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Hand-book and map to the gold region of Frazer's and Thompson's Rivers, with table of distances. To which… Anderson, Alexander Caulfield, 1814-1884 1858

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One of the worst (Chinook Jargon vocabularies) was ascrhed to myself.I had
written in 1858 a small handhook ,describing the various routes to the mines*It was
published in San Francisco,and the publisher with some catch-penny view of increasing,
I suppose,the sale of the work,chose to append unknown t© me,a flaming vocabulary of
the Chinook Jargon obtained through some od-
scure channel.Like Malvolio I had the honour
thrust upon me and I now take this public
opportunity of disclaiming the paternity of
a production of which it is needless to say
I was at the time heartily ashamed."'
A.CrAnderson,MS History of Northwest Coast,p.140 in Prov,Archives.



Deposited by
Henry R. Wagner
1907

HANDBOUND
PARLIAMENT   PREFACE.
ALEX. C. ANDERSON.
Cathlamet, "W. T.
Mat 3d, 1858. j
The writer's name having been recently
referred to in the public prints of Oregon, in
connection with the new srold divings in the
Couteau country, he has since been frequently
applied to for information in regard to the
routes of^access to that region.
As the readiest mode of answering such
inquiries, and to save the task of frequent
repetition, he has thought it well to present
the result'of some of his by-gone experiences
in a compendious form.
The accompanying map, it is trusted, if it
fails to meet the demands of the professional
geographer, will be found fully to answer the
end in view. The principal points are set
down with accuracy, and the details, for all
practical purposes, will be found correct.
The explanatory notes, it is believed, will
not be without their value to persons about to
visit a country so far generally unknown.  '(3
NOT
IN REFERENCE TO
THE ROUTES OF COMMUNICATION
WITH THE
legion on Jfra^o |likt;
m
EXPLANATORY of the ACCOJ
MAP.
-<•*-
Frazer's River discharges itself into the
Gulf of Georgia, a little to the north of the
49th parallel. The head waters of its principal
branch interlock with those of the Columbia
and the Athabasca. At the distance of 160
miles from its mouth, it is joined by Thompson's River, a large stream flowing from the
eastward. As indicated in the map, the Cascade range of mountains — which may be
viewed as a continuation of the Sierra Nevada—ceases at this point. Here, and in its immediate vicinity, the diggings which are now
creating so much excitement, have been in :
4 EXPLANATORY NOTES.
progress since last Summer; though their
richness, now apparently so well authenticated, was not ascertained till more lately.
There are two distinct lines of approach to
these mines: one by the direct route through
Frazer's River; the other by way of the Columbia River, by Portland and the Dalles,
and thence with pack animals through the
trails used until recently by the Hudson's Bay
Company, for their communications and for
the transport of supplies for the interior.
These routes will be separately considered.
Eoute via Fort Langley.
Fort Langley, the lowest post of the Hudson's Bay Company on Frazer's River, is situated on the left* bank, about twenty-five miles
from the entrance. Thus far the stream is
navigable for vessels of considerable burthen,
the precaution of sounding or buoying the
sand-heads at the entrance being first adopted,
in the absence of a qualified pilot. The ascent, however, short as the distance is, is rather tedious for a sailing vessel, as the river is
* In this, and all other instances where the like distinctions
may he employed, it is with reference to the descending stream EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 5
land-locked, and the winds consequently irregular and baffling.
Fort Hope is a small post situated near the
mouth of the Que-que-alla River, which falls
in sixty-nine miles above Langley. jjhence
to the foot of the "Falls" is twelve miles further. From that point to Thompson's River
Forks is a distance of fifty-four to fifty-five
miles, by the travelled route.
It is questionable how far above Langley a
vessel of any considerable draught could readily be taken | but from that post to Fort Hope
there seems to be no room to doubt that an
efficient steamer of light draught could be
advantageously navigated; and, indeed, for
some miles higher up. Above the falls, however, the obstacles to steam navigation, and
especially at the higher stages of the water,
I judge to be very serious.
Hitherto, bateaux of about three tons burthen have been employed by the Hudson's
Bay Company, for transport below the Falls—
a slow method when the water is high, as the
ascent can then be effected only by warping
along shore, with the aid of Indian canoes to
pass the lines. By this tedious process, an
ascent was made during the freshet of 1848, 6
EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
*
to the foot of the Falls, in eight days; under
ordinary circumstances, it would occupy five.
