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The sea of mountains : an account of Lord Dufferin's tour through British Columbia in 1876. In two volumes.… St. John, Molyneux, 1838-1904 1877

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IN 1876.
All rights reserved.
Fort Simpson—Scene of Cannibalism—Cannibal Medicine Men—Some Indian Idiosyncrasies—Queen Charlotte's Islands—The Hydah Indians—A Deed of Vengeance—Visit of the Hydahs to Victoria—Sail-Houses
—Arrangement for a Bear Hunt—Trade in Dog-Fish
Oil—The Chinook Jargon—Ancient-looking Village—
Curious Wood Carving—The Hydah Women    .       1
A Citizen of New York State—Initiation of a Medicine-
Man—A Grand Drink—The Nunpkish Indians—
Search for the Medicine-Man—Education in Cormorant Island—The Indians of the Coast—Queen Charlotte's Islands—Burrard's Inlet—A Giant of the Forest—New Westminster—Reception of the Governor-
General      . . . . .38 VI
Provincial Squabbles— Journey from New Westminster
to Yale—Harrison River—Fort Hope—Scenery of the
Fraser River—Yale—Address to the Governor-General—Indian Interpretation of Lord Dufferin's Speech
—Chinese Residents—Conveyance of Goods from
Yale—Teams—Bull-whackers—Discovery of a Crop-
out . . . . . . .75
A Joke—Reported Dangers of the Road—A Privilege of
English Nobility—Salmon Houses—Indian Method
of Catching Salmon—Fish-drying Platforms—Canons
of the Fraser River—The Fraser—Hell Gate—A Dangerous-looking Road—The Rule of the Road—Courage of Lady DufFerin—Camp on Jackass Mountain . jl . . . . .   106
Lytton—Reception of the Governor-General—Indian
Gala Day—Indian Villages and Houses—Indian
Graves—Lax Morality of Indian Belles—The Thompson River—Cook's Ferry, or Spence's Bridge—A
Modest Indian Maiden—Bunch Grass—Trout-fishing
—Arrival at Kamloops—A Master of Etiquette—
Flogging of Indian Women . . .129
Speech of the Governor-General at Victoria
"..'',• CONTENTS.
Remarks on Lord Dufferin's Address—Mr. Mackenzie —
Accusations against the Canadian Premier—Unrea»
soning Partisanship—Menace of the Separation of
British Columbia from Canada—Unpleasant Feature
of the Position—Treatment of the Indians of British
Columbia—Indian Reservations—United States and
British Indians     .....   230
California—San Francisco—Gold and Paper Money—
The Slaves of the South—The Chinese in California—
Immigration of Chinamen—The | Six Companies"—
Coolie Traders—Dread of Assassination—Life in a
China-town—Visit to the Chinese Theatre—A Chinese Restaurant—A Joss-House . . .   241
Resume of the Governor-General's Tour—Scenery of
British Columbia—Mineral Wealth—The Douglas
Pine—Lumbering in the Province—The Cedar—
Huge War Canoes of the Northern Indians—Difficulties in the way of Agriculture— Railway Projects
—Waddington—Reception at Victoria   . .   275  THE SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
Fort Simpson—Scene of Cannibalism—Cannibal Medicine Men—Some Indian Idiosyncrasies—Queen Charlotte's Islands—The Hydah Indians—A Deed of Vengeance—Visit of the Hydahs to Victoria—Sail-Houses
—Arrangement for a Bear Hunt—Trade in Dog-Fish
Oil—The Chinook Jargon-—Ancient-looking Village—
Curions Wood Carving—The Hydah Women.
THEN Lord   and Lady  Dufferin had
ended their   visit  at   Metlakahtla
Bay they came on board the Douglas
and started at once for Fort Simpson,
which is twenty-four miles to the northward of Mr. Duncan's mission, and a few
miles south of the United States' last-
acquisition, the territory of Alaska. Fort
vol. n. b THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS,
Simpson was once the principal fur-
trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company on this side of the Mountains, but
the prosperity of an Indian trading establishment withers as the men of the outside
world approach it, and civilization is
reaching even Fort Simpson. To-day the
Indians of this neighbourhood are more
intent upon getting to Victoria, and enjoying the delights of that metropolis, than
upon hunting the fox or marten.
The Company still retain the fort in its
old form, but the necessity for its high
walls, flanking bastions, and closed gates
has disappeared, and at a few hundred
yards from its guns (which are now outside the fort for saluting purposes), are
the residence and chapel of the gentleman
who has succeeded Mr. Duncan in his
spiritual charge of the Indians. Here the
Indians had heard of the Governor-
General's coming, and the guns were
ready loaded to greet him. So anxious,
indeed, were  the Indian gunners to  ex- CANNIBAL PE0CLIV1TIES.
hibit their artillery practice that, on
Colonel Littleton's landing with the rest
of the staff before Lord Dufferin, he drew
one half the salute before he could stop
the zealous Tsimpsean who commanded
the battery.
There is a large Indian village round
the fort (the houses of which are like all
other Indian houses we have seen, square
enclosures of cedar boards), or rather
there are several Indian villages all run
into one.    Each of these is inhabited bv a
different branch of the Tsimpsean nation,
who in olden times used to fight and
occasionally eat one  another with much
gusto. One has often heard of the canni-
balistic proclivities of the Tsimpsean
Indians, but on investigation it does not
appear that they, were ever cannibals in
the sense in which we understand that
word.    The   traditional   "Hokey   Pokey
at at
Winkey   Wum,"   King  of   the   Cannibal
mt * O
Islands, is always supposed to have been
ruler  of  a  nation   who  consumed   their
captives as an article of diet, but the
Tsimpseans regard any of their own
number who may so depart from the
ordinary rules of good taste with great
fear and abhorrence. It seems rather to
be part and parcel of the hideous mummery with which Indian medicine-men
practice on the credulity of their tribe,
and possibly so work upon their own
imaginations as to deceive themselves.
A letter of Mr. Duncan's gives a good
account of one of these cannibal scenes at
Fort Simpson, and seems to indicate that
the practice is, as I say, confined to the
medicine-men who are always amongst all
Indians anxious to mystify and terrify
their friends.    He says :—
"An old chief in cool blood ordered a
slave to be dragged to the beach, murdered, and thrown into the water. His
orders were quickly obeyed. The victim
was a poor woman. Two or three reasons
were assigned for this foul act. One is
that it is to take away the disgrace attached SCENE  OF  CANNIBALISM. 5
to his daughter, who has been suffering
some time from a ball wound in the arm.
Another report is that he does not expect
his daughter to recover, so he has killed
his slave in order that she may prepare for
the coming of his daughter into the unseen
world. I think the former reason is the
most probable. I did not see the murder,
but immediately after I saw crowds of
people running out of their houses near to
where the corpse was thrown, and forming
themselves into groups at a good distance
away. This, I learnt, was from fear of
what was to follow.
Presently two bands of furious wretches
appeared, each headed by a man in a
state of nudity. They gave vent to the
most unearthly sounds, and the two naked
men made themselves look as unearthly as
possible, proceeding in a creeping kind of
stoop, and stepping like two proud horses,
at the same time shooting forward each
arm alternately, which they held out at
full length for a little time  in the most 6
defiant manner! Besides this, the continual
jerking their heads back, causing their
long black hair to twist about, added much
to their savage appearance. For some
time they pretended to be seeking the
body, and the instant they came where it
lay they commenced screaming and rushing
round it like so many angry wolves.
Finally they seized it, dragged it out of
the water and laid it on the beach, where
I was told the naked men would commence
tearing it to pieces with their teeth. The
two bands of men immediately surrounded
them, and so hid their horrid work. In a
few minutes the crowd broke again in two,
when each of the naked cannibals appeared
with half of the body in his hands.
Separating a few yards they commenced,
amid horrible yells, their still more horrid
feast. I may mention that the two bands
of savages just alluded to belong to that
class which the whites term j Medicine-
Men.' I 1 sf
These cannibal  medicine-men  are   re-
garded as extremely dangerous, because it
was never known when they might be, so
to speak, on the rampage, and their immediate neighbours were frequently in
extreme danger, and were occasionally
compelled to take to their canoes to avoid
being torn to pieces. After a while they
adopted the plan of keeping a deceased
slave on hand ready for immediate use.
It is a curious delusion that led the young
men of the village to regard as an honour,
or a special boon, the loss of a mouthful of
flesh abstracted between the teeth of these
furious blood-.thirsty buffoons.
Mr. Duncan, as I mentioned in my last
letter, set himself to combat this state of
things, but removed to Metlakahtla, and
his place at Fort Simpson is now supplied
by Mr. Crosby, a Wesleyan minister, who
is doubtless well-known to many of your
Toronto readers. The presence of white
men, however few in number, has a
great moral effect upon Indians, and by
degrees the more objectionable features of THE   SEA  OP  MOUNTAINS,
Indian life have disappeared or are rapidly
disappearing about Fort Simpson. A few
of the elders of the village were pointed
out to me as those who had been prominent
in the medicine orgies of times past, and it
was softly whispered that, although denied
by the Indians, there had recently been a
return to the old idosyncrasies so far as an
isolated case of medicine | cannibalism."
Looking at their good-natured faces, and
witnessing the quiet orderly way in which
they live at Fort Simpson and Metlakahtla,
one would never suspect that only a few
years ago these people were so much
more like wolves than human beings.
In appearance they are unlike Chippewas
or Indians of the plains; they have more
the appearance of the Islanders in the
South Seas than that which is generally
supposed to distinguish the Indians. They
are dusky coloured, but with no tint of
red in it.    They have broad round faces
with high cheek bones, and  they have a
sturdy,    squabby  appearance    and  gait, INDIANS   OP  PORT   SIMPSON.
very unlike the graceful movements of an
Indian of the plain. All the Indians on this
coast, so far as we have yet seen them,
resemble one another more or less, but all
retain the marked difference that exists
between the coast and the interior men.
We saw in a wild form at Fort Simpson
that which we afterwards saw in greater
perfection in Queen Charlotte's Islands; the
carving in wood work about the door and
posts of the Indian houses. There were a
few only here who had carved images—
their crests or tokens—before their houses,
but there was one long pillar erected in
memory of a deceased chief that was
remarkable. But on the whole one was
a little disappointed with Fort Simpson,
and not sorry that the visit was only to
be one of a few hours. The Indians are
no longer attractive as being outrageous
scoundrels, and they have not availed
themselves very much of the white man's
civilization, except to wear his clothes
and when they can to drink his whiskey, 10
and so are not very interesting from that
point of view.
Of course a good number of them are
now Christians, but they are a loafing,
mud-larking kind of Christians, that never
excite any violent admiration. A fact
worth mentioning of them, as one of the
men at Metlakahtla, is that on being baptised a great many of them retain, by
their own express desire, their old Indian
name as a surname; so that you may find
two brothers, one called John Peter and
the other Abraham Skooginaslake. They
were all very cordial in their welcome to
Lord and Lady Dufferin, and followed
them into the Fort and to the door of Mr.
Morrison's dwelling-place, in which the
wife of the absent trader received her distinguished visitors. Here the Indian
-spokesman made a speech to His ExceU
lency, which Mrs. Morrison interpreted, to
the effect that all the Indians were glad
to see the great chief, that the sick and
aged were  glad  to   see   him  also,  that SPEECH TO  THE  INDIANS.
they were sorry that there were not more
J mt
of them present, and that they would remember his visit and talk about it all the
days of their lives. Probably this implied
that the whole of them, sick and aged included, expected a present, and that they
expected to be able to talk of his bounty
all their lives. In reply to this speech,
Lord Dufferin assured them of the satisfaction which he felt in visiting them, and
explained the beneficent sentiments entertained towards them by Her Maiesty and
her Government of Canada, and told them
of the advantages they would enjoy by
continuing to progress in civilization and
to obey the laws which were designed as
at ^^
much for the protection of the Indian as
the white man. He then ordered the distribution of a few presents that he
had brought for them, and re-embarking
sailed away for Metlakahtla, where he
arrived in the evening, and was met by the
promised national howl from the crews of
Tsimpsean canoes that had been waiting 12
for him. Their song was the dirge for the
dead sung by a returning war party. It
appears to be the principal relic of their
former minstrelsy and is hardly worth
preserving. It is, as it is intended to be,
extremely melancholy, filled with spasmodic exclamations, and calling upon the
dead, but is calculated to defeat its own
end by leaving it open to doubt whether
the greater anguish should be felt for the
loss of the slain, or in view of the fact that
some had been still left alive to sing.
Early next morning the Amethyst and
the Douglas weighed anchor together, and
started for Queen Charlotte's Islands. This
group, which lies from about fifty-two deg.
to fifty-four deg., thirty min., north latitude, and between a hundred and thirty-
one and a hundred and thirty-three
deg. west longitude, consists of three
islands, the most southerly—a very small
one—being called Prevost Island, the centre
island, Moresby Island, and the northern QUEEN CHAKLOTTE S  ISLANDS,
one of the group—the largest—Graham
Island. They are almost one island, being
separated only by two extremely narrow
straits. To reach them, our course lay
straight out to sea by the main shore, and
steering for Skedgate Bay, a harbour at
the southern extremity of the Northern
Island, and thus in the centre]of the group,
we soon lost sight of land on either side,
and were dancing over the waves of the
Of the Queen Charlotte's Islands, very
little definite knowledge has been had
until quite lately. They were known to
be large islands, on which it was understood there were some large open tracts of
country, and in the streams of which gold
had been discovered. But the inhabitants
were a nation of fierce and turbulent Indians, who objected to the white man
prospecting their islands, and who had
given most convincing practical proof of
their opposition to his presence. Several
parties had  landed and explored and re- HUH
turned in safety, but many had started to
investigate the country and had never
again been heard of.
The Hydahs—as that nation of Indians
are called—have for years been regarded
as the most to be feared of any natives on
the coast. Having a strip of nearly one
hundred miles of ocean between themselves and their nearest neighbours they
felt secure from all attack, and building
themselves enormous canoes, capable of
holding thirty or forty warriors, they
were wont to start out on marauding expeditions which, being unexpected by
other tribes, were always disastrous and
bloody. There was no security against
an enemy who knew no restraining power
save a south-east wind, and whose fleets
of war canoes were so large, so well
manned, and so numerous. Just as in
olden days the Iroquois of Lower Canada
swept the country with their daring deeds,
and succeeded in making themselves an
object of terror to the Indians westward, THE   WHITE   MAN'S   VENGEANCE.
so the Hydahs have established a name
for themselves which until the last few
years was significant of murder and
It was the Hydahs upon whom a party
of surveyors, in the earliest days of the
colony, revenged themselves for the murder of some comrades. The Indians were
accustomed to set upon any parties of
white men that might come to the Island,
while the latter were asleep, and the
morning would rise upon the slaughtered
forms scattered round the smouldering
ashes of the camp fires. On this occasion,
one of the party suggested a precaution.
Each man taking a log of wood wrapped
it in his blanket, and placed it by the fire
in the position which he himself would
have occupied had the party gone to sleep
in the usual way. They then all with-
dreV into the neighbouring bushes, and
guns in hand, waited to watch what might
happen. In the dead of the night when
the  fire had burnt low, and when under 16
ordinary circumstances every man in the
camp would have been asleep, the Indian^
crept cautiously up to the fire. A
moment's survey of the scene showed
them that the white men were as usual
asleep, and uttering a yell they buried their
hatchets in the blanket-covered logs that
lay round the fire. The next moment the
guns in the surrounding bushes rang out in
a volley, and the Indians fell one over another
on the spot where they had struck the blows
at the supposed white men. I could mention numbers of cases illustrative of their
treachery and ferocity, were it not that
their name stood warrant for their
Soon after these occurrences, Victoria sprang up from its condition as a
Hudson's Bay Company's post to the
central point of the business that arose in
connection with the newly-found mines up
the Fraser, and the Hydahs, as well as all
other Indians on the coast, were eager to
visit  this white man's  settlement.    But FEAR  OF  REPRISALS.
now the recollection of their evil deeds
came home to them. Not only had they
been murdering white men and might
be called to account for that, but as many
of their predatory excursions had been
along the coasts of their southern neighbour, Vancouver Island, dangers lay in
that direction. Like the Danes of old, they
had gone forth the Vikings of the North
Pacific, and now when they wished to
travel in peace they must go through the
very straits and passages which they had
never visited but to ravage and destroy.
Their presence would be treated as another
invasion, and thev would be watched and
3 ml
set upon throughout their route. Particularly might they look for warm reprisals
from the Uctetahs, who, being never at
peace with themselves except when at war
with other people, had particular inducements to fall upon the Hydahs ; and having
a large stockaded village—from which they
subsequently defied one of Her Majesty's
gunboats—in the neighbourhood of which
0 ■I
the Hydahs must pass, the probabilities of
having, in spite of the best intentions in
the world, to fight their way down to
Victoria presented itself to the Queen
Charlotte's Islanders. However they were
not to be deterred by this, but arming
themselves and well filling a number
of their large sea-canoes, they started,
and after some passing skirmishes, in
which a few men were killed, they reached
Here they first came in contact with
those features of civilization which are
always so alluring and so destructive to
the savage, and while the men surrendered
themselves unreservedly to the pleasures
of whiskey, the women exchanged what
Swinburne calls the lilies and languor of
virtue for the roses and rapture of vice,
and speedily the first blows were struck
that were to level the old-time Hydah
supremacy. They camped close to the
then small town of Victoria, and it
was there that the rows and disturbances SKED1GATE BAY,
arising from their orgies created such an
alarm that the necessity arose of awing
them by the appearance of the Marines in
their encampment, to be soon after followed by their removal in the Tribune,
as I have already narrated.
When we arrived at Skedigate Bay on
Friday, I made inquiries, hoping to learn
that one or both of my old friends the
Hydah Chiefs, whom, with their followers,
we had cleared out of Victoria in the
days that are no more, were still living,
but I found that the son of one reigned
in his father's stead, and that the other
had come to an untimely end in a manner
somewhat similar to that of the lamented
Pipchin of the Peruvian mines, except
that, whereas Mr. Pipchin was knocked
on the head with a quart-pot, my friend
received his quietus from the butt end of
a Hudson's Bay trading gun. It was late
when both ships arrived before the Indian
village, and we intended to defer our visit
until the next day, but Lord Dufferin was
particularly anxious to go out in search
of a bear next day, and Mr. Blenkinsop,
the interpreter, who was on board of the
Douglas, was required to make the necessary arrangements with the Indians; so,
late as it was, we went on shore with
The Indian village, which we could
hardly distinguish in the darkness of the
evening, for the moon had not yet risen,
lay in a nook exactly opposite where the
vessels were anchored, but most of the
Indians were away, and we were directed
to pull for about a mile and a half up the
bay, where a large assemblage of people
were camped, engaged in making dog-fish
oil, which they sold to a trader who had
established himself at the point. As we
turned round a rocky promontory, we saw
the beach thickly covered with what the
Indians call sail-houses, a species of
shelter which is, exactly as its name implies, obtained by stretching a sail over
a horizontal pole and fastening down the mm
four corners. The Indians had all retired
for the night, but the alarm created by
the dogs and our own voices speedily
aroused them, and as an Indian's toilette
is easily made, and mainly consists in
giving his blanket a hitch over his
shoulder, we were soon surrounded by the
gentlemen and by a few of the ladies of
the village.
Our first business was to find what
could be done towards a hunt for the
morrow, and to see the proper persons
we were taken to the chief's tent, which
was one of the last in the double row.
On our entering, a lady sleeping next to
the fire hastily put some dry sticks on
to the embers, and blew the red cinders
into a blaze. By the light thus afforded,
we could see that the tent was occupied
by nearly twenty persons of both sexes
and every age, all of whom were sitting
up on the mats which served as beds,
and were anxious to know the meaning
of this visit at so late an  hour.    There 22
was a very lengthened discussion of pros
and cons concerning the hunt Lord
Dufferin desired to make, some thinking
that it would be impossible for him to
shoot a bear in such a country as that in
which bears were likely to be found. At
length, however, the discussion resulted
in the opinion that if the Governor-
General were to start into the woods with
the Indians and their dogs, and would
go dressed as they would—merely with a
shirt on—he might manage to get a shot.
Still they thought this would depend on
his being a spare man; they did not
think that a fat man could get through
the woods even divested of every hindering garment.
We had time to visit the store of the
trader who was buying the dog-fish oil,
and to learn some of the particulars of
the trade from him. The oil is extracted
principally from the liver of the dog-fish,
though the women to whom the rest of
the fish is given manage to get some oil DOG-FISH  OIL.
from their share. The oil is extracted by
boiling the fish, and then being put into
tubs, is shipped to Victoria, where it sells
for a sum ranging from fifty to seventy-
five cents per gallon. The general effect
of an Indian encampment, when this
manufacture is going on, is rather dog-
fishy, though the Hydahs are the cleanest
and neatest Indians we have seen on the
coast, with the exception of Mr. Duncan's
flock at Metlakahtla. We were introduced
to the residents of several of the tents,
who received us with an entire absence
of formality or ceremonial, they being in
bed during our visit, and raising themselves on their elbows or other convenient
posture to talk to us. Some of them
speak English after a fashion, but the
general method of intercomtaunication on
this coast is by the use of the Chinook
jargon, which is very easily learnt, and is
spoken by all tribes alike;
Before  going  on board there was yet
inquiry to be made as to the possible pur- 24
chase of one of the carved posts of which
we had seen a few at Fort Simpson, and
of which we could see from the ship there
were a number on shore. For this it was
necessary to pull round to the permanent
village, and as we returned round the
rocky point which we had before passed,
we came upon a scene unlike anything
that can be found elsewhere upon the
coast. The moon had risen while we
stayed in the farther bay, and was now at
the full, casting its rays across the water
upon the Indian village. This concourse
of houses, built almost in single line,
stretched for some distance round the
edge of the bay, the waters of which broke
in silvery ripples, making a gentle splash
from headland to headland. From the
centre of every house, and also at a little
distance out in front and in rear of many
of them, rose heavy carved pillars ranging
from thirty to sixty feet high standing out
in relief against the sky high above the
houses   of which they  were part,   or to CURIOUS  CARVED  PILLARS,
which they appertained. The houses themselves were partially lost to view in the
shadow of the hills, but the ascending
columns in their varying heights rose clear
above them into the moonlight, and gave
the village the appearance of an Eastern
city with innumerable minarets.
As we pulled across the corner of the
bay we could partially distinguish some
of the carved outlines in the moonlight,
and here  and there, half in bright light
*** o o
and half in deep shadow, the long, high-
prowed canoes that had been hauled up
and stowed away each in the immediate
vicinity of its owner's house. No dog
barked as we pulled in towards the pebbly
beach, and not a sign or sound of a human
being was to be heard. And remembering that the approach of a stranger to an
Indian village is usually heralded by all
the dogs in the place, and watched by
observant blanketed forms, we felt in the
utter stillness of the night, and looking
upon  the   huge  carved images,   such  as THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
those which one associates with Nineveh
and Babylon, as if by magic aid we had
been transported to some Eastern land,
and as if our boat's keel were grating
against the threshold of a city of the
We walked through the village, from
which no sound of life arose, examining
as well as we could the strange weirdlike figures and hideous-looking creatures
that stood sentinel-like before these
Indian dwellings, and had seen generation after generation of Hydahs rise,
blossom, and decay. At last failing to
find anyone with whom we could enter
upon the required negotiation, we pulled
off to the ship determined to make an
early inspection of this strange village in
the morning. Lord Dufferin had sent
word that he wished the Douglas to delay
her intended early start for an hour, in
order that the correspondents might Jiave
an hour on shore, he himself intending
to remain with the Amethyst for the pro- INDIAN VILLAGE,
jected hunt. So by the light of the sun,
which was just showing over the tops of
the hills, we went on shore to inspect the
pillars and carvings of this Hydah village.
It was nearly empty, the majority of the
inhabitants being at or on -the road to
Victoria, or else with the camp in the adja-
jent bay.
The village consists of about forty
houses, each of which contains several
families, as we found to be the case in
most of these Indian settlements, and
these houses are built in one continuous
line, some little distance above high water
mark. There are a few smaller houses—
or storehouses—behind the others, but
that which attracts the eye and rivets the
attention at once is the array of carved
cedar pillars and crested monuments that
rise in profusion throughout the length of
the village. In the centre of the front
face of every house was an upright pillar
of cedar, generally about forty feet high
and from two to three feet in diameter.
From base to top these pillars had been
made to take the forms of animals and
birds,"and huge grotesque human figures,
resembling somewhat the colossal figures
recovered by the excavation at Nineveh.
The birds and reptiles, curious and unlike
as they were any the Indians themselves
see, one could understand, but there were
griffins and other fabulous animals represented that one would have imagined
the carvers thereof had never heard of.
The carvings were in some places
elaborate, and in many places coloured.
Some of the pillars, a few yards in front
of the houses, were surmounted by life-size
representations of birds or animals, the
token of the family, coloured in a fanciful
manner. In one or two instances there
were outline carvings on a board surmounting a pillar, as a picture might be
set on the top of a post. The main and
tallest pillars, however, were those of
which one formed the centre of each
house, and through   which  entrance was ****■
had into the interior. Perhaps the reason
for this arrangement was that an enemy
would have some difficulty in storming a
house which he had to enter by stooping,
and from which having entered he could
not retreat. Many of the rafters of the
houses protruded beyond the eaves, and
terminated in some grotesque piece of
carving. I am not able to form an exact
estimate of the age of this village. The
Indians could not tell when it was begun,
nor, so far as we discovered, had they
any tradition on the subject. They must,
however, have some legends about it, but
our time was so short, and our means of
communication so limited that we were
not able to push our inquiries as far as
desirable. The village must, however, be
some hundreds of years old, for the cedar
rafters in some houses were crumbling to
pieces, and cedar lasts for centuries.
Many of the pillars bore signs of being
very old, but they were usually sound.
The houses themselves are renovated or 30
re-built when required. In one case the
Indian proprietor told us the house was
only two years old, but he could not tell
how old were the columns against which it
was built.
I can hardly exaggerate the surprise
which was generally felt at this unexpected spectacle. The Indian villages are
usually so essentially only places of shelter against inclement weather, that the
appearance of an Indian town of such
indisputable age, with such evidences of
dexterity in a branch of art, and still
more strange the associations which one
felt existed between what we now saw
and that which, in the older world, had
been lost for centuries, gave rise to endless wonderment and surmise. Again and
again it was asked where did the Hydahs
obtain the models from which they have
copied, since they never could have seen
what they have carved about their dwellings. One of the party purchased a
walking-stick with a small piece of work- mm
manship on the handle, but they passed
it about among themselves, and none
could tell what animal it was intended to
represent. The reflection arose that,
perhaps, the parentage of the carving
may have been in China, not only because
of the peculiar dexterity of the Chinese,
but more because I noticed one or two
figures of a squatting Joss (the only way
I can describe it), with the same leer on
his countenance that one sometimes sees
on the figures in a Chinese Joss-house,
and the lower part of a supporting column
in such buildings is sometimes a figure
much resembling one or two of those that
formed the base of the Indian pillars.
It seems a little strange that a place of
so much interest should have escaped the
notice of so many writers who have visited
this coast, and of the officers who have
surveyed its waters. There were two
gentlemen on board the Douglas who
knew every inlet on the mainland, but
who had never seen nor heard of this vil- THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
lage. The Queen Charlotte's Islands have
been little known until quite recently,
partly on account of the character of their
inhabitants, and because they lie out
seaward, out of the course of northward voyagers; but there is some reason
to think that they would make excellent
places for settlement. There are large
open tracts on them, and the warm current which answers on this side to the
gulf stream of the Atlantic, sweeps round
in their neighbourhood, so that probably
wheat and vegetables would ripen there
while they would not on the mainland.
Although it was early morning when we
went on shore, we were soon glad to take
off our overcoats, which hitherto we had
usually found agreeable.
When we had passed and repassed
along the village, and examined the workmanship around us, we sought out one
of the very few houses that were not shut
up. The mouth of a huge bird carved
upon the pillar of the house formed the ■
door, and through this we went into a
large square room, in the centre of which
a square had been laid off for the fire and
for culinary operations, and around the
sides of which a dozen or more recumbent
forms were stretched beneath their
blankets. A few rose as we entered, and
saluted us with the Chinook word of
greeting, | Klah-how-ya," which is the
general salutation on this coast, but the
majority of them paid little attention to
us. There was one old gentleman who
smiled pleasantly over the edge of his
blanket at us, and when I called his attention to the fact that the sun was high up
in the heavens, he looked up with an
astonished air, as much as to say, | Lord
bless me, so it is," and forthwith ordered
his two daughters, who were sleeping
near, to get up at once, and then quietly
lay down himself with a smile of satisfaction at having performed a virtuous
action. The young ladies evinced some
modesty  on  being  called   upon   to   rise
VOL.   II. d 34
before strangers to whom they had not
been introduced, but the old gentleman,
hitching the blanket from off them,
settled the question, and saved a world
of argument.
Mr. Blenkinsop, the Indian interpreter,
here opened the question of purchasing
one of the carved pillars for Lord Dufferin,
but the chief, who evidently disliked even
discussing the subject, said that he did
not know of anyone who would sell it.
Turning from him to one of the occupiers
of the house we were in, the question was
put to him, whether he, or anyone he
knew, would sell the pillar in front of the
house, or one of the smaller ones hard
by. The answer was a decided | no" for
his own part, and a very confident expression that no one else would do so
either. We had, therefore, as time was
pressing, and an impatient whistle was
sounding on board, to go off without the
trophy. The disinclination to sell, however, was some evidence that some legend, CHANGE IN THE HYDAH CHARACTER,
or tradition, attaches to those carved pillars, and it would be well worth while,
as a contribution to the annals of Canada,
to carefully investigate and elucidate the
history of these people, and the legendary
stories that are, without doubt, attached to
these wooden monuments.
During the last few years a great
change has taken place in the once fierce
and intractable Hydahs, and unfortunately
it by no means resembles the change that,
to a greater or lesser extent, is working
among the Tsimpseans. The early visits
of the Queen Charlotte's Islanders to Victoria gave them a taste for the debauchery of civilization, to which they have
yielded themselves unreservedly, and before which they will go down like withered
reeds. They have abandoned their predatory excursions, and now, taking their
young women with them, they set out for
Victoria, timing their visit to be there
during the season when the miners are
arriving from the interior.    During their
d 2 annul
stay in their own homes, much of their
time is spent in carving bone, slate, or
silver ornaments—the latter being worn
in great profusion by the women—for
sale in Victoria. They have become lazy
and will not work, while at the same time
their greed for money is intense, so that
even the virtue of their families has ceased
to be respected by them, and their homes
have become nurseries for the streets of
The Hydah women are frequently of
comely appearance, they are of lighter
colour and better features than the generality of Indians, and they have now learnt
to be careful of their complexions, and
when at home daub their faces all over
with red or black paint to prevent themselves from getting tanned while they are
fishing. Some of those whom we saw at
night, bedaubed with paint, came alongside in the morning wearing a very different appearanee, and I was told that
when they are in Victoria, they wear hats mts
and silk gowns, and the various furbelows
peculiar to the girl of the period. I remember them when a Hydah girl, with a
crinoline on outside her blanket, struck
envy to the hearts of her less fortunate
sisters. But this race of people, having
unusual capabilities, are falling lower and
lower before the blighting effects of civilization, unaccompanied by education or
good example, and unless some effort is
made to save them—and they are worth
trying to save—and to induce them to
abandon the life they are now leading, a
few camps of wretched, degraded, corrupted, and corrupting creatures, huddled
together in the purlieus of Victoria, will
soon represent all then remaining of the
once powerful Hydahs. A Citizen of New York State—Initiation of a Medicine-
Man—A Grand Drink—The Nunpkish Indians—
Search for the Medicine-Man—Education in Cormorant Island—The Indians of the Coast—Queen Charlotte's Islands—Burrard's Inlet—A Giant of the Forest—New Westminster—Reception of the Governor-
THE Govern or-General remained at
Skidegate after we had sailed, with
intent to kill a bear, notwithstanding the
scantiness of clothing which the Indians
declared to be essential to success, and we
did not again see the Amethyst until next
morning, when both vessels were steam-
whistling themselves through a fog off the
northern end of Vancouver Island. During
the night we had got to seaward of our IN  A   FOG.
course—probably through faulty steering
on the part of our wheelsmen—and somewhat narrowly escaped finding ourselves
on the west coast of Vancouver Island.
In the morning we sighted the Amethyst,
and endeavoured to keep together through
the fog, knowing that land must be near,
although we could not see it. At last the
mist cleared away, and the Amethyst passing us, we parted company. Then we
held on our way along the northern coast
ml O
of Vancouver, through the same region
that we had travelled on our northward
journey, passing the Island of Texada
with its mountain of iron, and gradually
making the high lands which a short time
before we had left behind us.
As the shades of night were falling
upon us, making everything around indistinct, the narrow strait through which we
were passing opened out into a bay, at
the further end of which we saw the
Amethyst at anchor, and a little way beyond
her an Indian village, the houses of which, HH
strange to say,, were white, as if newly
painted. There was a rough kind of
wharf covered with cordwood near them,
and a trader's house at the back of this.
Before we had reached this wharf, Ward,
in one of the Amethyst's boats, came alongside to tell us that there had been some
kind of a "fuss" on shore, for, with the
usual forethought of Lord Dufferin's staff,
he remembered that there were three correspondents on board of the Douglas so
eagerly watching for interesting events,
that anyone of them would have cheerfully
submitted to shipwreck for the satisfaction
of writing about it.
