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A tour through Canada from Nova Scotia to Vancouver Island 1884

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   A TOUR THROUGH CANADA,
FROM NOVA SCOTIA TO VANCOUVER ISLAND,  A Tour Through Canada
FROM NOVA   SCOTIA
TO
VANCOUVER   ISLAND.[Reprinted,  by Permission,  from the Columns of
THE   CANADIAN   GAZETTE,   London,. England.
1884.
[the right of reproduction is reserved.]  PREFACE.
The articles embodied in this pamphlet were originally
written for the columns of The Canadian Gazette,
to supply a want felt among members of the British
Association of a trustworthy guide to the places in
Canada most worth visiting during their stay in
the Dominion. Their insertion in The Canadian
Gazette led to a desire for their reproduction in a
handy form, and this has been "made possible, with but
few necessary alterations, by the kind permission of
Mr. Thomas Skinner, the Editor and Proprietor of
that paper.
No pretension is made that these articles form a
complete guide to the Dominion—so vast in resource
for tourist and sportsman alike—for as newspaper
articles they were necessarily limited in extent. But
it is hoped that they will be of some service to the
yearly increasing number of tourists and travellers who
are seeking in British North America "fresh fields
and pastures new" in which to spend their autumn
holiday.
London, England, August, 1884.  SYNOPSIS
CHAPTER   I.
PAGE
The Voyage to Quebec—Halifax to Quebec—The New  York Route—Travellers
Notes x
CHAPTER   II.
Quebec—Montmorenci Falls—Chaudiere Falls—Lorette—River Saguenay, and Lower
St. Lawrence	
CHAPTER   III.
Montreal—St. Helen's Island—Sault-au-Recollet—Belceil Mountain—Three Rivers and
St. Lawrence Excursion—Lake Memphremagog—Lakes Champlain and George -   13
CHAPTER  IV.
Ottawa—Up the River Ottawa to Mattawa—The Canadian Pacific Line over the
North Shore of Lake Superior—Lake Nipissing—Ottawa to Montreal by Rail     -   24
CHAPTER  V.
Toronto—Niagara Falls—Muskoka and the Northern Lakes of Canada—Hamilton,
St Catherine's, London, and Guelph—Kingston—The Thousand Islands, Long
Sault, Coteau, Cedar, Cascade, and Lachine Rapids    -»...-   30
CHAPTER   VI.
Montreal to the Rocky Mountains—The New Ontario and Quebec Railway—Perth
—Peterborough—Toronto—Owen Sound—Canadian Pacific Lake Steamers—
Georgian Bay and Lake Huron—Sault Ste. Marie—Lake Superior       -       -       -   35
CHAPTER  VII.
Port Arthur—Fort William—Kakabeka Falls—Rat Portage—Lake of the Woods
42 
VI11
SYNOPSIS.
CHAPTER   VIII.
Winnipeg—Lake   Winnipeg—Icelandic   Settlement—St   Vincent   and   Emerson-
Mennonite Settlements -       -       -       -	
47
CHAPTER   IX.
The Canadian Pacific Railway Through the North-West—Portage La Prairie—Brandon
—Scotch Crofters' Settlement—Indian Head and Bell Farm—Regina—Moose Jaw
—Canadian Pacific Test Farms—Swift Current—Maple Creek—Cypress Hills      -   52
CHAPTER   X.
Medicine Hat—River Saskatchewan—Bow and Belly River Coal District—Battleford-
Gleichen—Glimpse of the Rocky Mountains—Calgary—Alberta Cattle Ranches
60
CHAPTER   XI.
Bow River Valley—Morley—Padmore—In the Rocky Mountains—Mount Cascade—
Castle Mountain—Silver City—Laggan—Stephen—Kicking Horse Pass and Valley
—Columbia River—Rogers Pass Through the Selkirk Mountain—IUe-cille-waet
Valley—Columbia River, Second Crossing—Eagle Pass Through the Gold Range
—Thompson River—Kamloops—Savona Ferry—Lytton—Fraser River—Port
Moody  --- ..--65
CHAPTER   XII.
British Columbia—Vancouver Island—Victoria—Nanaimo—New Westminster—Port
Moody—Yale 69 A TOUR THROUGH CANADA.
'  CHAPTER   I.
The two great ocean routes to Canada are by the St. Lawrence to Quebec,
and vi& New York The former is perhaps that more generally patronised.
Among its advantages are a comparatively short ocean passage—Quebec
being 480 miles nearer this country than New York, and nearly 1,000 miles
of the voyage being in the comparatively smooth waters of the St. Lawrence ;
as well as an escape of the double Custom House inspection to which
travellers are otherwise subjected.
THE VOYAGE TO QUEBEC.
Speaking first of the Quebec route, we start from Liverpool in one of the
St. Lawrence steamers. A few hours bring the vessel to Moville, sheltering
in the picturesque harbour of Loch Foyle, on the north coast of Ireland,
where, in the case of steamers engaged in the service, the mails are taken
on board. Leaving Moville, the Irish coast is soon cleared, and the Atlantic
fairly entered. Then for five and a-half or six days no glimpse of land
relieves the eye, until the foggy portion of the ocean lying off Newfoundland
is reached, and the north-east coast of the island itself sighted. On through
Belle Isle Straits, with Belle Isle towering to a height of 650 feet at their
mouth, passing the desolate island of Anticosti, the noble Gulf of St.
Lawrence is entered, and the billows of .the Atlantic give way to the calmer
waters of the St. Lawrence. For some 500 or 600 miles—during about two
days—the beauties of the St. Lawrence are taken in on either hand. The
grim, gloomy Saguenay is passed on the northern bank, followed by the
rugged range of Laurentian Hills—supposed to be of the earliest geological
formation-—the picturesque Isle d'Orleans, and the cataract of Montmorenci.
On the southern bank Riviere du Loup, the favourite summer resort ot
Quebec, is the first to attract attention beyond Rimouski; then are seen
in rapid succession the quaint French villages, surrounded by luxuriant
vegetation, which grace the eastern portion of the Province of Quebec.
Suddenly rounding a point, a cluster of bright white houses and' glistening
steeples, rising abruptly on a rugged ledge of rock, as it were in the midst
of the river, and forming a scene of striking beauty, show that the historic
city of Quebec, the " Gibraltar of America," has been reached. Point Levi,
opposite the city, is now touched, and the eight or nine days' voyage is at
an end.
It may here be of interest to note that the Atlantic steamers land at
Point Levi, rather than on the opposite bank at the ancient city itself, for
the convenience of the great majority of passengers who are destined for
cities further west, and who have no business in Quebec. The main lines
of railway—the Intercolonial and Grand Trunk—run on the southern side
of the river, and make connection at Point Levi, leaving the City of
Quebec entirely out of their route. — 'UrTIm i
lilt
'illWillJl S'^f^&isT¥^^0^        * I wEl&St*- =^^%Mmij, '
llllli SBBBBEBB^n
(3)
THE HALIFAX ROUTE.