There is a trail (indicated in the sketch as
"Douglas Portage") from the upper Teet village, below the Falls, to Spuz-zum, above the
Falls, the lowest village of the Saw-mee-nas,
or Couteau. It is much longer, but not so
rough as the passage of the river bank, which
is for some distance extremely broken. Both
these portages are on the right bank.
The series of rapids called the "Falls" is
about three miles in length. There is no such
abrupt descent as the name implies. At low
water these rapids may be ascended with light
craft, by making portages; but at the higher
stages of the water they present a difficulty
almost insurmountable. During the summer
season, the rockv shores of the "Falls" are
thronged by Indians from the lower country,
who resort thither for the salmon fishery. A
ceaseless feud, I may here mention, prevails
between the Couteau and the lower Indians,
who differ from each other widely in many
respects.
At Spuz-zum, six miles above the Falls, the
river is crossed to the left bank, where is the
terminus of a horse trail, opened in 1847 and: EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 7
1848, across the mountains from the Similk-
ameen country, but abandoned' afterwards as
ineligible, chiefly on account of the difficulties
of the Falls.
This trail follows the river to Ke-que-loose,
six miles further. At this point is the^rave
of a servant of the Hudson's Bay Company,
who, in 1848, was found shot near the encampment, under circumstances which justified the belief that he died by his own voluntary act. A large cedar statue, of Indian
workmanship, and a small enclosure, mark the
spot. The banks of the river immediately
above this are very rugged; consequently the
trail ascends the height, (some two thousand
feet or more), crosses it, and descends upon
Anderson's River, at the forks of which two
bridges wTere formerly in existence.
The Similk-ameen trail continues inland
hence; that leading to the forks of Thompson's River (indicated by a trail-line in the
sketch) diverges, and after a few miles travel
again strikes Frazer's River, at Tqua-yowm, a
populous village six miles above Ke-que-loose
and situated at the mouth of Anderson's
River.
Thence to the Forks of Thompson's River, if-
.
8 EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
where the miners were last at work, is estimated at thirty-three and a-half miles, through a
hilly road, in places very stony and impassable
for loaded horses without a large amount of
labor in its improvement. Several streams
fall in between Tqua-yowm and the Forks, one
of which, during the freshets, has to be ferried
over with canoes. From Tqua-yowm upwards
a marked change in the character of the seen-
ery takes place; though rugged, it is less
densely timbered than the lower country, and
shows every evidence of a drier climate. The
vicinity of Tqua-yowm itself is rather picturesque ; but, what is of more importance, it
enjoys a prolific salmon fishery during the
season.
From the Forks of Thompson's River, horse
roads extend in both directions—up Frazer's
River, and along Thompson's River—as indicated in the map.
I will now proceed to point out some of the
difficulties which embarrass this route, and
which, until some better system be organized
than at present exists, are deserving certainly
of serious consideration.
Assuming the miner to have reached the
foot of the Falls by batteau or other convey-
H EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 9
ance, (and let me here remark that there is no
practicable way of reaching this point from
Fort Langley except by water), the more formidable impediments to his progress are still
in advance. Horses are not procurable here;
nor, if procurable, is the country suited for
their subsistence. The navigation of the Falls
at high water cannot be accomplished; nor,
indeed, is the upper portion of the river to
be navigated without difficulty at that stage.
At the lower stage, these difficulties are so far
modified that they may be overcome by portages j but it is to be premised that a certain
amount of skill and experience in canoe navigation—which every one is not supposed to
possess—is a necessary condition of the undertaking. The alternative is to proceed on foot;
but my previous notes will have shown that
the trail is a rough one, full of painful inequalities. It would, therefore, be impracticable to convey in this way more than a very
limited amount of provisions, to say nothing
of tools and other necessaries for mining operations.
