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BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Eighteenth annual report of the British Columbia Board of Trade, together with various appendices, list… Victoria (B.C.). Board of Trade 1897

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Array  EIGHTEENTH
ANNUAL REPORT
British Columbia
Boaro of TTraoe,
Together with Various Appendices, List of Members,
Office Bearers, Commercial Charges, Etc.
OFFICE:   BOARD OF TRADE BUILDING, VICTORIA, B. C
AUGUST,  1897.
IlTCOEPOE^TSD   OSTOBBB   SStta.,   187S.
Victoria, B. C.
The Colonist Printing and Publishing Co., Ltd.
1897- CONTENTS.
PAGE
Officers, 1897-98  3
Council  3
Board of Arbitration  3
Standing Committees  3
Officers of Chambers ot Commerce 1863
to 1878  4
List of Past Officers from 1878 to 1897... 4
Membership Roll  5
ANNUAL REPORT.
Obituary 11
Mining1      12
Fisheries   18
Sealing:    19
Lumber 20
Agriculture  21
Industrial Establishments 21
Railways  22
Navigation 25
Ocean Trade  26
Yukon 27
Mail Service 28
Imperial Federation   29
Immigration  29
Outlook  29
APPENDICES.
Immigration   32
Report of Mining1 Committee re formation
of Mining" Companies  33
Resolutions of Condolence 35
Extension and Development of Trade.... 36
List of Lights and Fog" Alarms required
in British Columbia Waters 39
List of Additions to the Library 41
Pack of British Columbia Salmon, 1896.. 43
Canadian Sealing* Catch, 1895  44
List of Claims for Compensation in respect
of Seizures of British Vessels in Behr-
ing Sea by U. S. Authorities 45
Imports into Province of B. C. for 26 years 46
Exports from Province of B. C. for 26 years 47
PAGE
Exports for each year from 1872 to 1897,
inclusive  47
Customs Statistics—Imports into British
Columbia 4&
Customs Statistics—Exports from British
Columbia 49-
Imports into British Columbia for three
years, ending" June 30th, 1896... 50, 51, 52
Exports from British Columbia for three
years' ending" June 30th, 1896  53-
List of Trees of British Columbia  54
Export of Lumber, 1896 55
Mining" Statistics 56, 57, 58, 59
Land Return 60
Municipal Statistics, 1896 61
Inland Revenue, Canada, Div. 37 and 38. 62
Area of British Columbia  62
Population of British Columbia 62
M eterological Register for 1896  63
Educational 64
Shipping 65
Postal Statistics 65
Progress of Shipping" -  66
Contributions of British Columbia to the
Dominion Treasury 67
Dominion Expenditure in Br. Columbia.68, 69
Number of  Business Establishments in
the Province  70-
List of Municipalities 71
Game Protection Act of British Columbia,
1895-96-97 . 72,. 73
Scale of Commercial Charges	
Rates on Storage of Merchandise ..
Port Charges	
Esquimalt Graving" Dock	
Esquimalt Marine Railway	
KLONDYKE AND NORTHERN COLD FIELDS. 79
Placer Mining; Regulations on the Yukon. 85
Routes, Duties, Outfits and Prices  88
A Yukon Outfit 90
74
7»
7&
LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS.
Seats of Government ot B. C. and New Parliament Buildings, Victoria Frontispiece
Hop Farm, Vancouver Island   IO
Coal Mines, Vancouver Island, and Gold Mining and Town of Barkerville, Cariboo   18
Salmon Fishing and Canning in British Columbia ...   .  ^4
British Columbia Fruit on Exhibition      *%
A 70-lb. Salmon    *e
Agricultural and Pastoral Scenes, British Columbia        -c>
Logging and Lumber Industry, British Columbia "' 66
Esquimalt Graving Dock, Victoria, B. C 7y
Esquimalt Marine Railway, Victoria, B. C ^g
Some Churches and Schools, Victoria, B. C  82
City Hall, Victoria, B. C ;,*;.". [[''".",'!!.""! 87
Steamers " Islander " and '' Tees " leaving Victoria for Skagway ]...... 90
KLONDYKE AND NORTHERN GOLD  FIELDS.
Miners landing at Skagway, and Strs. "Islander" and "Tees" leaving Victoria, B. C. 79
Camp at Skagway  ■    ^
En Route, Chilkoot Pass and some Victorians at Skagway !.*!!..!! 8r
White Horse Rapids and Miles Canyon  81
Dvea, and Klondvke River Mining Scenes     ..  89 OFFICERS, 1897-98.
G. A. KIRK,
W. A. WARD,   -
F. ELWORTHY,
President
Vice-President
Secretary
COUNCIL:
D. R. Ker, J. H. Todd, A. H. Scaife, C. E. Renouf,
Thos. S. Futcher, F. B. Pemberton,   Chas. Hayward,    W. F. Bullen,
A. C. Flumerfelt, R. P. Rithet, W. H. Bone, F. J. Claxton,
Simon Leiser, F. C. Davidge, A. G. McCandless.
BOARD OF ARBITRATION :
F. B. Pemberton,    Ed. Pearson, G. A. Kirk, LindleyCrease,
A. H. Scaife, J- H. Todd, Wm.Templeman, B, W. Pearse,
Thos. S. Futcher, A. C. Flumerfelt, R. P. Rithet,      F.J. Claxton. -
J. H. Todd,
STANDING  COMMITTEES:
FISHERIES:
M. T. Johnston, E. B. Marvin, W. A. Ward,
. A. H. Scaife.
MANUFACTURES:
Thos. B. Hall,        D. R. Ker,        Chas. Hayward, W. J. Pendray,
Ed. Pearson.
HARBOURS AND NAVIGATION:
R. P. Rithet, John Irving, J. G. Cox, F. C. Davidge,
Geo. L. Courtney.
PUBLIC WORKS AND RAILWAYS:
B. W. Pearse,      A. C. Flumerfelt,      T. S. Futcher,     W. H. Langley,
W. F. Bullen.
Geo. Gillespie,
F. J. Claxton,
FINANCE:
Gavin H. Burns,
MINING AND PROPERTY:
F. B. Pemberton,
A. I. C. Galletly.
L. Crease.
AGRICULTURE AND  FORESTRY:
C. E. Renouf, J. Clearihue, Wm. Templeman. il
Officers of tHe Chamber of Commerce of Victoria, Vancouver Island.
FROM 1863 TO DATE OF INCORPORATION, OCT. 28th, 1878.
YEAR.
PRESIDENT.
VICE-PRESIDENT.
SECRETARY.
1863
I864
1865
1866
Tules David	
A. F. Main.
C  W   Wallace ..
A. F. Main.
A. F. Main.
Henry Rhodes	
Gustav Sutro	
A. F. Main.
1867
Henry Rhodes	
Robert Plummer.
1868
Gustav Sutro	
Robert Plummer.
1869
Gustav Sutro	
Robert Plummer.
1870
Gustav Sutro	
Robert Plummer.
1871
Robert Plummer.
1872
i873
Robert Plummer.
T. L. Stahlschmidt..
Robert Plummer.
1874
T. L. Stahlschmidt .
Robert Plummer.
i875
Henry Rhodes	
T. L. Stahlschmidt..
Robert Plummer.
1876
T. L. Stahlschmidt..
Robert Plummer.
1877
T. L. Stahlschmidt. .
Robert Plummer.
1878
Henry Rhodes	
T. L. Stahlschmidt..
Robert Plummer.
Officers anil Membershin of the British Columbia Board of Trade.
FROM  DATE OF INCORPORATION, OCT. 28th,  1878, TO JULY 10th, 1897.
YEAR.
PRESIDENT.
VICE-PRESIDENT.
SECRETARY.
Membership.
Oct. 28th
V  R. P. Rithet, J.P
..   R. P. Rithet, J. P
1878, to
July 3. '8
1880-1..
E. Crow Baker..
83
.   William Charles....
E. Crow Baker..
69
1881-2.
..   R. P. Rithet, J.P
E. Crow Baker..
67
1882-3.
..   R. P. Rithet, J.P
.   Roderick Finlayson.
E. Crow Baker..
83
1883-4.
..   R. P. Rithet, J.P
.   Roderick Finlayson.
E. Crow Baker..
83
1884-5.
..   K. P. Rithet, J.P
.   Mat. T. Johnston. . .
E. Crow Baker..
90
1885-6.
..   Jacob H.Todd, T.l
3.   Edgar Crow Baker .
Wm. Monteith..
99
1886-7.
..   Jacob H. Todd, JJ
Wm. Monteith..
97
1887-8.
..   Robert Ward, J. P
.   T. R. Smith	
Wm. Monteith..
93
1888-9.
..   Robert Ward, T.P
.   Thomas Earle	
Wm. Monteith..
67
1889-90
..   Robert Ward, J.P
.   Thomas B. Hall	
Wm. Monteith..
99
1890-1.
..   Robert Ward, J.P
.   Thomas B. Hall	
F. Elworthy	
132
1891-2.
..   Thomas B. Hall..
.   A. C. Flumerfelt...
F. Elworthy	
XS4
1892-3.
..   Thomas B. Hall..
.   A. C. Flumerfelt...
F. Elworthy....
170
1893-4.
..   A. C. Flumerfelt.
.   C. E. Renouf •.
F. Elworthy....
161
1894-5.
. ..   A. C. Flumerfelt.
F. Elworthy	
167
1895-6.
. .   D. R. Ker	
F. Elworthy	
173
1896-7.
. .   D. R. Ker	
.   G. Leiser-G. A. Kirk
F. Elworthy	
174 Membership Roll,
JULY 10TH, 1897.
NAME.
Anderson, W. J...
Aikman, A. B. W
Andrews.'W. T .
FIRM.
McKillican & Anderson.
Drake, Jackson & H	
Canada Paint Co	
BUSINESS.
.  Builder.
.  Barrister-at-Law.
.  Manager.
Barnard, F. S   B. C. Electric Ry. Co., Ld.
Bullen, W. F., J.P   Esquimalt Marine Ry	
"Burns, Gavin H   Bank Brit. North America.
Byrnes, George	
Baker, Col. Hon. Jas...  M.P.P	
Boggs, B	
Bone, W. H   T. N. Hibben & Co	
Beeton, H. C   33 Finsbury Circus	
Bod well, Ernest V   Bod well, Irving & Duff...
Belyea, A. L	
Bostock, Hewitt, M.P	
Bryden, John, J.P   M.P.P	
"Bethune, J. T  J. T. Bethune & Co..
.Bell, H. P	
Managing Director.
Manager.
Manager.
Auction'r and Com. Mer.
Provincial Secretary.
Insurance and Gen. Agent.
Bookseller and Stationer.
London.
Barrister-at-Law.
Barrister-at-Law. •
Mining Broker.
Civil Engineer.
Dalby & Claxton   Land Agent.
E. B. Marvin & Co   Ship Chandler.
Crease & Crease   Barrister-at-Law.
•Croft,  Henry	
•Claxton, Fred. J •   •
-Carmichael H	
•Cox, Capt. J. G...
Coigdarippe, J	
•Crease, Lindley.. ..
•Cuthbert, Herbert	
■Cassidy, Robert  Barrister-at-Law.
Courtney, Geo.  L   Canadian Pacific Ry   Agent.
Coltart, Ian   Province Publishing Co. . .  Manager.
•Cameron, W. G   Clothier.
Church, Jerome E   B. C. Mercantile Agency..  Manager.
Clarke, Chas. E   Harbour Master. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
NAME.
Clearihue, J	
Challoner, W. L.
Cohen, H. Hirschell.
Cowell, W. T. R. •••
FIRM. BUSINESS.
J. & A. Clearihue  Merchant.
Challoner, Mitchell & Co.. Jeweller.
Cassiar Central Railway...
Vic. Metallurgical Works.. Managing Director.
Dunsmuir, J ames   Union Collieries  President.
Dunsmuir, Alex   Esquimalt & Nanaimo Ry. President.
Davies, Joshua  Auctioneer and Com. Mer.
Dupont, Major C. T   Nelson & Ft. Sheppard Ry. Vice-President.
Davidge, F. C   Davidge & Co  Shipping Agent.
Day, Robert S  Architect.
Davidson, A. A   Dier, Davidson & Russell.. Mining Broker.
Ellis, W. H   Colonist P. & P. Co., Ltd.. Manager.
Earle, Thos., M.P |   Merchant.
Eberts, Hon. D. M., M.P.P ... .Eberts & Taylor...   Barrister-at-Law.
Erb, Louis E  Vic. Brew. & Ice Co., Ltd.. Director.
Ewen, Alexander   Ewen & Co. (Westminster) Canner.
Erskine, R   Erskine, Wall & Co   Grocer.
Elworthy, F   B. C. Eoard of Trade   Secretary.
Earsman, John   Earsman & Co   Commission Agent.
Flumerfelt, A. C   Ames Holden Co., Ltd., of Mtl., Managing Director.
Foster, F. W   (Ashcroft, B. C.)   Merchant.
Flint, A. St. G   Insurance and Gen. Agent.
Fairall, H. S   Brewer.
Futcher, Thos. S   Merchant.
Forrester, J. L	
G
Grant, Capt. Wm ,   Ship Owner.
Gray, Alex. B., J.P   Nelson	
Goodacre, Lawrence   Queen's Market (Meat)..   .  Proprietor.
Galletly, A. J. C   Bank .of Montreal   Manager.
Gregory, F. B   Fell & Gregory   Barrister-at-Law.
Go wen, C. N  Vic. Brew. & Ice Co., Ltd.  Director.
Giffen, J. B   R. G. Dun & Co   Manager.
Gillies, D. W	
Gillespie, George   Bank of British Columbia.  Supt. of B. C. Branches. MEMBERSHIP   ROLL.
H
NAME. FIRM.
Higgins, Hon. D. W., M.P.P	
Harris, D.  R..,   Lowenberg & Harris	
Hayward, Charles	
Hall, Thos. B    Vic. Flour and Rice Mills.
Henderson, A   Vic. Transfer Co., Ltd	
Hinton, George C	
Holland, Joshua	
Hutcheson, James   Hutcheson & Co	
Hunter, Jos., M.P.P   E. & N. Railway	
Helmcken, Hon. J. S., J.P	
Hall, R. H   Hudson's Bay Co	
Helmcken, H. D., M.P.P., Drake, Jackson & H.. .
Hall, Richard   Hall & Goepel	
Henderson, T. M Langley & Henderson Bros.
Holland, C. A   B. C. Land & Invt. Agy..
Hall, John A   Victoria Chemical Works..
BUSINESS.
Financial Broker.
Contractor and Builder.
Proprietor.
Superintendent.
Electrician.
•Insurance Agent.
Dry Goods.
General Superintendent.
Physician.
In charge.
Barrister-at-Law.
General Agent.
Druggist.
Managing Director.
Managing; Director.
Irving, Capt. J.,M.P.P.  Canadian Pacific Nav. Co. Manager.
Irving, P. JE   Bodwell, Irving & Duff.. .  Barrister-at-Law.
Johnson, E. M  Financial Agent.
Johnston, M. T   Findlay, Durham & Brodie. Merchant.
Jones, A. W   A. W. Jones & Bridgman.. Insurance Agent.
• Jamieson, Robert.  Books and Stationery.
Jensen, William   Hotel Dallas  Proprietor.
K
Ker, D. R   Brackman & Ker Milling Co., Ltd., Man. Director.
Keefer, G. A ;   Keefer & Smith  Civil Engineer.
Kirk, G. A  Turner, Beeton & Co  Merchant.
Loewen, Joseph   Vic. Brewing & Ice Co., Ld. Director.
Leiser, Simon   S. Leiser & Co  Wholesale Grocer.
Lubbe, T  Furs and Skins.
Luxton, A. P   Davie, Pooley & Luxton.. Barrister-at-Law.
Langley, W. H   Martin & Langley  Barrister-at-Law.
Lenz, M   Lenz & Leiser  Wholesale Dry Goods.
Lugrin, C. H   Daily Colonist  Editor. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
M
FIRM. BUSINESS.
E. B. Marvin & Co   Ship Chandler.
NAME.
Marvin, E. B., J.P.
Mason, Henry S	
Miller  Munroe   Printer and Bookbinder-
Mara, J. A   (Kamloops)   Merchant.
Munn, D. J   (New Westminster)   Cannery Proprietor.
McQuade, E. A   P. McQuade & Sons  Ship Chandler.
McAIister, John   (San Jose, Cal.)	
McLellan, A. J	
Munsie, W   S^awnigan Lake Lum. Co.  Manager.
Macaulay, H. C   Spratt & Macaulay   Coal Merchant.
Macrae, J. E   Dodwill, Carlill & Co   Agent.
Macaulay, Norman*.....  Shallcross, M. & Co     Merchant.
Milne, G. L   Physician and Surgeon.
Mitchell, James   Manufacturers' Agent.
McCandless, A. G   Gilmore & McCandless. ..  Clothier.
Mason, C. Dubois   Barrister-at-Law.
McMicking, R. B., J. P..«   Electrician.
Muir, A. Maxwell  Architect.
Morley, C   Mineral Water Manuf'r.
Morris, Walter   Federation Brand Salmon Can. Co., President.
McQuade, L. G P. McQuade & Sons   Ship Chandler.
More, A. W   A. W. More & Co   Ins. and Mining Broker.
McKay, A. J Bradstreets   Manager.
McGregor, M   McGregor & Jeeves   Contractor.
N
Nicholles, Major John..  Nicholles & Renouf, Ltd..   Hardware and Agl. Impts.
Norris, Fred'k   Saddler and Harhess M'kr.
