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The Hudson's Bay territories and Vancouver's Island, with an exposition of the chartered rights, conduct,… Martin, Robert Montgomery, 1803?-1868 1849

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Array         My Lord,
The avowed ignorance of the nation
generally concerning the Hudson's Bay Company, and
the natural desire to know more of the territories
and proceedings of an association to whom is now
being confided the Colonization of Vancouver's Island,
have induced me to examine various official and
public documents on the subject, in the hope that the
result of my inquiry might be useful to many who
wish to be better acquainted with the facts of the
case, and not unacceptable even to those with whose
opinions I generally concur, although in this matter
at variance with the conclusions at which I have
myself arrived. IV
I have found a further incentive to my labours in
the desire to ascertain how far additional information
would confirm or negative the views I had formed
when writing my History of the British Colonies in
1834.
The plan which I have pursued has been—
First—To show the geography, physical aspect, and
climate of the regions known as the Hudson's Bay
Company's territories, and to furnish all the trustworthy information within my reach relative to
Vancouver's Island.
Second—To detail the constitution and working of
the Hudson's Bay Corporation at home and abroad.
Third—To ascertain the numbers, character, and
treatment of the Indian or Aboriginal population.
Fourth—To investigate the conduct and policy of
the ruling authorities.
1
Fifth—To inquire into the qualifications of the
Hudson's Bay Company for the Colonization of Vancouver's Island. The documents examined include the Parliamentary
Papers of 8th August, 1842, and 10th August, 1848;
the Report of the Aborigines' Parliamentary Committee in 1837; the Journal of the Bishop of Montreal to Rupert's Land in 18441; the Annual Reports
and Notices of the Church Missionary and Wesleyan
Societies ; the Official Narrative of Commodore
Wilkes, of the American navy2, from 1838 to 1842;
the History of Oregon and California in 1844, by
Mr. Robert Greenhow, translator and librarian to the
United States Government3; a " Journey beyond the
Rocky Mountains in 1835-6 and 7," by the Rev. S.
Parker, A.M., on behalf of the American Board of
Commissioners for Foreign Missions4; Statement of
the Earl of Selkirk's Settlement in North America5;
Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of
America from 1836 to 1839, by Messrs. Dease and
T. Simpson6; Hearne's Journeys to the Northern
Ocean from 1769 to 17727; Dr. Rae's Exploration of
the Coasts of the Arctic Region8; Sir George Simpson's
1 Published by Seeley, Hatchard, and Nisbett.    London.    1845.
2 Published by Wiley and Putnam.    London.    1845.
3 Published by Murray.    London.    1844.
4 Re-published by Chambers.    Edinburgh.    1841.
5 Published by Murray.    London.    1817.
6 Published by Bentley.    London.    1837.
7 Strahan and Cadell in 1795.
8 Times and Morning Herald, 1st and 2nd November, 1847. ~3b^
VI
Overland Journey round the World in 1841-29;
several official papers deposited at the Colonial Office,
Board of Trade, and Admiralty; the Royal Charter
granted to the Hudson's Bay Company by King
Charles II., 2nd May, 1670*; the Royal Licences
granted by King George IV., 5th December 1821,
and by Queen Victoria, 30th May, 1838, for exclusive trade with the Indians of all the countries in
North America to the north and west of the territory
of the United States, Upper and Lower Canada, and
the territories of the Hudson's Bay Company granted
to them by the Royal Charter of 2nd May, 1670* ;
the Deed Poll of the Company, which is a covenant
between the chief factors and chief traders in America,
and the stock holders in England; two letters from
the Rev. Wm. Cockran and the Rev. J. Macallum,
clergymen of the Church of England, on the state
of the Red River settlement in July and August
1848*; and other documents to which reference is
made in this work.
I now beg to submit to your Lordship the important evidence afforded by the statements of these
impartial authorities, many of them eye-witnesses of
9 Published by Colburn.    1847
See Appendix.
I saayTOBsagsgwaBS aaHaHBSMihqttiitttMWflBq^^
Vll
what they narrate. It is for your Lordship and the
public to decide in what manner the Hudson's Bay
Company has endeavoured to carry out the objects
for which it was incorporated by Charles II.; how
far it has merited the additional Royal Licences
granted in 1821 and in 1838, for an extension of
the exclusive trade with the Indians over certain
parts of North America; and what reasonable prospect may be entertained of the effectual execution of
the trust now being vested in this ancient Corporation, for the formation of a British Settlement in
the Pacific Ocean, by our Most Gracious Sovereign.
I have the honour to subscribe myself,
My Loru,
Your obedient and faithful Servant,
R. M. MARTIN.
4, Mobeton Villas, Kentish Town. 2f.B. The   extracts from the " Journal of the Bishop of Montreal,  in 1844," at
pp. 22, 23, and 24; and two letters in the Appendix from the Kev J. Codkran,
and the Bev. J. Macallum, clergymen of the church of England,—dated from
the Bed Biver, 26th July, and 3rd August, 1848,—give a faithful description
of the present state of the Colony.
TNDIAN VILLAGE AT THE BED BIVEB SETTLEMENT.
{From the Bishop of Montreal's Journal?)
&B*£
EKRATA  AND  ADDENDA.
P. 108.—There is a typographical error in the year ' 1848.'
P.' 81.—It should have been stated that Mr. Chief Factor Ogden, on receiving intelligence of the massacre, started from Fort Vancouver with a party, and by his influence
with the Cayouses, and presents to the amount of a6.600, procured the liberation of 05
captives, who would otherwise in aU probability have been put to death.
For ' Governor of the Columbia,' read ' Governor of the new settlement on the
' Willamette.'
P. 148.—For ' cayo of com,' read ' flour.'
There have been two important omissions:—Fibst,—No association or private individual possessed of means, or prepared with any guarantee for the accomplishment of the object,
have proposed to colonize the Vancouver's Island. Second, — Vancouver's Island does not
yield to the Hudson's Bay Company, furs to the value of .£.500 per annum. There is no
motive, therefore, for keeping the island as a hunting station ; but there is every inducement
to form an agricultural settlement, as they are now excluded from the fertile country south of
the 4:9th parallel of latitude. wyww««ji^>^w4wvwcafls«gB8Sgss
THE   HUDSON'S   BAY   TERRITORIES
VANCOUVER'S  ISLAND,   &c
\Uxt %.
GEOGRAPHY, PHYSICAL ASPECT, CLIMATE, &c.
Geography.—The north-west territories of British America,
exclusive of Canada, extend from the Pacific Ocean and Vancouver's Island along the parallel of the 49th degree of north
latitude, near to the head of Lake Superior, and thence in a northeasterly direction to the coast of Labrador and the Atlantic. The
Arctic Ocean forms the northern boundary. The whole region
includes the meridians of 55 and 141 degrees of west longitude,
excepting a strip of Russian territory on the Pacific Ocean,
between 54° and 60° north latitude, following the sinuosities of
the coast for ten leagues in breadth, as shown in the accompanying map by Arrowsmith.
Within these limits lies the tract of country granted by
Charles II., on the 2nd of May, 1670, under royal charter, to
Prince Rupert, the Duke of Albemarle, Earl of Craven, Lord
Ashley, and others, who organized the Hudson's Bay Company.
This tract by the original charter* was called I Rupert's Land ;'
constituted one of His Majesty's colonies or plantations in
America; and was defined as ' all the lands and territories upon
the countries, coasts, and confines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers,
creeks, and sounds, in whatsoever latitude they shall be, that lie
* See Appendix.
A within the entrance of the straits, commonly called Hudson's
Straits, that are not already actually possessed by, or granted to
any of our subjects, or possessed by the subjects of any other
Christian Prince or State.'
No latitudinal or longitudinal boundaries are here expressed.
By several Acts of Parliament, especially by 14 Geo. III., cap.
83, the northern boundary of Canada was to be the southern
boundary of the eastern portion of the ' territory granted' to the
Hudson's Bay Company; and a map, published by Eman Bowen,
in 1775, assigns the 49th parallel of north latitude as part of the
southern boundary of the Hudson's Bay tract, as far as the
Canadian frontier.
No western or northern boundary having been expressed in the
Royal Charter of 2nd May, 1670, it has been said that the Pacific
and Northern Oceans constitute the limits in these directions; the
Hudson's Bay Company, on the 10th June, 1814, sought an
opinion respecting the Red River Territory (as shown at p. 47),
from the learned counsel, Samuel Romilly, G. S. Holroyd,
William Cruise, J. Scarlett, and John Bell, who stated that' the
grant of the soil contained in the charter is good, and that it will
include all the country the waters of which run into Hudson's
Bay.' This opinion does not define how much more territory
may be included in right of the Charter.
In addition to this grant of territory to the Hudson's Bay
Company, and exclusive trade over the same, Charles II., in the
said charter, with a view ' to the discovery of a new passage into
the South Sea*, and for the finding of some trade for furs, mine-
* It has been erroneously stated that Charles II. granted a charter to the Hudson's
Bay Company, in order to enable them to discover a passage from the Atlantic to the
Pacific. This is not the case, as the words of the accompanying Charter show. It was
granted not only as an encouragement to endeavour to find a passage into the South
Sea, but also to find {some trade for furs, minerals, and other considerable commodities.' Arctic discovery has, nevertheless, always formed a prominent part of the
proceedings of the Company.
Mr. Hearne adverts, in his interesting work, published in 1705, to the monies
expended by the Company in prosecuting researches, and to the various attempts made
by their officers, Bean, Christopher, Johnston, and Duncan, to find out a north-west
passage.    In 1719, the Hudson's B ay Company fitted out the Albany frigate and the rals, and other commodities, and to encourage them to proceed
further in pursuance of their said design, whereof there may probably arise very great advantage to us and to our kingdom,
Discovery sloop, to find out the Straits of Anian, and a passage to the northward.
These ships were embayed in the ice near Marble Island, and all perished by a lingering
miserable death. No intelligence of the vessels, or their crews, reached the Company,
or any of their forts, until 1769, and then the remains were discovered by accident.
The Hudson's Bay Company, between 1769 and 1772, sent Mr. S. Hearne from Fort
Churchill on three journeys throughout the regions west and north-west of the Fort, to
the extent of a thousand miles. Considering the period when these journeys were
undertaken, the ignorance which prevailed respecting the topography and climate, the
number and dangerous character of the Indian tribes, and the total separation of Mr.
Heame from any other European, the investigations of this enterprising traveUer deserve
the highest approbation.
Hearne discovered the Lake Athapescow, and explored a large extent of country:
he traced the ' far-off Metal Biver,' since called the ' Copper Mine Biver,' to its
termination in the Arctic Ocean, where the tides were observed, and on whose shores
relics of whales were strewed in abundance. Hearne conceived that he had proved the
entire impossibility of any direct communication between Hudson's Bay and the Pacific,
for the discovery of which, by H.M. ships, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1745,
offering a reward of £.20,000.
The Admiralty concurred in the opinion of Hearne, and, in 1776, the reward was
offered to any of His Majesty's subjects who should find out, and sail through, any
passage in any direction from the Atlantic to the Pacific, north of the 52nd parallel of
latitude.
In 1836-7-8-9 the Hudson's Bay Company incurred considerable expense in prosecuting an extensive and successful exploring expedition to the Arctic Ocean, under
two of their officers, Messrs. Dease and -Simpson, whose valuable researches have
been recently published, for which the Geographical Society awarded their gold
medal, and Her Majesty's Government a pension of £.100 per annum to Mr. Simpson
and Mr. Dease. These enterprising travellers advanced, in one season, from the
Mackenzie Biver to Point Barrow, and in another from the Copper Mine Biver to
Boothia Felix, when the region reached, was 68° 43' 39" north latitude, 106° 3'
west longitude, magnetic variation, 60° 38' 23" east; the compass was sluggish and
uncertain in its movements, requiring to be shaken before it would traverse. The discovery was termed Victoria Land. During the preceding year, the explorers reached
71° 23' 33" north, 156° 20' west; an open sea was seen to the eastward, and a large
bay studded with islands, the land dipping to east-south-east for thirty miles. In
1846-47 the Hudson's Bay Company sent out another Arctic expedition, under the
command of one of their able officers, Mr. John Rae, for the purpose of exploring and
surveying the unknown portion of the north-east angle of the American continent.
The expedition consisted of thirteen persons, started from Fort Churchill in July
1846, suffered great hardships, and wintered at a place named Fort Hope, in 66° 32'
16" north, 86° 55' 51" west; variation of the compass, 62° 50' 30" west, dip of the
needle, 88° 14' ; the thermometer in their snow-covered habitation, was 10° to 12°
below zero. After severe privations, and overcoming considerable difficulties, Mr. Bae
successfully accomplished the object of the expedition by tracing the coast of America
between Lord Mayor's Bay of Sir John Boss, to within eight or ten miles of the
tZSeB&Se&BSS&PSBBSSBBIie&l granted, '■for ever hereafter;' not only the whole, the entire, and
only trade and traffic to and from the territory, limits and places
aforesaid^ but also the whole and ! entire trade and traffic to and
from all havens, lays, creeks, rivers, lakes, and seas into which they
shall find entrance or passage by water or land out of the territories, limits, or places aforesaid; and to and with all the natives
and people inhabiting, or which shall inhabit within the territories, limits, and places aforesaid ; and to and with all other nations
inhabiting any the coasts adjacent to the said territories, limits,
and places which are not already possessed as aforesaid, or
whereof the sole liberty or privilege of trade and traffic is not
granted to any other of our subjects.'
This grant not only, therefore, gave the Hudson's Bay Company
a large territorial manor in perpetuity, but it also gave them an
exclusive right of trade, for ever, over such adjoining territories
as above described.
Mr. Greenhow—after reciting the Royal Charter of 1670—
acknowledges, that from thence ' it will be seen that the Hudson's
Bay Company possessed, by its Charter, almost sovereign powers
Fury and Hecla Strait (see map) ; thus proving ' Boothia Felix' to be a peninsula*.
The country thus explored was formaUy declared to be British territory, and, in September 1847, Mr. Rae and his party arrived in safety at York Factory, in Hudson's
Bay. This scientific officer of the Company has now, at the request of the Lords of the
Admiralty, accompanied Dr. Bichardson in search of Sir John Franklin and his
gaUant companions.
During the researches, journeys, and voyages of Parry, Franldin, Ross, Beechey, Back,
&c, the Hudson's Bay Company have spared no exertions or expense to aid Her Majesty's
Government and the naval service in the Arctic explorations, which, independent of the
expenditure of the Company, have cost Her Majesty's Government, since 1815, nearly
half a million sterling, without any territorial or commercial advantage being derived
by the nation.
The Hudson's Bay Company have long since demonstrated, that no available route
exists by sea between the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and this national expenditure might have been spared, and any further required exploration of these hyperborean
regions may well be left in the hands of the Company.
* See the Times and Morning Herald of Nov. 1 and 2, 1847, for an unassuming despatch of Mr. Kae
to the Governor and Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, containing an account of his important
geographical discoveries, of which an excellent map has been prepared by Mr. Arrowsmith with his
accustomed public spirit. over the vast portion of America drained by streams entering
Hudson's Bay.'—(" Oregon " Proofs and Illustrations, I. p. 456.)
These latter rights were, however, invaded after the British
occupation of Canada, by an associated body terming themselves
the North-West Company, between whom and the Hudson's
Bay Company a series of direful struggles, attended with
great loss of life, injury to the fur trade, and destruction to the
Indians, was maintained for years, until, in 1821, an Act of
Parliament was passed, under which the Crown granted to the
Hudson's Bay Company, and to the three representative agents
of the North-West Association in London and Montreal, on 6th
December, 1821, a licence of exclusive trade for twenty-one years,
in what were termed the 'Indian territories,' that is, over those tracts
which might not be included in the grant of Charles II., and also
over those tracts which,by mutual consent, were open to the subjects
of England, and to those of the United States. The three North-
West Association Agents merged into the Hudson's Bay Company;
the exclusive trading licence was surrendered in 1838, and, after
careful examination and investigation, on 30th May, 1838, the
Crown granted, under covenant, another licence for twenty-one
years of exclusive trade over the aforesaid Indian and Neutral
territories. These licences (which extended ' to those parts in
North America beyond the limits of the Charter which the
Hudson's Bay Company at present enjoy,' (see Board of Trade
letter, 2nd of June, 1837, in Parliamentary Papers of 8th August,
1842,) in nowise invalidated or questioned the rights possessed by
the Hudson's Bay Company under the Royal Charter of 2nd
May, 1670, which has been recognised by various treaties and
Acts of Parliament. From the correspondence of 7th September
and 30th October, 1846, laid before Parliament, 10th August,
1848, it would appear that the Crown considered the ' Rocky
Mountains' as the eastern boundary of the territory over which
the Hudson's Bay Company have the exclusive right of trading
with the natives for twenty-one years from 13th May, 1838.
Previous to the recent Oregon treaty, the Hudson's Bay Com- 6
pany had formed settlements on the Columbia River, and some of
its servants and retired officers established an agricultural farm
at Puget Sound, south of the 49th parallel, and within the present
American territories; but the Oregon treaty (see Appendix)
expressly guarantees the' possessory rights' of the Hudson's Bay
Company in the American States, and of course thus acknowledges
the possessory rights of the Hudson's Bay Company north of the
49th parallel. In the trading licence of 1838 the Crown reserved
to itself the right of establishing any colony in the territory over
which the licence extended: hence the power now exercised by
the Crown of disposing of Vancouver's Island.
Physical Aspect.—It is difficult to convey an idea of the
territories belonging to, as well as those included in the trading
licence of, the Hudson's Bay Company. A great portion of
them, east of the Rocky Mountains, consists of inland seas, bays,
lakes, rivers, swamps, treeless prairies, barren hills and hollows,
' tossed together in a wave-like form, as if the ocean had been
suddenly petrified while heaving its huge billows in a tumultuous swell.'—(T. Simpson's Life and Travels.) La Hontan
has not inaptly called the region north of Lake Superior, the
' fag end of the world.' There are, doubtless, several spots,
such as the Red River, adapted in some respects for European
settlements; but they are like oases in the desert, few and far
between—and totally inapplicable for extended colonization;
indeed, at a great many of the posts, not only can no corn be
grown, but even the potatoe and other crops are cut off by
summer frosts, so that the rearing and preservation of a sufficient
quantity of human food is an object of the most anxious solicitude throughout the country. By the concession of part of the
Oregon country and the Colombia River to the United States in
1846, we gave up a fertile and temperate region, south of the
49th parallel, capable of yielding abundance of food; and the
tract now left in the possession of the Hudson's Bay Company
will require great care and industry, to render even the most
promising spots productive. I shall attempt to define the natural divisions of North-West
America, beginning with the coast of the Atlantic Ocean. The
prevailing features of Labrador from 50° to 60° north latitude,
and from 56° to 78° west longitude, are rocks, lakes, swamps, and
mountains. The Straits of Belleisle have an ' iron-bound coast,'
with several good harbours adjacent, particularly on the coast;
but this wild and sterile region is never likely to be used for any
other purposes than fishing and fur hunting.
From the coast of Labrador, a ridge of table land runs nearly
south-west to the source of the Ottawa river, and divides the
waters which flow into the River and Gulf of St. Lawrence,
from those which flow into Hudson's Bay, and may be considered the south-eastern boundary of the Hudson's Bay Company's territories. From the Ottawa this ridge (table land, or
division of waters) takes a generally west direction till it reaches
the Rocky Mountains, in about 115° west longitude, separating
the waters of Rainy Lake River, Red River, and Saskatchewan
River, which waters flow into Hudson's Bay, from the Mississippi
and Missouri, which flow into the Gulf of Mexico. This very
slightly elevated feature was formerly considered to represent
the boundary between the Hudson's Bay Company and the
United States, to the westward of the source of Rainy Lake
River. The Treaty of 1818, defined Rainy Lake River, the
Lake of the Woods, and the 49th parallel of latitude as far west as
Rocky Mountains, as the boundary; and by the recent Treaty,
15th June, 1846, the 49th parallel of latitude has been continued as
the boundary west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.
The Rocky Mountains have their northern extremity in the
Arctic Ocean, latitude 70° north, longitude 140° west, and run
nearly S.S.E., parallel with the west coast, forming the eastern
boundary of the Oregon region, sending off, at different places,
spurs and buttresses, and dividing the waters that flow into the
Atlantic from those that flow into the Pacific.
At Mount Browne, 16,000, and Mount Hooker, 15,700 feet
high, in latitude 52° 30' north, two of the loftiest peaks of the
aoHflasssssa 8
' Rocky Mountains,' a dividing range of moderate hills runs
to the north-east, from whence flows some of the branches of
the Saskatchewan, Churchill, or English River, Deer Lake,
Winnipeg Lake, and those streams which feed Wollaston Lake,
Athabasca Lake, and Slave Lake, and several other lakes. It is,
however, difficult to say what waters flow towards Hudson's Bay,
or towards the Arctic Sea, as several of the lakes have different
outlets, and each lake communicates with another,—the Great
Slave Lake, with Lake Athabasca; Lake Athabasca, with
Wollaston and Deer Lakes, the latter descending by Churchill
River into Hudson's Bay. For instance, the Oungigan or River of
Peace descends from a ridge of the Rocky Mountains towards
Lake Athabasca, or the Lake of the Mountains ; when high it
flows into the lake, but when low it receives the lake waters, and
flows towards the Great Slave Lake, under the name of the Slave
River. Winnipeg, Winnipegos, and Manitoba Lakes, receive the
waters of the Saskatchewan, Assiniboine, and Red River, and
communicate with Hudson's Bay by the Nelson, and other
rivers and conduits.
MacKenzie's River runs northerly in its shallow course from
the Rocky Mountains to the Arctic Ocean, in latitude 69° north,
longitude 135° west, but communicates in its progress with the
Great Bear and Great Slave Lakes; but, excepting this, the
Copper Mine and Back's Rivers, I think the course of all the
other rivers and lakes of North-West America, east of the Rocky
Mountains, is to the eastward, towards which the whole country dips.
Mr. Green how, in his topography of these regions, says, (p. 37)—
that the country north of 50°, and east of the Rocky Mountains, is
£ drained by streams entering Hudson's Bay or the Arctic Sea; the
principal are the Red River of the North, the Assiniboine, and the
Saskatchewan, all emptying into Lake Winnipeg, which communicates by several channels with Hudson's Bay and the Mis-
sinnippi, or Churchill River, falling direct into that bay.'
' The Arctic Sea, in nearly the 69th parallel, receives the Great
Fish, or Back's River, the Copper Mine, and the Mackenzie; BWgyBgBBgB
»w»g^»gs8aaa8S88WB9«gggBg»wBBiiai
but the regions through which these rivers pass are generally
so level, that it is in many places difficult to trace the limits of
the tracts from which the waters flow into the respective streams
or basins; they contain numerous lakes, some of them very
large, which are nearly all connected with each other, and
with Hudson's Bay on the east and the Arctic Sea on the
north.'—History and Geography of Oregon, p. 37.
Viewing, therefore, the whole of the territories between the
Rocky Mountains and Hudson's Bay, north of the 49th parallel,
as one region, it may be considered as a series of lakes, rivers,
and plains, with a gradual elevation from east to west.
The northern territory, which was very imperfectly explored until
the recent journeys of Dease, Simpson, and Rae, from 1837 to
1847, is intersected with lakes, marshes, and rivers to a greater
extent than any part of the known globe ; and it would seem as
if the inner springs of the earth there burst forth. Some parts
investigated are truly regions of desolation : vegetation ceases in
the latitude of 60° north :—no land is seen capable of cultivation ;
the whole surface is rugged and uneven, and the open valleys
nearly devoid of all vegetable productions. The soil at Churchill
Fort (one of the Hudson's Bay Company's Stations, in latitude
59° north) on the shores of the bay, is extremely barren, rocky,
dry, and without wood for several miles inland; a few garden
vegetables are with difficulty reared. At York Fort, in latitude
57° 2/, longitude 93° west, the soil is low and marshy, and equally
unproductive ; and, though the trees are larger than those inland
of Fort Churchill, they are still knotty and dwarfish. The
country around the factory, although elevated above the river, is
one entire swamp, covered with low stunted pine, and perfectly
impenetrable, even in July, when it is infested by clouds of mosquitoes. The land seems to have been thrown up by the sea,
and is never thawed during the hottest summer, with the thermometer at.90° to 100° in the shade, more than ten or twelve
inches, and then the soil is of the consistence of clammy mud ;
even in the centre of the factory it is necessary to keep on the 10
platforms to avoid sinking over the ankles. About Albany Fort,
in 52° north, and Moose Fort in 51° 28', the climate is more
temperate, the soil better, and potatoes and garden produce are
reared but with difficulty. Proceeding farther west, the temperature improves, but all around Hudson's Bay, particularly at
Fort Churchill, the climate is extremely severe; and from the
middle of October to the middle of May, the country is buried
under snow. The ice does not break up generally until
July, and at York Fort, two degrees south of Churchill, the
thermometer in January has been at 50° below zero. Even in
rooms at the factory, where a fire is perpetually kept up, brandy
freezes into a solid substance : the rivers and lakes, ten to twelve
feet deep, are frozen to the bottom, and the Hudson's Bay
Company's European servants are obliged to observe the greatest
caution against the effects of the cold air, which is frequently
filled with small particles of angular ice, and when driven by the
wind against the face or hands, raises the skin in white blisters,
which break out in thin watery issues. As soon as a room is
thoroughly heated, and the embers burnt down, the top of the
chimney is closed so as to exclude the air, yet the walls of the
apartments are found covered with ice two to three inches thick*.
The Europeans in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company,
notwithstanding their precautions, and the use of a large quantity
of woollens and furs, are frequently frost bitten, and many of
the natives fall victims to the severity of the climate. The sun
is often obscured for weeks by thick fogs, which are caused by
watery vapours ascending from the sea, which, being condensed
by cold, hang all around the coast, and extend inland to a con-
* In the Quarterly Review, No. xlix. vol. xxv., 1821, Sir John Barrow adverts to this
remarkable occurrence on board Captain Parry's ships, Hecla and Ctriper: " The
month of March set in mildly (at their retreat in Winter Harbour) so that the solid ice
which for some time had lined the ships' sides, began to melt.    It therefore became
necessary to scrape off this coating of ice, on which occasion Captain Parry observes	
' It will, perhaps, be scarcely credited, that we this day (8th March) removed above
one hundred buckets full, each containing from five to six gallons, being the accumulation which had taken place in an interval of less than four weeks; and this immense
quantity was the produce chiefly of the men's breath and of the steam of their victuals
daring meals.'" »H«»»*»'Ml!tfWW»tfB
liBwiaBtwqBBggBBWHHiwaiwM^ wwwMMM*W3*iWHU¥igMja
11
siderable distance. The ' Mock Suns' and Moons, called Parabulia and Paraselene, appear very frequently in the coldest months.
The temperature of the air is subject to the most capricious
variations; rain sometimes falls abundantly with a serene sky,
or the sun will burst forth in the midst of the heaviest showers.
Such is the region in which several of the Hudson's Bay Company's establishments are situated, and which could not be
maintained but for the possession of some more temperate regions,
from whence food is procurable.
Hudson's Bay, discovered by John Hudson in 1610, is about
900 miles in length, by 600 at its greatest breadth, with a surrounding coast of 3000 miles, between the parallels of 51° and
65° north latitude. The coasts are generally high, rocky, rugged,
and sometimes precipitous. The bay is navigable for a few
months in summer, but for the greater part of the remainder
of the year is filled up with fields of ice. The navigation, when
open, is extremely dangerous, as it contains many shoals, rocks,
sand banks, and islands; even during the summer icebergs
are seen in the straits towards which a ship is drifted by a squall
or current, rendering it very hazardous for the most skilful
seamen. The transitions of the thermometer in summer are
from 100° to 40° in two days, and the torrents of rain are surprising : whether in winter or summer, the climate is horrible;
the range of the thermometer throughout the year is 140°. The
sea is entered by Hudson's strait, which is about 500 miles long,
with a varying breadth, and with an intricate navigation through
several islands, viz.: Charles, Salisbury, Nottingham, Mansfield,
and Southampton. The principal bays and inlets in this great
inland sea, are, James's Bay, in the south-east, which is 240
miles deep by 140 wide; Button's Bay, and Port Nelson, on the
western coast; Chesterfield Inlet on the north-west, which, after
stretching far into the interior, terminates in a fresh water lake;
Roe's Welcome, a deep strait on the north coast, and also
Repulse Bay.
We may now examine the country between Hudson's Bay
and the  Rocky Mountains, commencing with the lakes and 12
rivers. The Great Bear Lake, the most northerly, is 150 miles
in diameter, and communicates by Lake Martin with the Great
Slave Lake, which is estimated at 260 miles from east to west,
and 30 from north to south. Captain Back considers it as large
as Lake Michigan; its soundings are from 40 to 60 fathoms.
The north side of the lake is an entire jumble of rocks and hills ;
the south is level, not a hill or stone to be found. The Great
Slave River joins this lake to that of Athabasca, which is 180
miles long and 15 broad,—receives the Peace, Athabasca, and
Stone Rivers; the latter river forms the channel which conveys
a portion of the waters of the Wollaston Lake (situated on table
land) into Athabasca Lake; another portion of the waters of
Wollaston Lake flows in a contrary direction through Deer Lake
and River into the Missinnippi, Churchill, or English River, which
forms several smaller lakes, and finally disembogues into Hudson's Bay, at Fort Churchill, in latitude 55° 45' north, longitude 94° 25'west.
Lake Winnipeg, in latitude 50° 20/ to 53° 45' north, is 240 miles
lone;, and from 5 to 50 broad. It receives the River Saskat-
chewan, as it flows from the Rocky Mountains and northern
ridge; also the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, and discharges itself
into Hudson's Bay by the Nelson and other rivers. Winnipegos
and Manitoba are branch or tributary lakes to Winnipeg.
That the trend of the land, and the dip, is towards Hudson's
Bay and the eastward, is evident from the course of the Red
River, which rises in about the parallel of 46°; flows to the
northward across the American boundary parallel of 49°; joins
the Assiniboine, or Nadawosis River, at Fort Garry, in 50° north
latitude, and then disembogues into the south-western part of
Lake Winnipeg, which, as before stated, discharges into Hudson's
Bay.
The Moose River, which flows from the dividing: ridp-e of
highlands, which separates the Hudson's Bay territories from
Canada, runs for 230 miles in a north-east direction, and has its
embouche in James's Bay, lat. 51° 10' north, long. 81° west.
The country between the sources of the Assiniboine, in 51J ss*s«
13
north, and the Red River, is almost a continued plain, the soil of
sand and gravel, with a slight intermixture of earth, which produces a short grass, but trees are rare. The country around the
southern part of Lake Winipeg is well wooded and watered, and
abounds at seasons with herds of buffalo and deer ; so also contiguous to the Winipegos Lake and Swan River, and along the
route from Carlton to Isle la Crosse Forts in the 55th parallel.
The northern part of Lake Winipeg is composed of banks of
naked black and grey rock. Farther north occasionally greener
spots are to be met with: some of the islands in the Great Slave
Lake are clothed with tall poplars, birch, and pines, and well
stocked with deer. Near the portage La Loche is a precipice
upwards of 100 feet above the plain, from whence, according to
Mackenzie, there is a ' ravishing prospect:'—the Swan (Pelican
or Clear Water) River meanders for thirty miles through a
valley about three miles in breadth, confined by two lofty ridges
of equal height, displaying a delightful intermixture of wood and
lawn. Some parts of the inclining heights are covered with
stately forests, relieved by verdant promontories, where the elk
and buffalo enjoy delicious pasturage.
The route from the Red River settlement (Fort Garry) to Fort
Chipewyan, on Lake Athabasca, was traversed in December
1836, by Mr. Thomas Simpson, by the following stages, in a very
short space of time :—
Miles. Days.
Fort Garry (Red River) to Fort, Pelly  394 in 15
Fort Pelly to Fort Carlton     276 „ 12
Carlton to Isle a. la Crosse  236 § 7
Isle a. la Crosse to Fort Chipeywan  371 „ 12
Total    1277   in   46
These, and other forts and stations, are necessarily wide apart,
and in situations favourable to water communications, and to procuring animal, or, if possible, vegetable food.
II 14L
The aspect of part of the country in which these forts are constructed, is thus noted by Mr. Simpson:—Fort Garry, the principal
station of the Red River Settlement, is situated at the forks of the
Red and Assiniboine Rivers, about fifty miles from Lake Winipeg,
and is environed by plains; proceeding north-west the country is
studded with a few copses of poplar and dwarf oak; but the
greater part having been swept by the running fires in 1835 (so
frequent and terrible in the prairies), presented a blackened and
dismal aspect. There were a number of small natural mounds
on which lay fragments of limestone, the great basis of the plain
region, and quantities of little shells were strewn about in every
direction.
The soil and climate about Manitoba, or ' Evil Spirit' Lake,
is similar to that of the Red River. At Winipegos Lake the oak
region terminates ; but the shores are clothed with elm, poplar,
and a few ash, birch, and pine-trees. The water in this lake is
brackish in summer. At Duck Bay the first wood of pines was
seen. The route from thence to Fort Pelly, south-west, lies
through swampy meadows, alternating with woods of poplar,
fringed with willow, and a few straggling clumps of pine in the
neighbourhood of the Swan River and Duck Mountain, with its
' rude and impassable heights.' Thence west to north lie the
Porcupine Hills, wooded to the very summit. Thunder Hills
are about two miles in breadth, steep ; and beyond them to the
northward is Fort Pelly, in 51° 45' 20" north latitude—102° 5'
west, near the bank of the Assiniboine River, The track thence
to Fort Carlton, lies through gently undulating eminences along
the wooded banks of the tortuous Assiniboine, thence due west,
leaving the Assiniboine far to the south, over a hillocky country,
tolerably wooded, and abounding in small lakes and swamps to
the west end of Stoney Lake, through a country consisting of
narrow plains, studded with clumps of poplar, interspersed with
little lakes and swamps; a great part of this district had been
recently overrun by fire. Changing the course from west to
west south-west, the traveller reaches the immense prairies of the 15
Saskatchewan River, of which entire tracts are frequently bared
by fire to the very soil. The cold in these plains in winter, with
the wind from the westward, is terrific; there is not a shrub or
even a blade of grass to break the force of the blast, whose temperature is at least 40° below zero. The only exposed part of the
traveller, the eye-lashes, becomes speedily covered with a heavy
crop of icicles, which the half-frozen fingers have a difficulty in
removing. These plains in summer are frequented by the
Indians as hunting grounds. The heat in these wild plains is as
unbearable in summer as is the cold in winter. Throughout this
country, says Sir G. Simpson, every thing is in unparalleled
extremes. Cold and excessive heat,—long droughts balanced by
drenching rain and destructive hail (sometimes 5|- inches in circumference). At one period both whites and natives are living
in wasteful abundance on venison, buffalo, fish, and game—at
others reduced to the last degree of hunger, often passing several
days without food. In 1820, when wintering at Athabasca Lake,
Sir George Simpson says, he was for three days and nights
without a morsel of food. Frequently hundreds of fine buffaloes
are killed for the tongues alone. On one occasion Sir G.
Simpson saw several thousand buffaloes putrifying the air for
miles around. Unsheltered plains extend far to the south, to the
ridges in latitude 49°, whence the Missouri descends. One of the
prairies of the Saskatchewan crossed by Mr. Simpson, was fourteen
miles wide, and only a few willows were thinly scattered on its
surface. The country south of the Saskatchewan towards Assiniboine, has in various places lakes as salt as the Atlantic Ocean.
As this region, which extends to the Rocky Mountains, has been
erroneously considered adapted for European colonization, the
following extract from Mr. Thomas Simpson's Journal may help
to dispel the illusion. " Christmas Day, Sunday, the 25th: On
shaking off our slumbers this glad morning, a troop of wolves
were ' baying the moon,' as she rode in a cloudless sky. The
country before us being intricate, we could not start till daylight;
and, when we sallied forth on our day's march, the weather had 16
moderated. About two miles from our resting-place, we passed
over a round hill, and stood awhile on its summit to enjoy the
boundless prospect. From west to south stretched a vast plain,
separated from another, of which we had a bird's-eye glimpse to
the north-east, by the broad belt of woods which we had been
skirting along; while, before us, in our line of march, lay outspread a seemingly endless tract of open underwood, varied by
gently swelling eminences. For seven miles our route led west-
north-west, through thickets and over hillocks; it then changed
to west for fourteen miles, through a more open country, consisting of rising grounds, or "coteaus," with bare ridges, and
sides clothed with dwarf poplar and brushwood; while here and
there, in the hollows, we crossed large ponds, scarcely deserving,
on this continent, the title of lakes. They have no outlet; and
on cutting through the ice for water, we generally found it putrid:
such, however, is its scarcity in that level country, that we- were
often fain to use it when most nauseous, taking the precaution of
imbibing it through snow, which purifies it in some slight degree.
We now turned west-south-west for eight miles, keeping along a
broad and rather winding ridge, which appeared to furnish the
buffalo with a regular road of ingress to the woods. Several
tracks of moose-deer were also seen during the day. After
sunset, we took up our quarters in a small clump of poplars.
The whole country having been ravaged by fire, we could not
find dry grass, as usual, for our beds, and spread our Christmas
couch on willow branches; rough indeed, but rendered smooth
to us by health and exercise."
Mr. Robert Greenhow, in his History of California, Oregon, and
other territories on the north-west coast of America, before referred to, speaking of the countries in the occupation of the
Hudson's Bay Company with respect to colonization, says,
p. 37:—' North of the 50° parallel, the climate is more moist;
but its extreme coldness renders the country of little value for
agriculture. The only part at which any settlement has been
attempted, is that of the Red River, where, about 5000 persons, ffiSS88885S88SS8SHi
17
principally half-breeds and Indians, have been established by the
Hudson's Bay Company; but the success of the enterprise is yet
doubtful.' And, again, at page 397, the author says:—' With
regard to colonization it has been already said, that a very small
proportion of the Hudson Bay Company's territories is capable
of being rendered productive by cultivation.' Mr. Greenhow
then alludes to the Red River settlement, and the unfortunate
results of the first attempts to colonize it, and adds:—jj The land
may be considered fertile when compared with other parts of the
continent situate far to the north; it is, however, deficient in
wood, and notwithstanding all the advantages held out by the
Hudson's Bay Company, there is no probability it will ever rise to
importance in any way, and, least of all, as a check to incursions
from the United States, which seems to be one of the principal
objects proposed by its founders.'
Several of the Hudson's Bay Company's forts are situated in
the country N.W. of the Red River. Fort Pelly is a compact,
well-ordered post on the route from Fort Garry, on the Red
River, to Fort Carlton. It is sheltered on the north by a range
of woods, and has the Assiniboine River in front; the cold in
December is terrific, sometimes—44°, equal to 76 degrees of frost.
Carlton Fort is situated on the south side of the Saskatchewan
River, and is defended by high palisades, and a gallery surrounding the whole square, planted with wall pieces, into which, however, the Indians fired several times during the summer of 1835.
Provisions were unusually scarce, when visited by Mr. T. Simpson in 1836, the great fires in autumn having driven the
buffalo to a distance. The route to Fort La Crosse lay first
through an open country consisting of low, round, grassy hills,
interspersed with clumps of poplar, occasionally of pines, and
with many small lakes to the boundary of the pine forest, in
latitude 53° 30' north; thence hills, lakes, lakelets and brooks,
to a hilly tract of fourteen miles in extent, which divides the
waters that flow towards the Saskatchewan and Churchill Rivers.
From Green Lake to Beaver River is swampy and wooded; and
B 18
thence to Long Lake chain are pine Woods. Fort La Crosse, in
107° 54' 30' west on the border of the lake, is neat and compact ; the country around low and swampy. At the portage la
Loche, north of Fort Crosse, the hills are a thousand feet in
height, steep, and command a fine view of the Clear water river,
and its picturesque valley; thence to the confluence with the
Athabasca River, whose broad bosom is studded with numerous
islands that give it a lake-like appearance.
At Fort Chipewyan, latitude 58° 43' 38" north, longitude 111°
18' 32" west, the surface consists of rocks and swamps, and the
climate precludes all prospect of rearing farm produce ; even
potatoes have to be brought down from Fish River; and when
the coarse grass, cut in the swamps for the use of the few horses
and oxen required for drawing fire-wood to the fort, fails, fish
from the Athabasca river is the only provender obtainable for the
cattle. Fort Edmonton is situated on the northern branch of the
Saskatchewan River, in lat. 53°45'N. long. 113° 10'W., and was
visited by Sir G. Simpson in his progress from the Red River to
the Columbia and Fort Vancouver. The fort is of an hexagonal
form, well built, with high pickets and bastions, and battle-
mented gateways; it is on an almost perpendicular height commanding the river. The fort is painted inside and out with
devices to suit the taste of the savages who frequent it. Over
the gateways are a fantastic pair of vanes, and the ceilings and
walls of the hall present gaudy colours and fantastic sculptures,
which the Indians admire. The buildings are smeared with red
earth ; the savages are awed by so much finery, and respect what
appears to them grand structures.
The settlement on the Red River, distant from Montreal, by
the Ottawa River, about 1800 miles, in latitude 50° north, longitude 97p west, is elevated 800 feet above the sea, in a level
country, contiguous to the wooded borders of the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers, along which the settlement extends for fifty
miles. The soil is comparatively fertile, and the climate salubrious,  but summer frosts,  generated by   undrained  marshes, 19
sometimes blast the hopes of the husbandman. The Hudson's
Bay Company, by the introduction, at a great expense, of rams
and other stock, have improved the breed of domestic animals,
which are now abundant: wheat, barley, oats, maize, potatoes,
and hops thrive ; flax and hemp are poor and stunted. The river
banks are cultivated for half a mile inland, but the back level
country remains in its natural state, and furnishes a coarse hay
for the settlers' stock during the long and severe winter, which
lasts from November to April, or May, when Lake Winipeg is
unfrozen, and the river navigation to Hudson's Bay commences,
via Norway House entrepot, at the northern extremity of the
lake.
The population is in number about 6000, consisting of Europeans, half-breeds, and Indians. The two principal churches,
the Protestant and Roman Catholic, the Gaol, the Hudson's
Bay Company's chief buildings, the residence of the Roman
Catholic Bishop, and the houses of some retired officers of the
fur trade, are built of stone, which has to be brought from a
distance ; but the houses of the settlers are built of wood, whitewashed or painted externally.
I A great abundance of English goods is imported, both by
the Hudson's Bay Company and by individuals, in the Company's annual ships to York Factory; and disposed of in the
colony at moderate prices.'—(Mr. T. Simpson.) There are fifteen
wind and three water-mills to grind the wheat, and prepare the
malt of the settlers, The Hudson's Bay Company have long
endeavoured by rewards and arguments to excite an exportation
of tallow, hides, wool, &c. to England; but the bulky nature of
the exports, the long and dangerous navigation to Hudson's
Bay, and the habits of the half-bred race, who form the mass of
the people, and generally prefer chasing the buffalo to agriculture
or regular industry, have rendered their efforts ineffectual.
Lord Selkirk, with whom the Red River Settlement originated,
first put forth his views on colonization, in 1802 ; his object being
to prevent the Highlanders migrating to countries not under the 20
British flag. The Hudson's BayUompany, to promote the
laudable object, made a large grant of land to his Lordship on the
Red River, and gave him all the aid in their power, to enable
him to form a Scotch Colony. Several settlers were sent out
from Scotland, and in 1813, the settlers were about 100 in number,
--in 1814, about 200; and in 1815, about 300. The hostility
evinced by the North-West Company,—their determination to
destroy the settlement—by fair or by foul means,—the murder of
Governor Semple and more than twenty of the Colonists, on the
19th June, 1816; and the expulsion of many of the settlers, caused
great distress, and for a time ruined the place. Lord Selkirk
died in 1820, since which period no emigrants have been sent
from Europe. Under the auspices of the Company, the population now consists of 6000, notwithstanding the migrations towards
the Columbia and across the frontier. Generally speaking, the
Canadians, who are Romanists, occupy the Assiniboine and upper
section of the Red River; and the Europeans and Indians, who
are mostly Protestants, the lower section of the Red River;
there is therefore but little intermingling; of sects. The Roman
Catholic Bishop and three Priests receive a gratuity annually
from the Hudson's Bay Company. The Protestants have two
Clergymen; one is paid by the Hudson's Bay Company, and
the other by the Church Missionary Society. There are six
principal schools for the ordinary branches of plain education;
the Roman Catholics have also seminaries for elementary instruction, and the bishop superintends a school of industry, where
young females are taught to weave wool into cloth.
The \ Red River Academy' is a large and flourishing establishment, kept by Mr. and Mrs. Macallum, for the sons and daughters
of gentlemen in the service of the Hudson's Bay Company. Land is
granted to the settlers at 7s. Qd. per acre; there is no restriction
but in the purchase or sale of furs and spirits, and there is only
a slight import duty on all other commodities, the proceeds of
which duty are received by the municipality of Assiniboia.
The Colony is governed by a corporation called the Council of MSimiiii'jtuiinniaaaagiijiumjjinniiimi
SWtfO<XMX^h^^^^^^»****J^ffeiliR^^%W4^^y^g^
2i
Assiniboia, which, in virtue of the Royal Charter of 1670, exercises
judicial as well as legislative authority, under an able Recorder.
The currency is one of the best established in any colony. It
consists, with the addition of silver and copper coin, of notes issued
by the Hudson's Bay Company, which are payable at York factory
by bills on the Company in England. This circulation is absolutely essential; gold or silver would soon be hoarded, melted,
or lost; and a note issued by the Government of the place,
receivable in payments, of acknowledged exchangeable value,
devoid of fluctuation in exchanges, and convertible, without
loss or risk, into cash in England, is an advantageous monetary
circulation for any settlement, and not a grievance or subject of
complaint. Commodities to the full value of the notes can always
be obtained at New York, Montreal, &c.
The description given by the Bishop of Montreal of the actual
state of the Red River Settlement, visited by his Lordship in 1844,
is worthy of attention. His Lordship says:—■ The whole population of the Red River Settlement, according to a census with
which I was obligingly furnished, is 5,143: of which number,
2,798 are Roman Catholics, and 2,345 are Protestants. No Protestant worship, except that of the Church of England, has ever
been established among the people. The heads of families are
870 ; of whom 571 are Indians or half-breeds, natives of the territory; 152 Canadians; 61 Orkneymen; 49 Scotchmen; 22 Englishmen; 5 Irishmen, and 2 Swiss. Wales, Italy, Norway, Denmark,
Germany, Poland, and the United States of America, have each
contributed one to the list. There is also one Esquimaux Indian.
There are 730 dwelling-houses, 1,219 barns or stables, 18 windmills, and 1 watermill. From the level character of the country,
it may be conceived there is not much facility for the operations
of the latter kind of construction. There are 182 horses, 749
mares, 107 bulls, 2,207 cows, 1,580 calves, 1,976 pigs, and 3,569
sheep. These particulars were taken in March 1843. The soil,
which is alluvial, is beyond example rich and productive, and
withal so easily worked, that, although it does not quite come up 22
to the description of the happy islands—reddit ubi Gererem tellus
inarata quotannis—there is an instance, I was assured, of a farm,
in which the owner, with comparatively slight labour in the
preparatory processes, had taken a wbeat crop out of the same
land for eighteen successive years— never changing the crop,
never manuring the land, and never suffering it to lie fallow; and
that the crop was abundant to the last.     And with respect to
pasture and hay, they are to be had ad libitum, as Nature gives
them in the open plains.    The Company dispose of their land upon
liberal terms, with a frontage along the river, and I think the
uniform depth of a mile,—with an understanding that, till further
arrangements take place, another mile is at the disposal of the
owner, for any benefits which he can derive from it.     I speak
from memory.     It is only a small portion of the farms, next the
river, that is ever seen enclosed.    The people revel in abundance;
but it  is all for home consumption: they have no outlet, no
market for their produce.    The liberality of the Company is also
evinced in their permitting private traders to import goods in the
Company's ships, although they, the Company, have stores of
their own within the forts,—in which articles of the same description are for sale.     All these articles are brought across from
Hudson's Bay, a distance of several hundred miles, in boats; and
these boats are drawn across the different portages upon rollers,
or, in some places, carried upon waggons.    Hence, those articles
which are of a heavy description, are charged at a price seemingly
out of all proportion to that of many others, which may be obtained at a moderate rate.    A common grinding-stone is sold for
twenty shillings sterling.   The Company, who by their Charter
have the privilege of issuing money, transact all their pecuniary
concerns in British sterling, which differs considerably, as is well
known, from the currency  received in  the  North  American
colonies of the Crown.    Their issue of paper is in three denominations, the highest of which is one pound ; and the three are
distinguished from each other, for the convenience of the natives
by the different colours of the ink :  red, blue, and black.    The 23
boat has been now substituted for the canoe, upon all the lines of
route on which the operations of the Company are regularly conducted, except on that which leads into Canada. The country
in this direction is not of such a nature as to admit of introducing
the roller or the waggon upon the portages. At the Red River,
and on Lake Superior, there may be seen, in the service of the
Company, small-decked sailing vessels, which ply between the
ports. The number of bark and wooden canoes, kept for one
purpose or other by the inhabitants of the Red River, is 410. In
the palmy days of the North-west Company, when the peltries,
now sent home by Hudson's Bay, were taken down to be shipped
at Montreal, the brigades of canoes amounted sometimes to forty
in the season. The name of brigade is still given to the two or
three loaded canoes which start yearly from La Chine for the
Red River; but the voyageur's occupation is almost gone.'—
(Bishop of Montreal's Journal, p. 92 to 1092. Published by
Seeley, Hatchard, & Nisbett, in 1845.)