From Fort Hope there is a horse trail across
the mountains; but no horses are to be procured there, as indeed not any are kept.    All
J 10 EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
these animals, when required for transport,
are brought from across the mountain range,
and return forthwith. Moreover, the Fort
Hope trail does not strike the mining region,
but unites with the trail from the Columbia
valley, to be presently considered. I subjoin
a resume of the distances by the direct trail:
miles
Mouth of Prazer's River to Port Langley 125
To Que-que-alla River 69
To Palls 12
— 81
Palls Rapids  3
To Spuz-zum   6
To Ke-que-loose   6
To Tqua-yowm  6
To Porks of Thompson's River 33£
  54*
Total 160£
Memorandum of Distances by the Fort Hope Route.
miles.
Port Hope to the top of Munson's Mountain. 12
Across the Yalley to Campement du Chev-
reuil, (summit of the Cascade range)... .10
To Lake near height of land in Blackeye's
Portage 25
To Tseistn, or Campement des Pemmes 20
To Rocher de la Biche 20
Total, to the junction with Dalles Trail..—   81 EXPLANATORY   NOTES. 11
From Rocher de la Biche to forks of Thompson's
River     85
Total, Fort Hope to Forks Thompson's River 112
Mouth of Eraser's River to Fort Hope     84
Distance via Fort Hope—Total  256
N. B.—The above distances, as far as Rocher de
la Biche, are noted according to the encampments it
is necessary to make, in order to secure scanty pasturage in the mountain for pack animals.
Route via Columbia Eiver and the Dalles.
Every facility of Steam Navigation exists
between Portland and the Dalles. The transit
between these two points is performed in part
of two days, the intervening night being passed at the Cascades, where travelers are well
accommodated. An attempt is being made to
extend steamboat navigation as far as the
Priest's Rapids, sixty miles above Walla-
Walla, and one hundred and ninety from the
Dalles; but the success of this project is thus
far undecided.
With horses there are two routes to the
Priest's Rapids: One crossing the Columbia
River at the Dalles, passing over the dividing
ridge to the Yackama Valley, and continuing* I
12 EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
across until the Columbia is again struck at
the point in question, where the Columbia is
recrossed to its left bank. (JST. B.—This trail
in crossing the Yackama Valley, joins the
trail which parties from Puget's Sound, crossing by the J^achess Pass, would necessarily
follow. The necessity of crossing to the left
bank at the Priest's Rapids, arises from the
impracticable nature of the country on the
right side, between that point and Okinagan.)
The other route is by following the left
bank of the Columbia from the Dalles to Walla-Walla, crossing the Snake River at its
mouth, and thence continuing along the Columbia to the Priest's Rapids. (N. B.—There
are several modifications of the latter portion
of this route, some of which are shorter; but
I instance this for simplicity.)
The first described route is much the shorter, as the Great Bend of the Columbia River
is cut off by it. But the double crossing of
the Columbia is a serious obstacle; and the
Yackama River, when high, is a troublesome
impediment.
For this reason, I should prefer the longer
route by Walla-Walla; and the more so, as it • EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 13
is passable at all seasons,, which the other is
not, owing to snow in the mountain.
There is good grass by both routes.
From the Priest's Rapids the Indian trail is
followed up some twenty-five miles, when it
strikes off the river, and enters the Grande
Coulee, an extraordinary ravine, the origin of
which has been a matter of much speculation.
A portion of it is approximately sketched on
the map. The bottom of this ravine is very
smooth, and affords excellent traveling; good
encampments are found at regular intervals.
After following it for about sixty miles, the
trail strikes off for the Columbia, at a point a
few miles beyond a small lake, called by the
voyageurs, Le Lac a VEau Bleue. |ff| B.—
It is necessary to encamp at this lake. There
is a small stream twenty-five miles or so before reaching the lake, which is another regular encampment; and again another streamlet about thirty miles short of that last mentioned, where it would likewise be necessary
to encamp. This would be the first encampment in the Grande Coulee after leaving the
Columbia.    I cannot recall any encamping mmmmm
u
EXPLANATORY NOTES. -
m
grounds, other than these three, in this portion of the road.)
Striking off from the point mentioned, in a
direction about N.K.W., the trail reaches the
Columbia a few miles above Fort Okinagan,
which Post is called twenty-five miles from the
Grande Coulee. Ferrying at the Fort, (the
horses being swum), the trail ascends the
Okinagan River, cutting points here and there,
as shown in the sketch. At about sixty miles
from the post is the Similk-a-meen Fork. The
Okinagan is crossed just above the junction.