Patterson, T. W   Victoria & Sidney Railway.  Manager.
Pooley, Hon. C. E., Q.C., M.P.P   Barrister-at-Law.
Prior, Lt. Col. Hon. E. G, M.P., E. G.. Prior & Co., Ltd., Hardware, etc.
Pendray, Wm. J Pendray & Co   Soap Manufacturer.
Pearson, Ed., J.P   Clarke & Pearson   Hardware.
Pither, Luke   Pither & Leiser Wine Merchant.
Pearse, B. W	
Payne, Robert Home...  Sperling & Co., 8 Austin Friars, London.
Paulson, P. A	
Piercy, J  J. Pierey & Co  Wholesale Dry Goods.
Pemberton, F. B   Pemberton & Son   Financial Agent.
Palmer, E. J   Vic. Lum. & Mfg Co., Ltd., (Chemainus), Manager.
Pike, M. Warburton   Explorer. MEMBERSHII
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Robins, S. M  Van. Coal Co. (Nanaimo).. Superintendent.
Rithet, R. P., J.P., M.P.P., R. P. Rithet & Co., Ltd. Merchant & Ship'g Agent.
Redfern, Chas. E     Manufacturing Jeweller.
Renouf C. E  Nicholles & Renouf, Ltd.. Hardware and Agl. Impts.
Robertson, J. R., Lon. & Brit. Col. Gold Fields, Ltd. Nelson, B.C.
Robertson, Arthur   Martin & Robertson  Commission Agent.
E. J. Saunders & Co
Spring, Charles....
Saunders, Henry...
Sayward, J. A	
Shotbolt, Thomas, J.P	
Smith, Thomas R  Robt. Ward & Co., Ltd.
Sehl, Jacob B. C. Furniture Co	
Spencer, C   David Spencer
Swinerton, R. H   Swinerton & Oddy
Spratl, C. J. V   Spratt & Macaulay
Stemler, Louis   Stemler & Earle	
Scott, H. J   Hamilton Powder Works..
Scaife, A. H	
Shedden, George   Geo. Shedden & Co	
Smith, H      M. R. Smith & Co  	
IShallcross, J. J   Shallcross, Macaulay & Co.
Turner, Hon. J. H., M.P.P., Turner, Beeton & Co. Merchant.
Tye, Thomas H   Hickman, Tye Co., Ltd.. Hardware, Iron and Steel-
Todd, Jacob H., J. P .. . J. H. Todd & Son  Wholesale Grocer.
Templeman, Wm  Times Printing Co., Ltd  . Managing Editor.
Williams, Robert T  Directory Publisher.
Ward, Robt., J.P   70 Basinghall Street  London, E. C.
Wilson, William   W. & J. Wilson  Clothier.
Warren, Jas. D., Capt  General Agent.
Williams, B  Land Agent.
Wootton, E. E   McPhillips, Wootton & B. Barrister-at-Law.
Walker, Walter  Coal Merchant.
Webber, Lionel H  Financial Agent.
Weiler, Otto   Weiler Bros    Furniture Manufacturer.
Wilson, John John Wilson & Co  Commission Merchant. IO
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
NAME. FIRM. BUSINESS.
Wilkinson, C. H        Financier.
Ward, W. A Robt. Ward & Co., Ltd..  Merchant and Shipper.
Wolley, Clive Phillipps   Barrister.
Memo.—All members of the Board,  unless otherwise herein shown, reside at
Victoria, B. C.
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^iiHSf- Eighteenth Annual Rerort
British Columbia Board of Trade,
JULY  10th,  1896, TO JULY  9th,  1897.
To the Members of the British Columbia Board of Trade :
Gentlemen,—In presenting- the Eighteenth Annual Report
we may congratulate you upon the substantial advance made by
the Province during the past twelve months. We consider the
forecast made to you a year ago has been largely realized, and we
now beg to submit the data upon which this opinion is based.
Obituary. Before proceeding, however, we would refer
with much regret to the loss this Board has sustained by the decease of the late Vice-President, Mr. Gustav
Leiser. Your Council at a special meeting having unanimously
adopted a resolution containing a brief tribute to his memory,
it only remains for us to mention the very active part the late
Mr. Leiser took in matters connected with the erection of the
Board of Trade building.
This Board has also lost another very zealous member in
the late Mr. H. F. Heisterman. He was connected with the
institution since its inception. The resolution of condolence
passed on that occasion together with that referring to the late
Mr. Leiser will be found in the Appendices hereto. 12 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
Mining. The increased value in products of .the mines
is indicated by the following table which has been
prepared with great care by the very competent Provincial
Mineralogist:
t8qo $2,608,608
1891  3,546,702
1892  3,017,971
1893  3,588,413
1894  4,225,717
1895  5>655>3°2
1896  7,146,425
Some other tables received from the same source will be
found in the Appendices, from which it will be seen that the
output of the mines in Kootenay during 1806 nearly doubled
that of the previous year.
In the Trail subdivision over 175 claims are being worked
and five have developed into mines from which regular shipments
of ore are made. The quartz, carrying gold and copper, is
mostly found under an iron capping and hitherto it has been
necessary to do considerable work before reaching pay ore.
This accounts for the small number of shipping mines when
compated with the number of claims being worked. There are
enormous quantities of low grade ore which cannot be profitably
handled at present, owing to the high rates for transportation
and treatment, costing together from $10 to $14 per ton. It is
expected, however, that these difficulties will be partially overcome by the erection of smelters nearer the mines, and the
cheap fuel which will be available, as soon as the Crow's Ne§t
Pass Railway is in operation.
A very interesting experiment was recently made with ten
tons of silicious ore containing $16 per ton in gold. In milling
and concentrating 65 per cent, was saved. The surface indications of the Trail subdivision claims are rarely very promising,
but the ore is usually found to increase in value with depth and
often the veins widen. The average value of the ore shipped
from Trail mines may be taken at $40 per ton. ANNUAL   REPORT.
T3
Rossland, the centre of this subdivision, is now tapped by
two railways. The Columbia & Western, n^ miles long, terminates at Trail on the Columbia River. The Red Mountain
Railway gives Rossland and some of the principal mines adjacent,
direct communication with two United States trunk lines.
Trail ores are now treated at Smelters on Puget Sound and jn
Montana, Colorado and other United States points.
The Nelson subdivision of West Kootenay is not so well
advanced as Trail, but there is promise of considerable mining
development in the immediate future. During 1896, 2544
mineral locations were recorded, and many of these are now
being worked. The recent discoveries are varied in character,
some being similar to the Trail ores and others are gold-silver
quartz with galena. They he principally south of the Town of
Nelson in the Salmon River country, through which the Nelson
and Fort Sheppard Railway runs.
In the Ainsworth subdivision, the mines, excepting the
Blue Bell, show an increase in output.
The Slocan subdivision has made a remarkable record. Its
area does not exceed 15 by 25 miles and silver-galena ore was
only discovered there in 1891. At present this subdivision contains about 50 mines from which regular shipments of ore are
made. The average of that shipped during 1896 contained 117
ounces of silver per ton and 52 per cent, of lead, and is estimated
to have returned the mine owners a net profit of $75 per ton.
Slocan is often spoken of as the " poor man's mining camp."
The veins being mostly situated on steep mountains, can be
worked by tunnels, and very little capital has been necessary to
place the properties on a paying basis. Railways connect this
subdivision with the Columbia River and Kootenay Lake, on
each of which there is a daily service between the Canadian
Pacific Railway at Arrowhead and the United States systems at
Nelson and Bonner's Ferry.
East Kootenay has not yet received so much attention as
the country adjoining on the west, the natural advantages for
transportation not being equal.    There is abundant evidence, 14
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
however, that this section is rich in gold, silver, lead and copper,
and the assured early construction of the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway has already given an impetus to mining development.
There are very extensive deposits of coal along the proposed line
of railway which at present cannot be profitably marketed, and
the benefits which the Crow's Nest Pass Railway will confer
upon the mining camps referred to can hardly be overestimated.
Cheap fuel, coal and coke, will make it possible to treat enormous quantities of low grade ores which now lie undisturbed.
The increased competition in all kinds of supplies which will
follow the opening of the new railway will also materially assist
the cheaper mining of all grades of ores.
If the expectations formed from surface indications are
realized, the oil fields of East Kootenay will possibly furnish
another important industry.
Passing on to Boundary Creek, situated near the United
States boundary in the District of Yale, we find very important
mining works in progress. Previous to January ist, 1895, onty
370 claims had been registered, but during the following twelve
months and during 1896, 771 and 1279 new claims were recorded
respectively. The ores mostly carry gold and already many rich
deposits have been discovered, but the great cost of transportation, sixty or more miles haulage by wagon, has retarded
extensive operations.
Before proceeding further, it will be found instructive to
follow the developments embraced in the area referred to. The
first shipments of ore were from mines near Nelson and Ains-
worth situated conveniently near the great natural waterway
afforded by Kootenay Lake. Shortly after, rich ore deposits
were found in the Slocan; so rich* were these discoveries that
only a year passed before railways were projected which gave
the Slocan mining camps connection with lakes and rivers on
the east and west.
The general public was scarcely aware of the value of these
silver-lead locations when the copper-gold deposits near Rossland were heralded forth.    Upon  the wealth of this country ANNUAL   REPORT.
15
being demonstrated two railways were almost immediately projected and now place Rossland within easy reach of the outside
world. In the meantime, the great crowd of prospectors had
dispersed to new regions, to fields further removed from natural
waterways and in some cases so remote that ore averaging $100
per ton could hardly be handled at a profit. In East Kootenay
many such properties will be placed on a paying basis by the
opening of the Crow's Nest Pass Railway. In the Boundary
Creek country a similar result may be expected upon the opening
of the projected railway between Penticton and Rossland, and
after the prospectors have more thoroughly examined the
country which these railways will traverse other districts in turn
will receive their attention.
Yale and Lillooet Districts have already furnished evidence
of great mineral wealth.
In the Cariboo District large sums of money have been
expended upon mining works, principally hydraulic. These
workings suffered during 1896, the season being the driest ever
known, and not many of the claims were operated more than a
few weeks.
Mining by hydraulic elevators is being successfully carried
on, but river dredging is still in the experimental stage.
Great efforts, costing large sums of money, are being made
to reach the bottom of deep channels of creeks, the surfaces of
which were worked some thirty years since. Those placer
claims furnished work for hundreds of men at wages from $8 to
$10 per day, but the bottoms of the deep channels were not
reached. This is now being effected by shafts and tunnels and
some idea of the magnitude of the work may be judged from
the experience of a company engaged in these creek diggings.
Bedrock in the channel is ascertained to be 100 feet from the
surface of the ground—but in order to reach it it has been found
necessary to sink and run about 1,500 feet of shafts and tunnels.
A theory has lately been evolved that the earlier waterways
of Cariboo were different from those which now exist.    This BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
has led to prospecting in what are believed to be dry beds of
former rivers and creeks, and it is reported that immense quantities of gold bearing gravel have been located. It is hoped
that before this is in print we may be in a position to give further
particulars regarding these late discoveiies.
Both placer and quartz mining received more than usual
attention during the year 1896, and it has been ascertained that
large bodies of ore will yield satisfactory to the cyanide treatment.
In the Omenica subdivision preparations are being made
for hydraulic workings. The gravel must be very rich to induce
the companies to pay over $300 per ton freight on the plant and
work in a country where it costs $12.50 to place a 5olb. sack of
flour..
The future of Cariboo depends upon cheaper transportation, and as soon as the building of the railway between Bute
Inlet and Quesnelle is assured greatly increased activity may be
expected in Cariboo in all kinds of mining.
Immediately north of Cariboo is the District of Cassiar, an
immense country, very little prospected. Several of the waterways have afforded rich placer diggings.
It is hardly within the scope of this report to do more than
mention the Yukon gold fields which lie north of Cassiar
in the North-West Territory of Canada. The latest excitement
resulted from discoveries on the Klondyke River and tributaries.
Some of these are reported by old miners to equal California in
early days in richness. It is believed that this mineral belt
extends to Cassiar and that the whole of the divide will be found
to be rich in gold. V*J-,*i
Some prospecting has been done in the Coast District, but
it has been principally confined to the inlets and points easy of
access by water. Specimens from such locations have assayed
well, but the owners of the claims seldom have the means for
carrying on extensive development. uea
ANNUAL   REPORT.
17
In consequence of the numerous attractions in the interior,
(especially in Kootenay) it is not easy to get men with capital
to give claims on the coast and islands of British Columbia the
attention they undoubtedly deserve. Many of these being close
to navigable waters the ores can be transported at a small cost
to the smelters. The principal quartz developments are being
made on claims situate on Texada Island, and from one of these
mines shipments have been made for several months past.
Other properties on the north of Texada Island will soon be in a
position to commence shipping. All the ores carry gold and
some of it is free milling. Claims on Valedz Island are also
beine worked with encouraging: results.
Queen Charlotte Island is known to be rich in minerals—\
gold, silver, iron and copper.    Coal of excellent quality has been
found near navigable water.
On Vancouver Island, especially on the West Coast, prospecting is being actively prosecuted and immense bodies of
quartz carrying copper and gold have recently been located.
Many claims are being worked, but no important shipments of
ore have'yet been made. The owners interested in these development works are most sanguine as to the value of their respective claims, and assert that only capital is required to establish
many paying mines.
Year by year this Board has called attention to the great
value of the iron deposits of British Columbia. This natural
resource has not yet been examined into but it is expected, now
that interest in the natural resources of British Columbia is
greatly increasing, the possibility of successfully operating
extensive blast furnaces may receive due attention.
The output of coal during 1896 was 846,235 tons; 1,565
tons of coke were produced additional. The coke ovens have
only recently been completed^ the output of coke is therefore
likely to be largely increased in the next return.
The foregoing summary embraces an area of nearly 400,000
square miles, and in consequence of the ever changing aspect of
mining affairs it is simply impossible to present an up-to-date BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
account of what is going on. Whilst individuals are numerous
who assert that the particular localities with which they are
acquainted are rich in precious metals beyond all question, no
one can point with any degree of certainty to that portion of the
Province where is to be found the greatest wealth of minerals.
It is more than ever apparent that only a superficial knowledge
has yet been obtained and that within the last few years. When
all the conditions are fully realized, the immensity and richness
of the treasure fields, and that they are entirely within British
influence, also beyond the sphere of possible foreign complications, it is reasonable to expect an influx of capital for the realization of this underground wealth, exceeding the hopes of the
most sanguine.
In the previous annual report, attention was directed to the
principle upon which some companies were being formed. Mere
prospects were taken over by companies capitalized out of all
proportion to the value of the claims acquired, the vendors of
the property taking by far the larger share of the stock in payment. Although such stock purported to be worth one dollar
per share, it was placed on the market at prices from one cent
upwards, according to the probable demand. An extensive
business was done for several months, mostly by persons who
invested in the hope of early realization at an advance. In the
majority of such cases there were insufficient funds for working
the claims, and at present many stocks can be bought for much
less than was paid for them. That such is the case is rather
beneficial than otherwise to the mining industry, because there
will now be a tendency to organize companies on a proper business basis for development work.
This Board's Mining Committee went very thoroughly into
the matter, and in a report which was approved at a special
general meeting and afterwards forwarded to the Provincial
Government, certain recommendations were made tending
towards the protection of the general public when dealing in
these mining stocks.
Fisheries. The salmon pack of 601,570 cases during 1896
was   the largest on record; a very satisfactory
result when it is considered that last year was what is known 1.   COAL MINE, VANCOUVER ISLAND.
2-3     HYDRAULIC GOLD MINING, CARIBOO.
4     TOWN OF BARKERVILLE, CARIBOO.  ANNUAL   REPORT. ig
as an "off season" on account of the smaller number of fish
entering the rivers. The increase in the pack was partly due to
new canneries, but there is no doubt that the hatchery on the
Fraser River also contributed towards it.
The importance of establishing hatcheries on the Skeena
and Naas Rivers and Rivers Inlet and additional ones on the
Fraser River was brought to the notice of the Dominion Government and it was understood that the work would be commenced last year and continued systematically. We regret to
report that such was not done.
The fisheries of British Columbia are capable of far greater
expansion and should give employment to many of the schooners
formerly engaged in sealing. The supply of several kinds of
excellent food fish is practically inexhaustible.
The United States furnishes a good market for halibut, but
the duty of half a cent a pound amounts to a large sum on the
annual quantity sent there, and represents a loss of profit to
British Columbia fishermen when competing with those from
United States ports, who fish mostly in what are claimed to be
Canadian waters. This matter has been brought to the notice
of the Dominion Government, but the steps taken have not yet
had any appreciable effect.
The Report of the Dominion Government Commercial
Agent to Mexico and countries to the south will be looked for
with much interest as it is believed that markets for large quantities of low priced fish will be found there.
Sealing. The condition of the sealing industry may be
judged from the following figures:
Season's catch, 1894 97,474 seals
1     1895 7o,739    "
"     1896 55,677    I
The Spring catch this year was only 5,035 seals, which is
3,893 less than during the same period in 1896. This continuous and very serious falling off is due principally to the restric- BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD  OF TRADE.
tions imposed upon the industry, but low prices and bad weather
have also affected it appreciably.
Until lately, 807 whites and 903 Indians were employed in
sealing.
The value of the catch for some years averaged $750,000
per annum.
The commissioner's appointed under the convention between
Her Britannic Majesty's Government and the United States were
in session continuously at Victoria between November 23rd,
1896, and February 2nd, 1897. The total amount of claims
submitted is $857,702.23, with interest at the rate of 7 per cent,
per annum from the date of alleged illegal seizure. Written
arguments and replies on both sides have been presented, and
the oral arguments by counsel will be made next month at
Halifax.