While, however, the St. Lawrence is the usual summer route to Quebec,
it is quite possible that some visitors will prefer to land' at Halifax, in Nova
Scotia, and proceed over the Intercolonial Railway to Quebec by rail rather
than by water; and it will therefore be well to give a few particulars of
this route. Halifax (Hotels: Halifax, International, and Waverley) is
chiefly known on account of its famous harbour, well qualifying it to hold
the important position of the winter port of Canada. This harbour is
naturally the first feature of the city to attract attention on landing ; a deep
inlet of the sea, it is six miles long, and on an average one mile wide,
affording one of the best, perhaps the best, and safest havens in the world.
Halifax is the chief naval station of British North America, and the only
station now occupied by troops. It is protected by eleven different fortifications, chief among them being the citadel, which was commenced when
the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria, was in command of the station,
and now crowns the summit of the slope on which the city proper stands.
The history of the place is a peaceful one, though it would doubtless prove
a formidable point for an attacking force. Halifax itself is spoken of as the
most British city on the continent, owing to its long association with the
British army and navy. Its streets are spacious, crossing each other at
right angles ; and its houses are, for the most part, built of wood, plastered
and stuccoed, though there are many handsome stone residences. The
principal public buildings are the Fish Market, the Province Building,
declared by Judge Haliburton to be " the best built and handsomest edifice
in North America," the New Province Building, with its fine museum open
to the public, and the Public Garden. Outside the city, a visit should be
paid to the large dockyard, covering fourteen acres, for the accommodation
of Her Majesty's ships of war, which is acknowledged to be one of the finest
dockyards in the British Colonies. The history of Halifax is thus told. It
was originally called " Chedabucto," or " Chebucto,"'but in 1749, when it
was proclaimed the capital of Acadia, which then comprised Nova Scotia
and New Bisunswick, it was called Halifax, in honour of the Earl of Halifax,
an active promoter of the enterprise which resulted in founding the city.
In 1790 it contained 700 houses and 4,000 inhabitants; its people now
number 36,100.
The journey from Halifax to Quebec over the Intercolonial Railway—
686 miles—is one of considerable interest. Leaving from the North Street
depot, the city is seen to advantage, as the head of the bay near Bedford
is rounded. Passing along the shores of the beautiful Bedford Basin, and
across the stretch of good agricultural land in the neighbourhood of the
Stewiaches, Truro, of 6,000 inhabitants, one of the prettiest cities in the
Province, is reached. The Folly Viaduct, six hundred feet long, and
eighty-two feet high, over the Folly Valley, commands a good view.
Amherst, a business-like town on the main line, is the next place of
importance before Moncton is reached ; the latter a town of 5,000 or 6,000
people, known as the heart of the Intercolonial system. Passing through a
country of no particular attraction, the Miramichi railway bridges, each
measuring 1,200 feet in length, are crossed, and the train stops at Newcastle,
noted for its lumber trade. A fine country for sport lies between here and
Bathurst, the Tabusintac River, about half-way, being one of the best
sea-trout rivers in America. La Baie des Chaleurs, one of the most beautiful
havens in America, is next touched, and the Province of New Brunswick
exchanged for Quebec. Thence to Rimouski an attractive reach of country
is passed, after which, the land of the French pure and simple is entered,
and we steam through Riviere  du  Loup and the quaint  French villages
B 2 '««7i7».
(4)
skirting the south shore of the St. Lawrence, each boasting its church and
cure, until Levis is reached, whence the. ferry across the broad river takes
us to Quebec.
LIVERPOOL TO NEW YORK.
If New York be the ocean destination, the point of landing on the south
Irish coast will be Queenstown instead of Moville. On leaving Cork
harbour and passing Daunt's Rock Light and Fastnet Rock, sixty miles
from Queenstown, all sight of land rapidly disappears, and after between
five and seven days at sea New York is reached. Thence a direct run of
380 miles—occupying about thirteen hours—through an interesting stretch
of country, brings the passenger to Montreal. If, again, Boston be the
port of landing, the railway journey to Montreal, a distance of about 340
miles, will occupy ten hours.
TRAVELLERS' NOTES.
It may be of service to mention that throughout the Dominion hotel
charges average from 3 dols. to 4 dols. (12s. 6d. to 16s. 8d.) per day. The
lowest will probably be i}i dols. (9s. 3d.) and the highest 5 dols. (£1 os. iod.).
This is, of course, including only the first hotels. The average may, with
equal comfort though perhaps less luxury, be kept down to 3 dols. The
English pound is worth, in round figures, 4.85 dols.; the actual equivalent
is 4 dols. 86% cents. Bankers' letters of credit, circular notes and marginal
bills, together with Bank of England Notes, are easily negotiable at the rate
of about 4 dols. 80 cents to the £. Each traveller upon an American or
Canadian railway or steamer is allowed to take with him 1 solbs. of luggage
without extra charge. The luggage is, however, only weighed when it
seems to the officials to exceed the official limit. It need hardly be added
that the traveller who is visiting Canada during July, August, or September
will be wise in taking with him a selection of very light clothing, as he is
almost sure to meet with warm weather.
CHAPTER   II.
QUEBEC.
(Hotels: St. Louis, Russell House, Albion, <5>-v.)
Reverting to the St. Lawrence, we find ourselves landed at Point Levi,
on the opposite side of the river to Quebec. One naturally looks for a
handsome bridge spanning the St. Lawrence—here nearly a mile wide—
at this important point, but none is seen ; in its place is a steam ferry,
consisting of two boats, little more than immense floating platforms, made
to carry several vehicles in the centre, the sides being set apart for
passengers. These run from bank to bank at regular and frequent intervals
throughout the days of the season ; during the winter the ice forms a better
bridge than man could build. It is curious to note that there is but one
bridge spanning the river St. Lawrence, that being the Victoria bridge at
Montreal, called by some the "eighth wonder of the world." Indeed,
throughout the whole 2,000 miles of the vast waterway from the further ends
of Lakes Superior and Michigan, there are but five bridges—the Victoria,
at Montreal; the railway bridge, at Buffalo ; and the three bridges below
Niagara Falls.
The city of Quebec has much to attract the tourist and historian, for up (5 )
to the time of Confederation the history of the Province bearing its name
may almost be said to be the history of Canada itself. Here, on the banks
of the River St. Charles, the venturesome Jacques Cartier wintered in
1535-6; here, in 1542, on the heights of Cap Rouge, the first attempt at
settlement in Canada by 200 French colonists, under Jean Francois de la
Roque, Sieur de Roberval, came to signal failure. And here it was, after
an unbroken interval of 60 years, in which home affairs engaged the whole
attention of the Old World, that in July, 1608, a small band of French
artificers, in forming " l'abitation" of their trusted chief, Samuel de
Champlain, founded on the site of the Indian village of Stadacona what
lIuQ^JL
L ABITATION DE CHAMPLAIN :   THE FIRST HOUSE IN  QUEBEC.
was in the near future to be the queen city of the French Western World.
A century passed, and the settlement flourished until, led on by ambition,
the colonists endeavoured to push the supremacy of the French Empire
into the territory to the south, including New York, which the English
themselves had conquered from the Dutch. A series of engagements
followed, at times resulting in victory to the English, but more often in
defeat, until, in 1759, on the Plains of Abraham, a British army, under the
gallant General Wolfe, routed the French force, led by the Marquis de
Montcalm, and captured Quebec. Thus, by one blow, was the city that
had been the seat of French power in the New World made the great
fortress of Anglo-Saxon rule in British North America.