This crossing is narrow, and at the ordinary
stage of the water can be forded with ease:
at a higher stage, a canoe is hired. There is
usually a pretty larg-e concourse of Indians at
this point during the salmon season. It is
good policy to supply the chief with a little
tobacco, to smoke with his followers. Good
will is thus cheaply secured.
From the Forks, the trail ascends the Similk-a-meen ; but as the lower part of that river,
where it breaks into the Okinagan Valley, is
very rugged, it is advisable to ascend the
Okinagan some miles, and along the lakes, by
the main road towards Kamioops. A trail
then branches off, as by the sketch, and ascends EXPLANATORY   NOTES. %15
the hills towards the Similk-a-meen. After
proceeding some distance, there is a small
lake, affording a good encampment (called in
the map I Crow Encampment." Continuing
thence, the trail falls on the Simiit-a-meen
above the obstacles referred to. The valley
of the Similk-a-meen abounds in good pasture. Except during the freshets, the stream
is readily fordable ; and the trail accordingly
is made to cross it frequently at such seasons,
whereby several hills and some stony places
are avoided. During the freshets, the left:
bank is followed without interruption.
At the Red-Earth Fork the Similk-a-meen
is left. The trail, following up a branch of
this valley watered by the Red-Earth stream,,
etc., crosses the height of land which divides
the water-shed of Frazer's River from that of
the Columbia, and descends towards Nicholas'
Lake. A few miles before reaching the lake-
there is a cut-off, indicated in the sketch,
which strikes Nicholas' River below the outlet of the lake. This river is crossed to its
right bank, and followed about thirty-five
miles, when it is recrossed, (by fording in both
cases, at the ordinary stage of the water);
and the point is cut, seventeen miles, to Nica- 16 • EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
o-meen on Thompson's Mver. (1ST. B.—Besides the advantage of this cut-off in point of
shortness, the right bank of the stream is very
steep and broken between the lower crossing
and the junction of the stream with Thompson's River at Thlik-um-chee-na.)
Nica-o-meen is the commencement of the
mining region, as so far declared. Thence it
is thirteen miles to the Forks of Thompson's
River.
I now append an estimate of the distances
~by this route, which will be found, I trust,
reliable; and I also add a memorandum of
the encampments which a party with pack
animals might expect to make.
"   ESTIMATE OF DISTANCES.    ■:
miles.
From the Dalles across the Yackama Yalley, to
the crossing place above Priest's Rapids .. 125
Five days' march with packs.
BY  WALLA-WALLA.
Dalles to Walla-Walla 130
To crossing place above Priest's Rapids. 60—190
Eight days' march with packs. EXPLANATORY   NOTES. 1*7
From the Priest's Rapids crossing to the
Grande Coulee  25
Along the Grande Coulee... .If     60
To Okinagan   25—110
From Okinagan to Forks of Similk-a-meen.  60
. To Red-Earth Fork  90
To Cut-off near Nicholas Lake 55
To Lower Crossing Nicholas' River 35
Across to Nicaomeen .... IT
To Forks of Thompson's River 13—2TO
Total distance from the Priest's Rapid Crossing
place to Thompson's River Forks 380
Distance from the Dalles oy the several routes:
Yackama Route 125 x 380=405
Walla-Walla Route 190 x SSO-^TO
Estimate of March from the Priesfs Rapids
Crossing to the Forks of Thompson's River,
1st—Encampment on the Columbia,  near where
the trail leaves the River.
2nd—On first rivulet in Grande Coulee.
3rd—On second rivulet in do.
4th—At the small lake in do.
6th—At Okinagan.
Tth—Riviere a la Grise, or Rat Lake.
8th—Upper Bonaparte's River.
9th—Forks of Similk-a-meen.
10th—Crow Encampment.
11th, 12th and 13th—Along the Similk-a-meen.
2 EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
14th—At, or beyond, Red-Earth Fork.
15th—Near Rocher de la Biche.
16th—Cut-off near Nicholas' Lake.
17 th—Upon Nicholas' River.
18th-—Nicka-o-meen.
19th—Forks of Thompson's River.
Or, 2T days from the Dalles, via Walla-Walla.