Lumber. The exports of lumber during 1896 show a
good increase compared with several of the preceding years, but during the past few months there has been a
falling off and at present the demand from all parts is limited.
The combine between the principal exporting mills on the
North Pacific ocean does not now exist, and competition is very
keen, present prices being barely remunerative.
For some years past this Board has urged that all lumber
for export be graded, as such specific grading would protect
millmen and simplify the work of purchasers when placing.
orders. The Local Legislature recently passed the necessary
Act, which may be enforced at any time by proclamation of the
Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council.
The wooded area of British Columbia is estimated at
285,000 square miles, and includes 40 kinds of timber. These
forests will increase in value year by year as the supply diminishes in the east.
It is regretable that the annual destruction by fires is so
great, and it is feared that some have been started with the view ANNUAL   REPORT.
21
•of clearing tracts of land simply to make prospecting for minerals more easy. There is an Act which provides for such cases,
and it is hoped that effective measures will be taken for the
apprehension and punishment of offenders.
Agriculture. The crops of all kinds of agricultural products
grown in British Columbia during 1896 were fair
:and the whole found ready markets at good prices. Stocks are
-very low at present and the outlook is favorable for this year.
Fruit crops were satisfactory and the Fruit Growers' Shipping Associations, recently formed, are proving successful.
Most of the cities have substantially built markets and great
•efforts are being made to increase their usefulness by bringing
together a larger number of farmers and consumers. Beneficial
results are expected from these efforts.
The creameries are increasing in number and the butter is
•disposed of as fast as produced at remunerative prices. The
importations from the east and from the United States are not
materially diminished as with the larger population in the mining
^districts, there has been a greater demand for this article.
The opportunities for small and mixed farming in this Pro-
wince are not receiving the attention they deserve. The mining
-districts are settling up rapidly and furnish markets for all kinds
of agricultural products. The miners live well, if possible, and
fresh supplies are invariably purchased in preference to those in
-cans. There is no probability of these markets being over-
-supplied for many years.
It is stated that Japan is greatly in need of horses for military purposes; if such is the case, many.could be supplied from
this Province.
Industrial The smelters lately established at Trail and
Estabishmen-ts.   Nelson are fully employed and their capacity has
"",,"^—"^~"""""   been   increased   since   they   were    "blown   in.
Refining   plants   have  been   added  and   instead  of shipping
"*' matte " it is now treated on the spot. m
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Smelter men have been looking at points on the Mainland
and Vancouver Island for suitable sites for their operations, one
object being to locate on a good harbour. In this respect there
is no better than Esquimalt, which also has the advantage of
being on the route of regular steamships to China, where there
is an extensive market for lead.
In the Slocan country five concentrators are reducing silver-
galena ores, and as the output of the mines increases, others
will be built. These concentrators and smelters furnish employment for many skilled and ordinary labourers at good wages.
British Columbia is the largest manufacturer in the Dominion in proportion to population. The following establishments are mostly able to supply present local demands: Lumber mills, sash and door factories, shipyards, iron foundries,
machine shops, flour, rice and oatmeal mills, chemical works,
paint works, soap factories, coffee and spice mills, breweries,
carriage factories, powder works and potteries.
The manufacture of wood pulp for export has not yet started
here, but the natural conditions appear favourable for such an
industry.
During the past week metallurgical works have been estab-
ished at Victoria, capacity at present 20 tons of ore per day. A
chlorination plant is in course of erection and as soon as the
works are completed ores will be treated by several different
processes. These works are the first of the kind established in
British Columbia and should be of great value to mine owners.
Railways. The railway between Trail and a point oppo
site Robson on the Columbia River, a portion of
the "Columbia and Western," from the Columbia River to
Penticton, for which a charter was granted in 1896, will be open
for traffic very soon. The line between Trail and Rossland is
being widened to standard gauge
A line is also being built by the C. P. R. Co. from Slocan
Lake to Slocan Junction on the Columbia and Kootenay
Railway. ANNUAL   REPORT.
With the immediate commencement of the Crow's Nest Pass
Railway much greater activity will be shown, and it is expected
will continue for some years as other important railways appear
to be on the eve of construction.
Tenders are being called for a considerable section of the
Crow's Nest Pass Railway, between Lethbridge and the Kootenay
Lake. It is probable that ioo miles will be built this year, and that
the road as far as the lake, another 200 miles, will be completed
by the 31st December, 1898. Nelson, the objective point, may
be reached by ferrying the cars across the lake for a time, whilst
the line is being continued to give all rail connection. The cost
of the 330 miles is estimated at twenty-five to twenty-six thousand dollars per mile, exclusive of the equipment of the road.
The Coast Cities have made strenuous efforts to secure the
building of a direct railway into Kootenay, and the Provincial
Legislature recognizing its importance, voted a grant in aid of
$4000 per mile for 330 miles between Boundary Creek and the
coast, one of the conditions being that the company receiving it
should equip and maintain a ferry suitable for freight and passenger cars between the Mainland and Vancouver Island. The
Dominion Government was also disposed to aid the immediate
construction of that portion between the Columbia River and
Penticton, but in consequence of the opposition of rival charter
applicants that aid has been withheld, and unless prompt and
united action is taken it is feared there will be delay in commencing the line.
The local Legislature also voted a grant in aid of 230 miles
of railway between Bute Inlet and Quesnelle at the rate of $4000
per mile. This is a very important line, as in addition to opening up for development this rich section of the Province, it will
place the bulk of the trade thus created, in the hands of coast
city merchants. In consequence of all supplies requiring water
transportation to Bute Inlet no city will have undue advantage.
At a comparatively small expenditure, 300 miles of the Fraser
River can be made navigable, and will be tributary to this
railway. 24
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
It is a matter for congratulation to find British capitalists
interesting themselves in transportation enterprise in this Province, as it affords some assurance that the accounts of the great
natural resources of British Columbia are gaining credit in
established centres of finance. - The charter of the Cassiar
Central Railway has been acquired by such persons. Although
the railway in this case will be short, probably not more than 75.
miles, an immense area will be tributary to it. Fort Wrangel,
which is open to deep sea vessels, will, in the meantime, be the
western starting ponit; from thence passengers and freight will
be taken on the Company's steamers to Telegraph Creek, Stick-
een River, where the railway will begin. The first eastern
terminus will be at Dease Lake.
It is proposed that the Company's steamers run on this
lake and on the Liard and Frances Rivers, tributaries to the
Mackenzie River which flows into the Arctic Ocean. A few
portages only will be necessary to control navigable waters extending over at least 1,000 miles. It is expected that preliminary surveys will be made immediately, and that the railway
will be completed before the close of li
Attention is being directed to improved communication with
the Yukon country, which for some years is likely to be tapped
solely from the Pacific coast. Five different routes are favourably spoken of and each has its strong supporters; it is difficult
to decide which is the best, for probably no one from personal
knowledge can report upon more than any two of the five. The
routes are as follows:
1. Via Stickeen River and Teslin Lake; 2. Takou River
and Teslin Lake; 3. White Pass; 4. Chilkoot Pass; 5. The
Chilkat Pass and what is known as Dalton's Trail.
The urgency for immediately improving the existing means
of communication with the Yukon has received the attention of
your Council and a deputation waited upon the local Government in March last and represented the necessity for action. -
With commendable promptness a party was sent north by the
first steamer with instructions to proceed via the Stickeen River ANNUAL   REPORT.
25
and Teslin Lake, and in the event of this route appearing practicable, to immediately commence the opening of a trail, for
which a grant in aid of $2,000 was voted. In view of the
uncertainty regarding the best route, this was all that could
reasonably be expected. By this route any bonding difficulties
with the United States are obviated.
British capitalists have recently acquired from the Dominion
Government concessions for trading and transportation in the
Yukon and provision is being made for building a railway into
that country via the White Pass. Representatives of the Company have gone north and have the trail to Tagish Lake now
nearly completed.
Navigation. During the past year a light was placed at the
entrance of Chemainus harbour. Two beacons
(daylight marks) were established at Burrard Inlet. A stone
beacon was built on Beacon Rock, Nanaimo. At False Narrows
the channel has been marked by spar buoys and pile beacons.
The stone beacon with electric light on Brotchie Ledge is
expected to be completed within two months. It is hoped to
establish a light and fog alarm at the entrance to the First Narrows, Burrard Inlet, and a light on the Sisters Rocks in the Gulf
of Georgia. These are the only new works contemplated this
year so far as known. The light at the entrance of Baynes
Sound will probably be altered with the view of making it of
more service.
This Board has urged year by year that the Canadian coasts
on the Pacific be more efficiently demarcated by lights, beacons
and buoys, and when the Hon. the Minister of Marine and Fisheries visited Victoria in November last a long list of first
requirements was presented to him. It is a disappointment to
find that so few of the important works recommended are likely
to be undertaken this year. Much regret is felt that so important a point as Fiddle Reef has been overlooked, it having been
specially brought to the notice of the Department of Marine.
Attention has been directed to the fact that the position of
some of the first lights established on our coasts give more BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
general satisfaction than others erected later. Further, experience shows, wherever it is proposed that a lignt should be
placed there is invariably considerable diversity of opinion as to
the advantage of the particular spot selected. This Board has
therefore recommended that an honorary board of officers of the
Navy and mercantile men—such as proved of great advantage
in the early days of settlement of this Province—be appointed,
to act in conjunction with the local agent of the Department of
Marine, to whom all such matters should be referred, and that
no further aids to navigation be placed in position until approved
by such a Board.
The S.S. Quadra has been employed principally in repairing,
maintaining and replacing existing aids to navigation. It has
been recommended by this Board that a smaller vessel would do
equally well for such service, and that the S.S. Quadra be used
for revenue purposes, and be kept in commission all the year
round.
Ocean Trade. The volume of Trade with China and Japan is
yearly increasing. The Canadian Pacific steamships have the principal passenger business, they also carry very
full freights on both voyages.
The Northern Pacific Company has four regular steamships
which give a three-weekly service. At present this Company
has five additional ships engaged in freighting.
The Oregon Railway and Navigation Company's steamship
service has been maintained.
The Canada-Australia service has recently been augmented
by an additional steamship.
The success which has attended the subsidizing of the
Canada-Australia line is very gratifying and should encourage
the Dominion Government to seek new trade channels. It is
believed that Mexico, Central and South America, offer markets
for the disposal of large quantities of Canadian manufactures
and natural products. The coal and lumber of British Columbia should find more extensive markets there and considerable ANNUAL   REPORT. 27
business should be done in other lines. As far as can be seen
the exports to those countries would exceed the imports for
some time, hence there is all the greater inducement for looking
into these trade possibilities. The matter was brought to the
notice of each of the three Dominion Government Ministers who
visited this Province in the fall of last year; it was also brought
before the Department of Trade and Commerce and this Board's
recommendation that a Commercial Agent be appointed to ascertain how far the foregoing conjectures are correct has already
been acted upon.
The appointment of an agent was recommended as a preliminary step to the subsidizing of a direct line of steamships,
in the event of conditions being favourable, for it is felt that the
•desired trade can only be successfully established by regular and
^direct communication. A Victoria firm has approached the
Dominion Government with an offer to put on a regular monthly
service, and it is understood that this offer may be considered
when the time arrives for subsidizing a line.
South Africa has been recommended by this Board as
embracing markets for Canadian goods in much larger quantities than at present exported. It is believed that a Commercial
Agent could greatly assist in building up the desired trade.
Siberia is being looked to as an outlet for Canadian goods.
Yukon. Attention  has  already  been  directed to the
richness of the Yukon placer gold mines. Persons interested in them should read the reports lately made to
the Dominion Government by Mr. William Ogilvie, land surveyor. There has been a great rush of miners to that country,
and many are kept back only on account of transportation difficulties. These difficulties, it is expected, will soon be evercome
i>y the opening up of one or more of the. routes previously mentioned, and a very large trade may be expected to result. At
present the trade of the Yukon is principally in the hands of
United States merchants, and prospectors are made to believe that
the Klondyke gold fields are in United States territory.    The
3! .28 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
gold fields herein referred to are all in Canada and removed
from any possibility of boundary dispute by many miles. This
matter has been taken up by the local press and it is hoped that
the press throughout Canada will use its influence in making
known the location of these mines.
The loss of duty which might be collected on miners' outfits and supplies going in via the White and Dyea Passes is a
very serious olne to the Dominion. Customs officers should be
stationed there and at the entrance to Canadian territory by
each of the other routes.
It is hoped to append hereto a small sketch-map showing
these gold fields and those of Cassiar and Cariboo, with the
position of the cities of this Province as a supply base.
In consequence of the many attractions nearer home, British
Columbia merchants have not yet fully realized the trade possibilities with the Yukon.
Mail Service. That business should be interrupted by delayed
mails to and from the east for a period of ten days
is a very serious matter. It is fortunate, however, that such
delays as occurred last month do not happen often, and it
seems only reasonable that on these occasions mails should be
forwarded by some other route, even if more circuitous, whenever a savinsr of time can be effected.
The attention of the Postmaster-General has been called to
mails for the south being delayed at Seattle nearly a day. The
train for southern points leaves shortly before the arrival of the
steamer from Victoria; consequently the mails are held over
until the following day. As there are two steamers daily
(morning and evening) by which mails can be carried, it is
hoped that better arrangements will be made very soon.
Until the first day of June last, connection by steamers
between Revelstoke and West Kootenay points was tri-weekly.
On the date mentioned a daily service was inaugurated, but the
mails go forward only three times during the week as before.
This matter has been brought to the notice of the Hon. the ANNUAL   REPORT.
29
Postmaster-General, and it has been urged that advantage
should he taken of the improved steamer service to forward the
mails daily.
The contract for the northern mail service expired on the
30th ultimo, but it is not yet known what new arrangements
will be made. It is hoped that they will provide for a more
frequent delivery of mails as recommended by this Board.
Imperial The important question of Imperial Federa-
Federation. tion is now under consideration in Council by the
Premiers of the Colonies and the Rt. Hon. Joseph
Chamberlain. Canada has set a splendid example by giving
preferential rates on goods from Great Britain and New South
Wales. It is hoped that this action will be followed by other
Colonies in the near future.
Immigration. At the request of this Board, Colonel the Hon
ourable James Baker, Minister of Immigration,
has kindly furnished a report upon Immigration and Colonization.    The report will be found in the Appendices.
Outlook. The outlook for continued prosperity, and that
too on a scale greater than anything heretofore
enjoyed, was never so cheerful as it appeared only a month ago,
for the prospect of large bodies of men finding immediate
employment in railway construction, and the certainty of the
sections to be traversed adding to the number of mines making
regular shipments of ore, was indeed encouraging. Since then,
however, the prorogation of the Dominion Parliament without
a vote in aid of any portion of the Coast-Kootenay Railway has
cast a gloom over the business portion of the community, and
has proved a bitter disappointment to all who had the interests
of the country at heart. In seeking such aid, this Province
asked for only a fair return npou its contributions to the Federal
exchequer, which amount to over two million dollars per annum.
Further, it had been represented to the Dominion Government
by this Board that the exchequer receives from each taxpayer of
British Columbia $18.60, as compared with $8.40 paid into the BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD   OF  TRADE.
local treasury, and that therefore the adoption of a liberal railway policy in this Province, which would assist in building up
the various industries, would be a very profitable investment.
It was most unfortunate that the rival charter applicants
for the Coast-Kootenay line should have disagreed, but their
disagreement is not considered suffi^ent to warrant the Dominion
Government in retarding the progress of an important portion
of this Province for a whole year, and it is recommended that an
effort be made to induce the local Government to appoint delegates to confer with the Right Hon. Sir Wilfrid Laurier on his
return from England, with the view of arranging for the immediate construction of that section of the line between the Columbia
River and Pencticton, and of its continuance towards the coast
at an early date.
It is believed, that were the local Government to adopt the
course recommended, the Dominion authorities might then
exercise their powers and give such assurance of aid as the Hon.
the Minister of Railways led this Province to expect.
The policy of the Dominion Government in controlling rates
whenever Federal aid is given towards construction, is to be
highly commended, and with such a safeguard it is a matter of
little importance by what Company the railway is built.
Attention is again directed to the insufficiency of aids to
navigation on these coasts. Yearly increased shipping adds to'
the importance of having lights, beacons and buoys placed as
recommended.
The establishment of salmon hatcheries on the Skeena and
other northern points, also an additional hatchery on the Fraser
River, were asked for, but these matters appear to be held in
abeyance. It is desired to impress the fact that British Columbia
is not a supplicant for favours in respect to any of the foregoing
requisitions, they are but just dues.
The possibility for increased business for the coast cities is
very great, nor can it be said that in this respect any particular
one has the advantage over the rest.    With a direct railway into ANNUAL   REPORT.
31
Kootenay, ores from that country could be smelted probably at
less cost than near the mines, as fuels are cheap and on the seaboard there is a greater choice of fluxes. The Penticton-
Boundary branch of the Coast-Kootenay Railway is therefore of
the first importance, in consequence of the advanced state of
mining between the Columbia River and its western terminus.
But the railway between Bute Inlet and Quesnelle will make
Cariboo tributary to this coast; so also will be the districts of
Cassiar and the Yukon, when communications are improved.
Only those who are acquainted with the vast resources of the
North can appreciate what its opening up and development will
mean to the cities on this coast. These are matters to be kept
constantly in view and advanced at every opportunity.