Scrambling up the precipitous wharf,
we were met by an enterprising citizen of
New York State, who enlightened us as
to what had been going on on shore, at
the same time giving us a short account of
himself. He had been fourteen years on
this coast, up and down its waters, and
had leased the island, upon which he was
the sole white man, for the purpose  of A  CITIZEN  OF  NEW  YORK   STATE,
cutting cordwood and selling it to the
Britishers. He was quite excited about
the cussedness of the Indians, his own
failure—owing to that cussedness—to
properly salute the gunboat, as he called
the Amethyst, on her arrival, and the backwardness of some unknown persons to
fulfil certain promises towards the amelioration of the condition of the Indians and
the establishment of a school to which he
could send his children. His dissertations
on the several subjects were rather mixed
up one with the other, but by attention,
and with the assistance of two half-breed
young men who were near, we managed
to separate that which was interesting to
us from that which was purely personal
to the gentleman himself.
It appeared that a certain Indian in the
village, who aspired to become a leading
man amongst his people, had announced
himself as a candidate for initiation as a
medicine-man. At the same time the local
chief had  obtained   some  whiskey  from MM
Indians passing north, and it came to be
resolved  that   the   pleasure  of a  grand
drink and  the business of the initiation
should be combined.    The latter ceremony
varies amongst  the several  nations who
practise it, but in the general run it is
much the same thing.    A candidate  for
initiation retires from all intercourse with
other Indians—sometimes for twenty-four
hours,   sometimes  for  several  days,  and
during this time it is  supposed that he is
in communion with the  spirits, who are
afterwards to be moved by his influence
or intercession.    Suddenly emerging from
his place of retirement, he rushes about in
a state of nudity through the village, biting
a   piece out  of  the arm or shoulder  of
anyone  he  happens  to  meet.    Then  he
usually  seizes some  unlucky  cur that is
prowling about, tears him to pieces, and
rushes about rending the bleeding limbs
between his teeth.    If peculiarly zealous,
he  will  proceed  to  the graveyard, and,
digging up a corpse, treat that as he has INITIATION  OF  A MEDIOINE-MAN.
done the dog, which, as one of the young
half-breeds said in other words, causes a
most unpleasant odour about the camp.
This thing continues for two or three
days, when the gentleman emerges a
full-blown I medicine-man" and doctor.
The two terms are not synonymous, for a
medicine-man, though a doctor, is quite
as much a priest. In fact, personal observation leads me to believe that, when an
Indian is sick, the medicine-man is allowed
to go through his antics, after which the
mother or wife of the patient quietly
begins to doctor him with medicines extracted from roots having peculiar properties with which they are acquainted.
But the medicine-man has his own dangers
to encounter, for it is sometimes held that,
if he proves unsuccessful in the first case
which he undertakes, he is either a failure
or an impostor, and this conviction frequently ensures his being knocked on
the head on some convenient opportunity. •
This band of Nunpkish Indians in Alert
Bay, of whom I am now speaking, were
in the midst of their drunken revelry when
the Amethyst hove in sight, and numbers
of them, conscience-smitten on the question
of whiskey, and thinking that her appearance portended evil to themselves, had
fled into the woods. It was this general
levanting that had so troubled the lone
Yankee, whose salute, to use his own words,
I bust right up and came out a durned
fizzle." The Governor-General coming
ashore to sketch the village and its more
picturesque groups of inhabitants had
reassured the Indians, and when we came
they had all returned to their houses and
were engaged discussing the arrival of the
two ships, wondering what it all meant:,
and whether it boded good or ill to them
The two young half-breeds expressed
great willingness to show us the way
through the village, one of them appearing
to be himself very anxious to see the
performance continued from the point at SEARCH  FOR  THE  MEDICINE-MAN,
which it had been interrupted by the arrival of Lord Dufferin. I think that from
what he said he had been a little afraid to
join them during the day, but now, having
the doctor as it were under the guns of the
Amethyst, he was anxious to make him
exhibit himself to the full extent of his
pretended powers.
The first house which we entered was
the one in which the drinking and dancing
had taken place, and here we found about
half a dozen men and women squatting
round the fire, waiting for the others
to join them and renew their morning's
occupation. The | Medicine-man," however, was not amongst them, so we passed
on to the next house, being now as determined as our guide to hunt him up.
The houses, which we visited one after
another in regular succession, might fairly
have been called whited sepulchres, for
the lone Yank from the State of New York
having heard a few days before the possible
arrival of the Governor-General, had given THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the Indians a barrel of lime to whitewash
their houses, which now looked clean and
white outside, while inside they were dark,
dismal, and very foul. Each of them contained four families, and all their relations,
and each family occupied one corner and
crouched round its own fire. Seven or
eight houses were visited, and some
friendly remarks exchanged with the
occupants of each—who, by-the-by, were
all enjoined by the young half-breed to
repair to the dance-house—before we found
the dwelling which contained the hero of the
As we entered, all uttered the unvarying
salutation, " Kla-how-ya," and peered
through the smoke caused by four fires,
having no visible chimney severally or
collectively. At the extreme upper end of
the room there was a small group, a little
way apart from which sat a woman holding
a sick child wrapped up in a blanket, and
near her a fat, good-humoured, half-nude
individual  with   some  whitewash   marks THE  MEDICINE-MAN.
upon his body and a kind of turban
about his head. Like the good friars when
they beheld the discomfited little Jackdaw
of Rheims, regardless of all grammar, we
all cried, | That's him," and so it turned
out to be. He did not at all look the kind
of man whom one would expect to find
running amuck through the village, although we had been told that already he had
bitten three people after the approved
medicine-man fashion; but we stared at
him, asked the Indians questions about him,
and, as he did not appear to be about to do
anything either funny or ferocious, we felt
almost inclined to poke him about with our
sticks, as visitors invariably do the wild cat
in a menagerie, while he looked up at us not
quite certain in his mind whether to be
affronted at our appearance while he was
in his mystical state, or whether to join
in the joke of the thing and let us understand that he saw through it all as well as
we did.
We  had  been   told   that   perhaps   he v<
would commence the rushing about again,
and would, in that case, probably seize
upon one of us, so that it was not unsatisfactory to find that he took the jocular
view of the situation, and, so far as he
dared, permitted a smile to flicker about
the corners of his mouth. He evidently
thought that as things had gone wrong all
day this last straw—if it were the last, of
which neither he nor any of the Indians
seemed certain—had better be borne. But
the young half-breed, our guide, was not
contented with examining the doctor in a
state of quiescence; he told me he was
bound to see him | at it," and made a
request to one who seemed the chief of the
family that the doctor should go on
where he had left off when the gunboat
arrived, suggesting that he should come
back to the dance-house. Suddenly he
observed that the doctor had been trying
to exorcise the evil spirits from the
sick child, and at once insisted that he
He became quite earnest INFLUENCE  OF EDUCATION.
about it, endeavouring to ecr^ the medicine
man on as a mischievous boy incites a
terrier to worrv a cat.    No one else, how-
at *
ever, had any desire to see this, but, on
the contrary, would probably have interfered in the interest of the sick child, so
we bid good night to the party, and went
But while there, bearing in mind the
remarks of the lone Yankee, I questioned
the two young half-breeds as to the probability of the Indians sending their
children to school if any missionary or
teacher were to establish himself on the
Island (Cormorant Island). They both
said that all the Indians would do so, and
were anxiously waiting for some white
teacher to come amongst them. It is
certain that the ignorance and horrible
barbarity which they practise do not
long survive the presence amongst them
of a man who is there to enlighten them,
and not trade with them. The atrocious
barbarity  of  the  Tsimpseans   has   been
VOL.  H. E WmWmymmm
much ameliorated by and is disappearing
before the influence of Mr. Crossby,
Mr. Duncan and Mr. Collinson, and it
would be a great thing if something could
be done to extend the benefit of even the
most elementary teaching to some of the
other tribes. It is not pleasant to reflect
that slavery is continued within our possessions, even though it be only amongst
Indians, more particularly as the killing
of a slave is regarded as a light matter,
and is or recently was common as a means
of satisfying some fancy or obeying some
Of late years something tending this
way has been done by the Government,
and a great step towards getting them all
properly in hand has been taken by Mr.
Laird, in instructing the recently appointed
Commission to settle the question of
their reserves. But a Government cannot
go out of its proper sphere to do everything, and the elevation of these Indians
from the hideous condition of barbarity in CONDITION  OF  THE  INDIANS,
which they now are, requires missionary
as well as governmental aid. Possibly
one may assist the other. Whatever can
be done within the range of his duty is, I
believe, done by Colonel Powell, the Indian Commissioner here; but when one
sees a settled village, such as that on
Alert Bay, in such a condition as we witnessed it, and observes the tribes of Queen
Charlotte's Islands deserting a splendid
home to live by the practice of vice and
die from the effects of gin, one cannot
help wishing that some of the members
who are so eager to flock through the
gates of the Church would come out here
and show the Indians, who are willing to
be shown, that dog-feasts and medicine-
dances are not really of much medicinal
efficacy, and that it is more convenient to
live decently than to die in a ditch.
The Indians of the coast do not compare at all favourably with those of the
plains or with the Chippeways. Their
perpetual life in a canoe dwarfs and dis-
torts the growth of their lower limbs, and
their way of living amongst the debris of
fish is filthy and disgusting. I doubt
whether they are as intelligent as any of
the tribes on the other side, while on the
other hand their foolish and degrading
customs and beliefs are very different
from any traditions that have weight with
those Indians we have hitherto dealt with
in Manitoba and the North-west. But
they are tractable, and now entirely
under the control of the white man. It
is a question whether much will ever be
made of them; they have not the country
of their kindred across the mountains;
but it would not be difficult to do something towards civilizing them a little, and
if the accounts given of the interior of
Queen Charlotte's Islands be true, those
Indians at least might be made to see
the advantage of simulating the white
man in something more than his vices and
his dress.
We next met the Amethyst in Burrard's BURRARD S   INLET.
Inlet on Monday the 4th, from whence
we were all together to start across the
country to New Westminster on the
Eraser and thence up to Kamloops beyond
the Cascade range. Burrard's Inlet derives its principal notoriety from the fact
that it is the rival of Bute Inlet in the
struggle for the terminus of the Pacific
Railway. If the line were brought down
the Fraser it would terminate at Burrard's Inlet, and, of course, there are a
great number of people who laugh to
scorn Bute Inlet and Esquimalt, and
point to the Eraser and Burrard's Inlet.
-Asa harbour it has points of advantage,
being superior to other places northward
of it, except to the very far north, with
the drawback of having an eight-knot
tide in and out of its bay—a very serious
drawback. In addition to that, the sand
bar formed out in the straits by the flow
of the Eraser is inconveniently close to
the Inlet. Neither of these objections
is   insuperable,   but both   have  weight. 54
From the land line point of view any
opinion other than that of an engineer—
and not all engineers are accepted—is
worthless, so I shall not offer one, though
when up the Fraser I will tell you what
the country looks like.
Before leaving Burrard's Inlet everyone
went down to a point in the bay with the
Governor-General to see one of the large
Douglas pines with which the country
abounds brought down. It was already
nearly cut through, so as to save time,
and after considerable dodging about by
some of the party, in order to find shelter
in case it fell the wrong way, the two men
who stood out on their boards ready to
begin received their signal, and in about
ten minutes this giant of the forest, whose
height seemed never ending, came toppling over with a mighty crash, and a
fall so heavy that it shook the earth in a
most perceptible manner for over twenty
yards round. Although not the largest
tree that we saw, it was an immense one EXPORT  OF  TIMBER
to our way of thinking. Lord Dufferin
clambered up upon the stump, and stood
about twelve feet from the ground, at
which height he told us it was about six
feet across. It measured over a hundred
feet to the first branch on the fallen trunk,
and by calculating the rings we found
that it was an infant sapling when Columbus was a boy. At Burrard's Inlet there
are two saw-mills—one in the village of
Grenville and one opposite—which together turn out from twenty-two to thirty
million feet a year, and export it to the
South American Coast, Australia, and
China. Australia is the principal market.
Some little time ago there was a very
extensive order from the young Emperor
of China,. including a demand for two
sticks sixty feet long and seventy-two
inches through, which were intended for
pillars for a new palace, but the Emperor
died and the order fell through. These
two mills sometimes employ between two
and three hundred hands. wem
The start for New Westminster was
made from a small hamlet called Hastings,
a little up the Inlet, to which place the
New Westminster people had sent carriages to take the Governor-General. The
road between the two places is about nine
miles, and is through the heart of a pine
forest. It was very hilly and very dusty,
and descends upon the town by a height
commanding a splendid view of the Fraser.
New Westminster itself is situated on
a shelf overlooking the Fraser River,
which rolls at some distance down beneath
the long main street of the city. We
could hardly tell what the town looks like
on ordinary occasions, for the inhabitants
had so exerted themselves to receive the
Governor-General and Lady Dufferin that
the city proper looked like the least part
of what we saw. There was the same
tasteful display of intermingled pines and
bunting which we had seen at Victoria in
such profusion, and beyond the last of the
arches and welcoming mottoes on private RECEPTION  AT  NEW WESTMINSTER.
houses was a series of evergreen buildings,
the central one of which was carpeted
and provided with an inner bower, elevated
on a dais, lined with lace curtains, and
furnished with handsome armchairs, as a
reception-room for their Excellencies.
Another evergreen structure had been
raised by the Indians, who had placed
over its portals the motto, m Welcome
to our Great Chief." There were several
others, including one on which an inviting luncheon had been spread, and
here (in the general locality, not in the
luncheon tent,) were assembled those
whom New Westminster most respects
and most admires.
Their Excellencies dismounted from
their carriage, having been cheered half-
way along Main Street by the populace,
and rung in by the chimes in the tower
of a neighbouring church, and took their
place in the lace-appointed bower, Lady
Dufferin having to arrive at that point
over a path strown with flowers by the THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
young girls who had assembled to greet
her. At the same time the Volunteer
Company, who had escorted them from
their first entrance into the town, presented arms, the crowd again cheered,
a salute was fired from a battery in front
of the Pavilion by a most creditable-looking battery of artillerymen, and there was
a general excitement and warmth of welcome which could hardly have been expected from a population so limited in
numbers. Lady Dufferin having been
presented with an address by Miss
Macaulay and a bouquet of flowers by
Miss Webster, two young ladies of whose
names mere mention is sufficient in New
Westminster, the Mayor of the city presented His Excellency with an address,
and then introduced the members of the
Corporation and the principal ladies and
gentlemen of the neighbourhood.
The address from New Westminster was
| To His Excellency the Right Honourable
Sir Frederick Temple, Earl of Dufferin
K.P., K.C.B.,  P.O.,   Governor-General
of Canada, &c, &c, &c.
I May it please Your Excellency :—
I In the name of the people of New
Westminster city and district, I have
the honour most respectfully to approach
Your Excellency with assurances of our
devoted loyalty to the Person, Throne,
and Government of Her Most Gracious
Majesty the Queen, and to Your Excellency
as Her Majesty's representative.
| It is also my pleasing duty to convey
to Your Excellency and to the Countess of
Dufferin our sense of the high honour
which has been conferred upon us by the
visit of Your Excellencies to this remote
I We trust that this visit to the Western
Gate of the Dominion will be a source
of gratification to Your Excellencies, and
that you will  carry  back  with  you   to ■■■■■*■■■■■■■■
Eastern Canada pleasing recollections of
British Columbia; and we beg most
respectfully to assure Your Excellency
that among us the Earl and Countess of
Dufferin will ever be remembered as
havingladded fresh lustre to the Canadian
name by the frank and cordial manner
in which Your Excellencies have ever
identified themselves with the interests,
the hopes, and the pleasures of the people
among whom Your Excellency so worthily
represents the beloved Sovereign of these
(Signed) *    "T. R. McInnes.
I Mayor of New Westminster.'
To   which   the   Governor-General   replied :—
"Mr. Mayor,
11 beg   to   acknowledge   with   many
thanks the address which you have presented me,   on  behalf of  the  people  of
New Westminster city  and district,   and
in reply I desire to assure you that, as
Her Majesty's representative, I fully appreciate the universal loyalty exhibited
throughout this beautiful Province towards the Government, Throne, and
Person of the Queen.
" I have also to thank you most heartily
for the very kind welcome with which
you have greeted Lady Dufferin and myself on our arrival amongst you.
O ml
% Having just' returned from a survey
of the magnificent coast line which forms
the western boundary of the Dominion of
Canada, we now propose to penetrate
through the Cascade Range into the
interior, and I have no doubt that our
gratification in this second portion of our
progress will quite equal that which has
been afforded us by our trip northwards.
"I need not assure you that I have
always taken the liveliest interest in the
welfare  of   British Columbia,   and   that
nothing shall ever be  wanting upon my ■MM
part to promote the interests and to forward
the views of the inhabitants.
I We have been everywhere received
with the greatest cordiality and kindness,
and we should be indeed ungrateful if we
did not carry home with us the most
pleasant reminiscences of this conntry and
its people."
Then followed addresses from the representative men from the several townships and settlements in this neighbourhood of the Fraser River to all of which
Lord Dufferin replied in his usual happy
and complete manner.
During the time of the reception of
these addresses we heard great shouting
and firing of guns approaching nearer
and nearer the platform which the pavilion
overlooked, and presently two large fleets
of gaily-dressed canoes went singing,
firing, paddling along the river bank.
They reappeared shortly, as I will mention.
But in the meantime some more addresses REPLY TO  THE   GOOD  TEMPLARS,
were presented to the Governor-General.
A gentleman read out an address from the
Good Templars of New Westminster—
who, by the way, had raised a beautiful
arch, on which were the words in white
flowers, " Good Templars welcome the Earl
and Countess of Dufferin"—and in reply
Lord Dufferin said :—
cc Gentlemen,
" As the representative of Her Majesty
the Queen I beg to return you my very
best   acknowledgments    for    your   loyal
O at J
address, at the same time that I express
to you my own and Her Majesty's acknow-
ml ml U ml
ledgments for the kind welcome you have
extended to us personally.
" I am fully alive to the many evils attending upon the abuse of spirituous
liquors, especially in a climate which,
like that of Canada, seems to invest their
intoxicating properties with additional
energy, and I am glad to think that the
justices of the Supreme Court should exert 64
the influence and the respect which their
counsels so properly inspire to check and
discountenance the evils flowing from this
source. In conclusion, allow me to
assure you that I shall always entertain
the greatest solicitude for the welfare and
prosperity of the inhabitants of this Pro
By this time the Indians were preparing
to pay their respects, and their approach
was heralded by the sounds of military
words of command given in the
Indian language. They formed a long
procession, which was headed by a band
of Indians from St. Mary's Catholic
mission, carrying banners, whose injunctions pointed to a combination of
morality with enterprise. Following this
band came a long array of Indian
volunteers. Curiously enough the greater
number of them were dressed in the
cavalry jackets of U.S. troops. This led
to inquiries, the answers to which threw A  TRIAL  OF  PATIENCE,
considerable light upon the manner in
which the Treasury of the United States
is swindled by Government officials, and
the care which is taken to cover up
the tracks that are left in the perpetration
The pow-wow that ensued upon the
introduction of the Indians was, if lengthy,
at least full of good assurances. His
Excellency's reply, while conveying the
sentiments which Her Majesty and Her
Government feel towards our fellow-
subjects of the native races, laboured
under   the    slight   disadvantage   of   re-
o <****>
quiring five different translations, which
were made sentence by sentence in order
that different chiefs and their followers
might understand. This kind of public
address has its advantages, but is a
little trying to the patience. But Lord
Dufferin has great patience, and never
appears to be wearied in the midst of
what must be very trying work. As for
Lady Dufferin, her energy is no less re-
markable than the pleasure she exhibits
in doing what to a lady is really hard
work. A dusty drive of nine miles over
a series of risings and fallings is in itself
something that suggests | a spell" and
vinous recuperation; but Lady Dufferin,
seeing hard work ahead, went straight
at it without halt or hesitation, and
for at least three hours was busily engaged
doing it all as pleasantly and cheerfully as
if it were all the newest kind of delightful
sensation. One often growls at having to
do some duty which one thinks might be
easily dispensed with, but the example set
by the lady who at present presides over
Canadian society ought to shame many from
ever again approaching a duty with any
other intention than that of cheerfully and
satisfactorily performing it.
There was then an Indian regatta, and
after dinner, which no one succeeded in
obtaining until past seven o'clock, for
everything was subordinated to the welcoming the Governor-General, one of the INDIAN  REGATTA.
prettiest sights I have ever beheld was seen
on the river. A large fleet of canoes—
the combined fleets of the morning's demonstration—still dressed with their masts
and flags, but now brilliantly lighted by
pine torches, shot out from several points
into the stream. They were full of men
and women, some of whom paddled, while
others- held aloft the blazing torches. On
mustering in the river they began a song
of peace, .commencing to paddle at the
same time, and rushed by the steamer,
on board of which we were, apparently
one mass of fire and flags. Then the
steamer moved out into the stream placing
the fleet of canoes between herself and the
shore, and so showing the torchlight at a
little distance. The canoes seemed to be
led by an Indian distinguishable from the
others by his red coat and gold laced hat,
who with a picked crew in a racing canoe—
which is differently shaped from the rough
weather canoes—dashed ahead at every
fresh movement or alignment thdt was made
One chief had had his two canoes lashed
together and a platform constructed over
them. On this he had mounted a gun,
with which he saluted the Governor-
General at intervals. As we went out into
the stream the canoes formed into three
lines, the torches now looking, as they
danced upon the river, like animated
bouquets of fire. At the same time a
bunch of similar fire bouquets appeared at
the other end of the street leading and
open to the river. These, rapidly spreading out into a line, went skipping along
the margin of the river, and increasing in
numbers every minute, made the line
more extended and more thickly studded
with the dancing bunches of fire. Some
of the principal houses and stores along
the upper street were illuminated; so that
there was a terrace of stationary light, beneath it the extraordinary phenomenon of
a thick line of dancing fire-bouquets having
no visible connection with anything, and
then in the foreground the mass of glanc-
ing,  dipping,   rising, Brobdingnag  stars
that were filling the air immediately above
the canoes full of shouting, singing, cheer-
ing Indians.    There was a band on board
the steamer and another in a canoe, together with the singing and cheering, filling the air with their reverberations.    The
citizens were in numbers along the river,
and everybody and everything seemed to be
moving and taking part in the excitement.
Even the rush of the river might be taken
as part  of the  picturesque  hub-bub,   so
swiftly did it flow and  dash   itself into
spray  against  the   bows   of   the   boats,
canoes,   and   steamer ;   only  the  grand
moonlit hills that back the Fraser rested
in dignified serenity.    When some one on
board said that their town only numbered
six hundred white inhabitants, I thought
he was jesting; for by the bustle, the excitement, the general uproar of welcome,
and incidents appertaining to the reception,   one   naturally   imagined   that   the
inhabitants   must   have  numbered some wmm
thousands. But it was done by what
Lord Dufferin once called | haustum
longum, haustum fortem, et haustum
omnes simul" by a long pull, a strong
pull, and a pull altogether, and with the
aid of their Indian friends the inhabitants
of New Westminister succeeded in receiving the Queen's representative in a style
as wonderful as it was worthy of admiration and praise.
While yet the excitement continued,
and while still the sensation of not knowing which was head and which was tail
remained, a deputation of citizens came
on board to deliver to His Excellency the
following document on the subject of the
great question—the Pacific Railway. It
shows that of which we saw some indications immediately on our arrival at Victoria
—viz., the difference of opinion that exists
between the mainland and Vancouver
Conveyed to Lord Dufferin by a Deputation of the citizens of New Westminster
and District, during his Lordship's visit
to this city:
| J. We beg to assure your Excellency
of your hearty welcome in New Westminster and the Mainland, and trust that
your visit may be productive of pleasure
to your Excellency and Lady Dufferin.
12. That we regard your Lordship's
visit to the Mainland as likely to effect
the only sure solution of the differences
between the Province and the Dominion.
"3. The people of this district are
unanimous in the feeling of pleasure with
which they regard the setting aside of the
proposition known as the | Carnarvon
Terms," confidently hoping that a new
proposition will be more beneficial to the
interest of this Province and the Dominion
generally. ?$:* wr-gsr-
|4. "While patiently awaiting the final
settlement of the subjects at issue between this Province and the Federal
Government, particularly in regard to the
adoption of a route for the railway, we
would request that a thorough survey of
the Fraser Valley be made before the
question is finally settled.
I 5. We wish also to impress on your
Excellency that a very strong feeling
exists at the injustice that has been done
this section of the Province by the continued delay in making a location survey
of the Fraser River route, which has been
promised on more than one occasion, and
we would consider a great wrong would
be done to the settled portion of the
Mainland by the selection of any other
route until the Fraser River route has
been thoroughly surveyed.
I 6. We consider that the best and
only way to adjust our differences is
commencement   of  railway   construction
s'ssas'SS'S's^^ *m
on the Mainland and compensation for
| 7. That in estimating the amount of
compensation to be given to the Province,
your Excellency's Government will take
into consideration the great loss caused
to the Mainland, no less than to the
island, by the delays in Railway construction.
I 8. That we desire to express to your
Excellency our disapproval of any threats
being held out of separation from the Dominion, as we feel that such a course is
unworthy of an intelligent and loyal community.
By the time the deputation, the members of which had some private conversation with Lord Dufferin, had departed,
night had well settled in, the canoes had
carried their loyal occupants to their
ranches, the citizens had departed to their
homes;   even  the  Chinese gongs, which THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
had been going all day, had ceased, and all
was once more quiet and at rest. Then
Lord and Lady Dufferin, late as it was,
went out fishing, and assisted in the
capture of a large sturgeon and several
salmon. <o
Provincial Squabbles—Journey from New "Westminster
to Yale—Harrison River—Fort Hope—Scenery of the
Fraser River—Yale—Address to the Governor-General—Indian.Interpretation of Lord Dufferin's Speech
—Chinese Residents—Conveyance of Goods from
Yale—Teams—Bull-whackers—Discovery of a Crop-
npHE Royal City, with the Governor-
-L General and the whole of his party,
left New Westminster at midnight, 5th
September, and started on the journey
up the Fraser. The first thing that
greeted one's eyes in the morning was the
morning paper, the | Dominion Pacific
Herald," which was published late last
night in time for the boat. That journal
confirmed  the  impression,   derived  from 76
the memorandum  delivered to the Governor-General,   that  British   Columbia,   as
distinguished from Vancouver Island, sees
the   Pacific   Railway  question   with   the
dependent   issues   of   compensation   for
delay, as well as the | Carnarvon Terms,"
in quite another light than  that in  which
it   is  viewed   in  Victoria.    Speaking  of
British Columbia   and  Vancouver Island
as  two places   may be cavilled  at, since
they are politically  one; but their sentiments regarding the Pacific Railway are
far apart, and if the two places are verily
one, the whole, instead of a part, must of
course be heard on any  question of compensation.    The mainland British Columbians do not wish the Carnarvon Terms to
be carried out,  for they think their suggestion in the first place was ill-advised,
and they  repudiate  the  idea of a  compensation   which   is   to   compensate   the
Island   only.     I   have   heard   it   stated
that any money compensation that might
be given would be injudicious, by reason DISTRUST.
of the contention to which it would
give rise amongst the local politicians, and
the pressure that would be brought upon
the Government for its immediate distribution in a manner more calculated to
enrich individuals than to effect any good
to the Province, or even to confer any
benefit on the community in general.
One of the things which is striking in
British Columbian affairs is the general
distrust exhibited, and tone of disparagement used, amongst men in speaking of
their local political leading men on either
side of the dividing fence. They seem to
think that the country is over-crowded
with rulers and guides, and that the
people are used as counters in a game
between two small knots of politicians.
The Government is thought to be weighty
and cumbrous for so small a population
and Mark Twain's epigrammatic satire,
touching the folly of using the machinery
of the Great Eastern to run a sardine box,
is  applied   to  the  circumstances  of this 78
Province. They are all very much behind
the scenes in their own little theatre, and
in their annoyance frequently feel as if
they would like, were it possible, to
pull down the building and construct
another more adapted to their means and
requirements. Too much time and public
money is spent, they think, in politics
which have no other object than the
victory and consequent aggrandisement of
one or other of the two small groups of
politicians. A money compensation cast
into this group would, it is thought, be a
magnificent windfall for a larger or a
smaller number of persons, as the case
might be, but for the Province at large
would be of little advantage. The compensation, therefore—think those whose
opinions I have indicated—should be something not divisible by, or amongst, those
who may at the moment chance to be
above in the scramble for the distribution
of Federal supplies. This chronic provincial contention has for some time surged PROMISE   TO  VANCOUVER  ISLAND.
round the question existing between
British Columbia and the other conjoined
Provinces of the Dominion. The principal
scene of the local political contest is in
Vancouver Island.
Vancouver Island has been promised,
by the | Carnarvon Terms," the construction of the railway from Esquimalfc to
Nanaimo; therefore, any party desiring
to re-arrange with Canada and to set aside
the | Carnarvon Terms" fights in a locality
hostile to any conciliatory measures they
may desire to propose, while their enemies
—for the word opponents is hardly strong
enough to convey the character of the
contest—have only to oppose anything
and everything, except that which has
been virtually declared out of the question,
to acquire the support of nearly all the
Island politicians, and one or two of the
mainland who for other reasons are with
the opposing power. The knowledge,
informally acquired, that the Nanaimo
and Esquimalt Railway would not be built, 80
set the | Standard" newspaper afire with
indignation, and induced its editor to state
explicitly that separation must and should
be the result of his disappointment. Fortunately his language was so violent and
his insult to the Governor-General so
gratuitous, that he frightened even his
own friends at the outset, and it may be
that the firm position and outspoken views
of the mainlanders will have the effect of
inducing the islanders to see that their
demands are wholly selfish, and that as
they are not the whole of the Province,
they must shape their conduct in a
measure by that of their neighbours if
they wish to be heard at all.
In the meantime the location of the
railway is to be determined, and so irreconcilable are the views of the two sections, of British Columbia, that no government in the world can hope to make, any
reasonable arrangement as to the route that
is likely to meet the views of both. Considerable stress has been laid on an Order
in  Council—passed  in  the late Government's time—determining the locality of
the terminus, as well as the | Carnarvon
Terms,"    the    sanctity   of   Government
pledges, the  necessity  for  keeping  promises, and so forth; but while admitting
the  strength  of all these considerations
under ordinary circumstances, one is inclined to think, after seeing this country,
that they have but feather weight after all,
and  that it is justifiable to urge that, in
view of the gigantic work which Canada is
about to perform,  pledges  or   promises
given, without full knowledge, ought not
to be considered binding on a government,
and that the most practicable and judicious
route  for the road is the consideration,
and  the only consideration which should
be allowed  to   have any determining influence.    And as the island will be  disgusted  if  the  mainland is satisfied, and
vice versa,  a statesman having no undue
partiality for either will satisfy one portion
of the Province, and will probably have
VOL.   II. G mmamm
with him the sense of the whole of the
rest of the Dominion in putting aside
every argument which does not go to
prove the superiority of the desired direction.
The journey from New Westminster to done by steamboat up the Fraser
River.    The river is swift, and in some
places narrowed by sand-bars.    The passage   (one   hundred  miles)  is  made  up
stream iu about twelve to fourteen hours,
and  of course  in  a much  shorter  time
down from Yale to New Westminster and
on to to the mouth, twelve miles beyond.
The river runs through a series of mountain ranges, and on either side is a low
level flat  of small but varying breadth,
which is  more  or less covered with deciduous trees.    At about fifty miles above
New Wesminster, the | Harrison " River
joins the Fraser.    Numerous deltas  and
small islands have been formed at various
points by. the streams from the neighbour-
ssss'S'sss's^^ FORT  HOPE
ing high land, and the river wears the appearance of changing its channels more
rapidly than rivers in rocky countries are
usually found to do. The interior of the
country in the neighbourhood of the
Harrison River is quite unlike that which
one would expect to see on either side of
the Fraser. One sees nothing but a heavy
growth of pines, but there is a large tract
of open country of excellent farming land
commencing at a very short distance from
the river, and it will probably be found, so
I am told, when there are more people to
spread about this vast range of mouutains,
that there are more valleys of a similar
Thirty miles above Harrison River is
Fort Hope, a Hudson's Bay Company's
post, and the residence of, amongst ,6ther
people, Mr. Dewdney, the M.J3, in the
Dominion House of Commons for Yale
district. This little place was very prettily decorated to welcome the Governor-
General,    who   with   Lady   Dufferin,  .and
G 2 HMMi
accompanied in fact by every one on
board, went on shore to accept the compliment offered. Lady Dufferin was welcomed on behalf of other resident ladies
by Mrs. Dewdney, to whose house she
went while Lord Dufferin was there.
There was a general rush on the part of
other people to buy furs, but neither at
Hope nor at any other post which we have
yet seen on this side are the furs equal to
those which come into Manitoba from the
north and north-western districts, nor are
those which Thunder Bay merchants purchase from the Keewatin Indians.