It may be noted here that, throughout the
distance, there are no obstacles to an easy
march, beyond those that I have endeavored
to note. Pasture and water are plentiful, and
fuel, for the greater part of the distance,
likewise abounds. Along the Columbia, the
couutry is bare of timber; elsewhere the valleys are clear, the hills sparsely timbered with
the Colville Red Pine, (pinus ponder osa).—
There are numerous tracts of very fertile soil.
As already mentioned, there are two trails
across the Cascade range for the neighbor-
hood of the Similk-a-meen country: one striking to Ke-que-loose and Shuz-zum, above the
Fall; the other at Fort Hope, below the Falls.
The former was abandoned in 1849, chiefly
on account of the difficulties of the Falls. As
it approaches Frazer's River, too, it is extremely rugged. The Fort Hope route is used by
Jhe Hudson's Bay Company for the transport EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 19
r
between Frazer's River and the several inland
districts. The route over the mountains is
short, but rugged, and pasture is scarce. It is
of course impassable with horses, except after
the melting of the snows late in June, and
until about the middle of October. Both
these routes, as will be seen by the sketch,
unite with the Dalles trail at different points.
MEMORANDA AND NOTES
On several subjects connected with the Mining
Region.
The gold found in the Couteau country has
so far been procured chiefly from dry diggings. It is "coarse" gold, and its quality
stands high in the market. Considerable
quantities are reported to have been dug by
the natives, who, so far, appear to have been
the chief miners.
The Nicoutameens* or Couteaux, are numerous. They, and other branches of the great
* Couteaux, or Knives, is merely a corruption by the Canadian voyageurs of the native name. The Lower Indians call
them Saw-mee-nti; they, in turn, call the Lower Indians S&-
chi-no; neither party recognizing the foreign name. -.-..,-I
20 EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
She-whap-muck tribe, inhabit the banks of
Frazer's River, from a little above the Falls to
the frontier of New Caladonia. Their extreme
poverty formerly made them roguish, and their
reputation was bad; but my own experience
of their character was nowise unfavorable.—
These Indians subsist chiefly on salmon, and
various kinds of roots and berries. Their salmon they cure by splitting and drying, either
in the smoke or sun.
The Indians between Fort Langley and the
Falls, known as Hart-lins, Pal-lalks, Teets, <fcc.
according to the villages they inhabit, differ
widely from the Couteaux, both in habits and
language. They are ingenious and thrifty;
and having said this, it is about all I can say
in their favor. They are, however, not indisposed towards whites, and, considerately treated, will doubtless remain so.
As before mentioned, the upper and lower
Indians have a standing feud, which is kept
alive by a treacherous murder every now and
then, as occasion presents.
The miner visiting these regions, will find
no native resources, beyond what the river
supplies. Land animals are scarce, and withal
so much hunted as to be extremely shy.   Sal-
■—i EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 21
mon can usually be bought very cheaply; but
as there is no salt, save what may be imported,
there is no way of curing the fish but by the
Indian method. At Ska-oose, below the Forks,
is a good sturgeon fishery; and elsewhere, in
the eddies, these fish may be caught. A strong
line with some large cod hooks, might be a
useful addition to the miner's equipment. Set
lines are an efficient way of catching these
fish : the bait a small fish, or what is better,
when procurable, a lamprey-eel. There are
trout in the streams; and on the Dalles communication, grouse of various kinds, sage, hens
and other fowl are generally abundant.
In ascending Fraser's River, mosquitoes are?
very numerous during the summer season;
and as the sea-breeze is rarely felt, the air is
extremely sultry. ISTear the Tchae-tse-sum
River, below Fort Hope, the mosquitoes suddenly cease, and thence upwards the river is
free of these troublesome pests.
The regular freshets begin at the latter end
of April, and last during May and June.—
About the 15th of June may be regarded as
the culminating point; and by the middle of
July the waters are generally greatly subsided.
There is rarely a freshet of much consequence 22
EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
1;
at any other season; but this sometimes happens, and I have known a sudden freshet from
heavy rains, in October, raise the river beyond
the summer limit.
Snow begins to fall in the mountains early
in October. In July there is still snow for a
short distance on the summit of the Fort Hope
trail, but not to impede the passage of horses.