The Provincial Government securities and municipal debentures continue to rank high in financial centres. Foreign capital
is also being freely put into the mines, and it is expected that
other industries will soon receive more attention. Few countries
can offer more varied and profitable investments than British
Columbia.
The exports and imports during the past year exceeded
those of any previous twelve months. ;
The statistical information herewith will be found complete
and more interesting than usual.
It is gratifying to find that this Board will begin the new
year with the largest membership in its history, and the increasing business which falls upon the Council and Standing Committees leads to the hope that the highest point of its strength
and usefulness has not yet been reached.
1897.
All of which is respectfully submitted this ninth day of July,
D. R. KER, President.
G. A. KIRK, Vice-President.
F. ELWORTHY, Secretary. APPENDICES.
Immigration.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
Victoria, July 9th, 1897.
I am able to give a satisfactory report of the immigration to the Province for
the past year.
It may be understood that the Government discourages pauper immigration,
because there is no difficulty in finding labour for the promotion of the various
industries of the Province. Hut in view of the fact that notwithstanding the
favourable conditions for agriculture, both as to land and climate, which exists in
many parts of the country, we still import nearly two-thirds of the food which is
consumed, it is manifestly advisable to encourage as far as possible the settlement
of farming colonists who have each a small capital sufficient for the establishment
of an agricultural home. If such settlers are scattered over the large area of our
Province, they may grow crops in abundance, but they cannot, in many cases,
find a market for their produce for want of facilities for communication. It is
therefore advisable to give every encouragement to immigrants to combine in
colonies on such points in the Province as will put them in touch with the great
cities as markets for their produce. This has been done in the case of Bella Coola
on the North-West Coast of the Mainland, and at Cape Scott and Quatsino on the
north of Vancouver's Island.
At Bella Coola there are now over two hundred Norwegian colonists,
including men, women and children, and more are expected in a few months.
They are establishing comfortable homes and are well satisfied with the locality,
which is very favourable for agriculture. Both men and women find work at the
canneries during the fishing season. A wharf has been built at the head of the
inlet which admits of large steamers coming alongside, and a wagon-road is continued from the wharf through the settlement. A trail has been opened up from
the settlement into the rich grazing grounds of the interior, which admits of cattle
being driven down for shipment at the wharf. Several promising mineral claims
have been located in the neighbourhood as a result of the settlement and there is
a fair prospect of a mining camp being established there. The lands in the Bella
Coola and tributary valleys will be thrown open to pre-emption next month and
there is ample room for two thousand inhabitants. APPENDICES.
33
The Norwegian colony at Quatsino numbers twenty-seven locations and the
settlers are well satisfied and expect a further increase to their number.
At Cape Scott the Danes have just located their holdings, and expect a large
increase in their colony this Autumn. They are a fine, hardy set of men, and
intend bringing in their families.    They will engage in fishing and dairy farming.
It must take time before these and similar colonies can develop, as they are
composed of men of small means who have to commence in a small way and work
up, but they are so far men and women of the right stamp and they form nuclei
of what in time will be flourishing settlements of good, honest and law abiding
citizens.
JAMES BAKER,   '
Minister of Immigration.
Report of Mining Committee re Formation of Mining
Companies.
Victoria, B. C, November 2nd, 1896.
To the President and Council of the British Columbia Board of Trade:
Dear Sirs,—Referring to your favour of September 2nd, asking us to take
under consideration and advise you upon that paragraph in the Board's last Annual
Report, directing attention to the principle upon which some mining companies
are formed. "The system of capitalizing slightly developed mineral claims for
" large sums of money and selling the stock at a small percentage of the par
"value, is, in the case of the liquidation of the company, fraught with serious
" consequences to the holders, and in any event prejudicial to the proper develop-
" ment of the mine. The laws of British Columbia are opposed to a company
" selling its stock at a discount, yet these have been evaded in the case of some
" mining ventures. Discontinuance of this practice and compliance with Provin-
" cial laws will be some guarantee that companies are formed for the purpose of
" working the mines instead of unduly enriching the promoters of the schemes.
" The incoming Council should look into this matter and, if necessary, bring it to
" the notice of the Provincial Government with the view of remedial legislation."
Fully realizing the great importance of the subject, your Committee on Mines and
Mining have held several meetings, discussed the subject with many persons and
corresponded with the Boards of Trada, Slock Exchanges, and the general
managers of several of the largest financial institutions in Canada.
Replies have been received from some while others still have the matter under
consideration.
After seriously considering the different phases of the subject and looking at
the matter in its broadest sense, and with the sole object of bringing the mining BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
industry of this Province to a sound and healthy basis, your Committee make the-
following recommendations as the basis of your action, if thought necessary to-
bring the subject to the notice of the Provincial Government:
No mining companies to be registered to do business in this Province
except those organized under British or Canadian Acts.
2.    The following scale of fees to be charged by the Government on all
mining companies incorporated.
(For purpose of comparison, we place in parallel columns the fees which
would have to be paid in Britain.)
Total Duty
Capital Fees to be payable in
up to imposed.
$    100,000	
200,000	
300,000	
400,000	
500,000	
6oo,000	
700,000	
800,000        800
900,000        900
Gt. Britain.
■■£ 3°     55
I     55   5s
80   5s
. •   105   5s
1,000,000.
25	
100	
200	
3°o	
500    130   5s
600     156 10s
700     185 IOS
      200   IOS
      220     OS
1,000    235   ss
3. Not less than one-third of capital to be set apart for " working capital"
and which shall not be sold for less than par value.
4. Careful revision and consolidation of the " Companies' Act," particularly
as applying to the organization of mining companies.
If at all possible, to prevent the repetition of the names of claims.
6. Consider the advisability of allowing the head offices of companies
organized lender British Columbia Acts to be located in other parts of Canada,
and Boards of Directors of such companies not necessarily to be residents of
British Columbia.
A British Company has its head office in the United Kingdom and has its
Board of Directors there.
7. The Provincial Government to require from all mining companies incorporated in British Columbia, or registered under the "Companies' Acts, Foreign,"
an annual or semi-annual statement, which statement should be published in
pamphlet form, so that investors at home and -abroad would be able to judge of
the position of their investments.
The statement should be in tabulated form, not too much in detail, but giving
the most salient points, after the style of the Dominion Banking Returns : 1.    SALMON FLEET ON  FRASER RIVER.
2.    UNLOADING SALMON AT CANNERY.
3.    INTERIOR VIEW OF CANNERY.
«*■ WJ" WJFIMJmiW KWWH  APPENDICES.
PRO   FORMA STATEMENT.
Authorized
Capital.
$1,000,000
Treasury
Shares
Sold.
Treasury
Shares
Unsold.
Shipment
ofOre
Tons.
$200,000   $133,000      $300
Workmen.
Average
Value
of Ore
Shipped.
Length
of Time
Closed
Down.
Value of
Plant and
Machinery
|>i8.oo  3 Weeks   $15,000
8. That no shares (other than treasury) be permitted to be issued until after
a certain percentage (if only 5%) of the treasury stock has been sold, and the
money in the hands of the company.
In its issue of September 18th, the Rossland Miner had a strongly worded
editorial upon this question, to which we beg to call your attention, as it shows
the feeling of the mining district to be in the direction of our efforts.
It is to be expected that some of the foregoing suggestions will be too radical,
but the subject must be faced squarely : Are we going to permit our mines to be
operated by irresponsible persons, with no possible control of their actions, or are
we going to build up our mining industry upon a lasting basis ? We all believe
tha't we are upon the eve of an immense development of our mineral interests, to
take rank among the foremost in the world. It is therefore incumbent upon us to
lay the foundation, not looking to the present only, but to the future, so that
mining in British Columbia will be synonymous of fair and square business propositions, organized on a basis of British integrity and protected by laws that are
already the admiration of all visitors to our mining camps.
The whole respectfully submitted.
FRED. J: CLAXTON,
FRED'K  B. PEMBERTON,
G. A.  KIRK.
Resolutions  of Condolence.
" Resolved, that this Board having heard of the death of its Vice-President
Mr. Gustav Leiser, desires to express its sincere regret at the lamentable occurence,
which is no less a loss to the entire community than it is to the British Columbia
Board of Trade, of which Mr. Lei<=er was so prominent and useful a member.
This Board desires to place on record its hearty appreciation of the invaluable
services rendered by the late Mr. Leiser to the commercial interests of this
Province."
" Resolved, that this Board place on record its deep sense of the loss it has
sustained by the decease of Mr. H. F. Heisterman, an active and valuable member of the institution since incorporation, and that the condolence and sympathy
of this Board be transmitted to the bereaved family." 36 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Extension  and   Development of Trade.
Department of Trade and Commerce,
Ottawa, August 28th, 1896.
The President of the Board of Trade,
British Columbia, ( Victoria.)
Sir,—I am directed by the Minister of Trade and Commerce to request you
to call the attention of your Board to the subject of the possible extension of the
trade of the Dominion in various directions.
The Minister will be pleased to receive and consider any suggestions which
you or ypur colleagues may see fit to offer as to the methods whereby, in your
opinion, existing trade can be increased, or new traffic devgloped in any direction.
In particular, he would be glad to be advised whether you have to report any
material alterations within the past year in the quantities and values of the principal articles now exported from your section of the Dominion to other countries.
Secondly—Whether in your opinion the traffic in any of these articles could
readily be increased, and if so, in which classes and to what countries.
Thirdly—Whether there are any other articles which you consider might be
exported to advantage, and if so, which and to what markets.
I have the honour to be, sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. G. PARMELEE,
Deputy Minister.
Victoria, B. C, March 4th, 1897.
W. G. Parmelee, Esq.,
Deputy Minister, Department of Trade and Commerce, Ottawa.
Sir,—By direction of the President and Council of the British Columbia
Board of Trade I have the honour to transmit the following reply to your communication dated 28th August last.
Exports, 1896.—In consequence of increased competition in the San Francisco market, the export of coal mined in British Columbia fell off during the past
year. The value of precious and base metals exported during the same period is
a substantial increase compared with previous years The lumber industry has
steadily improved, and the salmon fishery has been maintained in a healthy
■condition. APPENDICES.
37
Fur Seal Fisheries.—The restrictions placed upon the fur seal fisheries,
together with the low prices obtained for the last season's catch have caused a temporary collapse of this industry; it is expected, however, that if no further
restrictions are imposed, operations will continue, but on a smaller scale. The
sealing fleet, with headquarters at Victoria, comprises 65 schooners, and gave
employment to 807 whites and 703 Indians; average value of the catch about
$750,000 per annum.
Foreign Trade, Outlook.—In the opinion of this Board material alteration in the quantities and values of the exports above mentioned, excepting precious
and base metals, will depend largely upon prices and new markets. The various
industries, excepting the fur seal, do not appear to be labouring under any very
serious disadvantages.
New Markets.--During the recent visits of the Honourables the Ministers
of Public Works, Marine and Fisheries, and Railways, this Board outlined its
views in regard to the extension of foreign trade. In this connection attention is
directed to the export trade of the United states, via-San Francisco, to Mexico,
Central and South America, which amounts to about four million dollars per
annum. Excepting lumber, these countries are practically unknown to Canadian
products.
Fisheries.—A suggestion has been made to this Board that some of the
schooners lately employed in sealing might find profitable employment in catching
-fish for export to the countries named. A trial shipment, without a knowledge
of the requirements, would be a very risky experiment for any one individual, and
it is desired that the Dominion Government should send to those parts an &gent
qualified to report upon the matter, also upon existing trade openings and probable
new ones.
The supply of food fish in British Columbia waters is unlimited. The salmon
is already well known in the principal markets throughout the world ; the halibut
fishery is comparatively a new industry, but the cod, sturgeon, herring and some
other kinds of fish are almost untouched, as at present there are no known markets
for them.
China has been mentioned as a market for some of the cheap kinds of fish.
It is hoped that the success which has attended the work of the Commercial
Agent in Australia, supported by the direct steamship service thereto, may prove
sufficient encouragement for the appointment of another agent as before suggested.
New Industries —The Federal Government would do this Province a great
service by directing the attention of capitalists to the immense deposits of very
high grade iron ore known to exist in British Columbia. Many of these are situated on good harbours, and in close proximity to the necessary fluxes for smelting.
Pig iron can be manufactured in this Province as cheaply as in any other part of
the world, and we have direct and competing steamship services to China and
Japan, countries likely to require very large quantities of iron for years to come. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
These advantages have been mentioned in several of the annual reports published1
by this Board, but the desired effect is not yet in view.
The manufacture of wood pulp for export is another industry which should be
profitably engaged in if the timber of-Bntish Columbia is suitable.
Some of the salmon canners are offering free, whilst others are paying for the
removal of large quantities of fish offal, which should be profitably used in the
manufacture of fertilizers.
Shipping.—The shipping interests of British Columbia deserve the attention
of the Federal Government and pilotage matters require first consideration. At
present there are three separate and distinct Pilotage Authorities in these waters,
each having its schedule of fees (or tariff of charges) the same as any port in a
foreign country. This condition of affairs, besides entailing extra cost for maintenance, occasionally leads to serious complications. For example, the "San
Pedro," whilst on her way from Comox to San Francisco, was wrecked on.
Brotchie Ledge, which is in the Victoria Pilotage District, when in charge of a.
pilot from Nanaimo and subject only to the Pilotage Authority of that District.
It is not generally known that the lighthouse on Berens Island, inside Victoria harbour, belongs to the Nanaimo Pilotage District.
This Board has often recommended the establishment of a pilotage station-
and maintenance of a pilot cutter at or near Cape Flattery, and that such is-
urgently needed is proved by the stranding of the " Chittagong," on Cadboro
Point, Haro Channel, 22nd September last, when en route to Comox. A dense
fog prevailed at the time and the vessel failed to obtain a pilot at the entrance of
the straits. There would never be any difficulty in securing a pilot if the pilotage:
station was established and a pilot cutter maintained as recommended.
By the amalgamation of the three pilotage districts the above anomalies;
would be removed and the service could undoubtedly be conducted with more-
economy and efficiency than at present. This is a most important matter and-
strikes at the root of our shipping interests which in a seaboard Province cannot
be too carefully safeguarded.
General.—The receipt of your letter has given this Board much pleasure, it-
having encouraged the hope that British Columbia may now receive from the-
Dominion Government more attention and larger appropriations of public moneys.
No portion of Canada offers a more profitable field than this Western Province for
the extension of railways and general assistance in building up industries which,
will develop its vast natural resources. The customs returns show that the exports-
from British Columbia have steadily increased year by year for a quarter of a
century, and the returns for the current year ending 30th June next, will show a.
substantial increase when compared with any previous twelve months. The widespread attention which is now being directed to British Colurnbia mines is expected
to reflect beneficially upon all other local industries. At present $350 per ton is.
being paid for freight on mining machinery between Victoria and the Omineca. APPENDICES.
39
District, a 49 lb. sack of flour sells there for $12.50. If mining can be carried on
under such adverse conditions, there can be no doubt about the immense advantages which would accrue if this and some other portions of the Province, equally
rich in minerals, were within reasonable reach of a railway. Whilst British
Columbia would benefit by the adoption of a liberal railway and colonization
policy, it appears that Canada generally would derive even greater advantages, for
it was asserted by the Premier of the Province at a public meeting recently held
in this city that the Dominion receives from the taxpayers of British Columbia
$18.60 for every $8.40 paid into the local treasury.
Much of the foregoing having been embodied in the addresses presented to
the Honourables the Ministers before mentioned, it is expected that the same has
already reached you.
I have the honour to be, sir,
Your obedient servant,
F. ELWORTHY,
Secretary
Department of Trade and Commerce,
Ottawa, March 13th, 1897.
The Secretary of the British Columbia Board of Trade,
Victoria, B. C.
Sir,—I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your favour of the 4th
instant, in answer to communication addressed to your Board from this Department in August last.
I have to thank you for the very valuable suggestions made in your reply to
that communication, and can assure you that they will receive the earnest consideration of this Department as well as that of the Government.
I have the honour to be, sir,
Your obedient servant,
W. G. PARMELEE,
Deputy Minister.
List of Lights and Fog Alarms required in British
Columbia Waters
In Addition to those Established and Published in Order of Urgency.
1.    Stone lighthouse and steam fog horn on Brotchie Ledge, light to be fitted
with a red sector over Trial Island.    (Under construction.)
2. Stone beacon and electric light on Fiddle Reef.
3. Light and fog alarm on the Sisters.   (Immediate construction expected.) 4°
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
Light and fog alarm at entrance to Narrows, Vancouver harbour.
Light and fog alarm on Egg Island.
Light and fog alarm on Ivory Island.
Light on Bari Island, Clayoquot Sound.
Light and fog alarm on Cape Mudge.
Light on Pointer Island, Lama Passage.
Light on north entrance to Main Passage.
Light on Lawyer Island.
Light on Bernie Island, Port Simpson.
Light on Jessie, Departure Bay.
Light on Gordon Group, New Channel.
15. The Sand Head lighthouse discontinued and a lightship established off
the entrance to the Fraser River, fitted with a steam fog horn. (Life saving
apparatus has been furnished this station.)
16. Light on Pulteney Point.
Light on east end of Cormorant Island.
Light on Leonard Island, Clayoquot Sound.
Light on Helmcken Island.
Two leading lights on Yellow Island to show fairway between Maple
Spit and Reef Bluff.    The present revolving light changed to a small fixed light.
Aids to navigation required in British Columbia :
Iron buoy on Rosedale Reef, Race Rocks.
Spar buoy on Johnson Reef.
Iron buoy on West Reef, Sidney South Spit.
Iron buoy on Turnbull Reef, Moresby Channel.
