersville   245
Barnaby River ■ 256
Chatham Junction.... 260
Derby..!..  263
Newcastle  266
Beaver Brook  276
Bartibogue  287
Red Pine  290
Gloucester  298
Bathurst ...'.'?&'..  313
Petite Roche    322
Belledune  330
Jacguet River  339
Ne-w Mills  348
Charlo  354
Dalhousie Junction ... 364
Campbelton. (D. R.)... 373
Moffat's  379
Metapedia.  386
Mill Stream   396
Assametquaghan  407
Causapscal  421
Amqui  434
Cedar Hall   442
Sayabec   449
St. Moise  456
Tartague  459
Little Metis  469
St. Octave  473
Ste. Flavie  47S
Ste. Luce  486
St.Anaclet&F'th'rPt. 491
Rimouski  496
Stations. Mis.
Sacre Cceur  500
Bic  507
St. Fabian  516
St. Simon  526
Trois Pistoles (D. R)... 535
St. Eloie  540
IsleVerte  545
St. Arsene  553
Cacouna  556
Riv. du Loup    562
Notre D. du Portage.. 568
St. Alexandre    574
St. Andre  579
Ste. Hele'ne >.. 583
St. Paschal  589
St. Phillippe d'Neri... 595
Rivere Ouelle  599
Ste. Anne  605
St. Roche  605
Elgin Road  616
St., Jean Port Joli  620
Trois Saumons   624
L'Islet    628
L'AnseaGile  634
Cap St. Ignace  637
St. Thomas  641
St. Pierre  646
St. Francois  649
St. Valier  654
St. Michel      657
St. Charles Junction.. 663
Harlaka Junction  672
Levis  677
Point Levis 1   „_g
Quebec (Ferry J     ' By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 15
QUEBEC.
QUEBEC, the theatre of the most thrilling war events enacted in the
New World, the strongest fortified city in America, the most
antique European and picturesque in appearance, occupies a magnificent situation on the left bank of the St. Lawrence River, 120 miles
from its mouth. Here the great navigator, Jacques Cartier, landed
three hundred and forty years ago, Champlain ,taking possession on
behalf of the French Government, in 1608.
Five times has the city been besieged or threatened by invading
armies, twice surrendered ; first in 1629 by Champlain to Sir David
Kirke, but soon restored to the French, and again to the English on the
18th of September, 1769, after the memorable battle in which both
commanders, Wolfe and Montcalm, fell covered with military glory.
Six years later, the Americans under General Arnold made an
unsuccessful assault upon this stronghold, in which Montgomery was
killed. But for a round century Quebec has enjoyed an uninterrupted
peace, though suffering severely from conflagrations.
In 1834, memorable as the cholera year, the Castle of St.
Louis was destroyed by fire ; in 1845 tne whole of St. Roch; in June of
the same year the greater part of St. John's. Again, in 1881, the latter
suburbs and also those of Montcalm were more than half burned over.
In 1846, a theatre and forty-five people were burned; in 1853, the Parliament House j its aggregate losses by fire amounting to over four million
dollars.
Quebec was never laid out j il evidently grew up by natural
selection-, along the original trails, having the most charmingly irregular
and labyrinthian streets in America. It presents the best study of
European architecture and manners to be found in this country.
The business portion, and much of the residence, is built in massive
style of stone and brick, generally without any attempt at ornamentation,
though there are many fine imposing structures. Most of the objects of
greatest interest in Quebec are within easy walking distance for those
ordinarily strong of limb and lung. The magnificent Dufferin-Durham
Terrace commanding one of the grandest views on the globe, is reached
6 i6
From  Ocean to Ocean
by an incline elevator, two hundred feet in height.     Here stands the
Wolfe-Montcalm  monument, the ruins of the Castle of St. Louis, and
near at hand the English Cathedral, which occupies the ground where
Cartier assembled his  followers  on their first visit, in   1635.    The
Citadel of Cape Diamond, the strongest fortification on the continent,
open to visitors after half-past twelve each day, may next be visited ;
then the Plains of Abraham, the Towers, La Maison du Chien d'Or.
Market Square, the Basilica, the Battery, St. John's Gate, the Ursuline
Convent.     The Hotel Dieu Convent and Hospital, Government Buildings and churches are all within a radius of one mile square.    The
environs of the city embrace glorious landscapes and many points of
great interest.    The magnificent falls of Montmorency, over 200 feet in
height, are six miles distant, the village of L'Ange Gardien (10 miles),
Chateau Richer (15 miles), the Shrine and Fall of St. Anne (20 miles),
Charlesbourg (4 miles), Chateau Bigot (7 miles), Lake Beaufort  (8
miles), the Indian village of Lorette (9 miles), Lake St. Charles (12
miles), Lake Calvaire (12 miles), Point Levis and the forts opposite
Quebec, the Chaudiere  Falls  near South  Quebec, and many other
places of interest lie within a day's ride of Quebec. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
17
MONTREAL.
MONTREAL, the chief commercial metropolis, and most populous
city in the Dominion of Canada, is situated on Montreal Island,
at the 'confluence of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers, about 300
miles from the ocean. It is the principal entrepot, manufacturing and
distributing centre in Canada.
Seven lines of railway — the Canadian Pacific, Grand Trunk,
North Shore, Montreal, Portland and Boston, Vermont Central, SDuth-
Eastern, Central and Champlain —radiate with their connections through
all parts of the continent.
From May until November, the largest ocean steamers sail thence
for London, Liverpool, Glasgow, Antwerp, Halifax, Boston and New
York.
Montreal is well built, containing a large number of magnificent
structures of stone, brick and iron, among which the following deserve
special notice : The Bank of Montreal, Parish Church of Notre Dame,
Trinity Church, Post Office, the Church of Notre Dame de Lourdes,
Church of the Gesu, Hotel Dieu, the Young Men's Christian Association building, City Hall, Court House, Windsor Hotel, Bonsecour's
Market, Christ Church, and Cathedral.
Mount Royal Park Observatory commands a panorama of exceeding grandeur, containing the most glorious landscapes of mountain,
valley, river and lake | the Adirondacks of New York, Green Mountains
of Vermont, the rivers and valleys of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa, the
Lake of Two Mountains and St. Louis, and the church spires of no
less than thirteen villages. Mount Royal Cemetery adjoining, is a beautiful Protestant burial place.
Among other objects and places of interest may be mentioned the
great Victoria Bridge over the St. Lawrence, 9,084 feet in length, completed in i860, at a cost of over $6,000,000 ; Roman Catholic Cemetery,
Natural History Society's Museum, Statue of Her Majesty Queen
Victoria, Montreal Water Works, and Presbyterian College.
The city contains a population of about 150,000 souls. It is 180
miles from Quebec, 120 from Ottawa, and 333 from Toronto. i8
From Ocean to Ocean
OTT
0TTAWA, the capital of the Dominion of Canada, is situated on the
Ottawa River, 120 miles from Montreal, 228 miles from Toronto,
and 120 miles from Kingston. It occupies a central position amidst
the greatest natural resources of the Province, and is the most important
lumber manufacturing city in the Dominion. The Ottawa River, a
large stream, is navigable for over four hundred miles, and without
interruption from Ottawa to the sea. By the construction of locks at the
falls and rapids of the upper river, and the improvement of the Mattawa
and French rivers, there would be continuous navigation from the Capital
Westward through all the great lakes. The city was founded in 1827, and
incorporated with ten thousand inhabitants in 1854. It now contains a
population of thirty thousand, with an assessed valuation of $12,000,000.
The magnificent Government Buildings, erected at a cost of over five
million dollars, are justly the pride of the Dominion. The Parliament
Library is the most complete and perfect in all its appointments in
America. The Senate Chamber, House of Commons, Patent Office,
Geological Museum, and Fisheries Exhibit richly repay a visit. The
dome of the Parliament Building commands extensive and most magnificent views of the Ottawa River, the beautiful suburban villages, the
Falls of Chaudiere, Suspension Bridge, and the distant Laurentian
Mountains. Ottawa, so charming in itself, is also the point of departure
over many of the most interesting tourist's and health seeker's routes in
the Province. The Ottawa River, from its source to the St. Lawrence,
affords a succession of splendid views, wild and picturesque, embracing
foaming cataracts and rapids, beautiful lakes, green islands, wooded
banks and valley landscape, of exceeding beauty. The country, drained
by the head waters of the Ottawa, abounds with cariboo, moose,
Virginia deer, bear and grouse, the lakes with white fish, pickerel, black
bass, perch, and the streams with trout. There are several medicinal
mineral springs within twelves miles. Rideau Hall, the residence of
the Governor-General, occupies a finely wooded park of 80 acres in the
suburban village of New  Edinburgh.    The Post Office,  City  Hall, By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 19
Court House, Russell House, Grand Union, Stadacona Hall, French-
Canadian Institute are all fine massive blocks of brick and stone. Its
churches, several of which are very fine, have cost over half a million
dollars. The city has a good water supply, excellent drainage, and
electric lights. The Canadian Pacific, the Canada Atlantic, the St.
Lawrence and Ottawa, the Toronto and Quebec Railways, and the
Ottawa River Navigation Company afford direct, easy and rapid transit
to and from all parts of the continent. M
20
From Ocean to Ocean
TORONTO.
TORONTO, the capital of the Province of Ontario, and the second
largest city in the Dominion, is finely situated on a sheltered harbor on the shore of Lake Ontario, 333 miles from Montreal and 228
miles from Ottawa. The city was founded by General Simcoe in 1795,
and incorporated with 9,000 souls in 1834. The last census shows a
population of 127,000, or an increase of 1,270 per cent, during a period
of fifty years, and an assessed valuation of $70,000,000.
Commanding the trade of an extensive area of the richest part of
the Dominion, already a great railway centre, with superior advantages
for exportation and manufacture, there is every reason to expect that
Toronto will continue to augment in population and business for many
years to come.
The city is regularly laid out, well built, and distinguished for the
number and excellence of its churches and educational institutions.
Ascending to the top of St. James Cathedral spire, I was not much surprised when the janitor told me that it was 19 feet higher than any in
America, and overtopped 70 feet, the next tallest church in the
Dominion being 319 feet above the pavement. This church contains
also the largest clock in the country, including a chime of magnificent
bells. Its enterprising citizens are about building a million dollar City
Hall and Court House, and the Provincial Government contemplate
spending an equal sum in the erection of Parliament Buildings.
The city is provided with all the concomitants of the most
progressive city of our times; a free public library with 35,000 volumes,
Grand Opera House and Music Hall, Museum, Public Parks, thirteen
general Banking Houses, five daily and 22 weekly newspapers. The
manufacture of agricultural implements is one of its most important
industries. The Canadian Pacific Railway, Grand Trunk, North and
North-Western, the Credit Valley and the I. G. and B. line, and lake
steamers meet every possible requirement for direct and rapid communication with all parts of America and the world. By the Canadian Pacific Railway, 21
|rom Montreal to tyoti glvtljur,
NINE   HUNDRED   AND   NINETY   MILES.
DURING the summer months the traveller by the Canadian Pacific
Railway has the choice of two routes between Montreal and Port
Arthur. One by rail via Toronto, 450 miles to Owen Sound, and
thence by the splendid Clyde built steel steamships of the company, the
Algoma, Alberta, and Athabasca, 500 miles through Lakes Huron
and Superior to Thunder Bay; and the other, an all rail line via Ottawa,
and along the North Shore of the Great Inland Sea.
The latter route follows up the Ottawa River to Mattawa, skirts
the north shore of Lake Nipissing, traverses the water shed drained by
the streams flowing into Hudson Bay, reaches the summit at Birch
Lake and follows down the valley of the White River, which flows
therefrom 65 miles to the Pic River \ and from thence runs nearly the
entire distance to Port Arthur, 195 miles along the shore of Lake
Superior. Although the highest elevations reached are only about
1,500 feet above the Lake, this route affords many of the grandest
views in the New World. From Pic Westward occurs the wonderful
stretch of road cut through the solid mountain, in places nearly one
hundred feet deep, then running through long tunnels, over great
bridges, and winding around at the base of high overhanging granite
cliffs. The country along this portion of the route is mainly rocky and
covered with a forest of pine, tamarac, birch and poplar, when not
denuded by forest fires. On the shore of the Lakes, and on Indian and
other rivers, there is a considerable quantity of marketable timber.
The road crosses the famous trout stream Nipigon, 67 miles from
Port Arthur, within sight of the old Hudson Bay Post of Red Rock.
The Nipigon River rises in a Lake of the same name, commencing 27
miles North and extending for about 70 miles, being over 50 miles
wide, and in places 900 feet deep. It discharges through a chain of
seven lakes with rapids between. There are 560 Chippewa Indians
and a Hudson Bay Post on its shores. 22
From Ocean to Ocean
Mr. Flanagan, the agent at Red Rock Hudson Bay Post, showed
me a register containing the names of parties who have resorted
here to enjoy its unequalled trout fishing, the Earl and Countess
of Dufferin heading the list, August 3rd, 1874. They also recorded
the number and weight of trout caught, which showed a remarkably high average, the fish ranging from 2 to 6 lbs., a 6^ pounder
being credited to John M. Beckwith, Bishop of Georgia.
LAKE  SUPERIOR SECTION.
Names of Stations between Biscotasing and Port Arthur, and their Distances
from Montreal.
Milage
Name. from
Montreal.
Biscotasing  534.3
Duchesnay  542.3
Ramsey  549.3
Larehwood  556.3
"Woman River  564.3
"Winnebago  572.3
Rldout  581.3
Kinogama  590.3
Nemegosenda  599.3
Lac Poulin  605.8
Chapleau, Division Yard  614.3
Esther  631.8
Pardee  629.3
Brunei   638.3
Windermere  645.3
Bolckow  652.8
Dalton  660.3
Carry  667.8
Missahabie  675.3
Tnrnbull   685.8
Otter  694.5
Williams  702.5
Grassett  710.3
Girdwood  719.8
Amyot  727.5
O'Brien  737.5
White River, Division Yard  747.0
Denison  754.5
Bremner  762.0
Milage
Name. from
Montreal.
Ouimet  768.8
Trudeau  777.0
Montizambert  785.7
Melgund  795.5
Heron Bay  803.5
Peninsula  812.0
Stewart  822.5
Middleton  830.5
Steel Lake  839.7
Jackfish  848.0
Black River   858.3
Schrieber, Divisional Yard  865.3
Rossport  880.0
Pay's Plat  888.0
Gravel River    895.0
Norris  905.0
Mazokama  914.0
Fire Hill  922.0
Nepigon  929.0
RedRock  932.0
Sturgeon River  943.0
Wolf River  951.0
Pearl Siding  958.0
McVicar's  961.0
Loon Lake  969.0
McKenzie's  982.0
McLean's   990.0
Port Arthur  996.0 o
a
H
O
a
>
Q
3
DO
Cj     IB
Q
> 1*1 EHiBiaJ j&a "Sfii'W 24 From Ocean to Ocean
PORT ARTHUR.
TT7HE Lake Superior terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway
1 occupies a magnificent situation upon the West shore of Thunder
Bay, 996 miles from Montreal, 429 from Winnipeg, and 180 miles
North of Duluth. Thunder Bay is a fine harbor, eighteen miles in
length and thirteen miles wide, well protected from storms by the off-lying
Pic, Welcome, Royal Islands, Thunder Cape, and a Government breakwater. The town rises gradually from the lake shore, over smooth rolling
hills lightly wooded with pine, poplar and birch, their summits at elevation
from two to three hundred feet, commanding grand views of the harbor
islands and the bold face of Mount McKay, which rises almost perpendicular twelve hundred feet above the picturesque Kaministiquia
River. The drainage is excellent, and water good and abundant. The
site was first occupied in 1869, forming the base of supplies for the
opening of the Dawson Red River trail, over which, by many numerous
and difficult portages, General Wolseley led his victorious army, for the
suppression of the Red River rebellion, in 1870. Here, in 1875, was
also commenced the construction of the Port Arthur and Winnipeg
Division of the Canadian Pacific Railway, thus inaugurating the most
stupendous undertaking in railway building the world has ever seen.
In 1882, the place contained a population of about 1600, which augmented so rapidly that, two years later, Port Arthur became an incor-
corporated city of 5,000 souls, Thomas Marks, Esq., being its first
Mayor.
Besides the extensive railway, Government and private docks and
wharves, the Northern Hotel, City Hall, Anglican and Presbyterian
Churches, C. P. R. Railway depot and elevator, and Marks & Co's
trading house, are the most conspicuous improvements. The Canadian
Pacific Railway have just completed a new elevator, on the Kaministiquia River, near the old Hudson Bay Post, Fort William, having a
capacity of one million bushels. The Northern is a magnificent
hotel establishment of palatial proportions, and accommodations
throughout, fronting immediately on the Bay, and central to the
incomparable health and pleasure resorts  of  this  region.    A fleet "0
O
30
H
>
3J
H
I
C
3D
it "■—■
25 From Ocean to Ocean
of over twenty steam vessels run regularly between Port Arthur, Owen
Sound, Collingwood, Samia, Duluth, and the numerous intermediate
points. The new steel steamships Ajthabasca, Alberta, and Algoma,
each 262 feat long, 38 feet wide, with a tonage of 1780 tons, built on
the Clyde in 1883 expressly for the C.^P. R. lake service, rank with the
finest ships afloat, being strong, powerful, and first-class in all their
appointments. The Collingwood and Lake Superior line comprising the
fine iron steamers Campana, the City of Owen Sound, and Francis
Smith, run between Duluth, Port Arthur, and Collingwood, touching at
Nepigon, McKay Harbor, Jack Fish Bay, Peninsula Harbor, Herron
Bay, Michipacoten Island, and River Sault St. Marie, Gordon River,
Bruce Mines, Little Current, Kilkarnie, Owen Sound, and Meaford,
making the round trip in about ten days; the fares being 117.50 and
$11. The Marks line comprising the passenger steamer E. M. Foster,
runs between Port Arthur, Herron Bay, and intermediate points.
The City of Montreal, a freight boat, runs according to consignments ;
the steam tug Sligo and Midland River, and the fine new ferry and excursion steamer Kakabeka, which plies several times daily between Port
Arthur, Fort William, and Point Meuron, all on the Kaministiquia River,
from six to twelve miles distant. Smith & Mitchel, contracting butchers
for the C. P. R., own the steamboat Butcher Boy, which runs from
Port Arthur to Owen Sound and Meaford, and the Butcher Maid, used
for irregular service, excursion parties, etc. Graham Horn & Co. own
the freight and passenger steamers Ocean and Prussia, and the steam
barge Kincardine, with varying routes. The Western Express Line
Co., of four steamers—the Myles, St. Magnus, Arcadia, and Canada—
carrying passengers and freight, make regular trips between Montreal
and Duluth, connecting with Port Arthur boats. The steamer R. G.
Stewart makes regular trips every Tuesday and Friday between Port
Arthur and Duluth, touching at Susie Island (40 miles), Pidgeon River
(40 miles), Grand Portage (45 miles), Grand Mary's (70 miles), Beacon
Bay(i46 miles), and Agate Bay (156 miles).    Fare, $6 and $3.
I am indebted to Captain Tripp, of Port Arthur, one of the
pioneer ship masters of this greatest of inland seas, for much information concerning steamer service thereon.
Port Arthur is the most attractive and central point for tourists,
health seekers, and sportsmen visiting this region. Frequent excursions
are made up the charming Kaministiquia River, twelve miles to Point
Meuron, to Kakabeka Falls, twelve miles beyond, through the Victoria
Island Channel to Pigeon River and Falls, at the international boundary By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
27
line, a round trip of 80 miles \ to Washington Harbor, around Isle
Royal, about 150 miles, and to Nepigon River, the famous trout stream5
95 miles by water and 67 by rail. Here a party recently caught 18
red speckled trout, weighing respectively as follows:—1st 3 lbs., 2nd
4, 3rd 2%, 4th 3, 5th 4%, 6th 33^, 7th 4#, 8th 2%, 9th 3#, 10th 3,
nth m&i 12th 2>%, 13th 3%, 14th 2%, 15th 334, 16th 2, 17th 2%,
18th 2%:. On the 4lh July, 1883, T. H. Rockwell, Esq., with W. C.
Egan and party, caught in 40 minutes 5 speckled trout, weighing 5 lbs.,
6 lbs., 5 lbs., 5^ lbs., and 4^ lbs. respectively.
Carp and McKenzie Rivers, 12 miles from Port Arthur, and Blind
River on Thunder Bay, 25 miles distant, are also excellent trout streams.
Mr. F. S. WileyJ Manager of the Northern, and party, recently caught 50
speckled trout in three to four hours, on the latter stream, weighing
from three to four pounds each.
Grouse are numerous in the vicinity, and Cariboo found within
twelve to fifteen miles.
The climate of Port Arthur is one of its greatest attractions, generally deliciously cool and invigorating during the summer months, with a
magnificent fall, prolonged to the middle of November, the winters
being cold but temperature uniform, dry and enjoyable. .
2 8 From Ocean to Ocean
THE   SILVER,  GOLD,
—AND-
©tljw iptime of £c*ke gxtpeviov.
w
'HIS region abounds in deposits of precious minerals, now 'made
accessable by the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway.
In proportion to the prospecting done, and the developments made no
field offers greater inducements for the mining capitalist and prospector.
Silver Islet, 20 miles from Port Arthur, has yielded $3,000,000 since its
discovery, in 1869.    A vein, at first just visible above water, in a low
ledge, 95 feet in length, a shaft has been sunk, 1260 feet beneath the
Lake Superior.    The Huronian gold and silver mine, 100 miles West
of Port Arthur, discovered in 1883, is working 50 men and a ten-stamp
mill.   The vein is five feet wide, and the shaft now down 150 feet.   This
mine produces sylvanite, the rarest of known minerals, composed of
gold, silver and tellurium, essays from which have yielded $6,000 per ton.