The Bishop of Montreal says of the Red River Settlement,
that ' it affords a wonderfully striking example of good brought
by the hand of God out of evil.' His lordship thus describes the
churches there :■—' Along the strip of settlement which occupies,
with interruptions, the opposite sides of the river, the four English
churches are situated. The Indian church is about thirteen
miles below the lower church at the rapids; this again is about
six from the middle church ; and the middle church about seven
from the upper. The Indian church is a wooden building, painted
white, fifty feet or upwards in length, with a cupola over the
entrance. It has square-topped windows, which, so far, give it
an unecclesiastical appearance. The lower church is also of wood,
and of the length of fifty feet. The middle church, which is not
quite completed, and which has been built by the unaided exertions of the congregation, is an edifice of stone, sixty feet long.
The upper church, which is also of stone, is ten feet longer, and
will accommodate 500 persons. About 400, upon one occasion,
met me there.    It contains some respectable mural monuments; 24
among others, one which was put up in memory of Mrs. Jones,
wife of the gentleman who long laboured as a missionary of the
society, and is affectionately remembered upon the spot. None
of the churches have any sort of architectural pretensions, but the
two stone churches are creditable-looking buildings.'—(Pages
79 to 81.)
In another passage of his journal the Bishop conveys an
impression of the state of society at the Hudson's Bay Company's
forts at the Red River, and shews the progress of the settlement.
' I had, at the forts, the command of horses for my daily movements, and every accommodation afforded to me within, and every
facility abroad, which I could require. At the Lower Fort I was
the guest of Mr. and Mrs. Finlayson, who were in temporary
occupation, being en route for La Chine, where Mr. Finlayson
had been appointed to the charge of the dep6t. He had just
retired from the appointment of- Governor of Assiniboia, for so
the chief factor is styled—in an instrument with the Company's
seal attached to it—who has charge within the Red River Colony
in the territory. He was succeeded by Mr. Christie, who had
just taken possession of the Upper Fort, where the residence of
the Governor is made. Mrs. Finlayson, a lady from England, is
sister to Lady Simpson, and cousin to Sir George. Mr. and Mrs.
Christie have a daughter, who had just returned from England,
where she had passed some years in completing her education.
Mr. Thorn, the Recorder of the territory, an exceedingly able
man, possessing a varied range of information, and deeply
engaged, latterly, in biblical studies, has apartments, with his
lady and children, within the Lower Fort. There are scattered
about the settlement several respectable retired factors or traders
of the Company, of whom Mr. Bird is one; some married to
European, more to native wives. What I have here stated may
give an idea of the society at the Red River. Although the style
of the establishments at the forts is exceedingly plain, and the
extreme difficulty of transport, as well as the isolated character
and remote situation of the place itself, cause a variety of articles 25
to be dispensed with to which some of the inmates—Mrs. Finlayson, for example—have been elsewhere accustomed, yet there is
far from a deficiency there to be witnessed, either of comforts or
of habits of refinement.'—(Pages 89 to 92.)
These impartial statements convey a lucid view of the actual
condition of affairs at this distant and almost isolated British
settlement, on which no care or expense has been spared by the
Hudson's Bay Company to render it a happy and prosperous
establishment. Its communications with England—are for goods
via Hudson's Bay—during the summer season, and for personal
travelling and letters, via Montreal, from which the Red River
is distant 1800 miles. The Company have, along this line, about
ten stockaded posts. The Bishop of Montreal traversed the
distance in thirty-eight days.
We may now proceed to examine the Pacific Coast and the
Rocky Mountains, whose highest ridges are in the parallels of
52° to 53°, about 8500 feet. Some peaks rise to 15 and 16,000
feet, but the general range is 4000 to 6000 feet, diminishing
in height towards the north. This granitic mountain chain is
from 50 to 100 miles wide. The country termed New Caledonia,
between the Rocky Mountains and Cascade Mountains, near the
coast of the Pacific, is well watered, undulating in bold swells,
with occasional plains and copses, and an abundance of forest trees,
of which the cedar, fir, and hemlock, grow to a prodigious size.
In New Caledonia, the Hudson's Bay Company have several
stations, and also in the adjacent country. Fort Alexandria, in
52° 30' north, is the residence of one of the Company's chief traders,
and here the navigation of Frazer's River is begun by the northern
brigade on their way to the north. A small open space is cleared
for a few cattle, but the rest of the country is covered with a dense
forest. Fort Thompson, on the Kamloop's river, is in 50° 38'
north, and 120° T 10" west. Frazer's, Babine's, and McLeod's
Forts, are on the lakes of the same names. Fort St. James, on
Stuart's Lake, was the residence of Chief Factor Ogden, who had
charge of the New Caledonia Department. 26
Frazer's River flows through New Caledonia, but is not navigated below Fort Thompson, owing to its dangerous falls. The
distances from Fort Thompson to Fort Alexandria by land is
150 miles, and thence to Fort James 120. Commodore Wilkes
says that the climate of this region is unfavourable to agriculture,
in consequence of its being situated between the two ranges of
mountains, viz. the Rocky Mountains on the east, and the Cascade
Mountains (of the coast) on the west, both of which ranges are
constantly covered with snow, and in the plains or villages snow
lies from November to May six feet deep. The Commodore-
adds, ' there are many spots of fertile land along the rivers, but the
early frosts are a great obstacle to agriculture. At St. James, Ba-
bine, and Frazer's Forts only potatoes and turnips can be cultivated.'
Frazer's River has its embouche six miles to the north of the
49th parallel, which defines the United States' boundary. It is
about a mile wide, the country around low, with a rich alluvial
soil.    Fort Langley is 20 miles from the mouth.
Mr. Greenhow says (p. 29) that, ' the territory north of the
49th parallel, and north-west of that drained by the Colombia
River (New Caledonia), is a sterile land of snow-clad mountains,
tortuous rivers, and lakes frozen over more than two-thirds
of the year, presenting scarcely a single spot in which any of
the vegetables used as food by civilized people can be produced.'
Sir George Simpson made a journey of 2000 miles in 47 days
from the Red River via Fort Edmonton to Fort Colvile in 1841.
He crossed the Rocky Mountains at the confluence of two of the
sources of the Saskatchewan and Colombia, near Fort Kotanie,
at an elevation of 8000 feet above the sea, with mountains rising:
about half that altitude around. The descending country to the
Kotanie River was rugged and boggy, with thick and tangled
forests, craggy peaks and dreary vales, here and there hills of
parched clay,—where every shrub and blade of grass was brown
and sapless, as if newly swept by the blast of a sirocco; with
occasional prairies and open swards, interspersed with gloomy
woods or burning pine forests.    In one place a valley was seen 27
thirty miles long by six wide without a tree, and environed by
mountains. The natives of these regions were generally iu
a wretched condition'.
The coast abounds with harbours, inlets, and islands, of which
latter, that called Vancouver, or Quadra (to which I shall presently advert), is the largest and the most important to Great
Britain, from its position at the termination of the United States'
boundary, in the 49th parallel of latitude, and from its fine harbours, there being no haven between the Straits of Juan de Fuca
and San Francisco, in California. The north-western Archipelago,
which lies north of Vancouver's Island, belongs partly to England
and partly to Russia. The islands within the British dominions
are of various sizes; the largest, named 'Queen Charlotte's
Island,' is somewhat of a triangular form, lying nearly north and
south, the south point in the parallel of 52°. The superficial
area is less than that of Vancouver's Island : it has several good
harbours, viz., on the north coast, Port Estrada, near Sandy Point,
and Croft's Sound, a little farther west. On the east side,
Skitekis,in 53° 20' north latitude; Cummashawa,near 53° north;
and Port Sturges, farther south. On the west, or Pacific coast,
Magee's Sound, in 52° V north latitude; and Port Ingram, near
the north-west extremity of the island. The country around
some of these harbours, especially Port Estrada, (Hancock's
River), and Magee's Sound, is said by the Americans to be
fertile, and the climate comparatively mild.
The Princess Royal Islands lie nearer to the main land,
between the parallels of 51° and 54° north latitude. Of the
interior of the whole of these islands, little or nothing is known;
the largest are traversed by mountain ridges in the direction of
their greatest length from south-east to north-west. Greenhow
says, that, probably, as regards their interior, they are rocky and
barren. The adjacent coast is of very irregular outline, with
numerous bays, inlets, tortuous channels, forming a labyrinth of
passages. Simpson's River, on our north-west boundary, has a
deep inlet, and communicates with Babine Lake, where the
Hudson's Bay Company have a fort.    The Company have also 28
I
&
an establishment on the north coast of Pitt's Islands, in the
north-western Archipelago.
The north-west coast and interior north of the parallel of
55°, is described as extremely rugged; lofty mountains, covered
with snow, rise abruptly from the ocean ; more inland, the whole
region consists of Alpine masses, thrown together in the wildest
confusion, so that a level site for a fort can hardly be found
within any reasonable distance of a stream or lake. It is a land
of rocks, as difficult of access as it is impracticable in itself,
except at the very margin of the sea. Most of the streams to
the north of the Frazer's River, are mere torrents fed by melting
snow in summer, and in winter by the unceasing deluges of this
dismal climate; these streams form deep valleys in the precipitous heights of every form and magnitude in their progress to the
ocean. Hence the term ' Cascade Mountains,' given to the coast
line north of Vancouver's Island. The Company hold under
lease from Russia, a fort on the Stikine or Pelly's River, where
the climate and country are alike miserable in the extreme,
and their effects are increased by the putridity and filth of
the adjacent Indian village. At this fort, in April 1842, the
gentleman in charge was shot in a scuffle, and 2000 savages
encamped around were preparing to rifle the fort, when, fortunately, Sir G. Simpson arrived in a Russian steamer. Taco
Fort, under Dr. Kennedy, an assistant, and 22 men, is still
farther northward on the coast, surrounded by 4000 savages,
warlike and ferocious, who at first captured Dr. Kennedy and his
assistant, and required for their ransom four blankets. The fort
is now strong. Good deer skins are obtained here.
y Fort M'Loughlin, in latitude 25° 5' N., on the north-west coast,
near Millbank Sound, was formed in 1837, on one of the most
rugged spots imaginable. By great and unwearied exertions for
several years in blasting, levelling, and gravelling, the Company's
officers have made a strong fort on a rock capable of holding out
with 20 men, against all the Indians of the coast. An enclosed
surface of three acres has been covered with sea-weed and made
into a garden, producing potatoes, carrots, turnips, cabbages, &c. 29
A village of 500 of the Ballobola Indians, is close to the fort;
and at first these savages were dangerous and troublesome, but
they are now more subdued.
Previous to an investigation of other branches of the sub<-
ject, it will be advisable to examine the proceedings of the
Russian American Fur Company, whose territory includes all
the Pacific coast and islands, north of 54° 40', and the whole
of the continent west of 141°, the Asiatic coast of the Pacific
north of 51°, the islands of the Kurile group to the south
point, in 45° 50'. This extensive territory has been granted
to a Russian American Fur Company, which was established
under charter from the Emperor Paul, 8th July, 1799, with
power to occupy and bring, under the dominion of Russia, all
territories north or south of 55°, not previously occupied and
placed under subjection by another nation. The Russian Company and Hudson's Bay Company were brought into collision,
and the latter experienced considerable loss in their endeavours to
prevent British territory and the adjacent regions being occupied
by the Muscovites. In 1834, the Hudson's Bay Company
expended several thousand pounds in an expedition to establish
trading stations on the large river Stikine, in 56° 20'. The Russians resented by force this procedure of the Company, although
England claimed the privilege of navigating the rivers flowing
from the interior of the Continent to the Pacific, across the line
of boundary established under the treaty of 1825. The British
Government required redress for this infraction of the treaty;
and after negotiation between the two Governments, and the two
chartered Companies, it was agreed in 1839, that from 1st June,
1840, the Hudson's Bay Company should enjoy for ten years
the exclusive use of the continent assigned to Russia, by Mr.
Canning in 1825, and extending from 54° 40' north, to Cape
Spenser, near 580 north, in consideration of the annual payment
of 2,000 otter skins to the Russian American Company, whose
head quarters are at Sitka. The charter of the Russian
Company was renewed in 1839, when they had 36 hunting
and fishing: establishments.   Their stock bears a high premium. 30
- Sitka, or New Archangel, founded in 1805, is a military station
and the chief post of the Russian Fur Company. The fort mounts
16 short eighteen, and 42 long nine pounders, and there are about
300 officers and men. Most of the men and all the officers,
although in the employ of the Company, receive pay and promotion from the Russian Government, while attached to the
Company, in which the Emperor is a shareholder. The Company
have 12 vessels, varying from 100 to 400 tons each, mounting 10
guns of different calibre.
About 12 of the Company's officers dine daily at the table of the
Governor which is sumptuously served. There is a Greek Bishop
with several Priests and Deacons, and also a Lutheran minister.
There are schools for the children of Europeans and half-breeds.
Subordinate to Sitka, there is a smaller establishment of the
same kind at Aliaska, which supplies one post in Bristol Bay,
and three posts in Cook's Inlet, all connected with minor stations,
in the interior. Another station in Norton Sound has its own
inland dependencies. The Russian Company has also permanent forts or flying posts in the Aleutian and Kurile Islands, and
a chain of agencies from Ochotsk, in Kamschatka, to St. Peters-
burgh, for the transmission of goods, &c. The distances are
nearly thus in geographical miles: Petersburgh—to Moscow, 460;
to Tobolsk, 1500; to Irkutsk, 1800; to Yakusk, 1500; to Ochotsk,
600; thence to Petropawlowsk, on the bay of Avatscha, 1300
miles.
The whole of the territories is divided into six Agencies, each
controlled by the Governor-General, who resides at Sitka.
The inhabitants of the Kurile and Aleutian islands, and those
of the large Island of Kodiak, are regarded as the immediate
subjects of the Russian Company, in whose service, every man
between 18 and 50 may be required to pass at least three years.
The natives of the country, adjacent to the two great bays called
Cook's Inlet and Prince William's Sound, are also under the
control of the Company, and obliged to pay an annual tax in furs
and skins. The other aborigines in the Russian territories are
not allowed to trade with any people but those of the Russian BBgBPgg8SBWS««saw<»«ggaaaMfi«flft88saa8a^^
31
Company. In 1836, the number of Russians in the territories of
the Company was 730; of native subjects, 1442 Creoles; and about
11,000 aborigines of the Kurile, Aleutian and Kodiak Islands.
When Sir G. Simpson visited Sitka, in 1842, the operations of
the Company were becoming more extensive than they had
hitherto been; the exclusive licence of trade had been extended
for a further term of twenty years—the Direction was about to be
remodelled, and generally an improved order of things was in
progress. The Russian trade in furs is considerable, not only for
the supply of Russia itself, but also for barter with the Chinese
at Kiachta, on the frontiers of Tartary.
The trade of Sitka, in 1842, was estimated at 10,000 fur seals,
1000 sea otters, 12,000 beavers, 2500 land otters, foxes, and
martens, and 20,000 sea-horse teeth.
Formerly the Russians killed the seal young or old, and at all
times, to the number of 200,000 a-year, now they follow the example of the Hudson's Bay Company, and kill only such a
limited number of males as have attained full growth.
The progress of Sitka in commerce is considerable. In April
1843, Sir G. Simpson found eleven vessels and two steamers in
the harbour ; one, a steam tug, had its machinery cast and manufactured at Sitka. Steam pleasure boats, of two-horse power,
have also been made there. The Alexander, of 300 tons, in which
Sir G. Simpson made a voyage from Sitka to Ochotsk was
fitted more like a man-of-war than a merchant vessel.
The proceedings of the Russian American Company appear to
be guided by political as well as by commercial motives. In 1809
the Russian Minister informed the United States Government
that the ' Russian Fur Company claimed the whole coast of America on the Pacific and the adjacent islands, from Behring's strait
southward to and beyond the mouth of the Columbia river.'
(Greenhow, p. 275.) An endeavour was also made by the
Russians to occupy the Sandwich Islands. The Hudson's Bay
Company materially aided Mr. Canning, in 1825, in the restriction of the Russians to their present northern territories. VANCOUVER'S ISLAND, COAL MINES, &c.
Vancouver's Island is in length 290 miles, with an average
breadth of 55 miles ; it lies between the parallels of 48° 17' and
50° 55/ north latitude, and 123° 10' and 128° 30' west longitude.
Comparatively little is known of this fine territory, and I shall
therefore give all the useful information obtainable.
The following is an extract from a Report by Lieuts. Warre
and Vavasour (of the Royal Engineers), dated 26th October, 1845.
' From Port Discovery, we crossed the Straits to Vancouver's
Island, commencing in the 48th parallel of latitude, and extending 260 miles north, and about 50 miles in breadth.
' This island is somewhat intersected by high mountain ranges,
but the soil is said to be fertile, and well adapted for cultivation.
' We visited the Hudson's Bay Company's post, Fort Victoria,
in 48° 26' north latitude, and. 123° 9f west longitude, on the
south shore of the island, near the head of the Narrow Inlet (of
which we forward a sketch), where they have established a Fort,
similar to those already described, a farm of several hundred acres,
on which they raise wheat and potatoes, and a depot of provisions,
supplies, &c. for the different trading posts farther to the north.
' The position has been chosen solely for its agricultural advantages, and is ill adapted either as a place of refuge for shipping,
or as a position of defence.
I The country to the south of the Straits of De Fuca, between
Puget Sound and the coast, is overrun by high rugged mountains, presenting great difficulty in traversing, and but few inducements to the farmer.
! Between the above-mentioned points, there are some fine
harbours, among which we may mention Port Discovery and
Dungeness, on the south shore, and a bay within three miles of
Fort Victoria, called the ' Squirnal,' by the Indians, which, from
superficial observation, appear to afford anchorage and protection
for ships of any tonnage.—(See page 44.)
' The above-mentioned harbours contain an abundant supply
of fresh water, in which the rest of the coast is very deficient
■ : —iimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiHHHiii
33
Large rivers are formed in the winter season, "which become perfectly dry during the summer.
' There is coal in the neighbourhood of Puget's Sound, and
on the Cowlitz River*. The specimens used by the Hudson's
Bay Company, were obtained from the surface, and were probably
on that account not found good.
(J The specimens of lead found in the mountains on the coast are
apparently very fine. The fisheries (salmon and sturgeon) are
inexhaustible, and game of all descriptions is said to abound.
1 The timber is extremely luxuriant, and increases in value, as
you reach a more northern latitude — that in 50° to 54°
being considered the best. Pine, spruce, red and white oak, ash,
cedar, arbutus, poplar, maple, willow, and yew, grow in this
section of country, north of the Columbia River. The cedar and
pine become of an immense size.
' At Nisqually, near the head of Puget's Sound, is the farm of
the Puget's Sound Company, commenced in 1839, and supported
chiefly by the gentlemen of the Hudson's Bay Company. They
here cultivate wheat and potatoes, &c, but the magnificent
ranges of rich prairie country, between the shores of Puget's
Sound, and the Cascade Mountains to the east, are chiefly used
as pasturage for the immense herds of cattle and sheep; the
greater number of which were brought from California in
1840-41. From Nisqually we crossed the headwaters of several
large streams, among others the Nisqually and Chetreels Rivers,
rising in the Cascade Mountains, extending along the coast to
latitude 49 °. These rivers have their channels sunk in some places
upwards of a hundred feet below the level of the country, rendering them extremely dangerous and difficult to traverse at the
seasons of high water. The Chetreels flows into Grey's Bay, on
the Pacific, is navigable for small boats and canoes, and forms a
barred harbour for vessels of small tonnage.
' The country is easy of access from Nisqually to the Chetreels
* Commodore Wilkes says he ' examined all the places that indicated coal, and
found only lignite.'— (Vol. iv., p. 318.)
C 34
River, when the soil changes from gravelly loam to a stiff clay,
and numerous little rivers, which overflow their banks and flood
the country for an immense distance during the winter and
spring freshets, render the land journey to the Cowlitz River
difficult, and, during that season, almost impracticable.
' There are a few families settled on plains on this route, and the
Americans are forcing themselves as far north as Puget's Sound.
During our travels we met five families on their route to the
prairies in that vicinity.
' There is a settlement of about ninety Canadian families on
the Cowlitz River, where the Puget's Sound Company have
about 1000 acres of ground under cultivation. This farm is
situated about thirty-five miles from the Columbia.
i The course of the Cowlitz is rapid,and, in high water dangerous,
but presenting no obstacles that are not overcome by the energy
and perseverance of the Canadian boatmen. A small establishment has been formed at the mouth of the Cowlitz River, as a
store for wheat, &c. which the Hudson's Bay Company export in
large quantities to the Russian settlement at Sitka, and to the
Sandwich Islands.'
The following extract of a Report from Lieut. Vavasour, of
the Royal Engineers, to Captain Holloway, dated 1st March,
1846, refers to the Hudson's Bay Company's establishment
on Vancouver's Island.
' Fort Victoria is situated on the southern end of Vancouver's
Island, in the small harbour of Cammusan, the entrance to which
is rather intricate. The fort is a square enclosure of 100 yards,
surrounded by cedar pickets twenty feet in height, having octagonal bastions, containing each six 6-pounder iron guns at the
north-east and south-west angles; the buildings are made of
squared timber, eight in number, forming three sides of an oblong.
This fort has lately been established ; it is badly situated with
regard to water and position, which latter has been chosen for its
agricultural advantages only.    About three miles distant, and 35
nearly connected by a small inlet, is the Squimal Harbour, which
is very commodious and accessible at all times, offering a much
better position, and having also the advantage of a supply of
water in the vicinity.
1 This is the best built of the Company's forts; it requires loop-
holing, and a platform or gallery, to enable men to fire over the
pickets ; a ditch might be cut round it, but the rock appears on
the surface in many places.
' There is plenty of timber of every description on Vancouver's
Island, as also limestone, which could be transported to Nisqually,
or other places in the territory, where it may be hereafter deemed
necessary to form permanent works, barracks, &c.'
The Straits of Juan de Fuca, which separate Vancouver's
Island from the main land, may be safely navigated ; the shores
are straight and bold; on the south, composed of perpendicular
cliffs that run back in high and rugged peaks ; on the north, rocky,
and in some places formed of reddish granite.
Mr. Chief Factor Douglas surveyed the south coast of Vancouver's Island in 1842, and, after a careful survey, fixed on the
port of Camosack as the most eligible site for the Hudson's Bay
Company's factory within the Straits of De Fuca. At Camosack
there is a range of plains nearly six miles square, containing a
great extent of valuable tillage and pasture land, abundance
of timber around, and water power for flour or saw mills on the
canal of Camosack.
At this place the Hudson's Bay Company have established the
station called Fort Victoria, to which reference has been above
made; they have erected buildings and stores, enclosed and cropped
land, and stocked the place with cattle. The country is fine, the
climate salubrious, and the necessaries of life abundant.
Mr. Douglas,   after
investigating
the   south  coast   of the
island, says—' Camosack is a pleasant and convenient site for the
establishment, within fifty yards of the anchorage, on the border
of a large tract of clear land which extends eastward to Point 36
Gonzalo, at the south-east extremity of the island, and about six
miles interiorly, being the most picturesque, and decidedly the
most valuable part of the island that we had the good fortune to
discover.
' The accompanying ground plan shews pretty correctly the
distribution of wood, water, and prairie upon the surface, and to it
I beg to refer you for information upon such points.
' More than two-thirds of this section consists of prairie land,
and may be converted either to purposes of tillage or pasture, for
which I 'have seen no. part of the Indian country better adapted ;
the rest of it, with the exception of the ponds of water, is covered
with valuable oak and pine timber. I observed, generally
speaking, but two marked varieties of soil on the prairies, that of
the best land is a dark vegetable mould, varying from nine to
fourteen inches in depth, overlaying a substrate of greyish clayey
loam, which produces the rankest growth of native plants that I
have seen in America. The other variety is of inferior value, and
to judge from the less vigorous appearance of the vegetation upon
it, naturally more unproductive. Both kinds, however, produce
abundance of grass, and several varieties of red clover grow on
the rich moist bottoms. In two places particularly we saw several
acres of clover growing with a luxuriance and compactness more
resembling the close sward of a well-managed lea, than the
produce of an uncultivated waste.
' Being pretty well assured of the capabilities of the soil as
respects the purposes of agriculture, the climate being also mild
and pleasant, we ought to be able to grow every kind of grain
raised in England. On this point, however, we cannot speak
confidently until we have tried the experiment and tested the
climate, as there may exist local influences destructive of the
husbandman's hopes, which cannot be discovered by other means.
As, for instance, it is well known that the damp fogs which daily
spread over the shores of Upper California blight the crops and
greatly deteriorate the wheat grown near the sea coast in that
country.    I am not aware that any such effect is ever felt in the 37
temperate climate of Britain, nearly corresponding in its insular
situation and geographical position with Vancouver's Island, and
I hope the latter will also enjoy an exemption from an evil at
once disastrous and irremediable. We are certain that potatoes
thrive, and grow to a large size, as the Indians have many small
fields in cultivation which appear to repay the labour bestowed
upon them, and I hope that other crops will do as well. The
canal of Camosack is nearly six miles long, and its banks are well
wooded throughout.' The results of the Hudson's Bay Company's
farming at Vancouver's Island have answered, it is understood,
the most sanguine expectations.
Information respecting the coal obtainable in Vancouver's Island
is contained in the following—
Copy of a letter from the Board of Management of the Hudson's
Bay Company addressed to J. A. Duntze, Esq., Captain of
H. M. Si Fisguard, dated Fort Vancouver, 7th September,
1846, which the Lords of the Admiralty have favoured me
with for this publication.
' Sir,—Since we had last the pleasure of addressing you on
the 11th ult. this settlement has not been disturbed by any repetition of the offences mentioned in that letter. A great number of
Americans have been down from the Wallamette and made excursions into the country around this place with the view of
discovering eligible situations for settlements, but they have committed no overt act of trespass on the rights of the prior occupants
of the land.
'The Americans having never shewn any predilection for
settling on the north side of the Columbia River until the United
States' schooner, Shark, arrived at this port, and the excitement
among them having greatly abated since her departure from
hence, we cannot help thinking that the people were directly or
indirectly encouraged by the officers of that vessel to encroach
upon our settlements.    This was, to speak of it in the mildest 38
terms, a most imprudent act on their part, which cannot possibly
do any good, nor add one iota to the rights of the United States;
but, on the contrary, must tend to much evil, by dragging the
ignorant and over-exciteable population of the country into mischievous courses.
i We beg to add, in justice to Captain Howison, the commander
of the Shark, that he evinced much concern on observing the
lengths to which his countrymen were disposed to carry their
encroachments, and made some exertions to put a stop to their
proceedings.
' The prevailing opinion among the Americans now appears to
be, that Great Britain will give up the Columbia and accept the
49th parallel of latitude as a boundary, and, moreover, they firmly
believe that the British subjects in this country will not be allowed
to hold the lands they now occupy when the Government of the
United States comes into possession; -consequently, each and all
are striving to establish pre-emption rights on our settlements, in
hopes of coming into possession the moment we are, according to
their views, obliged to surrender them.
' In your communication to the officer in charge of Fort Victoria, you request all the information in our power as to the coals
on Vancouver's Island, and we will now do ourselves the pleasure
of detailing all that is known to us on the subject.
\ From the indications of the strata, which have been carefully
examined, it appears very probable that this mineral abounds
over all the north-eastern part of Vancouver's Island, that is to
say, from Cheslakers, latitude 50° 36', to Cape Scott, at its northern
extremity, as traced by a dotted line in the accompanying sketch.
The spot, however, familiarly known to us as the Coal Mine, and
where the coal bed rises above the surface, is situated in McNeil's
Harbour, on the line of coast designated, its position being about
latitude 50° 39', longitude 127° 10' west, and is marked Coal
Mine on the sketch. The coal beds, to the partial extent they
have been explored, appear to be divided by intermediate layers
of sandstone, and are seen most distinctly on the open beach, ex- . rfi
39
tending over a space of about one mile in length, generally within
the line of high water: the mineral having evidently been laid
bare by the wash of the sea, which has in course of time frittered
and worn away the incumbent mould and sandstone. A fresh
water rivulet which runs across the bed in a direction perpendicular
to the beach, has also laid bare a transverse section of the coal to
the distance of three quarters of a mile from the sea, shewing-
that the bed runs in a nearly horizontal direction as far as that
point, beyond which the depth of the strata has not been ascertained.
' It is, however, important to know that the coal can be worked
with comparatively small expense over a field of such extent.
\ We have not ascertained to what depth the surface bed extends, but we know it exceeds three feet; having explored to
that depth without finding any interposing stratum of mould.
' A large quantity of coal may at any time be got there, by
employing the Indians, who are numerous and active, to dig
and transport them to the ship. They are by no means averse to
such employment, and ask a very moderate remuneration for their
labour.
' On one occasion, when we employed them for that purpose,
they brought in upwards of ninety tons in a few days, which
they dug with hatchets and other inconvenient implements; and
there is no doubt, that with proper excavating tools, they could
have done the work much more expeditiously.
' Besides the loss of time, the want of tools is attended with
another disadvantage, as it confines the workmen to the mere
surface lumps, which is deprived of its bitumen by exposure to
the weather, and does not burn so freely as the substrata.
[ The coals burn remarkably well when exposed to a strong
blast in the furnace of the steam vessel. Externally the coal is
hard and brittle, interspersed with sulphuret of iron, and contains
but little earthy or incombustible matter*.
* The Vancouver coal has been tried in England, and answers well for forge work. ^ggggMBfll
40
■ >
' It requires rather a higher temparature to burn than the
better kind of Newcastle coals, but is superior in this respect to
some of the kinds sold in the London market. It contains sulphur, a pretty large proportion of bitumenous matter, and yields
coke in the proportion of 52 per cent.
| If the British Government has any intention of making this
coal available for the use of their steam navy, it will be necessary, in order to keep a constant supply on hand, to form an
establishment on the spot, of sufficient force to protect it against
the natives, who are numerous, bold, and treacherous, and also
to carry on the mining operations. We would in such a case
recommend that an application on the subject be made to the
Directors of the Hudson's Bay Company in London, who could
in a short time take measures to get the necessary means collected under the management of experienced persons, acquainted
with Indian character, and capable of drawing the greatest possible advantage from their presence.
■ We shall be most happy to do anything in our power to
forward this object, but it will in the first place be necessary to
enter into arrangements with the Directors of the Company in
London, as we have not the means in the country, and we do not
feel at liberty to undertake a measure of such importance without
their sanction.
' We take the liberty of making this suggestion as to the
proper mode of proceeding, in order that no time may be lost
hereafter in carrying out the ulterior arrangements, should
Government deem it an object of importance to form an establishment at M'Neill Harbour, or at some other point for the
purpose of collecting coals for the regular supply of the steam
navy in the Pacific.
I We remain, Sir,
' With much respect,
' Your most obedient servants,
(Signed) | Peter Skeen Ogden,
' James Douglas." 41
A further description of the coal region in Vancouver's Island,
and the mode of obtaining this valuable mineral, is given in the
following statement from Captain George F. Gordon, of Her
Majesty's steamer Cormorant. Admiral Sir George Seymour,
Naval Commander-in-chief, says—' In transmitting this report
from Captain George Gordon, I consider it my duty to add, that
during the service on which he has been employed on the very
distant parts of this station from which he has returned, he
has continued to display his merit as one of the best steam
officers in Her Majesty's service.' Having served in early life as
a brother officer with Captain Gordon in the arduous expedition of the Leven and Barracouta under Commodore W. F. W.
Owen, I venture to add my testimony of the high character of
this distinguished officer, who has expressed a decided opinion
in favour of the Hudson's Bay Company, with whose proceedings he was well acquainted.
H. M. Steam Sloop Cormorant, Nisqually,
October 7, 1846.
' Sir,—With reference to that part of your letter of the 15th
September last, wherein you direct me to ascertain whether the
coals which are said to abound on the northern part of Vancouver's
Island, can be collected in a sufficient quantity to afford a supply
for steam-fuel, I have the honour to inform you, that having
arrived at McNeil's Harbour for that purpose, I made known to
the natives through Mr. Sangster, my wish to obtain a supply,
and the next day several canoes came laden with coal, and they
continued to increase in number until our departure.
' At the advice of Mr. Sangster, I slung a tub, holding about
six cwt. from the fore yard, which was lowered into a canoe and
quickly filled: in this manner we received sixty-two tons from
the 24th to the 26th, paying for each tub as it came up by articles of trifling value, which I procured at your suggestion from
the officer in charge of Fort Victoria. The whole of the expenses incurred, including a few presents necessarily made to the
Chiefs, will make the coals average not more than 4s. per ton. m
i
42
' During our stay, I proceeded on shore, accompanied by Mr.
Sangster and the first and second engineers. I found the northwest point of McNeil's Harbour to be a Peninsula, and in honour
of the First Lord of the Admiralty, I called it Ellenborough.
We found a seam of coal just below high water-mark, .which
appeared to descend at an angle of about 30° toward the land.
We then ascended the hill, and very near the top, at about sixty
feet above the level of the sea, in the bed of the stream, we found
a layer of freestone, at about 5 feet 6 inches below a surface of
peat, and below that a seam of coal much resembling in appear■*
ance the English Newcastle coal. This seam was ten inches
thick with freestone below; having bored through and blasted
this we came to another seam 18 inches in thickness, both
seams appearing to run parallel to each other, descending at an
angle of 20° in a north-westerly direction.
' Being confident from these two trials that the seams thicken
lower down, I did not make any further experiments here, but
proceeded the next day to a small sheltered bay about eight
miles farther down the coast to the north-west, which was called
Baillie Hamilton Bay, after Captain Baillie Hamilton, Secretary
of the Admiralty. Here we observed another rich seam, extending
along the beach below high water-mark, and which we traced a
quarter of a mile in an inland direction.
' The seams, we found were similar in appearance and thickness to those on Ellenborough Peninsula, which confirms me in
an opinion I had formed, that they were connected.
' On trial we found the coal of good quality; they flare much
in the furnace, and do not appear to have any of the injurious
effects on either the fire-bars or furnaces that Welch coal has.
The proportionate expense for four hours, as compared with
Scotch and Welch, is as follows, viz.:—
Tons.      Cwt
'Welch        2 8
'Scotch         2        14
' Ellenborough and Hamilton       2        18
' This difference m<ay appear considerable in proportion; but 43
the coal having been procured from the surface where it has been
exposed to the action of the atmosphere, and much of it to the injurious effects of salt water, will weigh considerably in favour of
the Ellenborough and Hamilton coal. Had it been procured at
several feet from the surface, I have no hesitation in saying that
the result would be at least equal to the best Scotch coal. We
have also tried it at the forge, and welded several bars of 1£ and
1|- inch, and the heats were as clean as if taken with the best
English coal.
' It is my belief, that the field does not extend farther to the
westward than the eastern shore of Beaver Harbour, and to
the eastward than the Innihish River, marked in the accompanying plan by a dotted line; indeed, the feature of the country
from Beaver Harbour to Shuchaste, is quite different, being
covered with hard blue whin rock, without any appearance of
freestone whatever.
' It is impossible to form any opinion of the extent of the field
in an inland direction, but from the appearance of the country,
I am of opinion that it is very considerable.
' On first going on shore, the natives appeared tenacious of our
examining the coals, and accused us of coming to steal them ; but
having made a few presents to some of the chiefs, they entered
into our views, and became very active, and I am only surprised,
that with the rude implements they have for digging, viz.
hatchets and wooden wedges, they were able to procure so large
a quantity in so short a time, and I am persuaded, that with
the means we have, assisted by the natives, we could fill our coal
bunkers in from ten to fourteen days.
' The natives are a fine race of men, and appear industrious
and friendly, but are much addicted to thieving.
' In conclusion, I beg leave to remark, that the coal district,
in my opinion, is admirably situated, possessing, as it does, excellent anchorage in its neighbourhood, and being so far north,
that vessels of almost any burthen can approach it by way of
Cape  Scott,  thus  avoiding the difficult and  dangerous navi- I1 J
!
44
gation  of Sir   George  Seymour's   Narrows   and   Johnstone's
Straits.
' I have the honor to be,
'Sir,
' Your most obedient humble Servant,
(Signed) ' G. T. Gordon, Commander..
' To John A. Duntze, Esq.,
Captain of H.M.S. Fisgard, and Senior Officer.'
The following is an extract of a Despatch from Rear-Admiral
Sir George Seymour, dated H.M.S. Collingwood, 26th
February, 1847.
' The harbour of Esquimalt, near the new establishment of the
Hudson's Bay Company's fort, Victoria, in the straits of Juan de
Fuca, is described to be capable of receiving ships of the line in
security, and is a valuable addition to our knowledge of the
island, of which, in general, I am glad to see Captain Gordon
has formed a very favourable impression.'
In due time, further information will doubtless be obtained as
to the extent of cultivable land in Vancouver's Island; what is
known is favourable to its occupation by British subjects, and
the fort formed by the Hudson's Bay Company, is the nucleus of
a colony which may be extended as circumstances require. I
venture to express a. hope, that a very moderate price be fixed on
the land: twelve years ago, I stood almost alone in opposition to
what was termed the ' Wakefield Principle,' of selling all land at
an uniform, or at least a minimum price of 20*. per acre. New
South Wales has now found the disadvantage of this measure,
which has checked the sale of land, and turned emigrants, who
would have been farmers, into ' squatters,' holding large tracts of
territory under licence.
Much will depend on the adoption of a liberal principle in
the granting of land, to make Vancouver's Island a flourishing
colony. Part M,
CONSTITUTION   AND  WORKING  OF  THE
HUDSON'S   BAY   COMPANY.
The Constitution of the Hudson's Bay Company is founded
on the Royal Charter of 2nd May, 1670, (see Appendix A,) at
which period the Crown possessed, and sometimes exercised, the
right of granting dominion and exclusive trade to individuals,
or to associations, without the Sovereign asking the consent, or
the grantee needing the sanction of Parliament.
The Charter issued by Charles II. to Prince Rupert and his
associates, in the Hudson's Bay Company, was granted in perpetuity,—has the same validity as any other Royal Charter, and
is as truly a rightful property, as is the land or houses of an
Englishman's private estate. The lawfulness of the Charter, or
of the Company founded on the Charter, have never been questioned by the Crown or Parliament; on the contrary, there
has been a full recognition in various public documents, such as
the treaty of Utrecht in 1713, and the treaty of Oregon in 1846,
which gives to the Hudson's Bay Company the right of navigating the Columbia;—in various Acts of Parliament, viz.: 2nd
of William and Mary, A.D. 1690, which ' ratified, confirmed, and
established the said Letters Patent, or Charter, hereinbefore mentioned, bearing date, second day of May in the two and twentieth
year of his said late Majesty, King Charles II., to the Governor and
Company of Adventurers of England, trading into Hudson's Bay,
and to their successors, for ever*.':—By 6 Ann, c. 37, when all the
* This was merely a declaratory Act for ' confirming to the Governor and Company
trading to Hudson's Bay their privileges and trade,' and was passed under the erroneous
idea that the ' punishment of offenders, recovering of forfeitures and fines, the making
of bye-laws, orders, rules, and constitutions, for the due management of the trade, cannot
be so effectually dune as by authority of Parliament.' This Act did not in any manner
question or interfere with the powers and rights conferred by the charter of 1G70; on
the contrary, it recognised them in the strongest and most explicit terms; declared that
the said ' Governor and Company and their successors shall at all times from henceforth
stand, continue, and be a body politic and corporate in deed and in name, according to
the purport and effect of the said charter,' which ' shall from henceforth be good and
effectual and available in the law, and to all intents, constructions, and purposes, to
the aforesaid Governor and Company and their successors for evermore. This Act
effectually enabled the Company to restrain interlopers, and its renewal on expiry at
the end of seven years was unnecessary. 46
t
ill
estates, rights, and privileges, of the Hudson's Bay Company,
were declared to be saved, notwithstanding the tenor and tendency of the Act, which proposed to facilitate the Colonial trade.
—By 14 Geo. III., c. 83, the northern boundary of Canada was
to be the southern boundary of ' the territory granted to the
Hudson's Bay Company :'—By 1 & 2 Geo. IV., c. 66, the Charter
of Rupert's Land was twice expressly recognised. Thus, by the
Parliaments of Engdand and of Scotland, and by the Parliament of
England, Scotland, and Ireland, the Charter of 1670 has been
recognised and confirmed.
The Crown recognition of the Charter has been manifested on
several occasions ; especially by the Royal Licence of George the
Fourth, dated Carlton House, 5th December, 1821, which was
issued to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to W. & S. M'Gillivray
and Edward Ellice, Esqrs., for the exclusive privilege of trading
with the Indians in all such parts of North America as should be
specified, ' not being part of the lands or territories heretofore
granted to the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England,
trading to Hudson's Bay*; and this Royal licence was expressly
issued to prevent the admission of individual or associated bodies
into the North American Fur trade, as ' the competition in the
said trade has been found for some years to be productive of
great inconvenience and loss, not only to the said Hudson's Bay
Company and Associations, but to the said trade in general, and
also of great injury to the native Indians, and others our
subjects.'
The Royal licence ' of exclusive trade with the Indians in
certain parts of North America, for a further term of 21 years,
and upon the surrender of the former grant,' was issued by Her
Majesty Queen Victoria, dated Buckingham Palace, May 30,1838,
to the Hudson's Bay Company alone (Messrs. M'Gillivray and
E. Ellice having surrendered their rights and interests under the
previous licence to the Hudson's Bay Company,) ' to encourage
the trade with the Indians of North America, and prevent, as
much as possible, a recurrence of the evils referred to in the
previous grant.'—(See Appendix B.) I MKfflbHHnnffTwftTOftBTJlHH
47
After these documents, it may be as well to refer to the
recorded opinions of the distinguished lawyers, Samuel Romilly,
G. S. Holroyd, William Cruse, J. Scarlett, and John Bell, given
on the 10th June, 1814, as follows : ' We are of opinion that the
grant of the soil contained in the Charter is good, and that it will
include all the countries the waters of which flow into Hudson's
Bay; that an individual, holding from the Hudson's Bay Company, a lease or grant, in fee simple, of any portion of their
territory, will be entitled to all the ordinary rights of landed
property in England; that the grant of civil and criminal jurisdiction is valid, and to be exercised by the Governor and Council
as Judges, who are to proceed according to the laws of England ;
that the Company may appoint a Sheriff to execute judgments,
and do his duty as in England ; that all persons will be subject
to the jurisdiction of the Court, who reside, or are found within
the territories over which it extends, and we do not think that
the Act 43 Geo. III., c. 138, (commonly called the Canada
Jurisdiction Act) gives jurisdiction within the territories of the
Hudson's Bay Company—the same being within the jurisdiction
of their own Governors and Council.'
No charters issued even now by the Crown, de mero motu,
require any sanction or confirmation by Parliament; the minister,
under whose advice they may be granted, is responsible of course
to Parliament.
The Charter granted in 1670 by Charles II. resembled in its
privilege of exclusive trade the Charter granted by Queen Elizabeth in 1599 to the Company of Adventurers trading to the East
Indies, and in its territorial rights was conformable to other
Royal Charters granted by Elizabeth, James I., William and
Mary, &c.
The Hudson's Bay Company, according to tbe printed list of
17th November, 1847, consists of 239 proprietors, representing a
capital stock of £.400,000. The affairs of the corporation are
managed by a Governor, Deputy Governor, and Committee of
seven, elected by Proprietors holding each not less than £.900
stock for six months previous to voting, except such stock be memsmmx
acquired by bequest, marriage, &c. Of the 239 proprietors, fifty-
five have more than two votes. Each member of the Committee
must hold not less than £.1800 stock. The annexed Charter of
1670 prescribes the mode of election, oaths to be administered,
&c.; authorises the Governor and Company to make laws and
ordinances for the good government of their territory, and the'
advancement of trade, and to impose penalties and punishments
not repugnant to the laws of England, as shown in the following
clause:—' The Governor and his Council of the several and
-respective places where the said Company shall have plantations,
forts, factories, colonies, or places of trade, within any of the
countries, lands, or territories hereby granted, may have power to
judge all persons belonging to the said Governor and Company,
or that shall live under them, in all causes, whether civil or
criminal, according to the laws of this kingdom, and to execute
justice accordingly. And, in case any crime or misdemeanor
shall be committed in any of the said Company's plantations,
forts, factories, or places of trade, within the limits aforesaid,
where judicature cannot be executed for want of a Governor and
Council there, then, in such case, it shall and may be lawful for
the Chief Factor of that place, and his Council, to transmit
the party, together with the offence, to such other plantation,
factory, or fort where there shall be a Governor and Council,
where justice may be executed.' The Company has, accordingly,
established, at the Red River Settlement, at a considerable
expense, a Governor, Council, Recorder, Sheriff, Coroner, &c.
for the due government of the affairs of the Assiniboia or Red
River territory, and for the careful and legal administration of
justice throughout Rupert's Land.
The charge of the learned Recorder, Adam Thorn, to the
Grand Jury of Assiniboia, 20th February, 1845, is an able document with reference to the jurisdiction of the Court,—the duties
of the Grand and Petty Jurors,—the power of the law over
civil suits and criminal prosecutions,—the proceedings of the
magistracy in Rupert's Land, and the practical dispensation of
justice.    Offences of a petty nature are not dealt with in a sum- 49
mary way, as in England, by justices of the peace ; in the Hudson's
Bay territories, they are subject to the scrutinizing inquisition of
a jury of the colonists. Trial by jury, although not enjoined by
the Royal Charter of 1670, was introduced into the Red River
settlement by Sir G. Simpson, under the directions of the Hudson's Bay authorities in England.
From February 1840, to November 1844, no crime occurred
in Rupert's Land to require the summoning of a grand jury
the charge of the learned Recorder, referred to above, arose ou
of a case of homicide of an Indian woman by an Indian man
within the limits of the Red River settlement, under the influence
of drunkenness. It appears that crime is comparatively rare in
Rupert's Land, and that justice is effectively and mercifully
administered under the same safeguards that exist in England*.
The fur and peltry traffic of the Company is regulated by a
Deed Poll, bearing date 26th March, 1821, on the junction of
the north-west traders with the Hudson's Bay Company; and
by another Deed Poll, bearing date 6th June, 1834, ' for ascertaining the rights and prescribing the duties of the chief factors
and the chief traders, and for conducting the trade.' The Deed
Poll of 1821 was made between the Hudson's Bay Company on
the one part, and on the other part by W. and S. Mc Gillivray
and Edward Ellice, who represented in England the interests of
the wintering partners in America of the north-west traders—
whose partnership expired in 1821—and who, as they received
little or no profits, were desirous of merging their interests in those
of theHudson's Bay Company. A co-partnery was therefore agreed
to for twenty-one years, on the basis that each should provide an
equal capital for carrying on the trade.
The expenses of establishments in England and America are
paid out of the trade; no expense relating to colonization, or to
any business separate from trade, forms a charge on the concern-
Profits are divided into 100 shares, of which, forty are divided
between chief factors and chief traders, according to profit and
* See letters in Appendix from two clergymen of the Church of England on the
present state of the Bed Biver Settlement.
' D
III mzmsmmx
50
if.
loss; if a loss occur in one year on these forty shares, it is
made good out of the profits of next year. Inventory, general
account, and tariff of goods, are made out yearly on 1st June;
and if profits are not paid to parties within fourteen days after
1st June, interest is allowed of five per cent.
The Governor and Company appoint governors to preside at
councils of chief factors, who carry into effect all acts authorized
by the Charter. Senior chief traders assist in forming council, if
there be not seven chief factors present: each member of council
has a vote; two-thirds form a majority for decision. There must
be three chief factors, besides the President, to constitute a Council.