Iron  buoy  on  Entrance  Point  Reef,   Sansum   Narrows,  spar  buoy
discontinued.
6.    Iron buoy  on  reef off  Shoal  Islands,   Stuart   Channel,  spar  buoy-
discontinued.
Iron buoy oil Sliammon Reef.
Spar buoy on rock, Whaleton Bay, Cortes Islands.
Spar buoy on rock, Hemming Bay, Thurlow Island.
Iron buoy on Walbran Rock, Fitzhugh Sound.
Iron buoy on Dall Patch, spar buoy discontinued.
Two small iron buoys, Metlahcatlah Harbor, spar buoys discontinued.
(Landing marks established instead of buoys.)
13. Small iron buoy on Half-tide Rock, Clayoquot Sound.
14. Small iron buoy on reef, south of island at entrance to Deception Pass,
Clayoquot Sound.
15. Small iron buoy on end of north-easterly spit, Stubbs' Island, Clayoquot
Sound.
Note. —The bell-buoy now moored off the Fraser River could be moved to
advantage off Lighthouse Island Reef, entrance of Nanaimo Harbor and Departure Bay.
Beacons required : x
1.    Wooden beacon, 50 feet high, North Rock, Stuart Channel.
I
I
6.
1
8.
9-
10.
11.
12.
n
14.
m
18.
T9-
20.
1.
2.
I
4-
1
7-
8.
9-
10.
11.
12. APPENDICES.
41
2. Small stone beacon on reef, north-west side of entrance to Horse Shoe
Bay, Chemainus.
3. Stone beacon on Shute Reef, Piers Island.
4. Stone beacon on Thresher Rock, Gabriola Island.
5. Stone beacon on Burnaby Reef, Vancouver Harbour.
6. Two leading marks erected on Brocton Point, to clear Parthia Shoal,
bound inwards.    (Established in June, 1897.)
7. One leading mark erected on the shore, west of the Narrows to clear
Parthia Shoal, bound outwards.    (Established in June, 1897.)
8. Small stone beacon on rock in Shark Spit Channel, Mary Island.    (/«
course of erection.)
9. Wooden beacon, 30 feet high, Shark Spit, Mary Island.
10. Stone beacon on Nelson Rock, Malaspine Strait.
11. Stone beacon on Hankin Reef, Port Simpson.
Note.—Of the foregoing list Nos. 4, 6, 7, 10 and 11 are most important.
With the light and fog signal on Brotchie Ledge, the lighthouse and fog bell
on Berens Island, Victoria Harbour, could be removed.
List of Additions to the Library, with the Names of the
Donors (30th June, 1897.)
Board of Trade, Rainey River, Annual Report, 1895.
" "       Winnipeg, " "        1897.
Chamber of Commerce, City of Georgetown, Annual Report, 1895.
" " Sydney, N. S. W.,        " "      1895-6.
" .   " Canterbury, " |      1896.
I " Trinidad, " "       1896.
I " San Francisco, " "       1896-7.
I " Newcastle, N. S. W.,   " "      1896-7.
" 1 Auckland, ! " "      1897.
I " Brisbane, " "      1897-
Dominion Government, by request of Thomas Earle, Esq., M. P.
Dominion Government Blue Books and Sessional Papers,
(as published).
Provincial Government, all Reports, Sessional Papers and Gazette (as published.)
John B. Alexander, Statistics, Agriculture and Immigration, State of Washington.
T. Nosse, Esq., Japanese Trade and Navigation Tables.
Geo.   W.   Henderson,   Proceeding and Journal,  Agriculture and Horticultural
Society of India.
Lieut.-Governor of British Columbia, Board of Trade Journal (London, Eng.)
Notice to Mariners.
Statistical Abstract of the United Kingdom, 1881 to 1895.
Abstract of Labor Statistics, 1895-6. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
Lieut.-Governor of British Columbia, Report Changes in Wages and Hours of
Labour of the United Kingdom, 1895.
Diplomatic and Consular Reports on Trade and Finance.
Statement of the Trade of the  United Kingdom  with
Foreign countries and with British Possessions, 1896.
American Museum of Natural History, Annual Reports, 1892-5.
R. E. Preston, Reports of the Director of the Mint, Washington, D. C, 1895-6.
Thomas Earle, Esq., M. P., Behring Sea Question, 1896.
Forests of Russia and their products.
Prospectus Hudson's Bay and Pacific Railway.
Royal Jubilee Hospital, Annual Report, 1896.
Minister of Trade and Commerce, Tariffs of different Nations, 1896-7.
Hydrographic Office, Port Townsend, Wash., Monthly Charts of Pacific Ocean.
E. Baynes Reed, Esq., Weather Maps, Monthly.
Province Publishing Co., Ltd. Lty , Maps of Mining Districts in British Columbia.
BRITISH   COLUMBIA  FRUIT ON   EXHIBITION.   APPENDICES. 43
Pack of British Columbia Salmon, Season 1896.
PACK BY CANNERIES.
.Fraser River-
Alliance Canning* Co
Anglo-Ajnerican Canning1 Co	
Anglo-British Columbia Pk'g Co.
Atlas Canning Co	
Bon Accord Fishery Co	
Boutilier& Co., F	
Brunswick Canning Co	
Canadian Pacific Packing Co
Costello & McMorran	
Dinsmore Island Canning Co...,
Ewen & Co	
Federation Brand Salmon C. Co
Fishermen's Canning Co	
Fraser River Industrial Society.
Hume & Co., John A	
Lulu Island Canning Co	
McPherson & Hickey	
Malcolm & Windsor	
Pacific Coast Canning Co	
Provincial Canning" Co	
Short & Squair	
Terra Nova Canning Co	
Todd & Son, J. H	
Victoria Canning Co	
Westham Island Packing" Co ...
Westminster Packing Co	
Cases
4,510
6,693
61,849
6,000
7*956
9,484
*4»797
12,012
6.335
19,896
14,662
9,908
6,334
7»5°8
7,700
22,526
8.955
4.355
15,642
9,442
21,972
47.599
3.75o
6,160
Skeena River—
Anglo-British Columbia Pk'g Co. 22,919
Balmoral Canning Co   10,444
Skeena River—
Brought forward	
British Columbia Canning Co.
Carlisle Packing Co	
Inverness Canning Co	
Royal Canadian Packing Co..
Skeena Packing Co	
Victoria Canning Co	
Cases
39o»347
10,521
13.650
11,118
10,699
10,512
10,277
Rivers Inlet—
Anglo-British Columbia Pk'g Co.
British Columbia Canning Co....
Brunswick Canning Co	
Victoria Canning Co	
Naas River—
Federation Brand Salmon C, Co.
Lowe Inlet—
Lowe Inlet Packing Co	
Namu Harbor—
R. Draney	
Alert Bay—
Alert Bay Canning Co	
West Coast, V. I.—
Clayoquot Fishing & Trading Co.
West Coast Packii
30,407
39,229
'7.519
20,313
14.649.
IO-395
3.987
2,840
4.995
Carried forward. 390,347
Total pack, 1896 601,570
PACK  BY   DISTRICTS.
1896
Cases.
Fraser River  356,984
Rivers Inlet  107,468
Skeena River  100,140
Naas River  14.649
Lowe Inlet  IO,395
West Coast, V. I  5,107
Namu Harbor  3.987
Alert Bay  2,840
Gardiner's Inlet  ... -
'895
Cases.
400,368
58,579
67.797
'9.550
8,68i
3,320
3,000
5,100
601
566,395
1894
Cases.
363,967
39.3S1
61,151
19.587
8,315
1893
Cases.
457.797
38,659
59.683
15.'9°
8,734
6,476
1892
Cases..
80,215
15.1=6
89,780
25.434
8,161
3.598
6,156
1891
Cases.
'78,954
34.924
78,135
10,323 .
8,031
590,229     228,47
650
3.876
THE ANNUAL PACK (since
Casesr
1876  9.847
1877  67,387
1878  113,601
1879  61,093
1880  61,849
1881  177.276
1882  225,061
1883...  196,292
1884  141,242
1885  108,517
1886  161,264
the beginning of the industry.)
Cases.
1887  204,083
1888  181,040
1889   414.294
1890  409.464
1891  3M.893
1892  228,470
1893   590.229
1894  494.371
1895  566,395
1896  601,570 44
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Canadian Sealing Catch, 1896.
Schooners.
Ada	
Agnes Macdonald	
Ainoko 	
Allie I. Algar	
Amateur	
Annie C. Moore	
Annie E. Paint	
Arietis	
Aurora	
Beatrice	
Beatrice	
Borealis	
C. D. Rand	
Carlotta G. Cox	
CarrieCW	
Casco -	
City of San Diego	
Diana	
Director	
Dolphin	
Dora Siewerd	
Doris	
E. B. Marvin	
Favorite   	
Fawn 	
Fisher Maid	
Florence M. Smith....
Fortuna	
Geneva 	
Ida Etta	
Kate %	
Katharine	
Kilmeny	
Labrador	
Libbie	
Mary Ellen	
Mary Taylor	
Mascot	
Maud S	
Mermaid	
Minnie	
Ocean Belle	
Ocean Rover	
Oscar and Hattie	
Osprey	
Otto ....	
Pachwellis	
Penelope	
Pioneer	
Sadie Turpel	
San Jose	
Sapphire	
Saucy Lass	
Selma   	
South Bend	
Teresa	
Triumph	
Umbrina	
Venture	
Vera    	
Victoria	
Viva	
Walter L. Rich	
Zillah May	
Indian Catch (canoes) ,
Total Seal Skins.
Total Canadian Catch, 1895.
Total Canadian Catch, 1894.
Tons.
86
40
66
49
76
92
63
46
93
60
96
80
59
21
99
97
92
69
92
63
43
40
97
73
46
83
40
86
66
56
31
109
38
63
60
63
92
76
66
B. C.
Coast.
109
43 ■
363
169
502
377
824
429
63
100
91
502
486
458
230
V18
47i
269
'164
93
2353
10,70*
Japan
Coast.
545
659
1034
325
327
1222
'808
997
893
836
602
534
499
650
192
940
'584
849
582
231
606
742
572
607
17,968
Copper
Island.
■8,979
48,993
95
183
174
45'
'3
44
Behring
Sea.
Total.
723
723
282
827
139
* 567
411
1118
109
1088
£533
225
1040
438
1472
77
437
S32
913
92
455
305
632
569
569
234
'456
903
1072
IOIO
400
613
1092
1076
607
1109
826
1203
662
662
251
1087
1049
1873
614
1043
63
271
^3
708
950
37°
io33
7.437
318
308
593
536
i37
417
602
345
484
316
602
589
200
5DI
894
375
281
605
359
4§3
75o
298
442
264
901
70
399
821
26,341
215
100
399
io95
536
520
609
602
1285
97o
900
602
942
200
1220
1268
863
835
1420
1026
185
429
714
1376
1081
I11
836
I065
677
492
821
55.677
* Seized.
t Wrecked, 208 skins lost.
Wrecked, 4 skins lost. APPENDICES.
45
The Catch for the Past Seven Years has Been :
1889.
1890.
1891.
1892.
35,310 1893.
43.325 l894.
52,365 1895.
49,743 1896.
70>592
97.47+
74>I24
55.677
List of the Claims for Compensation in Respect of the Seizures of British Ves-
sbls in Bbhring Sea by the Authorities of the United States. '
Year.
Vessel.
Amount
claimed.
Total.
1S86
$38,089 25
42,163 04
45.570 10
6.202 00
10,687 °o
W. P. Sayward	
$142,711 39
1887
$47,984 96
54,309 08
20,746 00
68,897 71
64,498 25
61,003 07
5-325 50
Alfred Adams	
Grace	
322,764 57
1889
$32,481 00
34,622 00
41,901 00
34,574 00
40,407 00
40,950 00
20,061 00
22,384 00
18,897 o°
Lily	
Ariel	
1890
1892
286,277 00
Henrietta	
$21,404 10
n.365 00
6.633 °5
Total "
39,402 15
62,847 12
$857,702 23
Interest on above at the rate of 7 per cent, from dates mentioned in the particulars until
payment.
A 70-lb. Salmon landed with hook and line (in Campbell River
by Sir Richard Musgrave.) Imports into the Province of British Columbia for 26 Years
ending 30th June, 1897.
Home Consumption.
Total-             Collected.
$1,767,068     $
342,400 48
22,215
2,076,476
302,147 65
75.604
2,048,336
336,494 47
66,104
2,490,593
413,921 50
117,054
2,944,978
488,384 52
129,735
2,166,709
403,520 21
163,142
2,273,127
426,125 y.
■44.754
2.317.454
484,704 04
184,951
2,457,116
45°.J75 43
208,072
1,736,616
589,403 62
387,111
2,875,461
678,104 53
449,768
3,866,856
907.655 54
624,207
4.040.335
884,076 21
789,287
4.023.452
966,143 64
927.054
4,011,726
880,266 65
3,626,139
883,421 53
3,401,207
861,465 14
3,809,786
974.675 °9
4,287,486          1
075,215 20
5.336,190          1
346,059 42
6,226,419          1
412,878 00
4,918,168          1
367,250 32
5.336.961          1
308,631 «3'
4,368,425          1
137.727 49
5-526,490          1
406,931 91
2,077,408          1
701,512 16 APPENDICES.
47
Exports the Produce of Canada, from the Province of British
Columbia for 26 Years ending June 30th. 1897.
Animals
and their
Agricl
Miscel
Year.
The Mine.
Fisheries.
Forest.
Produce.
Products.
laneous.
Total.
1872
$1,389,585
$     37.707
$2'4.377
$214,700
$   ii2
$     1.54°
$ ',858,050
■873
1,224,362
43.36'
211,026
259,292
2,885
'.'97
1,742,123.
1874
1.35'. '45
114,118
260,116
320,625
5.296
443
2,051,743
■875
1,929,294
133,986
292,468
411,810
9.727
2,777.285
1876
2,032,139
7'.338
273.430
329.027
3.080
68
2,709,082
1877
',708,848
105,603
287,042
230,893
3.083
',500
2,346,969.
.878
',759.'7'
423,840
327.360
257.3H
462
2,768,147
1879
1,530,812
633.493
273.366
268,671
2,505
57
2,708,848
1880
1,664,626
317.410
258,804
339.2'8
3.843
100
2,584,001
1881
1.317.079
400,984
172,647
350,474
248
22
2.231.554
1882
1.437.072
9T6,903
362,875
300,429
946
2,616
3,080,841
1883
1,309,646
1.332,385
407.624
287,394
6,79'
443
3.345.263
1884
1,441,052
899,371
458,365
271,796
'.745
1,413
3,100,404
1885
'.759.512
727,672
262,071
414.364
2,324
5.948
3,172,391
.886
1,720,335
643,052
191.488
329.248
1,907
2,811
2,891,811
1887
1,832,827
9'°.559
235.9'3
380,126
10,265
1,911
3,371,601
1888
1,889,805
1,164,019
44'.957
3'8,839
27.631
85,826
3,928,077
1889
2,377.052
993.623
449,026
397.68s
14.831
102,089
4.334.3o6
1890
1891
2,375.77°
2,374.7i7
325,881
346,159
9.823
"3.271
5,545,621
2,«30,22g
2,274,686
374,996
294,646
5.o'7
20,434
6.257. '58
1892
2,979>470
2,351,083
425.278
390.584
25,018
31.976
6.574.989
1893
2,898,947
1,501,831
454.994
310,621
3o,i73
446,231
5,642,797
1894
3.521'543
S,54i.3o5
411,623
149,269
23423
.96.895
7,843,958
1895
1896
1897
4,615,452
3.264,501
500,080
457,373
2i,774
261,9.8
9,121,098
5,763,253
3,288,776
685,746
438,864
61,414
338,47'
10,576,524
8,909,592
3,567,815
742.173
307.845
104,744
552.539
14,184,708
Exports for each Year from  1872 to 1897, Inclusive.
Scale, $1,000,000.00 = % inch.
1872—$ 1,858,050 j
■873-
1,742.123
1874-
2,051,743
'875-—
2,777.285
1876—
2,709,082
1877-
2,346,969
1878-
2,768,147
1879-
2,708,848
1880-
2,584,001
1881-
2,231,55 '
1882—
3,080,841
1S83-
3>345,263
1884—
3,100,404
1885—
3,'72,39'
1886—
2,891,811
1887—
3>37',6oi
18S8-
3.928,077
1880—
4,334.3o6
1890—
5>545>62i
1891—
6,257,158
1892— 6,574,989 ■
1893— 5,642,797 ■
'894— 7,843.958 I
1895— 9,121,098 '
1896— 10,576,524 I
1897— 14,184,708 < BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
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C/3 APPENDICES.
53
Exports from   British  Columbia
To Countries outside of Canada of Products of Agriculture and its
Branches, for Three Years ending 30th June, 1896.
(The Exports to the other Provinces in the Dominion are not included, p
Live Stock.
Horses head
Horned Cattle     "
Swine     "
Poultry and other animals.   "
Meats, Etc.
Hides, horns & skins (not fur) .
Bacon lbs.
Beef   "
Hams   "
Mutton   "
Pork      "
Sheep pelts No.
Wool lbs.
Grain, Seeds, Breadstuffs
and Products of.
Bran cwt.
Barley bush.
Oats       "
Peas     "
Wheat       "
Flour bbls.
Biscuits and Bread cwt.
Oatmeal and all other... .bbls.
All other seeds    "
Fruits and -Vegetables.
Apples (green) bbls.
Fruits (canned) lbs.
Other fruit "
Potatoes bush.
All other vegetables	
Dairy Products.