The Rabbit Mountain silver mine, 25 miles from Port Arthur, discovered in 1882, is working a vein from five to ten feet in width, from
which $2,500 worth of high grade ore has been shipped to  Newark,
New Jersey.    A shaft has been sunk 140 feet, and there is now 2,000
tons of ore on the dump.    Nuggets of silver weighing ten pounds have
been found in this mine.    The Silver Mountain mine, discovered in 1884,
and developments commenced in  1885, contains a three feet vein of
very rich native and black silver.    It is situated 17 miles West of Port
Arthur.
The Beaver Mine, discovered in 1883, is situated about two miles
from the Rabbit Mountain. The vein, a strong, true fissure cut in a
bluff 300 feet high, has been tunnelled 250 feet, yielding a large quantity
of both high and low grade ores, easily worked. Three miles from
Rabbit Mountain, the Twin city silver mine has been opened, exposing
a high grade of smelting and white vein stone stamp rock. Adjoining
Twin city, the Silver Creek mine, upon which work was first commenced By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 29
in 1885, is already producing both native and black silver in paying
quantities.
The Zenith Zinc mine, situated North-East of Nepigon Bay,
contains a very extensive and solid massive deposit of zinc blende,
yielding 50 per cent, of metalic zinc. Work was commenced upon
the mine in 1884, and large quantities of zinc are now in the dump.
Port Arthur will be the principal out-fitting point and base of supplies
for all this extensive and rich mineral region, and may reasonably expect
to derive a large trade therefrom in the near future.
I am under obligation to Mr. Keefer, Barrister, M.A., LL.B., of
Port Arthur, for the valuable data respecting the important mineral
discoveries herein noted.
JESijfc 3°
From Ocean to Ocean
MANITOBA.
'
LEAVING Lake Superior, we enter Manitoba, the fifth in the great
tier of Provinces, from the Atlantic Westward, comprising the
Dominion of Canada. It comprises an area of 123,200 square miles,
being five hundred miles from East to West, and 280 miles from North
to South. Before becoming a Province in 1870, it was occupied almost
exclusively by Indians, French and English half-breeds, but since the
Confederation white settlers have poured in, until now its population
exceeds 65,000. It embraces the greatest extent of fertile prairie lands in
one body, adapted to both agricultural and grazing, on the face of the
globe. It is well watered by the great rivers of the North-West, the
Saskatchewan, Assinaboine, Red, and their tributaries, and numerous
Lakes, of which Manitoba Lake, the largest, is over 100 miles in
length. The Saskatchewan is navigable a thousand miles to Edmonton,
the Assinaboine 600 miles to Fort Ellis, and the Red River 400
miles to Fargo. These distances follow the course of the streams.
Lake Winnipeg, over 300 miles in length and about 80 miles wide, lies
partly in Manitoba. The great natural products of this region are
wheat, cattle, butter and cheese. The average yield of wheat is greater
than in any other part of America. It is the best pasture land in North
America.
The climate is the most healthful in the Dominion, the winter
severe but dry, uniform, sunny and enjoyable; snowfall light; and
rainfall sufficient. Spring opens early, and crops are as sure as in any
portion of the country. All vegetable and small fruits commonly
grown in the North temperate zone flourish here. Winnipeg is the
capital of Manitoba, the residence of the Lieut-Governor, sfet of
learning, and centre of all her most important interests. 1
CITIES, TOWNS AND VILLAGES ON THE WESTERN DIVISION,
From Port Arthur to 1st Crossing of Columbia, 1462 miles,
WITH    DISTANCES   BETWEEN   STATIONS.
Stations.
Port Arthur....
Fort William...
MuriUo	
Kaministiquia
Finmark	
Buda	
Nordland	
Linkooping.....
Savanne 	
Upsala	
Carlstadt	
Bridge River ..
English River.
Mis
0
6
17
. 28
37
44
55
65
76
86
94
104
116
Martin  124
Bonheur    134
Falcon  145
Ignace  152
Butler   160
Raleigh   170
Tache  180
Brule    190
Wagiboon  202
Barclay  209
Oxdrift   221
Eagle River  231
Vermilion Bay. 241
Gilbert  249
Parrywood  256
Summit  265
Hawk Lake  272
Rossland  289
Rat Portage  297
Keewatin   300
Ostersund  308
Kalmar  320
Ingolf   328
Cross Lake  334
Telford  338
Rennie  349
Darwin  359
"Whitemouth ... 369
Stations.     Mis.
Shelly  375
Monmouth   383
Beausejour  393
Tyndall  400
Selkirk  408
Gonor   414
Bird's Hill   421
Winnipeg  429
Bergen   436
Rosser    441
Meadows  451
Marquette  458
iReaburn  464
Poplar Point ... 470
High Bluff  478
Portage la Pr'e. 485
|Burnside   493
Bagot  500
MacGregor  508
Austin  514
Sidney  522
Melbourne   528
Carberry  535
Sewell  543
Douglas  551
Chater  557
Brandon   562
Kemnay  570
Alexander  578
Griswold   587
Oak Lake  595
Stations.     Mis.
Broadview  693
Oakshela  700
Grenfcll  708
Summerberry.. 715
"Wolseley  723
Sintaluta  731
Indian Head  741
Q,u'Appelle  753
McLean.. ...*....  761
Balgonie   770
Pilot Butte  777
Regina  785
Grand Coulee... 795
Pense  802
Belle Plaine  810
Pasqua  819
Moose Jaw   827
Boharm  835
Caron  843
Mortlach   852
Parkheg  861
Secretan  872
Chaplin  881
Ernfold   890
Morse  900
Herbert  909
Rush Lake  918
Waldeck  925
Aikins  933
Swift Current... 940
Leven  948
"Virden  609 Goose Lake   958
Hargrave   617 Antelope   967
Elkhorn   626 Gull Lake  975
Fleming  640 Cypress  984
Moosomin  648 Sidewood
Red Jacket  6561 Crane Lake ..
Wapella  664
Burrows    672
"Whitewood  678
Perceval   685
CoUey 	
Maple Creek..
Kincarth 	
Forres	
994
1004
1015
1026
1030
1044
Stations.
"Welsh	
Irvine	
Dunmore	
Medicine Hat..
Stair	
Bowell	
Suffleld	
Langevin	
Kininvie	
Tilley 	
Bantry ,
Cassils	
Southesk	
Lathom 	
Bassano	
Crowfoot	
Cluny	
Gleichen	
Namaka.,	
Strathmore	
Cheadle 	
Langdon	
Shepard	
Calgary	
Keith	
Cochrane	
Radnor	
Morley ,..
Kananaskis	
The Gap	
Canmore	
Duthil	
Banff	
Castle Mount'n
Silver City	
Eldon	
Laggan	
Stephen (Sum
mitR. Mts.)
First Cross'g,
ColumbiaR.
Mis.
1057
1067
1080
1089
1097
1104
1116
1124
1133-
1142
1152
1162
1170
1179
1186
1195
1206
1214
1223
1230
1238
1248
1259
1268
1278
1291
1302
1311
1325
1330
1334
1342
1348
1355
1366
1:574
1384
1390
1462
WINNIPEG TO ST. VINCENT.
(International Boundary.)
"Winnipeg     0
Winnipeg Jc    2
St. Boniface     3
St. Norbert  12
Niverville  24
Otterburne  31
Dufrost  40
Arnaud  48
Dominion City.. 56
Emerson  66
St. Vincent  68
WINNIPEG TO MANITOU.
Winnipeg  0
St. James  4
La Salle  19
Osborne  30
Morris  43
Rosenfeld  56
Gretna  70
Plum Coulee  76
Morden  81
Thornhill  88
Darlingford  96
Manitou 102
WINNIPEG TO W. SELKIRK.
Winnipeg     0
West Selkirk  22
WINNIPEG TO STONEWALL.
Winnipeg ..,
Air Line Jc.
Stony Mount'n. 13
Stonewall  20
WINNIPEG TO MARYLAND.
Winnipeg .......
Murray Park...
Headingley.
Starbuck ...
11
Elmerook  45
Maryland  47 A"
i
32 From Ocean to Ocean
LAKE   OF  THE   WOODS
-AND—
ilat portage.
«TT is an outrage upon nature and the people who dwell in, and resort
1 to this charming place, to call it by such a name, for there is no
situation between Lake Superior and the Rocky Mountains which possesses half the glorious beauties of landscape, or advantages of a perfect climate, excellence of water, and purity of atmosphere combined,
as does Rat Portage. It is picturesquely situated on the Lake of the
Woods, a wonderfully interesting body of water, over 80 miles long,
with an average width of 30 miles, containing thousands of green clad
islands' and islets, and abounding with pike, white fish, pickerel, and
water-fowl, affording the most delightful resort for tourists, health seekers, and sportsmen in this whole region. All through the summer
months, when the heat of the interior towns and cites frequently becomes
oppressively hot, here it is deliciously cool and invigorating, and free
from dust or other annoyance. Rainy River, a broad stream rising in
Rainy Lake, both forming 200 miles of the international boundary
between Canada and the United States, flows into the South-Eastern
portion of Lake of the W°°ds. Together they'are navigable for steamers a distance of 160 miles, to Fort Francis, on Rainy River, the route
being one of exceeding interest. This region was once inhabited by
that mysterious race known as the Mound Builders, whose great earth
mounds are still visible on these waters.
Mr. Geo. Creighton, who has resided seven years in the Rainy
River Valley, says it contains a considerable quantity of good agricultural and grazing lands still open to settlement. An agent of the Hudson Bay Company recently-discovered, buried in a cave, a large quantity
of Indian relics, medicine charms, and pieces of birch bark covered
with figures of men, animals, and strange hyeroglyphics.
The Lake of the Woods discharges into Lake Winnipeg through
Winnipeg river, rushing in a tremendous volume and loud roar over two By the Canadian Pacific Railway,
33
falls, aalled the First and Second, both within half a mile of Rat Portage. The two outlets upon which they occur are 'spanned by fine iron
railway bridges, the second affording a perfect view of the principal
cataract, which plunges, boils and roars directly underneath. Rat
Portage, now containing a population of about 500, is an important
lumbering point, and central to a promising mineral district, in which
are locatedj Keewatin, Argyle, Manitoba, Consolidated, and Piue Portage gold mines, and the Falcon Island mica mine.
Health seekers, tourists, and sportsmen will find good accommodations at the Rideout House, and pleasure boats opposite.
1 34
From Ocean to Ocean
-^THE-
[Untitfr *3mlb£v& of ©cmaba*
riTjANITOBA contains, so far as known, the extreme Northern re-
ilu mains of that pre-historic race which once inhabited the great
valleys of North America, and concerning whose origin we have so
little knowledge, that they are called the Mound Builders, from the
numerous earth monuments, supposed to have been erected both for
purposes of burial and observation, which mark the course of their
settlement and semi-civilization.
Occupying valleys subject to overflow, these great mounds, many of
which were over fifty feet in height, and from one to eight hundred feet
in diameter, may also have served as places of safe rendezvous in times
of flood. They would, likewise, have afforded protection from prairie
fires and attacks from their enemies. The traditions among the Indians
of the occupation of their country, in former ages, by a superior race;'
the abandoned copper mines, with implements for working, discovered
in the Lake Superior region ] the evidences of mechanical skill shown
by the articles of pottery and copper found in their mounds, support
the conclusion that these people were the last survivors of the Toltec
race, whom the Aztecs of Mexico, when conquered by the Spaniards in
the sixteenth century, said they had exterminated and driven out of that
region in the latter part of the twelfth century.
The principal | Mounds" discovered in Manitoba are situated
along the lower Red River, between Winnipeg and its mouth, and on
Rainy River. Prof. Geo. Bryce, President of Winnipeg Historical
Society, reports over twenty on the latter stream, one of which is 45
feet in height and 325 feet in circumference. The Professor's excavations thereon were rewarded by finding very interesting specimens of
pottery, implements of copper, stone, bone, and shell ornaments, &c,
fully described in his valuable contributions, entitled, 1 The Mound
Builders," published in pamphlet form in 1885. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
35
\
WINNIPEG,
TT7HE Capital of Manitoba, and commercial metropolis of the Great
1 North West, is situated at the junction of the Red and Assinaboine
Rivers, 429 miles West of Port Arthur, 839 miles East of Calgary,
at the base of the Rocky Mountains, and 868 miles North from the
international boundary line. The site was selected by the Hudson
Bay Company for a trading post—Fort Garry, built and continuously
occupied by it and a small settlement of half-breeds down to 1870.
This first landmark of civilisation in the New North-West, and also
of additional historical interest as having been the head quarters of
Riel during the Red River Rebellion of 1870, is now in ruins; but the
Hudson Bay Company have erected near by a large, splendid block of
brick and stone, now filled with the largest and best stock of' general
goods West of the Mississippi River, a fitting monument to their
enterprise, and the dawn of a new era of development.
Upon the approach of the Canadian Pacific Railway, the place
suddenly entered upon a career of growth unparalleled in the Dominion
of Canada. In 1874, Winnipeg was incorporated as a city, with a
population of about 4,000, and an assessed valuation of $2,076,018.
Six years later her census showed an increase of over 400 per cent., or
20,000 people, and real estate valued at over $25,000,000. Her improvements are of a substantial character, comprising fine Government
Buildings, the Governor's residence, Parliament House, Post Office,
three large and elegant Educational Institutions, several Churches, and
numerous wholesale and retail houses, all well built with handsome
brick and stone.
The hotel accommodations are ample and good.
The Princess Opera House is a very creditable structure, with a
seating capacity for 1300.-
The city is provided with gas, electric lights, telegraph, telephone,
fire alarms, excellent livery, and all the concomitants of our best civilization. Main Street, the principal thoroughfare, a winding avenue 130 feet in
width and two miles long, is now being well paved with wood. Two iron
bridges, each about a thousand feet in length, span the Red River, and
one the Assinaboine.   The manufacturing industries of the city embrace >
I
s
I
«<
M
•«!
P5
<i
M
ft
< ^1
By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
37
three flouring mills, with a daily capacity of 1300 barrels; three saw
mills, capable of cutting 30,000,000 feet of lumber annually; three
foundries, two steam furniture factories, and several printing establishments. There are several daily and weekly papers, conducted with
ability and enterprise, an Historical Society, and the usual orders and
entertainments for instruction and amusement.
Winnipeg is not only the centre of five lines of railroad, radiating in
all directions over 100,000 square miles of territory, but also the headquarters of a system of over 3,000 miles of river and lake navigation,
duringvthe summer months.
Considering the vast habitable region, for which it is the most
natural entrepot of wholesale supply, there is no doubt in my mind but
that Winnipeg is only in the infancy of her growth, and that she will
eventually become one of the largest cities of the New World. f
From Ocoan to Ocean
®\)z gttmtfcMm §vaycl)e&
—OF  THE—
C   P.   R«
WINNIPEG is the central point on the line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway, from which already diverge five branch roads, extending
from-twenty to one hundred miles, as follows: The Emerson division,
running South along the East bank of the Red River, 66 miles to
Emerson, at the international boundary line, where it connects with the
Manitoba Railway, through to St. Paul.
St. Boniface, the flourishing French settlement opposite Winnipeg;
Dominion City, (56 miles), and Emerson are the principal towns upon
this branch. The Pembina Mountain section runs South on the West
side of the Red River, 56 miles to Rosenfeld Junction, and then a
Westerly course, 66 miles to Manitou. This line is being built 70 miles
farther the present season. It passes through a magnificent farming
and grazing region, already well settled, and producing large crops of
wheat, the fields of which looked very promising. From Rosenfeld
Junction a branch runs 14 miles to Gretna, near the boimdary, where
connection is made with St. P. M. and M. R. R., and all points in the
United States. Morris, 43 miles, population 500; Morden, 81 miles,
population 300, and Manitou, 102 miles, population 250, are the most
important places upon this section. South and West from Rosenfeld
Junction are large and flourishing Menonite settlements, whose thatched
roofed villages, and quaint customs and manners are of much interest.
At the Morden House, Morden, W. McKay, proprietor, where the trains
stop for meals, I ate a dinner so much superior to any previously furnished me for fifty cents, that I was not a little surprised to receive back
from the landlord fifteen cents, when I tendered him the former sum,
which is the uniform charge throughout this region.
The South-Western branch runs at present 50 miles through a
very rich country, Murray Park, Headingly, Starbuck, and Maryland
being the largest settlements upon it. By the Canadian Pacific Railway,
39
The West Selkirk division runs North 23 miles, on the West side
of the Red Riyer, to the town of that name. Kildonan (six miles),
Parkdale (twelve miles), Victoria Park (sixteen miles), Lower Fort
Garry (nineteen miles), are pleasant and flourishing towns on this line.
The Stonewall section, now operated nineteen miles North-West, to the
town of that name, originally formed a portion of the main line of the
C. P. Railway Westward from Winnipeg, but which was abandoned for
the present more direct route. It traverses a rich and beautiful country,
excellently adapted for wheat growing, grazing, and dairying. At Stoney
Mountain (13 miles), and also at Stonewall, there are extensive deposits
of limestone of superior quality, thousands of tons of which have been
used for bridge building by the C. P. R. Company. Stonewall is one
of the cleanest, handsomest villages in the Dominion, with the best
water in the Province. About sixteen miles beyond lies Shoal Lake,
Robinson's charming summer resort. Parties en route will find good
hotel accommodation at the Canada Pacific Hotel, Isaac Riley, proprietor, and livery at Joseph Tottle's stables opposite.
.issas 40
From Ocean to Ocean
PORTAGE   LA   PRAIRIE,
FIFTY-SIX miles West of Winnipeg, on the left bank of the Assinaboine River, is a promising town of about 3,000 inhabitants. From
Malcomb dimming, Esq., who was born near the town site in 1822,
and who has resided there continuously since 1858, I obtained an
interesting description of its early settlement and subsequent growth.
It derives its name from being situated on the prairie, over which, in
former times, freight was portaged by men, from the Assinaboine River,
twelve miles to Portage Creek, en route Northward. Prior to 1850, the
native Indian tribes were the sole occupants of this region. In the two
succeeding years, about thirty English and other half-breeds removed
from St. Andrews. In 1854, Archdeacon Cochrane purchased lands
from the Salteaux Indians, and established a Catholic'mission, building
a residence and windmill in the following year, when he was joined by
the first white settler, Mr. John Garioch.
Six years later, the Hudson Bay Company, the pioneer traders of
the New World, established a depot of supplies for th^Jnew settlement.
In 1875, the North-West Navigation Company succeeded the hitherto
slow and expensive flat-boat and ox-cart transportation by running the
steamer Prince Rupert up the Assinaboine River, to the Portage, giving
quite an impetus to immigration, the population more than doubling
during the succeeding five years, being about 800 in 1881. The Canadian Pacific Railway reached the place in 1882, when it rapidly grew to
its present proportions j and, situated in the heart of one of the richest
sections of the entire North-West, must always remain an important
centre of trade and manufacture. Its broad avenues, streets, and
walks, substantial public buildings, and commodious hotels, speak well
for the enterprise and enlightened liberality of its citizens.
The rich, black soil was returning a bountiful harvest at the time of
my visit. Flour, oatmeal and paper mills, and a biscuit manufactory
are its principal industries. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 41
©I)* iPcutttolra
-AND—
NORTH-WESTERN   RAILWAY.
BORTAGE La Prairie is the Eastern terminus and head-quarters of
the Manitoba and North-Western Railway, now operated 78 miles to
Minnedosa, and being extended 50 miles beyond the present season,
through Basswood, Newdale, Strathlea, Shoal Lake, Keeloe to Allan-
dale. Its objective point is Prince Albert, on the Saskatchewan, 430
miles from Portage La Prairie, through a magnificent stretch of wheat
growing and grazing country. Gladstone (34 miles from the Junction),
Neepawa (61 miles), and Minnedosa (78 miles) are each flourishing
villages of from 300 to 500 inhabitants on this line. Neepawa occupies
a magnificent site overlooking the Beautiful Plains, and commanding a
fine view of the Riding Mountain Range on the North. Minnedosa
also is beautifully situated in the picturesque valley of the Little
Saskatchewan, a clear stream from 50 to too feet in width which flows
through the place.
The country traversed by this road is of a very inviting character,
generally a rich level prairie, but relieved of monotony by hill and dale,
and numerous groves of poplar, oak, and soft maple, bordering the
streams and lakes, and interspersed between. The Company has a
land grant from the Dominion Government of 2,700,000 acres, over
500,000 acres of which are now offered for sale, with the privilege of
selection from the entire grant. There is no more desirable field for
settlement in the North-West. 42
From Ocean to Ocean
BUFFALO   HUNTING
ii
—IN THE—
(great jfoll*a of % Soutjf Saskatcjjetoaw.
AT Moose Jaw I visited an encampment of half-breeds en rotrte to
their homes, about 70 miles to the Southward. The deep, worn
trails of the buffalo, running from North to South every few rods,
indicating that vast herds of these animals had grazed and roamed over
that region, I thought it a good opportunity to get information
concerning them from a native hunter. I was soon fortunate in not
only finding one of their most distinguished, but also an intelligent man
who spoke English quite readily. Referring to the immense numbers
which formerly ranged through the great valleys of the North-West, he
fully corroborated the statement of those travellers who have represented
them as sometimes thickly covering the plains with their dark
formidable bodies, as far as the eye could reach. My informant, a
middle-aged man, had hunted them from boyhood, and only last year
pursued them into the valley of the Little Missouri in the United
States, where his party killed several bulls. Formerly they slaughtered
them by the thousand in a single hunting expedition, chiefly for their
skins, which they sold to the Hudson Bay Company for from 75c. to $1
each. They are now rarely seen in the North-West Territories, a
comparatively few surviving in the valleys of the Little Missouri and
Yellowstone Rivers, remote from settlements and railways. The hunter
should spare these remnant bands of the red man's cattle.
Near Stoney Mountain, on the Stonewall branch of the C. P. R.,
13 miles North-West of Winnipeg, I saw quietly grazing, a short distance
from the passing train, a herd of over 40 domesticated buffalo, owned
by Mr. Benson, the superintendent of the Provincial Penitentiary
located there.