Having left Hope the steamer continues
an uninterrupted journey to Yale. Of
the scenery of the Fraser River I would
gladly say nothing, in order to avoid the
task of attempting to describe that which
beggars all mere verbal description, and
requires to be seen in order that it may
be realized. It is not that its mountain §
are lofty, grand, and sublime—though on
these grounds alone it is a river of rivers SCENERY,
—for were its beauty dependent upon
these characteristics alone, we, at least,
so recently returned from the north, might
have made • unfavourable comparisons with
Bute Inlet. But whereas at Bute Inlet
the mountains rose abruptly from the
water on either side in two straight,
rugged, uninviting walls, the mountains
of the Fraser were just far enough from
the river-side to lose the harsh appearance
too great closeness gives, and being seen
from the winding river, presented a variety
of soft lights and tints which in the case
of close proximity would have appeared
only as deep shade and glaring light.
And going up the Fraser you see these
mountains not only sufficiently close on
either side, but also in a continuous succession of spurs and peaks, which appear
and disappear as the turns of the river
open up new vistas before you. Sometimes, as at Fort Hope, the view on
every side is shut in by the mountains,
and in such a case, where every mountain Wmmm
has its own individuality not to be mistaken
for that of its neighbour, and the shade of
each passing cloud is caught, coloured,
and laid upon the mountain side, the
scene appears to be one beyond excelling.
But it must, of course, be seen to be
thoroughly appreciated, for no painter can
place his spectators in the same atmosphere as that in which they see the Fraser
River, and art cannot supply the same
effects that are produced either on the
spectator himself, or on the scenery upon
which he gazes, by those subtle powers
which nature reserves to herself. Still it
is much to be desired that Mr. Verner,
Mr. O'Brien, Mr. Cresswell, Mr. Armstrong, or some other Canadian painters,
would avail themselves of the opportunities that are offered in this region, and
add to the rapidly developing collections of
Canadian scenery some pictures of spots
in British Columbia.
Yale, which we reached in  the  afternoon,  is   a   small  mining-trading  town, ADDRESS.
built by the side of a Hudson's Bay fort.
It is at the head of navigation, and in
the Fraser River mining excitement did a
large business. Now it is very quiet, and
does a small but steady business with
miners, packmen, teamsters, and such
heterogeneous customers as it can find.
It had turned out bravely to receive the
Governor-General, not only gaily ornamenting its one street, but even decorating its outlying bridge and one thoroughfare that will be a street some day if it
lives. Yale, however, is more important
than it looks, for it is the centre of
business of a large tract of country which
is not seen from the river, and the people
of which are not so much in the habit
of hanging about the towns as they would
be in the east.
At Yale the following address was presented to the Governor-General:—
"To the Right Honourable Sir Frederick
Temple,   Earl   of  Dufferin,   Viscount 88
and Baron Claneboye of Claneboye,
County Down, Governor-General of the
Dominion of Canada, &c, &c.
I May it please Your Excellency,
"The inhabitants of Yale, British
Columbia, approach Your Excellency as
representative of our beloved Sovereign
Her Majesty Queen Victoria with feelings
of sincere loyalty and attachment, and
most heartily welcome you to our town.
Although distant—and at present unfortunately isolated—from the rest of the
Dominion, yet we have watched with
interest and admiration Your Excellency's
career since assuming your exalted position.
| We fully appreciate the honour of
Your Lordship's visit to this Province,
and with pleasure recognize your desire
to become personally acquainted with the
places and people under Your Excellency's
benign rule. Such an acquaintance and
knowledge, we feel assured, will result in
our mutual benefit.
| We would also extend right hearty
welcome to your esteemed lady the Countess of Dufferin, and we trust that your
sojourn amongst us will prove a time of
unalloyed pleasure."
In reply to this the Governor-General
said that it gave him great pleasure to
receive the address just presented, and
also to express his satisfaction with
the assurances of the people's sincere
loyalty to Her Majesty's throne and person. He' had always taken great pleasure
in becoming acquainted with the people
of all parts of the Dominion, and was
glad to find the hardy pioneers of civilization in these distant regions second to
none in those characteristic feelings and
sentiments which were the support and
mainspring of a great nation. He then
thanked them for their kind expressions
of feeling towards Lady Dufferin and himself, and assured them that it would afford
him great pleasure to promote their wel- ill
fare and prosperity by any means in his
His Excellency had been received by a
guard of honour, of the resident Indians,
which he inspected, and this body of
natives, who are trappers, troops, trip-
men, or travellers, as occasion may require, having completed their military
duties, addressed the Governor-General
through the medium of their chief, who
was greatly assisted by the timely promptings and suggestions of his wife.    Lord.
Dufferin replied to this speech—which was
simply an exposition of the goodness of
the Indian tum-tum, or heart—in a few
appropriate sentences, which he spoke to
the interpreter whom the Indians had
supplied from their own number. But
what a language for oratory is the Fraser
River tongue! The few words which
Lord Dufferin had said, when handled by
this gifted savage, became an oration that
Burke might have envied, and some even
of our own time might have in vain sought CHINESE  ADDRESS,
to emulate. There was no prospective termination to it; sentence followed sentence,
exhortation succeeded explanation, until
it really became interesting to speculate
upon what he might be putting into the
mouth of the Governor-General. One of
my neighbours in the crowd informed me,
I There's no let up in him once he's
started," and it really looked as if the
Indian had determined to make the most
of his opportunity, and, having entrapped
a Governor-General's endorsation, had
concluded, as my neighbour remarked, to
I orate considerable." But the driver of
Lord Dufferin's carriage, seeing an opening, whipped up his horses and left the
Indian with bis friends to moralize over
the vanity of vanities, as exemplified in
the slippery nature of Governors-General.
At Yale the ubiquitous Chinaman had
erected a pagoda-like, lantern-hung arch,
with a welcoming motto : and the resident
I John" of most decided eminence, surrounded by the many whoia he represented, 7
and mounted on a carpeted platform, read
out from a roll of red paper covered with
Chinese characters, in a sing-song voice
that sounded like the tolling of different
sized bells, the following address :—
I Yung a tung a lung tung chutpse Souchong,
Chop it up with chopsticks chou-chou chang;
Opium in a junk full birds'-nests couchong
Drinking cups of Hyson, buskey bang, &c."
I won't be quite sure that these were
the exact words that the amiable old
Chinaman employed, but they sounded a
good deal like what I have written, and
the sense being interpreted is as follows :
I To His Excellency the Earl of Dufferin,
Governor-General of Canada.
" We, the Chinese residents of the town
of Yale, B.C., beg to approach Your Excellency, as the representative of the
Queen of England in the Dominion of
Canada, with the offer of a sincere welcome to this town, and that you will
carry  back   none  but   good  and   happy REPLY  TO   CHINESE  ADDRESS,
reminiscences of our people and your visit
to this Province on your return to the seat
of Government."
To which His Excellency replied :—
I Gentlemen,
I It is with especial pleasure that I
accept an address from the Chinese subjects of Her Majesty at this place. Where-
ever I go I receive the best reports of the
Chinese residents as regards their industry,
sobriety, orderly conduct, and loyal obedience to the laws; and I am glad to
think that their European fellow-subjects
of British Columbia should invariably
treat them, as I understand to be the
case, with the friendly courtesy and
generous good feeling which should prevail in a community where impartial justice
reigns supreme, and none of us can
afford to consider ourselves independent
of each other's help in developing the
resources and promoting the prosperity of
the Province." 94
Lord and Lady Dufferin drove after the
reception to the house of Mr. Oppen-
heimer—an eminent merchant of British
Columbia—where they stayed for the
night, and the rest of the party made such
other arrangements as best suited their
convenience, in anticipation of an early
start up country by coach in the morning.
We spent the few«remaining hours of
the evening in making such purchases as
were necessary for our journey, securing
means of conveyance to Kamloops Lake—
for we had missed the weekly stage—
inspecting the town, and interviewing
I John," and then made anxious inquiries
at the very last moment touching the
probabilities of the weather on the morrow.
Yale is the place of starting, not merely
for Kamloops and the North Thompson to
T§te Jaune Cache, but for Lilloet, the
Cariboo Mines, and other localities, the
roads to which branch off from the Kamloops route.    It is the head of steamboat YALE.
navigation on the Fraser, for the shoal
waters begin immediately above it, and
the traveller is here obliged to abandon all
kinds of water conveyance and take to the
mountains. The evidences of this are at
once apparent. The river narrows at
once, and disappears into a cafion, while
in the street and about the neighbourhood
one sees either a train of pack mules about
to start, or another, dusty and weary,
just arriving, or, perhaps, a miner's drove
of mules and horses picking their steps
down the bank of the river to water,
following some one or two sagacious
belled animals, or possibly a large,
double-waggoned | bull-team," heavily
laden with goods for the interior.
All the goods required at the mines, in
the stores of the interior, in the wayside
stopping places, and in fact wherever used,
are carried over the mountain road on
the backs of pack- animals, or in the heavy,
lumbering waggons of the bull-whackers.
In  a  horse  or  mule   train   each  animal 96
carries from three to four hundred pounds,
even three hundred being  a good pack,
and the train travels from twelve to sixteen
miles  a  day.    Many of the  pack trains
belong to   the   Indians,   and  nearly   all
are  driven  by them.    The women  take
part   in   the    work,   and   even   a   very
small boy or girl can assist in keeping the
mules  up  in  their  places  by  whipping,
yelling, or throwing stones at them.    At
night the train camps on some convenient
place in the immediate vicinity of the road,
where   every   one   sees  his pack-saddles
carefully arranged in line, that confusion
and delay in the morning may be avoided.
The freight on goods is high, varying,
of   course,    according   to   the    distance
packed, but wages, food, -and everything
is dear, and in a peculiar way the dearness
of freight keeps up the price on the road,
while the high prices to be paid for wages,
keep, hay, &c, keep up the tremendous
charges for freighting.    The men who are
employed in freighting on this road are COST  OF  LIVING.
well paid for the six months during which
it lasts. A stage-driver receives from
eighty to one hundred and twenty-6ve
dollars a month; a bull-whacker (all oxen
are bulls in this country), about one hundred dollars and his rations; and even
I John's" much abused cheap labour is
rewarded at the rate of from thirty to
forty dollars a month, and sometimes, as
in the case of the cook at a stopping place,
a great deal more. An Indian receives
about a dollar a day when engaged for a
length of time, but as a rule they prefer
taking short-time jobs for which a specified
remuneration has been arranged. Everything is correspondingly dear, each, meal
costing a dollar, and a bed the same.
This seems to be the price all west of the
Rockies, beyond which even the smallest
pint-bottle of beer is half a dollar, and
anything in the shape "of | a drink" a
quarter, or, as here called^ | two bits."
They have throughout the western slope
this imaginary coinage of a "bit." It
arose  in the days when  payments  were
really made in bits of precious metal, and
it has survived the introduction of regular
coin,   principally   I   think   because any
irregular   defined  value  is  always   most
favourable to the store and saloon-keepers.
The men that earn these large wages do
not as a rule keep their money.    They stop
work in the winter, and spend what they
have madp, so that when summer comes
round they have to resume their toilsome
occupation, and hope for the coming of
some gold discovery in  which they  can
take a hand.    The teams they drive are
unlike   those   used  in  less  mountainous
regions.    The waggons are large, heavy,
high-boxed   vehicles,   fitted   with   heavy
double breaks, having powerful leverage,
without which the descent of the mountain
slopes would be impossible, or rather so
easy that no one would care about doing
it.    To make a team two of these waggons
are  fastened together,   and from ten  to
sixteen animals, according to circumstance,
Bss^c^m^^^sss^ssss&i BULL-WHACKERS.
harnessed to them. One man attends to
the break on each waggon, and usually
another drives. When horses or mules
are harnessed in, the driver frequently
rides the near wheeler, holding reins attached only to the leading horses. With
one hand he guides these along the road,
and with the other holds the strap with
which he works the break lever. All day
long he travels up and down the mountain
sides, occasionally throwing a stone at his
leaders who are beyond* the reach of his
whip. At night he halts generally in the
centre of the road, oftentimes in some
narrow part where no other vehicle can
pass without considerable trouble.
The bull-whackers camp early, turn
their animals loose, cook their supper,
and go to bed. As soon as the first streak
of dawn appears, sometimes before it,
they are up and out searching for their
oxen. Several hours go by before the
scattered animals are hunted up from
bushes, hollows, and thickets,  and then,
h 2 100
breakfast being eaten, the whacker goes
on his way again until the long shadows
of the pines warn him that it is time
to halt. They all hope, and believe, that
when more people come in fresh discoveries will be made, and then the
bull-whacking will be allowed | to rip"
and the more alluring occupation of digging will be resumed. There is a weekly
stage on this road, which is well horsed,
well driven, and considering all things
wonderfully safe. The nature of the
road necessitates good and well-trained
horses; such accidents as have happened
were owing to scary horses. Of the road
itself I will speak by-and-by. The stage
fare to Cariboo is eighty dollars, and the
same for returning, with a corresponding
rate for intermediate places. This, with
the four dollars a day for meals and bed
(and one gentleman charged us a dollar
and a half for luncheon and called me a
"pompious gent" into the bargain, because  I  declined a  cocktail   with him), A   "CROP  OUT."
makes it difficult for poor men to travel
on the road. The miner, going down
flush in the fall, does not care very
much what he pays; but the same individual returning in the spring, having
spent in the pleasures of city life all
that he had made by his toil in the
mountains,   is   obliged   to   shoulder his
5 O
pack and foot it along the weary miles
until he strikes his destination and makes
a pile, or comes out " dead broke."
While we were at Yale, an old mining
hand came in from the mountains at the
back of " Hope," where he had been
prospecting. He had found a " crop out"
(I think he called it) which would yield
ninety-six dollars to the ton, and he spoke
of this as being very good, because with
O at       O *
that on the surface the vein beneath would
be much richer. He said it was a difficult
place to get at, and when he had recorded
his claim, and other persons came to go
in there, a good many of them would
break their necks.    He seemed to have 102
found the place in an odd manner. While
prospecting on the mountain, he and the-
Indian with him stopped to watch a grizzly
bear that was chasing a mountain sheep.
The sheep made for the craggy rock,
jumping from one to the other, until he
reached a place where nothing could follow
him. Then he watched the bear with
calm indifference, while that disappointed
quadruped went off growling into a cave
in the mountains. The miner then set off
with the Indian lad to shoot the sheep,
and had hardly gone twenty paces when a
heavy avalanche of rock came down from
the peak above, carrying away the place
where he and the boy had been sitting;
and in meandering partly to reach the
sheep, and partly to find a new pass down
the side, the fortunate prospector discovered the specimens which he showed us
at Yale. He was going down to secure
his claim by recording it: the rule being,
as he said, that a discoverer was allowed
a hundred feet, and if he chose to form a SIR  MATTHEW  BEGBIE.
company of ten or more, then the grant
might be made for five hundred feet, but
that there the limit was.
It appears from everyone's account that
now-a-days the mining camps and all interior places are orderly and tolerably free
from crime. At the first start some well-
known Californian rowdies came in, and
for a while "ran the country;" but the
English Government had appointed a
Judge who took the bull by the horns,
and asserted the supremacy of the law at
once. A great many stories are told of
Judge, now Sir Matthew, Begbie and the
rowdies who came in with mining traditions of California, all having for their
point the determination of the Judge that
the law should be supreme. One story,
as an example of many :—
A party of rowdies, on their road to
the mines, were drinking in a way-side
saloon. Judge Begbie, travelling up country, stopped at the house and entered the
room where the miners were playing cards lift
and drinking whiskey. He was recognized at once, and a leading spirit of the
group   commenced  to  enlarge  upon  the
 I bully" times he was going to
have, and  how  he would  run things in
spite of the Britishers and their
 laws, winding  up  with some
reference  to judges,   and  a
promise  that  the boys   should  see some
 shooting,   every   substantive
being preceded by some ingeniously blasphemous oath.
This was intended as a brag for the
Judge's edification, and to show him that
he'd better be careful how he interfered
with the speaker's little amusements; but
the Judge, not seeing the thing in the
right way, stepped across the room, tapped
the gentleman on the shoulder, and remarked :—
I I've heard what you said, my friend,
and I've only to add this, that whenever
there is any shooting, I promise you there INTERIOR  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA.
As the astonished braggart looked up
at the herculean form that stood over him,
it mav have occurred to him that if he
said much. more the vigorous individual
who addressed him might not wait for the
shooting, but might begin the hanging at
once just to prevent unpleasantness. At
any rate, the result of the manner in
which the laws have been carried out in
the interior of British Columbia is that,
whereas at the first start the Indians murdered white men wherever they could
safely do so, and Califordian rowdies
threatened to make the place a hell, it
soon came to be one of the safest and
quietest places on the coast, and to-day
there is no danger to be feared by a single
wayfarer, rich or poor, than on the road
between Hamilton and Toronto. There is
not even a lawyer between Yale and
Cariboo. 106
A Joke—Reported Dangers of the Road—A Privilege of
English Nobility—Salmon Houses—Indian Method
of Catching Salmon—Fish-drying Platforms—Canons
of the Fraser River—The Fraser—Hell Gate—A Dangerous-looking Road—The Rule of the Road—Courage of Lady Dufferin—Camp on Jackass Mountain.
A T Victoria we had been told that it
-*-*- was very doubtful whether horses
could be found on the stage line to take
us up country, owing to the fact of all
extra accommodation being required for,
and general arrangements having been disturbed by, the Vice-Regal party. But
having telegraphed from New Westminster,
mentioning our desire to get on, we received the cheering reply from a gentleman
named Tingley, " All right; will govern
ourselves accordingly." We found, on
arrival, that while the only available
coaches had been secured for the Governor-General and suite, Mr. Tingley, who
is one of the partners in Barnard's stage
line, and a gentleman who doesn't understand the word "impossible," had provided
a double buggy and arranged relays of
horses, as desired by telegram. He, himself, being the most experienced driver on
the road, was to drive Lord and Lady
Dufferin, though at one time this arrange-
ment had nearly been upset by the
facetiousness of his partner, Mr. Barnard.
The latter came into the office where Mr.
Tingley was sitting, and said :—
I Tingley, the Govern or-General wants
to bring his own carriages up, and we are
to horse and drive them."
I Pshaw !" said Tingley. " They
wouldn't last twenty miles on those hills,
and they're not fitted with breaks."
I Well, he wants it, anyhow. THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
I All right. Bring them along, if he
can stand it, I can."
The aide-de-camp said," continued
Barnard, " that the Earl would require
the driver to wear his Lordship's livery."
Tingley took the cigar out of his mouth,
looked at it without saying a word for
a minute, and then asked,
"Well, and what did you say?"
I Well, I said I didn't quite know, I
didn't think you'd be quite comfortable in
them, specially if the knee-breeches was
part of it, but that I knew you'd like
to oblige his Lordship, so I wasn't
sure but what you'd put them on all
I Oh, you said that, did you ?" replied
"Yes, but there's one point I didn't
mention that the Earl's very particular
about they say, and I didn't know how
you might like it. You'll have to powder
your hair." REPORTED  DANGER,
I What did you say to that ?" said
I Well, I hesitated about it, but finally
I said I guessed you'd come out in powder
all right."
I Oh, you did, eh ? You didn't mention
that I'd like a bokay for my button-hole
and a cocked-hat, did you ?"
I No."    .
I Then I guess you had better drive
that coach yourself."
The joke was then explained, and
the services of the most energetic and
courteous of stage-managers secured.    We
o o
had heard a great deal in Victoria about
the dangers and general appearance of
this road, and I remembered having once
read a rather alarming account of it in
Milton and Cheedle's book. Moreover, we
were told that when a certain eminent
engineer—who some people say is a
Scotchman, others a Canadian, and others
a Fleming—went over the road, making a
journey from one side of the continent to 110
the other, he had insisted upon getting
out to walk down the hills, so one felt
little obliged to a gentleman who at Yale
discussed the projected journey.
I You're one of the reporters, ain't yer ?"
he said.
We had at times been taken possession
of as public property on the ground that
we were reporters, so I thought I would
draw the line.
"No, I'm not. I am a special correspondent."
He looked at me for a moment, then
spat on the ground and said,
I Oh gosh!" then after a pause he
added, "Are the others correspondents
too ?"
I Yes."
| Going in a double buggy, ain't yer ?"
I All the accidents happens in buggies.
Steve's accident happened in a buggy.
First-rate driver is Steve—best on the
line.    Cornwall's accident—that's him as
is a Senator down to Ottawa—happened
in a buggy. Same double buggy as you're
a-going up in. Steve—that's him as is
going to drive the Earl—he got over the
road and killed the horses and one passenger along of a wheelbarrow as the workmen had left on the road. It wasn't
Steve's fault any."
I And how," I asked, " did Senator
Cornwall come to grief?"
I Oh, he were driving with Captain
Layton—that's him as is with the Earl's
party now, with the white side whiskers
and beard—going up with you again, I
guess, ain't he?"
| Yes."      *
I Well, they were adriving the other
side of Jackass Mountain, it happened
when the nigh-side horse see a wheelbarrow in the road, and shied and pushed
the other horse off the road. Luckily
they didn't fall mor'n twenty feet, or
they'd a-got hurt. Senator Cornwall he
broke his leg."
o 112
"Are there any more accidents that you
know of ?" I asked.
I Why, you ain't skeared, are you ?"
I No, I only asked."
"No, there ain't many accidents on
this road. There was a double buggy
backed off the road about a mile or so
just round that first peak, killed a woman
and a child, I guess, and here, right here
by Spuzzum Creek, a mule-train got
over. Killed two mules—didn't kill no
drivers—they was on foot. But there
never ain't any accidents worth speaking
of on this road. I guess there ain't a
better stage road going. There," he continued, pointing to Captain Lay ton, " that's
him I was speaking of. Walks kinder
lame, don't he ?"
"Yes, the result of his accident with
Senator Cornwall, I suppose ?"
I Oh, no! it ain't. He didn't get no
hurb. His leg got broke out of a double
buggy agetting off the road some time
ago.    Wheelbarrow I   guess,  most times
*S£,f,^^^SS&^',^^^3Kg59 A PRIVILEGE  OF  ENGLISH  NOBILITY.       113
it's on account of wheelbarrows — men
mending the road."
| Are there any men mending the road
now |
I Yes, a good many, I guess. Biggest
freshet this spring we ever had—did a
lot of damage, mor'n a hundred dollars, I
guess. If you was to get into a accident
they'd put a piece about it in your paper,
I guess, wouldn't they ?"
"Very likely," I said. "It wouldn't
make a bad item."
"Might do harm to the road then if
you was to get over. That would be bad.
This yere's the Earl coming now, ain't it ?
Is that his Countess ? She's mighty young,
ain't she, for a Countess ?"
I told him that it was a privilege of the
nobility in England when their wives got
old to take younger ones and give the
title to them, and that the old ones were
all called dowagers, but that this was the
only wife Lord Dufferin had ever had, and
that she was still a young woman.    Then
VOL.  II. 1 114
I went off to see the buggy that had
broken Senator Cornwall's leg, and in
which we were to go to Kamloops, forming some mental resolutions as to what I
would do when wheelbarrows loomed up on
the road.
In order to keep ahead of the Governor-
General, who travelled with four horses
while we limited ourselves to two, and
witness his arrival at each point, we
started early next morning, and drove for
some way along the bank of the river, the
driver indicating the place where the mule
team had " got over" and killed the mules,
and the spot where the most recent fatal
buggy accident had taken place. We had
not gone more than a mile or two when
we saw a wheelbarrow* which some idiot
had left on the mountain-side of the road,
in defiance of the rule which prescribes that
everything should be left on the outer side,
and a little way beyond it an old Indian
woman, ugly enough to frighten any
number of horses, standing staring at us
s o o
from a projecting point of stone on the
mountain-side. We passed these waifs
satisfactorily, and then drove on at a
brisk rate along an excellent road which
gradually ascended the side of the heights
along which we were travelling. Our
attention was attracted at once by curious
looking   dog-kennel-like  structures,  high
o o * o
up in the pine-trees along the road, beneath   each  of   which the  trunk  of the
tree, was encircled by a band of tin, one
edge of which was made to fit closely on
the  tree  while the  other projected outwards, making a mushroom shape round
the trunk.    The structures above looked
like Indian graves, which are sometimes
placed  up   amongst   the   branches;   but
they proved to be " salmon houses," in
which  the  dried   fish   is  stored for the
winter,   the   tin   attachment   preventing
martens  and   other vermin from  climbing   and  stealing.    The  Indians  of  the
Fraser Eiver  live   almost  exclusively on
fish,   and   during   the  season  when  the
+ o
i 2 mm
salmon are running up the river to their
spawning places the great take is looked
for. All along the river in its narrower
parts, and particularly in the cafions, the
scaffoldings, hand nets, and drying places
of the Indians can be seen. The road
passes so much of the river at a considerable, though varying, elevation, that
the Indians fishing look like pigmies, and
the Fraser, of whose terrors we have
heard so much, presents, at least when
seen from a little height, only one or two
places where a well-manned canoe would
hesitate to run.
In olden days, before the traffic begotten
of the mines furnished them with pack-
work, the salmon was the main stay of the
Indians. The more common way of
catching the fish is by means of a small
net, in shape like a jelly bag, fastened to
the end of a long pole having an oval
termination to fit the mouth of the net.
The Indian, taking his stand on a projecting  rock  or  platform  which   he  has
rigged for himself, dips his net into the
water where an eddy working up stream
keeps the back of the net in the same
direction. Sometimes he scoops with the
net, drawing it down the stream; sometimes allows it to remain stationary.
When a fish enters the net the fact at
once becomes apparent, and the Indian
raises his net, oftentimes, when the salmon is large, with considerable difficulty,
and then, before attempting to take his
prey out of the trap, hits him on the head
with a hatchet, and lands him on the
rocks. His klootchmen (squaw) then
takes the salmon in hand, and in a few
minutes it is stretched out over the edifice
of poles upon which the drying takes
place. We saw several caught as we
passed along, high up above the fishermen,
and all in this manner.
Lord Dufferin descended the hill at one
place and went out upon a fisherman's
platform, but found that it was exceedingly wobbley and insecure, and came to 118
,n ix
the conclusion that the rush of a large
salmon would have proved fatal. In all
the collections of Indian huts along the
road, there were several fish-drying
scaffoldings covered with salmon, and
some of the houses which we entered
were so very salmony that it became necessary, after the first few moments, to
rush for the fresh air. This diet has the
peculiar effect of wearing away the teeth
of the Indiaps, so that you constantly see
comparatively young people with the
smallest possible remains of dental force.
After travelling for about twelve miles
up the left bank of the Fraser, the road
crosses the river over a suspension bridge
and ascends the hill on the other side.
In the first day's journey the principal
canons of the Fraser come into view, and
the most rapid part of the river—at least,
on this side of the Kamloops journey—is
reached. wThe mountains at these points
approach one another very closely, and
at one time met amongst the rocks which
now overhang the river. The Fraser, a
yellow, muddy-looking stream of very
inconsiderable width, comes down from
the mountains with great force, and cuts
its way along the valleys between the
several divisions of the Cascade range.
At some points it narrows and works
itself up into a series of continuous rapids,
and at other places opens out a little and
flows along more evenly. Looking upon
it from above, one invests it with the
attributes of a living creature. Its angry
rush and its calmer progression, as it
meets and then passes the obstructions
the mountains have hurled at its bosom,
seem to be in keeping only with a being
of  life.    It   has  come   along for   many
\J ml
weary miles in spite of all that has been
done to impede it, cutting its way here,
and washing away that which would have
hindered it elsewhere, until towards its
place of final rest it meets the solid rock
upon which its close embracing foes have
rested through the ages.    The result one 120
can imagine to have been a fearful
struggle, in which the river again achieved
the victory by seizing upon its enemy and
wrenching it apart, and to the present
day the victorious river roars out an
angry defiance as it rushes past the torn,
jagged, and unanswering foe that would
have barred its way, and which is now
doomed for ages to stand as a monument
of its own defeat. We know, of course,
that time was the ally that helped the
Fraser in its fight, but the canons give
the impression of having been torn, not
worn, into a pathway for the river.
At a place called " Hell Gate," the road-
makers had constructed a railed platform
on the overhanging rock, in order that the
Governor-General might see the canon
from its narrowest and most interesting
point. We saw here that my friend at
Yale had been justified in speaking of
the freshet as the biggest he had known.
The river was at least seventy feet below
us,   while  twenty   feet  above   the   road DANGEROUS-LOOKING ROAD,
were the high water marks of the spring
freshet, so that there was a difference of
ninety feet visible to us, though one
gentleman told us it had been over a
hundred. At this point also they have
thought it well to place a low outer wall
on the precipice edge of the road, for
there is a sharp turn and a rapid descent,
where any mistake on the part of the
animals would be fatal. I may say at
once with regard to this road that it
looks, and when spoken about appears to
be, much more dangerous than it really
is. To gallop down an incline high up
on the side of a precipitous mountain, with
the Fraser roaring five or six hundred
feet beneath you, and sometimes scarcely
a foot between the outer wheel and
eternity, does not sound to be essentially
a comfortable operation, but there is no
more danger of going off the road than
there would be in driving along a prairie
road. If you do happen to go in a bad
place the result depends, as the Lewiston
brakeman said, very much upon how
you have behaved yourself in this world,
but practically speaking very few people
do go.
The stage line has been running for
seventeen years, and no stage has ever
yet gone over. The stages are, of course,
well horsed, care being taken that the
leaders, upon whom so much depends,
are not skittish, scary animals, and the
coaches are fitted with powerful breaks,
so that if the leaders went, it would be
within possibility to hold up the wheelers
and stage until the others had been cut
adrift. This has happened in the case of
freight teams, the drivers of which are
frequently struggling through the effects
of a previous night's debauch. The most
awkward moments are in passing a
heavily laden waggon-team. The rule of
the road is that the lighter teams go out-
o o
side. Taking our own case as an example,
it happened that we had to pass a team
of sixteen oxen at a very narrow, crumbly A  HEAVILY-LADEN  WAGGON-TEAM,
part of the road. There was just room
to go by, provided we could push one ox
closer into his chain, and the driver went
at him for this purpose. We did succeed
in successfully crowding him, but he resented the assault, and turning his heels
towards us let drive at the inside horse.
He was, fortunately, a little late, but had
he reached his object, the animal might,
and probably would, have started from
him, and pushed the outer horse over
the side. We all concluded that for the
future, when it was necessary to crowd
in on the oxen to get by, we would get
out and see how it was done. It is nervous work also on first galloping down a
hill where the road turns sharply round
a spur of the mountains. It appears to
one that the slightest irregularity will
send the carriage over the precipice, and
that, so far as any one can see, the horses
are galloping straight over, for the road
appears to lead up to the edge of a precipice and there stop.    It is not until you THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
arrive at the very point of the spur that
the wind of the road becomes visible.
With six horses, with which the stage is
sometimes driven, the two leaders have
gone out of sight—heaven knows where
—before the passengers can discover any
route on which to continue their wild
career. There was such a place during
the first day's drive, and on reaching the
other end, we almost simultaneously expressed the hope that Lady Dufferin
would not be frightened (I believe we all
were), so in the evening, when opportunity offered, I asked Mr. Tingley, who
had himself driven Lord and Lady Duffe-
rin's team, how his passengers got on.
I They got on bully," he said.
I Was Lady Dufferin frightened ?" I
I Didn't scare worth a cent. There
isn't a scare in her. She's better than
any of 'em; jumps out fast to walk up
the big hills, and I pick her last of any CAMP  ON JACKASS   MOUNTAIN.
of 'em. She's first-rate. You can't find
any-one to beat her."
Lady Dufferin wins and certainly merits
the highest encomiums from all who travel
wil/h her; but on comparing notes, it
appeared that she, too, had misgivings
about bullock trains, and, unlike some
others, honestly confessed it. But all
nervous feelings about the road wear
off, and on the second journey the appearance of a team, or train, of pack
mules alone caused any thought about
the road.
A camp had been pitched for the Governor-General about forty-five miles up
the road on a height called Jackass Mountain, and here Lord and Lady Dufferin
rested on the first evening. We walked
up to the camp to pay a visit to Her Excellency at the Government House-under-
canvas, and found that some one, I
believe Mr. Dewdney, had arranged a
most complete httle retreat on a spur of THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the mountain commanding a magnificent
o o
view of the cafion. Sometimes, as on the
return journey, this cafion is filled with
a thick heavy bank of fog, held in by the
two mountains, and lying low down upon
the river. From Jackass Mountain you
look down upon it, and see this thick
table-like mass of white cloud slowly
surging against the confining rocks below
you—when you throw a stone into it you
wonder whether it will stick in the middle
or get through. And stone-throwing from
the heights above the Fraser has a fascination about it which is not to be resisted,
and is only excelled by the kindred amusement of rolling boulders down the mountain side. I saw a correspondent, a staid
and serious man of letters, with the evidence of intellectual pursuits in the scantiness of his hair and the strength of his
spectacles, grow energetic, excited and
warm in the occupation of racing boulders   into   the   " Thompson."     I   heard RACING  BOULDERS,
another correspondent, whose erudition
and comprehensive grasp of great topics
made his society enchanting, suddenly
consign the contending parties in the
United States, of whose chances he was
enlightening us, to everlasting oblivion
at the sight of a really good boulder, and
the I Globe" correspondent, forgetting,
for a moment, the dignity that should
appertain to representatives of that journal, and resenting some allusions to
future obesity, joined in the amusement
and succeeded in winning the admiration
of his companions by his deftness in an
art which he had acquired, in spite of the
painsgiving protests of his early preceptors. Even the most inner circle of the
vice-regal party admitted in tones of
deep regret that they had been interrupted
in the entrancing pastime referred to, by
the exigencies of the journey; and it is
beyond doubt that were the two Houses
of Parliament to be placed in a given spot
■ t '
a match would forthwith be made between
the Speakers thereof, and that the Members would wager hats and champagne
on the result, so volatile do the gravest
become under this influence. 129
Lytton—Reception of the Governor-General—Indian
Gala Day—Indian Tillages and Houses—Indian
Graves—Lax Morality of Indian Belles—The Thompson River—Cook's Ferry, or Spence's Bridge—A
Modest Indian Maiden—Bunch Grass—Trout-fishing
—Arrival at Kamloops—A Master of Etiquette—
Flogging of Indian Women.