By the Deed Poll of 1821, there were twenty-five chief factors
and twenty-eight chief traders appointed, who were named in
alternate succession from the Hudson's Bay Company, and
North-West Company's servants.
The servants of both Companies were placed on an equal footing ; the 40 shares out of the 100, were subdivided into 85 shares,
and each of the 25 chief factors was entitled to 2 shares or -^ths,
and each of the 28 chief traders to J~th,—the remaining: 7 out
of the 85 shares were appropriated to old servants, in certain proportions, for seven years.
The chief factors superintend the business of the Company at
the respective stations, and the chief traders under them carry on
the trade with the Indians. The clerks serve under both; the
humblest clerk, who goes out from the Orkneys or elsewhere, by
good conduct may rise to the chief positions in the service of the
Company. The salaries of the clerks vary from £.20 to £.100
per annum.
The chief factors and traders who winter in the interior are
allowed, in addition to their share of profits, certain personal necessaries free of charge : they are not. of course permitted to carry
on any private trade for themselves with the Indians; strict
accounts, inventories, valuations, &c, are required of them annually, and the Councils at the respective posts have power to
mulct, admonish, or suspend any of the Company's servants.
Three, chief factors and two chief traders are allowed to leave the 51
country annually for one year. A chief factor or a chief trader,
after wintering three years in the service of the Company, may
retire and hold his full share of profits for one year after retiring
and half of the share for the four ensuing years. If he winters
for five years, then half for six years. Three chief factors, or two
chief factors and two chief traders, are allowed to retire annually
according to rotation. The representatives of a chief factor or
chief trader, who may die after having wintered five years,
receive all the benefit to which the deceased himself would
have been entitled had he lived ; and in like proportions for
less duration of service.
The accounts are kept with great accuracy, the business conducted with punctuality, and the whole machinery of the
Company is worked with order and economy, under the watchful
care of a Governor and Committee in London.
Sales are made by public auction of furs or peltry, several
times in each year, at the Company's premises in London. There
is no upset price for the goods; they are sold to the highest
bidder. The Company has no monopoly, as some suppose, of the
importation of furs, &c. into England; they have to compete with
those of the United States of America, of Russia, Norway, &c,
and if other traders can sell lower than the Company, the public
have, of course, the benefit. Beaver and other skins are now
sold at much lower prices than formerly, and the steady supply
from the Hudson's Bay territories has materially tended to the
reduction of the price of foreign furs and skins, and has made
' London undoubtedly the most extensive market for furs in the
world.'    [Greenhow, p. 412.]
By the printed list of the sale in March 1848, it appears
that the following goods were sold by auction at the Hudson's
Bay House in Fenchurch Street:—5780 otter; 4580 fisher;
900 fox, silver; 18,100 ditto, cross, red, white, and kitt; 2566
bear, black; 536 ditto, brown, grey, and white; 30,100 lynx;
9800 wolf; 680 wolverin ; 121,000 marten; 24,000 mink skins;
and sundry furs ;—and on 30th August, 1848, 21,349 beaver
skins; 54 lbs. coat beaver and pieces; 808 otter skins; 195 sea 52
otter;  150 fur seal;  744 fisher;  1344 fox; 2997 bear; 29,785
marten;   14,103 mink;   18,553 musquash;   1551 swan;   1015
lynx;  632 cat;   1494 wolf; 228 wolverin; 2090 raccoon;   and
2884 deer skins ; &c. &c.
Caprice, fashion, changes in trade, or in the use of the different
articles for manufacture, materially influences the price of goods;
thus, for instance, the introduction of silk hats has much reduced
the price of beaver skins and other furs.
The fall in the price of all skins has been very great, but as
beaver constitutes the largest item  in value,  the reduction of
profit to the Company will be seen by a comparison with the
prices and amount of sales in
1839 and 1846.
Price of beaver skin . . 27*. 6d. 3s. 5d.
Number of skins sold .        55,486 45,389
Sale proceeds     .       .       .   £.76,312       £.7856.
There is also great variety in the prices of articles of similar
denomination. At the sales on 30th August last, two lots of otter,
sixty-six in the lot, sold for 33s.; another lot, with seventy-two in
it, sold only for £*1 lis. Fisher skins varied from 26s. 3d. to 3s.
each ; bear skins, 45s. to 12s; martens, 14s. 8d. to 3s. \d.; silver
fox from £.7 to 2s. per skin. But the Hudson's Bay Company
are obliged to pay the same price to the Indians for all skins,
according to tariff; whether the skins be good or bad, the Company must buy them. By the time these skins are conveyed from
the interior to the coast, warehoused, and shipped, their cost
is greatly enhanced, irrespective of loss by damage, interest of
money, insurances, &c.
The profits of the shareholders in London are not therefore to
be estimated by the difference in price between the cost of a skin
at one of the Company's forts in the interior, and its sale price in
London. There are the heavy charges of different forts in the
north-west territories :—the losses by non-fulfilment of contracts,
(for the Indians, like the Eastern nations, almost invariably require
advances, and always endeavour to be in debt to the Company),— 53
the deficiency of skins or furs in scarce seasons,—and the reductions in price at home; the long period for which the Company
lose interest on their outlay, from the time of the transmission of
their goods from London, to the re-payment of the same in five,
six, or sometimes seven years, by their fur sales in London, as
the Company always keep one year's stock of goods on hand in
their territories; the expense of obtaining and transmitting food
is often a heavy item, for at many of the Company's forts, the
poor Indians would perish during an unusually inclement winter,
when the buffalo and deer flee from the wind-swept plains to
the shelter of the woods.
Whatever be the profits, after paying the whole expenses at
home and abroad, they are divided, according to the provisions of
the Deed-Poll just quoted, into fifths; of which three go to the
proprietary, and two among the chief factors and chief traders of
the Company, instead of salaries.
Considerable expenditure is necessary to try new districts, which
sometimes, however originally promising, are ultimately found not
to answer, and the establishments have to be withdrawn at a loss.
By the Licences of 1821 and 1838, the Company were authorized
to trade over the ' Indian territories' west of the Rocky Mountains, then also open to the subjects of the United States. It was
of great importance to us that Great Britain should obtain a
footing and position in Oregon and on the Columbia River, which
Mr. Canning had expressed his determination to maintain as
British property. The Hudson's Bay Company therefore incurred large expenditure in establishing themselves on the coast
of the Pacific, and the result is thus shown in the evidence laid
before Parliament, 8th August, 1842, page 26.
' For many years previous to the grant of exclusive trade to
the Hudson's Bay Company, the trade of that coast was engrossed by the subjects of the United States of America and
Russia, the only establishment occupied by British traders being
I Astoria,' afterwards named ' Fort George,' at the mouth of the
Columbia River, while no attempt was made, through the means 54
of shipping, to obtain any part of the trade of the coast; and so
unprofitable was it in the years 1818, 1819, 1820, 1821 and
1822, and so difficult of management, that several of the leading
and most intelligent persons in the country, strongly recommended that the Company should abandon it altogether. The
Company, however, felt that the honour of the concern would,
in a certain degree, be compromised were they to adopt that
recommendation, holding as they did, under Government, the
licence in question, and with a degree of energy and enterprises,
which, I feel assured, your Lordships will admit, reflects much
credit on themselves and on their officers and servants in the
country, they directed their efforts so vigorously to that branch
of the business, that they compelled the American adventurers,
one by one, to withdraw from the contest, and are now pressing
the Russian Fur Company so closely, that although that association is supported by its government, to the extent of
affording them the assistance of a strong military guard at each
of their establishments, which, with their shipping, are officered
by naval and military officers of the Imperial army and navy,
we are gaining ground upon them, and hope, at no very distant
period, to confine them to the trade of their own proper territory.
' The outlay and expense attending this competition in trade
are so heavy, that the profits are yet but in perspective, none
worthy of notice having been realized, the result showing some
years a trifling loss, and in others a small gain, fluctuating according to the degree of activity with which the contest is maintained ; but by energy and perseverance, we hope, in due time, to
bring it to a more favourable issue, if the facilities of protection
now required of Her Majesty's Government be afforded.
' This trade, nevertheless, affords employment to about 1000
men, occupying 21 permanent trading establishments, two migratory, trading and trapping expeditions, a steam vessel, and
five sailing vessels from 100 to 300 tons burthen, all armed; and
so dangerous is the trade, that I lament to say that it has not
been unattended with loss of life.' 55
The expenses incident to the Red River settlement are also a
drain on the funds of the Company.
An erroneous opinion has been entertained that the past (as
well as the present) profits of the Company have been enormous.
But the truth is shown in the following extract from the Parliamentary Papers of 8th August, 1842, p.p. 24, 25:
' The Hudson's Bay Company was incorporated in the year
1670, under a Royal Charter of Charles the Second, which
granted them certain territories in North America described in
that Charter, together with exclusive privileges of trade, &c. &c.
Between the years 1670 and 1690, a period of 20 years, the profits
appear to have been very large, as, notwithstanding losses sustained
by the capture of the Company's establishments by the French
in the years 1682 to 1688, amounting to £.118,014, they were
enabled to make a payment to the proprietors in 1684 of 50 per
cent.; another payment in 1688 of 50 per cent.; and of a further
payment in 1689 of 25 per cent.
' In 1690 the stock was trebled without any call being made,
besides affording a payment to the proprietors of 25 per cent, on
the increased or newly-created stock; in the years 1692, 1694,
1696, and 1697, the Company incurred loss and damage, to the
amount of £.97,500, by other captures of their establishments by
the French.
' These losses appear to have rendered it necessary for the
Company to borrow money, on which they paid 6 per cent,
interest; they were enabled, nevertheless, in 1720,again to treble
their capital stock, with only a call of 10 per cent, on the proprietors ; and, notwithstanding another heavy loss sustained, by
the capture of their establishments by the French under La
Perouse, in 1782, they appear to have been enabled to pay dividends of from 5 to 12 per cent., averaging 9 per cent,, and
showing, as nearly as I am able to judge from the defective state
of the books during the past century, profits on the originally
subscribed capital stock actually paid up, of between 60 and 70
per cent, per annum from the year 1690 to 1800. 56
| Up to this period the Hudson's Bay Company had no great
cause for complaint of interference with their inland trade, and if
they had been left unmolested, or been protected in the undisturbed possession of it, and of the rights and privileges vested in
them by their Charter, they would in all probability have continued in the enjoyment of the advantages they were then deriving
from their labours and exertions in those remote and little frequented wilds.
' But about that period their rights of territory and trade were
invaded by rival traders, which led to animosities, feuds, and
breaches of the peace, extending to the loss of lives, and considerable destruction of property, injurious to the native Indians,
by reason of the unrestricted use of spirituous liquors and other
demoralizing influences, consequent on opposition, and so prejudicial to the interests of the Hudson's Bay Company, that between
1800 and 1821, a period of 22 years, their dividends were, for the
first eight years, reduced to 4 per cent ; during the next six
years they could pay no dividend at all; and for the remaining
eight years they could only pay 4 per cent.
' During a long succession of years, while this destructive contest existed, very frequent applications for protection and redress
were made by the Hudson's Bay Company to his Majesty's
Government, as may be seen by reference to the records of the
Colonial Office, but without avail, and scenes of bloodshed,
robbery and demoralization, revolting to humanity, were allowed
to pass without any effectual measures being taken to punish or
prevent them, although the Hudson's Bay Company had every
claim on Government to support them in their just rights of territory and trade.
| At length, in the year 1821, when the violence of the contest
had nearly exhausted the means of both parties, an arrangement
was entered into between them, by which their interests became
united, under the management of the Hudson's Bay Company.
' The proprietary were then called upon to pay £.100 per cent,
upon their capital, which, with the stock in trade of both parties 57
in the country, formed a capital stock of £.400,000 on which 4
per cent, dividend was paid in the years 1821 to 1824, and from
that time to the present, half-yearly dividends of 5 per cent.,
with a bonus of 10 per cent, from the year 1828 to 1832, and
since that an average bonus of 6 per cent, until last year, when
none was paid.
' When your Lordships come to consider the very hazardous
nature of the trade, requiring a degree of enterprise unknown to
almost any other business, together with the heavy losses to which
the parties interested therein were subjected for a long series of
years, from the want of protection and support, which they had a
right to expect from his Majesty's Government, I feel assured
your Lordships will join me in opinion that the profits now
arising from the business are no more than a fair return for the
capital employed, and the services the Hudson's Bay Company
are rendering the mother country in securing to it a branch of
commerce which they are at present wresting out of the hands of
foreigners, subjects of Russia and the United States of America,
but which the Company would have been unable to prosecute,
had they not been protected by the licence of exclusive trade they
now hold.
' In looking at these profits, however, it should be borne in
mind that Hudson's Bay stock, in like manner as in all other
stocks, changes hands very frequently, and that the price of the
stock is entirely regulated by the return it produces, thereby
affording to the bulk of the present proprietors little more than
6 per cent, for their money.'
It is stated in the papers laid before Parliament, 8th August,
1842, in an enclosure, dated 1st February, 1837, that the Company then had 136 establishments, besides hunting expeditions
and shipping—affording employment to twenty-five chief factors,
twenty-seven chief traders, 152 clerks, and about 1,200 regular
servants, besides the occasional labour in boating, and other services of a great number of the natives.
In a public letter to Lord Glenelg, dated 10th February, 1837, 58
(see Parlimentary Papers of 8th August, 1842), it is mentioned,
that the Hudson's Bay Company had then fully occupied the
country between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific, by six
permanent establishments on the coasts, and sixteen in the interior ; besides several migratory and hunting parties ; and they
possessed on the coast a marine of six armed vessels, one of
them a steam vessel.
The Company maintain several medical officers for different
forts, and at every trading establishment there is in fact an
Indian hospital, from which the natives derive the greatest
benefit, as they resort thither in great numbers, when suffering
from age, infirmities, or other causes.
In order to remove misconception as to the internal trade and
working of the Hudson's Bay Company, the following explanatory statement is taken from the report of Commodore Wilkes,
who was an impartial eye-witness of that which he describes :—
' All the imported goods are divided into three classes, viz.—
articles of gratuity, those of trade, and those intended to pay
for small services, labour, and provisions. The first consists of
knives and tobacco; the second, of blankets, guns, cloth, powder,
and shot; the third, of shirts, handkerchiefs, ribands, beads, &c.
These articles are bartered at seemingly great profits, and many
persons imagine that large gain must be the result from the
Indian trade; but this is seldom the case. The Indians and
settlers understand well the worth of each article, and were not
inclined to give for it more than its real value, besides getting a
present or \ potlach' to boot. The Company are obliged to
make advances to all their trappers, if they wish to be sure of
their services ; and from such a reckless set, there is little certainty of getting returns, even if the trapper has it in his power.
Infact, he will not return with his season's acquisitions, unless he
is constrained to pursue the same course of life for another year,
when he requires a new advance. In order to avoid losses by the
departure of their men, the parties, some thirty or forty in number, are placed under an officer who has charge of the whole. 59
These are allowed to take their wives, and even families, with
them ; and places, where they are to trap during the season, on
some favourable ground, are assigned to them. These parties
leave Vancouver in October, and return by May or June. They
usually trap on shares, and the portion they are to receive is defined by an agreement, the conditions of which depend very
much upon their skill.
\ All the profits of the Company depend upon economical
management, for the quantity of peltry in this section of the
country, and indeed, it may be said, the fur trade on this side of
the mountains has fallen off fifty per cent, within the last few
years.' [Vol. iv. p. 333, ' Narrative of the United States' Exploring Expedition, during the years 1838, 39, 40, 41, and 1842.
London, Wiley and Putnam, 1845].
The Americans have found to their cost that as individual
traders they cannot derive any advantage by traffic with the
Indians, for even when successful in the purchase of furs, they
are liable to be plundered and murdered, as exemplified in the
following account of the massacre of twenty-one Americans on
the Umqua River:—
{ A trapper of the name of Smith, a remarkably shrewd and
intelligent man, had encamped on the left bank of the last-
mentioned river with twenty followers, and had ascended the
stream in a canoe with two companions of his own party, and a
native of the neighbourhood, to find a convenient place for
crossing. On his return, his Indian was hailed by another from
the shore, who spoke to him in his own language, which was
unknown alike to Smith and to his people. A sufficiently intelligible interpretation, however, soon followed; for Smith's savage
upset the canoe by a jerk, thereby pitching the guns of the
white men, as well as the white men themselves, into the current.
Under a heavy fire, Smith and one of his men found their way
to the bank, the other man having fallen a victim either to the
enemies shot, or to the depths of the Umqua. On reaching the
banks of the river opposite to his camp, the trapper found his
11 1
60
V
men murdered, and all his property rifled. Smith, after encountering many dangers, and enduring many hardships, reached one
of our forts; and, at a great inconvenience to our own business,
we compelled the savages, by a demonstration of force, to surrender to him their booty.' [Sir G. Simpsons Voyage round the
World, vol. i.]
The operations of the Hudson's Bay Company, and those of
the Russians in the north, have almost excluded the Americans
from the fur trade, as there are few animals now found south of
the parallel of 49 °.
Several detached bodies of American trappers range the country,
south of 490 north latitude ; but, as Mr. Greenhow justly says,
the hunters have no settlement of any kind, and, as is shown in the
case just quoted, are liable at any moment to be massacred. A
single hint from the chief officer of the Fort Vancouver settlement
to the Indians would have been followed by the destruction of
every American in the Oregon region. In fact, the American
settlers at the Willamette would have perished of famine, but for
the Hudson's Bay Company. It is a matter of surprise and congratulation, therefore, that for nearly 200 years England, through
the instrumentality of an effectually organized association, has not
only maintained a position in North America, but extended her
power, and held in check, if not to some extent civilized or subdued thousands of savages, who have found that an English Company were their only friends.
The trade indeed is one of much hardship and privation.
Commodore Wilkes observes,' that the Company's servants at
the north posts suffer almost as much as the Indians at times,
although they are provided for and attended to by the officers:
they live mostly upon salmon. The difficulty of getting provisions to posts in the interior, is very great; all that is consumed
at the north, is carried twenty-four days' journey on pack-horses,
and eighteen days in barges before it reaches its destination ;
and the amount transported is not more than enough to supply
the officers, whose allowance is very limited.    The servants of 61
the Company receive an increased pay, as some recompence for
their privations.'
Referring to the dangers and risks the officers and servants
of the Hudson's Bay Company have to encounter from Indians,
descending rapids, when  an entire boat's crew are  sometimes
instantly destroyed, and to the toil and privation endured by the
voyageurs, the Commodore says, at p. 391,' the most experienced
voyageur is taken as a pilot for the brigade, and he is the bowman
of the leading boat, which is looked upon as a station of great trust
and honour.    Each boat has also its bowman, who is considered
the first  officer and  responsible man;  the safety of the boat,
in descending  rapids  particularly,  depends upon him and the
padroon who steers the boat.  They both use long and large blade-
paddles ; and it is surprising how much power the two can exert
over the direction of the boat.    These men, from long training,
become  very expert, and  acquire a coolness and disregard of
danger that claim  admiration,  and  astonishes those who are
unused to such scenes.    To all appearance, there is seldom to be
found a more laborious set of men ; nor one so willing, particularly when their remuneration of no more than seventeen pounds
sterling a-year, and the fare they receive, are considered.    Very
few of those who embark or join this Company's service, ever
leave the part of the country they have been   employed in; for
after the expiration of five years, they usually enlist for three
more.    This service of eight years in a life of so much adventure
and hazard, attaches them to it, and  they generally continue
until they become old men; when, being married, and having
families by Indian women, they retire, under the auspices of the
Company, to some small farm, either on the Red or Columbia
Rivers.    There is  no  allowance stipulated  for their wives  or
children; but one is usually made, if they have been useful.    If
a man dies, leaving a family, although the Company is not under
any obligation to provide for them, they are generally taken care
of.    The officers of the Company are particularly strict in preventing its  servants from  deserting their  icives;  and none can
abandon them without much secresy and cunning.    In cases of 62
this sort, the individual is arrested, and kept under restraint until
he binds himself with security not to desert his family. The chief
officers of the Company hold the power of magistrates over their
own people; and are bound to send fugitives or criminals back
to Canada for trial, where the courts take cognizance of the
offences. This, perhaps, is as salutary and effectual a preventive
against crime as could be found, even if the courts were at hand ;
for whether innocent or guilty, the individual must suffer great
loss by being dragged from the little property he possesses. The
community of old voyageurs, settled in Oregon, are thus constrained to keep a strict watch upon their behaviour; and,
although perhaps against their inclinations, are obliged to conform to the wishes of those whose employ they have left.' [P. 62.]
In the following passage we have an animated picture of life at
Fort Vancouver, and of the cheerful and agreeable manner in
which the officers and servants of the Company fulfil their
duties:~-' On the morning of the 17th, Vancouver was awake at
an early hour, and preparations were actively making; a
voyageur occasionally was to be seen, decked out in all his finery,
feathers, and flowing ribands, tying on his ornamental leggings,
sashes, and the usual worked tobacco and fire pouch. The latter
is of the shape of a lady's reticule, and generally made of red or
blue cloth, prettily worked with beads. In working them the
wives of the officers of the Company exercise great taste, and it is
deemed fully as essential a part of dress in a voyageur's wardrobe
as in a lady's. The simple bag does not, however, afford sufficient
scope for ornament, and it has usually several long tails to it,
which are worked with silk of gaudy colours.
' The ladies of the country are dressed after our own bygone
fashions, with the exception of leggings, made of red and blue
cloth, richly ornamented. Their feet, which are small and pretty,
are covered with worked mocassins. Many of them have a
dignified look and carriage ; their black eyes and hair, and ruddy
brown complexion, combined with a pleasing expression, give an
air of independence and usefulness that one little expects to see.
As wives, they are spoken of as most devoted, and many of them 63
have performed deeds, in the hour of danger and difficulty, worthy
of being recorded. They understand the characters of Indians
well.
' About ten o'clock we were all summoned to the great dining-
hall by Dr. Mc Laughlin, to take the parting cup, customary in
this country. When all were assembled, wine was poured out,
and we drank to each other's welfare, prosperity, &c. This was
truly a cup of good fellowship and kind feeling. This hanging to
old Scotch customs, in the way it was done here is pleasant, and
carries with it pleasing recollections, especially when there is that
warmth of feeling with it that there was on this occasion. After
this was over, we formed quite a cavalcade to the river-side, which
was now swollen to the top of its banks, and rushing by with
irresistible force.
' On reaching the river we found one of Mr. Ogden's boats
manned by fourteen voyageurs, all gaily dressed in their ribands
and plumes; the former tied in large bunches of divers colours,
with numerous ends floating in the breeze. The boat was somewhat of the model of our whale-boats, only much larger, and of
the kind built expressly to accommodate the trade; they are
provided yearly at Okonagan, and are constructed in a few days ;
they are clinker-built, and all the timbers are flat. These boats
are so light, that they are easily carried across the portages. They
use the gum of the pine to cover them instead of pitch.
'After having a hearty shake of the hand, Captain Varney,
Mr. Ogden, and myself, embarked. The signal being given, we
shoved off, and the voyageurs at once struck up one of their boat
songs. After paddling up the stream for some distance we made
a graceful sweep to reach the centre, and passed by the spectators
with great animation. The boat and voyageurs seemed a fit
object to grace the wide-flowing river. On we merrily went,
while each voyageur in succession took up the song, and all joined
in the chorus. In two hours and a half we reached the mouth of
the Cowlitz, a distance of thirty-five miles.
' In the Cowlitz we found a strong current to contend against 64
i i
and by night-fall had only proceeded twelve miles farther.
As we encamped, the weather changed, and rain began to fall,
which lasted till next morning.
' I had much amusement in watching the voyageurs, who are
as peculiar in their way as sailors. I was struck with their studious politeness and attention to each other, and their constant
cheerfulness.
' On the second day our voyageurs had doffed their finery, and
their hats were carefully covered with oiled skins. They thus
appeared more prepared for hard work. The current became
every mile more rapid, and the difficulty of surmounting it
greater. The management of the boats in the rapids is dexterous and full of excitement, as well to the passengers as to the
voyageurs themselves. The bowman is the most important man,
giving all directions, and is held responsible for the safety of
the boat; and his keen eye and . quick hand in the use of his
paddle, delights and inspires a confidence in him in moments of
dang;er that is griven without stint. We did not make more
than ten miles during the day, and were forced to encamp three
miles below the farm.
' On the I9th we rea&hed our destination. On our approach,
although there were no spectators, except a few Indians, to be
expected, the voyageurs again mounted their finery, and gaily
chaunted their boat song.'    (Wilkes Narrative, v. iv., p. 370.)
The Rev. S. Parker, who had an opportunity afforded him of
witnessing the proceedings of the Hudson's Bay Company, whose
sentiments had no reference to ulterior events, whose opinions were
entirely unbiassed, and must be taken as the honest convictions of
a mind desirous of truth, and ready to award the palm of merit
where it is due, thus expresses himself in 1837:—' I have already
mentioned my agreeable disappointment in finding so many of
the comforts of life at different trading posts of the Hudson's
Bay Company. I have also given a brief description of the local
situation of Fort Vancouver. These were taken from such observations as I   could   make  in   a  hasty view,  as I was pro- 65
secuting my journey to the shores of the Pacific Ocean. This
establishment was commenced in the year 1824. It being necessary that the gentlemen who are engaged in transacting the
business of the Company west of the mountains, and their
labourers, should possess a better and less precarious supply of
the necessaries of life, than what game would furnish, and the
expense of transporting suitable supplies from England being too.
great, it was thought important to connect the business of farming with that of fur, to an extent equal to their necessary demands ; and as the Fort is the central place of business to which
shipping come, and from which they depart for different parts
of the north-west coast, and to which and from which brigades
of hunting parties come and go, the principal farming business
was established here, and has made such progress, that provisions
are now produced in great abundance. There are large fertile
prairies which they occupy for tillage and pasture, and the forests
yield an ample supply of wood for fencing and other purposes.
In the year 1835, there were at this post 450 neat cattle; 100
horses, 200 sheep, 40 goats, and 300 hogs. They had raised the
same year 5000 bushels of wheat, of excellent quality; 1300
bushels of potatoes ; 1000 of barley ; 1000 of oats ; 2000 of peas,
and a great variety of garden vegetables. This estimate does
not include the horses, horned cattle, grain, &c, raised at the
other stations. But little, however, is done elsewhere, excepting at Colville, the uppermost post on'the northern branch of the
Columbia. The garden of this station contains about five acres,
and is laid out with regularity and good taste. While a large
part is appropriated to the common esculent vegetables, ornamental plants and flowers are not neglected. Fruit of various
kinds, such as apples, peaches, grapes, and strawberries, considering the short time since they have been introduced, flourish,
and prove that the climate and soil are well adapted to the purposes of agriculture. Various tropical fruits, such as figs,
oranges, and lemons, have also been introduced, and thrive as
well as in the latitude of Philadelphia.
' In connexion with their farming establishment, the Company
E 66
have a flour mill worked by ox-power, which is kept in constant
operation, and produces flour of an excellent quality ; and a sawmill with several saws, which is kept in operation most of the
year. This mill, though large, does not with its several saws,
furnish more lumber than a common mill would, with one saw,
in the United States. There being no pine below the Cascades,
and but very little within five hundred miles of the mouth of the
Columbia River, the only timber sawn in this mill is fir and
oak. Besides what timber is used in the common business about
this station, one, and sometimes two ship-loads are sent annually
to Oahu, Sandwich Islands, and is there called pine of the northwest coast. Boards of fir are not so durable, when exposed to
the weather, as those of pine, nor so easily worked. One half of
the grain of each annual growth is very hard, and the other half
soft and spongy, which easily absorbs moisture, and causes
speedy decay. There is a bakery here, in which two or three
men are in constant employment which furnishes bread for daily
use in the fort, and also a large supply of sea-biscuit for the
shipping and trading stations along the north-west coast. There
are also shops for blacksmiths, joiners, and carpenters, and a tinner.
' Here is a well-regulated medical department, and an hospital
for the accommodation of the sick labourers,  into which Indians,
who are labouring under any difficult and dangerous diseases are
received, and in most cases have gratuitous attendance?
' Among the large buildings, there are four for the trading
department; one for the Indian trade, in which are deposited
their peltries; one for provisions; one for goods, opened for the
current year's business—that is, to sell to their men, and to send
off to various fur stations; and another for storing goods in a
year's advance. Not less than a shipload of goods is brought
from England annually, and always at least one in advance of
their present use ; so that if any disaster should befal their ship
on her passage, the business of the Company would not have to
be suspended. By this mode of management, there is rarely less
than two ship-loads of goods in hand, most of the time. The"
annual ship arrives in the spring, takes a trip to Oahu during 67
the summer, freighted with lumber, and bringing back to Fort
Vancouver, salt and other commodities, but generally not enough
for ballast; and, about the end of September, or early in
October, she sails for England with the peltries obtained during
the preceding year.
' The fur business about the Rocky Mountains, and the West,
is becoming far less lucrative than formerly ; for so extensively
and constantly have every nook and corner been searched out,
that beavers, and other valuable fur animals, are becoming very
scarce. It is rational to conclude that it will not be many years
before this business will not be worth pursuing in the prairie
country, south of the 50th degree of north latitude; but north
of this, in the colder and more densely-wooded regions, the
business will not probably vary in any important degree.
■ Very few Americans who have engaged in the fur business
beyond the Rocky Mountains, have ever succeeded in making it
profitable. Several companies have sustained great loss, generally
owing to their ignorance of the country and the best mode of
procedure. The Hudson's Bay Company have so systematized
their operations, that no one can have the charge of any important
transactions without having passed through several grades of less
important business, which constitutes several years' apprenticeship.
Their lowest order are what they call servants (common labourers).
All above these are called gentlemen, but of different orders. The
lowest class are clerks, then chief clerks; next traders and chief
traders; factors and chief factors; and the highest, governors.
There are only two chief factors west of the mountains, John
M'Laughlen, Esq. and Duncan Finlayson, Esq., and with them
are associated in business several chief traders and traders, and
chief clerks and clerks. The salaries of the gentlemen are proportioned to the stations they occupy. By this mode of conducting business, no important enterprise is ever entrusted to an
inexperienced person.
£ It is worthy of remark, that comparatively few of all those
who ena:ag:e in the fur business in these regions ever return to
their native land.    Mr. Pambrun, of Fort Walla-Walla, told me, .
8 vt
68
that to keep up their number of trappers and hunters west of the
mountains, they were under the necessity of sending out recruits
annually, about one third of the whole number. Captain Wyeth
stated, that of more than two hundred who had been in his employment in the course of three years, only between thirty and
forty were known to be alive. From these data it may be seen
that the life of hunters in these far western regions averages about
three years. And with these known facts, still hundreds and
hundreds are willing to engage in the hunter's life, and expose
themselves to hardships, famine, dangers, and death. It has been
estimated, from sources of correct information, that there are nine
thousand white men in the north and far west engaged in the
various departments of trading, trapping, and hunting; and this
number includes Americans, Britons, Frenchmen, and Russians.'
—(Journey beyond the Rocky Mountains, p. 41, 42.)
Commodore Wilkes, adverting to the observations he heard
regarding discontent among some of the junior servants of the
Company,—to the discipline enforced, and to the powers exercised
by the officers of the Company, says, ' I am satisfied that as far
as the morals of the settlers and servants are concerned, it is used
for good purposes.' ' For instance, the use of spirits is almost
entirely done away with. Dr. M'Laughlin has acted in a highly
praiseworthy manner in this particular. Large quantities of
spirituous liquors are now stored in the magazines at Vancouver,
which the Company have refused to make an article of trade, and
none is now used by them in the territory for that purpose. They
have found this rule highly beneficial to their business in several
respects; more furs are taken, and those who are engaged have
fewer inducements to err; the Indians are found to be less
quarrelsome, and pursue the chase more constantly; and the
settlers, as far as I could hear, have been uniformly prosperous.'
' In order to show the course of the Company upon this subject, I will mention   one  circumstance.     The  brig  American
Thomas H. Perkins, arrived here with a large quantity of rum
on board, with other goods.
Dr. M'Laughlin, on hearing of this
made overtures immediately for the purchase of the whole cargo,
^.. 69
in order to get possession of the whiskey or rum, and succeeded.
The Doctor mentioned to me that the liquor was now in store,
and would not be sold in the country, and added, that the only
object he had in buying the cargo was to prevent the use of the
rum, and to sustain the temperance cause.'
In their endeavours to prosecute a trade at any hazard, the
American fur traders sell spirits freely to the Indians ; and Mr.
Greenhow states, that ' twenty dollars were frequently expended
in rum and sugar, for a night's carouse, by two or three traders
after the conclusion of a bargain.'
The Rev. S. Parker, the American clergyman, reprobates the
dissolute life and cruel conduct of the Americans engaged in the
Oregon fur trade, while he bears high testimony to the conduct
of the Hudson's Bay Company.
In 1836-7, the Russian Government refused to allow vessels of
the United States to trade on the unoccupied parts of the American coast north of 54° 40', on the grounds that, during the previous ten years, when the United States had the privilege, it
enabled the traders to supply the natives on the coast with ' spirituous liquors and fire-arms.'
It appears from the narrative of Sir George Simpson, that in
1842, the Governors of the Hudson's Bay Company and of the
Russian Fur Company, entered into a written agreement, that
from and after the date of signature, no spirits should be supplied to the Indians at their respective stations or posts in North
America; the Russian Governor fully acknowledging the evil
done to the trade, as well as to the Indians themselves.
The effect of prohibiting spirituous liquors among the Indians
is clearly shewn in documents laid officially before Lord Glenelg,
in 1837.—(See page. 15 of Parliamentary Papers, 8th August,
1842,) of which the following is an extract:—
' The Indian country, which, previous, to the passing and
granting of that act and licence, was a scene of violence and
outrage, productive of injury to the native population, and of the
worst consequences, amounting in very many instances to the
loss of life among the whites actively engaged therein, and to a mmssammx
70
vast sacrifice of property to the parties interested, all arising from
the violent competition that existed among the traders, I have the
satisfaction to say, has, ever since that period, been in a state of
the most perfect tranquillity, beneficial as well to the Indian
population as to the parties interested and engaged in the trade. .
' Previous to that period, an unrestricted supply of spirituous
liquor, then an important article of trade, led to the commission
of crimes, to the injury of health, and to a state of demoralization among the native population truly lamentable. The
measures since taken by the Council in the country, under the
instructions of the Board of Direction in England, to remedy
those evils, have been attended with the happiest results : drunkenness is now of very rare occurrence in any part of the country,
and quite unknown throughout the extended district situated
to the northward of the Saskatchewan and Churchill Rivers,
occupied by the Chipewyan, Beaver Indian, Cree, Yellow Knife,
Hare, Dog Rib, and other tribes throughout the numerously
inhabited and widely extended plain country to the southward of
Saskatchewan; in the country situated between the Rocky
Mountains and the shores of the Pacific, watered by the Columbia
River and its tributaries; in the country known by the name of
New Caledonia, situated inland, to the northward of the Columbia River; and among the Chippewyan tribes on the shores and
interior country of Lakes Superior and Huron ; the introduction
and use of spirituous and other intoxicating liquors having been
strictly prohibited, except in very rare cases for medicinal purposes.
' The first introduction of this measure was so unpopular among
the natives, as to endanger the safety of the trading establishments, rendering it necessary to maintain a large force for their
protection, at a heavy expense; and it was only by compensating
them for the loss of this baneful indulgence by large gratuities,
consisting of presents of British manufacture, that they became
reconciled to the privation. In other parts of the country, where
it could not, in safety to the white population, be entirely prohibited, the use of it is now gradually diminishing, so as at this
time to be no longer an evil; and in no part of the countries 71
through which the Hudson's Bay Company's operations extend,
are spirituous or intoxicating liquors of any description sold to
Indians, or used as a medium of barter or trade. But so inseparable is drunkenness or the abuse of spirituous liquors, from
opposition in the Indian trade, that on the north-west coast,
where we have to contend with the Americans and Russians, and
even on the banks of the St. Lawrence and Ottawa rivers, which
are exposed to competition in trade, and where the Indians are
partially civilized, I am sorry to say our utmost efforts to check
it have been altogether unavailing.
' A confirmation of these statements is to be seen by reference
to the exportations of spirituous liquors to Hudson's Bay, which,
since the year 1821, do not exceed on the average forty-three
puncheons of rum annually for the supply of the whole country
situated to the eastward of the Rocky Mountains, comprised in the
licence of trade granted to the Company, as well as the Company's territories, the population of which, including servants,
may be estimated at 120,000 souls, no spirituous liquors having up
to this period been distilled in the country.' [About a pint per
annum for each individual.]
There is an honourable acknowledgment by Commodore
Wilkes, that the small wages, and subjection complained of by
the younger servants and clerks, is necessary; for ' few can in
any way long withstand this silent influence ; decorum and order
are preserved, together with steady habits: the consequence is, that
few communities are to be found more well behaved and orderly
than that which is formed of persons who have retired from the
Company's service.'—[Vol. ii., p. 330.]
The following statement of the chief of a party of Americans,
consisting of about 300 persons, who emigrated from Pennsylvania
and Missouri, for the ' Far West' in 1843, in order to settle in
the Oregon country is deserving of attention : the writer fully confirms the opinions of Commodore Wilkes and others. ' On the
10th of November I arrived at Vancouver, and could scarcely believe
my eyes when, on approaching it, I beheld, moored securely in the
river, two square-rigged vessels and a steam-boat.    My very heart %%38%i HMH
72
jumped as I set eyes on these familiar objects, and for the first
time in four months, I felt as if I had found substantial evidence of
civilization ; the impression of the refinement of the mission, and
the peculiarly domestic comforts which the ladies attached to the
establishment spread around them, were as nothing compared
with the yards and masts of these coursers of the ocean. The
river at Fort Vancouver is from 1,600, to 1,700 yards wide; the
fort, which is the principal establishment of the Hudson's Bay
Company in Oregon, is on the north bank of the Columbia, 80
miles distance, in a direct line, from the sea. It stands a considerable distance back from the shore, and is surrounded by
a large number of buildings, amongst which is a school-
house. On the bank of the river, 600 yards down, is a village
somewhat larger in extent, containing an hospital. Two miles
farther down the river are the dairy and piggery, containing numerous herds of cattle, hogs, sheep, &c.; and about three miles
above the forts are grist and saw-mills, and sheds for curing
salmon. Immediately behind it is a garden and an orchard filled
with peach, apple, fig, orange, lemon, and other fruit trees,—and
containing also grapes, strawberries, ornamental plants and
flowers. Behind this the cultivated farm, with its numerous
barns and other necessary buildings,—spread off towards the
south. The land appropriated here for the purposes of farming,
is from 3000 to 4000 acres, and is fenced into beautiful fields, a
great portion of which has already been appropriated to cultivation, and is found to produce the grains and vegetables of the
States in remarkable profusion. On my arrival, I was received
with great kindness by Dr. M'Laughlin, the chief factor of the
Hudson's Bay Company; and Mr. Douglass, his second in command. The modus operandi of this wonderful corporation is
remarkable for the perfect accuracy of its system. A code of
established rules, embracing within its scope the chief factor and
the meanest dependent, is the inflexible rule which governs all.
Every man has his alloted department to fill, and a system of far-
sighted policy is brought to bear upon the management of every
department.    A regular price is set upon everything.     Their goods
*u. 73
are all of the most superior kind, and it is no less a rule to sell
them at reasonable rates than it is to have them good.'
The documents in the Colonial Office, and at the War Office, and
Admiralty, amply sustain these facts. Colonel Crofton's Report is
in the strongest degree favourable to the Hudson's Bay Company.
Indeed, but for the exercise of strict discipline, the Company
would not only have anarchy among their own people, but would
be subject to great annoyance from their neighbours, who would
endeavour to sow discontent and rebellion among their people.
In 1836, a person styling himself ' General Dickson, of the
Indian Liberating Army,' departed from Washington, and attended by several followers, made an effort to seduce the servants
of the Company, with the pretended object of uniting all the
Indians in one nation, of which Dickson was to be the chief, under
the title of ' Montezuma the Second.' He was supplied with
money by some Americans, in the expectation that he would
damage the Hudson's Bay Company, and proceeded through the
American territories to the region west of Lake Superior, the
General, his Brigadier, Aide-de-Camps, &c, dressed in grand
uniforms. Winter set in; and Dickson, with his toes frozen off,
and in a wretched plight, attended by a few deluded followers, at
length reached the Red River settlement, where the Hudson's
Bay Company prevented them from starving, and, finally, took
several into their employ as clerks and servants.
The manner in which the American fur hunters destroy the
Indians, is thus described by an American clergyman :—
' On the 29th, removed our encampment, and travelled five
hours along this valley, to the place where, two years before, two •
fur companies held their rendezvous. Pierre's Hole is an extensive level country, of rich soil, and well watered with branches of
Lewis River; the climate is milder than any part we have gone
through on this side of the mountains. The valley is well covered
with grass, but like most other places, is deficient in woodland,
having only a scanty supply of cotton-wood and willows scattered
along the streams. The valley extends around to the north-west
as far as the eye can reach.    We expected to have found buffaloes 74
in this valley, but saw none. As parties of Blackfeet warriors
often range this way, it was probable that they had lately been
here and frightened them away. As we were on our way from
our last encampment, I was shown the place where the men of the
fur companies, at the time of their rendezvous two years before,
had a battle with the Blackfeet Indians. Of the Blackfeet party,
there were about sixty men, and more than the same number of
women and children ; of the white men in the valley there were
some few hundreds who could be called into action. From the
information given me, it appeared that these Indians were on
their way through this valley, and unexpectedly met about forty
hunters and trappers going out from rendezvous to the southwest on their fall and winter hunt. The Indians manifested an
unwillingness to fight, and presented them tokens of peace, but
they were not reciprocated. The Indians who came forward to
stipulate terms of peace, were fired upon and killed. When the
Indians saw their danger, they fled to the cotton-wood trees and
willows which were scattered along the stream of the water, and,
taking advantage of some fallen trees, constructed as good defences
as time and circumstances would permit. They were poorly
provided with guns, and still more poorly with ammunition. The
trappers keeping out of reach of their arrows, and being well
armed with the best rifles, rendered the contest unequal; and it
was made still more unequal, when, by an express sent to
rendezvous, they were reinforced by veterans in mountain life.
The hunters, by keeping at a safe distance, in the course of a few
hours killed several of the Indians, and almost all their horses,
which they had no means of protecting, while they themselves suffered but small loss. The numbers killed on both sides have been
differently stated; but considering the numbers engaged, and
the length of time the skirmishing continued, it must have been a
bloody battle, and not much to the honour of civilized Americans.
The excuse made for forcing the Blackfeet into battle is, that if
they had come upon a small party of trappers, they would have
butchered them and seized upon the plunder. If heathen Blackfeet would have done so, is this an apology for civilized white 75
men to render evil for evil?    What a noble opportunity this
was for American citizens to have set an example of humanity !
' When the night drew near, the hunters retired to their rendezvous, and the Indians made their escape.'—(Journey beyond the
Rocky Mountains, by the Rev. S. Parker.  Edin. Ed., 1841. P. 23.)
The same American authority adverts in another part of his
Journal (pp. 19—21), to the ' profligacy of the fur hunters.'
He says, \ the American Fur Company have between two and
three hundred men constantly employed, in and about the mountains, in trading, hunting, and trapping. These all assemble at a
rendezvous, bring in their furs, and take new supplies for the
coming year of clothing, ammunition, and goods for trade with
the Indians. But few of them ever return to their country and
friends. Most of them are constantly in debt, and are unwilling
to return without a fortune; and year after year passes away
while they are hoping for better success.' The conduct and proceedings of the men engaged in the operations of this American
Company—offers a marked contrast to that of the British Fur
Company. The Rev. S. Parker speaking of these Americans
says, at p. 21 :—' A few days after our arrival at the place of
rendezvous, and when all the mountain-men had assembled,
another day of indulgence was granted to them, in which all
restraint was laid aside. These days are the climax of the
hunter's happiness. I will relate an occurrence which took place
near evening, as a specimen of mountain life. A hunter, who
goes technically by the name of the Great Bully of the Mountains,
mounted his horse with a loaded rifle, and challenged any
Frenchman, American, Spaniard, or Dutchman, to fight him in
single combat. Kit Carson, an American, told him, if he wished
to die, he would accept the challenge. Shunar defied him; Carson
mounted his horse, and with a loaded pistol rushed into close contact, and both almost at the same instant fired. Carson's ball
entered Shunar's hand, came out at the wrist, and passed through
the arm above the elbow. Shunar's ball passed over the head of
Carson, and while he went for another pistol, Shunar begged that
his life might be spared.    Such scenes, sometimes from passion
w $
76
and sometimes for amusement, make the pastime of their wild and
wandering life. They appear to have sought for a place where,
as they would say, human nature is not oppressed by the tyranny
of religion, and pleasure is not awed by the frown of virtue. The
fruits are visible in all the varied forms to which human nature,
without the restraint of civil government and cultivated and
polished society, may be supposed to yield. In the absence of all
those motives which they would feel in moral and religious
society—refinement, pride, a sense of the worth of character, and
even conscience—they give way to unrestrained dissoluteness.
Their toils and privations are so great, that they are not disposed
to take upon themselves the labour of climbing up to the temple
of science. And yet they are proficients in one study, namely,
profuseness of language in their oaths and blasphemy. They disdain the commonplace phrases which prevail among the impious
vulgar in civilized countries, and have many set expletives, which
they appear to have manufactured among themselves, and which
in their imprecations, they bring into almost every sentence and
on all occasions. By varying the tones of their voices, they make
them expressive of joy, hope, grief, and anger. In their broils
among themselves, which do not happen every day, they would
not be ungenerous. They would see ' fair play,' and would' spare
the last eye;' and would not tolerate murder, unless drunkenness
or great provocation could be pleaded in extenuation of guilt.
* Their demoralizing influence with the Indians has been
lamentable, and they have imposed upon them in all the ways
that sinful propensities dictate. It is said they have sold them
packs of cards at high prices, calling them the Bible; and have
told them, if they should refuse to give white men wives, God
would be angry with them, and punish them eternally: and on
almost any occasion when their wishes have been resisted, they
have threatened them with the wrath of God.'
The British rivals in the fur trade are now the American and
the Russian Fur Companies, and it is our interest to do nothing
to weaken the only association capable of preserving to England
this valuable branch of traffic. fart E»
THE INDIAN POPULATION—THEIK NUMBEKS—CHARACTER AND TREATMENT BY THE HUDSON'S BAY
COMPANY.
Numbees.—It is difficult to form any estimate approaching to
accuracy of the population of the territories of the Hudson's Bay
Company, and also of the adjoining regions.
Sir George Simpson gives the following as a census of the Saskatchewan District, a country as large as England, which is said to
be perhaps more numerously peopled with Indians than any other
part of North-Western America:—
Tribes.
Tents.
Souls.
Crees
500
3500
Assiniboines
580
4060
Blackfeet
300
2100
Peigans
350
2450
Blood Indians
250
1750
Sarcees
50
350
Gros Ventres
300
2100
Saulteaux    .
SO
140
Half-breeds
40
280
2390
16,730
—(Sir G. Simpson's  Overland Journey round the World, vol. i.,
p. 102, published by Colburn in 1847.) 1,8
I
',   ' ''A
78
This shows a very scanty population, and gives only, on an
average, seven persons to each tent. I cannot but think it is an
under estimate; or, that this census includes only those who are
stationary around the Company's posts.
In the following classification and distribution of the tribes in
Rupert's Land, by the Bishop of Montreal, who appears to have
paid much attention to the Indian population, we have no data of
the actual number in each tribe. His Lordship says—\ It appears
that the discordant estimates, even of the oldest and most experienced residents in the Indian country, forbid all idea of arriving
at an accurate knowledge of the amount of population, either as a
whole or in detail. The tribes themselves, however, occupying the
country east of the Rocky Mountains, and resorting upon occasion
to the Company's establishments, may be enumerated and distinguished as follows below:—
' Mackenzie's River District.
' The Copper Indians, inhabiting the country about this river.
' The Loucheux, or Quarrellers.
' The Hare Indians.
' The Dog-rib Indians.
* The Strong-bow Indians, inhabiting Mackenzie's River District, and speaking different languages.
' Athabasca and Isle a la Crosse Districts.
' The Chipewyans, and a few of the Cree tribe;  inhabiting the
country surrounding this lake, and between it and the Isle
a la Crosse District.
' Peace River District.