On the return trip, we waited nearly an hour at that station for an
excursion party, and expressing a desire to see the buffalos at closer
range, the conductor, S. D, Somes, Esq., kindly invited me aboard the By the Canadian Pacific Railway
engine, when we ran down opposite the herd and went out on foot
among them. They were of all sizes, from an enormous bull, weighing
not less than 2,000 pounds—twice as large as any previously seen in
public parks and museums—to calves a few months old, and all rolling
fat. They were quite tame, only one, a bull, manifesting any ugliness,
who upon our near approach, within about twenty feet, lowered and
shook his great shaggy head.
On one occasion he charged a party of youngsters who were trying
his temper, and who barely escaped by climbing upon the roof of a shed
fortunately near by.
They are ordinarily slow in their movements, but it was at once
evident when we started them out of a walk, that they are capable of
great speed. 44
From Ocean to Ocean
c (great lastnre f ani> of Smlb America.
i
MANITOBA, and the North-West Territories, embrace the greatest
and best pasture land on the North American Continent. I have
. traversed all of the most extensive grazing regions of the United States,
Texas, Colorado, Montana, California, and Washington, and have never
before seen such a vast unbroken stretch of country, so uniformly covered with a thick luxuriant growth of fattening grasses, as lies between
Winnipeg and the Rocky Mountains. At Maple Creek I was informed
that over six thousand head of Montana cattle were shipped from that
place over the Canadian Pacific last year. The reason given for such
an invasion, was not only lower rates of transportation than could be
obtained over American lines, but the excellent grazing all the way from
the international boundary Northward, upon which the stock while en
route became rolling fat. The warm Chinook winds sweep over all that
country lying along the Eastern base of the Rocky Mountains, and for
two hundred miles Eastward, so modifying the climate that cattle and
horses frequently winter out without shelter, supported exclusively by
the native grasses, of which there are 96 varieties. The snow fall is
light, seldom exceeding fifteen inches upon the plains. The grass
upon millions of acres, as I saw it in July last, would cut from one and
a-half to two tons per acre, affording unlimited feed for winter.
The Canadian people possess also
THE LARGEST FLOWER GARDEN ON THE PLANET.
spreading over not only a thousand miles of plain and valley,- but covering all the lower slopes of the mountains beyond ! Between Kicking
Horse Lake and the first crossing of the Columbia River, I rode in
company with the distinguished botanist and explorer, Prof. Macoun,
who told me that he had found 650 different species of flowering plants
and shrubs in the Rocky Mountain region alone, large numbers of which
are unknown in other countries. In the wild fastnesses of the Selkirk
Range, I saw flowers in full radiant bloom within a few feet of avalanches 600 feet wide and fifty feet deep, and great boquets of them
stood in the windows of the rough log cabins of the Canada Pacific
Railway construction army. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 45
BRANDON.
THIS beautiful and flourishing city is situated on the South bank of
the Assinaboia River, in Manitoba, 132 miles West of Winnipeg.
It lies midway between the Sourris River on the South, and Little Saskatchewan on the North, in the heart of a great scope of the best farming and grazing country in the Province. The situation commands a
delightful view of the Blue Hills of Brandon, and the picturesque
wooded valley of the Assinaboia. The growth of this place affords a
striking illustration of the marvellous development of the North-West.
In 1881, the town site was an unbroken, uninhabited portion of the
" howling wilderness." Three years later Brandon was incorporated,
with a population of 2,500 souls, with good churches and schools,
handsome residences, substantial business blocks, a fine court house,
excellent hotels, grain elevators, and flouring mills. It is also the
terminus of the first division of the Canadian Pacific Railway from
Winnipeg, and contains the usual round-house and workshops. The
Brandon Roller Mills, Alexander Kelly & Company, proprietors, manufacture from the No. 1 wheat grown in this section a very superior
brand of flour, in extensive demand for exportation. A railway is projected from Brandon, in a South-Westerly direction, through the fertile
valley of the Sourris, to intersect, the proposed extension of the Winnipeg
and Manitou, near the international boundary line. Brandon is twenty-
four miles from Minnedosa, on the Manitoba and North-Western Railway, thirty miles from Sourris City,* twenty-four miles from Fairview, and
eighteen miles from Rapid City, to all of which points there is communication by stage.
m 1
46 From Ocean to Ocean
©Jjj> |torttj-^^0t ®zxvxtovxh
AT Fleming, a station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 211 miles
West of Winnipeg, we enter the North-West Territory of the
Dominion. It comprises the districts of Assinaboia (95,000 square miles),
Alberta (100,000 square miles), Saskatchewan (114,000 square miles),
and Athabasca (122,000 square miles), an aggregate area of 431,000
square miles, a country alone larger than England, Wales, Ireland, Scotland and France combined.
It embraces the Great Saskatchewan and Peace River Valleys,
famous for their extent and fertility, and as the battle field of the recent
Riel half-breed rebellion. It is well watered by the Saskatchewan,
Peace, Athabasca, and Q'Appelle Rivers and tributaries, which ff ord
over 2,000 miles of steamer navigation. Timber in considerable quantities grows upon the borders of the streams, and numerous groves are
scattered throughout the vast prairies. Coal of good quality underlies
hundreds of thousands of acres, and extensive deposits have been discovered near the line of the railway. The climate is very healthful;
winters cold, but snow fall light; spring early, and falls long and very
pleasant. For wheat growing, cattle raising, and dairying, this region
is unsurpassed in America. Within this territory lie the great Bell and
Sykes farms, and the most extensive stock ranches in the Dominion.
Regina is the Capital of the Territory, the residence of Lieut.-Governor
Dewdney, and the head quarters of the Mounted Police. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
47
MOOSOMIN.
PROCEEDING Westward eighty-six miles, through Kemnay, Alexander, Griswold, Oak Lake, Virden, Hargrave, Elkhorn, and Fleming, and we reach the flourishing town of Moosomin, in the North-
West Territory. The rapid settlement of the lands in this settlement
is the best evidence of their superior excellence. In 1882, only three
years ago, there were only fifty settlers within a radius of forty miles
of the place. At the time of my visit, 625 (320 acre) claims had been
entered, and the greater proportion were occupied by families.
The country lying along the Southern slope of the Moose Mountain
Range is considered the choicest for purposes of general farming.
Moosomin possesses not only the advantage of a central situation in an
exceptionally rich district, being rapidly developed, but is a point of
distribution and shipment for Fort Ellice, and other settlements to the
Northward.
D. H. McCallum, of Moosomin, will transport freight and passengers to all points in this region. 48
From Ocean to Ocean
Q^ppelle; or, ©rotr gttatiatt.
1
TT7HE Q'Appelle Valley is the Garden of the North-West, both in
V fertility and beauty. The Q'Appelle River rises in Long Lake,
about twenty-two miles North-West of Regina, and flowing in a South-
Easterly direction, about 200 miles, discharges into the Assinaboia.
The immediate valley-bed is from one to two miles in width, bounded
by high rolling hills or bluffs, in many places thickly covered with a
small growth of poplar and bushes. From their summit, from one to
two hundred feet above the river, the country extends on every hand
as far as the eye can reach, in magnificent stretches of rich rolling
prairie, dotted here and there with lakes, and groves of poplar and
willow.
Q'Appelle, situated in die centre of this splendid agricultural district, and already a flourishing town of several hundred inhabitants,
is a place of great promise.
The superior advantages of soil and climate possessed by the
Q'Appelle Valley has led to the location in the neighborhood of the
largest agricultural estates in the Dominion.
The great Bell farm of Indian Head comprises 64,000 acres in
one body, upon 3,400 acres of which 90,000 bushels of wheat was
raised in one season, the yield being from thirty to forty bushels per
acre.
The Sykes farm of 20,000 acres is only a few miles distant.
Stages, carrying Her Majesty's mails, run weekly from Q'Appelle
station to Prince Albert.
Leeson & Scott, the proprietors and mail contractors, also run
stages from Swift Current to Battleford and Fort Pitt, and from Calgary
to Edmonton, carrying passengers and freight at lowest rates. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
49
FORT   Q'APPELLE.
JTTHE Hudson Bay Post of Fort Q'Appelle, Archibald McDonald,
1 chief factor, was established twenty-nine years ago, on one of a
chain of nine lakes—altogether thirty miles in length—formed by the
widening of the river in its course through this beautiful valley. It is
about twenty miles North of Q'Appelle Station on the Canadian Pacific
Railway, from which point there is daily communication by stage.
En route we saw the smoke from the steam plow upon the great
Sykes farm, which raises from six to ten thousand acres of wheat annually. The country is gently rolling, well watered, and interspersed with
groves of poplar and willow. Descending the thickly wooded hills
which bound the valley on the South, we were surprised to find such a
handsome village at their base, comprising not only stores and shops,
but a good hotel, livery, and flour mill.
A more charming spot I have not seen in this region, and there is
none affording greater advantages for settler, tourist, and sportsman.
The lakes abound with whitefish, pike and pickerel, and geese, duck
and grouse are numerous. Fort Q'Appelle obtained prominence during
the recent Riel rebellion as the point of departure and base of operations of the Volunteer army, sent out for its suppression. About four
miles below Fort Q'Appelle there is a Catholic mission, established
many years ago, and still maintained by the Catholic fathers. 5°
From Ocean to Ocean
REGINA.
I
l
REGINA, the Capital of the North-West Territory, residence of Lieutenant-Governor Dewdney, and head-quarters of the Mounted
Police, is situated on the Wascana, a tributary of the Q'Appelle River,
356 miles from Winnipeg. Both from its commanding situation, and
promising future, it deserves its name, | The Queen City of the Plains."
It is surrounded on all sides by a vast extent of rich arable country,
adapted to agriculture, stock raising, and dairying.
The city has attained a surprising growth even in this land of wonderful development, containing good churches, schools, hotels, business
houses, and residences.
The wholesale house of John Dawson, Esq., manufacturing druggist,
situated here, carrying not less than a ten thousand dollar stock, will
indicate the extent of settlement in this region.
A  VISIT TO  RIEL AND  HIS  INDIAN  REBEL CHIEFTAINS—
POUNDMAKER, BIG   BEAR,   DOG  TAIL, RED   BEAR,
WHITE  DOG, AND  SEVENTY  OTHERS.
I arrived at Regina on the first day of the trial of Louis Riel for
high treason. Mounting a fast horse, I galloped two miles across the
open plain, to the residence of Governor Dewdney, who kindly gave
me a permit to see all of the seventy-six half-breed and Indian rebel-
prisoners, then in the territorial prison awaiting their trial. Before
reaching the jail, I met Riel, riding in a two-horse heavy wagon, under
a strong escort of red-coated mounted policemen, en route to the Court
Room at Regina. The rebel chief, of whom I saw much during the
examination of the principal witnesses against him, is a prepossessing,
well-built man, about five feet eight inches in height, long, thick, dark
brown hair, slightly curly, high forehead, deep set large black eyes,
with a grave earnest expression, without a trace of cruelty. His manner is ordinarily quiet and gentlemanly; language good, and whole
bearing apparently sincere and unostentatious.    He was dressed in a By the Canadian Pacific Railway,
5i
grey woollen suit, coarse shoes, and broad-brimmed brown felt hat. He
impressed me as a man of much native ability, whose intense convictions and enthusiasm upon political and religious questions affecting the
half-breeds, together with great hardships, has dethroned his reason.
His whole course, acts, writings and speeches lead to this conclusion.
The prisons, two long wooden buildings, 1 found models of cleanliness
and good management throughout. Corporal Pigott, of the Mounted-
Police, kindly showed me through.
Riel's cell, the first to enter, is about seven feet long, five feet wide,
and twelve feet in height. Three matched pine boards, resting upon a
wooden horse at each end, and three pajrs of blankets, constituted his
bed. In addition to soldier's rations, he is allowed three pints of milk
daily. The ball and chain is not attached to his leg, except when he
goes out for exercise, generally twice a day. Riel spends most of his
time writing concerning his trial.
Chief Poundmaker is one of the noblest appearing Indians I have
ever seen 5 tall, commanding, and graceful, with an intelligent, frank,
pleasant face. He greated me with a courteous nod and smile, and
evidently wished to speak. His brother, who occupied the cell with
him, sat upon the floor, with his head bowed down with grief. Big
Bear, an old man of 70, short, thick-sett and vigorous, naked to the
waist, stood erect, looked up boldly and gave us a friendly recognition.
His young son, " Horse Colt," was running at large in the corridors.
In succession we visited the cells of Chiefs White Dog, Red Bear,
Dog Tail, their followers, Biting Eagle, Sounding Earth, Red Blanket,
Little Crow, Under-Ground Child, The Quiet Man, The Lean Man,
1 The Man They Whooped At," and many others. All were clean, well
fed, newly clothed, and most humanely treated in every respect.
Only one Indian, charged with murder, was in irons.   Every Indian
• upon reception is stripped and washed, and his clothing burned or
boiled and fumigated. 52
From Ocean to Ocean
MOOSE   JAW.
ir \
*f N December, 1882, the Canadian Pacific Railway crossed the small
1 stream, called, from the English translation of the Indian name,
Moose Jaw, a tributary of the Q'Appelle, and near its left bank established the town of that name. Being the end of a railway division, with
roundhouse, depot and eating station, and surrounded by an extensive
scope of country, well adapted to both grazing and agriculture, it grew
rapidly, and now contains about 200 houses and 500 inhabitants.
Lawyer Gordon showed me a list of over 300 names of persons who
have settled upon claims, within a radius of twenty miles, during the
past two years and a-half. The prevailing soil is a deep loam with clay
sub-soil, which produces abundant crops of grains and roots. Spring
opens early, usually admitting of plowing and seeding before the end of
March. Mr. Gass informed me that he started a reaper in a field of
ripe wheat on the day previous to my arrival, the 25th of July, though
this is probably from one to two weeks sooner than their harvest ordinarily
ommences. The owner, Mr. Young, occupying Sections 16, Township
eighteen, Range twenty-four, says that, during twenty-one year's farming
in Ontario, that he never raised so good a crop. This Section is fairly
well watered by streams and lakes, and furnishes a good supply by
digging from fifteen to sixty feet, according to location. The net-work
of buffalo trails visible everywhere, and vast numbers of their carcasses covering the plains, attests the excellence of the pasturage of
this country. Over twenty car loads of buffalo bones—about 300 tons
—have been shipped from Moose Jaw alone, and great piles are now
awaiting shipment all along the line. They are collected by the half-
breeds, who receive $5 a ton for them, delivered near a railway station,
I saw several heaped-up Red River carts being weighed, which brought
$1.50 per load. These bones are shipped to Philadelphia, and used
chiefly for refining and fertilizing purposes. There is a belt of ash and
maple timber on the Moose Jaw River, about nine miles from town.
Veins of coal and iron are said to have been discovered to the
Southward. A trail leads to Prince Albert, about 200 miles North, on
the Saskatchewan. Moose Jaw is provided with a school and churches,
and is settled with an enterprising and law-abiding people. By the Canadian Pacific Railway,
53
SWIFT   CURRENT.
SWIFT CURRENT is the most important of the twenty stations
between Moose Jaw and Maple Creek, on the South Saskatchewan,
198 miles distant. It is situated near a small stream of that name,
which flows into the Saskatchewan, and contains the usual railway buildings at the end of every division, roundhouse, eating station, and depot,
also several stores. The horizon bounds the vast rolling plains on every
hand, interspersed with numerous lakes, bounded by green meadows.
A trail leads thirty miles North to Saskatchewan Landing, and also to
Battleford and Edmonton. Swift Current is" 112 miles West of Moose
Jaw, past the following stations:—Boharm, Caron, Mortlach, Parkbeg,
Secretan, Chaplin, Emfold, Morse, Herbert, Rush Lake. Waldee, and
Aikins.
J Ill
54
From Ocean to Ocean
ptapie ©r££k*
F IGHTY-SIX miles further, past the stations of Leven, Goose Lake,
Li Antelope, Gull Lake, Cypress, Sidewood, Crane Lake, and Colley,
brings us to Maple Creek, so named from a small stream near the town,
which, rising in the Cypress Hills, flows into Big Stick Lake, about
eighteen miles to the North. A species of soft maple grows upon its
banks, from which the Indians are said to have made sugar. Maple
Creek, now but a small, two-year-old village, lies in the heart of one of
the best grazing and agricultural portions of this region. The country
to the South and Westward especially, extending all the way to the
Boundary Line, is one unbroken stretch of magnificent grazing and
farming land. The elevated timbered belt seen to the South, is known
as the Cypress Hills, and contains large quantities of valuable pine,
which is being manufactured into lumber by two saw mills, from twenty
to forty miles distant, and sold on the line of the railway at from twenty
to thirty-five dollars per thousand. This section is well watered by
streams and lakes. Coley, Crane, Lake of the Narrows, Big Stick,
Gull, Hay, Fresh Water and Island Lakes, all within twenty miles,
being the most important of the latter. Good well water is generally
obtained within twenty feet of the surface. Besides the abundant
quantity of fuel furnished by the Cypress Hills, there are veins
of good coal within ten miles of this place. This is the place where
Montana stockmen have shipped such large numbers of cattle by the
Canadian Pacific Railway for the Eastern market, over 6,000 head during last season. Low rates of transportation, and the excellence of the
grazing en route from their ranges, are the inducements offered. Mr. J.
M. Dixon, merchant, and Mr. English, formerly Indian agent of the
Cree Tribes, informed me that grain yields from twenty to thirty-five
bushels, the quality being good. Spring opens early ; plowing usually
commencing by the middle of March. There is considerable hay land
in the vicinity, which yields from one and a-half to two and a-half tons
per acre.
There are about fifty-five settlers within ten miles of the station
— By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 55
who have entered upon their lands within the past few months,
and room for thousands more. Hunters will find bear, both black and
grizly, deer and antelope in the Cypress Hills, and numerous prairie
chickens.
Maple Creek is 596 miles West of Winnipeg, 426 miles East of
Donald, the first crossing of the Columbia; 70 miles South of the Saskatchewan River, and 60 miles North of the Boundary Line.
It affords comfortable hotel accommodations, and contains large
stocks of general merchandise.
#vv 56
From Ocean to Ocean
ptetrktne gat
M
EDICINE   HAT is situated  on  the  right bank  of the  South
Saskatchewan, 1,089 imles West from Port Arthur, and 362 miles
East of Donald, at the first crossing of the Columbia River.
The Saskatchewan, here spanned by a magnificent iron bridge
about a thousand feet in length, is navigable for steamboats during the
summer months, from over one hundred and fifty miles above, continuously up to Edmonton on the North Saskatchewan, more than 1,500
miles distant. Medicine Hat lies central in a region embracing a
grand scope of excellent pastoral country, extensive deposits of superior
coal, and large bodies of valuable timber.
From the Boundary Line North to the Cypress Hills, and West to
Fort McLeod, extends an unbroken stretch of the finest grazing in
America.
The Gait coal mines, to which a branch railway has been built,
situated about sixty miles to the South, although but recently opened
are already yielding upwards of 200 tons daily of excellent coal.
There are also other large deposits within seven miles of the place,
from which considerable quantities have been taken.
The Cypress Hills, containing many thousand acres of merchantable
pine timber, are only thirty miles to the South-Eastward. A Michigan
firm have purchased a timber limit of 20,000 acres in these Hills, and
erected a saw mill, now producing 40,000 feet a. day.
Medicine Hat is the head-quarters of a division of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, a station of the Mounted Police, and trading point of
the whole country lying between Maple Creek and Calgary. The
situation much resembles that of Calgary, resting cozily in an arm of
the great river, sheltered by its high banks and hills on the South.
A few Indians of the Plain Crees were camping round abeut at
the time of my visit. ■^
©
'A
m
o
d
o
Jf From Ocean to Ocean
CALGARY.
GALGARY, the most prominent place in the North-West Territories
occupies a beautiful situation at the confluence of the Bow and
Elbow Rivers, in the district of Alberta, 120 miles from the summit of
the Rocky Mountains.    It commands the trade of an immense scope of
country, very rich in pastoral, mineral, and agricultural resources.
All the great trails leading to the Deer River country, Edmonton,
and the far North, settlements upon the Peace and Athabasca Rivers,
start from Calgary as the nearest and best point on the Canadian
Pacific Railway from which to obtain their supplies.
From a trading post of the Hudson Bay Company it has become
in a few months' time an incorporated town of a thousand souls, with
the largest commercial houses in the Territories. It is also the permanent head-quarters of the Mounted Police of Alberta, and an
important lumber manufacturing point, logs having been successfully
run down from the mountains over the Bow River falls.
I arrived here most opportunely to see this rising city of the new
North-West. Lieut. Steele and a long cavalcade of Riel rebellion
volunteers were crossing the Bow River within sight, returning from
their three months' march of over a thousand miles through the vast
region to the Northward. Weather-tanned faces, worn and tattered
clothing and accoutrements showed hard service. Arches of evergreen
spanned the streets, bearing the inscriptions, I Welcome home again,"
" All honor to Steele and his brave scouts." All the towns people and
settlers from the surrounding country assembled to receive them, and
rejoice together over their victories and the restoration of peace.
Groups of Indians dressed in their grotesque fanciful costumes, with
their painted faces, witnessed the triumphal entry of their conquerors. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 50
THE   ROCKY,   SELKIRK,
—AND—
GLORIOUS  SCENERY.