TOFTY-SEVEN miles from Yale, and
-■- early in the second day's travel, is
the small mining town of Lytton. In the
old days of the gold excitement in its
neighbourhood, it was a lively and flourishing little town, but its customers have
passed on, and it is now comparatively
deserted, remote, and melancholy slow.
Nevertheless, it displayed the remains of
former energies in the manner and spirit
VOL.  II. K 130
of receiving the  Governor-General.    The
principal,   or,   at  least,   the   most   novel
feature of this reception was the assemblage of Indians who had come together
at the English mission, situated about a
mile before the town is reached.    An arch
had been erected over the road opposite
to the church door, and bodies of mounted
Indians,   men   and   women,   headed   by
their spiritual guide—the Rev. Mr. Good
—stood ready to receive the representative  of Her  Majesty.     When   they  had
expressed their sentiments of loyalty to
the Crown and the Dominion, a cavalcade
was formed, of which the foremost part
was composed of mounted men, and that
portion which came after the carriages of
women.    The  women   were   dressed   in
their best and gayest garments, flaming
petticoats, and a bright coloured handkerchief bound  round   the   head   of   each.
They  rode   astride   their horses, like the
Kanaka  girls  of  the   Sandwich   Islands,
and   carried   their  children either behind ■MHH
them on the saddle or in an Indian cradle
before them. Sometimes two girls shared
one horse, and came galloping along,
laughing and kicking, but in the majority
of cases each had her own steed.
A large number of the animals ridden
were mares, and every mare was followed
by a colt. The party had come from
the mission at a rapid rate, the Indians
galloping in front and in rear, and whipping their horses to keep in proper order,
so that when the Governor-General arrived
at the main arch all the colts were astray
and whinnying for their dams, and all their
anxious mothers whinnying in return,
which, with the hallooing of the Indians
themselves and the voices of the white
people of the town, created a hub-bub in
which it was impossible to hear or to be
heard. It was a great gala day for these
Indians, and they all appeared to be enjoying themselves to the utmost, with the
exception of one or two unfortunate
urchins who had been bound to their re-
£ 2 132
spective mothers with shawls in such a
way that while their bodies were held fast,
their tiny heads rolled round and wagged
about so furiously that when the cavalcade
had passed on one looked round to see if
any heads had been left behind. These
Indians—once called, from their ana-
mosity to, and dealings with, white men
I The Knife Indians "—are now a peaceable tribe of useful mountaineers. They
all possess horses, which they have raised
or purchased from the white settlers.
They never walk unless all their animals
are employed packing, and they seem to
be rapidly adopting the customs of their
white neighbours.
At several points along the road we
came upon their villages, the houses of
which were built in more or less rude
imitation of civilized dwellings, and their
gardens showed considerable labour and
care. In the winter, however, they abandon these houses and live, several families
together,  in a dwelling peculiar to them- WINTER RESIDENCE OF THE INDIANS,
selves. This is very primitive, very
warm, and very dirty. The house is built
in this way—a large circular hole about
four feet in depth and perhaps forty feet
in circumference is dug; Four upright
posts are placed in this, making as large
a square as possible, and rafters laid
across. A roof of poles is then laid from
the edge of the circle, and this is covered
with bark and thickly overlaid with earth
all round.    Egress and ingress are made
o o
up and down a notched spar protruding
through an aperture in the roof which performs the treble duty of window, door,
and chimney. Viewed from the outside,
this winter residence might be taken for
the dwelling of a large species of burrowing animal, which, by the way, is exactly
what its inhabitants are for the time being.
But as spring comes round they leave
these retreats, when it is found that so
very large a number of uninvited and
troublesome guests have taken refuge in
the kouse itself as well as in the clothing
I 134
and bedding  of the  residents,   that  the
O g
house is  not usually occupied a second
winter,  a  new  one being built  for the
coming season
In many places we came across the
graves of deceased Indians. The bodies
in these were buried beneath the ground
—a method of burial not always adopted
by the Indians. One sepulchre which we
examined contained three graves—I think
of two men and one woman. The bodies
had been placed side by side, and the
grave, not covered with earth, but roofed
over with boards. A lean-to shed had
been built over these combined graves,
with the sides completely and the front
partially shut in. In front of the shed,
just inside its posts, was the family canoe
broken into three parts, and there were
three copper boiling-pots inverted, one on
each grave. Outside the shed the ordinary cooking utensils of the dead persons were tied to the poles, and two many-
studded guns, rusted and decaying from
exposure, swung from a sappling which,
bending beneath their weight, drooped over
the last resting-place of these mountain
wanderers. The basket in which the woman
had carried berries from the wood or fish
from the mountain streams was fastened
above her grave; the dark green blankets
which had covered the Indians in life now
fluttered in the wind, weird-looking ensigns, waiting to be claimed by the spirits
of their departed owners. On a large
branch of the nearest tree hung the heads,
hides, and hoofs of the horses which had
carried the deceased persons in life, and
furnished the funeral baked-meats on their
departure to the land of the hereafter.
Immediately in front of the shed were
placed three wooden figures, carved to represent the honoured dead, and clothed in
garments which their prototypes would
have deemed the acme of self-adornment.
4 Rank grows the grass, the willows ghostly wave,
O'er the last wigwam of the Indian brave," 1
sings a friend of mine; but the poor
savage does what in him lies to mark the
resting place of his relatives, and at least
refrains from grabbing at the personal
property which may be left behind. Now
a rich uncle's death, according to our
system of thought, is	
*l O "
I fear that the Indians of this road are
in most cases a little lax in respect of
certain points in the decalogue. The
miners and others have a demoralizing
effect upon the savage belle. All those
bright coloured garments that we saw—
Alas ! the temptation to outdress their
sisters is as irresistible there as in the
cities of the east, and the shelves of the
trader's store is the same prolific cause of
ruin as the windows of an eastern dry-
goods store. Whiskey and dry-goods
have the same obliterating and amalgama-
o o
ting effects here as elsewhere. The missionary at Lytton rode by us and explained
—good easy man—that the contact of the
whites and Indians was beneficial to the THE FRASER AND THE THOMPSON.        137
latter. They dressed better since civilization had come amongst them, followed the
manners and customs of the white men
more than before, and even, he said, became more like them in personal appearance. He thought this was a great step
gained, and believed it to have been all
done by some immaterial agency to the
influence of which Indian savagery succumbed rapidly and unfailingly. The idea
entertained by the residents of Lytton and
other places as to cause and effect was
not exactly in harmony with the parson's
At Lytton the Thompson, with its
clear green water, falls into the muddy
Fraser, and runs along the channel of
that river for nearly a mile before consenting to amalgamate with its dirtier
sister. I suppose that the Fraser looks
dirtier than  it  reallv  is,   for one  never
heard of salmon running up a stream
so muddy as the Fraser appears to be.
At this point the road to Kamloops leaves
the Fraser altogether, and continues along 138
the Thompson, the characteristics of the
country being, for a short distance, much
the same as before. On the second day
out we crossed the Thompson over a
somewhat shaky bridge, at a place called
indifferently " Cook's Ferry," or " Spence's
Bridge," where a most elaborate mid-day
meal had been provided. The proprietor
of this hostelrie, though having no conscience in the matter of charging, certainly
possessed an exceptionally clever culinary
I John"—all the cooks are Chinamen—
and we shared an excellent luncheon—one
which an American would certainly have
called I a real elegant lunch"—with all
the house flies that could conveniently
assemble for the feast. The flies along
the road had heard of this luncheon,
and had left the other places, even before our arrival, to meet at Spence's
Bridge, and very quietly but firmly
took possession of certain wondrous-
looking structures that were on the
table or the sideboard, leaving us the more THE  BUNCH-GRASS  COUNTRY.
substantial viands. Soon after leaving
Lytton we passed through the last of
the Cascade range proper, and on leaving
Spence's Bridge, began to strike the
Bunch-Grass county.
As evening closed in we were driving
over level country, with hills, not mountains, rising at varying distances on
either side of us. Going up to Kamloops
we had little opportunity of seeing this,
because rain was falling heavily and the
hour was late. It was raining slightly
when we left Yale, and we were confidently told that when we had driven
a few hours and were well up in the
mountains the rain would cease; but,
nevertheless, it rained all day. At night
the indefatigable controller of the road
told me that he hoped it would be fine
to-morrow. "It don't rain," he said,
I three days in the year here. I don't
give a continental—something—for myself, but it would beat H—1 if it should
rain just   when  she's   going   up."     He 140
was thinking of Lady Dufferin. It did
rain pretty steadily next day, but not
in sufficient quantities to have any effect
on the place he mentioned. But it was
raining hard and the night was pitch black
when we arrived at the inn at Ashcroft.
This is Senator Cornwall's estate.
The Governor-General and Lady Dufferin stayed for the night at Mr. Cornwall's
private residence, although their host,
from having   driven over  the  cliff,   was
o *
nursing a broken leg elsewhere. The inn
was crammed full when we arrived, and
the landlord was much excited about the
coming of this buggy full of wet travellers,
and suggested that we should drive to Cache
Creek, six miles further on, where he said
we should find comfortable quarters and
be able to get our things dried. But one
of the correspondents commended him to
the society of a person where he would
have very quickly been dried himself, and
flatly declined to go any further. Here,
also,   we  found  an excellent  "John"  in
possession of the kitchen, and after dinner,
the night having cleared up, we drove on
to Cache Creek. We were rewarded for
this by obtaining a comfortable bed instead
of a blanket on the floor, or in the hay loft,
and more liberal washing arrangements
in the morning than had been quite usual.
Moreover, before starting, we witnessed
the assembling of another mounted cavalcade of Indians, men and women, who
were about to proceed to Ashcroft to
escort the Governor-General down to
Cache Creek.
Here the writer of this unwillingly disturbed the serenity of an Indian maiden. I
had walked to the other side of the cavalcade
of women, and was quietly watching the
general proceedings, without paying special
attention to anyone in particular, when I
observed a native beauty not yet mounted,
who had been struggling with her horse to
place him in such a position near the rock
that she could get upon his back. Her
companions were calling upon her to come 142
on, and she stood looking from them to
me, at first in good-humour, but gradually
becoming annoyed. I offered to assist her,
but that was evidently not what she
wanted, for she jabbered at me snappishly.
Still her companions shouted and still she
hesitated, and her horse, growing impatient,
began to back away from the advantageous
position in which she had placed him.
Then I approached her a second time, but
she grew very angry and voluble, evidently
endeavouring to impress something upon
my understanding which her language of
course failed to reach. At last, with the
assistance of a grinning young Indian, I
discovered that she wished to mount her
horse—of course, astride, after the fashion
of her countrywomen, and did not like
my standing close on the off side of the
animal. Cheered by the evidence of a
modesty which I had not dreamt of, and
certainly never intended to offend, I
walked off leaving the dusky Diana to
mount in peace. CHANGE   IN  THE  COUNTRY.
From this point we observed the great
change in the nature of the country that
had commenced even before dusk of the
previous day. The hills formed benches
or small table-lands at various heights and
of varying dimensions along either side of
the road, and, of course, beyond the limits
of our view. These hills were covered
with wormwood and here and there a
little sage. A large part of this district is
covered with bunch-grass, a very nutritious
kind of feed, but in the immediate neighbourhood of the road we did not see any.
Where the bunch-grass has been eaten
down, repeatedly wormwood springs up
and answers the purpose of the plant it
has displaced. One or two owners of cattle
told me that stock prefer this wormwood,
and that it is better for them for winter
The valleys along the Thompson, varying from half a mile to a mile and a quarter
in width, are well farmed, but the farms
are all cultivated by means of irrigation. THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
The farmers do not complain of this
necessity, for though it involves some
troubl^Land a Uttle additional Expense
at starting, there is the certainty of
reaping a good crop, a result which in
places watered only by the rainfall is
sometimes doubtful. The crops taken this
year from one or two of the ranches which
we passed, averaged forty bushels to the
acre. But stock-raising is the principal
operation here undertaken. There is not
sufficient market for extensive grain
raising, and the country is well adapted
for feeding cattle. Throughout the summer large bands of cattle feed in the
mountain range, the hilly bunch-grass
country to the east of the range being kept
for winter grazing. The winds clear the
tops and upper sides of the hills, so that
the animals find both food and shelter,
and in spite of the thermometer ranging
far below zero are enabled to winter out and
grow fat. And bunch-grass fed beef and
mutton are things of themselves. Other beef BUNCH-GRASS.
may be good, but it is not bunch-grass
beef. A four-year-old Southdown is a'
thing of beauty and a joy for ever-so-long
as he lasts, but if the downs of Sussex
and Hampshire were clad with bunch-grass,
the native Southdown would be reserved
for the tables of emperors. In vain do the
Vancouver Islanders pine for this succulent
food. It must be eaten in the mountains
or not at all, for let an ox be ever so fat he
will on the journey down the mountains
lose flesh and fat, and grumblingly eat,
if he will eat at all, such food as may be
given in lieu of his native bunch-grass.
A certain traveller, in speaking of his arrival at Kamloops from across the Rocky
Mountains, tells us how he ate almost
continuously for three days, and we understood his difficulty in leaving off.
Bunch-grass became an adjective in the
Governor-General's party, and any person
with whom one was very much pleased
was described as a " bunch-grass good
fellow,"   and trout of a  superior quality
as regular bunch-grass fish.    Some of these
o o
were caught by Lady Dufferin. In fact
no one else caught anything except a correspondent, who hooked a very fine snag.
But Lady Dufferin is an expert sportswoman
and throws a fly faultlessly. To her
belongs the undivided honour of having
beguiled the wily trout of Thompson
River. At Savona's Ferry the Thompson
River flows out of Kamloops Lake, and is
thence called the Lower Thompson, in
contradistinction to the Upper Thompson,
which flows into the lake at the other end,
where the Hudson's Bay Post, village,
and R. C. Mission of Kamloops is situated.
At the head of the Lower Thompson Lady
Dufferin went ashore and searched about for
a likely spot for trout. The proprietor of
the ferry was ready with the universal comforting intelligence that her ladyship ought
to have been there yesterday. To-day there
was too much wind, butyesterday she would
without fail have found sport. Two days
before when going up the lake, the same INTELLIGENCE  FOR TRAVELLERS
person said to the fishing correspondent,
I Ah ! You ought to have been here last
week.    It's too hot to-dav, but last week
ml   '
they rose to the fly well."
A traveller in this country may take it
for granted that the season in which he is
travelling is an unusual one; never rained
there before his arrival; the summer is
hotter than ever was known before, or the
inhabitants never remembered such a
winter; the day on which he tries to fish
is too windy or too bright; the birds
when he goes shooting will be found to
have left the district suddenly and without
reason, and he is confidently told that if
he had arrived last week there was plenty
of game, and that deer were seen right
within shot of the house, or that if he will
only wait a week or ten days he will be
sure to have good sport. In spite, however,
of the usual mistiming of arrival, Lady
Dufferin began by striking two fish, one
on each fly, and after playing them through
the rapid in a—may I say " masterly ?"—
L 2 *Bm*
manner, landed both of them, and followed
up her first success by killing several
others. Colonel Littleton, too, in spite of
the fact that he ought to have been there
last week to find prairie chickens, killed
five brace, and as fish and grouse were all
obtained in the space of an hour or two,
the general result was not so much to be
complained of.
Here at the ferry we left the road—
which we might have continued round the
lake—and saw for the present the last of
the irritating bullock-teams and erratic
pack trains. We had all more or less
conceived a dislike of these useful institutions, for the latter with their protruding
packs ruthlessly crowded us on to the
edge of the precipice whenever we met
them, and the former by camping exactly
in the middle of the road not only caused
us 5 trouble and difficulty, but took it ill
that anyone should travel on the high
road after they had camped. We embarked on board a steamer at  Savona's RECEPTION  AT  KAMLOOPS.
Ferry, and started for Kamloops, twenty-
five miles up the lake and two hundred
and fifty-eight miles from New Westminster.    This  boat,   belonging  to   Mr.
* o     o
Mara (a Canadian) and others, was built
by the Hudson's Bay Company during the
mining   excitement,   but  not proving   a
great success was sold.    She is the only
boat on the lake, and I do not think that
at present there is much inducement to
build another.    We arrived at Kamloops
in the afternoon of Saturday, the 9th, and
the   Governor-General   landed   and   was
escorted by a large mounted cavalcade of
white men and Indians through the town.
On the day of our arrival at Kamloops,
the Governor-General and Lady Dufferin
went on shore, where they were received
by a cavalcade composed of the gentlemen
of the place and a gathering  of Indian
horsemen, who  were divided into   three
bands, each led  by  a chief carrying an
English  ensign.     There   was  a  deal   of
galloping about and general manoeuvring THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
amongst the Indians, and we obtained
from looking at them some idea of how
effective they might be on the plains as
irregular cavalry when properly handled.
| Sitting Bull," however, has given a
melancholy proof that when well generaled
they can be very effective.
At Kamloops the Governor-General
was received with the usual cordial expressions of good will, welcome, and
loyalty that have been observable elsewhere in this Province, and Lady Dufferin
was presented with a bouquet by a lady
who had performed a similar act at Claneboye on the day of her ladyship's marriage. This reception at Kamloops was
the occasion of a somewhat amusing
occurrence. In the village was the son
of an English gentleman of position, once
head-master of one of our greatest public
schools. The population generally appeared to call him " Hennesy," that being
a name well known in the mountains,
and phonetically resembling the one pro- A  MASTER OF ETIQUETrE,
perly appertaining to the gentleman in
question. The Kamloops representative
of the family is one of those who divide
the seasons into a time for work and a
time for that bibulous ecstasy which even
Roman Emperors thought worthy of cultivation and garlands of roses. When it
was known that Lord Dufferin was coming
to Kamloops, the possession of a real
gentleman who knew all about lords and
the way of receiving them, and whose
public school teaching would now come
into play, if never before, was a subject
of congratulation. Kamloops had in its
neighbourhood such a one, and he was
coming to teach the rough idea of the
mountains how to shoot compliments at a
vice-regal couple. He came, and—as my
informant told me—spent seventy dollars
in a suit of clothes for the occasion. He
assisted in coaching those who desired to
learn the art of addressing a Governor-
General and his consort, and everything
bid fair  to harvest for the sustainer  of THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
good  old English courtesy an  abundant
crop of undying laurels.
Alas ! such is the mutability of human
affairs, this master of etiquette, perhaps
remembering the saying which ascribes
intoxication to the nobility, and thinking
that he, too, should get " as drunk as a
Lord" in order to receive an Earl properly, or perhaps suffering from thirst
caused by the heat of the arguments into
which he was obliged to enter, was found,
when the moment of the anticipated
triumph arrived, to be in a state of
hallucination as to the order of the intended proceedings and his own position
therein, and to have suddenly cast to
the winds the deferential regard for viceregal authority and familiarity with good
manners which had combined to raise him
so high above his fellows. He had instead conceived an idea that the voice of
Kamloops was to determine the course of
the Pacific Railway, and that Kamloops
was at the moment overawed, and under
£&^&Kffig DRUNK AS  A  LORD,
this hallucination he had blossomed forth as
a tribune of the people in the noisy stage
of intoxication. The population could
not have been more astonished had they
been suddenly called upon to hear the
Usher of the Black Rod rise from his
seat to denounce the existence of an
Upper Chamber. He was called to bless,
and lo ! he got drunk and cursed, and
seemed inclined to continue cursing.
However, two of his friends took him in
charge, one interrupting his remarks by
the simple but effectual mode of literally
shutting his mouth, while both took him
by the arms and led him off. They were
very tender and cajoling with him while
in the immediate neighbourhood of Lord
and Lady Dufferin, but so soon as they
had cleared the corner of the arch their
manner changed and they hustled him off
with kicks and curses, calling him in
some language with metaphor rich the
son of some four-legged animal which—
as Mr. Barham says—it is not necessary THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
here to mention. It was the fall of a
great man at the moment when the world
was to look on and admire. Kamloops,
however, did very well without him, and
presented the Governor-General with a
very loyal and cordial address, to which
he replied with the same happiness of
expression which characterizes all his
At Kamloops one gained a better idea
of the country beyond the Cascade range
than it had been easy to acquire before. It
is surrounded by bunch-grass country,
which extends for a great distance in
every direction. Vast herds can be
grazed here and wintered without care or
housing. Horses are numerous. All
people, including the Indians, ride, and
would refuse to walk. As we came up
the lake a band of horses, numbering
three hundred or more, belonging to the
Hudson's Bay Company, came rushing
out of a wood to water at the river, and
at the Indian village we saw numbers of
•^■^■KssKKss&s^sHsssrara THE  KAMLOOPS  MISSION,
horses of all ages and sizes. The
Governor-General went over on the day
after his reception at Kamloops to see
the Indians at this mission, where he met
the principal men and conversed with
them. This mission, doubtless, does some
good amongst the Indians—probably a
great deal of good—but there are some
objectionable features about it. A provincial dignitary of considerable altitude
—I mean in position—was inclined to take
me to task for discussing the question of
the discipline enforced at this mission. It
appeared, according to what I had learnt
from those I took to be trustworthy
authorities, that not only was the discipline of the Church exceedingly severe,
such penance being enforced upon the
Indians as no other people in the Roman
Catholic world would submit to, but that
for certain offences the Indian women
were flogged.
The assertion  on the  Kamloops   side
was that this flogging was done by the 156
chief on the priest's order. This allegation, I was told by the objecting dignitary,
was nonsense.    But the flogging was not
oo      o
denied, the only answer to it being that
we flogged women a hundred years ago
in Bridewell, a reply which did not
happen to convince me of its propriety.
The flogging, it was urged, might be
done without the priests discountenancing
it, but it was done by the chief according
to some tribal usage. It will occur to
most people who are acquainted with
missions among the Indians, that no such
institution exists or could for one. week
exist contrary to the wish of the priest,
nor, under the circumstance of every
other white man in the neighbourhood
denouncing it, without some very decided
countenance being given it by him. I
was quite satisfied in ray own mind, from
what I had heard, that the priest was virtually the sub-rosd inflictor of the punishment, but I subsequently made inquiries
from  other   persons   than  those  I   had
asked, one of whom was himself "a
dignitary," and I quoted the adverse
opinion. The reply was that it was
"bosh;" that the flogging of the women
at Kamloops was done, if not by the
direct order of the priest, at least with
such connivance on his part as amounted
to the same thing, and that at some other
mission, the name of which I forget, the
same thing is done.
The cover for this transaction is " tribal
rule," but if the English law has superseded tribal law, and if we do not permit
one Indian to kill another, or burn his
house, or destroy his goods, even though
it may be permitted or required by | tribal
law," it is not very easy to understand
why we are to stop short and permit a
barbarous punishment to be perpetrated
under the cloak of " tribal law," which
has been condemned by every English-
speaking community throughout the
world. The infliction of this punishment
at Kamloops,   on   the   showing   of  the THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
gentleman who seemed to defend it—for
whose person and office I desire to express my profoundest respect—has not
even the merit of being impartial. A
woman is flogged for an offence to which
she has been persuaded by a person
whom neither priest nor Indian chief dare
lay hands upon. The fault is committed
oftentimes through the influence of
whiskey, and the weaker and least guilty
party is seized upon and brutally punished
while her partner remains inviolate. It
was with some reluctance that assent was
given by public opinion to the proposition
that the most brutal roughs of the back
slums in our cities should be liable to
corporal punishment, and those who
think that the day is past for applying
the lash to the back of a woman will not
modify their opinion in the event of that
punishment being applied by the virtual
order of an irresponsible and self-constituted authority, and under circumstances
that render its infliction a gross piece of MORAL   OFFENCES,
injustice.    Still less will they be satisfied
when    they   remember   that   the   silent
mentor by whose wish the thing is done,
belongs to a class which to-day are found,
and for centuries have shown themselves,
unfit to  be  trusted   with  the power  of
awarding  secular penalties.     If offences
against  morals  are   to  be   punished   as
offences  against  law,  then  we may ask
that what is crime in a woman may be
made crime in a man,  and that the power
that issues sentence shall be a responsible
one;  that some understanding  shall  be
had as to  the extent to which spiritual
offences are to be considered legal offences ;
and  that  the  punishment  shall  be   one
that civilized men may approve, and not
one  exhumed from the  buried codes of
savage law. 160
Speech of the Governor-General at Victoria.
BEFORE leaving for his northward trip,
the Governor-General intimated that
on his return he would meet those gentlemen who had formed the various Reception
Committees, and communicate to them an
expression of opinion upon the subject of
the country and its relationship to the
Dominion. From this arose the general
impression that he was going to say something about the railway, though no one
O at   ' O
could exactly determine in his own mind
to what extent Lord Dufferin would feel
himself at liberty to carry his remarks.
It was with very close attention, therefore SPEECH OP LOBD DUFFERIN.
that the following speech was heard when
the Governor General met the Commitees
at Government House this morning :—
I am,   indeed,  very glad  to  have  an
opportunity  before quitting  British   Columbia  of   thanking   you,   and  through
you the  citizens  of   Victoria,   not  only
for the general   kindness   and   courtesy
I have met  with during   my residence
amongst you, but especially for the invitation to the banquet with which you have
honoured  me.    I  regret extremely that
my engagements did not permit me to accept this  additional  proof  of your hospitality, but my desire to see as much as
possible of the country and my other engagements forced me most reluctantly to
decline it.    I shall, however, have a final
opportunity of mingling with your citizens
at the entertainment arranged for me at
Beacon  Hill this afternoon, to  which I
am   locking   forward  with  the  greatest
vol. n. M 162
!    IM;
pleasure. Perhaps, gentlemen, I may be
also permitted to take advantage of this
occasion to express to you the satisfaction
and enjoyment I have derived from my
recent progress through such portions of
the Province as I have been able to reach
within the short period left at my disposal.
I am well aware that I have visited but
a small proportion of your domains, and
that there are important centres of population from which I have been kept aloof.
More especially have I to regret my inability to reach Cariboo, the chief theatre
of your mining industry and the home of
a community with whose feelings, wishes
and sentiments it would have been very
advantageous for me to have become
personally acquainted. Still by dint of
considerable exertion I have traversed the
entire coast of British Columbia from its
southern extremity to Alaska. I have
penetrated to the head of Bute Inlet, I
have examined the Seymour Narrows, and
■«■   ■• *'g&&»;a* SPEECH   OF LORD  DUFFERIN,
the other channels which intervene between the head of Bute Inlet and Yancouver Island. I have looked into the
mouth of Dean's Canal and passed across
the entrance to Gardner's Channel. I
have visited Mr. Duncan's wonderful
settlement at Metlakatlah, and the interesting Methodist mission at Fort Simpson,
and have thus been enabled to realize
what scenes of primitive peace and innocence, of idyllic beauty and material
comfort, can be presented by the stalwart
men  and comely maidens  of an Indian
community under the wise administration
of a judicious and devoted Christian missionary. I have passed across the intervening Sound of Queen Charlotte's Island
to Skidegate, and studied with wonder the
strange characteristics of a Hydah village
O at O
with its forest of heraldic pillars. I have
been presented with a sinister opportunity
of descending upon a tribe of our Pagan
savages in the very midst of their drunken
O at
orgies   and   barbarous   rites,  and   after
m 2 .
various other explorations I have had
the privilege of visiting under very gratifying circumstances the Royal City of
New Westminster.
Taking from that spot a new- departure,
we proceeded up the valley of the Fraser,
where the river has cloven its way through
the granite ridges and bulwarks of the
Cascade range, and along a road of such
admirable construction, considering the
engineering difficulties of the line and the
modest resources of the colony when it
was built, as does the greatest credit to
the able administrator who directed its
execution. Passing thence into the open
valleys and rounded eminences beyond,
we had an opportunity of appreciating the
pastoral resources and agricultural capabilities of what is known as the bunch-
grass country. It is needless to say that
wherever we went we found the same
kindness, the same loyalty, the same
honest pride in* their country and its
institutions which characterize the English SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
race throughout the world, while Her
Majesty's Indian subjects on their spirited
horses, which the ladies of their families
seemed to bestride with as much ease and
grace as their husbands and brothers,
notwithstanding the embarrassment of one
baby on the pommel and another on the
crupper, met us everywhere in large numbers and testified in their untutored
fashion their genuine loyalty and devotion
to their White Mother.
Having journeyed into the interior as
far as Kamloops, and admired from a lofty
eminence in its neighbourhood what
seemed an almost interminable prospect
of grazing lands and valleys susceptible of
cultivation, we were forced with much reluctance to turn our face homewards to
Yictoria. And now that I am back it
may, perhaps, interest you to learn what
are the impressions I have derived during
my journey. Well, I may frankly tell you
that I think British Columbia a glorious
Province—a    Province    which    Canada HP
should be proud to possess, and whose
association with the Dominion she ought
to regard as the crowning triumph of
Federation. Such a spectacle as its coast
line presents is not to be paralleled by
any country in the world. Day after day
for a whole week, in a vessel of nearly
two thousand tons, we threaded an interminable labyrinth of watery lanes, and
reaches that wound endlessly in and out
of a network of islands, promontories and
peninsulas for thousands of miles unruffled
by the slightest swell from the adjoining
ocean, and presenting at every turn an
ever shifting combination of rock, verdure,
glacier, and snow-capped mountain of unrivalled grandeur and beauty.
When it is remembered that this wonderful system of navigation, equally well
adapted to the largest line of battle-ship
and the frailest canoe, fringes the entire
sea-board of your Province and communicates at,points sometimes more than a
hundred   miles   from  the  coast,   with a
multitude of valleys stretching eastward into the interior, at the same
time that it is furnished with innumerable
harbours on either hand, one is lost in
admiration at the facilities for inter-communication which are thus provided for
the future inhabitants of this wonderful
region. It is true at the present moment
they lie unused except by the Indian
fisherman and villager, but the day will
surely come when the rapidly diminishing
stores of pine upon this continent will be
still further exhausted, and when the
nations of Europe as well as of America
will be obliged to recur to British Colum-
bia for a material of which you will, by
that time, be the principal depository.
Already from an adjoining port on the
mainland a large trade is being done in
lumber with Great Britain, Europe, Australia, and South America, and I venture
to think that ere long the ports of the
United States will perforce be thrown open
to vour traffic. 168
I had the pleasure of witnessing the
overthrow by the axes of your woodmen
of one of your forest giants, that towered
to the height of two hundred and fifty feet
above our heads, and whose rings bore
witness that it dated its origin from the
reign of the fourth Edward, and where it
grew, and for thousands of miles along
the coast beyond it, millions of its contemporaries are awaiting the same fate.
With such facilities of access as I have
described to the heart and centre of your
various forest lands, where almost every
tree can be rolled from the spot upon
which it grew to the ship which is to
transfer it to its destination, it would be
difficult to over-estimate the opportunities
of industrial development thus indicated;
and to prove that I am not over-sanguine
in my conjectures, I will read you a
letter recently received from the British
Admiralty by Mr. Innes, the Superintendent of the Dockyard at Esquimalt:—
"From    various    causes    spars    from SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
Canada, the former main source of supply,
have not of late years been obtainable, and
the trade in New Zealand spars for topmasts has also completely died away. Of
late years the sole source of supply has
been the casual cargoes of Oregon spars,
imported from time to time, and from
these the wants of the Services have been
met. But my Lords feel that this is not a
mode to be depended upon, more especially
for the larger sized spars."
Their Lordships then proceed to order
Mr. Innes to make arrangements for the
transhipment for the dockyards of Great
Britain of the specifical number of Douglas
pine which will be required by the service
during the ensuing year—and what England does in this direction other nations
will feel themselves bound to do as well.
But I have learnt a further lesson; I have
had opportunities of inspecting some of
the spots where your mineral wealth is
stored, and here again the ocean stands
your friend, the mouths of the coal-pits I 170
have visited almost opening into the hulls
of the vessels which are to convey their
contents across the ocean. When it is
further remembered that inexhaustible
supplies of iron ore are found in juxtaposition with your coal, no one can blame
you for regarding the beautiful island on
which you live as having been especially
favoured bv Providence in the distribution
of these natural gifts.