' The Beaver Indians, and a few Sauteux from the Rainy Lake,
inhabiting both sides of this river, and speaking a language
different from that of the Chipewyans of Athabasca.
I Upper part of the Saskatchewan District.
' The Blackfeet Proper.
' The Blood Indians.
' The Piegans.
' The Eall Indians.
m 79
' The Surcies.
' All these   five tribes  are  generally termed   Blackfeet,
although they speak different languages, and have different customs and manners.
' Lower part of the Saskatchewan District.
' The Stone Indians, or Assiniboins.
\ The Crees.
' The Sauteux, or Ogibways.
\ These three tribes are constantly at variance with the
Blackfeet, and the whole eight depend on the chase for
subsistence.    They, i. e. the three tribes, extend their
habitations also to the upper part of Bed River and of
Swan River.
\ York Factory, Oxford, Norway House, Cumberland, and lower
part of Swan River District.
' Mis-Kee-Goose, or Swampy Indians.
' These also extend along the sea-coast to James's Bay,
They evidently spring from the Crees, as their language
is only a dialect of the Cree.    There is said to be a
mixture of the Sauteux in their origin.
| Churchill District.
' Esquimaux.
I Chipewyans, and a few Swamp Indians, inhabiting the
country to the north of Churchill.
' These are all the tribes on the east side of the Rocky Mountains
who trade respectively at the ports indicated by italics. The source
from which I received this information is one, upon which I feel
that I can rely; and with the exception of the Mackenzie's Biver
District, respecting which the statements are less positively made,
the whole account, I believe, is the result of personal acquaintance
with the localities.
■ The Indians in James's Bay are  generally classed with  the
the Mis-kee-goose, and inhabit the countries about Albany, Moose,
and East Main."—(Bishop of Montreal's Journal, pp. 130 to 133.)
Mr. Greenhow, in the History of Oregon, estimates the number
of all the tribes inhabiting the Oregon region, in which he includes 80
all the country watered by the Columbia River, as not exceeding
20,000 ; the Clotsops and Chenooks occupying the country on both
sides of the lower part of the great river; the Killamucks of the
Umqua, the Classets, the territory of the Straits of Fuca, the
Enishurs, mauraders infesting the passes about the falls of the
great river; the Chopunish or Nezperces of the Walla-Walla and
Kooskooskee countries; the Kotanies of Clarke's River, and the
Shoshones or Snake Indians of the Lewis Rivers. In the part of
the Oregon, north-west of the Columbia, are the Chilcotins or
Talcotins, between whom a mortal enmity has always existed. The
Blackfeet from the north-east make inroads on the Shoshones and
Chopunish tribes.
The nearest approach to accuracy of the number of inhabitants
in any of the north-west regions is given in an official report of
Lieutenants Warre and Vavasour, as a ' Census of the Indian
Tribes in the Oregon territory from latitude 42° to latitude 54°,
derived from the trading lists of the Hudson's Bay Company, and
from the best obtainable information.'
Fort Vancouver, 1845.
Name of the Tribe.
Where situated.
Males.
Females
Slaves.
Total.
Quacott.—Nuvette   and   27
others.    Tribes  speaking
generally     the     Quacott
language.
Massettes and 13 tribes, not
included •'with the above,
and speaking different
languages.
Nass Indians, 4 tribes,
speaking the same language.
Chymsyans, 10 tribes, all of
whom speak the same
language, with a different
idiom.
Skeena Indians, 2 tribes.
Labassas Indians, 5 tribes.
From Lat 54° to Lat. 50° including Queen Charlotte's
Island; North end of Vancouver's Island, Milbank
Sound and Island, and the
On Queen Charlotte's Island,
not included in the above
Nass   River on   the   Main
Chatham   Sound,   Portland
Canal, PortEssington, and
the neighbouring Islands
At the Mouth of the Skeena
Gardner's  Canal, Canal de
Principe,    Canal    de   la
Carried forward..
3,282
857
1,202
195
717
20,~215
3,381
746
1,225
120
601
1,570
12
68
7
111
40,805
6,613
1,615
2,495
322
1,429 81
Name of the Tribe.
Where situated.
Males.
Females
Slaves.
Total.
Brought forward..
Milbank Sound, 9 tribes.
Milbank Sound, Caceade Canal, Deane Canal, Salmon
River, and the Islands on
784
797
47
1,628
Challams.—Cowaitchims, 24
From   lat.   50o   along   the
tribes, speaking the Chal-
Coast  South   to   Whitby
1am and Cowaitzcbim lan
Island in lat. 48°;   part
guages.
of Vancouver's Island and
the    Mouth    of   Franc's
3,176
3,383
2,868
9,427
New   Caledonia Indians,—
M'Leod's Lake, Chelertins,
(8 tribes known).
Fort George, Alexandria,
in Fraser's River, Conally
Lake, Babine Lake, Fra
ser's Lake,  Stuart's Lake
1,265
1,150
210
2,625
Sanetch Indians, 3 tribes.
Straits of St Juan de Fuca
and Vancouver's Islands .
Children under
12 years 99
194
152
445
Hallams, 11 tribes.
Ditto.
Children under
12 years 467
517
461
40
1,485
Sinahomish, 1 tribe.
Ditto.
Children under
12 years 230
208
118
13
569
Skatcat, 1 tribe.
Ditto.
173
161
18
543
Cowitchici, 7 tribes.
Ditto.
Children under
524
636
1,763
Soke Indians, 1 tribe.
Ditto.
Children under
12 years 12
39
39
90
Cowitciher, 3 tribes, not as
yet ascertained  .    .    .    say
300
Cape   Flattery. — Gulf   of
Georgia   Indians,    exact
numbers not ascertained.
1,250
Nasqually, 13 tribes.
Nasqually River and Pugefs
1,835
1,997
182
4,014
Two tribes   in the Cavletz
500
CheenookSjClatsops&several
Mouth of the Columbia Ri
tribes   near the  entrance
ver and the vicinity     .    .
429
of the Columbia River.
Trile Kalets, several tribes.
Near Fort Vancouver in the
500
Vule Puyas, several tribes.
Valley   of   the   Williamatu
300
Clakamus, several tribes.
Valley of the Clakamus and
the Willamuta Falls   .    .
200
Cheanooks,   Kelussuyas,   4
Pillar Rock, Oak Point, The
tribes.
Dallas,    The    Cascades,
Cheate    River,    Takama
River on the Columbia    .
800
Killamooks, 3 tribes.
On the Sea Coast, between
the River Columbia  and
1,500
Clamets, several tribes.
Roquas River near the South
800
Carried forward.. 82
Name of the Tribe.
Where situated.
Males.
Females Slaves.
Total.
Walla - Walla,   Nez   Perce,
Snakes, and several tribes.
Colville and Spokane.
Brought forward..
One of the South or Snakes
Branch of the Columbia,
extending   to   near   tbe
Near Fort  Colville  on  the
••
••
3,000
450
Okanagan, several tribes.
Kullas-Palus, several tribes.
Kootoonais, several tribes.
On the Okanagan and Pis-
cour Rivers	
On the Flathead or Clarke
River	
On M'GiRivray's River, the
Flat Bow Lake, &c.     .    .
Total	
300
300
450
33,956
35,182
5,146
86,947
Males
Females
Children
Slaves
RE CAPITULATION.
33,956
35,182
1,584 of both sexes under twelve years of age.
5,146
Total     75,868 of whom an accurate Census has been made.
11,079 estimate of tribes of whom no Census has
been taken.
Gt. Total 86,947 Indian population, from latitude 42° to latitude 54° north.'
This Census is accompanied by the following remarks :—•
' The gentleman in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company's
posts on the north of the Columbia, have made very accurate
estimates of the Indian population in the neighbourhood of their
several stations ; and we have every reason to believe, from our own
observations, in the accuracy of these statements.
f The Indian tribes on the Columbia, and in the interior of the
country, are a very migratory race, and it is very difficult to arrive
at their exact numbers. We believe the above statements to be
rather under their numerical strength.
r^afc 83
i The accompanying amount of the population of the Indian tribes
has been compiled with great care from the best authorities we
could obtain, and from the trading lists lent us by the kindness of
the gentlemen in charge of the Hudson's Bay Company.
v The Indians of Puget's Sound and the Straits of De Fuca, also
those farther to the north, appear to be more numerous than those
of the interior, and cultivate large quantities of potatoes, &c. for
their own use, and to barter with the vessels frequenting the coast.
| They are not so cleanly as the Indians of the prairies, nor are
they so brave or warlike. Many of the latter tribes are a very fine
race of men, and possess large herds Of cattle and immense numbers of horses. In the neighbourhood of Walla-Walla, individual
Indians were pointed out to us who owned more than 1000 horses.
I Slavery is common with all the tribes; and he who possesses
most slaves and the largest number of horses, is considered the
greatest chief.
I The Indians of the North are sometimes troublesome, but those
of the Columbia are a quiet, inoffensive, but very superstitious race.
To this last cause may be traced their quarrels with the white man
and with one another.
j They are well armed with rifles, muskets, &c, but, from policy,
they are much stinted by the Hudson's Bay Company in ammunition.
' The Indian tribes do not remain upon the same ground during
the whole year. In the summer they resort to the principal rivers
and the sea coast, where they take and lay by large quantities of
salmon, &c. for their winter consumption, retiring to the smaller
rivers of the interior during the cold season.
' Neither the Koman Catholic nor Methodist Missionaries have
done much towards reclaiming the Indian population, who are an
idle, dissolute race, and very few of them can be induced to change
their mode of life, or cultivate more than will absolutely keep them
from starvation.
' The total abolition of the sale of intoxicating liquors has done
much for the good of the whole community, white population
as well as Indian, and so long as this abstinence (which can I
84
hardly be called voluntary) continues, the country will prosper.
When this prohibition is withdrawn, and the intercourse with the
world open, such is the character of the dissolute aud only partially
reformed American and Canadian settlers, that every evil must be
anticipated, and the unfortunate Indian will be the first to suffer.
(Signed)
Henry Warre, M. Vavasseur,
Lieutenant and Adjutant. Lieutenant Royal Engineers.'
It is due to the Company to state, that they have never had any
direct or continued warfare with the Indians.
Character of the Indian Population.—It is difficult to
describe the character of the various tribes referred to in the preceding classifications; they have each some recognised difference,
and are most of them in a constant state of warfare with each other.
The Sarcees are said to be the boldest. All have horses and firearms, and horse-stealing is a favourite occupation with them. The
Crees and Blackfeet have deadly feuds, and each combat with the
Assiniboins ; small tribes are drawn into the contests of the larger,
and the whole are never at peace. Ambuscades, surprises by day
or night, and treacherous massacres of the old and young, of women
and the sick, constitute the moving interests of their lives. No
hardships or inducements will make them settle and cultivate their
land, and until they do so, it is almost hopeless to expect any
Christian results from the humane efforts of the Hudson's Bay
Company and the missionaries. The most degrading superstitions
prevail; cunning is employed where force cannot be used in plunder;
lying is systematic; woman is treated as a beast; and the wild
Indian is, in many respects, more savage than the animals around
him.
The Crees are the largest tribe or nation of Indians, and are
divided into two branches, the Crees on the Saskatchewan, and the
Swampies around the borders of Hudson's Bay, from Fort Churchill
to East Main. Forty years ago, in consequence of their early
obtainment of fire-arms, they carried their victories to the arctic
circle and across the Kocky Mountains, and treated as slaves the 85
Chipewyans, Yellow Knives, Hares, Dogribs, Loucheaux, Nikanies,.
Dahotanies, and other tribes in the adjoining regions.
The measles and small pox have swept off many from 1810 to
1820, but they are now extending to the south in various bands*
and again increasing in numbers.
The Salteaux, a branch of the Chippewyans, were formerly the
most powerful tribe in the country, but measles and small pox have
dwindled their numbers down to 3000 or 4000, and though scattered over a vast territory, which produces wild rice in abundance,
they can scarcely keep body and soul together; they are too
indolent and too proud to become, as they loftily express it,
' troublers of the earth.' Gambling is a prevailing passion, especially with the New Caledonia savages. In some tribes, if a chief
be ill, he causes one of his people to be shot, and if he recovers, it
is attributed to the sacrifice. Sometimes a chief pretends to madness, and bites every one that falls in his way. In filth and
sensuality the Indians, especially the more southern races, exceed
probably any of the savages in other parts of the world. In some
places on the north-west coast, says Sir George Simpson, they eat
the dead bodies of their relatives.—(Vol. i., p. 207.)
A few years ago a large encampment of the Gros Ventres and
Blackfeet was located on the Southern Saskatchewan to hunt the
buffalo ; the younger warriors, however, made an incursion into the
country of the Assiniboines, but, on returning with the scalps and
spoils of their enemies, they found revenge had been taken by
the massacre of their defenceless wives and children, parents and
sisters. So long as the Indians are in the power of the Europeans,
they are perfectly good humoured, but, whenever they find they are
the strongest, a different conduct is pursued; and unless treated
with firmness, they are sure to commence aggression. In the straits
around Vancouver's Island, they have not hesitated to attack European boats, and near Nisqually they assassinated one of the Company's
officers and five men, on their way from Fort Langley to Fort
Vancouver. Not long since, seizing Europeans, to be ransomed for
guns, gunpowder, blankets, &c, was considered to be fair game by 1    ?
;!,
W- f
86
the Indians, and they are only now kept in awe throughout the
whole country by the courage, mingled with policy, of the servants
of the Company.
Hearne, in the work descriptive of his journey to the Northern
Ocean, says—'When any really distressed objects present themselves at the Company's factory, they are always relieved with
victuals, clothes, medicines, and every other necessary, gratis; and,
in return, they instruct every one of their countrymen how to behave
in order to obtain the same charity.' The Indians are great adepts
at deception, never at a loss for a plausible story, have abundance
of sighs, groans, and teaxs at command, feign to be lame, and even
blind, to excite pity, and use so many false pretences to obtain
charity, that it requires a great discrimination to ascertain real distress, and turn a deaf ear, otherwise the whole of the Company's
goods might be given away, begging would become the most profitable
trade, and the hunting for, and traffic in, furs, would cease. They
are always disposed to steal anything they think will be- serviceable,
particularly iron hoops, spikes, carpenters' tools, &c, either for
their own use, or for the purpose of trading with such of their
countrymen as seldom visit the Company's stations.
The description given by Hearne, of the character of the Northern
Indians, will serve for many other tribes. ' It may be truly said that
they possess a considerable degree of deceit, and are very complete
adepts in the art of flattery, which they never spare as long as they
find that it conduces to their interest, but not a moment longer.
They take care always to seem attached to a new Governor, and
flatter his pride, by telling him that they look up to him as the
father of their tribe, on whom they can safely place their dependence;
and they never fail to depreciate the generosity of his predecessor,
however extensive that might have been, however humane and
disinterested his conduct; and if aspersing the old, and flattering
the new Governor, has not the desired effect in a reasonable time,
they represent him as the worst of characters, and tell him to his
face that he is one of the most cruel of men; that he has no feeling
for the distresses of their tribe, and that many have perished for 87
want of assistance (which, if it be true, is only owing to want of
humanity among themselves), and then they boast of having received
ten times the favours and presents from his predecessor. It is remarkable that those are most lavish in their praises, who have never
either deserved or received any favours from him. In time, however, this language also ceases, and they are perfectly reconciled to
the man whom they would willingly have made a fool, and say,
' he is no child, and not to be deceived by them.'
' They differ so much from the rest of mankind, that harsh, un-
courteous usage seems to agree better with the generality of them,
particularly the lower class, than mild treatment; for if the least
respect be shown them, it makes them intolerably insolent; and
though some of their leaders may be exempt from this imputation,
yet there are but few even of them who have sense enough to set a
proper value on the favours and indulgencies which are granted to
them while they remain at the Company's factories, or elsewhere
within their territories. Experience has convinced me, that by
keeping a Northern Indian at a distance, he may be made serviceable both to himself and the Company; but by giving him the least
indulgence at the factory, he will grow indolent, inactive, and
troublesome, and only contrive methods to tax the generosity of an
European.'—(Pp. 308, 309.)
Aged parents are treated not only with entire neglect, but also
with contempt by their children, and it is calculated that at least
one-half of the aged of both sexes are left to starve, and do perish
of cold or want. The Bishop of Montreal thus pourtrays the
appearance of the Indians whom he saw en route to the Red
River: f Their actual condition presents a most degrading picture
of humanity. Some of them came up to us in dirty blankets, or
dirtier dresses of worn and tattered hareskins; others were totally
naked, except the waist-cloth; their heads, with scarcely an exception, protected only by an enormous mass of long black hair;
others, in the encampments, who appeared to be persons of some
distinction, and whose attire was in better order, were tricked out
more like bedlamites than rational beings; a silly and indiscri- &8gfSS&£Z%
88
minating passion for ornament prompting them to turn to this
account whatever frippery they can become possessed of; so that
the thimbles, for example, which they procure from the Company,
are seen dangling at the end of long thin braids of hair which hang
from the men's foreheads: some have feathers stuck into their hair,
and these, perhaps, bent into an imitation of horns, with others
appended to resemble the ears of an animal : many have their
faces painted, all the lower part of the visage being made perfectly
black, and the eyes encircled with bright vermillion: but it would
be impossible to describe the varieties of their costume, or their
fantastic decorations; and there they sit, or rather squat, smoking
and basking in the sun the livelong day, sunk in an indolence from
which nothing- seems to rouse them but the excitement of war or
the chase. Every species of labour and drudgery, in the meantime, is thrown entirely upon the women; and if an Indian travels
on foot with his family, all the load which is to be carried, is consigned to the back of his wife or wives, for he does not always
content himself with one. We were particularly struck with the
appearance of one savage, who, squatting, with his whole figure in
a heap, upon the point of a projecting rock which overhung the
river, perfectly naked and perfectly motionless, staring down upon
us out of the hair which buried his head and covered his shoulders,
looked like some hideous idol of the East.'—(Journal, pp. 35—37.)
In reference to the character of the Indians, the Bishop says,
' their passion for liquor is well known, but it is a great blessing
that the Hudson's Bay Company have adopted measures to withhold from them this devastating curse.' ' Some of them are practised thieves; they appear very generally to be inveterate gamblers,
and will strip themselves of every article they possess, in the
unsuccessful pursuit of this passion.' \ Europeans, in some points
of view, have done them unspeakable mischief; but, as matters are
now conducted, their condition is ameliorated by their partial
assimilation to the whites. Those who are attached to the forts
are far more comfortable in their appearance than others!
The   Bishop  adverts   to   the  ? scenes of  blood and  treachery
iytc 89
from hereditary and cherished feuds; the trophies of the scalping
knife; the exposure of infants ; the abandonment of helpless objects,
when found burthensome, to perish in the wilds.' And his Lordship adds his valuable testimony, that' the influence of the Hudson's
Bay Company has been exerted, no doubt successfully, to a certain
extent, to check some of these practices, and more decisively, I
believe, for the discontinuance of certain horrid barbarities exercised
upon the widows of Indian warriors, as an established custom, and
upon captive slaves at the will of their masters.'—(Pp. 136, 137.)
Captain Franklin says that the ' Stone Indians are grossly and
habitually treacherous, generally at war with the neighbouring
tribes, and never fail to take the scalps of their prisoners as
trophies. They abuse the rights of hospitality by waylaying and
plundering the very guest who had been apparently received with
kindness, and just departed from their tents.'—(Quarterly Review,
No. lvi., p. 379.)
Mr. Greenhow says, that [ Missionaries of various Christian sects
have long been labouring with little profit, as it would appear from
all accounts. The Roman Catholics appear to content themselves with
administering baptism, and whole tribes submit at once to the rite.'
It is too much the habit to invest savages with all the better traits
of humanity, and to say that they are injured by civilization, when
in fact savages are more ferocious to each other than are the wild
beasts of the forest. The Rev. S. Parker says, in his Journal,
at p. 27—'I passed to-day a place which presented a very mournful
scene, where two years ago thirty Nez Perce young men, who were
killed by the Blackfeet, had been buried. They were all active young
men, going out upon some expedition, the nature of which I could
not learn. They had gone but a little way from the village which
encamped here, when, passing through a very narrow defile on a
small stream of water, walled up on both sides with perpendicular
rocks, the Blackfeet Indians, who had waylaid them, attacked them
from before and behind, and killed all but one, who mounted a horse
belonging to the Blackfeet, and forced his way through the opposing
enemy.   After the Blackfeet Indians had retired from the place of m&0Bmsm&sL
90
1
slaughter,,the Nez Perces brought away the dead bodies and buried
them in this place. According to their mode, they buried with them
their clothes, blankets, and buffalo robes, in graves only about three
feet deep, putting five or six bodies in a grave. Some time after
this the Blackfeet Indians came and dug them up, and made plunder
of their blankets and whatever they thought worth taking. The
Nez Perces some time afterwards came this way, and collected their
bones and buried them again. The graves in which they were first
buried were open when we passed, and fragments of garments were
lying about. Here my Indians halted, and mourned in silence over
their slaughtered sons and brothers.' The { Blackfeet' tribe are
found in different posts of the Hudson's Bay Company's territories,
and require to be carefully watched.
The aborigines of the North-West Archipelago, ' are universally
described as daring and ferocious in the extreme, but possessing
greater self-command, by which they conceal their intentions until
prepared to act. The history of the fur trade in the North Pacific
presents innumerable instances of their cruelty and treachery towards
foreigners visiting their coasts, and many vessels have been taken
by them, and all on board murdered in an instant, without the
previous occurrence of anything calculated to excite suspicion.'
Mr. Greenhow adds, ' there are many reasons for believing that these
people are cannibals, though it seems probable they only eat the bodies
of their enemies killed in war.'—(Geography of Oregon,^- 32, 33.)
The Ballabollas at Fort McLoughlin, some of whose canoes, cut
out of a single tree, are 60 feet long, by 6^- broad and 4|- deep, and
carry an hundred men, had a deadly feud with the Hydra tribe of
Queen Charlotte's Island, when Sir G. Simpson was on the coast
in 1842. The Ballabollas, to the number of 300, went in their
canoes, and butchered all the inhabitants of a village of the Hydas,
except a man and a woman, who were carried off as living trophies.
The Londonderry Sentinel of 23rd September, 1848, contains
an article from the Journal du Havre, which gives a detailed account
of the ' Massacre of an entire community of Protestant Missionaries
who have been settled in Columbia for more than- ten Years, bv an 91
Indian tribe termed the Cayouses.' The Bev. Dr. Whiteman and
his wife were among the first victims. Dysentery had carried off
several of the Indians, and the Indians supposed that the Whites
had destroyed them in order to obtain sole possession of the country.
It is mentioned in the above statement that Mr. Abernethy, the
Governor of Columbia, had, with the concurrence of the Oregon
Legislative Council, authorised a levy of 500 volunteers to punish
the Cayouses. The information concludes with the following passage :—' Vengeance is less an object than to prevent this sad
example being followed by the neighbouring tribes, among whom
the Society of Missionaries have founded numerous establishments
without gaining the sympathy of the people, or bringing about a
reform sufficiently deep-rooted to prevent cause for continually fearing
a return to the ferocity of savage life. We are assured that the
Hudson's Bay Company has, on its part, sent a considerable reinforcement to. Walla-Walla. The question is, whether they will
arrive soon enough to prevent the recurrence of such a misfortune.'
Slavery exists extensively among the Indians of the Oregon and in
New Caledonia, but the establishment of the Company's forts is
effecting a considerable change, by introducing commercial operations; and, by facilitating traffic, one of the best guarantees for
peace is established even among savages.
It may afford some idea of the difficulty which a British well-
organized association must have in dealing with the Indians, and
how impossible it would be for isolated traders to carry on traffic in
those regions when the state of slavery is known, by which the
master is brutalized even more than the unhappy victim of his avarice
and cruelty. Sir G. Simpson, in describing the tribes on the northwest coast, among the Hudson's Bay Company's forts, furnishes
the following harrowing account of the condition of their slaves:
' These thralls are just as much the property of their masters as so
many dogs, with this difference against them, that a man of cruelty
and ferocity enjoys a more exquisite pleasure in tasking, or starving,
or torturing, or killing, a fellow creature, than in treating any one
of the lower animals in a similar wayv    Eyen in the most inclement '
ftp
in u!
92
weather, a mat or a piece of deer-skin is the slave's only clothing,
whether by day or night, whether under cover or in the open air.
To eat without permission, in the very midst of an abundance which
his toil has procured, is as much as his miserable life is worth; and
the only permission which is ever vouchsafed to him is, to pick up
the offal thrown out by his unfeeling and imperious lord. Whether
in open war or in secret assassination, this cold and hungry wretch
invariably occupies the post of danger.'
' But all this is nothing when compared with the purely wanton
atrocities to which these most helpless and pitiable children of the
human race are subjected. They are beaten, lacerated, and maimed
—the mutilating of fingers or toes, the splitting of noses, the scooping
out of eyes, being ordinary occurrences. They are butchered, without the excuse or the excitement of a gladiatorial combat, to make
holidays ; and, as if to carry, persecution beyond the point at which
the wicked are said to cease from troubling, their corpses are often
cast into the sea, to be washed out and in by the tide. To show
how diabolically ingenious the masters are in the work of murder,
six slaves, on the occasion of a late merrymaking at Sitka, were
placed in a row, with their throats over a sharp ridge of rock, while
a pole, loaded with a chuckling demon at either end, ground away
at the backs of their necks till life was extinct. What a proof of
the degrading influence of oppression, that men should submit in
life to treatment from which the black bondmen of Cuba or Brazil
would be glad to escape by suicide!'—(Vol. i., p. 243.) The chiefs
not unfrequently revenge themselves on each other by slaying the
slaves when unguarded. The Sebassamen, a numerous tribe, are
said to consist chiefly of runaway slaves, who are always received
with open arms by their chief.
Fort Simpson, one of the Company's establishments, in latitude
54° 30' north, longitude 130° 30' west, situated on apeninsula, washed
on three sides by Chatham Sound, and Port Essington and Works'
Canal, are the resort of a great number of Indians; about 14,000 of
various tribes, such as the Chunseans, from Naas Biver, the Sebassamen, from Banks' Island, those of Queen Charlotte's Island, and many
yy-^ 93
from the Russian territories. All these Indians are turbulent and
fierce, and have frequent fights with each other, arising from
gambling quarrels or neglect of points of etiquette. About 800 of the
Chunseans have settled under the protection of the guns of the fort.
The Russian Indians until recently obtained with facility spirits
from the Russian Company in exchange for skins, and the demoralizing effect was seen among them, and also in the tribes contiguous
in the British territory.
The admiration of the Indians for the superior skill and ingenuity
of the Europeans is one great cause of the awe with which the
Hudson's Bay Company's forts and officers are viewed, and in some
measure explains the security of a handful of men scattered in
different forts or stockaded ports over a vast territory inhabited by
thousands of warlike people, among whom they are continually
travelling in small bands, laden with (to the Indians) precious
treasures.
Sir George Simpson thus illustrates the effect produced by the
Hudson's Bay Company's Steamer, Beaver, in which he navigated
the intricate waters of the North-Western Archipelago, from the
Straits of Fuca to Sitka, g According to the whole tenour of my
journal, this labyrinth of waters is peculiarly adapted for the powers
of steam. In the case of a sailing vessel, our delays and dangers
would have been tripled and quadrupled; a circumstance which
raised my estimate of Vancouver's skill and perseverance at every
step of my progress. But, independently of physical advantages,
steam, as I have already mentioned, may be said to exert an almost
superstitious influence over the savages; besides acting without
intermission on their fears, it has, in a great measure, subdued their
very love of robbery and violence. In a word, it has inspired the
red man with a new opinion, new not in degree but in kind, of the
superiority of his white brother.
' After the arrival of the emigrants from Red River, their guide,
a Cree of the name of Bras Croche, took a short trip in the Beaver.
When asked what he thought of her, ' Don't ask me,' was his reply;
I I cannot speak; my friends will say I tell lies when I let them know what I have seen; Indians are fools, and know nothing; I
can see that the iron machinery makes the ship to go, but I cannot
see what makes the iron machinery itself to go.' Bras Croche,
though very intelligent, and, like all the Crees, partially civilized,
was, nevertheless, so full of doubt and wonder, that he would not
leave the vessel till he got a certificate to the effect, that he had
been on board of a ship which needed neither sails nor paddlers.
Though not one of his countrymen would understand a word of
what was written, yet the most sceptical among them would not
dare to question the truth of a story which had a document in its
favour. A savage stands nearly as much in awe of paper, pen, and
ink, as of steam itself; and, if he once puts his cross to any writing,
he has rarely been known to violate the engagement which such
writing is supposed to embody or to sanction. To him the very
look of black and white is a powerful; medicine.''—(Vol. i., p. 242.)
Time, prudence, courage, moral power, and probity, have contributed to make the name of the Hudson's Bay Company respected
and feared throughout these wide-spread regions; but in several
instances fife has been lost, and great dangers incurred in establishing the stations or forts. Three or four posts which had been
established by the Company on the Bow River, or Southern branch
of the Saskatchewan, which was frequented by hostile tribes, were
abandoned; and, in 1822, the Company sent a flying expedition
into the same country, at an expense of ^6.10,000, but were obliged
to retire with considerable loss in the ensuing year. Fort Pett, after
being established ten years, was compelled, on account of its being
visited by Crees, Assiniboines, and Blackfeet, to keep, both day and
night, the system of watch and ward, which the older forts had
abandoned.
The exceptions to the general character of the Indians are few,
and when any are met with by the Company's servants, they are
highly prized and respected.
Treatment of the Indians.—The exclusive rights possessed
by the Company have prevented that destruction of the native population in Rupert's Land, which has taken place in every other part Qi
of the American Continent, and in the adjacent islands. At the
British Settlements of Australia, Van Diemen's Land, South Africa,
&c, the aborigines are fast perishing, and in Van Diemen's Island
are utterly exterminated. But, as Mr. Greenhow and other Americans truly state, the preservation of the Indian population, and the
animals on which they subsist, is a matter of the most careful
attention from a humane feeling, as well as from motives of mercantile consideration. If the fur-bearing or food-yielding animals
be recklessly destroyed, either out of season, when bearing young,
or indiscriminately without reference to sex or age, the Company in
the long run would be the principal sufferers;—so also, if the Indian
population be kept in ignorance, barbarism, and crime, the expenses
of repression, of protection against theft and violence,—and the
losses consequent upon non-payment of advances, must fall upon
the Company. It is therefore for their immediate and permanent
advantage that the Indian population be reclaimed from savage
life,—that they be preserved from the effects of extreme cold, and
privation of food, by a due and well-regulated protection,—that
they be induced by examples of good faith, of honourable treatment, and of kind consideration, to rely on the promises, and to
respect the persons and property of the Hudson's Bay Company.
The conduct of the Hudson's Bay Company indeed presents a
marked contrast to that which has taken place in the United States,
and in our own territories of the Crown. ' In Newfoundland, as in
other parts of America, it seems to have been for a length of time
a meritorious act to kill an Indian.'—(Report of Aborigines' Parliamentary Committee in 1837).
Newfoundland was once very densely peopled by Indians, who
even recently 'run up fences to the extent of 30 miles' for deer;
but the aborigines have been utterly destroyed by the English
settlers. The last of the tribes, a man and a woman, were shot by
two Englishmen in 1823.
In Upper Canada, a converted Chippeway chief, addressing Lord
Goderich, says, ' We were once very numerous, and owned all Upper
Canada, and lived bv fishing and hunting; but the white men who 96
came to trade with us, taught our fathers to drink the fire waters,
which has made our people poor and sick, and has killed many
tribes, till we have become very small.' These once numerous
people are now a degraded race, and reduced to a state resembling
that of the Gypsies in England.
In 1825 the Indians in New Brunswick were reduced to a few,
and in a I wretched condition.'    The same occurred in Nova Scotia.
The Cree Indians, in the north-west territories, once a powerful
tribe, have been reduced in 30 years from 10,000 to 200, and much
degenerated. But, adds the Aborigines Report of 1837, ' it should
be observed that this tribe had access to posts not comprehended
within the Hudson's Bay Company's prohibition as to the introduction of spirituous liquors, and they miserably show the effects of
the privilege.' ' The Copper Indians also, through ill management,
intemperance, and vice, are said to have decreased within the last
five years to one-half the number of what they were.' (Aborigines
Report, House of Commons, 1837). In Guyana, New Holland,
Kaffraria, New Zealand, &c, we see how the aborigines have been
treated, and how they have sunk and degenerated.
The Company, despite of many obstacles, have endeavoured
to follow out the excellent instructions of Charles II., addressed
to the Council of Foreign Plantations in 1670, which were as
follows : " Forasmuch as most of our said colonies do border
upon the Indians, and peace is not to be expected without the due
observance and preservation of justice to them, you are, in our
name, to command all the. Governors that they at no time give any
just provocation to any of the said Indians that are at peace with
us,' &c. That with respect to the Indians who desire to put themselves under our protection, that they ' be received;' c and that the
Governors do by all ways seek firmly to oblige them; and that they
do employ some persons to learn the languages of them; and that
they do not only carefully protect and defend them from adversaries,
but that they more especially take care that none of our own subjects, nor any of their servants, do any way harm them. That if any
shall dare to offer any violence to them in their persons, goods, or
Lfe: ir* 97
possessions, the said Governors do severely punish the said injuries agreeably to justice and right. And you are to consider how
the Indians and slaves may be best instructed and converted to the
Christian religion; it being both for the honour of the Crown and
of the Protestant religion itself, that all persons within any of our
territories, though never so remote, should be taught the knowledge
of God, and be acquainted with the mysteries of salvation.'
That such has been the conduct of the Company, was acknowledged by the Aborigines Parliamentary Committee and Sir T.
Fowell Buxton, in 1837. Testimony to the same effect has been
given by the late Mr. Thomas Simpson, who, in company with Mr.
Dease, another of the Hudson's Bay Company's servants, under the
liberal encouragement and provision of the Hudson's Bay Company,
made a tour, as before stated, from Fort Chipewyan to the more
northern parts of the continent, and in several parts of the Narrative of the Discoveries on the North Coast of America, published
by Bentley in 1843, are passages bearing on the conduct of the
Company. The following is in point:—' During this month I had
the most convincing proofs of that recklessness which prompts the
Indian to prefer a momentary gratification to a substantial benefit.
Earnest applications were made by the assembled Chipewyans for
the re-introduction into their country of ardent spirits, which had
been for many years discontinued by the Company's humane policy.
Their attachment to the poisonous beverage, however, remained so
strong, that, every season, parties of the tribes traversed the continent to Churchill, on Hudson's Bay, with no other purpose but to
obtain it. At length its use was prohibited there also, and the
Chipewyans renewed their solicitations. Instead of gaining their
point, they were now justly reproved by their benefactor, Mr. Smith,
and obliged to confess their own folly.' The following is an extract of the Company's standing orders on these subjects :—' That
the Indians be treated with kindness and indulgence, and mild and
conciliatory means resorted to, in order to encourage industry,
repress vice, and inculcate morality; that the use of spirituous
liquors be gradually discontinued in the few districts in which it is
G 1
98
yet indispensable; and that the Indians be liberally supplied with
requisite necessaries, particularly with articles of ammunition,
whether they have the means of paying for it or not.' It is equally
the Company's inclination and their interest to render the natives
comfortable. It is when they are well clothed, and amply provided
with ammunition, that they are best able to exert themselves in collecting furs and provisions. But, so far is it from the Company's
wish to acquire an undue influence over them, by loading them
with debts, that repeated attempts have been made to reduce the
trade to a simple barter. In order to effect an object so beneficial
to the natives themselves, the arrears of the Chipewyans have been
twice cancelled since the junction of the two companies in 1821;
but the generous experiment has signally failed. The improvidence
of the Indian character is an insurmountable, obstacle to its success,
and, in the Chipewyans, is aggravated by a custom which the whites
have not yet been able wholly to eradicate. On the death of a
relative, they destroy guns, blankets, kettles, everything, in short,
they possess,—concluding the havoc by tearing their lodges to
pieces. When these transports of grief have subsided, they must
have recourse to the nearest establishment for a fresh supply of
necessaries; and thus their debts are renewed. The debts of the
deceased are, in every case, lost to the Company. The Indian debt
system is, in reality, equivalent to the practice, in many civilized
countries, of making advances to hired servants previous to the
commencement of their actual duties. This is particularly remarkable among the French Canadians, who can scarcely be induced to
undertake any. work or service without first receiving part payment
in advance. Their improvidence approaches to that of the Indian,
and produces similar effects.'—(Pp. 72—75.)
• The treatment of the Indians on the west coast, is shown by the
Rev. Samuel Parker, a Minister of the Gospel in the United States,
who was sent by the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign
Missions to ascertain the field for missionary enterprise beyond the
Rocky Mountains, in 1836-7. The reverend gentleman takes occasion
in various places to express his highest commendation of the policy 99
and proceedings of the Hudson's Bay Company. At page 31 of his
interesting Journal, he says: \ The gentlemen belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company deserve commendation for their gentle treatment
of the Indians, by which they have obtained their friendship and confidence, and also for the efforts which some few of them have made to
instruct those about them in the first principles of our holy religion,
especially in regard to equity, humanity, and morality. This
Company is of long standing; they have originated a vast trade,
which they are anxious to preserve, and therefore they consult the
prosperity of the Indians, as intimately connected with their own.
I have not been informed, as yet, of a single instance of any Indian
being wantonly killed by the men belonging to this Company ; nor
have I heard any boasting among them of the satisfaction taken in
killing or abusing Indians, too frequently observable elsewhere.'
Indeed it is so obviously the interest of a powerful body like the
Hudson's Bay Company, who are not grasping at an immediate
individual advantage, who feel they are responsible to their Sovereign and the Nation for the righteous fulfilment of the trust
reposed in them, and who, it is to be presumed, have Christian
consciences as well as other men, that it is scarcely necessary to
multiply evidence on the subject; but, as it is now proposed to
entrust to this Company the colonization of Vancouver's Island, it
is desirable to examine their past proceedings in every respect.
Mr. Simpson, speaking of his wintering at Fort Chipewyan, in
1837, says:—j The month of February was unusually mild, and at
noon the sun not unfrequently asserted his increasing power by a
gentle thaw. Messengers were continually arriving with favourable
accounts from the Indian camps; a pleasing contrast to the preceding winter, which is rendered memorable to the poor natives by
the ravages of an influenza—scarcely less dreadful than the cholera
—that carried off nearly 200 of the distant Chipewyans. I say
distant, because all who were within reach of the establishment were
sent for and carried thither, where every care was taken of them;
warm clothing and lodgings were provided; medicines administered;
the traders and servants fed them, parting with their own slender 1
1
stock of luxuries* for their nourishment; till even the cold heart of
the red man warmed into gratitude, and his lips uttered the unwonted
accents of thanks.'—(Pp. 67, 68.) And again—' It is with sincere
pleasure I take this occasion of observing, that the harsh treatment
of their women, for which the Chipewyans were, not long since,
remarkable, even among the North American tribes, is now greatly
alleviated, especially among those who have frequent communication
with the establishments. At Great Bear Lake I had many opportunities of witnessing the conduct of this particular family, and
always saw the females treated with kindness. The present Chipe-
wyan character, indeed, contrasts most favourably with that of the
party who accompanied Hearne on his discovery of the Copper Mine
River, and who massacred the unhappy Esquimaux, surprised asleep
in their tents at the Bloody Fall. A large proportion of the Company's servants, and, with very few exceptions, the officers, are
united to native women. A kindly feeling of relationship thus exists
between them and the Indians, which tends much to the safety of
the small and thinly scattered posts, placed, as they are, among
overwhelming numbers, were those numbers hostile. The rising
class of officers have begun to marry the young ladies educated at
Red River, which will tend to give a higher tone to the manners and
morals of the country, without, it is to be hoped, diminishing those
mutual feelings of goodwill that now subsist between the Indians
and the traders resident among them.
S An aged Cree hunter arrived with his family. Feeling his
strength, which had borne him through forest and flood for many
a year, no longer equal to the chase, the old man said that he was
eome to end his days at the fort. With care and attention, however,
he soon began to revive; the whole family were furnished with
everything necessary, had the same rations assigned them as the
* ' A few pounds of tea, sugar, &c, allowed to officers and guides, and purchased by
the common men, are called ' luxuries' in Hudson's Bay. The old Canadian
* voyageurs' who lament the degeneracy of their successors, are nothing loth to imitate
their example in adding these comforts to their fare; and an encampment of the
present day exhibits a regular assortment of tea kettles, pots, and pans.' 101
regular servants, and continued to live in comfort at the establishment. Many other Indians came in from the different camps with
furs and for supplies.
I From some of the Chipewyans I learned that they had, in the
course of the preceding summer, met with a party of Esquimaux at
the confluence of the noble Thelew or Thelon River with the Doo-
baunt of Hearne, below the lake of the latter name, and not far
from the influx of these united streams into Chesterfield Inlet.
This meeting was of the most amicable character, and they spent a
great part of the summer together. The Esquimaux even proposed,
to send two of their young men to Athabasca, inviting the same
number of Indians to pass the winter with them. The arrangement
was agreed to by both parties, but was frustrated by some petty
jealousy among the women. They also informed me that, in 1832,
some of the Athabasca Chipewyans accompanied the Churchill
branch of their tribe on their annual meeting with other Esquimaux,
at Yath Kyed, or White Snow Lake of Hearne, which receives the
united waters of the Cathawchaga and the rapid Kasan, or White
Partridge River. This remarkable change, from mortal hatred to
frank and confident intercourse, is solely owing to the humane interposition of the Company's officers, who neglect no opportunity of
inculcating on the minds of these savage tribes the propriety of
their forgiving ancient wrongs, and uniting together in the bonds of
peace and friendship. By the same influence, the warlike Beaver
Indians of Peace River have been, of late years, reconciled to their
old enemies, the Thoecanies of the Rocky Mountains, and the
Carriers of New Caledonia.'—(Narrative, &c, pp. 69—72.)
Wherever, indeed, the Hudson's Bay Company have established
settlements or forts (as their stockades are called), they have made
a nucleus for civilization, which gradually spreads around.
Governor Simpson, in an able resume of the proceedings of the
Hudson's Bay Company, dated 1st February, 1837, printed in the
Parliamentary Papers of 8th August, 1842, p. 17, says:—' I have
no hesitation in saying, that the native population of the countries
through which the Hudson's Bay Company's business extends never derived any real benefit from their intercourse with the whites until
the fur trade became exercised under the existing licence. In proof
of this, the population of some of the tribes, previous to that time
sensibly diminishing, is now increasing; and from my experience of
the times of opposition, I can further say, that if the trade were
again thrown open to competition, all the horrors of the late contest
would break out afresh;, drunkenness and demoralization would
have their former sway, not only among the natives, but among the
whites, whom we are now enabled to keep under proper subordination, which was never the case during the excitement occasioned by
the rivalship in trade; the fur-bearing animals would in the course
of a very few years become nearly extinct; and the inevitable consequences would be the desertion of the natives by the traders, the
latter having no longer any inducement to remain among them;
that unfortunate population, thus left to their own resources, must
inevitably perish from cold and hunger,—the use of the bow and
arrow, and other rude inplements, formerly affording them the
means of feeding and clothing themselves, being now unknown, and
our guns, ammunition, fishing-tackle, iron works, cloth, blankets,
and other manufactures having become absolutely necessary to their
very existence.    [For confirmation, see p. 84.]
I Previous to 1821 the business of the Columbia department was
very limited; but it has since been very greatly extended at much
expense, and, I am sorry to add, at a considerable sacrifice of life
among the Company's officers and servants, owing to the fierce,
treacherous, and bloodthirsty character of its population, and the
dangers of the navigation.
' The fur trade is the principal branch of business at present in
the country situated between the Rocky Mountains and the Pacific
Ocean. On the banks of the Columbia River, however, where the
soil and climate are favourable to cultivation, we are directing our
attention to agriculture on a large scale, and there is every prospect
that we shall soon be able to establish important branches of export
trade from thence in the articles of wool, tallow, hideSi tobacco, and
grain of various kinds. 103
' I have also the satisfaction to say, that the native population
are beginning to profit by our example, as many, formerly dependent
on hunting and fishing, now maintain themselves by the produce of
the soil.'
The Rev. S. Parker gives a most pleasing picture of Fort Vancouver on the Columbia, and thus writes to his friends:—' I am
very agreeably situated in this place. Half of a new house is
assigned me, well furnished, and all the attendance which I could
wish, with access to a valuable library. I have ample opportunities
of riding out for exercise, or to see the adjoining country; and, in
addition to all these advantages, and what is still more valuable, I
enjoy the society of gentlemen, enlightened, polished, and sociable.
These comforts were not anticipated, and are, therefore, the more
grateful.
I There is a school connected with this establishment, for the
benefit of the children of the traders and common labourers, some
of whom are orphans, whose parents were attached to the Company;
and also some Indian children, who are provided for by the generosity of the resident gentlemen. They are instructed in the common
branches of an English education, such as reading, writing, arithmetic, grammar, and geography; and, together with these, in religion
and morality. The exercises of the school are closed with singing
a hymn; after which, they are taken by their teacher to a garden
assigned them, in which they labour. Finding them deficient in
sacred music, I undertook to instruct them in singing, in which
they make good progress, and develop excellent voices. Among
them is one Indian boy, who has the most flexible and melodious
voice I ever heard.
c It is worthy of notice, how little of the Indian complexion is
seen in the half-breed children. Generally they have fair skin, often
flaxen hair, and blue eyes. The children of the school were punctual
in their attendance on the three services of the Sabbath, and formed
our choir.'—(Journey beyond the Rocky Mountains, p. 39.)
In the ' Narrative' before referred to, Mr. T. Simpson thus records
his impressions of the state of the Indians at the Red River Settlement: 104
' It may be remarked that, while not a few of the children, by native
women, of the Company's retired European servants, who are chiefly
Orkneymen, inherit the plodding careful disposition of their fathers,
the half-breed descendants of the French Canadians are, with rare exceptions, characterized by the paternal levity and extravagance, superadded to the uncontrollable passions of the Indian blood. Many of
the industrious Scotch, who first planted the Colony in 1811, under
the auspices of the late Earl of Selkirk, have saved handsome sums of
money, besides rearing large families in rustic plenty. A considerable portion of this valuable class, however, dreading the predominance and violence of the half-breeds, with whom they have avoided
intermarrying, have converted their property into money, and removed
to the United States.
' Besides extensive purchases of grain and provisions, for their
transport and other service, the Company annually expends large
sums at Red River, in works of public utility, such as experimental
farming, erecting churches and other buildings, endowing schools,
affording medical aid gratis to the poor, encouraging domestic
manufactures, maintaining an armed police, dispensing justice, and
in contributing to the support of two Protestant clergymen, of a
Roman Catholic bishop, and three priests from Canada. These
self-denying men are exemplary in their lives, zealous and indefatigable in their benevolent labours, among the fruits of which may be
reckoned the conversion and location of a great number of Indians,
of the Cree and Salteaux, or Chippeway nations. To compensate
this heavy outlay, the Company has hitherto derived no return, for
the occasional sale of lands does not even defray the cost of the
survey, they being in most instances bestowed gratis, though
regularly purchased from the Indians, and the fur trade of the
surrounding country has been long ago ruined by the Colony;
but under the Company's fostering care, a population of five
thousand souls has been nurtured, and a comfortable retreat has
been provided for such of its retired officers and servants as prefer
spending the evening of life, with their native families, in this oasis
of the desert, to returning to the countries  of their nativity.    I 105
cannot pass over, without particular notice, the admirable boarding-
schools established by the Rev. Mr. Jones, where about sixty youth
of both sexes, the intelligent and interesting offspring of the Company's officers, are trained up in European accomplishments, and in
the strictest principles of religion. Nor should I omit mentioning
the Indian Settlements, founded by the Rev. Mr. Cockran at the
lower extremity of the Colony. He has provided schoolmasters for
the native children, and built places of worship, where he regularly
officiates. He has constructed a windmill for the Indians, assists
them in erecting their wooden houses, and with his own hands sets
them the example of industry. At the other extremity of the Colony, M. Belcour, one of the Roman Catholic priests, with untiring
zeal, conducts a location of Salteaux Indians on a smaller scale.