Butter lbs.
Cheese  "
Miscellaneous.
Eggs  doz.
Hay tons.
Straw     "
Trees and Bushes	
Hops lbs I
Bones cwt. I
Tallow lbs.
Honey "
Malt bush
Other Articles	
Year ending: 30th
June, 1894.
Ol
282 16,250
2        35
2,343
625
214
150
35.995
393
5i
34
16
Year ending* 30th
June, 1895.
C
36
4
8
357
260
15.833I 4.566 I 81,461
214,897
1,442
600
205
172
55.752
4'
1,762
2
4
35
48
8
449
1
2
75
3.320
4,655
34
17
66
165
472
6,301
2,984
6
21
984
695
2,883
5,500
1
30
15
39,290
20 565
695
12,402
4
32
426
168
53
18
7
7i
Year* ending- 30th
June, 1896.
o»
1,156
170
1,275
22
44,907| 12,201
709
807
7,177
90 IOO
7,471 1,953
6,201 957
I
41 10
4 3'
150
49,238
150,770
812
810
30
28
62,96;,
2,5201
1
124
580
250
35«
86,131
167
15
173
42
',379
7
17,618
'4,759
229
456
'3
3i
37,9oo
8,447
4
790
257
189
19
*42
444
15
42,633
485
-9,978
ro8
6,399
175
640
4,815
147,066
12,828     3,659
8,935     1,239
'5
16
67,39i
443
i8,235|
92
33
'9
77
13
6
H.757
34i
634
27
82
4,405
9LI57
* And berries. 54 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
List of Trees of British Columbia.
BOTANICAL NAME.
Abies amabilis	
"    grandis	
"    subalpina	
Acer macrophyllum...
"    circinatum	
Alnus rubra	
Arbutus Menziesii ....
Betula occidentalis....
''      papy rifera	
Cornus Nuttallii	
Juniperus Virginiana ..
Larix Americana	
|    Lyalli	
" occidentalis... .
Picea alba	
"    Engelmannii....
"    nigra 	
"    Sitchensis	
Pinus albicaulis	
"    contorta	
"    monticola	
"    Murrayana ...   .
"    ponderosa	
Pirus rivularis ....
Populus balsamifera.
"       monilifera...
"      tremuloides...
"       trichocarpa ...
Prunus emarginata	
"     mollis   	
Pseudotsuga Douglassii
Quercus Garryana	
Salix lancifolia	
"    lasiandra	
Taxus brevifolia ....
Thuya gigantea	
"     excelsa	
Tsuga Mertensiana  . ..
"     Pauoniana	
ENGLISH  NAME.
White fir	
Western white fir	
Mountain balsam	
Large-leaved Maple...
Vine maple	
Red alder	
Arbutus	
Western birch	
Canoe birch	
Western dogwood	
Red cedar.	
American larch	
Mountain larch	
Western larch	
White spruce	
Western black spruce..
Black spruce	
Western white spruce..
White-bark pine	
Scrub pine	
White Mountain Pine..
Black pine	
Yellow Pine	
Western crab-tree	
Balsam Poplar	
Cottonwood	
Aspen	
Cottonwood	
Cherry	
FRENCH  NAME.
Sapin blanc
Gros sapin
Sapin des monts
Erable
Aune rouge
Arbute
Rouleau
"      a canot
Cornouillier
Cedre rouge
Epinette rouge
"       des monts
''      rouge
Petite epinette
Epinette noir
Grosse epinette
Epinette blanche
Cin blanc
Cypres
Pin blanc
Cypres
Pin jaune ou rouge
Pommier
Paumier
Biard
Lremble
Tiard
Lerisier
Douglas fir  Pin d'Oregon
Western white Oak  Chene
Lance-leaved willow  Saule
Willow      "
Western yew  If
Giant cedar  Grand cedre
Yellow cypress or ccnr  . Cedre jaune
Western hemlock  Pruche
Alpine hemlock         "
Statement shewing the timber cut during 1896, not including that from the
Dominion and the Esquimalt and Nanaimo railway lands :
On Crown lands	
On timber leaseholds ".
On timber limits	
On private property       13,549,228
Total        	
FEET.
61,845,798
30,575,180
6.986,900
II2,957,106 feet.
.M APPENDICES.
55
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w 56
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Mining   Statistics.
Report of Minister of Mines,  December 31st,  1896.
TABLE. I.
Total Production for all Years.
Gold, placer $ 57,704,855
Gold, lode  2,177,869
Silver  4,028,224
Lead  1,606,427
Copper  254,802
Coal and Coke  33,934,427
Building Stone, Bricks, etc           1,200,000
Other metals  25,000
$100,931,604
The next Table shows the rapid increase in production during the last seven
years, the increase for 1891 over 1890 being due to the larger export of coal, the
output of which for that year of i.coo.coo tons, being the largest ever reached by
our collieries. In the year 1892 the influence of the production of the lode mines
began to be felt, and since then the very marked increase in production has been
carried by the quickly growing value of the gold, silver, lead and copper produced.
TABLE  II.
Production for Each Year from 1890 to 1896 (inclusive.)
Scale, $1,000,000.00 = % inch.
Year.     Amount.
1890—$2,608,608
1891— 3,546,702
1892— 3,OI7,97I
1893— 3,588,413
1894— 4,225,717
1895— 5,655,302
1896— 7,146,425 APPENDICES.
57
Table III gives a detailed statement of the amount and value of the different
mine products for 1895 and 1896, but it has as yet been impossible to collect statistics
concerning the amount of building stone, brick, lime, fire-clay, tiles, etc., hence
these tables do not contain any particulars this year about the mining of the
economical materials which, of course, should be here included.
However the increase in the value of the precious metals produced, and the
baser metals, especially of lead, is marked,- and the total increase for 1896 over
1895, veiy gratifying, the total production of the mines, other than coal, having
increased from $2,834,000 to $4,816,000.
TABLE III.
Amount and Value of Materials Produced, 1895 AND 1896.
Customary
Measures.
1895.                                          1896.
Quantity.               Value.               Quantity.
Value.
Gold, Placer.. .
"    Quartz ..
Oz..
Oz...
Oz..
Lbs  .
Lbs..
Tons.
Tons.
"24,084      $     481,683
39,264             785,271
1,496,522             977,229
952,840                47,642
16475,464             532,255
939,654         2,818,962
452   i               2,260
                  10,000
27,201
62,259
3,'35,343
3,818,556
24,199,977
846,235
■    615
$     544,026
1.244,180
2,10^,689
190,926
721,384
2,327,145
3,075
. 15,OCO
Coal	
.
1 $5,655,302
$ 7,146,425
TABLE IV.
Production of Metals per District.
Divisions.
Districts.
Name.
1895.
1896.
1895
1896.
$ 282,400
$ 384,05°
$   81,OCO
40,700
18,200
142,500
$  82,900
53,000
51,100
197,050
Lightning Creek       "
Quesnellemouth        "
Keithley Creek         "
	
22,575
17.575
2,223,206
21,0  0
154,427
4,002,735
Ainsworth Division	
Nelson            "       	
Slocan             "       	
Trail Creek     "       	
388,944
63.608
1,057,677
702,457
10,520
189,589
545,529
2,010,048
1,243,360
14,209
	
40,663
241,581
33,665
206,078
Yale                   "      	
147,731
41,650
48,400
131,220
9,000
65.108
10,000
$2,838,000
15,000
$4,592,115
$2,743,387
$4,816,955 mm
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Placer Gold.
Table V. gives the yearly production of placer gold as determined by the
returns sent in by the banks and express companies of gold sold to the mints, and
from returns sent in by the Gold Commissioners and Mining Recorders. To these
yearly amounts one-third was added up to the year 1878, and from then to 1895,
one-fifth, which proportion was considered to represent approximately, the amount
of gold sold of which there was no record.
The gold output is now beginning to steadily rise as the operations of the
large hydraulic mining companies in Cariboo begin to assume such a scale, that
with larger water supplies and the mines more opened out for work, a much larger
amount of ground can be washed.
This placer gold contains from 10 to 25 per cent, silver, but the silver value
has not been separated from the totals.
TABLE V.
Yield of Placer Gold per Yejtr to Date.
>   705,000     1878 $1,275,204
1,615,070      1879  1,290,058
2,228,543     1880  1,013,827
2,66b. 118      1881  1,046,737
2,656,903      1882  954,085
3.913,563      1883  794,252
3,735,850     1884  736,165
3,491,205      1885  713,738
2,662,106     1886  903,651
2,480,868      1887  693,709
3,372,972     1888  616,731
1,774,978      1889  588,923
», 336,956-     1890      490,435
1,799,44°      1891    '  429,811
1,610972      1892  399,526
1,305,749      1893  ^56,131
1,844,618      1894  405,516
2,474,004      1895  481,683
1,786,648      1896  544,026
1,608,182 	
$57,704,855
Production of Lode Mining.
The next table shows very clearly the fact that lode mining in this Province
has just fairly begun, and that the progress now being made, is decided and very
satisfactory.
The gold production of course consists mostly of the output of Rossland mines,
as per smelter, returns, but there are added the gold saved by amalgamation in the
Osoyoos District, as at Camp McKinney, in the Nelson District as at the Poorman
Mine, and the product of small lots of gold ore sent out to the smelters from other
parts.
Some silver ore is known to have been sold prior to 1887, but no record has.
been obtained regarding these small sales. APPENDICES.
59
TABLE VI.
Production of Lode Mines.
Year.
G
OLD.
Silver.
Le
JCfl
Copper.
Oz.
Value.
Oz.
Value.
Founds.
Value.
Pounds.
Value.
Values.
$
17,690
79.780
53.192
70,427
4.500
77,160
227,000
74°,379
1,496,522
3>135»343
$
i7.33i
75.000
47.873
73.948
4,cnoo
66,9,5
195,000
470,219
977,229
2,100,689
$
$
$
1889....
47,^73
79,753
29,607
I39»44°
297,400
781,342
2,342,397
4.257,179
1890	
1x3,000
588,665
1,768,420
2,135,023
5,662,523
16,475,464
24,i99.977
5.805
25,607
72.505
■ 78,996
169,875
532,255
721,384
1892
1893....
1,170
6,252
39.264
62,259
io8.945
23,404
125,014
785.271
1,244,180
1894....
1895..■■
1896....
324,680       16,334
952,840       47,642
3,818,556     190,926
Totals..
$2,177,869
5.907.993
$4,028,224
.SO,943,°7 a
$1,606,427
5,096,076   $254,802
$8,067,322
Production of Coal and Coke.
In Table VII. is given the total number of long tons (2,240 lbs.) of coal and
coke for each year as reported to the Government by the different collieries in the
Province. The production of coke is small, but will be now rapidly increased
when the coke ovens, now being perfected at the Union mines at Comox, and the
coking coal of the Crow's Nest Pass, will have begun the regular supply of this
fuel to the smelting centres. For the last two years the output of coal has been
declining by reason of the increasing competition of British and American coal in
the Pacific Coast markets of the United States where most of the coal exported
from British Columbia is sold.
TABLE VII.
Coal and Core
Year.
1836-52...
1852-59...
1859, 2mos
i860	
1861	
1862..,..
1863  ...
Tons (2
10
25
I
14,
'3,
18,
21,
28,
1865
1866...
1867..
1868..
1869..
1870 .
1871-2-
1874..
1875--
1876..
1877..
1878..
25
|£
44.
35-
29
148
81
110
139
!54
170
,240 lbs.)
OOO....
396 ....
989....
246 ....
774....
118  ..
345 - -■•
632	
819....
115. ..
239 ...
005....
802....
843--•■
459....
547....
145 ...
192....
052....
846....
Coke
Produc
Value.
40,000
101,592
7,956
56,988
55.096
72,472
85,380
"5,528
131,276
100,460
124,956
176,020
143,208
119,372
493,836
244,641
330,435
417,576
462,156
522,538
1,565 tons
riON per Year to Date.
Year.
Tons (2,240 lbs.)
1879...
• •    241,301	
1880...
•••    267,595	
1881...
■ ■•    228,357	
1882 ..
•••    282,139  	
1883...
-••    213,299	
1884...
•-•    394,070	
1885...
. .      265,596	
1886...
...    326,636..   ..
1887...
...    413,360  	
1888 ..
. . .    489.301	
1889 ..
..      579,830  ....
1890...
1891...
1892...
...    826,335	
1893...
• ■•    978,294	
1S94...
...1,012,953	
1895-•-
•   •    939,654	
1896
..      846,235	
Totals. .
..11,248,759     ;
Value.
723,903
802,785
685,171
846,417
639,897
,182,210
,096,788
979,908
,240,080
,467,903
,739,490
,034,420
,087,291 .
,479,005
,934,882
,038,859
,818,962
,327,H5
$33,926,602
$  7,825 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
in
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>>gZ!Scj 62 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
Inland   Revenue,  Canada,   Divisions  No.  37  and   38.
Entered for Consumption, July 1st, 1896, to June 30th, 1897.
No. 37, No. 38,
Victoria, B. C.    Vancouver, B. C.
Spirits proof gallons.
Spirits^ exported  y
Malt     lbs.
Manufactured Tobacco   "
it 11     exported  3
Raw Leaf ij       ■  y
Cigars, ex-warehouse No.
11       ex-factory   "
Malt Liquor gallons.
Petroleum.        n
Total receipts	
This Board is indebted to the kindness and courtesy of the Collectors of Inland Revenue
at Victoria and Vancouver for the above information.
52,861.11
61,956.92
2.755-87
CH7-54
1,308,163
991.382
138.727
136,480
5."3
2,720
48,5"
Si.687
317,850
120,425
1,225,090
1,848,300
695.371
394.284
44,466
436,159-21
?i56.i57.24
$173,468.83
Area   of  British   Columbia.
Land ." 382,300 square miles.
Watet        1,000      "        "
Total    383,300      "        "
Wooded area, estimated 285,554      "        "
Population  of British  Columbia.
Census of 1891—Males    ,  fa 003
Females.
35.170
98,173
Density of population to the square mile, 0.3. APPENDICES.
63
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BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Educational.
British Columbia affords excellent educational opportunities, the schools being free and
undenominational. In 1896 there were 202 common, 22 graded, and four high schools, under
the supervision of trustees elected by the ratepayers, at a cost to the Provincial Government
of $234,335.04. New school districts can be created by the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Council as-
soon as there are fifteen children between six and sixteen years of age within the limits prescribed. For outlying agricultural districts and mining camps this arrangement is very.
ad van tageou s.
The following statistics are taken from the Report of the Honourable the Minister of
Education:
Number of pupils enrolled during the year 1895-6     14,460
Increase for the year  97°
Number of boys enrolled       7»437
Increase for the year   580
N umber of girls enrolled         7»°23
Increase for the year  3^9
Average actual daily attendance      9»254*25
         643.94
  460
Increase for the year	
Number of pupils enrolled in High Schools	
Decrease for the year	
Average actual daily attendance in High Schools	
Average actual daily attendance in graded and Ward Schools	
287.87
Average actual daily attendance in Rural Schools      3,474.95
Number of School Districts at the close of the year  193
Increase for the year  10
The gradual growth of the schools is fully shown by the record ot attendance given in the
following exhibit:
Comparative Statement op Attendance and Cost qf Public Schools from
1872-73 to 1895-96.
Year.
Number of
School
Districts.
Aggregate
Enrolment.
Average
Daily
Attendance.
Percentage
of
Attendance.
1872-73	
1874-75	
a5
37
4'
4"
42
45
45
47
48
5°
59
67
76
86
95
104
109
123
141
154
|
183
'93
1,028
1.245
1,403
1,685
1.998
2,198
2,301
2,462
2.57'
2.653
2.693
3.420
4.027
4.47'
5.345
6,372
6,796
8,042
9,260
'o,773
11,496
12 613
'3.482
14,460
575
767
863
984
1,260
I.395-50
i>3'5-9°
'.293-93
1,366.86
1,358-68
1,38300
i,808.60
2,089.74
2.481.48
2,873-38
3,093.46
3,681.14
4,333.9o
5,'34-9'
6,227.10
7,111.40
7.78550
8,610 31
9.254-25
55-93
61.60
1875^76	
1876-77        	
1877-78	
sS-39
63.06
63-49
57-'9
5256
53-'6
'878-79	
1879-80	
1880-81	
1881-82	
1882-83	
51-36
52.88
51-89
55-5°
53-75
48.54
54.16
53-89
55-45
57-8o
61.85
6t.72
63.86
64.00
1883-84	
1884-85	
1885-86	
1886-87	
1887-88	
1888-89 	 APPENDICES.
Shipping.
The Board is indebted to the courtesy and kindness of Mr. A. R.  Milne,  Collector of
Customs, for the following shipping information :
Vessels employed in the coasting trade of the Dominion  of Canada arrived   at and
departed from Victoria, B. C, during the year ending 30th June, 1897.
Vessels Arrived. Vessels Departed.
No. '    No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage.
'.367 476,379 26,635 '.4'3 498,233
Vessels entered outwards for sea at Victoria during year ending 30th June, 1897 :
With Cargo. In Ballast
No. No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage.
669 466,958 23,921 626 394,038
Vessels entered inwards from sea during the year ending 30th June, 1897 :
With Cargo. In Ballast.
No. •        No. No.
Vessels. Tonnage. Crew. Vessels. Tonnage.
1,002 580,198 32,201 334 337.4IO
Number and tonnage of vessels built and registered at Victoria during the j-ear ending
30th June, 1897 :
Built. Registered.
No. Tonnage. No. Tonnage.
9 631 8 3,914
No.
Crew.