But still more precious minerals than
either coal or iron ore enhance the value
your possessions. As we skirted the banks
of the Fraser, we were met at every turn
by evidences of its extraordinary supplies
of fish; but scarcely less frequent were
the signs afforded us of the golden treasures it rolls down,.nor need any traveller
think it strange to see the Indian fisherman
hauling out a salmon on to the sands
from whence a miner beside him is sifting the sparkling ore. But the signs of
mineral wealth which may happen to have
attracted  my personal  attention   are  as
nothing, I understand, to what is exhibited in Cariboo, Casslar, and along the
valley of the Stickeen ; and most grieved
am I to think that I have not had time
to testify, by my presence amongst them,
to the sympathy I feel with the adventurous prospector and the miner in their
arduous enterprises. I had also the satis-
faction of having pointed out to me where
various lodes of silver only await greater
facilities of access to be worked with profit and advantage. But, perhaps, the
greatest surprise in store for us was the
discovery, on our exit from the Pass
through the Cascade Range, of the noble
expanse of pastoral lands, and the long
vistas of fertile valleys which opened up
on every side as we advanced through
the country, and which, as I could see
with my own eyes from various heights
we traversed, extend in rounded upland
slopes, or in gentle depressions for hundreds of miles to the foot of the Rocky
Mountains,   proving,   after all,   that the 172
mountain ranges which frown along your
coast no more accurately indicate the nature of the territory they guard than
does the wall of breaking surf that roars
along a tropic beach presage the softly
undulating sea that glitters in the sun
But you will very likely say to me, of
what service to us are these resources
which you describe, if they, and we, are
to remain locked up in a distant, and, at
present inaccessible corner of the Dominion, cut off by a trackless waste of intervening territory from all intercourse,
whether of a social or of a commercial
character, with those with whom we are
politically united ? Well, gentlemen, I
can only answer: Of comparatively little
use, or, at all events, of far less profit
than they would immediately become,
were the railway, upon whose construction
you naturally counted when you entered
into Confederation, once completed. But
here I feel I am touching upon dangerous
ground. You are well aware that from the
first moment I set foot in the Province,
I was careful to inform everyone who
approached me that I came here as Governor-General of the Dominion, the
representative of Her Majesty, exactly
in the same way as I had passed through
other Provinces of the Dominion, in order
to make acquaintance with the people,
their wants, wishes, and aspirations, and
to learn as much as I could in regard to
the physical features, capabilities, and
resources of the Province, that I had not
come on a diplomatic mission, or as a
messenger, or charged with any announcement, either from the Imperial or from
the Dominion Government. This statement I beg now most distinctly to repeat.
Nor should it be imagined that I have
come either to persuade or coax you into
any line of action which you may not
consider conducive to your own interests,
or to make any new promises on behalf
of my  Government,   or renew   any  old THE  SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
ones ; least of all have I a design to force
upon you any further modification of those
arrangements which were arrived at in
1874 between the Provincial and the
Dominion Governments under the auspices
of Lord Carnarvon. Should any business
of this kind have to be perfected, it will
be done in the usual constitutional manner
through the Secretary of State. But,
though I have thought it well thus unmistakably and effectually to guard against
my journey to the Province being misinterpreted, there is, I admit, one mission
with which I am charged—a mission that
it is strictly within my functions to fulfil—
namely, the mission of testifying by my
presence amongst you and by my patient
and respectful attention to everything
which may be said to me, that the Government and the entire people of Canada,
without distinction of party, are most
sincerely desirous of cultivating with you
•t O at
those friendly and affectionate relations,
upon the existence of which must depend iwniWTwmnTvr
the  future  harmony  and solidity of our
common Dominion.
Gentlemen, this mission I think you
will admit I have done my best to fulfil.
I think you will bear me witness that I
have been inaccessible to no one—that I
have shown neither impatience nor indifference during the conversations I have
had with you—and that it would have
been impossible for anyone to have exhibited more anxiety thoroughly to under*
stand your views. I think it will be
further admitted that I have done this,
without in the slightest degree seeking to
disturb or embarrass the march of your
domestic politics. I have treated the
existing Ministers as it became me to
treat the responsible advisers of the Crown
in this locality, and I have  shown  that
at *\
deference to their opponents which is
always due to Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition. Nay, further, I think it must
have been observed that I have betrayed
no disposition either to create or foment THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
in what might be termed, though most
incorrectly, the interest of Canada, any
discord or contrariety of interest between
the mainland and the island. Such a
mode of procedure would have been most
unworthy; for no true friend of the
Dominion should be capable of any other
object or desire than to give universal
satisfaction to the Province as a whole.
A settlement of the pending controversy would indeed be most lamely concluded if it left either of the sections into
which your community is geographically
divided, unsatisfied. Let me then assure
you on the part of the Canadian Government, and on the part of the Canadian
people at large, that there is nothing they
desire more earnestly or more fervently
than to know and feel that you are one
with them in heart, thought, and feeling.
Canada would indeed be dead to the
most self-evident considerations of self-
interest and to the first instincts of
national pride, if she did not regard with KK&SSSSKSKHt&gg&H
/ /
satisfaction her connection with a Province so richly endowed by nature, inhabited by a community so replete with
British loyalty and pluck, while it afforded
her the means of extending her confines
and the outlets of her commerce to the
wide Pacific and the countries beyond.
It is true, circumstances have arisen to
create an unfriendly and hostile feeling in
your minds  against  Canada.    You con-
al O
sider yourselves injured, and you certainly
have been disappointed. Far be it
from me to belittle your grievances, or to
speak slightingly of your complaints.
Happily my independent position relieves me from the necessity of engaging
with you in any irritating discussion upon
the various points which are in controversy
between this colony and the Dominion
Government. On the contrary, I am
ready to make several admissions. I don't
suppose that in any part of Canada will
it be denied that you have been subjected
both to anxiety and uncertainty on points
vol. u. N i
which were of vital importance  to  you.
From  first  to  last  since  the  idea  of a
Pacific railway was originated, things, to
use  a homely phrase,  have  gone " con-
trairy" with it, and with, everybody connected with it, and you, in common, with
many   other   persons,   have   suffered   in
many ways.    But though happily it is no
part of my duty to pronounce judgment
in these matters, or to approve, or blame,
or   criticise    the   conduct   of   any   one
concerned, I think that I can render both
Canada and British Columbia some   service  by  speaking to   certain  matters   of
fact  which have  taken  place  within my
own  immediate  cognizance, and by thus
removing from your minds certain wrong
impressions in regard to those matters of
fact which have undoubtedly taken deep
root there.    Now, gentlemen, in discharging this task, I may also call it this duty,
I am sure my observations will be received
by those I see around me in a candid and
loyal spirit, and that the heats and pas- SPEECH  OF LORD DUFFERIN. 179
sions which have been engendered by
these unhappy differences will not prove
an impediment to a calm consideration of
what I am about to say, more especially
as it will be my endeavour to avoid
wounding any susceptibilities, or forcing
upon your attention views or opinions
which may be ungrateful to you. Of
course, I well understand that the gravamen of the charge against the Canadian
Government is that it has failed to fulfil
its treaty engagements. Those engagements were embodied in a solemn agreement which was ratified by the respective
Legislatures of the contracting parties,
who were at the time perfectly independent of each other, and I admit they
thus acquired all the characteristics of an
international treaty.
The terms of that treaty were (to omit
the minor items) that Canada undertook
to secure within two years from the date
of union the simultaneous commencement
at either end of a railway which was to
connect the seaboard of British Columbia
with the railway system of the Dominion,
and that such railway should be completed
within ten years from the date of union
in 1871. We are now in 1876. Five
years have elapsed, and the work of construction, even at one end, can be said to
have only just begun. Undoubtedly under
these circumstances everyone must allow
that Canada has failed to fulfil her treaty
obligations towards this Province, but
unfortunately Canada has been accused
not only of failing to accomplish her
undertakings, but of what is a very
different thing—a wilful breach of faith
in having neglected to do so. Well, let
us consider for a moment whether this
very serious assertion is true. What was
the state of things when the bargain was
made ? At that time everything in Canada
was prosperous; her finances were
flourishing, the discovery of the great
North-west, so to speak, had inflamed
her imagination.    Above  all things, rail- "■"""■■
way enterprise in the United States and
generally on this continent was being
developed to an astounding extent. One
trans-continental railway had been successfully executed, and several others on
the same gigantic scale were being projected. It had come to be considered
that a railway could be flung across the
Rocky Mountains as readily as across a
hay-field, and the observations of those
who passed from New York and San
Francisco did not suggest any extraordinary obstacles to undertakings of the
Unfortunately one element in the calculation was left entirely out of account,
and that was the comparative ignorance
which prevailed in regard to the character
of our Northern Ranges, and the mountain passes which intervened between the
Hudson's Bay Company's possessions and
the Western coast. In the United States,
for years and years, troops of emigrants
had passed westward to Salt Lake City, THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
to Sacramento, and to the Golden Gate;
every track and trail through the mountains was wayworn and well-known; the
location of a line in that neighbourhood
was pre-determined by the experience of
persons already well acquainted with the
locality. But in our case the trans-continental passes were sparse and unfrequented, and from an engineering point
of view may be said to have been absolutely
unknown. It was under these circumstances that Canada undertook to commence her Pacific Railway in two years,
and to finish it in ten. In doing this she
undoubtedly pledged herself to that which
was a physical impossibility, for the
moment the engineers peered over the
Rocky Mountains into your Province, they
saw at once that before any one passage
through the devious range before them
could be pronounced the best, an amount
of preliminary surveying would have to
be undertaken which it would require
several years to complete.    Now there is SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
a legal motto which says nemo tenetur ad
im/possibile, and I would submit to you
that under the circumstances I have mentioned, however great the default of
Canada, she need not necessarily have
been guilty of any wilful breach of faith*
I myself am quite convinced that when
Canada ratified this bargain with you she
acted in perfect good faith, and fully believed that she would accomplish her
promise, if not within ten years, at all
events within such a sufficiently reasonable
period as would satisfy your requirements.
The mistake she made was in being too
sanguine in her calculations; but remember, a portion of the blame for concluding a bargain, impossible of accomplishment, cannot be confined to one only
of the parties to it. The mountains which
have proved our stumbling block were
your own mountains, and within your own
territory, and however deeply an impartial
observer might sympathize with you in
the miscarriage of the two time terms of THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
the compact, one of which—namely as
to the commencement of the line in two
years from 1871—has failed, and the
other of which, namely, its completion
in ten, must fail, it is impossible to
forget that yourselves are by no
means without responsibility for such a
It is quite true—in what I must admit
to be a most generous spirit—you intimated in various ways that you did not
desire to hold Canada too strictly to the
letter of her engagements as to time.
Your expectations in this respect were
stated by your late Lieutenant-Governor,
Mr. Trutch, very fairly and explicitly,
though a very unfair use has been made
of his words, and I have no doubt that if
unforeseen circumstances had not intervened, you would have exhibited as much
patience as could have been expected of
you. But a serious crisis supervened in the
political career of Canada—Sir John Mac-
donald resigned office, and Mr. Mackenzie SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
acceded to power, and to all the responsibilities incurred by Canada in respect to
you and your Province. Now it is asserted,
and I imagine with truth, that Mr. Mackenzie and his political friends had always
been opposed to many portions of Canada's
bargain with British Columbia. It there-
fore came to be considered in this Province
that the new Government was an enemy
to the Pacific Railway ; but I believe this
to have been and to be a complete misapprehension. I believe the Pacific Railway
has no better friend in Canada than Mr.
Mackenzie, and that he was only opposed
to the time terms in the bargain, because
he believed them impossible of accomplishment, and that a conscientious endeavour to fulfil them would unnecessarily and ruinously increase the finanical
expenditure of the country, and in both
these opinions Mr. Mackenzie was undoubtedly right.-
With the experience we now   possess,
and of course it is easy to be wise after 186
1 U
the event, no one would dream of saying
that the Railway could have been surveyed, located, and built within the period
named, or that any company who might
undertake to build the line within that
period would not have required double or
treble the bonus that would have been
sufficient had construction been arranged
for at a more leisurely rate; but surely it
would be both ungenerous and unreasonable for British Columbia to entertain any
hostile feelings towards Mr. Mackenzie
on this account, nor is he to be blamed, in
my opinion, if, on entering office in so
unexpected a manner, he took time to
consider the course which he would
pursue in regard to his mode of dealing
with a question of such enormous importance. His position was undoubtedly
a very embarrassing one, his Government
had inherited responsibilities which
he knew, and which the country had
come to know, could not be discharged.
Already British Columbia had begun to S*^*^^*^S»»SSKS$^S^^SS«g4S^S®^8-^SS®8^^
cry out for the fulfilment of the bargain,
and that at the very time that Canada had
reached the conclusion that a relaxation of
some of its conditions was necessary.
Out of such a condition of affairs it was
almost impossible but that there should
arise in the first place delay—for all changes
of Government necessarily check the progress of public business—and in the next
friction, controversy, collision, between
the Province and the Dominion.
Happily it is not necessary that I should
follow the current of that quarrel or
discuss the curious points which were
then contested. You cannot expect me
to make any admissions in respect to the
course my Ministers may have thought
it right to pursue, nor would it be
gracious upon my part to criticise the
action of your Province during this painful period. Out of the altercation which
then ensued there issued under the
auspices of Lord Carnarvon—a settlement;    and   when   an   agreement   has THE   SEA OF MOUNTAINS.
been arrived at the sooner the incidents connected with the conflict which
preceded it are forgotten, the better
Here then we have arrived at a new
era; the former laches "of Canada, if
any such there had been, are abandoned,
and the two time terms of the treaty
are relaxed on the one part, while on
the other specific obligations are superadded to the main Article in the original
bargain : that is to say—again omitting
minor items—the Province agreed to
the Pacific Railway being completed in
sixteen years from 1874, and to its
being begun " as soon as the surveys
shall have been completed," instead of
at a fixed date, while the Dominion
Government undertook to construct at
once a railway from Esquimalt to
Nanaimo, to hurry forward the surveys
with the utmost possible dispatch, and
as soon as construction should have
begun, to spend two millions a year in
the prosecution of the work. •^ssssssss^ssssssss^
I find that in this part of the world
these arrangements have come to be
known as the | Carnarvon Terms." It
is a very convenient designation, and I
am quite content to adopt it on one
condition, namely, that Lord Carnarvon
is not to be saddled with any of the
original responsibility with regard to any
of these terms but one. The main body
of the terms are Mr. Mackenzie's; that
is to say, Mr. Mackenzie proffered the
Nanaimo and Esquimalt railway, the
telegraph line, the waggon-road, and the
annual expenditure. All that Lord Carnarvon did was to suggest that the
proposed expenditure should be two
millions instead of one million and
a half, and that a time-limit should
be added. But, as you are well aware,
this last condition was necessarily implied in the preceding one relating to the
annual expenditure—for once committed
to that expenditure, Canada would in self-
defence be obliged to hasten the completion THE  SEA  OF MOUNTAINS,
of the line in order to render reproductive
the capital she sank as quickly as possible. It is, therefore, but just to Lord
Carnarvon that het should be absolved
from the responsibility of having been in
any way the inventor of what are known
as the | Carnarvon Terms." Lord Carnarvon merely did what every arbitrator
would do under the circumstances; he
found the parties already agreed in respect
to the principal items of the bargain, and
was consequently relieved from pronouncing on their intrinsic merits, and
proceeded at once to suggest to Canada
the further concession which would be
necessary to bring her into final accord
with her opponent. In pursuance of this
agreement the Canadian Government organized a series of surveying parties upon
a most extensive and costly scale. In fact,
during the last two years two millions
of money alone have been expended on
these operations. The Chief Engineer
himself has told me that Mr. Mackenzie SPEECH  OP  LORD  DUFFERIN,
had given him carte blanche in the matter,
so anxious was he to have the route determined without delay, and that the
mountains were already as full of as
many theodolites and surveyors as they
could hold.
I  am  aware  it is asserted,  indeed as
much has been said to me since I came
here,   that   these   surveys  were  merely
multiplied in order to furnish an excuse
for further delays.    Well, that is rather a
hard saying.    But upon this point I can
speak from my own personal knowledge,
and I  am  sure that what I say on this
head   will   be  accepted  as  the  absolute
truth.    During  the  whole  of the period
under review, I was in constant personal
communication   with   Mr.  Fleming,  was
kept acquainted by that gentleman  with
everything that was being done.    I knew
the position of every surveying party in
the   area under»examination.     Now Mr.
Fleming is a gentleman in whose personal
integrity and in whose professional ability 192
everyone I address has the most perfect
confidence. Mr. Fleming, of course, was the
responsible engineer who planned those
surveys and determined the lines along
which they were to be carried, and over
and over again Mr. Fleming has explained
to me how unexpected were the difficulties
he had to encounter ; how repeatedly after
following hopefully a particular route his
engineers found themselves stopped by an
impassable wall of mountain which blocked
the way, and how trail after trail had to
be examined and abandoned before he
had hit on anything like a practicable
route. Even now, after all that has been
done, a glance at the map will show you
how devious and erratic is the line which
appears to afford the only tolerable exit
from the labyrinthine ranges of the Cascades.
Notwithstanding, therefore, whatever
may have been bruited abroad in the sense
to which I have alluded, I am sure it will
be admitted, nay, I know it is admitted, SttK
that so far as the prosecution of the surveys is concerned, Canada has used due
diligence, yes, more than due diligence in
her desire to comply with that section of
the I Carnarvon Terms" relating to this
particular. You must remember that it is
a matter of the greatest moment, affecting
the success of the entire scheme, and
calculated permanently to affect the future
destiny of the people of Canada, that a
right decision should be arrived at in re-
gard to the location of the western portion
of the line, and a Minister would be a
traitor to a most sacred trust if he allowed
himself to be teased, intimidated, or cajoled
into any precipitate decision on such a
momentous point until every possible
route had been duly examined. When I left
Ottawa, the engineers seemed disposed to
report that our ultimate choice would lie
between two routes, both starting from
Fort George, namely, that which leads to
the head of Dean's Canal, and that which
terminates in Bute Inlet.    Of these two
VOL.  II. o 194
the line to Dean's Canal was the shortest
by some forty miles, and was considerably
the cheaper by reason of its easier grades.
The ultimate exit of this channel to the
sea was also more direct than the tortuous
navigation out of Bute Inlet; but Mr.
Mackenzie added—though you must not
take what I am now going to say as a
definite conclusion on his part, or an authoritative communication upon mine—that
provided the difference in expense was not
so great as to forbid it, he would desire to
adopt what might be the less advantageous route from the Dominion point of
view, in order to follow that line which
would most aptly meet the requirements
of the Province.
Without pronouncing an opinion on the
merits of either of the routes, which it is
no part of my business to do, I may venture to say that in this principle I think
Mr. Mackenzie is right, and that it would
be wise and generous of Canada to consult
the local interests of British Columbia by isssmsssss^^
bringing the line and its terminus within
reach of existing settlements, if it can be
done without any undue sacrifice of public
money. From a recent article in the
I Globe," it would seem as though Bute
Inlet fine had finally found favour with the
Government, though I myself have no information on the point, and I am happy to
see from the statistics furnished by that
journal, that not only has the entire line
to the Pacific been at last surveyed,
located, graded, and its profile taken out,
but that the calculated expenses of construction, though very great, and to be incurred only after careful consideration, are
far less than were anticipated. Well,
gentlemen, should the indications we have
received of the intentions of the Government prove correct, you are very much to
be congratulated, for I am well aware
that the line to Bute Inlet is the one
you have always favoured, and I should
hope that now at last you will be satisfied
that    the    Canadian    Government    has
o 1 196
strained every nerve, as it undertook to
do, to fulfil to the letter its first and
principal obligation under the Carnarvon
Terms, by prosecuting with the utmost
despatch the surveys of the line to the
Pacific Coast. I only wish that Wadding-
ton Harbour, at the head of the Inlet, was
a better port. I confess to having but a
very poor opinion raf it, and certainly the
acquaintance I have made with Seymour
Narrows and the intervening channels
which will have to be bridged or ferried,
did not seem to me to be very favourable
to either operation.
Well, then, we now come to the Esqui-
malt and Nanaimo Railway. I am well
aware of the extraordinary importance
you attach to this work, and of course I
am perfectly ready to admit that its immediate execution was promised to you in
the most definite and absolute manner
under Lord Carnarvon's arbitration. I
am not, therefore, surprised at the irritation and excitement  occasioned  in   this
city by the non-fulfilment ofthisitemin
the agreement—nay, I will go further, I
think it extremely natural that the miscarriage of this part of the bargain should
have been provocative of very strenuous
language and deeply embittered feelings,
nor am I surprised that as is almost certain to follow on such occasions, you
should in your vexation put a very injurious construction on the conduct of
those who had undertaken to realize your
hopes; but still I know that I am addressing high-minded and reasonable men,
and, moreover, that you are perfectly convinced that I would sooner cut my right
hand off than utter a single word that
I do not know to be an absolute truth.
Two years have passed since the
Canadian Government undertook to commence the construction of the Esquimalt
and Nanaimo Railway, and the Nanaimo
and Esquimalt Railway is not even commenced, and what is more, there does not
at  present seem a prospect of its being wssm.
tjT.'UW »>I»-»VJ,^
commenced. What, then, is the history
of your case, and who is answerable for
your disappointment ? I know you consider Mr. Mackenzie. I am not here to
defend Mr. Mackenzie, his policy, his
proceedings, or his utterances. I hope
this will be clearly understood. In anything I have hitherto said I have done
nothing of this sort, nor do I intend to
do so. I have merely stated to you certain matters with which I thought it well
for you to be acquainted, because they
have been misapprehended, and what I
now tell you are also matters of fact within
my own cognizance, and which have no
relation to Mr. Mackenzie as the head of a
political party, and I tell them to you not
only in your own interest, but in the
interest of public morality and English
honour. In accordance with his engagements to you in relation to the Nanaimo
and Esquimalt Railway, Mr. Mackenzie
introduced as soon as it was possible a
Bill into the Canadian House of Commons. ^ssssssss
the clauses of which were admitted by
your representatives in Parliament fully to
discharge his obligations to yourselves and
to Lord Carnarvon in respect to that
undertaking, and  carried it  through the
O*7 o
Lower House by a large majority. I have
reason to think that many of his supporters voted for the Bill with very great
misgivings both as to the policy of the
measure and the intrinsic merits of the
railway, but their leader had pledged himself to exercise his Parliamentary influence
to pass it, and they very properly carried
it through for him. It went up to the
Senate, and was thrown out by that body
by a majority of two. Well, I have learnt
with regret that there is a very widespread conviction in this community that
Mr. Mackenzie had surreptitiously procured the defeat of his own measure in the
Upper House. Had Mr. Mackenzie dealt
so treacherously by Lord Carnarvon, by
the Representative of his Sovereign in this
country, or by you, he would have been 200
guilty of a most atrocious act, of which I
trust no public man in Canada or in any
other British Colony could be capable. I
tell you in the most emphatic terms, and
I pledge my own honour on the point,
that Mr. Mackenzie was not guilty of any
such base and deceitful conduct—had I
thought him guilty of it, either he would
have ceased to be Prime Minister or I
should have left the country.
But the very contrary was the fact.
While these events were passing I was in
constant personal communication with Mr.
Mackenzie, I naturally watched the progress of the Bill with the greatest anxiety,
because I was aware of the eagerness with
which the Act was desired in Victoria, and
because I had long felt the deepest sympathy with you in the succession of disappointments to which, by the force of
circumstances, you had been exposed.
When the Bill passed, the House of
Commons by a large majority with the
assent of the leader of the Opposition, in
jBBg^SHBaffiHIHffiHHBraHBffi'fflfflS^anRH'l SPEECH  OF   LORD  DUFEERIN.
common with everyone else, I concluded
it was safe, and the  adverse vote of the
Senate took me as much by surprise as it
did you and the rest of the world.   I saw
Mr. Mackenzie the next day, and I have
seldom seen a man more annoyed or disconcerted  than he  was; indeed he  was
driven at that interview to protest with
more   warmth  than   he   had ever   used
against the decision of the English Government, which had refused, on the opinion
of the law officers of the Crown, to allow
him to add to the members of the Senate,
when, soon after his accession to office,
Prince Edward Island had entered Confederation.
I Had I been permitted," he said to
me, I to exercise my rights in that respect
this would not have happened, but how
can these mischances be prevented in a
body the majority of which, having been
nominated by my political opponent, is
naturally hostile to me ?"
Now,   gentlemen,    your    acquaintance ► I
with Parliamentary Government must tell
you that this last observation of Mr.
Mackenzie's was a perfectly just one. But
my attention has been drawn to the fact
that two of Mr. Mackenzie's party supported his Conservative opponents in the
rejection of the Bill, but surely you don't
imagine that a Prime Minister can deal
with his supporters in the Senate as if
they were a regiment of soldiers. In the
House of Commons he has a better chance
of maintaining party discipline, for the
constituencies are very apt to resent any
insubordination on the part of their members towards the leader of their choice.
But a Senator is equally independent of
the Crown, the Minister, or the people;
and as in the House of Lords at home, so
in the Second Chamber in Canada, gentlemen will run from time to time on the
wrong side of the post.
But it has been observed—granting
that the two members in question did not
vote as they did at Mr. Mackenzie's insti- SPEECH  OF  LORD DUFFERIN-.
gation—he has exhibited his perfidy in not
sending in his resignation as soon as the
Senate had pronounced against the Bill.
Now, gentlemen, you cannot expect me to
discuss Mr. Mackenzie's conduct in that
respect. It would be very improper for
me to do so; but though I cannot
discuss Mr. Mackenzie's conduct, I am
perfectly at liberty to tell you what I
myself should have done had Mr. Mackenzie tendered to me his resignation. I
should have told him that in my opinion
such a course was quite unjustifiable, that
as the House of Commons was then constituted I saw no prospect of the Queen's
Government being advantageously earned
on except under his leadership, and that
were he to resign at that time, the greatest
inconvenience and detriment would ensue
to the public service. That is what I
should have said to Mr. Mackenzie in
the event contemplated, and I have no
doubt that the Parliament and the people of
Canada would have confirmed my decision.
But it has been furthermore urged that THE   SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
Mr. Mackenzie ought to have re-introduced the Bill. Well, that is again a
point I cannot discuss, but I may tell
you this, that if Mr. Mackenzie had done
so, I very much doubt whether he would
have succeeded in carrying it a second
time even in the House of Commons.
The fact is that Canada at large, whether
rightly or wrongly I do not say, has unmistakably shown its approval of the
vote in the Senate. An opinion has come
to prevail from one end of the Dominion
to the other, an opinion which I find is
acquiesced in by a considerable proportion
of the inhabitants of British Columbia,
that the Nanaimo and Esquimalt Railway
cannot stand upon its own merits, and
that its construction as a Government
enterprise would be at all events at present a useless expenditure of the public
money. Now again let me assure you
that I am not presuming to convey to
you any opinion of my own on this much
contested point. Even did I entertain
any misgivings on the subject it would be HBS^S54R33&iS58MHHNi
very ungracious for me to parade them
in your presence and on such an occasion. I am merely communicating to you
my conjecture why it is that Mr. Mackenzie has shown no signs of his intention
to re-introduce the Nanaimo and Esquimalt Railway Bill into Parliament, viz.—
because he had no chance of getting it
Well, then, gentlemen, of whom and
what have you to complain ? Well, you
have every right from your point of view
to complain of the Canadian Senate.
You have a right to say that after the
Government of the day had promised
that a measure upon which a majority of
the inhabitants of an important Province
had set their hearts should be passed,
it was ill-advised and unhandsome of that
body not to confirm the natural expectations which had thus been engendered in
your breasts, especially when that* work
was itself offered as a solatium to you for
a previous injury.    I fully admit that it is 206
a very grave step for either House of the
Legislature, and particularly for that
which is not the popular branch, to disavow any agreement into which the
Executive may have entered, except under
a very absolute sense of public duty.
Mind, I am not saying that this is not
such a case, but I say that you have got
a perfect right, from your own point of
view, not so to regard it. But, gentlemen, that is all. You have got no right
to go beyond that. You have got no
right to describe yourselves as a second
time the victims of a broken agreement.
As I have shown you, the persons who
had entered into an engagement in regard
to this railway with you and Lord Carnarvon had done their very best to discharge their obligation. But the Senate,
who counteracted their intention, had
given no preliminary promises whatsoever,
either to you or to the Secretary of State.
They rejected the Bill in the legitimate
exercise of their constitutional functions, &KSNSKNSK55SS5S8S^^
and there is nothing more to be said on
this head so far as that body is concerned,
either by you or Lord Carnarvon, for I
need not assure you that there is not the
slightest chance that any Secretary of
State in Downing Street would attempt
anything so unconstitutional—so likely
to kindle a flame throughout the whole
Dominion—as to coerce the free legislative
action of her Legislature. But there is
one thing I admit the Senate has done.
It has revived in their integrity those
original treaty obligations on the strength
of which you were induced to enter confederation, and it has re-imposed upon
Mr. Mackenzie and his Government the
obligation of offering you an equivalent
for that stipulation in the | Carnarvon
Terms" which he has not been able to
make good.
Now, from the very strong language
which has been used in regard to the
conduct of Mr. Mackenzie, a bystander
would be led to imagine that as soon as 208
his Railway Bill had miscarried, he had
cynically refused to take any further
action in the matter. Had my Government done this they would have exposed
themselves to the severest reprehension,
and such conduct would have been both
faithless to you and disrespectful to Lord
Carnarvon; but so far from having acted
in this manner, Mr. Mackenzie has offered
you a very considerable grant of money
in consideration of your disappointment.
Now here again I won't touch upon the
irritating controversies which have circled
round this particular step in these transactions. I am well aware that you consider this offer to have been made under
conditions of which you have reason to
complain. If this has been the case it is
most unfortunate, but still, whatever may
have been the sinister incidents connected
with the past, the one solid fact remains
that the Canadian Government has
offered you seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars in lieu of the railway.    This aBaaaeaaa&saflftMfc^v^w'w^w^aftaiAWM
sum has been represented to me as totally
inadequate, and as very short of an
equivalent. It may be so, or it may not
be so. Neither upon that point will I
offer an opinion, but still I may mention
to you the principle upon which that sum
has been arrived at.
Under the Nanaimo and Esquimalt
Railway Bill, whose rejection by the
Senate we have been considering, Canada
was to contribute a bonus of ten thousand
dollars a mile; the total distance of the
line is about seventy miles, consequently
the seven hundred and fifty thousand
dollars is nothing more nor less than this
very bonus converted into a lump sum.
Now, since I have come here, it has been
represented to me by the friends of the
railway that it is a line which is capable
of standing on its own merits, and that a
company had been almost induced to take
it up some time ago as an unsubsidized
enterprise. Nay, only yesterday, the local
paper,   which    is   the    most    strenuous
vol. 11. p - 210
champion for the line, asserted that it
could be built for two million dollars; that
the lands—which, with the seven hundred and fifty thousand dollars, were to
be replaced by Mr. Mackenzie at your
disposal — were worth several millions
more, and that the railway itself would
prove a most paying concern. If this is
so—and what better authority can I
refer to ?—is it not obvious that the bonus
proposal of the Dominion Government
assumes at least the semblance of a fair
offer, and even if you did not consider it
absolutely up to the mark, it should not
have been denounced in the very strong
language which has been used.
However, I do not wish to discuss the
point whether the seven hundred and
fifty thousand dollars was a sufficient
offer or not. I certainly am not empowered to hold out to you any hopes of
an advance; all that I would venture to
sumbit is that Mr. Mackenzie, having
been thwarted in his bond fide endeavour sss&ssss^^
SPEECH of lord dufferin.
to   fulfil this special item in  the  | Carnarvon  Terms,"   has   adopted the   only
course left to  him in proposing to discharge his obligations  by a  money payment.    I confess I should have thought
this would be the most natural solution
of the problem, and that the payment of
a sura of money equivalent to the measure
of Mr. Mackenzie's original obligation, to
be   expended under  whatever conditions
would be most immediately advantageous
to the Province and ultimately beneficial
to  the  Dominion,   would  not have been
an unnatural remedy for the misadventure
which has stultified this special stipulation
in regard to the Nanaimo and Esquimalt
Railway; but, of course, of these matters
you yourselves are the best judges, and I
certainly have not the slightest desire to
suggest to you any course which you may
think contrary  to   your   interests.     My
only object in touching upon them^at all
is to  disabuse your  minds  of  the  idea
that there has been any  intention  upon
p 2 m
'  I ft
the part of Mr. Mackenzie, his Government, or of Canada to break their faith
with you. Every single item of the
| Carnarvon Terms" is at this moment
in the course of fulfilment. At enormous
expense the surveys have been pressed
forward to completion, the fifty millions
of land and the thirty millions of money
to be provided for by Canada under the
Bill are ready, the profiles of the main
line have been taken out, and the most
elaborate information has been sent over
to Europe in regard to every section of
the country through which it passes;
several thousand miles of the stipulated
telegraph have been laid down, and now
that the location of the western terminus
seems to have been determined, though
upon this point I have myself no information, tenders, I imagine, will be called for
almost immediately. Whatever further
steps may be necessary to float the undertaking as a commercial enterprise will be
adopted, and  the  promised waggon-road SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN,
will necessarily follow pari passu   with
Well,   then,   gentlemen,  how will you
stand under these   circumstances ?    You
will have got your  line  to  Bute   Inlet.
Now I will communicate to you a conclusion I have arrived at  from my visit to
that locality.    If the Pacific Railway once
comes to Bute Inlet it cannot stop there.