I wish I could add that the improvement of the aborigines is commensurate to those beneficent cares. But, unhappily, the experience
of Canada, of the United States, of California, in short, of all parts
of North America, where the experiment of ameliorating the character of the Indian tribes by civilization has been tried, is renewed
at Red River. Nothing can overcome their insatiable desire for
intoxicating liquors; and though they are here excluded from the
use of spirits, and the settlers are fined when detected in supplying
them with ale, yet, from the great extent of the Colony, they too
often contrive to gratify that debasing inclination, to which they are
ready to sacrifice everything they possess. They feel no gratitude
to their benefactors, or spiritual teachers; and, while they lose the
haughty independence of savage life, they acquire at once all the
bad qualities of the white man, but are slow, indeed, of imitating his
industry and his virtues*.
' Indian lads, educated in the Church Missionary Society's School
at Red River, have been sent to instruct their countrymen in various
parts of the Company's territory.    In the countries of the Columbia
* ' Yet among the native tribes there exist marked distinctions. The Swampy
Crees, who have long been employed in the Company's service at York Factory and
other places, adopt steady habits with far greater facility than the proud Salteaux, who
contemptuously term the settlers gardeners and diggers of the ground.' amJW,^,.mar'a!mBas»»!!^Kaa^!^xaav3a»9j^fKaaeiax.
it
106
and New Caledonia, to the westward of the great Rocky Mountain
chain, the missionary labours promise considerable success.    There
the climate is softened by the influences of the Pacific; food is
abundant; the numerous natives do not lead the same solitary wandering lives as the Eastern tribes, but dwell together in villages.
They are endowed with a greater capacity and quickness of apprehension; are more pliant and tractable in temper;  are fond of
imitating the customs of white men ;  and now receive, with eagerness, the truths of Christianity, from those upon whom but a few
years ago they perpetrated the most barbarous murders; but the
fever and ague, to which the country is very subject, has of late
tlnnned their numbers.    The Company's principal chaplain resides
at their depot of Fort Vancouver, on the north side of the Columbia
River, where agriculture, rearing of stock, and other commercial
operations, are prosecuted on a great scale.    The same enlightened
body has, of late years, liberally assisted American missionaries
employed in instructing the dissolute maritime tribes, and in founding
an American colony on the Willamette, a southern tributary of the
Columbia; and has since conveyed across the mountains several
Canadian priests, who, under the authority of the Bishop at Red
River, are gone to form another British settlement on the shores of
Puget Sound, the nucleus of a future empire in the Far West.    The
case is widely different in the frozen regions of the North, there the
Indian hunters are scattered through interminable forests, into which
civilization can never penetrate.    Since the coalition of the rival
companies, however,  and the discharge of the noxious swarm of
adventurers, who, encouraged by the licence of a hot opposition,
overran and well nigh ruined the country, the precepts of morality
and order have been instilled into the minds of the aborigines by
many officers of the Company.    No stronger proof of the salutary
effect of their injunctions can be adduced than that, while peace and
decorum mark the general conduct of the Northern tribes, bloodshed,
rapine, and unbridled lust are the characteristics of the fierce hordes
of Assiniboines, Piegans, Blackfeet, Circees, Fall and Blood Indians,
who inhabit the plains between the Saskatchewan and Missouri,
yr
1 107
and are without the pale of the  Company's influence and authority.
| It gives me sincere pleasure to say, that a reconciliation has at
length been effected between those lately inveterate and bloody
enemies, the Saulteaux and Sioux nations. Under the safeguard of the Company's people, aided by the settlers, two bands of
the latter tribe visited Red River during my residence there, in 1834
and 1836. Presents were given and speeches were made, both to
them and to the assembled Saulteaux, who upon the first occasion
were very violent, and were only restrained from bloodshed by disarming and other vigorous measures; but, upon the last occasion,
they smoked the calumet of peace, and slept in the same apartments
with the Sioux at the Company's head quarters, Fort Garry. The
Sioux seemed highly gratified with the kindness and protection they
experienced, and have on several occasions performed friendly offices
to the Company's couriers and others passing through their country
to the American garrison on the river St. Peter's. They are a warlike equestrian race, with light sinewy frames, and eagle eyes, who
pursue the buffalo in the boundless plains of the Missouri and the
Upper Mississippi.'—(Narrative, &c, pp. 14—20.)
During the years 1838 to 1842, the United States employed a
scientific surveying expedition of three vessels of war, on the
western coast of America and in the Pacific Ocean, under the
command of an able officer, Commodore Wilkes. The information
thus obtained has been published in five large volumes, with an
atlas*, and may be deemed official. Commodore Wilkes, like all
Americans, under the influence of so-called popular principles, was
unwilling to find errors anywhere among his fellow countrymen .
but, with the frankness characteristic of his profession, he has not
suppressed the views he entertains in consequence of what he
actually saw of the proceedings and conduct of the Hudson's Bay
Company. In several places throughout his interesting work, the
Commodore bears high testimony to the character of the officers of
the Company—to their humane treatment of the Indians—to their
* Published by Wiley and Putnam.    London, 1845. r
108
admirable arrangement and economy in conducting the fur trade—
to the respect which they inspire for the British name, and to the
advantageous colonizing stations which they formed in the Oregon
territory.
In passing through this region the Commodore remarks:—' The
Indians of this region even now make war upon each other on the
most trivial occasion, and for the most part to satisfy individual
revenge. The Hudson's Bay Company's officers possess and exert
a most salutary influence, endeavouring to preserve peace at all
hazards. It is now quite safe for a white man to pass in any
direction through the part of the country where their posts are; and
in case of accident to any white settler, a war-party is at once
organized, and the offender is hunted up. About a year previous
to our arrival, an Indian was executed at Astoria for the murder of
a white man, whom he had found asleep, killed, and stolen his
property.
' He was taken, tried, found guilty, and executed in the presence
of most of the settlers. The culprit was a slave, and it was some
time before-the chief to whom he belonged would give him up. It
was proved on the trial, and through the confession of the slave,
that he had stolen the property and committed the murder by order
of his master, who took all the stolen goods. The master made
his escape when he found his agency had been discovered; and I
understood that he kept himself aloof from all the Company's posts,
Until the matter should be forgotten.'—(Vol. iv., p. 323.)
The Rev. G. Barnley, one of the Wesleyan Ministers in the
Hudson's Bay Company's territories, in a letter to the Wesleyan
Committee, dated Moose Factory, Rupert's Land, 24th August, 1848,
thus speaks of the treatment of the Indians by the Company:—
' The Company appears to regard, as far and perhaps further than
could be expected, the welfare of the Indians, who are completely
dependent on them. The introduction of firearms has caused the
natives to lose that skill with the bow and arrow which characterises the Indian of the plains, so that, without constant supplies
of ammunition, they would be unable to procure sufficient food to 109
sustain life. In former times, when traders opposed to each other
were competing for their furs, the Indians were more independent;
but as they were passionately fond of rum, of course they wished to
procure it in exchange; and if one party of traders had refused to
supply them with it, all the trade would at once have been thrown
into the hands of the other: and the Indians would not have been
benefited, but greatly injured. It is gratifying to know, that in no
case through the territory is liquor sold to them ; it is more so, to
find that the system of giving it is being gradually discontinued, and
that dry goods are furnished instead of the fire-water.'—(Wesleyan
Missionary Notices, February 1841, p. 448.)
In the Rev. J. Smithurst's Report to the Church Missionary
Society, for 1846, on the Indians in North-West America, he says :
' I by no means think that hunting has a demoralizing effect upon
the Indians, if they are not supplied with rum to take out with
them. I would much rather that they should be away hunting,
than employed among the European and half-bred settlers, where
they would be exposed to the temptations of beer, rum, &c.'
The kind treatment of the Indians by the Hudson's Bay Company, as stated by Commodore Wilkes and Mr. Greenhow, is confirmed by the Bishop of Montreal, who says, in his Journal:—
I Acts of violence committed upon the persons of the factors or
traders of the Company must, I apprehend, be of exceedingly rare
occurrence. As far as I had opportunities of knowing, the general
system pursued at the Forts, with reference to the treatment of the
people employed, is such as to gain their attachment. And the
Indian hangers-on, in seasons of want, draw largely upon the charity
of these establishments. Kindness, united with firmness and decision, appears to be the secret of governing mankind throughout the
world, ill as it is understood in too large a portion of it.'—(Pp. 123,
124.)
The reader will now be prepared to estimate at its true value the
assertion that ' the present appalling condition of the native population, their ignorance, their barbarism, and the sufferings and
crimes consequent thereon, are ascribable to the present system of 1^
I ' ■
I)
no
misgovernment;' that' the lives of the unoffending native race, are
being virtually sacrificed year by year to the selfish and iniquitous
object of drawing the greatest possible revenue from the country;'
and that by the proceedings of the Company the natives are \ exposed yearly to all the horrors of famine, and the attendant crimes
of murder and cannibalism*.' In no other part of the continent of
North America have the Indians been conserved so well as in the
Hudson's Bay Company's territories; indeed, they have been almost
extirpated in Canada, and in the United States; and it is probable
that in a few years they will be utterly destroyed or expelled from
the regions south of the 49° parallel of latitude.
The general and minute testimony given by the Bishop of Montreal, the British Ministers of the Gospel, by the Rev. S. Parker,
Commodore Wilkes, and Mr. Greenhow, three American gentlemen,
whose favourable evidence cannot be invalidated, is ample proof of
the treatment of the Indians by the Hudson's Bay Company. The
schools, and the attention given to religious instruction, are but the
commencement of a system which requires years of the most judicious management to establish and extend. Any person who has
seen savages in America, Africa, Asia, or Australia, know how difficult, nay almost impossible, it is to impart to them even the first
rudiments of civilization,—to induce them to derive their subsistence
from the cultivation of the soil,—to eradicate the fearful vices,
crimes, and false principles of unreclaimed man. The Australian
savage perishes by European contact, like snow beneath the
summer sun: even the care and principles of William Penn failed
for the preservation of the Indians; and Sir George Simpson, the
Governor of the Hudson's Bay Company's territories in America,
feelingly deplores the hopelessness of civilizing the Indian population.
* Memorial to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, in the pamphlet of Mr. A. K.
Isbester. fart H
CHRISTIAN CONDUCT AND BENEFICENT POLICY
OF THE HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY.
It is difficult to enter into details on this branch of the subject;
conclusions must be drawn from general facts, and allowances
made for the nature of the country, its position, climate, products,
the character of the inhabitants, and the means required for their
improvement.
After a careful examination of all circumstances, there can be
no hesitation in saying, that the Hudson's Bay Company have
well fulfilled the objects for which their Charter was granted in
1670. Without any aid from the Crown—without any drain
upon the national exchequer,—opposed by American and even
English rivalry,—subject to plunder and devastation by the fleets
and forces of the French and Russian Governments,—struggling
against an inclement climate, in a sterile soil,—shut out from
maritime communication with England, except for a few months
in the year,—and amidst hosts of wild, warlike, treacherous, and
mere hunting savages, the Hudson's Bay Company have acquired
and maintained for England, by a sagacious and prudent policy,
by honourable, and, above all, by Christian conduct, that portion
of the North American continent which lies between the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans, north of the 49th degree of latitude, extending
over more than three million square miles—(3,060,000.)
But for the Hudson's Bay Company England, would probably
have been shut out from the Pacific, for, on the 5th of April,
1814, a convention was signed between the United States and
Russia, (to which England was no party,) making the 54th paral- 112
lei the boundary of their respective dominions. The settlements
of the Hudson's Bay Company on the Columbia River and in the
Oregon region defeated this project.
The American geographer and librarian to the United States'
Government, Mr. Greenhow, who ably vindicates the rights and
claims of his own country, who is by no means favourably disposed
to any claims of England on the continent of America, and who,
as an American, is little inclined to approve of the conduct of an
Association whose interests he naturally considers opposed to
those of his own countrymen, thus candidly expresses his views in
1844, when referring to the disputed territory of the Oregon,
Columbia River, Vancouver's Island, &c. :—
I The British Ministers could have no counsellors better qualified to advise, or whose interests were more completely identified
with those of the Government, than the Hudson's Bay Company, who, representing in all respects the interests of Great
Britain in North-West America, has indeed become a powerful
body. The field of its operations was more than doubled by its
union with the North-West Company, and by the licence to trade,
in exclusion of all other British subjects, in the countries west of
the Rocky Mountains, where the fur-bearing animals are more
abundant than in any other part of the world ; while the extension
of the jurisdiction of the Canada courts over the whole division
of the continent, to which its charters apply, and the appointment
of its own agents as magistrates in those regions, gave all that
could have been desired for the enforcement of its regulations.
The arrangement made with the Russian-American Company,
through the intervention of the two Governments, secured to the
Hudson's Bay Company the most advantageous limits in the
north-west; and the position assumed by Great Britain, in the
discussions with the United States respecting Oregon, were calculated to increase the confidence of the body in the strength of
its tenure of that country, and to encourage greater efforts on its
part to assure that tenure.
1 The licence granted to the Hudson's Bay Company in 1821, 113
expired in 1842, but another had been previously conceded, also
for twenty-one years, containing some new and important provisions. Thus, the Company was bound, under heavy penalties,
to enforce the due execution of all criminal processes by the
officers and other persons, legally empowered in all its territories ; and to make and submit to the Government such rules and
regulations for the management of the trade with the Indians as
should be effectual to prevent the sale and distribution of spirituous liquors among them, and to promote their moral and
religious improvement. It is, moreover, declared in the grant,
that nothing therein contained should authorise the Company to
claim the right of trade in any part of America, to the prejudice
or exclusion of the people of ' any foreign -states? who may be
• entitled to trade there, in virtue of conventions between such
states and Great Britain ; and the Government reserves to itself
the right to establish within the territories included in the grant
any colony or province, to annex any part of those territories to
any existing colony or province, and to apply to such portion any
form of civil government which might be deemed proper. Whether this last provision was introduced with some special and
immediate object, or with a view to future contingencies, no
means have as yet been afforded for determining. It is, however, certain that the British Government insisted strongly on
retaining the above-mentioned privileges; and it is most probable, the Red River* and the Columbia countries were in view at
the time, as the remainder of the territory, included in the grant
and not possessed by the Company in virtue of the Charter of
1669, is of little value in any way. In addition to the assistance
and protection thus received from the British Government, the
constitution of the Hudson's Bay Company is such as to secure
the utmost degree of knowl edge and prudence in its councils, and
of readiness and exactness in the execution of its orders. Its
affairs are superintended by a Governor, a Deputy Governor,
and a Committee of Directors established at London, by whom
* Mr. Greenhowis wrong so far as the Red River territory is concerned, as that
region is not included in the exclusive Licence of trade in 1838,—[R. M. M.]
H w5S5ESS5s3e58&^&gs&
m\\m
it
114
all general orders and regulations are devised and issued, and all
reports and accounts are examined and controlled. The proceedings of this body are enveloped in profound secrecy, and the
communications made to the Government in writing, which are
likely to be published, are expressed in terms of studied caution,
and afford only the details absolutely required.
i The trade in America is especially directed by a resident
Governor, who occasionally visits and inspects all the principal
posts;—under him, as officers, are chief factors, chief traders,
and clerks, for the most part natives of North Britain, and an
army of regular servants, employed as hunters, traders, voyageurs,
&c, nearly all of them Canadians, or half-breeds. The number
of all these persons is small, when compared with the duties they
have to perform ; but the manner in which they are admitted
into the service, and the training to which they are subjected, are
such as to render their efficiency and their devotion to the general interests as great as possible. The strictest discipline, regularity, and economy, are enforced in every part of the Company's
territories; and the magistrates appointed under the Act of
Parliament for the preservation of tranquillity, are seldom called
to exercise their functions, except in the settlement of trifling
disputes.
i In the treatment of the aborigines of the countries under its
control, the Hudson's Bay Company appear to have admirably
reconciled policy with humanity. The prohibition to supply
those people with ardent spirits, appears to be rigidly enforced.
Schools for the instruction of the native children are established
at all the principal trading posts, each of which also contains a
hospital for sick Indians, and offers employment for those who
are disposed to work, whilst hunting cannot be carried on.
Missionaries of various sects are encouraged to endeavour to
convert them to Christianity, and to induce them to adopt the
usages of civilized life, so far as may be consistent with the nature
of the labours required for their support; and attempts are made,
at great expense, to collect the Indians in villages, on tracts
where the climate and soil are most favourable for agriculture. 115
Particular care is extended to the education of the half-breed
children, the offspring of the marriage or concubinage of the
traders with the Indian women, who are retained and bred as
far as possible among the white people, and are employed, whenever they are found capable, in the service of the Company. As
there are few or no white women in those territories, except in
the Red River settlements, it may be readily seen that the half-
breeds must in a short time form a large and important portion
of the native population.
' The conduct of the Hudson's Bay Company in these respects
is certainly worthy of commendation. It is, however, to be
observed, that of the whole territory placed under the authority of
that body, only a few small portions are capable of being rendered
productive by agriculture. From the remainder nothing of
value can be obtained, excepting furs, and those articles can be
procured in greater quantities, and at less cost, by the labour of
the Indians, than by any other means. There is consequently no
object in expelling or destroying the native population, which
can never be dangerous from its numbers, while, on the contrary,
there is a direct and evident motive and interest for preserving
and conciliating them, and the British certainly employ the best
methods to attain those ends. By the system above described,
the natural shyness and distrust of the savages have been in a
great measure removed; the ties which bound together the
members of the various tribes have been loosened, and extensive
combinations for any purpose have become impossible.
< The dependence of the Indians upon the Company is, at the
same time, rendered entire and absolute; for, having abandoned
the use of all their former arms, hunting and fishing implements,
and clothes, they can no longer subsist without the guns, ammunition, fish-hooks, blankets, and other similar articles which they
receive only from the British traders. The position of the Hudson's Bay Company towards the North American Indians is thus
wholly different from that held by the East India Company with
respect to the Chinese ; the motives for prohibiting the introduc- ^ggr
ivsKggs^^B^w»ssssaagiiaa^giiKBaea^sssi^^f^BgBB»
116
tion of spirits among the former people being as strong on the one
part, as those for favouring the consumption of opium among the
latter people are on the other. The course observed by the
Hudson's Bay Company towards American citizens in the territory west of the Rocky Mountains, has been equally unexceptionable and yet equally politic. All the missionaries and emigrants
from the United States, and, indeed, all strangers from whatever
countries they might come, were received at the establishments
of the Company on the Columbia with the utmost kindness and
hospitality, and they were aided in the prosecution of their objects,
so far and so long as those objects were not commercial. But no
sooner did any one, unconnected with the Company, attempt to
hunt, or to trap, or to trade with the natives, than all the force of
the body was immediately directed towards him. There is no
evidence, or well-founded suspicion, that the Hudson's Bay
agents have ever resorted, directly or indirectly, to violence, in
order to defeat the efforts of such rivals. And, indeed, those
means would have been superfluous, whilst the Company enjoys
such great advantages in its organization, its wealth, and the
minute knowledge of the country, and influence over the natives,
possessed by its agents. Wherever an American trading post
has been established, or an American party has been engaged in
trade on the Columbia, there appeared a Hudson's Bay agent at
the head of a number of hunters, or with a large stock of merchandise, or a large amount of specie in hand, which were offered
for skins on terms much more favourable to the Indians than
those possessed by the citizens of the United States; and the
latter, in consequence, finding their labours vain, were soon
obliged to retire from the field. Even without employing such
extraordinary and expensive means, the British traders, receiving
their goods in the Columbia by sea from London, free from duty,
can always undersell the Americans, who must transport their
merchandise two thousand miles over land, from the frontiers of
the United States, where the articles best adapted for the trade
have previously been subjected to an import duty.    In pursuance
I'&Sfc* 117
of the same system, the Company endeavours, and generally with
success, to prevent the vessels of the United States from obtaining
cargoes on the north-west coasts of America, though the mariners
of all nations, when thrown upon the coasts by shipwreck, or by
other misfortunes, have uniformly received shelter and protection
at its posts and factories. The furs and skins, which have hitherto
formed almost the whole returns from the territories of the
Hudson's Bay Company, are collected from the different posts, in
part by regularly employed hunters and trappers, but chiefly by
trade with the Indians of the surrounding country; and they are
nearly all shipped for London in the Company's vessels at Montreal, or York, or Moose Factories on Hudson's Bay, or Fort
Vancouver on the Columbia; the goods for trade, and the supply
of the posts being received the same way.'—(Pp. 393—397,
History of Oregon and California, published by Murray, London.
1844.)
The grounds on which the exclusive licence of trade was
granted in 1838, are stated by the Board of Trade (letter, 2nd
June, 1837) to be on account of the liberal and enlightened policy
which has generally distinguished the Hudson's Bay Company ;
and the ' peculiar nature of the fur trade seems to justify, and
even to recommend, the adoption of the principle of conferring
exclusive privileges upon a great body engaged in it, however
objectionable such a principle appears with reference to commercial affairs generally.'—(Letter from Mr. (now Sir) Denis Le
Marchant,Bart.,to the Colonial Secretary, Parliamentary Papers,
547, of 8th of August, 1842.)
The present Governor-General of Canada, Lord Elgin, one of
the most upright and able servants of the Crown, and whose
judgment is of the highest order, thus expresses himself in a reply
to the inquiries of the Secretary of State for the Colonies:—' I am
bound to state that the result of the inquiries I have made is highly
favourable to the Company, and has left on my mind the impression
that the authority which they exercise over the vast and inhospitable
region subject to their jurisdiction is, on the whole, very advantageous to the Indians.' vwmxxxmi iiikw n«»MW«WW*
■ i H
118
The Bishop of Montreal, on his visit to the Red River settlement in 1844, says, that the arrangements for his doing so were
all made for him I in the most excellent manner, and with the
most careful attention, by direction of Sir G. Simpson, the Governor of the Hudson's Bay territories.' The Bishop speaks of
' the kindness and attention which he everywhere experienced at the
hands of the Hudson's Bay Company's servants! At page 166 of
his Journal, says, ' It is the rule of the Company's posts that the
factor or trader in charge, where there is no clergyman, should
read the church service on Sundays to the persons who can be
gathered to hear it:—the Company have forwarded the erection
of churches at Red River.' And at page 164 his Lordship
remarks—' If I may judge from the kindness shown personally
to myself, the facilities given to my operations, and the respect
paid to my office by all the gentlemen representing the Company's interest with whom I had to do, that body must be presumed well affected to the cause ; and that its several proceedings
are conducted on a liberal scale, I have some occasion to notice.'
—(P. 164.) The worthy Bishop wishes to have a Bishop appointed for Rupert's Land, as he considers that I all the virtue
of the Gospel is centered in the Episcopate!—(Journal, p. 169.)
The Hudson's Bay Company are, however, adopting the more
prudent course of assisting the education of the people on
religious principles. The late Mr. Leith, who was a resident
factor of the Company, has bequeathed £.10,000 toward the
propagation of the Gospel in the scene of his former pursuits and
occupations.
A branch of the ' Church Missionary Society' was established
at Red River settlement in 1822, under the Rev. Mr. West, who
was appointed Chaplain to the Company. In 1824," the Rev.
Mr. Jones was appointed Chaplain to the Company, and the
Bishop of Montreal says, ' he met with much countenance and
support from the authorities of the Hudson's Bay Company,' who,
in 1834, 'gave a munificent grant' towards the construction of
another Protestant Church.—(Journal, pp. 194, 218.) ' The
building was opened for Divine Service on the 26th of Novem-
it
'^fry. • 119
ber, 1834.     It is capable of accommodating, comfortably, 700
people, and 1000 might find room without being over-crowded.
' Five day-schools, containing about 400 children, had been
established ; besides two seminaries, affording board, lodging,
and education, to twenty-five young ladies, and thirty young-
gentlemen, children of the gentlemen engaged in the service of
the Hudson's Bay Company. These were under the care and
superintendence of Mr. and Mrs. Jones, assisted by a tutor and
governess from England. At the different Sunday-schools, also,
nearly 300 received religious instruction, Moreover, the orderly
demeanour, moral conduct, and religious habits of all classes,
were, for the most part satisfactory and cheering.'—(Pp. 218.)
' In 1839,' says the Bishop, I the Committee had the satisfaction to find that the Hudson's Bay Company more disposed to
countenance and promote the formation of a Missionary station
at Cumberland House, one of their posts, about 500 miles from
the Red River.' The following shows the present state of the
Church of England Mission in Rupert's Land. In North
America, as also in our other Colonial possessions, this invaluable
auxiliary of the Parent Church of England has been of eminent
service to Christianity.
1846-7
Church Missionary Stations   6
Communicants       530
Attendants on Public Worship     1800
Schools  9
Boys     156\
Girls     166
J Sexes not mentioned     193
^Youths and adults ...      79 J
Scholars
594
and  1847-8.
5
535
1800
17
718
Commodore Wilkes, speaking of Fort Vancouver on the
Columbia River, says,' There are extensive, kitchens and apartments for the half-breed and Indian children that the Company
have taken to bring up and educate.    Of these there are now 120
twenty-three   boys and  fifteen girls, who claim the  particular
attention of Dr. M'Laughlin and Mrs. Douglas.    A teacher is
employed  for  the boys,  who   superintends  them   not  only in
school, but in the field and garden.    During my stay, an examination took place, and although the pupils  did not prove very
expert at their reading and writing, yet we  had sufficient evidence that they had made some improvement, and were in a fair
way to acquire the rudiments.    Some allowance was to be made
for the boys, who had been constantly in the field under their
teacher for a few months past.    Dr. M'Laughlin estimated the
labour of four of these small boys as equal to that of a man.
It was an  interesting  sight  to see these poor little cast-away
fellows, of all shades of colour, from the pure Indian to that of
the white, thus snatched away from the vices and idleness of the
savage.    They all  speak both English and French;  they are
also instructed in religious exercises, in which I thought they
appeared more proficient than in their other studies.    These they
are instructed in on Sunday, on which day they attend Divine worship twice.   They were a ruddy set of boys, and when at work had a
busy appearance ; they had planted and raised six hundred bushels
of potatoes, and, from what Dr. M'Laughlin said to me, fully maintain themselves.    The girls are equally well cared for, and taught
by a female, with whom theylive and work.'—(Vol. iv., p. 330.)
In another passage the Commodore says, ' I was introduced to
several of the Missionaries; Mr. and Mrs. Smith, of the  American Board of Missions ; Mr. and  Mrs. Griffith, and  Mr. and
Mrs. Clarke, of the Self-Supporting Mission;   Mr. Waller  of
the Methodist, and two others.    They, for the most part, make
Vancouver their home, where they are kindly received and well
entertained at no expense to themselves.    The liberality  and
freedom from sectarian principles of Dr. M'Laughlin, may be
estimated from his being thus hospitable to  Missionaries of so
many  Protestant   denominations,  although   he is a professed
Catholic, and has a priest of the same faith officiating daily at
the chapel.    Religious toleration is allowed in its fullest extent. 121
The dining hall is given up on Sunday to the use of the ritual of
the Anglican church, and Mr. Douglass or a missionary reads
the service.
' An opinion has gone abroad, I do not know how, that at
this post there is a total disregard of morality and religion, and
that vice predominates. As far as my observations went, I feel
myself obliged to state, that everything seems to prove the contrary, and to bear testimony that the officers of the Company are
exerting themselves to check vice, and encourage morality and religion, in a very marked manner; and that I saw no instance i?i
which vice was tolerated in any degree. I have, indeed, reason to
believe, from the discipline and the example of the superiors, that
the whole establishment is a pattern of good order and correct
deportment.
' This remark not only extends to this establishment, but as
far as our opportunities went (and all but two of the posts were
visited), the same good order prevails throughout the country.
Wherever the operations of the Company extend, they have opened
the way to future emigration, provided the means necessary for
the success of emigrants, and rendered its peaceful occupation an
easy and cheap task?—(Vol. iv., pp. 331, 332.)
These statements are a complete answer to the allegation, that
the Company are ' opposed to the spread of information among
the native population,' that the j considerations of humanity and
religion are overlooked,' and that ' they trample down Christianity and benevolence'*.
These allegations are unsustained by the slightest evidence,
whereas their refutation is from unbiassed and high testimony ;
by a Bishop of the Church of England, by three American gentlemen, a Minister of the Gospel, a Commodore of the American
navy, and an official of the United States Government, and their
testimony might be sustained by officers in the British army and
navy, who have visited and examined recently some of the Hudson's Bay Company's settlements.
* Memorial to the Secretary of State for the Colonies, by A. K. Isbester.   1848.. 122
§
w
IllU
But as the subject is of the highest importance, and a neglect
of religious duties and moral observances would justly subject
any association to the condemnation of the people of England,
and require Her Majesty's Government to deny an extension of authority to those who violate the laws of God which
have been revealed to man for his temporal as well as for his
spiritual good — I have been induced to inquire what has
been done by the Hudson's Bay Company in support of that
excellent institution, the ' Wesleyan Methodist Missionary
Society,' whose efforts for the conversion of the heathen, in
various parts of the globe, are deserving of cordial encouragement. Dr. Alder, one of the general Secretaries of the Society,
has kindly furnished me with all the Missionary Reports on the
subject. He was in North America last year, and informs me
that the Mission has received the valuable aid of the Hudson's
Bay Company at home, and of Sir G. Simpson and their chief
factors and traders abroad. The Missionaries are supplied with
provisions by the Company; they are conveyed, free of charge,
from station to station by the Company; at Ross Ville, near Norway House, the principal station of the Mission, the Company
have built for the Wesleyans a church, school-house, &c. In
1839, the Hudson's Bay Company ' invited and encouraged the
Wesleyan Society to extend their Missions to the territories of
the Company, and to certain districts of country beyond the limits
of those territories, with a view to the moral and religious instruction of the numerous tribes of the aborigines, and to their civilization, and the general amelioration of their condition. To an
application, alike honourable to the Christian benevolence of the
Company and to the character of the Wesleyan Society, the committee promptly attended ; and five Missionaries and one Indian
Assistant Missionary are now actually employed in this sacred
service. From the following brief description of the stations
which these evangelical labourers severally occupy, some idea
may be formed of the extent of the country, the character of the
population, and the arduous nature of those duties which our
I!
l 123
beloved brethren connected with this new and interesting Mission
are called upon to perform.
' 1. Moose Factory is about 700 miles from the city of Montreal, in Lower Canada, and is the Company's principal depot on
the southern shores of Hudson's Bay. Connected with this
establishment, there are numerous stations to which the Missionary will have to pay periodical visits; some of which are at a
distance from the Fort, varying from one hundred to two
hundred and fifty miles. The Indians, in this district of country,
are principally of the Swampy Cree tribe, with a few Esquimaux
at an establishment called Big River, which is about two hundred
and fifty miles to the north-east of Rupert's River.
' 2. Michipicoten is the principal Factory belonging to the
Company on the shores of Lake Superior; within and around
which, and the different establishments in that extensive range of
country, there is a considerable population of Europeans and half
castes, as well as of native Indians, who are chiefly of the Ojib-e-
way or Salteaux Indians.
' 3. Lac la Pluie is a trading post of the Company, situated
near the height of land which divides the waters falling into the
St. Lawrence from those that fall into Hudson's Bay, and is
distant from Montreal about one thousand three hundred miles.
The neighbourhood of this place is a great rendezvous for
Indians from the surrounding country, during the summer, as the
means of living on fish and rice are very abundant, so that,
including the inmates of the establishment, the Missionary will be
in communication at that place, during an important period of the
year, with, at least, one thousand adults; in addition to which he
will, at stated seasons, visit other dep&ts belonging to the Company, for the purpose of instructing the mixed population residing
at the stations.
' 4. Fort Alexander is formed at the outlet of the River
Winipeg, and is distant from Montreal one thousand five hundred
miles. It is much frequented by the Indians, who, as well as
those that visit Lac la Pluie, belong to the Ojibeway or Salteaux
tribes. ^ttwj^srj^mw.Mjj&fjrjrrsw&sa&iVX*!*********
lit
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»■
124
'5. Edmonton is an establishment on the Sackatchewan
River, which has its source on the Rocky Mountains, and disembogues itself by Nelson River into Hudson's Bay. It is distant
from Montreal two thousand eight hundred miles. The Missionary will extend his labours from thence to the Athabasca River,
which also has its origin on the Rocky Mountains. The establishments in that remote district are frequented by the bold and
daring prairie or plain tribes of Indians, including the Assini-
boines, the Peiagans, the Sarcees, and the Blood Indians. The
Thickwood Crees and Assiniboines amount, with the whites and
mixed population attached to the station, to between fifteen and
twenty thousand souls.
i 6. Norway House, one of the principal depots belonging to
the Company, is situated at the northern end of Lake Winipeg,
and is distant from Montreal two thousand miles. There is an
Indian village connected with this place, the inhabitants of which
derive great advantages from the proximity of the Company's
establishment, where the Indians, who are a part of the Swampy
Cree tribe, find permanent employment as fishermen, boatmen,
and labourers. As Norway House is a central point, it is intended
that it shall be the residence of the General Superintendent of
these Missions, who will be able from thence to communicate
with, and to visit, the other stations with greater facility than
from any other part of the territory.
S Such is the wide field of Missionary labour which has been
providentially opened to our Society, and to which the following
communications relate. It will be seen that the Missionaries have
experienced a most cordial reception from the officers in charge at
the different establishments which they have visited ; a circumstance
which is, under God, chiefly to be ascribed to the kind and powerful recommendations in their behalf which have been forwarded
by Governor Simpson, to whom the Society is placed under deep
obligations. As that gentleman expects shortly to return to the
territories, the Committee anticipate much advantage to the
Missions from his presence and co-operation with the Missionaries 125
in their endeavours to promote a work in which he has manifested
so deep an interest.
' We are indebted to the kindness and courtesy of Governor
Simpson, and of the Governor and Committee of the Honourable
Company, for permission to publish the following extracts from
official communications received at the Hudson's Bay House;
from which it will be seen that the arrival of the Missionaries has
diffused general satisfaction throughout the Company's territories.
Extract of a Dispatch from Chief Factor Duncan Finlayson, to
the Governor and Committee of the Honourable the Hudson's Bay Company, dated Norway House, June 24th,
1840.
' We are exceedingly glad to find that an arrangement, promising so many blessings to the native population,  has been
effected with the Wesleyan Missionary Society.    This is another
instance, among many, of your Honours' bounty and liberality
towards increasing the means of diffusing Christian knowledge
among the natives of this country, and we trust your repeated
endeavours for their temporal and spiritual improvement will be
appreciated by them, and attended with all the advantages which
you so earnestly   desire.     The   field  for  Missionaries  in  this
country is wide; and if they perform their duties with patience
and piety, as faithful ministers of the Gospel, they will have the
satisfaction of seeing their labours crowned with success.    They
shall have our protection, and every personal kindness and attention in our power; in short, we shall attend to their wants,
and afford them every facility and assistance to extend their sphere
of usefulness, and to promote the great work they have taken
in hand.'
Extract of a letter from Chief Factor Joseph Beioley, to Governor Simpson, dated Moose Factory, June 27th, 1840.
' The Rev. Mr. Barnley, Wesleyan Missionary, arrived here
via Abitibbi, on the 3rd instant; and as comfortable accommo- ^aaaaKwSWWBB!^^
It!
II
ki
126
dation as possible in the Factory has been afforded to him, with
a seat at the mess table, &c. Divine service has been performed
regularly, and well attended, twice a day upon Sundays since his
arrival. A school has been established, which is attended five
days a week for a short time in the forenoon, by sundry of the
young people of both sexes ; and the Indians, male and female,
receive, through the medium of interpreters, instructions on
discourses from the reverend gentleman five days a week for a
short time in the afternoon of each day. An hour in the evening
of Sunday, namely, from six to seven o'clock, is also devoted to
the instruction of the Indians ; and in every instance there exists
the utmost willingness to hear and understand, on the part of all
the population of the island, whether residents or casual visitors,
and whether Europeans and their descendants, or the pure
native Indians.'
' The erection of a chapel shall be commenced as soon as
practicable with the limited means at my command; but the
erection of certain other buildings, which were contemplated last
season, and for which I had got collected, logs, &c. during the
winter and spring, must now be deferred. I presume that a
building capable of accommodating about a hundred persons
with sitting room, will be sufficiently large in the present state of
this part of the world.'
Extract from the Minutes of a Council, held at Norway House,
Northern Department, Rupert's Land, commencing June
18th, and ending June 24th, 1840.
' In order to give full effect to the laudable and benevolent
views  of the  Governor and Committee, towards  the diffusion
of Christianity   and   civilization   among   the   natives  of this
country, it is—
i Resolved 73,
I That three missions be established in the northern departr
ment this season, say, one at Norway House, under the charge
of the Rev. Mr. Evans ; one at Lac la Pluie, under the charge 127
of the Rev. Mr. Mason; and one at Edmonton, under the
charge of the Rev. Mr. Rundle; that every facility be afforded
them for successfully conducting their spiritual labours; and that
a copy of the 9th paragraph of the Governor and Committee's
dispatch of March 4th, 1840, on this subject, be forwarded to
each of the gentlemen in charge of the above districts, for the
purpose of giving full effect to their Honours' instructions.'—
(Notices for February 1841, p. 437—440).
The following is an extract from the Report of the Wesleyan
Methodist Missionary Society for 1840. — (Pp. 110—
112.)
j A new and extensive field of labour and usefulness has,
during the past year, been opened to this Society in that part of the
north-western section of America, which constitutes the territory
of the Honourable the Hudson's Bay Company. In addition to
the European and half-caste population residing at the numerous
forts and stations belonging to the Company in those immense
regions, there is, in the southern department of the territory, an
Indian population amounting to upwards of ten thousand souls.
In the northern department, extending in a northerly and southerly direction from the height of land which divides the waters
that flow into Lake Superior and the St. Lawrence, from those
that fall into the tributaries of the Mississippi Missourie, to the
high land that divides the waters which fall into the Polar Sea,
from those that flow into Hudson's Bay—and in a westerly
direction from Hudson's Bay to the Rocky Mountains,—there is
an Indian population of one hundred thousand souls. To these
long-neglected children of the Far North and West, our way is
now open in consequence of arrangements into which the Committee have entered with the Governor and Committee of the
Hudson's Bay Company; and thirty missionaries might at once
be employed amongst them in guiding their feet into the way of
peace.
' Five stations will be immediately occupied  at Michipicoton, ,v   l
'III
.ft     I
p*
I
11
'
I  1;
111
128
Moose Fort, Norway House, Lac la Pluie, and Rocky Mountain
House; and should it please the God of all Grace to smile upon
this new undertaking, the day cannot be far distant when the
Gospel will be preached by the Missionaries of this Society across
the entire continent of North America, from the shores of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia, to those of the Pacific Ocean. The
Committee have been encouraged to embark in this holy enterprise, even in the present embarrassed state of their funds, in
consequence of the liberal offers of assistance which were made to
them by the Hudson's Bay Company. Such is the desire felt by
that distinguished body, for the propagation of Scriptural truth
amongst their agents and servants, as well as the Indian tribes
within their territories, that, while they have discouraged the
attempts which have been recently made by the agents of the
Papacy to extend their operations, they have agreed to provide
for the Missionaries which this Committee have sent, or may
hereafter appoint, whether married or single, board and lodging,
interpreters, servants, and the means of conveyance from place to
place, free of all expense to the Society. In addition to this, the
Governor and Committee have spontaneously contributed one hundred pounds towards the amount of passage-money paid for the
three Missionaries, (the Rev. Messrs. Barnley, W. Mason, and
Rundle,) who sailed from Liverpool for New York, in March
last, on their way to the Company's territories, where they are
to be joined by an experienced and successful labourer in the
work of Indian evangelization, the Rev. James Evans. The
Committee gladly avail themselves of this opportunity of expressing their deep sense of obligation to the Governor and Committee of the Honourable Company in general, and especially to
George Simpson, Esq., Governor-in-Cbief of their territories,
and to Captain Drew, H^SF., for the lively interest which they
have taken in all the arrangements connected with this undertaking, and for the valuable assistance which they have rendered
to the Society.' In January 1841, the Wesleyan Society report
that ' the Missionaries, on their arrival, were received with great
YL&'^&i 129
cordiality and kindness by the officers in charge at the different
establishments to which they have been appointed.'
All the subsequent Reports of the Wesleyan Society express a
grateful sense of the efforts of the Hudson's Bay Company to
promote their Christian object.
The Rev. P. Jacobs, in a communication from Lac la Pluie,
to the Wesleyan Society, of 25th August, 1840, says, j the gentlemen of the Honourable Hudson's Bay Company are very kind and
good to us.   I have prayers with these good people every evening.'
The Rev. James Evans, in a letter, dated Norway House,
Hudson's Bay, 7th July, 1842, after describing the wide extent of
region he had visited in his missionary tour, says, j I should be
remiss in neglecting to acknowledge, which I do with unfeigned
gratitude and pleasure, the kindness I have invariably received
from the officers of the Honourable Hudson's Bay Company in
the several posts which I visited, and the direct assistance
afforded me in every instance, as well as the facilities which I
almost everywhere experienced, in communicating the instructions
of Christianity to the servants of the Honourable Company, and
to the natives.'—(Wesleyan Missionary Notices, Oct. 1842, p. 157.)
A native Indian Missionary adverting to the state of religion
among the Indians, when addressing the Annual Meeting of the
Wesleyan Society in London, in May, 1843, said: j We met with
the Governor of the Honourable Hudson's Bay Company, and
he gave us all the encouragement he could to go into his territory,
assuring us that he would supply us with any little articles of
which we were in need. We mended up the old canoe again,
and went to Fort William, where we were very kindly received
by all the officers of the Company.'—(Wesleyan Missionary
Notices, June and July 1843, p. 320.)
In various places the Wesleyan Society and their Ministers
refer to the j direct sanction and valuable pecuniary aid afforded
to it by the Hudson's Bay Company, and anticipate much advantage from the presence and co-operation of Sir George Simpson
(the Governor of the Hudson's Company's territories) in the great
work of Christian charity! 130
r:fc
fl i
In the Wesleyan Missionary Report for 1843, referring to
their station at Fort Edmonton, the Society remark : ' Mr.
Rundle's situation is one particularly trying; the people around
him are chiefly Roman Catholics; and the priest from Red
River has this summer visited extensively both the Company's
posts and the Indians, and I fear thrown many obstacles in his
way. Mr. Harriot, the gentleman in charge of Edmonton
House, has cheerfully assisted in advancing the great work among
the aborigines ; and as that gentleman is the best speaker of
the Cree language to be found among Europeans, his services
are invaluable to us. He has acquired a thorough knowledge of
the Cree character, and has this summer presented me with
translations of the Morning Service, the Baptismal Service,
several Collects, the first seven chapters of St. Matthew's Gospel,
and a good collection of Hymns translated from our Hymn
book.'—(P. 161.)
The Wesleyan Missionary Notices for January 1843, again
advert in several places to the encouragement given by the officers
of the Hudson's Bay Company to the dissemination of the
Gospel. The following is an extract from a letter and journal of
the Rev. James Evans, General Superintendent of the Wesleyan
Missions in the Hudson's Bay territories, dated August 1841 :—
' Since my arrival in the country, I have visited York Factory,
of which I made the Committee aware last autumn. On my
return, I remained at Norway House until December, and left it,
early in that month, to visit the posts within my reach. During
the winter I visited Moose Lake, the Pas, Cumberland House,
Shoal River, Fort Pelly, Beaver Creek, Red River, on my way
to Fort Alexander and Berring's River ; and returned to Norway
House at the latter end of March. I was received at every post
of the Honourable Company with the greatest kindness, and experienced every attention from the gentlemen in charge. I endeavoured to discharge the duties incumbent upon me, with an eye
to the glory of God, in the salvation of sinners ; and trust, that
the fruits of my humble labours will appear on the day of
eternitv- 131
' I intend, by the Divine blessing, to visit the following places
during a journey, which it is my purpose to commence, namely,
Cumberland, Carlton, Fort Pitt, and Edmonton, where I hope to
meet my good brother, the Rev. Mr. Rundle. After spending a
few weeks in that vicinity, I shall proceed, by winter conveyance
(snow shoes and dog carriages) to Forts Jaspar, Assiniboine,
Lesser Slave Lake, Dunvegan, Vermillion, Chippewyan, Feud
du Lac, La Crosse, Green Lake, and back by Carlton ; thence
to Norway House, by the Saskatchewan or Athabasca boats,
reaching Norway House in June or July 1842. The journey is
undertaken with the decided approbation of the Governor in Chief
Sir George Simpson, who kindly assured me that he would himself
in passing the Sacskatchewan see that every preparation should be
made for me to proceed thence. Before my return, should I
succeed in my proposed tour, I shall travel about six thousand
miles. During this time I hope to preach the everlasting Gospel
to hundreds who never heard the joyful sound; and I humbly
trust that, in a short period, not a post belonging to the Honourable Company will be found where the glad news of salvation by
Christ shall not have been heard. I shall, I feel convinced, have
the co-operation of my brethren here, and of the Committee at
home, and the unlimited aid of the Honourable Company's officers,
in carrying out this great object. I likewise become better acquainted with the state, wants, and general character of the
country, as well as with the number, disposition, and languages
of the natives. I feel assured of the Divine protection and
blessing.
' We have great cause of gratitude to Almighty God, that we
are. saved from that scourge of poor Indians, the 'fire waters'
(rum), the use of this being by the Honourable Company prohibited
to a great extent in the country ; an arrangement equally wise and
benevolent.
September 1st:—' I found Mr. Grant (one of the Company's
officers) at Oxford House, anxious to make my night's stay as
comfortable as possible. I preached to the Honourable Company's officers and servants, and several natives attended.    At the LB »"«
■
132
close of the service I baptized an adult, who expressed a determination to forsake sin and cleave to the Lord; and six children;
and solemnized two marriages.
\ 7th.—To-day my worthy brother Rundle left by the Saskatchewan boat for Edmonton. About two months, with God's
blessing, will bring him thither ; during which time he must sleep
on the ground, wet or dry, not unfrequently without erecting his
cloth tent, as sometimes it cannot be pitched, Rain or fair, heat
or cold, he must sit in the open boat, and look to Heaven for
present and eternal comfort. Every thing which the fort could
supply was kindly furnished, in order to make Ms voyage as comfortable as circumstances would permit.'
' January \9th, 1842.—Thermometer 42° below zero. It is
excessively cold. Water from the tea-kettle, nearly boiling, being
poured into a tin plate to the depth of about half an inch, became
frozen and solid, or sufficiently so to slide out, when warmed on
the under side, in seven minutes and a half.
'20th.—We made Fort Pelly at ten o'clock.—Thermometer 25°.
' Sunday, 24th.—I preached to an attentive congregation, several professing their determination to seek and serve the Lord.
' 2Qth.—We have prayers every night at seven, at which time
I always deliver a short discourse, or expound some portion of
Scripture, catechize the children, and teach them prayers at half-
past eight.
' 28th.—I have had several interviews with a sick Indian, who
is taken care of in the fort. He appears anxious to receive instruction, but is very deaf.
' Sunday 31.—I preached at eleven, at three, and at seven
o'clock, and baptized eight after the forenoon service.
' February  1st.—I left Fort  Pelly, having experienced every
kindness and attention from Dr. Todd, and derived great satisfaction in seeing a marlced attention to the word of life.
' 5th.—We made Beaver Creek House, and found all well.
Thanks to our great Preserver.
6th.— We experienced great kindness from Mr. and Mrs. M'Kay;
an excellent Cree speaker kindly furnished me with a translation of 133
the Lord's prayer. We held prayers at eight p. m. in a large
fort, and had a good congregation : several Indians encamped in
the neighbourhood.
jj Sunday, 7th.—I preached at eleven and at six. I baptized
three persons connected with the fort; much pains having been
taken by the gentleman in charge, and his family, to instruct those
connected with the establishment.
' Rainy Lake.—Great praise is due to the gentleman in charge
of this post, for the readiness with which he has co-operated
with the Missionary in promoting the interests of the Mission.
A change has been made this year, and Nichol Finlayson, Esq.,
with whom I spent the winter of 1838 on Lake Superior, is at
present at Rainy Lake; by whom I am satisfied, every assistance
will be afforded.'
The following extracts are copied from the journal of Mr.
Rundell:— ' His station is the most westerly position occupied
by this Society, and is in the immediate vicinity of the
Rocky Mountains, in which are the sources of those great
rivers which water the American continent, and flow into the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The tribes of Indians which occupy
the extensive plains in their neighbourhood, are both numerous
and powerful, and are also in better circumstances than their
brethren in other parts of the country. Mr. Rundell has the
honour of being the first Protestant Missionary who has been
stationed among them. He reached Edmonton House on the
18th of September, 1840, after having traversed, from the time of
his landing in New York, about three thousand five hundred
miles. He received a most cordial welcome from the officer in
charge, and immediately commenced his Missionary labours and
toils, in humble dependence upon Him, who hath said for the
encouragement of his servants, jj Lo I am with you alway, even
even unto the end of the world.'
