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BC Historical Books

The Scot in British North America. Vol. III Rattray, W. J. (William Jordan), 1835-1883 1882

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All Rights Reserved. 
Entered according to the Act of the Parliament of Canada, in the year one
thousand eight hundred and eighty, by Macljsae & Co., Toronto, in
the office of the Minister of Agriculture. PEEFACE.
If the writer felt obliged, in courtesy, to express his regrets at the delay, unavoidable though it was, in the issue
of the preceding instalment of | The Scot," he is under still
greater obligation to do so now. The present section of the
work relates exciting political questions of our times, and
covers events which have transpired under our own eyes.
It is not expected that all readers will agree with every
view of a particular issue presented here. Contemporary
events can hardly gain the necessary perspective before time
has lengthened the vista and softened the coarser colours by
the mellowing power of distance. If, however, the writer
has succeeded in convincing his readers of a sincere effort
at impartiality, and an honest desire to judge independently,
with all the information accessible, he will be content that
some of them should dispute opinions expressed in these
pages. All he can plead is the difficulty of his task; it
is not a quiet sunset eve he has been required to limn, but
a busy hive of men moving and toiling around him.
The purely biographical portion of the work has been the
chief cause of delay and anxiety. At this moment names
occur to the memory which should not have been omitted,
and such sketches as here given are far from complete, from
lack of information. . This defect may be, so far as possible,
remedied in the concluding volume, by necessary addenda.
Meanwhile, with apologies for all unavoidable deficiencies, the
writer bids his indulgent readers adieu—not finally, but
au revoir.
May 5th, 1882.  TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Preface .* '.      iii
part in. (Continued);   the scot in public life.
Chap. VI.   The Maritime Provinces from 1837 to
1867     649
Chap. VII. The Dominion from 1867 to 18S2....  724
Chap. I.     Universities and Colleges  814
Chap. II.   The Churches     851
Chap. III. The Legal Profession     910  Without acknowledging our many obligations in full, we owe
special mention here to Alpheus Todd, Esq., the courteous Librarian of Parliament, and to Mr. Buhner, of the Nova Scotia Assembly ; and in the latter chapters to Mr. Dent, editor of the Canadian
Portrait Gallery ; to the Canadian Biographical Dictionary, Portraits
of Men of the Time, and Mr. Morgan's many valuable volumes.
Sad to say, two of our most valued informants, Messrs. S. J.
Watson, of Toronto, and Fennings Taylor, of Ottawa, have passed
away, the latter as these pages were passing through the press.  CHAPTER VI.
JHE political struggles through which the Eastern Pr
(57* vinces were to pass folio wed mainly upon the same lines
as those in Canada, with the important difference that in the
former there was no appeal to physical force. Party feeling
ran high down by the sea, yet in the end all crucial differences were adjusted under constitutional forms. There was
no rebellion there, no arbitrary suspension of provincial
autonomy. Taking the three provinces in turn it is natural
to begin with Nova Scotia. Perhaps the first note of the impending storm—the first observable ripple upon the surface—
appeared in connection with the Council. This somewhat
anomalous body combined in itself not only legislative, but
executive and judicial, authority. Its' president was the Chief
Justice of the Province; it advised the Governor as modern
Cabinets do; and it also constituted a second Chamber.
Moreover, its doors were closed against the public, and results only were made known by Black Rod at the bar of
the Assembly. So early as 1834, Mr. Alexander Stewart
had brought the subject before the House, but nothing was
done at that time. In 1836, however, a general election
took place, and now the Opposition commanded a majority. 650
Messrs. Joseph Howe and William Annand were returned
for Halifax, and found themselves side by side with a compact and resolute party.
The Council was at once the subject of an attack courteously conducted. A resolution was adopted complaining first, of the constitution of that body, and secondly, of
the secret character of its deliberations. The Upper House
affected to regard the Assembly's action as a breach of its
privileges, whereupon the veteran Reformer, John Young
(" Agricola"), of whom mention has already been made, submitted a motion in which the House 'disclaimed any intention of wounding the Council's dignity. It was certainly
high time that some change should be made. Two family
connections, according to Mr. Howe, embraced five seats in
that body, and five others were co-partners in a single mercantile firm. A dead-lock ensued which resulted in an
appeal on both sides to the Home Government. Shortly
after, the Council opened its doors to the public.
Another matter of vital importance was the necessity of
complete legislative control over the casual and territorial
revenues of Nova Scotia. The Assembly properly insisted
upon the power of the purse-strings. The quit-rents belonging to the Crown had already been surrendered conditionally. In 1838, despatches from Lord Glenelg, 'Colonial
Secretary, were received, in which the Home Government
surrendered all the revenues, ordered the removal of the
Chief Justice from the Council, and sanctioned, though with
reluctance, the separation of the Executive from the Leeis-
lative Council.    The Governor to some extent thwarted the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Assembly by his nominations to the Executive, and the
result was the commencement of a heated agitation for responsible government. Reference has already been made to
Lord John Russell's despatch to Sir John Harvey, Lieut-
tenant-Governor of New Brunswick. Apart from Lord
Glenelg's admissions, it was taken to be a complete acknowledgment of colonial autonomy. The Nova Scotian Governor,
however, persistently ignored the instructions from Downing
Street, and therefore, nothing remained for it in 1840 but
to buckle on armour for the strife.
The efforts to secure responsible government in the Maritime Provinces had received a powerful stimulus from recent
events in Canada. The mission of Lord Durham had roused
public men to action, and a delegation waited on His Lordship from the Provinces, at the head of which was the Hon.
Mr. Johnston, of Halifax. They had been invited to do so;
and, during the interview, unfolded their complaints. Mr.
(now Sir) William Young placed in the Earl's hands a formal
statement of the case. The chief subjects dealt with were
the Crown Lands Administration, American encroachments
on the fisheries, the enormous expense of the Customs, the
extravagant salaries of officials,* and the composition of the
lately severed Executive and Legislative Councils. It will
be observed that the last topic touched the vital question
upon the solution of which depended the practical autonomy
of the Province. International disputes apart, the whole
matter resolved itself into this: Were the lands and revenues
* The Provincial Secretary had £1,000 sterling, besides holding the lucrative office of
Registrar of Deeds.- Campbell's History of Nova Scotia, p. 326. 652 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
of the colony to be the property of the people, controlled by
their representatives and administered by Ministers possessing the confidence of those representatives ?
There were two difficulties in the way of responsible
government: first, the vacillating conduct of the Colonial
office, and secondly, the perverse action of particular Governors. The changes which occurred, from time to time, in
Downing Street, were incompatible with consistency. Even
the same Minister not unfrequently altered his views and
crave contrary instructions at different times. It was Lord
Glenelg who, in 1837, first enjoined the selection of public
servants acceptable to the majority. But Sir Colin Campbell systematically disregarded the mandate.* In October,.
1839, Lord John Russell, contrary to his prior action in
1836, clearly laid down the principles of responsible government in a despatch to Sir John Harvey, Lieutenant-Governor
of New Brunswick. Messrs. Howe, Young, and the other
Reformers of Nova Scotia, rationally contended that this
definition of colonial policy should be held to apply to all
the Lower Provinces, although only one was directly referred to. The Lieutenant-Governor,-however, kept on in
the even tenor of his way, in spite of remonstrances from
the Asseml^p-. The year 1840 witnessed the culmination
of the struggle. A series of resolutions, embodied in an
address, were passed, in which the necessity for a radical
change in the consti||fcion of the Executive Council was
insisted upon.    Mr. Uniacke, the only Minister who was
« The writer was led into the error, by trusting to a current history, of confounding this
ruler with Lord Clyde. There were, in fact, two distinct Colin Campbells, and had nothmjr
In common but the name and the martial profession. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
acceptable to the House, resigned. Sir Colin, however, was
not to be moved, and nothing remained to be done, but to
solicit his recall. This extreme step -was adopted with reluctance, because personally the Lieutenant-Governor was
liked by men of all parties ] yet, as a necessity, it was taken
firmly, though with studied care and moderation.
In March, a sort of pitched battle was fought before the
electors of the town and county of Halifax. The contest
was unequal. On one side were Messrs. Howe, Annand,
Forrester and Bell, and on the other, a speaker of great
power, Solicitor-General Johnston. All of these men, with
the distinguished exception of Joseph Howe, were, we believe, Scots by birth or extraction. Ten days after, the
Colonial Secretary broadly propounded the doctrine that the
majority ought to be represented in the Council. At the
same time, that fatal want of clearness in decision, characteristic of Downing Street, seemed to temper its counsels.
In England, the entire Ministry must necessarily retire, unless tempted to try the hazard of a general election, so soon
as it loses the confidence of the House. The old traditional
notion that, in some sort of sense, the Governor occupied a
better position than the Crown still haunted the minds of
-Colonial Secretaries, and served to prolong the controversy,
and, in a mischievous way, to throw obstacles in the way of
a foregone conclusion, as will speedily be seen; for the end
was not yet.
Meanwhile Sir Colin Campbell had been recalled,* and
* A pleasing incident is related of his last levee.   Mr. Howe attended, and, after a bow,
-was retiring, when Sir Colin stretched out his hand, with the remark, " We must not part 654
was succeeded by Viscount Falkland. His Excellency proceeded at once to act in obedience to the views recently expressed by the Colonial Secretary in Parliament. It seems
difficult to reconcile the Ministry's position with any tenable or workable theory of Responsible Government. The
.Executive was still to be chosen according to the Governor's
will; but he was to allow the party of the majority some
representation in it, when vacancies occurred. The idea
that there should be a homogeneous Cabinet, selected by
the leader of the majority, would have been rejected at
once. In September, 1840, the Council was entirely composed of the anti-Reform party, and, by all constitutional
usage, should have been dismissed en masse. Instead of
getting rid of them and giving carte-blcmche for the form-
ation of a Ministry to Mr. Howe, Lord Falkland cashiered
four members, retained the rest, and appointed Messrs.
Howe and McNab as representatives of the majority in the
Council. That this was a measure of justice may be admitted ; but that Responsible Government was firmly established by seating two Reformers side by side with six
opponents can hardly be conceded.
A dissolution of the House left the balance of parties
much as before. Mr. Howe was elected Speaker, but resigned in 1843 to become Collector of Colonial Revenues.
Mr. (now Sir W.) Young succeeded him in the chair. During this year pseudo-responsible government was put to a
crucial tes't.    A majority of the Council were of the old
in that way, Mr. Howe ; we fought our differences of opinion honestly ; you have acted
like a man of honour.   Here is my hand."   Nothwithstanding the heat of the struggle,,
the bluff soldier withdrew from the scene, with undiminished popularity as a courteous
hospitable and generous man. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 655
type, and, being alarmed at the growing agitation on educational and other subjects, precipitated a dissolution. Messrs.
Howe, Uniacke and McNab, who had protested against this
step, at once resigned. The immediate cause of their secession, however, was the appointment of Mr. Almon to a seat
in the Cabinet. This was clearly a reactionary move. Lord
Falkland claimed perfect freedom in the matter of official
selections, and strange to say his recalcitrant advisers appear
to have explicitly admitted the claim. The reason assigned
for Mr. Almon's nomination was that, it would demonstrate
His Excellency's confidence in the Premier, Mr. Johnston,
who was the new Minister's brother-in-law. Not a word
about the confidence of the Assembly. In February, 1844,
the new House met and Mr. Wm. Young was promptly reelected Speaker. Notwithstanding this proof of Opposition'
strength, the Governor carried his point by a majority of
two or three votes.*
Lord Falkland, of whose good intentions there can be no
doubt, then took the extraordinary step of requesting,
through an intermediary, the return of the ex-Ministers to
office. But, although he avowed himself desirous of reform-
in<» the Government, he required of the three gentlemen
a pledge that they would abstain from agitation, and further
that they should renounce the notion that the Governor
stood in a similar position to the Sovereign so far as the
* They appear to have managed matters strangely in those days. Mr. Howe left the
Cabinet to become Speaker, and then went back again apparently, although there is no evidence before us that he did so. He then left the Cbalr to become a Minister. Mr. Young
succeeded him, and stepped dowu in turn to be Minister; resigned and again became
Speaker. Moreover, according to Mr. Campbell (Bistory, p. 353), he actually opposed the
Address while Speaker in the Parliament of ISii. 656
House was concerned* In other words he, His Excellency,
desired first to muzzle the three ex-Ministers, and to extort
an express recantation of the first principle of Responsible
Government. Of course, Messrs. Howe, Uniacke and McNab
at once declined office upon such humiliating conditions.
There was thus a Metcalfe struggle, on a smaller scale in
Nova Scotia, and the parallel was farther made good by an
experimental tour of Lord Falkland in search of popular
backing. The result was not quite satisfactory, but His
Excellency could plead a set-off in the shape of an approving despatch from the Colonial Secretary. In August, 1846,
after a prolonged controversy of a personal character with
Mr. Howe, which was not conducted with much dignity on
either side, Lord Falkland retired, and was succeeded by
Sir John Harvey.
The new Lieutenant-Governor saw clearly the unsatisfactory position of affairs, and naturally inclined to that facile
expedient—the dernier ressort of perplexed viceroys—a
coalition. He had extremely rational views of his own
about the composition of the Council; but, unfortunately,
they were not acceptable to at least one of the parties concerned. Both were nearly equal on a division in the House,
but Sir John Harvey would not hear of equal representation
in the Cabinet. At the same time he desired something
like unanimity at the Board, and, therefore, objected to the
notion that the policy of the Government should be decided
* " He also insisted as a condition of acceptance, on an express disavowal of the theory
advanced in the Assembly that the representative of the Sovereign stood in the same
relation to the representatives of the people of the colony which he governed that the
monarch does to the House of Commons in England." " THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
upon by a majority of votes. Moreover he was a sort of
Civil Service reformer in his way, and advocated a fair disposal of public patronage, irrespective of party. A political
millennium of that sort, however, was not to be ; and is to
all appearance as far away now as it was thirty-five years
ago. One seat in the Cabinet, and the Solicitor-Generalship
were thrown to the malcontents; but, as might have been
expected, were at once declined. The Opposition leaders '
urged that they could not be fairly asked to act with men
in whose general policy they had no confidence; and suggested an immediate appeal to the people.
A new election was ordered, therefore, and the House met
in January, 1848. Mr. William Young was again elected
Speaker by a majority of six votes, and on the Address, a
vote of non-confidence in the Ministry passed by twenty-
eight to twenty-one. Mr. J. W. Johnston, the Premier, a
man of great ability and weight, at once resigned. With
this vote, the old colonial system, which had died hard, here
as elsewhere, finally passed to its rest, to be embalmed in
the museum of historical antiquities.
His Excellency sent, not for Mr. Howe, but Mr. Uniacke,
who at once formed a Liberal administration which included
the obnoxious chief, as well as Messrs. Bell, McNab and
George R. Young, who formed the Scottish element. Henceforward, for some years, politics ran smoothly enough. The
people of Nova Scotia, having secured popular government,
settled down to the work of material progress. In 1850, Mr.
Johnston made a slight diversion by proposing a string of
resolutions, asserting that as the Colonial Office had transformed the constitution, England ought pay the Governor's 658
salary; and that the Legislative Council should be made
elective. The purpose of the latter resolution was eminently
conservative beneath the surface, because it aimed at the
establishment of a counterpoise to the supremacy of the
Assembly as definitively established under Responsible
Government. The House, however, was not in the humour
for organic changes, and the resolutions were negatived on a
vote of twenty-six to fourteen.
In 1849, Halifax celebrated its centenary. Mr. Beamish
Murdoch, the historian, of the Province, whose name sufficiently proclaims his nationality, was the orator of the day.
During the political lull of the next few years, the public
men of Nova Scotia devoted their attention to the improvement of their educational system, the development of mines,
the construction of railways, and the consolidation of the
laws. The last of these undertakings was entrusted to a com-
mission, on which Messrs. Young (subsequently Chief Justice
of the Province), J. W. Ritchie (now Chief Justice of the
Dominion Supreme Court), assisted by James Thomson, were
of Scottish extraction. Attempts to secure Imperial aid to
an Intercolonial Railway, which promised well at the outset,
failed, on the accession to power of Lord Derby, because the
Home Government thought the proposed line too close to
the frontier. The fishery question again excited attention,
and the citizens of Halifax, under the presidency of Mr.
Andrew McKinlay, the Mayor, protested against any concession of Nova Seotian rights. Meanwhile Sir John Harvey
had died at his post, in March, 185.2.
The Government continued in power until after the general
elections of 1858, which materially  altered   the relative THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
strength of parties. Messrs. Howe and Fulton were defeated
in Cumberland by Dr. Tupper and Mr. A. McFarlane, and
in the following year a vote of non-confidence was carried by
twenty-eight to twenty-one. Mr. Johnston was once more
called upon to form a Cabinet, with Dr. Tupper, and amongst
his colleagues, were Messrs. Stay ley Brown and John McKin-
non, John Campbell and Charles J. Campbell, all of Scottish
birth or origin. The new Government went vigorously to
work, especially upon the coal question, which was at last settled by the vesting of all the mines under Provincial control. The Assembly was dissolved in 1859, and the Opposition claimed a majority. When the House met in January, I860, a dispute at once arose regarding the eligibility of
some of the members. The Attorney-General then proposed Mr. Wade, as Speaker, and Mr. Young nominated
Mr. Stewart Campbell, the latter being elected by a majority
of three. The next step was a motion of want of confidence,
which was carried by a majority of two. The Government,
however, contended that five or six members were ineligible,
because at the time of the election they held offices of profit
and emolument under the Crown. Ministers, therefore, advised a dissolution, which the Lieutenant-Governor declined
to grant. A change of administration was the result, and
Messrs. Young and Howe found themselves once more in
power. In 1863 another embarrassment took place after a
general election, and the Johnston party once more took
office. In this Cabinet were the two Johnstons, James
McNab, J. McKinnon and Alexander McFarlane, whilst Jas.
McDonald was Commissioner of Railways. 660
The first measure of importance was the Education Act of
1864 introduced by Dr. Tupper and passed into law. Thenceforward the burning issue was Confederation. Mr. Howe
had previously moved in the matter, but without effect;
but now in 1864, the Government despairing of a general
union of the B. N. A. Provinces, proposed a meeting of delegates to arrange for a union of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
and Prince Edward Island. The legislatures agreed upon
this course, and the conference met at Charlottetown on the
1st of September. They were joined there by Mr. (now'
Sir) J. A. Macdonald, Hon. George Brown, Messrs. Gait, Car-
tier, McGee, Langevin, Macdougall, and Campbell, from
Canada. The larger project now engaged the public mind,
and the result was a second meeting at Quebec in October,
whereat the basis of Confederation was agreed upon. But
the end was not vet. At this time New Brunswick stood in
the way, for thaj; Province had, at the polls, pronounced decisively against the proposed union. Dr. Tupper, despairing
of success, proposed that, in the meantime, the old negotiations for a smaller union should be continued. Strange to
say a sudden change took place in 1866 in the views of the
New Brunswick legislature, and resolutions in favour of B.
N. A. union passed both Houses.
The subject was at once revived in Nova Scotia, and resolutions were adopted in favour of confederation by a
vote of thirty-one to nineteen in the Assembly, and thirty
to five in the Council. There was, however, a rift in the
lute, and both parties at once nerved themselves for the
struggle.   Messrs. Annand and Hugh Macdonald joined Mr.
Howe in London to oppose the scheme, and were met by Dr.
Tupper and five other friends of union. Mr. Howe occupied
a vulnerable position since he had previously been a warm
friend of the scheme, but he had an active and able champion
in Mr. Annand. He and his coll eagues did not hesitate to
condemn the union as "an act of confiscation and coercion of the most arbitrary kind," and predicted that at the
general elections to be held in the, coming May, only three
counties out of the eighteen would return friends of confederation. Nevertheless, the assembled delegates of all the provinces settled the terms of union at a meeting in London,
during December. The Bill passed in March, and the
Dominion of Canada was formally constituted on the 1st of
In March of that vear the Nova Scotia Legislature assem-
bled, and the anti-confederationists immediately put forward
a protest against the Union. The Hon. Stewart Campbell,,
seconded by Mr. Killam, and supported by Mr. Annand,
proposed an amendment to the Address, setting forth that
the delegates had transcended their powers, and demanding
that the British North America Act should not have any
operation in the Province " until it has been deliberately
received by the Legislature and sanctioned by the people at.
polls." On the Government side the struggle was carried on
by Dr. Tupper, Mr. Shannon, and others. On a division
only sixteen voted for the amendment, and thirty-two
against it. The party in pOwer, however, had yet to face
the electors. In July a local Government had been organized under the leadership of Mr. Blanchard, and the general 662 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
elections took place in September. The result showed that
Mr. Annand had even overstated the strength of the confederation party, since Dr. Tupper alone was returned to the
Commons, whilst Mr. Blanchard and only one supporter
found seats in the Assembly. The | Antis " had carried
thirty-six seats out of thirty-eight in the latter body. Of
course a change of Government was inevitable, and at the
head of the new Cabinet appeared the Hon. Mr. Annand.
Naturally the first step taken in the new House was the
passage of resolutions for an address totheCrown,expressing
the widespread discontent of Nova Scotia at what was
styled " a fraud and an imposition;" declaring that the
people of the Province did not desire " to be in any way
confederated with Canada " ; and praying that the royal
proclamation be revoked and the Imperial Act repealed, so
far as it related to Nova Scotia. A one-sided debate followed,
lasting twelve days, and the resolutions were carried with
only two dissentient voices. Messrs. Howe, Annand and two
others being sent to England to urge compliance with the
prayer of the Address, they were confronted by Dr. Tupper.
As might have been expected, the Colonial Secretary declined
to accede to the prayer of the Provincial Legislature, stating
his reasons at length, in a despatch to his Excellency, Lord
Monck. The Local Government replied, asserting the § constitutional rights" of the Province, and protesting vehemently against the Imperial Act*    Mr. Bright moved in
* The concluding words may be given as of historic value:—" They should proceed with
the legislative and other business of the Province, protesting against the Confederation
boldly and distinctly asserting their full purpose andiesolution to avail themselves of every
opportunity of extricating themselves from the trammels of Canada; and, if they failed
after exhausting all constitutional means at their command, they would leave their future THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 663
the Imperial Commons in June for a Commission to enquire
into Nova Scotia's discontent; but his motion was negatived
in a thin House by one hundred and eighty-three to eighty-
Still, although twice defeated in England, the anti-con-
federationists appeared to be secure in their own Province.
Soon after the return of the delegates, however, a schism
occurred in their ranks. Mr. Howe, who had returned from
London, as he went thither, a determined opponent of the
Union, suddenly resolved to make terms with the Dominion
Government, and was joined by Mr. A. W. McLelan, M.P.
for Colchester. The result was that, in return for an
increased subsidy to the Province, these gentlemen, and
those who acted with them, accepted the situation; but,
although they were subjected to much obloquy, there can be
no doubt that their motives were above suspicion. As Mr.
Campbell remarks, perhaps as much cannot be said for the
I minor satellites " who went over with them.* Mr. Howe
entered the Dominion Government as Secretary of State for
the Provinces, and subsequently became Lieutenant-Governor
of his native Province, in which position he died on the 1st
of January, 1873, on the verge of three score and ten. He
had only been installed in Government House a few weeks
before his death.*j-
destiny in the hands of Him who judges the people righteously, and goverfflthe nation*
•upon earth."—Cam/pbell's History, p. 462.
* History, p. 466.
+ It may be useful to add here the census of Nova Scotia by origins iu 1871 :—
Scots  130,741
English  113,520
Irish     62,851
French     32,833
German    31,942 664
A few biographical notices of prominent public men of
Scottish birth or extraction, as full as the scanty accounts
at command will permit, may be given here. Mention has
already been made of the Youngs who figure so conspicuously in Provincial, annals* Sir William is the son of the
late Hon. John Young, well known as the author of the
letters of " Agricola." The former was born at Falkirk, Stirlingshire, on July 27th, 1799, and educated at Glasgow. His
family removed to Nova Scotia, where the father opened a
store. In 1820 the son abandoned business and commenced
the study of law, for which he had been originally intended,
under Mr. Charles Fairbanks, a lawyer of considerable note.
He was admitted to the bar in 1826, and in 1835 as barrister
in Nova Scotia. Soon after his call he entered into partnership with his two brothers, George1 R. and Charles. He, as
has been seen, was a member of the Legislature, and afterwards served as a Minister in the Uniacke Cabinet of 1848.
George was an author of no mean repute, and founded the
Nova Scotian newspaper. Charles became subsequently a
Judge in Prince Edward Island, prior to which he occupied
a prominent position in public life, as will be seen hereafter.
William Young began his public career in 1832, when he
was elected as one of the members for Cape Breton, and
subsequently for Inverness and Cumberland also. During
the entire years of his political life, Mr. Young signalized
himself as a pronounced Reformer, protesting against the
Imperial claim to quit-rents, and its possession of the coal
mines, struggling for reform in the anomalous Legislative
Council, and also for shorter Parliaments. He was also an
ardent champion of the rights of Nova Scotia fishermen
against infringements by the Americans and French. When
the struggle for responsible government opened, there could
be no doubt of the position to be occupied by him. He at
once espoused the cause with ardour, and was sent to visit
Lord Durham, in company with Mr. Johnston. Again in
1839 he was once more a delegate to England to press reform upon the Home Government in the matter of customs,
excise and crown lands. When the conflict occurred with
Sir Colin Campbell, Mr. Young threw all his energy and
eloquence into the scale. In company with Mr. Howe, he
and Messrs. Forrester and Bell, who were | brither Scots,"
assailed the arbitrary action of the Lieutenant-Governor,
both in and out of the House.
In 1843, he was elected Speaker in place of Mr. Howe,
who had accepted office; but early next year.he vacated
the chair in order to take his place in the Executive
Council. In a new House he was again elected to the
Speakership amidst general applause. The contest, as already related, continued under Lord Falkland's administration, and was only terminated by the arrival of Sir John
Harvey as Lieutenant-Governor. Meanwhile Mr. Young
was one of the foremost of the combatants. He had not
only fought valiantly at home, but visited the Reformers of
Upper Canada, and received the honour of a banquet from
Mr. Baldwin and his brother Liberals at Toronto. Early
in 1848 the prolonged controversy came to a close. Mr.
Young was again elected Speaker, and Mr. Howe was once
*&   ' o
B 666
more in power. In 1850 he was a member of a commission to*
consolidate the laws of the Province, and in 1857, became, on
Mr. Howe's appointment to the Railway Board, Premier and
AttorneyTGeneral. An injudicious letter from Mr. Howe
which had given great offence to the Roman Catholics, caused
a defeat of the Government; but at the general election in
1859, the tables were again turned. The Opposition candidate for Speaker triumphed and Mr. Young was reappointed
Premier and also President of the Council. In 1860, he
succeeded Sir Brenton Haliburton as Chief Justice of the
Province, and soon afterwards was also made Judge of the
Vice-Admiralty Court. He received* the honour of knighthood, in recognition of his long public and judicial services,
in 1868. Sir William Young occupied his seat on the bench
until 1881, when he retired, as Chief Justice, to be succeeded
by the Hon! James McDonald, Minister of Justice.
His career has been in every respect an honourable one.
In Parliament and on the platform, he was always eloquent
and his conduct on the Bench reflected the highest credit on
his learning and ability. No subject, as has been well remarked,* was foreign to him. He distinguished himself as-
a student in arts, letters and science, as well as in politics and
jurisprudence. A speech at the Dufferin banquet was one
of the latest of his public efforts. Sir William was a Governor of Dalhcusie College, and for some years President of
the North British Society. One of his St. Andrew's Day
addresses lies before us and gives a fair idea of the learning
and eloquence he could display on public occasions.    He is-
Canadian Portrait Qallery, iv. 47. THE SCOT IN BRITISH- NORTH AMERICA.
a man of fine presence, and at the age of over eighty, is still
hale, firm of step, and bright in eye. In 1880, Sir William
and Lady Young celebrated their golden wedding. He had
been fifty years married, and almost as long in the service
of his fellow-countrymen.
The Hon. William Annand was born at Halifax, of Scottish parentage,- in 1808, and received his education there. In
1837, he was elected along with Mr. Howe to the Nova Scotia
Assembly for Halifax county, and- remained ever afterwards
a staunch ally of the Reform leader. Mr. Annand took part
in all the struggles for responsible government, and for complete autonomy of the colony, and in the prosecution of railway and telegraph enterprises.   His influence in public affairs
was largely due to his connection with the press—he being
proprietor of the Morning Chronicle and Nova Scotian, published at Halifax. In May, 1844, Mr. Howe joined him in the
redaction, and both together assailed with vigour the attitude of Lord Falkland. In some instances, Mr. Howe, at
all events, transgressed against the ordinary, amenities of
political controversy. Amongst other questions in which
Mr. Annand moved at an early date, was the endowment of
denominational colleges, and he succeeded in getting a vote
against it in the Assembly, on a division, of twenty-six to
twenty-one. When Sir John Harvey succeeded to the
Lieutenant-Governorship, the triumph of responsible government was complete, yet Mr. Annand did not appear in the
list of the Uniacke Ministry of 1848, but for some years
held the lucrative post of Queen's Printer. After the general
election of 1859, however, Mr. Annand took office under
his old chief as Financial Secretary.   In 1863 the Govern- 668.
ment was defeated at the polls, and Dr. Tupper became
Premier. From 1864 onwards Mr. Annand, as we have seen,
devoted all his energies against confederation. He opposed
the Quebec Conference, went to England to obstruct its consummation, and subsequently to urge the repeal of the Act.
At the elections of 1867 he suffered a defeat. He had been
called to the Legislative Council of bis own Province, but
resigned to prevent Dr. Tupper from being returned to the
Commons for Cumberland. The attempt was a bold one,
but failed. The Doctor received 1368 votes; Mr. Annand,
1271. Considering all things, the majority was not a large
one, and the defeated candidate had the satisfaction of knowing that his opponent was the only confederate in the Nova
Scotian delegation to Ottawa. On the seventh of November
in that eventful year, Mr. Annand was called upon to form
a Provincial Government and became Premier, and Treasurer, but subsequently resigned the latter office in favour
of Mr. Stayley Brown.
It may now be as well to note some of the minor members
of Mr. Annand's party, with short, biographical references.
The Hon. Stayley Brown, just mentioned, was a native of
Glasgow, Scotland, where he was born in 1801. The family
emigrated to Nova Scotia and settled in Yarmouth about the
year 1813. He was a merchant of ability and success, and
without serving any apprenticeship in the Assembly, was
nominated to the Legislative Council in 1843. In January
1856, Mr. Brown became Receiver-General in the Conservative Administration of the Hon. Jas. W. Johnston, and held
office till the break-up of the Cabinet in  1860.    During-
about ten months from March, 1874, he was Speaker of the
Council; then entered the Local Cabinet as Treasurer of
Nova Scotia. The Hon. Daniel Macdonald boasts descent
from the Lords of the Isles, but was personally born at
Antigonish, N. S., in 1817. A lawyer by profession, he had
arrived at the age of fifty, when he first entered the Legislature in 1867. In 1872, he became a Cabinet Minister,
taking the department of Public Works, and in 1875, the
Attorney-Generalship. The Hon. Colin Campbell belongs
to one of the Argyje families of Campbell. His grandfather, who settled in America in 1770, was a public man in
Nova Scotia, and a M. P. P. as far back as 1793. Colin
was born in 1822 at Shelburne, N. S., and was educated at
Digby and Weymouth. A ship-owner and merchant, he
served on the Directorate of an Insurance Company, and also
as local bank agent. Mr. Campbell originally belonged to the
Howe party, but was attracted by the retrenchment schemes
of Dr. Tupper, and went over to the Conservative party.
He sat for Digby from 1859 to 1867, when he was one of the
manyrejected on thequestionof Confederation,being defeated
by Messrs. Vail and Doucett. In 1871, however, he regained his seat by a large majority, and again in 1875, but
in 1878 he once more suffered misfortune, and is not now in
the House. In 1875 he was made an Executive Councillor,
and had a portfolio under Mr. Annand.
The Hon. Hugh McDonald sprang from the McDonalds
of the Keppeck in the Scottish Highlands. He was born
at Antigonish in 1826. In 1855 he was" called to the
bar, and received the honours of the silk in 1872. After
a preliminary defeat Mr. McDonald obtained a seat in the 670
Nova Scotia Assembly for Inverness in 1859, and filled
the seat until 1862, in which year he declined the Solicitor-
Generalship. In 1863 the Howe party were beaten at the
general elections, one of the victims being Mr. McDonald.
He next appears as one of the anti-confederation delegates
to London in 1866, with Messrs. Howe and Annand. In
the following year the strong tide against the union raised
Mr. McDonald to the Commons, to which he was elected for
Antigonish by an overwhelming majority over the Hon. Mr.
Henry. In June, 1873, he was sworn in as President of the
Privy Council, and next month became Minister of Militia.
On the eve of the resignation of the Macdonald Goverment,
he was raised to the Nova Scotia Bench, as Judge of the
Superior Court of Nova Scotia, a position he still occupies.
The Hon. James McDonald, now Chief Justice of Nova
Scotia, also belongs to a Highland family settled in Pictou
many years ago. He was born at East River, in that county,
on the 1st of July, 1828, and educated at New Glasgow.
Unlike his namesake he was from the first a Conservative,
and a friend of Confederation so soon as it became a vital
question. He was called to the bar in 1857, and became
Q. C. in the year of the union. Mr. McDonald sat for his
native county from 1859 to 1867. In June, 1863, he was
appointed Commissioner of Railways when Dr. Tupper's
administration was formed, and towards the close of the
following year succeeded Mr. LeVisconte, who had retired, as
Financial Secretary and Cabinet Minister. This appointment, says Mr. Campbell (p. 560), proved an important accession to the administrative capacity and strength of the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 671
"Government. The year 1867 was an unfortunate one for
unionists, and Mr. McDonald, fared like the rest of his
party, save Dr. Tupper, in the Dominion contest. A candidate for Pictou, he was defeated by Col. Carmichael, the
latter's majority being nearly three hundred and sixty. At
the local elections of 1871 he once more obtained a seat in
"the Nova Scotia Assembly, but resigned in the following
year to try conclusions with his old opponent for the Commons. This time he was triumphantly returned, with Mr.
Doull, by a majority of two hundred and five over Mr.
■Carmichael. Once more in the year 1874, he was marked
out for defeat, and as one of Sir John Macdonald's supporters
when the latter passed under the Pacific Railway cloud, was
once more rejected, though by a slender majority.* In 1878,
the tables were again turned, and Mr. McDonald, under
-cover of the National Policy, was victorious by a majority
of over three hundred. When the Liberal-Conservative
-Cabinet was formed, the member for Pictou was appointed
Minister of Justice, and, on appealing to his constituents,
re-elected by acclamation. This office he continued to fill
until May, 1881, when, on the retirement of Sir William
Young, Mr. McDonald was raised to the Bench as Chief
Justice of Nova Scotia.
The Hon. John William Ritchie, Judge in Equity of the
Nova Scotia Supreme Court, is a brother of Chief Justice
William Johnston Ritchie, of the Dominion Supreme Court.
Their father, Thomas Ritchie, was also a Judge, though of
an inferior Court.    Mr. Ritchie was born at Annapolis, on
* The vote stood, Jas. W. Carmichael, 2178; John A. Dawson, 2124; Robt. DouU, 2123
J as. McDonald, 2110. ,<r
the 26th of March, 1808, and educated at Pictou. Having
adopted the legal profession, he was called to the bar of
Nova Scotia in 1832, and to that of Prince Edward Island
in 1836. For some years Mr. Ritchie was Law Clerk to the
Legislative Council of Nova Scotia, and in May, 1864, became a member of that body—a position he retained until
the union. So far back as 1850, he had served on the Commission to consolidate and simplify the laws of the Province,,
and subsequently, with Messrs. Howe and Gray, to adjust
the tenants' right question in Prince Edward Island. It
does not appear that he was ever an ardent politician ; still
he was a sufficiently prominent public man to be one of the
Tupper delegation to London in favour of confederation in
1865. In the Cabinet which brought about confederation, he
served as Solicitor-General with a seat in the Cabinet. When
the Union had been consummated, Mr. Ritchie was called to
the Dominion Senate, and remained in that position until
June, 1870, on his appointment as Judge of the Nova Scotia
Supreme Court. When Judge Archibald left the Bench to-
assume the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Province in
1873, Judge Ritchie was promoted to the post of Judge in
Equity, which he still fills with dignity and credit, notwithstanding his advanced years. Of his brother, the Chief
Justice, it will be necessary to speak under the New Brunswick section of this chapter.
The Hon. James William Johnston, whose name figures so
conspicuously in the history of Nova Scotia, as a statesman,,
lawyer, and judge, was the son of Dr. Johnston, of Edinburgh University, a loyalist immigrant who settled in
Jamaica.   There, at Kingston, in 1792 (29th August), Mr. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 673
Johnston was born. He was sent to Scotland to be educated,
and, after his return, the family removed to Nova Scotia,
Admitted to the bar in 1815, he began the practice of his
profession at Kentville.    He subsequently entered into partnership with the Hon. Mr. Robie.    Mr. Johnston's rise was
rapid, and he soon attained a first place at the Nova Scotia
bar—a position he retained until his elevation to the Bench.
His oratory was  fervid and effective, and  he peculiarly
excelled at cross-examination.    On one occasion, | his bursts-
of impassioned eloquence seemed to sweep as with the force
of a tornado, bearing down all Before them." *    In 1833 .he
was made Solicitor-General, but the office was not political;
and it was not until 1838 that at the urgent desire of Sir
Colin Campbell he accepted a seat in the Legislative Council,
and began his public career.    Into the political arena Mr.
Johnston carried the same ability and earnestness which had
distinguished him at the bar.    He was a Conservative, one
might almost say, by heredity, and regarded with suspicion
proposed changes in the constitutional system of the Province.
In 1843, on his appointment to the Attorney-Generalship,
Mr. Johnston resigned his seat in the Council, and was
elected M.P.P. for Annapolis, which he represented without
a break until his elevation to the Bench.     In him Lord
. Falkland found an able and ready champion with tongue and
pen ; and in the conduct of his defence he exhibited consummate tact.    But the spirit of the times was too strong for
even his distinguished ability, and after the elections of 1847
he found himself compelled to resign. In 1850 Mr. Johnston
took the singular step of proposing that as the constitution
The Canadian Biographical Bictionai-y: Quebec, and the Maritime Provinces, p. 532. 674 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
of the Province had been radically changed by Downing
street the Lieutenant-Governor ought, in future, to be paid
by the Imperial authorities. Of course the motion was
defeated, and by a vote of twenty-six to fourteen. In 1856
the Liberal Government fell from power, chiefly owing to its
attitude towards the Catholics, and Mr. Johnston once more
formed a Government, with Dr. Tupper, Messrs. McKinnon,
Stayley Brown and the two Campbells. In 1857, in company with the present Lieutenant-Governor Archibald* he
proceeded to England in order "to secure the abolition of the
monopoly in mines. In 1860 the Liberals were again in
power, but in 1863 Mr. Johnston for the last time formed a
Government, from which in the same year he retired, on
being appointed Judge of the Supreme Court. On the bench,
although advanced in years, he displayed the same clear and
vigorous intellect that had achieved so much and it remained
unimpaired to the last. Judge Johnston was in England
when Lieutenant-Governor Howe died in 1873, but the
Dominion Government at once offered him the high position.
Allthough eighty-one years of age, twelve years Mr. Howe's
senior, he at first accepted the office, but found that it would
be impossible to leave England. He died at Cheltenham on
the 21st of November in the same year. Mr. Johnston was
the first in the Maritime Provinces to suggest a confedera-
tion of the Provinces. In 1854 he moved a resolution in its
favour,andwas thustheearliest to bring the subject before any
Legislature.-}-    The hon. gentleman was, like Mr. Mackenzie,
* The Archibalds ought by rights to have been Scots, and no doubt were so originally, but
they appear to have tarried during several generations m the North of Ireland. Hence it
would seem to be stretching a point to claim them.
t Mr. (now Sir) A. T. Gait took a similar course in 1858. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
of Ontario, a Baptist, and a strenuous advocate of a prohibitory liquor law. His whole career, political bias apart, was
an eminently useful and honourable one. It may be added
that his grandfather, who originally settled at Savannah,
Georgia, believed himself entitled to the dormant title of
Marquis of Annandale—a name he gave to his estate in the
South. As a loyalist, he left the country, and after a short
sojourn in Britain finally settled in Jamaica, as already
stated. The Hon. Mr. Johnston's son, bearing the same
name, is now Judge of the County Court of the City and
District of Halifax.
The Hon. John McKinnon, already mentioned, is descended
from the McKinnons of the Western Isles. His father
emigrated to this Province (county of Sydney), from Inverness-shire. The family is Highland Catholic, and a younger
brother of the same gentleman was Catholic Bishop of
Arichat up to the time of his death in 1878. He, himself,
has always been a farmer—one of the sturdy, old Scottish
stock. He was born in November, 1808, at Dorchester,
Antigonish, N.S., for which county he sits in the Assembly.
He was a member of the Conservative Administration of
1857 and 1860. Again in July, 1867, he was appointed a
member of the first Local Government, but the ill-fated
Cabinet perished in the anti-confederate storm of that
autumn. He, Mr. McKinnon, however, only suffered the loss
of office, as he had been a member of the Legislative Council
since 1857. In spite of the lack of educational opportunities
he was a well-instructed man, and not thought disqualified for a place on the Board of Education, with Messrs.
Tupper, Johnston, Henry and Ritchie as colleagues.    As a so
magistrate also for forty years, and an agricultural commissioner, Mr. McKinnon has performed most valuable services.
Hon. Alexander Keith's name has not hitherto appeared in
these pages, yet at confederation, he became Speaker of the
Legislative Council. His father was chief of the clan
Keith, and he himself was born on the 5th of October, 1795,
at Falkirk in Caithness-shire. Like almost all Scots, he received a good education, and was then sent to Sunderland
in England to learn the brewing and malting business. Five
years after, in 1817, the family removed to Halifax, and
young Keith at once'entered into abrewery partnership, persevering until he became sole owner of the business, and sub-
o I
sequently acquiring an independent fortune. Prior to the
incorporation of the city, Mr. Keith was Commissioner in
the Court of Common Pleas, and afterwards served as Mayor
of the City of Halifax in 1843, 1853, and 1854; he was also
for a long period a Director of the Bank of Nova Scotia.
Called to the Legislative Council in 1843, he sat in
that body for thirty years. In 1867 when the Local Legislature was constituted he became President of the Upper
House. In the same year he was elected to the Dominion
Senate, but declined the honour. The Presidency he held at
the time of his death on the 14th December, 1873. Mr.
Keith was an ardent Mason, filled high offices in the craf t,
and was deeply respected by the brethren of the 1 mystic
tie." His widow, with whom he lived forty years, a son and
three daughters survive him, and live together, all but one
married daughter, at " Keith Hall," the family homestead.
Another J old-stager," but a Haligonian by birth, is the
Hon. Alexander Stewart, who at the time of his death was THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court at Halifax.    His father,
a   Scottish    Presbyterian    minister,    arrived    in     Nova
Scotia with his wife shortly previous to Alexander's birth
at Halifax on the 30th of January, 1794.    He was the eldest
of a family of three, the two sons afterwards becoming partners in the practice of law, and one daughter.      His father
died early, leaving the widow in poor circumstances ; but
she subsequently married again.     Alexander was educated
at the grammar school of Halifax, and ,he made the most of
his opportunities.    For some time he was employed as clerk
in the Ordnance Department.    This position did not satisfy
voung Stewart's ambition.    When he announced his inten-
tion of retiring, his chief remonstrated with him, remarking
that in time he would rise to be head clerk.    His reply was
that he would not remain if he could not rise higher than
the chief of the department himself.    His next venture was
in commerce.    Entering a West India house, he soon became
a member of the firm, and, in a few years, saved enough to
retire and gratify his desire to enter the legal profession.
Having studied at Halifax and Amherst, he was called to
the bar in 1822.     Meanwhile, on the principle, perhaps, that
one good turn deserves another, he had been united to Sarah,
sister of the Hon. Mr. Morse, who had married his sister.
Mr. Stewart  rose  rapidly in his profession, practising in
Cumberland County, and also in Westmoreland, N.B.     In
1826, he was elected to the Nova Scotia Assembly,  and
represented Cumberland until 1837, when he was raised to
the Legislative Council.     In 1834, he made a powerful
attack on the constitution of the Legislative Council, advo- 678
eating open sittings and its separation from the Executive,*
and in the same year vigorously aided Mr. Young in urging
the surrender of the quit-rents.-f In 1840, he became a
member of the Executive Council. For some time past, Mr.
Stewart had practised at Halifax, and in 1846 succeeded Mr.
Archibald as Master of the Rolls and Judge of the Vice-Admiralty Court. The former position he vacated, on a pension, when the Chancery Court was abolished in 1855. In
the following year he was honoured with the Companionship
of the Bath,—the first colonist, it is said, so distinguished.
The other Judgeship he retained until his death on New
Year's day, 1868. E
Lieutenant-Colonel Charles James Campbell is a native
Scot, having been born in Skye, in Inverness-shire, on Nov.
6th, 1819. He came to Nova Scotia in 1830 and engaged
in commercial pursuits. For a generation past he has been
engaged in developing the New Campbell town coal mines;
and was the first to send a cargo direct from Nova Scotia to
Australia. In addition to these enterprises he has also
busied himself with seal and herring fishing, oil-wells, gold-
mining, marble, lime, and salt-springs. Col. Campbell was
unfortunate in his first entrance upon parliamentary life.
He was elected for Victoria in 1851, but was unseated on
* Campbell, p. 293. t laid, p, 299.
J It may not be amiss to quote a tribute to his character cited in the Canadian Biographical Dictionary, p. 414. "ipewart, physically, was a handsome man; and intellectually he stood high among Nova Scotia's distinguished men forty or fifty years ago. There
is not ia our local legislature at present, a man of such startling eloquence and commanding
ability. Were the equal of him, by some accident or chance, suddenly placed in our Assembly to-day, what a sensation would thereby be created ! What a shaking up of dry
bones ! In the presence of such an eagle, there would be a fluttering among the sparrows."
petition.    In 1855, he was returned once more, and sat till
1859 when he lost his seat for defending Catholic rights.    In
1860, he was elected, but again unseated ;   three years after
he was once more a member, only to lose his election in 1867,
on account of his confederation views.    Yet again, in 1871,
Mr.' Campbell headed the poll, and in the following year was
elevated to the Legislative Council, of which he remained a
member about two years and a half.   In 1874, he secured election to the Commons by a majority of eighteen, but was unseated on a recount.   In 1876, he was once more returned, and
sat until 1878, when he lost his seat by over a hundred votes,
although a Conservative.    He is a strong advocate of retaliatory duties, especially on coal, and generally on manufactures.     During  his  brief  career at Ottawa, Mr. Campbell
strongly opposed the Mackenzie administration, and prophesied its defeat, although perhaps he did not foresee his own.
As few men have met with more ups and downs in public
'life, so also, it may be said, there are few who have done so
much to develop the resources of his country.    Mr. Campbell
has had a large family, for, although two children were removed by death, he has still six sons and two daughters, the
younger of the latter still at school.    His career, as a notable
example of Scottish  energy,  thrift and intelligence, well
deserves a more ample record.
The public career of Mr. Alexander Mackay is another
example of the striking upheaval which occurred in Nova
Scotia in the confederation year. His parents settled in the
County of Pictou, from Sutherlandshire, in 1815, and he was
born there at West River, three years afterwards.   Educated 680 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
at Pictou Academy, he resembled the Hon. Alexander Mackenzie in his earlier fortunes, having been a mason and
builder. Later on he devoted himself to farming and
trade. Since 1858 he has been a magistrate, but he does
not appear upon the political arena until 1863. Mr. Mackay
was a Conservative and supported Dr. Tupper in his struggle
for union. During the political whirlwind of 1867, he was
sacrificed to popular fury; but he found favour once more in
1872, and has since been returned at two general elections
by acclamation. He is a crucial instance of Scottish energy
and probity. Attached to the Church of his fathers with
characteristic zeal, he has been an elder in the Kirk for
more than twenty years; and in the words of a biographer,
merits the title of " honest Scotchman" with emphasis.
Almost outside the sphere of politics, we may note, merely
as a sample, for there are many like him, Mr. Donald Grant,
of the same county. Well known as a builder and manufacturer, far and wide, he was originally the son of a carpenter
from Inverness-shire, and of Sophia Macdonald, a Scottish
daughter of the heatherland at Pictou. Equipped with so
much of the rudiments as could be supplied, Mr. Grant commenced life as an apprentice to his father's trade. Thence
he gradually mounted the ladder, as a builder upon a small
scale, and so on upward to the position of a manufacturer. Beginning life without a dollar, or with any other endowment
save what Providence had vouchsafed, he has risen purely
by energy, enterprise and thrift to be a power in the railway world of Nova Scotia. Mr. Grant, although a Conservative, has never been tempted into public life, although he THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
has served in the municipal council of New Glasgow, and
is, or' was until recently, Warden there. His name and
career seem worthy of record even thus briefly, because he
is a specimen brick of the stiff Scottish clay which underlies
the stable fabric of Nova Scotia.
There are still  a  considerable  number of Scots  whose
names might well find a place here ; but, unfortunately, the
facts necessary to give sketches of them are very scanty.  A
few, however, may be mentioned.    Mr. Robert Doull, at
present one of the members for Pictou at Ottawa, hails from
the extreme north of Scotland, having been born at Wick,
Caithness, in 1828.    He was still an infant in arms, when
his parents left their native land to settle at Pictou.    Like
his father, Mr. Doull is a merchant, and also a magistrate,
a Lieutenant-Colonel of Militia, and a Director of the Pictou
Bank.    For fifteen years he was Treasurer for the county,
and has occupied a prominent position in the Order of Oddfellows.     In 1872, Mr. Doull was elected first to the House
of Commons as a Liberal Conservative.  The events of 1873,
however, had  caused a reaction throughout the Dominion,
and in March, 1874, a large majority were returned in favour
of the Liberal Government, which had assumed office in the
previous November.    The member for Pictou was one of
.the victims, but although the vote was heavy, he only lost
his seat by a majority of one*    In 1878, the wheel of fortune once more turned in his favour and made him amends.