27,203
•No.
Crew.
21,728
No.
Crew.
I4>45 «
Postal  Statistics.
Statement showing the accounting offices in operation, the gross postal revenue; the
number and amount of money orders issued and paid; the amount of commission thereon,
during the year ending 30th June, 1897:
Name of
Office.
Nanaimo Vancouver .   .
New Westm'r.. New Westm'r,
Vancouver ... .Victoria	
Victoria Burrard.
Other offices.......'	
Gross
Postal
Revenue.
5,802 44
9,024 31
32,653 08
41,509 08
67,893 78
1$ 156,882 69
Number
of Money I
Orders
Issued.
Total
Amount of
Money of
Orders
Issued.
Total
Total
Comm'n
Amount of
Received
Money
from
Orders
Public.
Paid.
5,688 $
4.45°
'3>5°o,
34.63''
69,292   '■
78,557 84 $    767 62 $ 36,977  17
55»836 22         540 59 43>6l9 33
161,618 62      1,626 18 131,719 74
166,292 37      1,802 76. 181,455 66
591,034 03     4,872 39 i52»I53 35
39 08 $ 9,609 54 $ 545>92
Table showing the number of post offices in operation, extent of mail travel, estimated
number of letters and other articles of mail matter posted in British Columbia during the year
ending 30th June, 1896:
Number of offices in operation on 1st JuIjT, 1897  274
extent of mail service.
Number of miles of post route  6,640
Annual travel thereon     • • •   I»395»3I8
Estimated number of letters and other articles of mail matter posted in Canada during the
year ending 30th June, 1896 :
Letters    4»I75>000
Post Cards       398,000
Registered Letters       x 18,000
Free Letters       129.800
No. of transient Newspapers and Periodicals, Packets, Circulars,
Samples, Patterns, etc       461,000
No. of Packages of Printers' Copy, Photographs, Deeds, Insurance
Policies, etc         88,000
No. of Packets of Fifth Class Matter, Ordinary Merchandise, open
to examination	
No. of Parcels by Parcel Post	
No. of Closed Parcels for the United Kingdom and other countries.
43.5°°
30,000
2,100 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
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CO     -^- 1/3NO i>co o>o " « n* nono t— oo APPENDICES.
List of Municipalities.
Name of
Municipality
Date of
I ncorpo ration.
Month.
(Rural.)
Burnaby Sept. 32
' Chilli whack ..... April 26
Goquitlam July   30
*DeIta Nov.  10
Dewdney I April   7
Kent  Sept. 27
Lang-ley April 26
*Maple Ridge .... Sept. 12
Matsqui Dec.     1
Mission    June   14
Nicomen Mar. 31
North Cowichan.. June 18
North Vancouver. Aug.   13
*Richmond Nov.  10
Salt Spring Island Dec. 23
South Vancouver. [April 13
Spallumcheen ...   July   21
Squamish .." Oct.   27
Sumas Jan.     5
*Surrey Nov.  10
(Urban.)
Grand Forks     	
Kamloops    July      1
Kaslo Sept. 14
Nanaimo     Dec.   24
Nelson   	
t New Westminster July   16
Rossland   .. "   ...
- \ Vancouver May
§ Victoria Aug.    2
Wellington  Oct.    10
Year.
Reev
Ma
1892
1873
1 So i
1879
1892
1894
1873
1874
1892
1892
1892
■873
1891
1879
1873
1S92
1892
1892
1892
1879
1897
1893
.89,
1874
1897
i860
1897
1886
1862
1895
(Reeve.)
Nicolai C. Schou	
A. C. Wells	
(Vice T. E. Kitchen, dec'
E. A. Atkins	
William McKee	
Albert L. Dion	
JohnMcRae	
Phillip Jackman, Sr	
Robt. Blackstock	
Louis R. Authier	
James A. Catherwood-...
(Ceased to exist.)
Thos. A. Wood	
(No Reeve elected 1897) .
Duncan Rowan	
(Not now in existence.)
Geo. Rae	
August Schubert, Jr ....
(Did not organize.)
Fred Fooks	
John Armstrong	
(Mayor.)
John A. Manly	
Marshall P. Gordon
Robt. F. Green	
Jos. H. Davidson	
John Houston	
W. B. Shiles	
R. Scott	
Wm. Templeton	
C. E. Redfern	
Clerk.
i-)
Alfred Smithers.
Joseph Scott.
Robert D. Irvine.
Charles F. Green.
Edwin Davis
Harry Fooks.
Albert H  Hawkins.
Ernest Wm. Beckett.
Hugh G. Currie.
Anthony M. Verchere.
James Norcross.
W. L. Keene.
Alfred B. Dixon.
George Martin.
Richard Stuart Pelly.
A. C. Bowman.
Albert A. Richmond.
(Clerk.)
J. A. Aikman.
John J. Carment.
E. E. Chipman.
Adam Thompson.
Charles E. Sealey.
Fred R. Glover.
W. McQueen.
Thomas F. McGuigan
W. J. Dowler.
R. H. Holmes.
* Letters patent of Chilliwhack were surrendered and new letters patent issued in 1881
and again in 1883; those'of Mslple Ridge and Surrey in 1882 ; Richmond 1885, reincorporated
1892; Delta, 1888.
1 New Westminster was created a municipality by proclamation of Sir James Douglas,
July 16, i860. Its limits were extended October 22, 1861, and made subject to the provisions
of the Municipality Act of 1872. Letters patent were surrendered and new letters issued in
1881.    A special charter of incorporation was obtained in 1887, which was amended in 1895.
\ Vancouver was incorporated by special act in 1886. The first by-law appointing officers
(not dated) appeared in the B. C. Gazette, May 27, 1886. The act of incorporation was
amended by the Legislature in 1887, 1889, 1890, 1891, 1892, 1893 and 1895.
§ Victoria was created a municipality by ordinance, dated April 2, 1867, which repealed
the original act of incorporation of 1862, and subsequently came under the provisions of the
Municipality Act of 1872 on tbe 25th of June, 1873. The General Municipal Act, under which
it is governed, has been amended from time to time.
Rossland, Nelson and Grand Forks were incorporated under a special act passed last
session of Parliament, entitled the "Speedy Incorporation Act."
The above Table is taken
Year Book.
sion from advance sheets of the British Columbia  APPENDICES.
73
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Z 74
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
SCALE   OF COMMERCIAL CHARGES.
Whenever no special agreement exists, the following shall be collectable :
On the purchase of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of securities,
including the drawing of bills for the payment of the same..  2.y2 per cent
On sale of stocks, bonds, and all kinds of securities, including
remittances in bills and guarantee   2^4
On purchase and sale of specie, gold dust and bullion   1
4. On sale of bills of exchange with endorsement   3^
5. On sale of bills of exchange without endorsement    1
6. For endorsing bills of exchange when desired   2 J^
7. On sale of produce, etc., from California, Oregon, Washington
State, Sandwich Island Ports, and other Pacific Coast Ports,
with guarantee    7/M
8. On sale of merchandise from other Ports, with guarantee 10
9. On goods received on consignment and afterwards withdrawn.. 3^
10. On purchase and shipment of merchandise, with funds on hand,
on cost and charges    5
11. On purchase and shipment of merchandise,  without funds on
cost and charges    7^
12. For collecting and remitting delayed or litigated accounts 10
13. For collecting freight by vessels from foreign Port?, on amount
collected	
14. For collecting general claims	
15. For collecting general average, on the first $20,000,  or any
smaller amount	
16. For collecting general average, on any excess over $20,000.
17. On purchase'and sale of vessels	
18. For " Port Agency" to vessels with cargo or passengers from
foreign Ports, as under :
On vessels under 200 tons register $ 50 CO
of 2CO to 300 tons register    100 00
"           of 300 to 500       " 1 jo 00
'' over 500 tons    200 00
19. For disbursements of vessels by consignees with funds on hand. 2^
20. For disbursements of vessels by consignees without funds on hand 5
21. For procuring freight or passengers   5
22. For chartering vessels, on amount of freight, actual or estimated,
to be considered as due when the "charter parties," or
memorandum of their conditions, etc., are signed 5
23. On giving bonds for vessels under attachment in litigated cases,
on amount of the liability   2k
24. For landing and re-shipping goods from vessels  in distress on
invoice value, or in its absence, on market value   5
25. For receiving and forwarding gcods on invoice amount  2 W
26. For advancing on freight to be earned    c 27.
34-
35-
APPENDICES.
For effecting marine insurance on the amount insured	
The foregoing commissions to be exclusive of brokerage, and
every charge actually incurred.
Vessels to pay clerk hire and the labour on wharf, sorting.and
delivering cargo.
The receipt of Bills of Lading to be considered equivalent to
receipt of goods.
Guarantee or security for contracts or liabilities   5
Acting as Trustee on assignments   5
On investments made on mortgage or otherwise    1
N. P.—Auctioneers'commission and brokerage to be charged
when incurred.
Land agents for commission on sale and purchase of real estate. 5
Interest on advances for duty, freight and lighterage, and on
accounts current, per annum 1 per cent,  over current bank
, overdraft rates.
75
JS£ per cent.
RATES  ON   STORAGE  OF  MERCHANDISE.
STORAGE  PER   MONTH.
On measurement goods, 50 cents per ton of forty cubic feel (40 c. ft.) On
heavy goods, 50 cents per ton of 2,240 pounds. Or in either case, the amount
actually paid, if more. The consignee to have the option of charging by measurement or weight.    Any fraction of a month to be charged as a month.
REGULATIONS.
(a.) Concerning the delivery of merchandise, payment of freight, etc.: When
no express stipulation exists per bill of lading, goods are to be considered as
deliverable on shore.
(b.) Freight on all goods to be paid, or secured to the satisfaction of the captain or consignee of the vessel, prior to the delivery of the goods.
(/.) After delivery to the purchaser of goods sold, no claims for damage,
deficiency or other cause shall be admissable after goods sold and delivered have
once left the city.
(d.) When foreign bills of lading expressly stipulate that the freights shall be
paid in a specific coin, then the same must be procured if required, or its equivalent given, the rate to be determined by the current value at the time at the banks.
The foregoing Scale of Commercial Charges, Rules and Regulations were
submitted to the members present at the Annual General Meeting of the British
Columbia Board of Trade, held July 3rd, 1891.
Approved, July 9th, 1897. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
NANAIMO   PILOT  GROUND.
The limits for speakinig vessels bound for Nanaimo are at or outside a line
drawn from Schooner Point, Gabriola Island, to Lighthouse Island, and from
Lighthouse Island to Horsewell Bluff, Vancouver Island.
Vessels entering by way of Dodd's Narrow's (it not being a ship channel) will
be charged half pilotage whether spoken or not, if the pilot boat be on the cruising ground.
The rates of pilotage both inward and outward are as follows :
(a.) For all vessels, irrespective of draught, $3 per foot.
{b.) For all vessels in tow of a steamer, $2 per foot.
(c.) For all steam vessels, other than foreign tugs or tug boats or steamers
employed as such, whose master or mate has not a pilot's license,
one-third (^)less than the above rates if a pilot be employed!
PILOTAGE DISTRICT  OF YALE AND   NEW WESTMINSTER.
The Ports of the Pilotage District of Yale and New Westminster are as
follows :
Port of Vancouver;
Port of New Westminster ;
Port of Yale and the several landings on the Fraser River.
(1.) The limit of the Port of Vancouver is inside a line drawn from Point
Atkinson to the red buoy on Spanish Bank.
(2.) The limit of the Port of New Westminster is inside a line drawn
between the outer buoys and north and south sand heads, at entrance of Fraser
River.
DUES.
For vessels entering or clearing from the Port of Vancouver the rates of
pilotage are as follows :
Vessels under sail $4 00 per foot.
"     in low of a steamer      2 00      "
"     under steam    t  50      " APPENDICES. 77
PORT  CHARGES.
PORTS  OF  ESQUIMALT AND. VICTORIA,   BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
Vessels bound to other Ports, and coming to an anchor in Royal Roads, the
Pilotage is free, except the services of a pilot are employed, when Pilotage to the
"following graduated scale shall be payable :
Inside or North of Race Rocks to Royal Bay $o 75 per foot
Beachy Head to Royal Bay    I  co      "
Pillar Point to Royal Bay    3 00      "
Cape Flattery to Royal Bay    6 00      "
For vessels entering into or clearing from undermentioned Ports, the rates
are as follows:
Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours (under sail) $3 00 per foot
" " "       (under steam or in tow)    2 00      "
'.' I "       (steamers)    15°      "
When a vessel is bound to or from any other Port in the Province, either laden
or in ballast, and does not discharge or receive any cargo, passengers or mails-
but simply enters it as a harbour of refuge, such vessel shall be exempt from Pilot,
age into and out of Esquimalt, excepting in cases where a Pilot is actually engaged
by the Master for such services.
Esquimalt
Graving Dock, Victoria, B. C. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
ESQUIMALT  GRAVING   DOCK.
i. Length of dock to gate, 450 feet, level with keel blocks.
2. Width of gates, 65 feet.
3. Depth of water, varying from 27  feet to 29 feet 6 inches at springs,
according to season of year.
The use of the dock will be subject to the following tariff, viz.:
For the For each following
Gross Tonnage of Vessel. first day of day including the
docking. undocking day.
For all vessels up to 1,000 tons     $300 00 5     cents per ton
From 1,000 to 2,000 tons        350 00 4^    " "
C 400 00 4        " "
For all vessels above 2,000 tons -j     Up to 2,000 tons, and 2 cents per
I    ton on all tonnage above 2,000.
All fractional parts of 50 tons to be counted and paid for as 50 tons.
ESQUIMALT   MARINE   RAILWAY.
Cradle, length     300 feet.
Beam,      "              60    "
Capacity 3,coo tons, d. w.
For scale of charges, apply to the Manager, W. F. Bullen, Victoria, B. C.
Esquimalt Marine Railway, Victoria, B. C. KLONDYKE  AND  NORTHERN   GOLD  FIELDS.
Extracts from Mr. Ogilvie's Reports to the Dominion Government.
William Ogilvie, of the Department of the Interior, in his report to the Surveyor-General of Canada, dated November 6th, 1896, says the name Klondak
Klondyke, or Clondyke, as it is variously spelled, is " a mispronunciation of the
Indian word or words Thron-dak or Duick," which means plenty of fish, from the
fact that it is a famous salmon stream. It is marked Tondack on old maps. It
joins the Yukon from the east a few miles above the site of Fort Reliance.
Concerning the discovery of gold on this stream, he says:—"The discovery, I believe, was due
to the reports of Indians.
A white man named
G. W. Carmach, who
^worked with me in 1887,
was the first to take advantage of the rumors
'and locate a claim on the
first branch, which was
named by the miners
Bonanza Creek. Carmach located here late
in August, but
had to cut
some logs for
the mill here
to get a few
pounds of provisions to enable him to
begin work on
his claim, the
fishing at
Klondak having totally
failed him. He
returned with a few weeks' provisions for himself, his wife and brother-in-law
(Indians), and another Indian in the last days of August and immediately set
about working his claim. As he was very short of appliances he could only put
together a rather defective apparatus to wash the gravel with. The gravel itself
he had to carry in a box on his back from 30 to 100 feet. Notwithstanding this
the three men working very irregularly washed out $1,200 in eight days, and
Carmach asserts with reason that had he had proper facilities it could have been 8o
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF   TRADE.
done in two days, besides having several hundred dollars more gold, which was.
lost on the tailings through defective apparatus. On the same creek two men
rocked out $75 in about two hours, and it is asserted that two men in the same
creek took out $4,008 in two days with only two lengths of sluice boxes. This
last is doubted, but Mr. Leduc assures me he weighed that much gold for them,
but is not positive where they got it. They were newcomers and had not done-
much' in the country, so the probabilities are they got it on Bonanza Creek. A
branch of Bonanza, named Eldorado, has prospected magnificently, and another
branch named Tilly Creek, has prospected well; in all there are some four or
five branches to Bonanza Creek which have given good prospects. There are
about 170 claims staked on the main creek and the branches are good for about as.
many more, aggregating say 350 claims, which will require over 1,000 men to-
work properly.
A few miles further tip Bear Creek enters Klondak, and it has been prospected and located on. Compared with Bonanza it is small and will not afforcf.
more than 20 or 30 claims, it is said.
About 12 miles above the mouth of Gold Bottom Creek joins Klondak, and"
on it and a branch named Hunker Creek after the discovery very rich ground has-
been found. One man showed me $22.75 be took out in a few hours on Hunker
Creek with a gold pan prospecting his claim on the surface, taking out a panful
here and there as fancy suggested. On Gold Bottom Creek and branches there-
will probably be two or three hundred claims. The Indians have reported
another creek much farther up, which they call Too Much Gold Creek, on which
the gold is so plentiful that as the miners say in joke, " You have to mix gravel
with it to sluice it."    Up to date nothing definite has been heard from this creek..
From all this we may, I think, infer that we have here a district that will
give 1,000 claims of 500 feet in length each.    Now, 1,000 such claims will require-
at least 3,000 men to work them properly, and as wages for working in the mines-
are from $8 to $10 per day, without board, we have every reason to assume that: APPENDICES.
8l
this part of our territory will in a year or two contain 10,000 souls at least, for the
news has gone out to the coast and an unprecedented influx is expected next
spring. And this is not all, for a large creek called Indian creek joins the Yukon
about midway between Klondak and Stewart river, and all along this creek good
pay has been found. All that has stood in the way of working it heretofore
has been the
visions and the
ting them up
here. Indian
large stream,
b 1 e it will
claims. Fur-
lies the head
of several
branches of
Stewart river,
on which some
prospecting
has been done
this   summer
and good indications found, but the want of provisions prevented development.