Other battles, hardly less heroic, are called to mind as the historic city
is explored. Indeed, in the words of a French-Canadian litterateur, history
is everywhere—around us, beneath us; from the depths of yonder valleys"
from the top of that mountain, history rises up to crowd the memory. i^aaaann
( 6 )
According to some, Quebec owes its name to an old Algonquin term
meaning " Take care of the rock ;" if others are credited it is so named
because of the natural exclamation, " Que bee!" (What a peak!) made by
Jacques Cartier's pilot as he first gazed on the great rock of Cape Diamond.
The city is situated on the upper bank of the St. Lawrence, at the point
where that river is joined by the St. Charles, about 400 miles from the
mouth of the former. Its form is triangular, the base resting on the
memorable Plains of Abraham, and it is built from the water's edge along
the foot of the cliffs, in the angle formed by the junction of the two rivers,
whence it straggles upwards to the walls of the citadel which surmounts
CHAMPLAIN   STEPS,   QUEBEC.
Cape Diamond, at an elevation 01 some 340 feet above the river. The city
is divided into the. upper and lower town, the former being enclosed within
the walls, and the latter lying along the narrow strip at the foot of the Cape.
To pass from the lower or old town, which is composed for the most part of
narrow and dirty streets, to the upper town, the thoroughfares of which,
though narrow, are clean and fairly well paved, one must either take the
I ascenseur," an hydraulic inclined railway, or ascend by a winding, tortuous
street and breakneck flights of steps.
The commanding grandeur and natural beauty of Quebec have made
for it many admirers, from Jacques Cartier, who first knew it, to the Earl
of Dufferin and the Marquis of Lome, the last two Governors-General of
the Dominion. Among these is Charles Dickens, who, writing of his visit
to the city, in May, 1842, says :—"The impression made upon the visitor ( 7
by this Gibraltar of America, its giddy heights, its citadel suspended as it
were in the air; its picturesque steep streets and frowning gateways; and
the splendid views which burst upon the eye at every turn, is at once
unique and lasting. It is a place not to be forgotten, or mixed up in the
mind with other places, or altered for a moment in the crowd of scenes
a traveller can recall. Apart from the realities of this most picturesque
city, there are associations clustering about it which would make a desert
rich in interest. The dangerous precipice along whose rocky front Wolfe
and his brave companions climbed to glory ; the Plains of Abraham, where
he received his mortal wound; the fortress so chivalrously defended by
Montcalm | and his soldier's grave, dug for him when yet alive by the
bursting of a shell, are not the least among them, or among the gallant
incidents of history."
In speaking of the public buildings of Quebec, we must first mention
the beautiful Terrace, formerly named after its originator, the Earl of
Durham, but officially recognised as "Dufferin Terrace" in 1879, when
the great improvements carried out, with other important city works, under
the patronage of the then Governor-General of Canada, were brought to a
successful completion. Among the additions made at that time was the
Kent Gate, erected by the Queen from her private purse, in remembrance
of the long sojourn made in the city at the close of last century by her
father, the Duke of Kent. The Terrace, forming part of the city fortifications, occupies the site of the old Castle of St. Louis, built by Champlain
in 1620, and destroyed by fire in 1834. Stretching on the very edge of the
cliff, 182 feet above the river, for a distance of 1,420 feet, the Terrace
commands a grand view on all sides. Immediately beneath, beyond the
narrow fringe of houses bordering the base of the cliff, runs the St.
Lawrence, with its many busy scenes. On the opposite bank, Point Levi
nestles at the foot of a lofty range of hills, on whose sides cluster quaint
houses of the true French-Canadian type. Down the river lies the Island
of St. Louis, a favourite resort, while the Island of Orleans stretches far
away into the distance. The scene is essentially Quebecian; the very
quaintness of the place, and of the French-Canadian people, deprives it
of that spick-and-span appearance so common to everything American ;
indeed, one might well imagine himself in the midst of some old castled
city of southern Europe, such, for instance, as Angouleme.
At the upper end of the Terrace, on the west or steepest side of the
mountain, is situated the Palace (Chateau Saint Louis), a large plain building
of stone, which served for over two centuries as the lodging of the
Governors-General and the seat of Government in the Province. The
chateau once comprised three structures—Fort St. Louis, Chateau St.
Louis, and Haldimand Castle. The first-named disappeared after the
English conquest; the latter is the present Laval Normal School.
Mounting to the highest point along the cliffs, we reach the citadel, which
crowns the summit of Cape Diamond, or Montdu Gas (Guast) as Champlain
chose to call it, from the family name of De Monts. The citadel, with its
numerous buildings, covers an area of about 40 acres, and is entered by one
of five gates on the south-west. The St. Louis Gate and St. John's Gate are
of especial interest, as it is known that by them portions of Montcalm's
defeated forces passed into the city after the battle on the plains below. The
former gate is to the tourist of to-day the best way to the plains. It may here
be well to note that these historic plains have nothing to do with the Biblical
patriarch, but derive their name from a Scotchman of the name of Abraham
Martin, who owned tracts of land in the neighbourhood, and was looked
upon as a person of some importance in the then infant colony of New France.
The other gates are Palace or Palais Gate, the third and last of the old French (8)
portals of the city ; Hope Gate, and Prescott Gate (commonly known as
Lower Town Gate), which are of purely British origin. In the Governor's
garden on Des Carrieres Street, is an obelisk, 65 feet high, to the joint
memory of Wolfe and Montcalm—a true emblem of the peace and
harmony with which the descendants of the conquerors and the conquered
dwell and work together for the benefit of Canada, their nation and their
native land.
Passing from the Terrace and adjoining public garden into the upper
town of the " ancient capital," one is struck by the historic associations
met with at every turn.   As street after street is passed, their names recall
THE  ESPLANADE,  QUEBEC.
such heroes as Champlain and Frontenac, and such] household words in
Quebec as Ramsay, Dalhousie, Aylmer. To each street belongs some
peculiar feature. Here is a thoroughfare devoted to flourishing commerce;
while some way off, but quite distinct, the modest grocery-shop is in its element.
In this street reside the well-to-do merchants ; further on the humble poor.
In one thoroughfare is found the emblazoned carriage marked by a distingui
appearance; in the next is the more gaudy conveyance, where the social
status of the master seems to differ little from that of his groom ; turn the
corner, and you find the public conveyance; further, the curious and
ungainly caliche is met; and further again every kind of vehicle has disappeared, the house-doors are ajar, and the footpath strewn with chatting
men and women. So marked is this distinctiveness that a writer tells us the
same individual will even indulge in a cigar, or light an ordinary clay pipe
according as his course is east or west. ( 9 )
Of what can rightly be termed public buildings, Quebec does not
possess a very imposing array. The new Provincial Parliament Buildings
—for Quebec, once the capital of Canada, now occupies a humble sphere as
the seat of the Provincial Government—are of the style of architecture
used in French edifices of the seventeenth century. They form an imposing
pile, and replace the old Parliament House destroyed during 1853, in one of
the destructive fires that have been of such frequent occurrence during recent
years. Churches are prominent among the public buildings of Quebec. The
Roman Catholic cathedral of the Immaculate Conception, in the Market
Square, was built in 1666, and being destroyed by cannonading from Wolfe's
batteries, was rebuilt in 1759, in a quaint irregular style, to accommodate about
4,000 people. Many valuable pictures adorn the cathedral, while its vaults
contain the remains of the heroic Champlain. The seminary, situated
alongside the cathedral, was founded in 1663, by Francois de Montmorenci
Laval, Bishop of Quebec from 1658 to 1688, and is used partially as a
school of theology, and partially as a literature and science school for boys.