On that occasion his majority was nearly two hundred and
' Mr. Dawson, also a Pictou merchant, received 2,124 votas; Mr. Doull 2,123.
c 682
Lieutenant-Colonel, the Hon. Stewart Campbell, Q.C., has
also had his ups and downs. Like the Hon. Mr. Johnston,
he is a native of Jamaica. He was the son of a militia General Officer, who distinguished himself during the rebellion
there in 1832. Mr. Stewart Campbell was born in 1812,
and, removing to Nova Scotia, received a call to the bar in
1835. Between 1863 and 1865, he served on the Commission to revise the statutes. In public life, besides filling
some subordinate judicial offices, Mr. Campbell sat for Guys-
borough continuously from 1851 to 1867 in the Assembly,
and from 1867 to 1874 in the Commons—a period of over
twenty-three years. From 1854 to 1860, he served as
Speaker of the Assembly. Mr. Campbell was politically a
Liberal, but he had supported the Dominion Government
since its formation, and when the re-action came, in 1874,
he succumbed to Mr. Kirk, a supporter of the Opposition,
and there his political career ended.
Lieuteuant-Colonel John A. Kirk, as a Liberal, has also
suffered from political vicissitudes. He is the grandson of a
native of Dumfries-shire, who served in the British army
during the American revolutionary war and settled in Nova
Scotia. Mr. John Angus Kirk was born at Glenelg, Nova
Scotia, in 1837, and was brought up a farmer. From 1867
to 1874, he sat for Guysborough in the Assembly, when he
resigned to be a candidate for the same seat in the Commons. He succeeded in defeating the Hon. Stewart Campbell by a majority of over two hundred. In 1878, however
there was a reaction of another sort, and Mr. Kirk lost his
seat by nearly one hundred and seventy votes.
Amongst the Senators, one may be mentioned who has
passed from the scene. The Hon. John Holmes was born in
Ross-shire as far back as March, 1789, and came to Nova
Scotia in 1803. In 1836, he was elected M.P.P. for Victoria,
and sat for it during eleven years, until 1847, when he
suffered defeat. At the next general election he was more
successful, and remained a member from 1851 to 1858. In
the latter year he was elevated to the Legislative Council, in
which body he continued until the Union. In 1867, when
seventy-eight years of age, he was called to the Senate. He
died about 1870, having been in public life, with the short"
exception referred to, for thirty-four years. The Hon. Alexander Macfarlane, Q.C., who appears to have succeeded Mr.
Holmes, is a Nova Scotian of Scottish descent, the son of
the late Hon. Donald Macfarlane, and born at Wallace, Nova
Scotia, in June, 1817. He was called to the bar in 1844,
and is now Surrogate of the Vice-Admiralty. Mr. Macfarlane sat for Cumberland from 1856 to the Union, and during the last two years of that period occupied a seat at the
Council Board. He was one of the Nova Scotia delegates
to the London Conference which settled the terms of Confederation. In 1870, he was called to the Senate, of which
he is still a member.
The course of political events in New Brunswick ran
in much the same groove as the struggle in Nova Scotia,
with two important exceptions. Party feeling 'did not run
so high in the former Province, and the entire controversy
touching responsible government was settled at an earlier
.date*    So early as 1832, the Executive Council was separ-
'< Fenety: Political Notes and Observations. 684 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
ated from the Legislative ; but the Governor and his friends
were still independent of popular control. The Crown Land
Department was a close bureau, completely beyond any
legislative influence. Out of the casual and territorial
revenues, the dominant party could defray all current expenditure without reference to the Assembly. Having the
power of the purse in their hands,the Executive might defy
votes of non-confidence and treat with supreme indifference
both the censures and remonstrances of the people's representatives. Sir Archibald Campbell, who was at this time
Lientenant-Governor, like his namesake of Nova Scotia, was
a bluff soldier, and tenaciously clung to the existing system.
In 1836, Mr. L. Wilmot (a cousin of the present Lieutenant-
Governor), assumed the leadership of the Reform party, and
proved to be the Joseph Howe or William Young of New
Brunswick. As usual the steps taken were simply tentative. At the outset all that was sought was a periodical
account of the revenue; but this, once conceded, naturally
involved legislative criticism and control over the expenditure. Still the old system died hard ; and the conflict was
prolonged during some years. The ruling clique had upon
its side the Governor; and he was invariably backed by the
Colonial office. Downing Street not only supported its
agents, but laid down unconstitutional maxims by means of
despatches. The procedure of any particular time was thus-
dependent upon the whim of the Colonial Secretary; his
despatches were law, and objection to them was futile.
In 1837, in the absence of an expected missive from home,,
the Lieutenant Governor assumed a haughty demeanour,
and requested the House to pass the Civil List Bill with a THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
suspensory clause, pending the pleasure of the Crown. The
Assembly enquired whether Sir Archibald Campbell would
assent to the Bill at the close of the Session, as the Houses
had passed it, provided a favourable answer should arrive
in the meantime. The Governor refused to give more than
•an indirect answer; but he had sent over Mr. Street, a trusty
member of the Council, to " button-hole" the Colonial
Secretary. The Assembly took alarm, and at once denouncd
the Governor by resolution, and demanded his recall. Messrs.
■Crane and Wilniot were sent to London, and the result of
their representations was, the retirement of Sir Archibald,
■and the arrival as Governor of Major-General Sir John Har-
ve}-. With his arrival, the struggle for responsible government practically terminated for the time in New Brunswick.
The Civil List Bill was passed, and, amidst great rejoicing,
the Assembly voted money to secure a full length'portrait
■of Lord Glenelg, the Colonial Secretary. For some years
affairs proceeded calmly in the Province. So long as Sir
John Harvey remained, nothing arose to mar the general
content. But as Canada had its Lord Metcalfe, New Brunswick was fated to enjoy a ruler of the same type in the person of Sir William Colebrooke. His predecessor had been a
pronounced Reformer; by his efforts the boundary dispute
which before and afterwards caused infinite trouble to the
Province, was temporarily adjusted; and he had left for
Newfoundland amidst the universal regrets of the people.
Sir William Colebrooke was a man of another stamp.altogether, and changes in the Imperial Government had mate-
rially altered the complexion of   its  policy  towards  the 686
colonies. In addition to that, the Province was suffering
from serious depression in the lumber-trade, and St. John had
recently suffered from a destructive conflagration, such as unhappily we have seen repeated in recent times. A necessary
consequence of these disasters was a falling-off in the revenue.
The Assembly then appealed to the Imperial Government for
a loan ; but Lord Stanley (the late Earl Derby) roundly
lectured them upon their wasteful expenditure. The revenues had been placed at their disposal, and already the large-
surplus had been frittered away. The Colonial Secretary
broadly hinted that they had proved themselves incapable of
managing their own affairs. Obviously a second political
crisis was at hand. The cry of danger to responsible government was raised, but at the general election of 1842, it
fell flat. The electorate generally was either indifferent or
too strongly loyal, to heed the agitators. As in Canada,,
shortly after, the Conservatives triumphed, and Sir William
Colebrooke, like Lord Metcalfe, received congratulatory addresses in large numbers from every quarter. He was
hailed as the champion of monarchy and, for the-moment,,
the party of progress was cast into the shade. In 1844 on.
a vacancy occurring in the Executive, he appointed a gentleman after his own heart, and distinctly of his own mere motion. At once four ministers resigned. Three of them, Messrs.
Ifugh Johnston, Chandler, and Hazen, freely admitted the
prerogative right of the Governor, yet disputed the propriety of this special exercise of it. The position of affairs
was certainly anomalous. Mr. Reade, the provisional appointee to the Provincial Secretaryship was not, properly
speaking, a New Brunswicker, even by domicile.    The office THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 687
was not only a lucrative one, but held for life; and, therefore
Mr. Wilmot and his friends hastened to employ this arbitrary display of prerogative on behalf of responsible government.    The Reform party urged that so important an officer
should be the head of a department, and a responsible adviser of the Crown, liable like other executive councillors to
removal when the Cabinet had forfeited the confidence of
the people's representatives.   It does not appear necessary
to follow this controversy into detail. *    It may suffice to
remark that, in the end, the Assembly prevailed.    The Colonial Office declined to confirm Mr. Reade's appointment, and
the Hon. Mr. Saunders obtained the office.    At the same
time, the reform sought for by Mr. Wilmot was not formally
conceded for several years afterwards.    All, therefore, that
the year 1845 brought forth, politically, was a particular
success, without express recognition of the principle at stake.
The action of Sir Wiiliam Colebrooke was all the more sail-
ing, because the appointment of Mr. Reade was a rather
coarse reply to a direct vote of want of confidence in the
Council, passed by twenty-two to nine in the Assembly at
the beginning of a Session.
In and throughout 1847 the controversy raged with little
or no effect; but in 1848, the friends of responsible government were materially aided by the despatch of Earl Grey to
the Lieutenant-Governor of Nova Scotia. On the 24th
of February, Mr. Fisher and Mr. Ritchie both Introduced
resolutions which affirmed the principles of colonial government stated in the Colonial Secretary's missive.    The former
For a full account of the cases, see Fenety's Political Notes, chaps. vii„ viii. and ix. 688
gentleman's motion was ultimately put to the vote and
carried by twenty-four to eleven after an exciting and protracted debate. As in Canada, the Government party insisted that responsible government was in full force, notwithstanding the fact that appointments to the Council were
made arbitrarily by the Governor, and that the votes of the
majority were ostentatiously disregarded. As Mr. Fenety
remarks*, the battle was really fought for New Brunswick,
in Canada and Nova Scotia, and the fact that in the final
vote men of both parties united demonstrated the folly of
farther resistance. At the same time the Province now
under consideration was the first to insist upon the great
weapon in the power of a representative assembly—the
initiation of money grants. It also had long preceded Nova
Scotia in the separation of the Legislative Council from the
Executive. There only remained the inevitable battle for
the spoils, in which both parties approved themselves equally
sincere and in earnest. After the session of 1848, Sir W.
Colebrooke retired and was succeeded by Sir Edmund W.
Head, the first civilian who had ever occupied the Lieutenant-
Governorship and the grandson of a U. E. Loyalist of 1783.
The period of his Vice-royalty covers, what may be called
the speculative era, when the railway mania was in progress
and the reciprocity treaty concluded. In 1852, the line of
the Intercolonial Railway was agreed upon, but the
Provinces concerned failed, as we have seen, to secure the
Imperial guarantee. Nevertheless, the Grand Trunk of
Canada, and the St. John and Shediac of New Brunswick
were put under contract. In 1854, Sir Edmund Head departed to encounter squalls in Canada, and gave place to
Mr. Henry Manners-Sutton, who, in turn, was succeeded by
the Hon. Arthur Gordon, in 1861.
The local events of the years up to the period of Confederation need not be detailed at length, since they possess
but little general interest, and would not now excite more
than a languid curiosity in the Province itself. Some of the
more salient occurrences will be more conveniently brought
out in the biographical sketches which are to follow. New
Brunswick, unlike Nova Scotia and the other Provinces of
the Dominion, was not largely of Scottish origin, and, therefore, with a short account of Confederation from a Provincial
point of view, and a few sketches of prominent men whose
nationality is our immediate topic of interest, the scene will
change to Prince Edward Island.
The attitude of New Brunswick at the outset seriously
imperilled the success of the Union scheme. The Quebec
Conference had come to an agreement as to the federative
constitution on the 27th of October, 1864. Not a cloud
was then visible above the horizon, and it appeared certain
that all the Provinces would acquiesce in the terms without
delay or demur. But in March of the following year, a
general election took place in New Brunswick, and it was
soon ascertained that a majority opposed to the Quebec plan
had been returned to the Assembly. Not one of the delegates who attended the Conference was returned, and an.
avowedly anti-confederate Government was formed under
the Hons. Albert J. Smith and George Hatheway.    The 690
effect of this obstacle, so unexpectedly interposed, was immediate and striking. In Nova Scotia, Dr. Tupper, an
ardent friend of the Union scheme, at once proposed to substitute for it the more limited measure originally contemplated at Charlottetown. Had no trouble arisen in the sister Province, it is likely that the after-clap of agitation
would never have been heard at Halifax. In like manner
Prince Edward Island held aloof and refused to enter the
Dominion until 1873, whilst Newfoundland definitively set
itself against the scheme.
Yet, although the New Brunswick House started out
with strong anti-Union opinions, it did not long continue of
the same mind. The Upper House being warmly in favour
of Confederation, there resulted, of course, a legislative
block. In England, the efforts of the Canadian Government
and of the Unionists in the Maritime Provinces set the ma- '
chinery of Downing Street to work, and the usual pressure
was brought to bear upon New Brunswick by Colonial
despatches. At the opening of the Session in 1866, Lieut. -
Governor Gordon strongly represented the urgent feeling of
the Home Government in favour of the movement.    Sino-u-
larly enough, his Ministers, who were constitutionally responsible for the Speech from the Throne, gave way apparently without making a show of resistance. Elected to
oppose the Union, and appointed to office in order to resist its
consummation, Mr. Smith and his colleagues at once surrendered, stipulating, of course, that justice should be done to
New Brunswick*    The Government, however, were not al-
* Campbell observes (History oj Nova Scotia, p. 444):—" The Government of New Bruns-
lowed to carry out their new opinions in person. On general grounds, a vote of non-confidence was carried, and Ministers went out of office. The mischief elsewhere, however,
had been done. The recalcitrancy of New Brunswick had
fired the Opposition in Nova Scotia with energy, and, just
when the one set of anti-confederates were   announcing
their conversion in the one Province, another set of converts, or perverts, were raising the standard of secession in
the other.
In spite of all obstacles, however, the Dominion was con-
• stituted on the 1st of July, 1867, and the last effective
notes of dissent gradually faded on the ear. Perhaps there
still lingers in the Eastern Provinces some feelings of dissatisfaction at the methods used to secure so great an end;
but the issue may be safely left to the reason of Provincial
leaders, and the honest fulfilment of Dominion pledges at
Ottawa. Our list of eminent Scots in New Brunswick, during
this -period, will not be a long one. Unlike Nova Scotia, the
population of this Province was never, to any great extent,
of Caledonian origin. On the boundary and throughout the
bulk of the Province of New Brunswick, the U. E. Loyalist
element predominated, and up in the north-west, on the
Quebec line, there is a large settlement of French Canadians. At the same time, some Scots, worthy of record,
must not be passed over, and, therefore, will be given in so
far as the necessary materials have been accessible.
wick, which had been formed for the purpose of opposing Confederation, having, by one of
those wonderful processes of political alchemy of which the modern history of these Provinces presents not a few remarkable instances, became warm advocates of Union, committed themselves to the policy of Union in the speech with which the Legislature was
opened in 1866," etc. 692
The Hon. William Johnston Ritchie, Chief Justice of the
Dominion Supreme Court, is a son of the late Judge Ritchie,
of Nova Scotia, and of his wife, a daughtnr of the late Hon.
James W. Johnston, already noticed as the leader of the
Conservative party in that Province. Born at Annapolis,
in October, 1813, and educated at the Pictou Academy, Mr.
Ritchie studied law with his brother, to whom reference has
•already been made in connection with Nova Scotia. In 1838,
he resolved to enter the bar of New Brunswick, having already practised as an attorney at St. John, for some time.
So far back as 1842 he contested St. John at the general .
•election, but was defeated. Four years afterwards he succeeded ; and, for the first time, entered public life. It would
appear, however, that Mr. Ritchie's devotion to his profession was superior to any political aspirations, for after four
years he retired from the legislative arena. In 1853. what
would now appear a somewhat anomalus position was assumed by hkn. He had been offered the dignity of Queen's
counsel, but refused to accept it unless it left him untrammelled politically. His fear was that if the appointment
were made, it might be construed as a bribe for desertion to
the party in power. The matter was referred to the Colonial Secretary, and apparently the condition stipulated for
was yielded, since in the beginning of 1854 the appointment was made. It seems strange, now-a-days, that Mr.
Ritchie's scruples should have been raised ; since, whatever
political motives may influence appointments to the silk,
they are always made ostensibly on professional grounds.
During the same year, and perhaps partially in consequence
of what had occurred, Mr. Ritchie again entered the Assembly, and in the October following, the Executive Council. In
August, 1855, he was elevated to the Bench as a puisne
judge of the Provincial Supreme Court. After serving in
that capacity for a little over ten years, he succeeded Chief
Justice Parker as head of the Court. Then after another
decade, he was transferred to the Supreme Court of the
Dominion when it was constituted in 1875. Removing in
consequence to the capital, he has since resided at New
Edinburgh in the county of Russell, Ontario. The indisposition of Chief Justice Richards necessitating the absence
of that distinguished judge in Europe, it fell to the lot of
Mr. Justice Ritchie to administer the oath of office to his
Excellency the Marquis of Lome, on his landing' in the
Dominion. On the superannuation of the Chief Justice, the
presidency naturally fell to him, and he was sworn in by
the Governor-General early'in 1879. Chief Justice Ritchie's
whole career exemplifies the abiding power of steady application. Of all the professions, the law requires entire
devotion from those who would succeed. Charlatanism and
pretence are sure to be unveiled in the long run. It is true
that, by adroit political strategy, a badly-grounded lawyer
may reach the bench; but his seat there can only be a protracted misery to himself and to all concerned in the administration of justice. Chief Justice Ritchie, however, had the
solid foundation on which alone judicial honours may rest,
and he has approved himself no less a sound lawyer than a
scholarly gentleman.
The Hon. Peter Mitchell, unlike many, if not most, of our
successful public men, is not properly " a limb of the law," 694
yet he has done much as a toiler in the path of material
progress. His parents came out from Scotland nearly sixty-
five years ago and settled on the Miramichi in New Brunswick. There at Newcastle, Peter Mitchell was born in 1824.
After a sound grammar school education, he first turned his
attention to the legal profession; and was actually admitted
to the bar in 1848; but his successes in life have been in
a different direction, since he is chiefly known as an extensive shipbuilder. In 1856, Mr. Mitchell was returned to
the New Brunswick Assembly, and in 1858 became a member of the Government. After seven years' service as
Minister, his party succumbed before the anti-confederation
blast of 1865, but Mr. Mitchell was practically independent
of popular caprice, since he had, in 1860, been called to the
Legislative Council. The anti-confederate Cabinet, as we
have seen, was ousted by a vote of non-confidence in the
following year, and Mr. Mitchell aided Mr. Wilmot in forming a new Administration, in which the former held office as
President of the Council up to the time of the Union, when
he was called to the Senate. During the previous years his
public services had been many. In 1861, and in the following year, he was a delegate to Quebec in the Intercolonial
Railway negotiations. In 1864, he was a representative of
New Brunswick at the Conference, and subsequently in
London where the terms of the Union were finally arranged
and crystallized in the form of an Imperial Act. On the 1st
of July, 1867, Mr. Mitchell was naturally and properly
appointed Minister of Marine and Fisheries. He was President of the Mitchell Steamship Company, whose vessels
plied between Montreal and Quebec and the sea-board, and THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
between St. John and Portland, and his interest in the
fishery question, which was of vital moment to New
Brunswick, had more than once been exemplified. In 1872,
the atmosphere of the Senate appears to have become oppressive to the Minister, and he resigned once more to enter
the lists for Northumberland. He was returned by acclamation, and re-elected in 1874 by a majority of nearly five
hundred. In 1878, however, he was less fortunate, being
defeated by his former opponent, Mr. Snowball, a merchant
of Chatham, who received fifteen hundred and eighty-five
votes to his thirteen hundred and eighty-four. For the
present, therefore, Mr. Mitchell is out of public lif e. A man
of great energy and enterprise he is well liked by both
parties, and the amicable feelings which are cherished
towards him by his Provincial rival, Sir Albert J. Smith,
are highly creditable to that honourable gentleman. His
defeat in 1878 was certainly not regarded with unalloyed
satisfaction even by those who differ politically from him.
A younger political aspirant is the Hon. John James
Fraser, Q.C., one of the most successful lawyers in the Province. His father, who came from Inverness, settled in
Northumberland county, after a temporary sojourn at Halifax. Like Mr. Mitchell, the senior Mr. Fraser was a shipbuilder, and likewise resided on the Miramichi. The son
turned his attention to law, and became an attorney in 1850.
From 1851, he resided at Fredericton, the capital of the
Province, was called to the bar in 1852, and made Queen's
Counsel in 1873. Mr. Fraser did not, at first, take any
public interest in politics, but the Confederation question
appears to have excited him and he was returned on the 696
anti-Union wave of 1865 from York county. In the following vear, however, he suffered defeat, and after another un-
successful effort a twelvemonth after, Mr. Fraser, for the
time, remained out of public life. In June, 1871, the old
party passions having been largely extinguished he was
nominated to the Legislative Council, and joined the Hath-
eway Cabinet as President of the Council. In the following
year, the Premier died, and a colleague, Mr. King, being
called upon to form a Government, Mr. Fraser was offered
the Provincial Secretaryship, which he accepted, resigning
his seat in the Upper House to appeal once more to the
electors of York. On Mr. King's retirement in 1878, he
became Attorney-General and Premier—positions he still
occupies. More than once Mr. Fraser's attachment to his
native Province and its interests has caused an effort on his
pait for better terms at Ottawa.
The Hon. William Muirhead belongs, so far as public life
is concerned, to a later period. Yet as a merchant and shipbuilder he deserves special mention. His father, who emigrated from Dumfriesshire in 1817, settled in Nova Scotia,
and there at Pictou, his son William was born in April,
1810. His education at Miramichi probably led him to
make New Brunswick his future home. Residing at Chat-
ham, he has engaged in various branches of business, including mill-owning, in addition to mercantile and shipping
enterprises. In politics, Mr. Muirhead is a Liberal He was
appointed to the Legislative Council in 1867, and called to
the Senate, of which he is still a member, early in 1873.
Another Senator who has disappeared from the list was
Lieut.-"Colonel the Hon. John Robertson, a merchant, banker I—
and capitalist. Of the facts of his life nothing is on record,
but he was well known at St. John in many useful and
honourable positions. He sat in the Legislative Council
from 1837 to the Union, and was called to the Senate in
1867. He also was a Liberal in politics. Lieut.-Colonel John
Ferguson is still a member of the Senate, and was by birth
a Scot, having seen the light first in Ayrshire, about 1813,
and was educated in his native land. In 1836, he settled at
Bathurst, N.B., where he has ever since resided. The mercantile firm of which he is a member, has its headquarters
at Glasgow, in Scotland. As an officer of the volunteers, he
always took a prominent part in militia affairs, and has
served on the Council of the Dominion Rifle Association.
Mr. Ferguson sat in the Provincial Legislative Council for
several years before the Union, and was called to the Senate
at Confederation.    In party views, he is a Conservative.
Another native Scot is the Hon. John McAdam, who
has long been in public life, although fortune has been
against him. He is an extensive lumber merchant, residing
at Milltown, N.B. In 1854 he was elected a member of the
Assembly for the county of Charlotte, and continued to
represent it until the anti-confederation reaction of 1865,
when he was defeated. In the next year, however, he returned to his post, and remained in the House until 1872
when he resigned in order to sit for the county in the Commons. He was returned by a majority of over two hundred,
over an opponent who was afterwards more successful.
During three years Mr. McAdam.had served as a Provincial
Minister, at first as Commissioner of Public Works, and then
as President of the Council.    In 1874, he was defeated by 698
Mr. Gillmour, of St. George, by nearly three hundred majority, and again, in 1878, by about two hundred and forty.
He has always been a Liberal, and during his short term at
Ottawa, supported Mr. Mackenzie's administration. Mr.
Gillmour, it may be added, is of Irish parentage and is also-
a Liberal.
The Hon. Robert Marshall, now a member of the Executive Council and M.P.P. for the city of St. John, is a member
of a Dumfries-shire family originally settled in 1773 in the-
county of Pictou, Nova Scotia. In 1837, our present subject removed to Chatham, New Brunswick, where he was-
educated, and served under the lumbering and shipbuilding-
firm of Johnson and Mackie at Miramichi. In 1859, he
settled down at St. John, where he became accountant of
the Intercolonial Railway. On the subject of life, fire and
marine insurance, Mr. Marshall has long been a great authority, and represented a number of companies, English and
American. He is the author of a series of pamphlets on
shipping and insurance, and has lived an active business,
life from youth upwards. Although not a native Scot, he has-
served as President of the St. Andrew's Society, and also as-
Director of the Highland Society; and besides as trustee of
St. Andrew's Church, and Managing Director of a number of
charities. Although Mr. Marshall is fifty years of age, he is-
comparatively a novice in parliamentary life. In 1874, he
contested St. John as an independent candidate, taking his
stand on the unsectarian School Law of the Province, but
was defeated by a large majority. Two years after he was-
more successful, although his seat was gained on the narrow
margin of fifty-three.   Two other public men of the later THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
time may be' mentioned here. The Hon. Benjamin R. Stevenson, Speaker of the Assembly, whose grandfather came
from Renfrewshire and settled at St. Andrews, N.B., where
Mr. Stevenson was born in 1835. He is a member of the
bar, and was Registrar of Probate in Charlotte County. At
Confederation, however, he resigned, and became a member
of the Assembly, and, in 1871, Surveyor-General, and consequently one of the Executive Council. In 1879, he was
elected Speaker of the House. The Hon. William Wedder-
burn, Q.C., the senior member for St. John city, is the son of
a native Aberdonian, who occupied the position of Immigration Agent for some years in New Brunswick. He was
born in the city in the autumn of 1834 and educated with a
view to the legal profession. Called to the bar in 1858, he
has varied the tedium of the law by journalistic labours, as
editor and contributor to the press. In his own profession,
Mr. Wedderburn performed essential service as a Commissioner for consolidating the Provincial Statutes. He has
always been, like his colleague, Mr. Stevenson, a Liberal, and
also a strong advocate of the temperance cause. In 1876,
he was elected Speaker of the House, but resigned in 1878
to accept the office of Provincial Secretary. Mr. Wedderburn has long been a staunch supporter of Confederation,
having lectured in its favour so far back as 1857. Still, in
the interests of his Province, the i better terms " movement
met with his cordial support, and he served as member of
several delegations to Ottawa on the subject. He is yet in
the prime of life and may possibly enter the Dominion arena
within a few years. As a Provincial politician, he is an uncompromising champion of the non-sectarian school system. 700
The position of affairs in Prince Edward Island at the
beginning of our present period was materially different from
that of Nova Scotia or New Brunswick. With the Islanders
the salient grievance which pressed upon them may be summed up in three words—the land system. Into the details of
the question it is not necessary to enter fully, here, but a
few extracts from a -despatch written by Lord Durham from
Quebec will explain, in general terms, the cause and nature
of the trouble: 1 Nearly the whole island was alienated in
one day by the Crown, in very large grants, chiefly to absentees, and upon conditions of settlement which have been
wholly disregarded. The extreme improvidence—I might
say the reckless profusion—that dictated these grants is
obvious ; the total neglect of the government as to enforcing
the conditions of the grants is not less so. The great bulk1
of the island is still held by absentees who hold it as a sort
of reversionary interest which requires no present attention,
but may become valuable some day or other, through the
growing wants of the inhabitants. But in the meantime,
the inhabitants of the island are subjected to the greatest
inconvenience—nay, the most serious injury—from the state
of property in the land. The absent proprietors neither improve the land themselves, nor let others improve it. They
retain the land and keep it in a state of wilderness."* His
Lordship affirmed that the Home Government had done grievous injustice by vetoing the Colonial Acts on this subject,
and hinted that even these were inadequate as drastic remedies for a chronic evil.     He clearly indicated a similar
* This despatch, dated from Quebec, October 8th, 1836, will be found complete in Campbell's History of Prince Edward Island, p. 89.
opinion of the proprietors' scheme,  framed by Mr. G. R.
Young, their solicitor.
The immediate consequence of Lord Durham's despatch
was the confirmation of a Provincial Act passed in 1837
" for levying an assessment on all lands in the Island "; but
this was not done till the close of 1838, and the fact was not
even then communicated to the Assembly by the Lieutenant-
Governor.    The reason for withholding it is obvious.    Had
it been promulgated then, the agitation on the subject of
land tenure would have been raised to fever-heat by the
concession, and, apparently, the Queen's representative had
come to regard himself as, in some sense, the agent of the*
proprietors.    Li 1839, the vexed question cropped up again,
and the Speaker of the Assembly was sent home to press
the views of the colony.     The proposals submitted were
clear and explicit enough: | The establishment of a court of
escheat, the resumption by the Crown of the rights of proprietors, and a heavy penal tax upon wilderness lands."*
Lord John Russell was, at that time, Colonial Secretary, and
to his aggravating vacillation where colonial autonomy was
in question, reference has already been made.    The first demand—that as to escheat—was summarily rejected ; and it
was thought at Downing street that the two hundred thou-
sand pounds necessary to carry out the second was too heavy
a penalty for the mischief wrought by the reckless grants of
which Lord Durham complained.    The penal tax was waived
off for the moment by the remark that one had already been
imposed, and it would be better to wait until its effects were
proved.    Procrastination no less than "finality " was already
Campbell, p. 93. 702
a characteristic of Lord John Russell. He would not even
discuss the matter with the Colonial Speaker, but in September, 1839, sent a despatch to the Governor, approving of
the proprietors' terms submitted by Mr. Young, and condemned, in advance, by Lord Durham, as the basis of any
In this unsatisfactory position the land question remained
for some years. But in March, 1843, an agrarian disturbance occurred which seemed to promise a state of affairs
not unfamiliar to people in our day, nearer England than
her island Province on the west Atlantic coast. A farmer
named Haney, presumably an Irishman, had been ejected
from a farm by due process of law. The crowd reinstated the
evicted tenant, and burnt a dwelling-house, but were eventually overpowered by the strongarm of authority. This occurrence is noteworthy, since it shows the bitter dissatisfaction of the people with the existing system of land
tenure. The squabbles between Lieutenant-Governor Huntley and his opponents need not detain us ; but there were
sometimes national conflicts in those days. On the first of
March, 1847, an election was held for the district of Belfast,
which unfortunately became a struggle between the Scottish
and Irish voters. Messrs. Douse and McLean were the champions of the thistle, and Messrs. Little and Macdougall of the
-shamrock. A riot ensued around the polling-booth, in which
one man, Malcolm Macrae, lost his life. And yet the standard-bearers of the Scotch party, strange to say, were returned ultimately without opposition. From eighy to a hundred persons, however, were more or less injured in the fray.
Happily as Mr. Campbell observes, the evil spirit of national
jealousy has been exorcised, and | there is not now a more
peaceable locality in the island."
During the Session of this year, the question of Responsible Government began to assume importance. An address
was adopted to the Queen praying for the adoption of a
settled system of constitutional rule, but for the present
without effect. Meanwhile, Sir Donald Campbell, a true
blue Highlander,* became viceroy, and was received with
great enthusiasm. The subject of responsible government
which had been temporarily shelved by Mr. Gladstone, was
-again pressed; and, in 1848, Earl Grey still declined to yield
to the popular wishes. The chief reason assigned was the
small extent and population of Prince Edward Island, and
its poverty in commercial resources. Yet the Colonial
Secretary was not backward in urging that the Assembly
should provide for the civil list; and hinted that responsible
government would be conceded in time. His Lordship seems
to have lacked prescience in placing so potent a lever in the
hands of the Assembly. By demanding a civil list, Earl
Grey at once gave the advocates of free government the
•opening they required. The House resolved forthwith to ac-
•cede to the request, provided the permanent revenues were
granted in perpetuity, all claims to quit-rents and crown
lands abandoned, and a system of responsible government
granted.    The first two conditions were at once conceded in
* Unfortunately he did not long enjoy the high office, for he died in October, 1850, at
the age of fifty.   " In Sir Donald Campbell were united some of the best qualities of a
good Governor.   He was firm and faMEul in the discharge of duty; at the same time of
<i conciliatory and kindly disposition."—Campbell's History, p. 108.
■ ■* 704
substance ; the last was again refused. The Assembly was
dissolved; but its successor proved quite as refractory. The
first act of the new House was to pass a vote of want of non-
confidence in the Executive Council, and to resolve that no
supplies should be granted uutil the Ministry was placed in
harmony with the majority. The members of the Council
all resigned, and the Legislature was prorogued to meet
again within a month. During the second Session, some
supplies were doled out for immediate needs, but the House
distinctly refused to proceed with any legislation whatever,
until the constitutional reforms they insisted upon were finally brought about.
In 1851 a new Governor, Sir Alexander Bannerman, arrived, and the Legislature was again called together. He
announced that responsible government would be conceded,
if provision were made for certain retiring officers. The Assembly agreed to this proposition, and the Ministry was
moulded in harmony with the majority. Legislation thereafter proceeded rapidly, and in 1853 the franchise was practically made universal. The result, however, was much the
same as in England after the Reform Bill of 1867, for the Government fell after an adverse vote at the polls. In 1854 one
of those strange freaks which seem to have regularly taken
possession of one Governor in each British North American
Province, entered the head of Sir Alexander Bannerman.
A new Ministry had been formed which possessed the confidence of the Assembly, but there was a majority against it
in the Upper House, and matters did not proceed with the
necessary smoothness.    The Legislature was prorogued un- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
til May; but in the interim the Lieutenant-Governor, in
distinct opposition to the advice of his Council, suddenly dissolved the House. The alleged cause was that the Reform Act
of 1853 had not been fully applied and that, therefore, it
was necessary to secure the verdict of the entire electorate
at once. Still nothing could have been more.contrary to the
first principles of constitutional rules than a dissolution by
His Excellency without advice and contrary to the wish of
sworn advisers whom he still kept in office. There can be
little doubt that however in theory the act may be excused
or extenuated, such a high-handed use of the prerogative
was substantially a violation of the constitution.
Nevertheless the purpose in view was attained as elsewhere in the Provinces. The Government was overthrown
and Sir Alexander Bannerman left Prince Edward Island
for the Bahamas with the satisfaction natural to a ruler who-
has discomfited bis political foes. Mr. Dominick Daly
reigned in his stead, arriving in June, 1854. A new Cabinet was formed and matters once more ran on placidly.*
Once more the land question began to loom up, as might
have been expected after so broad an extension of the franchise. Mr. Daly openly disapproved of any further agitation regarding escheat; but approved of the Lands Purchase Act, invoking the co-operation of the tenants. Almost up to the present moment this unhappy land system
has continued to vex Governors and Legislatures as we shall
see in brief presently.    In 1855, Acts were passed to impose
* In 1855, amongst other business of the session, the Bank of Prince Edward Island was
incorporated, an institut^p -which has recently suffered shipwreck in a lamentable way. 706
a tax on the rent-rolls of certain absentee proprietors, and to
provide for compensation to tenants. Both these measures
were vetoed by the Home Government; but the House
promptly informed His Excellency of their dissatifaction
and stated their belief that the disallowance had been
brought about by the back-stairs influence of non-resident
proprietors. Certainly the language used by Mr. Labouchere,
the Colonial Secretary, in vetoing the legislation referred to,
breathed rather the spirit of counsel with a brief in hand from
the proprietors than of a mediator between landlords and
tenants. In 1856, a petition was sent to the Queen soliciting
the guarantee of a loan to the amount of one hundred thousand pounds in order to facilitate the conversion of leasehold
into freehold tenures. The Colonial Secretary approved of
the security provided for interest and sinking fund, and authorized the loan to be employed, on certain conditions, for
the purpose suggested; and yet in 1858,the Governor stated
that the Imperial authorities had finally decided not to
guarantee the loan.
There had been a change of government meanwhile owing,
in part at least, to a bitter controversy regarding the compulsory use of the Bible in the schools. The perplexing
land question was taken up anew. One of the new Ministers, Colonel Gray,f proposed a series of resolutions, praying
for the appointment of a Commission or Board of Arbitration, and propounding a basis for its action. Meanwhile,
Sir Dominick Daly had retired, and been succeeded by a
Scot, Mr. George Dundas, at the time of his appointment, THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA,
M. P. for Linlithgowshire. The first work before him was
to harmonize the two Houses, and this was effected, under
Home instructions, by the addition of five new members to
the Legislative Council. The next topic for consideration
was necessarily the proposed Land Commission. Sir Samuel
Cunard and other large proprietors had resolved to meet the
colonist's half way; but they proposed that the Assembly
should have one Commissioner for the tenants, the proprietors a second, and the Crown a third. The Duke of Newcastle, now Colonial Secretary, proposed the adoption of this
plan, on condition that the House should pledge the tenants
to abide by the decision. This was done, and Mr. Howe, of
Nova Scotia, received the Assembly's nomination. The
other Commissioners were Mr. John Hamilton Gray, for the
Crown, and Mr. John William Ritchie, for the proprietors.
The report of the Commission, dated the 18th of July,
1861, was a document of great value and importance ; but
could hardly be given even in abridged form here. It must
suffice to say that the inquiries made were thorough and
exhaustive. The Commissioners touched upon the long and
tedious history of the subject; censured the improvidence
by which an entire colony was granted away in a single
day in large blocks of twenty thousand acres each; believed
that all the grants might have been properly escheated for
non-fulfilment of settlement conditions, and effectually
annulled by an enforcement of the quit-rents. At the
same time they admitted that as the Crown had repeatedly
confirmed the grants, no such step could be equitably taken
now.    The only feasible proposal was to turn the tenants 708
into freeholders by a compulsory compromise. Into the
details it is not necessary to enter, inasmuch as even a concise statement of them would occupy a considerable space.*
But the trouble was not yet over. Once more, notwithstanding two distinct offers from the Colonial office to guarantee the loan of one hundred thousand pounds, that measure
of assistance was curtly and peremptorily refused. The
Legislature at once passed Bills to accept and facilitate
the award, although, in some respects, it was far from satisfactory ; and yet in 1862, the Colonial Secretary transmitted
a draft Act drawn up by the proprietors, in which an equitable proposal of the Commission for the appointment of
arbitrators.in disputed cases, was cut out on the plea that
it would stimulate litigation. The Island Government
curiously enough, anticipated the line of argument urged on
behalf of the Irish Land Act, twenty years later. They
did not believe that there would be many arbitrations. " In
their opinion two or three cases in a township would have
the effect of establishing a scale of prices which would become a standard of value." The Duke of Newcastle, however,
was not to be moved, and disallowed the two Acts, on the
avowed plea that the award did not meet the wishes of the
It was announced at the opening of the Legislature that
the measure to make the Legislative Council elective had
been sanctioned, and the House was at once dissolved. The
elections resulted in a large majority in favour of the award
* A tolerably full account, with critical remarks, will be found in Campbell's History
of P. E. Island, pp. 181-146. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
of the Land Commission. The first step, on the meeting of
the House, was an address to the Queen touching the award.
Her Majesty was requested to notify the proprietors that
unless they could show cause before some judicial tribunal
to the contrary, the Royal Assent would be given to the two
Acts of the Legislature. The' Colonial Secretary was inexorable, and fortified by the opinion of the law officers of the
Crown, positively declined to recommend compliance with
the prayer of the Address. Delegates were sent to England ; but, after a long parley with the Duke, who was in
communication with Sir Samuel Cunard, the result was
eminently unsatisfactory. Some partial relief was given by
an Act of 1864—suggested by the proprietors—which enabled tenants in some townships to purchase at fifteen years'
Thus the matter stood until after Confederation, when the
Land Purchase Act of 1875 was assented to by the Governor-
General of the Dominion. It provided for Commissioners
to determine the value of the estates whose sale was under
this statute to be compulsory. In this law, the old plan
adopted in the selection of the old Land Commission was
ao-ain employed with the necessary variations. One member was to be appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor, one
by the Governor-General, and a third by the proprietors
whose land was to be appraised. This Commission was
duly named and entered upon its labours; but other Provincial Acts have been passed since then, some of which,
have been amended at the instance of the Dominion Government, and one at least disallowed.    It can hardly be said 710
that this complicated question has even yet been thoroughly
adjusted. Still it is in a fair way of settlement, and the
long and wearisome conflict at last approaches its end. The
folly of the original land grants is patent on the surface,
and it is only to be regretted that the Imperial Government
did not long since aid the Islanders in throwing off an
incubus caused by the reckless and improvident conduct of
Imperial rulers in the past.
The preliminary steps towards the accomplishment of a
federal union between the Provinces have already been
traced. The conference at Charlottetown, P. E. Island, was
originally proposed with a view to a smaller measure, covering the Maritime Provinces. By general consent, however,
the Canadian delegates were admitted. From the published
account of the proceedings, it would appear that the union
of the Eastern Provinces under one legislature, | was deemed
impracticable; but the opinion of the delegates was unanimous that a union upon a larger basis might be effected."'
The members of the Conference visited the chief cities of the
other Maritime Provinces, and there was a round of banquets
from Charlottetown to St. John. The Quebec Conference,
in October, virtually settled the terms of Confederation, and,
after a succession of festivities in Canada, the delegates-
separated. The people of Prince Edward Island were not
in favour of the measure, and a series of public meetings
resulted in strong expressions of hostility. The Provincial
Secretary, Mr. W. H. Pope, and his colleague, Mr. Haviland,.
were the chief supporters of Confederation; but arrayed
against them were Messrs. Laird, Coles, ELenneth Henderson,
Hensley, McNeil and a number of others. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
The Assembly met early in 1865, and, on resolutions
favourable to the Quebec scheme being submitted, they were
defeated by twenty-three to five. At the next Session, it
was found that the Colonial Secretary had moved in the
-matter, and a despatch was read in which he strongly urged
the claims of Confederation upon the Province. In answer
thereto a still stronger motion than before was passed against
the proposal by a vote of twenty-one to seven. It set out
that however advantageous such a union might be to the
o o
Provinces generally, nevertheless it could never be effected
| on terms that would prove advantageous to the interests
and well-being of the people of this Island, separated as it
is, and must ever remain, from the neighbouring Provinces
by an immovable barrier of ice for many months in the
year." The resolution concluded by declaring that any such
union 1 would be as hostile to the feelings and wishes, as it
would be opposed to the best and most vital interests of its
people." In the autumn of the same year (1866), the Hon.
J. C. Pope, the mover of the above motion, was in London
durino- the sittings of the delegates from the other Provinces.
It was proposed that the Island should receive eight hundred thousand dollars | as indemnity for the loss of territorial revenues, and for the purchase of the proprietors'
estates, on condition of its entering the Confederation."
Public opinion in the Province, however, was for the present
settled against the measure.
In 1868, other terms were offered through Sir William
Young, the Governor-General, and approved of by the Lieutenant-Governor; but the Executive Council declined to
entertain them because they they did not " comprise a full ri2
and immediate settlement of the land tenures, and indemnity from the Imperial Government for loss of territorial
revenues." In a reply dated the seventh of March, 1870,
Earl Granville regretted that the Island governmeut should
neglect their own real interests, " for the sake of keeping
alive a claim against the Imperial Government which, it is
quite certain, will never be acknowledged." The reply of
the Assembly was a distinct affirmation that the people of
the Island were § almost unanimously opposed to any change
in the constitution of the colony."
A long pause followed, and finally the Provincial Government took the matter up in 1873. Messrs. Haythorne and
Laird proceeded to Ottawa. After considerable haggling
over the terms, a final agreement was come to on pecuniary
conditions highly favourable to the Province. No such
difficulty could arise in future as that which had occurred
in Nova Scotia. The terms were practically, submitted to
the people in a plebiscite, and the new Assembly at once
acceded to the proposals of the Ottawa Government by a
vote of twenty-seven to two. Prince Edward Island consequently became a member of the Dominion of Canada
on the first of July, 1873.
It only remains to sketch, in brief, the careers of some of
the more prominent Scots who have figured in public life
during the period under consideration, taking in, as before,
a few who are of more recent date. The account alreadv
given of Sir William Young naturally suggests his brother
as an opening subjeet.
The Honourable Charles Young, LL.D., Q.C., was born at
Glasgow, Scotland, on the last day of April, 1812.    A son of THE SCOT IN BRITISH NOR'TH AMERICA.
the Hon. John Young (" Agricola") he came out with his
parents at an. early age, and settled in Nova Scotia.    He
received his education at Dalhousie College, Halifax, and
studied law with  his  brother, the future Chief Justice.
Was called to the bars of Nova Scotia and Prince Edward
Island in the same year (1838).    For a long period he practised his profession in partnership  with his brothers, Sir
William, and  the Hon. George R. Young.    Removing to
Charlottetown, he entered public life in 1840 as member for
Queen's County, P.E.I.; but before the close of the year he
was called to the Legislative Council in which he sat until
1863, and for the last ten years of the time as its President.
In 1847 Mr. Young was made a Queen's Counsel—the first
appointed in the Island.    For two years from 1851 to 1853,
he was Attorney-General, and again from June, 1858 to
1859, and also served as Administrator of the Government
more than once.    It is said that he was the first public man
in the Island to advocate responsible government, and he certainly largely aided in its establishment.    On other subjects
connected with the progress of the colony he was equally
active, notably in favour of free schools, free lands, and
savings banks.    Mr. Young was made Judge of Probate in
1852 and Judge in Bankruptcy in 1868.    At the bar, his
practice was highly remunerative, and he was an especial
favourite as counsel against the landlords, and on behalf of
I the bleeding tenantry," as he termed them.    In 1838, he
promoted the establishment of a Mechanics' Institute, delivering the inaugural address ; in addition to that he is a
prominent member of the Methodist Church, President of
E m
the Bible Society, a Royal Arch Mason, and ex-Grand
Worthy Patriarch of the Sons of Temperance. He has, like
the other members of his family, lived an honourable and
eminently useful career. The father and his three sons have
all been men of vigorous intellect, sterling integrity and
unswerving patriotism.
One of the best known men of Prince Edward Island, outside of that Province, is the Hon. David Laird, until very
recently Lieutenant-Governor of the North-West Territories. His father, however, first demands notice. The Hon.
Alexander Laird was a Scottish farmer who left Renfrewshire in the year 1819 to settle in Prince Edward Island. A
practical agriculturist of sterling character and intelligence,
he at once went to work upon his land in Queen's County,
a short distance from Charlottetown. Mr. Laird, as might
have been expected, never swerved from the Liberal creed,
and was an unflinching advocate of responsible government.
He represented the first District of the County for sixteen
years. In 1847 he promoted a petition on behalf of constitutional rule, and, in 1851, as a member of the House, heard
the announcement made that the request had been acceded
to. For four years he served as a member of the Reform Government of Mr. Coles, the recognised leader of the party.
The hon. gentleman's political services, however, were not his
only title to grateful remembrance. He was a scientific
farmer, and an active officer of the Agricultural Society, and,
performed much valuable work in elevating the character of
agriculture and in the improvement of stock.
The Hon. David Laird, though not the eldest son of Alexander, is, as has been said, the best known throughout the
Dominion. Born near New Glasgow, in 1833, he was educated in the Presbyterian Theological Seminary at Truro,
Nova Scotia. Whether he ever entertained the purpose of
entering the ministry does not appear. If he did, the idea
was abandoned, since immediately after finishing his academic course, he repaired to Charlottetown and established the
Patriot newspaper. Like his father, Mr. Laird proved to be
an ardent Liberal, but was for some time at variance with
the leaders of his party because of their desire to exclude the
Bible from the schools. When the terms of Confederation
had been virtually settled at Quebec, he at once objected to
the scheme as not merely unfair but disadvantageous in
every respect to Prince Edward Island. The bone of contention, of course, was the interminable land question, as
well as the further grievance that no provision was
submitted for the expenditure of money on provincial public
works, especially railways. Yet notwithstanding Mr. Laird's
prominence as a journalist and public speaker outside the
legislature, it was not until 1871 that he found a seat in the
House for Belfast. The election was a casual one caused by
the sitting member's acceptance of office. Mr. Laird opposed
the Hon. George Duncan, and defeated him. Dissatisfaction
with Mr. Pope's railway policy had arisen, and at the next
general election the Ministry suffered defeat. Mr. Hay-
thorne succeeded as Premier, and towards the end of 1872
Mr. Laird joined the Executive Council. Once more in
1873 the union question came up for the last time, and Mr.
Laird, with Mr. Haythorne, were despatched to Ottawa to
confer with theDominion Government, with the result, already 716 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
noted, of the admission of P. E. Island into the Confederation. Both parties concurred in the arrangement, andr
therefore, there was no party division. Mr. Laird was now
elected, by acclamation, to the Commons, with the Hon.
Peter Sinclair as his colleague. He entered the larger arena
at a fortunate time, since the Pacific Railway trouble brought
about a change of Ministry during the second year, and
when Mr. Mackenzie formed his Ministry in November, Mr.
Laird was gazetted as Minister of the Interior. On his
offering himself before his constituents he was again elected
without opposition. During the following years he served
as a Commissioner to the North-West, and concluded with
the Indians the Qu' Appelle treaty, under which the title of
certain tribes in the soil was extinguished by purchase. The
territory thus surrendered covered 75,000 square miles, on
the line of the Pacific Railway. In 1876 Mr. Laird
received his appointment as Lieutenant-Governor of the
North-West Territories, a position he continued to hold
during a full term, until near the close of 1881. Mr. Laird
is a man of great energy and public spirit, and, as he is still
on the sunny side of fifty, has possibly many years of public
usefulness before him.
The Hon. Alexander Laird is three years older than his
>rother David, having been born in 1830. He was elected
for the first time in the fourth District of Prince County,
and sat for it from .1867 to 1870. He has been a member
of the Government under three Premiers, and served on the
Board of Works for-two years. In 1874 he was elected as
representative of the second District of the same County THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
in rthe Legislative Council. A Liberal colleague of Mr.
Laird's in the Legislative Council was Lieutenant-Colonel,
the Hon. William McGill. The family was originally Highland, but a couple of centuries since three brothers moved
•south and settled on an estate in Kirkmichael,Dumfries-shire.
There in November, 1819, Mr. William McGill, the son of
James, was born. His education was conducted at the parish
school and the Dumfries Academy; but in 1835, he left
a auld Scotia " for Prince Edward Island, where he carried on
business as a merchant at Charlottetown. In 1853 he was
•elected for a District of Queen's to the Assembly and sat
for nine years. In 1858, and again for two years (1869-70),
he was High Sheriff of the County. He was elected to the
Legislative Council in 1873, but did not long sit as a member
of the body. Mr. McGill was an early advocate of confederation, and is described in the Parliamentary Companion as
jJD an advanced Liberal both in English and Colonial politics."
The Hon. Peter Sinclair, already mentioned as Mr. Laird's
•colleague in the representation of Queen's County at Ottawa,
was born and educated in Argyleshire, Scotland. Of his.