JT7HE Canadian Pacific Railway, especially from the base of the
I Rocky Mountains, near Calgary, all the way to the Gulf of
Georgia, a distance of 644 miles, presents one continuous panorama
of the grandest and most beautiful views imaginable. First comes
the Bow River Valley, green as a well watered lawn in summer, and
brilliant with flowers, and sparkling with clear streams, walled in by
the loftiest summits of the Rockies; which nowhere rise in more
striking grandeur, so bold and clean cut, in places thousands of feet
almost perpendicular, with cataracts plunging down from the melting
snowfields and glaciers, which lie among the highest peaks. Then
you ride through the famous Kicking Horse Pass and Canyon, along
the roaring river of that name, across the Columbia River, up the
Beaver, over the highest wooden bridge on "the continent, at Stoney
Creek (285 feet above water); scale the summit of the Selkirk's, and
then descend to Farwell along the mad Illicilewait River, amidst a
succession of mountain, canyon, forest, glacier, and avalanche scenes,
without parallel for grandeur and interest upon any other Trans-
Continental Railway. From Eagle Pass Landing to Savona's Ferry,
a distance of about 130 miles, the road follows the left bank of the
North Thompson, one of the finest of streams of transparent clearness,
and the shore of a chain of beautiful lakes, the Big and Little
Shuswap, and then Kamloop Lake, through an open rolling and
mountainous country abounding in most charming landscapes. A little
beyond Lytton you cross the great steel Cantilever bridge, built at a
cost of $400,000, and plunge into the terrible canyons of the Frazer
River, cut more than a thousand feet deep by its mighty and impetuous
rush for ages, over 50 miles through the Cascade Mountains.
Not less by the grandeur of the scenery along this royal road across
the New World is the traveller impressed than by the marvellous
achievement of overcoming so successfully, in such a brief period of
time, the seemingly unsurmountable obstacles opposed by nature to its
construction..
w ill
6o
From Ocean to Ocean
CANMORE.
T17I1E Eastern terminus of the mountain division. 1,335 miles from
I Port Arthur, comprising' a round-house and eating station, is
situated in a level beautiful valley, covered in summer with a luxuriant
growth of red top and timothy grasses, brilliant with flowers in great
variety. A grand amphitheatre of rocky mountains, from three to seven
thousand feet in height, bold, bare and brown, except their snow-topped
summits, surround the place. Three monuments of conglomerate
formation, from 30 to 40 feet in height, standing at the foot-hills, about
a-quarter of a mile from the depot are objects of interest to the traveller.
They are evidently the remains of the high bluffs which bounded the
valley in former ages, their more enduring composition longer resisting
the wearing forces of the elements.
The Hudson Bay formerly occupied a post here known as
Padmore, from which a trail led Southward into the Kootenay Country
still in use.
From Canmore you pass in review the grandest scenery of the
Rockies; Cascade and Castle Mountains towering among the clouds,
with silver cascades leaping a thousand feet down their precipitous
rocky sides, then through the wild Kicking Horse Pass into the great
valley of the Columbia. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 61
$cmff gjot ^ulpjjur &ptin&$.
BANFF is on the line of the Canadian Pacific Railroad in the famous
Bow River Valley, 919 miles West of Winnipeg. Here about one
mile from the station, and one half mile from the Bow River on the
South side, have been discovered two remarkable hot sulphur springs,
which promise to become the health and pleasure resort of tens of thousand in the near future. The first spring reached is twenty-five feet in
diameter, eight feet deep, with a temperature of 87 ° . The second, fifty
feet distant, in a narrow gorge, is about thirty feet in diameter, six feet
in depth, with a temperature of 85 ° , and a flow of water estimated by
Mr. Fletcher, of the C. P. R. R., at 40,000 gallons per hour. There is
another spring some 2]/2 miles from the line of the road, having a
temperature of no
o
gtetrir* Sake.
ABOUT five miles from Banff lies one of the most attractive bodies of
water in this whole region. It it between ten and twelve miles in
length in the form of an S, from one to one and a-half miles in width,
two to three hundred feet deep, with handsome gradually sloping shores,
water clear as crystal, and full of trout of great size. The mountains,
pine and spruce timbered, rise from 3000 to 4,000 feet above, and abound
with sheep and deer. I am also indebted to Mr. F. Fletcher for a
description of this beautiful lake, to which a trail having been recently
cut is now easily accessible. 62
From Ocean to Ocean
grittsJj ffiolnmbia*
1
(From Chittenden's Travels in British Cohcmbia and Alaska,
1882-83J
DESCENDING the Western slope of the Rockies, along the roaring
Kicking Horse River, soon after leaving Laggan, we enter British
Columbia. It is a vast region, extending from the 49th parallel of latitude
more than 700 miles North to the 60th, and from the divide of the Rocky
Mountains on the East, 400 miles West to the Pacific, containing
341,515 square miles, or 218,435,200 acres, a country nearly three times
as large as England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales combined. It is
traversed lengthwise by two great mountain ranges, the Rockies and
the Cascades, about 250 miles apart, the former reaching an elevation
of 9,000 and the latter 6,000 feet. The Columbia and the Fraser, the
second and third largest rivers on the Pacific Coast, rise within the
Province, and with the Skeena, Nass, Stickeen and innumerable other
streams drain its Western slope. The interior is well watered by numerous rivers and creeks, and thousands of lakes and springs. Parallel
to the mainland, and at a distance of from three to twenty miles therefrom, extends Vancouver Island for over 250 miles. The shores of the
mainland and of Vancouver, and the intervening waters, embrace the
most wonderful collection of inlets, sounds, harbors, straits, channels
and islands, to be found upon the planet. British Columbia, in common with the whole Pacific Coast, possesses two distinct climates.
Along the West coast, even as far North as latitude fifty-three- degrees,
the mean winter temperature is about forty-two degrees; the annual
rainfall averaging from forty-five inches at Victoria to seventy-five inches at Fort Simpson, 630 miles North. In the interior the climate is
much drier, the entire precipitation ranging from ten to twenty inches ;,
the mean summer temperature being about seventy-five deg. and the
winter ten deg. above. North of latitude fifty-one the winters are'
severe, but the snowfall moderate except in the higher altitudes. This
section is not subject to the terrible blizzards which prevail East of the By the Canadian Pacific Railway. . 63
Rocky Mountains, the coldest weather usually being perfectly calm and
clear. Though mountains and forests cover a considerable portion of
its surface, there are very extensive 'areas excellently adapted to stock-
raising and agriculture. The great natural resources of the Province
are minerals, coal, fish, timber, grazing and furs. Although there are
millions of acres as yet untouched by human foot, the discoveries of
valuable mineral deposits already made are immense. Her gold fields
are among the most extensive and richest in the world ; coal underlies
hundreds of thousands of acres; there are mountain masses and islands
of iron, and rich mines of silver, copper and other precious metals.
THE  GREAT  GOLD  FIELDS  OF  BRITISH  COLUMBIA
Embrace in area more than 100,000 square miles, extending from Rock
Creek, near the 49th parallel, to Liard River on the 60th. On the
Similkameen and Kootenay. at Hope, Yale, Boston Bar, Lillooet, and
Bridge Rivers; in the Big Bend of the Columbia, at Quesnelle, Keith-
ley, Harvey, Cariboo, and Omineca; on the Peace, Skeena, Naas, and
Stickeen Rivers; and, lastly, at Cassiar, gold has been found not only
in paying quantities, but in many places by the millions, their aggregate
products amounting to about fifty million dollars.
THE   CARIBOO  GOLD  DISTRICT,
Lying between 52 and 54 degrees of North latitude, embraces an area
of upwards of 700 square miles. The Quesnelle Lake and River form
its South and South-Western boundary, and the Fraser North-Eastern,
Western and Northern. Here Williams, Lightning, and Antler creeks
and gulches startled the world by their amazing richness, the Wake-up-
Jack claim yielding 150 ounces in a single day, the Caledonia 300
ounces, Butcher 350, Steele's 409, the Chittenden claim on Lowhee 432,
the Ericsson 500 ounces, when the Diller claim cleaned up with the
astonishing amount of 102 pounds, of gold ! These wonderful deposit 1
have been found in the beds of the water courses, from 60 to 80 feet
below the surface. There are also extensive lodes of rich gold-bearing
quartz awaiting development. Though the mines of Cariboo reached
their maximum product, $3,735,850 in 1864, it is the opinion of most
old miners who have had experience there, that still greater wealth lies
hidden in her mountains and water courses. The annual yield of the
district now ranges from $700,000 to $1,000,000. Mr. John Bowron,
the Gold Commissioner, informed me on my recent visit to Barkerville,
that prospectors sent out by the Government had just returned, and r
64
From Ocean to Ocean
reported having found good surface diggings and extensive ledges of
rich quartz rock. The completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway
will greatly reduce the hitherto enormous cost of conducting mining
operations here, and greatly facilitate the development of the vast
deposits of this region.
rold
THE  GOLD  FIELDS  OF  CASSIAR,
Next in importance, extend over more than 250 square miles of country
lying between the 54th and 60th degrees of North latitude, along the
North-Eastem watershed of the gold range. Gold was first found in
this section in 1872-3, near the confluence of the Liard with the Mac.
kenzie River, the most productive mines being on Dease, Thibert, and
McDames Creeks, tributaries of the Dease River. Several milions were
taken out along these streams during the two or three succeeding years.
Their product for the year 1881 is estimated at one hundred and ninety-
eight thousand dollars, and the number of miners engaged at 300, most
of whom go South to winter.
THE  OMINECA  GOLD  MINES
Are also situated on the North-Eastern slope of the gold range of the
Province, near the 53rd parallel of latitude, upon the tributaries of the
Omineca, a branch of the Peace River. There are about twenty men
working claims here upon Vitell's, Manson, and Germansen creeks, taking out about $35,000 annually.
OTHER  GOLD  FIELDS.
Gold is found in paying quantities upon many of the streams of
the South-Eastern portion of the Province, especially in the Big Bend
of the Columbia, and in the Kootenay country, the claims on Cherry and
Wild Horse creeks being the most productive. In 1852 the Hudson
Bay Company discovered gold-bearing quartz of remarkable richness on
the West shore of Queen Charlotte Island. Gold has also been found
on the head waters of the Leech River and other streams along the
West coast of Vancouver.
SILVER,  COPPER AND  IRON,
Are known to be widely distributed throughout the Province. Pieces
of pure silver have been found from time to time in many of the mining
camps along the Fraser, also on Cherry Creek in the Okanagan district,
and at Omineca.   In 1871 a rich vein of silver was discovered near b
By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 6
Hope, on the Fraser River and traces for nearly half a mile. There
are deposits of copper ore upon Howe Sound, Knights and Jarvis Inlets,
the Queen Charlotte Islands, and at other points, the former said to be
quite extensive. There are inexhaustible quantities of iron on Texada
Island, situated in the Gulf of Georgia, about ioo miles North of the
City of Victoria, amidst the great coal beds, timber supplies, and limestone quarries of the Province.
THE  COAL  FIELDS  OF   BRITISH  COLUMBIA,
On Vancouver Island alone, comprise many hundred thousand acres
lying mainly along the East coast of the Island between Nanaimo and
Fort Rupert. The Nanaimo coal lands embrace about ninety square
miles, and those of Comox upwards of 300. There are also extensive
bodies of coal on Quatsino Sound on the North-West coast of Vancouver, about 250 miles North-West of Victoria, and large veins are
reported to have been discovered on the Queen Charlotte Islands.
These coals are chiefly bituminous, of the cretaceous era and superior
for general and domestic purposes to any other found on the Pacific
Coast.
THE TIMBER RESOURCES OF  THE  PROVINCE,
Are very extensive, embracing many hundred thousand acres of Douglas
fir lying in the West Cascade region, the choicest bodies upon Burrard
and Jarvis Inlets, Mud Bay, Howe Sound, and the East coast of Vancouver Island. It attains an enormous growth, and being straight and
exceedingly tough and durable is in great demand the world over for
ship spars and timbers^ Over thirty million feet are manufactured into
lumber annually,' chiefly for exportation to Asiatic, Australian, and South
American ports. The pine and spruce of the interior, though much
inferior in size and quality to the fir of the coast, is sufficient in both
and also in quantity for all local purposes.
FISH
The waters of British Columbia teem with countless millions of the
choicest salmon,.halibut, cod, herring, smelt, sturgeon, whiting, &c, &c.
The canning of salmon for exportation is already a very important industry, the product for the present season amounting to about 177,000
cases. They also constitute the chief food dependence of the Indian
population. Oil is manufactured from dog fish, herrings, and oolachans,
but the other fish mentioned are as yet, except to a limited extent, only
caught for home consumption.
5 jiT
66
From Ocean to Ocean
FUR-BEARING ANIMALS
Are more numerous in this Province than in any other part of America,
excepting, perhaps, portions of Alaska, having for nearly forty years
through the Hudson Bay Company supplied the world with most of their
finest furs. They comprise bears, beaver, badgers, coyotes, foxes, fishers, martens, minks, lynxes, otters, panthers, raccoons, wolves, wolverines, and other small kinds. The product of the fisheries and furs of
the Province amounts to nearly a million and a-half dollars annually.
STOCK RAISING  IN  BRITISH   COLUMBIA.
British Columbia contains a very extensive area of grazing lands of
■unsurpassed excellence. The whole inter-Rocky Mountain Cascade
Region is specially adapted for pastoral purposes, During my recent
travels through the interior of the Province, I traversed hundreds of
thousands of acres in the Nicola, Kamloops and Okanagan Valleys and
Lake La Hache country, covered with a luxuriant growth of the nutri-
cious bunch grass, and saw bands of thousands of cattle rolling fat; and
way to the Northward in the Chilcolin, Nechaco, Wastonquah and
Peace River Valleys, are vast ranges, hundreds of miles in extent, as
yet untouched. Interviews with all the principal stock-raisers and
dealers in British Columbia confirms my own observations that cattle
raised upon the bunch grass of this region are among the finest in the
world, very large and fat, and the choicest of beeves. Mr. B. Van
Volkenburgh, the leading butcher in the Province, meat purveyor to
Her Majesty's Navy, the owner of 7,000 acres of grazing lands, and
several thousand head of cattle and sheep; Mr. Thaddeus Harper
whose 3,000 or 4,000 head of cattle and horses range upon his own
estate of 25,000 acres ; Mr. J. B. Graves at present the largest owner
of fat cattle, 8,000 head, including 6,000 steers; Mr. C. M. Beak, of
the Nicola Valley, who has just sold r,3oo for $28,000 and been offered
$27,000 for the balance of his herd; Antoine Menaberriet, of Cache
Creek, Victor Guillaume, W. J. Roper, Hugh Morton, M. Sullivan,
Wm. Jones, John Pringle, John Peterson and W. J. Howe, of Kamloops, Wm. Fortune, of Tranquille, A. L. Fortune, James C. Steele,
Cornelius O'Keefe, Greenhow, Postill and Eli Lequime, of Okanagan,
and John Clapperton, Alexander Toutlie, A. Van, Volkenburgh, John
Gilmour, John Hamilton, and Guichon, of Nicola, Patrick Killroy, of
Lytton, and others, together the owners of three-quarters of the sixty
or sixty-five thousand head of cattle in the Province, agree that stock By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
67
does exceedingly well in this region, increases at the rate of thirty per
cent, by the herd, or ninety per cent, for those breeding; is free from
disease, and subject to less loss from occasional severe winters, than
from drought on the Southern coast. Fat cattle are now in active demand, at from twenty to twenty-five dollars for two-year old, and from
twenty-five to thirty-five dollars for three-year old steers, herds selling at
from fifteen to twenty dollars per head. The average weight of cattie
upon the ranges is 550 for two-year old, 675 for three-year old, and 800
for four-year old cattle. They feed in the elevated valleys during the
summer, and in winter on the sheltered sunny slopes and bottoms,
keeping in good condition upon a species of white sage, called wormwood, which succeeds the bunch grass, where the latter is too closely
grazed. Mr. Van Volkenburgh has had over 1000 tons of hay stacked
up for over three years, having had no occasion to feed it.
Three winters in twenty, cattle have died from starvation and
exposure occasioned by deep snows covering the feed. Such losses are
confined mainly to breeding cows, in the spring of the year, for which
most prudent stock-raisers now provide a reserve of hay. The steers
seldom succumb, except in extraordinary winters, such as that of 1879—
80, many of them keeping fat in the mountains {he year round. The
winter ranges throughout the Province are generally fully stocked, but
hay for the winter feeding required in the Northern part may be cut in
unlimited quantities.
THE AGRICULTURAL LANDS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Comprise in the aggregate several million acres, only a small portion of
which are at present occupied. Vancouver Island alone is estimated to
contain over 300,000 acres,—100,000 in the vicinity of Victoria, 64,000
in North and South Saanich, 100,000 in the Cowichan district,
45,000 near Nanaimo, 5,000 in Salt Spring Island, 50,000 in the
Comox district, and 3,500 acres near Sooke.
Fraser, including the Delta, there are about
unsurpassed fertility. In the Lillooet, Cache Creek, Kamloops,
Spallumcheen, Salmon River, Okanagan, Grand Prairie sections there
are large amounts of excellent farming lands; and in the Lake_ La
Hache, upper Fraser, Chilicotin, and Peace River countries, vast
bodies, hundreds of miles in extent, awaiting settlement. They afford
the greatest choice of situation with reference to climate and productions.
Heretofore, there has been but little encouragement for agriculturists in
the interior, but the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway, will
Along   the   lower
175,000   acres   of 68 From Ocean to Ocean
give them an excellent market on the seaboard for all their surplus
grain, potatoes, &c. The greatness, character, and diversity of the
natural resources of the Province, will ultimately employ a large population in their development and utilization, creating a great demand at
good prices for all kinds of farm produce.
THE PROVINCIAL  LAND LAWS
Provide that any person being the head of a family, a widow, or single
man over the age of 18 years and a British subject, or any alien upon
declaring his intention to become a British subject, may record any
tract of unoccupied, unsurveyed and unreserved Crown Lands, not
exceeding 320 acres, North and East of the Cascade or Coast Range of
Mountains, and 160 acres in the rest of the Province, and " pre-empt "
or I homestead " the same, and obtain a title therefor upon paying the
sum of $1 per acre in four equal annual instalments, the first one year
from the date of record. Persons desiring to acquire land under this
law must observe the following requirements :
1st. The land applied for must be staked off with posts at each
corner not less than four inches square, and five feet above the ground,
and marked in form as follows: (A B*s) Land, N.E. post. (A B's)
Land, N. W; post, &c.
2nd. Applications must be made in writing to the Land Commissioner, giving a full description of the land, and also a sketch plan
thereof, both in duplicate, and a declaration under oath, made and filed
in duplicate, that the land in question is properly subject to settlement
by the applicant, and that he or she is duly qualified to record the
same, and a recording fee of $2 paid.
3rd. Such homestead settler must within 30 days after record enter
into actual occupation of the land so pre-empted, and continuously
reside thereon personally or by his family or agent, and neither Indians
or Chinamen can be agents for this purpose.
Absence from such land for a period of more than two months
continuously or four months in the aggregate during the year sub-
feet it to forfeiture to the Government. Upon payment for the land as
specified, and a survey thereof at the expense of the settler, a Crown
grant for the same will issue, provided that in the case of an alien
he must first become a naturalized British subject before receiving title.
Homesteads upon surveyed lands may be acquired, of the same
extent and in the same manner as upon the unsurveyed, except that the
applicant is not required to stake off and file a plat of the tract desired. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
69
Unsurveyed, unoccupied, and unreserved Crown lands  may be-
purchased in tracts of not less than 160 acres for $1 per acre, cash in
full  at one payment  before  receiving title by complying with  the
following conditions:—
1st. Two months' notice of intended application to purchase must
be inserted at the expense of the applicant in the British Columbia
Gazette, and in any newspaper circulating in the district where the land
desired lies, stating name of applicant, localities, boundaries and extent
of land applied for, which notice must also be posted in a conspicuous
place on the land sought to be acquired, and on the Government office,
if any, in the district. The applicant must also stake off the said land
as required in the case of pre-emption, and also have the same surveyed
at his own expense.
Surveyed lands, after having been offered for sale at public auction
for one dollar per acre, may be purchased for cash at that price.
THE MINING LAWS
Provide that every person over sixteen years of age may hold a mining
claim, after first obtaining from the Gold Commissioner a Free Miner's
Certificate or Licence, at a cost of five dollars fdr one year and fifteen
dollars for three years. Every miner locating a claim must record the
same in the office of the Gold Commissioner, for a period of one or more
pears, paying therefore at a rate of $2.50 per year.
Every free miner may hold at the same time any number of claims
by purchase, but only two claims by pre-emption in the same locality,
one mineral claim and one other claim, and sell, mortgage, or dispose
of the same.
The size of claims are as follows :—
The bar diggings, a strip of land, 100 feet wide at high-water mark
and thence extending into the river to the lowest water level.
For dry diggings, 100 feet square.
Creek claims shall be 100 feet long measured in the direction of
the general course of the stream and thall extend in width from base to
base of the hill, or bench on each side, but when the hills or benches
are less than 100 feet apart, the claim shall be 100 feet square.
Bench claims shall be 100 feet square.
Mineral claims, that is claims containing, or supposed to contain
minerals (other than coal) in lodes or veins, shall be 1,500 feet long by
600 feet wide, 1°
From Ocean to Ocean
Discoverers of new mines are allowed 300 feet in length for one
discoverer, 600 feet for two, 800 for three, and 1,000 in length for a
party of four.
Creek discovery claims extend 1,000 feet on each side of the centre
of the creek or as far as the summit.
Coal lands West of the Cascade Range in tracts not less than 160
acres, may be purchased at not less than ten dollars per acre, and
similar lands East of the Cascade Range, at not less than five dollars
per acre.
THE GOVERNMENT AND THE PEOPLE.