The chapel has some fine paintings, and near the entrance is found an
antique bronze figure of St. Peter, whose toe is worn bright by the constant embraces of the faithful. Under the central arch lies the body of St.
Laureatus the martyr, and to the left is a wooden bust of St. Paul, including
a link of the chain with which he was bound during his captivity in Rome.
The relics of St. Clement repose in the chapel on the right of the altar;
those of St. Modestus on the left. Adjoining the seminary, in the rear of St.
George Street, stand out the walls of the Laval University, which received
its royal charter in 1852. Among the interesting features of the University
are the collection of Canadian birds, the spacious hall of convocation, the
museum of Hurno antiquities, and the library of 50,000 volumes. Close by,
in Fabrique Street, stands a relic of the French rdgime in the pile of buildings
erected in 1646 as a Jesuits' College, but now used as a barracks for the troops.
The English Cathedral, capable of seating from 3,000 to 4,000, and the
Ursuline Convent are the two remaining sacred buildings of note. In the
latter lie the remains of Montcalm, a simple mural tablet of white marble,
bearing the following epitaph, from the pen of Governor-General Lord
Aylmer :—
Honneur
a
Montcalm.
Le Destin, en lui d^robant la Victoire,
L'a recompense' par une mort glorieuse.
Other public buildings are the Court House, City Hall, and Marine
Hospital. '
The population of Quebec, numbering 75,000, being of French extraction,
the French language, or rather a patois, is spoken by all. The Roman
Catholic religion predominates here, as throughout the whole Province of
Quebec. The people may be said to be less enterprising than their brother
Canadians of Scotch and English birth ; an instance of which is seen in the
almost entire absence of manufactures, and in the primitive modes of
agriculture.
In speaking of Quebec as a hunting-ground for the historian and
traveller, it must not be forgotten that the city is of some commercial
importance. The noble basin, containing about 28 fathoms of water, harbours
vessels of the largest burthen. Both banks of the river are lined with warehouses and wharfs, the latter jutting about 200 feet into the stream, and
along which the water is sufficiently deep to admit vessels of the largest size.
Shipbuilding is the chief manufacturing industry in Quebec, though there (  io )
are various  other manufactures.    The great  staple  ot export  is  timber
supplied principally by the districts of the Ottawa and St. Maurice Rivers.
FALLS  OF  MONTMORENCI,   QUEBEC.
EXCURSIONS  FROM  QUEBEC.
Among the many interesting excursions that may be made from Quebec
are the following :—
MONTMORENCI Falls.—These noted falls are situated at the mouth
of the  Montmorency River, six miles below Quebec, by what is a good (I)
road for driving when once the uneven thoroughfares of the Lower Town
are passed. The scenery along the route is full of interest. Among other
places passed is Beauport, one of the first settled villages in -the Province ;
here Montcalm's head-quarters were, and now the chief building of note
is the Provincial Lunatic Asylum. A white curtain of spray is the first
indication of the approach to the falls. Closer view shows the Montmorency,
called La Vache, a sheet of water sixty feet wide, tumbling over a precipice
to the depth of 250 feet amid clouds of mist. A small charge (25 cents) is
made on entry to the falls, which includes a visit to the pavilion near at
hand, where a fine view of Quebec is had. Two miles above the falls
are the " Natural Steps " formed by the river for about half a mile, the
ridges rising one above another to the height of nearly twenty feet with
remarkable regularity. In the winter the falls are the scene of much
merriment and sport, giving to tobogganing parties an excellent run down
a regular cone of 100 to 200 feet high, formed by the frozen spray.
The CHAUDiiiRE Falls, on the southern side of the St. Lawrence,
ten miles below Point Levi, may be reached by road, or, perhaps more
pleasantly, by the small steamer plying daily from the Lower Town marketplace. "To a person who desires nothing more than the primary and
sudden electric feeling of an overpowering and rapturous surprise, the'
cascade of Montmorenci would certainly be preferable; but to the visitor
whose understanding and sensibility are animated by an infusion of antiquated romance, the Falls of Chaudiere would be more attractive." So
says a recent traveller, and the truth of his words comes home as one
sees the river, narrowed to a'width of three or four hundred feet, precipitated
to a depth of 130 feet, preserving, till it reaches the St. Lawrence, the
characteristic features of its boiling waters, to which its name Chaudiere or
Caldron is due. The fall is divided by large projecting rocks, overhung
with dark green foliage. The rugged scenery surrounding the falls gives
the whole a dreary wildness, such as cannot but produce a strong impression
on the visitor. If the upper road be taken on the return to Levis, the
Falls of Etchemin, close upon a century old, and the large saw-mills of
Sir John Caldwell, now owned by Mr. Henry Atkinson, may be visited.
The Indian village of Lorette, on the River St. Charles, eight miles
from Quebec, is well worth a visit. It is an ancient settlement of the
Huron Indians, the nobles among the red-men, and to this day some sixty
Huron Indian families reside here. The men hunt and fish, and the women
occupy their time in making snow-shoes, moccassins, and articles of curiosity.
The Lorette Falls near the village are much admired.
Taking Quebec as a centre, visits may also be paid by steamers running
twice a week to Ha-Ha Bay, on the River Saguenay, 142 miles, the
largest tributary of the St. Lawrence, and perhaps one of the most remarkable rivers on the continent. In making this excursion, some of the most
impressive parts of St. Lawrence scenery are included. Leaving Quebec
early in the morning, the first night is usually spent on board, outside
Riviere du Loup, a pleasant watering place of about 5,000 inhabitants,
situated on the south shore of the St. Lawrence, 127 miles from Quebec.
Proceeding early on the following morning for 25 miles the vessel crosses
the river to Tadousac, a favourite watering place, situated on a semicircular
terrace a tthe top of a bay hemmed in by mountains of solid rock. There
is a good summer hotel at Tadousac. The steamer generally stops here
long enough for the sights to be seen, and it is therefore interesting to .
remember that this pleasant village was at an early period the capital ot
the French settlements, and that where are now found the ruins of a Jesuit
religious establishment, was once erected the first stone and mortar building
in the whole of America     Proceeding up the Saguenay from  Tadousac, (   12   )
one is impressed by the wild, desolate scenery. On either side perpendicular cliffs rise to heights of 1,200 to 1,600 feet; in some places the rocks
are partially covered with pine and spruce, in others they overhang the
water void of almost every sign of life. It is truly, says a recent voyager,
as though a mountain range had been cleft asunder, leaving a horrid gulf
through the grey mica schist, the cleft still looking fresh and new. The
bases of these cliffs lie at an unknown depth ; the bed of the river itself
fails to be reached at its mouth by a line of 3,000 feet, and for the entire
distance of 60 miles to Ha-Ha Bay, the largest ships can sail, dropping the
anchor at the extremity of the bay into 30 fathoms of water. Justly then
did the Indians call this river Chicoutimi, signifying " deep water." Thirty-
nine miles above Tadousac is Eternity Bay, one of the most striking
features of the river. Here is a narrow cove, flanked by two headlands, the
steepest of which, rising to 2,000 feet, is known as Cape Trinity, because of
its three distinct peaks, and the lesser as Cape Eternity. Passing Statue
Point, the Tableau Rock, and Ha-Ha Bay, Chicoutimi, a place of considerable trade, at the head of ship navigation, is reached. A few miles
above begin the Rapids of the Saguenay, said by some to equal in grandeur
the Niagara Falls ; and sixty miles beyond Chicoutimi is Lake St. John, the
source of the river.