•early career we have no record, except that he was a farmer
and took up his residence at Summerfield, Prince Edward
Island. Mr. Sinclair did not enter public life until 1867,
when he was returned for the First District of Queen's, and.
continued to represent that constituency until September,
1873, when he resigned to become a candidate for the Commons. In 1868, he was placed upon the Board of Education, and served on the Executive Council from 1869 to
1871, when the Government resigned.    In the following 718
year he entered the Haythorne administration, and was its
leader in the Assembly. From 1873 to 1878, he sat for his
county in the House of Commons; but in the latter year he
suffered defeat by a majority of over seven hundred. Mr.
Sinclair is a Liberal, in favour of reciprocity with the
United States, and of a prohibitory liquor law.
The Hon. Daniel Gordon was a native Islander, having
been born at Brudenell River, King's County, in 1821. His
father, Henry, was a farmer from Perthshire, who had settled and married in fhe colony. Educated at the grammar-
school, he at first engaged in teaching; but, after two years'
experience, he went into business. For over forty years,.
Mr. Gordon has conducted a store in Georgetown, adding to
it, however, ship-building and ship-owning. He has been a
magistrate ever since 1851, but did not enter public life until 1866, when he was elected to the Legislative Council for
a district of King's. In 1872, he resigned his seat; but, in
1876, was elected as M.P.P. for Georgetown and Royalty,
and entered the Government formed by Mr. Davies. Reelected in 1879, he is recognised as a legislator of great
value, not merely from his business capacity, but also for
the great interest he takes in agriculture and the material interests of the Island. In religion, Mr. Gordon is a
Presbyterian, and in politics a Liberal-Conservative.
The number of Scots who have figured, or who still take-
part, in public affairs in Prince Edward Island is very large.
In addition to those already mentioned, a brief reference may
be made to a few of these. Hon. Herbert Bell, who was-
Speaker of the Legislative Council for a time, sprang of a. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Dumfries family, and was born at Middlebie in that shire, in
1818. He came to the Island when twenty-three years of
age, and devoted himself, like Mr. Gordon and others, to
mercantile and shipping business. For some time he filled a
collectorship of Customs, and served for several years as
Grand Worthy Patriarch of the Sons of Temperance. It
was only in 1867, however, that he made his appearance in
the Legislature, having been elected for a district of Prince
County. In 1870, he was returned for the same constituency
to the Legislative Council, and was Speaker of that body in
1874. He dropped out of the lists in 1878. One of the
oldest living legislators in Prince Edward Island is Lieu-
tenant-Colonel, the Hon. Joseph Wightman, who came from
Dumfries-shire in 1823. He also is a merchant and shipbuilder, and has been High Sheriff of King's County and
Lieutenant-Colonel of volunteers. He sat in the Island Assembly for thirty-two years, from 1838 to 1870, when he
was elected to the Legislative Council. In 1874, he was reelected by acclamation. For some years, Mr. Wightman was
a member of the Government, and filled also, subsequently,
the Speaker's chair. In respect of party, he has always been
a Liberal. The Hon. Archibald J. Macdonald is comparatively a'young member, not having entered the Assembly
until 1872. But his father, Hugh, was for a long time an
M.P.P., and served in various public capacities. The son
has risen to the honours of the Executive Council, and was,
from the first, an advocate of Confederation. He is a
Mr. William S. McNeill belonged to an Argyleshire family 720
which came to this country so far back as 1773. His father,
the Hon. William McNeill, sat in the Assembly for twenty-
five years, and was Speaker of the House for some time.
The son was born at Cavendish, in March, 1814, but did not
enter the House until 1866. He was subsequently re-elected
six times. Dr. Peter A. Mclntyre, who sat in the last House
of Commons as a Liberal, sprang from an Inverness-shire
family. In 1788, his grandfather arrived thence, and settled at Cable Head, in King's County; and his maternal
grandfather had fought under Wolfe at the capture of Quebec. His uncle is the Roman Catholic Bishop of Charlottetown. He himself was born in 1840, and is a graduate of
both Laval and McGill Universities. In 1873, Dr. Mclntyre
succeeded in defeating the Hon. Augustus C. Macdonald,
for the Commons, but only by a majority of thirty-four. At
the last general election the tables were turned, however,
and he lost his seat by a majority against him of seventy-
The Hon.Donald Montgomery, Senator, is one of the "old
stagers." His father, Daniel, hailed from Argyleshire, and
settled in P. E. Island more than a hundred years ago. He
represented Prince County for thirty-five years and upwards.
Donald was his sixth son, and was born at Princetown earlv
in 1808. He also had a long term in the Assembly, sitting
there from 1838 to 1862. In the latter year the Legislative
Council was made elective, and he was not only returned
but became Speaker. He remained in the chair until 1874
so that he was continuously a member of one or other branch
of the Island Legislature during the whole of thirty-six years. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
In 1873, when the Province entered the Dominion, Mr.
Macfarlane became a member of the Senate, and sits there
now in 1882. He has thus been in public life, without a
break, for the almost unprecedently long period of forty-
four years. Another Islander who, though he has never
figured in the Legislature, has nevertheless been a public man,
is Mr. Archibald McNeill, at present Chief Clerk of theProvin-
cial Assembly. His father, Charles, was an Argyleshire farmer
—one of the pioneer settlers—who died in 1879, at the age
of eighty-nine. Archibald was born at West River in 1824.
After receiving his education, he engaged for fifteen years or
so in teaching, and also wrote for the Examiner, then controlled by the Hon. Mr. Whalen. In 1854, he entered the
public service, and filled successively a number of important
offices. He was an ardent advocate of responsible government, free schools, the lands purchase scheme, and confederation. He was present at the Charlottetown Conference,
and reported some of the principal speeches. As we have
seen he also took part in public meetings held upon that exciting subject. MffMcNeill's interest in agricultural and industrial subjects has given him a prominent position in connection with the Island expositions. For thirteen years he
has filled the post of secretary of the Provincial Exhibition
Commission. In 1876 he acted as Secretary of the advisory boardin connection with the Centennial at Philadelphia,
and of the Dominion exhibitions held at Montreal in 1880,
and at Halifax in 1881. Since 1S73, Mr. McNeill has been
Chief Clerk of the House of Assembly at Charlottetown.
In bringing this chapter to a close, it is impossible to avoid
an expression of regret that the sketches of public men ha r22
the Maritime Provinces have necessarily been meagre and
incomplete. The writer, notwithstanding all the efforts made
to secure information, has been forced to rely almost wholly
upon a few books of reference. The difficulty of ascertaining the national origin of some public men, and the scattered
hints gathered about others cannot fail to be as unsatisfactory
to the reader, as they are to himself. In addition to that,
there is the grave apprehension, practically amounting to a
certainty, that important names have been omitted. In some
cases, at all events, this is owing to the fact that there
is no mention of the men who bore them, save the references occurring here and there in the pages of Provincial
histories. It may be well to add that other classes of distinguished men, such as the clergy, professors, teachers and
editors, or those connected with material interests will be
placed under appropriate headings in future chapters.
The slight accounts given here of public affairs in the
three Provinces may not, at first sight, appear germane
to the purpose of this work. But a bare catalogue of
eminent Scots, even with tolerably full biographies, must
necessarily have been disjointed and jejune. It seemed
more useful, as well as more interesting, to sketch lightly
the progress of events in each of the Maritime Colonies; marking the similarities and diversities in the political struggles of those'three important decades. Throughout
the course of constitutional development in the Canadas
and in the East, there runs a common thread, or rather a
series of threads running parallel. Even the varying and
often tortuous course of the different streams of tendency THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 723
has the same issue at the last. The water-shed whence
they took their origin was in the snow-clad clefts, of
stiff and gelid oligarchy. Yet in every case, sometimes
as mountain torrents, anon gliding peacefully across the
sloping plains, each branch of the great river of public life
was destined at last to roll majestically along, every ripple
brightly gleaming in the generous sunlight of perfect freedom.
Having thus followed each of the Provinces until it had
been united with the rest, it will be necessary now to complete the political part of the work by bringing down the
general record to the present year. CHAPTER VII.
THE DOMINION  FROM  1867 TO   1882.
3|T T must always prove a delicate task to essay a fair and
Q^ impartial survey of recent events. Apart from the
impossibility of viewing them in historical perspective,
a writer can hardly avoid some of the pitfalls which beset
his path. If contemporary history demands calm and unbiassed criticism of men and things—and all history must
be more or less judicial in spirit—then it may be frankly
admitted to be out of the question. Bias, conscious or unconscious, must inevitably control the judgment, since no man,
with settled political convictions, can narrate the events of
which he has been a witness with entire indifference. There
is only one of two alternatives: either to give the narrative
text without a commentary, or to endeavour to present both
sides of every case before him as impartially as may be.
By adopting the first plan, the history is apt to appear feeble
and colourless; and to attempt the second, is to run the risk
of over-stating or under-stating the arguments on one side or
the other—perhaps on both. Fortunately, the present work
mainly assumes a biographical form, therefore, it may be possible to introduce controverted matter from the stand-point
of each particular subject taken up. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Already the account of past history given in a previous
volume has been subjected to animadversion by a distinguished actor on the scene, whose public record covers a
generation passed away. It is not, therefore, without some
hesitation that the chronicler approaches the story, of the
last fifteen years ; since, to satisfy all parties even in simple
narration can hardly be within reasonable expectation.
It has already been seen that three of the British North
American Provinces were formally united as the Dominion
of Canada, upon a federal basis on the first of July, 1867.
Prince Edward Island still held aloof, and the North-West
Territories had not yet been acquired from the Hudson Bay
Company. The Dominion Government or Privy Council, as
constituted at the outset, still partook of the nature of a
coalition at least in form. Messrs. Fergusson-Blair,* Mac-
dougalLf* and Howland represented the Reform element, as
"Messrs. Brown,J Mowat,§ and Macdougall had done in the
earlier coalition. Mr. Mowat had been elevated to the
Bench in November, 1864, and Mr. Brown, in consequence
of differences with his colleagues on the reciprocity question,
had resigned; and, having been defeated by Mr.T.N. Gibbs at
the general election, was, for the present, out of public life.
The leadership of the Opposition, consequently, devolved
upon Mr. Alexander Mackenzie, afterwards Premier of the
Dominion.|| In 1868, Mr. Howland became Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario, and in 1869 Mr. Macdougall was appointed
to the same office in the North-West. Attempts were subsequently made to preserve the semblance of a coalition, by
' See Vol. ii. p. 538.   t Ibid., p. 584,   t Ibid., p. 529.   § Ibid., p. 580.   || Vol. ii. p. 577. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
appointing gentlemen who were Reform supporters of the
Government; but party lines were soon drawn as strictly as
before, and so the issue lay between a Ministry of Liberal
Conservatives and a Reform Opposition.
For some years, the work of consolidating the Dominion
chiefly occupied attention. The opponents of the Government reserved to themselves the duty of trenchant criticism ;
yet they neither endeavoured nor hoped, in the lull'which
had ensued, to effect' much as a party organization. The
struggle at the polls was yet to come, and meanwhile the
exigencies of the new state of affairs fully occupied the attention of both sides, to the exclusion of purely partizan
efforts. The first matter which engaged the consideration of
Parliament was the pacification of Nova Scotia. It has been
already stated that in 1868 Mr. Howe visited London, and
endeavoured to secure the repeal of the British North America Act in so far as it concerned the Province of Nova Scotia.
As might have been anticipated, the Imperial Government
declined to accede to this request; but recommended some
more favourable arrangement between the Dominion and the
Province. The result was that Sir John Macdonald made
overtures to the dominant party in the latter, which were
accepted by Mr. Howe and a portion of his followers. The
I better terms " consisted in the assumption of nine, instead
of eight, millions of the Provincial debt, an increased subsidy,
and the cost of the new Government buildings. Mr. Howe
at once entered the Privy Council, first as President of the
Council, and subsequently as Secretary for the Provinces, in
January, 1869. . The feeling in Nova Scotia, however, was THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
still strong against the Union, and Mr. Howe only secured
his re-election after a sharp contest and by an inconsiderable
The next project of importance was the acquisition of the
North-West territories. In 1868, Messrs. G. E. Cartier and
Wm. Macdougall were sent to England to open negotiations
on the subject, and in the following year a definitive arrangement was concluded with the Hudson Bay Company. As it
will be necessary to enter more fully into the matter in a
chapter on the North-West, a bare statement of results
here will suffice. The necessary legislation was passed in
April, 1869, and the formal transfer should have taken place
on the first of December. Meanwhile the Hon. William
Macdougall had been appointed Governor of the new territories. He left for the scene in September, but shortly after
crossing the American boundary line, was confronted by a
hostile force under Louis Riel, and forced to withdraw to
the United States. The story of the Red River rebellion
will also be narrated in a future part of the 'work. On the
20th of the following May the Province of Manitoba was
constituted by Act of Parliament, and in July, 1871, British
Columbia was admitted into the Confederation.
During the last named year, on the 27th of February, a
Joint High Commission met at Washington in order to settle
the Alabama claims, the fisheries question, the San Juan
boundary, and other matters in dispute between Great Britain
and the United States. Sir John Macdonald indirectly represented Canada as one of the British Commissioners. In
this country great dissatisfaction was manifested that no r28
compensation was secured for the loss and expense caused,
by the Fenian raids of 1866 and 1870; but the Americans
excluded Canadian claims on the ground that the subject
had not been referred to the Commission. In 1872 a general
election took place, in due course, for the House of Commons,
arid the Government once more secured a majority. In
the previous June, the Earl of Dufferin had arrived at Quebec as Governor-General in place of Lord Lisgar.
Before entering upon a perplexing chapter in the Dominion
history, it may be well to pause, and note a few of the Scots
not hitherto mentioned in this work. When the new House
assembled in March, 1873, Mr. James Cockburn, M. P. for
West Northumberland, was re-elected Speaker. It is only
after some hesitation that Mr. Speaker is made to figure in
our list, for he was born at that border-town of uncertain
nationality—Berwick-upon-Tweed. Nominally it is in England, ethnologically its people are Scots ; and certainly Cock-
burn is not an English name.* There, at all events, the
hon. gentleman was born on the 13th February, 1819.
When he was about thirteen years of age the family removed
to Canada, and he completed his education at Upper Canada
College, Toronto.
Having chosen the legal profession, Mr. Cockburn was
called to the bar in 1846, and practised at Cobourg. At the
general election of 1861 he succeeded in defeating the Hon.
Sidney Smith, Postmaster-General, by the narrow majority
* Mr. Fennings Taylor writes (Portraits of British Americans, p. 239): " Natives of the
town are not unfrequently at a loss to tell in a word the kingdom to which they belong.
The writer recollects a cautious answer given to such a question: "My blood is all Scotch
and my heart is all English, and I was born at the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed." THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
of twenty-seven. In politics, Mr. Cockburn was a Conservative, but on this occasion he contested West Northumberland as an independent candidate. Party lines, however,
were so closely drawn that neutrality on crucial divisions
was out of the question. When, therefore, the Government
was defeated in 1862 on the Militia Bill, he was found
amongst the minority, and went into opposition with the
Conservative party. In 1863 he moved a strong resolution
censuring the elevation of Mr. Sicotte to the Bench as a
violation of the independence of Parliament, which was only
lost by a majority of two. After a gallant struggle, and
repeated rebuffs, Mr. Sandfield Macdonald resigned in March,
1864. When the Tache*-Macdonald Cabinet was formed, Mr.
Cockburn became Solicitor-General West, and, on presenting
himself to his constituents, was re-elected by a majority of
over four hundred. In 1867 he was returned to the Commons by acclamation, and, on motion of Sir John A. Macdonald, unanimously elected Speaker. For this position,
not only his careful study of parliamentary procedure, but
his cool and imperturbable temper, admirably fitted him. In
1872, as above stated, Mr. Cockburn was re-elected at the
opening of a most memorable Session, the result of which
proved fatal to his public position. When the House was
dissolved under Mr. Mackenzie's Administration, Mr. Cockburn was defeated by Mr. William Kerr—the majority against
him being two hundred and eighty-five. The sitting
member was unseated on petition, and a new election was
held, but Mr. Cockburn was not this time a candidate.
More fortunate in 1878, he again secured his" old seat, but
only by a majority of eighty-eight over Mr. Kerr.    In 1881 THE SCOT- IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
he was appointed a Commissioner to codify the Dominion Statutes, and consequently resigned.
A few of the Senators may now be referred to briefly.
One of the oldest legislators at present in the Upper House
is Lieut.-Colonel, the Hon. Walter Hamilton Dickson, of
Niagara. He is of Scottish descent, and his father sat many
years ago in the Legislative Council of Upper Canada. The
son was born in 1805 in that Province. He entered public
life thirty-eight years ago, and sat for Niagara in the
Assembly from 1844 to 1851. In 1855 he became a member
of the Legislative Council before it was elective, and sat
there until the Union. Called to the Senate he has remained
there ever since, although now almost an octogenarian.
The Hon. George William Allan has already been referred
to more than once as the son of the Hon. William Allan, for
many years a member of the Legislative and Executive
Councils of Upper Canada. The present Senator was born
at Toronto early in January, 1822, and was educated at
Upper Canada College. Mr. Allan chose the legal profession
and was called to the bar in 1846; but he has never practised regularly as a lawyer. In other pursuits, however, he
has been an active worker, having long been Chief Commissioner of the Canada Company, and President or Director in
financial corporations. The degree of D. C. L. was conferred
upon him by Trinity College, of which University Mr. Allan
is Chancellor. His interest in science and art is shown b\7
the fact that he is a Fellow both of the Royal Geographical
Society and Zoological Society of England, and has taken
a deep interest in the Palestine Exploration Fund. He has
also been President of the Upper Canada Bible Society THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
for some years. In 1855, Mr. Allan was elected Mayor of
Toronto by the City Council, and three years after contested
the York Division of the Legislative Council, for which he
was returned by an overwhelming majority. This position
he occupied until 1867, when he was called to the Senate.
In Toronto, Mr. Allan's name has been associated with many
institutions besides those mentioned, for he has been President of the Mechanics' Institute, the Canadian Institute,
and the Horticultural Society. The Hon. Donald McDonald was born in the State of New York, in 1816, whither
his father had gone from Inverness early in the century.
When Mr. McDonald was yet young his family removed to
Upper Canada, where he received his education. He also
belonged to the Canada Company, and occupied for some
years the positions of Trustee of Queen's University and
Vice-President of the Royal Canadian. Bank. In 1858 he
entered the Legislative Council as representative of the
Tecumseth Division, having been elected by a majority of
nearly four hundred. He was re-elected, and in 1867 was
called to the Senate. Mr. McDonald died about three yea|||
and a half ago. .
The Hon. David Lewis Macpherson is above all things a
Highlander. He was born in the far awa' North in September, 1818. He was educated at the Inverness Royal Academy,
and when only seventeen came out to Canada to push his
fortunes. His elder brother had already established himself
in business as chief member of the forwarding firm of Macpherson, Crane & Co., at Montreal. In 1842 the future
Senator became a partner, and succeeded, mainly by his native
shrewdness and enterprise.    When the railway was brought THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
upon the scene, Mr. Macpherson at once took advantage of
the revolution impending. In 1851, associated with Sir
Alexander Gait, Mr. Holton, and others, he secured a charter
for a railway from Montreal to Kingston. This line was the
nucleus of the future Grand Trunk. In 1853, after the
incorporation of the latter Company, he allied himself with
Mr. C. S. Gzowski in order to construct the Toronto and
Sarnia Railway. In later years these gentlemen have been
engaged on other lines, as well as on the Toronto Rolling;
Mills, and the International Bridge Company over the
Niagara. In 1872 Mr. Macpherson was President of the
Interoceanic Railway Company, but the Government gave
its preference to the rival scheme of Sir Hugh Allan. His-
first entry into public life was as member of the Saugeen
Division in the Legislative Council, for which he was elected
over Mr. Snider by a majority of twelve hundred. The
Hon. John McMurrich, who had previously represented the
Division, at first intended to contest it, but retired before the
lay of nomination. When a Board of Arbitration was nominated to settle the debts and assets of the old Province of
Canada, Mr. Macpherson was appointed on behalf of Ontario-
The award was duly made, but the Quebec representative
had withdrawn from the arbitration, and the matter
remains unsettled until now, notwithstanding that the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council has confirmed the
award.    From November, 1873, to the autumn of 1878, the
ion. gentleman was a vigorous opponent of the Mackenzie
Government—his assaults being chiefly made on matters of
finance; and he has, from time to time, issued vigorous
pamphlets upon his favourite subject.    These have, no doubt, THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
•carried great weight, coming, as they do, from a gentleman
thoroughly acquainted with the matters in dispute. On the
10th February, 1880, Mr. Macpherson was made Speaker
of the Senate, but he has since been temporarily in charge of
a department. Amongst other positions filled by the Senator, are a Directorship of Molsons Bank, and of the Permanent Building Society. When a resident of Montreal he
was Yice-President of the Board of Trade, and, at Toronto,
President of the St. Andrew's Society.
. The Hon. John McMurrich, mentioned above, although
not a member of the Senate, deserves to be noticed here, as
one of the best esteemed and oldest residents of Toronto.
Mr. McMurrich was born at Renfrewshire, in 1804. He has
been entirely the architect of his own fortunes, like most of
our Canadian Scots. Many years ago he became a member
of the firm of Bryce, McMurrich & Co., of Toronto, the
senior partner residing in Scotland. The house is one of the
oldest wholesale dry goods establishments in the city, and
it owes its stability entirely to the energy and probity of Mr.
McMurrich. For several years he sat at the City Council
Board as Alderman, and in 1856, when the Legislative
•Council became elective, unsuccessfully contested the
Saugeen Division. In 1862, however, the Hon. James Pat-
ton, who had been appointed Solicitor-General West,
appeared for re-election, and was defeated by Mr. McMurrich, his majority being nearly seven hundred and fifty.
In 1864, as we have seen, the lion, gentleman declined a
contest. In 1867 he was a successful candidate for North
York to the Ontario Assembly, his majority being over two
<»- m
hundred. In March, 1871, he was defeated by his former
opponent Mr. Boultbee, by the narrow majority of five, and
has not since re-entered public life. Mr. McMurrich is a
Liberal in politics, and a Presbyterian in religious belief.
He has filled many positions of trust, having been President
of the Western Assurance Company, the Commercial Building Society, and, if the writer mistake not, of the St. Andrew's Society. Until the amalgamation recently effected,
he was also a Director and Treasurer of the Dominion Telegraph Company. In connection with the Church, he has-
been an" ardent and indefatigable worker, and for many
years an elder and the representative of Knox Church
in the Presbytery, Synod, and General Assembly. No citizen of Toronto is more highly respected than Mr. McMurrich,.
as well for the energy and integrity which have always characterized him, as for the frankness and the benignity of his
disposition. Perhaps had he been self-assertive, he might
have figured more prominently in public life ; yet his life-
work, unobtrusively performed, has been of no inconsiderable value. Although in his seventy-eighth year, Mr.
McMurrich is still hale and active. His eldest son, William
Barclay, Mayor of Toronto, has been twice elected to the
civic chair, and is the first native Torontonian who has occupied it.
The Hon. Roderick Matheson was descended of an old
Highland family, and his great grandfather, the head of the
clan, fell in fight at Glen Shiel, Glenelg, in 1719. Born in
Ross-shire, and educated at Inverness, he came early to this
country. During the war of 1812 he became Ensign of the
Glengarry Light Infantry, and was present in action at
York, Sackett's Harbour, Fort George, Lundy's Lane, and
Fort Erie, receiving a wound at the second of those places.
Subsequently he was appointed Colonel commanding the
First Military District of Ontario. In 1847, Mr. Matheson
was called to the Legislative Council, and twenty years
afterwards to the Senate. He died at an advanced age in
The Hon. John Simpson also came from the North of
Scotland, having been born at Rothes, near Elgin. While
still a child he accompanied his family to Upper Canada,
where they settled on the " Scotch line," at Perth. Mr.
Simpson entered upon active life as clerk in a merchant's
establishment, and rose, in course of time, to be his employer's partner. In 1848, he opened a branch of the Bank of
Montreal at Bowmanville, and subsequently at Whitby. In
1857, the Ontario Bank was founded, and Mr. Simpson became its President—a position he occupied until a year or
two ago. In 1856, he was elected to the Legislative Council for Queen's Division, by an immense majority over Mr.
Ruttan, and in 1867 called to the Senate, of which he is still
a member. When the Province of Manitoba was constituted, in 1870, it became necessary to appoint two Senators
to represent it. One of these was Mr. John Sutherland, of
Kildonan. His father, Alexander, an old soldier of the Peninsular war, from the North of Scotland, emigrated in 1815,
and ultimately settled at Red River in 1821. Mr. John
Sutherland served as a member of the Assiniboine Council
from 1866 until the annexation of the territories of Canada.
In 1870 .he became the first Sheriff of Manitoba, but resigned on his appointment to the Senate, in December, the 736
following year. The Hon. William John Macdonald, Senator
from British Columbia, can boast descent from the Lord of
the Isles. His father, Major Alexander Macdonald resided
at North Uist and Skye. His son was born in Inverness-
shire, in 1832, and removed to British Columbia in 1851.
He appears to have inherited his father's military instincts
since he is President of the Provincial Rifle Association.
For some years Mr. Macdonald was in the service of the
Hudson Bay Company, and while thus employed, acted as
Captain of Militia, and Collector of Customs at Yictoria. In
1866 and 1871 he filled the Mayor's chair, and was also a
member of the Board of Education, and Tax Court, as well
as a Road Commissioner. In 1859, he was called to the Assembly, and subsequently became a member of the Legislative Council. In December, 1871, British Columbia having
been admitted'into the Union, Mr. W. J. Macdonald waa
called to the Senate, of which he is ' still a member. Another Senator from the extreme Western Province was
Mr. Cornwall, an Englishman, but in 1881, he accepted the
Lieutenant-Governorship of his Province, and consequently
resigned his seat. Some months later the vacancy was filled
by the appointment of Dr. Thomas Robert Mclnnes, M.P. at
the time for New Westminster. Dr. Mclnnes' father hailed
from Inverness, and his mother from Paisley. He himself
was born at Lake Ainslie, N.S., in November, 1840. Educated at Truro and Harvard, he embraced the medical profession, and removed temporarily to Dresden, Ontario, where
he married. He was reeve of that village in 1874, but in
that year removed to British Columbia. For two, years
from the beginning of 1876, Dr. Mclnnes was Mayor of New THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Westminster, and has been physician to the hospital during
nearly eight years. In 1878 he received his appointment
as Medical Superintendent of the Lunatic Asylum, and
in March he entered Parliament, having been chosen to
replace the sitting member, Mr. Cunningham, who resigned.
In the autumn, at the general election, Dr. Mclnnes was
again returned by a majority of nearly ninety. He is not
strictly a party-man, but a strong advocate of the Pacific
1 Railway, favours compulsory voting and equitable reciprocity with the States, if attainable.
The Hon. Adam Hope, a well-known merchant of Hamilton, was born in East Lothian, Scotland, early in 1813. His
family had for some generations been tillers of the soil, and
both his father and brother were not only skilled agriculturalists, but wrote treatises on scientific farming. After
• serving for some years in a counting-house at Leith, he emigrated to Canada in 1834, and again entered a business
office in the establishment of Messrs. Young, Weir & Co., of
Hamilton, U.C. In the year of the rebellion, Mr. Hope began on his own account at St. Thomas, a very inconsiderable hamlet in those days. During the troubles he shouldered his musket as a volunteer, but is not likely to have
seen even a skirmish. In the year 1845 he removed to
London, where he reached the foremost rank as a merchant.
Finally, in 1865, he once more changed his base of operations, establishing himself in Hamilton, where he is still the
head of a wealthy and enterprising firm, and a bank director.
Although always a prominent Reformer, Mr. Hope never entered public life until 1877, when he was called to the
Senate by the Hon.  Alexander Mackenzie.    He is a good 738
speaker and an intelligent legislator, as well as a shrewd
and successful merchant.
A Senator of older standing is the Hon. George Alexander,
who was born in Banffshire, in 1814, and educated at Aberdeen University. He is chiefly known in connection with
the Provincial Agricultural Association, of which he was
President in 1857, and a Director for nearly ten years afterwards. In 1858 he contested the Gore Division with a brother Scot, Mr. James Cowan, and was elected but by a
majority of only seventy-six, with four thousand three hundred votes cast. Mr. Alexander retained his seat until the
Union, but was not called to the Senate until May, 1873,
when he succeeded the Hoii. A. A. Burnham, deceased. In
politics, the Senator is a staunch Conservative.
Amongst the members of the Dominion Government, between 1867 and 1873, will be found the name of the Hon.
Alexander Morris. He is a son of the late Hon. William
Morris referred to in a previous volume, and a nephew of
the Hon. James Morris. His father hailed frOm Paisley;
but he himself was born at Perth, Ontario, in March, 1826.
After receiving a grammar-school training, Mr. Morris completed his studies at Glasgow and McGill Universities. Of
the latter institution he was the first graduate in arts, and
subsequently took the degrees of B.C.L. and D.C.L. Proceeding thence to the legal profession, he was duly called to the
Bar of Upper Canada in 1851, of Lower Canada in the same
year, and of Manitoba in 1872. It appears that Mr. Morris
had intended to enter into practice at Toronto, but family
reasons attracted him to Montreal, where he entered into
partnership with Mr. (afterwards Judge) Torrance. In 1861 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
he presented himself for South Lanark, his father's old constituency, and was returned by an overwhelming majority.
Previous to entering public life, Mr. Morris had become
known to the world as a writer and lecturer of no mean
ability. In 1855 he took the second prize for his
essay on " Canada and Her Resources," and subsequently
issued other books, professional and national. Among the
latter was | Nova Britannia;. or British North America, its
Extent and Future," and another on " The Hudson Bay and
Pacific Territories." At the opening of his first Session in
Parliament, Mr. Morris made a maiden speech during the
debate on the Address.
South Lanark continued to return the hon. gentleman until the Union, and in 1867 he was elected from it to the
Commons by acclamation. In the year 1869, Mr. Morris
became a member of the Privy Council, being sworn in as
Minister of Inland Revenue. This office he held until July,
1872, when he was appointed Chief Justice of the Court of
Queen's Bench in Manitoba. He was the first incumbent of
that office, but did not fill it long as, in December of the
same year, he was called to the Lieutenant-Governorship of the Province and the North-West Territories,
in place of the Hon. Mr. Archibald. At the same time
he also became Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in which
capacity he concluded several treaties by which lands-
were purchased from the natives. The amount of territory
covered by these treaties was exceedingly large, extending
from the highlands above Lake Superior westward to the
Rocky Mountains, and covering the line of the Pacific Railway.    The Lieutenant-Governor's  career   was   eminently THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
successful, and on his retirement, he carried with him the
regrets and good wishes of all parties. Mr. Morris, at the
general election of 1878, contested Selkirk for the Commons
with the Hon. Donald A. Smith, but was defeated, his opponent receiving five hundred and fifty-five votes to five hundred and forty-six. At. his next venture, he was more
successful. In December, 1878, the Hon. M. C. Cameron
resigned on his appointment to a judgeship in the Queen's
Bench, and Mr. Morris was elected in his place, Mr. John
Leys being the unsuccessful candidate. At the general election held in June, 1879, Mr. Morris being again a candidate,
was opposed by Mr. Mowat, the Provincial Premier. The
contest waxed close and warm, but the sitting member succeeded by a majority of fifty-seven.* Mr. Mowat, however,
was secure of a seat, as he had been returned by an overwhelming majority for North Oxford. Since his appearance
in the Ontario Assembly Mr. Morris has proved himself a
valuable member, working with the Oppostion, and one of
the most prominent members of it. The situation can
hardly be agreeable to a man of action, since the minority
is at present so small as to be practically impotent for any
purpose but that of criticism upon Government measures
and administration.
There are some Commoners of this period who may engage our attention briefly. Mr. Thos. Bain who has represented North Wentworth in two Parliaments was born in
Stirlingshire, and came to Canada in 1837, at the age of
three years.    The family settled in the township of West
* The vote stood : Morris, 2,132 ; Mowat, 2,075. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Flamboro' where he still resides. He served as Reeve for
some years and, in 1870, was elected Warden of the County
In 1872, he entered the Commons for the North Riding, havin
been elected by a majority of nearly a hundred over a " bri-
ther Scot," Mr. Robert McKechnie, of Dundas. In 1874, he
he was returned by acclamation, and in 1878 by a majority
of one hundred and six. Mr. Bain has always been a
Liberal, and during the period under consideration opposed
the Administration.
Mr. David Blain, LL.D., came of an old family in the
south of Scotland, and was born near Ayr, Robert Burns'
native town, in August, 1832. After receiving his early
training in Scotland he removed to Canada and entered the
Provincial Normal School whence he emerged with a first-class
certificate. In 1856, Mr. Blain turned his attention to the
law and entered as a student with the Messrs. Macdonald.
He was called to the Bar in 1860, and in the same year received the degree of LL.B. from the University of Toronto.
He practised in partnership successively with the late Mr.
Albert Prince, and the present Mr. Justice Ferguson of the
Chancery Division. He took the degree of LL.D., in 1870.
Mr. Blain, who has always been a Liberal entered public life
in 1872 as member for West York, having defeated Mr.
Walter Tyrrell by a majority of two hundred and thirteen.
At the general election of 1874, as might have been expected
his success was still more marked. He was returned over
Mr. Nathaniel C. Wallace by more than two votes to one.
During that Parliament, he proved a staunch supporter of
Mr. Mackenzie; but in 1878 the re-action acted fatally for
him, and he was defeated by Mr. Wallace,the latter's majority 742
being two hundred and ten. Since then Mr. Blain has been
out of public life, but he is still an active worker and has
recently taken up the pen on behalf of his Alma Mater and
Upper Canada College.
Lieutenant Colonel James Brown, of Belleville, has been
memberforWest Hastings in the Commons ever since Confederation. He was born in Scotland in 1826, and removed to
Canada when young. Residing at Belleville he has long
been a member of a flourishing firm of iron manufacturers,
Lieut.-Col. of the 49th volunteer regiment and director of
the Belleville and North Hastings Railway. Mr. Brown
has filled the civic chair at Belleville and was Reeve of
Hastings for six years. A Conservative in politics, he first
tried his fortunes in 1861, as a candidate for election to the
Provincial Assembly for the South Riding, but was defeated
by the Hon. Lewis Wallbridge. At the first general election for the Commons, he was more successful, being returned over Dr. Holden by four hundred and sixty votes.
In 1872 his majority was equally large; in 1874, he was
virtually elected by acclamation; and in 1878, with Mr.
Wallbridge again as his opponent by a diminished majority—two hundred and fifty. Although, as we have said, a
Conservative, Col. Brown voted against the Government on
the Washington Treaty and the Pacific Railway scheme, and
has manifested his independence of character throughout.
Mr. Daniel B. Chisholm sprung of an old Highland clan, was
born in the neighbourhood of Hamilton, on the 2nd of November, 1832. His grandfather who hailed from Inverness,
had settled there on the north shore of Burlington Bay so far
back as 1794 and survived until 1842 when he died a cen-
tenarian. The old pioneer was a U. E. Loyalist who originally emigrated to New York; but in 1772 he left for
Nova Scotia, residing there for about seven years. He subsequently settled at Niagara where he remained until the
year 1794 when he removed to East Flamboro' in Went-
worth. His son, Col. George, served when a mere boy in
the war of 1812, and witnessed as a Colonel of the militia
in 1837, the burning of the rebel transport Caroline. It is
said that he narrowly escaped death on one occasion, for the
ball aimed at him lodged in the stock of his musket. He
died in 1872. David Black Chisholm first began life as a
farmer; but in 1857 sold out and attended Victoria College. Two years after he entered the office of Mr. Miles
O'Reilly, Q.C., to study law, and in 1864 was called to the
bar. Practising in Hamilton, he soon attained an enviable
position not only from his natural abilities, but from his
strong powers of physical endurance. Mr. Chisholm sat for
some years in the City Council and was Mayor in 1871 and
1872. In 1872 he was elected to represent Hamilton in
the House of Commons with Mr. Witton as his colleague.
When the reaction occurred, he withdrew from the representation of the city, but was elected for Halton in 1874, by
a majority of twenty-three over Mr. John White. Unfortunately he was unseated on petition, and on appealing
again to the constituency was defeated by Mr. William Mc-
Craney, the majority being over one hundred and thirty,
Mr. Chisholm has not since entered public life. He has
been connected with a large number of companies and
served also as President of the Burlington Literary Society.
In politics, he is a Liberal Conservative; in religion, Presby- 744
terian; also a strong total abstinence man, never having, it
is said, tasted intoxicating liquor.
Mr.RobertCunningham,a journalist whose career was early
brought to a close by death, was born in the neighbourhood
of Kilmarnock, Ayrshire. He graduated at Glasgow University in arts, and at London University in science. Having married an Aberdonian six years before, he came to
Canada in 1868 and was employed on the press. When the
Red River insurrection broke out he was sent to the scene
by the Globe newspaper as special correspondent, and subsequently by the Telegraph. When the trouble was over he
assisted in founding and editing the Manitoban at Winni-
peg. In 1872 he was elected to the Commons for Marquette,
by a large majority over the Hon. Mr. Norquay, now
Premier of the Province. Mr. Cunningham was re-elected
in 1874 to all appearance by a vote of three hundred and
ninety-three to three hundred and fifty-one polled by Mr.
Ryan; but on a scrutiny no less than sixty-four votes were
struck off the former's list, and Mr. Ryan was consequently
declared elected. Mr. Cunningham, however, had died six
or seven weeks before, on the 4th of July, 1874.
Another able and active worker in political life is Mr.
James David Edgar, although he has been singularly and
undeservedly the victim of misfortune at the polls. His
father, also named James, emigrated, with his newly married wife, from Keithock, Forfarshire, in 1840. The following August his son was born in the Eastern Townships,
Quebec. Educated at Lennoxville and elsewhere, he entered
upon the study of the law under the late Hon. J. Hillyard
Cameron, and was admitted to the Bar in 1864.    His first THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
partnership was formed with Mr. S. Strong, Q.C., now one of
the Supreme Court Judges. His first election was to the
City Council of Toronto, in 1866 ; but in 1871, having been
nominated by a convention, he contested unsuccessfully the
representation of Monck in the Local Legislature. He was
beaten, however, only by the narrow majority of five. Next
year the general election for the Commons took place, and
Mr. Edgar was fortunate enough to be elected by a majority
of forty-two over Mr. Lachlin McCallum, although the latter
was a resident candidate. During the two years which followed, Mr. Edgar was an indefatigable worker on the
Reform side, and as 1 whip " of the party during the Pacific
Railway discussions did it essential service. The elections
of 1874, although they resulted in an overwhelming success
for the new Government, were personally disastrous to one
who deserved to participate in the triumph. Mr. Edgar lost
his seat, being defeated by his old opponent, the majority
being only thirty-four. He was despatched shortly after
to British Columbia to settle upon some modification of the
terms of Union. On his return, he submitted the results of
his mission, which, having been adopted by the Colonial
Secretary, were afterwards known as the | Carnarvon terms."
Since then Mr. Edgar has been unsuccessfully a candidate
for more than one constituency. During his absence, he
was nominated for South Oxford, the seat having become
vacant by the appointment of Mr. Bodwell as Superintendent
of the Welland Canal. Unhappily there was a schism in
the Reform ranks, and he was badly beaten. In March, he
once more contested Monck,  Mr. McCallum having been
unseated, but was again unsuccessful, although the majority
G r46
against him was only four. In 1876, the Hon. Malcolm
Cameron, M.P. for South Ontario, died, and Mr. Edgar received the Reform nomination. Both sides made the most
strenuous exertions, but the Hon. Mr. Gibbs was elected by
a small majority. • Lastly, in 1878, he again contested
Monck, but was once more defeated by Mr. McCallum, whose
majority reached only twenty-eight. Mr. Edgar is still in
the prime of life and mental vigour, and may be content to
await a turn in the tide of political fortune. It should be
added that he has been President of several literary associations ; has written several works on legal and economical
subjects, and is the author of some spirited lyrics, for one of
which he was conceded a prize at Montreal in 1874. On
the organization of the Ontario Pacific Junction Company,
Mr. Edgar was elected its first President.
Dr. -James Alexander Grant, formerly M.P. for Russell,
was born in Inverness-shire on the 8th of August, 1829. His
grandfather, a Scottish advocate, was well known as a
writer on archseological subjects. The year after his birth,
Dr. Grant's parents removed to Canada, where, at Queen's
and McGill Universities, the son was trained for his profession. As a physician and surgeon, he early acquired an enviable reputation; but he did not confine himself to the ordinary routine of practice. His pen has for many years
been busily employed in contributions to British and American periodicals on medicine, natural history and geology.
Dr. Grant is a Fellow of the Geological Society of England
and a member of the Academy of the Natural Sciences at
Philadelphia. In 1872,. he was elected President of the
Canadian Medical Association, and, shortly afterwards, of THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
the St. Andrew's Society. He had previously served in the
chair of the Medical Council for Canada West and of the Mechanics' Institute and Athenaeum at Ottawa. In 1867, he was
elected as the first member from Russell to the House of
Commons, by a majority of nearly six hundred over Mr.
Robert Bell, also a Scot, and well known as a journalist
and railway director. In 1872, his opponent was the Hon.
Malcolm Cameron,* but the doctor triumphed by about two
hundred and Sixty of a majority. During the reaction of
1874, however, he was not so fortunate, being defeated by
Mr. Blackburn, the son of a Glasgow merchant, by a majority of sixty-four. He did not contest the county in 1878.
Dr. Grant has passed a very active life in many spheres of
labour, and will probably spend many years yet in the public service, if, as has been rumoured, he is to be raised to
the Senate. In politics he has always been a Liberal-Conservative.
Lieutenant-Colonel the Hon. Donald Alexander Macdonald,
a brother of the late Hon. John Sandfield Macdonald, was
born at St. Raphael's, Quebec, and educated there under the
late Rev. Dr. Macdonell, subsequently Roman Catholic
Bishop of Kingston. Mr. Macdonald was a contractor on
the Grand Trunk Railway, served as Warden of the united
counties of Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry, and Lieutenant
Colonel of the Glengarry Reserves. He is also connected
with several railway and banking corporations. In 1857
he first appeared in Parliament as M.P.P. for Glengarry and
retained his seat until the Union.    In 1867 and 1872 he was
* Vide Vol. ii., 530. 748 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
chosen to represent his county in the Commons, once by
acclamation. In 1871, Mr. Macdonald was offered the-
Treasurership of Ontario, but declined the office. When
Mr. Mackenzie formed his government at Ottawa, the member for Glengarry was selected as Postmaster-General, and
again succeeded in securing an unanimous election, as well
as subsequently in 1874. He remained in office until May,
1875, when he was elevated to the post of Lieutenant-Governor of Ontario in place of the Hon. John Crawford, deceased. Mr. Macdonald served his full term at Toronto, giving place in 1880, to the Hon. J. B. Robinson. He has
since been out of public life, but will doubtless, re-enter the
arena at an early date.
Mr. William Macdougall, Q.C., is a Scot by birth, having
been born there in 1831. His father represented Drummond
and Arthabaska between the years 1851 and 1854. The
son, who was young when his parents removed to this
country, was trained to the law and has served on the directorate of the North Shore, and other Lower Canadian
lines. In 1863, he contested unsucessfully the constituency
of Three Rivers, but was returned by acclamation on the
resignation of the sitting member, in 1868. This seat he retained until November 1878 when he accepted an office under
the Crown, and consequently resigned. Mr. Angus Morrison,
Q.C., is a son of the late Mr. Hugh Morrison, who hailed
from Sutherlandshire, and a brother of the Hon. Mr. Justice
Morrison, of the Ontario Bench. He himself was born at
Edinburgh in 1822, and came out to Canada when about
twelve years of age.    Educated for the bar, he has served as THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
a Bencher of the Law Society for some years, and has also
been a President and director of a number of corporations,
■as well as President of the St. Andrew's Society. Mr. Morrison first entered Parliament in 1858 for North Simcoe and
filled that seat until 1863 when he suffered defeat. In 1864,
however, he was returned for Niagara, and again to the
Commons at the time of the Union. At the local elections
in 1867, Mr. Morrison endeavoured to secure election for his
old constituency to the Assembly, but was defeated, Mr.
William Lount being victorious by a majority of a hundred
and thirty-one. When the general elections for 1874 were
commenced, he retired from Niagara, and attempted to secure a seat for Centre Toronto. Mr. Robert Wilkes, however, was elected by a majority of two hundred and eighty-
four. Since then, Mr. Morrison has not presented himself
as a candidate for parliamentary honours. For two years
he was an alderman in the Toronto City Council, and in
1875, ran for the mayoralty, but withdrew "before polling-
day. In the following year,'however, he was successful, defeating ex-Mayor Medcalf by nearly two thousand majority;
And in 1877 "he was re-elected by about eleven hundred.
Mr. Morrison has always been an indefatigable worker for
the city of his residence, and is well and deservedly esteemed
for his generous and kindly traits of character.
Mr. Thomas Oliver, a Scot by birth, has represented North
Oxford continuously from 1866 until now. He was originally a school teacher, but after a few years' experience, entered mercantile life. After amassing a competency he retired.    Mr. Oliver has been Reeve of Woodstock and War- 750
den of his county. It may be added that he was first elected to fill a vacancy caused by the lamented and premature
death of Mr. Hope Mackenzie, a brother of the ex-Prime
Minister. Mr. William Paterson, has represented South.
Brant since 1872, having been returned at three successive
general elections. His father came from Aberdeen, with his
wife in 1836, and the son was born at Hamilton in September, 1839. In 1854 Mr. Paterson removed to Brantford, and
after serving for some years as a clerk, commenced in 1863
a baking and confectionery establishment, which has succeeded marvellously. He has served in the Town Council,
and was Mayor of Brantford in 1872. In the same year he
became a candidate for South Brant, and defeated the
Finance Minister, Sir Francis Hincks, by a majority of two
hundred and seventy-two. The latter, however, had secured
a seat for Yancouver, B. C. In 187.4, Mr. Paterson's majority was over four hundred and fifty, and in 1878, almost
two hundred. He is a fluent speaker and one of the Liberal
Mr. James Young, at present member of the Ontario Assembly for North Brant, was, at the period under consideration, in the Commons, as M. P., for South Waterloo. His
father came from Roxburghshire in 1834, and his son was-
born at Gait, in 1835. Having chosen the printing business,.
Mr. James Young, when only a I typo " eighteen years old,
purchased the Dumfries Reformer which he edited for ten
years thereafter. He also used his pen in two prize essays
on Canada's i Agricultural Resources," and " The Reciprocity
Treaty."   In 1867, he contested South Waterloo for the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Commons and was returned over Mr. James Cowan, who is
also a Scot, by a majority of about three hundred
and sixty. As a legislator, Mr. Young proved himself
a highly useful man, having served on the Public Accounts Committee, and been instrumental in promoting
the ballot and the publication of the Commons' debates.
In 1872 and again 1874 he was re-elected by acclamation,
and at one finie it was confidently expected that he would
be made a Minister of the Crown under Mr. Mackenzie. In
1878 the tables turned, however, and he was defeated by
Mr. Meruer, although only by the narrow majority of forty-
four. The general elections for the Local House taking
place in the following year, Mr. Young was elected for
North Brant by a majority of three hundred and forty over
Mr. Baird. He has been an active director of more than
one Insurance company and has also done essential service
as President of the Mechanics' Institute Association.
Of the other members of Parliament in 1872, who could
boast their Scottish origin, there is only space to note briefly
two or three. Mr. James Findlay who sat for North Renfrew was born at Chateauguay, his father having arrived
from Scotland in 1829. He was the editor and proprietor
of the Pembroke Observer. In 1869, he was a candidate for
the riding, but suffered defeat. Prior to that time, Mr.
Rankin, the son of an Argyleshire man had sat for the constituency. In 1872, Mr. Findlay was more fortunate, being
elected by a majority of more then a hundred over Mr. Peter
White, a Scot by descent. In 1874, Mr. Findlay was not a
candidate; but in 1878 he measured swords with his former
opponent, but was defeated by a majority of three hundred 7§2
and fifty. Mr. Gavin Fleming was born near Falkirk in
Stirlingshire, in June, 1826. He came to Canada in 1829,
and, after twenty years' experience as a merchant, retired
in 1871. He was elected for North Brant in 1872, by a majority of over three hundred over Mr. Andrew Baird, also a
Scot. In 1874, Mr. Fleming was returned by acclamation
on the Liberal wave of that year; but in 1878 being
again opposed, though ineffectually, his majority reached
nearly two hundred. He has been Treasurer of South Dumfries, and is a magistrate in his county. Mr. Daniel Gal-
braith, who was removed by death in 1880, hailed from
Glasgow where he first saw the light in 1815. When about
six years of age he came to Canada with his father and
settled in Lanark County, Ont. Mr. Galbraith was a farmer,
and served as Warden of the county. He was also on the
directorate of the Brockville and Ottawa Railway. His
first appearance in public life was as representative of the
north riding in the Ontario Assembly to which he was elected by acclamation in 1867 and 1871. At the General Election for the Commons in 1872, he resigned his seat in order
to be a candidate for the Commons, and was replaced by Mr.
W. C. Caldwell, B.A., the son of a Scot. This time he was
not permitted to walk the course. Two opponents presented themselves, Mr. Rosamond, of Almonte, and the Hon.
William Macdougall. Mr. Galbraith, however, was elected
by a plurality of a hundred and forty over the former
competitor. In 1874, Mr. Galbraith was chosen by acclamation, and in 1878 by a majority of forty-three over Mr.
Jamieson, of Perth.   At his death, Mr. Macdonell, a grand- tell
nephew of Brock's gallant  aide-de-camp, succeeded him in
the representation of the riding.
The three gentlemen above noted were all Liberals; the
member for South Lanark in 1872, and ever since is a Conservative. John Graham Haggart is the son of a Perthshire
gentleman, and his mother hailed from the Isle of Skye.
He himself was born at Perth, Ontario, in 1836, and is a
corn and. grist mill owner. For several years he served as
Mayor of his native town; but his first essays at legislative
distinction were unfortunate. Both in 1867 and 1869, he
contested the riding for the Ontario Assembly, but was defeated. In 1872, however, he appeared as a candidate for
the Commons and was elected by an overwhelming majority
over Mr. James Bell, a fellow-townsman. At the general
election of 1874, his majority over Mr. Gould, of Smith's
Falls, was over four hundred; and once more in 1878, he was
elected by over three hundred votes. Mr. George William
Ross, M.P., for West Middlesex is the son of Ross-shire
parents who came to Upper Canada in 1834. He was born
in the township of Williams, Middlesex County, in September, 1841. Educated at the Provincial Normal School, Mr.