British Columbia is governed by a Legislative Assembly of twenty-
five members elected by the people every four years. The Lieut-
Governor and a council of three Ministers constitute the Executive
body, Hon. William Smithe, Premier, Chief Commissioner of Lands and
Works, Hon. Minister of Finance and Agriculture, Hon. Theodore Davie,
Attorney-General, Hon. John Robson, Provincial Secretary and Minister
of Mines, being its present officers. Political and Religious freedom,
free public schools, liberal homestead pre-emptibn and mining privileges,
are guaranteed and secured by the laws. Justice is firmly administered,
good order prevails, and life and property are secure throughout the
Province. So far as the Government is consented, there has been
nothing to remind me that I have crossed the line into the Queen's
Dominions, excepting the glad demonstrations of welcome accorded the
Governor-General, the Marquis of Lome and the Queen's daughter,
Princess Louise. There is the same freedom of opinion, and outspoken
criticism of public men and measures; elections are conducted with the
same partisan zeal, and the Press is just as abusive as in the United
States. The people generally entertain a very friendly feeling toward
the United States. The portraits of George and Martha Washington,
Lincoln, Grant, Sheridan, Garfield, and other distinguished Americans,
are often seen hanging upon the walls of both public and private houses in
all parts of the Province, together with those of members of the Royal
Family. The population is quite cosmopolitan and liberal in fhsir
views. Stopping at an inn in the Interior recently, it was found that
each of the seven white persons present, represented a different nationality. The popular feeling is strongly opposed to Chinese immigration,
the present Provincial Government refusing to employ any Chinamen
upon the public works. 1
By the Canadian Pacific Railway. <ji
THE INDIAN NATIONS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA
Afford a most interesting study for the ethnologist. They are eleven in
number evidently of Asiatic origin, comprising altogether about 35,000
souls,—the Tsimpsheean's, Quackeweth, and Hydah nations being the
most populous. The West Vancouver and the Hydah Indians of
Queen Charlotte Island were formerly quite hostile to the whites, having
cruelly murdered several ships crews cast upon their shores ; but
through the influence of missionary training, several severe chastisements
by English gunboats, and their humane liberal treatment by the general
government, they are now quite friendly. I have visited most of the
principal tribes during the past season, and have always been cordially
received in their houses or wigwams.
They are generally much inferior both in stature and form to the
white race. A few of the Queen Charlotte Hydah's are fairly good-
looking, and well formed, though it would require an exceedingly fertile
and romantic imagination to discover among these people a single
specimen of the beautiful Indian maiden, we have all read about, but
whom so few have ever seen. They are almost entirely self-supporting,
depending not alone upon the wonderful fish and game supplies of this
region, but in many instances cultivating farms* and raising cattle and
horses. Large numbers are also employed by the salmon fisheries and
canneries, lumber mills, steamboat lines, and railroad contractors, and
are considered superior to Chinese labourers.
M. Duncan's remarkable work at Metlakatlah, where he has colonized over a thousand of the Tsimpsheeans, who now live in good houses,
worship in a $10,000 church of their own erection, school their children,
operate a salmon cannery, a sawmill, and engage in other self-supporting pursuits, demonstrates the possibilities attainable by well directed
efforts for their civilization upon a Christian basis.
THE  PRINCIPAL  CITITS, TOWNS  AND   SETTLEMENTS  IN  BRITISH
COLUMBIA
Are Victoria, Esquimalt, Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Wellington j
Comox, Fort Rupert, and Sooke, on Vancouver Island; New Westminster, Vancouver, Hastings, Langley, Sumass, Chilliwhack, Hope)
Emory, Yale, Lytton, Lillooet, Cash Creek, Cook's Ferry, Clinton, Lake
La Hache, Soda Creek, Quesnelle, Stanley, Barkerville, Savona's Ferry,
Kamloops, Tranquille, Grand Prairie, Salmon River, Spallumcheen,
Okanagan,   Mission,   Cherry   Creek,  Eagle  Pass  Landing,  Farwell,
W 72
From Ocean to Ocean
Similkameen, Port Essington, Rivers' Inlet, Metlakathla, Fort Simpson,
and Cassiar, on the Mainland, containing altogether about fifty thousand
inhabitants.
THE BIG BEND COUNTRY, THROUGH THE SELKIRK RANGE OF MOUNTAINS.
From the First to the Second Crossing of the Columbia.
The Columbia River, rising near the 50th parallel, flows Northward for about two hundred miles, when sweeping Southward forms its
first Big Bend, entirely within the Province, of British Columbia. The
region which it bounds, known as the Big Bend Country, is about 80
miles in extent from East to West, and 200 miles from North to South,
embracing the rugged Selkirk range of mountains, which rise from five
to nine thousand feet above the sea. From its richness in mineral
deposits, extensive bodies of valuable timber, and wonderful scenery,
this is the most interesting portion of country traversed by the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
GOLD.
Twenty years ago the richness of the gold places of McCulloch's
Creek, a tributary of the Columbia and its branches, attracted gold
hunters from all parts of the world, and gold has since been found in
every stream flowing from these mountains. Very rich quartz veins
have been discovered on McCulloch Creek the present season, and there
are also encouraging developments on the Illicilliwait River and Beaver
Creek. About thirty claims had been taken in this promising gold
field at the time of my visit in July last. It is now easily accessible
from various points on the line of the C. P. R. R„
TIMBER AND FUEL RESOURCES.
There is timber enough in the Rocky Mountains, Selkirk, and
Gold Ranges of Mountains, accessible from the line of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, notwithstanding the enormous quantities destroyed by
forest fires, to build a house on every quarter section of land in the
North-West Territories, and supply every occupant. with fuel for a
thousand years.    These great forests are composed mainly of cedar By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 73
spruce, fir,, and pine, though there are considerable growths of poplar,
birch, and cottonwood along the streams, especially in their lower
courses. The largest cedars, several of which I measured being from
25 to 30 feet in circumference, are generally defective from 10 to 15 feet
at the base, but being quite tall will usually cut 30 to 40 feet of
sound timber. They split with the greatest facility to any required
length, and will be especially valuable for shakes, shingles, &c. The
soundest trees are found on the foot-hills, and the best timber on
the entire line grows on the Western slope of the Selkirk Range.
MOUNTAIN FLOWERS.
I had entered the mountains in this Northern latitude prepared to
find the statements of previous travellers too rose coloured upon the
subject of flowers. But there has been no exaggeration in this respect
for I saw them growing in great variety everywhere, even within a few
feet of avalanches and glaciers.
%5^r 74
From Ocean to Ocean
lt^:	
DONALD.
A
T the first crossing of the Columbia is a small village of about thirty
houses, situated on a level opening surrounded by mountains from
three to five thousand feet in height, covered with a thick growth of pine
and tamarack. The bridge over the Columbia is 430 feet in length, the
river being about one hundred feet less in width. From thence the
railway follows down the Columbia 12 miles to the mouth of the Beaver,
up the Beaver 14 miles, Bear Creek, 7 miles to the summit of the
Selkirk, and thence down the Illiciliwait to the second crossing of the
Columbia. Between Donald and the summit of the Selkirks occur the
highest bridges on the line: First Mountain Creek bridge, 1,056 feet
long and 153 feet high ; Cedar Creek, 270 feet long and 117 feet high ;
Raspbery, 120 feet long and 67 feet high; Surprise, 430 feet long and
164 feet high : Cut Bank, 195 feet long and 71 feet high ; Snow Bank,
146 feet long and 51 feet high: Stoney Creek, 490 feet long and 286
feet high; and Cascade Creek, 350 feet long and 67 feet high.
DOWN THE ILLICILIWAIT.
For 46 miles from its source the railway follows down this
impetuous roaring stream, crossing it no less than 13 times. It is from
one to two hundred feet in width in its lower course, with rocky bottom
and banks, and not navigable except for logs, which it will carry of any
size into the Columbia, where it empties 6 miles below Farwell. It
receives several small streams which dash down the steep mountains,
often jumping precipices htmdreds of feet. Walking over the Selkirk
Range of Mountains along this stream and the line of the C. P. R. in
July last', I found it the most interesting country ever visited. It not
only embraced the steepest mountains, biggest avalanches and glaciers,
highest railway bridges in America, and the most whisky saloons and
hard drinkers in proportion to 'population, but presented the most
remarkable scene of rapid railway construction I had ever witnessed. The mountains swarmed with men and teams levelling the
great forest trees, preparing the way with axe, pick, shovel, and powder, By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
75
by tunnels under mountains and avalanches, and bridges over roaring
rivers, for the steam engine, the greatest developing and civilizing
agency of the age. Fully ten thousand men were thus engaged, rushing
the great work to completion. Men who had wintered in the Selkirks
told me that snow falls from ten to twenty feet in depth, and remains
until June. I walked over several avalanches, one of which was over
600 feet wide and 60 feet in depth. They level the forests in their
pathway, as if the giant cedars were only dry stubble, not more by the
mighty force of the mountains of packed snow moving a mile a minute,
than by the velocity of the wind currents they produce. 76
From Ocean to Ocean
FARWELL.
AT the Second Crossing of the Coulmbia River in its sudden creation, character of construction, business and population, is a typical
New World Western railroad town.
It is situated on a level timbered plateau, immediately on the left
bank of the river, and contains about 60 buildings and 300 people.
Mounts Bigby and Cunningham raise their snow capped heads from
seven to eight thousand feet above.
The Columbia River, navigable to Death Rapids about 20 miles
higher up, and upon which steamers now run regularly to Washington
Territory, it crossed here by the railway on a fine five pier Howe truss
bridge a thousand feet in length.
From Farwell the railway ascends the Gold Range, and thence
down the Eagle River to Eagle Pass Landing, about 43 miles. A
chain of beautiful lakes, extending altogether 10 miles, the largest
being about two and a-half miles in length, compose,the head waters of
Eagle River. These, in travelling Westward, are named respectively,
Lakes Summit, Victor, Three Valleys, and Griffin. They are from
20 to 250 feet in depth, and contain splendid specimen of trout which,
however, are not easily caught. Over these lakes we were ferried upon
flat boats propelled with great oars, before the completion of the railway. There is considerable good cedar and spruce along the upper
waters of the Eagle River, but a dense growth of small cypress, birch
and alder prevail in the lower valley.
EAGLE PASS LANDING.
Eagle Pass Landing looks as though it had tumbled down the
mountain on a dark night in a state of intoxication, and had not yet
sufficiently recovered to resume an upright and respectable position.
Sixty wooden and tent enclosures face a narrow street, about half of
which are liquor hells. The situation commands a charming view of
mountain, lake, and river, and being the Western terminus of the wagon
road, will probably not altogether disappear upon the opening of the
railway for through traffic. By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
77
KAMLOOPS.
(From Chittenden's Travels in British Columbia and Alaska,
in 1882J
KAMLOOPS situated at the forks of the North and South Thompson
is one of the most important places in the East Cascade region.
It commands the trade of a considerable portion of the richest grazing
and agricultural sections of the Province, the Nicola, Kamloops, Spal-
lumcheen and Okanagan country. The Kamloops district, which lies
between the Gold Range of mountains on the East and Savona's Ferry
on the West, the North end of Shuswap Lake on the North and
Okanagan Lake on the South, contained by the returns of 1881, 8,136
horned cattle, 1,108 horses, and 2,000 sheep. About 3,000 acres of
land were under cultivation, the average yield per acre being as follows :
Wheat, 1,300 lbs., barley, 1,800 lbs., oats, 1,500 lbs., peas, 2,000 lbs.,
potatoes, 1,800 lbs., turnips, 18,000 lbs., and hay, 2,000 lbs. The
largest stock raisers and farmers are J. B. Graves, Thaddeus
Harper, Bennett & Lumby, Victor Guillaume, W. J. Roper, Duck &
Pringle, Wm. Jones, Hugh Morton, John Peterson, L. Campbell, Thos..
Sullivan, Thomas Roper, Ed. Roberts, Wm. Fortune, W. J. Howe, A.
J. Kirkpatrick, Peter Frazer, James Steele, Herman Wichers, Alexander
Fortune, Mathew Hutchison, George Lynn and John Edwards. Kamloops was first occupied by the Hudson Bay Company, their old fort
still standing on the right bank of the river opposite. In those days
the Indian tribes were frequently at war with each other, and the servants of the company had to keep a sharp look out for their scalps.
Rosana Shubert, daughter of Augustus and Rosana Shubert, who crossed
the mountains from Winnipeg in 1862, was the first white child born in
the place.* The flour and sawmill of the Shuswap Milling Company
is located here, James Mcintosh, manager.    It has a capacity of fifty
* Since the advent of the C. P. R. Kamloops has more than doubled in size
and population, and will always be the most important centre of trade in the in-
terior of the Province. *g • From Ocean to Ocean
barrels of flour daily and manufactures the various grades of rough and
dressed lumber. I am indebted to Mr. TunstaU, Government Agent at
Kamloops, for much valuable information concerning that section.
THE  OKANAGAN  SPALLUMCHEEN   COUNTRY.
From Kamloops to Okanagan Mission, via Duck & Pringle's Grand
Prairie, and Okanagan; returning through the Spallumcheen,
Salmon River, Round and Pleasant Valleys.
On the 4th of October I resumed my journey through the Southeastern portion of the Province. For eighteen miles to Duck & Prin-
gles ranch we followed up the South Thompson, passing through a fine
pastoral and wheat growing country. M. Jacob Duck having purchased
the interest of his partner, is now the sole owner of this splendid estate,
comprising 3,000 acres of the best grazing and farming land of this region,
well watered, yielding five hundred tons of hay, and now stocked with
a thousand head of cattle. The valley proper is from one to one and
a-half miles in width, flanked by mountains, with gradual receding foothills covered with bunch grass. From thence we rode eighteen miles
South-eastward, over smooth, rolling mountains from 1,550 to 2,600 feet
in height, to
GRAND  PRAIRIE.
These mountains are thinly wooded with fir and pine, and interspersed
with lakes, bordered by meadows and marshes. Grand Prairie is a rich
and pleasant opening, about four miles long and two miles wide, occupied
by four settlers, Kirkpatrick, J. Pringle, Jones, and the Ingram heirs.
There is room in the light pine lands bordering it, for a dozen more
families. Proceeding early on the morning of the 5 th, we soon crossed,
and then followed down the Salmon River for upwards of twenty miles,
through a rolling, pine timbered section. This stream then flows North
into the Shuswap Lake, its lower valley containing several thousand
acres of open, fertile farming land. Continuing South-Easterly, ten
miles brings us to O'Keefe's and Greenhow's ranches, at the head of
Okanagan Lake. They came here fourteen years ago with limited
means, and are now the owners, each, of 2,000-acre ranches, and seven By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 70
or eight hundred head of cattle, worth twenty-five or thirty thousand
dollars.    We are now in the
OKANAGAN COUNTRY,
Which, together with the near lying valleys of Spallumcheen and Salmon
River, embraces the largest scope of pastoral and arable lands in one
body, in South-Eastern British Columbia. Okanagan Lake, the source
of the Okanagan River, a tributary of the Columbia, is about eighty
miles in length, and from two to three miles in width.
A survey has just been completed for a canal connecting the lake with
the navigable waters of the Spallumcheen, only about twenty miles from
its head. Its construction would extend steamboat navigation to within
thirty miles of the Boundary Line or 49th parallel, and greatly promote
the rapid settlement and development of naturally the richest part of
the interior of the Province. Reaching O'Keefe's at noon and lunching
hastily, I walked four miles, and then mounting a powerful horse,
galloped thirty-eight miles South on the East side of Okanagan Lake
and took supper at seven o'clock with Eli Lequime at
THE OKANAGAN MISSION.
I rode through the most magnificent pastoral and farming region I
have seen since visiting the Walla Walla Valley 9/ Washington. On
the right a low range of mountains about four miles in width reaching
to the Eastern shore of the Lake extends most of the way.
They are covered with bunch grass from foot-hill to summit, and
though lightly pine timbered afford excellent summer grazing. Immediately on the left lie a chain of beautiful lakes, extending Southward
over twenty miles. First Swan Lake, surrounded by extensive
meadows, and splendid wheat lands with a grand stretch of rolling foothill grazing lands, lying to the South-Eastward. Over this section
under charge of Mr. Vance, range the six hundred horses of Hon. F. J.
Barnard, M.P., the- most extensive breeder of fine horses in the
Province. Here are also the ranches of Lawson, Andrew, and Lyons.
Next comes Long Lake, eight or ten miles in length, and about a mile
in width, with a large scope of good grazing country surrounding its
Northern shores. To the East lies the Cherry Creek settlement, the home
of Hon. G. Forbes Vernon, and Girouard, Deloir, Ellison, Walker,
Keefer, Duer, P. Bissett, Louis Christian and Williams. A narrow strip
of land known as the Railway, separates Long Lake from Wood Lake.
Tom Wood has a ranch and six hundred head of cattle on its South side. go From Ocean to Ocean
Now we reach the head of the Mission or
OKANAGAN VALLEY,
Which is about fifteen miles long, and from three to four miles in width.
It was first occupied by Peter Lequime and wife, who came into the
valley almost dead broke from Rock Creek, twenty-two years ago, and
are now the owners of a thousand-acre ranch, iooo head of cattle, a
store, good houses and barns, and thousands of cash besides. The soil
is a rich sedimentary deposit growing enormous crops of cereals and
roots. Mr. Lequime says his wheat averages from twenty-five to thirty
bushels per acre. He showed me a potato which turned the scale at
four pounds. Fruit, melons, and tomatoes grow finely, and Indian corn
usually reaches maturity. The climate is healthy, water good, and fuel
abundant. The lakes abound with fish, wild geese and duck. There
are about twenty white settlers in the valley, engaged principally in
stock raising, though farming several hundred acres. First below
Woods' is the Postill ranch of 800 acres, beautifully situated upon
Postill Lake. They have 400 head of cattle, 100 horses, and cultivate
150 acres. Their neighbor, Fulton, was digging potatoes, which he estimated would yield over 500 bushels to the acre. He had farmed in the East
and in California and never saw such a crop. Then follow the ranches of
Jones, Wheelan, Fulton, McGinnis, Simpson, Lacerte, Bucherie, Brant,
Moore, Simpson, Ortolan, Jos. Christian, Eli Lequime, McDougal, and
Hayward in the order named. Two settlers, Fronson and Brewer, live
in Priest Valley, and three white men, Major Squires, Copp, and
Hermann, are gold mining on Mission Creek, about seven miles above
the Missi°n- There are about 4,000 head of cattle in the Okanagan
Valley, and 6,000 in the seventy miles of country between the Mission
and the Boundary Line. The Government wagon road terminates at
Lequime's, from whence pack trails lead over the mountains to the
Custom House, and 160 miles to Hope on the Fraser River. Qn the
morning of the 6th, I rode forty-two miles to O'Keefe's, horseback,
then five miles by wagon, when a walk of seven miles brought me to
the Lambly ranch in the
SPALLUMCHEEN VALLEY,
The choicest body of farming lands in this whole region. The
Spallumcheen or Shuswap River rises in the Gold'Range of mountains,
and flows into Shuswap Lake, and from thence into the South Thomp- By the Canadian Pacific Railu
/ay.
81
son. It is navigable for steamboats to Fortune's Ranch, about 25 miles
from its mouth. Undulating lightly timbered pine lands, several miles
in width, extend- nearly the whole distance. There are occasional small
openings, the largest, occupied by Mr. Dunbar, containing upwards of
three hundred acres. He is the only settler upon this large tract, which
will furnish farms for at least one hundred families. The soil is a deep
clay loam, and the rainfall sufficient to secure good crops without irrigation. But the most beautiful portion of the Valley of the Spallumcheen
does not lie along the river, but beginning at Spailumcheen Landing
extends South for fifteen miles, with an average width of 2% miles. It
contains about 3,000 acres of level prairie opening, exclusive of
Pleasant Valley and Round Prairie, comprised within the same valley
but separated by narrow belts of pine. The soil is a deep clayey loam,
producing on an average one ton of wheat per acre and abundant crops
of all the.cereals and roots grown in this latitude, and without irrigation.
The climate is salubrious, water good, winters of moderate severity, the
snow fall usually about two feet in depth. Mr. A. L. Fortune and
Mark Wallis, its first settlers, in 1866 took possession of the fine farm
of 320 acres now owned by the former.     He cultivates 200 acres, and
has 200 head of cattk
horses, &c.    There are about 1,500 acres
improved in the valley, Hermann Wichers, E. M. Furstenau, Frank
Young, G. W. Wallace, A. Shubert, H. Swanson, W. Murray, D.
Graham, J. W. Powell, and the Lambly brothers being its other
occupants.
A Ride Through the Salmon River Valley, Okanagan Indian, Reservation, and Round Prairie. An Interview with His Excellency the
Governor-General, the Marquis of Lome.
The Salmon River, rising in the mountains South-East of Kam
loops, in its lower course runs para]
el wi
th and about ten miles from
the Shuswap River, emptying into the lake of that name. It embraces
from three to four thousand acres of prairie and rolling foot-hills, and a
much larger body of open pine land easily cleared for farming purposes.
The soil is a deep dark sandy loam, producing large crops without
irrigation. It is occupied by the Steel Brothers (James, Thomas, and
W. B.), Matthew Hutchinson, Geo. Lynn, Donald Matthews, A. C.
Wilkie.'and Thomas James, 320 acres each. They cultivate altogether
6 g2 From Ocean to Ocean
about 400 acres, and raise a few catde, horses and hogs.    Mr. James
the  valley,
and  twenty-eight
Steele has the best improved farm m
thorough-bred shorthorns.
Mr. A. Postill is building a saw-mill on Deep Creek, where there is
a considerable body of good pine timber. Galloping' through it on the
morning of October 9th, I overtook Wm. Richardson who was blazing
the trees from his ranch to the main road. He thought it was the best
country in the world for a poor man. Landing at Burrard Inlet four
years ago with one dollar and a-half, he had since earned by his own
labor one farm of 160 acres, partly paid for 320 acres more, has a small
band of horses, and is entirely out of debt. A little further on my horse
suddenly sprang forward, and a small shepherd dog ran by at full speed.