It may pause there for a considerable time,
until  Canadian  trans-Pacific  traffic with
Australia,   China,  and  Japan   shall have
begun to expand, but such a traffic once
set  going,  Waddington  Harbour will no
longer serve as a terminal port; in fact
it is  no harbour  at  all and scarcely an
anchorage—the railway must be prolonged
under these circumstances to Esquimalt,
that is to say if the deliberate opinion of
the engineers should pronounce the operation  feasible,   and  Canada  shall  in   the
meantime have   acquired the   additional
financial stability which would justify her
undertaking what, under any circumstances, 214
must prove one of the most gigantic
achievements the world has ever witnessed. In that case, of course, the
Nanaimo Railway springs into existence
of its own accord, and you will then be
in possession both of your money compensation and of the thing for which it
was paid, and with this result I do not
think you should be ill-satisfied. But
should the contrary be the case, the prospect is indeed a gloomy one; should
hasty counsels and the exhibition of an
impracticable spirit throw these arrangements into confusion, interrupt or change
our present railway programme, and
necessitate any re-arrangement of your
political relations, I fear Yictoria would
be the chief sufferer. I scarcely like to
allude to such a contingency, nor, gentlemen, are my observations directed immediately to you, for I know very well that
neither those whom I am addressing, nor
do the great majority of the inhabitants
of Yancouver Island or of Yictoria, parti- SPEECH   OF LORD  DUFFERIN.
cipate in the views to which I am about
to refer, but still a certain number of
your fellow-citizens, gentlemen, with whom
I have had a great deal of pleasant and
interesting conversation, and who have
shown to me personally the greatest kindness and courtesy, have sought to impress
me with the belief that if the Legislature
of Canada is not compelled by some means
or other, which, however, they do not
specify, to make forthwith these seventy
miles of railway, they will be strong
enough, in the face of Mr. Mackenzie's
offer of a money equivalent, to take
British Columbia out of the Confederation.
Well, they certainly won't be able to do
that. I am now in a position to judge
for myself as to what are the real sentiments of the community. I will even
presume to say I know more about it
than these gentlemen themselves. When
once the main line of the Pacific Railway
is under way, the whole population .of
the Mainland would be perfectly contented THE   SEA  OF   MOUNTAINS.
with the present situation of affairs, and
will never dream of detaching their fortunes from those of Her Majesty's great
Dominion. Nay, I don't believe that
these gentlemen would be able to persuade their fellow citizens even of the
Island of Vancouver to so violent a
course; but granting for the moment
that their influence should prevail—what
would be the result? British Columbia
would still be part and parcel of Canada.
The great work of Confederation would
not be perceptibly affected, but the proposed line of the Pacific Railway might
possibly be deflected south. New Westminster would certainly become the
capital of the Province, the Dominion
would naturally use its best endeavours
to build it up into a flourishing and
prosperous city. It would be the seat of
Government, and the home of justice, as
well as the chief social centre on the
Pacific coast. Burrard Inlet would become
a great commercial port, and the miners SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN,
of Cariboo, with their stores of gold dust,
would spend their festive and open-handed
winters there. Great Britain would, of
course, retain Esquimalt as a naval station on this coast, as she has retained
Halifax as a naval station on the other,
and inasmuch as a constituency of some
one thousand five hundred persons would
not be able to supply the material for a
Parliamentary Government, Yancouver
and its inhabitants, who are now influential by reason of their intelligence rather
than their numbers, would be ruled as
Jamaica, Malta, Gibraltar, Heligoland, and
Ascension are ruled, through the instrumentality of some naval or other officer.
Nanaimo would become the principal town
of the Island, and Yictoria would lapse
for many a long year into the condition
of a village, until the development of
your coalfields and the growth of a
healthier sentiment had prepared the way
for its re-incorporation with the rest of
the Province; at least, that is the horo- THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
scope I should draw for it in the contingency contemplated by these gentlemen.
But God forbid that any such prophecy
should be realized. I believe the gentlemen I have referred to are the very last
who would desire to see the fulfilment of
their menaces, and I hope they will forgive me if I am not intimidated by their
formidable representations. When some
pertinacious philosopher insisted on assailing the late King of the Belgians with a
rhapsody on the beauties of a Republican
Government, His Majesty replied, | You
forget, Sir, that 1 am a Royalist by
profession." Well, a Governor-General is
a Federalist by profession, and you might
as well expect the Sultan of Turkey to
throw up his cap for the Commune as the
Viceroy of Canada to entertain a suggestion for the disintegration of the Dominion.
I hope, therefore, they will not bear me
any ill will for having declined to bow my SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN,
head beneath their "separation" arch. It
was a very good-humoured, and certainly
not a disloyal bit of | bounce" which they
had prepared for me. I suppose they
wished me to know they were the | arch"
enemies of Canada. "Well, I have made
them an arch reply. But, gentlemen, of
course I am not serious in discussing such
a contingency as that to which I have
referred. Your numerical weakness as a
community is your real strength, for it is
a consideration which appeals to every
generous heart. Far be the day when on
any acre of soil above which floats the
flag of England, mere material power,
brute political preponderance should be
permitted to decide such a controversy
as that which we are discussing. It is to
men like yourselves who, with unquailing
fortitude and heroic energy have planted
the laws and liberties and the blessed influences of English homes amidst the
wilds and desert plains of savage lands,
that England owes the enhancement  of 220
■ fr
her prestige, the diffusion of her tongue,
the   increase of her   commerce   and   her
ever-widening   renown,   and   woe  betide
the Government or Statesman  who,   because its inhabitants are few in number
and  politically  of small  account, should
disregard the wishes or carelessly dismiss
the representations however bluff, boisterous or downright, of the feeblest of our
distant colonies.    No, gentlemen, neither
England nor Canada would be content or
happy in any   settlement   that  was   not
arrived at with your own hearty approval
and consent, and equally satisfactory to
every section of your Province; but we
appeal to  your moderation and practical
good sense to assist us in  resolving the
present  difficulty.     The   genius   of   the
English  race  has ever  been  too robust
and sensible to admit the existence of an
irreconcilable element in its midst.    It is
only  among  weak  and  hysterical populations that such a  growth can flourish.
However hard the blows given and taken SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
during the contest, Britishers always
find a means of making up the quarrel,
and such I trust will be the case on the
present occasion. My functions, as a
constitutional ruler, are simply to superintend the working of the political machine,
but not to intermeddle with its action.
I trust that I have observed that rule on
the present occasion, and that, although
I have addressed you at considerable
length, I have not said a word which it
has not been strictly within my province
to say, or intruded on those domains
which are reserved for my responsible advisers. As I warned you would be the
case, I have made no announcement, I
have made no promise, I have hazarded
no opinion upon any of the administrative
questions now occupying the joint attention of yourselves and the Dominion.
I have only endeavoured to correct some
misapprehensions by which you have been
possessed in regard to matters of historical fact,  and I have  testified to the ¥
kind feeling entertained for you by your
fellow-subjects in Canada, and to the
desire of my Government for the re-establishment of the friendliest and kindest
relations between you and themselves;
and I trust that I may carry away with
me the conviction that from henceforth a
less angry and irritated feeling towards
Canada will have been inaugurated than
has hitherto subsisted. Of my own
earnest desire to do anything I can to
forward your views, so far as they may
be founded in justice and reason, I need
not speak. My presence here and the
way in which I have spent my time will
have convinced you of what has been the
object nearest my heart. I cannot say
how glad I am to have come or how much
I have profited by my visit, and I assure
you none of the representations with which
I have been favoured will escape my
memory or fail to be duly submitted in
the proper quarter.
And  now, gentlemen,. I must bid you SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN.
good-bye; but before doing so there is
one other topic upon which I am desirous
of touching. From my first arrival in
Canada, I have been very much preoccupied with the condition of the Indian
population in this Province. You must
remember that the Indian populations are
not represented in Parliament, and consequently that the Governor-General is bound
to watch over their welfare with special
solicitude. Now, we must all admit that
the condition of the Indian question in
British Columbia is not satisfactory.
Most unfortunately, as I think, there
has been an initial error ever since Sir
James Douglas quitted office, in the Government of British Columbia neglecting   to
o o
recognize what is known as the Indian
title. In Canada this has always been
■done ; no Government, whether provincial
or central, has failed to acknowledge that
the original title to the land existed in the
Indian tribes and communities that hunted
or  wandered  over it.    Before we  touch 224
an acre we make a treaty with the chiefs
representing the bands we are dealing with,
and having agreed upon and paid the
stipulated price, oftentimes arrived at
after a great deal of haggling and difficulty,
we enter into possession, but not until
then do we consider that we are entitled to
deal with an acre. The result has been
that in Canada our Indians are contented,
well affected to the white man, and amenable to the laws and Government. At this
very moment the Lieutenant-Governor of
Manitoba has gone on a distant expedition
in order to make a treaty with the tribes
to the northward of the Saskatchewan.
Last year he made two treaties with the
Chippewas and Crees; next year it has
been arranged that he should make a
treaty with the Blackfeet, and when this
has been done the British Crown shall
have acquired a title to every acre that
lies between Lake Superior and the top of
the Rocky Mountains. But in British Columbia, except in a few acres where under S^^SSSSS5«S^S!S8SS8S
the jurisdiction of the Hudson's Bay Company or under the auspices of Sir James
Douglas, a similar practice has been
adopted, the British Columbian Government has always assumed that the fee
simple in, as well as the sovereignty over,
land resided in the Queen. Acting upon
this principle they have granted extensive
grazing leases, and otherwise so dealt
with various sections of the country as
greatly to restrict or interfere with the
prescriptive rights of the Queen's Indian
subjects. As a consequence, there has
come to exist a very unsatisfactory feeling
amongst the Indian population. Intimation of this reached me at Ottawa two or
three years ago, and since I have come
into the Province my misgivings on the
subject have been confirmed. Now, I confess, I consider that our Indian fellow-subjects are entitled to exactly the same civil
rights under the law as are possessed by
the white population, and that if an
Indian can prove a prescriptive right of
vol. ii. a -1   Jll.JL.liJ
way to a fishing station, or a right of way
of any other kind, that that right should
no more be ignored than if it was the case
of a white man. I am well aware that
among the coast Indians the land question
does not present the same characteristics
as in other parts of C anada, or as it does
in the grass countries of the interior of
the Province, but I also have been able
to understand that in these latter districts
it may be even more necessary to deal
justly and liberally with the Indian in regard to his land rights than on the prairies
of the North-west. I am very happy to
think that the British Columbian Government should have recognised the necessity
of assisting the Dominion Government in
ameliorating the present condition of
affairs in this respect, and that it has
agreed to the creation of a joint Commission for the purpose of putting the
interests of the Indian population on a
more satisfactory footing. Of course in
what I have said I do not mean that, in SPEECH OF LORD  DUFFERIN.
our desire to be humane and to act justly,
we should do anything unreasonable or
Quixotic, or that rights already acquired
by white men should be inconsiderately
invaded or recalled; but I would venture
to put the Government of British Columbia
on its guard against the fatal eventualities
which might rise should a sense of injustice provoke the Indian population to
violence or into a collision with our scattered settlers.
Probably there has gone forth amongst
them very incorrect and exaggerated information of the warlike achievements of
their brethren in Dakotah, and their uneducated minds are incapable of calculating
chances. Of course there is no danger of
any serious or permanent revolt, but it
must be remembered that even an accidental collision in which blood was shed
might have a most disastrous effect upon
our present satisfactory relations with
the warlike tribes in the North-west,
whose amity and adhesion to our system
S 2 ——i
of Government is so essential to the progress of the Pacific Railway, and I make
this appeal, as I may call it, with all the
more earnestness, since I have convinced
myself of the degree to which, if properly
dealt with, the Indian population might
be made to contribute to the development
of the wealth and resources of the Province.
I have, now seen them in all phases of
their existence, from the half naked
savage, perched like a bird of prey in a
red blanket upon a rock trying to catch
his miserable dinner of fish, to the neat
Indian maiden in Mr. Duncan's school at
Metlakatlah, as modest and as well-
dressed as any clergyman's daughter in
an English parish, or to the shrewd horse-
riding Siwash of the Thompson Yalley,
with his racers in training for the Ash-
croft stakes, and as proud of his stackyard
and turnip field as a British squire. In
his first condition it is evident he is scarcely a producer or consumer; in his second
he is eminently both; and in proportion as SPEECH  OF  LORD  DUFFERIN,
he can be raised to the higher level of
civilization, will be the degree to which
he will contribute to the vital energies of
the Province. What you want are not
resources, but human beings to develop
them and to consume them. Raise your
thirty thousand Indians to the level Mr.
Duncan has taught us they can be brought,
and consider what an enormous amount of
vital power you will have added to your
present strength. But I must not keep
you longer. I thank you most heartily
for your patience and attention. Most
earnestly do I desire the accomplishment
of all your aspirations, and if ever I have
the good fortune to come to British
Columbia again, I hope it may be by—
Rail. 230
Remarks on Lord Dufferin's Address—Mr. Mackenzie —
Accusations against the Canadian Premier—Unrea-
soning Partisanship—Menace of the Separation of
British Columbia from Canada—Unpleasant Feature
of the Position—Treatment of the Indians of British
Columbia—Indian Beservations—United States and
British Indians.
T DON'T think general readers will as
-*- thoroughly appreciate the merits of
Lord Dufferin's address as they do who
have had an opportunity of estimating the
importance of the many conflicting
opinions in British Columbia, and of
establishing a standard for themselves by
which to measure the opinions, sentiments,
anger, favour, ultimatums, pronunciamen- S*S*S8SS8S8§S*S8*^
tos of a community in a serious crisis, a
community much disturbed, in a measure
wronged, distracted by the jealousies and
contentions of the men to whom they
have been taught to look for guidance and
help, and feeling in their hearts that the
only true solution to their difficulties
must come from the hand which undoubtedly owes them reparation, but
against which they have angrily turned.
To know what might be well avoided; to
perceive that which it was essential should
be spoken at all hazards; to distinguish
between that which had been urged in
temper and that which was the result of
conviction and a sense of injury : to show
the true complexion and bearing of a matter without assuming to be a judge, and
to speak for two hours, trampling out of
life long-cherished fallacies and annihilating fondly nourished hopes, without for a
moment offendiug the amour propre of any
of his hearers, but on the contrary addressing them from first to last—whether THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
telling them unpalatable truths or sympathizing with them in their anxieties—in
language and with courtesy that would
have befitted the House of Lords, was an
effort worthy of a statesman, and was
what Lord Dufferin accomplished. He
did not permit the many allegations
against Canada's good faith to go unanswered. He did not even allow the assertion, practically so frequently made,
that Canada was all in the wrong to pass
unchallenged, and without any espousal of
Mr. Mackenzie's political views, he warmly
and loyally defended that gentleman from
the charge of treachery and deceit which
he had heard laid to his door.
There have been some here who have
not scrupled to impute to Mr. Mackenzie
motives of which no one in Canada has
ever accused him, and to speak of him
generally in terms very unpleasant to
listen to. These persons cannot say of
him, as they say of everyone else who disagrees  with  them,  that  " he   has   been MR.  MACKENZIE.
bought," but they find no difficulty in
imagining a course of policy founded on
duplicity and falsehood, and they interpret
events at Ottawa in which he is concerned
by this light. Anyone thought to be a
political friend of Mr. Mackenzie has been
regarded as the fittest person to hear
abuse of the Premier, and though the
number of these gentlemen—who are such
adepts in discovering villainy in others—is
small, yet they are sometimes found where
they would not be looked for. I am
almost tempted to mention the names of
those to whom I allude, in order that
they may not be confounded with others
who have honestly differed from Mr.
Mackenzie, or anxiously watched the results of his policy, but perhaps it is unnecessary. Lord Dufferin, however, had
been made the recipient of the opinions
of some of these gentlemen on the subject
of the Premier's treachery in obtaining
the defeat of the Esquimalt and Nanaimo
Railway in the Senate, and when he came THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
to this point in the course of his speech,
he took up the question of Mr. Mackenzie's personal honour in such a way that I
very much doubt whether that gentleman's
traducers—if any of them were present—
will care to repeat their slander.
Lord Dufferin's speech has been a sore
disappointment to some who, in spite of
their own common sense, if they had
chosen to exercise it, persisted in believing
that he would make such a guaranteed
promise as would meet their views; and
nothing would meet their views but the
integrity of the Carnarvon Terms. But
it has satisfied a great many, and has set
others thinking who before had been
carried away by the clamour raised by
those whom I have once before called the
extreme men. For the sake of the Province, which no one can visit without
becoming its partisan, one hopes that the
question between Canada and British
Columbia may shortly find a satisfactory UNFOUNDED  ACCUSATION
solution, and I still adhere to the opinion
I expressed at first, when the hysterical
articles in the | Standard" appeared, that
the quiet attitude of the moderate men
would in the end prevail, and that some
reasonable proposition on Canada's part
will receive all due consideration.
I was accused, at a Public Meeting held
at the time of these events, by a gentleman
whom to know is to wonder at, of having
misrepresented the Province by saying
that the people were divided on the subject of the Carnarvon Terms. I said it
with becoming diffidence, as one who
speaks of that which yet he has to prove,
but I now take the opportunity, as a point
of duty to my readers, of reiterating
my statement with the certainty that is
begotten of absolute knowledge of a fact,
and with a certain degree of wonder and
amusement at the cool audacity of the few
who have had the assurance to carp at the
frank expression of a truth which not even 236
the most obtuse of them can longer deny.
I will go a little further than I did before,
and venture upon a personal opinion, viz.,
that the islanders themselves will not
much longer continue their menace of
separation. At the Public Meeting of
which I spoke, a resolution was unanimously carried, in effect desiring the
Legislature to take steps for the separation
of British Columbia from Canada in the
event of the Carnarvon Terms, in their
entirety, not being carried out; but in the
face of this fact I believe that the proposal
to separate is felt by the thinking portion
of the community to be a mistake, and
inimical to the best interests of the
This feeling is likely to spread when it
becomes understood that the mainland
would see without any displeasure a
severance between the two geographical
divisions of the Province. The Legislature might, if the extreme men have their POSITION  OF AFFAIRS.
way, vote a Province out of the Dominion,
but British Columbia proper would convention itself back into Canada, taking all
the advantages of union to itself. I have
heard mainland men take this ground, and
on the journey through the Yale and
Westminster districts made it my business
to learn as far as possible the course of
public opinion. At the same time the
more enlightened portion of the mainland
say that separation is folly, and that it is
quite possible that even with the present
House a resolution on the question would
be negatived. The unpleasant feature of
the position is*that the two portions of the
Province are at variance with one another,
and one of them almost hostile to the
country of which it is a part. But it is
always to be remembered that the whole
of Yancouver Island is not to be held
responsible for a section of the inhabitants
of the city, and that while all, with some
reason, feel sore with Canada, the majority 238
of the people—if my estimate be correct
—are not to be led away to bite their own
noses. The gentlemen who once held, but
who are now out of, office in the Province
ought surely to be able to find some other
issue on which to struggle back to bread
and butter.
Towards the conclusion of his address
Lord Dufferin took occasion to remark on
the treatment of the Indians in British
Columbia with regard to their land rights,
pointing out that the present method of
dealing with them really was—though
expressed by Lord Dufferin in gentler
terms—an act of glaring injustice to the
Indians. It seems that the British Columbian Government, or Governments, have
from time to time granted lands for
ranches, and so forth, to the public, as
well as valuable timber and mining limits
to their own friends, without first obtaining the cession of those districts from the
Indians.    Probably   the   gentlemen   who i^SSSSSSSSSS^SSS^
hold certain limits would be outraged
were they asked to surrender these undeveloped claims until the Indian title had
been cancelled; but were the Indians to
take the matter into their own hands,
these unfortunate recipients of favours
would be the first to call out for Canadian
paid troops and British gunboats. Doubtless the subject will come up for discussion
when the Report of the Commission now
at work in British Columbia upon the
settlement of Indian reservations shall
have been received. In the meantime
there is the possibility of a little skirmishing amongst the Indians themselves. The
United States Indians from Washington
Territory have lately angered our people
by trespassing on their fishing and berrying grounds, and by burning the bushes
after having gathered the berries. The
old blood of the | Knife" Indians has been
aroused by this, and when we last heard
news  from the upper country it was to THE  SEA OF  MOUNTAINS.
the effect that the British Indians had
paraphrased the old saying, and had
adopted for their motto, "Forty-ninth
parallel or fight." 241
California—San Francisco—Gold and Paper Money—
The Slaves of the South—The Chinese m California-
Immigration of Chinamen—The " Six Companies"—
Coolie Traders—Dread of Assassination—Life in a
China-town—"Visit to the Chinese Theatre—A* Chinese Restaurant—A Joss-House.
lilTHEN the differences underlying the
* * apparent concord between the
Northern and Southern States of the
American Union culminated in that break
which is now usually spoken of good-
humouredly as " the late onpleasantness,"
California, separated from her sister States
by the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra
Nevada,   took the matter  rather   easily
vol. n,
R 242
than   otherwise,   and   without   disturbing
herself about the probable result of the
quarrel, watched the ebbing and flowing
tide  of   successive   battles   rather  in   a
spirit  of curiosity   and speculation   than
in anxiety for  the safety   or destruction
of any particular institutions about which
more Eastern peoples were  excited, and
continued to devote her serious attention
to piling up the wealth that has its centre
by  the   | Golden   Gate."     Money   and
money-making were too serious subjects
in California's estimation to be lightly set
aside on  considerations which,   however
powerful in the East, lost much of their
force in traversing the continent of America ; and if  the East, in its   extremity,
was compelled to resort, for the time, to
paper money, the West too far respected
the   sanctity   of  bullion   to   lend   itself
to   any   such   desecration   of Mammon.
The fair round heavy pieces stood piled
as plenteously as ever in the temples of
San  Francisco,   and chinked their scorn ^=^^^^^
at the Eastern rag that had presumed to
offer itself as their equivalent.
Moreover, the coloured people of the
South, though, doubtless, worthy of some
passing thought, were, at the moment,
the subjects of an interest, and the creators of a sentiment that, in themselves,
reflected upon California, and threatened
to extend to within her borders. If the
slaves of the South were worthy of all
this self-sacrifice on the part of the North,
who could tell what next might happen ?
It was within the range of possibility, that
some philanthropists might object to California's exclusive enjoyment of the privilege of | larruping her own nigger," as
exemplified in her treatment of John
Chinaman; and if the sacred right of beating, stoning, and otherwise ill-treating
I John" were once interfered with, life
to the Californian hoodlum would become
a mockery.    So California was not much
exercised about the early vicissitudes  of
the     | unpleasantness;"    but    attended mi
,-. .      ---u -      •-    ..  I
strictly to the business of finding, crushing, coining, and piling up gold. And
despite the curses and revilings that were
loured upon him, in spite of the blows
which he received, the law's delays, the
proud man's contumely, under which he
suffered, John Chinaman continued to
sweep up the crumbs that fall from the
Californian table, to establish himself in
San Francisco, and to permeate through
the communities of the Golden State.
The immigration of Chinamen is conducted on a system which, with some
exceptions to be mentioned, retains a hold
upon the individual Coolie for many years
after his arrival in America—a hard and
unrelaxing hold. The exceptions are
those cases where a Coolie has sufficient
means to pay his passage, and dispense
with the aid of the | Six Companies" of
San Francisco. The rule is—the assisted
emigration of poverty-stricken Coolies.
These | Six Companies" are established
in San Francisco, and have their agencies CHINESE  EMIGRANTS.
in China. Every Chinaman I spoke to,
and that was a great number, came from
Whampoa, Canton, Hong Kong, or some
other place in the vicinity of the Canton
River, so I suppose there is one agency
or more, in that locality. A Coolie
presents himself at one of these offices,
and signs a contract by which he promises
to pay a certain percentage of his earnings to the Company in whose books he
is entered, for a definite number of years.
He is obliged to find security for the
fulfilment of this contract, which is generally done by pledging the liberty of his
father, mother, brother, or sister, or all,
as the case may be. The Company then
gives him a passage across, and is bound
to sustain him for twelve months if he
do not find employment. As a matter of
economy, they take very good care that
almost immediately after arrival, he does
find work.
• But there is another way in which the
supply of emigrants   from China is kept 246
up. A Coolie trader finds a family sunk
in poverty, having sons and daughters,
but destitute of food. A son, or daughter,
or both, is easily persuaded to emigrate
to the country of the Far Kee Qui (Flowery
Flag Devil), where money is as plentiful,
and so easily acquired, and in return for
a present payment to the starving household, the emigrating children sign a con-
tract for ten or twelve years' service, the
rest of the family becoming security, under
fearful penalties, for the due observance,
in America, of the contract signed by
the .departing members. Then they are
shipped across, the Coolie trader making
his account in the transaction, and on
their arrival in America, the man enters
upon the business of earning money,
under the direction and supervision of
the Company to which he belongs, while
the woman is virtually sold as a slave,
and enters upon a life of degradation.
There are about one hundred and fifty
thousand Chinamen in America^ of which THE  " SAM YAP"   COMPANY,
number about one hundred thousand to one
hundred and ten thousand are in the State
of California. In San Francisco, there
are about forty thousand Chinese, of
whom four thousand are women, and of
these four thousand, three-fourths are
in the condition which I have mentioned.
But whether in San Francisco or in the
Mountains of Nevada, whether in British
Columbia or Boston, each Chinaman is
carefully recorded in the books of his
Company, and held tightly to his contract. And it is a profitable business for
the Companies. Take the | Sam Yap"
Company as an example. It numbers,
say, in round numbers, thirty thousand
Chinamen on its books, who pay on an
average fifteen dollars each per annum;
a gross amount of four hundred and fifty
thousand dollars. The working expenses
of this Company are under fifteen thousand dollars per annum, leaving a balance
of four hundred and thirty-five thousand mn
dollars profit. Each Company is managed
by a President and other officers, two of
whom are called respectively, | Bone
Shipper," and | Assistant Bone Shipper." I I
When a Chinaman leaves China, the
Coolie trader, or Company, who catches
him, contracts to return him dead or alive
to his relatives. When he dies in America, if rich, he is embalmed—and known
as a I green body"—and so shipped
across; if poor, he is buried for a time,
and then exhumed; his bones are scraped
clean by the assistant bone-shipper, then
done up in a small parcel, and perhaps
with the bones of a number of others,
each in his own little parcel, invoiced
to the agent in China, who receives and
distributes them. These Companies sometimes exercise despotic authority over
John, in regulating his commercial life.
They have their own rules, and their own
methods of enforcing them. To them
John yields implicit obedience, as well as
to the laws of the country, when these
do not interfere with his Mongolian obligations.
At first sight it appears difficult to
understand how such control can be exercised over such numbers of men scattered
over the face of the country; over men
lost in the mountains, far off beneath the
shelter of the English flag, amongst the
philanthropists of Boston, or the revolutionary communities of South America.
The mass of them speak English; what is
there to prevent them defying the | Six
Companies," and appealing to the laws
of the land? In numbers of cases their
surety in China—oftentimes only a single
person—must have died, and even where
the safety of another person might prompt
adhesion to the bargain, it is impossible
to suppose that with a race of people proverbially callous to suffering in others,
the weight of their obligation would prevent the undivided enjoyment of hard
earned  money,   or the  exercise of that 250
independence and protection which are
offered to them by the law of the land.
The one restraining influence is the fear,
amounting to a certain knowledge, of
assassination. Each John knows that
just as he himself would have no hesitation in murdering one of his countrymen at
the bidding of the | Six Companies," for
a certain reward, so no one of his fellows
will be found with any scruples about
making away with him—for a consideration. They are all there to make money,
and they will make it in any way they
can. A peccant John is invited into an
opium den, or a tea-house, or a friend's
shop, and once in, the deed is silently
and effectually performed. There is no
firing of pistols, no disturbance. The
victim's head is chopped open with a
sharp cleaver, or a butcher's knife, sharpened like a razor, is plunged into his
heart, and there is an end of him. No
tales are told. John is by nature as
silent as the tomb on all such subjects, IHH^raHH
and the course of Chinese law, trial, and
execution runs on day by day, and side
by side, with the law of the United
States, and no one is ever one whit the
In Sacramento recently, a Chinese
factory endeavoured to continue work, contrary to the rules laid down by their Company, and a notification was publicly made,
offering three hundred dollars for the
murder of the first Chinaman found working  in  that  factory,   and   five   hundred
O al '
dollars for the life of the proprietor. A
large band of Chinamen mustered, and
came down upon the offending store in
order to earn this reward, and a desperate fight took place, in which several
were killed and wounded before the police
could interfere.
Chinese cheap labour is becoming day
by day a more serious question in Sari
Francisco.    It is conclusivelv shown that
the white race cannot compete with John
in   the   fields   of   labour.    A  family   of THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
Chinamen can live on less than that requisite to sustain one white man, and
gradually the almond-eyed -son of Confucius is elbowing others ont of the fields
which they had occupied until his coming.
He has displaced the French laundress,
the Italian fisherman, and he is, inch by
inch, spreading over the commercial field
just as imperceptibly.
His quarter in San Francisco is becoming
larger and larger. There are now about
four thousand bootmakers, two thousand
washermen, over two thousand wool-
workers, between three and four thousand
cigar-makers, and fourteen thousand domestic servants in the State of California.
Besides these workmen, there are thousands
employed in various occupations too numerous to mention. There are now in
the city of San Francisco about five hundred Chinese children, and these are the
prettiest and pleasantest features of the
Chinese     community.     Everything    else CHINESE  DWELLINGS,
about the Chinese quarter of the city is
more or less repellent.
An individual Chinaman is frequently
almost attractive from his neatness and
cleanliness, but as they herd together in
Chinatown their mode of life is horrible.
They literally swarm in dens underground,
as well as in attics. They divide a room
into two by putting a false ceiling to it
half way up the wall, and in each of these
compartments they lie bunk over bunk
all through the room, almost like sardines
in a box, amidst the mixed fumes of
tobacco and opium, and the frizzle and
steam of whatever they may have to cook.
They burrow under the ground which
their house occupies, until they make
additional sleeping-bunks for themselves
under the pavement or under the walls
of an adjoining house; and their touch is
fatal to all house-property. It must remain a Chinese den or be destroyed'. No
one else will touch it, nor will anyone, if
he can avoid it, occupy the premises next 254
to a Chinese shop or house. So John
spreads himself, and people shrink from
his vicinity as if he were a loathsome
disease. The police of San Francisco
know him well, but cannot control him.
His silent, reserved, and imperturbable
nature bids defiance to their efforts. They
may have spotted some infamous den,
and have taken the greatest precautions
to surprise the evil-doers, but some unseen hand gives the alarm, and fifty impediments are placed in the way while the
inmates escape by the roof, or by some
passage kept ready for flight. Unfortunately, it has been found that some of
the lower classes of whites in San Francisco are regular frequenters of the opium
dens and other horrible abodes of vice
in China-town; and this discovery has
tended greatly to add bitterness to the
feelings with which the Chinese are regarded in the city. How deep that
feeling must be, may be gathered from
the fact of a respectable Californian jour- STRICT  INVESTIGATION.
nal stating that, if some means of dealing
with the Chinese question was not discovered by the Government, the people
would themselves solve the question, even
though in doing so, the sun should rise
one morning on the dead bodies of the
whole Chinese population. John is, indeed, a question on the Pacific slope.
Bret Harte and others have, in their
pleasant way, indicated the animosity that
is felt towards him, and some day it will
practically show itself.
We had heard so much about the
Chinese in California, and had found John
such an unoffending person in British
Columbia, that we determined to see
something of him by the portals of the
Golden Gate.
We had hardly stepped on shore at
San Francisco, on our return from Vancouver Island, ere we realized the estimation in which John was held by United
States' Custom House officers. A number
of Chinamen, several of whom had  with .1.
them their wives and children, had come
down from British Columbia in the same
Pacific mail-steamer with ourselves.
When they landed with their luggage, of
which each had a great quantity, they
were set upon by the Customs officers and
subjected to the most rigorous search that
can be imagined. Their persons were
carefully searched, and then their baggage
was opened and examined. Nothing was
left to chance; every sealed jar of ginger
or other preserves was opened, their
pillows were ripped open, their bags of
dried fish turned out on the floor, the
women's trinket-boxes searched, and every
minute corner of their boxes and those
things which their boxes contained were
investigated as if the Philosopher's stone
was known to be hidden in some corner
of the varied mass of goods displayed upon
the platform. The examination was so
close that I was tempted to ask one of the
examining officers about it. "JOHN."
i Is   John   given   to   smuggling ?"
| Kinder !" was the reply.
I What does he smuggle ?"
1 Opium."
| And do respectable Chinamen, merchants and people of that sort, smug-
I Can't help themselves, it's in their
nature. Smuggle! Darn 'em, they don't
do nothing else but smuggle."
I couldn't help thinking that if they
succeeded in smuggling in the face of
such an examination as we had witnessed,
they must be the cleverest smugglers
in the world, and would do well to turn
their attention exclusively to that business.
Our opportunity of visiting John in his
own quarter soon came. We were consulting how we should go to work, when
an invitation came from Lord Dufferin
asking us to accompany him.    We started
vol. 11. s THE  SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
out after dinner under the guidance of a
police-officer, and drove first to the Chinese
Theatre. The performance had commenced
a few hours before our arrival, but as it
would in the ordinary way  continue till
next  morning,   we   expected   to  see   as
much of it as  we desired.    The  theatre
was  situated in the  midst of a Chinese
v    business  street,  from   which it  was approached by  a  long passage  filled with
the  stalls  of Chinese  vendors   of  fruit,
cigarettes, and other luxuries of the entr'acte commonly indulged in by the habitues of the place.    Refreshment of some
kind becomes almost a necessity to anyone desiring to see the whole of the play.
Occasionally the curtain rises at midday
and drops at seven o'clock next morning,
and though one can go home to bed and
return in time for  the   denouement, the
thread of the story is apt to be lost by
doing so.    It is better to have substantial
food on sale in the lobby.