I February 22nd, 1841.—I reached Rocky Mountain House,
and was very kindly received by J. H. Harriott, Esq., the gentleman
in charge. I found several Indians at the Fort, and, shortly after
my arrival, another party arrived from the plains. Great warmth
of feeling was expressed by them on seeing me.    Their dresses 39599«!OT>a>»s»ssuuuwy.jU!Ji »-«.*ww!>iAM*mMJBK9SKS8SBSWK*S
I
134
were profusely adorned with beads and gay embroidery, with porcupine quills, and other ornaments. Whilst I was saluting them,
some kissed me; others, after shaking me by the hand, passed
both hands over part of my dress, uttering at the same time a
kind of prayer; and others gave me their left hand, because
nearest the heart.
' 24th.—A large party of Blackfeet and Piegans arrived, and
their entrance into the Fort presented a very novel appearance.
The first that came were the Piegans, and the ceremony commenced with singing some rude and barbarous sounds. They
then marched in order to the Fort, the chief leading the van,
bringing with him a horse, (the head of which was striped with
red ochre,) as an intended present for Mr. Harriott. After the
firing of mutual salutes, and the horse being given to Mr. Harriott,
the chief entered the Fort, followed by his party. The Blackfeet
approached much in the same way, excepting that singing formed
no part of the ceremony. Some of the chiefs' dresses looked very
fine, and the needle-work on them would reflect no discredit on
members of civilized communities.
' 25th.—To-day a rumour spread among the Indians that I came
down from Heaven in a piece of paper, and that the paper was
opened by a gentleman belonging to the Forts, and so I made
my first appearance upon earth !
' 26th.—I met, in the evening, about a hundred and fifty or two
hundred Indians, including women and some children.
'27th March.—I discoursed to the Indians twice on the Decalogue, which, I believe, produced great effect amongst them. I
also addressed them on the subjects of baptism and marriage.
' 28th.—I preached in the morning on the morals and duties of
Christianity, and solemnized two marriages. The Indians were
present to witness the ceremony, and, through an interpreter, I
was enabled to convey to them lessons of instruction.
' 2§th.—The Indians left the Fort, and I engaged to visit them
on my way to the Blackfeet camp.
' April 1st.—I left the Fort this morning, on horseback, for my
intended visit to the plains. My kind friend, J. H. Harriott,
Esq., accompanied me some distance from the Fort, and I was
HC 135
then compelled to bid him adieu for a season. The personal kindnesses received from that gentleman, during my stay with him, and
also the assistances he afforded me in facilitating the objects of my
mission, deserve my warmest commendations. I trust my visit to
his fort will be made a blessing to many. Great attention was
generally manifested by the officers and others; and, independent of
the services on the Sunday, I was accustomed to preach once during
the week to them, and also to hold regular family worship, which
most in the fort attended!
One of the Wesleyan Ministers thus speaks of the Hudson's
Bay Company's chief officer at Norway House, who, he says, has
been ' at great pains in civilizing the Indians.'
' 13^.—To-day I bade a sorrowful adieu to Mr. Ross, the
Company's Officer at this fort, who left for York Factory, and
according to all probability, will not return before my departure
for the Saskatchawan. The kind and gentlemanly conduct
manifested by him to me, since my residence at Norway House,
deserves my warmest thanks. He has been my guide, counsellor,
and friend.'
Of Mr. James Keith, the Company's Chief Officer at La
Chine, the Mission reports that' every preparation was made
by him for the comfort and accommodation of the Missionaries
on board the canoes, when proceeding from Canada to Rupert's
Land, and nothing could exceed the respect and kindness with
which they were treated.'
The Rev. Mr. Mason, in a letter dated 20th August, 1844,
from Ross Ville, Hudson's Bay, to the Wesleyan Society, says,
' The gentlemen who visited our neat little village, expressed
their surprise at the great change and improvement of the
natives. Mr. Mactavish, from the Columbia, said, there was
nothing equal to it on the other side of the Rocky Mountains. You
will be much pleased to hear that Donald Ross, Esq., is again
stationed at Norway House; he is, indeed, a friend to the red
man's temporal and spiritual interests. His kindness and attention are uninterrupted. From the Company's servants we
receive every assistance which they have in their power to afford
us in carrying on the great work in which we are engaged. mjWMMmK**
%m
it.
136
' The Church, we trust, will be finished in a few months.
The Company's men are constantly working at it. We need it
much, as the school-room is far too small for the congregation.'
— (Wesleyan Notices, Feb. 1845, p. 29.)
Language of a similar tendency pervades all the Reports
examined, and they sufficiently demonstrate the attention paid
to Christian ordinances and duties by the Hudson's Bay Company, and their officers and servants in North America.
The Wesleyan Mission in North-West America, consists of
eight stations and four chapels, at Ross Ville, and Norway
House, Lake Winipeg, Moose Factory, Lac la Pluie, and Forts
Alexander and Edmonton, and Rocky Mountains. There are
also in addition five preaching places. There are five Missionaries and assistants, one catechist, two day school teachers, two
local preachers, 204 church members, 96 day scholars, and 2000
members attending public worship, of whom 174 members are
full or accredited church members.
Commodore Wilkes, at p 344 of his work, says, the American
Missionaries are [ daily receiving the kindest attentions and
hospitality from the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company.'
Any further evidence of the Christian conduct and benevolent
policy of the Company, would be a work of supererogation.
It is not, however, solely in a collective capacity that a humane
system has been pursued; as individuals, the officers of the Hudson's Bay Company have manifested an anxious desire for the
temporal welfare and spiritual improvement of the people around
them, and are most undeserving of the opprobrium endeavoured
to be cast on them, that \ they are for the most part men of very
limited information, doubtful exemplars to a people arriving so
slowly at a social state,—wholly imbued with the mere spirit of
trade,—few of them possessed of those generous sympathies
and more enlarged views which are necessary for undertaking
and carrying out any scheme of social amelioration. Their
Deity is gold, to obtain which they trample down Christianity
and benevolence.'—Memorial of A. K. and J. Isbister and three
others to the Secretary of State, page 6. Part U.
SUMMARY OF OBSERVATIONS, AND QUALIFICATIONS
OF  THE   HUDSON'S  BAY  COMPANY FOR THE
COLONIZATION OF VANCOUVER'S ISLAND.
The several statements adduced in the previous pages, clearly
show the means by which the Hudson's Bay Company have preserved
a traffic in furs for nearly 200 years without any monopoly of the
home market, thereby enriching England to the extent of at least
twenty millions sterling; and now, although hemmed in by the
enterprising spirit of the Americans on the South, and by the
untiring industry of the Russians on the North, if upheld in their
rights, supported by the Crown, and encouraged by enlightened
public opinion, the Company, by the exercise of the means hitherto
found successful, may long continue a valuable trade, which is
nearly extinct in every other part of the globe.
Strong doubts have been expressed of the fitness of the Hudson's
Bay Company for the settlement of Vancouver's Island, inasmuch
(it is asserted) as they have heretofore pursued the fur trade to the
neglect of colonization, but it has been overlooked that the position
of the Company in the region west of the j Rocky Mountains,' and
in the Oregon country, was similar to that of a person leasing a
grouse moor in Scotland for twenty-one years. It was not in the
power of the Company to invite settlers to the banks of the Columbia River or to Vancouver's Island; they could make no grant of
land, having themselves no better title than that of a hunting licence
from the Crown, which, in 1838, reserved to itself the power of
forming Colonies when and where it might be deemed necessary.
Moreover the Crown could not give the requisite title to the land,
since Vancouver's Island, and. the adjacent region was, until 1846,
disputed territory. At the ' Red River,' the land being actually the
property of the Company, it has been granted in leases for the full term
of a thousand years, subject to a single payment of 7s. Qd. per acre;
to residence thereon, to the cultivation within five years of one-tenth
part of the demised land, and to a compliance with certain regulations, and local enactments framed by the late Earl of Selkirk, to \M
m\
138
whom the Hudson's Bay Company made a large and liberal grant
of territory in order to promote colonization.
The Company have not therefore failed in promoting colonization
where they possessed the power of doing so; but where, for the
above-mentioned reasons, they had not the right of leasing the
land, they have themselves cultivated it to the utmost practicable
extent, as exemplified at Fort Vancouver, on the banks of the
Columbia River; and they have also aided their retired servants in
the formation of agricultural stations at Puget's Sound, (Fort Nas-
quilly,) and on the banks of the Cowlitz River.
In addition, therefore, to the previously-recited evidence at
pp. 21, 65, 72, and 104, of the agricultural proceedings of the
Company, it may be useful to examine the report made by Commodore Wilkes to his Government, respecting the principal establishments of the Hudson's Bay Company, west of the Rocky Mountains,
namely, Fort Vancouver, situated about 80 miles from the mouth
of the Columbia River.
Approaching the station, the Commodore says,—'We came in at
the back part of the village, which consists of about fifty comfortable
log houses, placed in regular order on each side of the road. They
are inhabited by the Company's servants, and were swarming with
children, whites, half-breeds, and pure Indians. The Fort stands at
some distance beyond the village, and to the eye appears like an
upright wall of pickets, twenty-five feet high; this encloses the
houses, shops, and magazines of the Company. The enclosure contains about four acres, which appear to be under full cultivation.
Beyond the Fort large granaries were to be seen. At one end is Dr.
M'Laughlin's house, built after the model of a French Canadian, of
one story, weather-boarded, and painted white. It has a piazza and
small flower-beds, with grape and other vines in front. Between
the steps are two old cannons on sea carriages, with a few shot, to
speak defiance to the natives, who no doubt look upon them as very
formidable weapons of destruction. I mention these, as they are
the only warlike instruments to my knowledge that are within the
pickets of Vancouver, which differs from all the other forts in having
no bastions, galleries, or loop-holes. Near by are the rooms for
the clerks and visitors, with the blacksmiths' and coopers' shops.
i y[
MM 139
In the centre stands the Roman Catholic chapel, and near by the
flag-staff; beyond these again are the stores, magazines of powder,
warerooms, and offices.
' We went immediately to Dr. M'Laughlin's quarters. He was
not within ; but we were kindly invited to enter, with the assurance
that he would soon return. Only a few minutes elapsed before Dr.
M'Laughlin came galloping up, having understood that we had
preceded him. He is a tall, fine-looking person, of a very robust
frame, with a frank, manly open countenance, and a florid complexion : his hair is perfectly white. He gave us that kind reception
we had been led to expect from his well-known hospitality. He is
of Scotch parentage, but by birth a Canadian, enthusiastic in disposition, possessing great energy of character, and extremely well
suited for the situation he occupies, which requires great talent and
industry. He at once ordered dinner for us, and we soon felt ourselves at home, having comfortable rooms assigned us, and being
treated as part of the establishment.
' The situation of Vancouver is favourable for agricultural purposes, and it may be said to be the head of navigation for sea-going
vessels. A vessel of fourteen feet draft of water may reach it in the
lowest state of the river. The Columbia at this point makes a considerable angle, and is divided by two islands, which extend upwards
about three miles, to where the upper branch of the Willamette joins it.
The Company's establishment at Vancouver is upon an extensive
scale, and is worthy of the vast interest of which it is the centre.
The residents mess at several tables; one for the chief factor and
his clerks; one for their wives (it being against the regulations of
the Company for their officers and their wives to take their meals
together) ; another for the Missionaries; and another for the sick
and the Catholic Missionaries. All is arranged in the best order,
and, I should think, with great economy. Everything may be had
witnin the Fort; they have an extensive apothecary's shop, a bakery,
blacksmiths' and coopers' shops, trade offices for buying, others for
selling, others again for keeping accounts and transacting business ;
shops for retail, where English manufactured articles may be purchased at as low a price, if not cheaper, than in the United States,
consisting of cotton and woollen goods, ready-made clothing, ship 140
chandlery, earthen and ironware, and fancy articles; in short,
everything, and of every kind and description, including all sorts of
groceries, at an advance of 80 per cent, on the London prime cost.
This is the established price at Vancouver, but at the other posts it
is 100 per cent., to cover the extra expenses of transportation. All
these articles are of good quality, and suitable for the servants,
settlers, and visitors. Of the quantity on hand some idea may be
formed from the fact that all the posts west of the Rocky Mountains
get their annual supplies from this dep6t.
i Vancouver is the head quarters of the North-West or Columbian
Department, which also includes New Caledonia; all the returns of
furs are received here, and hither all accounts are transmitted for
settlement. These operations occasion a large mass of business to
be transacted at this establishment. Mr. Douglass, a chief factor,
and the associate of Dr. McLaughlin, assists in this department,
and takes sole charge in his absence.
1 Dr. McLaughlin showed us our rooms, and told us that the bell
was the signal for meals.
■ Towards sun-set, tea-time arrived, and we obeyed the summons
of the bell, when we were introduced to several of the gentlemen
of the establishment; we met in a large hall, with a long table
spread with abundance of good fare. Dr. McLaughlin took the
head of the table, with myself on his right, Messrs. Douglass and
Drayton on his left, and the others apparently according to their
rank. I mention this, as every one appears to have a relative rank,
privilege, and station assigned him, and military etiquette prevails.
The meal lasts no longer than is necessary to satisfy hunger. With
the officers, who are clerks, business is the sole object of their life,
and one is entirely at a loss here who has nothing to do. Fortunately I found myself much engaged, and therefore it suited me.
The agreeable company of Dr. McLaughlin and Mr. Douglass made
the time at meals pass delightfully. Both of these gentlemen were
kind enough to give up a large portion of their time to us, and I
felt occasionally that we must be trespassing on their business
hours. After meals, it is the custom to introduce pipes and tobacco.
It was said that this practice was getting into disuse, but I should
have concluded, from what I saw, that it was at its height. 141
I Canadian French is generally spoken to the servants; even those
who come out from England, after a while, adopt it, and it is not a
little amusing to hear the words they use, and the manner in which
they pronounce them.
; The routine of a day at Vancouver is perhaps the same throughout the year. At early dawn the bell is rung for the working parties,
who soon after go to work; the sound of the hammers, click of the
anvils, the rumbling of the carts, with tinkling of bells, render it
difficult to sleep after this hour. The bell rings again at eight, for
breakfast; at nine they resume their work, which continues till one;
then an hour is allowed for dinner, after which they work till six, when
the labours of the day close. At five o'clock on Saturday afternoon
the work is stopped, when the servants receive their weekly rations.
' Vancouver is a large manufacturing, agricultural, and commercial depot, and there are few, if any idlers, except the sick. Everybody seems to be in a hurry, whilst there appears to be no obvious
reason for it
' There are two large entrance gates to the Fort for waggons and
carts, and one in the rear, leading to the granaries and the garden;
the latter is quite extensive, occupying four or five acres, and contains all kinds of vegetables and many kinds of fruit, with which
the tables are abundantly supplied by the gardener, ' Billy Bruce.'
After William Bruce's first term of service had expired, he was
desirous of returning to England, and was accordingly sent. This
happened during the visit of Dr. McLaughlin to England. One
day, an accidental meeting took place in a crowded street of
London, where he begged Dr. McLaughlin to send him back to
Vancouver. William Bruce was accordingly taken again into
employ, and sent back in the next ship. In the meantime, however, he was sent to Chiswick, the seat of the Duke of Devonshire,
to get a little more knowledge of his duties, and remained till the
vessel sailed : but no place was like Vancouver to him; and all his
success continues to be compared with Chiswick, which he endeavours to surpass: this is alike creditable to both.
' Besides the storehouses, there is also a granary, which is a frame
building of two stories, and the only one, the rest being built of logs.
' Mr. Douglass was kind enough to take me into the granary, m:
142
which contained wheat, flour, barley, and buckwheat. The wheat
averaged sixty-three pounds to the bushel; barley yields twenty
bushels to the acre; buckwheat, in some seasons, gives a good crop,
but it is by no means certain, owing to the early frosts ; oats do not
thrive well; peas, beans, and potatoes yield abundantly; little or
no hay is made, the cattle being able to feed all the year round on
the natural hay, which they find very nutritious, and fatten upon it.
The grass grows up rapidly in the beginning of summer; and the
subsequent heat and drought convert it into hay, in which all the
juices are preserved. Besides this, they have, on the prairies along
the river, two luxuriant growths of grass, the first in the spring, and
the second soon after the flowing of the river subsides, which is
generally in July and August. The last crop lasts the remainder
of the season. Neither do they require shelter, although they are
penned in at night. The pens are moveable ; and the use of them is
not only for security against the wolves, but to manure the ground.
' The farm at Vancouver is about nine miles square. On this
they have two dairies, and milk upwards of one hundred cows.
There also two other dairies, situated on the Wapanto Island, on
the Willamette, where they have one hundred and fifty cows, whose
milk is employed, under the direction of imported dairymen, in
making butter and cheese for the Russian settlements.
' They have likewise a grist and saw mill, both well constructed,
about six miles above Vancouver, on the Columbia River.
' One afternoon we rode with Mr. Douglass to visit the dairy-
farm, which lies to the west of Vancouver, on the Callepuya. This
was one of the most beautiful rides I had yet taken, through fine
prairies, adorned with large oak, ash, and pines. The large herds
of cattle feeding and reposing under the trees, gave an air of civilization to the scene: that is the only thing wanting in the other
parts of the territory. The water was quite high ; and many of the
Httle knolls were surrounded by it, which had the appearance of
small islets breaking through the wide expanse of overflowing water.
' This dairy is removed every year, which is found advantageous
to the ground, and affords the cattle better pasturage. The stock
on the Vancouver farm is about three thousand head of cattle, two
thousand five hundred sheep, and about three hundred brood mares.
«lW. 143
' At the dairy we were regaled with most excellent milk; and
found the whole establishment well managed by a Canadian and his
wife. They churn in barrel machines, of which there are several.
All the cattle look extremely well, and are rapidly increasing in
numbers. The cows give milk at the age of eighteen months.
Those of the California breed give a very small quantity of milk,
but when crossed with those from the United States and England,
do very well. I saw two or three very fine bulls that had been
imported from England. The sheep have lambs twice a-year; those
of the California breed yield a very inferior kind of wool, which is
inclined to be hairy near the hide, and is much matted. This breed
has been crossed with the Leicester, Bakewell, and other breeds,
which has much improved it. The fleeces of the mixed breed are
very heavy, weighing generally eight pounds, and some as much as
twelve.    Merinos have been tried, but they are not found to thrive.
' The Californian horses are not equal to those raised in Oregon:
those bred near Walla-Walla are in the most repute.
' In one of our rides we visited the site of the first fort at Vancouver ; it is less than a mile from the present position, and is just
on the brow of the upper prairie. The view from this place is truly'
beautiful; the noble river can be traced in all its windings for a
long distance through the cultivated prairie, with its groves and
clumps of trees ; beyond, the eye sweeps over an interminable forest,
melting into a blue haze, from which Mount Hood, capped with its
eternal snows, rises in great beauty. The tints of purple which
appear in the atmosphere are, so far as I am aware, peculiar to this
country. This site was abandoned in consequence of the difficulty
of obtaining water, and its distance from the river, which compelled
them to transport every article up a high and rugged road. The
latter difficulty was encountered in the first location on the upper
prairie, because it was said that the lower one was occasionally
flooded; but, although this may have happened formerly, it is not
found to occur at present.
' I also visited the grist mill, which is situated on a small stream,
but owing to the height of the river, which threw a quantity of backwater on the wheel, it was not in action. The mill has one run of
stones, and is a well-built edifice.    Annexed to it is the house of the ^OTigggaiw,Kaa8waWj«»iW)t^^
144
miller, who is also the watch-maker of the neighbourhood. The
mill is amply sufficient for all the wants of the Company, and of the
surrounding country. The saw-mill is two miles beyond the gristmill. A similar mistake has been made in choosing its position,
for the mill is placed so low that for the part of the season when
they have most water they are unable to use it. There are in it
several runs of saws, and it is remarkably well built. In few
buildings, indeed, can such materials be seen as are here used. The
quality of timber cut into boards is inferior to what we should deem
merchantable in the United States, and is little better than our
hemlock. The boards are shipped to the Sandwich Islands; and
we here found the brig Wave taking in a cargo of timber. These
boards sell at Oahu for eighty dollars per thousand. I could not
ascertain their cost here. About twenty men (Canadians and
Sandwich Islanders) are employed at the mill.
I They have built a large smith's shop here, which, besides doing
the work of the mill, makes all the axes and hatchets used by the
trappers. The iron and steel are imported; the tools are manufactured at a much less price than those imported, and are more to be
depended on. A trapper's success, in fact, depends upon his axe;
and, on this being lost or broken, he necessarily relinquishes his
labours, and returns unsuccessful. I was surprised at seeing the
celerity with which these axes were made. Fifty of them, it is said,
can be manufactured in a day, and twenty-five are accounted an
ordinary day's work. They are eagerly sought after by the Indians,
who are very particular that the axe should have a certain shape,
somewhat like a tomahawk.'—(Vol. iv., pp. 326, 336.)
The Commodore visited several other stations, and thus describes
Fort Nisqually, to which his ships were piloted by the first officer
of the Hudson's Bay Company's steamer, whose services were kindly
offered by Captain M'Neil, the Commander, who gave all possible
aid to the American squadron in its surveys:—' Twelve miles
more brought us to the anchorage off Nisqually, where both"
vessels dropped their anchors about eight o'clock. Here we found
an English steamer undergoing repairs. Soon after we anchored, I
had the pleasure of a visit from Mr. Anderson, who is in charge of
the fort, and Captain M'Neil.    They gave me a warm welcome, and 145
offered every assistance in their power to aid me in my operations.
I Nothing can exceed the beauty of these waters, and their safety;
not a shoal exists within the Straits of Juan de Fuca, Admiralty Inlet,
Puget Sound, or Hood's Canal, that can in any way interrupt their
navigation by a seventy-four gun ship. I venture nothing in saying,
there is no country in the world possessing waters equal to these.
' The anchorage off Nisqually is very contracted, in consequence
of the rapid shelving of the bank, that soon drops off into deep
water. The shore rises abruptly to a height of about two hundred
feet, and on the top of the ascent is an extended plain, covered with
pine, oak, and ash trees, scattered here and there so as to form a
park-like scene. The hill-side is mounted by a well-constructed
road of easy ascent. From the summit of the road the view is
beautiful, over the Sound and its many islands, with Mount Olympus covered with snow for a back-ground. Fort Nisqually, with
its outbuildings and enclosure, stands back about half a mile from
the edge of the table land.
' In returning the visits of Mr. Anderson and Captain McNeil, I
had an opportunity of seeing the so-called fort. It is constructed
of pickets, enclosing a space about two hundred feet square, with
four corner bastions. Within this enclosure are the agents' stores,
and about half a dozen houses, built of logs, and roofed with bark".
This fort was considered. quite large when it was first established,
but since it has become an agricultural post as well as a trading one,
it is found to be too small. Its locality is also ill chosen, on
account of the difficulty of obtaining water, which has to be brought
from a distance of nearly a mile. I was informed that there was
now little necessity for any sort of protection against the Indians',
who are but few in number, and very peaceably disposed..
' After spending some time in conversing about my plans, Mr.
Anderson was kind enough to show me his garden, which is an
enclosure just without the pickets. Here I saw peas a foot high,
strawberries and gooseberries in full bloom, and some of the.former
nearly ripe, with salad that had gone to seed,"three feet high, very
large and thrifty.
K ^mipwjBjUfc^^ww^aggHHsB
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II
146
' Near by were to be seen fine fields of grain, large barns and
sheepfolds, agricultural implements, and workmen with cattle engaged in the various employments of husbandry.
' In connection with the Company's establishment at Nisqually,
they have a large dairy, several hundred head of cattle, and among
them seventy milch cows, which yield a large supply of butter and
cheese; they have also large crops of wheat, peas, and oats, and
were preparing the ground for potatoes. These operations are conducted by a farmer and dairyman, brought from England expressly
to superintend these affairs. A few Indians are engaged in tending
the flocks, and the Company's servants are almost exclusively
employed as labourers.'
On his route from Fort Nisqually to Fort Vancouver, the Commodore visited another of the Puget Sound Company's establishments,
on the Cowlitz River, in latitude 46° 50' north, longitude 123°,
which he thus describes : ' After passing extensive cammass plains
we reached the Company's farm on the Cowlitz, which occupies an
extensive prairie on the banks of that river.
' They have here six or seven hundred acres enclosed and under
cultivation, with several large granaries, a large farm house, and
numerous outbuildings to accommodate the dairy, workmen, cattle;
&c. The grounds appeared well prepared, and were covered with a
luxuriant crop of wheat. At the farther end of the prairie was to
be seen a settlement, with its orchards, &c.; and between the trees,
the chapel and parsonage of the Catholic Mission gave an air of
civilization to the whole. The degree of progress resembled that of
a settlement of several years' standing in our Western States, with
the exception, however, of the remains of the conquered forest; for
here the ground is ready for the plough, and nature seems, as it
were, to invite the husbandman to his labours.
' We were kindly received by Mr. Forrest, the superintendent,
who quickly made arrangements for canoes to carry us down the
Cowlitz and Columbia River to Astoria, or Fort George. He also
provided us with an excellent repast, and pressed us to remain overnight, which we would gladly have done, had I not found that it
would be impossible for us to reach Astoria the next day if we did so.
ltiL&t..«fcEs=*«z 147
' At this farm the Company have a lasge dairy, and are about
erecting a saw and grist mill. The superintendent's dwelling is
large, and built of well-hewn logs ; with the workmen's houses, &c,
it forms quite a village.
' Large numbers of cattle were being brought in for the night,
which is a very necessary precaution in Oregon, in consequence of
the numerous wolves that are prowling about; in some places it
becomes necessary for the keeper to protect his beasts, even in the
day-time. The cattle, at times, suffer from drought, in which case
the Indians are sent across the river to cut fodder for them, in order
to avoid sending the cattle to the cammass plains, where they would
be subject to the loss of all their young.
The farm at the Cowlitz has no sort of defences about it, proving,
as far as the Indians are concerned, that there is no danger of
being molested; indeed, their numbers here are too small to enable
them to attempt any aggression, and their dependence on the
Company for both food and clothing, too complete to allow them
to quarrel, except among themselves; and of such disputes the
agent of the Company takes no sort of notice. The Indians belong
to the Klackatuck tribe, though they have obtained the general
name of the Cowlitz Indians. In a few years they will have passed
away, and even now, I was informed, there are but three Indian
women remaining in the tribe. The mortality that has attacked
them has made sad ravages; for only a few years since they
numbered upwards of a hundred, while they are now said to be less
than thirty. The quantity of land actually under cultivation here
is six hundred acres, most of which is in wheat. Mr. Forrest told
me that the first year it had produced ten bushels per acre, but the
present one it was thought the yield would be double*.
' Around the superintendent's house is a kitchen garden, in which
all the usual horticultural plants of the United States were growing
luxuriantly; the climate was thought to be particularly well adapted
to them.'—(Pp. 315, 316.)
The agricultural farm at Puget Sound (Fort Nisqually), as also
that at the Cowlitz River, does not actually belong to the Hudson's
*  The crop at the end of 1841 was 7000 bushels. &K&BJ&z*mzE&z&Baa.
k
148
VvtV
Wm
Bay Company; the Puget Sound Association has been.formed
principally by the officers and retired servants of the Company, who
have subscribed a capital of £,.200,000, on which ten per cent, has
been paid up.
This farm aids in the supply of grain, butter, cheese, &c, for the
forts and stations of the Hudson's Bay Company on the western
coast of America, and it furnishes supplies for the Russian stations
at Sitka and to the northward. Grain is also shipped for the Sand-;
wich Islands, where the Hudson's Bay Company have an agency;
and a cargo of corn has been recently sent to China.
The facts herein stated need no further comment; but there are two
points in favour of the extension of agriculture and the promotion of
colonization by the Hudson's Bay Company, which appear to have been
but little noticed in the recent parliamentary discussions :—1st, The
necessity of providing food for numerous and distant posts where
corn will not grow : 2nd, That with every precaution which a Company with exclusive rights can adopt, the fur-bearing animals must
in the course of time dimiiiish, and the Hudson's Bay Company,
who have shown no deficiency in far-sighted views, are not likely to
neglect providing for. coming emergencies, or to lose the opportunity
of securing new fields for the employment of energy and capital,,
which can only be done by colonization.
A consideration of these circumstances, and a recognition of the
principle that colonization can be most effectually conducted by
corporate.bodi.es, has doubtless had due weight with the Minister of
the Crown, when acceding to the proposition that Vancouver's
Island be vested in an association, who have given solid proofs of
sound policy, by maintaining a most difficult position with honour
and profit to themselves and to their country since the reign of
Charles II.; that has shown both ability and willingness to colonize,
by the formation of the Red River settlement, and by promoting the
flourishing farms on the Columbia and Cowlitz Rivers; which has
at this moment several posts and stations, not only in New Cale:
donia, but also an excellent fort and establishment on the adjacent
shores of Vancouver's Island; which possesses on the spot ships,
steamers, well-trained functionaries, and every other requisite for 149
attaining, without delay, the desired end, namely, the immediate
occupation, by British subjects, of the largest and most important
island on the Pacific coast of the American continent; and as the
colonization of the island is in unison with the existing and prospective interests of the Pludson's Bay Company, it is to be hoped
that, when the whole case is known, a cordial co-operation will be
promptly accorded, and that a now comparatively useless appanage
of the Crown may be converted into aN thriving and happy home for
a large portion of the. various classes of society who are suffering
from the effects of a redundant population and want of occupation,
and who may there find that scope for enterprise, skill, and labour,
which no Government, however wise and zealous in its exertions,
can afford them in England.
Some of the points on which facts and evidence have been
adduced in the previous pages, may be summarily stated as
follows:—
1st.—The Royal Charter granted by King Charles II., in 1670,
to the Hudson's Bay Company conveys, in perpetuity, the territorial
right, and exclusive privilege of trade, over certain regions in
British North America.
2nd.—The validity of this Charter has been acknowledged by
successive Sovereigns down to Her Present Most Gracious Majesty,
—by Parliament on different occasions,—and by diplomatic arrangements with Foreign States.
■ 3rd—-The Royal Licences of exclusive trade with the Indians
in certain parts of North America, granted to the Hudson's Bay
Company and to the Agents of the North-West Company in 1821,
and to the Hudson's Bay Company solely in 1838, recognised the
rights conceded by the Royal Charter of 1670, and granted an
extension of exclusive traffic in furs over territories declared neutral
between Great Britain, the United States, and Russia.
Ath.—Those Royal Licences did not therefore supersede the
Royal Charter of 1670; they merely extended the right of exclusive trade over some territory, regarding which, doubts might be
entertained, whether it came within the scope contemplated on the
issue of the original Charter to Prince Rupert, and the distinguished MSBaaeaJWWSWSBSS^^
150
Associates of His Royal Highness ; and on the termination of the
existing Licence, for exclusive trade, in 1860, the Royal Charter
granted by King Charles II. will remain intact, and the Hudson's
Bay Company will continue to be vested with all the powers conceded to the Company in the year 1670.
5th.—The Royal Charter, and the Licences of 1821 and of 1838,
were granted for the fulfilment of great national objects, on avowed
grounds of public utility, and for the attainment of results which
could not otherwise have been accomplished.
6th.—The greater part of the territories belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, and also the larger portion of the region over
which the right of exclusive trade with the Indians has been
granted, are not adapted for European colonization, and are almost
solely useful for the obtainment of furs and fish, which, owing to
the nature of the country and the habits of the aborigines, experience has proved it to be impossible for private individuals to
obtain with equal success.
7th.—By the occupation of several positions in the Oregon region,
and other places west of the Rocky Mountains, the Hudson's Bay
Company have secured for Great Britain a large extent of country
on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, including the important island of
Vancouver, which would probably otherwise have been seized by
the United States or by Russia, to the manifest disadvantage of
England.
8th.—The constitution and working of the Hudson's Bay Company is equitable and effective,—well adapted to promote the energetic
and continuous services of experienced functionaries, and-admirably
devised for securing order, obedience, and probity.
9th.—Wherever it has been found practicable to promote colonization, or to form agricultural establishments, the Hudson's Bay
Company and their servants have spared no labour or expense, as
exemplified by the Red River Settlement, Fort Vancouver, and the
farms at Puget's Sound, and at the Cowlitz River.
10^.—No other Association seems so well adapted, as the Hudson's Bay Company, for effecting the colonization of the island of
Vancouver. APPENDIX.
Copy of the Royal Charter for incorporating the Hudson's Bay Company, granted
by his Majesty King Charles the Second, in the 22nd year of his reign, A.D. 1670.
Charles the Second, by the grace of God King of England, Scotland, France, and
Ireland, Defender of the Faith,  &c,  To all to whom these presents shall come
greeting:    Whereas  our dear and entirely beloved Cousin, Prince Rupert, Count
Palatine of the Rhine, "Duke of Bavaria and Cumberland, &c.; Christopher Duke of
Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, Henry Lord Arlington, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir
John Robinson, and Sir Robert Vyner, Knights and Baronets; Sir Peter Colleton,
Baronet; Sir Edward Hungerford, Knight of the Bath; Sir Paul Neele, Knight; Sir
John Griffith and Sir Philip Carteret, Knights;  James Hayes, John Kirke, Francis
Millington, William Prettyman, John Fenn, Esquires; and John Portman, Citizen and
Goldsmith  of London;   have, at their own  great cost and charges, undertaken an
expedition for Hudson's Bay, in the north-west part of America, for the discovery of a
new passage into the South Sea, and for the finding some trade for furs, minerals and
other considerable commodities, and by such their undertaking have already made such
discoveries as do encourage them to proceed further in pursuance of their said design, by
means whereof there may probably arise very great advantage to us and our kingdom:
And whereas the  said Undertakers,  for their further  encouragement in the  said
design, have humbly besought us to incorporate them, and grant unto them and their
successors tlte sole trade and commerce of all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes, creeles,
and sounds, in whatsoever Mitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the straits,
commonly called Hudson's Straits, together with all the lands, countries and territories
upon the coasts and confines of the seas, straits, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, which are not now actually possessed by any of our subjects, or by the subjects of any
other Christian Prince or State :   Now know ye, that we, heing desirous to promote
all endeavours tending to the public good of our people, and to encourage the said
undertaking, have, of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, given,
granted, ratified and confirmed, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors,
do owe, grant, ratify and confirm, unto our said Cousin, Prince Rupert, Christopher Duke
of Albemarle, William Earl of Craven, Henry Lord Arlington, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir
John Robinson, Sir Robert Vyner, Sir Peter Colleton, Sir Edward Hungerford, Sir
Paul Neele, Sir John Griffith and Sir Philip Carteret, James Hayes, John Kirke, Francis
Millington, William Prettyman, John Fenn and John Portman, that they, and such
others as shall be admitted into the said society as is hereafter expressed, shall be one
body corporate and politic, in deed and in name, by tbe name of « The Governor and
r ¥i
152
Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay," and them by the
name of " The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay," one body corporate and politic, in deed and in name, really and fully for
ever, for us, our heirs and successors, we do make, ordain, constitute, establish,
confirm and declare by these presents, and that by the same name of Governor and
Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay, they shall have perpetual succession, and that they and their successors, by the name of " The Governor
and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay," be, and at all
times hereafter shall be, personable and capable in law to have, purchase, receive,
possess, enjoy and retain lands, rents, privileges, liberties, jurisdictions, franchises and
hereditaments, of what kind, nature or quality soever they be, to them and their
successors ; and also to give, grant, demise, alien, assign and dispose lands, tenements,
and hereditaments, and to do and execute all and singular other things by the same
name that to them shall or may appertain to do ; and that they and their successors,
by the name of " The Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into
Hudson's Bay," may plead and be impleaded, answer and be answered, defend and
be defended, in whatsoever courts and places, before whatsoever judges and justices,
and other persons and officers, in all and singular actions, pleas, suits, quarrels,
causes and demands whatsoever, of whatsoever kind, nature or sort, in such manner
and form as any other our liege people of this our realm of England, being persons
able and capable in law, may or can have, purchase, receive, possess, enjoy, retain, give,
grant, demise, alien, assign, dispose, plead, defend and be defended, do, permit and
execute; and that the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading
into Hudson's Bay, and their successors, may have a common seal to serve for all the
causes and businesses of them and their successors, and that it shall and may be lawful
to the said Governor and Company, and their successors, the same seal, from time to
time, at their will and pleasure, to break, change, and to make anew or alter, as to them
shall seem expedient: And further we will, and by these presents, for us, our
heirs and successors, we do ordain, that there shall be from henceforth one of the same
Company to be elected and appointed in such form as hereafter in these presents is
expressed, which shall be called the Governor of the said Company; and that the said
Governor and Company shall or may elect seven of their number, in such form as
hereafter in these presents is expressed, which shall be called the Committee of the
said Company, which Committee of seven, or any three of them, together with the
Governor or Deputy Governor of the said Company for the time being, shall have
the direction of the voyages of and for the said Company, and the provision of the
shipping and merchandizes thereunto belonging, and also the sale of all merchandizes,'
goods and other things returned, in all or any the voyages or ships of or for the said
Company, and the managing and handling of all other business, affairs and things
belonging to the said Company: . And we will, ordain, and grant by these presents,
for us, our heirs and successors, unto the said Governor and Company, and their
successors, that they the said Governor and Company, and their successors, shall from
henceforth for ever be ruled, ordered and governed according to such manner and
form as is hereafter in these presents expressed, and not otherwise; and that they shall 153
v
have, hold, retain and enjoy the grants, liberties, privileges, jurisdictions and immunities only hereafter in these presents granted and expressed, and no other: And for
the better execution of our will and grant in this behalf, we have assigned, nominated,
constituted and made, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do
assign, nominate, constitute and make our said Cousin, Prince Rupert, to be the
first and present Governor of the said Company, and to continue in the said office from
the date of these presents until the 10th November then next following, if he, the said
Prince Rupert, shall so long live, and so until a new Governor be chosen by the said
Company in form hereafter expressed: And also we have assigned, nominated and
appointed, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do assign,
nominate and constitute, the said Sir John Robinson, Sir Robert Vyner, Sir Peter
Colleton, James Hayes, John Kirke, Francis Millington and John Portman to be the
seven first and present Committees of the said Company, from the date of these presents
until the said 10th day of November then also next following, and so until new Com-'
mittees shall be chosen in form hereafter expressed : And further we will and grant
by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, unto the said Governor and Company,
and their successors, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor and
Company for the time being, or the greater part of them present at any public assembly,
commonly called the Court General, to be holden for the said Company, the Governor
of the said Company being always one, from time to time to elect, nominate and appoint
one of the said Company to be Deputy to the said Governor, which Deputy shall take
a corporal oath, before the Governor and three or more of the Committee of the said
Company for the time being, well, truly and faithfully to execute his said office of
Deputy to the Governor of the said Company, and after his oath so taken shall and
may from time to time, in the absence of the said Governor, exercise and execute the
office of Governor of the said Company, in such sort as the said Governor ought to do :
And further we will and grant by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, unto
the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay,
and their successors, that they, or the greater part of them, whereof the Governor for
the time being or his Deputy to be one, from time to time, and at all times hereafter,
shall and may have authority and power, yearly and every year, between the first and
last day of November, to assemble and meet together in some convenient place, to be
appointed from time to time by the Governor, or in his absence by the Deputy of the
said Governor for the time being, and that they being so assembled, it shall and may be
lawful to and for the said Governor or Deputy of the said Governor, and the said Company for the time being, or the greater part of them which then shall happen to be
present, whereof the Governor of the said Company or his Deputy for the time being to
be one, to elect and nominate one of the said Company, which shall be Governor of the
said Company for one whole year then next following, which person being so elected
and nominated to be Governor of the said Company as is aforesaid, before he be
admitted to the execution of the said office, shall take a corporal oath before the last
Governor, being his predecessor or his Deputy, and any three or more of the Committee of the said Company for the time being, that he shall from time to time well
and truly execute the office of Governor of the said Company in all things concerning SBBaBBSHgjBa^BasBggBBgBBiggBgagBaggSggB
¥1
11
1
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154
the same; and that immediately after the same oath so-, takeu, he shall and may
execute and use the said office of Governor of the said Company for one whole year
from thence next following: And in like sort we will and grant, that as well every one
of the above-named to be of the said Company or Fellowship, as all others hereafter to
be admitted or free of the said Company, shall take a corporal oath before the Governor
of the said Company or his Deputy for the time being to such effect as by the said
Governor and Company, or the greater part of them, in any public court to be held for
the said Company, shall be in reasonable or legal manner set down and devised, before
they shall be allowed or admitted to trade or traffic as a freeman of the said Company:
And further we will and grant by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors,
unto the said Governor and Company, and their successors, that the said Governor or
Deputy Governor, and the rest of the said Company, and their successors for the time
being, or the greater part of them, whereof the Governor or Deputy Governor from
time to time to be one, shall and may from time to time, and at all times hereafter,
have power and authority, yearly and every year, between the first and last day of
November, to assemble and meet together in some convenient place, from time to time
to be appointed by the said Governor of the said Company, or in his absence by his
Deputy; and that they being so assembled, it shall and may be lawful to and for the
said Governor or his Deputy, and the Company for the time being, or the greater part
of them, which then shall happen to be present, whereof the Governor of the said Company or his Deputy for the time being to be one, to elect and nominate seven of the
said Company, which shall be a Committee of the said Company for one whole year
from then next ensuing, which persons being so elected and nominated to be a Committee of the said Company as aforesaid, before they be admitted to the execution of
their office, shall take a corporal oath before the Governor or his Deputy, and any three
or more of the said Committee of the said Company, being their last predecessors, that
they and every of them shall well and faithfully perform their said office of Committees
in all things concerning the same, and that immediately after the said oath so taken,
they shall and may execute and use their said office of Committees of the said Company, for one whole year from thence next following: And moreover, our will and
pleasure is, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do grant unto
the said Governor and Company, and their successors, that when and as often as it
shall happen, the Governor or Deputy-Governor of the said Company for the time
being, at any time within one year after that he shall be nominated, elected and sworn
to the office of the Governor of the said Company, as is aforesaid, to die or to be
removed from the said office, which Governor or Deputy Governor not demeaning himself well in his said office, we will to be removable at the pleasure of the rest of the
said Company, or the greater part of them which shall be present at their public
assemblies, commonly called their General Courts holden for the said Company, that
then and so often it shall arid may be lawful to and for the residue of the said Company for the time being, or the greater part of them, within a convenient time after the
death or removing of any such Governor or Deputy Governor, to assemble themselves
in such convenient place as they shall think fit, for the election of the Governor or
Deputy Governor of the said Company; and that the said Company, or the greater part 155
of them, being then and there present, shall and may, then and there, before their
departure from the said place, elect and nominate one oilier of the said Company to be
Governor or Deputy Governor for the said Company, in the place and stead of him that
so died or was removed ; which person being so elected and nominated to the office of
Governor or Deputy Governor of the said Company, shall have and exercise the said
office for and during the residue of the said year, taking first a corporal oath, as is
aforesaid, for the due execution thereof; and this to be done from time to time so often
as the case, shall so require : And also, our will and pleasure is, and by these presents,
for us, our heirs and successors, we do grant unto the said Governor and Company,
that when and as often as it shall happen any person or persons of the Committee of
the said Company for the time being, at any time within one year next after that they
or any of them shall be nominated, elected and sworn to the office of Committee of the
said Company as is aforesaid, to die or to be removed from the said office, which Committees not demeaning themselves well in their said office, we will to be removable at
the pleasure of the said Governor and Company, or the greater part of them, whereof
the Governor of the said Companyfor the time being or his Deputy to be one, that then
and so often, it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor, and the rest of
the Company for the time being, or the greater part of them, whereof the Governor for
the time being or his Deputy to be one, within convenient time after the death or
removing of any of the said Committee, to assemble themselves in such convenient
place as is or shall be usual and accustomed for the election of the Governor of the
said Company, or where else the Governor of the said Company for the time being or
his Deputy shall appoint: And that the said Governor and Company, or the greater
part of them, whereof the Governor for the time being or his Deputy to be one, being
then and there present, shall and may, then and there, before their departure from the
said place, elect and nominate one or more of the said Company to be of the Committee
of the said Company in the place and stead of him or them that so died, or were or was
so removed, which person or persons so nominated and elected to the office of Committee of the said Company shall have and exercise the said office for and during the
residue of the said year, taking first a corporal oath, as is aforesaid, for the due execution thereof, and this to be done from time to time, so often as the case shall require :
And to the end the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading
into Hudson's Bay may be encouraged to undertake and effectually to prosecute the
said design, of our more especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we have
given, granted, and confirmed, and by these presents, for us, our heirs, and successors,
do give, grant, and confirm, unto the said Governors and Company, and their successors, the
sole trade and commerce of all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes, creeks, and sounds, in
whatsoever latitude they shall be, that lie within the entrance of the straits commonly called
Hudson's Straits, together with all the lands and territories upon the countries, coasts, and
confines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, that are not already
actually possessed by or granted to any of our subjects, or possessed by the subjects of any
other Christian Prince or Stale, with the fishing of all sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons, and
all other royal fishes in the seas, bays, inlets and rivers within the premises, and the fish
therein taken, together with the royalty of the sea upon the c< asls within the limits afore- aswasoooaKWWz
TX&fSBSOXXZK&XZ&ia^^
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156
said, and all mines royal, as well discovered as not discovered, of gold, siver, gems, and
precious stones, to be found or discovered within the territories, limits and places aforesaid,
and that the said land be from henceforth reckoned and reputed as one of our plantations or
colonies in America, called " Rupert's Land:" And further, we do by these presents,
for us, our heirs, and successors, make, create and constitute the said Governor and
Company for the time being, and their successors, the true and absolute lords and proprietors of the same territory, limits and places aforesaid, and of all other the premises,
saving always the faith, allegiance and sovereign dominion due to us, our heirs and
successors, for the same, to have, hold, possess and enjoy the said territory, limits
and places, and all and singular other the premises hereby granted as aforesaid, with
their and every of their rights, members, jurisdictions, prerogatives, royalties and
appurtenances whatsoever, to them the said Governor and Company, and their successors for ever, to be holden of us, our heirs and successors, as of our manor of
East Greenwich, in our county of Kent, in free and common soccage, and not in capite
or by knight's service; yielding and paying yearly to us, our heirs and successors,
for the same, two elks and two black beavers, whensoever and as often as we, our heirs
and successors, shall happen to enter into the said countries, territories and regions
hereby granted: And further, our will and pleasure is, and by these presents, for us,
our heirs, and successors, we do grant unto the said Governor and Company, and to
their successors, that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor and Company, and their successors, from time to time, to assemble themselves, for or about any
the matters, causes, affairs or businesses of the said trade, in any place or places for the
same convenient, within our dominions or elsewhere, and there to hold court for the
said Company, "and the affairs thereof; and that, also, it shall and maybe lawful to
and forthem, and the greater part of them, being so assembled, and that shall then and
there be present, in any such place or places, whereof the Governor or his Deputy for
the time being to be one, to make, ordain and constitute such and so many reasonable
laws, constitutions, orders and ordinances as to them, or the greater part of them, being
then and there present, shall seem necessary and convenient for the good government
of the said Company, and of all governors of colonies, forts and plantations, factors,
masters, mariners and other officers employed or to be employed in any of the territories and lands aforesaid, and in any of their voyages ; and for the better advancement
and continuance of the said trade or traffic and plantations, and the same laws, constitutions, orders and ordinances so made, to put in, use and execute accordingly, and at
their pleasure to revoke and alter the same or any of them, as the occasion shall
require : And that the said Governor and Company, so often as they shall make, ordain
or establish any such laws, constitutions, orders and ordinances in such form as aforesaid, shall and may lawfully impose, ordain, limit, and provide such pains, penalties
and punishments upon all offenders, contrary to such laws, constitutions, orders and
ordinances, or any of them, as to the said Governor and Company for the time being, or
the greater part of them, then and there being present, the said Governor or his Deputy
being always one, shall seem necessary, requisite or convenient for the observation of
the same laws, constitutions, orders, and ordinances; and the same fines and amerciaments shall and may, by their officers and servants from time to time to be appointed for 157
that purpose, levy, take and have, to the use of the said Governor and Company, and
their successors, without the impediment of us, our heirs, or successors, or of any the
officers or ministers of us, our heirs or successors, and without any account therefore to
us, our heirs, or successors, to be made : All and singular which laws, constitutions,
orders and ordinances, so as aforesaid to be made, we will to be duly observed and kept
under the pains and penalties therein to be contained; so always as the said laws,
constitutions, orders and ordinances, fines and amerciaments, be reasonable, and not contrary or repugnant, but as near as may be agreeable to the laws, statutes-or customs of
this our realm:    And furthermore,  of our  ample  and  abundant grace,  certain
knowledge and mere motion, we have granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs
and successors, do grant unto the said Governor and Company, and their successors,
that they and their successors, and their factors, servants and agents, for them and on
their behalf, and not otherwise, shall for ever hereafter have, use and enjoy, not only the
whole, entire and only trade and traffic, and the whole, entire, and only liberty, use and
privilege of trading and trafficlnng to and from the territory, limits and places aforesaid;
but also the whole and entire trade and traffic to and from all liavens, bays, creeks, rivers,
lakes and seas, into which they shall find entrance or passage by water or land out of the
territories, limits or places aforesaid ; and to and with all the natives and people inhabiting,
or which shall inhabit within the territories, limits and places aforesaid ; and to and with
all other nations inhabiting any tlie coasts adjacent to the said, territories, limits and
places which are not already possessed as aforesaid, or whereof the sole liberty or privilege
of trade and traffic is not granted to any other of our subjects:    And we, of our further
royal favour, and of our more especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, have
granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant to the said
Governor and Company, and to their successors, that neither the said territories, limits and
places, hereby granted as aforesaid, nor any part tliereof, nor the islands, liavens, ports,
cities, towns or places thereof or therein contained, shall be visited, frequented or haunted
by any of the subjects of us, our heirs or successors, contrary to the true meaning of these
presents, and by virtue of our prerogative royal, which tee mil not have in that behalf
argued or brought into question:   We straitly charge, command and prohibit, for us,
our heirs and successors, all the subjects of us, our heirs and successors, of what degree
or quality soever they be, that none of them, directly or indirectly, do visit, haunt,
frequent or trade, traffic or adventure, by way of merchandize, into or from any of the
said territories, limits or places hereby granted, or any or either of them, other than the
said Governor and Company, and siich particular persons as now be or hereafter shall
be of that Company, their agents, factors and assigns, unless it be by the licence and
agreement of the said Governor and Company in writing first had and obtained, under
their common seali to be granted, upon pain that every such person or persons that
shall trade or traffic into or from any of the countries, territories or limits aforesaid,
other than the said Governor and Company, and their successors, shall incur our.indignation, and the forfeiture and the loss of the goods, merchandizes and other things
whatsoever, which so shall be brought into this realm of England, or any the dominions
of the same, contrary to our said prohibition, or the purport or true meaning of these
presents, for which the said Governor and Company shall find, take and seize in other
1 ^asBaBsoaaagwBggBgjgaasKBBBSBBaBBg^^
1H 11
158
places out of our dominions, where the said Company, their agents, factors or ministers
shall trade, traffic or inhabit by virtue of these our letters patent, as also the ship and
ships, with the furniture thereof, wherein such goods, merchandizes and other things
shall be brought and found; the one-half of all the said forfeitures to be to us, our
heirs and successors, and the other half thereof we do by these presents clearly and
wholly, for us, our heirs and successors, give and grant unto the said Governor and
Company, and their successors: And further, all and every the said offenders, for
their said contempt, to suffer such other punishment as to us, our heirs and successors,
for so high a contempt, shall seem meet and convenient, and not to be in anywise
delivered until they and every of them shall become bound unto the said Governor for
the time being in the sum of One thousand pounds at the least, at no time then after
to trade or traffic into any of the said places, seas, straits, bays, ports, havens or territories aforesaid, contrary to our express commandment in that behalf set down and
published: And further, of our more especial grace, we have condescended and
granted, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, do grant unto the said
Governor and Company, and their successors, that we, our heirs and successors, will not
grant liberty, licence or power to any person or persons whatsoever, contrary to the
tenor of these our letters patent, to trade, traffic or inhabit, unto or upon any the territories, limits or places afore specified, contrary to the true meaning of these presents,
without the consent of the said Governor and Company, or the most part of them:
And, of our more abundant grace and favour to the said Governor and Company, we
do hereby declare our will and pleasure to be, that if it shall so happen that any of the
persons free or to be free of the said Company of Adventurers of England trading into
Hudson's Bay, who shall, before the going forth of any ship or ships appointed for a
voyage or otherwise, promise or agree, by writing under his or their hands, to adventure any sum or sums of money towards the furnishing any provision, or maintenance
of any voyage or voyages, set forth, or to be set forth, or intended or meant to be set
forth, by the said Governor and Company, or the more part of them present at any
public assembly, commonly called their General Court, shall not within the space of
twenty days next after warning given to him or them by the said Governor or Company,
or their known officer or minister, bring in and deliver to the Treasurer or Treasurers
appointed for the Company, such sums of money as shall have been expressed and set
/down in writing by the said person or persons, subscribed with the name of said
Adventurer or Adventurers, that then and at all times after it shall and may be lawful
to and for the said Governor and Company, or the more part of them present, whereof
tbe said Governor or his Deputy to be one, at any of their General Courts or General
Assemblies, to remove and disfranchise him or them, and every such person and persons
at their wills and pleasures, and he or they so removed and disfranchised not to be
permitted to trade into the countries, territories and limits aforesaid, or any part thereof,
nor to have any adventure or stock going or remaining with or amongst the said
Company, without the special licence of the said Governor and Company, or the more
part of them present at any General Court, first had and obtained in that behalf, any
thing before in these presents to the contrary thereof in anywise notwithstanding: And
will and pleasure is, and hereby we do also ordain, that'it shall and may be 159
lawful to and for the said Governor and Company, or the greater part of them, whereof
the Governor for the time being or his Deputy to be one, to admit into and to be of the
said Company all such servants or factors, of or for the said Company, and all such
others as to them or the most part of them present, at any court held for the said
Company, the Governor or his deputy being one, shall be thought fit and agreeable
with the. orders and ordinances made and to be made for the government of the said
Company:    And further, our will and pleasure is, and by these presents, for us, our
heirs and successors, we do grant unto the said Governor and Company, and to their
successors, that it shall and may be lawful in all elections and bye-laws to be made by
the General Court of the Adventurers of the said Company, that every person shall have
a number of votes according to his stock, that is to say, for every hundred pounds by
him subscribed or brought into the present stock, one vote, and that any of those that
have subscribed less than One hundred pounds may join their respective sums to make
up One hundred pounds, and have one vote jointly for the same, and not otherwise :
And further, of our especial grace, certain knowledge and mere motion, we do for
us, our heirs and successors, grant to and with the said Governor and Company of
Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay, that all lands, islands, territories,
plantations, forts, fortifications, factories or colonies, where the said Company's factories and trade are or shall be, within any the ports or places afore limited, shall be
immediately and from henceforth under the power and command of the said Governor
and Company, their successors and assigns ; saving the faith and allegiance due to be
performed to us, our heirs and successors aforesaid; and that the said Governor and
Company shall have liberty, full power and authority to appoint and establish Governors
and all other officers to govern them, and that the Governor and his Council of the
several and respective places where the said Company shall have plantations, forts,
factories, colonies or places of trade within any the countries, lands or territories hereby
granted, may have power to judge all persons belonging to the said Governor and
Company,  or that shall live under them, in all causes, whether civil or criminal,
according to the laws of this kingdom, and to execute justice accordingly; and in case
any crime or misdemeanor shall be committed in any of the said Company's plantations,
forts, factories or places of trade within the limits aforesaid, where judicature cannot be
executed for want of a Governor and Council there, then in such case it shall and may
be lawful for the chief Factor of that place and his Council to transmit the party,
together with the offence, to such other plantation, factory or fort where there shall be a
Governor and Council, where justice may be executed, or into this kingdom of England,
as shall be thought most convenient, there to receive such punishment as the nature of
his offence shall deserve:    And moreover, our will and pleasure is, and by these
presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do give and grant unto the said Governor and Company, and then- successors, free liberty and licence, in case they conceive
it necessary, to send either ships of war, men or ammunition, unto any then- plantations, forts, factories or places of trade aforesaid, for the security and defence of the
same, and to choose commanders and officers over them, and to give them power and
authority, by commission under their common seal, or otherwise, to continue or make
Teace or war with any prince or people whatsoever, that are not Christians, in any ^asaa^^x^a^^^^^^^^^^^W^^^^^^^S^^^g^SSS^^
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160
places where the said Company shall have any plantations, forts or factories^ of
adjacent thereunto, as shall be most for the advantage and benefit of the said Governor
and Company, and of their trade; and also to right and recompense themselves upon
the goods, estates or people of those parts, by whom the said Governor and Company
shall sustain any injury, loss or damage, or upon any other people whatsoever that shall
any way, contrary to the intent of these presents, interrupt, wrong'or injure them' in
their said trade, within the said places, territories and limits granted by this Charter :
And that it shall and may be lawful to and for the said Governor and Company, and
their successors, from time to time, and at all times from henceforth, to erect and build
such castles, fortifications, forts, garrisons, colonies or plantations, towns or villages;
in any parts or places within the limits and bounds granted before in these presents
unto the said Governor and Company, as they in their discretion shall think fit and
requisite, and for the supply of such as shall be needful and convenient, to keep and be
in the same, to send out of this kingdom, to the said castles, forts, fortifications,
garrisons, colonies, plantations, towns or villages, all kinds of clothing, provision of
victuals, ammunition and implements necessary for such purpose, paying the duties and
customs for the same, as also to transport and carry over such number of men, being
willing thereunto, or not prohibited,- as they shall think fit, and also to govern them in
such legal and reasonable manner as the said Governor and Company shall think best,
and to inflict punishment for misdemeanors, or impose such fines upon them for breach
of their orders, as in these presents are formerly expressed : And further, our will'
and pleasure is, and by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, we do grant
unto the said Governor and Company, and to their successors, full power and lawful
authority to seize upon the persons of all such English, or any other our subjects which
shall sail into Hudson's Bay, or inhabit in any of the countries, islands or territories
hereby granted to the said Governor and Company, without their leave and licence in that
behalf first had and obtained, or that shall contemn or disobey their orders, and send
them to England; and that all and every person or persons, being our subjects, any
ways employed by the said Governor and Company," within any the parts, places and
limits aforesaid, shall be liable unto and suffer such punishment for any offences by them
committed in the parts aforesaid, as the President and Council for the said.Governor
and Company there shall think fit, and the merit of the offence shall require, as aforesaid; and in case any person or persons being convicted and sentenced by the President and Council of the said Governor and Company, in the countries, lands or limits
aforesaid, their factors or agents there, for any offence by them done, shall appeal from
the same, that then and in such case it shall and may be lawful to and for the said
President and Council, factors or agents, to seize upon him or them, and to carry him
or them home prisoners into England, to the said Governor and.Company, there to
receive such condign punishment as his cause shall require,' and the law of this nation
allow of; and for the better discovery of abuses and injuries to be done unto the said
Governor and Company, or their successors, by any. servant by them to be employed in
the said ;voyages and plantations, it shall and "may be lawful to and for the said
Governor, and Company, and their respective President, Chief Agent or Governor in the
parts aforesaid, to examine upon oath all factors; masters, pursers, supercargoes, com- 161
manders of castles, forts, fortifications, plantations or colonies, or other persons,
touching or concerning any matter or thing in which by law or usage an oath may be
administered, so as the said oath, and the matter therein contained, be not repugnant,
but agreeable to the laws of this realm: And we do hereby straitly charge and
command all and singular our Admirals, Vice-Admirals, Justices, Mayors, Sheriffs,
Constables, Bailiffs, and all and singular other our officers, ministers, liege men and
subjects whatsoever, to be aiding, favouring, helping and assisting to the said Governor
and Company, and to their successors, and to their deputies, officers, factors, servants,
assigns and ministers, and every of them, in executing and enjoying the premises, as
well on land as on sea, from time to time, when any of you shall thereunto be required;
any Statute, act, ordinance, proviso, proclamation or restraint heretofore had, made,
set forth, ordained or provided, or any other matter, cause or thing whatsoever to the
contrary in anywise notwithstanding. In Witness whereof we have caused these
our Letters to be made Patent. Witness ourself at Westminster, the second day of
May in the two-and-twentieth year of our reign.