Looking back expecting that his owner was following, great was my
surprise to see a coyote wolf in full pursuit. He stopped when about
three rods off, sat down on his haunches, as if knowing that I was
unarmed and perfectly harmless. When I advanced he retreated deliberately, sitting down again when in climbing a very steep hill I halted
to dismount. Reaching the summit I gave chase at full speed, but the
cunning animal by choosing the roughest ground, escaped. I have
seen a shepherd dog and wolf in company once before standing together upon the banks of the Rio Grande in Mexico. Riding on 14
miles to the head of the valley and turning Eastward, I followed a good
trail seven miles across the Okanagan Indian Reservation, a rich bunch
grass range capable of supporting 500 or 600 head of cattle, but unoccupied except by a few Indian ponies. Descending the foot-hills
toward Lake Okanagan,
THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL, THE MARQUIS OF LORNE,
And party, ex-Lieut.-Governor Trutch and Col. DeWinton, were seen
shooting in the distance. The Marquis is very popular with the people
who came flocking in from the remotest settlements to see him. His
Excellency expressed himself to me as highly pleased with what he had
seen in the Province, and seemed to take a deep interest in its further
development and prosperity. Mr. Campbell, of the Governor-General's
staff, who accompanied the Earl of Dufferin on his visit to the Province,
was busy taking notes upon the resources of the country. He thinks
the scenery of British Columbia is the grandest and most beautiful he
has ever seen. I returned through Round Prairie, a very beautiful
opening of 500 acres, between the Salmon River and Spallumcheen By the Canadian Pacific Railway. g?
Valleys.    Messrs Jones, Kirkpatrick, Prindle, Clemenston and Shubert,
have secured this choice location.
From  the  Spallumcheen   Valley to   Messrs.  Barnard and   Vernon's
Ranches, via Pleasant Valley.
From Messrs. Bennett and Lumby's farm to Mr Vernon's is about
twenty-five miles. En route I passed through Pleasant Valley, a fine
level prairie opening of 800 or 900 acres, lying a mile and a-half to the
Eastward of the main road. In reaching it by a short cut across a
swamp my horse suddenly sank belly deep, when, dismounting, we
both floundered out covered with mud and water. I found the settlers,
Clinton & Murray, Edward Thorne, Hermann Wichers, Donald Graham,
and the Croziers in the midst of threshing. Mr. Murray gave me the
yearly product of his cereals for a term of six years, which shows an
average yield of twenty-eight bushels per acre. Being quite wet, to
avoid taking cold, I left my horse at O'Keefe's, and proceeded from
thence on foot. Four miles South-East of the head of Lake Okanagan,
I took a trail leading along the East side of Swan Lake.    At least
A THOUSAND WILD GEESE
Were standing together on the shore. Two or three miles beyond,
darkness overtook me, and after two hours' unsuccessful search among
the foot-hills for Vance's, wet to my waist, I found shelter in the cabin
of a neighboring settler. It contained a single room already occupied
by two white men, two Indian women and their babes; but after ringing and drying out for an hour before a roaring fire I laid down upon
a mattress on the floor until daylight.    Early in the morning I reached
hon. f. j. Barnard's ranch,
And saw upwards of 400 of his 700 horses now on the range. Sired by
Belmont, Morgan, and Norman, stallions, they are the finest animals I
have seen in the Province. Mr. Vance, for 14 years manager of the
ranch, says that they subsist throughout the year upon the native grasses
and have suffered from cold and scarcity of feed only one winter during
that period. Five miles further over a rich rolling country, comprising   several   thousand   acres   of excellent wheat land,  brought me r
84
From Ocean to Ocean
to Hon. G. Forbes Vernon's Ranch. It contains 2,500 acres, beautifully situated, between the mountains upon Coldstream, which flows into
Long Lake. Near here two coyotes came leisurely down from the foothills and circling round me within a short distance, returned up the
mountains. They are quite numerous, and catch large numbers of
small pigs and occasionally a young calf.
From Spallumcheen to Kamloops by Steamer, through the Little an
Shuswap Lakes and down the South Thompson.
dBii
From the present head of navigation on the Spallumcheen River to
Kamloops is about 125 miles. As previously stated, the building of a
canal twenty miles in length from Spallumcheen to the head of Lake
Okanagan would extend navigation over eighty miles further through
the heart of the richest portion of the interior of the Province. The
surface and soil of the country through which it would pass is very
favorable for its construction. On the 16th of October, having exhausted
the time at my disposal for examining the Okanagan and Spallumcheen
country, I took the steamer Spallumcheen for Kamloops. The smallest
of the three running upon the upper waters, she is not of oceanic
dimensions and being built exclusively for carrying freight, her passenger
accommodations are very limited. But her deficiencies in this respect
were the source of amusement rather than discomfort. Captain
Meananteu, who was also engineer, mate and pilot, kindly shared his
bunk with me, and when duties on deck called away the Indian boy
cook and interfered with the regular service of meals, I officiated as
assistant, and so we got along splendidly.
For two days we slowly steamed through a. magnificent stretch of
lakes and rivers, amidst scenery of exceeding grandeur and beauty.
For a distance of twenty-five miles down the Spallumcheen, both banks,
are lightly wooded with fir, cedar, white pine, poplar and birch.
Hazel bushes and highbush cranberries are seen growing near the river.
The valley is from one to three and a-half miles in width, surface
generally level, soil a rich clay loam and alluvial, and will afford homes
for more than one hundred families. Some portions will require dyking
to the height of about three feet for protection against overflow. Should
the. Canadian Pacific Railway adopt the South Thompson and Kicking By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 85
Horse Pass route these lands will soon become quite valuable.   When
about half way down the Spallumcheen
A DEER WAS SEEN SWIMMING ACROSS AHEAD OF US.
From Kamloops to Cook's Ferry, through the Nicola Country.
Giving chase, the frightened animal instead of turning back to the shore
and escaping, plunged on directly in our course, until standing in the
bow of the boat, armed with a long pole, I was able to strike it a fatal
blow on the head. Our two Indian helpers sprang into a canoe, seized
and threw it on deck, an acceptable addition to our larder.
Swan, wild geese, and duck were seen at almost every turn, but
there were no firearms, not even a pistol on board. We tied up for the
night on the shore of the lake, opposite a logging camp. The best
timber found in this part of the Province grows upon the borders of
these lakes and of the streams flowing into them. A party of Indians
were catching fish by torch light near us. Salmon and trout were so
numerous that I could count them by the dozens from the boat as we
advanced in the morning. Reaching the Thompson River, the mountains recede more gradually, the bare rolling foot-hills affording
considerable grazing, and occasional benches of arable land, chiefly
occupied by Indians.
The Nicola River, a tributary of the Thompson, is the principal
stream draining the mountainous region lying between the latter, and
Lake Okanagan on the East. The valley is narrow and disappointing
for the first twenty miles, but then spreads out over the rolling foot-hills
and mountains, embracing one of the finest bodies of grazing country in
the Province. It contains a population of about six hundred, four
hundred of which are Indians, the former being engaged chiefly in
stock-raising, owning at present about 8,500 cattle, 1,500 horses, and
1 200 sheep. The climate and soil are also well adapted to the growth
of grain and root crops, upwards of a thousand acres being under cultivation by irrigation. A fair wagon road trail extends all the way from
Kamloops to Cook's Ferry, the distance being a little over one hundred
miles. With the exception of John Gilmore's express, which runs up
the valley about half way from the Ferry with H. M.'s mails, it is not dff
86
From Ocean to Ocean
traversed by any regular conveyance. Starting out early on the morning of October 18th, for nearly twenty miles I gradually ascended the
summit of the Thompson-Nicola divide through rich, rolling bunch
grass ranges, occupied by Messrs. McConnell, McLeod, Jones, Newman,
and others. Then descending Lake River, the head waters of the
Nicola, through Fraser's and Scott's ranches, I stopped a few moments
at Mr. William Palmer's dairy farm. He milks thirty-five cows, churns
by water-power, and makes an excellent quality of butter aud very good
cheese, the former selling readily for 40 and the latter for 20 cents per
potmd.
From thence I took a trail several miles over a spur of
the mountains leaving the fine ranches of the Moore Brothers
on the right. Soon I reach the head of Nicola Lake, a beautiful
body of water extending down the valley for fourteen miles,
with an average width of about one mile. The little village of
Quilchanna, consisting of Joseph Blackbourne's Hotel, Edward
O'Rourke's store, Richard O'Rourke's blacksmith shop, and P. L.
Anderson's store, is situated on the East side. A. Van Volkenburg
owns a splendid 2,000 acre ranch here, stocked with 900 head of cattle*
and Blackbourne, John Hamilton, George C. Bent, John Gilmore>
Samuel Wasley, Byron Earnshaw, and Patrick Killroy, other excellent
ranges in this neighborhood.
The Douglas Lake country, lying to the Eastward, contains a considerable extent of choice pastoral lands, owned by P. M. Beak, Hugh
Murray, L. Guichon, T. Richardson, McRae Brothers and others. It is
said that one of its most prosperous stock-raisers recently wedded a
lady from the Golden State, and started with her for his ranch. The
fair bride had been led either by the overdrawn statements of her
anxious lover, or the natural fancies of a youthful, inexperienced maiden
to expect to be ushered into a mansion house becoming the possessor of
such large bands of fat cattle and wide areas of rich pasturage. Now it
is well known that some of these cattle Lords dwell in habitations which
would not be considered first-class for any purpose—single room, dirt
floor, dirt roof, one window, low, small, dirty log cabins, where, in the
dim light of a tallow candle, they make their slap-jacks, as I have seen
them, on the top of a dirty stove. The happy couple, after a splendid
ride through the beautiful country, halt before a rough pile of logs
having the appearance of a stable. " What is this ?" the bride asked!
" This is my home—our home," replied 'the bridegroom. " Home !
Home!   You—you cruel deceiver, you call that miserable hovel our By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 87
home It may do for your home, but it will never be mine," she
exclaimed with dramatic emphasis, and in spite of all entreaties, left him
then and there and returned to the Sunny South. Nine miles further
down the now narrowing valley brings me to
NICOLA,
Its principal town. It is pleasantly situated near the foot of the lake and
comprises a neat little church and school-house, Pettit & Co.'s store,
George Fenson's flour and saw-mill, and several private residences.
Leaving Nicola, the valley broadens again for several miles, stretching
across the river bottoms and over the Westward slope of the mountains.
John Clapperton, A. D. G. Armitage, Paul Gillie, Edwin Dalley, John
Chartres, Wm. Chartres, Wm. Voght and Alexander Coutlie are the
principal settlers of this section. The latter has one of the best places
in the interior. From thence the valley rapidly narrows, and below the
Woodward farms and mills, to less than a mile in width, flanked by
precipitous, thinly pine wooded mountains. There are small tracts of
arable and irrigable lands, chiefly occupied by Indians, James Phair,
proprietor of the 22-mile house—a very comfortable, home-like inn—
being the only white settler for the last twenty-five miles. I am informed
by Mr. Thaddeus Harper and others, that there is a six-foot vein of good
bituminous coal in the central portion of the valley, easily accessible.
A ride from Kamloops through the North Thompson Settlement.
The Thompson River, the principal tributary of the Fraser, forks at
Kamloops, the North branch heading near latitude 53 between the
Canoe River and the North Fork of the Quesnelle. It is navigable for
light draught steamers to Pea Vine, a distance of about 125 miles from
Kamloops. One of the most favored routes of the Canadian Pacific
Railroad followed up this stream by an easy grade crossing the Rocky
Mountains through the Yellow Head or Leather Pass. It flows between
mountains from three thousand to six thousand feet in height, generally
sparsely wo.oded with fir, pine and cedar, though containing excellent
bunch grass ranges of considerable extent. The rolling foot-hills are
also covered with bunch grass and sage, a fine quality known here as
wormwood prevailing on the lower slopes and benches. Cottonwood,
alder and birch grows along the immediate river banks.    The valley is
Tl 88
From Ocean to Ocean
from one to two-and-a-half miles in width, and though specially adapted
for grazing purposes contains several thousand acres of rich farming
lands. The soil is variable—gravelly upon the benches, with a fine
deep alluvial on the bottom. The Kamloops Indian Reservation of
about 23,000 acres at the Forks of the Thompson comprises about
2,500 acres of its best arable lands. The valley has been occupied by
whites since 1865 and contains at present ten settlers—Mclvors,
Edwards, Sullivan, and Kanouff on the left bank, and Petch, McQueen,
Gordon, McAuley, and Jamieson on the right bank. They are engaged
principally in raising cattle, horses and hogs, their aggregate stock
amounting to about 1,100 head. Sullivan and Edwards have between
four and five hundred each. Mr. Edwards farms upwards of 200 acres
of rich bottom land. His wheat yields on an average twenty-five bushels
per acre. There is room for a few more settlers in this valley. Mr.
Sullivan says there are good cattle ranges in the mountain valleys as yet
almost untouched. The stock-supporting capacity of this region must,
however, be based upon the extent of the winter feed. This is greater
than I had supposed, and sufficient by the cultivation of the tame grasses
in the meadows, to carry a large number of cattle through the severest
winters. On the 30th of September, furnished with a good horse by Mr.
Tait, of the Hudson Bay Company, I rode rapidly over a pretty good
trail to Jamieson's ranch, 17 miles from Kamloops on the right bank.
Mr. Jamieson kindly ferried me over the river here which is three
hundred yards in width, my horse swimming behind the boat. I was
hospitably entertained for the night at Sullivan's, returning to the Forks
the following morning, crossing the South Thompson upon an Indialh
flat boat. Since writing the foregoing I] have been informed that^gold
has been found in McAuley's, Jamieson's, and Lewis' creeks, and a
four foot vein of lignite coal upon the North Thompson Indian Reservation, 70 miles from Kamloops.
FROM  KAMLOOPS TO  TRANQUILLE.
On the 3rd of October I crossed the Thompson River opposite
the Hudson Bay Co.'s store, and rode eight miles Westward along
the North shore of Kamloops to Tranquille. Low lands and green
meadows from one to one-and-a-half miles in width, producing thousands
of tons of hay, extend the whole distance on the left. These were alive
with ducks and wild geese. A low range of mountains sparsely wooded
with pine upon the summits, with gradually sloping foot-hills stretch
away on the right.    There is a band of over 200 native horses li By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 8g
these mountains belonging to the Hudson Bay Co., said to be wilder
than deer. They fly like the wind upon the approach of horsemen, but
are sometimes captured by parties of Indians mounted upon their fleetest
horses, and also in the winter upon snow-shoes, when the snows are
deep. Tranquille is the home of Wm. Fortune and his excellent wife
the former crossing the Rocky Mountains in 1862 and settling here 14
years ago. Together they have acquired a magnificent property, consisting of a splendid ranch of 400 acres (stocked with 250 head of cattle,
ioc horses, 100 hogs, and a choice band of sheep), a gristmill grinding
eighty sacks of excellent flour a day, and a steamboat, The Lady
Dufferin. The Tranquille River flows through the place affording an
excellent water power, and abundant water for irrigation. Mr. Fortune's
garden is one of the best I have seen in the Province, growing in great
abundance and perfection a long list of fruits, berries, and vegetables,
including melons and tomatoes.    Learning that there were placer
GOLD  DIGGINGS  ON  THE  TRANQUILLE,
Accompanied by Mr. Fortune I went three or four miles up the stream,
and was much surprised at their extent and production. From twenty
to thirty Chinamen have mined here for several years and are evidently
doing very well. The first one whom we asked to show us some gold,
brought out several packages containing an ounce or more in each.
They build log cabins, cultivate gardens, raise chickens and live here
the year round on the best the country affords. An oven was shown
me made of rocks and mud, where they occasionally roast a whole hog,
usually on their national holidays. Mr. Fortune says that they frequently go home to China and bring back their relatives with them.
Returning, Mrs. Fortune spread an excellent lunch of home productions,
 meat,  bread, butter, jams, jellies, tarts, fruits, etc.    On  the  wall
of the sitting room I noticed a first premium diploma awarded
Mr. Fortune by the North and South Saanich Annual Exhibition of
1879 for flour of his manufacture. John Johnson, an employee of the
Hudson Bay Co., who has been in British Columbia for thirty years,
took charge of my horse at the Forks and paddled me across to Kamloops in a dug-out. He remembers but four severe winters during his
long residence in the Province. 90 From Ocean to Ocean
^avona'* $zkvxj cmfc tyan gow*
MEAR the bank of the Thompson, where it flows from Kamloops Lake,
may be seen the cabin of an Italian named Savona, who upwards
of twenty years ago ran a ferry here, kept a small store, and flourished
until his cattle and horses covered the neighboring hills. He married
an Indian woman, and their fair daughter was won by a handsome half-
breed. Now, this son-in-law who of course came home to live with the
old folks, was gay and festive, and betwixt potlaches, horse-racing, and
gambling, most industriously engaged in while the stock held out, soon
so completely used up the parental estate, that Savona, dying, left nothing behind but his name. While fishing for trout in the Thompson River,
a short distance below the lake, a young Indian woman, accompanying a
party of them, lingered behind until her friends had passed out of sight
over the hills, and then proposed to assist me in catching trout.
Knowing that the native women are quite as skilful as the men in.fishing, I handed her the rod and line; but after angling unsuccessfully for
a little while, the true inwardness of the desire of this artful child of
the forest was made manifest—and it was not to catch trout.
Travelling alone among the Indians is still attended with great
danger for those susceptible to the charms of these wild passionate girls
of nature.
I have known a pious young missionary to resign his post to escape
from their temptations, though such examples of virtuous resistance are
exceedingly rare. The ordinary frontiersman oftener prays to be led
into such temptation as soon as possible than otherwise. The village of
Van Horn is beautifully situated on the South shore of the lake, about
a mile from the old ferry. This is a delightful place of summer resort,
with all the advantages of a perfect climate, hunting, fishing, and
boating. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. qi
Cook's <f errjj, 0r %eitte's §ribge.
'EAR Cook's Ferry the road crosses the great mud slide, or moving
bl mountain, which a railroad engineer said was sliding toward the
river at the rate of eight feet a year. I am well acquainted with Mortimer
Cook, who immortalized himself, and made a fortune here, in the days
when Cariboo was rolling out her fabulous wealth, by ferrying
over the armies of gold hunters rushing Northward. A man of remarkable energy and exceptional ability, he rode into this country poor, on
a mule, and out of it in good style a few years later, worth his thousands,
added to them by successful operations in the West, invested all in
California, flourished, became banker and Mayor of the most beautiful
city on the Southern coast, and then, in the general financial crash of
1877, turned every thing over to his creditors, like a man. The place
is now quite a little village, and being situated at the entrance to the
Nicola country, will always prosper. Mr. John Murray,* an old time
resident, owns a fine property and ranch here, upon which, in addition
to excellent grains, vegetables, apples, cherries, plums, and berries, he
has grown this season, grapes, which, he says, the Marquis of Lome
pronounced equal to any raised in the Dominion. Crossing the Thompson River, on Spence's Bridge; I proceeded thirty miles to Cache Creek,
past Oregon Jack's, and through
ASHCROFT,
Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall's splendid estate. The mountain valleys
to the Westward contain excellent summer stock ranges, and the rolling
river slopes, considerable tracts of arable land, producing large crops by
irrigation. The manager of the Governor's place told me that they
raised 19,500 pounds of wheat from six acres, or over fifty bushels per
acre, and that thirty-three bushels is their average yield. A few miles
beyond, Antoine Minaberriet owns a fine ranch4 of 2,030 acres, with
*Since the foregoing was written, Mr. Murray has expended several thousand
dollars in the successful establishment of the most extensive and reliable fruit
nursery of the Interior, and in bringing an abundant supply of-excellent water
from the mountain. The Morton House, situated here, will be found a very comfortable home-like place. There is excellent hunting and trout fishing in the near
neighborhood. 92
From Ocean to Ocean
400 improved, fourteen miles of irrigating ditches, where he has made a
fortune by stock-raising. He sold $4,000 worth of cattle last year, and
has now 900 on the range.    Between his place and
CACHE CREEK
I came near stepping on a rattlesnake, which gave the alarm just in
time to enable me to jump out of reach of its poisonous fangs. Procuring a sharp stone, and approaching as near as prudent, by a lucky
throw I nearly severed its vemonous head. It was about three feet in
length, with six rattles. They are not numerous, being seldom seen in
the course of ordinary travel. Cache Creek is situated on the Buonaparte, about six miles from the Thompson River. I rode through this'
rich, pleasant valley with Mr. Thaddeus Harper, who owns 25,000 acres
of land, large bands of cattle and blooded horses, improved farms, gold
mines, flour and saw-mills, town sites, &c. It contains about 2,500
acres of very rich soil, principally owned by Harper, Wilson, Van
Volkenburgh, and Sanford. Stopping a moment where wheat threshing
was in progress, I found the berry to be exceptionally large and white.
Returning to Cache Creek, I rode 275 miles further North to Barkerville
upon the excellent stages of the
BRITISH COLUMBIA EXPRESS CO.,
Their line running the entire length of the great Yale-Cariboo Wagon
Road, first established as Barnard's Express in i860, was incorporated
as the British Columbia Express Company in 1878, Mr. Frank J. Barnard, of Victoria, being its managing agent. Horses and men were
used at first for its traffic over the rough and difficult mountain trails. At
Boston Bar, I was told about two Indians who once sought refuge at an
inn near the Suspension Bridge, after having been covered up and
roughly handled by an avalanche. As they were leaving, it was noticed
that they shouldered heavily weighted sacks. Upon enquiry, it was
found that they were each carrying eighty pounds of gold dust for the company, which they safely delivered to Mr. Dodd, its agent at Yale. But
stages were substituted in 1865, and for eighteen years it has been one of
the best equipped and managed stage lines upon the Pacific coast. It
is stocked with splendid horses raised by Hon. F. J. Barnard, M.P.,
the largest owner in the company, upon his extensive horse ranch in the
Okanagan country. These spirited animals are frequently hitched up,
wild from the range, ahead of trained ones, and though dashing away at By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 93
full gallop, up and down hills for miles, over the most frightful mountain
roads, are so skilfully managed by careful and experienced drivers, that
accidents seldom occur.
A ride of twenty-six miles in a North-Westerly direction, fourteen
up the valley of the Buonaparte Creek, lightly wooded with cottonwood
and poplar, and containing about a thousand acres of rich arable
bottoms, exclusive of meadows,-and thence across Hat Creek along the
shores of beautiful lakes, golden bordered with the autumn foliage of the
poplar and vine maple, brings us to
CLINTON.