From the middle of October, however, to the
middle of June, this track is not to be depended upon for transport with pack animals.
The summer climate about the Forks is dry,
and the heat is great. During winter, the
thermometer indicates occasionally from 20°
to 30° of cold below zero of Fahrenheit; but
such severe cold seldom lasts on the upper
parts of Frazer's River for more than three
days; the thermometer will then continue to
fluctuate between zero and the freezing-point,
until, possibly, another interval of cold arrives.
But the winters are extremely capricious
throughout these regions, and no two resemble each other very closely. In general the
snow does not fall deep enough along the
banks of the main streams, to preclude winter
traveling with pack animals. The quality of
the pasture is such (a kind of bunch grass in
':- - _„ ,
warn EXPLANATORY  NOTES. 23
most places) that animals feed, well at all seasons. There are many spots between the Sim-
ilkameen Valley and Okinagan that are spec-
iallv favorable for winter ranches. In some,
the snow never lies, however deep it may be
around.
The country, from the mouth of Frazer's
River up to the Falls, is thickly wooded,
mountainous, and impassable, so to speak, for
man or beast. The river becomes more contracted above Fort Hope. Above the Falls,
as far as Tqua-yowm, the character of the
country continues to resemble the same distance below. At Tqua-yowm, however, as
already noticed, a change takes place, and the
evidences of a drier climate begin to appear.
These continue to become more marked as we
approach the Forks. At Thlik-um-chee-na,
or the Little Fork, and upwards, rattle-snakes,
wormwood and the cactus (prickly-pear), characterize the scene; and some of these attributes extend thence downward for some distance.
At this point, (Thlik-um-chee-na, the junction of Nicholas' River with Thompson's River), the Horse Region may be said fairly to
commence.    Hence, to the frontiers of New
i— - 24
EXPLANATORY  NOTES.
Caledonia, northward, and southward to the
Pampas of Mexico, this useful animal is the
best servant of man. Horses, however, are
dear luxuries (comparatively speaking) in this
quarter. At the Dalles, and around "Walla-
Walla, they are more numerous, and may be
bought at very moderate rates.
In conclusion, I would suggest to every
miner, by which road soever he may travel to
the Couteau mines, to supply himself well beforehand, as he can depend upon little in that
region, save what is imported by himself or
others.
: CHINOOK JAKGON.
-4m*-
Language used by the different Indian Tribes,
French and Half Breeds, of Frazer's River,
Puget Sound, and surrounding country, as
the means of Conversation with Americans.
Waw Waw To speak
Nika I
Mika You
Yaka He or She
Nesika "We
Mesika "We (plural)
Klaska They
Klacksta  Who
Man Man
Klootchman "Woman
Tenass klootchman. ..Girl
Tenass man Boy
Mokoke house.... A store
Moola Saw mill
Kanim Canoe
Issick Paddle
Chuck Water
Sockally tyee...The   Almighty.
Kapo A relative
Chitch Grandmother
Boston American
Pesioux French
King George, Eng. Scotch,
Irish.
Sitcum Siwashe, Half-br'd
Tyee Chief
Elitee Slave
Ou Brother
Ats Sister
Oloman An old man
Lemeyi.. .An old woman
Sun Day
Polakley i .Night
Tenass polakley.. .Sunset
Sitcum sun Noon
Tenass sun..... .Morning
Oke oke sun. To-day
Tumalla . *«». .To-morrow
Tamanass man... .Indian
Doctor.
Chickamen. .Metals of all
kinds*
— CHINOOK  JARGON.
ARTICLES OF FOOD AND CLOTHING.
Muck a muck... anything
good to eat.
Pish Fish
Sabud Salmon
Tenass Sabud Trout
Mo witch Yenison
Oleally Berries
Pire oleally. .Ripe berries
Cold oleally... Cranberries
Pill oleally., Strawberries
Wapito Potato
Molas Melasses
Shuga Sugar
Sil Cloth
Le Shawl Shawl
La wane Oats
Lum Rum
Pire chuck, Ardent spirits
Skin shoes Moccasins
Ohickamen shoes.. .Horse
shoes.