Ross was engaged in teaching for ten years from 1857 to
1867. He has also been connected with the newspaper
press, as editor of the Strathroy Age and Seaforth Expositor,
both Reform journals, as well as of professional papers. As
a member of the Central Committee of Examiners, he has
laboured earnestly in the cause of education. Mr. Ross'
name, however, is more generally known, in connection with
the temperance  movement, as a strong advocate of a pro-
hibitory liquor law. In the Sons of Temperance he served
as G. W. P. for two years, and also as M: W. P. of North
America in the National Division for a like term. In 1872
Mr. Ross was first elected to Parliament as M.P., for West
Middlesex by a majority of fifty-six over Mr. Angus P. Macdonald, of Glencoe, the well known contractor who sat in the
Provincial Assembly from 1857 to 1861, and in the Commons from 1867 to 1872. In 1874, Mr. Ross was re-elected
by acclamation, and in 1878", after a severe contest, by forty-
eight over Mr. N. Currie. Of late Mr. Ross has turned his
attention to law. He took a degree in the Albert Univer-
sity in 1879 and is about %to apply for a call to the Bar. A
namesake, Mr. James Ross, who hailed from Aberdeenshire,
may be mentioned. Born in 1817, he was educated at
Marischel College and took the degree of M.A. Having re-
moved to Canada, he was Warden of the County of Wei-
3 %J
lington for two years, and member for North Wellington in
the old Assembly from 1859 to. 1861. In June 7th, 1868,
he was elected by acclamation for Centre Wellington to the
Commons, and in 1872, by a majority of forty-six over Dr.
Orton. In 1874, Mr. Ross did not contest the seat, but on
Dr. Orton's being unseated, he was an unsuccessful candidate. Since then he has not entered the lists.
. Therewere other Scots in the Commonswho,perhaps,should
be noticed here; but it is necessary to hasten onward, giving
brief references to a few gentlemen who figured in the Local
Legislature at this period. Mr. Archibald McKellar, who had
been a prominent member of the Opposition in the Ontario
Assembly during Mr. Sandfield Macdonald's Administration THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
became Commissioner of Agriculture and Public Works in
the succeeding Government. He was born in the neighbour-
hood of Inverary, Argyleshire, in February, 1816, his mother
being a McNab. A year after his parents removed to this
country, and settled in the County of Elgin, in Ontario. Mr.
McKellar was reared a farmer, and, after his marriage, set up
for himself on the banks of the Thames, in the County of
Kent. In those days counties were grouped together, and as
early as 1842, he was elected to the Council of the united
Counties of Kent, Lambton and Essex, and served as Reeve
of the Township of Raleighf or several years. In 1857 Kent
was separated from the other counties, and Mr. McKellar
became Reeve of Chatham. A Liberal in politics, he nevertheless cast a Conservative vote in 1841,the only one he is said
to have given during his life. In 1857, at a critical juncture
in public affairs, Mr. McKellar was elected to represent
Kent in the Provincial Assembly. He had three years before
contested the seat unsuccessfully, but this time, he was firmly
established, maintaining himself for ten years, until the Union.
In 1867, however, he was defeated by Mr. Rufus Stephenson,
the majority against him being nearly a hundred. In the
same year he entered the Local Assembly, having been elected
by a majority of seventy, as member for Both well, a county
set off from the eastern side of Kent. In 1871, as already
stated, Mr. McKellar was made a member of the Executive
Council. Three years after he became Commissioner of
Agriculture and Provincial Secretary, Mr. Fraser taking the
bureau of Public Works. During his term of office, Mr.
McKellar was the author of some public measures of impor- 756 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
tance to the farming community, especially the Drainage
Act. In August, 1875, he became Sheriff of the County of
Wentworth, an office he still holds. On his retirement from
public life, the hon. gentleman received many flattering
letters of respect from his numerous friends, irrespective of
party. Mr. McKellar has three sons living, one of whom is
Registrar of Kent, the other two farmers " on the old homestead."
Lieut.-Colonel Alexander D. Ferrier was also a member of
the first Ontario Legislature. His father, originally from
Linlithgowshire, died in 1833, Collector of Customs at Quebec,
Mr. Ferrier was born at Edinburgh in 1813. Having made
his home in the County of Wellington, Ontario, he served in
the Municipal Council for some years, and was the County
Clerk for many years. From 1838 until the abolition of
the court, he was Commissioner of the Court of Requests.
During the rebellion, Mr. Ferrier saw active service on the
frontier, and was up to 1862 an officer in the sixth Battalion.
There, as in other cases, the military instinct was hereditary,
as his grandfather had been a Major-General in the British
army, and his grand-uncle a Lieutenant in the navy, who had
in charge the detachment which. drew up the cannon from
the river to the plains of Abraham, under Wolfe. At the
general election in 1871, Mr. Ferrier dropped out of the list,
and resigned his clerkship also. After three years spent in
Scotland, he returned to Fergus where, we believe, he still
resides, a magistrate of the county, and an elder of the
Presbyterian Church, highly respected by all who know him.
Thomas Grahame, J. P., who represented West.York in the
first Ontario Assembly, is a son of the soil, having been born THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
in Vaughan, in the year 1840. His father, however, came
from Dumfries-shire, but subsequently returned to Scotland.
Mr. Grahame was educated at Upper Canada College and
the University of Toronto. He served in the County Council for some years, and was elected in 1867 over two competitors by a pleurality of seventy-three. At the expiration
of the term he gave place to Mr. Patterson. The number of
Scots in the first two Local Assemblies of Ontario was so
large that space will not admit of a detailed account of them
and a simple mention of their names must suffice. One
gentleman, however, who appeared, upon the scene in 1S72
deserves special notice.
Mr. James Bethune belonged to the old Highland stock of
Glengarry. His father was for many years Sheriff of Stor-
mont, Dundas and Glengarry, and the son was born in the
last of these united Counties in July, 1840. Having been
educated in arts at Queen's College, Kingston, Mr. Bethune
entered the University of Toronto in law, and graduatod as
LL.B. in 1861. The following year he was called to the
bar of Ontario, and some years later became a barrister of
Quebec. After three years' practice, Mr. Bethune was
appointed County Crown Attorney, but resigned in order
to become a candidate for Storm ont in the Local Assembly
in 1871. He was unsuccessful" then; but on the unseating
of the sitting member, he secured a return. In 1875, his old
opponent, Mr. William Colquhoun, again tried conclusions
with him, but was defeated by over a hundred and thirty votes.
At the general election of 1879, Mr. Bethune declined to
stand, and the Local House lost in him one of its most able 758.
and intelligent members. In politics^he has always been a
Reformer, although by no means a subservient partizan. His
character is sternly honest and independent, and where-'
ever he is known he is highly esteemed. As a lawyer Mr.
Bethune has been eminently successful; indeed his indefatigable industry and abilities could hardly fail in any walk
of life.
The Hon. Christopher Finlay Fraser, Q.C., first entered
the Assembly in 1871. The son of a Scottish Highlander,
he was born in Brockville, in October, 1839. The family
were engaged, during Mr. Fraser's boyhood in the struggle
for existence, but he was a bright, ambitious youth, eager to
acquire an education in order that he might push his own
fortunes. Early in life he served an apprenticeship to the
printing business in the office of the Brockville Recorder, a
Reform journal, conducted with spirit by Mr.D. Wylie, a Scot
of whom it will be necessary to speak hereafter. In 1859,
the interval having been employed in self-improvement, Mr.
Fraser entered the office of the Hon. A. N. Richards, Q. C,
as a law student, and was called to the bar in 1864.    Having
always taken a deep interest in Provincial affairs, he became
a candidate for Brockville in 1867, but was defeated by Mr.
Fitzsimmons ; the majority against him, however, was only
twenty-six. He had made a strong impression upon the
electors, and was content to bide his time. At the general
election of 1871, Mr. Fraser applied to another constituency,
South Grenville, but again suffered defeat. His successful
rival having died early in the following year, this time
the tide had changed in his favour.    Unfortunately his THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
return was disputed, and Mr. Fraser lost his seat, but only to
be returned to the Assembly in October. In November, 1873
he was appointed to the Executive Council as Provincial
Secretary—an office he exchanged for the Commissionership
of Public Works in April, 1874, which he still holds. The
hon. gentleman is possessed of singular ability and eloquence,
and has proved himself a reliable member of the Ontario
Legislature. In religion, Mr. Fraser is a Catholic, and was
one of the founders of the Catholic League in the Province.
In 1879, he had the misfortune to be rejected for South
Grenville, the majority against him being one hundred and
thirty-seven. He had, however, received a seat for Brockville, having been elected over an opponent by more than a
hundred votes. Of late the hon. gentleman's health has suffered, but he is still equal to the onerous duties of his office.
Mr. John Carnegie, the son of a Scot, sat in the first
Ontario Assembly, but suffered defeat in 1871. He.was
born in the Township of Douro, in the County of Peterborough, and was intimately associated with the interests of
agriculture. His majority for West Peterborough in 1867
was only eighteen, and in 1871, he lost the seat by
an adverse majority of fifty-three. His successful rival,
Mr. Thomas McCulloch Fairbairn, born at Bowmanville, in
1840, is the son of a Lowland Scotsman. He entered the
legal profession, having been called to the bar in 1865.
For some years he served as a Master in Chancery. Mr.
Fairbairn gave place to Mr. Cox at the election of 1875, at
which he was not a candidate. Of the other legislators
of this period who were either Scots or of Scottish parentage, reo
were Messrs. Christie, of North Wentworth; Craig, of Glengarry ; Finlayson, of North Brant; Gibson, of West Huron ;
Gow, of South Wellington; Graham, of West Hastings;
Grange, of Lennox; M cCall, of South Norfolk; Macdonald,
of South Leeds ; McKim, of North Wellington; McLeod, of
West Durham; McRae, of North Yictoria; Monteith, of
North Perth; Oliver, of South Oxford; Sinclair, of North
Bruce ; Smith, of North Middlesex, and one or two others.
The Speaker of the Assembly was Lieut.-Colonel, the Hon.
James George Currie, M. P. P. for Welland. His father,.
Lachlan, settled from Scotland in the County of Lincoln,
but he was born at Toronto, -in 1827, and educated at
Niagara. By profession, Mr. Currie is a lawyer. He is
Lieut.-Colonel commanding the 19th Battalion, and served for
three or four years Warden of the County. In 1857 he was
an unsuccessful candidate for Niagara. In 1862, on the
death of the Hon. W. H. Merritt, he was elected by acclamation to the Legislative Council by the Niagara Division,but
resigned in 1865.
Mr. Currie was opposed to Confederation, and for a time
withdrew from public life. In 1871, however, he opposed
the sitting Member for Welland, and was returned to the
local House by a majority of about one hundred and thirty.
When the House met in December, he was selected as-
Speaker, but resigned in the spring of 1873.
In I previous chapter, the Frasers of Quebec were mentioned in connection with the conquest of the Province.
The Hon. John Fraser de Berry, who sat in the Legislative-
Council until 1877, or thereabouts, was the Lord of the
clan Fraser, and took the name of De Berry from the
seigniory he had acquired. He was descended from Simon
Fraser, Lord Lovat, a Jacobite in the rebellion of 1745: A
son of the same name fought under Wolfe, and was wounded
severely at the taking of Quebec. He remained in the
Province after the capitulation, and received the seigniory
of Montmorency with other property. At the time of the
American invasion he distinguished himself as captain of
the 84th or Royal Highland Emigrant Regiment. He was
also a Judge in the Province. The Hon. Mr. Fraser's father,
Dr. Simon Fraser, was an officer in the 42nd or Black Watch,
and saw active service from 1795 to 1803, having been present when Sir Ralph Abercrombie was slain at Alexandria
in 1801. During that memorable action about three-fourths
of this gallant Highland Regiment were either killed or
wounded. The son was born at St. Martin's, Quebec, in
November, 1816, and married, in 1842, his cousin, Elizabeth
Fraser de Berry, and added the name of the seigniory to his
own. Being the lineal descendant of the head of the family,
he became chief of the clan Fraser, and aided by his pen
and influence in its formal organization. From his French
connections, Mr. Fiaser was made President of the St. Jean
Baptiste Society—a striking instance of the fusion of old
nationalities which has been previously noted. In 1858, he
contested the Montarville Division for the Legislative Council unsuccessfully, but in 1867 was nominated as a life
member of that body.
The Hon. Joseph Gibb Robertson, who has been Provincial Treasurer under several Administrations, was born at 762
Stuartfield, Aberdeenshire, on New Year's Day, 1820.    His
father was a Congregational minister for thirty years in that
place, and for a quarter of a century at Sherbrooke, in
Quebec.    In 1832, the mother having died, father and son
removed to Canada, where the latter received his educational training.    In youth, Mr. Robertson was engaged in
farming, but subsequently turned his attention to mercantile pursuits at Sherbrooke, and also, for a brief period, at
Chicago, as agent for the home establishment.    He retired
from business some years since.    He has always been an
active and public spirited worker in the Eastern Townships,
and has served for eighteen years as Mayor of the town.
He had previously been Secretary-Treasurer of the county
from 1847 to 1853.    In other capacities, Mr. Robertson has
been of essential utility, having presided over insurance,
railway, and agricultural corporations.    He was first elected
to the Provincial Assembly from Sherbrooke at Confederation, and has ever since held his seat there, being usually
elected by acclamation.    In 1869 he entered Mr. Chauveau's
Cabinet, and has also served in the Ouimet, De Boucher-
ville, and Chapleau Administrations.    On the last occasion
there was a contest; but Mr. Robertson triumphed by a
majority of over six hundred and fifty.   He is chiefly known,
in connection with the finances of the Province, which he
has successfully administered for some years.    A journalist
has remarked:  | It is no easy matter to compass the Treasurer on a matter of business; he is a shrewd, cool-headed
Scotchman, who will not be readily led into a trap, as many
a man who has had his eye upon the ' soft thing' supposed
to be at the disposition of Ministers of the Crown, and has THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 763
attempted to trade upon conjectural weakness, will readily
and painfully recollect." Mr. Robertson is a Conservative,
respected by all parties for his sterling integrity and business talents. It may be added, that he adheres to the
Church his father served so long, and is a staunch advocate
of the temperance cause.
The Hon. John J. Ross, M.D., at present Speaker of the
Quebec Legislative Council, should be a Scot by descent,
although there is no accessible record of the fact. His
grandfather, George Mcintosh Ross, was a West India merchant, who married a French-Canadian lady, so that the
lines of nationality are somewhat blurred. Mr. Ross was
born at St. Anne's, and educated at Quebec College, entering
afterwards the medical profession. As a physician and surgeon, he stands high in the Province, and has long been
President of the Medical College. He has also taken a deep
interest in agriculture. In 186 L he was selected as the
representative of Chambly in the Legislative Assembly of
Canada, and retained his seat until the Union. At the
general elections, after confederation, Mr. Ross was sent
both to the Commons and the Provincial Assembly. From
the former he retired in 1874, and from the latter in 1877,
when he was elevated to the Legislative Council. In 1873,
the hon. gentleman was called to the Executive Council,
and made Speaker of the Upper House, a position he retained for about a year and a half. Again, early in 1876,
he was re-appointed, and remained in office until the Government of M. De Boucherville was summarily dismissed
by Lieut.-Governor Letellier in March, 1878. Finally, in
the autumn of 1879 he once more resumed the office, which 764 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
he still holds. Dr. Ross, in 1875, was elected Vice-President
of the North Shore Railway. A reference to the dates will
-show that in politics he is a Conservative, having, like Mr.
Robertson, served in more than one Administration.
Lieut.-Colonel Alexander Walker Ogilvie only served in
the first Quebec Assembly; but he has been recently raised
to the Senate in place of the Hon. Mr. Penny, deceased. Mr.
Ogilvie's parents removed to Canada at the beginning of the
century. His father was an officer of the Lachine Cavalry,
and saw active service during the wars of 1812 and 1837.
The son was born near the City of Montreal, in May, 1827.
He has long been the senior member of the firm of A. W.
' Ogilvie & Co., the proprietors of an extensive milling establishment. During a long and active life Mr. Ogilvie has
served as Alderman of Montreal, and a Governor of the City
Hospital, Lieut.-Colonel of Volunteers, President of the
Hochelaga Agricultural Society, of the Working Men's Benefit
Society, and also of the St. Andrew's Society. In 1867 he
was returned to the Local House for Montreal by acclamation, but only sat during one term. The Hon. Mr. Ogilvie
delivered his maiden speech at Ottawa, as seconder of the
Address in answer to the Speech from the Throne, in the
Senate, in February, 1882.
The number of Scots of the Maritime Provinces who sat
in the Local Assemblies was large at this period, especially
in Nova Scotia, but the mere enumeration of their names
would serve no useful purpose. At the close of the chapter,
there will be an opportunity afforded for a few sketches of
the more prominent of them.    Meanwhile it is necessary to THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 765
return to the chronicle proper, and trace the course of events
at Ottawa during an eventful crisis.
Lord Dufferin arrived, as already stated, early in 1872,
and assumed the reins of Government. The term of the
first Dominion Parliament was drawing to a^ close, and the
general elections were at hand. A dissolution took place
early in the autumn, and the elections terminated in a triumph for the Government.* In the new House, Sir John
Macdonald could boast of a majority of about forty. His
candidate for the Speakership, Mr. James Cockburn, was
elected unanimously on the 7th of March, 1873, and Parliament duly opened with dclat by the new Governor-General.
During the previous autumn charges of extensive bribery
and corruption were freely made on both sides; but for the
present, everything appeared placid on the Parliamentary
horizon. Nevertheless a portentous storm was brewing
which, in the end, overwhelmed the Government.
In June, 1872, an Act had been passed, which provided
for the construction of the Pacific Railway by a Company,
" having a subscribed capital of at least ten millions of dollars." The Speech from the Throne delivered by Lord
Dufferin announced that such a Company had been formed,
under authority given to the Government by statute. The
Canada Pacific, under the Presidency of Sir Hugh Allan, had
been preferred to the Inter-Oceanic, organized by the Hon.
D. L. Macpherson. Attempts were made to amalgamate the
two schemes, but the rival Presidents stood in the way, and
*Stewart: Canada under Lord Dufferin, p. 115; Leggo : History of Lord Dufferin's Administration, p. 108. 766
no arrangement was arrived at. Under these circumstances
the Ministers resolved to form an independent company, with
Sir Hugh Allan at its head. According to the new President's
original design, capital was to be subscribed from the United
States ; but to this Sir John Macdonald would by no means
agree, if for no other reason, at all events, because it would
be directly in the teeth of the statute. Sir Hugh Allan
having at length announced that he had cut adrift from his
American associates, the charter was awarded to him, and
there seemed no obstacle in the way of an early prosecution
of the work. Parliament at once ratified the agreement,
and apparently all cause for anxiety was over.
On the 2nd of April, Mr. Huntington, M.P., accused the
Government of having been parties to a compact whereby
certain Americans—whose agent Mr. G. W. McMullen appears
to have been a man of straw—agreed with Sir Hugh Allan
to advance money to construct the Pacific Railway, the company to be ostensibly a Canadian one, as provided for by Act
of Parliament; and further that the Government had consented to give the charter to Sir Hugh Allan's Company on
condition that the latter should aid them by liberal contributions to the election fund necessary for 1872. The
hon. gentleman concluded by a motion setting out the alleged
facts, and ordering a committee of investigation. This
resolution was treated by the Premier as one of non-confidence ; and, when put to the vote, it was defeated by a
majority of thirty-one. On the 8th, however, Sir John
Macdonald himself moved for a Committee, which was duly
appointed by the House. Two members belonged to the
Opposition, three were supporters of the Government.    New THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
difficulties at once arose. It was scarcely likely that so important an enquiry could be conducted during the brief space as
the remainder of a Session; and, secondly, the Committee
had no power to take evidence under oath. Mr. Mackenzie
pointed out the necessity for some device to overcome these
obstacles. The Premier readily consented, although he
doubted whether Parliament had the power to exact
sworn testimony. He promised, however, in the event of
failure to secure the necessary authority, that a Commission
should issue with full powers.
The Oaths Bill was passed, but promptly vetoed by the
Imperial Government. The Committee had sat in the meantime, but was unable to carry on its inquiry, in the absence of
Sir George Carrier and Mr. Abbott. A resolution was adopted
at once in the Commons to provide for an adjournment
until the 2nd of July, if the House should then be in session.
In order, therefore, to give the Committee an opportunity of
prosecuting its labours, the House adjourned, instead of being
prorogued, until the 13th of August. It was on the 27th of
June that an announcement ftrived of the disallowance of
the Oaths Bill. The Government promptly resolved to appoint
the members of the Committee as a Royal Commission; but
as Messrs. Blake and Dorion objected, the Committee was
virtually dissolved. It had, indeed, met; but as the majority
refused to receive unsworn testimony, its work was at an
end, and an adjournment resolved upon until the 13th of
August. A day or two afterwards the documents in the
hands of Mr. Huntington were made public. It would be
travelling too far afield to reproduce even a digest of this
correspondence, and its general purport only need be stated. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Sir Hugh Allan had been for some time in correspondence
with the redoubtable McMullen of Chicago, clearly with a
view to securing the aid of American capitalists.    He discovered, however, that the Government would not charter
any but a Canadian company, yet hoped to get over the
difficulty | in some way or other."    He spoke of amounts of
money he had disbursed already, and of further expenditure
in prospect.    It is not necessary to inquire too curiously how
this correspondence was obtained.    Perhaps the less said
upon that subject the better, since amateur detective service
is seldom conducted with much scrupulousness.    Sir Hugh
Allan, at any rate, admitted that he had disbursed, or would
soon disburse, as much as $300,000 for some purpose or other
only indistinctly hinted at.   To what use this money had
been put was the crucial question.
The gallant knight's own version of the matter-appeared
in the form of an affidavit sworn to before the Mayor of Montreal* The gist of this important paper may be readily
given in a few words. Sir Hugh stated that he had for
some time been associated with American promotors, but
soon ascertained that the Government would not sanction
their association with Canadians in the project. He admitted that he had aided the friends of his scheme during the
elections, simply from a natural desire to secure their election. He thought that he had a perfect right to do that
and denied that he paid or lent any money on condition
that he and his Company should receive the charter.
*This document will be found in Stewart, pp. 164-176; and an important review of
the whole matter in Lord Dufferin's despatch (No. 197) published entire in Leggo, pp. mt
Even after the lapse of nine years it is hardly possible to
disentangle the knot which both parties managed to tie between them. On one side, the then Government have
been stigmatized as "contract-sellers" and "charter-mongers"—an implied charge which the entire facts and correspondence certainly do not appear to warrant. There
seems no reason to doubt the word of Sir Hugh Allan,
when he states that he merely aided his parliamentary supporters, not to secure the control of the enterprise, but to
prevent its being jeopardized after he had finally gained the
assent of the Government. When the history of 1873 comes
to be written in a calm and dispassionate spirit, we
are inclined to think that the " Pacific Scandal" will shrink
to insignificant proportions. At the same time a valuable
lesson was painfully impressed upon our public men—a
warning which will probably serve for all time to come.
Long before, indeed ever since the dawn of the railway
era, stories of corruption had been told from time to time. In
1873, they culminated in the fall of a powerful administration. It is unnecessary, indeed to our view, it would be most
unjust, to predicate conscious guilt on the part of Ministers.
They accepted aid in return for an act of policy they had
performed from strictly patriotic motives; yet it was not
unnatural that the motive for granting the railway charter
should be confused in the popular mind with the profit
which accrued from it to the party in power. The public
sense of morality was wounded by the apparent juxtaposition of two facts which were not logically connected.
The storm that ensued was, no doubt, a salutary outbreak, and the  political  wreck which strewed the shore
1 1
may serve as a warning to all future ministerial pilots who
steer too closely to the shoals. '
In the incidents of this painful investigation there is little
upon which either party can congratulate itself. The in-r
former was admittedly a blackmailer ; the letters used were
stolen; and the advantage secured from the publication was
certainly a triumph obtained at the expense of honour. On
the other hand, Ministers lay under the imputation, more or
less justified, of using a great public work for party ends, and
the money they obtained was unquestionably used in some
localities for something more than legitimate election expenses. It is perhaps well that the episode occurred; still its
aspects for the time were far from gratifying, and it certainly delayed for years the completion of a noble Canadian enterprise.
The sequel of the business need not delay us long. The
Oaths Bill, as already stated, had been disallowed, and
therefore, when Parliament met, pursuant to the motion of
adjournment, there was no report forthcoming. On the following day a Royal Commission was appointed, which proceeded to take evidence during the recess. When the Commons met, Mr. Mackenzie had anticipated the issue of the
Royal Commission by a motion which affirmed that Parliament
alone could investigate charges of corruption against Ministers, and that the appointment of any other tribunal by the
Executive would be a breach of privilege. The Governor-
Ceneral after receiving courteously a protest from the Opposition, prorogued the Houses until October. That he acted
constitutionally, there can be no reasonable doubt. The
charges had not been proven against his Ministers, and they THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
retained the confidence of the majority in a new Parliament. Consequently it was his duty to act upon their advice.
To have done otherwise would have been to assume their
guilt before even the initial steps had been taken towards
proving it. Responsible government would be a farce, if
the Governor-General were to consult the opinions of a
Parliament once more assembled on the 23rd of October.
The Commission meanwhile had met and was prepared with
its report. Mr. Huntington had refused to attend because he
regarded the appointment of that tribunal a violation of the
privileges of Parliament. When the Address had been
moved and seconded, Mr. Mackenzie, the Opposition leader,
presented an amendment affirming that " His Excellency's
advisers have deserved the severest censure of the House "
by their course in reference to the investigation of the
charges preferred by Mr. Huntington. The debate lasted for
six days during which some forty members spoke. It soon
became evident that the ministerial phalanx was about to
breakup. Some members of it had already thrown down their
arms, and others were palpably weakening. Under these circumstances Sir John Macdonald bowed before the storm, and,
on the 5th of November, announced his own resignation and
that of his colleagues.
The Reform party was now in power both in the Dominion and in the chief Province of Ontario. The month
of December 1871 had been marked by the defeat of Mr.
Sandfield Macdonald's Government at Toronto on the question of railway subsidies, and Mr. Blake reigned in his stead.
Both he and Mr. Mackenzie were compelled to elect between 772
the two legislatures in 1872, and they naturally withdrew
to the larger arena. The blow inflicted by Mr. Costigan's
Act appeared at first a fatal one to Reform interests in Ontario, but the resignation by Vice-Chancellor Mowat of his
office, and the assumption of party leadership was the opening of a long term of power for the Liberals, extending over
about ten years. On November the 7th, Mr. Mackenzie had
succeeded in forming an Administration. It is not necessary
to discuss its personnel, since all the Scots who were Ministers have already been noted in other pages.
There can be no doubt that the new Premier had a difficult task before him. The protracted investigation of the
year had left public business in a backward state. The problem of Pacific Railway construction had yet to be faced in
some manner, since the faith of the Dominion was pledged
in the matter. Yet in spite of their anxiety to go to work,
the awkward fact stared Ministers in the face that the existing House of Commons could hardly be considered as properly constituted. If the fact generally admitted were true
that large sums of money had been spent to secure the majority, nothing could purify Parliament but a dissolution.
The Premier, therefore, advised His Excellency to that effect and the general elections took place generally on the
twenty-second of January, 1874. The result was a large
majority for the new Government; and nothing remained
but to settle down to the work before it. There was, however, another obstacle in the. way of satisfactory legislation.
A Liberal House of Commons had been secured; but the
majority in the Senate remained Conservative although the
few vacancies which occurred were filled, by Reformers like THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
the .Hon. George Brown and the Hon. R. W. Scott. Immediately after his appointment to office Mr. Mackenzie endeavoured to I redress the balance " by an appeal to the Crown
for power to name six additional senators under a provision
made in the British North America Act, Sec. 26. It was
natural, under the circumstances, to suppose that the Colonial Secretary, at that time a Liberal, would at once give
his consent, But Lord Kimberley peremptorily declined on
the ground that the Crown " could not be advised to take
the responsibility of interfering with the constifiition of
the Senate, except upon an occasion where it had been
made apparent that a difference had arisen between the two
Houses of so serious and permanent a character that the Government could not be carried on."
It is, perhaps, doubtful whether the addition of half
a dozen Liberals would have adjusted satisfactorily the
grievance, since the casualties, which occured during their
four years' tenure of office, left the party nevertheless a
minority in the Upper House. That Mr. Mackenzie was
hampered in his legislative efforts by the adverse attitude of the Senate was made manifest on more occasions
than one. The parliamentary Session which opened late in
March served to prove the strength of the Ministerial majority; but, as might have been expected, nothing of great
importance was effected. One of the Government's earliest
acts naturally7 was to strengthen the precautions against
electoral corruption; and, in addition to that, an attempt
was made to secure a reciprocity treaty with the United
States, which, although conducted with characteristic ability
by the Hon. Mr. Brown, signally failed.   Another measure 774
of importance was the establishment of a Supreme Court for
the Dominion, I tribunal duly constituted in the following
With regard to the Pacific Railway, there appears to have
been a division in the Cabinet. Mr. Blake had always been
opposed to the construction of the work; but he retired from
the Government within three months. Mr. Mackenzie, impressed with the magnitude of this undertaking, proposed
that instead of handing it over to a company, the work
should be let out by contract in sections.v He further
advised that meanwhile advantage should be taken of the
water communication between the great lakes and the heart
of the continent. Accordingly the first move was made at
the mouth of the Kaministiquia river, which debouches into-
Thunder Bay at the extreme west of Lake Superior—to be
followed by other water connections stretching towards Red
Simultaneously the Finance Minister was compelled to announce an approaching deficit, and the necessity of increasing
the fiscal duties. Meanwhile the troops and militia under Sir
Garnet Wolseley had found little difficulty in purifying the
North-West of the rebel element. His march resembled
rather a dress parade under difficulties of a physical kind,
rather than active warfare. The affairs of the North-West,
however, although they were naturally a prominent feature
of the period now under consideration will be more conveniently reviewed in a subsequent chapter.
From time to time disputes have arisen touching Dominion
and Provincial jurisdiction respectively. One of these presented itself in connection with the New Brunswick School THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Law. In the British North America Act special provisions
had been made for the protection of the Catholic minority in
Canada West, and of the Protestant minority in Canada East;
but no.such statutory safeguard was given in the other Provinces. The majority in New Brunswick had made the
school tax compulsory, and refused all aid to denominational
schools. An effort was made to induce the Dominion
Government to disallow the Act, but without success. The
decision arrived at was confirmed on appeal to the Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council, and the School Law went
into operation. The new Government proposed in 1875 an
address to the Crown praying that Her Majesty would use her
influence with the New Brunswick Legislature on behalf of
the minority. This step was exceedingly doubtful on constitutional grounds, but probably commended itself to Ministers for partyreasons. At all events it proved a futile measure
as might have been anticipated. The people of New Brunswick were angry at an interference which was admittedly
unjustified by law or general policy, and,therefore maintained
their old attitude. There were obviously only two alternatives : either to veto the Act in due course, or, having allowed
it, to refrain from any further action upon the subject.
The exercise of the prerogative in such cases is always a
matter of delicacy. It is clearly unadvisable to resort to its
use,saving under exceptional circumstances, where the subject
matter of the measure falls within Provincial jurisdiction.
Still, as Mr. Todd has pointed out, the power reserved to the
Governor-General in Council has been used in more than one
case, not on account of defective jurisdiction, but simply from
general considerations of public policy.    The Prince Edward 776 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Island Land Acts, and more recently the Streams and Rivers
Bill of Ontario, are cases in point. Into this constitutional
•question, something may be said hereafter; it is enough to
state that as a general rule the Federal Government will not
interfere with Provincial automony except for substantial
cause. The right of disallowance is unquestionable; yet its
employment must necessarily be cautious and infrequent.
The negotiations conducted with British Columbia by Mr.,
Edgar have already been referred to, and need not occupy
farther attention. The scheme ultimately agreed to was
marred for the time, by the rejection of the Esquimalt and
Nancimo Railway Bill in the Senate. The | better terms "
both there and in Manitoba were assented to as usual, and
that is all that need be said about the matter. In 1876 the
Hon. David Laird was appointed to the Lieutenant-Governorship of the North-West Territories, and the Hon. Mr.
Cauchon to that of Manitoba in the following year in place
of the Hon. Alex. Morris, whose term of office had expired.
During 1877, the Fishery Commission finished its labours,
and Six Alexander Gait had the satisfaction of deciding in
his country's favour so far as regarded compensation.
During the same year the movement in favour of protective duties assumed form, and began to attract public favour
There would be little utility in entering here upon the economical question involved; still it may be well to state
concisely the issue about to be presented to the electors
The United States, before the abrogation of the reciprocity
treaty, partly from necessity, partly from choice, levied exorbitant fiscal duties upon goods imported from abroad. The
stimulus given by protection, however, had unquestionably
injured Canadian manufactures. The people of the Dominion were dependent upon the Americans for all but the
rudest fabrics. A country whose resources were practically
unlimited was enabled by the nursing process to outbid
native Canadian producers in their own market. Nor did
our neighbours depend solely upon import duties. By a
skilfully arranged system of drawbacks and bonuses they
could throw their goods upon the market here, and, according to the current phrase, | slaughter" it. The result, of
course, was the destruction of many industries, which were
certainly as well suited to our soil as to that of our neighbours.
Capital was attracted abroad, our citizens were driven into
exile, and immigrant workmen were absorbed by the United
States. Add to these unpleasant signs of the times a serious
and wide-spread commercial depression, and there is small
reason for surprise at the political reaction soon to take place.
The Government, by wisely retrenching all controllable
expenditure, had done its utmost to relieve public burdens;
yet it was quite evident that, in view of those undertakings
to which the Dominion was pledged, there was a limit to this
economical policy. The Minister of Finance had increased
the tariff rate without marked success. Year after year,
deficit followed deficit, and although the debt was growing
heavy, Canada's credit seemed to be seriously imperilled. It
did not much matter which party was in power, a way of
escape from pressure must be found. The salient point of
difference between the two sides was simply theoretical. The
Government, taking its stand on orthodox economical principles, would listen to no modification of the fiscal system
which even glanced in the direction of a protective policy. 778 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Free trade, subject to the necessities of the revenue, was
uncompromisingly the Liberal shibboleth. From the exigencies of the time, it might happen that native industries
would be fostered; but any purpose to foster them was distinctly repudiated. Protection was a heresy, except in so far
as it was an incident, the contingent result of a high
tariff imposed for other reasons. The Liberals contended,
and with considerable reason, that it was a mistake to attempt
any control of the markets. To buy in the cheapest and sell
in the dearest was a cherished maxim; and if our neighbours refused to give Canadians access to their market, it
was simply following a mistaken example to refuse them
ours. We are not arguing this economical issue, but merely'
stating it.
The period of depression to which allusion has been made
unquestionably predisposed the people, irrespective of party,
to favour a protective policy. Manufacturing enterprises
and even agriculture—the staple industry of the western
part of Canada—were under a cloud; and when, therefore,
the Opposition came forward with the National Policy, it
was almost certain that the electors would grasp at the gleam of
hope it afforded them. This is not the place to discuss
whether they were right or wrong ; or even whether their
expectations have been justified by the event. Such matters
have been discussed with ample fulness by others in speech
and by pen. Our humbler duty seems to be a record of facts,
with such a representation of diverse opinions as may enable
the reader to appreciate opponents, from their own standpoints. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
When the Houses met in February, 1878, evidences of the
coming struggle were apparent. It was not for the first time
that the Opposition leader had brought fiscal matters to the
fore. In the previous Session, Sir John Macdonald proposed a motion expressing regret that the Government, while
increasing taxation, had done so without compensating advantages to Canadian industries. That resolution urged a
modification of the tariff with this view. Now, in the last Session of the House, he submitted an amendment to the Address,
advocating j a national policy " to benefit and foster all the
interests, agricultural, mining, and manufacturing. The
House, of course, rejected the motion by the decisive vote of
one hundred and fourteen to seventy-seven. There was
some wavering in the ranks of the majority, however, and
signs of the coming storm were not wanting in the parliamentary atmosphere.
Still the Government firmly maintained its attitude, and
appeared to feel confident that the approaching electoral
struggle would end in a signal triumph. During the natural
unrest on the eve of battle, legislation proceeded slowly.
Indeed, there seems nothing of note to record during this last
session of the third Dominion Parliament, except a matter
which strictly speaking was only of Provincial interest—the
dismissal by Lieutenant-Governor Letellier of Quebec, of his
Administration. The question at issue involved a constitutional problem of no slight importance. The De Boucherville
Cabinet at Quebec undoubtedly possessed the confidence of
a legislative majority. Nevertheless the Lieutenant-Governor dismissed them, alleging cause for so doing. He claimed
that they had treated him with disrespect by submitting to 780
the House measures which involved expenditure, and, there-
f ore,required his personal sanction, without having previously
consulted him.    Of his right to dismiss his advisers there
can be no doubt.    The monarch or viceroy is empowered by
the principles of the constitution to select his Ministers at
pleasure, subject, however, to the necessity of finding  a
Legislature which will repose confidence in them.*    Mr.
Letellier was relieved of responsibility by Mr. Joly, who
formed a new Cabinet, and at once appealed to the people.
The case is only of importance from its issue.    Sir John
Macdonald contended, with some force, that the Lieutenant-
Governor's act constituted a violent exercise of the prerogative, and that he ought to be dismissed.    As Mr. Todd
remarks, the matter was treated on both sides as a party
question.    Consequently in 1878, the Liberal majority of
thirty-four rejected the Opposition leader's motion.    In the
following year the relative positions of the parties were
materially changed, and a resolution censuring Mr. Letellier
passed the new House by a majority of eighty-five.    His
Excellency the Governor-General demurred to the step proposed by his advisers, and urged that it would be wrong to
dismiss the Lieutenant-Governor "for acts for which Mr.
Joly had declared himself to be responsible to the Provincial
Legislature."    In short, the Marquis of Lorrie objected to the-
dismissal as " a dangerous precedent."    The matter was then
referred to England for decision.   Mr. Joly desired an appeal
to the Judicial Committee, but this course the Imperial
Government declined to recommend.
See Todd: Parliamentary Government in the Colonies, pp. 405-25. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
The controversy was finally settled by a despatch from the
Colonial Office in which Sir M. HicksrBeach laid down several
constitutional maxims.    As a general rule, the internal affairs
of the Dominion were to be left to the Government and Parliament of Canada.    A Lieutenant-Governor had an undoubted
right to dismiss his advisers, while maintaining impartiality
towards rival political parties.    For any action he may take
he is directly responsible to the Governor-General; while
the latter, as in all cases, must exercise his powers by and
with  the advice and consent of Ministers.    At the same
time it was suggested that His Excellency might fairly ask
his advisers to reconsider their decision, seeing that the
removal of a Lieutenant-Governor, before the expiration of
his term of office, was a serious step not to be lightly taken
Sir John Macdonald, a week after, decided to insist upon the
removal, and his recommendation was carried into , effect.
There can be no question that constitutional heresies were
broached on both sides.    Each party appears to have preferred success for itself to sound doctrine ; and consequently
the matter in dispute was decided rather from prejudice or
bias than by dispassionate   reason.    Mr. Letellier's   coup
d'etat, as it has been called, was clearly prompted by party
motives, and his removal proceeded from a similar source.
It is- much to be regretted that as contested elections are no
longer adjudicated upon by Parliamentary majorities, there
is not also some tribunal for sitting in judgment upon Lieutenant Governors.   Since Mr. Letellier was unquestionably an
officer of the Dominion Government, he was liable to be
dismissed by it; yet the act would have been more palatable
if it had not been so clearly traceable to party feeling. 782
From the dismissal of M. de Boucherville to the removal of
the Lieutenant-Governor, on account of it, every act on both
sides was tainted with partizanship.
Before the termination of this controversy, the general
elections had taken place on the l7thof September,1878. There
is probably some reason for a belief that the result was a surprise to the Opposition as well as to the Government.' The
causes already referred to had evidently produced much discontent in the ranks of those who usually supported Mr.
Mackenzie. As generally happens—for public movements are
seldom altogether the offspring of reason—Ministers were
unfairly blamed for much which could not be laid to their
account. The weight of commercial depression was seriously
felt; and like Enceladus under Etna, the electorate longed to
secure ease by turning over upon the other side. Manyr circumstances served to aid the reaction; and when the lists
were in, the Opposition found itself triumphant by a^ substantial majority of more than eighty. The Province of
1 Ontario, which had hitherto been a Liberal stronghold, contributed more than one-half of this majority. Mr. Mackenzie, in accordance with recent usage in England, did not
await the formal meeting of the House of Commons, but
handed in his resignation on the 5 th of October.
Sir John Macdonald had lost his alter ego, Sir George
Carrier, only a few months before he resigned in 1873, and
felt his bereavement severely. He at once formed an
Administration, however, and assumed his old seat on the
Government benches. The Ministers he associated with
himself so far as the purposes of his work are concerned,
have been noticed in other pages.     When the new House
assembled early in 1879, there were two matters of supreme
importance to engage the attention of legislators. The electorate had given a decisive verdict in favour of the National
Policy, and it was now a necessary part of the Finance Minister's duty to formulate that policy and carry it into practical
effect in a new tariff. Sir Leonard Tilley did not shrink from
the task. He at once laid before the Commons a fresh scale
of duties specially framed, not merely to yield increased
revenue, but also to protect native industries. The present
Government succeeded to office at a fortunate juncture. The
turning point between depression and prosperity was reached
shortly after they had been comfortably seated; and whether
the tariff proposed was to be the cause of an impetus to
Canadian progress or not, it was sure, under altered circumstances, to be a concomitant of it.
From the moment when the Finance Minister opened
his first Budget until now, both parties have been perpetually disputing as to the amount of credit to be given to
the National Policy. Naturally there has been great exaggeration on either hand. The Opposition insists that the
tariff has not only been unproductive of good, but wrought
positive harm to the Dominion. It is contended that, with
the return of prosperity, matters would have righted themselves, without the imposition of new taxes. On the other
hand, evidence, more or less admissible, is adduced to show
that not only have old industries been revived, but new ones
created, because of the new fiscal policy. It would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to strike a fair balance between
statements so hopelessly conflicting in the absence of trustworthy data.    That the tide of Canadian prosperity has THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
risen amazingly during the past three years seems beyond
dispute; what is the main cause of this, however, can hardly
be settled with confidence. The truth, supposing it ascertainable, possibly will be found to lie in medio. It is natural
that the party in power should assign an exaggerated importance to the tariff; equally natural that the Opposition
should seek some other explanation of obvious facts.
That the National Policy was adopted at a moment eminently favourable to its success is generally admitted. Still,
after making all necessary deductions and placing them to
the score of good fortune, it certainly seems that much of
the credit must be conceded to it. Whether persistence in
it will prove advantageous to the community is another
question upon which it would be unwise to enter. Certainly as a temporary measure adopted to secure a firm and
solid foundation for active industry, it appears to have been
a success. Indeed, were it otherwise, as Mr. Mackenzie has
frankly avowed, it would be neither just nor prudent to
reverse it abruptly. It is too early even yet to pass a decisive verdict upon the tariff of 1879, and all that can be expected from the present or any future Government is a wise
relief from the more galling burdens of taxation when the
growing necessities of expenditure, and the more robust
vigour of Canadian manufactures will permit. For the present, it is evident that, apart from economic predilections,
a larger revenue must be collected, or a serious increase made
to the public debt; and now that the Dominion can afford
the sacrifice, it is better to make it, rather than suffer when
the nation! back is infirm, and its recuperative power less
mm ggjSs i
The only other measure to be noted is the Pacific Railway
scheme. The subject ought never to have become material
for party dissension. Circumstances, however, have determined it otherwise. From the first Liberals and Conservatives have made this enterprise, to which the faith of
the Dominion was pledged, a bone of contention. It is too
late now to deplore the fact; indeed until the last spike is
-driven, and the iron horse can traverse its entire length—a
• time not now far distant,—partizans will unquestionably
contend over it in Parliament, in the press, and on public
platforms. As we have seen, Mr. Mackenzie, who set about
the work with exemplary vigour, proposed to proceed with
it by sections, under contracts let by the Government, which
was to own it and superintend its management. Meanwhile
the magnificent system of water communication was to be
developed for summer use. At one time the ex-Premier
endeavoured to secure a Company willing to shoulder the
entire burden; but, at that moment, owing no doubt to the
financial depression prevailing, no capitalists came forward.
The late Government was also hampered by the unsatisfactory attitude of British Columbia. That Province insisted
upon a literal fulfilment of the bond, and clamoured for the
construction of the'least profitable section of the line at a
time when the country was least able to afford the necessary expenditure.
Meanwhile the surveys were completed and active operations carried on in the section between Lake Superior and
Red River. It is unnecessary to dwell upon the party
complaints about extravagant works, favouritism in the
matter of contracts, or the inevitable charges of corruption
MMi 786
ao-ainst Ministers, made then as now. It seems to be the
destiny of this country never to embark on any enterprise
without at once affording an opening for scandal-mongers.
Of all the native products of Canada, corruption-fables are
'the ones which flourish with the rankest luxuriance. The
records of more than three decades, could they be tabulated
in a blue book, would prove that this country can boast more
scandals or slanders, population being taken into account,
then any civilized community of modern times,.not excepting the American Union. In fact a regular crop of them
has become a necessary of party life amongst us.
Sir John A. Macdonald temporarily adopted his predecessor's policy and continued the work of railway construction
upon the old lines. But he nevertheless determined as early
as practicable to carry out his original scheme of incorporating a company. It was not, however, until December,
1880, that the Government was able to announce that a contract had been entered into, subject to the approval of
Parliament, " for the speedy construction and permanent
working " of the Canadian Pacific Railway. According to
the terms of this agreement a syndicate had undertaken
the enterprise, the consideration being $25,000,000 payable pari passu with the work of construction, and
25,000,000 of acres of land to be allotted in alternate sections on either side of the line. The railway was to be begun at both ends and prosecuted | at such rate of annual
progress on each section as shall enable the company to complete and equip the same in running order, on or before the
1st of May, 1891." The capital stock of the Syndicate, in
which of course the land and money bonuses were not in- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
eluded, were to be free of taxation; its occupied property
was also declared to be exempt as well as the lands, until
sold, for a period of twenty years. Finally any material
necessary for construction or equipment might be imported
without fiscal impost. Provision was also made against injurious competition in the matter of branches.
Such, in brief, were the conditions of the agreement entered into between Sir Charles Tupper on the part of this-
Dominion, and the members of the Syndicate. It is not
proposed here to discuss the wisdom of the scheme, because-
ahy argument to be full and adequate would necessarily
spread over more space than could reasonably be demanded.
The first Company established had a Scotsman at its head;.
the second, and more successful venture, was set on foot
mainly by Scots. Sir Hugh Allan took no part in the Syndicate ; but George Stephen, Duncan Mclntyre, Richard B_
Angus, Donald A. Smith and Sir John Rose were all of them
sons of I Auld Scotia," and, by their energy in prosecuting-
the great national work have approved themselves worthy
inheritors of the national grit and energy. Of Sir John
♦Rose notice has already been taken in connection with public affairs. To the others attention must be directed
Whatever can be said about the propriety of the agreement—and upon that subject there may be room for honest
differences in opinion—there is no doubt at all concerning-
the vigour and capacity of the active workers of the Company.    The impetus given to settlement even thus early,
* A redundantly complete statement of the case on both sides will be found In the House-
of Commons Debates for the Session 1880-81. '788
the more dubious phenomenon of land speculation, the in-
-creased promise of immigration and settlement upon an unprecedented scale have directly resulted from the Syndicate's energy and enterprise. So far from delaying the
work for another ten years the announcement has been
made that the entire line will be in working order within
half the stipulated period. That the outlay should appear
•extravagant, and the privileges granted exceptional may be.
true ; but when the magnitude of the undertaking, the expense devolving upon the Company in working some portions
admittedly at a loss, and the absolute necessity of getting
the matter out of hand, once and for all, are taken into consideration, there is every reason to be satisfied with the bargain. The subject is removed practically out of the party
.arena, and that alone is something to be thankful for. Had
the enterprise still been under Government construction,
there are no data for guessing when it would have been, completed. Only one thing is certain that' for half a generation
.at least, the Dominion would have been overstocked with
scandalous stories of corruption in a market where the supply is always much in excess of the demand.
- The two subjects alluded to have so entirely occupied
public attention during the past three years and a half that
-any allusion to minor matters can hardly be called for. In
connection with Ontario, however, two other topics have assumed importance. When the Hudson Bay Territory was
ceded to Canada, the boundaries of that Province to the
north and west was left undefined. The question had been
discussed fully both before and after the cession; yet until
1874 no steps whatever were taken to secure a- definite THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
settlement.* It would appear from recent correspondences
between the Dominion and Provincial Governments that, in
1872, the former proposed a reference of the subject to the
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. There certainly
appear to have been plausible reasons for such an appeal.
The boundary could hardly be settled by testimony as to-
fact, since its precise location turns upon the interpretation
'of treaties and other state papers. When the Reformers succeeded to power, however, it appeared to them a better
plan to have recourse to arbitration. Chief Justice Harrison—a gentleman of unquestionable ability and honour who
unfortunately passed prematurely away after the award—
was chosen to represent Ontario; Sir Francis Hincks, the
veteran statesman, appeared for the Dominion, whilst Sir
Edward Thornton, the British Minister at Washington, was.
nominated as the third member of the Commission It
would seem that, after examining the documents pertinent
to the matter, all the arbitrators came to the same conclusion independently of one another. They agreed in deciding on the Albany River, St. Joseph's, and Lonely Lakes, and
English River to the north-west angle of the Lake of the
Woods and thence due south to the American boundary, as
the western limit of Ontario. The award, however, having
for its basis an Order in Council, required confirmation both
from Parliament and the Provincial Legislature. The latter anticipated the result by accepting the award in advance ; but the Dominion has not yet seen fit to accept it.