It is a pleasant village of about one hundred inhabitants, two good
inns, several stores and shops, situated at the junction of the old
Harrison River, Lillooet, with the Yale-Cariboo road. Within a radius
of thirty miles there are summer stock ranges of considerable extent,
especially in the Green Lake country and Cut-off Valley, and arable
lands producing annually about 30,000 bushels of wheat and other
grams. Late and early frosts frequently cut short the root and vegetable
crops, though this season's yield was most abundant. Mr. Foster, the
leading merchant of this section, showed me a potato grown near town
which weighed two and three-quarter pounds. From twenty-five to
thirty thousand dollars' worth of gold dust is sluiced out yearly by
Chinamen and Indians along the Fraser and tributary streams within
sixty miles. The Big Slide quartz lode, owned by Mr. F. W. Foster, is
reported immensely rich, assaying from $40 to $100 per ton. About
$20,000 worth of furs are purchased here annually, principally beaver.
A small rapid mountain stream flows through the village into the
Buonaparte. A few years ago it was stocked with trout, and so rapidly
have they increased that a fellow passenger, Mr. Andrew Gray o
Victoria, brought hi forty splendid specimens after an absence not
exceeding two hours. For fifty miles beyond Clinton we pursued a
North-Easterly course over a rocky surfaced mountain divide between
the Fraser and the Thompson, lightly wooded with black pine, spruce,
and tamarack, known as the Green Timber. Near the summit, at an
elevation of 3,660 feet, we pass within sight of the Great Chasm, a
remarkable rent in the mountain nearly a thousand feet in depth,
perpendicular walled, with two lakelets gleaming through the pines at
the bottom. At Bridge Creek there is a pleasant prairie opening of six
or seven hundred acres with meadows bordering, owned by Mr. Hamil- 94 From Ocean to Ocean
ton, and used for dairying purposes.    Soon we are following down the
Salmon and San Jose Rivers through
THE BEAUTIFUL LAKE LA HACHE COUNTRY.
It embraces an extensive scope of excellent summer stock ranges
only partly occupied. The winters are very severe but dry, and the
snow-fall moderate. At Lake La Hache, a charming sheet of water,
scores of trout were seen jumping out their full length. A son of Mr.
Archibald McKinley, a former factor of the Hudson Bay Company, who
owns a large stock ranch here, said that they could be caught by the
boat load. On we whirl, at a seven mile trot, through poplar openings
interspersed with small lakes, bordered by hay meadows. At the head
of Williams Lake we leave two of our passengers, Sister Mary Clement
and her companion, of the St. Joseph Mission. En route from Kamloops with a settler of that section, his horses took fright, threw him
out, and dashed away at full run with the Sisters for over three miles at
the imminent peril of their lives. With remarkable presence of mind
they seized the reins, sat down on the bottom of the wagon and held on
for dear life. At length, but not until the horses had begun to slacken
their speed from exhaustion, a horseman, who had witnessed the
runaway from a distance, dashed up to the rescue. At the 150-mile
House we stopped for a late supper, fresh horses, and a few hours' rest.
A fire broke out in the kitchen of the hotel just as we had got fairly
stowed away in a far off corner of the second story, and sound asleep.
I awoke first and arousing my bed-fellow, Mr. Gray, we jumped into
our clothes double-quick and explored our way through a narrow, smoky
passage down stairs. By hard work the flames were extinguished, but
there was no more sleep that night. Mr. Gavin Hamilton, for a long
time an agent of the Hudson Bay Company at their extreme Northwestern posts, owns in company with Mr. Griffins, besides the hotel, a
large ranch, a store, flour mill, &c. They estimate that 500,000 pounds
of grain are raised in the neighborhood. A trail leads sixty miles North-
East to the Forks of Quesnelle and from thence to the neighboring
mining camps.
A rapid ride of twenty-eight miles the following morning brought
us to
SODA  CREEK,
A small town situated on the left bank of the Fraser at the mouth of the
creek of that name.    Mr. Robert McLeese, M.P.P., and Mr.  P.  C. ~\
By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 95
Dunlevy, are the principal traders. The latter presented me with a
potato grown near Mud Lake, which weighed three pounds nine ounces.
Here we made connection with the steamer Victoria, owned by
Mr. McLeese, which during the summer months runs to Quesnelle,
about sixty miles above, at present the extreme North-Western steam-
boating upon the Continent. Capt. Lane, commanding, is a grandson
of Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, and well-known in connection with daring
steamboat exploits. The navigable stretch of the Fraser abounds in
subjects of interest. Numerous parties of Chinamen were seen placer
mining on the bars and benches. Twenty miles out we pass Alexandria,
an old fort of the Hudson Bay Company, but now abandoned, and a
few miles beyond, the well-known Australian and Bohanan Ranches,
the most extensive grain farms in Northern British Columbia, raising
upwards of 400,000 pounds of wheat and oats yearly, and considerable
quantities of apples, plums, and other fruits. Away to the Westward
over the terraced pine and poplar wooded bluffs lies the
CHILICOTIN COUNTRY,
Which embraces several hundred thousand acres of rolling prairie,
undulating, lightly timbered forest plateaus, as yet unoccupied except by
a few Indians, and by bands of cattle in summer. Steaming slowly up
the rapid stream, past Castle Rock, Cottonwood Canyon, and the
pyramids, at five o'clock, p. m., the 22nd, we arrive at
QUESNELLE.
The town is very pleasantly situated on the left bank of the Fraser, at
the mouth of the Quesnelle, and contains about fifty white inhabitants,
fifty buildings, two hotels, several stores, shops, &c. The Hudson Bay
Co., J. R. Skinner, J. C. F., and the firm of Reed and Hudson, carry
large stocks of merchandise and do an extensive trade. The Occidental
Hotel, Mr. John McLean, proprietor, is one of the best in the upper
country. Here we resume our journey by stage, and before daylight,
the 23 rd, are on the home stretch for
THE GOLD FIELDS OF CARIBOO.
Twenty-two years ago the advance of the bold and hardy prospectors,
following up the rich digging of the lower Fraser, penetrated as far
North as the Forks of the Quesnelle. Here Keithley struck it rich
upon the creek of that name, and then followed in rapid succession those
9 I
96
From Ocean to Ocean
remarkable discoveries which made Cariboo so famous in the history of
gold mining. Antler Creek in i860, and Williams, Lightning, Lowhee,
Grouse, Mosquito, Sugar, Harvey, Cunningham, Nelson, Burns, and
Jack of Clubs, in 1861, and then Stouts Conklings, McColloms, Beigs,
Stevensons, Chisholm, Van-Winkle, Last Chance, and Davis Gulches in
1862, poured out their long hidden treasures by the million. The
reports of their wonderful wealth spread like wild-fire, and miners, rushed
in by the thousands from all parts of the world. Victoria was like the
encampment of an army of 20,000 men, and Yale of 5,000 more. At
that time the whole of this immense interior region was an almost
unknown wilderness, without roads, and untrodden except by the
native Indian tribes and the yearly pack trains of the Hudson Bay
Company. Over the 400 miles from Yale to Cariboo, over the steep
and perilous Cascades flocked the great eager throng, thousands on
foot, packing their blankets and provisions, fording rivers, wading deep
snows, sleeping on the ground, enduring untold hardships by cold and
heat, hunger and fatigue, to reach the shining goal.
The rugged mountains of Cariboo became a beehive of miners
exploring its rivers and creeks. Never were gold-seekers more liberally
rewarded. Gold was found in unprecedented quantities. Three
hundred and forty ounces were taken out in one day by drifting from
one set about eight feet by three and a half-feet square in the Sawmill
claim, originally taken up Hon. R. Beaven, the present Premier of the
Province, and his associates, Messrs. R. J. Kennedy and Silas James,
and a big, broad-shouldered German named Diller cleaned up one night
with 102 lbs. of gold as the result of his day's work! The aggregate
yield of these wonderful deposits can never be known. Men who
reached the diggings penniless, hungry and ragged, left them again in a
short time with a mule load of gold dust. For several years from 1861
to 1876, their annual product is estimated to have ranged from two to
five million dollars, maintaining since 1872 a yearly average of about one
and a-half million. But of the millions realized immense sums were
absorbed by the enormous expense of living and conducting mining
operations. The costs of transportation alone were so great that strong
men earned from $25 and upwards a day packing in supplies upon their
backs. Provisions sold at almost incredible prices; flour from $1.50
to $2 per lb., meats from |i to $1.50, and salt, $1 per lb. I have met
an editor, Mr. Holloway, who published a paper in Barkerville in those
days, who received %x per copy for a five-column sheet. The postage
on a letter from Victoria to the mines was $1.    Building materials were By the Canadian Pacific Railway.
97
correspondingly high, lumber, $250 per thousand feet, nails, $1 per
lb., &c.
As in all great mining camps comparatively few carried their riches
away with them. Hundreds made their tens of thousands, and sank
them again in unsuccessful efforts to find a real bonanza. Others,
bewildered by their suddenly acquired wealth, spent it as freely as if
they were in possession of the philosopher's stone which converts
everything it touches into gold. I have heard of such a miner who went
into a public-house in Victoria, and without provocation, out of a spirit
of reckless extravagance, merely to show his contempt for money,
dashed a handful of twenty dollar gold pieces through a costly mirror,
and then cooly piled them up before the astonished landlord and walked
away. Crossing the Cottonwood and ascending the mountains along
Lightning Creek, through the villages of Stanley and Richfield, by ten
o'clock we were rattling down the famous Williams Creek into
BARKERVILLE.
It is one of the most interesting collections of human habitations ever
piled together by the accidents of flood and the fortunes and misfortunes of a great mining camp. Built in the narrow bed of Williams
Creek it has been so frequently submerged by the tailings swept down
from the hydraulic mines above, that it now stands upon cribs of logs
from fifteen to twenty feet above the original foundation. When the
floods break loose, the inhabitants man their jack-screws and raise their
respective buildings, each according to his views of the impending
danger. As a result the sidewalks of the town are a succession of up
and down stairs from one end to the other, with occasional cross walks
elevated like suspension bridges. 98
From Ocean to Ocean
LYTTON,
SITUATED on the left bank of the Fraser, just below the mouth of the
Thompson, fifty-seven miles from Yale, is the first place reached after
crossing the divide, and the second largest in the interior to Barkerville.
Looking at the bare, brown, rocky foot-hills surrounding, one wonders
what can support its scores of business houses, hotels and shops, and
two hundred residents. It comes from various sources, the rich
Lillooet country on the river above, railway construction, through travel
and traffic, and the neighboring Indians. Mr. Seward and Thos. Earl
have the most extensive and valuable improved ranches in this neighborhood, each containing fine orchards of apples, pears, cherries, plums,
etc. Mr. Earl says he gathered $100 worth of apples from one tree this
season, and one apple which weighed one pound and a-quarter. Here
Mr. Patrick Killroy, the oldest and most extensive resident butcher in
the interior, told me that he had killed two, five, and six-year-old bunch
grass fed steers, which weighed, dressed, respectively, 915, 1,336, and
1,400 pounds, and showed me the kindney of an ox weighing 69 pounds-.
THE YALE-CARIBOO  WAGON  ROAD,
Another great highway, runs parallel with the Canadian Pacific Railway through the Cascade Mountains on the opposite, or South side of
the Fraser. It was built by the Colonial Government, in 1862, at a
cost of $300,000 to accommodate the great rush to the wonderfully rich
gold fields of Cariboo, and the travel and traffic resulting therefrom.
Beginning at Yale it crosses the Fraser twelve miles above, over the
Alexander wire suspension bridge, a fine structure erected by Hon.
Joseph W. Trutch, in 1863, at a cost of $42,000. From thence it
follows up the left bank of the river to Lytton, then along the Thompson to Cook's Ferry, which it crosses on Spence's bridge up the Buonaparte, through the Green Timber forest, down the San Jose, through the
beautiful Lake La Hache country ; again along the Fraser, across the
Quesnelle, then up the famous Lightning Creek into the heart of the
mountains and of the richest mining camp 400 miles from Yale, 5,000
feet above the level of the sea. Over the steep mountain spurs, and
across the wild canyons—62 bridges in 25 miles—along the brink of
frowning precipices thousands of feet above the river, and 3,000 feet
below the summits, it winds through the Cascade Range. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 99
Slides, avalanches, and floods frequently destroy portions of it,
$39,000 having been expended for repairs upon the first no miles in
1882. During the great flood of last June the water rose within four
feet of the Suspension Bridge, which stands 88 feet above low water
mark. Mr. Black, who has charge of the first section of the road, once
saw an avalanche sweep entirely across the river, above Hell Gate, on
to the mountain on the opposite side. He expended, one year, $2,500
in clearing the snow from the first twenty-five miles of the road. I
walked over it by day and rode over it be night, and what, with the
grandeur of the mountains and canyons, the two great highways which
traverse them—only separated by the roaring river—the Indian villages
and burying grounds, the old placer diggings, the tents of an army of
Chinese railway laborers, the long processions of great freight wagons
drawn by from twelve to sixteen cattle or mules, and hundreds of pack
animals filing by, driven by Indians, carrying supplies into the interior,
it was a journey of exceeding interest. At several points there were
wayside inns, orchards, gardens, and meadows. Mr. H. B. Dart, of
Boston Bar, and Thos. Benton, of Kanaka Bar, showed me apple, pear,
and plum trees bending under their burdens of handsome fruit.
THE  GREAT WORK  OF   BUILDING THE RAILWAY THROUGH  THE
CASCADE  MOUNTAINS.
Soon after the consumation of the agreement between the
Dominian Government and the Syndicate, Mr. A. Onderdonk,
an experienced railroad builder, became the managing contractor for
the construction of that portion of the Western division extending from
Port Moody to Savona's Ferry, a distance of two hundred and twelve
miles, ably assisted by E. G. Tilton, Superintendent and Chief Engineer,
John P. Bacon, Chief Commissary, Geo. F. Kyle, Assistant-Superintendent, and other gentlemen. It presented greater difficulties than
have ever been overcome in railway building. The Union and Central
Pacific and other lines have gone over the mountains by gradual ascents,
but no such way of climbing the Cascades was possible, and the wonderful undertaking of running through them parallel with the great
canyon of the Frazer, was determined upon. For nearly sixty miles
from Yale to Lytton, the river has cut through this lofty range, thousands of feet below the summits. Mountain spurs of granite rock, with
perpendicular faces hundreds of feet in height, project at short intervals
along the entire passage. Between them are deep lateral gorges, canyons and plunging cataracts.    On this sixty miles of tunnels, rock work ft
ioo From Ocean to Ocean
and bridges, the greater portion of Mr. Onderdonk's construction army
of 7,000 men have been engaged since 1880. The loud roar of
enormous discharges of giant powder has almost constantly reverberated
among the mountains. Fifteen tunnels have been bored, one 1,600 fcet
in length, and millions of tons of rock blasted and rolled with the noise
of an avalanche into the rushing boiling Fraser; workmen have been
suspended by ropes hundreds of feet down the perpendicular sides of
the mountains to blast a foot hold; supplies have been packed in upon
the backs of mules and horses, over trails where the Indians were
accustomed to use ladders, and building material landed upon the opposite
bank of the river at an enormous expense and crossed in Indian canoes.
As the work progressed the cost of transportation by such means
increased until Mr. Onderdonk determined to try and run a steamer
through the Grand Canyon of the Fraser to the navigable waters above
to supply the advance camps. For this purpose he built the steamer
Skuzzy. Then came the difficulty of finding a captain able and willing
to take her through. One after another went up and looked at the little
boat, then at the awful canyon, the rushing river and the swift foaming
rapids, and turned back, either pronouncing the ascent impossible or
refusing to undertake it. Finally Capt. S. R. and David Smith,
brothers, were sent for, both well known for their remarkable feats of
steamboating on the upper waters of the Columbia. The former ran
the steamer Shoshone 1,000 miles down the Snake River through the Blue
Mountains—the only boat, which ever did, or probably ever will,
make the perilous passage. He also ran a steamer safely over the falls of
Williamette at Oregon City. He said he could take the Skuzzy up, and
provided with a crew of seventeen men, including L W. Burse, a skilful
engineer, with a steam winch and capstain and several great hawsers,
began the ascent. At the end of seven days I found them just below
Hell Gate, having lined safely through the roaring Black Canyon,
through which the pent up waters rush like a mill-race at 20 miles an
hour. Returning from my journey in the interior, I had the pleasure of
congratulating the captains upon the successful accomplishment of the
undertaking, and of seeing the Skuzzy start from Boston Bar with her first
load of freight. Capt. Smith said the hardest tug of war was at China
Riffle, where, in addition to the engines, the steam winch, and fifteen
men at the capstain, a force of 150 Chinamen upon a third line was
required to pull her over! The captains received $2,250 for their
work. It would fill quite a volume to describe in detail even the more
important portions of Mr. Onderdonk's great work. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 101
YALE.
YALE, a town of several hundred inhabitants, is situated at the head
of navigation on the Frazer River, 90 miles from Burrard Inlet,
surrounded by a grand amphitheatre of precipitous mountains.
In the early days of the gold discoveries in this region, Yale
presented those scenes of wild dissipation and reckless extravagance only witnessed in great and rich mining camps. An old
miner, who was stopped from working his claim when paying from sixteen to twenty dollars per day, because encroaching upon the city front,
told me that he seldom cleaned up without finding gold pieces which
had been dropped from the overflowing pockets of men intoxicated 1
with liquor, and excitement. It was nothing uncommon in those times
to spend fifty dollars in a single treat around at the bar. It is now an
orderly place, supporting churches and schools. There is still paying
placer mining on the river bench opposite, though the place derives its
main support from the construction of the C. P. R. R., traffic with the
interior, and through travel.
SALMON  RUNNING  AND  CATCHING EXTRAORDINARY.
I have read, with much allowance, accounts of the multitudes of
salmon sometimes seen in the smaller tributaries of the Umpqua,
Columbia, and Fraser Rivers, but, after what I have witnessed to-day,
am prepared to believe any fish story within the limits of possibilities.
Arriving at Emory, five miles below Yale, two young men from San
Francisco, reported immense numbers of salmon at the mouth of Emory
Creek, a small, rapid mountain stream flowing into the Fraser just
above. Going there I found it packed so full in places that I counted,
while standing in one position on the railway bridge, over four hundred
different salmon. Mentioning the matter to a resident, he remarked,
I Oh! that's nothing. If you want to see salmon go to the next
creek beyond." Reaching it, after a walk of about four miles,
I counted, without moving from the R. R. bridge, over 800
salmon.     This   stream   plunges   down   the   mountain   side   with  a
1 102
From Ocean to Ocean
fall of, probably, one hundred and fifty feet within a mile and-a-half,
being from five to fifteen yards in width.    For a distance of several
rods up from its mouth, the salmon were crowding in from the muddy
Fraser, now again rapidly rising, almost as thick as they could swim,
and in their desperate efforts to ascend the successive falls above, presented a spectacle never before witnessed by the oldest native settler.
Mr. John Woodworth who" has lived here for twenty-four years, says he
never heard of the like.    The salmon is a fish of extraordinary strength
and agility, and are said to jump and swim up perpendicular falls from
ten to twenty feet in height.    I stood upon the bank an hour and
watched them in their desperate struggles to make the ascent of several
of lesser size within sight.    Of hundreds which made the attempt, only
a few, comparatively, succeeded, but fell back exhausted, splashing and
whirling among the boulders.     Many were covered with great bruises,
sofhe had lost their eyes, a few lay dead upon the shore, others were
dying, and all seemed nearly worn out.    Stepping close to a pool filled
with them, I easily caught two in my hands, which offered but little
resistance.    Before leaving, a photographer, Mr. D. R.   Judkins,  of
New Westminister, arrived and took views of the remarkable scene.
Mr. Daniel Ashworth, wife and family were also present.    Reaching
Yale I told a hotel-keeper about it, estimating the salmon at thousands.
" Thousands !" he exclaimed, almost with indignation, " Why, there are
millions of them now running up the Fraser within a few miles of town."
Getting aboard Mr. Onderdonk's construction train I rode along the
river to the end of the track.    Millions was probably not much of an
exaggeration, for although the river was quite muddy, schools of salmon,
numbering thousands each, could be seen from the platform of the cars,
at short intervals, the entire distance.    The Indians were catching and
drying them in great quantities.     Standing upon the  edge  of perpendicular ledges, they capture the largest and finest specimens, either
by means of hooks or scoop nets, dress them upon the spot and hang
them up on long poles to dry in the wind and sun.    When sufficiently
cured they are packed in caches made from cedar shakes, and suspended
for safe keeping among the branches of trees from twenty to fifty feet
above the ground.    It is the opinion of those familiar with the habits of
the salmon, that not one in a thousand succeeds in depositing their
spawn, and that if hatching places were provided upon these streams,
and protected that they could scarcely be exhausted, under proper
restrictions as to catching them. By the Canadian Pacific Railway. i0*
THE~GRAND SCENERY OF THE CASCADE REGION.
The grandest scenery on the Western slope of the Continent is
formed by the passage of its great rivers through the Cascade Range.
When I looked with wonder and admiration upon the stupendous
architecture of the mountains through which the Columbia has worn
her way by the flow of unknown ages, I though surely this scene
can have no parallel; but ascending the Fraser, above Yale, mountains
just as rugged, lofty, and precipitous, present their rocky, furrowed
sides; a stream as deep, swift, and turbulent, rushes headlong to the
sea, between granite walls hundreds of feet in height, above which rise,
by every form of rocky embattlement, tower and castle, and terraced
slope which the imagination can conceive, the snow-covered peaks of
the Cascades. Great broad, deep paths, have been worn down the
mountain sides by the winter avalanches; crystal streams come bounding
over their narrow rocky beds, sometimes leaping hundreds of feet, as if
impatient to join the impetuous river below, enormous rocks stand out
threateningly in the channel, over and around which, the waters boil
and foam with an angry roar; and thus above, and below, and on every
hand for more than fifty miles, extends this sublime exhibition of nature.