CHAPTER   III.
Montreal.
(Hotels: Windsor, St. Lawrence Hall, Richelieu, Ottawa House, and
Montreal House?)
There are two modes of journey between Quebec and Montreal—by rail
or by water. The former is made over the North Shore Railway, extending
along the north bank of the St. Lawrence for 172 miles, and occupies from
five to six hours. The river route, though perhaps taking more time, is
preferred by many. Excellent sleeping and general accommodation is
provided in the daily boats of the Richelieu and Ontario Navigation
Company. The ordinary fare, with state room and meals, is two dollars,
say 8s. 4d. The greater part of the journey (180 miles) is made during
the night, and little of the river scenery is therefore visible. The view on
leaving Quebec is very striking, especially if the evening be fine, and the air
as clear as it generally is at the close of a Canadian summer day; and
the approach to Montreal on the following morning is equally interesting.
The busy city, awakening to life as the vessel nears it, stretches for three
miles along the northern bank of the river, rising in series of terraces towards
Mount Royal, from which the city takes its name. Montreal, the commercial capital of the Dominion, and one of the most beautiful cities in
Canada, is built on a triangular island, formed by the mouths of the River
Ottawa as they flow into the St. Lawrence. This island, bearing the same
name as the city itself, contains 197 square miles, and, from its great
fertility, has been well called the Garden of Canada. Above the city is the
junction of the two rivers, St. Lawrence and Ottawa, and here the angle of
confluence is so acute that the different waters do not at once mingle : the
line of junction may be traced for many miles below, the clear blue water of
the St. Lawrence washing the right bank, and the turbid stream of the
Ottawa keeping to the left.
The history of Montreal is one of much interest.    Its first record is on
October 3rd, 1535, when Jacques Cartier, having planted the cross and the lwrprowrc
itfif§
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flag of his native country" side by side at the mouth of the St. Lawrence,
proceeded up the river from Quebec, and landed on the island now called
Montreal. Pushing with his faithful following through large fields of Indian
corn, he found an Indian village, Hochelaga, circular in form, and encompassed by three separate rows of palisades, put together with no little skill.
The single entrance was strongly guarded with pikes and staves, and within
the circle were to be seen some fifty rude wooden cabins, each in the form
of a tunnel. The confidence of the venturesome Frenchman was fully
reciprocated by the red men, but no attempt at settlement was then made.
Cartier, after wintering in Quebec, hurried away, with trophies in the shape
of the Indian chief and following, to acquaint his Sovereign of the result
of his travels. Sixty years passed, and no European visited the settlement,
until Champlain, after founding Quebec, journeyed up the river. These
sixty years had, however, wrought a great change. No kindly natives
advanced to meet him; no smiling fields of corn greeted the eye ; the site
of the prosperous settlement was now a wild forest; two only of its people
remained to tell the tale of woe. Their story ran thus:—After Carder's
departure the Senecas and Wyandotts, or Huron Indians, who had hitherto
lived side by side on the island in pe'ace, were embroiled in war, by the
refusal of the chief of the Senecas to allow his son to marry a Seneca
damsel. Indignant at the slight, the damsel offered herself to the man who
should slay the offending chief. A young Huron killed the chief and won
the prize : and the Senecas thereupon took up the cause of their chief, and
attacked the Hurons. A bloody war ensued; the Hurons were totally
defeated and driven westward, and Hochelaga was laid waste. But the
wave of religious zeal passing at this time over France kept the memory
of the mountain isle alive in the Old World ; and in 1642 a little party
under the noble Sieur de Maisonneuve, believing themselves under divine
command to found an earthly " Kingdom of God," landed on the island and
sought to rear a city of refuge for the heathen Indians. Their pious intention
was stamped on the name of the city, Ville-Marie, and their loyalty shown
by the future name of the mountain, Mont Royal. The colonists needed
all their religious zeal and fervour, for the warlike Iroquois, incited by the
former hostility of Champlain, gave them no peace. Still they persevered
in their good cause through years of patient struggle, till the tide of warfare
was turned, and the city, rapidly growing in importance, became the centre
of the fur trade with the west. The fall of Quebec in 1759 was closely
followed by the appearance before Montreal of an English fleet under
Generals Amherst and Murray, and the then well-peopled city quietly passed
to English rule, thus marking the final surrender of the French power in
Canada. The last vestige of French military' authority disappeared from
Montreal when, in 1881, the Quebec Gate Barracks and a portion of the
old De Lery walls were made give place to the station of the Quebec,
Montreal, Ottawa and Occidental Railway, now part of the Canadian
Pacific system, and a portion of the main line on the completion of the
road along the north shore of Lake Superior.
Montreal (population 170,000) is acknowledged by travellers to be one of
the best built cities on the American continent. Its streets are for the most
part well paved and macadamised; and its massive stone buildings combine
with its lofty towers and spires to give it an impressive appearance. Notre
Dame is the main thoroughfare, running in the centre of tie ridge on which
the city is built. In St. James Street, a wider and more elegant thoroughfare, are found the post office, a pure stone edifice, most of the banks
insurance and other business offices, and the St. Lawrence Hall, ranking
as an hotel next in public estimation to the Windsor, which is situate in
Dominion Square.    McGill Street, running from  Victoria Square to the ( *5 )
river, is the favourite gathering place of mercantile agencies, guarantee
societies, and those other adjuncts of a commercial community. The
other business thoroughfares are St. Paul, St. Lawrence, St. Joseph, and
Craig.
One of the chief sights of Montreal is the Victoria Bridge, spanning
the St. Lawrence for two miles, from Point St. Charles to St. Lambert's,
and designed to connect the lines of railway on the north and south sides
of the river. Passes to visit the bridge may be obtained from the Grand
Trunk Railway office, at Point St. Charles. To span the river at this
juncture was a task of no little difficulty. The current runs here at a speed
of seven miles an hour, and in the winter the ice blocks come down with
very great force. The work was begun in 1854 from the designs of Robert
Stephenson and A. M. Ross, and, in spite of all obstacles, completed in
1859, and formally opened for traffic by the Prince of Wales during his
visit to America in i860. The bridge is 9,184 feet in length, and consists
of a massive iron tube, with six pairs of double tubes on either side,
supported by 24 piers of hard crystalline limestone of the Chazy formation, and two terminal abutments, the piers having sharp wedge faces
turned towards the current to break the ice blocks. The dimensions ot
the piers at their summit are 33 feet in the line of the river by 16 feet in
the line of the bridge ; and at their foundations, 92 by 22% feet. The
abutments are 242 by 34 feet at the top, and 290 by 92 feet at the foundation. The entrance to this triumph of engineering skill, the largest and
costliest bridge in the world, is between high parapets of massive masonry
hewn in Egyptian style, over which, cut into the lintel, are the words :
"Erected a.d. MDCCCLIX. Robert Stephenson and Alexander M. Ross,
Engineers." Over the lintel again is the inscription : " Built by James
Hodges for Sir Samuel Morton Peto, Bart. Thomas Brassey and Edward
Ladd Betts, Contractors." Mr. Brassey here referred to is the well-known
contractor of Birkenhead (Eng.). The iron for the superstructure of the
bridge was all prepared at Birkenhead, each piece being so marked as to
go readily into its proper place. In the construction 8,250 tons of iron in
tubes were use,d, and 250,000 tons of stone; its total cost was 6,300,000 dols.