The  theatre  we  visited  was a  nasty, A CHINESE  THEATRE
dirty, dingy, ill-lighted place, redolent of
John.    The entrance reminded me of one
of those dark lanes that used to run out
of the Strand down to the penny boats,
before we beautified London, except that
the smell was different and  the  gamin
here   wore  a  tail.     The  interior of the
house was divided into a pit and a circle
above  it.    On  the  extreme right of the
circle were two private boxes, one occupied on this occasion by Lord Dufferin's
party, and the other by General Sherman
and a party of American ladies.    On the
extreme left was a division,  forming,  as
it  were, a huge private box, in which- a
number    of   Chinese    women    squatted,
smoked, and enjoyed the play.    The pit
and the body of the circle were filled with
men, and all sat steadily, solemnly watching everything that passed on the stage,
intensely delighted with it all, but without uttering a word of applause, or giving
any  demonstrative  sign of   approbation.
The stage appointments were of the most
s 2
I ■Si
primitive order.    There was a back to the
stage having two curtain doors, one on
either side of the centre, and that was all
the scenery considered necessary.    When a
person  was  killed  on the  stage  he  fell
down,   remained   prostrate   for   a  short
time, and then  got  up and  walked   off.
The musicians were stationed on the stage
between  the  two   doors,  and   were in a
manner  fenced  off by  a   table  and two
chairs, which constituted the furniture of
the stage.    As bad as the Adelphi in its
worst days.    The orchestra was composed
of four persons, one of whom made night
hideous with a large pair of cymbals, another beat a drum, a third played a kind
of banjo, and the  fourth a bamboo and
catgut instrument that supplies the place
of the European fiddle, and is even more
squeaky.    But this last musician had near
him an arrangement like a small clothesline,   on which  were hung a number of
these fiddles and his pipe.    Sometimes he
used one fiddle, and sometimes another,
and took a spell at his pipe when it was
his turn  to count the  bars.    There appeared to be but only one melody in the
whole performance, the banjo playing the
tune, and the fiddle and cymbals supplying the usual necessary padding and noise.
One  came   to   like  the   individual   who
played the banjo, not  only  because  his
was the only pleasing music, but also on
account  of the  amiable  smile  which he
wore as he nodded his head in time to the
air,   and jerked his  knee   about  as   he
played; and because one  could not help
watching and admiring the dexterity and
rapidity with which his long taper fingers
dashed  about  the strings of the instrument.     When   the   orchestra   were  not
playing, they smoked.    On the left of the
stage, as well as in the place by the footlights, usually occupied by the musicians,
were  several large trunks,   which   were
not   opened  while  we  were   there,   but
which  Lady  Dufferin said  she   felt sure
were for the | Props," and which served 262
during the evening as convenient seats
for the property-men while they smoked
and remained in attendance.
The performance itself was thickly
interspersed with singing (Heaven forgive me for calling it so, for it was even
worse than the Indian vocalism), and the
singers, without exception, sang in an
assumed falsetto voice, which came
through the nose and sounded as if it had
been rasped with a file on its way; but
they kept marvellously good time. In
fact, the precision with which they sang
and spoke with the smiling John who
played the banjo was quite interesting to
watch. They all sang the same melody,
though there was a great deal of it of the
recitative nature, without any particular
tune in it. This is the music they played
in China long before David learned the
harp, and, from what one hears of the
Wagner operas, the music of the past
and the music of the future seem to
furnish  another   illustration  of   the   saw THE  PERFORMERS,
about the meeting of extremes. When
they spoke, it was in an exaggerated
stilted falsetto voice, their movements and
| business" combining those common to
the most rampant melodrama and the
most ridiculous burlesque. Those representing personages of importance were
elaborately dressed, and those who were
not, took particular care that their single
upper garment should be well open in
front to the lowest point that could
possibly by any stretch of imagination be
called their waist. Obesity is, in China,
a thing to be proud of, and it is in the
nature of frail man to display that which
is a source of pride. Their movements
on the stage were stilted and absurd, in
proper harmony with the assumed voice
in which they spoke, and the hand-to-hand
conflicts of opposing generals, of which
there were many, were fought with the
most extraordinary turns and gyrations
that one ever saw. When a general was
successful in a fight, it was shown bv his THE   SEA  OF  MOUNTAINS.
tapping on the head each private in the
opposing army that passed by him ;
but inasmuch as a defeated foe made his
exit with a caper and a shout, passing
through one door to enter immediately
afterwards at the other, the victory could
never have been decisive. There were
several ladies in the piece, all represented
by men, and these actors were certainly
the best in the cast. They imitated the
"get up," manner, walk, finicking speech,
and general appearance of Chinese women
very successfully, and by their acting
assisted us, at least, very materially in
understanding the plot.
The story of the play was of a lady, the
wife of one of the generals, who implored
her husband not to go to the wars. She
objected both on the ground that he might
be killed, and also because he was about
to leave her without any means of keeping
house. He insisted upon going, however,
and went.    During  his  absence  another PLOT  OF  THE  PLAY.
officer—a friend of the husband's—called
to see the lady, and to him she explained
the hard case in which she had been left.
Thus his pity was excited, and pity, we
know, is akin to love. So it proved in
this case, for listening to the seductive
conversation of her husband's friend, at
first with great reluctance, and afterwards
with evident satisfaction, the recollection
of her absent lord faded from her memory,
and at length, like Donna Julia, swearing
she would ne'er consent, consented. At
this point one of the stage-carpenters,
who was sitting on a | property" box
smoking, came forward and placed a
curtained screen before a rustic bench on
one side of the stage, and here the couple
retired to whisper soft nothings to one
another. The lady's mother, however,
being upon the stage and hearing a conversation going on behind the screen,
pulled aside the curtain, and dragging her
daughter   forth,   commenced to   upbraid
the gallant disturber of the domestic
peace. He bore it meekly for a time,
during which the daughter endeavoured
to pacify her mother, but, all other arts
failing, he took the old lady by the throat
and silenced her remonstrances by choking
her to death. The husband shortly afterwards returned, and ascertaining that the
death of his mother-in-law was not wholly
a matter of self-congratulation, gave way
to an outburst of passion, and launched
such very acrimonious invectives at his
friend that another acrobatic combat took
place, and the gallant but guilty soldier
was killed. The deceased mother-in-law
and her slayer then rose and hurried off
the stage, and another phase of the drama
* Shortly after Lord and Lady Dufferin's visit to this
theatre, a disaster occurred which resulted in considerable loss of life. A Chinaman discovered a small
piece of matting on fire, and although he was enabled
unaided to extinguish it, he foolishly raised the alarm of A  CHINESE  RESTAURANT.
As it was nearly eleven o'clock and the
end of the piece yet far off, Lady Dufferin
rose, and we left the theatre to visit a
Chinese restaurant a little farther up the
street. Returning the salutations of a
smiling Tartar at the door of this brilliantly lighted and very Chinese-looking
establishment, we passed through the
lower room and ascended a flight of
stairs into the rooms above, or rather
one room, divided by a centre support
and the occupants passed from one
to the other according as they felt inclined to sing in one part, or smoke in
the other. In one corner of the front
room was a party of men and women
playing dominoes, a large table of tea
and sweetmeats standing close to their
side. In another part were two women
singing and accompanying themselves by
fire. A panic and stampede ensued in which seventeen
Chinamen were crushed to death, and others were
severely wounded. THE   SEA   OF  MOUNTAINS.
beating with sticks on a small drum,
while two younger girls and several
men sat by listening to and enjoying the
music. Round about the room were other
men and women drinking tea, or smoking
those curious water-pipes which require
to be filled after each whiff. Our entrance
in no wise disturbed either the domino-
players or the singers; the host alone
coming forward to press upon the party
the hospitality of his house. When this
affable gentleman had fully explained the
beauties of the one room, he led the
way into the other. Here Lady Dufferin
accepted his invitation to drink a cup of
tea, and we all sat down round a table
on which small cups full of hot tea and
plates of Chinese preserves were immediately placed. We all drank some tea,
and several of the party ate little pieces
of the preserves, but, with the exception
of Lady Dufferin, who boldly tackled a
stringy-looking piece of ginger, they did
so as if they feared that the morsels before GENIALITY  OF THE  LANDLORD.
them were explosive material, warranted
to go off on being moistened. Seeing
the strangers yield to the convivial influences of the hour, several persons,
including two of the ladies from the other
room, came in and endeavoured to join
in the conversation, and generally to
make themselves agreeable. The only
person who appeared to resent the intrusion was a half-stupefied beauty, who
was ensconsed in an alcove immediately
behind our table, smoking opium. She
was lying at full length, after the manner
of opium-smokers, and was probably just
beginning to taste the pleasures of opium
intoxication when we arrived. The landlord, however, was very genial, and told
us amongst other things that he had
received a visit yesterday from one of the
Secretaries] of State from Washington
(Mr. Cameron). He said to the Governor-
General, pointing at the same time to Lady
"That all same you missus?" 270
I Yes !" said Lord Dufferin. | That is
my missus."
1 Ah! velly well.    You English, eh ?"
I Ah! supposee you get back you
sendee mi photoglaf you missus, all same,
I sendee you photoglaf mi."
I Yes, that is very good of you," replied Lord Dufferin.
Then the topic was changed by the
effort of a young lady to communicate
some ideas which she had formed on the
subject of the strange lady, but she
failed to accomplish what she desired,
and took refuge in a pipe, which she.
shared with a gentleman with whom she
appeared to be on terms of some intimacy.
We eventually left this establishment,
almost overpowered by the politeness of
the proprietor, who at the last moment
again proffered his request for Lady
Dufferin's photograph, and were driven
through several streets of Chinatown to
the entrance of a long, dark, narrow lane VISIT  TO  A  JOSS-HOUSE
at the extremity of which, we were told,
was the Joss House, which Lord Dufferin
wished to see. The lane was pitch dark^
and one could hardly avoid feeling a
sense of insecurity on Lady Dufferin's
behalf, though one did not know exactly
what to be afraid of, except of broken
necks. This, however, is always a sufficient reason for anxiety to a properly
constituted mind. Whatever Lady Dufferin
may have thought, however, she evinced
no signs of hesitation, but stepped out
into the cavernous-looking passage, and
followed fearlessly on into- the darkness
beyond. For aught we knew to the contrary, or that the surroundings of the
place indicated, we might have been in
the centre of one of those dens of which
we had heard so much evil. We could see
no lights about, though we had now
turned out of the first passage and had
gained the foot of some rickety stairs,
and we could hear indistinct sounds of
voices, while our olfactory sense told us 272
that  we  were surrounded bv Chinamen.
It was necessary to feel our way along,
and to look back to see if the others
were following. At last we all found
ourselves on a shaky wooden platform,
which, as far as one could make out in
the dark, was affixed to the brick wall of
the Joss House. Before us was a large
door locked, and beyond us the platform
vanished into gloom. The policeman who
accompanied us had apparently been
joined by another member of the force,
and between them they succeeded in
digging out of some retreat a priest, or
janitor, who unlocked the door and admitted us into the large, cold, dark,
strongly smelling temple. By the light of
a small lamp which the energetic policeman had, as he said, " scared up out of
that old priest's office," Lord and Lady
Dufferin, followed by the rest of the party,
inspected the several chapels and image-
covered altars of the Joss House. There
were  several chapels  in the temple and
separate altars sacred to different Josses.
There was one Joss who was supposed to
be especially careful of the interests of
women, another who took some other
portion of the community under his care,
and so on, reminding one of things we
had heard of in earlier days. On each
altar were some pieces of burning Joss-
stick, which, we were informed, are
never allowed to go out before a fresh
supply has been provided, though the
policeman whom I asked was not sufficiently "posted" to tell me what would
happen if the priest mistimed his potations
and forgot the Joss-stick.
This temple was very interesting from
the carvings in metal (silver I think)
which it contained. Episodes in the history of Buddha were told in elaborate
carvings, the neatness and finish of which
it can hardly be necpssary to dwell upon.
But what struck one as being a little odd
was that in the priest's office one can
purchase for a few shillings images and
VOL.   II. T
u 274
other paraphernalia of the religion, which,
to the Chinese, have a sacred character.
In the vicissitudes of a Joss' life he may
either be worshipped by a religious Tartar
or pulled to pieces by an irreverent
Californian. One cannot help wohdering
what percentage of Chinamen believe in
the efficacy of | chin-chinning Joss." A
number of Americanized Chinamen frankly
own their scepticism, and others, who have
still some belief, seem to think that it is a
matter of taste of no great practical importance. 275
Resume of the Governor-General's Tour—Scenery of
British Columbia—Mineral Wealth—The Douglas
Pine—Lumbering in the Province—The Cedar—
Huge War Canoes of the Northern Indians—Difficulties in the way of Agriculture—Railway Projects
—Waddington—Reception at Victoria.
rpHE Governor-General's tour through
-*- British Columbia is over. The Pacific
is far behind us, and by Monday His
Excellency will be in Ottawa. When Lord
and Lady Dufferin reach the capital, they
will have journeyed over more than ten
thousand miles' distance, and have passed
through many varied regions of country
and changes of climate. They will have
crossed the rich alluvial soil of the Western
t 2 m
States into the great uninhabitable desert
of North America;   through  the Rocky
Mountains into the land with the curse of
Cain upon it,   its parody on patriarchal
life  flickering to   an end,   and  over the
Sierra Nevada, passing from heat to cold
and back again to the warm balmv air in
the   fertile   valleys   of  California.    They
will have seen the Pacific in a most un-
pacific mood, and have learnt that the swell
of the ocean has no regard for the swells
from shore, but  rolls on  in the uneven
tenor of its way, upsetting the digestive
organs of king and cobbler alike.    They
will have journeyed from the southernmost
to the northernmost point of Yancouver
Island, have left the mild atmosphere of
its shores for the  fogs  and cold of the
territory   that   borders   on  Alaska,   and
stretching out across a broad strip  of the
Pacific,   will   have  seen   the   islands  so
famous on the coast for the savage temper
of their inhabitants, and so full of promise
of future prosperity, and will once more have RESUME  OF  THE  TOUR.
reached the mild sea breezes of the lower
straits, having passed through archipelagos
till recently almost unknown, save as
a region through which ancient voyagers
had passed by miracle through unimagined
dangers. They will have held, as it were,
Yancouver, Quadra, and all their modern
successors in the hollow of their hand,
and have seen in a fraction of a year that
which a century grew old in discovering.
And, leaving the seaboard, they will
have passed rapidly over country that it
took others long years of toil to reach ; have
beheld Indians whose knife, as it seems,
but yesterday was fatal to all unprotected
strangers, now competing with the white
man in his field of enterprise, and worshiping at the altar which he has erected
in the land. They will have seen quiet
nooks where crowds have come and gone
in their hurried search for gold, and by
their own rapid travelling will have borne
evidence to the enterprise and energy
displayed by an infant colony in building mm
an almost Roman road across the face of
stupendous heights, and through valleys
whose rugged rocks would seem to have
been intended by nature as the supreme
effort in her final stand against advancing
science. They will have found that
whether in the cold and murky regions of
the north, or amidst the sheltered valleys
of the coast and Cascade ranges, those
Englishmen who have left their native
homes to found a newer Britain in the
West have carried with them into this
far off land those principles of patriotism
and loyalty that seem to combine in every
possession of Great Britain the institutions
of her people with respect and devotion
to her Sovereign and her representatives.
It has been a rapid journey, little or no
stay having been made in any place
except Yictoria, and events have so
crowded themselves one upon another,
that the time even in that city seemed all
too short to do that which one desired
to   accomplish.    To  speak  fully  and   in
detail of  all  that   one has   seen   would
necessitate a work upon British Columbia
which the reader may not have  the time
or inclination to read.
On first seeing the country, a visitor's
attention is absorbed in contemplation of
its magnificent scenery.    As the eye becomes familiar with that, one's mind turns
to    the    consideration   of   the   mineral
wealth that has been already developed,
and to a speculation upon the new fields
that  yet  remain  to  be  discovered.    On
Texada Island alone, to cite one place, is
enough iron to use up half the coal in the
Nanaimo region opposite, and in Nanaimo
is   enough  coal  to smelt the  Island  of
Texada.    All that is wanting is a population   requiring   coal   and   iron.    In   the
interior,  on the mainland, gold and silver
are to be seen, but how much is yet unseen
is a question beyond human ken.
But  the   riches   of   the   Province   do
not  consist only of that which is buried 280
in  the  rock;   the  country  towards   the
coast is thickly timbered, and amongst its
many classes of pines produces one which
has no equal if size and quality be together
taken into account.    The Douglas pine—
6r fir, as I am told it is—is of immense
size, and makes beautiful lumber.    There
is plenty of it, besides the woods of the
resinous   tribe.    Only the   Douglas  pine
is at present in general use,   for people
always prefer to use the best while they
have it.    Lumbering here would strike a
Canadian as being  a little strange.    He
is accustomed to the hard-biting winter
with its frosty paths of snow, along which
the lumber can be hauled without difficulty.
Here a road has to be made to each tree
as it falls, for there is no snow that can
be. made   available   for   the  purpose   of
hauling, and an  artificial skid-laid road,
greased for the tree to pass over, becomes
necessary.    There are other large species
of pines, particularly one red-barked tree DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROVINCE.
that grows thickly upon the .mountains, and
cedar grows to an enormous size. The
huge war-canoes of the Northern Indians,
which carry thirty or forty men, and are
hewn out of a single cedar, the elevated
bow and stern being added, testify to the
size attained by this tree. There is a
growth of deciduous trees in the neighbourhood of water, but pine is the staple
of the British Columbian forset.
Those who have read these pages descriptive of British Columbia will have understood that, while there is yet ample room for
agriculturists who may desire to cultivate
a ranche in the neighbourhood of the
Lower Fraser, or in the bunch-grass hills
of the upper country, the Province is not
essentially an agricultural one. The
nature of the country makes the transport
of goods very difficult, and there is no
immediate prospect of a convenient market.
The island of Yancouver, and even much
of the mainland, is fed from abroad.    The 282
amount of the produce in the shape of
mutton, flour, butter, imported into
British Columbia is perfectly astounding.
There is a variation in the amounts
mentioned by different authorities, but in
either case one sees that the great grazing
lands on the hills of the interior, together
with the pasturage on the Island, have
not altogether proved sufficient to feed the
small population now in the Province.
The explanation given for this is the
difficulty of carriage. The farms on the
Fraser and upper country cannot give up
their riches, for they have no way of
getting them to the sea. Yet this is the
fertile line of the Province, and without
it one does not clearly see how the
Province is ever to sustain itself when
population increases. The mainlanders
have always believed, aud still believe, that
the Pacific Railway must—when all the
truth is known—come by the valley of the
Fraser.    If that is  out of the  question, CONSTRUCTION  OF  A  RAILWAY.
they will have to devise some other way
of getting produce out, or face the fact
of endless isolation. When one sees the
narrow-guage railways skipping about the
hills of the Sierra Nevada, the reflection
comes that the Fraser River people might
attain all their legitimate ends—supposing
the Canada Pacific Railway to go elsewhere—by the construction pf a narrow-
gauge line from Savona's Ferry to the
mouth. Without some means of communication, the development of that
portion of the mainland will probably be
left to time and Chinamen.
As mentioned, however, the main-
landers are still hopeful that a location
survey of the Fraser may be made, when—
so they say—the engineers will pronounce
that to be the true way. When engineers
and professional men differ about the
location of a railway, a newspaper correspondent may be excused from offering
any opinion of his own. Moreover, during
the Governor-General's tour we saw the 2S4
Bute Inlet route only from Waddington
harbour, at the head of Bute Inlet, and
the Fraser route only from Kamloops.
We are told that the easy part of the
Bute Inlet route and the difficult part of the
Fraser route are both to the eastward of
the furthest point we reached. But there
are some points which are clear to anyone of ordinary experience. If the railway comes down through the canon of the
Homalco River to Bute Inlet it must,
sooner or latter, go on.
Waddington harbour is an unpromising
idea. It is a small, meagre anchorage at
the head of a long strait on which there is
no anchorage at all, and which from seaward must be approached through difficult
and dangerous navigation. No ships that
could avoid it would go near the place. It will
be years before the continuation is necessary; but Bute Inlet cannot be the terminus
for all time, and during the tour I saw no
place between Bute Inlet and Esquimalt that
would  serve  as  a  terminus.    Esquimalt RAILWAY  ON  THE  ISLAND.
has one advantage over every harbour on
that coast. A vessel can sound her way
in for a distance of thirty miles to seaward, and there is nothing but the Race
Rocks—which are lighted—between her
and her anchorage. During the winter
months, the fogs and heavy weather are
matters of most serious consideration to
vessels navigating these waters, and the
difference between a harbour that can be
reached in a fog or a gale and one which
is unapproachable save in clear, fine
weather is so great as to assert itself
prominently in every discussion relating
to an ocean terminus. By some one, and
at some time, therefore, the railway on
the island must be built if the Columbia
Pacific Railway comes by Bute Inlet.
The islanders assert that so much coal
lies between Yictoria and Nanaimo that it
will be cheaper to carry the coal by rail
and ship it at Esquimalt than to carry it
back    to   Nanaimo   and   ship   it   there. 286
They also assert that, the line being built,
coal can be carried from Nanaimo to
Esquimalt as cheaply as by water. I don't
believe it myself, because it does not jump
with my figures, but the Provincial
Finance Minister was good enough to
waste some time trying to get it into my
understanding. It makes some of the
Yictoria people angry to ask why .they
can't take their lands back again, and
with their share of the compensation build
the road themselves; but if their statements about the country are correct one
cannot understand why it should not be
The construction of the line to Esquimalt will add some two hundred and fifty
miles to the railway, and will—so the
mainlanders say—make it longer than the
route by the Fraser. If the difficulties of
the Fraser are east of Kamloops, we of
course saw nothing of them. Below
Kamloops  the  Thompson and Fraser do RECEPTION AT  VICTORIA,
not present any impossibilities, and there is
a moderately good harbour at Burrard's
Inlet. Some people declare it to be i a
splendid harbour," but we found an eight
knot tide running out of it, and a long
sand bank washed down by the Fraser
River lying a few miles off the entrance
to the anchorage. I don't call that a
■ splendid harbour," although for want of
a better it may do fairly well. Men-of-
war and other large ships fearlessly navigate this channel, there being a lightship
on the sands. And in the event of a
railway, whether of one kind or another,
coming to Burrard's Inlet, there will be
tugs and other conveniences of navigation
provided without delay.
Concerning the Governor-General's tour
in British Columbia, it only remains for
me to say that, on his return to Yictoria,
his time was fully occupied in giving and
accepting entertainments of one kind or
another.    He visited the Public School, »:■
l ll
where about six hundred children had
gathered together to present him with an
address of welcome. Lord Dufferin made
a kind and appropriate speech to them,
and gave three medals—one of silver and
two of bronze—to be competed for during
the ensuing year, telling the children
that he would keep in a book the names
of the successful competitors, who in
after-years, would by their success have
acquired his personal interest in their
Shortly after the return Lady Dufferin
gave a grand ball, at which there were
about five hundred guests, and the day
before the final departure from Yictoria
a great gathering took place at Beacon
Hill, the park of Yictoria, where races and
other festivities took place. On Wednesday evening, the 20th September, Lord
and Lady Dufferin, with their suite, went
on board the Amethyst at Esquimalt,
where the officers gave a theatrical enter- RESULTS  OF THE  VISIT.
tainment for their amusement, and the
next day the ship sailed for San Francisco.
I believe that, notwithstanding the hard
work and rapid travelling, both Lord and
Lady Dufferin enjoyed their visit extremely. They have succeeded in winning the good-will and respect of the
people of that Province, in whose memory
their visit, we are constantly assured,
will ever remain a green spot. The
people themselves showed their sentiments
towards Her Majesty, and towards Lord
and Lady Dufferin, by the cordiality of
the welcome extended to the latter, and
this notwithstanding the fact that their
hearts were filled well nigh to bursting
with anger and disappointment at what
they erroneously believed to be the indifference of the Canadian people, whom
Lord Dufferin was taken in a measure to
represent. They did all to make him
welcome that could be done, and did it
well. By ourselves—I mean the corre-
VOL. II. u 290
spondents who accompanied the Governor-
General—the city of Yictoria will long be
remembered as the far-off home of kindness and hospitality.
*: m
ii *. i
London: Printed by A. Schulze, 13  Poland Street. ^■^^^^
13, Great? Marlborough Street.
Lord Dufferin's Tour through British Columbia in 1876. By
Moltneux St. John. 2 vols, crown 8vo. With Portrait of Lord
Dufferin.    21s. *
" Mr. St. John is a shrewd and lively writer. The reader will find ample variety
in his hook, which is well worth perusal."—-Pall Mall Gazette.
I These volumes are .amusing, interesting, and even valuable. They give us a
very clear idea of the great quarrel between British Columbia and the Dominion
of Canada; and they contain a full report of Lord Dufferin's great speech at
Victoria. Then there are some graphic sketches of social life and scenery, and
some entertaining stories."—Spectator.
" Mr. St. John gives a pleasant narrative of Lord Dufferin's journey, and his
account of the state of feeling in Vancouver's Island and the mainland is especially
valuable as the impartial summary of a careful and unbiassed observer."—Academy.
" A faithful and readable account of the daily doings of Lord anti Lady
Dufferin throughout their varied travelling in the Pacific."—Court Journal.
" A very pleasant and vivaciously written account of a Vice-regal progress
which is not likely soon to be forgotten."—Scotsman.
MY LIFE, from 1815 to 1849. By Charles Loftus,
formerly of the Royal Navy, late of the Coldstream Guards.
Author of I My Youth by Sea and Land."  2 vols, crown 8vo.  21s.
y The praise which "the AtJienseum gave to the first portion of Major Lof tus's work,
may be fairly awarded to the second. These reminiscences are pleasantly told.
There is a cheeriness about them which communicates itself to the reader."—
"A thoroughly interesting and readable book, which we heartily recommend as
one of the most characteristic autobiographies we ever read."—Standard.
"A remarkably interesting work.   The genial manner in which everything is .
described gives the book a great charm, while the kind-heartedness of the author
adds value and attractiveness to every line.''—United Service Magazine.
4'Headers who relish a spirited and varied narrative will find Major Lof tus's
volumes most enjoyable."—Graphic.
"We can most strongly recommend the perusal of Major Lof tus's reminiscences,
extending over a most eventful period in the history of England The work is
not only replete with interesting matter, but it is written in that chatty, easy style
which is so much to be appreciated in a book of the kind."—United Service Gazette.
William Pitt Lennox. Second Series. 2 volumes demy 8yo. 30s.
Among other persons mentioned in the Second Series of this work are—The
Princess Charlotte and Prince Leopold; the Dukes of Wellington and Beaufort; the Earls of Durham and Carlisle; Lords Byron, Clyde, A dolphus Fitz-
clarence, and Cockburn; Sirs Walter Scott, Gt. Wombwell, A. Barnard, John
Elley, Sidney, Harry, and C.F.Smith; Count D'Orsay; Dr. Dodd; Messrs.
Thomas Moore, Theodore Hook, Leigh Hunt, Jordan, James, Horace, and
Albert Smith, Beazley, Tattersall, Hudson, Ude, George Colman, The Kembles,
Gt. F. Cooke, Charles Young, Edmund and Charles Kean, Yates, Harley; Miss
Foote; Mrs. Nisbet; Mesdames Catalani,Grassini, Rachel, &c.
" This new series of Lord William Lennox's reminiscences is fully as entertaining as the preceding one. Lord William makes good use of an excellent memory,
and he writes easily and pleasantly."—Pall Mall Gazette.
I This second series of Lord William Lennox's highly-interesting reminiscences
of political, social, literary, sporting, and theatrical life, is one of the best books of
the season. Pleasant anecdotes, exciting episodes, smart sayings, witticisms, and
repartees are to be found on every page."—Court Journal.
I This work will be very widely read. The author has had quite exceptional
opportunities for observing the remarkable men of his time, and he has used these
opportunities in a very profitable and satisfactory manner. He is generally amusing and displays keen observation and kindly 3udgment."—/<*»7m Bull. iii
13, Great Marlborough Street.
NEW WORKS—Continued.
France. By Charles Duke Yonge, Regius Professor of Modern
History and English Literature in Queen's College Belfast. New
and Cheaper Edition.    1 vol. large post 8vo, with Portrait.    9s.
"Professor Yonge's 'Life of Marie Antoinette' supplies, in a most attractive and
readable shape, all the latest information respecting this unfortunate Queen."—
Church Quarterly Review.
" A work of remarkable merit and interest, which will, we doubt not, become
the most popular English history of Marie Antoinette."—Spectator.
"A work of considerable value. It is a most interesting and carefully-considered
biography, as well as a valuable elucidation of a portion of the political history of
the last century."—Morning Post.
44 This book is well written, and of thrilling interest."—Academy.
" An invaluable biography; one of the very best of modern times."—Messenger.
" A narrative full of interest from first to last To tell it clearly and straightforwardly is to arrest at once the attention of the reader, and in these qualities of
a biographer Professor Yonge leaves little to be desired."—Graphic.
VILLE. Edited from the French by Charlotte M. Yonge,
Author of the " Heir of Redclyffe," &c.   2 vols, crown 8vo.  21s.
" The author of this very interesting memoir was a French gentleman of ancient
lineage, who left his home in Normandy to enter the service of Napoleon I. in
1804, and, having distinguished himself in the Grand Army, retired from military
life in 1883, and survived to witness the war of 1870, and the outbreak of the Commune of 1871. The personal career of M. de Gormeville, as we see it in his modest
account of, himself, presents a number of points of interest—for he was an officer
of no ordinary merit—intelligent, vigilant, and with great presence of mind. The
most valuable part of these memoirs consists in the light they throw on the great
age of military wonders and revolution which passed before M. de Gonneville's
eyes. The work contains some interesting details on more than one campaign of
the Grand Army which have not, we believe, been disclosed before; and it adds to
our knowledge respecting the struggle in Poland and Prussia in 1807, and several
passages of the Peninsular War. It brings us, also, within the presence of Napoleon L, and some of the chiefs who upheld the fortunes of the First Empire; and
its anecdotes about that extraordinary man are evidently genuine and very characteristic. It introduces us to the inner life and real state of the Grand Army, and
lays bare the causes of its strength and weakness. The work discloses a variety
of details of interest connected with Napoleon's escape from Elba, the Hundred
Days, the Bourbon Restoration, and the Revolution of July, 1830. We have dwelt
at length on this instructive record of the experiences of a memorable age, and
can commend it cordially to our readers."—The Times.
MY YOUTH, BY SEA AND LAND, from 1809 to
1816.   By Charles Loftus, formerly of the Royal Navy,
late of the Coldstream Guards.    2 vols, crown 8vo.   21s.
" It was a happy thought that impelled. Major Loftus to give us these reminiscences of 'the old war,' which still retains so strong a hold on our sympathies.
Every word from an intelligent actor in these stirring scenes is now valuable.
Major Loftus played the part allotted to him with honour and ability, and he
relates the story of his sea life with'spirit and vigour. Some of his sea stories are
as laughable as anything in * Peter Simple,' while many of his adventures on
shore remind us of Charles Lever in his freshest days. During his sea life
Major Loftus became acquainted with many distinguished persons. Besides the
Duke of "Wellington, the Prince Regent, and William IV., he was brought into
personal relation with the allied Sovereigns, the Due D'Angouleme, Lord William
Bentinck, and Sir Hudson Lowe. A more genial, pleasant, wholesome book we
have not often read,"—Standard. 13, Great Marlborough Street.
NEW WORKS—Continued.
HISTORIC CHATEAUX: Blois, Fontainebleau,
Vincennes. By Alexander Baillie Cochrane, M.P. lvol.8vo. 15s.
■ A very interesting volume."—Times.
"A lively and agreeable book, full of action and colour.''—Athenseum.
"This book is bright, pleasant reading."—British Quarterly Review.
"A most valuable addition to the historical works of the time. It is full of life
=and colour."—Morning Post.
" A well executed book by a polished and vigorous writer."—The World.
" An interesting and pleasantly written volume."—Vanity Fair.
I The perusal of this volume will enlighten, instruct, and interest the reader.
Throughout there is a vigour of narrative and-description that stamps the author
=as a most successful historian, thoroughly accurate and impartial"—Court Journal.
dam-Whetham, Anthor of "Pearls of the Pacific," &c. 8vo, with
Illustrations.    15s.
I Mr. Boddam-Whetham writes easily and agreeably, and he tells his readers a
very great deal about what is a terra incognita to most people."—Pall Mall Gazette.
"Mr. Whetham's new volume contains the story of his journey by land and
river from San Jose* de Guatemala to Carmen on the Mexican Gulf. This journey
is so interesting in many ways, that Mr. "Whetham's sprightly work may fairly
rank as one of those rarer books of travel which tell us something that is really
new and quite worth telling. It has enabled him to present us with some charming pictures of a curious country."—Graphic.
" A bright and lively account of interesting travel. *We have not met anywhere
a truer picture of Central American scenery and surroundings."—Globe.
IA pleasant volume, full of interest Mr. "Whetham is a most agreeable travelling companion, with a keen eye for the picturesque, whether in scenery or in the
manners and customs of the inhabitants of the localities which he describes."—
John Bull.
Guthrie, Author of | Through Russia." 2 vols, crown 8vo, with
Illustrations.    21s.