Kloch kloch Oysters
La kootche........ Clams
Kleman sapalel... .Flour
Sapalel Wheat
Le Biscuit.... Hard bread
Stick shoes Shoes
Tootoosh Milk
Gleece Grass
Tootoosh Gleece... Butter
Pasissee Blanket
Shirt Shirt
Seapoooe Cap
Capeau Cook
Seekolicks Pants
Lalopa Ribbons
Akacpooit Needle
Sil sil Buttons
Klapite Thread
Kamoosack Beads
Luckwullah Nuts
ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, ETC.
Kuitan Horse
Moos moos Cow
La mutto  .Sheep
Kramox.. Dog
Pish pish Cat
Kushaw Hog
Mowitch Deer
Itsoot Bear
Quitch addy Rabbit
Swaawa Panther
Skudee Squirrel
Skubbyou Skunk
Man moos moos Ox
Korey kuitan, Pace horse
Lelo Wolf
Le cock Rooster
Le pole Hen
Le sap Egg
Tenass la kootche, Muscles
Tenass moos moos.. .Calf CHINOOK JARGON.
21
Moolack or moose Elk
La tate Head
La pe a Foot
Tee owit Leg
Yachoot Belly
La pooshe Mouth
Leeda Teeth
Ena Beaver
Ninamox Otter
Olikhiyou Seal
Le mule or hyas kolon..
Mule.
Kulla kulla Birds
Yakolla Eagle
Mauk Duck
Shakirk Hawk
Waugh waugh Owl
Smock mock Grouse
Skad Mole
Soolee Mouse
Oluck Snake
Quanice Whale
Quiceo Porpoise
Oyakut Trail or road
Quass Fear, afraid
Tzae Sweet
La table Table
Sockally High
Keekwully,..Low, beneath
Yoolkut Long
Siyah..........Distance
Tenass Small
Hyas Large
Skookum. Strong
Wake Skookum... .Weak
Le lang Tongue
Seeah boose Eyes
Sharty Sing
Solux Angry
Patle..., Full
Patlum. .Drunk or full of
rum.
Lope.» Rope
Initio Over, across
Klip .Deep
Keemta .Behind
Hooey hooey, .exchange,
barter.
Kopa From, towards
Olo... .Hungry or thirsty
Quis quis... .A straw mat
Paper  .Paper
Lapiage A trap
Alloyma Another
Miami Down stream
Machlanny., .Toward the
land.
Illahe Land
Toto Wind
Sick turn turn... .Sorrow,
regret.
An nah an nah... Surprise
Killipie Capsize
Kockshet.. .Fight, break,
injure.
Sick Sick
Elip First
Alta At present
Alkey Afterwards
Hi you Plenty
Konaway All
Kar Where
Till Heavy
Delate Straight
Seepy Crooked
Hyack Quick
Klawa Slow
Chee New 28
CHINOOK  JARGON.
Dly Dry
Koory Run
Chaco ... -  .Come
Clatawa Go
Mamook Work
Kloshe Good
Masatchy  .Bad
Le Job * Devil
La plate  Priest
Lo lo Carry
Pooh Shoot
Kow Tie
Klaek Untie
Hee hee la ma... Gamble
Kumtux.... .Understand
Wake Konsiek.... .Never
Konsick How much
■ Kultus Nothing
Kopet Stop
Kopet waw waw... -Stop
talking.
Nanitch Look, see
Halo »*..... .None
Potlatch Give
Iscum Take
Klapp Find
Ipsoot Conceal, bide
Yawa There
Yakwa Here
Turn turn. Heart
Mareie Thanks
Hee hee Laugh
Tance Dance
Tin tin Music
Quonisum Always
Wan.. t.. .Astonishment
Eaata Why
Pe kata Why
Abba Well there
Moosum...« Sleep
Chick chick.... A wagon
Oihe... Sandwich Islands
Oakoak This or that
Ikta What
Tikke Want
Ikta inika tikke, What do
you want.
Dly top seu Hay
Snass Rain.