*The Hon. William McDougall and Mr. Charles Lindsey, Registrar for the City of
Toronto, have both given valuable literary assistance in the matter 790
The controversy is still pending, and, therefore, it is only
necessary to state the positions of the parties. The Ontario Government insists that the award requires only a, pro
formd sanction, since a decision by arbitrators ought morally
to bind both parties. It is also urged that gross injury is
done to the disputed territory from the absence of any
settled title to lands and timber, and farther from the lack of
a fixed system of administrative justice. Moreover Ontario,
having readily accepted less then she believes to be her due,
considers that the Dominion should promptly concede to
the Province the lands awarded. On the other hand the
Dominion Government; which came into power just before
the result of the arbitration was made known, in 1878,
declines to accept a boundary it declares to be not " legal,"
but "conventional." A committee of the House of Commons reported adversely to the award, and the Ottawa Administration, adhering to the policy pursued when the Conservative party was previously in office,- insists upon judicial arbitrament in some form or other either here or in Eng-
land. A perusal of the papers lately issued impresses the
reader with a conviction that the whole question in dispute
is one of great delicacy, and the partizan aspect it has assumed is much to be regretted.
The other matter which will probably occupy public attention during the approaching electoral struggle is a
disallowance of Provincial Bills or Acts by the Governor-
General in Council. The immediate cause of this discussion
as between the parties, was a measure passld in the Ontario
Legislature last year, dealing with streams used for floating
timber.   That the Bill was on general grounds objection-
able is clear. As the law stood according to judicial interpretation, up to that moment, Mr. McLaren, the particular
owner aimed at, was possessed of exclusive rights in the improvements which he had purchased and maintained, at a
considerable outlay, relying upon the decision of the Courts.
It was not proposed to purchase his rights, but only to compensate for them by appointing him toll-keeper on his own
property. The equity of any such enactment was antecedently
doubtful; but a crucial question arose upon the disallowance of the Streams and Rivers Bill on the recommendation
of Hon. Jas. Macdonald, Minister of Justice. His objections
were that the Act was retrospective in character, that it interfered with matters in course of litigation, and that it
confiscated private property without adequate compensation.
The Ontario Government admitted that the first two exceptions were well founded, but held them to be defensible
on the score of necessity. The last it denied on the ground
that the tolls provided for were an adequate recompense to
the owner. At all events the position taken by the Provincial Ministry was that the Governor-General in Council
had no right to veto any local measure provided it came
within provincial jurisdiction under section ninety-two of
the British North America Act. It was pointed out that
Sir John Macdonald had laid down the principle of noninterference with such legislation in 1868, and had always
declined to meddle with it.
The only precedents adducible occurred whilst the Liberal
party was in power, but were directly to the point.    Much
' stress was laid upon the fact that the Streams and Rivers
Bill had not been reserved by the Lieutenant-Governor, as THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
others subsequently vetoed had been. But the distinction
attempted to be drawn is evidently a fanciful one. All
Provincial measures must be, in the end, either tacitly or
formally assented to by the Governor-General. The reservation of any Bill is only a method of calling attention to
it that may be adopted at pleasure by a Lieutenant-Gov-
enor, since he is not a Local but a Dominion officer. That
there should be well defined limits to the exercise of the prero-
ative maybe true; but so long as the constitutional Act leaves
the power to governmental discretion at Ottawa, there is no
plausible reason for complaining when that power is exerted.
The Dominion Government is responsible to Parliament and.
the country for any misuse of the authority entrusted to it
and consequently the attempt to make a sectional issue of any
particular disallowance seems simply a partizan movement.
Holding that view and having before us the precedents
established under the administration of Mr. Mackenzie, it is
impossible not to recognise the right simply of the Government to veto the Act in question, but also its duty to do so, if
the provisions of it were clearly inequitable and not in accordance with sound public policy. On that point, the "central authority" being supreme, subject to its parliamentary responsibility, must be the sole judge. No one can fear that the
prerogative will be often used, or that it will ever act tyrannically in violation of Provincial autonomy. It simply serves,
as the Reform leaders pointed out in 1865 as a protection to
individuals and classes against any such injustice as may possibly be wrought by a partizan majority. Matters of jurisdiction may be readily decided by judicial authority; in- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
-equitable laws coming within Provincial cognizance can be
annulled by the veto alone.* That, as it appears to the writer, is the only tenable doctrine on constitutional grounds.^
Having thus concluded a necessarily imperfect sketch of
political history during this period, it seems proper to conclude the chapter with some biographical notices of public
men of the later years. So far as regards the Eastern Provinces, the list of Scots has been brought down to date ; and
now, as the affairs of Ontario were last before us, it seems
proper to begin with the Legislature of that Province. Most
of the men occupying the foremost rank have already been
reviewed; but there are others who must not be passed over.
Precedence may be given to a legislator who was removed
by death all too prematurely, at the very time when, in the
prime of life, his ability and usefulness were universally recognised. William Hepburn Scott, B. A., Q. C, the son of
an Aberdonian, was born at Brampton in November
1S37. He entered the University of Toronto in the year
1856, and his stalwart form is still remembered by his contemporaries, one of whom was the writer. He was a true
son of the soil, with real Scottish grit as hereditary capital
at command. His nature was one of the kindliest, his talents
-were promising, because they were solid rather than brilliant.
Be graduated in 1860, and immediately employing himself
to the study of the law, was called to the Bar in 1863.
After practising for some years in partnership with his
* The entire subject is discussed at length in Mr. Todd's admirable work on Parliamentary Government in the Colonies, pp. 325-388.
' t Since the above passed into the printer's hands, a precisely identical view of the case
has been presented by the Hon. Jas. Cockburn, ex-Speaker of the House of Commons, in the
Canadian Monthly, March and April, 1882. 'tin a
3 1
brother, A. F. Scott, now Judge of the County Court of"
Peel, he removed to Peterborough.    Mr. Scott's first experiences in election matters were varied rather than satisfactory.
At the general election of 1874, he appealed to the electors
of West Peterborough as a Conservative candidate for the
House of Commons, but was defeated, the majority against
him being ninety-one.   .In June, of the same year, however,
a vacancy occurring in the Local Legislature for the same
constituency, he secured a seat only to lose it at the general
election of 1875, by a majority of forty-five.    His opponent,,
however,  was subsequently unseated, and Mr. Scott was-
elected to succeed him \n October.    In 1879, when a new-
House had to be chosen, he triumphed by the substantial
majority of two hundred and fifty.    By this time his talents-
were fully acknowledged; he was a recognised leader of the
Opposition.    Unhappily this bright promise of the time was
not destined to reach fruition.    After serving during one
Session and a portion of the second, he was seized with an
illness of a lingering,character from which he never recovered.    His death was a distinct loss, not only to his party I
but to the Assembly and the Province.
Lieut.-Colonel JohnMorisonGibson, who represents theCity
of Hamilton in the Legislature, is also a Scoto-Canadian. His
father, who came from Forfarshire, some fifty-five years ago,,
was a farmer in the Township of Toronto. Being a cousin
of David Gibson, of Yonge street, whose name, in connection
with that of Mackenzie, is familiar to those who know the
history of 1837, Mr. Gibson is, from family predilection, a
staunch Reformer. He was born at the family homestead
on New Year's Day, 1842, so that he is now in the prime of , THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
life.    After receiving a preliminary training at Hamilton, if
we mistake not, under Mr. McCallum, of the Central School
—himself a Scot well-known in former years in Toronto	
he entered University College in 1859.    His course there
was an eminently successful one, and he gave promise of
future eminence as a public speaker in the discussions of the
Literary Society.     Mr.   Gibson graduated in  1863  with
honours, having received medals in Classics and Modern
Languages, the Prince of Wales'Prize, and another in Orien-
■ tal Literature.    Presumably his intention at that time was
to  enter the ministry of the Presbyterian Church; if so
he abandoned it, for in the following year we find him
studying law in his adopted city.    The attractions of Alma
Mater were strong for the young graduate.    He entered in
the law faculty and took the degree of Bachelor of Laws
with the gold medal.    He was called to the bar in 1867,
and has since practised successfully as a partner of Messrs.
MacKelcan and Bell—the former of whom is  a lawyer of
singular ability.     Mr. Gibson's attachment to the cause of
education first  attracted public attention.   He has  filled
the chair of the School Board, and since 1873 has been regularly, elected by his brother graduates to the Senate of the
Cicero says, Inter arma silent leges; but Col. Gibson
appears to have achieved success both with the rifle and the
brief. In 1860, he joined the University Rifle Company,
connected with the Queen's Own, and originally commanded
by Captain and Professor Croft. When Mr. Gibson removed
to Hamilton, he became a member of the 13th battalion of
Volunteer Militia, and advanced through every grade from THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
I full private " to Lieutenant-Colonel. He was present with
his regiment at Ridgeway during the Fenian raid of 1866,
and has thus seen frontier as well as camp service. The use
of the rifle is a pastime with Col. Gibson, and he is one of the
best shots in the Dominion, to which it may be added that
he holds a first class Military School certificate. He was a
member of the Canadian Wimbledon teams of 1874, 1875
and 1879, and the team which contended at Creedmoor in
1876. In 1879 he won the Prince of Wales' prize at Wimbledon. In 1881, if not in the previous year, he acted as
Captain and director of the team. Mr. Gibson was elected as
member for Hamilton in the Local Legislature in 1879, in a
close contest, by a majority of sixty-two over Mr. Murray.
As we have already said, the hon. member is a Liberal in
politics, i His namesake, Mr. Thomas Gibson, M.P.P. for East
Huron, is a Scot by birth, hailing from Greenlaw, in Berwickshire, where he was born in June, 1825.
David D. Hay, M.P.P. for North Perth, was born at Dundee, Forfarshire, in January, 1828. At the age of sixteen
he crossed the ocean to seek his- fortune in Canada. After
a short season of employment at Montreal, Mr. Hay came
west to Bowmanville and spent a few years as clerk there.
After this period of probation he engaged in business for
himself at Lefroy, in the county of Simcoe, until 1855, when
he settled finally in the township of Elma, Perth. Where the
village of Listowel now stands, there was then but one house,
presumably a store and post-office, since it bore the name of
Mapleton. In partnership with his brothers, he may be said
to have called a new settlement into existence, building saw
3 o
and grist mills, and at the same time cultivating as a farmer.
Mr. Hay has served in a number of municipal offices and is-
the chief business man in Listowel. When the Wellington,.
Grey and Bruce Railway was projected in 1867, he took an
active part both in aid of the line, and securing its passage
through his village. During a period of more than five years,
he was an ardent promoter of the Stratford and Huron line
which also touched at Listowel. During two years, Mr. Hay
was emigration agent for the Province in Scotland, where
he spent some months ; but. was recalled to work in the department here. He resigned his position at the opening of
1875, in order to contest North Perth. This he did with
success, and has represented the riding ever since. Mr. Hay
is a Liberal, and also a Provincial patriot in a practical
way, for he is the father of nine additions to the population
of Ontario.
Thomas Mclntyre Nairn, member for East Elgin, is also
a Liberal. He was born at Balloch, Dumbartonshire, in
June, 1836. When only fourteen he left his native land
and arrived at St. John, N.B., where he was engaged for
some time in a book and publishing house. Thence to Boston where he found employment in an insurance office.
Being resolved to better his prospects, young Nairn started
for the Western States, but having stopped on the way to
visit some friends in the County of Elgin, he made Aylmer
his future home and has resided there ever since. Serving
for some time as a book-keeper, he became a partner in
business on his own account, as a general merchant and
grain dealer. He is now a notary public and general business agent. During a period of eighteen years Mr. Nairn
served in the County Council, and was Warden for six con- r98
secutive years. Like Mr. Hay, he has been an active worker-
in railway enterprise, especially in the promotion of the
Canada Southern—a line from which the County of Elgin
has profited so much; and also in the Canada Air Line
which passes through Aylmer. The latter is now merged
in the Great Western. He was an unsuccessful candidate
for East Elgin in 1867, but' the majority against him was
very small. He did not again contest the seat until the last
general election when he was returned by a majority of
one hundred and thirty-two.
Lieut.-Col. Alexander McLagan' Ross, M.P.P., for West
Huron, was one of the pioneer settlers, although he came
thither at an early age. He was born at Dundee, Forfar-
shire, in April, 1829, and was brought to Goderich in 1834.
His parents were convinced that every lad should learn a
trade whether he followed it or not. Accordingly, Alexander
was apprenticed to a carpenter and joiner and worked at
the business for six years. When twenty years of age he
became a clerk in the Upper Canada Bank Agency; in 1856
he was made pajrmaster in the Buffalo and Lake Huron
Railway Company, and in 1858 Treasurer of the County—
an office he has ever since held. In ] 866 Mr. Ross became
manager of the newly-opened branch at Goderich of the
Royal Canadian Bank. On the suspension of that bank, or
rather in the following year (1870), he undertook a similar
position in the Bank of Commerce, which he yet fills. At
the time of the Trent affair of 1861, when patriotic fervour
ran high, Mr. Ross raised an artillery compan}*-, of which he
was made Captain. During the Fenian raid of 1866 he saw
service on the frontier, and in the same year the volunteers THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
-of the district having been formed into a battalion, of which
Mr. Ross was made Lieutenant-Colonel, a rank he still enjoys. Mr. Ross first appealed to the electors of West Huron
at the general election of 1875 and succeeded, beating his
opponent, Mr. Davison, a fellow-townsman, by a majority
of ninety-four. In 1879 he defeated another opponent by
the much-increased majority of four hundred and twenty-
four. In politics Col. Ross is a Reformer; in religion a
member of the Church of England.
Donald Sinclair, M. P. P., has represented North Bruce
ever since confederation was established. No account of
his life is at hand, except the barest skeleton of a biography.
He was born in the Island of Islay, educated in Scotland, and arrived.in Canada about 1851. Mr. Sinclair, is a
merchant at Paisley, and as we have said, entered the As-
- sembly when that body was constituted. At the elections
of 1867 and 1871, he was returned by acclamation; in 1875
was opposed by a namesake, but succeeded by a majority of
-over two hundred and sixty ; finally in 1879, he once more
triumphed by four hundred majority. William Lees, member for South Lanark, was born in that county in 1821.
His father had come out from Scotland, four years before,
and settled in the Bathurst District, one of its pioneers.
The son was brought up as a farmer, and continued to till
the soil until 1857, when he built a saw, and afterwards a
flour-mill. Mr. Lees owns five hundred acres of land, which
he continues to farm in addition to an extensive lumbering
business. It may be added that he has been a magistrate
for nearly forty years. In politics Mr. Lees is a Conservative ; he was first elected to represent his constituency in
H&f 800
1879, by a majority of over fifty. William Mack, who represents Cornwall, is also a new member. He is a native
Scot, having been born in Lanarkshire, in 1828. As his
education waa conducted in Canada, he must have " come
out" at an early age. Mr. Mack, has served in the town
council of Cornwall, and also as Warden of Stormont, Dun-
das and Glengarry. He was returned for Cornwall in 1879.
David Robertson, M.D., M.P.P., for Halton, is a native of
the county, having been born in Esquesing, on July 9th,
1841. His father Alexander hailed from Perthshire, where
he first saw the light in 1785 ; he was the grandson of
•Colonel Donald Robertson, who led his clan at the battle of
Culloden. Alexander entered the army and saw active service in the Peninsular war; but a wound received there
so seriously disabled him that he was compelled to retire.
After a short trial of the West Indies he settled in the county
of Halton, of which he was one of the earliest residents.
There he engaged in surveying, school-teaching, and finally
farming. • The general agent for the people around, he went
by the name of "Squire Robertson." His son David has
preferred the profession which heals wounds to that which
inflicts them. In 1864, after a course at McGill's College
he received the degree of M.D. At the same time the
inherited martial instinct asserted itself, for in 1866 Dr.
Robertson raised a company of volunteers, of which he was
Captain. Since 1867 he has practised his profession at
Milton, with eminent success. When in Nassao-aweya
he was Local Superintendent of Schools ; and has served
as Mayor of Milton during four successive years; as Treasurer of the School Board and Mechanics' Institute nine THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
years. In 1879 he was elected to the Assembly from Halton as a Liberal, by the narrow margin of thirty-two. He
is a large property-owner both in the town and county.
Kenneth Chisholm, who represents Peel in the Ontario
Assembly, is sprung of an old Highland clan. His family
came from Inverness-shire, and settled in Glengarry. In
1818, Mr. Chisholm's father removed to Toronto township,,
then in the Home District, in the County of Peel. His mother, ne'e Mary McDonell, was of the U. E. Loyalist stock,,
and received a grant of land, which was sold, but has been
re-purchased by Mr. Chisholm after an interval of half a
century. Born in the county, the present member commenced life as a clerk in a store at Brampton, and now,
after twenty-five years' enterprising work, is the principal
merchant in the county. He also owns a flour mill and a
farm of five hundred acres, deals largely in grain, flour and
provisions, and maintains a branch establishment at Orange-
ville. For twenty-four years Mr. Chisholm has been a member of the municipal council, and thrice Warden of the county. He was first returned for Peel in 1873, to fill a vacancy
caused by the death of Mr. Coyne, the sitting member. In
1875 he was again elected, by a majority of oyer a hundred,,
unseated on petition, and re-seated on appeal. At the
last general election his majority was over one hundred and
fifty. liBfllffj'
Thomas Ballantyne, member for South Perth, was born at
Peebles, in 1829, and came to this country in 1852.    He is-
, engaged in the manufacture of cheese on a large scale, and
has been president of the Dairymen's Association.    In 1871
he contested North Perth, but was defeated,  and next year •802
he received the Reform nomination for the Commons, but
•declined it. At the Provincial elections of 1875 he was successful as a candidate for the South Riding, his majority
being over one hundred and eighty. In 1879 it rose to considerably more than three hundred. Mr. Ballantyne's place
■of residence is Stratford. Archibald Bishop has represented
South Huron since 1873, when the sitting member, Mr. Gibbons, resigned. He is a native of Edinburgh, and received
his education in Scotland. Mr. Bishop has been Warden of
the County, and has occupied his seat in the present Assembly for nine years. James Hill Hunter, of South Grey,
hails from Renfrewshire, where he was born in 1839. He'
is an Upper Canada College boy, having completed his education at that institution. Mr. Hunter, who is a merchant,
at Durham, was elected for the Riding in 1875 by a plurality
•of votes, for he had two opponents ; but in 1879, with Mr.
James Fahey alone in the field, he obtained a majority of
•over six hundred.
There are other members of the Assembly who would appear to be Scots, or of Scottish parentage, but, unfortunately,
there is no accessible information about them at command.
Such are Messrs. Robert McKim, of South Wellington;
Alexander Robertson, of West Hastings; and James Living-
-ston, of South Waterloo. On the whole, it will be admitted
that Caledonia is well represented in the legislative arena,
and the records of these gentlemen show that they have won
their positions by sheer industry, energy, and force of character.
Before concluding this chapter, there are  still some few
names to note which must not be omitted, although they
appear out of their proper place.    The first is that of one
of the Senators appointed a few months ago.
Alexander Walker Ogilvie, Senator, "is descended from a
younger brother of Gilchrist, Earl of Angus, who, in the 13th
century, was rewarded with the lands of Ogilvie, in Banffshire,
and assumed the name of the estate. The family is celebrated for having long preserved the crown and sceptre from
the hands of Cromwell."* Mr. Ogilvie was the eldest son of a
Stirlingshire farmer, who came to Canada as far back as 1800,
and settled on the island of Montreal, and tilled his own land
which was at Point St. Charles, where the Grand Trunk
works now are. He married in this country a Stirlingshire
wife, by whom he had five daughters and three sons, all living. Mr. Ogilvie, senior, was an officer in the Lachine cavalry, and served both in the war of 1812, and in the rebellion of 1837. He died in 1838 ; his wife in 1862. The
subject of this sketch was born at St. Michel, near Montreal,
in May, 1829, and received his education in that city. The
three brothers Ogilvie in due time entered into partnership
as flour merchants. The firm-was constituted in 1854. At
the present of time, it owns two flouring mills at Montreal,
one at Goderich and one at Seaforth, which together turn
out about 1,700 barrels of flour, besides meal, daily. The
Ontario establishments have also salt-works attached, which
together produce about forty tons a day. Messrs. Ogilvie
& Co. are perhaps the most extensive wheat buyers in the
Province, and were the first in the field in Manitoba. They
also purchase largely at Chicago, Milwaukee and Duluth.
They" are about to engage largely in farming, having secured
Montreal Railway Journal, J any. 13th, 1882. 804
25,000 acres of prairie land in the North-West. For some
years past, the senior partner has been out of the firm, but
its old name is still retained. In 1867, Mr. A. W, Ogilvie was
returned for Montreal West at the general elections to the
Local Assembly, and sat in it for some years. He has also-
served for a long period as Alderman of the City of Montreal, as Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry, President of the
Hochelaga Agricultural Society, of the Turnpike Trust Company, and of the St. Andrew's Society ; besides being a Life
Governor of the General Hospital. On January 7th, 1882,.
Mr. Ogilvie was called to the Senate to fill the vacancy
caused by the death of the Hon. E. G. Penny, and took his
seat in that body at the opening of the present session.
Donald Macmaster, Q.C., M.P.P. for the County of Glengarry, comes of Highland stock on both sides of the house.
He was born in the county he now represents in the Ontario
Assembly early in September, 1846. His preliminary education was conducted at the Williamstown Grammar School,,
and he subsequently entered McGill University, Montreal,
and graduated there with distinction as Bachelor of Civil
Law, in 1871, with honours. On this occasion he carried off
the Torrance gold medal, the highest distinction in the gift
of the University. Mr. Macmaster was also elected President of the McGill Literary Society. Simultaneously with
his college course, he applied himself to the practical study
of law under the Hon.' J. J. Abbott, and Edward Carter,,
both Queen's Counsel of eminence. In 1882, Mr. Macmaster
was created Queen's Counsel, and shortly afterwards called
Although only thirty-five years of age, Mr. Macmaster has
secured an enviable position in the practice of his profession. There are few Canadian young men who have so
early been engaged in cases of supreme importance. In one
suit against St. Andrew's Church in 1877, he carried his
point with the Supreme Court, and secured the reversal of
previous decisions rendered in the Quebec Courts. More
recently, Mr. Macmaster has achieved still higher distinction
by his successful argument, as counsel for the Rev. Mr.
Dobie in the matter of the Temporalities Fund of the Presbyterian Church in connection with the Church of Scotland.
Throughout the suit the learned gentleman persistently
struggled for the interests of his client, and had the satisfaction of obtaining a satisfactory decision from the Judicial
Committee of the Privy Council in England. The result
was, that the Quebec Act which apparently settled the
financial basis of the Presbyterian Union of 1875 was declared
to be ultra vires. During the present Session of Parliament
a Bill was introduced to remedy the flaw. It was ably and
vigorously opposed by Mr. Macmaster before the Private Bills
Committee, but eventually succeeded both there and in the
Commons. Its fate in the Senate is still undetermined.
In all possibility, the measure, in the shape of a compromise
between the parties, will soon become law.
In 1879, Mr. Macmaster, although a resident of Montreal,
was elected to the'Ontario Assembly from his native county
in the Conservative interest, but not by a decisive majority.
In the legislature he has already distinguished himself by his
clear views and lucid expression of them. Mr. Macmaster,
as has been already said, is still young, yet has gained a 80G THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
reputation of which he may be justly proud. He possesses
conspicuous abilities, pleasing manners and address, as well
as great energy of character. In all human probability a
bright future lies before him.
John Lorn Macdougall, M.A., at present Auditor-General
of Canada, was born in Renfrew in the year 1838.    His
father sat for the county for a short time in the Canadian
Assembly, but resigned before the expiration of his term.
The son was educated at the High School, Montreal, and
entered the University of Toronto in 1855, where he was
distinguished alike by his close application to study, and the
quiet regularity of his life.    He graduated in 1859, carrying
off the gold medal in mathematics, and a silver medal in
modern languages.    Mr. Macdougall has taken an active
part in municipal affairs, and served as Warden of his county.
He has also been President of the South Renfrew Agricultural Society.    In 1867, he was elected for South Renfrew
to the first Ontario Assembly by a majority of over one
hundred and forty.   During the last two years of his term,
he was also a member of the House of Commons, and retained
his seat until the general election of .1872, when he suffered
defeat.   In 1874, however, he defeated" Mr. Bannerman by
a majority of seventy.    He was unseated on petition, but
had the good fortune to be re-elected.    Once more secured
deprived of his seat which was lost on petition, but secured
re-election in February, 1875.  Mr. Macdougall continued to
represent South Renfrew until August, 1878, when he was
appointed to be Auditor-General of Canada in place qf Mr.
Langton, who was Yice-Chancellor of the University when
his successor graduated. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
John Macdonald, formerly M.P. for Centre Toronto, was
bom in Perthshire, Scotland, in the month of December,.
1824. Coming to this country when young, he was educated
at Dalhousie College, Halifax, and at Bay St. Academy, Toronto. At the latter institution, conducted by Mr. Boyd,
father of the Chancellor of Ontario, Mr. Macdonald had the
honour of winning the classical medal. Having chosen the
mercantile profession, he served for two years at Ganan-
oque with Messrs. C. and J. Macdonald, the latter of whom,
the Hon John Macdonald, was a member of the old Legisla-
tive Assembly of the Province. Mr. Macdonald then entered
the business house of the late Mr. Walter Macfarlane on
King St. East. This establishment was perhaps the largest
of its kind in the Province of Upper Canada. After remaining there for six years, he found himself compelled, because
of failing health, to seek a change of climate. He repaired to
Jamaica in 1847, and entered the house of Messrs. Nether-
soil & Co.—one of the most considerable on the Island.
Mr. Macdonald had intended to devote himself to the work
of the Christian ministry in the Methodist Church, but was
reluctantly compelled to abandon this purpose by his medical
On his return the subject of our sketch commenced business on his own account in October, 1849, on Yonge Street
near Richmond St., and was the first to attempt an exclusively
dry goods establishment on that street. In 1853 he removed
to Wellington Street nearly opposite his present capacious
warehouses. Thus was laid the foundation, in an unpretending way, of the extensive wholesale and importing house
of John Macdonald & Co.     After a lapse of nine years Mr. 808
Macdonald built the handsome premises on the other side of
Wellington Street. These were subsequently enlarged by
the addition of the large pile of buildings which had in former years been termed in succession the North American
Hotel and the Newbigging House, on Front Street. Frequent extensions of the warehouses, &c. have been made at
a large outlay. The frontage is 100 feet, depth 140 feet;
the buildings are six stories in height and cover about two
acres. About eighty men are employed, besides the office
staff and buyers in the English and American markets. The
establishment is certainly the largest in Canada and will
compare favourably with wholesale houses in the larger
American cities.
Mr. Macdonald entered public life as member, for West
Toronto in the Legislative Assembly, defeating the present
Lieut. Governor of Ontario by the large majority of four
hundred and sixty-two. Re-elected in 1865, the hon. gentleman sat until the Union, when he was defeated for the
Commons by Mr. (afterwards Chief Justice) Harrison. In
1875 a vacancy occurred in the representation of Centre
Toronto—a constituency set apart in 1872. Mr. Macdonald
was invited to become a candidate and gained the seat by
acclamation. In 1878, however, when the reaction occurred,
he was defeated by Mr. R. Hay, the sitting member at present, by a majority of four hundred and ninety. In politics,
Mr. Macdonald has always, been an independent Liberal,
sitting loose to the ties of party where they appeared to
trammel his settled convictions. He* opposed the coalition
of 1864, and. voted against confederation. This attitude
towards party, where its claims appeared to conflict with THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
duty is clearly defined in his reply to a requisition, inviting
him to be a candidate in 1875. Promising to give the then
Government a cheerful support, Mr. Macdonald declined to
promise more, and it was to the credit of the requisitionists
that they conceded to him in advance | perfect freedom of
judgment in deciding upon all questions."*
Mr. Macdonald is a Director in a number of business companies, and also Chairman of the Hospital Board. Active
too in the cause of education, he has for some years been
a Senator of the Provincial U niversity, Visitor of Victoria
University, and member of the High School Board. In religious matters especially, Mr. Macdonald has taken a deep
and fervent interest. As already hinted, Mr. Macdonald is a
member of the Methodist Church to which he has devoted
liberally his time and talents. He has long been a member
of the Executive Committee of the General Conference and
Treasurer of the Missionary Society. Outside his own denomination, his energy and zeal have been conspicuous as an
office-bearer in the Evangelical Alliance, the Bible Society,
and the Young Men's Christian Association. Of the last
named body, he has been twice President at the United
Convention of Ontario and Quebec. Mr. Macdonald is deeply concerned for the moral and intellectual progress of young
men. He employs many of them, and has given them the
benefit of his prolonged ^experience in two brochures,
I Business Success " originally a lecture, and a practical address " To the Young Men of the Warehouse." He is a
striking instance himself of what energy and perseverance,
* For Mr. Macdonald's reply, see The Canadian Parliamentary Companion for 1876
p. 678. 810
when directed by the strictest integrity may accomplish for
those who are just entering upon the battle of life.
A notice of Mr. Robert Hay, M.P. for Centre Toronto was
inadvertently omitted in its proper place; but it may be
appropriately introduced here.    Mr. Hay was born in the
parish of Tippermuir, Perthshire, in May, 1808.   His father
was a farmer of moderate means, with a family of nine children.     Circumstances, therefore,  obliged Robert to leave
school at the age of fourteen.    He was apprenticed to a cabinet-maker at Perth, where he learned his trade thoroughly,
afterwards working as a journeyman.   In 1831 he resolved
to try his fortunes in Canada and arrived at Toronto in the
September of that year.   After pursuing his way tentatively for a few years, he entered into partnership with Mr. John
Jacques, an Englishman from Cumberland, and the firm,
notwithstanding its humble beginnings, progressed rapidly
and lasted for thirty-five years.    Mr. Hay devoted himself
assiduously to business, and has for years been in independent circumstances.    Nevertheless the establishment has not
been without serious reverses.    Twice, its vast factory and
furniture store-houses, were swept away by fire at a loss in
the aggregate of $200,000—the savings of twenty years.
Notwithstanding these misfortunes, the firm never lost heart
or hope, and their progress was only arrested temporarily by
them.   In 1870 Mr. Jacques retired from the business, which
has been conducted by Mr. Hay, with two partners, during
the past twelve years.   The furniture supplied by this celebrated firm is known and in use all over Canada and in a
large portion of the United States.     Of late years its reputation has crossed the Atlantic, and many English families THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
have been supplied from the Front St. factory; amono-
them those of Lord Abinger and Mr. Bass, M.P., son of the
well-known brewer at Burton-on-Trent.
Mr.Hay has not confined himself to the furniture business
solely. In connection with it he owns a large saw-mill, at
New Lowell, in the County of Simcoe, which turns out over
four millions of feet annually. In addition to it, he is with
his nephew, Mr. Patton, the proprietor of a large well-cleared
farm of seven hundred acres, about one hundred of which are
devoted to potatoes and other root crops, for which the soil
is admirably suited. Of late Mr. Hay has turned his attention to the breeding of short-horn caijtle, high-class sheep
and swine. He also owns two thousand acres of woodland
near New Lowell, the timber being used for manufacturing
purposes. Mr. Hay is a director of the Credit Valley Railway
Company, and of the Electric Manufacturing Co. In politics,
he was originally attached to the Baldwin Reformers, but
his views on the fiscal policy of Canada led h'im to join the
Liberal Conservative party. He contested Centre Toronto
with Mr. John Macdonald, in September, 1878, and as already
stated, defeated him by a large majority. In religion, he
belongs the Presbyterian Church of Canada. In three years,
should he be spared, Mr. Hay will have been engaged in the
manufacture of cabinet furniture for exactly half a century.
The indomitable energy which has characterized his long
business life, and the success with which it has been crowned,
are deserving of special note. Mr. Hay does not, we believe,
care for Parliamentary life, because it does not suit his siiaid
and long settled habits. He, therefore, it is stated, intends to
withdraw at the next general election. ■812
Another member of the present House of Commons, to
whom reference should have been made, is Lieut-Colonel
James Acheson Skinner who sits for South Oxford. He was
born in the royal burgh of Tain, Ross-shire, in 1826,and educated at the Royal Academy there. At the age of seventeen,
Mr. Skinner came to Canada and devoted himself to agriculture. To use his own 'words he is "a farmer, and proud of
being a farmer." He is chiefly known to the public as a
zealous and active officer in the Volunteer Militia. Entering the service in 1855, he soon after organized the first
Highland Company in Canada. It having been disbanded,
he organized a second which he uniformed at his own expense. This company was on duty at Hamilton during the
visit of H. R. H» the Prince of Wales. When the 13th Battalion was formed in 1862, Captain Skinner became Major,
and Lieut.-Colonel in 1866. He served with the battalion
at Ridgeway during the Fenian invasion, and was Brigadier
at the Niagara camp in 1873-4. In 1871 Col. Skinner
organized and presided over the first Canadian " team"
formed to contest at Wimbledon in the rifle matches. He
is Vice-president of the Ontario Rifle Association, a member
of Council in the Dominion Rifle Association, and President of the Highland Society. In 1874 Mr. Bodwell, M.P.,
Tesigned his seat having accepted the office of Superintendent of the Welland Canal. Col. Skinner was a candidate for
South Oxford to fill the vacancy and defeated Mr. J. D.
Edgar by over three hundred and fifty majority. In 1878
he was re-elected by a slightly increased majority over Mr.
Joseph Gibson.   Col. Skinner has always been a Reformer, THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH "AMERICjA.
and consequently is,  at present,  in the " cold shade 1 of
With this sketch may be terminated the Scottish record in
public life. It is confessedly imperfect; but it would have
been more complete had the necessary information, been procurable. In the concluding volume, it is proposed to devote
a chapter to addenda, in which, should the material come to
hand, omissions will, so far as possible be supplied. In the
meantime, the facts already placed before the reader, will
enable him to gauge, with some approach to fulness and accuracy, the vast influence exercised in public life, by the
Scot in British North America.*
* The writer had hoped to give in this chapter a sketch of Senator Donald Mclnnes, of
Hamilton, but has been reluctantly compelled to defer its publication for lack of the necessary information. 1'AKT IT.
jT had been intended to extend this portion of the subject
^ so as to take in the entire teaching profession, but it
was found that any such scheme would make the chapter
far too long, and altogether unmanageable. The heads of
academic bodies, and a few only of the Professors, therefore,
will be sketched as examples, and so, without further preface, we may plunge in medias res.'
Daniel Wilson, LL. D., F. R. S. E., President of University
College, Toronto, was born in the ancient metropolis of
Scotland, in 1816. His father, Archibald Wilson, had a
large family. One of his sons, well known as an eminent
chemist, Dr. George Wilson, Professor of Technology in the
University of Edinburgh, was, after a brave conflict with
physical pain, prematurely removed by death in 1859.
Dr. Daniel Wilson, after passing through the .High School,
entered the University of his native city. At the age of
twenty-one, he betook himself to London to push his fortunes there. After a residence of several years, during
which he relied for support chiefly on the rewards of literary THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
work, he again turned his face northward, and continued to
wield the pen in Edinburgh. Dr. Wilson was also then, and
is still, distinguished by an ardent love for archaeological
studies, and, therefore, naturally gravitated towards the
Society of Antiquaries, in whose labours he took a lively
interest. For some time he was Secretary of the institution,
also editing its Journal or Transactions.
Before his departure from Scotland three works of note had
proceeded from his pen. In 1847, appeared in two volumes'
illustrated by his own pencil, " Memorials of Edinburgh in
the Olden Time." We can well believe that its preparation was a labour of love. To a native's attachment to picturesque " Auld Reekie," Dr. Wilson added a keen zest for
all relics of the past, and nowhere could his tastes be
more fully gratified than in the " old town " of Edinburgh.
The reception of this, work was highly flattering, and although it was large and expensive, a second edition' was
issued in 1872. Dr. Wilson's next literary venture was
I Oliver Cromwell and The Protectorate." Its author has
always been an admirer of England's i uncrowned monarch,"
and of the principles underlying what Mr. Green has termed
the Puritan Revolution. In 1851 a work appeared which
at once established Dr. Wilson's reputation,—| The Archaeology and Prehistoric Annals of Scotland." It was profusely illustrated, with steel plates as well as wood-engravings, for the most part executed from the author's drawings.
This volume received the warmest praise from reviewers
both in Britain and America. It has been stated that Mr.
Hallam," pronounced it to be the most scientific treatment of
the achaeological evidence of primitive history which had ever 816
been written." * In 1853, partially no doubt because of the
laurels Dr. Wilson had deservedly gained, he was invited to
accept the Chair of History and English Literature in University College. A radical change was at that period made-
by Parliament in the constitution of the university. Under
an Act introduced by the Hon. Dr. Rolph, the institution
was divided into two—the University, whose functions were
restricted to examining and conferring degrees, and University College to which was committed the function of teaching.
By the same statute the faculties of Law and Medicine were
abolished so far as the latter body wss concerned. Dr. Wilson
had hardly been established at Toronto, when he was solicited to accept the Principalship of McGill College, Montreal;
but, however flattering the offer appeared, it was respectfully
For the last twenty-nine years the Doctor has continued
to fill the professorial chair with eminent success. When it
is considered that the subjects entrusted to him are almost
limitless in extent, especially that of history, and that Profes-
fessor Wilson has voluntarily added to them the other
branches of Archaeology and Ethnology, the reader may have
some idea of the vast amount of labour he must have undergone during his long period of active service. The departments committed to his charge exacted from him the larger
part of every day; since History and English were subjects
which were treated concurrently, and not in succession like
the branches of natural history. Professor Wilson's method
is that of suggestion and illustration, rather than the purely THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
didactic. Whether treating of a memorable era, or a play of
Shakespeare, his aim is to make the student read for himself, and to aid him by valuable glimpses of the true path in
private investigation. Lucid in style, and earnest in delivery, Dr. Wilson always succeeds in commanding the attention of his class. Perhaps, apart from these merits, it may
not be amiss to mention the community of feeling which
kindly intercourse has established between Professor and.
student by conversation and social intercourse.
Dr. Wilson had been in Canada about nine years when his.
next work appeared. During the interval he had made the-
most of his vacations by studying the archaeology and ethnology of the New World. Some fruits of these investigations appeared in the Canadian Journal from time to time..
This periodical was a record of the papers read at the meetings of the Canadian Institute of Toronto, which, from its-
inception, attracted the Professor's deepest interest. In
1862 his new work appeared under the title of "Prehistoric-
Man : Researches into the Origin of Civilization in the Old.
and New World." It contained much original thought, and
a great deal that was new in material, especially as regards-
to the early races of America, and the still existing Indian
tribes. " Chatterton; a Biographical Study," published in 1869„
exhibited the Professor in another line of study, and proved
an eminent success. "Caliban the Missing Link," which
appeared in 1873, was an illustration from Shakespeare of the-
theory of development. During the same year Dr. Wilson
republished, with additional pieces, a collection of poems,,
entitled I Spring Flower^ In 1878, the Professor issued,,
two volumes, splendidly illustrated, his most recent work | 818 THE SdbT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
■ Reminiscences of Old Edinburgh." In addition to these
works, he has contributed a number of articles both to the
eighth edition of the " Encyclopaedia Britannica," and also to
that now in course of publication.
Dr. Wilson has by no means confined himself to academic
and literary labour. His name is connected with various
public institutions in Toronto He was one of the most
active promoters* of the Boys' Home, and the establishment
of the News Boys' Home was entirely due to his exertions.
In the Young Men's Christian Association he has always
taken an active part, and was for some years its President
In August last, the Doctor's long period of service in University College was rewarded by his appointment as President,
in place of the Rev. Dr. McCaul, who retired upon a well-
earned pension at the close of the academic session. Dr.
Wilson is an earnest member of the Church of England, and
an ardent adherent of the Evangelical party. He is also a
member of the Church Association, and has been repeatedly
delegate to the Provincial and Diocesan Synods.
Another College President of note is John William Dawson, M. A., LL. D., Principal of McGill College, Montreal.
His father was the younger son of a farmer, who came from
the North of Scotland early in the century and settled at
Pictou, N. S. There Dr. Dawson was born on the 13th of
October, 1820. His education was conducted at the College
■of Pictou, of which Dr. McCulloch held the Principalship.
It is stated* that at the early age of ten he had clearly
■developed in germ those scientific tastes which were in the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.        819
future to be his chief characteristic. At that time young
Dawson began to collect fossil plants of the coal period; and
while at College subsequently, made a collection of natural
history specimens. Having spent a winter at Edinburgh
University, he at once renewed his geological researches with
ardour, taking special interest in the strata and fossils of the
carboniferous period. In 1842 he accompanied Sir Charles
Lyell during his scientific tour in Nova Scotia, and succeeded in making several original discoveries in the palaeontology of this continent. Dr. Dawson was again in Edinburgh
in 1846-7 studying practical chemistry. His first literary
contribution to science dates so far back as 1841; but from
1847 onward a continuous stream of papers and monographs
flowed from his pen, chiefly, though not exclusively, on geological subjects. In 1855 appeared " Acadian Geology "—a
complete account, up to' the existing state of knowledge, of
the geology of the Maritime Provinces.
Meanwhile, from 1850 to 1854, Dr. Dawson occupied the
position of Superintendent of Education for Nova Scotia.
In this position he displayed his usual activity and intelligence, promoting the establishment of a normal school. His'
reports were elaborate and instructive, and in addition to
these he supplied a hand-book of scientific agriculture. In
1855 he left his native Province to become Principal and
Natural History Professor of McGill College, Montreal,—a
position he now occupies after a lapse of twenty-seven years.
When Dr. Dawson undertook the management of the College,
its condition was far from cheering. The medical department was in a flourishing condition, and had already won a
high reputation ; not so elsewhere.    The new Principal, how- 820
ever, at once imparted life to the decaying members of the
body academic, and the institution took a new lease of life.
In 1857 he secured the establishment of the McGill Normal
School for the training of Protestant teachers. Of this
institution also he was Principal for over twelve years, and
during all that time lectured regularly on natural science to
the students. In 1858, Dr. Dawson established a school of
civil engineering, but it was extinguished in 1863 by an act
of the Legislature; by no means daunted he revived it again in
1871 on a more extended scale as the Department of Practical
and Applied Science. Nothing strikes one more in Principal
Dawson than the keen discernment with which he recognises
educational needs, and the suggestive skill with which he
endeavours to supply them. It may be added that for a
considerable period he has sat on the Protestant School Board
of Montreal, and on the Protestant Committee of the Quebec
Council of Public Instruction.
Dr. Dawson's contributions to scientific literature have
been so numerous that even a recapitulation of their titles
would be out of the question in the brief space at command.
His papers, read or published, cover a wide field: the flora
and fauna of various localities, Indian antiquities, earthquakes, fossils, rock structure, &c. One of his most remarkable scientific discoveries was that of the Eozoon in the
Laurentian rocks. Sir Charles Lyell had noticed the fossil,
but had not studied it. In 1864, Dr. Dawson demonstrated
its true character as one of the foraminifera. Hitherto the
rocks of that period had been termed Azoic, because it was
supposed that no organism was traceable in them.    In con- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
sequence of his discovery, the learned Principal substituted
the name Eozoic.
When the Darwinian theory of evolution was becoming
generally the creed of scientific men, Dr. Dawson strenuously
opposed the extreme views of some who held it, especially
in relation to man. A course of lectures delivered in New
York in 1874-5, embodied in book-form under the title of
■ Science and the Bible," was extensively read on both sides
of the Atlantic. The author contended that the discoveries
of modern science, so far as they are facts, harmonize completely with the sacred record. He had previously published
in the same way a number of papers contributed to the Leisure Hour, under the title of | The Story of the Earth and
Man." In 1875 appeared " The Dawn of Life,"—a popular account of the Eozoon and other ancient fossils. His
latest works are: " The Beginning of the World" (1877), a
recast of an earlier work " Archaia;" "Fossil Men" (1878),
and f The Chain of Life in Geological Time " (1880).
George Paxton Young, M.A., Professor of Logic, Metaphysics and Ethics in University College, Toronto, was born
at Berwick-on-Tweed, on the 9th of November, 1818. After
a preliminary training there, he was sent to the High School,
Edinburgh, and thence to the University. Mr. Young was
•distinguished for his steady application, especially to-his favourite subjects of mathematics and philosophy. After taking his degree, he was for some time engaged as a teacher of
mathematics at Dollar Academy. When the disruption took
place, Mr. Young, as' might have been expected from
his liberal views, espoused the cause of which the great Dr.
Chalmers was the leading champion.    Entering the Free 822
Church Theological Hall, where he duly completed his
course, he was ordained and placed in charge of the Martyrs' Church, Paisley. In the course of a few months, however, Mr. Young resolved to remove to Canada. He came
hither in 1848, and at once accepted a call from Knox
Church, Hamilton, Ont. After a pastorate of three years,
he received the appointment of Professor of Mental and
Moral Philosophy at Knox College, Toronto. He was now
in his element, and, not content with the ordinary work of
lecturing, contributed a number of papers to the Canadian
Journal on metaphysical subjects. It is said that one of
these, which contained a partial elucidation of Sir William
Hamilton's philosophical system, was warmly acknowledged
by the great Scottish metaphysician.
After ten years' service in the Professorship, Mr. Young-
resigned both his position in the College and his ministerial
office. The reason assigned by Mr. Young was, that deeper
study had changed his doctrinal views to such an extent,
that he could no longer conscientiously inculcate the theology of his church. His position was stated with the utmost
candour, and he evidently' possessed the courage of his
opinions. To all appearance, Mr. Young, by taking this
step, had deprived himself of a livelihood. Yet after an
interval, he was employed by the Government as Inspector of
Grammar Schools, a position he filled for four years with the
greatest credit to himself, and singular advantage to the
Province. During that time he fairly revolutionized the
Grammar Schools, and succeeded in raising them to the
degree of excellence they can now boast of under other
names.    His suggestions were embodied in several School THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Acts, with beneficial results. He was also a member of the
Central Committee on Education—a sort of advisory board
attached to the department. When he resigned the Inspectorship, Professor Young was prevailed upon to return to
Knox College. His abilities were too highly prized to be
lost to the institution. Theology, in future, was to form
no part of h s teaching, and thus any impediment in his way
was removed. In 1871, the Professor was appointed to the
vacant chair of Metaphysics and Ethics in University College, a post he still occupies. As a teacher, Mr. Young stands
deservedly high. His intellect is of a high order, his expositions even of abstruse problems, are unmistakeably plain
and lucid; and he is a personal friend of all the students
who attend his lectures. Two works have appeared from
his pen, both on theological subjects. The first, published
in 1854, contained § Miscellaneous Discourses and Expositions of Scripture;" the second, which appeared in 1862, was-
an elaborate essay on "The Philosophical Principles of
Natural Religion." Besides these, and the other contributions mentioned above, Professor Young has reprinted in
pamphlet form at least one of his addresses. Mr. Young
is singularly shy and retiring in disposition, and to that
cause may, no doubt, be attributed the fact that he has
never formally stated the doubts which have perplexed him.
He is too sensitive not to shrink from unsettling the faith
of others.
The Rev. Michael Willis, D.D., LL.D., formerly Principal of Knox College, was born at Greenock, in Scotland, about
the year 1798. His father was a minister of the Light
Burghers, a small but most respectable branch of the Pres- 324
byterian family.    After a distinguished course at the University and Divinity-Hall, Mr. Willis was ordained to the
ministry, and almost immediately obtained the dual position
•of pastor ofRenfield St. Church, Glasgow, and Professor of
Divinity for that branch of the church with which he was
•connected.      His   eloquent    and   impassioned    preaching
.gathered around him a large  and  attached  congregation,
whilst his learning and scholarship drew many students to
the Hall.    The body with which Mr. Willis was connected
was strongly in favour of the connection between Church
and State; and therefore a union with the Establishment
was brought about, with little  difficulty, in 1839.    Only
four years afterwards, however, the great disruption took
place, and Mr. Willis threw in his lot with Dr. Chalmers and
the other fathers of the Free Church.    It must not be forgotten that there was no inconsistency in the Professor's
course.    The Free Church continued to maintain the estab-
.lisment principle, and only left the | Old Kirk" because of
the patronage question. So far as Dr. Willis was concerned,
there was no suspicion of il liberality in the  step he took,
for he was always ready to co-operate with those from whom
in their corporate capacity, he had felt it his duty to separate. Had the system of lay patronage been abolished then,
the division might have been readily healed.    Many years
after, all that the Free Church claimed was conceded,  but
the time when such a concession could be welcomed had Ions'
gone by.    Shortly after the disruption, Dr. Willis came to
Canada as a deputy from the Free Church, and also to render
assistance to the recently established Knox College.    Being
invited to accept the Professorship of Theology in that insti- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
tution, he accepted the call, and continued to fill the chair
for nearly a quarter of a century, the latter part of the time
as Principal. Associated with him in the Divinity faculty
were Dr. Burns, Professor G. P. Young, now of University
College, and Dr. Caven, who succeeded him in the Princi-
palship. Dr. Willis's work was not of that type which
attracts conspicuous notice from the public. His life was
■devoted in Canada to the training of young men for the
Christian ministry,—perhaps the most important duty a
scholarly divine can undertake.
The late Principal possessed many of the highest qualifications for the task set before him. His talents were of
no common order, and he never ceased to improve them
by assiduous study. His theological learning had a wide
range, for he was conversant not only with post-Reformation
authorities but also a diligent student of the early Christian
Fathers. One of his latest efforts was a collection of excerpts annotated from patristic literature. As a preacher
and platform orator, Dr. Willis was singularly effective; indeed, at times, he rose to the highest eloquence. Like his
co-labourer, Dr. Burns—perhaps even more conspicuously—
he was an ardent friend of the slave, and deeply interested
himself in the education and spiritual welfare of the fugitive coloured people who, some twenty-five years ago, took
refuge in free and hospitable Canada. To them he devoted
much of his time, and no slight portion of his means. His
heart was readily touched by the cry of distress and suffering, and he was. willing wherever he heard it to spend and
to speak for its relief.
M 826
The fruits of Dr. Willis's labours at the College are scarcely to be gauged with accuracy;' yet there can be no doubt
that'they were abundant throughout Canada. The seed
sown in comparative obscurity has not perished in a barren
soil, but may be traced in many congregations scattered far
and wide over the Province. In 1870, the Rev. Principal
severed his connection with the College, because of growing
age and infirmities. He had already surpassed the mortal
span of three score years and ten, and naturally desired to
rest in leisure until the change came. Taking up his residence in London, he shortly afterwards carried out a long-
cherished design of visiting the Holy Land. More than
once also he visited the Continent, and was specially interested in the colonies of Scotsmen or their descendants he
found in France. In August, 1879, Dr. Willis, with his
wife, were visiting Dr. Sellar, at the manse of Aberdour,.