''Written with intelligence and ability."—Pall Mall Gazette.
xt A book that will well repay perusal."—Daily News.
" A channing book—clever, interesting and entertaining."—London.
" A book of much pleasant reading."—Graphic.
"A pleasantly written book. Mrs. Guthrie appears to have enjoyed her visit to
the Fort of Belgaum, in the Deccan, immensely. Those who know India, and
those who do not, may read her work with pleasure and profit"—Standard.
" There are few books about India which in point of freshness of matter and
grace of manner will compare with these volumes."—Scotsman.
" A graphic sketch of up-country life in India which can hardly fail to attract a
numerous circle of readers."—John Bull.
"Mrs. Guthrie's charming book affords a truthful and agreeable picture of an
.English lady's life in India"—Globe.
By "W. J. C. Moens, R.V.Y.C., Author of | English Travellers and
Italian Brigands."    1 vol. demy 8vo, with Illustrations.    15s,
" There is much in Mr. Moens's book that is decidedly fresh and original, while
the novel routes that he followed introduced him to many interesting places which
.are too much neglected by ordinary tourists."—Saturday Review.
I An agreeably written story of a pleasant tour."—Pall Mall Gazette.
"This book is pleasantly written, the descriptions of the scenery and objects of
■interest are fresh and lively, and are interspersed with entertaining anecdote.  Mr.
Moens gives very valuable information to his yachting readers."—Sporting Gazette.
3 13, Great Marlborough Street.
NEW WORKS—Continued.
OF ARAGON and ANNE BOLETN. By W. Hepworth Dixon.
Second Edition.    Vols. 1&2.   Demy 8vo.   30s.
"In two handsome volumes Mr. Dixon here gives us the first instalment of a
new historical work on a most attractive subject The book is in many respects a
favourable specimen of Mr. Dixon's powers.   It is the most painstaking and
elaborate that he has yet written On the whole, we may say that the book
is one which will sustain the reputation of its author as a writer of great power
and versatility, that it gives a new aspect to many an old subject, and presents in
a very striking light some of the most recent discoveries in English history."—
" In these volumes the author exhibits in a signal manner his special powers
and finest endowments. It is obvious that the historian has been at especial pains
to justify his reputation, to strengthen his hold upon the learned, and also to
extend his sway over the many who prize an attractive style and interesting narrative more highly than laborious research and philosophic insight"—Morning Post.
" The thanks of all students Of English history are due to Mr. Hepworth Dixon
for his clever and original work, ' History of two Queens.' The book is a valuable
contribution to English history. The author has consulted a number of original
sources of information—in particular the archives at Simancas, Alcala, and Venice.
Mr. Dixon is a skilful writer. His style, singularly vivid, graphic, and dramatic—
is alive with human and artistic interest Some of the incidental descriptions
veach a very high level of picturesque power."—Daily News.
" Mr. Hepworth Dixon, in his new work, has chosen a theme at once intrinsically interesting and admirably fit for illustration by his practised and brilliant
pen. The lives of Catharine of Aragon and Anne Boleyn give ample scope to a
writer so clear and vivid in his descriptions, so lifelike in his portraiture, so decided in his judgment, and whose sparkling vivacity of style can be shaded off,
when necessary, by such delicate touches of tenderness and pathos. For pleasant
reading and very effective writing we can warmly commend Mr. Dixon's volumes."
Daily Telegraph.
VOLS. m. & TV. op the HISTORY OF TWO
By W. Hepworth Dixon. Second Edition, Demy 8vo. Price 30s.
Completing the Work.
v These concluding volumes of Mr. Dixon's ' History of two Queens' will be perused with keen interest by thousands of readers. Whilst no less valuable to the
student, they will be far more enthralling to the general reader than the earlier
half of the history. Every page of what may be termed Anne Boleyn's story affords
a happy illustration of the author's vivid and picturesque style. The work should
be found in every library."—Post.
" Mr. Dixon has pre-eminently the art of interesting his readers. He has produced a narrative of considerable value, conceived in a spirit of fairness, and
written with power and picturesque effect"—Daily yews.
"Mr. Dixon has completed in these volumes the two stories which he has narrated with so much grace and vigour. Better still, he has cast the light of truth upon
incidents that have not been seen under that light before. Full of romantic and
dramatic sentiment as the story of Catharine is, we think that the more absorbing
interest is concentrated in the story of Anne Boleyn. Never has it been told so
fully, so fairly, or so attractively."—Notes and Queries.
HISTORY   OF   WILLIAM  PENN,  Founder  of
Pennsylvania. By W. Hepworth Dixon. A New Library Edition.
1 vol. demy 8vo, with Portrait. 12s.
;u Mr. Dixon's ' William Penn' is, perhaps, the best of his books. He has now revised and issued it with the addition of much fresh matter. It is now offered in a
sumptuous volume, matching with Mr. Dixon's recent books, to anew generation of
readers, who will thank Mr. Dixon for his interesting and instructive memoir of
one of the worthies of England"—Examiner 13, Great Marlborough Street.
. NEW WORKS—Continued.
COACHING-; With Anecdotes of the Road. By
Lord William Pitt Lennox, Author of | Celebrities I have
Known," &c. Dedicated to His Grace the Duke of Beaufort, K.GL, President, and the Members of the Coaching
Club.   1 vol. demy 8vo.    15s.
" Lord William's book is genial, discursive, and gossipy. We are indebted to the
author's personal recollections for some lively stories, and pleasant sketches of
some of the more famous dragsmen. Nor does Lord William by any means limit
liimself to the English roads, and English coaches. Bianconi's Irish cars, the continental diligences, with anecdotes of His Grace of Wellington, when Lord William,
was acting as his aide-de-camp during the occupation of Paris, with many other
matters more or less germane to his subject, are all brought in more or less
naturally. Altogether his volume, with the variety of its contents, will be found
pleasant reading."—Pall Mall Gazette.
"Lord William Lennox is favourably known as the author of a charming book
full of most interesting personal recollections about the great and celebrated men
he has known in his time. We have now from his facile and graceful pen another
clever and amusing book, entitled 'Coaching; with Anecdotes of the Road,' which
is published at a most seasonable time It would be very difficult to give any
adequate idea of the fascinating contents of Lord William Lennox's work in a
brief space—suffice it to say that in the historical and antiquarian section the
noble author's pleasant anecdotical humour imparts to what would otherwise be
a dry performance all the charming gaiety of the sprightliest gossip. A very
excellent account is given of coaching in Ireland. A quaint account, too, is given
of some of the most j moving accidents' incident to coaching, and Lord William
tells some capital stories about crack drivers, both professional and amateur, who
were once famous. Altogether, we may say his lordship has been successful in
producing a fresh and lively book, which contains, in the pleasant guise of anecdote and gossip, much information, both valuable and curious, on what may be
called an out-of-the-way subject.'"—Daily Telegraph.
"An extremely interesting and amusing work; chatty, anecdotical, and humorous.   By far the best coaching book that has seen the light"—Globe.
LIFE OF MOSCHELES; with Selections from
2 vols, large post 8vo, with Portrait.   24s.
" This life of Moscheles will be a valuable book of reference for the musical historian, for the contents extend over a period of threescore years, commencing with
1794, and ending at 1870. We need scarcely state that all the portions of Moscheles' diary which refer to his intercourse with Beethoven, Hummel, Weber, Czerny,
Spontini, Rossini, Auber, Hale'vy, Schumann, Cherubini, Spohr, Mendelssohn, F.
David, Chopin, J B. Cramer. Clementi, John Field, Habeneck, Hauptmann, Kalk-
brenner, Kiesewetter, C. Klingemann, Lablache, Dragonetti, Sontag, Persiani,
Malibran, Paganini, Rachel, Ronzi de Begins, De Beriot, Ernst, Donzelli, Cinti-
Damoreau, Chelard, Bochsa, La*porte, Charles Kemble, Paton (Mrs. Wood),
Schroder-Devrient, Mrs. Siddons, Sir H. Bishop, Sir Gh Smart, Staudigl, Thalberg,
Berlioz, Velluti, 0. Young, Balf e, Braham, and many other artists of note in their
time, will recall a flood of recollections. It was a delicate task for Madame Moscheles to select from the diaries in reference to living persons, but her extracts have
been judiciously made. Moscheles writes fairly of what is called the ' Music of the
Future' and its disciples, and his judgments on Herr Wagner, Dr. Liszt, Ruben-
stein, Dr. von Bulow, Litolff, &c., whether as composers or executants, are in a
liberal spirit He recognizes cheerfully the talents of our native artists, Sir Stern-
dale Bennett, Mr. Macfarren, Madame Arabella Gtoddard, Mr. John Barnett, Mr.
Hullah, Mrs. Shaw, Mr. A. Sullivan, &c. The celebrities with whom Moscheles
came in contact, include Sir Walter Scott, Sir.Robert Peel, the late Duke of Cambridge, the Bunsens, Louis Philippe, Napoleon the Third, Humboldt, Henry Heine,
Thomas More, Count Nesselrode, the Duchess of Orleans, Prof. Wolf, &c. Indeed, the two volumes are full of amusing anecdotes."—Athenssum. 13, Great Marlborough Street.
NEW WORKS—Continued.
PERMISSION TO THE QUEEN.   Sixth Edition.   8vo.   30s.
Feom the Times:—"All the civilized world—English, Continental, and American—takes an interest in the Tower of London The Tower is the stage
upon which has been enacted some of the grandest dramas and saddest tragedies
in our national annals. If, in imagination, we take our stand on those time-worn
walls, and let century after century flit past us, we shall see in duo succession the
majority of the most famous men and lovely women of England in the olden time.
We shall see them jesting, jousting, love-making, plotting, and then anon, perhaps, commending their souls to God in the presence of a hideous masked figure,
bearing an axe in his hands. It is such pictures as these that Mr. Dixon, with
considerable skill as an historical limner, has set before us in these volumes. Mr.
Dixon dashes off the scenes of Tower history with great spirit His descriptions
are given with such terseness and vigour that we should spoil them by any attempt
at condensation. As favourable examples of his narrative powers we may call attention to title story of the beautiful but unpopular Elinor, Queen of Henry m., and
the description of Anne Boleyn's first and second arrivals at the Tower. Then we
have the story of the bold Bishop of Durham, who escapes by the aid of a cord
hidden in a wine-jar; and the tale of Maud Fitzwaiter, imprisoned and murdered
by the caitiff John. Passing onwards, we meet Charles of Orleans, the poetic
French Prince, captured at Agincourt, and detained for five-and-twenty years a*
prisoner in the Tower. Next we encounter the baleful form of Richard of Gloucester,
and are filled with indignation at the blackest of the black Tower deeds. As we
draw nearer to modern times, we have the sorrowful story of the Nine Days'
Queen, poor little Lady Jane Grey. The chapter entitled "No Cross, no Crown"
is one of the most affecting in the book. A mature man can scarcely read it without feeling the tears ready to trickle from his eyes. No part of the first volume
yields in interest to the chapters which are devoted to the story of Sir Walter
Raleigh. The greater part of the second volume is occupied with the story of the
Gunpowder Plot The narrative is extremely interesting, and will repay perusal.
Another cause celibre possessed of a perennial interest, is the murder of Sir Thomas
Overbury by Lord and Lady Somerset Mr. Dixon tells the tale skilfully. In conclusion, we may congratulate the author on this work. Both volumes are decidedly attractive, and throw much light on our national history."
PERMISSION TO THE QUEEN.   Completing the Work.   Third
Edition.   Demy 8vo.   30s.
" These volumes are two galleries of richly painted portraits of the  noblest
men  and  most brilliant women, besides  others,  commemorated  by English
history.   The grand old Royal Keep, palace and prison by turns, is revivified in
these volumes, which close the narrative, extending from the era of Sir John Eliot,
who saw Raleigh die in Palace Yard, to that of Thistlewood, the last prisoner immured in the Tower.   Few works are given to us, in these days, so abundant in
originality and research as Mr. Dixon's."—Standard.
FREE RUSSIA. By W. Hepwokth Dixon.   Third
Edition.   2 vols. 8vo, with Coloured Illustrations.   30s.
lMr. Dixon's book will be certain not only to interest but to please its readers
\ it deserves to do so.   It contains a great deal that is worthy of att
and it deserves to do so.   It contains a great deal that is worthy
is likely to produce a very useful effect"—Saturday Review.
attention, and
THE   SWITZERS.     By W. Hbpwobth Dixon.
Third Edition.   1 vol. demy 8vo.    15s.
"A lively, interesting, and altogether novel book on Switzerland.   It is full of
valuable information on social, political, and ecclesiastical questions, and, like all
Mr. Dixon's books, is eminently readable."—Daily News. 13, Great Marlborough Street.
NEW WORKS—Continued.
THOSE IN SORROW.   Dedicated by Permission to The Queen.
Third Edition.     1 vol. small 4to, 5s. bound.
"These letters, the work of a pure and devout spirit, deserve to find many
readers. They are greatly ^superior to the average of what is called religious
"The writer of the tenderly-conceived letters in this volume was Mrs. Julius
Hare, a sister of Mr. Maurice. They are instinct with the devout submissiveness
and fine sympathy which we associate with the name of Maurice; but in her there
is added a winningness of tact, and sometimes, too, a directness of language, which
we hardly find even in the brother. The letters were privately printed and circulated, and were found to be the Bource of much comfort, which they cannot fail
to afford now to a wide circle. A sweetly-conceived memorial poem, bearing
the well-known initials, 'E. H. P.', gives a very faithful outline of the life."—British
Quarterly Review.
| This touching and most comforting work is dedicated to The Queen, who took
a gracious interest in its first appearance, when printed for private circulation, and
found comfort in its pages, and has now commanded its publication, that the
world in general may profit by it A more practical and heart^tirring appeal to
the afflicted we have never examined"—Standard.
" These letters are exceptionally graceful and touching, and may be read with
Arnold, B.A., late of Christ Church, Oxford.   2 vols. 8vo.   30s.
I This work is good in conception and cleverly executed, and as thoroughly
honest and earnest as it is interesting and able. The style is original, the thought
vigorous, the information wide and thorough, the portrait-painting artistic, and
the comments keen enough to gratify and impress any student or thinker, whether
or no he be inclined to endorse all the opinions of the author. There is not a
chapter that any intelligent reader is likely to find uninteresting."—John Bull.
Including His Correspondence.   By His Grandson, Spencer Wal-
pole.   2 vols. 8vo, with Portrait.   30s.
" Mr. Walpole's work reflects credit not only on his industry in compiling an
important biography from authentic material, but also on his eloquence, power of
interpreting political change, and general literary address. The biography will take
rank in our literature, both as a faithful reflection of the statesman and his period,
as also for its philosophic, logical, and dramatic completeness."—Morning Post.
AND ENGLAND. By Lady Clementina Davtes. 2nd Edition. 2 v.
" Two charming volumes, full of the most interesting and entertaining matter,
and written in plain, elegant English. Lady Clementina Davies has seen much,
heard much, and remembered well Her unique and brilliant recollections have the
interest of a romance, wherein no character is fictitious, no incident untrue."—Post.
COSITAS ESPANOLAS; or, Every-day Life in
Spain.   By Mrs. Harvey, of Ickwell-Bury, Author of | Turkish
Harems and Circassian Homes."   Second Edition.  1 vol. 8vo. 15s.
"A charming book; fresh, lively, and amusing. It may confidently be recommended to all who want to know something about the inner life of Spain."—Post.
ON THE WING; A Southern Flight.   By
Hon. Mrs. Alfred Montgomery.   1 vol. 8vo.   14s.
" A most entertaining and instructive work."—Court Journal.
the ttl
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untouched.   Bacy anecdotes coruscate on every page."—Morning Post.
" We cordially recommend these very amusing and instructive volumes. . They
are racy in style, rich in anecdote, and full of good sense."—Standard.
TENEGRO.    ByR. H. R.    1 vol. 8vo.    14s.
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life, which are none the less telling for being done by a passing observer.   The
really instructive part of his book relates to Montenegro, and it has especial interest at the present time."—Pall Mall Gazette.
Whetham.   1 vol. Demy 8vo, with 8 Illustrations.   15s.
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find much that is fresh and novel."—Pall Mall Gazette.
By C. J. Andersson, Author of | Lake Ngami," &c.     Edited by
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demy 8vo.   With Portrait of the Author.    15s. bound.
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WILD LIFE IN FLORIDA; With a Visit to Cuba.
By Captain P. T. Townshend, F.R.G.S., 2nd Life Guards.    1 vol.
8vo, with Map and Illustrations.   15s.
IA volume decidedly above the average of books of mingled travel and sport
He writes in an easy, pleasant fashion."—Athenoeum.
Batuk.    2 vols, crown 8vo.    21s.
| By the aid of this really entertaining book the Cosas de Espana of the moment
may be brought before the mind's eye."—Athenteum.
By Mrs. Harvey, of Ickwell Bury.   8vo.   Second Edition.    15s.
" Mrs. Harvey not only saw a great deal, but saw all that she did see to the
best advantage.   In noticing the intrinsic interest of Mrs. Harvey's book, we must
not forget to say a word for her ability as a writer."—Times,
OP NAPOLEON III.   Cheaper Edition, in 1 vol.    6s.
" A biography of the beautiful and unhappy Queen, more satisfactory than any we
have yet met with."—Daily News.
Author of " The Ladye Shakerley."    1 vol.   7s. 6d. bound.
"'The Exiles at St Germains
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BEAR, by Georgiana M. Craik | and A TRUE MAN, by M. 0.
Stirling.   3 vols.
MAUD LESLIE^ By Lady  Charles  Thynne,
Author of | Off the Line," &c.   2 vols.    21s.   (In September J
GLORY.   By Mrs. G. Linn^jus Banks, Author of
" The Manchester Man," &c.    3 vols.
ANNETTE.    By the Author of "St. Olave's/' &c.
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"An extremely pretty story. There are some admirable characters in the
ONLY A LOVE-STORY.   By Iza Duffus Hardy,
Author of "Glencairn," &c.   3 vols.
" In every respect this absorbing love story is worthy of its author's powers. It
is the best book of a writer whose art is always excellent, and whose purpose is
never inferior to her art."—Morning Post.
" The plot of this novel is clever and well worked out The author has not only
a story to tell, but tells it with considerable skill, introducing in the course of it
some amusing sketches of people and places, which add much to its attraction."—
John Bull.
A THING OF BEAUTY.    By Mrs. Alexander
Fraser, Author of " Her Plighted Troth," &c.    3 vols.
The interest of this story never flags, and the characters are so skilfully
drawn, and the style is so lively and genial, that the volume cannot fail to be read
with pleasure."—Court Journal.
THE   MARQUIS   OF   LOSSIE.     By   George
Mao Donald, LL.D., Author of "Alec Forbes," "David Elginbrod,"
I Robert Falconer," | Thomas Wingfold, Curate," &c.   3 vols.
" This novel contains many noble thoughts clothed in beautiful words. It is a
book to read and meditate over, and to grow braver and better for having read."
—John Bull.
WINSTOWE.   By Mrs. Leith Adams.   3 vols.
" A deeply interesting novel. The characters are exceedingly well drawn, the
language is vigorous, and passages of real pathos abound throughout the work.'*
—Court Journal.
I An interesting and wholesome tale, gracefully told. It contains some excellent
studies of character."—Scotsman.
WINNIES HISTORY.  ByM.CM.Simpson.  3 v.
" A charming story, full of grace and tenderness."—May/air.
" Written with delicacy and care."—Academy.
•" A deeply interesting novel, marked by good sense, high moral feeling, and a
thorough knowledge of human life."—Court Journal.
ALL FOR HERSELF. By Shirley Smith. 3 vols.
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"A well told story, of very great interest."—Examiner.
" Chronicles of Carlingford "
Mrs. Oliphant3
&c.   3 vols.
Author of
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when worked out by an experienced and lively pen. The book is full of clever
touches both of thought and character."—Saturday Review.
"A very delightful book. The story is a decidedly original one. It is always
pleasant to read Mrs. Oliphant's novels."—Academy.
" This book is abundantly clever, and displays all the author's practised ability
as a story teller, while the interest can hardly be said to flag from the first page
to the last."—Graphic
11 Mrs. Arthur' is extremely clever and amusing."—Post.
THE BURTHEN OF REUBEN.    By Mrs. Randolph, Author of | Gentianella," | Wild Hyacinth," &c.   3 vols.
"This story may be heartily recommended for its cleverness and general tone
of culture. The plot is very cleverly handled, and every character which the
author lifts out of mere outline is firmly drawn and tellingly coloured."—Academy.
IA good novel   All the personages have life and individuality."—The Queen.
DIANA, LADY LYLE.  By 3 Hepworth Dixon.
Tliird Edition.   3 vols.
" Mr. Dixon's novel has_ decided merits. Not a few of his conceptions are fresh
and original, many of his scenes are highly dramatic, many of his descriptions
show a keen faculty of artistic observation, and impress you with a lively sense of
their fidelity."—The Times.
" Mr. Dixon's powers are, in many ways, such as to lead the world to expect a
good novel from him, and his readers will not be satisfied with what is less than
excellent They feel that they have a right to look for a story well put together
and a rapid succession of exciting incidents, and in these expectations they will
not be disappointed. Mr. Dixon's book is undoubtedly original. The reader's attention is at once arrested, and his interest kept alive throughout."—Athenseum.
MR. CHARLTON. By the Author of "Anne Dysart,"
&c.   3 vols.
" A very readablo and entertaining novel."—Post.
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too, with the changes from the quiet life in the country to gayer and more fashionable society in town. There are many clever scenes and not a few good characters."—Times.
ONE GOLDEN SUMMER.   By Mrs. Mackenzie
Daniel.   3 vols.
" j One Golden Summer j has the characteristics of a good novel.   It is written in
a ladylike style, has a definite plot, and shows a knowledge of society."—Academy.
Mao Donald, LL.D.   3 vols,
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place this book in the first rank of novels of the year."—John Bull.
PHGEBE, JUNIOR; A Last Chronicle of Car-
lingford.    By Mrs. Oliphant.    Second Edition.    3 vols.
" This novel shows great knowledge of human nature.   The interest goes on
growing to the end.   Phoebe is excellently drawn."—Times.
NORA'S LOVE TEST.    By Mary Cecil Hay,
Author of u Old Myddelton's Money," &c.   Second Edition.    3 vols.
• "A very powerful story—bright, fresh, and sparkling."—Examiner.
11 Hll % &&ptml jj-drxraag** of Jer llajestg.
Published annually, in One Vol., royal Syo, with the Arms beautifully
engraved, handsomely bound, with gilt edges, price 31s. 6d,
Lodge's Peerage and Baronetage is acknowledged to be the most
complete, as well as the most elegant, work of the kind. As an established and authentic authority on all questions respecting the family
histories, honours, and connections of the titled aristocracy, no work has
ever stood so high. It is published under the especial patronage of Her
Majesty, and is annually corrected throughout, from the personal communications of the Nobility. It is the only work of its class in which, the
type being kept constantly standing, every correction is made in its proper
place to the date of publication, an advantage which gives it supremacy
over all its competitors. Independently of its full and authentic information respecting the existing Peers and Baronets of the realm, the most
sedulous attention is given in its pages to the collateral branches of the
various noble families, and the names of many thousand individuals are
introduced, which do not appear in other records of the titled classes. For
its authority, correctness, and facility of arrangement, and the beauty of
its typography and binding, the work is justly entitled to the place it
occupies on the tables of Her Majesty and the Nobility.
Historical View of the Peerage.
"Parliamentary Roll of the House of Lords.
English, Scotch, and Irish Peers, in their
orders of Precedence.
Alphabetical List of Peers of Great Britain
and the United Kingdom, holding superior rank in the Scotch or Irish Peerage.
Alphabetical list of Scotch and Irish Peers,
holding superior titles in the Peerage of
Great Britain and the United Kingdom.
A Collective list of Peers, in their order of
Table of Precedency among Men.
Table of Precedency among Women.
The Queen and the Royal Family.
Peers of the Blood RoyaL
The Peerage, alphabetically arranged.
Families of such Extinct Peers as have left
Widows or Issue.
Alphabetical List of the Surnames of all the
The Archbishops and Bishops of England,
Ireland, and the Colonies.
The Baronetage alphabetically arranged
Alphabetical list of Surnames assumed by
members of Noble Families.
Alphabetical List of the Second Titles of
Peers, usually borne by their Eldest
Alphabetical Index to the Daughters of
Dukes, Marquises, and Earls, who? having married Commoners, retain the title
of Lady before their own Christian and
their Husband's Surnames.
Alphabetical Index to the Daughters of
Viscounts and Barons, who, having
married Commoners, are styled Honourable Mrs.; and, in case of the husband
being a Baronet or Knight, Honourable
Mottoes alphabetically arranged and translated.
1 M This work is the most perfect and elaborate record of the living and recently deceased members of the Peerage of the Three Kingdoms as it stands at this day. It is
a most useful publication. We are happy to bear testimony to the fact that scrupulous
accuracy is a distinguishing feature of this book."—Times.
"Lodge's Peerage must supersede all other works of the kind, for two reasons: first, it
is on a better plan; and secondly, it is better executed We can safely pronounce it to be
the readiest, the most useful, and exactest of modern works on the subject"—Spectator.
"A work of great value. It is the most faithful record we possess of the aristocracy of the day."—Post.
| The best existing, and, we believe, the best possible Peerage. It is the standard
authority on the subject."—Standard,
Each in a Single Volume, elegantly printed, hound, and illustrated, price 5s.
"The first volume of Messrs. Hurst and Blackett's Standard Library of Cheap Editions-
forms a very good beginning to what will doubtless be a very successful uudertaking.
'Nature and Human Nature'is one of the best of Sam Slick's witty and humorous
productions, and is well entitled to the large circulation which it cannot fail to obtain-
in its present convenient and cheap shape. The volume combines with the great recommendations of a clear, bold type, and good paper, the lesser but attractive merits of
being well illustrated and elegantly bound"—Post.
" This is a very good and a very interesting work. It is designed to trace the career
from boyhood to age of a perfect man—a Christian gentleman; and it abounds in incident both well and highly wrought Throughout it is conceived in a high spirit, and
written with great ability. This cheap and handsome new edition is worthy to pass*
freely from hand to hand as a gift book in many households."—Examiner.
" Independent of its value as an original narrative, and its useful and interesting,
information, this work is remarkable for the colouring power and play of fancy with
which its descriptions are enlivened   Among its greatest and most lasting charms is
its reverent and serious spirit"—Quarterly Review.
" j Nathalie' is Miss Kavanagh's best imaginative effort. Its manner is gracious and
attractive. Its matter is good. A sentiment, a tenderness, are commanded by her
which are as individual as they are elegant"-—Athenseum.
" A book of sound counsel.   It is one of the most sensible works of its kind, well-
written, true-hearted, and altogether practical.   Whoever wishes to give advice to a
young lady may thank the author for means of doing so."—Examiner.
"A story awakening genuine emotions of interest and delight by its admirable pictures of Scottish life and scenery. The author sets before us the essential attributes of
Christian virtue, with a delicacy, power, and truth which can hardly be surpassed"-PosU
11 The reputation of this book will stand as long as that of Scott's or Bulwer's Novels-
Its remarkable originality and happy descriptions of American life still continue the'
subject of universal admiration"—Messenger.
" A picturesque book on Rome and its ecclesiastical sovereigns, by an eloquent Roman
Catholic. Cardinal Wiseman has treated a special subject with so much geniality, that
his recollections will excite no ill-feeling in those who are most conscientiously opposed
to every idea of human infallibility represented in Papal domination"--Athenxum,
" In * A Life for a Life' the author is fortunate in a good subject, and has produced a-
work of strong effect"—Athenxum.
m w
ill Bi
" A delightful book, that will be welcome to all readers, and most welcome to those
who have a love for the best kinds of reading."—Examiner.
"A more agreeable and entertaining book has not been published since Boswell produced his reminiscenc"es of Johnson"—Observer.
| We recommend all who are in search of a fascinating novel to read this work for
themselves. They will find it well worth their while. There are a freshness and originality about it quite charming."—Atlienseum.
" The publications included in this Library have all been of good quality; many give
information while they entertain, and of that class the book before us is a specimen.
The manner in which the Cheap Editions forming the series is produced, deserves
especial mention. The paper and print are unexceptionable; there is a steel engraving
in each volume, and the outsides of them will satisfy the purchaser who likes to see
books in handsome uniform."—Examiner.
"This last production of the author of 'The Crescent and the Cross' has the same
elements of a very wide popularity.   It will please its thousands."—Globe.
| It were impossible to praise too highly this most interesting book. It ought to be
found on every drawing-room table."—Standard.
"The 'Laird of Norlaw' fully sustains the author's high reputation"—Sunday Times.
"We can praise Mrs. Gretton's book as interesting, unexaggerated, and full of opportune instruction"—Times.
" 'Nothing New' displays all those superior merits which have made 'John Halifax *
one of the most popular works of the day."—Post.
"Nothing can be more interesting than Miss Freer's story of the life of Jeanne
D'Albret, and the narrative is as trustworthy asitis attractive."—Post.
"If asked to classify this work, w e should give it a place between 'John Halifax J and
The Caxtons.' "—Standard.
" A work of singular interest, which can never fail to charm. The present cheap and
elegant edition includes the true story of the Colleen Biwm."—Illustrated News,
"' Adele' is the best work we have read by Miss Kavanagh; it is a charming story
full of delicate character-painting."--Athenseum,
" These ' Studies from Life' are remarkable for graphic power and observation.   The
book will not diminish, the reputation of the accomplished author."—Saturday Review,
" We commend ' Grandmother's Money j to readers in search of a good novel The
characters are true to human nature, and the story is interesting."—Athenaeum,
" A delightful book."—Athenaeum.   " A book to be read and re-read; fit for the study
as well as the drawing-room table and the circulating library."—Lancet,
"We advise all who have the opportunity to read this book."—Athenseum.
" A good wholesome book, gracefully written, and as pleasant to read as it is instructive."—Athenceum.   " A charming tale charmingly told"—Standard.
"' Lost and Saved j will be read with eager interest   It is a vigorous novel."—.Times,
"A novel of rare excellence.   It is Mrs. Norton's best prose work."—Examiner.
"The merits of 'Les Miserables' do not merely consist in the conception of it as a
whole; it abounds with details of unequalled beauty. M. Victor Hugo has stamped upon
every page the hall-mark of genius."—Quarterly Review.
" It is not often that we light upon a novel of so much merit and interest as ' Barbara's
History."   It is a work conspicuous for taste and literary culture.   It is a very graceful
and charming book, with a well-managed story, clearly-cut characters, and sentiments
expressed with an exquisite elocution   It is a book which the world will like"—Times.
" A good book on a most interesting theme."—Times.
" A truly interesting and most affecting memoir. Irving's Life ought to have a niche
in every gallery of religious biography. There are few lives tnat will be fuller of instruction, interest, and consolation"—Saturday Review.
"This charming novel is the work of one who possesses a great talent for writing, as
well as experience and knowledge of the world.'—Athenceum.
" Dip where you will into this lottery of fun, you are sure to draw out a prize."—Post
" A more charming story has rarely been written   Even if tried by the standard  of
the Archbishop of York, we should expect that even he would pronounce ' Christian's
Mistake j a novel without a fault"—Times.
"No account of this story would give any idea of the profound interest that pervades
the work from the first page to the last"—Athenceum. T
"' Agjies** is a novel superior to any of Mrs. Oliphant's former works."—Athenceum.
"A storywhose pathetic beauty will appeal irresistibly to all readers."—Post
"This is one of those pleasant tales in which the author of 'John Halifax' speaks
out of a generous heart the purest truths of life."—Examiner.
" A very interesting book.   Mr. Dixon has written thoughtfully and well"—Times.
♦'We recommend every one who feels any interest, in human nature to read Mr.
Dixon's, very interesting book."—Saturday Review.
•"' Eobert Falconer j is a work'brimful of life and humour and of the deepest human
interest   It is a book to be returned to again and again for the deep and searching
knowledge it evinces of human thoughts and feelings."—Athenceum. f^;J$&
"'The Woman's Kingdom' sustains the author's reputation as a writer of the
purest and noblest kind of domestic stories.—Athenaeum.
"A racy, well-written, and original novel.    The interest never flags.   The whole
work sparkles with wit and humour."—Quarterly Review.   ' *
I The work of a man "W genius.   It will attract the highest class of readers."—Times.
XLH.—A BRAVE LADY.        1|
"A very good novel; a thoughtful, well-written book, showing a tender, sympathy
with human nature, and permeated by a pure and noble-spirit"—Examiner,'
XLIH.-HANN£H.    .
1'. A very pleasant, healthy story, well and artistically told. The book is sure of a
wide circle of readers.   The character of Hannah is one of rare beauty."—Standard.
"This is one of the most amusing books that we ever read."—Standard.
by the Author of " john Halifax, gentleman."
"The author of 'John Halifax* has written many fascinating stories, but we can
call to mind nothing from her pen that has a more enduring charm than the graceful
sketches in this work."—United Service Magazine.
"' A Bose in June ' is'as pretty as its title. The story is one of the best and most.
touching which we owe to the industry and talent of Mrs. Oliphant, and may hold its
own with even ' The Chronicles of CarlingfordV "—Times.
" There is a great deal of fascination about this book. The author writes in a clear,
unaffected style; she has a decided gift for depicting character, while the descriptions
of scenery convey a distinct pictorial impression to the reader."—Times.
10 L t J   


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