THE  FRASER  RIVER,
The third largest stream flowing into the Pacific upon the Continent of
North America, rising in the Rocky Mountains, drains, with its tributaries
an area estimated at 125,000 square miles, reaching from the hundred
and eighteenth to the hundred and twenty-fifth degree of longitude. The
intervening country embraces the greatest diversity of physical features,
climates, soils, natural resources, and adaptations. East of the Cascade
Range, mountains, rolling foot-hills, and elevated plateaus, covered with
bunch grass, sage brush, plains, forest and table lands, with occasional
prairie openings, are its prevailing characteristics. It is rich in gold
and other valuable minerals, contains extensive stock ranges of unsurpassed excellence, and large arrears of arable lands excellently adapted
to the growth of cereals, roots, and fruits generally. Irrigation is
necessary over a considerable portion of this region. The summers are
hot, the nights cool and sometimes frosty in the valleys and in the elevated plateaus; the winters dry and not unfrequently severe, though
the snow fall, except in the mountains, seldom exceeds two feet in depth
Crossing the Cascades its Western slopes and river valleys embrace the
greatest variety of climates and range of productions, varying according
"^
-I! •
104 From Ocean to Ocean
to altitude and local surface configurations. Forests of Douglas pine,
cedar, spruce, and hemlock cover a considerable portion of this region,
though there are extensive bodies of excellent grazing and agricultural
land. But no general description can convey correct impressions concerning or do justice to this region. The climatic conditions existing in
the same latitudes on the Atlantic coast affords no guide in judging of
those found here. The warm Asiatic ocean currents sweeping along
the Western coast and through the Gulf of Georgia modifies the temperature in a marked degree. It is one of the healthiest portions of the
globe. Even the river bottoms and deltas are :free from all malarial
fevers.
The delta lands of the Fraser are more extensive than those of any
other river flowing into the Pacific. Advancing up the South Arm, a
broad, rapid, muddy stream, the tide lands stretch away for many miles
on either hand, extending from Boundary Bay on the East to Point
Gray on the West, a distance of thirteen miles, embracing over 100,000
acres susceptible of cultivation. Enriched by the silt and alluvial deposits of ages, brought down from the plains and mountain slopes of
the interior, they are famous for their inexhaustible fertility. They
generally require diking to the height of three or four feet, for protection against high tides, though escaping, almost altogether, any damaging
effects from the spring floods. Messrs. Turner & Wood, civil engineers
and surveyors, at New Westminster, who have recently examined a
tract of 4,500 acres near Mud Bay, estimated that it can-be reclaimed
in a body for $8,000, and that from two to four dollars per acre will*
securely dyke the average Fraser delta lands. Every one bears testimony to their exceeding fertility and durability. Hon. W. J. Arn>
strong, M.P.P., informs me that he saw a field which, after growing
timothy ten or eleven years in succession, produced three tons per acre.
He estimated the cost of cutting, curing, and bailing at not exceeding
four dollars per ton. These delta lands are also well adapted to oats,
barley, and roots generally. They are offered in tracts to suit at from
ten to twenty dollars per acre, and are being rapidly reclaimed and
improved.
THE  SALMON FISHERIES  AND CANNERIES.
Although salmon fishing and canning has been an important industry
on the Pacific coast since 1866, and during the last twelve years has
grown to immense proportions—a single firm on the Columbia River
(Kinney's) canning fifty thousand cases during the season of 1881—it By the Canadian Pacific Railway. i0e
is only a few years since the establishment, by Ewen & Co., of the first
cannery on the Fraser. Now there are thirteen—the Phoenix, English
& Co., Bntish American Packing Co., British Union, Adair & Co.,
Delta, Findlay, Durham & Brodie, British Columbia Packing Co., Ewen
& Co., Laidlaw & Co., Standard Co., Haigh & Son, and the Richmond
Packing Co., their aggregate product during the present season amounting to not less than 230,000 cases. The fish of Northern waters are of
a superior quality, and their ranges for hatching and feeding so extensive and excellent that the salmon, especially if protected by the Government, will constitute one of the great permanent resources of this
region. Before proceeding far up the Fraser we meet the advance of
the numerous fleet of salmon fishing boats which throng the river for a
distance of fifteen miles from its mouth. They are from twenty-two to
twenty-four feet in length, and from five to six feet wide, each furnished
with a gill net, made of strong linen, from one hundred and fifty to
two hundred fathoms long, and about forty half-inch meshes deep, and
manned by two Indians.
The daily catch per boat ranges from fifty to three hundred solmon,
the fleet sometimes bringing in twelve or fifteen thousand. This season
the run has been so extraordinary that the Delta Cannery put up 1,280
cases in a single day, and 6,600 cases in six days. Messrs. Page &
Ladner, the managing partners of the firm, showed me their product
for the last month, amounting to the enormous quantity of 25,000 cases
or 1,152,000 cans, covering every available space of the immense lower
floor to the height of over five feet, the largest number ever packed by
any one establishment during the same period of time. Two hundred
and fifty barrels of salmon, or about 13,000, were also salted within the
month. From Ocean to Ocean
glem Ijtteetmmteter*
NEW WESTMINISTER, the principal city of the Mainland, formerly
the capital of the Crown Colony, occupies a very pleasant and
commanding situation on the right bank of the Fraser, about fifteen
miles from the mouth and 75 miles from Victoria. The site was chosen
by Col. Moody, in 1858, being then covered with a dense growth of
enormous cedars, some of which were twelve feet in diameter. Hon. J.
W. Armstrong, late Provincial Secretary, erected the first house
—a store and dwelling—in March, 1859. This gentleman related
to me how it came by its present name. Originally called Queen or
Queensborough, a dispute having arisen between Gov. Douglas and
Col. Moody as to which should prevail, the matter was submitted for
settlement to Her Majesty Queen Victoria, who decided against both
by substituting New Westminster. It lies in the heart of the great
resources of the Province, surrounded by the most extensive and richest
bodies of agricultural lands, with large tracts of the finest timber near
at hand, and in the midst of fisheries so enormously productive that
thirteen canning establishments within a radius of twelve miles, will put
up over' twelve million cans of salmon alone, the present season.
Vessels drawing fifteen feet of water reach New Westminister in safety
at all times and find good anchorage and wharfage, and Vancouver, on
Burrard's Inlet, the best and most commodious harbor along these shores,
selected as the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railroad, is only 12
miles distant. The city contains a population of about 2,000 souls, good
schools and churches, a fine Post Office and Provincial Penitentiary. A
free reading room and library is well sustained. There are two local newspapers—the British Columbian and Mainland Guardian—well conducted and supported. At the hospital Mr. Adam Jackson, the
courteous and efficient Superintendent, after conducting me through the
several commodious and sunny wards, showed me, in the fine flower
garden attached, a sweet pea vine over seven and a-half feet in height,
and close by, vegetables of surprising growth. Rheumatism and
paralysis are the most prevalent of diseases among his patients.    At the By the Canadian Pacific Railway. 107
time of my visit, just after pay-day among the canneries, the city was
full of Indians, representing all the various Mainland and Island tribes,
living in canvas tents and huts, dressed in every conceivable mixture of
barbarous and civilized costume, one of the most interesting collections
of human creatures ever seen on the earth. These Northern tribes are
generally good workers, and earn during the summer considerable sums
of money which they spend freely upon whatever most pleases their
fancey. Many of their purchases, which the traders said included
almost everything, were exceedingly amusing, especially in the line of
dress goods. Sometimes a prosperous buck will jump from a barbarous
into a civilized costume at a bound, and parade the streets in a black
suit and white silk necktie, and everything except habits to correspond.
One Indian was seen proudly leading his little daughter whom he had
gaily dressed in white, with a blue sash, a pretty white waist, and a silk
parasol in hand, but bare footed and legged. Though there were probably upwards of a thousand Indians in the city I saw no disorderly
conduct among them. I am indebted to Capt. A Peele, a prominent
druggist and apothecary of New Westminister, and Meterological
Observer for the Dominion Government and Signal Officer for the
United States, for the following valuable notes of the mean temperatures
and rainfall at that place for a period of six years :—
MEAN
TEMP.
HIGHEST
TEMP.
LOWEST
TEMP.
BAINFAIiL
         34.9
57
57
65
74
82
8,7
92
84
81
75
59
54
7
16
18
20
34
38
45
44
42
26
I
7.26
         37.9
6.61
I&arch	
May	
         40.3
         48.1
6.77
2.85
2.33.
        61.9
1.66
2.10
        56.9
3 68
        48.9
5.83
        40.6
        36.2
1
7.65
7-87 io8
From Ocean to Ocean
PORT   MOODY.
(From Chittenden's Travels in British Columbia and Alaska,
in 1882J
IMMEDIATELY bordering the shore of Burrard Inlet are the largest
1 bodies of valuable fir timber in the Province. Here great saw-mills
have been in operation since 1865, exporting immense quantities of
•timber, direct to all the principal Eastern ports of the world. Steam
tugs have been employed towing back and forth the numerous fleet of
vessels engaged in this trade; of these the Alexander, Captain Donald
Urquhart, commanding, is the largest, finest, and most powerful on the
Pacific coast. She was built at Port Essington, near the mouth of the
Skeena, in 1876, and is 180 feet in length, twenty-seven feet wide, with
two 400-horse power engines. Leaving the fine harbor of Esquimalt on
the evening of the 9th, with two ships in tow, she steamed along easily
through the Straits and crossed the Gulf at the rate of eight miles an
hour.
At daybreak the following morning we were headed directly for a
lofty snow-capped peak of the mainland, beneath which flashed the
brilliant light of Point Atkinson. The dark outlines of the grand old
mountains were clearly defined against the cloudless starlit sky. Just
before rounding Point Gray the rising sun gilded the • snow covered
summit of Mount Baker, and of the Cascade Range. A large black
whale is rolling and spouting within rifle range on the right. Entering
the inlet, Indian villages are seen on the shores, and two Indians paddle
by, making the woods ring with their salutations. A dense forest of
Douglas pine reaches down to the water's edge, except where leveled
by the axe of the lumberman. We leave the ships a little beyond
English Bay, and run alongside the wharf of
MOODYVILLE  SAW-MILL  COMPANY,
The most extensive manufacturers and exporters of lumber on the coast,
North of Puget Sound. Their great mill, furnished with ten electric
lighter night work, completely equipped with double circular and
gang saws, edgers, scantling, planing, and lath machinery, and employ- By the Canadian Pacific Railway. IOg
ing a hundred men, were cutting up hugh logs at the rate of from 75 to
100 thousand feet daily, or from 20 to 25 million feet a year. Quite a
fleet of ships lay waiting for their cargoes for China, Japan, Australia,
and the West Coast of South. America. The town with its mill, machine
shop, store, hotel, boarding house, and numerous dwellings, and the
shipping in front, presented the most interesting scene of activity on
the Inlet. The company own large bodies of the best timber in this
region, and have about 100 men logging in their several camps. They
obtain the largest and finest specimens of fir on Owen Sound, Mud
Bay and Jarvis Inlet, furnishing almost any size required. Mr. Hickey,
chief engineer of the steamer Alexander, measured one of them which
was seven feet six inches through at the butt and six feet and six inches
fifty feet therefrom, five feet and four inches 100 feet up, and five feet
in diameter 130 feet from its base. These mills are owned by Welch
& Co. of San Francisco, Mr. George B. Springer being their manager
at Moodyville, and Welch, Rithet & Co. their agents at Victoria.
VANCOUVER.
BURRARD INLET, an arm of the Gulf of Georgia, extends about
twelve miles inland from the entrance, between Points Grey and
Atkinson.
Vancouver, situated upon the neck of land lying between English
Bay and Coal Harbor, and commanding all the commercial advantages
of both waters for shipping, and avoiding all the disadvantages of strong
currents and tide rips, incident to the navigation of the upper arm of
the Inlet, has been selected as the Pacific Terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
Everyone familiar with the topography of the North-West Coast
and the character of its sea approaches, will recognize the wisdom of
the choice. 0-
The Inlet is a perfect land locked harbor with excellent anchorage,
and easily accessible in all kinds of weather for the largest ships afloat.
It is situated about 75 miles from Victoria and 35 miles from
Vancouver Island at Nanaimo.
Immediately bordering its shores are the largest bodies of Valuable
fir timber in the Province.. no
From Ocean to Ocean
High moumtins rise abruptly on the North, the Southern shore
receding gradually over rolling timber lands.
Mountains and forests shelter the beautiful harbor so perfectly that
it may be safely navigated in stormy weather by the smallest craft.
This is the favorite abode of the mountain sheep, and bears are
so numerous that they were frequently caught stealing from the mess
tents of the railway construction camps.
It requires no prophetic foresight to predict, with reasonable
certainty, regarding the future of the tgrminus of such a great railway,
stretching from ocean to ocean, across over 2,500 miles of country,
embracing hundreds of millions of acres of the choicest pastoral and
wheat growing lands in America.
Fleets of ships will soon be sailing between Vancouver and Eastern
Ports laden with the exports and imports of a great commerce. Lines
of steamers will run regularly from thence rfo Victoria and the cities of
Puget Sound and of the South Pacific; and machine shops, can works,
ship yards and other manufacturing industries' will doubtless be established at an early date.
[anaxm0 antr % Jfslanb H^Hfoaj,
RANAIMO is the principal mining city and centre of population and
trade of the great coal fields of Vancouver Island, of which Robert
Dunsmuir, M.P.P., is the chief owner. It is beautifully situated upon
a fine harbor, about sixty-eight miles North-East of the city of Victoria.
The building of the Island railway from Victoria to Nanaimo, suggests the possibility of the establishment of a great ferry, Jhirty-five
miles across the Gulf of Georgia, and sixty-five from Vancouver, and
thus making Victoria the practical shipping terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway.
The following are among the principal Business Firms of
Nanaimo :—
M. Manson & Co., importers and dealers in Furniture, Carpets,
Oil-cloths, Crockery, Glassware, &c, &c.
John Swift, Plain, Ornamental, and Fresco Painter, and dealer in
Paints, Oils, Brushes, Wall-paper, Sfc.
Pichard Hilbert, prop. The Lion Boot,.Shoe, and Leather Factory
Alex. Meyer, Red House, Nanaimo, General Merchandise. By the Canadian* Pacific Railway.
in
VICTORIA
¥ICTORIA, the chief city and capital of British Columbia, occupies
a magnificent situation on the South shore of Vancouver Island,
about 60 miles from the Pacific, and 750 North of San Francisco. Its
immediate surroundings are charmingly picturesque, embracing a beautiful harbor and inlet, pine and oak covered shores and rolling hills,
with green forests of fir and pine clad mountains in the near back
ground. The distant view is one of exceeding grandeur, comprising
the loftiest peaks of the Olympic and Cascade Mountains. A person
unfamiliar with the marvelous progress of civilization in the New World
surveying its busy marts of trade, ships of commerce laden with exports
for the most distant ports, numerous manufacturing industries, well
graded streets, and good public and private buildings, would scarcely
believe that all these things are the creation of a little more than twenty
years, and that only a generation has passed since the Hudson Bay
Company first planted the English flag on these shores. But this is only
the beginning as compared with the brilliant future • which awaits Victoria. The resources of the vast region to which she holds the commercial key are only in the bud of their development. That she has
reached her present status while laboring under the great disadvantages
of extreme remoteness from the Centres of population and demands for
her products, excessively costly transportation, shows not only their
enormous extent and richness, but what may reasonably be expected
when all railway communication shall be established with the East and
the couiftry opened to imigration and capital.
Victoria is provided with all the concomitants of the progressive
cities of our times—good religious and educational advantages, four newspapers, the Colonist, Times, Standard and Evening Post, a public library,
and the usual benevolent orders, an able and active Board of Trade, gas
and water works, efficient police and fire departments, a beautiful public
park, and a well ordered government.
Nature has awarded to Victoria the most attractive and interesting
situation and surroundings of any city on the North Pacific Coast.
Possessing a most enjoyable, invigorating and healthful climate, she lies !
ii
Hi,
JMrom Ocedffi to Ocean
central amidst the sublimest scenery in the New World. The waters of
Puget Sound and of the inside passage to Alaska, between Vancouver and
the Mainland, embrace more than is unique and wonderful in nature,
than can be found on any equal area of the earth's surface. I can
scarcely conceive of a grander panorama of mountains and inland
waters, forests and islands, than that afforded from the summit of
Beacon Hill, her favorite Park resort. Her drives are unsurpassed,
both in respect to the excellence of the roads and the beauty of the
scenery through which they pass. The three miles from Victoria to
the fine harbor of Esquimalt, with its pretty village, off-lying fleet of
ships, Graving Dock, &c, is a delightful drive or walk; so is the one to
the Gorge, a picturesque romantic spot, situated about the same distance
from the City. It may also be visited by a small boat through a charming inlet extending from Victoria almost to Esquimalt. To Cadboro '
Bay, returning by the Government House, Race Course, and Beacon
Hill, a distance of about eight miles, affords a splendid excursion.
Excellent macadamized roads lead from three to twenty miles into the
country in all directions. Victoria is central in one of the best fields
for hunting and fishing of which. I have any knowledge.. Deer and
other large game abound on Vancouver Island, and within a short
distance of the city. All kinds of water fowl are numerous, and the
streams and lakes are full of trout. It is only a few hours' ride by
steamer amidst magnificent scenery to the most important places in the
Province, New Westminister, Vancouver and Nanaimo—and to the
principal towns of Puget Sound—Port Townsend, Seattle, Tacoma and
Olympia. Steamers also run among the beautiful islands of the
Archipelago De Haro, and of the San Juan group, touching at their
chief points of interest.
•S^^F**
Mr. and Mrs. R. Maynard, of Victoria, the leading photographic
artists of the North-West coast, have the most complete collection
of British Columbia and Alaska views extant. They have been taken
by Mr. Maynard, personally, for which purpose he has travelled
extensively through the interior, and along the coast as far North as
Portage Bay, within thirty-two miles of the Yukon.
James Hops t c©., Printers, Ottawa, Canada.
mm Cor. Oriental ♦Alley and Johnson Sts.
Indian Curios, Fancy Goods, Furs,
Robes, Rifles and SM-Gniis, and Meerschaum Pipes,
SUITABLE FOR HOLIDAY PRESENTS.
J.   ISAACS   &   CO.,   Props. J.   J.   HART,   Supt.
.  :' JOHN   WEILER,
.iMPORTERi WHOLESALE  AND RETAIL DEALER IN
Furniture, Glassware, Carpets, &c.
^UPHOLSTERY IN ALL ITS BRANCHES.^
FELL'S  BLOCK,
FORT STREET,
P. O. Box 218.
VICTORIA,   IB.   O.
• 31
A.   E.   SHORE,
■ft A\ TOiTOHH
I
.,es,
Joimson Street, between (jovemnieiit and Broafl,
VICTORIA,   B.   C.    ||i TAMES  HOPE   <3z   Oo.,
 BOOKSELLERS,-
IMPORTING   AND   MANUFACTURING   STATIONERS,
COENEE SPARES AND ELGIN STBEETS, OTTAWA, CANADA,
figf Deposi'toiT of the OttawS"Auxiliary Bible Sqciety,p~
m
t$ IS
«i
to <
■HI
l>
<ri «
<j H
O
J. B. FERGUSON tifmfk
"     -Wholesale axd Retail V^|
STOI0NERS3 B06KSEililiSeS
. AEE THE LEADING STATIONEES IN BEITISH COLUMBIA.
THE FOLLQSRNG WILL BE MAILED FREE ON RECEIPT OF PRICE :
A Beautiful Lithographic View of Victoriaahd Vicinity, afem of Artistic
t a*    prod^fitioavtlL
Iti.iisTKATSu> British .C^Lvum^., containing a complete description oi"
British Columbia, Itg profliicts; resources, &c., and who should go to
the Province. "ni^^atea^fth1t6 papes of beautiful engravings ..... 2p cts.
The British -Columbia Sou^B&iii .Axbum, containing: a selection of interesting ,and bcautiCd^f Jews, including Queen Charlotte Islands and
Termim|& of th^^^l^^iS;, &c...,., ....... ... ..,..,.,....= .. .. 7o 'cts.'
*The British ^p^4teB||tr^^?i>-BooK* containing a Map of* Victoria; and ,
al.l-,the lates^it^^eiiSng^and-postal intelligence'./ ■. .=..   25 cts.
RpRAWER   23,   VICTORIA.
J^       ALLSOP  &   MASON,
KX*
■<afc
■ LOANS  NEGOTIATED.
VICTORIA,   BRITISH    COLUMBIA.
EST-<^BXjISfifcEID   I2>T   1863.
-E.J. SALMON & Co.,
JOHNSON ST., VICTOBIA,
—IMPORTERS  OF—
FURNITURE, GLASSWARE
^VARIETY.'
VICE-EEGAL MOVEMENTS.
Victoria Evuihig Post, Oct. tf/i,- i882.
Yesterday x-;afterrioonV '"'Hei-    Royal
IvKighnc-ss, accompanied byv^riss., Harvey,   Miss   McJTeilj.. -lit: • .Burnet,   and"
others, strolled .through the principal
streets and'visited theJ&indon: Bazaar,
S., L.  Keljey's,   and E.  J;" -Salmon^ i
Johnson Street.-.- A-t the last mentioned
place, Her Roj al Highness spent nearly
h«ltan-liour examining- the: luttrierous.
•Jndian'- curios,   th<j Use,- Mid hmatui-
facture of which were described oy: Mr.^
Salmon'.    Th$ Princess seejned to takif]
great interest in the native beadVoielt,
mats, paint«l figures, ele|, and ■ JjSSjjSrigJ
leaving, made-ntatij purchase's'. "'"'''
T^A.:L£IES   HOPE  and Co.,
GENERAL   BOOKBINDERS, JOB   PRINTERS,   ETC.,
OTTAWA, CAXAj>A.
r. I

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