Banffshire ; on the 10th he preached for his friend, but on
the following day was taken ill. His sufferings were acute,
but they were borne with patience and Christian resignation ; on the 19th he expired, in the eighty-first year of his
age, and the fifty-seventh of his ministry. It may be mentioned that the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred
upon Dr. Willis by the University of Glasgow, and that of
Doctor of Laws by Victoria University.
The Rev. William Caven, D.D., Principal of Knox College,
Toronto, is a native Scot, having been born in the parish of
Kirkcolm, Wigtonshire, in the latter part of December, 1830.
He came of a persecuted people, the old Covenanters, both
on his father's and mother's side. The names of some of his
ancestors are enrolled amongst the 1 Wigton martyrs."    One THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 827
of his forbears was brutally mutilated by some of Claver-
house's dragoons. Dr. Caven's father, John, was a schoolteacher of learning and intelligence. As, however, he belonged to the Secession Church, he was not eligible to the
post of parish school-master; still he taught on his own account, and attracted by his ability and teaching powers, a
sufficient number of pupils. At Mr. Caven's school, the
son received his early education. His father removed
with his family to Western Canada in 1847, and, after a
brief residence in the township of South Dumfries, near
Gait, settled at St. Mary's. Having selected the ministry as
his future profession, Mr. William Caven entered upon his
studies under the Rev. William Proudfoot, and the Rev. Alex.
Mackenzie. As no future opportunity may be afforded to
give an account of the former, we introduce here some notice
of a clergyman and teacher of high order. Mr. Proudfoot
was born in Scotland in 1787, and died in Canada in 1851.
He came to this country in 1832 as a missionary of the Secession Church, and laboured in a wide field over the western
peninsula of Ontario. He was the first theological Professor of the United Presbyterian Church, and held that position for the eight or nine years preceding his death. Mr.
Proudfoot was a man of great mental power; his mind was
eminently logical, and he possessed refined tastes, highly
cultivated* Vice-Chancellor Proudfoot and the Rev. Dr.
Proudfoot, of London, are sons of his.
* Principal Caven, who has kindly furnished these particulars concerning Mr. Proud-
food, adds :—" Whilst never leaving his proper sphere, his influence was decisively felt
in promoting some of the most important reforms which mark our history, especially the
opening of King's College. He enjoyed the confidence of such men as the late Hon.
Robert Baldwin, and is known to have been consulted by him." Dr. Caven adds: " he
'was one of the most eminent men it has been my p.ivilege to know." 828
Dr. Caven finished his theological course at Toronto, and was
licensed to preach early in 1852. In the autumn of the same
year he was inducted into the pastoral charge of St. Mary's
and Downie. In 1865, on the resignation of Professor G. P.
Young, who had accepted the chair of Metaphysics and
Ethics at University College, Mr. Caven was appointed to
lecture during alternate terms at Knox College on Exegetical
Theology and Biblical Criticism. In the following year he
was permanently appointed Professor of these subjects. In
1870, the Rev. Dr. Willis resigned the Principalship and was
succeeded by the Rev. Dr. Caven, but it was not until three
years after that he formally received the title of Principal.
The great obstacles in the way of Knox College were the
want of adequate buildings, and the smafl staff of Professors.
The classes met in the old Government House, the site of
which is now occupied by the Central Presbyterian Church.
Principal Caven, in company with Dr. Gregg, spent two
summers in raising a building fund. They succeeded in
collecting the sum of $100,000, afterwards increased by further subscriptions by the amount of $30,000. All this fund
was absorbed in the erection of the new college which makes
an imposing appearance at the head of Spadina Avenue.
The corner-stone was laid in 1874, and the building formally
opened in the autumn of 1875/ Principal Caven has, from
the first, been a most ardent supporter of union between
the various branches of the Presbyterian Church, and worked
strenuously to secure the results achieved in 1861 and 1875:
He occupied the position of Moderator of the Canada Presbyterian Church when the articles of Union were agreed to
with what is popularly known as the I Old Kirk," in the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH. AMERICA.
latter year. In 1877, the Principal was chosen as Chairman
at one of the sittings of the Pan-Presbyterian Council at
Edinburgh. He has also served as President of the Ontario
Teachers' Association. As a teacher, Dr. Caven is said to be
singularly lucid in his expositions; as a theologian, an
unflinching champion of evangelical principles as defined
in the standards of the Presbyterian Church.
The Rev. George Monro Grant, D.D., Principal of Queen's
University and College, Kingston, is by birth a Canadian.
His father, a Scot, settled in the County of Pictou, Nova
Scotia, and was engaged in teaching at Stellarton, a village
on East River. There, in December, 1835, the future Principal was born. His parents removed to the town of
Pictou, while he was yet young; and his early education
was conducted at Pictou Academy. From a recent biography,* we learn that young Grant was considered an extremely clever lad, who could master his lessons with singular facility. But he was fonder of play than of study, and
a romp, or even a fight, did not come amiss to him. Several
instances of his boyish exuberance of spirits are related, one
of which cost him his right hand. He and some playmates
were amusing themselves with a hay-cutter, when the blade
caught our hero's right hand and severed it from the body.
With that indomitable persistency of character which has
marked him through life, he soon trained the left hand to
do the work of the right, and quite as perfectly. This serious
accident does not appear to have checked his youthful buoyancy, and he more than once received injuries of a more or
* Canadian Portrait Gallery, Vol. I. p. 167. 830
less serious character from sheer love of fun. Still there was
more in the boy than would appear from these little freaks.
His religious feelings were early quickened, and he resolved
to devote himself to the Christian ministry. Once, with
characteristic precipitancy, he suddenly conceived the
thought of becoming a missionary. Perhaps, notwithstanding his bright talents, he did not devote himself closely to
study; but he supplied in quickness of acquisition, what
he lacked in application, and took several prizes, of which
the one he has always been proudest being the Primrose
Silver Medal. Next to that, as the biography quoted tells us,
the happiest moment of George Grant's schoolboy-days was
passed, when the master of the Academy pointed him
out to the Lieutenant-Governor, as | the best fighter of his
age in the school."
When barely sixteen he was transferred to the Presbyterian Seminary at West River, where he had the advantage of
being thoroughly drilled in classics and mathematics by the
Rev. Mr. Ross, now Principal of Dalhousie College, Halifax.
On the completion of his term there he was selected by the
Committee of the Provincial Synod to one of the four bursaries which entitle the holder to training for the ministry in
the University of Glasgow. Mr. Grant did not disappoint the
expectations of those who sent him thither. For eight years
he diligently applied himself to study varied, however, when
he could afford a leisure hour, by athletic exercises. The
love of romp and sport was born in him, and it was well, it
may be, that he could not have repressed it, even had he
desired to do so. Whether at work or at play, he was equally
earnest, and his throughly social nature endeared him to THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
his class-mates. His University career was a brilliant one.
In Philosophy, the highest honours could only be gained
by not missing a question; Mr. Grant attained this distinction which had not been gained for some years. He was
also first prizeman in Classics, Moral Philosophy and Chemistry, besides carrying off the Lord Rector's prize of thirty
guineas for the best essay on Hindoo Literature and Philosophy. With characteristic versatility, Mr. Grant was
simultaneously President of the Conservative Club, the Missionary Society and the Foot-ball Club. In addition to
College work he engaged in private tuition, so that he not
only supported himself at Glasgow, but paid back to the
Bursary Fund the money expended on his behalf.
After taking his Master's degree, and completing his
theological studies, the temptation to enter upon a literary
life at home assailed him; but he resisted it and returned
to Nova Scotia in 1861, where he was appointed a missionary
in the County of Pictou. In 1863, he received a call from
the congregation of St. Matthew's, Halifax, where he la-
boured, for fourteen years, with that zeal and energy which
have always distinguished him. At the outset of his pastorate, the membership only amounted to one hundred and
fifteen; when he left the congregation, it had risen to three
times that number. Mr. Grant was connected with Dal-
housie College, the Theological Seminary, and with numerous
church and charitable movements. In the Synod he was
an indefatigable worker, and for five years laboured earnestly
to brino- about a union between the various branches of
the Presbyterian Church. His efforts were crowned with
success, and in 1875 he had the satisfaction of signing the (32
articles of Union as Moderator of the Synod in connection
with the Church of Scotland. Tn 1877, Mr. Grant was selected
as Principal of Queen's College, Kingston, and also received
the degree of D.D., from his alma mater.    Owing to the
withdrawal of the Government grant  soon after Confederation, the finances of the institution were still in a depressed state.    The new Principal, at once set to work to raise
an endowment fund, and succeded in collecting the handsome
sum of $150,000.    Dr. Grant's duties as Principal include*
the financial supervision of the College, the arrangement
of the courses of instruction in all the faculties, in addition
to his labours as Primarius Professor of Theology.    It may
be remarked here that the learned Professor belongs to the
liberal school  of thought   in   the   Presbyterian   Church.
Whilst he adheres to the cardinal doctrines of the Gospel, he-
desires to give the utmost freedom to individual thought and
opinion within the necessary limits of the Church's standards..
His general tendencies as a theologian may be gathered from,
the fact that he is an ardent admirer of Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Carlyle.   Notwithstanding Professor Grant's attachment to literary work, his life has been too busy for much
fruit in that direction.    In July, 1872, he  started front
'oronto with a party to cross the continent, and reached?
Victoria, B. C, early in October.   The result of this excursion was an exceedingly interesting work, entitled " From
Ocean to Ocean," which has passed through at least two-
editions.   He is at present engaged in supplying the letterpress for " Picturesque Canada," the handsomest and best
illustrated work that has ever issued from the Canadian press-
Dr. Grant has also contributed largely to  Good Words^ to- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
our native magazine, the Canadian Monthly, and recently to
IScribner's Magazine, of New York. The Principal's latest
effort was an eloquent address before the Commons Committee on Private Bills, in support of the claim of the united
Church to the Temporalities Fund of the j Old Kirk."' Dr.
Grant is still in the prime of life and energy, and may fairly
hope for many years of usefulness.
The late Rev. John Hugh MacKerras, M. A, Professor of
Classics in Queen's University, Kingston, was prematurely
removed by death more than two years ago, before he had
completed his forty-eighth year. He was born at Nairn, in
the Highlands of Scotland, in the month of June, 1832.
When only six years of age he was brought to Canada by
his family, and settled in the county of Glengarry—the
Highland stronghold—at Williamstown. His father, Mr.
John MacKerras, was a school teacher, and from him he
received his earliest training. Later on, he. attended what
is now the Cornwall High School, then under the charge of
Mr. Kay, a tutor of exceptional merit and ability. In 1847,
Mr. MacKerras entered Queen's College, Kingston, where he
distinguished himself by his solid parts and assiduous application. During his course he won the highest honours
without exciting the jealousy of his fellow-students. They
felt his superiority, and were attracted by his gentle and
kindly disposition. He graduated as B.A., in 1850, and as
M.A., in 1852, and in 1853 was licensed to preach by the
Presbytery of Bathurst. In 1853, when he had only just
attained his majority, Mr. MacKerras accepted a call from
the congregation at Port Darlington, afterwards called Bow-
manville.    It was the only charge he ever filled, and he 834
laboured there with singular ability and success. From the
first he interested himself deeply in the cause of education,
and was chairman of the local Board of Public Instruction.
In the Church courts also, Mr. McKerras occupied a prominent position. In 1864, after having spent eleven years at
Bowmanville, he was invited to accept the Professorship of
Classics at Queen's College, Kingston. The chair, however,
being the subject of litigation at the time, he was not formally appointed till 1866. When the Ontario Government
withdrew the grants previously voted to sectarian colleges,
Dr. Snodgrass and Professor MacKerras immediately set to
work to raise an endowment fund for Queen's of $100,000.
They made a tour of the Province, and succeeded in accomplishing their task. Unfortunately, the effect upon the
Professor's health, which had always been delicate was
serious. At length in 1874, he was obliged to seek medical
advice and change of air in Europe. So highly was Mr.
MacKerras esteemed, that his friends presented him with a
purse of $1,100 and a sympathetic address; whilst the College authorities gave a year's leave of absence and undertook to pay the salary of a substitute. The Professor passed
most of his enforced vacation in the south of Europe, the
greater part of it at Rome. The tour appears to have partially restored him to health, and he returned to the scene
•of his labours and entered upon them with perhaps more
•energy than his strength warranted. He took special interest in the College Educational Association, and also
served as chairman of the Temporalities Fund, and joint
clerk of the General Assemby. Towards the end of 1877,
at was clear that his health was rapidly declining.   At first THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
some of his professional duties were discharged by deputy,
and at last he was compelled to give them up altogether.
He died on the 9th of January, 1880, at the residence of
•Judge Dennistoun, of Peterboro', leaving behind him a
widow and three children. Professor MacKerras was a man
of striking ability, perhaps too early developed at the expense of physical strength ; as a teacher and a friend he
was deeply beloved ; as a Christian his piety and devotion
were so ardent as to prove not so much an ornament to his
character, as its basis and framework.
The, Rev. D. H. McVicar, LL.D., Principal of the Presbyterian College, Montreal, was born in November, 1831, near
Campbelltown, Kintyre, Argyleshire. He was only four
years of age when his parents emigrated to Canada, and
settled in the county of Kent. Dr. Mc Vicar was educated at
Toronto Academy, under the Rev. Alexander Gale, ah exemplary teacher, as the writer can testify from personal experience. The future Principal received his theological training at Knox College, over which Dr. Willis then presided.
At that time the college stood upon Front street, and subsequently formed the central nucleus of the Queen's Hotel.
The Academy was an unpretending frame building in the
rear, containing one large class-room, and two smaller ones.
After a season spent in private teaching, Mr. Mc Vicar was duly
licensed to preach in 1859, and at once entered upon his
duties as pastor of the West Toronto Congregation, recently
formed and then worshipping in a hall. After receiving and
declining several calls, he finally accepted one from Knox
Church, Guelph. There he remained only one year; but he
had the satisfaction of having materially improved the con- 836
gregation by his zeal and ability, since during the twelvemonth fifty-two were added to the roll of membership. In
January, 1861, Mr. Mc Vicar became pastor of Cote' Street
Church, Montreal—a position he occupied with marked success for about eight years. Able and eloquent as a preacher,
his experience in teaching was made available in the
Bible Class,—which speedily increased in numbers under his
care. He employed himself also in the work of church extension, and in the establishment of missionary Sunday-
In 1868 it appeared to the Synod that the time had arrived for the institution of a Theological College for the
Province of Quebec. Mr. Mc Vicar was selected as Professor
of Divinity, a position he accepted much to the regret of
his congregation. It was, however, the day of small things,
for the lectures were'delivered in the basement of one of the
Presbyterian churches. Now the college is established in a
handsome building, with a staff of able Professors, and boasts
a larger number of students than any similar institution belonging to the Presbyterian Church in Canada. Dr. Mc Vicar
did not neglect his old congregation, however, but assisted
during a vacancy in the pastorate, and was chiefly instrumental in procuring funds for the erection of a new church.
In other phases of labour, the Principal has been equally
active. He has always taken a deep interest in the work of
French Canadian evangelization, securing provision for the
training of Presbyterian missionaries, and also the appointment of a French Professor of Theology in the College. He
has sat moreover on the Protestant School Commission, and
is the author of a number of elementary text books.    His THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 837
lectures on various moral, religious and controversial subjects have attracted attention. Principal Mc Vicar lectured
during two seasons before the Ladies' Educational Association on Logic and Ethics, and delivered a course on the former subject at McGill College, of which he is an LL.D., and
Fellow. When the Pan-Presbyterian Council was held at
Edinburgh, he was one of the Canadian representatives,
and again at Philadelphia in 1880. In addition to all his
other work, the chief burden of the College finances has
fallen upon him ; so that his career has, been throughout an
eminently useful and honourable one.
The Rev. James Ross, D.D., is Principal of Dalhousie
College, Halifax, as well as Professor of Ethics and Political
Economy. His father was also a clergymen, who came from
Alyth, in Forfarshire, shortly after his ordination early in
1795, and settled at Pictou, N. S. There in July, 1811, Dr.
Ross was born. After receiving his early education at the
Pictou Academy, and his theological training under the
Rev. Dr. McCulloch, Mr. Ross had charge of the Grammar
School at Westmoreland, N. B., for four years. In 1835, he
was licensed to preach, and became pastor of the congregation to which his father had ministered for nearly forty
years. In 1842, Mr. Ross was made editor of the Presbyterian Banner, but it was shortly afterwards united with
the Eastern Chronicle, and his brief editorial career came to
an abrupt conclusion. On the death of Dr. McCulloch, he
became the Professor of Hebrew; of Biblical Criticism and
Exegesis. The Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia was
at that time suffering from a dearth of ministers, and unfortunately did not possess the means of securing the neeessary 838
preparation for students who intended to devote themselves
to pulpit work.   The Pictou Academy no longer afforded the
preliminary education, and Dalhousie College, so far as the
Arts department was concerned, had practically ceased to
exist.   Mr. Ross was appealed to and prepared two young
men for admission to the Divinity Hall.    This, however,,
was only a temporary expedient, and an educational institute was established.    The Theological Seminary was, after-
considerable delay, opened at West River in charge of Mr.
Ross, who instructed the pupils in classics, mathematics and
philosophy. His labours at this time were exceedingly heavy.
Sufficient, funds were not forthcoming to sustain the school,
and he was compelled io tend it in addition to his pastoral
duties.   After a few years, he was relieved of his charge y.
the seminary was evidently a success, and therefore attracted
material aid, in larger measure,- as the years rolled by.    A
second master, Mr. Thomas j McCulloch, was appointed, and
in 1858 the institution was removed to Truro.    Not long
after, a union with the Free Church proved of great advantage to it; the two bodies amalgamated their seminaries, and
the Rev. Dr. Lyall was added as a third Professor in the Arts
department.   The fortunes of Dalhousie College were now
at their lowest ebb; and a resolution was come to by the
Union Colleges to attempt its rehabilitation.    It was made
a non-sectarian institution,  and, to raise the educational
standard, Truro College was amalgamated with it, and Mr.
Ross made Principal, and also Professor. .Under his direction,
Dalhousie has more than fulfilled the hopes of those who
rallied around it in the day of adversity.    The degree of THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA,
D.D. was conferred upon Mr. Ross by the Senate of Queen's
University, Kingston, in April 1864.
The Rev. Alexander McKnight, D.D., Principal of the
Presbyterian College, Halifax, was born in Ayrshire about
the year 1823. He studied for four years in the University
of Glasgow, specially distinguishing himself in Logic, Mathematics, and Natural Philosophy; for proficiency in these
subjects he received prizes. From 1845 to 1849 he underwent theological training at New College, Edinburgh, and
was licensed to preach by the Free Church Presbytery of
Ayr early in 1850. In January, 1855, the Colonial Committee of the Church appointed Mr. McKnight as Hebrew
teacher at the Halifax Free College. Not long after his
arrival he received a call to the pastorate of St. James*
Church, Dartmouth, and was inducted in 1857. From that
time until 1868 he performed the double duty of pastor and
professor. In the latter year he resigned his charge, and
taught Exegetics in addition to Hebrew in the College. In
1871 he succeeded the Rev. Dr. King as Professor of Systematic Theology; in 1877, the degree of D.D. was conferred
upon him, and in 1878, after the complete union of all the
Presbyterian Churches, he was appointed Principal of the
Presbyterian College of the Maritime Provinces, at Halifax.
Dr. McKnight is said to be a man of great intellectual power,
an impressive preacher, and an instructor of the first order.
In the latter capacity he has always commanded the deepest
respect and affection of the students under his care.
William Brydone-Jack, A.M., D.C.L., President of the
University of New Brunswick, was born at Tinwald,
Dumfries-shire, in the month  of November, 1819.    After 840 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
receiving his preliminary education at the parish school, and
at Halton Hall Academy, Mr. Jack betook himself
to the ancient University of St. Andrews. There he became a
favourite pupil of Sir David Brewster, and it is possible that
the fondness he afterward manifest for the study of
astronomy sprang from this intimacy. Mr. Jack received
his Bachelor's degree in due course, and that of A.M. in
1840. In that year he received two invitations, one to
become Professor of Physics in the New College,. Manchester, the other to the chair of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy at King's College, afterwards the New Brunswick
University. He was then barely of age, and his friends,
including Sir David Brewster, urged him to accept the latter
offer. He did so, and reached Fredericton in September,
1840. His intention at that time, was to spend only a year
or two in the colony, and then to return to Scotland. The
fates ordained otherwise, however, and he has, fortunately for
the University, remained there to this day. The University
of New Brunswick, like its sister institution at Toronto,
has passed through many changes. In 1845, all religious tests
were abolished, but the Professorship of Theology, to be
filled by an Anglican clergyman, was retained. In 1854, a
Commission was appointed, upon which sat Principal Dawson and the Rev. Dr. Ryerson. An Act was passed by the
Legislature, which, embodying the recommendations of the
Report, materially broadened the basis of the University.
Theenemiesof the Institution,however,still continued towage
uncompromising war against it, and, 1858, succeeded in procuring the passage of a measure to abolish theProvincialgrants
in its aid.   The Act though sanctioned by the Lieutenant- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.        841
Governor, but it was disallowed by the Imperial Government,
This was in 1858, and next year the controversy was finally
set at rest by the complete secularization of the University.
Thenceforward its progress and popularity have steadily advanced year by year. Dr. Jack was appointed President in
the University in 1861, and has exerted himself vigorously
to impress upon the minds of the people the great advantages
which accrue from it. He is also a member of the Provincial Board of Education, and has spent much time in
visiting' the schools in various parts of the Province.
The Rev. George Douglas, LL. D., President of the Wesley an Theological College of Montreal, is a native Scot, having been born at Ashkirk, in Roxburghshire in October,
1825. His birthplace was within seven miles of Abbotsford,
and not far from the home of the Ettrick Shepherd, so that
he comes from classic ground. In 1832, the family removed
to Canada, and made their home in Montreal. Mr. Doug-
las' father was a Presbyterian, and reared his family in that
faith. His parents were in humble circumstances, and after
attending a private school under the Rev. Mr. Black, afterwards, we believe, a missionary to Red River, young George
was employed first in a book-store, and afterwards apprenticed to a blacksmith. His brother James was a carpenter
and builder, and so soon as his apprenticeship had expired,
he entered into partnership with him. In the meantime
he had become an insatiable reader of every book at his
command. Mr. Douglas knew what was in him; he possessed
a natural gift of eloquence, and his reading had given a polish
to his diction hardly to be expected under the circumstances.
His next resolve was to enter the medical profession, and
N 842
with that view he was enrolled as a student. That, however, was not to be his destiny. Having attended some revival meetings, he was converted and joined the Methodist
Church. In succession he became a class-leader, a local
preacher and a probationer for the ministry. His elder brother
John had already preceded him in the same path, and George-
followed closely in his footsteps. In 1849, Mr. Douglas left
for England to attend the Wesleyan Theological College;
'but had hardly arrived when he was chosen as missionary
to the Bahamas. He was ordained in 1850, and sent to the
Bermuda Islands. There he resided for eighteen months r
when failing health compelled him to resign. He returned
to Canada and has laboured here ever since. Twenty years-
of his subsequent life have been passed at Montreal—eleven*
in the pulpit, seven at the head of the Wesleyan College, and
two years in enforced rest on account of ill-health. Of
course, under the Methodist system of itinerancy, he has been
stationed elsewhere, and three years were devoted to each of
the three cities of Kingston, Toronto and Hamilton. ' The
disadvantages under which he laboured in his youth have
made Dr. Douglas a student during his whole life. He has
paid special attention to literature, philosophy, and the
natural sciences, especially excelling in the field of metaphysical investigation. In 1869, the degree of LL. D. was conferred upon him by McGill University, honoris causd. It
is a remarkable fact that the most eloquent preachers of the
Methodist Church in Canada are Scots, and Dr. Douglas is-
one of the most eloquent. ]Je possesses great physical advantages in voice and appearance, and is endowed with
that  indescribable power over his  audiences  which only THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 843
distinguishes orators of the first rank. Like all speakers,
gifted by nature with the faculty of impressive utterance, he
is at his best when he ceases to be self-conscious, and is absorbed, as it were, in the dignity and momentous importance
of his subject. At such times he seems rapt—his personality
lost in the theme of his discourse. A natural consequence
of his oratorical power is, that he has been called upon to
represent his Church, on all important occasions, at home
and abroad, at conferences, convocations, and Evangelical
.Alliance gatherings. In spite of ill-health, Dr. Douglas has
always been a hard-worker, and, during eight years of
service in the Wesleyan Theological College, his labours there
have formed only a part of the Christian work performed in
many spheres of  usefulness.
The Reverend Robert Alexander Fyfe, D. D., late Principal of the Canadian Literary Institute, Woodstock, was born
in St. Andre" Parish, near Montreal, in the month of October,
1816. His parents emigrated from Scotland in 1809 and
settled in Lower Canada. Their son's educational advantages were few, and he was obliged at an early age to work
for his living. He entered as clerk in a store, and remained there until after he had completed his nineteenth
year. Meanwhile the influence of religion began to work
within him, and he determined to enter the Christian ministry. Enrolled as a student at Madison University, in the
State of New York, he applied himself so assiduously to
study as permanently to injure his health. He was compelled to leave that institution, but subsequently renewed his
course at Worcester, Mass. Unfortunately he could not
afford the necessary time for healthy relaxation, since he 844
was compelled to spend his vacations in teaching in order to
gain the means of continuing 'his education. At length
after a theological course at the Newton Seminary, near
Boston, he was ordained on the 25th of August, 1842. Returning to Canada, the Rev. Mr. Fyfe's first charge was
undertaken at Perth, in the county of Lanark. After
labouring there for eighteen months, he presided temporarily
over the Montreal Baptist College, pending the arrival of
a regular Principal from England. This post he occupied
for about a year, and then accept the pastoral charge of
the only Baptist church in Toronto. The congregation had,
for years, worshipped in the Masonic Hall, then situate on
what is now Colborne street. A lot having been procured
on March Street, a small edifice was erected which did not
accommodate anything like two hundred hearers. As time
rolled on the locality became an unsavoury one; but the street
had its name changed several times, and few of the present
generation will remember it by its original appellation. In
order to make it smell the sweeter it was denominated
Stanley Street, presumably as a compliment to the Derb3r
family. Under that name it became more notorious than
ever, and another change was tried—a rather absurd one,
by which the thoroughfare became known as Lombard Street,
it may be supposed because there were no bankers or stockbrokers there.
When Mr. Fyfe undertook a charge which had been
thrown up in despair by a succession of predecessors, the
communicants' role numbered a little over sixty. With an
exceedingly genial and winning disposition, the new pastor
combined great zeal and force of character.   He had been SKS-SS^^^^^ ?^^^P^
inducted in 1844, and shortly before his resignation, in.1848,
he had the satisfaction of seeing a much larger congregation
assembled in the new Bond Street Church. For a year thereafter, Mr. Fyfe laboured again at Perth; but his health,
which was always precarious, gave way, and for the next
seven years he ministered in the United States. In 1855 he
returned to Bond Street, where he found the congregation
considerably increased and the building enlarged. Mr. Fyfe
ministered there for four years, and had the satisfaction
of seeing a second Baptist Church rise in Alexander Street.
He had resigned his charge, however, before the handsome
stone church on Jarvis Street was erected. In 1860, with
considerable reluctance, Dr. Fyfe accepted the position of
Principal of the Canadian Literary Institute at Woodstock.
As he had preached the first sermon in Bond Street Church,
he was invited to preach* the last. In the course of his address, Dr. Fyfe gave a brief history of the congregation. The
remaining eighteen years of his life were passed in the zealous discharge of his duty at the Institute. He was a man of
striking intellectual power, of exemplary piety, of much
sweetness of temper, of great energy in every good work his
hand found for him to do. Dr. Fyfe, as already stated, had
during life been the victim of ill-health, and on the 4th of
September, 1878, he passed peacefully into his rest.
The Right Reverend John Cameron, Ph. D., D. D., Roman
Catholic Bishop of Arichat, N. S., was born in Antigonish
in the month of February, 1827. His father, a successful
farmer, came out to Nova Scotia shortly after the beginning
of this century and settled in the township of Antigonish,
and survived until 1874, when he had nearly reached the 846 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
age of ninety-four years. His mother, who was a Macdonald
from the same shire, survived until 1868, when she died at
the advanced age of eighty-four. Educated in the first
place at Antigonish, the future prelate repaired to Rome,
where he spent ten years in preparation for his sacred office.
He was ordained a priest in 1853, and received at the same
time his degree of Doctor of Philosophy and also of Divinity.
In the following year Dr. Cameron returned to Arichat, and
was placed in charge of the St. Frangois Xavier College. The
Seminary was removed to Antigonish, where he acted as
President and Divinity Professor for three years. Returning
to Arichat in 1863, Dr. Cameron took charge of a large parish, and also discharged the duties of Vicar-General. Seven
years after, he was appointed Co-adjutor Bishop, and consecrated at Rome by Cardinal Cullen. While at | the Eternal
City," Bishop Cameron attended the sittings of the CEcume-
nical Council, returning to his diocese in the autumn. In
1877, the age and infirmities of Bishop McKinnon, a Highland Scot, placed his co-adjutor in the position of Administrator of the diocese. Shortly after Dr. McKinnon resigned
his see, and Bishop Cameron became Bishop of Arichat.
He at once removed to Antigonish, and set about the work
set before him. His energy and zeal were such, that although
he found the diocese encumbered by a heavy debt, he never
paused until he had wiped out the last dollar. Bishop Cameron is a thorough scholar, and a most eloquent preacher.
His wonderful activity may be partly recognised from the fact
that while President of the College at Arichat, he had also
the charge of two large parishes THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
In this connection a slight account may be given of the
Most Rev. Robert Machray, D. D* LL. D., Bishop of Rupert's
Land.    His father was an advocate, residing at Aberdeen, and
there the future Bishop was born-in 1832. He entered King's
"College, Aberdeen, when young, and graduated in 1851;
after which he  repaired to  Sidney College, Cambridge,
where he took the degree of B. A. with honours in mathematics.    Mr. Machray was then made a Foundation Fellow
•of his College, and received Deacon's orders from the Bishop
of Ely, also in 1855.    The following year he was ordained
to the priesthood and became Vicar of Medingley, a village
not far from Cambridge.    In 1865, Dr. Machray was nominated to the  Bishopric of Rupert's Land, and consecrated
at   Lambeth Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury and
four Bishops, one of whom the Right Rev. Dr. Anderson
had fomerly been Bishop of the North-western Diocese.
Since he entered upon his work, Dr.  Machray has energetically striven, and with marked success for the advancement
-of   the   Church   and the   spiritual welfare  of   the   people.    The subdivision of the diocese into several bishoprics
.limits the present Bishop's charge to the Province of Manitoba, the districts of Swan River, Moray House and Rainy
Lake with part of the district of Cumberland.    In 1874,
Bishop Machray was selected as Metropolitan.   In addition
to his episcopal duties, he is also Chancellor and Warden of
St. John's College, and Professor of Ecclesiastical History.
' Dr. Machray is eminently a missionary bishop, and is deservedly popular among the clergy and people, for his ardent
devotion, practical energy, fervent piety, and unostentatious
•eloquence. 848
The Rev. George Bryce, M.A., LL.B., Head and Professor
of Manitoba College, was 'born at Mount Pleasant, in the
County of Brant, C. W., in April, 1844. His parents, both
Scottish, hailed from the parish of Kilmadock in Perthshire, and came to Canada in 1843. At the age of four
young Bryce was at school, having early given token of
marked ability. Passing through the common school, and
the county grammar school at Brantford, he entered University College at the age of eighteen. Here his course was
eminently successful, and he graduated in 1868, as medallist in Natural Scienees. Mr. Bryce's next step was to enter
Knox's College, where he studied theology under Drs. Willis and Burns, and on the 19th September, 1871, was set
apart for educational work in Manitoba, at the same time
that the Rev. Mr. McKay was ordained for a far more distant field of labour [in the island of Formosa. Mr. Bryce
departed for Winnipeg to undertake a Professorship in the
College just established. As in all newly-settled districts*
the young clergyman had a double duty to' perform: he
was at once professor and pastor. As-might be expected,
Mr. Bryce met with many discouragements at the outset;
but, being a young man of vigour and energy, he has managed to ouSive them all. He had the good fortune to be
joined in the College work by Professor Hart, who belonged
to a different branch of the Presbyterian Church. By their
joint efforts, considerable progress was made-towards union,
even before the eastern Churches formed a junction in 1875-
In 1874, Professor Bryce was relieved of the pastoral charge
of Knox Church, Winnipeg,, by the arrival' of the Rev.. James* THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Robertson. A large share of the missionary work still devolved upon him, however, and he laboured at church organi-
zation throughout the Province of Manitoba until 1881, when
a Superintendendent of Missions was appointed for the
North-West. Meanwhile, Mr. Bryce has taken a prominent
part in all religious and educational Work in the territories.
During his residence there, the early history of the country,
its gradual development ^nd progress have attracted much
of his study and attention. During the present year, Pro-
. fessor Bryce published a handsome volume of three hundred
and sixty-five pages, illustrated with maps and engravings,,
giving a full and accurate account of the Prairie Province as-
it was and is * The larger portion of the work is devoted
to the history of the Red River Settlement, and the broils-
in which Lord Selkirk and the rival North-West Company
were involved. In oiirv next volume the entire subject will
be taken up, and Professor Bryce's work will necessarily
come under closer review. The young author is still at the
threshold of his life-work, and much may be confidently
expected from his learning and industry. On the title-page
of the work referred to, it is stated that Professor Bryce
is a DelAgue of the Ethnographical Institution of Paris, and
also Secretary of the Manitoba Historical Society.
An attempt has thus been made to give salient examples of
Scottish work in our seminaries of learning. It is far from
complete; still it "may be accepted in spite of its shortcomings as a sketch in the rough of what Scotsmen have
* Manitoba.: Its Infancy, Growth, and Present Condition London: Sampson Low &.
Co. 1882. «50
done in the interest of superior education. Many, if not
most of the men who have passed under review are clergymen, and, therefore, the next chapter will follow in natural
mmmm ^a
fLT would be obviously out of the question to sketch the
I biographies of even a tithe of the clergymen who
boast of Scottish origin, especially those who have distin-
tinguished themselves in the Presbyterian Church. The
•only practicable plan is that adopted here, to take a few
prominent men from all the various denominations as
illustrative instances, beginning with that head of the
Church Catholic which is peculiarly Scottish.
The Rev. Alexander Mathieson, D.D., is the name of a
clergyman of the Scotch Church in Canada, who will long
be remembered with affection in Montreal, where for forty-
five years he laboured as minister of St. Andrew's Church.
He was born at Renton, Dumbartonshire, on the 1st of October, 1795. That village is situated on the banks of the
Leven, which the genius of Smollett has made one of the
classic streams of Scotland. After a preliminary training,
he matriculated at Glasgow University, and obtained his
Master's degree when only twenty. In 1823 he was licensed to preach, and three years later ordained by the
Presbytery of Dumbarton to St. Andrew's Church, Montreal.
He arrived at that city on the 24th of December, and at
once began the work in which he was to spend his life. Dr.
Mathieson's early life is an apt illustration of the zeal of 852
Scottish parents for the education of their children. His
father was the son of a farmer in Sutherlandshire, and, desiring to see the world, enlisted as a soldier. Of a garrison
fife he soon tired, and left the army to learn the mysteries of
the printing art. He married, and the couple, who were
happy in more than the conventional sense, never possessed
much of this world's wealth. Nevertheless they strained
every nerve on behalf of their son, and had the satisfaction
of living to see him occupying a prominent position.* His
father died at the age of eighty-two, and the mother at
ninety-four. During his undergraduate course, young
Mathieson, like most poor Scottish students, engaged in
teaching, and was a private tutor even after his admission
to the Ministry.
Dr. Mathieson early took a deep interest in the Clergy
Reserve agitation, not, however, as a secularizer, but as a
claimant to a share of the funds for his Church. In this
movement he succeeded. In 1837, during a visit to Glasgow,
he received the degree of Doctor of Divinity. At the time
of Dr. Mathieson's arrival there were only three Scottish
churches in Lower Canada, and only five in the upper
Province. An incident of these early times, which reflects
great credit on the liberality of the Roman Catholic clergy
of Montreal is related. While the Presbyterian Church was
being erected, the congregation were tendered and accepted
the use of the Church of the " Recollets," and when the new
edifice was completed, the ministers of the temporary place of
worship, not only refused any payment for the use of the
* Portraits of British Americans Part II, p. 82.
building, but expressed their regret at the removal. Dr.
Mathieson was a member of the first Synod in 1831, and
Moderator, first in 1832, and secondly in 1860, during the
visit of the Prince of Wales. At this period a slight trouble
arose which proved the Doctor's sturdy attachment to his
Church. The Anglican address was presented in a formal
way, but that intrusted with Dr. Mathieson was only to be
be sent in. The Scottish clergyman was loyal to the core
and a strong Church and State man, but he could not brook
what he regarded as a slight. Finally he made his way to
Kingston and, as the Prince did not land there, was received
on board the steamer, and permitted to read the Address in
proper form.
In 1860 a great effort was made towards the union of the
various Presbyterian bodies, by means of a compromise. Dr.
Mathieson delivered a sermon against the scheme which, for
the time, fell through. It is not difficult to understand his
attitude. Intensely devoted to his native land and to the
Church of his fathers, any movement which threatened to
sever his connection with the latter was necessarily repugnant to him. This love for Church, Scotland and Canada
absorbed all his deepest feelings. He was a man of unflinching firmness and courage—one of the old martyr stock. As
a preacher, Dr. Mathieson was eloquent and impressive, and
his sermons always bore traces of deep earnestness. They
came from the heart, and appealed to the heart. His life
was uneventful, for it was entirely passed in pastoral work.
He was the most warm-hearted and genial of men, the truest
and staunchest of friends, and when he died in 1870, he left 854
behind him a multititude of mourning friends throughout
the city of Montreal.*
The Rev. Robert Burns, D.D., filled a conspicuous place in
the Presbyterian Church of Canada for nearly a quarter of
a century, during which period he was one of the foremost
ministers in its ranks, and one of the most indefatigable
workers on its behalf as missionary, pastor, or professor. He
was born about the middle of February, 1789, near the small
seaport town of Borrowstowness, on the Frith of Forth.  In
an  auto-biography, which  forms  part of a life  of him,
written by his son,-}- Dr. Burns, with pardonable pride, refers back to his covenanting ancestry.    From the days of
John Knox downwards,the family haa not only been staunch
in their faith, but had too often been compelled to suffer for
conscience' sake.    We have heard that the Doctor was a
" far awa' " cousin of his namesake, the poet, but are unable
to vouch for the truth of the rumour.    Doctor Burns' father
had been engaged until 1779 in the manufacture of linen ;
but in that year was appointed surveyor of customs.    The-
old gentleman had witnessed the Battle of Falkirk, in 1746.
He died in 1817, at the age of eighty-seven, leaving behind
him eight sons.    After a preliminary education at the parish
schools and under a private tutor, young Robert entered.
Edinburgh University in October, 1801. Among the learned,
professors whose lectures he attended were Dugald Stewart
and Dr. Thomas Brown.    In 1805, Mr. Burns entered the
Divinity Hall, after having graduated in arts, and in 1810
*For many of these particulars we are indebted to the Rev. Mr, Dobie, who still adheres-
to the remnant of the old Church.
t The Life and Times of the Rev. Robert Burns, D.D, By the Rev, R. F. Burns,.
D.D.   Toronto: James Campbell & Son.    1872.
was licensed to preach by the Presbytery of Edinburgh. His-
ordination took place in the following year, and he was appointed to the charge of St. George's Church, Paisley. There
he remained for thirty-four years, during which time he received (in 1828) the degree of Doctor of Divinity from the
University of Glasgow. At the disruption in 1843 he joined
the Free Church, and in 1845 left his congregation and native land for Canada. In the previous year, in company
with Professor Cunningham and others, he had paid a visit
to the United States and Canada to secure aid for the Sus-
tentation Fund of the Free Church. From 1845 to 1856 he
was minister of Ejiox Church, Toronto. Early in June,
1847, the old edifice was burned to the ground, and the congregation temporarily assembled in St. Andrew's Church,
and subsequ ently in the Temperance Hall. The new building,
with its handsome spire, was opened on the 3rd of September, 1848. For many years, in addition to his pastoral-
labours, Dr. Burns was an indefatigable labourer in the missionary field. One of his earliest efforts in Toronto was towards securing to the Free Church soldiers of the 71st
Highlanders the right to worship elsewhere than the Established Church, and he had the satisfaction of seeing three ,
hundred attending his ministry. The Doctor was an ardent
controversialist on various subjects, especially in vindication
of Protestantism and the position occupied by his own
branch of the Presbyterian Church. During the Clergy Reserve controversy, he took an active part on behalf of secularization, and also published in the Banner, a religious
journal, afterwards merged in the Olobe, a series of letters
on the University of Toronto—at that time a bone of con- ■la
tention between the Church of England and the other denominations.
Dr. Burns was a man of almost unbounded charity, and
very often imposed upon, it is to be feared, by unworthy
mendicants.* Still, he was a shrewd discerner of character,
as was proved in the case of one Lublin, who professed to
be a converted Hungarian Jew, in 1853. The Doctor did
not succeed at the police court, but the ground he took was
amply vindicated subsequently. At the time he was much
abused for his supposed want of Christian charity, but his
suspicions were abundantly justified, and he was presented
with a gold medal and an address in 1854. On another oc-'
casion a pretended Roman Catholic priest, who was about
to hold a meeting to relate the story of his conversion, unluckily for himself, called upon Dr. Burns in the forenoon.
After some conversation, the soi-disant priest presented a
diploma in evidence. The Doctor scanned it over, and then
said quietly: | Sir, there are many bad things at Rome, but
there is good Latin. That never came from the Vatican."
The adventurer left the city at once.-f"
As a preacher, Dr. Burns belonged to the old school. His
sermons were earnest and impressive, but rather long and
" chockful " of doctrine. He was a rigid Calvinist, and adhered with unwavering tenacity to the Confession of Faith.
Nevertheless he proved an eminently warm-hearted and liberal man out of the controversial arena. His pastoral visits were
* The writer remembers an incident related of him. He had just purchased a new great
coat, which with the old one was hanging in the hall. A poorly-clad man appeared at
the door, and the Doctor at once thought of his old coat. Being short-sighted, he
mistakenly gave the new one. The mistake was discovered too late, and the aged pastor's
only remark was: "Poor fellow, I dare say he needs it more than. I do."
t Life and Times, &c., p. 242.
always welcome to the young folk because of his gentle ways,
and to some extent also, because he was not a hard taskmaster. If the youngsters were behind in their knowledge
of Scripture or the catechism, he would not only prompt
them, but if need were, answer his own questions, in a low
undertone, himself. Dr. Burns' missionary work extended
over the whole of Ontario, and he made frequent tours to
the Maritime Provinces. In two religious enterprises he
took a deep interest. An ardent opponent of slavery, he
was a devoted friend of the fugitive coloured man, and
aided largely in the establishment of the Buxton Mission in
the county of Kent. A similar devotion to Protestantism
led him to take an active part in the French Canadian Missionary Society of Lower Canada.
In 1856, Dr. Burns resigned the pastorate of Knox
Church, and accepted the Professorship, at Knox College, of
Church History and Apologetics. This was not the Doctor's
first connection with the College, for he had been instrumental in its foundation during 1845, and served in it until the
arrival of the Rev. Dr. Willis as Principal. On his second
appointment, Dr. Burns made a collecting tour through the
western peninsula, and succeeded in considerably augmenting
the College Fund. During this period he also ministered to
the Gould Street Congregation as the Rev Dr. Taylor had
done before in connection with his professorial duties. The
aged Doctor was untiring likewise in,his efforts for the pre-
Hminary training of theological students, and in the cause
of female education. The Montreal College occupied his last
thoughts, after advancing years and infirmities had compelled
him to resign his Professorship in 1866. The subject of Apolo-
o 858
cetics was one which specially attracted him, and, as his son
writes, he was careful to keep himself abreast of the times.*"
It may well be believed that, in earnestly contending for
the faith his controversial zeal was often at war with the
nobler generosity of his heart.    In August, 1869, Dr. Burns-
returned from his last visit to Scotland; and on the 7th
preached his last sermon in Gould Street Church.    On the-
19th  of the month, he quietly breathed his last, at  the-
patriarchal age of eighty years and six months.    He was a
sturdy soldier of the cross, and had well earned the rest into-
which  he entered, for he had spent an unusually   long
life of labour and usefulness in his Divine Master's service.
The Rev. John Jennings, D. D., was born at Glasgow in
October, 1814, the son of a manufacturer of that city.    After
receiving his earlier education under his uncle, the Rev. Mr.
Tindale, in Fifeshire, young Jennings entered upon his theological studies at St. Andrew's, and completed them at Edinburgh University.    As he had determined to labour in a
Canadian field, he further equipped himself by attending a.
complete course in medicine.    In 1838 he was appointed
missionary of the United Presbyterian Church to Canada,,
and at Toronto duly inducted as pastor of the first U. P.
Church.    The city was then a small one, and Mr. Jennings'"
early congregation was simply insignificant.     It consisted
of seven members and twenty-one adherents, and worshipped
in a carpenter's shop on Newgate (now Adelaide) street.
Under Mr. Jennings, however, the little  flock grew, and
when the  Baptist  Church vacated  their   Stanley  Street
*" He was generous in his treatment of honest and sincere doubters, but with the sophistical lucubrations of pretentious sciolists he had no patience."—Life  &c, p. 257. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 859
edifice, it was rented by the United Presbyterians. As the
membership increased, the congregation removed from place
to place until it finally settled in the Bay Street Church,
now used by the Medical Board. For many years after his
arrival in Toronto, the pastor also laboured in the country, riding on horseback many weary leagues. In company
with the Rev Dr. Fraser, who was associated with him in
pioneer work, he penetrated beyond Lake Simcoe, undergoing many toils and hardships. Of these itinerant labours,
Mr. Jennings kept a record, and from it may be learned
the fact that in one year he rode 3,050 miles. Physically he was fully equal to the task, and his knowledge of
medicine was eminently acceptable to the scattered settlers,
to whom he broke the bread of life. In 1851, in acknowledgment of his labours and of several works on university
subjects, the University *of New York conferred upon Mr.
Jennings the degree of Doctor of Divinity,—the first given
by that body to any Canadian minister.
Dr. Jennings remained pastor of the church at Toronto
for nearly thirty-six years, and also found time to make
himself abundantly useful in connection with the educational system of the Province. He was for many years a
member of the University corporation, the Upper Canada
College Board, and the Council of Public Instruction. Dur-
ing the public discussions on the subject of the Clergy
Reserves, Dr. Jennings frequently appeared upon the public
platform up to the time of their secularization in 1854.
The Doctor entered heartily into both schemes of Union,
and after that of 1861 which brought together his own and
the Free Church, he was an ardent supporter of the larger 860
project. Before it was consummated, however, ill-health had
begun to tell upon him, and in 1874, he was constrained to
resign his charge. The congregation consented reluctantly
to break the tie which had so long united pastor and people,
and manifested their attachment by settling upon him a
liberal retiring allowance. In 1875, Dr. Jennings began to
fail rapidly, and towards the end of that year he was struck
by paralysis. He survived until the 25th of February, when
he died with his family around him, in the full possession
of his faculties. Apart from his ministerial duties proper,
Dr. Jennings was conspicuous for his efforts amongst the
poor and the suffering, and was universally popular with his
fellow-citizens of every denomination. He left to mourn
him his widow, three sons and four daughters*
The Rev. Alexander Topp, D.D., who served for more than
twenty years as pastor of Knox Church, Toronto, was a Scot
from the " far awa' North." He was born at Sheriffmill, a
farm-house near Elgin, Morayshire, in 1815, and early educated at the Elgin Academy; thereafter entering King's
College, Aberdeen, when only in his fifteenth year. There he
succeeded in obtaining a scholarship tenable for four years.
In 1836, at the age of twenty-one, he received a license to
preach, and became assistant-minister of an Elgin Church.
Here his talents and energy made him highly popular, and,
when the charge became vacant, the congregation and Town
Council petitioned for Mr. Topp's appointment. The Government acceded to their request, and the new pastor was
formally inducted.    The famous disruption took place in
* The writer is indebted to Mrs. Jennings for the facts in the above sketch. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
1843, and Mr. Topp at once cast in his lot with the opponents
of patronage. The greater part of his congregation went
with him. In 1852, he removed to Edinburgh, having re-
ceived a call from the Roxburgh Church there. In 1856,* he
declined a call from Knox Church, Toronto ; but in 1858 accepted a second, and immediately entered upon his life-work.
The congregation had sadly run down, in consequence of a
long interregnum. Mr. Topp found that the communicants'
roll amounted only to three hundred, yet before his death it
had risen to nearly seven hundred. In 1868, the reverend
gentleman was elected Moderator of the General Assembly
by the unanimous .recommendation of all the Presbyteries.
In the Church Courts his services were invaluable, because
he was not only a shrewd man of business, but also, and
above all things, a peace-maker. In 1870, Mr. Topp received,
the degree of Doctor of ^Divinity from his alma mater, the
University of Aberdeen.
During the negotiations for union with the Presbyterian
Church in connection with the Church of Scotland, Dr. Topp
took a leading part; indeed, it may be safely asserted that
he was the chief agent in bringing it about. The union was
consummated in 1875, and in 1876 he was elected Moderator
of the General Assembly. Dr. Topp subsequently attended
the Pan-Presbyterian Council at Edinburgh, in 1877. For
some time before his death he had been aware that he suffered from organic disease of the heart. Iii 1879 he visited
Scotland, and somewhat imprudently preached in his old
pulpit at Elgin, contrary to medical advice. He returned
home and resigned his pastorate, but before any action could
be taken the hand of death was laid upon him suddenly, while 862
visiting a member of his congregation, on the 6th of October, 1879. His life had been calm and equable, and so it
was fitting that his death should be peaceful and painless.
As'a preacher, Dr. Topp was rather impressive than eloquent ; as a pastor, he was deeply beloved by every member
of his congregation. Gifted with a cordial, winning disposition, his visits to the family circle were at all times welcome. Beside the sick-bed, in administering consolation,
or inspiring hope in the hearts of the dying, few Christian
ministers were to be compared with him. It may be added
that he took a deep interest in all benevolent schemes, and
was the chief instrument in establishing the Toronto Home
for Incurables.