Churches are prominent among the public buildings of Montreal, a
feature happily summed up by Mark Twain, when he said he " never was
in a city before where one could not throw a brickbat without breaking a
church window." Many of the sacred edifices, about 60 in all, are very
handsome. The Cathedral of St. Peter, now in course of construction at
the corner of Dominion Square and Dorchester Street, is intended to reproduce, as far as the climate of Canada will allow, the peculiarities ot
St. Peter's at Rome, and will, when completed, surpass all other churches
in America as to size. The facade, in Classic style of architecture, will be
surmounted by a dome in imitation of the parent building; and its
dimensions will be as near as possible one-half those of the great Basilica.
The exterior of the building is plain, the intention being to devote all
attention to the interior arid make it as magnificent as possible, after the
style of Italian churches. At the rear, facing the river, stands the Bishop's
Palace. The stately Cathedral of Notre Dame, more properly called the
parish church of Notre Dame, is well worth a visit. It was built in the
early part of the present century, in the place of a quaint structure dating
back to 1672. It is of cut limestone, and after the Gothic style. Its length
is 255 feet, and its breadth 134 feet; and it will accommodate 10,000 people.
The two principal towers are 220 feet high, and afford a very extensive
view of the surrounding country. Admission is obtained on a payment of
25 cents (is.) to the south-west tower, where may be seen " Le Gros
Bourdon," weighing  15 tons,  the largest of the ten bells  in the towers, ( i6)
and only heard on great occasions. The two largest of the other bells are
christened Maria Victoria, and Edouard Albert Louis, and weigh 6,041 and
3,633 pounds respectively. The view from the summit of the tower is thus
described by Mr. W. D. Howells :—" So' far as the eye reaches it dwells
only upon what is magnificent. All the features of the landscape are grand.
Below you spreads the city, which has less that is really mean in it than
any other city of our continent, and which is everywhere ennobled by
stately civic edifices, adorned by tasteful churches, and skirted by full-
foliaged avenues of mansions and villas. Behind it rises the beautiful
mountain, green with woods and gardens to its crest, and flanked on the
east by an endless fertile plain, and on the west by another expanse,
through which the Ottawa rushes, turbid and dark, to its confluence "with
the St. Lawrence. Then those two mighty streams commingled flow past
the city, lighting up the vast champaign country to the south ; while upon
the utmost southern verge, as on the northern, rise the cloudy summits of
far-off mountains." Among the other Roman Catholic churches deserving
notice are the Notre Dame de Nazareth and Notre Dame de Lourdes,
which are interesting as marking the rise of a native school of Canadian
Art applied to church decoration. Both were designed and painted in
fresco by M. Napoleon Bourassa and his pupils, and in each the whole
details are subordinated to one central idea. In Notre Dame de Lourdes,
where the architecture is Byzantine and Renaissance, as seen at Venice,
the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary is visibly
expressed. In the Notre Dame de Nazareth, the style of which is Norman,
incidents in the life of Christ are commemorated. Of the Protestant
churches, the Christ Church Cathedral, reminding one of our own Salisbury
Cathedral, is the most prominent. It is built of Montreal limestone, faced
with white sandstone from Caen in Normandy, in the form of a Latin
cross, and is claimed as the best representative of English Gothic architecture in America. The western window is very fine, as are some of those
in the transept and nave. The pointed roof of the nave, 67 feet high, is
supported by columns whose capitals are carved in imitation of different
Canadian plants. The font is noticeable as a beautiful piece of work. At
the back of the Cathedral stands Bishopscourt, the residence of the Lord
Bishop and Metropolitan of Canada. Other Protestant churches are St.
George's and St. Stephen's. The Presbyterians have several good churches,
while the Methodists, Baptists, Unitarians and Congregationalists are represented, each community being self-supporting.
Few cities possess so many excellent Educational Institutions as
Montreal. In former times all the schools were French and Catholic, but
in later years English and Protestant efforts were made in the same direction.
The question of public education is thus settled between the two denominations :—The whole Province is under a Superintendent of Education, who is
assisted by two Boards, representing respectively the Roman Catholic and
Protestant schools. An assessment of one-fifth per cent, is levied annually
upon all real estate in the city, the tax on the property of Protestants going
to the Protestant Board, and that on the property of Catholics to the Catholic
Board. McGill University—in the buildings of which the British Association is to hold its sectional meetings this autumn—is the chief institution of
the Protestant body of theProvince. It owes its origin to a patriotic Scotch-
Canadian, James McGill, a North-West fur trader, who, on his death, in 1813,
left his property—then valued at ^30,000—to found a college. Since then
the gifts of other liberal men have made the property worth more than half a
million dollars. The University has forty professors and lecturers, and about
500 students. The faculties are of arts, applied science, medicine, and law ;
being non-denominational, it has no theological faculty, but offers advantageous ( % )
terms of affiliation to theological colleges. The Morrin College of Quebec,
and the St.'Francis College of Richmond, are affiliated colleges in art. The
McGill Normal School for the training of Protestant teachers is also affiliated.
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The Peter Redpath Museum, valued at more than 100,000 dols., and the
gift of a gentleman of that name, is the latest large benefaction to the University. The higher education of women receives great attention here, and
the medical school holds a high rank. The buildings of the college are well
C ( i8)
adapted to the purposes of education, and are pleasantly situated at the foot
of the mountain. The library of 20,000 volumes, in addition to the medical
library of 7,000 volumes, includes a varied and unusually valuable selection
of books. Though endowed in 1813, and chartered in 1821, the history of
the University as a leading educational institution dates only from the amendments to its charter, and the re-organisation of its general body in 1852. Its
graduates number 1,200, many of whom occupy prominent public positions.
Other educational buildings are the Laval University, a branch of the chief
institution in Quebec, with faculties of theology, law, medicine, and art ; the
Presbyterian College, devoted entirely to the training of missionaries and
ministers speaking English, French, and Gaelic ; the Wesleyan Theological
College ; the Anglican Diocesan College; the University of Bishops' College;
St. Mary's (Jesuit)College ; the Jacques Cartier Normal School; the Hochelaga Convent, the mother house of the order of the Holy Names of Jesus
and Mary; the School of Medicine and Surgery; and the Seminary of St.
Sulpice, which, with the hospital of the Hotel Dieu and the school of the
Congregation of Notre Dame, forms the realisation of the dream of the
French religious enthusiasts of 1636, to found on the island.three religious
orders—one of priests to preach the " true faith," another of nuns to nurse
the sick, and a third of nuns to teach the youth.