By Writ of Privy Seal.
PIGOTT.
B.
Crown Grant to the Hudson's Bay Company of the exclusive Trade with the Indians
in certain parts of North America, for a further term of Twenty-one Years, and
upon the surrender of a former Grant.
Victoria R.
(l. s.) Victoria, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great
Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith.
To all to whom these Presents shall come, greeting.
Whereas, by an Act passed in the Session of Parliament holden in the first and
second year of the reign of his late Majesty King George the Fourth, intituled, | An
Act for regulating the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction
within certain parts of North America," it was amongst other things enacted, that from
and after the passing of the said Act, it should be lawful for his said Majesty, his heirs
or successors, to make Grants, or give his or their Royal Licence, under the hand and
seal of one of his or their Principal Secretaries of State, to any body corporate or company, or person or persons, of or for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians
in all such parts of North America as should be specified in any such Grants or
Licences, respectively, not being part of the lands and territories theretofore granted to
the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England, trading to Hudson's Bay, and
not being part of any of our Provinces in North America, or of any lands or territories
belonging to the United States of America, and that all such Grants and Licences
should be good, valid and effectual for the purpose of securing to all such bodies corporate, or companies or persons, the sole and exclusive privilege of trading with the
Indians in all such parts of North America (except as thereinafter excepted) as should
be specified in such Grants or Licences, any thing contained in any Act or Acts of K»!KZ]R»!%%3^K2S@g3aS^SaS^^^^KgEa^^SS^K30^!K9S^S9SSi
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162
Parliament, or any law to the contrary notwithstanding', and it was further enacted,
that no such Grant or Licence made or given by his said Majesty, his heirs or successors, of any such exclusive privileges of trading with the Indians in such parts of North
America as aforesaid, should be made or given for any longer period than 21 years, and
no rent should be required or demanded for or in respect of any such Grant or Licence,
or any privileges given thereby under the provisions of the saM list for the first period of
21 years; and it was further enacted, -that from and after the passing of the said Act, the
Governor and Company of Adventurers trading to Hudson's Bay, and every body corporate and company and person to whom any such Grant or Licence should be made
or given as aforesaid, should respectively keep accurate registers of all persons in their
employ in any parts of North America, -and should once in each year return to the
Principal Secretaries of State accurate duplicates of such registers, and should also
enter into such security as should be required for the -due execution of all processes
criminal and civil, as well within the territories included with ainy such Grant, as within
those granted by Charter to the Governor and Company of Adventures of England
trading to Hudson's Bay, and for the producing or delivering into safe custody, for the
purpose of trial, all persons in their employ or acting under their authority, who should
be charged with any criminal offence, and also for the due and faithful observance of
all such rules, regulations and stipulations :as should be contained in any such Grant
or Licence, either for gradually diminishing and ultimately preventing the sale or
distribution of spirituous liquors to the Indians, or for promoting their moral and
religious improvement, or for any other object which might be deemed necessary for
the remedy or prevention of any other evils which had hitherto been found to exist:
And whereas it was in the said Act recited, that by a convention entered into between
his said late Majesty and the United States of America, it was stipulated and agreed,
that every country on the North-west coasts of America to the westward of the Stony
Mountains should be free and open to the cifeens ■and subjects of the two powers for
the term of ton years from the date of the signature of that convention; and it was
therefore enacted, that nothing in the said Act contained should be deemed or construed
to authorize any body corporate, company or person to whom his said Majesty might,
under the provisions of the said Act, make or grant or give a Licence of exclusive trade
with the Indians in such parts of North America as aforesaid, to claim or exercise any
such exclusive trade within the limits specified in the said article, to the prejudice or
exclusion of any citizens of the said United States of America who might be engaged
in the said trade ; with a proviso, that no British subject should trade with the Indians
within such limits without such Grant or Licence as was by the said Act required:
And whereas by an instrument under the hand and seal of the Right Honourable
Earl Bathurst, then one of his said late Majesty's Secretaries of State, and dated the
6th day of December 1821, after reciting therein, as or to the effect aforesaid, and also
reciting that the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading to
Hudson's Bay, and certain Associations of persons trading under the name of " The
North-west Company of Montreal," had respectively extended the fur trade over many
parts of North America which had not been before explored, and that the competition
in the said trade had been found, for some years then past, to be productive of great
Jfe' 163
inconvenience and loss, not only to the said Company and Associations, but to the said
trade in general, and also of great injury to the native Indians and of other persons his
said Majesty's subjects; and that the said Governor and Company of Adventurers
trading to Hudson's Bay; and William M'Gillivray of Montreal, in the Province of
Lower Canada, esquire; Simon M'Gillivray, of Suffolk Lane, in the city of London,
merchant; and Edward Ellice, of Spring-gardens, in the county of Middlesex, esquire;
had represented to his said Majesty that they'had entered into an agreement, on the
26th day of March last, for putting an end to the said competition, and carrying on the
said trade for 21 years, commencing with the outfit of 1821, and ending with the
returns of the outfit of 1841, to be carried on in the name of the said Governor and
Company exclusively, and that the said Governor and Company, and William
M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray and Edward Ellice had humbly besought his said late
Majesty to make a Grant and give his Royal Licence to them jointly of and for the
exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in North America, under the restrictions
and upon the terms and conditions specified in the said recited Act: his said late
Majesty, being desirous of encouraging the said trade, and remedying the evils which
had arisen from the competition which had theretofore existed therein, did give and
grant his Royal Licence, under the hand and seal of one of his Principal Secretaries of
State, to the said Governor and Company, and William M'Gillivray Simon M'Gillivray
and Edward Ellice, for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in all such
parts of North America to the northward and to the westward of the said lands and
territories belonging to the United States of America, as should not form part of any of
his said Majesty's Provinces in North America, or of any lands and territories belonging
to the said United States of America, or to any European government, state or power;
and his said late Majesty did also give and grant and secure to the said Governor and
Company, and William M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray and Edward Ellice, the sole
and exclusive privilege, for the full period of 21 years from the date of that Grant, of
trading with the Indians in all such parts of North America as aforesaid (except as
thereinafter excepted), and did thereby declare that no rent should be required or
demanded for or in respect of that Grant and Licence, or any privileges given thereby
for the said period of 21 years, but that the said Governor and Company of Adventurers
trading to Hudson's Bay, and the said William M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray, and
Edward Ellice, should, during the period of that Grant and Licence, keep accurate
registers of all persons in their employ in any parts of North America, and should once
in each year return to his said Majesty's Secretary of State accurate duplicates of such
registers, and enter into and give security to his said Majesty, his heirs and successors
in the penal sum of £.5000 for ensuring, as far as in them might lay, or as they
could by their authority over the servants and persons in their employ, the due execution of all criminal processes, and of every civil process in.any suit where the matter in
dispute shall exceed £.200, by the officers and persons legally empowered to execute
such processes within all the territories included in that Grant, and for the producing
or delivering into custody for purposes of trial all persons in their employ or acting
under their authority within the said territories, who should be charged with any
criminal offence ; and his. said Majesty did thereby require'that the said Governor and saaz2sassBi»yBK^Z£SgsggSB«s&Kie^^
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164
Company, and William M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray and Edward Ellice, should, as
soon as the same could be conveniently done, make and submit for his said Majesty's
consideration and approval, such rules and regulations for the management and carrying
on of the said fur trade with the Indians, and the conduct of the persons employed by
them therein, as might appear to his said Majesty to be effectual for diminishing or
preventing the sale or distribution of spirituous liquors to the Indians, and for promoting their moral and religious improvement; and his said Majesty did thereby
declare, that nothing in that Grant contained should be deemed or construed to authorize
the said Governor and Company, and William M'Gillivray, Simon M'GiUivray and
Edward Ellice, or any persons in their employ, to claim or exercise any trade with the
Indians on the North-west coast of America to the westward of the Stony Mountains,
to the prejudice or exclusion of any citizens of the United States of America who
might be engaged in the said trade; and providing also by the now reciting Grant, that
no British subjects other than and except the said Governor and Company, and the said
William M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray and Edward Ellice, and the persons authorized
to carry on exclusive trade by them on Grant, should trade with the Indians within such
limits during the period of that Grant:
And whereas the said Governor and Company have acquired to themselves all the
rights and interests of the said William M'Gillivray, Simon M'Gillivray and Edward
Ellice, under the said recited Grant, and the said Governor and Company having
humbly besought us to accept a surrender of the said Grant, and in consideration
thereof to make a Grant to them, and to give to them our Royal Licence and authority
of and for the like exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in North America,
for the like period and upon similar terms and conditions to those specified and
referred to in the said recited Grant: Now know ye, That in consideration of the
surrender made to us of the said recited Grant, and being desirous of encouraging the
said trade, and of preventing as much as possible a recurrence of the evils mentioned or
referred to in the said recited Grant; as also in consideration of the yearly rent hereinafter reserved to us, We do hereby grant and give our Licence, under the hand and
seal of one of our Principal Secretaries of State, to the said Governor and Company,
and their successors, for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in all such
parts of North America, to the northward and to the westward of the lands and territories belonging to the United States of America, as shall not form part of any of our
provinces in North America, or of any lands or territories belonging to the said United
States of America, or to any European government, state or power, but subject nevertheless as hereinafter mentioned: And we do by these presents give, grant and secure
to the said Governor and Company, and their successors, the sole and exclusive
privilege, for the full period of 21 years from the date of this our Grant, of trading
with the Indians in all such parts of North America as aforesaid (except as hereinafter
mentioned): And we do hereby declare, that no rent shall be required or demanded
for or in respect of this our Grant and Licence, or any privileges given thereby, for the
first four years of the said term of 21 years; and we do hereby reserve to ourselves,
our heirs and successors, for the remainder of the said term of 21 years, the yearly rent
or sum of 5s. to be paid by the said Governor and Company, or their successors, on 165
the first day of June in every year, into our Exchequer, on the account of us, our heirs
and successors; and we do hereby declare, that the said Governor and Company, and
their successors, shall, during the period of this our Grant and Licence, keep accurate
registers of all persons in their employ in any parts of North America, and shall once in
each year return to our Secretary of State accurate duplicates of such registers ; and
shall also enter into and give security to us, our heirs and successors, in the penal sum
of £.5000, for ensuring, as far as in them may lie, or as they can by their authority
over the servants and persons in-their employ, the due execution of all criminal and
civil processes by the officers and persons legally empowered to execute such processes within all the territories included in this our Grant, and for the producing or
delivering into custody for the purposes of trial all persons in their employ or acting
under their authority within the said territories who shall be charged with any criminal
offence: And we do also hereby require, that the said Governor and Company, and
their successors, shall, as soon as the same can be conveniently done, make and submit
for our consideration and approval such rules and regulations for the management and
carrying on the said fur trade with the Indians, and the conduct of the persons
employed by them therein, as may appear to us to be effectual for diminishing or
preventing the sale or distribution of spiritous liquors to the Indians, and for promoting
their moral and religious improvement: But we do hereby declare, that nothing in this
our Grant contained shall be deemed or construed to authorise the said Governor and
Company, or their successors, or any persons in their employ, to claim or exercise any
trade with the Indians on the North-west coast of America to the westward of the
Stony Mountains, to the prejudice or exclusion of any of the subjects of any foreign
states, who, under or by force of any convention for the time being between us and
such foreign states respectively, may be entitled to and shall be engaged in the said
trade: Provided nevertheless, and we do hereby declare our pleasure to be, that
nothing herein contained shall extend or be construed to prevent the establishment by
us, our heirs or successors, within the territories aforesaid, or any of them, of any
colony or colonies, province or provinces, or for annexing any part of the aforesaid
territories to any existing colony or colonies to us, in right of our Imperial Crown,
belonging, or for constituting any such form of civil government as to us may seem
meet, within any such colony or colonies, province or provinces :
And we do hereby reserve to us, our heirs and successors, full power and authority to
revoke these presents, or any part thereof, in so for as the same may embrace or extend
to any of the territories aforesaid, which may hereafter be comprised within any colony
or colonies, province or provinces as aforesaid:
It being nevertheless hereby declared, that no British subjects other than and except
the said Governor and Company, and their successors, and the persons authorized to
carry on exclusive trade by them, shall trade with the Indians during the period of this
our Grant within the limits aforesaid, or within that part thereof which shall not be
comprised within any such colony or province as aforesaid.
Given at our Court at Buckingham Palace, 30th day of May 1838.
By Her Majesty's command.
(l. s.) (Signed) GLENELG. .agagjggeaojsatggiagBsasaaa^^
166
C.
Copy of the Treaty between Her Majesty and the United States of America, for the
Settlement of the Oregon Boundary. Signed at Washington, June 15, 1846.
Ratifications exchanged at London, July 17, 1846. Presented to both Houses of
Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 1846.
[N.B.—By this treaty it will be seen that the Hudson's Bay Company alone, or those
British subjects trading with them, are entitled to navigate the northern branch of the
Columbia River to the 4*9th parallel; that this right is not general to the people of the
United Kingdom; and that the privilege thus acquired is in perpetuity, as tlie Charter
of 2 May 1670, under which the Company is constituted " is for ever."—R. M.
Martin.]
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and
the United States of America, deeming it to be desirable for the future welfare of both
countries, that the state of doubt and uncertainty which has hitherto prevailed respecting the Sovereignty and Government of the Territory on the North-west Coast of
America, lying westward of the Rocky or Stony Mountains, should be finally terminated
by an amicable compromise of the rights mutually asserted by the two Parties over the
said Territory, have respectively named Plenipotentiaries to treat and agree concerning
the terms of such settlement, that is to say:—
Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland has, on
Her partj appointed the Right Honourable Richard Pakenham, a Member of Her
Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, and Her Majesty's Envoy Extraordinary and
Minister Plenipotentiary to the United States; and the President of the United States
of. America has, on his part,, furnished with full powers, James Buchanan, Secretary
of State of the United States; who, after having communicated to each other their
respective full powers, found in good and* due form, have agreed upon and concluded
the following Articles :—
Article I.
From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, where the boundary laid
down in existing Treaties and Conventions between Great Britain and the United
States terminates, the line of boundary between the territories of Her Britannic Majesty
and those of the United States shall be continued westward along the said forty-ninth
parallel of north latitude, to the middle of the channel which separates the continent
from Vancouver's Island; and thence southerly, through the middle of the said channel,
and of Fuca's Straits, to the Pacific Ocean: provided, however, that the navigation' of
the whole of the said channel and straits, south of the forty-ninth parallel of north
latitude, remain free and open to both Parties. 167
Article II.
From the point at which the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude shall be found to
intersect the great northern branch of the Columbia River, the navigation of the said
branch shall be free and open to the Hudson's Bay Company, and to all British subjects
trading with the same, to the point where the said branch meets the main stream of the
Columbia, and thence down the said main stream to the ocean, with free access into and
through the said river or rivers; it being understood, that all the usual portages along
the line thus described, shall in like manner be free and open.
In navigating the said river or rivers, British subjects, with their goods and produce,
shall be treated on the same footing as citizens of the United States; it being, however, always understood, that nothing in this Article shall be construed as preventing,
or intended to prevent, the Government of the United States from making any regulations respecting the navigation of the said river or rivers, not inconsistent with the
present Treaty.
Article III",
In the future appropriation of the territory south of the forty-ninth parallel of north
latitude, as provided in the First Article of this Treaty, the possessory rights of the Hudson's Bay Company, and of all British subjects who may be already in the occupation of
land or other property lawfully acquired within the said territory, shall be respected.
Article IV.
The farms, lands, and other property of every description, belonging to the Puget's Sound
Agricultural Company, on the north side of the Columbia River, shall be confirmed to the
said Company. In case, however, the situation of those farms and lands should be considered by the United Slates to be of public and political importance, and the United States'
Government should signify a desire to obtain possession of the whole or of any part thereof,
the property so required shall be transferred to the said Government at a proper valuation,
to be agreed upon between the parties.
Article V.
The present Treaty shall be ratified by her Britannic Majesty, and by the President
of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof; and
the ratifications shall be exchanged at London at the expiration of six months from the
date hereof, or sooner if possible.
In witness whereof the respective Plenipotentiaries have signed the same, and have
affixed thereto Hie seals of their arms.
Done at Washington, the fifteenth day of June, in the year of our Lord one thousand
eight hundred and forty-six.
RICHARD PAKINGHAM.        (l. s.)
JAMES BUCHANAN. (l. s.) MHoooRwwwasaazsasaa^
168
D.
Royal Draft Charter for the Colonization of Vancouver's Island.
Victoria, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,
Queen, Defender of the Faith, to all to whom these presents shall come, greeting: Whereas
by the Royal Charter or letters patent of his late Majesty King Charles the Second,
bearing date the 2nd day of May, in the 22nd year of his reign, his said late Majesty
did (amongst other things) ordain and declare that the Governor and Company of
Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay, thereby incorporated, and their
successors by that name should at all times thereafter be personable and capable in law
to have, purchase, receive, possess, and enjoy and retain lands, rents, privileges,
liberties, jurisdictions, franchises and hereditaments, of what nature or kind soever they
were, to them or their successors: And also to give, grant, demise, alien, assign and
dispose lands, tenements and hereditaments, and to do and execute all and singular
other things by the same name that to them should or might appertain to do: And his
said late Majesty did thereby for himself, his heirs and- successors, give, grant and
confirm unto the said Governor and Company and their successors the sole trade and
commerce of all those seas, straits, bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and sounds, in whatsoever
latitude they should be, that lay within the entrance of the straits commonly called
Hudson's Straits, together with all the lands and territories upon the countries, coasts
and confines of the seas, bays, lakes, rivers, creeks and sounds aforesaid, that were not
already actually possessed by or granted to any of his said late Majesty's subjects, or
possessed by the subjects of any other Christian prince or state, with the fishing of all
sorts of fish, whales, sturgeons and all other royal fishes in the seas, bays, inlets and
rivers within the premises, and the fish therein taken ; together with the royalty of the
sea upon the coasts within the limits aforesaid, and all mines royal, as well then discovered as not then discovered, of gold, silver, gems and precious stones to be found or
discovered within the territories, limits, and places aforesaid, and that the said land
should be from thenceforth reckoned and reputed as one of his said late Majesty's
plantations or colonies in America : And further, his said late Majesty did thereby for
himself, his heirs and successors, make, create, and constitute the said Governor and
Company for the time being and their successors the true and absolute lords and proprietors of the same territory, limits and places aforesaid, and of all other the premises
(saving always the faith, allegiance, and sovereign dominion due to his said late
Majesty, his heirs and successors for the same) ; to hold, possess and enjoy the said
territory, limits, and places, and all and singular other the premises thereby granted as
aforesaid, with their and every of their rights, members, jurisdictions prerogatives,
royalties, and appurtenances whatsoever to them the said Governor and Company and
their successors for ever; to be holden of his said late Majesty, his heirs and successors,
as of his manor of East Greenwich, in the county of Kent, in free and common
soccage, and not in capite or by knights' service ; yielding and paying yearly to his said
late Majesty, his heirs and successors, for the same, two elks and two black beavers
whensoever and as often as his said late Majesty, his heirs and successors, should 169
happen to enter into the said countries, territories, and regions thereby granted: And
whereas by an Act passed in the session of Parliament held in the 43rd year of the
reign of his late Majesty King George the Third, intituled, " An Act for extending the
Jurisdiction of the Courts of Justice in the Provinces of Lower and Upper Canada, to
the Trial and Punishment of Persons guilty of Crimes and Offences within certain
Parts of North America adjoining to the said Provinces," it was enacted that from or
after the passing of that Act all offences committed within any of the Indian territories
or parts of America not within the limits of either of the said provinces of Lower and
Upper Canada, or of any Civil Government of the United States of America, should
be and be deemed to be offences of the same nature, and should be tried in the same
manner and subject to the same punishment as if the same had been committed within
the Provinces of Upper or Lower Canada, and provisions were contained in the said
Act regulating the committal and trial of the offenders :
And whereas, by an Act passed in the session of Parliament holden in the first and
second years of the reign of his late Majesty King George the Fourth, intituled, " An
Act for regulating the Fur Trade, and establishing a Criminal and Civil Jurisdiction
within certain parts of North America," after reciting, among other things, that doubts
had been entertained whether the provisions of said Act of the 43rd George III. extended to the territories granted by Charter to the said Governor and Company, and
that it was expedient that such doubts should be removed, and that the said Act should
be further extended; it was enacted (among other things), that from and after the
passing of said last-mentioned Act, it should be lawful for his then Majesty, his heirs
and successors, to make grants or give his Royal licence under the hand and seal of
one of his Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State to any body corporate or company,
or person or persons of or for the exclusive privilege of trading with the Indians in all
such parts of North America as should be specified in any of such grants or licences
respectively, not being part of the lands or territories theretofore granted to the said
Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay, and not
being part of any of his Majesty's provinces in North America, or of any lands or territories belonging to the United States of America, subject to the provisions and restrictions in the said Act mentioned: And it was thereby further enacted, that the said Act
of the 43rd George III., and all the clauses and provisoes therein contained, should be
deemed and construed, and was and were thereby respectively declared to extend to and
over, and to be in full force in and through all the territories theretofore granted to the
said Company of Adventurers trading to Hudson's Bay : And whereas by our grant or
royal licence bearing date the 13th day of May, 1838, under the hand and seal of one
of our then Principal Secretaries of State, we granted and gave our licence to the said
Governor and Company and their successors for the exclusive privilege of trading with
the Indians in all such parts of North America to the northward and westward of the
lands and territories belonging to the United States of America as should not form part
of any of our provinces in North America, or of any lands or territories belonging to
the United States of America, or to any European Government, State or Power, subject
nevertheless as therein mentioned: And we did thereby give and grant and secure.io
the said Governor and Company, and their successors, the sole and exclusive privilege «eMPJ5»^oo?»5^•o^»^ai»^SBB»Sl^ws^»^WK»WtwWS,
170
for the full period of twenty-one years from the date thereof, of trading with the Indians
in all such parts of North America as aforesaid, except as therein mentioned, at the
rent therein reserved, and upon the terms and subject to the qualification and power of
revocation therein contained: And whereas by a treaty between ourselves and the
United States of America, for the settlement of the Oregon boundary, signed at Washington on the 15th day of June, 1846, it was agreed upon and concluded (amongst
other things) as follows: That from the point of the 49th parallel of north latitude,
where the boundary laid down in existing treaties and conventions between Great
Britain and the said United States, terminated the line of boundary between our territories and those of the said United States, should be continued westward along the said
paraUel of north latitude to the middle of the channel which separates the Continent
from Vancouver's Island, and thence southerly through the middle of the said
channel and of De Fuca's Straits to the Pacific Ocean: Provided, however, that the
navigation of the whole of the said channel and straits south of the 49th parallel of
north latitude should remain free and open to both parties: And whereas certain of
our lands and territories in North America lie to the westward and also to the northward of the territory granted to the said Governor and Company by the hereinbefore
recited grant or letters patent of his said late Majesty King Charles the Second, and
which is, pursuant to the direction in that behalf contained in such grant or letters
patent, called or known as Ruperf s Land, and to the eastward of the territories the
boundary line of which is defined by the hereinbefore recited treaty with the United
States of North America: And whereas under the said last-mentioned grant or letters
patent, and also under our hereinbefore recited grant or licence of the 13th day of May,
1838, the said Governor and Company have traded as well within as beyond the limits
of the lands and territories granted to them by the said grant or letters patent of his
said late Majesty King Charles the Second, and have in connection with and for the
protection of their trade beyond the said limits, been in the habit of erecting forts and
other isolated establishments without the said limits, and some of such forts and
establishments of the said Governor and Company are now existing in that part of our
said territories in North America, including Vancouver's Island, the boundary line
between which and the territories of the said United States is determined by the hereinbefore recited treaty between ourselves and' the said United States: And whereas it
would conduce greatly to the maintenance of peace, justice, and good order, and the advancement of colonization and the promotion and encouragement of trade and commerce in, and
also to the protection and welfare of the native Indians residing within that portion of our
territories in North America called Vancouver's Island, if such Island were colonized by
settlers from the British dominions, and if the property in the land of such island were vested
for the purpose of such colonization in the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of
England trading into Hudson's Bay; but nevertheless, upon condition that the said
Governor and Company should form on the said island a settlement or settlements, as
hereinafter mentioned, for the purpose of colonizing the said island, and also should
defray the entire expense of any civil and military establishments which may be
required for the protection and government of such settlement or settlements (except,
nevertheless,  during the time of hostilities between Great Britian and any foreign 171
European or American power) : Now know ye, that We, being moved by the reasons
before mentioned, do by these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, give, grant,
and confirm unto the said Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading
into Hudson's Bay, and their successors, all that the said island called Vancouver's
Island, with the fishing of all sorts of fish in the seas, bays, inlets and rivers within or
surrounding the same, together with all royalties of the seas upon the coasts within the
limits aforesaid, and all mines royal thereto belonging: And further We do, by
these presents, for us, our heirs and successors, make, create, and constitute, the said
Governor and Company for the time being, and their successors, the true and absolute
lords and proprietors of the same territories, limits and places, and of all other the
premises (saving always the faith, allegiance, and sovereign dominion due to us, our
heirs and successors for the same), to have, hold, possess and enjoy the said territory,
limits, and places, and all and singular other the premises hereby granted as aforesaid,
with their and every of their rights, members, royalties, and appurtenances whatsoever
to them, the said Governor and Company, and their successors for ever, to be holden
of us, our heirs and successors, in free and common soccage, at the yearly rent of 7s.,
payable to us and our successors for ever, on the 1 st day of January in every year:
Provided always, and we declare, That this present grant is made to the intent that the
said Governor and Company shall establish upon the said island a settlement or settlements of resident colonists, emigrants from our United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Ireland, or from other our dominions, and shall dispose of the land there as may be
necessary for the purpose of promoting settlements (and for the actual purpose of promoting settlements), and for the actual purposes of colonization, and shall, once in
every two years at the least, certify under the seal of the said Governor and Company,
to one of our Principal Secretaries of State, what colonists shall jhave been from time
to time settled in the said island, and what land shall have been disposed of as aforesaid ; And we further declare, that this present grant is made upon this condition, that
if the said Governor and Company shaU not, within the term of five years from the date
of these presents, have established upon the   said island a settlement of resident
colonists, emigrants from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, or from
other our dominions, and it shall at any time, after the expiration of such term of five
years, be certified to us, our heirs or successors, by any person who shall be appointed
by us, our heirs, or successors, to inquire into the condition of such island, that such
settlement has not been established according to the intent of this our grant, it shall be
lawful for us, our heirs and successors, to revoke this present grant, and to enter upon
and resume the said island and premises hereby granted, without prejudice, nevertheless, to such dispositions as may have been made in the mean time by the said Governor'and Company of any land in the said island for the actual purposes of colonization
and settlement, and as shall have been certified as aforesaid to one of our principal
Secretaries of State I And we hereby declare, that this present grant is and shall be
deemed and taken to be made upon this further condition, that we, our heirs and successors, shall have, and we  accordingly reserve unto us and them, full power, at the
expiration of the said Governor and Company's grant or licence of or for the exclusive
privilege of trading with the Indians, to repurchase and take of and from the said JJlMJWWJlWWJIJWMJM-'*i>W'Ml
"I
172
Governor and Company the said Vancouver's.Island and premises hereby granted, in
consideration of payment being made by us, our heirs or successors, to the said
Governor and Company of the sum or sums of money theretofore laid out and expended
by them in and upon the said island and premises, and of the value of their establishments, property, and effects then being thereon. In witness whereof, we have caused
these our letters to be made patent. Witness Ourselves at" Westminster the
day of in the year of our reign.
[This is the Draft Charter, as laid before Parliament on 10th August, 1848. It
provides that a settlement must be established before the lapse of five years, otherwise
the present grant will be revoked. It also empowers the Crown, on the expiration of
the existing trading licence over certain territories not included in the Charter of 2nd
May, 1670, or belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, namely in 1860—to repurchase Vancouver's Island from the Company. Since this Draft Charter was laid
before Parliament, it is understood that several additions have been made to it by
Earl Grey and the Privy Council, and concurred in by the Hudson's Bay Company.]
STATE OF THE RED RIVER SETTLEMENT IN JULY AND AUGUST 1848.
Copy of a Letter from the Rev. Wm. Cockran, of the Church of England, to Benjamin
Harrison, Esq., one of the Directors of the Hudson's Bay Company.
' Parsonage, July 26,1848.
' My dear Sir,
' I have not had the pleasure of receiving a letter from you since
my arrival in Red River last August. I sincerely hope you are enjoying good health,
and that it has been your various duties, and not indisposition, which have prevented
you writing by the spring express. Judging from your long connection with the
Hudson's Bay Company, and the deep interest which you have always taken in promoting the advancement of civilization and Christianity, a letter from me might be
acceptable, on this account I take the liberty of intruding on your valuable time. It
gives me pleasure to be able to state that the crops of 1847, though scanty, yielded
sufficient to afford a limited supply of bread, and, with the prudent management which
was exercised, there was seed remaining in the spring to sow fully two-thirds of the 173
lands under cultivation. The first part of the season was favourable; we had abundance of rain; and during the whole of June, the crops of all kinds looked luxuriant.
July commenced with dry, scorching weather, which continued till the 17th of the
month. During this period, all the grain sown on the sandy points of the river, was
dried at the roots, and the ears strangled in the shot belly. The wheat and barley,
also, on the dark soil with clay bottom, began to sicken. Fortunately for us, since the
17tli, the weather has changed; many refreshing showers have fallen; these have
cooled the air, moistened the earth, and made all the crops on dark soils assume
a healthy appearance. Should God mercifully continue the same temperate moist
weather for a fortnight, we shall have the prospect of abundance for the ensuing year.
' Good health has prevailed throughout the settlement during the whole of the past
year. In the Upper District, the deaths have been 14, whereas the births about 60.
The attendance at public worship in the Upper Church averages 400, the communicants
150. The whole population conform their external deportment to the word of God.
There are no habitual drunkards; no Sabbath-breakers; no profane persons, who take
the name of God in vain; no illegitimate children; no turbulent seditious characters ;
no vagrants who endeavour to spunge a living out of their more industrious brethren:
all have such a respect for their characters, as steadily to pursue their duties; and many
of them are deeply influenced by the fear and love of God, and are endeavouring,
through his grace, to live sober, righteous, and pious lives. On the arrival of the
troops, the turbulent disaffected characters saw that they could no longer gain anything
by intimidation; they silently settled down, till they found it convenient to sneak across
the line, and establish on the American territory. This is a present advantage; but
should there be war between the United States and England, they are, of course, ready
to re-cross the line to plunder us. Belcour, the Romish priest, has returned, and
established himself among them, and he occasionally comes over to the White Horse
Plains, and delivers his inflammatory speeches. Last week he facilitated the departure
of two British soldiers, who had deserted from the barracks, Upper Fort, by furnishing
them with provisions and directing them in the route.
' We deeply regret the withdrawing of the 6th Royals; they have been of great service
in restoring peace, and they have created a market for country produce, and have
encouraged industry.   We hope the corps on route may be equally serviceable.
' With kind regards and sincere wishes for your health and happiness,
' 1 am, my dear Sir,
' Yours truly,
(Signed) ' Wm. COCKRAN.
Benj. Harrison, Esq., &c. &c.' S55SS55B
174
From tlie Rev. J. Macallum, of the Church of England, to Benjamin Harrison, Esq.
' Red River, August 3, 1848.
' My dear Sir,
' Although I have no letters to acknowledge, and nothing of
importance to communicate, yet I cannot permit the express to depart without conveying a few lines to you. Long habit has rendered this not only an agreeable, but a
necessary duty, for the mind is never at rest until it is discharged. Besides I know
the deep interest you take in the moral and religious condition-of the Colony,—I know
that every item of intelligence, bearing on this point, is read with satisfaction ; and ill
it would become me, whom you have so long distinguished with your attention, to omit
any opportunity of contributing his little to the information you derive from other
sources.
' You will be pleased to learn that the past year presents much to excite our gratitude
and thankfulness. The law has been respected; the ordinances of religion have been
observed; peace has been unbroken; health has been uninterrupted; and notwithstanding the failure of the crops, few have suffered from scarcity of provisions. What
in other countries would almost upset the existing order of things, an almost entire
failure of the harvest has quite an opposite effect here,—it renders men sober, industrious, careful, docile, and orderly. The plains, you are aware, are always accessible,
and the produce of the chase, together with the production of the lakes, if economised,
effectually protect from the pressure of scarcity. Some, no doubt, experienced privation,
but they are uniformly the thoughtless, the prodigal, the reckless,—men that in Europe
would either starve, or fiU the gaols. No steady, industrious man, ever wants the means
of existence in Red River.
' The weather this season has been remarkably propitious. The crops look well ;
and if it please the Almighty to protect them from mildew and frost, the produce will
be much above average. Never, at least never during my residence in the country, was
this more to be desired. Few, if any, of the colonists have been able to preserve any
seed wheat, so that should our hopes, be again disappointed, should a third failure take
place, the effects would be felt for years to come.
' The schools are likely to remain in the same state as during the preceding year,
there being neither increase nor decrease. This, in one respect, is fortunate; in
another quite the reverse; for unless young men, when qualified, are admitted into the
service, parents will have no inducement to educate their offspring. Here, as everywhere else, men must be actuated by some motive before they incur the expense
attendant on education; and the main, if not the only motive, that operates in Rupert's
Land, is admission into the service. Take away this motive—let young men, after a
course of education, be permitted to lie on hand, or compelled to handle the oar, and
the inevitable consequence will be, the consignment of the rising generation to ignorance and all its evils. I sincerely trust there will be an opening next year for two or
three youths, who have now been a considerable time at school, and who, there is every
I I
fc^^-r, 175
reason to hope, will duly appreciate any favour conferred upon them. It is true that
Isbister's conduct is sufficient, and more than sufficient, to prejudice the minds of their
best friends, and to throw many obstacles in the way of their introduction into the
service; but it is to be hoped that the ingratitude of one, and that one merely the tool
of another unconnected with the service, will not close the only door that has hitherto
been open to the youth of Hudson's Bay.
' The young Ladies' School has considerably declined, in consequence, I believe, of a
native being governess. Miss M'Kenzie is a highly talented young lady, maintains
excellent discipline, and is most successful as a teacher; but no amount of merit can
counterbalance the misfortune of her birth. Of course 1 pay no attention to groundless
prejudice. When a young lady is qualified for the situation she holds,—when she
bears an unsullied reputation, and efficiently discharges the duties of her office, it
matters little to me to what country she belongs: she confers honour upon any.
' There are two Mission Schools in the Upper District, which I superintend. The one
contains 75 children, the other about 40; and in both about 150 young people are
instructed, on the Lord's Day, in the principles of divine truth. These are our nurseries
wherein we rear plants to supply the places of the old, the decayed, and the falling.
' Mr. Cockran's health continues good, but he seems undecided whether he shall
permanently remain in this country. Mr. James, I regret to say, is far from being
strong ; the heat of our climate oppresses and enervates him. Should he be under the
necessity of returning home, his absence will be a public loss, for he is a truly pious
and devoted young man.
' My own health, thank God, is quite re-established, so that I am now as fit for duty
as on the day I first planted my foot on American ground. May my future life evince
my gratitude to the Giver of every good and perfect gift.
' The Bibles, Testaments, &c, which you kindly sent out, have been of immense service.
Some were disposed of at a low price, but the greater number was given away. I forward, in return, an order on the Company for £.5, which you will oblige me by handing
over to the " Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge." Should the Society, on
your recommendation, be disposed to send us a few more, I shall have much pleasure
in giving them circulation, and in forwarding the proceeds.
' Accept my kind thanks for the file of newspapers you send me annually.
' Mrs. M. unites in affectionate regards to you and yours. That the blessings of the
Most High may rest upon you, and that you may long be permitted to exercise a salutary
influence on the moral and social condition of Rupert's Land, is the earnest desire of,
' My dear Sir,
' Yours most sincerely,
(Signed) ' J. MACALLUM.
Benj. Harrison, Esq.' it^varB^v9*'ir9^aaa^ssaKivax»axsasES9»9»^9a»K^^va9axeaosssaxfa9i
***\ SHORTLY  WILL   BE   PUBLISHED,
THE HISTORY OF THE BRITISH COLONIES
ASIA,  AUSTRAL-ASIA, AMERICA, NORTH AND SOUTH,  THE
WEST INDIES,  AFRICA,  AND   EUROPE,
{Revised and Enlarged,)
Containing the history, geography, physical aspect,—mountains, rivers,
and lakes,—climate, geology, animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms,
—chief cities, towns, fortresses, and havens,—population, white and
coloured, character and manners,—state of religion, education, and
crime,—form of government, laws, municipal and local institutions,—
the press,—agriculture, manufactures, mines, and fisheries,—staple products, live stock, cultivated and waste lands,—revenue, income and
expenditure, colonial and imperial,—custom duties and regulations,—
commerce,—imports and exports,—shipping,—military and naval defences,—hanks, coins, weights and measures, value of moveable and
immoveable property,—rates of wages, prices of provisions, rent of
houses and lands,—public companies,—and useful information for capitalists and for emigrants.