Cold snass Snow
Le hash  Axe
Opsu  .Knife
La Queen Saw
La peep Pipe
Kianoose Tobacco-
La plash A plank
Kullkull stick Oak
La plash stick Cedar
Le gum stick Pine
Kokwa The game
Ikt stick A yard
Tenass musket Pistol
Poleally  .Powder
Kalidon Shot or balls-
Musket 4.,, .Gun
Skttllapeen Rifle
Mimaloose Kill
Pooh, Shoot
Kapswallah Steal
LaSelle Saddle
La breed Bridle
Sitlie* ,. .Stirrup
Lesibro Spurs
La pushmo,Saddle blanket
Siskiyou Bob-tail
Leky.. Spotted or piebald
De ereme.. Cream colored
Klale Blackr CHINOOK  JARGON.
29
Topseu Grass
Halluck laporte, Open the
door
Midwhit. Stand up, get up
Laporte Door
Halluck Open
Iktpooy "laporte, Shut the La Woolitch A bottle
door. Iktpooy ...Shut
Klakany... .Out of doors
Ancutty Long ago
Lay lay......A long time
Mokook... Barter, buy or
sell.
Keek wully coat. Petticoat
Keekwully sikolocks	
Drawers.
Lemoro Wild
Ae kik Fish hook
Staetejay Island
Kooy kooy.., Rings
Pe chuck Green
Pill Ked
Te kope White
Hyas Sunday. .Christmas
and Fourth of July.
Klonass... .1 don't know
Kumtux Understand
Wake nika kumtux. .1 do
not understand.
Pilpil". Blood
Pilton Fool
Klamenewhit False
Tamanass ... .Witchcraft
Klemenwhit False
Cold A year
Moon.....,. Moon
Klakcee Stars
How , Listen
Leglow Natl
La chaise Chair
Oskan Cup
Lapell Spade
Oloshe Illahe Prairie
Cold sun Winter
Warm sun Summer
Six Friend
Shetsham Swim
Wicht Also
Tickachey Although
Teilacoom A relative
I
Midlisht Sit down Momok Chaco Bring 30
CHINOOK  JARGON.
EXAMPLES.
American.—Come here, friend, I want to talk with
you.
Indian.—Chako six, nika tikke waw waw copa mika.
Am.—What ?   Ind.—Ikta!
Am.—I want to buy a canoe with four paddles.
Ind.—Nika tikke mokook kanim pe locket issick.
Am.—Very good.   Ind.—Closhe.
Am.—What is your price ?
Ind.—Konsick dollar mika tikke.
Am.—Thirty dollars.
Ind.—Klone totilum dollar.
Am.—No sir, I'll give you $20.
Ind.—Wake six, nika marsh copa mika mox totilum
dollar.
Am.—I don't know; I'll see.
Ind.—Klonass, nika nanitch.
Am.—Will you find three more Indians, and go with
us to work canoe up Frazer river to the gold
land?
Ind.—Mika klapp klone alloyama siwashe pe klata-
wa copa nesika mamook kanim sockally Frazer
river copa gole ilahe ?
Am.—Tes, that's my mind, if you pay plenty money,
Ind.—Nowitka, coqua nika turn turn spose mika
marsh hiyou chickamen. CHINOOK  JARGON.
31
NUMERALS.
Locket 4
Puinam. 5
Tahum 6
^Sinimox 1
Sootkin 8
Quies 9
Totilum 10
Totilum pe ikt 11
Totilum pe mox 12
IktTokamonak 100
Ikt hyass TokamonaklOOO
POINTS OF COMPASS.
^Stowbelow North
Stegwaak South
rSun chako East
[Sun midlight West
TABLE OF DISTANCES.
San Francisco to Bellingham Bay 855 miles
Bellingham Bay to Fort Hope via trail and
river  T5    |
Fort Hope to the "Diggings" 15    I
Total 1,005
■■«.
i—'
J     PRICE ONE DOLIAR AND FIFTY CERTS.
HAND-BOOK 
AND 
MAP 
TO 
THE GOLD REGION 
OF 
Frazer's and Thompson's Rivers, 
WITH 
TABLE OF DISTANCES. 
By ALEXANDER C. ANDERSON,
Late Chief Trader Hudson Bay Co's Service.
TO WHICH IS APPENDED 
CHINOOK JARGON—LANGUAGE USED 
Etc. Etc 
PUBLISHED BY J. J. LE COUNT,
SAN FRANCISCO.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1858, by Alexander C. Anderson, in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Northern District of Caln. 

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