The Rev. Robert Ferrier Burns, D. D., of Fort  Massey
Presbyterian Church, Halifax, N. S., is one of the best-known
clergyman of his Church, in the east.   He was  a son of
late Rev. Dr. Burns, of whom a sketch has already been given,
and was born at Paisley, in December, 1826.    When nearly
fourteen, he entered the University of Glasgow, at which he
ranked high as a student.    During 1844-5 he attended the
New College, Edinburgh—a theological institution set on
foot by the Free Church immediately after the disruption.
In 1845 he followed his father to Canada, and completed his .
divinity studies at Knox College, Toronto.    Mr. Burns was
ordained in July, 1847, and at once accepted the pastorate of
Chalmers' Church, Kingston, which he filled for eight years.
In 1855 he was called to Knox Church, St. Catharines.   There
' he ministered for twelve years, during which time he acted
upon the Grammar School Board, organized the system of
Sabbath School Conventions, and performed other services
outside the duties of his charge. Having received a call
to the Scottish Church at Chicago, in 1867, he spent three
years there, assisting the Evangelist, Mr. Moody, in his revival work. At the close of this period he received a eall to
Cote' Street Church, Montreal, where Dr. Donald Fraser, now
-of London, England, and Principal Mc Vicar had previously
laboured. There he remained until 1875, when he accepted
his present charge at Halifax. In 1866 the degree of Doctor of
Divinity was conferred upon Mr. Burns, by Clinton College, N. Y.
Dr. Burns' congregation is a large and influential one, and
this success at Halifax has been highly encouraging.    He is
■also one of the managers of the Presbyterian College of the
Eastern Provinces,and has for several years past given lectures
to the students. When the College Endowment Scheme was
mooted, he was one of >its most energetic promoters.    Dr.
Burns has been a voluminous contributor to religious magazines ; has published many sermons and pamphlets, notably
-on prohibition; and in 1872 issued a biography of his deceased father, which has passed through several editions. In
.addition to these works, he was the joint author with the
Rev. Mr. Norton, of St. Catharines, of | Maple Leaves from
^Canada for the grave of Abraham Lincoln." Like his father,
theDoctor was,from the first, a determined enemy of slavery ;
but, unlike him, lived to see its entire abolition in the United
States. In 1879, the General Assembly, meeting at Ottawa,
appointed Dr. Burns one of eight delegates to represent the
Canadian Church at the General Presbyterian Council at
Philadelphia, and in 1880 he attended the Sunday-school
celebration, in London, England, of the hundredth anniver- 864 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
sary of the establishment of Sunday Schools by Robert
Raikes, of Gloucester. Dr. Burns' predecessor at Halifax
was the Rev. J. K. Smith, now of Gait, Ontario, of whose-
career, however, we have, unfortunately, no record.
The Rev. William Reid, D.D., whose name is perhaps as-
widely known as that of any minister in the Presbyterian
Church in Canada/was born in Aberdeenshire, in the year 1816.
Unfortunately, for biographical purposes, his active and useful
career affords few incidents that can be seized upon by the-
chronicler. Dr. Reid's work has throughout been of that
invaluable, yet unobtrusive kind which eludes the pencil of
the limner. He studied at King's College, Aberdeen, and
received his degree of MA. in 1833. Entering the Divinity
Hall, in that ancient seat of learning, he passed through-,
the usual courses of theology, and was licensed to preach in
1839. In August of that year he was selected as a missionary to Canada, and having received a call from the congregation of Grafton and Colborne, was ordained on the 30th*
of January, 1840.
In 1844, the ecclesiastical upheaval, which had wrought
so potent an effect in Scotland the year before, was-
felt in Canada. Mr. Reid cast in his lot with the cause of
the Free Church, and was one of the founders of the Presbyterian Church of Canada,—the old title modified by omitting the words, "in connection with the Church of Scotland."
In 1849, the Rev. gentleman was translated to Picton^.
and, about the same time, became Clerk of the Synod.    His
zeal in the interests of the church, and his exceptional aptitude for the business of organization were soon recognized.
Some years after he found himself not only Synod Clerk,
but General Agent of all the schemes of the Church, and
editor of the Ecclesiastical and Missionary Record. Dr.
Reid has held the same position ever since, both before and
since the unions of 1861 and 1875. In the latter year The
Record was removed from Toronto to Montreal. In 1876,
Dr. Reid received the degree of Doctor of Divinity from
Queen's University, Kingston. The honoured place he fills
in the estimation of his brethren may be partly understood
by a reference to the high positions he has occupied on three
successive occasions, Dr. Reid has been elected Moderator of
the Supreme Court of the Church: first, of the Presbyterian
Church of Canada, in 1851; secondly, of the Canada Presbyterian Church, in 1873; and thirdly, of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, in 1879.
The Rev. Robert Ure, D.D., Minister of the Presbyterian
Church in Canada at. Goderich, Ont., was born in Lanarkshire in the month of January, 1823, where his father was a
manufacturer in iron. When nineteen years of age, Robert
emigrated to Canada and settled at Hamilton. Having resolved to adopt the clerical profession, Mr. Ure studied privately with the Rev. Mr. Gale, and then entered Knox College. Having completed his theological course in 1850, and
received ordination, the rev. gentleman accepted a call from
Streetsville where he remained for twelve years. In 1862
he removed to Goderich where he still labours; but as there
are two country stations attached, Mr. Ure has the advantage of an assistant. Mr. Ure's scholastic attainments are
of a high order, and in recognition of them Queen's University, Kingston, conferred upon him the degree of Doctor of
Divinity in May, 1876.   He lectured for two years on Apolo- ;866
;getics at Knox College, and also on Homiletics at Queen's.
Dr. Ure took a conspicuous part in bringing about the Presbyterian union, first with the United Presbyterian Church,
•and secondly with that connected with the Church of Scot-
.land. During the negotiations for the former union, Dr.
Ure was Convener of one Committee, and Dr. Taylor of
Montreal of the other. When the scheme had been consummated, Dr. Taylor, being the senior, was chosen first
Moderator, Dr. Ure subsequently to him. In the subject of
•education the Doctor takes the deepest interest, and for a
long period served as Grammar School trustee. His sermons
are remarkable for their earnestness and originality, and he
is much esteemed by his flock.
The Rev. William Cochrane, D.D., of Brantford, was born
at Paisley, in February, 1832. His family, originally from
Ayrshire, is sprung of the same stock as the renowned
■seaman, Lord Dundonald. After receiving the usual parochial school education, William was placed in a bookseller's
shop, where he remained for more than ten years. He was
-a youth of indomitable energy and devoted all his leisure
hours to study. Starting at five o'clock in the morning, he
used to walk from Paisley to Glasgow University to recite.
When twenty-two years of age, his persevering efforts attracted the attention of two American gentlemen named
Brown, from Cincinatti. They offered him an academic
•education, if he would go to the United States. He cordially
embraced the offer, and entered Hanover College, Indiana,
at which he graduated as Bachelor of Arts in 1857. After
two years spent in the study of theology at Princeton, N. J.,
Mr. Cochrane was licensed by the Presbytery of Madison, ^«1
Indiana, and called to the pastorate of the Scottish Church,
Jersey City, in 1859. After remaining there for three years,
he accepted a call from Zion Presbyterian Church, Brantford,
and has ministered there for the past twenty years. During
that time Dr. Cochrane has received flattering invitations
from Boston, New York, Chicago and Detroit, but has firmly
resisted the temptation. Since he undertook the Brantford
charge, the congregation has been more than quadrupled in
number. For the past eleven years the rev. gentleman has
been clerk of the Synod of Hamilton and London, and for a
longer period he served in a similar capacity for the Presbytery of Paris. Judging by the number of Presbyteries which
have sent up his. name unanimously, he will,, in all likelihood,
be selected as Moderator of the General Assembly, in June
next. In 1864, the degree of M. A. was conferred upon him
by his university, and in 1875 that of Doctor of Divinity.
In addition to his Church labours, Dr. Cochrane has been
President of the Brantford Young Ladies' College since its
inception in 1874, and, for a series of years, President also of
the local Mechanics' Institute. As a preacher, the Doctor
exhibits great force and earnestness of manner, and exceptional clearness and fluency. He has published several
volumes of sermons, and they admirably stand the crucial
test of closet study. There is nothing sensational in Dr.
Cochrane's style; he carefully prepares his discourses, generally writing them out in full; but he uses no MS., and few
notes in the pulpit; indeed they would materially diminish
the effect of his forcible and animated delivery.
The Rev. D. J. Macdonnell, B. D., minister of St. Andrew's
Church, Toronto, was born in the manse at Bathurst, N. B., 868
in January, 1843.    His father, a native Scot, had been for
many years pastor of the Church of Scotland congregation
there.    When his   son   was about seven   years   of age,
the Rev. George Macdonnell resigned his   charge at St.
Luke's to return to his  native land.     Thus the groundwork of young Macdonnell's education came to be laid in
Scotland, partly at Kilmarnock, partly at Edinburgh.    On
their return to Canada, the father settled in the then western Province, where he laboured successively at Nelson, Fergus and Milton, dying   at the last-named place in 1871.
Meanwhile his son's education was continued at the Gait
Grammar School under Dr. Tassie.   When only twelve years
of age he entered Queen's College, Kingston, and graduated
when only, fifteen, like Cardinal Wolsey, i a boy Bachelor."
Mr. Macdonnell would have at once applied himself to teaching ; but his youth was against him.    He, therefore, devoted
some time to theological studies, and for three years thereafter was engaged in tuition..   At the end of that period, he
repaired to Glasgow to complete his Divinity course.    His
pastor there was Dr. Norman McLeod, and to his influence,
as well as the period he spent in Germany, may no doubt be
traced Mr. Macdonnell's breadth and liberality of view on
theological subjects.    Principal Caird, moreover, was  one
of his instructors.    The summer vacation was spent at Heidelberg University.  He returned to Scotland and completed
his course at Edinburgh, receiving the degree of Bachelor of
Divinity.    During the summer of 1865, in company with
some clerical friends, he made a tour in Switzerland; and
the winter was passed at Berlin  University   under the
celebrated Professors Dorner and Hengstenberg.     At the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
conclusion of the session, Mr. Macdonnell had the misfortune to be mistaken for a forger at Hamburg, and barely
escaped arrest—a circumstance not much to the credit for
sagacity of the German police. On his return to Edinburgh
Mr: Macdonnell received ordination from the Presbytery in
June, 1866. In a few months he returned to Canada, and
was settled at St. Andrew's Church, Peterboro'. The congregation which had been depleted at the time of the disruption, was still in a backward state; but notwithstanding
all the hindrances in his path, the new pastor had the satisfaction of leaving it five years after in a more improved condition. Whilst there, Mr. Macdonnell married, in 1868, a
daughter of the Rev. Mr. Smellie, of Fergus. In 1870 the
rev. gentleman received a call to old St. Andrew's Church,
then on the south-west corner of Adelaide and Church
Streets. The 1 Old Kirk," as it was familiarly termed, was
built so far back as 1831. Mr. Macdonnell had had three predecessors, the last of whom, the Rev. Dr. Barclay, who had
ministered there for twenty-eight years, relinquished his
charge in 1870.
The advent of Mr. Macdonnell was the signal for an immediate revival of the condition of the church. He was
young, energetic, and, more than all, earnest and original in
his preaching. Within a few years, it was found that the
old building was inadequate for the purpose, and a new and
imposing structure was commenced at the corner of King and
Simcoe Streets. The church is built of stone in the Norman
style, with a massive tower at the south-west angle. The
building cost no less than $80,000, and is fully equipped with
spacious lecture and also class-rooms.    Immediately in the 870
rear is the commodious house occupied by the pastor and his
family.   Mr. Macdonnell's pastorate has not been entirely
without a ripple upon the calm and steady tide of its progress.    A sermon preached to his flock found its way into a
city journal, and the preacher was at once the object of a
prosecution before the Church courts for heresy.    Into details it is not our desire to enter; it may suffice to say that
the rev gentleman  emerged from  the   ordeal unscathed.
Mr. Macdonnell's popularity has steadily increased year by
year and he is widely known as one of the most eloquent and
earnest members of the Church ; certainly no congregration
could be more sincerely attached to its pastor than that
. which worships in the ornate Church of  St. Andrew.    Mr.
Macdonnell was one of the most cordial supporters of Presbyterian union, and contributed largely to its consummation
in 1875.    In works of charity also he has taken a prominent
part.   Tne Dorset Street Mission, the St. Andrew's Penny
Savings' Bank, and other institutions not so intimately connected with the congregation, have all shared his attention,
and reaped the benefit of his untiring activity.   Mr. Macdonnell occupies a seat in the Senate of the University, ha vino-
been appointed as one of its representatives by the Ontario
Government.    The rev. gentleman is still on the sunny side
of forty, and has, therefore, the promise of many years of
usefulness to come.*
The Rev. John Laing, M. A, pastor of Knox Church,.
Dundas, is a native Scot, having been born in Ross and
Cromarty in March, 1828.   His early education was obtained
* The facts given above are mainly taken from the Weekly Globe of  March 81st. 1876. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
at the High School, Edinburgh, where he held a creditable-
position in his class.    In 1843 the family removed to Canada
and young Laing continued his studies at King's and Knox
Colleges, Toronto.    While at the latter institution, he taught
in the Toronto Academy, under a distinguished scholar, the-
Rev. Alexander Gale, and the writer is able from personal
experience to bear testimony to his great zeal and ability as-
a teacher.    In 1854, Mr. Laing was ordained at Scarboro',.
and ministered  there for  somewhat less than six years.
Thereafter for twelve years he was stationed in Cobourg_
In 1872 the rev. gentleman became connected with the Ladies'*
College, at Ottawa, on its establishment; but in 1873 he-
ministered to the church at Dundas, where he still labours-
Mr. Laing received his degree of B.A. from Victoria College,
Cobourg, in 1871, and subsequently that of MA.    He is a.
hard worker and deeply in earnest about his work.    In
educational matters his interest has always been sustained
wherever the duties of his sacred calling have led him to cast,
his lot.    He has largely contributed to various periodicals, and
is said to be the author of an unpublished scripture poem,
entitled | The Betrayal."    Mr. Laing has been twice married,,
and had a family of twelve, four of whom,however, were taken
away in early life by diphtheria.
The Rev. Gavin Lang, M.A., like the Rev. Dr. Mathieson
whom he succeeded as pastor of St. Andrew's Church, Mon-
treal, is a warm supporter of connection with the mother
Church, and a strenuous opponent of union. Mr. Lang's-
father, who bore the same Christian name, was for nearly
fifty years minister of Glasford, Lanarkshire. Besides the
subject of this sketch, two other sons are Scottish Church min- 872
isters—Dr. Lang who succeeded the celebrated Dr. Norman
McLeod at the old Barony Church, Glasgow, and the Rev.
James Lang who fills a pulpit at Stirling. Mr. Gavin Lang was
born in the manse of Glasford in July, 1835, and was educated, both in arts and divinity, at the University of Glasgow. In 1864 he was licensed to preach, and served as
assistant minister at a parish church in Glasgow. When ordained in 1865 he undertook a charge at Fyvie, Aberdeenshire, which he retained for five years, and then became, for
a brief period, pastor of his father's old church at Glasford.
In 1870 the Rev. Dr. Mathieson of St. Andrew's, Montreal,
died, and the Rev. Gavin Lang having received a call at
once accepted it. The church is an exceedingly imposing
structure, of stone, formed on the model of Salisbury Cathedral, built in a central situation, and boasting an elegant
spire. It is, indeed, popularly called the Scottish Cathedral.
There is also a mission church in the east end. Outside his
pastoral work, Mr. Lang has taken an active part in the
Evangelical Alliance of which he has all along been an honorary secretary.
When the union between the Canada Presbyterian Church
and his own was proposed, the scheme was vigorously opposed by Mr. Lang, Mr. Dobie, Mr. Burnet, and ojbhers.
Nevertheless it was consummated in 1875, the dissidents
standing aloof and claiming to remain still the Presbyterian
Church of Canada in connection with the Church of Scotland. The result has been prolonged litigation which was
temporarily closed by a decision of the Judicial Committee
of the Privy Council. The United Church sought corporate
powers  from the Legislatures of the Provinces and Acts THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA 873
conferring these powers were granted. The Rev. Mr. Dobie
began a suit against the trustees of the Temporalities Fund,
in order to secure it for the minority that had remained
faithful to the old Kirk. The case came before the Judicial
Committee, Mr. Donald McMaster, M.P.P. being the Canadian counsel for the plaintiff. The decision left the ownership
of the Fund still in doubt, but it declared the Provincial Act
ultra vires and saddled the trustees personally with the
costs. The next step taken by the United Church was to
apply for confirmatory legislation from the Dominion Parliament. Mr. Lang appeared before the Private Bills Committee and energetically opposed the measure. It, however,
passed by an overwhelming majority. Notwithstanding the
rev. gentleman's strong predilections in favour of the old
Church, he is eminently catholic in spirit, ever ready to cooperate with his brethren of other churches in any beneficent work. Mr. Lang is an impressive preacher, not given
to rhetorical display, but above all things earnest in labouring for the souls committed to his charge. A rumour has
lately prevailed that he intends to return to his native land;
should he do so, his departure would be sincerely regretted
not only by the congregation to which he has ministered for
twelve years, but by all his fellow-citizens.
The Rev. Robert Burnet, now of Pictou, N.S., was born at
Ladykirk, Berwickshire, in June, 1823. His father, who
was a man of independent means, belonged to a family which
had been engaged in the milling business for over four hundred years. Robert was educated at Edinburgh and Aberdeen, and received ordination in 1852. He at once emigrated
to Canada West as missionary, and was stationed at Hamil- 874 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
ton. Shortly after his arrival he was called to the pastorate-
of St. Andrew's Church there. When he undertook the-
charge there were only twenty-four male members on the-
communicants' roll. Here he remained for twenty-five years,.
and then removed to London, in 1876 ; he had the satisfaction of leaving behind him a membership embracing over
two hundred and sixty families. Mr. Burnet's next charge-
was St. Stephen's, London, where he remained for about
three years, when he accepted a call from his present congregation, which can boast of over three hundred and seventy
families. The rev. gentleman's preaching, which is entirely
I extemporaneous," for he disdains even the use of notes, is.
described as of a high order, clear, well-arranged, and often
eloquent in the highest degree. Mr. Burnet has aLso distinguished himself in scientific agriculture and fruit culture..
Whilst in Ontario, he was a member of both the Provincial
and Dominion Boards of Agriculture, of the Entomological
Society', and the Fruit Growers' Association. Some of his
papers on the scientific subjects in which he takes so deep
an interest have been published in the transactions of the
American Pomological Society. Mr. Burnet is a staunch
adherent of the | auld kirk," and, we believe, is still one of
the minority who adhere to the old connection with the
Church of Scotland. At all events, he is a man of no ordinary
ability, and a faithful labourer in his Master's vineyard.
TheRight Reverend Alexander Neil Bethune, D.D.,D.C.L.,
second Bishop of Toronto, was the fifth son of the Rev. John
Bethune, the first Presbyterian minister in Canada. The
family was a large one, consisting of six sons and three daughters.   Of these, Angus, the eldest, will demand notice in con-
nection with the North-West, and the youngest, Donald
Bethune, in a chapter to be devoted to railways and shipping.    For the present, only two of the sons require notice.
The family was of Scottish origin, and settled in Canada
with the devoted band of U. E. Loyalists in 1783.   The late
Bishop was born at Williamstown, in the County of Glengarry, towards the end of August, 1800, and survived all his
brothers and sisters.    Educated at the Cornwall Grammar
School there, he studied under Dr. Strachan.    He was the
youngest and, for some years before he died, the only surviving pupil of the rev. doctor.    The war of 1812 broke up
the school, and young Bethune left Cornwall to join his
family in Montreal, where his early training was continued.
At the invitation of General Brock, Dr. Strachan had removed to York (Toronto), and, so soon as peace was restored,
Mr. Bethune joined him, acting as classical tutor in the
school, and also studying divinity under his old master.   In
1823, he was admitted to deacon's orders, and in 1824 ordained priest by Bishop Mountain, of Quebec.    After a few
years spent at Grimsby, Mr. Bethune was appointed rector of
Cohourg, then called Hamilton, the chief town of the Newcastle District.    At that time the neighbourhood was in
course of settlement, and the young rector's work was by no
means  confined  within the   limits of  St. Peter's  parish.
Evgry minister of the Church was then a missionary also,
with a wide sphere of labour.   Mr. Bethune threw all his
energies into the work, and toiled on for forty years there
with great zeal and devotion.      In 1847, the rector was
appointed Archdeacon of York, still holding his Cobourg
charge.   Twenty years after, Bishop Strachan's advanced 876
age rendered it necessary to give him episcopal assistance,
and, in 1867, Dr. Bethune was consecrated as co-adjutor
Bishop in St. James' Cathedral, Toronto, by the Bishops of
Toronto, Huron, Ontario, Michigan, and Western New York.
It may be remarked that the right of succession at Dr.
Strachan's death was secured to him on his appointment.
He died at Toronto early in February, 1879. Those who
only saw Bishop Bethune during his declining years can
form little conception of his earlier labours. When at Cobourg,
in addition to his parochial and archdiaconal work, he lectured on theology, and,also conducted a church newspaper,
without in the slightest degree neglecting the duties he
owed to the flock committed to his charge. The Bishop
wrote a number of works, chiefly of a theological or devotional character, and one of more general interest, entitled
a | Memoir of the Rt. Rev. John Strachan, D.D., LL.D., first
Bishop .of Toronto." Dr. Bethune was connected by marriage with another Scottish family, having married a daughter of the Hon. James Crooks, by whom he had ten children, only five of whom survive. Of these, the best known
is the Rev. Charles James Stewart Bethune, M.A, Head
Master of the Trinity College School, Port Hope, who has
gained a high reputation in America and Great Britain as a
practical entomologist.
The third son of the old Presbyterian divine was named
after him. He was born in the Township of Charlottenburg,
■Glengarry, early in January, 1791. He also studied at the
Cornwall Grammar School, and afterwards became assistant
teacher there. When Dr. Strachan was called to York, in
1812, Mr. John Bethune became his successor as master of THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
the school. His labours were interrupted by the war, and,,
throwing aside the dominie's ferule, the young teacher
shouldered his musket. In 1814, he was ordained deacon,
and became a missionary preacher in the Townships of Augusta and Elizabethtown. His labours there were exceedingly rough and arduous, but they were crowned with success. It is true that the height of his ambition was to be
rector of Cornwall, and that he was not successful in obtaining it; yet he laboured on cheerfully for four years. In 1818
he was unexpectedly called upon to undertake the rectorship of Christ Church, Montreal, where he continued to labour during the rest of his fife. Even there the work was
by no means promising. The congregation Was small, the
church unfinished and in debt. What the late Dean accomplished during his long career may only be estimated by a
comparison of the state of the Anglican Church now with
its backward and almost hopeless condition sixty-four years
ago. Mr. Bethune was then in the vigour of youth, and
threw himself into the work with youthful ardour and devotion. In 1829, he paid his first visit to England and collected money for the Canadian Church Building Fund. In
1835, the degree of Doctor, of Divinity was conferred upon
him by Columbia College, New York. In the same year,
the Archdeacon of Montreal having become Bishop of Quebec, Dr. Bethune was appointed Principal of McGill University, then in its infancy. An unfortunate dispute subsequently arose between the Governors and the Board of the
Royal Institution as to jurisdiction over the College. Dr.
Bethune sided with the former; his Bishop with the latter.
A controversy ensued, which resulted in a recommendation 878 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
from the Colonial Secretary that the Principal's appointment
should be cancelled. The result was the extinguishment of
the theological element at McGill. Shortly after the Diocese
of Montreal was set off from that of Quebec, and Dr. Bethune
was appointed Dean. The selection was an admirable one,
since no Anglican clergyman in the diocese was so conversant with the history and needs of the Church in and about
the commercial metropolis. Dean Bethune passed a busy
life, and never wearied in well-doing. He was deeply beloved, not less for his geniality of disposition than from his
zeal and devotion to the work given him to do. He was a
most effective preacher, staunch in the faith, earnest in enforcing not only sound doctrine, but holiness of life. The
Dean lived to a good old age, passing quietly away on the
22nd August, 1872, in the 82nd year of his age.
It may not be amiss to add here'a few additional particulars regarding the Rev. John Bethune, already referred to as
the father of the church dignitaries-whose careers have been
briefly sketched. He was born in the Island of Skye, in
the year 1751, and educated at King's College, Aberdeen.
With some relations he emigrated to South Carolina, and
when the war broke out, the rev. gentleman was appointed
chaplain of a loyal regiment. The adherents of King George
were defeated, and the chaplain, with many others, were
made prisoners. On being exchanged, he went to Halifax,
and secured the chaplaincy of the 84th Regiment. When
the army establishment was reduced, Mr. Bethune removed
to Montreal, where he organized the first Presbyterian con-
gation in Canada, about 1786. Mention has already been
made of the generous courtesy of the Recollet Fathers, some THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
•pages back* In 1792, the St. Gabriel Street Church was
finished, and it was not only the first Presbyterian, but the
first Protestant church in Montreal. The venerable edifice
still exists, we believe, and is used for divine worship. Mr.
iBethune had left Montreal for Williamstown, Glengarry
where he ministered until his death, in 1815. Over his grave
•a monument was subsequently erected by his six sons. Mr.
Fennings Taylor}- relates that the pastor's wife was an Episcopalian, which serves to account for the fact that two of
the sons entered the Church of England, and became Bishop
and Dean repectively. The sturdy old Presbyterian was opposed to I prelacy," but he could not send his sons to Scotland to be trained; consequently the mother easily persuaded him to have his children instructed by Dr. Strachan.
Hence their early connection with the Anglican Church
The sons were in no sense converts, since, with their father's
.consent, reluctant it may be, they were reared in an Episcopalian atmosphere. Both mother and sons were warmly
attached to the father, and it does not appear that theological differences ever cast a cloud over family affection.
It may be well to note here the name of the Rev. John
Mackenzie, who, in 1816, succeeded the Rev. Mr. Bethune,
.as pastor in Glengarry, and laboured there for forty years.
He was a man of great courage and ability of character, a
true son of the Gael. It is related of him that during the
Lower Canadian Rebellion of 1837, Mr. Mackenzie shouldered his musket, at the head of the Highland Brigade, some
* Rev. Mr. Dobie states that, as the Fathers would take no remuneration, the Presbyterians presented them " with a box of candles, and two hogsheads of Spanish wine !"
t Portraits of British Americans, in the Life of Dr. Bethune, p. 64. 880
of whom went out infantry and came back cavalry, having-
found horses by the way. Mr. Mackenzie was not remarkable as a preacher, his rapidity of utterance being against,,
him, but as pastor, he was earnest, active, and indefatigable—
his whole life's a sermon of the most earnest and practical
The Venerable Archdeacon Henry Patton, D.C.L., was
born at Chelmsford, England, in March, 1806. His father,
Major Andrew Patton was a native of Chatto in Fifeshire,
and a born soldier, both his father and grandfather
having been Colonels in the army. The Major saw a long
period of active service; first in Ireland during the rebellion
of 1798, then in Holland, then in Jamaica, then in Egypt
under Sir Ralph Abercrombie as an officer of the Gordon
Highlanders; next in Denmark and finally under Sir Arthur
Wellesley and Sir John Moore in the Peninsular war. He
took part in the battle of Corunna at which the latter gallant General was killed. His health, however, had been
seriously impaired, and he was not permitted to remain at
the seat of war. The gallant Major died in Toronto in 1838,.
aged sixty-seven.
In 1816 the family removed to Canada, Henry being then
only ten years of age. His education, begun in England,
was continued at the Brockville Grammar School. He
studied divinity at Chambly, and was ordained Deacon in
1829 by Bishop Stewart in the Quebec Cathedral. The-
family meanwhile had removed from the shores of the Bay
of Quints to Prescott, and.subsequently to Little York.    In
1830 he was made a priest by the same Bishop, but in St.
James' Cathedral, York, now Toronto.   For seventeen years THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
the Rev. Mr. Patton laboured without assistance in the
Kemptville Mission which covered four or five townships-
with their villages. So deeply was the pastor beloved by
the people that they successfully resisted his removal to
Brockville, and thirty years after erected to his memory
§ The Archdeacon Patton Memorial Church." In 1845, the
rev. gentleman was put in charge of Cornwall, to which his
two outlying missions were attached. In 1862, Bishop
Lewis appointed him Archdeacon of Ottawa, and at Dr.
Lauder's death as Archdeacon of the whole Diocese of Ontario. It was with great reluctance that Archdeacon Patton
left Cornwall, where he had only recently secured the erection of a memorial church to Bishop Strachan. He was,,
however, transferred to the rectory of Belleville, where he
died on the last day of April, 1874. The Venerable Archdeacon
was an untiring labourer in the Christian field all his life-
His zeal and business tact made him of great service both in
parochial and synodal work. On the death of Dr. Beaven
in 1871, and in 1873 he was elected Prolocutor of the Lower
House in the Provincial Synod, and was Chairman and an
active member of all important Committees in the Diocesan
Synod. Theologically, Dr. Patton was an old school High
-Churchman; but his preaching was evangelical and he disliked innovations in ritual. The Archdeacon's youngest
brother, the Hon. James Patton, Q.C., has been sketched in.
a previous volume.*
The Venerable Archdeacon William Turnbull Leach, MA.,.
D.C.L., LL.D., of Montreal, was born at Berwick-on-Tweed„
>Volume II. 598. 382
in March, 1805. He was educated at Berwick and Sterling,
entered Edinburgh University in 1823, and graduated as M.
A. in 1827. His divinity courses occupied three years more.
During all this period he was materially assisted by his
maternal uncle, Mr. Turnbull, of Stirling. In 1831, Mr.
Leach was ordained a minister of the Church of Scotland,
and soon after came to Canada as a missionary. In 1834 he
was selected as pastor of St. Andrew's Church, Toronto, and
laboured there for some years, during which period he was
largely instrumental in founding Queen's College, Kingston,
at least so far as the preliminary steps were concerned. A
change came over Mr. Leach's opinions, however, about 1841,
-and he took orders in the Church of England, at the hands
of Bishop Mountain, of Quebec. For nearly twenty years
thereafter Mr. Leach was Incumbent of St. George's Church,
Montreal, and subsequently filled for some time the rectorship of Lachine. Bishop Fulford, in 1854, made him an
Honorary Canon of Christ Church and his domestic chaplain
and Archdeacon in 1865. Dr. Leach is an accomplished
classical scholar; he occupied, in 1845, the chair in that department, and, subsequently became Professor of logic and
moral philosophy, which he afterwards exchanged for English literature. He has served for many years as vice-
principal of McGill and Dean of the Faculty of Arts. Archdeacon Leach is described as being a deeply-read and versatile scholar, a man of superior intellect, earnest and liberal-
minded throughout his life.
The Rev. George M. Innes, M.A, Canon and Rector of St.
Paul's Cathedral, London, Ontario, was also born in England ;  but his family is Scottish, his father having been THE SCOT IN BRITISH-NORTH AMERICA.
cousin to the Duke of Roxburgh. Like Archdeacon Patton, Mr. Innes inherited military traditions, and was early
educated for the army at Sandhurst, and obtained a commission in 1849, After twelve years soldiering he left the
service in 1861, being at the time a Captain in the Royal
Canadian Rifles. He at once entered on the study of theology, and was ordained Deacon by the late Dr. Cronyn,
Bishop of Huron, and, after his ordination as priest, became
incumbent of Christ's Church, London, and thence to Quebec
as assistant minister at the Cathedral. In 1868 he returned
to London and occupied a similar position at St. Paul's. In
1871 he became Canon and Rector, a position he still occupies. Canon Innes is an earnest preacher of the Evangelical
school, with a clear intonation and great earnestness in enforcing the truth. His Master's degree was conferred by
Bishop's College, Lennoxville.
The Rev. Alexander Macnab, D.D., rector of the parish of
Darlington (Bowmanville\ belongs to the old clan Macnab,
to which reference may be subsequently made. His father,
Colonel Simon Fraser Macnab, served as a public officer in
Canada for many years, and his grandfather, Dr. James, was
one of the U. E. Loyalist band. The subject of this notice,
was named after his uncle, Captain Alexander, whose name
figures in old plans of little York. The captain was on Sir
Thomas Picton's staff, as aide-de-camp, at Waterloo, and was
probably the only born Canadian who fought and fell upon
that famous battle ground. Dr. Macnab's branch of the
family came from Perthshire, and settled in the American
colonies, after the clan had broken up. During the Revolutionary War, they fought for the  Crown, and found their 884
way, before it had quite terminated, to Canada. The doctor's father was one of the first settlers at Belleville, and
there the rector was born towards the end of January, 1812,
Mr. Macnab was privately educated under the Rev. John
Grier, afterwards rector of Belleville. His first choice was
the legal profession, for which he studied in an office at
Belleville; but he subseqently turned his attention to literature and theology. Within a short period he was appointed
President of the Victoria College, and is believed to have
conferred, in that capacity, the first degree in Arts in this
section of the Province. While at the head of Victoria, the
degree of D.D., was granted him by Union College, Schenectady, N. Y. Dr. Macnab, during his academic rule at Co-
bourg, was appointed first Superintendent of Education in
Canada West, by the Governor-General, Lord Metcalfe.
Soon after resigning his position, Dr. Macnab received ordination at the hands of Bishop Strachan, and was appointed
assistant to the Rev. Dr. Bethune, then rector of Cobourg,
and later on, Bishop of Toronto. After a short term of service at Rice Lake parish, Dr. Macnab was finally settled as-
Rector of Clarke and Darlington. When a division of the
charge took place, he retained Darlington, residing at Bowman ville. As a preacher, the rev. doctor is clear and logical, with a pleasing address, and an impressive manner. The
union of much personal dignity with great warmth and
kindliness of disposition, has made him peculiarly acceptable as a parish priest.
In 1858, Dr. Macnab paid his first visit to England, with
his kinsman, Sir Allan N. Macnab, but ten years later, an
agreeable surprise awaited him.    He received the Waterloo THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
medal to which his uncle would have been entitled, from
the hand of the Duke of Cambridge ;* nor was that all, an
Act had been passed fifty years before cancelling all claims
to prize-money; neverthless, the Chelsea Hospital Commissioners paid to Dr. Macnab the amount lying to the credit
■of Capt. Macnab, as a token of England's appreciation of
the loyalty of the Macnabs, during the American Revolution. In 1876, by permission of the Dean and Chapter, the
•doctor and his son placed in the crypt of St. Paul's, in London, a memorial tablet to the captain's memory, near the
tomb of Sir Thomas Picton, under whom he fought and
fell. During a former visit, when on leave, Dr. Macnab
pleaded the cause of the Society for the Propagation of the
•Gospel in Foreign Parts, in various parish pulpits in England; in 1872 he was the Society's Chaplain at Cologne, in
Prussia. Dr. Macnab married in 1832, and had six children.
Of his two sons, one, the Rev. Allan Napier Macnab, the
godson of Sir Allan, was a promising young minister,
educated at Trinity College, and stationed at Hamilton.
Unhappily he perished by drowning accidentally at Montreal, in the twenty-fifth year of his age. The other, the
Itev. Arthur Wellesley, educated at Huron College, has
also laboured for the Society above mentioned, both in England and on the Continent. He is at present incumbent of
St. Barnabas, St. Catharines, and is not only an able
preacher, but a popular lecturer. Dr. Macnab, although he
lias completed his seventieth year, is still hale and hearty—
*Dr. Scaddlng; Toronto of Old, p. 880
a fine sample of the old Highland stock to which it is his
pride to belong.*
The Very Rev. Robert Jackson Macgeorge was some years-
affo. well-known in church and literary circles in Toronto.
His father, Andrew Macgeorge, was a well-known solicitor in
Glasgow, and in the vicinity of that city, his son Robert was-
born about seventy-two years ago.    After having passed
through the ordinary curriculum at Glasgow, he completed,
his studies at Edinburgh.    Mr. Macgeorge's health was at
that time in a precarious state, and he was advised^ to seek
a change of air and scene. He proceeded to the East Indies,,
spent some months at Bombay, and visited the gulf of Persia and other localities in the Orient. On his return to Scotland, a detailed account of his tour was published in the
Scottish Literary Gazette, and he also contributed to Fraser
the Scottish Monthly, and other periodicals.    In 1839, Mr.
Macgeorge was' admitted to holy orders by Dr. Michael Russell, Bishop of Glasgow and Galloway.    He served for some
time as curate to the Rev. Robert Montgomery, the author
of " Satan" and other poems, whose name will be familiar
to the readers of Macaulay's essays; and subsequently held
the incumbency of Christ's Church, Glasgow.
In 1841, Mr. Macgeorge removed to Canada, and was assigned to Trinity Church, Streetsville—where he remained,
during the whole of his residence in the country. The Anglican Churches in those days were few and far between in
the rural districts,^ that Mr. Macgeorge's incumbency was-
in a large measure the nucleus of a mission. But for his zeal
'Most of the facts stated above have been taken from The Canadian Biographical Dio
tionary, Ontario, p, 99. S«a«M^Mm
and activity, many of the outlying villages would have been
completely neglected. Thus, in addition to his regular duties,.
he found it necessary to hold frequent services at Milton,
Norval, Brampton, Sydenham, Dundas Street, Port Credit,
Etobicoke and Edmonton.
Meanwhile the hard worked clergyman did not suffer his
pen to lie idle, although the period of this literary activity
at its best, came later. He edited the Church, a weekly
newspaper, and also the Anglo American Magazine. Although Mr. Macgeorge's connection with the Streets-
ville Review was anonymous, still it would be a serious
omission to leave without mention the frequent and original
paragraphs for which | Solomon " is still remembered. In.
1858 the rev. gentleman returned to Scotland, and was placed
in charge of Oban. Here, as in Canada, Mr. Macgeorge found
that there was pioneer work to do. Notwithstanding the
influx of JDnglish tourists at that watering-place, there was no
regular place of worship for Episcopalians. The new incumbent at once bestirred himself and succeeded, by his exertions, in erecting a handsome church (St. John's). This-
sacred edifice with a comfortable parsonage was built free
of debt. For some time Mr. Macgeorge held the office of
Synod Clerk, and in 1872, was appointed Dean of Argyle
and the Isles by the Bishop, Dr. Alexander Ewing, whose
name and fame are well known far beyond the limits of his-
rugged diocese. In 1881, advancing age and gathering infirmities, compelled Mr. Macgeorge to resign the charge of St.
John's, as well as his position as Dean and Canon of the
Cathedral. The esteem and affection in which the right
rev. gentleman was held, were manifested in many ways. 888
The clergy of the diocese presented a highly eulogistic
address ; the congregation he had established presented
him with a valuable testimonial; and he was elected an
honorary Canon of the Cathedral, on the nomination of
the Earl of Glasgow. In the course of his Synodal charge
in 1881, Rev. Dr. Mackarness, Bishop of Argyle, and brother
of the Bishop of Oxford, referred with feeling to Mr. Macgeorge's services. The right rev. gentleman, for he is still
permitted to retain the title of Dean, resides still in a green
old age at Rothesay, in the Isle of Bute.
The Right Reverend Alexander Macdonell, D.D., Roman
Catholic Bishop of Kingston, U.C., at the time of his death,
was one of those grand figures of the heroic times.in colonial
life. He was born at Glen Urquhart, on the borders of
Loch Ness, in the Glengarry Highlands of Scotland, in
1762*. Being early intended for the priesthood, young Macdonell was sent, at an early age, to the Scotch College at
Valladolid, in Spain—one of the few remaining links of connection between Scotland and the Latin nations. There he
remained until he was ordained priest, in 1787—a sufficient
proof that the later date assigned as that of his birth cannot
be correct. For four years he ministered amid the picturesque braes of Lochaber, and while there devised a scheme
which proved that he was a patriot as well as a churchman.
This Was no less than a proposal to remove a large number
of the Highland Catholics to the Lowlands.   The motive for
* Morgan: Celebrated Canadians, p. 268, gives 1769 as the date; but we prefer the
earlier, given in The Catholic Calendar and Annual Registrar for 1841, because it was
given in a memoir published soon after the memorable prelate's death. For this and other
valuable information the writer is indebted to \V. J. Macdonell, Esq., Vice-Consul of France
it may be briefly stated thus : The growth of cotton and
other manufactures in the Lowlands had caused a great de-
mand for men. The price of wool and meat had greatly
risen, and the proprietors naturally desired to take advantage of the market. Hitherto, as in Ireland, the holdings
had been small; now, therefore, began the process of eviction, a It was not uncommon," wrote the Bishop, " to see
from one to two hundred families evicted, and' the farms
which they had occupied converted into a sheep-walk for
the accommodation of some south-country shepherd, or, as it
was termed in the country, one hundred and fifty or two
hundred smokes went through one chimney." The state of
the unhappy people was deplorable in the extreme. Few of
them had means enough to emigrate, and they spoke, for the
most part, no language but Gaelic. Beyond their native
valleys and mountains they knew naught of the world, and
were utterly helpless. Even the emigrants did not esdape,
for the ships were boarded and all able-bodied men were
seized by press-gangs. It was then, as Bishop Macdonell
relates, at a time when he was labouring on the borders between Inverness and Perth, on the highest inhabitable part
of the Highlands, that he first planned his settlement
scheme. A simple incident determined him. An emigrant
ship from Barra, one of the Hebrides, had been wrecked, and
the destitute and friendless passengers were landed at
Greenock, in 1792. The good priest at once repaired to
Glasgow, armed with letters to several University professors and also to the principal manufacturers. He pleaded for
employment, not only on behalf of the shipwrecked, but for
Q 890
the evicted Highlanders generally. He was cordially received, but there were still two obstacles in the way. His-
poor and distraught people could only speak the Celtic tongue
of the mountains, and, worse still, were Roman Catholics,
Only twelve years had elapsed when, at the time of the
Lord George Gordon riots, the chapels and clergymen's houses
had been burned both in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and employers naturally feared a revival of the spirit of bigotry..
The penal laws were yet in force, and a priest would certainly be set upon by the rabble, and the matter terminate-
by his prosecution in court. The brave Macdonell was nothing daunted, and at once stated that if the workmen
were protected, he could take his chance of the law; and
to reassure both parties he would himself accompany them
to the factories, and serve as interpreter and clergj^man.
The manufacturers closed with this offer, and employment
was at once found for six hundred Highlanders. The Father
took up his residence at Glasgow, in June, 1792, and entered upon his new labours. Prior to this time, when a
priest officiated there, divine service had been held up several flights of stairs with the entrance guarded by a
stalwart Highlander or Irishman. The new missionary,,
however, by the. advice of an eminent Presbyterian clergyman, Rev, Dr. Porteous, opened his chapel to the street, and
did not close the door during the service.
Unfortunately the war of the French revolution caused,
a stagnation in trade.    The Highlanders were thrown out
of employment, and, being acquainted with no language but
their own, were reduced to a sorry plight.    The rev. father
however, was not yet at the end of his resources.    In 1794 •MSi
he convened a meeting of Catholics at Fort Augustus, at
which their services were tendered to the king, as a Catholic
corps, to serve anywhere in the kingdom under their young
chieftain, Macdonell of Glengarry. Their services were
accepted, and, although it was then contrary to law, the
Rev. Mr. Macdonell was gazetted chaplain. In 1798, the
First Glengarry Fencible regiment went to Ireland to aid
in suppressing the rebellion. Here, the chieftain and the
chaplain exerted themselves to check the excesses of the
yeomanry; turned them out of the chapels they had converted into stables, and persuaded the terrified peasantry to
attend the services of their Church. They were assured that
if they only behaved peaceably, the Government would
know no distinction of creed. The consequence was that,
wherever the Glengarries went, there were no military outrages, and the spirit of disaffection died out.
-Misfortune, however, again overtook the devoted band.
At the short-lived peace of Amiens, the regiment was disbanded, and the Highlanders were once more reduced to
want. Mr. Macdonell then turned his eyes towards Canada^
and proposed to Mr. Addington that a grant of land should
be set apart for them. The Prime Minister proposed that
they should colonize Trinidad, lately ceded to Spain, because he feared that Canada would soon cease to be a colony.
The rev. father pointed out how unsuitable the climate was
to Highlanders, and in spite of many discouragaments,
struggled on towards the attainment of his object. He was
not accustomed to be beaten when he had once formed a
well-considered resolution, and now once more his efforts t
were crowned with success.    In 1804, he had the satisfac- 892
tion of settling in Upper Cahada large numbers of the
Highlanders. To each member of the disbanded regiment
two hundred acres of land were granted, making in all
160,000 acres, in what is now the County of Glengarry.
Mr. Macdon ell's work, however, had only now begun in
earnest. There were churches and schools to erect, and a
vast expanse of country needed missionary labour. The rev.
father was a strong man, and strapping his wallet on his
back, marched many weary miles, week after week, to preach
the Word, and administer the rites of the Church. When the
war of 1812 broke out, Mr. Macdonell at once raised a regiment of Glengarry Fencibles, which with two other corps,
chiefly Scots, from the eastern district, defended the St.
Lawrence, and brought aid to the gallant De Salaberry. The
intrepid priest accompanied his flock to the field of battle at
Ogdensburgh. At the close of this war, on the recommend-
ation of F^arl Bathurst, for these and other services, Mr. Macdonell, who was about to be consecrated Bishop, received a
substantial reward. The Government suggested that the.
see should be a diocesan one, with its seat at Kingston, and
granted the new prelate a salary of £400, and afterwards of
£600 per annum. Thus, writes Morgan* " he was made the
I first Catholic chaplain since the Reformation; secondly, he
received the thanks of the Prince Regent for his efficient
services; and, thirdly, was consecrated the first diocesan
Bishop in the British dominions since the Reformation."
The last of these events took place at Montreal, in 1826.
Thenceforward the good prelate's laborious work, was prose-
* Celebrated Canadians, p. 270. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
cuted with renewed vigour. With that indomitable energy
which characterized him, Bishop Macdonell never spared
himself when there was work to be done. He was still a
missionary, as he had always been, amidst a flock peculiarly
his own. Among other schemes, he established a Highland
Society, and in 1837, took the initial steps towards founding-
a Catholic Seminary for Upper Canada, to be called Regio-
polis College. Anxious to forward the latter scheme, and
also to secure a larger supply of Highland immigrants, he
accepted a mission to Scotland. When he left Canada, unhappily for the last time, he was in his seventy-eighth year,
but the old Celtic fire yet burned brightly within his aged
bosom. After a short time spent on business in London, the
Bishop went northward to Inverness, and entered upon his
'work. Some time after he crossed to Ireland, intending to
be present, in October, 1839, at a great dinner to be given to
the Irish prelates at Cork. Dense fogs prevailed at the
time, and he was too late for the festival. Nevertheless, he
visited the Bishops, and made considerable trips inland.
There was no conveyance but the open jaunting-car, and
between Waterford and Clonmel, the good Bishop was exposed to drizzling rain, and received a severe chill. During
the remainder of his stay on the island, he was an invalid at
various places, and when he arrived at Dublin, he was confined to bed for a fortnight. After a visit to the Earl of
Gosford, at Armagh, he partially recovered and crossed from
Belfast to Dumfries, in January, 1840. He was about to
visit London to arrange for an extended emigration of Highlanders, and stopped at Dumfries to visit an old friend and
college companion, the Rev. Mr. Reid.  He appeared in good 894
health, and celebrated mass the next morning. At four
o'clock on the morning of the 14th January, 1840, the
Bishop called his servant and complained of chilliness. The
Rev. Mr. Reid was called, and finding the aged prelate sinking fast, administered to him the last rites of the Church.
The benediction had only just been pronounced, when the
faithful servant expired without a groan. During his thirty-
five years of untiring work, he had raised forty-eight
churches, and left behind him forty priests.
Bishop Macdonell had been beloved by others than those of
his own communion. Being singularly liberal in his views,
of benign temper and unbounded charity, during the
period of his episcopate, he had endeared himself to his fellow-subjects of all creeds and ranks, and went down to the
grave with the universal regrets of all who had known of
his honoured name, his active and blameless life.
The Right Reverend Peter Mclntyre, D. D., Roman Catholic Bishop of Charlottetown, P. E. I., was born, at Cable
Head, St. Peter's Bay, in the Island, on the 29th of June,
1818.     His father, Angus,  a  Highland farmer,  and his
mother nee Sarah McKinnon, hailed from Uist, Inverness-
shire.    The son was educated successively at St. Andrew's
Academy   on his   native  island,  at   St.  Hyacinthe, and
finally at the Quebec  Seminary.    Ordained   a   priest in
August, 1843, he officiated for a short time as assistant at
the Quebec parish church.    Father Mclntyre then returned
to Prince Edward Island, where he was appointed to the
Tignish Mission,  to  which no less than three other missions were attached.    Here he laboured   with   zeal and
devotion for seventeen years, and succeeded in leaving, as a THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
-monument of his pastorate, one of the finest Catholic
•churches in the Province. In August, 1860, Dr. Mclntyre
-was consecrated Bishop of Charlottetown. The amount of
work he must have performed may be gathered from the
"fact that in addition to the episcopal duties devolving upon
him, he has established the College of St. Dunstan's, and
supervises seven convents at which females are educated.
Another convent has risen on the Magdalen Islands which
form part of Bishop Mclntyre's diocese, and in addition to
that he has erected about twenty churches and parochial
houses. In 1869, he visited Europe and attended the meeting of the QScumenical Council, travelled over a large part
of the Continent and visited the Holy Land. In 1878, the
Bishop founded a hospital at Charlottetown, which is open
to all without distinction of creed, and can boast of a full
and efficient staff of medical officers. Dr. Mclntyre's life
has been an active one. He is an excellent deviser of ways
and means, and skilled in all work requiring executive
.ability. With the citizens generally he is highly popular
on account of his public spirit and genial disposition. Last
year, the Rev. Ronald McDonald became Roman Catholic
Bishop of Harbour Grace, Newfoundland, but no particulars
•of his life and career are at hand.
Another Highland clergyman of the Roman Catholic
Ohurch, who has long since passed away, was the Very
Reverend William Peter Macdonald, at the time of his death
Vicar-General and Dean of the Diocese of Toronto. He
was born in the parish of Eberlow, Banffshire, in March,
1771, and sent, while yet a youth, to the celebrated College
of Douay, in Flanders, by Dr. Hay, Bishop of North Scot- 896
land. When the French Revolution broke out, he was forced
to fly; but taking refuge at Valladolid, in Spain, he completed his education there.    He was ordained priest in September, 1796, and at once returned to Scotland, where he
laboured as a  missionary for twelve years.    In 1801 the
British Government conceived the design of conveying away
King Ferdinand VII. from Bayonne.    Mr. Macdonald was,
attached to the expedition because of his familiarity with
the French and Spanish languages, being the first Catholic
chaplain of the fleet since the Reformation.    After cruising:
off Quiberon for some time, the expedition was recalled in consequence of information received from the French Directory.