The work mill be issued in successive volumes on the First of every
Month, with a Map of each Colony.
Vol. I. New South Wales and Port Phillip.
II. South Australia, Western and Northern Australia.
III. Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk Island, Falkland Islands.
IV. New Zealand.    Auckland Islands.
V. Cape of Good Hope and Natal.
VI. Mauritius, the Seychelle Islands, Roderigues, and Aden.
VII. Western Africa; viz.—Sierra Leone, the Gambia, Cape
Coast Castle, Accra, Dix Cove, Annamaboe, St.
Helena, and Ascension.
VIII. Canada, Upper and Lower. \
IX. Nova Scotia and Cape Breton, New Brunswick, Prince
Edward Island, and Newfoundland.
X. Hudson's Bay Company's Territories and Vancouver's
Island.
XL British Guyana; viz.—Demerara, Essequibo, and Barbice.
XII. Honduras and the Mosquito Territory, the Caymans.
Jamaica.
Trinidad, Tobago, Grenada, and St. Vincents.
Barbadoes, St. Lucia, Dominica, Antigua, and Barbuda,
Montserrat, St. Christopher, Nevis, Anguilla, Tortola
and the Virgin Islands, New Providence and the
Bahamas, St. George's, and the Bermudas.
M
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XVI. Bengal, Agra, and the North West Provinces.
XVII. Bombay and Scinde.
XVIII. Madras and the Ultra Gangetic Provinces, Tavoy, and
Tenasserim.
XIX. Ceylon.
XX. Sincapore, Penang, Malacca, Labuan, and Hong-Kong, j
XXI. Gibraltar, Heligoland.
XXII. Malta and Gozo.
XXIII. Ionian Islands; viz.—Corfu, Cephalonia, Ithaca, Zante,
Paxo, Cerigo, and Santa Maura.
XXIV. Imperial Policy and Administrative System of Colonial
Government.
The British Colonial Empire is without a parallel in the history of
the world. It includes an area of two million square miles, (irespective
of 3,000,000 square miles in the Hudson's Bay Company's territories),
containing some of the richest islands, the most fertile plains, the
strongest fortresses, and the finest havens, in every quarter of the globe.
It abounds in every product which can minister to comfort and wealth:
—sugar, coffee, cocoa, tea, cinnamon, peppers, spices, silk, cotton,
indigo, arrack, rum, rice, mahogany, teak, timber, fruits, cautchouc,
gums, dyes, and drugs, are the products of our possessions in Asia, the
West Indies, and South America;—corn, timber, tar, fish, oil, flax,
furs, coal, and iron, of our Northern American Colonies ;—wool, tallow,
hides, grain, meat, wine, brandy, oil, aloes, hemp, ivory, gold dust,
wood, coal, and copper, of our Australian and African territories;—
olive oil, currants, wine, and silk, of our European settlements.
In this vast transmarine empire there are more than one hundred
million subjects of the British Crown, of varied colour, creed, and character,—speaking divers languages, —and under different forms of
government, where the distinction of free and bond no longer exists.
To a small and insulated kingdom like England, Colonies are of vital
importance; if deprived of them she would be reduced, in territorial
extent, to the condition of a fifth rate European power,—her dominion
of the seas would pass away,—her most valuable, because most remunerative, maritime commerce would be lost,-—a rapidly increasing population, unable to find food or employment within the United Kingdom,
would transfer their industry and intelligence to foreign and rival countries,—or they would inevitably cause revolution and ruin at home.
On the prosperity and extension of the British Colonies depend—
under Divine Providence—the peace, the progress, and the perpetuity
of a wonderful empire; which has its strongholds in every corner of the
earth; which possesses naval and military resources unrivalled ; which
builds its strength, humanly speaking, on freedom—personal, political,
religious, and commercial; and which uses its power, wealth, and
influence, for the benefit of mankind. The following Works by Mr. MARTIN May be had on
application to the Publishers.
I. History of the British Colonies, 5 vols.; 28 Maps, Charts, &c.    1834.
II. Marquis Wellesley's Indian Despatches, 5 vols.; Maps, Plans, &c.    1836.
III. British Colonial Library, 10 vols.; Engravings, Maps, &c.   1837.
IV. Eastern India, 3 vols.; 200 Drawings, Maps, Plans, &c.    1838.
V. Statistics of the British Colonies, 1 large vol.; 3,000,000 Figures.    1839.
VI. Ireland as it was—is—and ought to be; Tabular Charts, &c.    1833.
VII. Political, Commercial, and Financial Condition of Anglo-Eastern Empire, Svo.;
2 editions.    1832.
VIII. British Relations with the Chinese Empire, 8vo.   1832.
IX. Taxation of the British Empire ; with Tabular Views, &c.    1833.
X. Past and Present State of Tea Trade of England, Europe, and America.    1833.
XI. Analysis of Parliamentary Evidence on China Trade.    1832.
XII. Colonial Policy of the British Empire ; Part 1, Government.    1837.
XIII. Marquis Wellesley's Spanish Despatches, 1 vol. 8vo.   1840.
XIV. Colonial Magazine, 7 vols. 8vo.; Engravings, Maps, &c.    1840-41-42.
XV. Iceland before and after the Union; 3 editions.    1844 and 1848.
XVI. Analysis of the Bible; 2 editions, and a Translation into Chinese.   1836 and 1840.
Evidence before Parliament on English Taxation.
Examination before Select Committee of House of Commons, on the Commerce
of India, the Subsidiary States, &c.    1839-40.
Poor Laws for Ireland, a Measure of Justice for England.    1833.
East and West India Sugar Duties Equalization.    1833.
Monetary System of British India.    1841.
Analysis of Parliamentary Evidence on Handloom Weavers, by order of the
House of Commons.    1834-5.
Steam Navigation with Australia; Maps and Table.    1847.
Evidence before Parliament on our Commercial Relations with China, and on the
Opening of Japan, &c.   1847.
Free Trade in Sugar.    1848.
Last Work.    China—Political, Commercial, and Social—2 vols, 8vo.; Maps, Statistical
Charts, &c.   Reported to Her Majesty's Government, and dedicated (by permission) to the Queen.   1847.
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS ON " CHINA."
" An elaborate and comprehensive work, admirably digested and arranged, and containing ample matter for meditation—whether for the philosopher or the statesman,—
the merchant or the student." Morning Chronicle, 23rd July, 1847.
" We have seen nothing equal to this useful and readable work." Morning Advertiser.
" These volumes prove Mr. Martin to be possessed of considerable ability as a statist,
and of the most indefatigable and pains-taking industry. The work is a vast mass of
information of every kind bearing on the subject." Morning Herald.
" A huge mass of important information in an easily accessible form and compass."
-Daily News.
" This very able and indispensable work is accompanied by ample statistical returns,
and by various kinds of indices, prospective and retrospective, tending to produce the
very rare desideratum of a complete idea on the whole state and condition of China.
It is the best of Mr. Martin's numerous works.
" Mr. Martin took the bold step of ' conditionally" resigning his Treasurership for
the purpose of giving his representations the benefit of personal presence and support.
Though unsuccessful, he still maintains his opinion in favour of the position, health,
and fertility of Chusan. His exposition of the horrors and enormities of the opium
trade is worthy of all praise, for the honest vigour of its appeals." Morning Post.
" Mr. Martin used his opportunity with great diligence to collect information concerning the whole Chinese Empire. Economist. **»^Mx*xixxrao*v39jw***imm*aMM*rMXMiB*xa&saeevsawa3BX3m
a
4i An able work from the pen of perhaps our ablest statist. Mr. Martin, who was
early convinced of the error this country committed in planting her footsteps on the
barren rock of Hong-Kong, when the fruitful island of Chusan was at her disposal,
sacrificed his position to urge his views on the Home Government.   His style is clear
and unembarrassed, if not brilliant. Taits Magazine.
" One of the most valuable gifts which English literature has of late received."	
Reading Mercury.
" Mr. Martin hopes for moral results from the investigation which he has pursued
with so much diligence ; he aims at the establishment of a truly friendly intercourse
between the civilization of the West and the East to their mutual advantage. A more
laborious work there is not in our language, nor one where so much-varied information
is to be found. Critic.
" Mr. Martin takes a statesmanlike view of the whole of our affairs in China. From
long experience he has gained the power of communicating his ideas, which leaves him
without an equal in statistical and commercial matters, no less than in statesmanship."
 Indian News.
" Worthy of Mr. Martin's high reputation." Exeter Flying Post.
" There is no living writer so capable of doing justice to the vast subject of China as
Mr. M. Martin. His official situation, his previous literary training, the character of
his mind, which can grasp large facts and complicated statistics with remarkable ease,
eminently fit him for the task he has undertaken." Gloucester Chronicle.
" As a statistician, and particularly as an expositor of the rise and progress of the
Colonies, Mr. Martin is. justly deemed a high authority.    His reputation is a guarantee
for the usefulness of the present work." Douglas JerroMs Weekly Newspaper.
" No point is left unsifted, no field untouched, but with his well-known talent in
every thing that concerns England, this celebrated writer gives us a work that must
adorn the cabinet of the statesman as well as the library of the merchant." Bradford
Gazette.
" The writer is not a mere dry detailer of statistics, but places his facts before the
reader in the most agreeable form. The book is, from this peculiarity, almost as
entertaining as a new novel.    Mr. Martin is moved by a spirit of religion and humanity
to deal honourably and kindly by the Chinese." Gloucester Journal.
" A truly splendid Magazine of information ; an invaluable treasure for the statesman, scholar, merchant, missionary, and philosopher." Edinburgh Register.
" As a writer upon statistical, commercial, and especially Colonial subjects, Mr.
Montgomery Martin has achieved, by his ability, industry, and intelligence, a very high
reputation. Appointed to a high official situation, for which his talents peculiarly fitted
him, in connection with the Government of Hong-Kong, he made a voluntary surrender
of his office, in order to place himself in a position to be able to return to this country,
and to press personally upon the Home Government the adoption of a line of policy,
which he believed to be essential to the maintenance and extension of our commercial
relations with the Chinese Empire.    The book is extremely valuable and interesting."
 Exeter Western Luminary, 22nd Dec. 1846.
" Four hundred millions of people yet to be introduced into communication with the rest
of mankind/ What a prospect for the merchant, the manufacturer, and ship-owner!
But there is still a higher and holier prospect. Four-hundred millions of active and
intelligent human beings' have to be brought within the pale of Christianity ! Wary
stepping too it will require to enable us to succeed in realizing either of these objects.
To assist us, an abler man for the task could not be found than the author of the work
before us." Liverpool Standard, 22nd Dec. 1846.
I An important expose of the present state of the resources, population, &c, of the
whole of China, which must doubtless prove highly satisfactory and important to all
parties connected with the history of that yet almost unknown country." Sun, Uth
Dec. 1846.
" A work which will be read with great interest; it abounds in materials which
illuminate what has hitherto been a dark page in the topography of nations; in reading
it we gain an intelligent view into the seeming chaos of that immense social fabric
which myriads of human beings have been labouring for innumerable ages to construct,
to improve, and to mar, in pertinacious isolation from the common family of nations."
 Journal of Commerce, London, 19th Dec. 1846.
" The official position of the Author of this work, must have conferred upon him
peculiar advantages in obtaining authentic information as far as possible respecting the
internal condition of the Chinese Empire.    Of these advantages, Mr. Martin appears to
have availed himself with his accustomed industry and acumen. Edinburqh Evening
Post, 16th Dec. 1846. LIBRARY   OF
STRALIAI   TRAVEL'S
PUBLISHED   BY   T.   AND   W.   BOONE,
29, NEW BOND STREET.
&C.
In 2 vols. 8vo. with Maps and numerous Plates,
JOURNALS OF EXPEDITIONS OF DISCOVERY
INTO
CENTRAL    AUSTRALIA,
AND
OVERLAND   FROM  ADELAIDE  TO   KING  GEORGE'S  SOUND
In the Years 1840-1;
Sent by the Colonists of South Australia,
WITH THE SANCTION AND SUPPORT OF THE GOVERNMENT:
INCLUDING
An Account of the Manners and Customs of the Aborigines, and the state
of their relations with Europeans.
BY   EDWARD   JOHN   EYRE,
RESIDENT MAGISTRATE, MURRAY RIVER, NOW LEBUT.-GOVERNOS. OF NEW ZEALAND.
*m* The Founder's Medal of the Royal Geographical Society mas awarded
to Mr. Eyre for the discovery of Lake Torrens, and explorations of far greater
extent in Australia than any other traveller, a large portion never having been
previously traversed by civilized man.
"His narrative of what he did and overcame, is more like the stirring stories of
Park and Bruce than the tame and bookish diffuseness of modern travellers.
Nothing short of a perusal of the volumes can enable our readers to appreciate this
book."—Spectator.
" We might easily extract much more from Mr. Eyre's volumes of interest to tbe
reader, but our limits circumscribe us.    We therefore bid farewell to them, with the
recommendation to the public, not to overlook a work which, though it records
the failure of a great enterprize, is yet full of matter, which proclaims it of value."
Atlas.
" Mr. Ejye writes with the plain unaffected earnestness of the best of the old
travellers."—Examiner.
" An intensely interesting book."—Tablet.
" We must now close these interesting volumes, not, however, without expressing
our high approval both of the matter they contain, and of the manner of their compilation. We rise from the perusal of them with a feeling similar to that which
follows the enjoyment of a pleasant work of fiction."—Critic. re.w»w.«JUPHag»OBi»Sgsa»»iaSBBB^^
KB*SSS5B3»S
Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, iVew; Bond Street.
JOURNALS OF EXPEDITIONS OF DISCOVERY
• <,)\
NORTH-WEST AND WESTERN AUSTRALIA,
DURING THE YEARS 1837, 1838, and 1839,
Under the Authority of her Majesty's Government.
With Observations on the Agricultural and Commercial Capabilities and Prospects
of several newly-explored fertile Regions, including
AUSTRALIND,
and on the Moral and Physical Condition of the Aboriginal Inhabitants, &c. &c.
By GEORGE GREY, Eso.., late Captain 83rd Regt.
FORMERLY GOVERNOR OP SOUTH AUSTRALIA, NOW GOVERNOR OP NEW ZEALAND.
With Two large Maps by J. Arrowsmith, and numerous Illustrations,
some coloured, in 2 vols. 8vo.
" It is not with the slightest hope of satisfying curiosity, or to anticipate the interest
which the public in general, and geographers especially, always feel in enterprises of
this nature, but merely to give such a sketch of the principal features of the expedition
as may serve to direct those who are'desirous of obtaining information respecting a
portion of this remarkable country—hitherto only visited by Tasman, Dampier, Baudin,
and King, and never before, we believe, penetrated by an European—to look forward
to the detailed journals of the spirited officers who had the conduct of the expedition."
From Geographical Transactions.
A great portion of the country described in this Journal has never before been visited
by any European. The Eastern'coast of Short's Bay was for the first time seen and
explored during the progress of these expeditions.
" We have rarely seen a more interesting book; it is full of splendid description and
startling personal adventure; written in a plain, manly, unaffected style."—Examiner.
" It is impossible to have perused these highly interesting and important volumes
without being inspired with feelings of warm admiration for the indomitable perseverance and heroical self-devotion of their gallant and enterprising author. Setting
aside the vastly important results of Captain Grey's several expeditions, it is hardly
possible to conceive narratives of more stirring interest than those of which his volumes
are for the most part composed."— United Service Gazette.
" We have, not read such a work of Travels for many years ; it unites the interest of
a romance with the permanent qualities of an historical and scientific treatise."—Atlas.
" We recommend our readers to the volumes of Captain Grey, assuring them they
will derive both, amusement and instruction from the perusal."—Times.
I This is a work deserving high praise. As a book of Travels it is one of the most
interesting we remember to have met with."—Westminster Review.
" A book which should be in every lending library and book-club."
Englishman's Magazine.
" The contents of these interesting volumes will richly repay an attentive perusal."
Emigration Gazette.
" These narratives are replete with interest, and blend information and amusement
in a very happy manner."—Australian Magazine. Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
Just published, in 1 vol. 8vo. with Plates and Woodcuts,
JOURNAL
OP  AN
OVERLAND  EXPEDITION   IN   AUSTRALIA,
FROM
MORETON BAY TO FORT ESSINGTON,
A distance of upwards of 3000 miles.
BY   DR.   LUDWIG   LEICHHARDT.
N.B. A large 3 sheet Map of the Route by J. Arrowsmith is published, and to be
had separately in a Case, price 9*.
OPINIONS OF-THE PRESS.
" A work of unquestionable merit and utility, and its author's name will justly stand
high upon the honourable list of able and enterprising men, whose courage, perseverance, and literary abilities have contributed so largely to our knowledge ofj^he
geography and productions of our distant southern colonies."—Blackwood's Mag*
" For the courage with which' this lengthened and perilous journey was undertaken,
the skill with which it was directed, and the perseverance with which it was performed,
it is almost unrivalled in the annals of exploring enterprise. It richly deserves
attention."—Britannia.
" The narrative in which he relates the results of this remarkable journey, and the
extraordinary fatigues and privations endured by himself and his fellow travellers, is
not merely valuable for its facts, but full of absorbing interest as a journal of perilous
adventures."—Atlas.
'' The volume before us comprises the narrative of one of the most remarkable
enterprises ever planned by man's sagacity and executed by man's courage and
endurance. To our minds there is in every point of view an inexpressible charm in
such a book as this. It not merely narrates to us the opening of a new material world
for human enterprise and scientific investigation, but it makes more clearly known to
us the wondrous powers aud capacities of human nature. We recommend it to our
readers as a work scarcely less remarkable for the extraordinary enterprise recorded in
it, than for the simplicity and modesty with which it is related."—Morning Herald.
" The result of his enterprise was thoroughly successful. It has added not a little
to our existing stock of knowledge in the various departments of natural history, and
has made discovery in districts before untrodden, of an almost boundless extent of fertile
country."—Examiner.
" The most striking feature in the expedition is its successful accomplishment, which
is of itself sufficient to place Dr. L. in the first rank of travellers. How much Dr. L.
has added to geographical discovery can only be felt by an examination of the admirable
maps which accompany the volume. These have been deduced on a large scale from
the traveller's sketches by Mr. Arrowsmith, and engraved with a distinctness of execution, and a brief fulness of descriptive remark which leave nothing to be desired."
Spectator. ir,«ra«OOBt»CK>BaaaBiHB«a58«^^
>-m
m
£1
En
Published  by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
Lately published, in 2 vols. Svo. cloth, with 8 Maps and Charts, and 57 Illustrations.
BY   COMMAND   OF  THE   LORDS   COMMISSIONERS   OF   THE   ADMIRALTY.
DISCOVERIES  in  AUSTRALIA;
OF  THE
VICTORIA,  ADELAIDE,   ALBERT,  AND   FITZROY   RIVERS,
AND EXPEDITIONS INTO THE INTERIOR;
DURING  THE
VOYAGE    OF    H.M.S.    BEAGLE,
BETWEEN THE YEARS 1837 AND 1843 :  ALSO
A NARRATIVE  OF  THE  VISITS  OF  H.M.S.  BRITOMART,
COMMANDER OWEN STANLEY, R.N., F.R.S.
TO THE ISLANDS IN THE ARAFURA SEA.
BY CAPT. J. LORT STOKES, R.N.
" The whole narrative is so captivating, that we expect to find the work as much in
demand at circulating libraries as at institutions of graver pretensions."—Colon. Gaz.
'"We have to thank Capt. Stokes for a most valuable work, one that will place his
name by the side of Vancouver, Tasman, Dampier, and Cook."—New Quar. Review.
" The science of Navigation owes a deep debt to Captain Stokes. The information
contained in the present volumes must render them an invaluable companion to any
ship performing a voyage to that part of the world."—Foreign Quarterly Review.
" Every part of it is full of matter, both for the general and scientific reader. With
the acts of throwing the lead, taking angles, &c. lively anecdotes and pleasing ideas
are constantly associated, so that we very much doubt whether any reader will lay
aside the book, large as it is, without regret. In some parts you have all the breathless excitement of a voyage of discovery, and sail up new rivers, and explore new
lands, while elsewhere your thoughts are directed to the tracks of commerce and
political speculation. Altogether the work is a charming specimen of nautical literature, written in a pure, flexible, terse, and elegant style, and bespeaks every where in the
author a mind endued with very high moral and intellectual qualities."—Fraser's Mag.
" While these volumes must prove of great value to the maritime profession, to the
geographer, and to emigrants, they cannot fail to be perused with interest by readers
in general."—Athenayum.
" We cannot, in noticing these two ably written and interesting volumes, insist too
strongly upon their importance alike to the mariner, the geographer, and the general
reader. The author is a man of considerable merit, a shrewd observer of men and
things, and who was fitted by nature and inclination to conduct these researches into
the vast unknown continent whither he proceeded with enterprise and spirit. These
volumes contain a fund of interesting matter, and we warmly recommend this valuable addition to our literary and scientific stores to the attention of the public."
Sentinel.
" The contents of these volumes, rich, varied and full of interest, will be their best
recommendation. For scientific accuracy, they will be highly valued by the geographer
and navigator, while they will be read for mere amusement by the public at large."
Sunday Times,
t&k.
&L_. Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
THE EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO.
By Permission of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.
Now ready, in 2 vols. 8vo. with numerous Maps, Plates, and Woodcuts,
HAZLEATlFi:
OF  THE
SURVEYISa© VOYAGE  OF  H.M.S.   PL"ST,
UNDER THE COMMAND OE
CAPTAIN   BLACKWOOD,   R.N.
IN TORRES   STRAIT, NEW GUINEA, AND  OTHER  ISLANDS
IN THE EASTERN ARCHIPELAGO ;
TOGETHER
WITH AN EXCURSION INTO THE INTERIOR
OF   THE
EASTERN PART OF THE ISLAND OF JAVA,
DURING THE YEARS 1842 TO 1846.
BY   J.   BEETE   JUKES,   M. A.
NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION.
OPINIONS OF THE PRESS.
a We must congratulate Mr. Jukes on the value of his publication. Scientific
without being abstruse, and picturesque without being extravagant, he has made his
volumes a striking and graceful addition to our knowledge of countries highly interesting in themselves, and assuming hourly importance in the eyes of the people of
England."—Blackwood's Magazine.
" To transcribe the title-page of this book is sufficient to attract public curiosity
towards it—to peruse the book itself is to be rewarded with the knowledge of a mass
of information in which complete confidence can be reposed, for, from the first page
to the last, it is apparent that the main object with Mr. Jukes is to tell all that he
knows and believes to be true, rather thau to win favour from his readers by his
manner of telling it. There is not a pretty phrase, an exaggeration, nor an invention
in the two volumes of Mr. Jukes; all is plain unadorned fact, and because it is so, is
deserving, not merely of perusal, but of study. Such are the recommendations of Mr.
Jukes' pages to the public, and all who desire to see truth united with novelty will
peruse them."—Morning Herald.
" Mr. Jukes has been most judicious in his selection of topics whereon to
dwell in his narrative, and he describes with great vivacity and picturesque power.
There is much novelty and freshness in his book, and much valuable information.''
Daily News.
" There are very few pages in the work which are not readable and entertaining."
Morning Post.
" Captain Blackwood having waived his right of authorship, the narrative of the
voyage has been undertaken by Mr. J ukes, favourably known by an agreeable and
informing book on Newfoundland, nor will the present work detract from his reputation.   The narrative is well planned, pleasantly written, and full of matter."
Spectator.
[f A great deal was seen, and Geography, Topography, Geology, Natural History,
Ethnology, Philology, and Commerce may all be benefited by the work before us."
Literary Gazette.
" Mr. Jukes has performed his portion of the work with great ability, sparing no
pains in the working up of his abundant material, so as to make it a book of science,
as well as a book of amusement."—Critic.
g Although a professed man of science, he has described what he saw in a lucid and
untechnical manner, so that his work will be found interesting to the ordinary
reader, while it is equally valuable to the scientific. The amount of information conveyed is very great."—Midland Herald. ve&nzoG^m&WjBsaa^^
6
Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
hfi
m -
381 .
ill
In 1 vol. 8vo. Map and Plates, cloth, price 12s.
AUSTRALIA,
FROM PORT MACQUARIE TO MORETON BAY,
WITH
Descriptions  of the  Natives,  their Manners and Customs,  the Geology,
Natural Productions, Fertility, and Resources of that Region.
First explored and surveyed by order of the Colonial Government.
BY CLEMENT HODGKINSON.
" The work before our consideration contains certain details connected with the
portion of Australia, described in it, which will prove of first-rate importance to the
colonist and emigrant, since they are evidently derived from practical experience.
Throughout this unpretending little work we trace great honesty of purpose, and a
disposition to state no more than the bare facts as they presented themselves."
New Quarterly Review.
" There is much useful and interesting matter in this volume, and we welcome it
as one of the many well-written works upon the natural resources of those countries
which every day-become more important."—Atlas.
" This is a most agreeable, entertaining, and at the same time most useful book.
To those thinking of emigrating to Australia, we should say, that its perusal is
indispensable."—News of the World.
'' To all who feel an interest in the Australian colonies, it must be both interesting
and important, and to such we recommend its perusal."—General Advertiser.
" This is an opportune book, written, too, with an honest purpose, to inform and
instruct the home public about a portion of the vast continent of Australia, of which
little was heretofore known, and that little too generally unappreciated. A residence
of five years in New South Wales, during which Mr. H. was engaged either in surveying for the Government, or in farming pursuits, invests the work with a semiofficial character, which adds weight and influence to his opinions, and stamps it with
a greater degree of authority. We have been much pleased with this work, and have
read it through with great interest."—Simmonds' Colonial Mag.
" The result of his labours in surveying this eastern section of Australia, is a vast
accession to our previous knowledge of the natural history of that region, and we do
not hesitate to place it on our shelves as the very best book of reference on the district
it describes."—Fisher's Colonial Mag.
"It is given in the form of a journal, abounding in interesting narrative of the
state and resources of the country, its natural productions, and the extraordinary
character of the people by whom it is inhabited. It is not only a valuable contribution to our stock of Australian history and research, but possesses the charm of
personal adventure and novelty to interest the general reader."—Nautical Mag.
4 Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
In 1 vol. 8vo. cloth, with large Map by Arrowsmith, and numerous Illustrations,
SOUTH   AUSTRALIA   AND   ITS   MINES,
With an Historical Shetch of the Colony, under its several Administrations, to the Period of Captain Grey's Departure.
By   FRANCIS   DUTTON.
" The best work which has yet issued from the press, descriptive of the resources
and management of this thriving colony."—Mining Journal.
" We have here a well-timed book. South Australia and its Mines are now objects
of great interest; and Mr. Dutton's plain, unadorned recital, contains just what the
intending emigrant, or the mercantile inquirer, will rejoice at having placed within
his reach."—Colonial Gazette.
COLONIZATION;
PARTICULARLY IN   SOUTHERN AUSTRALIA,
With some Remarks on Small Farms  and  Over Population.
By MAJOR-GENERAL SIR CHARLES JAMES NAPIER, K.C.B.
Author of" The Colonies; particularly the Ionian Islands."
In 1 vol. 8vo. price 7s. boards.
" We earnestly recommend the book to all who feel an interest in the welfare of the
people."—Sun.
In 1 vol. post Svo. price 5s. 6d.
BINTS  FOR AUSTRALIAN EMIGRANTS,
"WITH
ENGRAVINGS AND EXPLANATORY DESCRIPTIONS
OF THE WATER RAISING WHEELS,
AND   MODES   OF   IRRIGATING   LAND    IN   STRIA,   EG1PT,  SOUTH  AMERICA, ETC.
BY   PETER   CUNNINGHAM,
SURGEON, R.N.
Author of '' Two   Years   in New South   Wales," §•<:.
" The mere name of Blr. Cunningham affords an ample guarantee for the value of
any work to which it may be prefixed; and, " to all whom it may concern," we can
confidently recommend this remarkably neat little volume as replete with practical
information. Its numerous illustrative engravings in wood are executed in a very
superior style."— Naval and Military Gazette, October 23rd, 1841. saaeaBeaBa
irf'i
8 Published by T. & W. Boone, 29, New Bond Street.
In 18?no.—Price Two Shillings.
A   VOCABULARY
OF THE DIALECTS of SOUTH-WESTERN AUSTRALIA.
By CAPTAIN G. GREY, 83rd Regiment,
GOVERNOR  OF  SOUTH  AUSTRALIA.
" The talented little work of Captain Grey, which is modestly put forth as a Vocabulary, rather deserves to be called a Grammar of the Aborigines' language. Captain
Grey has evidently studied the dialects of the tribes of Western Australia with great
attention to have produced this work, inasmuch as throughout the whole of Australia
it is well known that no dialect spoken by any one tribe, can be considered a specimen
of the general tongue; the difficulty, therefore, of putting together a vocabulary of an
entire dialect wherewith to base all others upon, must have engaged great energy and
perseverance. So interesting is the introduction, that we purpose to quote very largely
from Captain Grey's observations, and conclude with a few specimens of the words,
of which there are upwards of two thousand in this interesting little Work."
Australian Record, January 23rd, 1841.
w
In One Volume, 8vo.
With Large Map by Arrowsmith,  and  numerous Plates,
Price 14s.
NEW     ZEALAND,
ITS ADVANTAGES AND PROSPECTS AS A BRITISH COLONY,
WITH  A  FULL ACCOUNT  OF THE
LAND CLAIMS, SALES OF CROWN LANDS, ABORIGINES, etc.
By CHARLES TERRY, Esq.. F.R.S., F.S.A.
" This work is unquestionably a valuable addition to our stock of information respecting New Zealand. It is the work of a percipient witness, and one moreover who
possesses qualifications for the task he has undertaken. We earnestly recommend it
to our readers, and have no doubt the book will take its place in all New Zealand collections."—Neio Zealand Journal.
" No person should think of emigrating to that colony for the future until he has
carefully perused this intelligent and highly interesting volume."—U. S. Gazette.
" We are disposed to regard this as the very best book upon New Zealand that has
as yet been published."—Old Monthly Mag.
" While emigration to New Zealand was all the rage, we looked in vain for such a
work; it is honest and very cleverly written.''—British Queen.
" A sensible, temperate, and carefully written book."—Examiner.
" This is the most practical work that has yet been published on New Zealand; it
deals largely with facts, and contains an authentic and complete view of the situation
of the colony up to the present time. It is only common justice to his talents and
integrity to add, that of all writers capable of giving so much information respecting
an infant colony, and giving it with so much exactitude and comprehensiveness, Mr.
Terry is, beyond all comparison, the most strictly impartial we are acquainted with."
Atlas. BATTLES   OP   QUATRE-BRAS, LXGNY, WAVRE,
AND
New, revised, and cheaper edition, complete in 1 vol. 8vo. uniform with
General Napier's History of the  War in the Peninsula,
and the Wellington Dispatches,
DEDICATED,   BY  PERMISSION,
■sera
IMl
HISTORY   OF  THE
WAR IN FRANCE AND BELGIUM,
IN   1815,
FROM THE TESTIMONY OP EYE-WITNESSES AND OTHER SOURCES, EXCLUSIVE AND AUTHENTIC
BY   CAPTAIN   WILLIAM   SIBORNE,
CONSTRUCTOR OP THE " WATERLOO  MODEL."
THIRD EDITION.
BEAUTIFULLY  EMBELLISHED   WITH   MED 1LLION   PORTRAITS,   ENGRAVED  ON  STEEL,  OF
The Duke of Wellington,
Prince Bluchee von Wahlstadt,
I Napoleon Buonaparte,
The Duke of Brunswick,
The Prince of Orange,
The Marquess of Anglesey,
Lord Hill,
Soult,  Duke of Dalmatia,
Ney, Duke of .Elchinoen,
Count Alten,
Sir Thomas Picton.
A FOLIO ATLAS,
OF ANAGLYPTOGRAPHIC ENGRAVINGS ON STEEL, FROM MODELS, CONTAINING
2 Plans of Qitatre-Bras, shewing different Periods of the Action.
2   -   -   -   Ligny   --------   ditto.
2 -   -   -   Wavre ._-   ditto.
3 - -   Waterloo     -   -   -   -    -   -    ditto.
WITH MAPS OF BELGIUM AND PART OF FRANCE,
Illustrative of the above, sold separately.
In announcing a History of the War in 1815, by the Constructor of the celebrated Model of the Battle
of Waterloo, the Publishers feel confident that the undeniable proof which the latter work of art affords
of the most indefatigable perseverance and industry in the collection of materials for the accurate representation of an event so fertile in glorious achievements, and so decisive in its influence upon the destinies
of Europe, as also of the professional skill with which those materials have been arranged for the complete development of that ever memorable conflict, offers a sufficient guarantee for a similar application
of the author's unwearied zeal and research in the task he has undertaken of supplying what still remains
a desideratum in our national history and military records—a true and faithful account of that last
campaign in Europe, comprising the crowning triumph of the British army, and, at the same time, the
closing chapter of the military life of its illustrious chief, the Duke of Wellington.
Numerous as are the accounts already published of this great conflict, the information which they
convey is generally of too vague and indistinct a nature to satisfy either the military man who seeks fo
professional instruction, or the general reader who desires to comprehend more clearly, in all its details,
that gorgeous machinery, if it may so be termed .which was put in motion, regulated, and controlled by ■nfr
V/&Z&5E2SSSS5S38&&!^Ba5BS9WS!B&BB&!B93&B&
il/l
II
PROSPECTUS.
the greatest masters of their art, who, in modern times, have been summoned forth to wield the mightw
engines of destruction wherewith nation wars against nation.    How just is the observation of Jommi,
one of the most talented military writers of the day—''Jamais bataille ne futplus conf'usement decrite
que celle de Waterloo."   On consulting these accounts the public glean little beyond the fact that at
Waterloo the allied army stood its ground during the whole day, in defiance of the reiterated attacks bS
the French, until theDukeof Wellington led it forward to crown its exertions with the most splendia
victory.   They afford us but a faint idea of those strategical movements and combinations upon whicH
the grand design of the campaign was based by the one party, and with which it was assailed by the
other; and we seek in vain for the development of those tactical dispositions by which the skill of tha
commanders and the valour of the combatants were fairly tested.    From the want of due consecutiva
arrangement in the details, and the tendency tod frequently manifested to compensate for this deficiency
by mere anecdotic narration, the motives by which, in the great game of war, the illustrious players are
actuated, are left out of view, while circumstances which especially call forth the skill of subordinate offi-l
cers in command, as also the courage, the discipline, and the prowess of particular brigades, regiments, or
even minor divisions of the contending masses, are either imperfectly elucidated, or, as is often the case,
unhesitatingly set aside to make way for the exploits of a few individuals whose deeds, however heroic'
they may be deemed, constitute but isolated fractional parts of that great sum of moral energy and]
physical force combined, requisite to give full effect to the application of the mental powers of the
chieftains under whose guidance the armies are respectively placed.    These remarks have references
more or less, not only to the generality of the accounts of the  Battle  of Waterloo, with which thel
public have hitherto been furnished, but also to those of Quatre-Bras, Ligny, and Wavre; the first of
which, brilliant as was the reflection which it cast upon the glory of the victors, became eclipsed solely
by the more dazzling splendour of the greater, because more important, triumph of Waterloo.    Tea
endeavour to remedy these deficiencies, through the medium of the evidence of eye-witnesses, most
willingly and liberally supplied, as well as carefully collated, examined, and, at the same time, proved,!
wherever practicable, by corroborative testimony—every component piece of information being made to|
dovetail, as it were, into  its adjacent and corresponding parts—is the chief object of the present!
publication.
The opportunities which Captain Siborne has enjoyed of collecting the data requisite for this highly]
important work, have been peculiarly favourable. Having commenced his large Model under the authority of the government, he received permission to address himself to the several officers who might havel
it in their power to communicate valuable information ; and, with a view to render such information as
complete as possible, and to substantiate it by corroborative testimony, he forwarded his applications to
almost every surviving Waterloo officer—not limiting his inquiries to any one particular period of thel
action, but extending them over the whole of the Battle of Waterloo, as also of that of Quatre-Bras, and!
of the entire campaign. In this manner he has succeeded in obtaining from the combined evidence of
eye-witnesses a mass of extremely important matter; and when the public are informed that Captain Si-J
borne has also been in unreserved communication with the governments of our allies in that war, con-1
cerning the operations of the troops they respectively brought into the field, it is presumed that the ex-j
traordinary advantages he possesses for a satisfactory fulfilment of his design will be at once acknow-l
ledged and. appreciated.
In reverting, however, to the Model, as connected with the present history, it may not be unimporl
tant to add that some objections were raised against the position thereon assigned to a portion of thel
Prussian troops. These objections induced Captain Siborne to investigate more closely the evidence he\
had received relative to that part of the field; and the result of such re-consideration has been a perfect]
conviction that an error of some importance, as regards time and situation, did exist. When the Model
. is again submitted to the public, which it will be very shortly, that error will no longer appear, and!
the circumstances under which it arose will be fully accounted for and explained in the forthcoming]
work.
One remarkable defect which is manifested, without a single exception, in the existing histories of
this campaign, consists in the want of good plans upon scales sufficiently comprehensive to admit of the]
positions and movements being duly illustrated. By the application of the anaglyptograph to accurately]
executed models, Captain Siborne has succeeded in producing plans of the different fields of battle]
which afford so striking a representation of the features of ground—a representation which has all the
appearance of the subject being shewn in relief—that not only the military man who is accustomed to]
examine plans, but the civilian who has never studied any thing of the kind, will be enabled thoroughly]
to comprehend them even in the minutest details.
To respond to the interest felt in the record of that glorious contest by tbe relatives and friends of]
the combatants, correct lists will be appended to the work, of the names of all officers who were present,]
distinguishing those who were killed or wounded. Marginal notes will also be introduced wherever
officers' names are first mentioned in the course of the work, explaining, if surviving, their present rank |
and if dead, the date of their decease, and the rank which they then held.
A. work brought out under such favourable auspices, and grounded upon materials which, consider-]
ing the advanced age of the principal contributors, would at no remote period have been placed beyond]
our reach, cannot fail to excite, in a considerable degree, the attention of the public ; for which reason]
no pains have been spared in rendering the illustrations fully commensurate with the value and impor-]
tance of the design. The new edition is complete in 1 vol. 8vo. embellished with beautifully executed
medallic portraits, and accompanied by a folio volume, (to be had separately), containing military map's]
and exquisitely engraved anaglyptographic plans from models expressly made by Captain Siborne, of the
fields of battle of Quatre-Bras, Ligny, Wavre, and Waterloo. PROSPECTUS.
HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, THE QUEEN.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS PRINCE ALBERT, K.G.; G.C.B.
HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, QUEEN ADELAIDE.
HER ROYAL HIGHNESS THE DUCHESS OP KENT.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS, THE DUKE OP CAMBRIDGE, K.G.; G.C.B.;  G.C.H.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS, PRINCE GEORGE OF CAMBRIDGE, K.G.
HIS MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY, THE KING OP HANOYER, K.G.; G.C.B.;   G.C.H.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS, THE CROWN PRINCE OF HANOVER.
HIS MAJESTY, THE KING OF PRUSSIA.
HIS MAJESTY, THE KING OF SWEDEN.
HIS ROYAL HIGHNESS THE  CROWN PRINCE OF SWEDEN.
HIS MAJESTY THE KING OP SAXONY.
HIS SERENE HIGHNESS, THE REIGNING DUKE OF BRUNSWICK.
HIS SERENE HIGHNESS, THE PRINCE BERNHARD OF SOLS-BRAUNFELS.
General the Marquess of Anglesey,K.G.,G.C.B., G.C.H.
His Grace the Duke of Bedford.
His Grace the Duke of Buccleugh.
General Bacon, Portuguese Service.
Colonel Bainbrigge, C.B., D.Q.M.G.
The Earl of Bandon.
Lieut-Colonel Barton, K.H. 12th Lancers.
Colonel Thomas Hunter Blair, C.B., Unatt.
Lieut.-Gen. the Hon. Sir Edw. Blakeney, K.C.B., G.C.H.
Lieut.-Gen. Lord Bloomfleld, G.C.B., G.C.H.
His Excellency Baron du Brunow, the Russian Minister.
Lieut.-General Sir John Buchan, K.C.B.
Lieut.-General Sir John Cameron, K.C.B.
Major-General Sir Guy Campbell, Bart. K.C.B.
Major-General Sir Octavius Carey, C.B., K.C.H.
Lieut.-Colonel Cator, Royal Horse Artillery.
Colonel Chatterton, K.H. Commanding 4th Drag. Guards.
Lieut.-Col. Sir Chas. Chichester, Commanding 81st Regt.
Lieut.-Colonel Clarke, Commanding 2nd (R.N.B.) Drgs.
Major-General Cleland.
Major Henry Clements, late of the 16th Regt.
General Sir George Cockburne, G.C.H.
Major William H. Cockburne, late of the 9th Regt.
' William Crawford, Esq. 2nd (R.N.B.) Dragoons.
Lieut.-Colonel John Crowe, K.H., Unatt.
His Excellency Earl de Grey, Lord Lieutenant of Ireland.
The Marquess of Downshire. K. St. P.
Major-General D'Aguilar, C.B.
Lieut.-General Sir Charles Dalbiac, K.C.H.
General Sir Ralph Darling, G.C.H.
' Major-General Sir Jeremiah Dickson, K.C.B.
Lieut.-General Dickson, Royal Artillery.
The Earl of Donoughmore, K.P.
' Lieut-Colonel Dorville; C.B. Unatt.
' Major-General Sir Neil Douglas, K.C.B., K.C.H.
' Major Edward Ward Drewe.
' Captain N. F. Dromgoole, h. p. 85th Regt.
' Colonel Berkeley Drummond, Scots Fusilier Guards.
'• Colonel Dyneley, C.B., Royal Horse Artillery.
The Right Hon. Lord Eliot.
1 Lieut-General Sir De Lacy Evans, K.C.B.
Captain the Hon. C. W. Forester, 12th Lancers, A.D.C.
* Lieut.-Colonel Gawler, K.H., Unatt.
* Captain E. Gilborne, late of the 71st Regt.
* Lieut.-Colonel Grove.
' Lieut.-General Lord Greenock, K.C.B.
* Colonel the Lord Viscount Guillamore, Unatt.
* Major-General Hamerton, C.B.
* Lieut.-General the Rt.Hon. Sir Henry Hardinge, K.C.B.
* Lieut.-General Lord Harris, C B., K.C.H.
» The late General Lord Viscount Hill, G.C.B., G.C.H.
* Colonel George W. Horton, Unatt.
Colonel Sir George Hoste, C.B. Royal Engineers.
* Captain W. Humbley, h.p. Rifle Brigade.
* Lieut.-Colonel Edward Keane, Unatt.
* Colonel Clark Kennedy, C.B., K.H.   Commanding 7th
Dragoon Guards.
* Colonel James Shaw Kennedy, C. B., Unatt.
* Captain Kincaid, late of the Rifle Brigade.
* Colonel Charles King,K.H.,lateof 16thLight Dragoons.
His Grace the Duke of Leinster, K.G.
* Charles Lake, Esq. late of the Scots Fusilier Guards.
* General'Sir John Lambert, G.C.B.
* Lieut.-Colonel Leach, late of the Rifle Brigade.
* Lieut.-Colonel Francis La Blanc. Unatt.
Captain the Hon. James Lindsay, Grenadier Guards.
General Sir Evan Lloyd, K.C.H.
Lieut.-Colonel Louis, Royal Artillery.
General the Honourable Sir Wm. Lumley, G.C.B.
General Sir Fitzroy Maclean, Bart.
Colonel Mansell, K.H., A.A.G.
Lieut-Colonel Marten, Commanding 1st Dragoons.
The Lord Viscount Massareene.
The Lord Viscount Melville, K.T.
Lieut.-Colonel A. C. Mercer, Royal Artillery.
Major-General Douglas Mercer, C.B.
Lieutenant-Colonel Monins, Commanding 69th Regt.
Lieut.-Colonel H. Morrieson.
Colonel Sir George Morris.
Colonel Monro, K.H., Royal Artillery.
. General the Right Hon. Sir George Murray,G.C.B.,G.C.H.
Sir William Keith Murray, Bart.
: Major-General the Honourable Henry Murray, C.B.
Lieut.-Colonel Muttlebury, C.B., late of 69th Regt.
His Grace the Duke of Northumberland, K.G.
Major-General William F. P. Napier, C.B.
The Marquess of Ormonde.
Colonel Sir Charles O'Donnell, Unatt.
' Major-General O'Malley, C.B.
Major-General the Hon. Sir Hercules Pakenham, K.C.B.
General the Hon. Sir Edward Paget, G.C.B.
' Frederick Hope Pattison, Esq., late 83rd Regiment.
Captain Lord Frederick Paulet, Coldstream Guards.
The Right Honourable Sir Robert Peel, Bart.
'General Sir George Quentin, C.B., K..CH.
' His Grace the Duke of Richmond, K.G.
) Major Reid, late 88rd Regiment.
' Colonel T. W Robbins, h.p. 18th Regiment.
' Colonel William Rowan, C.B., A.Q.M. Gen.
Captain Lord Cosmo Russell, 98rd Highlanders, A.D.C.
Lieut.-General Shortall.
• Lieut.-General Sleigh, C.B.
1 Major-General J. Webber Smith, C.B.
' Lieut.-General Lord Fitzroy Somerset, K.C.B.
Lieut.-Colonel Spottiswoode, h. p. 71st Regt.
• Colonel Stawell, Commanding 12th Lancers.
1 General Lord Strafford, G.C.B., G.C.H.
Lieut-General the Honourable Patrick Stuart.
I The late Lieut.-General Lord Vivian, G.C.B., G.C.H.
Colonel Wade, C.B., D.A. Gen.
Major-General J. Welsh.
' Colonel Whinyates, C.B., K.H., Royal Artillery.
Colonel the Earl of Wiltshire.
{ Lieut.-General Sir Alexander Woodford, K.C.B., K.C.H.
► Major-General Sir John Woodford, K.C.B., K.C.H.
1 Colonel Yorke, Assist. Q. M. Gen.
Officers of the Depot of the 27th Regt. (1 copy.)
Officers of the Depot of the 80th Regt. (1 copy.)
Officers of the DepSt of the 47th Regt. (1 copy.)
Officers of the Depdt of the 64th Regt. (4 copies.)
Officers of the Depot of the 65th Regt (1 copy.)
Officers of the Dep6t of the 95th Regt. (lcopy.) '
Serjeants of the 15th Regt (1 copy.)
Non-commissioned Officers Library, Royal Artillery,
Woolwich (1 copy.)
The Military Library of the Troops of Brunswick (1 copy.)
• The Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1 copy.)
Barnstaple Rook Club (1 copy.)
St. George's Reading Society, Bolton (I copy.)
&c. &c. &c.
The Officers marked with an asterisk (*) were at Waterloo. MiBBBgffiKBSZagBBggBBgaEMBBgBBaaggaggB^BSBgBgggaZgWa
OPINIONS   OF   THE   PRESS.
" It is Written in -a free and impartial manner, is lucid in its descriptions, surprisingly correct in
details, and many important features of the campaign, which have hitherto remained either wholly
unnoticed, or else kept too much in shadow, are now brought forward into proper relief; whilst the
grand military operations of the period are delineated with the pen of an enlightened soldier. In a
word, by separating, with much discrimination, the gold from the dross, he has turned to excellent
account the materials for his undertaking, which seem to have flowed to him from every quarter; and
the consequence is, that a standard history has been produced, remarkable for its spirit and vigour, as
well as for its truth.''—U. S. Journal.
'' We hail this work as a standard history of the Battle of Waterloo and of the Campaign of
Flanders—a worthy companion and sequel to the Peninsular Campaigns of Napier. A compilation
from the testimonies of eye-witnesses (as this is) had they been dressed up for publication, and subjected
individually to the public judgment, would have been cold and lifeless; here all is freshness, vivacity,
unaffected truth ; and thus is explained the very superior style of the writer, who possesses a nerve
and spring of thought and a brilliant colouring of phrase, combined with a transparent clearness of
expression, such as is rarely attained by the purely literary writer, and seldom, if ever, found in connection with profound, professional, and practical knowledge, as in this work. The most intimately
acquainted with the scenery and incidents of the days of June, 1815, are