Now gold has been found in several of the streams adjoining Pelly river, and also
along the Hootalinqua. In the line of these finds further south is the Cassiar gold
field in British Columbia, so that the presumption is that we have in our territory
along the easterly watershed of the Yukon a gold bearing belt of indefinite width
and upwards of three hundred miles long, exclusive of the British Columbia part
of it. On the easterly side of the Yukon prospecting has been done on a creek
a short distance above Selkirk with a fair amount of success, and on a large
creek some 30 or 40 miles below. Selkirk fair prospects have been found, but as mm
81
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
before  remarked  the difficulty of getting supplies here prevents any extended
prospecting.
Dalton informed me he has found good prospects on a small creek nearly
midway between the coast range and Selkirk on his route. His man showed me
some coarse gold, about a dollar's worth, he found on the head of a branch of the
Aetsek river, near the head of.Chilcat Inlet, which is, of course, inside the summit
of the coast range and of course in our territory. From this you will gather that
we have a very large area all more or less gold bearing and will all yet be worked.
Good quartz has been found in place just across the line on Davis creek (see
my map of the 141st sent you), but of what extent is unknown, as it is in the bed .
of the creek and covered with gravel. Good quartz is also reported on the hills
around Bonanza Creek, but of this I will be able to speak more fully after my proposed survey. It is pretty certain from information I have got from prospectors,
that all or nearly all of the northerly branch of White river is on our side of the
line, and copper is found on it, but more abundantly on the southerly branch of
which a great deal of it is in our territory also, so it is probable we have that metal
too. I have seen here several lumps of native copper brought by the natives from
White River, but just from what part is uncertain. I have also seen a specimen
of silver ore said to have been picked up in a creek flowing into Bennet Lake,
about 14 miles down it on the east side.
Before closing I may say that every report that comes in from Bonanza Creek
is more encouraging than the last. Prospecting has only begun, and up to the
date of mailing, November 22nd, very rich prospects have been found on the few
claims prospected on. From one dollar to the pan of dirt up to twelve dollars
are reported and no bed rock found yet. This means from $1,000 to $12,000 per
day per man sluiciug. The excitement is intense, but at this season of the
year it is naturally very local.
Writing on December 9th, 1896, Mr. Ogilvie said :
Since my last the prospects on Bonanza Creek and tributaries are increasing
in richness and extent, until now it is certain that millions will be taken out of the
district in the next few years. On some of the claims prospected the pay dirt is
of great extent and very rich. One man told me yesterday that he washed out a
single pan of dirt on one of the claims on Bonanza, and found $14.25 in it. Of
course that may be an exceptionally rich pan, but $5 to $7 per pan is the average
on that claim, it is reported with five feet pay dirt and the width yet undetermined,
but is known to be thirty feet; even at that figure, the result at nine or ten pans
to the cubic foot, and five hundred feet long is nearly $4,000,000 at $5 per pan.
One-fourth of this would be enormous.
Another claim has been prospected to such an extent that it is known there
is about five feet pay dirt, averaging $2 per pan, and not less than thirty feet.
Enough prospecting has been done to show that there are at least fifteen miles of
this extraordinary richness, and the indications are that we will have three or four
times that extent, if not all equal to the above at least very rich. SOME CHURCHES AND SCHOOLS, VICTORIA, B. C.  APPENDICES.
On January nth, 1897, he wrote :
83
The reports from the Klondak region are still very encouraging. So much
so that all the other creeks around are practically abandoned, especially those on
the head of Forty Mile, in American territory and nearly one hundred men have
made their way up from Circle City, hauling their sleds themselves many of them.
Those who cannot get their claims are buying in on those already located. Men
cannot be got to work for love or money, and development is consequently slow ;
one and a half dollars per
hour is the wages paid
the few men who have to
work for hire, and work
as many hours as you
like. Some of the claims
are so rich that every
night a few pans of dirt
suffices to pay the hired
help when there is any.
As high as $204 has been
reported to a single pan,
but this is not generally
credited. Claim owners are now very reticent about what they get, so you can
hardly credit anything you hear, but one thing is certain, we have one of the richest mining areas ever found, with a fair prospect that we have not yet discovered
its limits.
Miller and Glacier Creeks, on the head of Sixty Mile River, which my survey of the 141st meridian determined to be in Canada, were thought to be very
rich,  but they are poor both in quality and quantity compared with Klondak. 84 BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Chicken Creek, at the head of Forty Mile, in Alaska, discovered a year ago, and
rated very high, is to day practically abandoned.
January 21st, 1897.—There are applications in for about 380 acres of land on
the flat north of the Klondak, on the east side of the Yukon, while all the extent
of land available for use on it is about 200 acres. Joseph Leduc, who applied for
160, has only about no available for use in building on, the rest being steep hillside, and the most of the flat is a moss-covered swamp. He had laid out and disposed of a few lots for building on in it, making his streets only 50 feet wide, and
the main streets along the river even less, the builders going often close to the
bank for convenience in getting water; but I stopped all that, and have the river
front at least 66 feet wide, in most places much more. All streets parallel to the
river are 66 feet, and all at right angles to those I have left at 50, as Leduc had
them. It seems to me that 50 feet is wide enough in this country, as it is hardly
likely there will be much heavy traffic on them. Had I made the streets running
from the river 66 feet wide it would have put a good many people to much inconvenience. I will send out by the next mail a sketch showing the position of all
the applications so far. The American Government has given a contract for four
mails this winter to Circle City, at $1,700 each mail, in and out. The mail
carriers will take out letters at $1 each.
January 22nd, 1897.—A quartz lode showing free gold in paying quantities
has been located on one of the creeks, but I cannot yet send particulars. I am
confident from the nature of the gold found in the creeks that many more of them,
and rich too, will be found.
January 23rd.—I have just heard from a reliable source that the quartz mentioned above is rich, as it tested over $100 to the ton. The lode appears to run
from three to eight feet in thickness, and is about 19 miles from the Yukon River.
I will likely be called on to survey it and will be able to report fully.
Placer prospects continue more and more encouraging and extraordinary; it
is beyend doubt that three pans of different claims on Eldorado turned out $204,
$212 and $216, but it must be borne in mind that there was only three such pans,
though there are many running from $10 to $50.
I have just received a petition from the miners to attend to the survey of their
claims, they doing all the work and boarding and lodging me. I will begin at it
in about ten days, and it will likely take me upwards of two months. I am glad
to have the opportunity of doing it, for I think I can considerably, if not altogether, straighten out the tangle there is there. APPENDICES.
85
PLACER  MINING
Along the Yukon River and its Tributaries in the Northwest
Territories is Regulated as follows.
" Bar diggings " mean any part of a river over which the water extends
when the water is in its flooded state, and which is not covered at low water.
Mines on benches are known as " bench diggings " for the purpose of defining
the size of such claims from dry diggings.
" Dry diggings" mean any mine over which a river never extends.
Nature and Size of Claims.
" Bar diggings," a strip of land 100 feet wide at high-water mark, and thence
extending into the river to its lowest water level.
The sides of a claim for bar digging are two parallel lines run as nearly as
possible at right angles to the stream and marked by four legal posts, one at each
end of the claim at or about high-water mark, also one at each end of the claim at
or about the edge of the water. One of the posts at high-water mark must be
legibly marked with the name of the miner and the date upon which the claim was
staked.
Dry diggings are 100 feet square and must have placed at each of the four
corners a legal post upon one of which shall be legibly marked the name of the
miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.
Creek and river claims are 100 feet long measured in the direction of the
general course of the stream, and extending in width from base to base of the hill
or bench on each side, but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart,
the claim may be 100 feet in depth. The sides of a claim must be two parallel
lines run as nearly as possible at right angles to the stream. The sides must be
marked with legal posts at or about the edge of the water and at the rear boundaries of the claim. One of the legal posts at the stream must be legibly marked
with the name of the miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.
A Bench claim is 100 feet square, and must have placed at each of the
four corners a legal post upon which is legibly marked the name of the
miner and the date upon which the claim was staked.
Entry is only granted for alternate claims, the other alternate claims being
reserved for the Crown to be disposed of at public auction, or in such manner as
may be decided by the Minister of the Interior. -ttm
BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
The penalty for trespassing upon a claim reserved for the Crown is immediate
cancellation by the Gold Commissioner of any entry or entries which the person
trespassing may have obtained, whether by original entry or purchase, for a mining claim, and the refusal by the Gold Commissioner of the acceptance of any
application which the person trespassing may at any time make for a claim. In
addition to such penalty, the Mounted Police, upon a requisition from the Gold
Commissioner to that effect, take the necessary steps to eject the trespasser.
In defining the size of claims they are measured horizontally irrespective of
inequalities on the surface of the ground.
If any person or persons discover a new mine and such discovery is established
to the satisfaction of the Gold Commissioner a creek and river claim 200 feet in
length may be granted.
A new stratum of auriferous earth or gravel situated in a locality where the
claims are abandoned shall for this purpose be deemed a new mine, although the
same locality shall have been previously worked at a different level.
An entry fee of $15.00 is charged the first year, and an annual fee of $15.00
for each of the following years. This provision applies to locations for which
entries have already been granted.
A royalty of ten per cent, on the gold mined is' levied and collected by officers
appointed for the purpose, provided the amount so mined and taken from a single
claim does not exceed five hundred dollars per week. In case the amount mined
and taken from any single claim exceeds five hundred dollars per week, there is
levied and collected a royalty of ten per cent.^upori the amount so taken out up to
five hundred dollars, and upon the excess, or amount taken from any single claim
over five hundred dollars per week, there is levied and collected a royalty of
twenty per cent.
Default in payment of such royalty, if continued for ten days after notice has
been posted upon the claim in respect of which it is demanded, or in the vicinity
of such claim, by the Gold Commissioner or his agent, is followed by cancellation
of the claim. Any attempt to defraud the Crown by withholding any part of the
revenue thus provided for, by making false statements of the amount taken out, is
punished by cancellation of the claim in respect of which fraud or false statements
have been committed or made. In respect of the facts as to such fraud or false
statements or non-payment of royalty, the decision of the Gold Commissioner is
final.
Form of Application for Grant for Placer Mining and Affidavit
of Applicant.
I (or we), of hereby apply
under the Dominion Mining Regulations, for a grant of a claim for placer mining.:
as defined in the said regulations, in (here describe locality) and I (or we) solemnly
swear :— APPENDICES. gy
1. That I (or we) have discovered therein a deposit of (here name the metal
or mineral)
2. That I (or we) am (or are) to the best of my (or our) knowledge and
belief, the first discoverer (or discoverers) of the said deposit; or :—
3. That the said claim was previously granted to (here name the last grantee),
5 but has remained unworked by the said grantee for not less than
4. That I (or we) am (or are) unaware that the land is other than, vacant
Dominion land.
5. That I (or we) did, on the day of
mark out on the ground, in accordance in every particular with the provisions of
the mining regulations, for the Yukon River and its tributaries, the claim for which
I (or we) make this application, and that in so doing I (or we) did not encroach
on any other claim or mining location previously laid out by any other person.
6. ' That the said claim contains, as nearly as I (or we) could measure or
estimate, an era of square feet, and that the description (and sketch, if
any) of this date hereto attached, signed by me (or us), sets (or seti forth in detail,
to the best of my  or our) knowledge and ability, its position, form and dimensions.
7. That I lor we make this application in good faith, to acquire the claim
for the sole purpose of mining, to be prosecuted by myself (or us) or by myself and
associates, or by my or our) assigns.
Sworn before me at
this day of
18    .    j
Signature)
City Hall, Victoria, B. C. BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
Routes,   Duties, Outfits  and   Prices.
ROUTES. The route via St. Michael (shewn in key map) is not much
availed of by passengers. It is very circuitous and expensive and rough weather is
frequently experienced.
From the head of Lynn Canal there are three routes over the coast range of
mountains, namely, via White Pass (No. 2 on map); Chilkoot Pass (No. 3 on
map); and Chilcat Pass (No. 4 on map). The principal travel this year has been
over the White Pass and Chilkoot Pass, but they are now so badly cut up as to be
almost impracticable. Transportation over these passes between salt water and
fresh water, distance about 36 miles, has cost $700.00 per ton and at present no
one can be found to engage in the business at this rate.
It is certain that the travel next year will be principally via the Stickeen River
and Teslin Lake (route No. 1 on map). There is an established line of steamships between Victoria, Vancouver and Nanaimo and Wrangel, mouth of the
Stickeen River, where connection is made with steamers which transport passengers and freight to telegraph Creek. The journey from any of the British Columbia coast cities can be made comfortably in six days. There is good land travel
between Telegraph Creek and Teslin Lake (120 miles). The country is open
and undulating, the grade nol exceeding 200 feet in any one mile; excellent grass
abounds for pack animals the entire distance. The Dominion and, British
Governments have surveyors in the field making thorough investigations with
a view of locating the line of a railway, which it is expected will be under construction next spring. Parties who went over the present trail for the first time report
it to have been easy travelling for horses packing 300 lbs. A steamer is being
built on Teslin Lake and will be ready for the opening of navigation next May to
carry passengers and freight to the Klondyke River. The Stickeen-Teslin Lake
route to Klondyke avoids the dangers and hardships which are experienced on the
mountain passes and the White Horse and other rapids, on the routes via Lynn
Canal.
The Stickeen-Teslin Lake route has another very great advantage in the fact
that the prospector upon leaving the steamer at Telegraph Creek finds himself in
a country not fully examined. Many parties will detour towards Omineca and
through Cassiar prospecting a country known to be rich in gold.
CANADIAN DUTIES. It is important to remember that all supplies
for the gold fields are dutiable if purchased outside of Canada.
OUTFITS AND PRICES. All supplies for the miner, prospector and
trader can be purchased in any of the cities of British Columbia AT LOWER PRICES
than at any other place offering on the Pacific Coast of the United States, besides
which THE DUTY, 35%, on many goods. IS SAVED. e»WfHfc T*jy BRITISH   COLUMBIA   BOARD   OF  TRADE.
A Yukon Outfit.
List of the Principal Supplies Necessary.
CLOTHING, Ac.
Makinaw Suits,
Overshirts,
Heavy Tweed Shirts,
Woollen Underwear,
Woollen Socks,
Buck & Wool Mitts,
Felt and Fur Caps,
Heavy Wool Pants,
Navy Guernseys,
Heavy W'l Blankets,
Sleeping Bags,
Cotton Tent,
Glasses,
Spectacles,
Towels and Sundries,
Arctic Shoes,
Oil Clothing,
Heavy Leather Boots,
Rubber Boots.
HARDWARE, 4c.
Gold Pans,
Wire Nails,
Whip Saw,
Wedges,
Hand Saw,
^j-in. Manilla Rope,
Compass,
Knife and Sheath,
Pack Strap,
Brace,
Pick and Handle,
Hand Axe,
Hammer,
Buckets,
Cooking Utensils,
Hooks and Lines,
Stove,
Piece Sheet Iron,
Medicine Chest.
For particulars of quantities and prices apply to any merchant in British
Columbia. The names of some will be found in this Board's Membership Roll,
pages 5-10 herein.
Steamers Islander and Tees leaving Victoria,
for Skagway. AFOONAK. I.
KODIAKI-
KEY MAP
Shewing Rout® from Victoria to Klondyke
VIA ST.  MICHAELS.
L
p;0„walS\ »
\
Dixoii Entrance '-•
Qae^
Charlotte Sou.
*A
SourM-^
VAN CO U VEft^l^^^K.
VICTORIA "
APPROXIMATE DISTAMgglo KLONDYKE GOLD FIELDS
x        ---^h ^ M,LES M,LES
-r'ftf'W*   LYNN   CANAL.
VIA WHITE   VIA CHILKOOT
PASS PASS
•<r
 >-~   „w    M' i-a»»
^--^£rT<WflA td Skdgway Bay  (Ocean Steamship)   995
^VICTORIA to Dyea (Ocean Steamship)    -   -   -  . 1000
skagway Bay to Tag ish Lake (pack trail and boat)      70
Dyea to Tagish Lake (pack trail and boat) -   - 73
Tagish Lake to Head of Canon (boat)    -   -   -      50 50
Head of Canon to White Horse Rapids (portage)        2 2
White Horse Rapids to Five Finger Rapids (boat)    220 220
Five Finger Rapids to Dawson City (Klondyke)"       230 230
Distance between Victoria and Klondyke  Gold Fields,
via Lynn Canal, about 1575 miles.
VIA   STIKENE   RIVER
VICTORIA to Wrangei (Ocean Steamship)    -   -   - 750 miles
Wrangel to Telegraph Creek (River Steamer)-   - 150      "
Telegraph Creek to Teslin  Lake (trail)    -   -   -    - 120      "
Teslin Lake to DAWSON CITY (Klondyke) (boat) - 650      "-V
1670 miles
VICTORIA to Dawson City (Klondyke) via St. Michael,
about 4425 miles.
Statute Miles.
X0
«***CZ^
OF THE
KLONDYKE
CASSIAR # CARIBOO GOLD FIELDS
SHEWING   ROUTES
COMPILED FROM THE LATEST OFFICIAL REPORTS
FOR THE BRITISH  COLUMBIA  BOARD OF TRADE, VICTORIA,  B, CU
\        *,  V&Z&
QtfZ
, cm
-lottt
-^
jvTi? China &Japct/? zin
*^>
:- «— 1~!^*..iPfvftTO R/A i
"StopdfK,-'
M #       :     \
COLONIST,   L/TH

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