One of the first points to strike the notice of visitors in landing at Montreal
is the Custom House, a fine triangular stone building upon the -river front.
Here were laid the foundations of the holy city of Maisonneuve, and here
was uttered that memorable landing blessing which served so greatly to cheer
the hearts of the colonists in their after struggles :—" You are a grain of
mustard-seed, that shall rise and grow till its branches overshadow the earth.
You are few, but your work is the work of God. His smile is on you, and
your children shall fill the land." Among other noteworthy edifices are
Bonsecours Market—where on any Tuesday or Friday the Lower Canadian
peasantry may be seen to advantage—the Court House, the new City Hall,
the Post Office, the Victoria Armoury, the Banks of Montreal and of British
North America, and the head offices of the great Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Champs de Mars upon Craig Street was once a station of British troops.
Jacques Cartier Square, affording a commanding outlook upon the river, is
the resting place of two Russian guns presented to the city by the Imperial
Government as trophies of Sebastopol. At the head of the square is a
column surmounted by a statue of Lord Nelson, the bas-reliefs of which represent passages in the Admiral's career. It is worthy of note that Nelson
was on the Quebec station in command of the Albemarle in 1782, and that,
falling in love with a fair Quebec maiden, he would, had he been left to himself, have become a Canadian. On Victoria Square is a colossal bronze
statue of the Queen. Dominion Square, more to the west, is the finest in
the city, the new Cathedral of St. Peter, St. George's Church, and the
Windsor Hotel, giving it architectural importance. The last-named structure
is worthy of particular notice, for it ju-Qy ranks as one of the finest hotels in
America, whether in regard to its situation, its imposing appearance, or
the comfort and completeness of its internal arrangements. Its handsome marble staircase, 180 feet long by 30 feet wide, leading to the
grand corridor, is a feature in the building, as is also the main dining-
room, measuring 112 feet long by 52 feet wide, and adorned in a most
tasteful manner.
"What would Montreal be without its mountain?" is a natural exclamation as one looks at the two miles of low land occupied by the city, with
the river on the one hand, and the beautiful Mount Royal on the other,
forming an excellent background to the picture. The drive "round the
mountain," of about nine miles, is a favourite one with visitors, and should ( 19 )
not be missed. One-horse vehicles may be hired for 50 and 75 cents per
hour; for two horses one dollar per hour is charged. From the town the
mountain is ascended by a winding carriage road, or, if walking, by a series
of 427 steps, very steep in places. From the summit, 700 feet above the
river level, the view is extensive and pleasing. Below, the entire city is
seen at a glance ; further off runs the St. Lawrence, checked in its course by
many islands; to the south is Montarville, and the Belceil Mountain, with
the ruined chapel on its summit; further still the Rougemont Mountain
rises from the once productive plain, and almost hides the Yamaska height
beyond; on the right the conical shape of Mount Johnson, or Monnoir,
relieves the monotony of the level ground, while in the far distance are seen
the Adirondacks in New York, and the Green Mountains of Vermont. The
summit and sides of the hill are laid out in parks and cemeteries, and these
may well be included in the drive. The Mountain Park, covering 430 acres,
was acquired by the city in 1874. In the highest part, called Upperfel, the
soil is thin and rocky, and the aspect wild and desolate ; lower on the
southern spur, abounding in ferns, is Brackenfel, more generally spoken of
as " The Pines ; " opposite, to the west, the stretch of rolling turf is named
the Glades ; the forest land through which the road passed is the Underfell ;
the bare land towards the north, the Cragsfoot; at the north end of the
mountain is Piedmont; and the level plain stretching towards St. Jean
Baptiste village is named Cote Placide. By these well-chosen names a more
graphic idea of this favourite spot is given than by pages of description.
In the heart of the mountain are the Mount Royal and Catholic Cemeteries,
each containing many fine monuments. From a geological point of view it is
worthy of note that the series of terraces, rising towards the Mount, upon
which the city is built, marks the former levels of the river or of the ancient
sea that washed the bases of the Laurentian hills to the north. The geological formation is Silurian, and the surface rock Trenton limestone. It is
from the beds of this limestone in the rear of the mountain that the grey
stone which forms so prominent a part of the principal buildings is obtained.
The island of Montreal shows six different formations in the Lower Silurian.
From the extensive exposure of Chazy formation at Point Claire the stone for
the Victoria Bridge was quarried.
As a Commercial Centre Montreal stands before all Canadian cities.
It holds a peculiarly favourable position, in being at the head of ocean
navigation and at the commencement of river and lake trade ; so that, though
800 miles from the sea, it receives the greater part of Canadian importations,
while its manufactories are many and important. It is, moreover, the centre
of converging railways. Here are the headquarters of the great enterprise
whose progress has in recent years excited the interest of the whole world.
From Montreal the Canadian Pacific system extends to Ottawa on the
one hand, and on the other, by the Ontario division of the system, to the
great agricultural districts of which Toronto is the centre. From Toronto
a spur connects with Owen Sound, and here the fine Clyde-built steamers of
the Company run through Georgian Bay and Lake Superior to Port Arthur,
where continues the main line of the system, proceeding thruogh Manitoba
direct to the Rocky Mountains. By the end of next year, or the beginning of
1886, the links of this national undertaking will have been completed,
and then Canada will possess what it has long wished for—an independent
line of railway stretching from her Atlantic ports, through the mineral country
to the north of Lake Superior and the agricultural prairies of the North-
West Territories, across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast of British
Columbia—a chain of nearly 3,000 miles, which will bind together in stronger
union the various Provinces of the Dominion. Mr. W. C. Van Home, the
Vice-President, and a leading spirit of the enterprise, bears the reputation of
C 2 (  ^o  )
being one of the cleverest railway men in America.    Montreal is also the
centre of other railway systems.
The Harbour of Montreal is fully in keeping with the maritime importance of the city. An unbroken line of wharfs extends for 3^ miles from Point
St. Charles to Hochelaga, while the total length of wharf accommodation
is 4-57 miles, of which two-thirds is for ships drawing 25 feet of water. Such
a continuous line of masonry is seldom seen. No unsightly warehouses
disfigure the wharfs; a broad terrace runs along the whole river front,
dividing the city from the river for a distance of il/z miles. Every
advantage for loading and unloading vessels is here found, such as steam
elevators for grain and appliances for shipping cattle ; while the lines of the
Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk Railways run along the wharfs, and thus
afford direct communication between the vessel and the railway. Regular
lines of steamers trade between Montreal and the chief cities of England,
Scotland, and Ireland, as well as with Antwerp, Brazil, the West Indies,
the Maritime Provinces of Canada, and Newfoundland. The deepening
of the St. Lawrence between Quebec and Montreal in recent years has done
much to encourage ocean steamships to proceed up the river to this port.