Father Macdonald was subsequently employed at the British
Embassy   in Spain; after which he became a chaplain of
the regular army.    In 1827 the rev. gentleman removed to-
Canada, to aid Bishop Macdonell in the work of his diocese.
During the next twenty years he laboured constantly at his-
pastoral work, finally attaining the highest rank at Toronto-
except that of the episcopate.    It was only late in 1846 that
he left Hamilton to aid the lamented Bishop Power, and on
the 2nd of April (Good Friday) 1847, he breathed his last at
St. Michael's Palace. Vicar-General Macdonald was a man
of simple manners and sincere piety. His urbanity made-
him a favourite beyond the limits of his own Church, and
his death was deplored by all his fellow-citizens. The very
rev. gentleman was a writer of no mean repute, and contributed largely by his works to the progress of the faith. In
addition to that he was a man of considerable poetic power,
and left behind him a number of religious pieces. For sometime he also edited a religious journal, the Catholic.    The sssm^smss
esteem in which he was held manifested itself in the attendance of all denominations at his funeral.*
The Rev. Alexander Sutherland, D.D., is the son of a
Scottish farmer, who settled in this country in 1832. The
youngest of four sons, he was the only Canadian amongst
them, having been born in the township of Guelph in September, 1833. His early educational advantages were few,,
but he made the most of them. When nine years old he had
the misfortune to lose his father; but he was a lad of great
pluck and energy, and early resolved to try conclusions
with fortune. When only fourteen, young Sutherland was-
apprenticed to the printing business, and worked at the-
case until he was of age. During all this time he was a persevering student, and, before he left the office, frequently
contributed short articles to the local press. When eighteen
years of age, he was converted, and became a member of the-
Methodist Church at Guelph. He was deeply interested in
Sunday-school work, and also in the temperance movement.
Thathe should aspire to be apreacher of the Gospel was natural in a young man of zeal and devotion, conscious that he possessed abilities of no mean order. During the year 1855-6, Mr.
Sutherland was on trial upon' the Clinton Circuit as an itinerant preacher. At theConference of 1856, as a probationer,he
was stationed at Gait, and during the following church-year
at Berlin. After studying for a year at Victoria College,.
Mr. Sutherland was admitted into full connection, and stationed at Niagara. In 1861 he was removed to Thorold,..
and after two years' service there to Drummondville, at-
* Toronto Mirror, April 9th, 1847. €98
-which place he ministered for a year. Between 1864 and
1867, the rev. gentleman was a colleague of Dr. Harper, at
Hamilton; thence to Yorkville during three years, followed
by three at Richmond Street Church, Toronto. J§£n 1873, he
undertook the pastorate of St. James' Street Church, Montreal, and remained there for eighteen months.
Since then Mr. Sutherland has filled various offices at the
head-quarters of the Connexion. He had been seeuetary of
the Conference in 1870-1, and delegate to the General Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Brooklyn, U.S.
In 1874, when the union had taken place with the New
Connexion, he received the appointment of secretary-treasurer of Methodist Missions. During the eightyears which
have elapsed since his appointment as missionary secretary,
Dr. Sutherland has enjoyed ample scope for his energy and
zeal. It has been his duty to visit the greater part of the
Dominion, and everywhere the magic of his eloquence has
kindled the fervour of the people. The period of depression,
which has happily passed away, involved the church missions in debt to the amount of $75,000. In 1879, a vigour-
ous effort was put forth under the auspices of Dr. Sutherland, and no less a sum than $116,000 was collected. The
rev. gentleman's degree of Doctor was conferred upon him
by Victoria College in the same year. He is a man of earnest piety, of singular business tact, and great eloquence.
Dr. Sutherland has employed his pen in a number of denominational periodicals, and as he is yet on the sunny side of
fifty, much may be anticipated from him in the years to
come. ^^»-
The Rev. Lachlin Taylor, D.D., was one of the best known
clergymen of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, in Canada.
His father had been parish school-master of Killean, in
Argyleshire, and his mother was a Maclean of Canty re.
Dachlin was born in the year 1816, and when he was only
sixteen years of age, the family emigrated to Canada. He
had been educated at a classical school in Glasgow, and early
adopted his father's profession. For some years he taught
in the Ottawa valley, chiefly at or near St. Andrews. Having been attached to the Methodist Church in early manhood, he was admitted as a candidate for the ministry in
1839, and ordained in 1843. Mr. Taylor had much in his
favour— a fine physique, a powerful voice, and deep earnestness of manner. He ministered successively at Bytown
(Ottawa), Kingston, Hamilton, Toronto, and Montreal.
After a visit to Britain, he was appointed, in 1851, agent of
the Upper Canada Bible Society. This position threw him
in contact with all the various Protestant denominations,
and gave him ample opportunities for displaying his catholicity of spirit. He visited, during seven or eight years,
almost every town and village in Canada West, and was
universally popular. During Mr. Taylor's engagement, the
Society more than quadrupled its income and influence.
In 1857, a second visit to Europe was undertaken to attend
the Evangelical Alliance meeting at Berlin. Dr. Taylor
traversed at this period a large portion of Southern Europe,
.and a passion for travel was kindled within him. After his
return he resolved to visit Egypt, Palestine, Sinai, Asia
Minor, Turkey and Greece, as well as complete his tour
of Italy.    The results were embodied in a series of lectures 900
delivered in Canada. Dr. Taylor was next despatched to
represent Canada at the annual meeting of the British and
Foreign Bible Society. This stimulated him to undertake
the extension of the Society's operations to the Pacific slope.
During 1863 and 1864, he traversed British Columbia, in-
eluding Vancouver Island, California, New Mexico and Central America.
On the completion of these labours, his Church once more
laid claim to his services, and he received the important appointment of Secretary-Treasurer of the Missionary Society.
For his new duties Dr. Taylor possessed special fitness, from
his labours of past years. It now became his mission to
visit, not only the great centres of population, to stir up an
interest in missionary work; but also the remotest outposts,
so as to become acquainted with the progress accomplished.
Once more the indefatigable worker visited all parts of the
former Province of Canada, and the North-West to the
Rocky Mountains. When he accepted office, the income of
the Missionary Society was $53,248 from Canadian sources ;
when he resigned it, the amount had risen to nearly $118,-
From 1874 to 1877, Dr. Lachlin Taylor was employed by
the Canadian Government to press the claims of the Dominion upon the people of Great Britain. His practical acquaintance with every part of Canada made him of great
service in promoting emigration, and he became as well-
known and popular in his native land as in that of his adoption. Unfortunately an accident that befell him in London
seriously undermined his constitution, naturally robust
though it had been.    Returning home, he bfettled with in- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
firmity for four years; preaching and lecturing, with somewhat of his old fire and energy. The effort, however,
proved too much for his strength, and he expired in 1881,
while on a visit to Prince Edward Island, in the sixty-
fifth year of his age, worn out after a long and useful
life, devoted to his Lord and to the well-being of his fellow-
The Rev. James Roy, M. A., of Montreal, is a native of
that city, where he was born in November, 1834. His father,
however, was a native of Edinburgh. Mr. Roy was educated,'
first at Bishop's College, Lennoxville, and subsequently at
Victoria College, Cobourg, where he graduated in 1868.
Fourteen years before that, however, he had been a Wesleyan
minister, and served on circuit at a number of places in
eastern and western Canada. While at Cobourg, Mr. Roy
was principal of the Collegiate Institute. Even at college
he was remarkable for his scholarly attainments, and was
chosen by his fellow-graduates of the year to deliver the
usual valedictory. Since then the rev. gentleman has been,
on six occasions, one of the French examiners of the University of Toronto.
The rev. gentleman finally became pastor of Sherbrooke
Street Methodist Church, Montreal; but although his eloquence soon attached his congregation to him, fault was
found with the breadth and liberality of his theological views.
His teachings became the subject of investigation, and in
the end Mr. Roy resigned his position in the Methodist
Church.    The majority of his congregation, however, sup-
*For the sketch given above, the writer is indebted to Dr. BurVash, Professor of Theology at Victoria College, a nephew of Dr Taylor. 902
ported him, and a new church' was organized under the title
of the Wesley Congregational Church, in May, 1877. The
corner-stone of a new edifice—one of the finest in the city—
was laid in the following year, the congregation, meanwhile,,
worshipping in the Academy of Music. Mr. Roy is a powerful orator as well as a thorough scholar. He has published
a sermon on I The Hard Things of the Bible," and a treatise
on I Catholicity and Methodism : or the relation of John
Wesley to Modern Thought," besides a number of magazine
articles. In 1879, McGill University conferred the degree
of M.A., ad eundem upon the rev. gentleman.
The Rev. Alexander Macgregor, Congregational minister of
Yarmouth, N. S., belongs to an old Highland family, but was
born in Glasgow in the month of April, 1834.    His father
and grandfather were both clergymen,  and  he has four
brothers also ministers of the Gospel. After receiving a classical education at the Edinburgh Academy, Alexander removed to Canada West in 1855, where his brother joined him
a year or two after, preached at Hamilton for eighteen years,,
and died in 1880.    He had studied at Toronto University
and the Congregrational College, and was ordained in 1863..
He laboured for eight years at Brockville, during part of
which time he was Local Superintendent of Schools, and Congregational Missionary Secretary for the Eastern part of
the Province.   In 1871 he was called to take charge of the-
Church at Yarmouth, the chief congregation of the denomi-
tion in the Maritime Provinces.    Mr. Macgregor excels as a
pastor, being unceasingly active in visiting the sick and
afflicted s as a preacher, he is earnest, eloquent and impressive.   He has been associate-editor of the Christian Stan- THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
dard, of St. John, N. B., Secretary of the United Missionary
Society of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, a Director of
the Congregational College, Montreal, and a member of the
Senate of the Halifax University. Another clergyman of
the Maritime Provinces whom we can only mention is the
Rev. Neih McKay, who was born at Colchester, N. S. of
Sutherlandshire parents in 1829. He is the pastor of the
Presbyterian Church at Summerside, P. E. I., and an eloquent preacher.
The Rev. Andrew H. Munro, pastor of the Baptist Church
at Montreal, was born in Surrey, England, in November,.
1827. But his parents were both Scottish, his father, a
piano-forte manufacturer, having been born in the isle of
Skye, and his mother in Perthshire. After obtaining his
education at a private seminary, young Munro received a
diploma from the British and Foreign School Society. By
that institution he was sent out to St. John, N. B., to aid in
forming a normal and model school. He was subsequently
a teacher in the Wesleyan College at Sackville, in the same
Province. Mr. Munro finally adopted the views of the Baptist Church, and became a teacher, also a divinity student,
in the denominational seminary at Fredericton.
Ordained at Digby, N. S., in 1857, he remained there as
pastor for two years; thence to Halifax, where he laboured
for seven; and subsequently to Yarmouth and Liverpool,
where his ministrations were eminently successful. In 1869,
Mr. Munro became pastor of Alexander Street Baptist Church,
Toronto, an off-shoot from the parent congregation. During
his pastorate he received a flattering call from Brooklyn,
N. Y., but declined it.   Subsequently, however, he accepted 904 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
one from the first Baptist Church of Montreal, and succeeded
in uniting with it the second. Under his pastoral care the
church has flourished abundantly, and his flock are strongly
attached to him. In the denomination at large Mr. Munro
occupies a high position. He is Secretary of the Baptist
Union, and a trustee both of the Woodstock College and the
new theological seminary at Toronto.
Of those clergymen who have passed away we may note
the Rev. Daniel Wilkie, LL.D., the scene of whose labours
was at Quebec, and who was born at Tollcross, Scotland, in
the year 1777. His prospects in life did not appear over-
inviting, for he was the youngest son of twelve children, and
early left an orphan. His elder brothers, however, were faithful to the claims of the bairn, and set about the work of his
education from their scanty resources. In 1787 he was at
the Grammar-school; in 1794, he entered the Glasgow University, and in 1797, the Divinity Hall. In 1803, he gained
the University medal for a theological essay, and soon after
took his departure for Canada. Mr. Wilkie was destined to
make his mark as a teacher rather than a minister; in 1804,
however, he was licensed to preach by the Montreal Presbytery. For the next half century almost, he was a resident
of Quebec, engaged in teaching. His pupils are to be found
in every rank of life, and the best evidence of Dr. Wilkie's
skill and energy are to be found in the men he sent out
equipped for their life-battle in the world. We gather from
the tone of a funeral sermon delivered by the Rev. Dr. Cook
that he was I prone to indulge in speculations, and, perhaps
reached conclusions with which we might be little inclined
to agree."   But of his zeal in the work of teaching, and the ■■ * TOa^VJC&WMQRg
pious and devotional temper of his life, there could be no
doubt. As Dr. Cook remarked he could express no higher
wish for himself and his auditors than that they might have
as profound a love and reverence for their Lord as Dr. Wilkie
had. About midway in his Canadian career, the Doctor
engaged for some time in editorial work. In the month of
December, 1827, the Star appeared, and was conducted, so
far as the leading articles were concerned, by him during
the three years of its existence. The journal was established
by Andrew Stewart in order to mediate between the party
which heaped indiscriminate abuse upon Lord Dalhousie's
administration, and the other which lavished unmeasured
eulogy upon it. Dr. Wilkie, as already mentioned, wrote
the editorials, and also contributed some valuable papers on
literary and educational subjects. In 1843, when the High
School was founded, he was appointed Rector, but before
the year had closed he found himself compelled to retire
from active service. Thenceforward he spent his remaining-
years in retirement. From 1845 to the time of his death in
May, 1851, Dr. Wilkie suffered from the infirmities natural
to old age, and passed away at the age of seventy-four, resting from his life-long labours amidst the regrets of all who
had been honoured with his intimate acquaintance. Over
his grave in Mount Hermon Cemetery his old pupils erected
a monument, recording his ability as an hmructor of youth,
I his genuine uprightness, and guileless simplicity " and " a
devout, benevolent, and public-spirited man."
The Rev. John Cook, D.D., the distinguished pastor of St.
Andrew's Church, Quebec, during a long series of years, was
born at Sanquhar, Dumfries-shire.   He received his educa-
R 906
tion at the University of Edinburgh, and his theological
training under Dr. Chalmers. He was ordained by the
Presbytery of Dumbarton in 1835, and left for Quebec in
the following year. He had previously been assistant minister at Cardross. In 1838 the degree of Doctor of Divinity
was conferred upon him by the University of Glasgow.
Dr. Harkness, the pastor of St. Andrew's Church, had died
early in 1835. When the disruption occurred here in 1844,
Dr. Cook remained true to the old Church. He had meanwhile received his degree of Doctor of Divinity as we have
just mentioned. Both before and after the separation, he
served as Moderator of the Synod. When the establishment
of Queen's College was determined upon, Dr. Cook exerted
himself to secure the necessary endowment, and has been a
trustee of that institution since its foundation. In 1857, he
agreed to take the Principalship temporarily until a permanent head of the University should arive from Scotland.
During two sessions he filled the Divinity Chair with great
ability. Throughout his prolonged career the rev. doctor
has been a busy worker in all departments of church usefulness. Nor have his efforts been confined to the ecclesiastical
sphere. At the time of the memorable fires of 1845, he was
an active member of the Relief Committee, and energetically
laboured for the sufferers. Still further back, in 1843, he
was the main agent in the establishment of the High School,
and later on in founding the Morrin College in which he
lectured on Divinity. Although Dr. Cook refused to " go
out" with his Free Church brethren in 1844, he nevertheless favoured Presbyterian union. In 1861, he proposed
resolutions in that direction, but the time had not yet come. WMMaraSMR.WMMiMBgSRgSi
When the movement took practical shape years afterwards,
he was a strong supporter of the amalgamation effected in
1875, and was fittingly selected as Moderator of the first
General Assembly in that year. In connection with the
Church of Scotland he occupied a like position, first in 1838,
and again in 1844. As a preacher, Dr. Cook is endowed
with great power and earnestness, and is deeply beloved by
his congregation. At the present time—in his 77th year,
he is still in active service—and must be one of the oldest
Presbyterian ministers in the Dominion.*
The Rev. John Bayne, D.D., of Gait, Ontario, must not be
passed over without some notice at our hands. Unfortunately the only record at hand*f" does not give any biographical data. He was certainly born and educated in Scotland,
and came out to this country about the year 1835. He was
a man of singular power and originality, and a persevering
thinker and student. Every discourse he delivered was
laden with thought—heavy, they appeared, as the Globe
remarks, to some, because they drew upon the reflective
powers of those who heard them. Yet, he was capable of
rare flights of genuine eloquence. Strong and supreme as
his intellect was, it was inspired always from the heart.
There was no deadness in Dr. Bayne's preaching. So soon
as he touched the pathetic story of the Saviour, the tender-
est chords of the hearer's nature were played upon to divin-
est music at will. At such times, there was a grandeur and
pathos in Dr. Bayne's utterances which thrilled the heart
* Celebrated Canadians, p. 463; Croil's Historical and Statistical Report, p. 102; Le-
moine's Quebec, Past and Present, passim.
t A sketch of his character which appeared in the Globe, clearly from the pen of the
Hon. George Brown or his venerable father. 908
and awakened the conscience. He was not an old man when
he died suddenly at Gait, in November, 1859, but he had
made his mark in the Church. No clergyman of clearer or
more logical mind could have been found within the limits
of the Presbyterian Church ; certainly none more fully
deserved the encomiums bestowed upon him at his decease.
One publication at least, which fell under the writer's notice
years ago, deeply impressed him with a sense of Dr.^Bayne's-
apologetic skill—a lecture or sermon on man's responsibility
for his belief. The old yellow-covered pamphlet has long-
since gone the way of others one would now like to have
in possession| but the recollection of its trenchant argument
remains in the store-house of memory.
The list of Presbyterian worthies of the pulpit might be
indefinitely extended; but with one other, the list must be
brought to a close. The Rev. George Bell, LL.D., of Walk-
erton, was born in September, 1819. His father, also a
clergyman, was born at Airdrie, and preached at Perth,
Ontario, from 1817 to the time of his death, forty years
afterwards. The son was born at Perth, and educated at
the Hamilton Grammar School, and Queen's College, Kings-
ton. In fact he was the first student entered upon the books
of the latter institution on March 7th, 1842. After a brief
collegiate course, he was ordained, and preached at Cumberland, Simcoe, and Clifton until 1873, when ill-health compelled him to abandon his pastorate. At brief intervals Mr.
Bell lectured at Queen's College on science and theology.
His B.A. degree was conferred in 1847, and that of LL.D. in
1874. In February of the latter year, Dr. Bell proceeded to
Walkerton, then without any stated Presbyterian ministry. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA. 909
He succeeded in forming a congregation and in building a
nandsome place of worship. In the church courts, Dr. Bell
has occupied a prominent position, having been convener of
the committee on ecclesiastical polity. The cause of education has also occupied much of his time and attention.
He has been local superintendent and inspector of schools in
most of the places at which he ministered, and is a trustee
of Queen's University. As a pastor, Dr. Bell is eminently
instructive, and possesses the characteristic Scottish faculty
■of impressing the truth upon the minds of his hearers.
Nothwithstanding the incomplete account of Scottish
clergymen given in this chapter, it must be brought to a
close. The intention has been rather to select prominent
examples than merely to recapitulate names. Many ministers, especially of the Presbyterian churches, have been
omitted with great reluctance, only from the pressing
necessities of the case. After all, enough will have been
given to vindicate the Scotsman's high position in the sacred
office; more than that could not fairly be demanded at our
[HE careers of more than one of our judges have already been sketched, either in local or political connexion. Chief Justices Macaulay and Wilson, for example,
will be found in earlier pages. It only remains to take in
those who have not prominently figured in public life, and,
so far as practicable, introduce men who specially deserve
mention. The Hon. Thomas Gait, Puisne Judge in the Common Pleas Division, is the second son of the late John Gait,
and brother of Sir Alexander Gait, of whom mention has
already been made. He was born in London, where his
father then lived, in August, 1815, and partly educated in
England, partly in Scotland. For some time he attended
an academy at Musselburgh, near Edinburgh, and was subsequently under the tuition of Dr. Valpy, known a generation ago as a popular teacher and an editor of the classics.
In 1828, the family removed to Canada, and young Gait was
placed under the charge of Mr. Braithwaite, at Chambly,
amongst his fellow-pupils being Bishop Fuller, of Niagara,,
and Mr. Thos. C. Street. Two years after; he returned to
the old country and spent three years there, and then returned to settle in Toronto, only a few weeks before it acquired that name. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Mr; John Gait's connection with the Canada Company
afforded an opening for his son, and in its office he remained
for about six years. Having resolved to enter the legal
profession, Thomas Gait studied under Mr. (afterwards Chief
Justice) Draper, and was chief clerk for him, when Attorney-General of Upper Canada, as Chief Justice Harrison
subsequently served under Sir John Macdonald. The experience thus gained, notably in criminal practice, was of
essential service. In 1845, Mr. Gait was called to the bar,
and at once entered upon the practice of his profession.
There was much in his favour, besides the thorough training
he had undergone. Naturally of a benign disposition, he
also possessed a fine presence, and an attractive address.
In the practice of criminal law he was amongst the foremost,
and his established integrity of character secured for him
the legal business of various railway and other corporations
—trusts he fulfilled with scrupulous fidelity. As Crown
prosecutor, Mr. Gait has been engaged in many causes cdlebres
in the Western Province, and conducted them with that
skill and firmness, which characterize British, as distinguished from French or American conduct of criminal cases.
Judge Gait, who married soon after his call to the bar, has
a large family all living of five sons and four daughters.
In 1858, he was appointed Queen's Counsel, and in 1869, on
the death of Judge JohnWilson—a Scot of whom unhappily
we have no record—was elevated to the Bench as a Justice
of the Court of Common Pleas. But for a confirmed stoop
in the shoulders, early acquired from study, Mr. Justice Gait 912 THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
is still hale and active, although he rapidly approaches the
seventieth year of his age.
The Hon. William Proudfoot, Vice-Chancellor, or as he is
now called, Justice of the Chancery Division of the High
Court of Justice in Ontario, was born near Errol, in Perthshire, early in November, 1823.    Mention has already been
made of his father, the Rev. Wm. Proudfoot.    The Vice-
Chancellor wa3 scarcely nine years of age when his father
brought him to Canada.    The old Secession pastor was a
staunch Liberal, and naturally came under suspicion, when
everybody was   suspected,  during  the troubles  of 1837.
He, however,  boldly met the aspersions  of his political
enemies, and secured himself from molestation.   The sons
received their education entirely under the parental roof,
and William, the third in order of birth, never entered a pub-
he institution of learning.   Having resolved to adopt the
law as his' profession, Mr. Proudfoot entered the office of
Messrs. Blake (afterwards Chancellor of Upper Canada) and
Morrison (now Justice of the Court of Appeal), and received
a call to the. bar in 1849.    For two years he practised in
partnership with the late Mr. Jones, and in 1851, was appointed the first Chancery Master and Deputy Registrar at
Hamilton. This appointment was rendered necessary by the
thorough re-organization of the Equity Court, accomplished
by the Hon. W. H. Blake.   After retaining this position for
three years, Mr. Proudfoot preferring to return to the active
work of his profession, entered into partnership with Messrs.
Freeman and Craigie.    The firm stood at the head of the
Hamilton bar, and Mr. Proudfoot had the charge of the THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
equity practice. In 1862, he left the firm and practised
alone until 1874, when he succeeded Vice-Chancellor Strong
(now of the Supreme Court) upon the bench. He had previously been gifted with the silk as Queen's Counsel. Prior to
his elevation to the bench he was a Reformer in politics, and
still remains true to hereditary Presbyterianism as a member of Knox Church, Toronto. As a lawyer and a judge,
Vice-Chancellor Proudfoot is deeply read—indeed, he has
not yet ceased to be a student of the great authorities in
equity. Being thoroughly conversant with the Latin and
French lauguages, the learned Judge is well-grounded in the
Roman and civil law, and his judgments, as might be expected, are models of lucid expression and technical accuracy. He is what is still better, thoroughly judicial in the
texture of his mind, and has proved a distinguished ornament to the Ontario Bench. Of Justices Morrison and
Cameron, sketches have already been given.
The Hon. Kenneth Mackenzie Q. C, County Court Judge
of York, and of the Maritime Court, is the son of a Scottish
farmer, and was born in Ross-shire, early in the century,
Educated in Scotland, he came to this country about 1831,
and settled first at Montreal, where he served in a store. He
subsequently set up in business for himself at Cobourg, but
soon after exchanged the counter for the desk. Mr. Mackenzie entered the office of Mr. (afterwards Judge) Boswell,
at Cobourg, and completed his term with Messrs. Sherwood
& Crawford, at Toronto. He was called to the bar in 1843,
became a Q. C. in 1853, and a Bencher of the Law Society,
in 1871.    His first field for practice was at Kingston, and in j 914
1853, he became County Court Judge for Frontenac and its
allied counties. In 1865, he resigned to resume his practice
at Toronto. At his retirement, Judge Mackenzie was presented with a flattering address from the members of the
bar, and another equally complimentary from the County
Council. In 1866, the United States Government retained
Mr. Mackenzie to defend the Fenian prisoners, and he succeeded in procuring the acquittal of nearly one half of them.
Being a Reformer in politics, he was employed by the Provincial Government as Crown Prosecutor, especially at
Toronto, and, in that capacity had charge of many important cases. In October, 1876, he received the appointment
of County Court Judge of York, and in the following year
was gazetted as Judge of the Ontario Maritime Court. In
addition to these offices, Judge Mackenzie presides at Criminal Sessions, at the Surrogate Court, the Court of Assessment Appeals, and, with the assistance of Judge Boyd, also
conducts ten Division Courts. He is liable also to be called
upon to conduct any civil investigations ordered by the
Municipal Council, and has quite recently investigated the
matter of the burnt paving contract. At Judge Mackenzie's
advanced age these constant drafts upon his time and physical resources must be exceedingly trying. Neverthless
he has-not hitherto shown any lack of energy or ability in
the discharge of his onerous labours.
Robert Dennistoun, Q. C, County Court Judge of Peterborough, Ont., was born at Camis Eskan, Dumbartonshire,
early in 1815.   His father was a country gentleman and
* Deputy-Lieutenant of the County.   The Judge is sixteenth S»^^^^;
in descent from Sir Hugh Dennistouh, who flourished in the
latter part of the thirteenth century. Having been edu^-
cated in Scotland, Mr. Dennistoun came to Canada in 1834,
and settled in the present County of Victoria. For ten
years he engaged in f arming,"and then commenced the study
of law. In 1849, he received his call to the bar, and after
nearly twenty years' practice at Peterborough, was made
Queen's Counsel. In 1868, he was elevated to the Bench.
Judge Dennistoun is4 distinguished for the singular uprightness and integrity of his character, and the impartiality of
his judgments. He has long been an elder of the Presbyterian Church, and is deeply respected for his Christian fife
and example. He has five surviving children, two sons in
his own profession, and a daughter survives her husband,
the lamented Professor Mackerras, of Queen's College.
Archibald Macdonald, late County Court Judge of Wellington, Ont., was the eldest son of Capt. Archibald, of the
35th Foot, and grandson of Macdonald of Garth. He was
born near Cobourg, in 1823, and received his education at
the Grammar School and at Victoria College. Mr. Macdonald studied law under Judge Boswell, and was called to
the bar in 1844. He early practised at Cobourg, and for
some time was Deputy Master in Chancery there. In September, 1854, he was made County Judge, and held that
position until recently. He has also been Chairman of the
Board of Education at Guelph, and a License Commissioner
for South Wellington.
Rolland Macdonald, Q. C, County Court Judge of Welland, belongs to the old Highland stock.   His father resided "916
near Cornwall, Ont., but at the time of his son's birth was
in the North-West. Mr. Macdonald was born in March,
1810, at Fort William, and his education was conducted
■chiefly at Montreal. He was called to the bar fifty
jcars ago, in Easter term, 1832, became a Bencher of the
Law Society in 1851, and Queen's Counsel in 1856. He
practised his profession at St. Catharines. Mr. Macdonald
had to do with some interesting cases. In a libel case
-against William Lyon Mackenzie—the only one, it is said*
he ever lost, the defendant spoke for six hours. In 1837,
he defended Dr. Morrison when on trial for treason; and
many years after was leading counsel, with the late Chief
.Justice Harrison, in prosecuting the man alleged to be Town-
send, the murderer. In 1840, Mr. Macdonald contested
Cornwall unsuccessfully, but was returned in 1844, when
he resigned to make room for the Hon. J. H. Cameron,
Solicitor-General. For thirteen years—he had previously
declined the Judgeship—he occupied the position of Clerk of
the Peace and County Crown Attorney for Lincoln, and in
1873, was appointed to the position he now enjoys. Judge
Macdonald has seen some active service as a volunteer. In
1837, he was opposed to the rebels as a dragoon at Gallows
Hill, and became a captain of St. Catharines cavalry, on duty
jnear the frontier. As a supernumerary officer of the 93rd
Highlanders, he took part in the battle of the Windmill, at
Prescott, and was subsequently Lieut.-Colonel of th*e 5th
Dincoln Battalion.
Herbert Stone Macdonald, County Court Judge of Leeds
.and   Grenville,   is   comparatively a   young man, having THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
been born at Gananoque in 1842. His father, the Hon.
John Macdonald, had been a member of the Legislature of
the Province, whilst his grandfather hailed from Perthshire.
Mr. Herbert Macdonald received his education at Queen's-
College, graduating there in 1859, as B. A., and as M. A., in
1861. His student term at law was passed at Brockville-
and Toronto, and he received his call to the bar in 1863. He
practised at Brockville for ten years, and was then raised to
the Bench as Junior Judge in 1873, and Senior in 1878..
Judge Macdonald is regarded as one of the ablest of our
County Court judiciary, and may not improbably be heard
of in a higher position. Mr. Macdonald was elected for
South Leeds by acclamation, in the Conservative interest,,
at the general election of 1871; but resigned in 1873 to
take his seat on the bench.
David S. Macqueen, County Court Judge of Oxford, Ont.,
is a son of Captain David of that ilk, who came from the !
Island of Skye, and was an officer of the Canadian Fenci-
bles.    His mother was a daughter of the Hon. Thos. Fraser,
and he himself saw the light at Quebec, in September, 1811.
Having been educated  by the Rev. Dr. Urquhart, at Cornwall, Mr.   Macqueen studied law at Brockville, and afterwards, under the Hon. Henry Sherwood.   During his student term, the rebellion of 1837 broke out, and he was sent
with a detachment, in charge of arms, for the use of the
Glengarries.    Having accomplished this scmewhat difficult
duty, he was at once appointed a Lieutenant of Cavalry
and sent to Dickenson's Landing  to bring up the headquarters of the 32nd and 83rd Regiments.   In January,
1838, he was appointed by Sir John Colborne, Captain of 918
the Queen's Own Borderers, in a company he had assisted in
raising. When the attempt was made upon Prescott, Mr.
Macqueen volunteered as a marine to direct the operations
of H. M. S. Enterprise, then engaged in watching the piratical craft, which at last gave way under fire at I The Windmill." When the engagement took place, Mr. Macqueen
was a volunteer in the advance guard of the attacking
force, under Col. R. D. Fraser, and " received the first fire of
the enemy from behind the stone-walls surrounding the
butternut orchard."* In 1839, Mr. Macqueen was called to
the bar, and six years after received two appointments, one
as Bankruptcy Commissioner, and the other as Judge of the
Brock District. On the establishment of the county system,
Judge Macqueen was made Judge of Oxford, a position he
still occupies.
Henry Macpherson, County, Surrogate, and Admiralty
Judge of Grey, comes of a renowned Highland clan. His
great-grandfather, Evan of Cluny, chief of the clan, fought
under Prince Charlie in 1745. His grandfather, Donald,
commanded Fort Frontenac, at Kingston, during the war of
1812, and was subsequently removed to Quebec, where he
remained on duty until the close of the war. Judge Mac-
pherson's father was a minister, his mother a daughter of
Lieut.-Colonel Maclean, for sixteen years Speaker of the
Assembly. He himself was born at Picton, Prince Edward
County, in August, 1832. Educated at the Kingston Grammar School and Queen's College, he graduated in 1851, and
subsequently   studied  law  under Mr. Thos.  Kirkpatrick,
* Canadian Legal Directory, 1878, p. 286. THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
Q. C. He was called to the bar in 1855, and shortly after
opened an office at Owen Sound, where he practised for ten
years, with success, and was frequently employed as Crown
prosecutor at the Assizes. In 1865 he became Judge of the
County Court, and in 1879, received his other appointments.
As a lawyer, Judge Macpherson was renowned for his erudition; in Court, for his able appeals to juries, and he has acquired the sincere respect of his fellow-practitioners. Judge
Macpherson holds a high position in the Masonic craft, having held office in the Grand Lodge of Canada, and in the
Grand Chapter. As a citizen, he has filled many important
positions, having been a presiding or other officer of the
Mechanics' Institute, the Agricultural and Horticultural
Societies, of the Fruit-Growers' Association, as well as the
Curling and Cricket Clubs of his place of residence. Judge
Macpherson married a daughter of Mr. Allen L. Maclean, of
Toronto, by whom he has one child.
Alexander Forsyth Scott, Judge of the County Court of
Peel, has never left the homestead on which he was born, at
Brampton, in July, 1828. His father John, a Scottish manufacturer, came to Canada about the year 1817, and, after
spending a few years, where Gait now stands, removed to
the Township of Chinguacousy, on the site of what is now
Brampton. The son's education was conducted on as liberal
a scale as the circumstances of the Province, at that time,
could afford; and he laid in a provident store of physical
resources by labour on the family farm. Having resolved
to be a lawyer, Mr. Scott studied under Mr. Clarke Gamble,
Q. C, in Toronto, and received his certificate of fitness as
attorney, in 1856—a call to the bar nearly two years later. 920
In 1857, he commenced practice in his native village, and
ten years later was appointed County Judge. He is held
in deservedly high respect by the bar and the community.
Judo-e Scott's parts are solid, rather than demonstrative, and
he is eminently fitted for the position he has long occupied.
His knowledge of law is thorough, .but it is the judicial
temper he brings to bear upon every case in litigation, that
inspires confidence in the minds of suitors. Every man who
has the fortune or misfortune, to have a case before Judge
Scott, knows that he can depend upon his integrity and
judgment. We may add, that the Judge is a Master in
Chancery also for the County of Peel, and that he has also
been Warden, as well as Lieut.-Colonel of the Peel Battalion
of volunteers. In a previous chapter we had occasion to note
that Judge Scott had a younger brother in the late member
for Peterborough, who unhappily was too early removed
from our midst.
William Aird Ross, County Court Judge of Carleton, is a
native Scot. He was the fourth son of Mr. Donald Ross, of
Ardross, Rosskeen, Ross-shire, and was born at that place
in 1815. The family appears to have settled early in
Canada, for although Judge Ross' early education was conducted in Scotland, he was finished, colloquially speaking,
at Queen's College, Kingston. His first intention was to enter the church, and with that view he studied divinity for
some years, but subsequently resolved to adopt the legal profession. Called to the bar of Ontario in 1859, and to that
of Quebec in 1868, Mr. Ross practised law at Ottawa, for a
long time as partner of the Hon. R. W. Scott.   He was ele- ^^^i^^n^^m^^B^mn^^nHB^
vated to the bench in September, 1874, and has satisfactorily
fulfilled his judicial duties for the past eight years.
Jacob Ferrand Pringle, County Judge of Stormont, Dun-
das and Glengarry, like the Hon. J. Halyard Cameron, was
accidentally born in France, whilst his father and mother
were with the army. The former was an officer in the 81st
Regiment, and served during the Peninsular War. He
was connected with the Earl of Airlie's family, and more
immediately belonged to the Pringles of Torsonce. The
future Judge was only a year old when the family emigrated to Canada and settled in Cornwall. His father was
for twenty years, Clerk of the Peace there—up to 1857.
His son, like many other prominent men in the district, received his education from Dr. Urquhart, at the Cornwall
Grammar School.    Destined to the law, Judge Pringle was
3 o o
called to the bar early in 1839, and in 1857 became a Bencher. On the death of his father, he succeeded him as Clerk
of the Peace, but in 1878*, became Judge of the County
Court, after serving two years as junior in the Lower Court,
Judge Pringle has occupied many prominent positions at
Cornwall. For some years school trustee, he is a past master
mason, and a trustee and elder of the Presbyterian Church.
His wife was the daughter of the Hon. Alexander Fraser, of
Fraserfield, Glengarry, and has borne ten children, five sons
and five daughters. Of this large family only three daughters are married; not one of the sons. The Judge belongs
to a U. E. Loyalist family, and possesses an orderly book
belonging to his grandfather, Captain Anderson, who fought
for the Crown during the American revolution. 922
Daniel Home Lizars, County Judge of Perth, was born in
Renfrewshire, Scotland, in February, 1822. In 1833 the
family removed to Canada, and settled at Goderich, in the
County of Huron. The father, held the office of Clerk of the
Peace for some years, and died in the spring of 1876. Educated at the Goderich Grammar-school, Mr. Lizars studied
law with Mr. Strachan, and was called to the bar early in
1853. For five years Mr. Lizars practised in partnership
with his former principal at Goderich, and Stratford. In
1858 he was appoined county Attorney of Perth, and in
1864 county Judge. He is also master in chancery and
deputy registrar. Judge Lizars is an Anglican in religion,
but of his political proclivities nothing is on record. He has
had the misfortune to lose three of six children borne to
him, and all but one of the survivors are unmarried. An
opportunity may be afforded in the next chapter for speaking of Dr. Lizars, a brother who occupied a prominent position as a surgeon for many years in Toronto.
James Shaw Sinclair, Q.C., Judge of the County Court of
Wentworth, is the son of a Scot, who came from Caithness
to reside in Lanark, Ontario. He was born at Ramsay in
April, 1838, and received his education at Perth. He studied
for the law under his uncle, Mr. W. McNairn Shaw, M. P.,
and was called to the bar at Easter, 1863, entering into
33 O
partnership with Alexander Shaw, who now resides at Wal-
kerton. In 1871, Mr. Sinclair was elected a bencher of the
Law Society; was re-elected in 1876, and was made a Q.C.
Since then he has conducted many important prosecution
for the Crown, chiefly in the Western Peninsula. On the
other hand, Mr. Sinclair has been called upon to defend two THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
important murder cases, in both of which he was successful.
In April, 1876, Mr. Sinclair was elevated to his" present position, which he occupies with eminent acceptance, both to
suitors and the profession.
The Hon. Alexander Cross, Judge of the Queen's Bench
in Quebec, was born at Old Monklands, Lanarkshire, in
1821. He was only five years of age when his father,
who had been a gentleman farmer, removed to Canada.
His education was conducted in the Eastern Townships,
Unhappily the father died only a year after the immigration,
and the family were compelled to go to work on the Cha-
teauguay River, the site of the celebrated battle ground
being part of the homestead. Assisted by his elder brother
young Cross received a liberal training, and entered the
office of Mr. J. J. Day as student-at-law. When the rebellion broke out in 1837> young Cross enrolled his name
amongst the loyal volunteers in Colonel Maitland's battalion,
and served until the collapse of the insurrection in 1838,
when he retired as full sergeant. When Beauharnois was.
evacuated, he was the first to enter it. While still a law
student Mr. Cross was appointed Clerk of the County, then
much larger than at present. He was called to the bar in
1842 and practised in partnership successively with Mr.
Duncan Fisher, Q.C., and Mr. (afterwards Judge) Smith.
Under Lord Metcalfe, in 1844, Mr. Cross was made Queen's
Counsel. His legal career was eminently successful, and an
appointment to the bench was only a question of time.
Mr. Cross took no prominent interest in party politics, yet
he felt keenly when Provincial property was in danger.
When the Montreal rioters, in 1849, fired the Parliament 924
buildings, he busied himself, with Sir L. H Lafontaine, in
endeavouring to save the archives, and also to rescue the
members who were, for the moment, in imminent danger.
Judge Cross has invariably declined all efforts to draw him
into public life. He has more than once declined office when
tendered him, and resolutely adhered to his profession. He
received his appointment as Judge of the Queen's Bench in
August, 1877. It can hardly be said that he is a partizan;
perhaps if his leanings could be ascertained, they would
be rather Reform than Conservative. In point of fact he
is not a party.man, but a sound judicial lawyer, and as
such has reflected honour on the Quebec bench. Judge
Cross has been not merely a judicial interpreter of the law,
but a suggestive reformer, especially in the direction of
abolishing the effete laws on the subject of usury—setting
himself against a peculiarly Lower Canada feeling in that
direction. . The Judge has a large family of eight, chiefly
sons, besides two who have gone before.
The Hon. Robert Mackay, Judge of the Superior Court
of Quebec, was a son of Colonel Mackay, long an officer of
the Indian Department; whilst his mother was the daughter of the Hon. Arthur Davidson, a Judge of the Queen's
Bench. He was born at Montreal in 1816, and educated
there. Unfortunately we have very meagre details of his
career. Having studied for the law, he was called to the
bar in 1837, and became a Queen's Counsel thirty years
after. Judge Mackay's professional rewards came to him
later in the day than is usual in this country. But he had
already done substantial work. In 1857, when the statutes
were to be consolidated, he was nominated as a member of THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
the Commission, and worked upon the Lower Canada and
general statutes. In 1868, he was elevated to the Bench,
and shortly after made an assistant Judge of the Queen's
Bench. Judge Mackay's career has been solely limited
within the boundaries of his profession; but he is admitted
to be a sound lawyer and an unexceptionable Judge.
The Hon. Thomas Kennedy Ramsay, M. A., Judge of the
Queen's Bench of Quebec, is a Scot by birth, having been
born at Ayr in September, 1826. Mr. Ramsay received his
education at St. Andrews, and came out to this country
early in life. Having selected the law as his profession, he
studied under Messrs. Meredith, Bethune & Dunkin, of
whom two were raised to the bench. Mr. Ramsay was
called to the bar in 1852, and made a Q. C. in 1867. Len-
noxville College gave him his degree, and his legal abilities
caused him to be appointed on the comnassion to codify the
laws. Unlike some of the Quebec Judges, Mr. Ramsay
attempted to enter political life, but without success. He
attempted Huntingdon in 1867, for the Commons. Judge
Ramsay has been a hard worker in legal literature, having
founded the Lower Canada Jurist, and early in his career
wa§ editor of the Journal de Jurisprudence, of Montreal.
Besides these labours, Mr. Ramsay has published in French,
historical and other legal brochure, illustrative of Lower
Canadian law. Tn 1870, he was appointed to the Superior
Couit, as assistant Judge, and in 1873, as Puisne Judge of
the Queen's Bench. Prior to his elevation, Mr. Ramsay
took part in many causes celibres, especially the Lamirault
extradition case, and the Fenian prosecutions at Sweetsburg
in 1866. 926
The Hon. Frederick William Torrance, M.A., Judge of the
Quebec Superior Court, is son of a Scotsman, who was a
merchant at Montreal. Judge Torrance was born in that
city in July, 1823. His preliminary education was received
at Nicolet, but he early repaired to Edinburgh, where he took
his degree of M. A., in 1844, with honours both in classics and
in mathematics. He had previously attended courses of lectures at Paris, with the apparent design of practising medicine. He returned to Canada, however, and studied law
under Messrs. Fisher & Smith — the latter of whom was
subsequently Attorney-General for Lower Canada. Having
been called to the bar in 1848, Mr. Torrance practised his
profession in Montreal or its vicinity for twenty years, and
was made Queen's Counsel in 1867. Judge Torrance had also
to do with the establishment of the Lower Canada Jurist,.
and was its manager during the first four years. In addition
to that, Mr. Torrance was lecturer on Roman Law at McGill
University. He is a most industrious and careful teacher,,
and enjoys the thorough respect of the profession. He has
never entered the political arena, and has always worked
either on the bench or at the bar, purely as a member of the
profession. The degree of B. C. L. was conferred upon him
in 1856, by McGill University, and since 1870, he has been
one of its Governors. In 1865, he undertook the important
duty of enquiring into the raid at St. Alban's, which resulted
in the payment to the Americans of the money plundered
from the Vermont Bank. Mr. Torrance was appointed a
Judge of the Superior Court in August, 1868.
The Hon. Charles Duff, although a native of New Brunswick, was born of Perthshire parents in July, 1817.    His THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
life has not been eventful. Educated at St, John fhammar
school, he early applied himself to the legal profession, and
was called to the bar in 1840. Twenty years thereafter, his
merits as a practitioner were rewarded with the silk; but
fifteen years elapsed before he became, in October, 1875,
a Puisne Judge of the Superior Court of New Brunswick.
Mention has already been made of the Hon. James William
Johnston, and we have now to speak of his son, who bears
the same name. He was born in the City of Halifax,
and is County Court Judge of the district. His birth took
place in January, 1824, when his father was in the zenith of
political controversy. The paternal grandfather was a Scot,
and believed himself entitled to the Marquisate of Annan-
dale. He had settled in Georgia and followed the fortunes
of the U. E. Loyalists, when their cause, and that of their
king, were lost. The family* first settled at Kingston, and
finally made its way to Nova Scotia whither so many
Loyalists had preceded them. The present judge received
his education at Acadia College, and studied law in his
father's office. Called to the bar in 1845, he practised at
Halifax for nearly twenty years, being appointed by the
Dominion Government to the judgeship in 1873. Judge
Johnston, like many of his confreres has occupied a high
position in the Masonic order.
George Campbell, of Truro, N. S., occupies the position of
registrar of the Probate Courts, and also practises his profession. He was born in Colchester county in 1832, the
grandson of a Scot who settled at Pictou. His father was
the Hon. Alexander Campbell, for many years a member
of the Legislative Council.    Mr. Campbell was educated at 928
the Wesleyan Academy at Sackville, and subsequently
studied law under Adams G. Archibald, now Lieutenant
Governor of the Province. When called to the bar in 1856,
he entered into partnership with his former principal who
until 1867, practised with him. Since Confederation he
has stood alone. In Nova Scotia he bears the reputation of
being a most able and conscientious lawyer, widely known
and respected throughout the Province. In 1863, he was
made registrar of probate, after having held other public
positions of honour and trust. Mr. Campbell is also a Master
Mason ; has long been a member of the Presbyterian Church;
and until 1879, when he resigned the Lieutenant-Colonelcy
of the 78th Highlanders, had for many years been connected with the Provincial militia.
Another lawyer of Nova Scotia, who practises at Antigonish, belongs to the real Highland stock, his parents
having settled in Nova Scotia from Arisaig, Inverness-
shire. Angus Macgillivray was borri in the County of
Pictou, in January, 1822, his father was a farmer and removed when Angus was still young to Antigonish. There the
latter was educated at the St. Francois Xavier College and
thereafter applied himself to the study of the law under
the Hon. Hugh Macdonald, now upon the bench. Admitted
to the bar in 1847, Mr. Macgillivray enjoys a lucrative
practice not only in the Provincial Courts but also in the
Supreme Court of the Dominion. As a public man he has
occupied a prominent position in the Assembly, and took a
foremost position in the agitation for the abolition of the
Legislative Council. Nevertheless he is a professed Conservative, and represents the views  of a constituency of a THE SCOT IN BRITISH NORTH AMERICA.
similar complexion. Mr. Macgillivray holds some views
that have found expression further west. He considers a
second chamber in the Provinces unnecessary, and also regards the party system, however called for in the arena of
Dominion politics, a hindrance rather than an advantage in
the smaller sphere of Provincial legislation. On these points
he expresses his opinions fully and emphatically. Mr. Macgillivray was President of the Highland Society and presented
the Gaelic address to the Marquis of Lome in 1878. As
may be gathered from the place of his education, Mr. Macgillivray belongs to the Roman Catholic Church, possessing
a kindly and generous nature which makes him popular far
beyond the limits of denominational connections.
Our list may conclude for the present with a New Brunswick judge, reserved for the last. James Grey Stevens, at
present judge for four counties in the Province, was born in
Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1822. His father was a Writer to
the Signet and solicitor at "Auld Reekie," whilst his mother,
a daughter of Sir Colin Campbell, of Auchinleck, possessed
singular literary ability. In the palmy days of Blackwood
and the Edinburgh Review, the future Mrs. Stevens was a
valued contributor, and, in addition, wrote some sparkling
works; illuspating Scottish life. Her sister, it may be mentioned, was the wife of Sir John Richardson, the Arctic explorer.
Mr. Stevens was educated at Edinburgh University when
Sir William Hamilton and Professor Wilson (Christopher
North) were upon the staff. Having come to New Brunswick, he settled at St. Stephen, where he studied law under
Mr. Alexander Campbell, now a resident of California, and 930
subsequently with another Scot, Mr. Kerr. Mr. Stevens
was admitted to practise in 1845, and called to the bar in
1847. His practice was large and varied, especially in
equity suits touching matters of business.
Mr. Stevens had a short term of public life between 1861
and 1865, when he was defeated on account of his partiality
for Confederation. However, when the tide turned in the
direction already described, he was once more in the Assembly, and aided by his speeches and the measures he introduced, in promoting the material progress of New Brunswick. In June, 1867, Judge Stevens was appointed to his
present position, which he fills with great dignity and
learning. It may be well to state that the learned judge
has compiled more than one work of great value to the
legal profession.
In drawing this portion of the work to a close, it is
necessary to acknowledge the obligations we owe to those
who have kindly aided us. It has not been thought well
to name here all the many friends who .have tendered that
aid. In concluding the final instalment, an effort will be
made to express, in some measure, our grateful acknowledgments. In the portion devoted herein to the churches and
the law, great difficulty has been experienced from want of
information. To those, therefore, who have given assistance,
in the form of manuscript, we owe all the more sincere
gratitude. In the interval which elapses between the issue,
of this, and-jthe concluding, part of the work, perhaps its
friends will aid us with jadvice, correction in matters of
fact and assistance in a labour sufficiently arduous in itself,
and not performed under the most favouring circumstances. 
The concluding volume of the SOOT IN BRITISH:
NORTH AMERICA will contain, the history of the
JTorth-West, the shipping interest in the (Dominion and the (Pacific Railway, subjects in -which-
the Soot has had a very -prominent part.


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