Early in the present century vessels of more than 300 tons could not ascend so
far up the river, and the foreign trade of the port was confined to small brigs
and barges. In 1809 the first steam vessel made the journey down the
channel from Montreal to Quebec. Built by the Hon. John Molson, it
was named The Accommodation, though its passenger-carrying capacity
was limited to twenty persons. There is now always a depth of thirty
feet, except for a distance of thirty miles, chiefly in the Lake St. Peter ;
and on most days of the week-ocean vessels of from 4,000 to 5,000 tons and
more may be seen passing through the channel, which is 300 feet at its
narrowest part. In 1882 the number of sea-going vessels entering the port
was 648, with a tonnage of 554,692 ; of inland vessels there were 5,947, with
a tonnage of 848,780, giving a total of 6,595 vessels, and 1,303,472 tons. In
the year of Confederation—1867—the returns were : Sea-going vessels, 464 ;
tonnage, 199,053 ; inland vessels, 5,248; tonnage, 744,477 ; showing that an
increase has taken place in the sixteen years of 184 sea-going vessels, with
355>639 increased tonnage; and of 699 inland vessels, with 104,303
increased tonnage. The proportion of steam tonnage to the total comprising steam and sailing vessels was in 1867, 43'8o per cent.; in 1882 it
was 85-75. The export live stock trade from this port is a growing one,
while the main exports include phosphates (shipped in the crude form of
apatite, of which large deposits are found in the Ottawa valley), timber,
wheat, and other cereals, cheese and general agricultural produce.
EXCURSIONS  FROM  MONTREAL.
Many interesting excursions may be made from Montreal.
St. Helen's Island, named after Helen Bouille, wife of Samuel de
Champlain, the first lady to visit Canada, is now opened as a public park,
and may be reached by steamer crossing the river from the wharf opposite
Bonsecours Market. It is about three-quarters of a mile long by one-third
of a mile broad, and is beautifully wooded. In 1672 it was granted by the
King of France to the Sieur le Moine de Longueuil. It remained in the
family until 1812, when the British Government purchased it, with Isle
Ronde and Isle au Fraises, for ^15,000, and converted the baronial residence
on the south bank of the island into officers' quarters, making the island
itself a military depot. On the departure of British troops the island passed
to the Canadian Government, and was placed under the charge of the
Corporation of Montreal, who have converted it into a public park.    The (   «    )
remains of an old French redoubt may be found at the south-west point
opposite the city, and lines of entrenchments on the opposite extremity
facing Hochelaga Bay. The position and natural features of the island
guarding the approach to Montreal, have led military men to consider it of
great importance as a defence of the city. Champlain also held this
opinion, for in 1611 he describes it as "une petite ile que sa situation et
elevation semblent avoir fortifiee naturellement." The city is seen to great
advantage from the elevated part of the island, rising 125 feet above the
river level, and the beautiful woods give opportunity for a pleasant ramble.
An interesting drive of nine miles may be had to the " back river " or
Riviere des Prairies, at Sault-au-Recollet—a rapid so called after a
Recollet priest drowned close by in the early days of the French settlement.
The convent of the Sacred Heart is situated here. The drive to the village
of LACHINE lies through beautiful scenery, the rapids of Sault St. Louis
being well seen en route.
Lachine Rapids.—No visitor to Montreal should fail to " shoot" these
famous rapids. This may best be done by taking the train leaving the
Bonaventure dep6t for Lachine about 7 a.m., which connects with the steamer
Beauharnoisj or the'5 p.m. train connecting with the steamer Prince of
Wales. Opposite Lachine is the village of Caughnawaga, interesting as the
settlement of the remnant of the once powerful Mohawk tribe of Iroquois,
for so long the terror of the young French colony. The Indians enjoy the
free life of voyageurs and guides. Leaving Lower Lachine on the left, the
steamer passes the long and dangerous rapids of the Sault St. Louis. Then
are entered the Lachine rapids, the shortest but most turbulent on the river.
" Suddenly a scene of wild confusion bursts upon the eye ; waves are lashed
Into spray, and into breakers of a thousand forms, by the submerged rocks
which they are dashed against in the headlong impetuosity of the river.
Whirlpools, a storm-lashed sea, mingle their sublimity in a single rapid.
Now passing with lightning speed within a few yards of rocks which, did
the vessel but touch them, would reduce her to an utter wreck before the
crash could sOund upon the ear ; did she even diverge in the least from her
course—if her head were not kept straight with the course of the rapid—she
would be instantly submerged, and rolled over and over. Ere we can take a
glance at the scene, the boat descends the wall of waves and foam like a
bird, and a second afterwards you are floating on the calm, unruffled bosom
of the river below." The outline of the massive Victoria Bridge soon comes
in sight, and the boat stops at the mouth of the Lachine Canal.
Twenty-one miles from Montreal is Belceil Mountain, a spot of considerable geological interest. It may best be reached by the Grand Trunk
Railway to St. Hilaire (not Belceil) station. Conveyances run from the
station to the Iroquois House, an hotel built half-way up the side of the
mountain. At the southern base is a lake of singular formation, supposed
to be the crater of an extinct volcano. Though there is an outlet to the
lake, no inlet can be seen. Proceeding to ascend, 14 wooden crosses will
be passed at intervals, each of which bears an inscription having reference
to Christ's journey to Calvary, and on the very summit are found the ruins
of a small chapel erected some years ago during the visit to Canada of the
Bishop of Nancy. These ruins, at a height of 1,400 feet above the river,
command an extended view of the surrounding country for sixty miles.
Returning, any evening train is available, though a comfortable stay may be
made for the night at the Iroquois.
A pleasant trip may be made by steamer to Three Rivers, at the confluence of the Rivers St. Maurice and St. Lawrence, about a hundred
miles below Montreal. It may also be reached by rail. Taking the
water route, the steamer is landed at the Richelieu Company's wharf at (   22   )
7 p.m. The view of the city on leaving the wharf is grand. Mr. W. D.
Howells, the noted American writer, thus describes it :—" For miles the
water front of Montreal is superbly faced with quays and'locks of solid
stone masonry, and thus she is clean and beautiful to the very feet. Stately
piles of architecture, instead of old tumble-down warehouses that dishonour the waterside in most cities, rise from the broad wharfs; behind
these spring the twin towers of Notre Dame and the steeples of the
other churches above the roofs." Leaving St. Helen's Island and Isle
Ronde on the right, Longueuil is seen on the southern bank. Then comes
a series of French-Canadian villages, of the style peculiar to the Lower St.
Lawrence, among them Varennes with mineral springs. A mile beyond, on
the north side, is passed the mouth of the northern branch of the river
Ottawa, half concealed by numerous islands ; after which the St.
Lawrence widens considerably, running through a broad alluvial plain.
Far on the north lie the Laurentian Hills, and on the south are the Green
Mountains. At Sorel the river narrows to about a mile, the banks rising to
a greater elevation. This town, named after the captain who, in 1663,
built here the old Fort Richelieu to check the inroads of the Iroquois,
is now, with a population of 6,000, a place of considerable trade. Most
of the many steamboats plying on the river were built here, and it is
the winter quarters of nearly all the craft of this part of the river. It was
for many years the seat of Government of the French Governors of
Canada, and the residence at one time of the Duke of Kent, father of
Queen Victoria. Leaving the town, Lake St. Peter, an expansion of the St.
Lawrence, is soon entered. The lake is 35 miles in length, and in places 10
miles broad. The St. Francis River enters the lake on the right and the
Maskihonge on the left. There is little to be seen on the banks of the
lake, and Trois Rivieres is soon touched. This is one of the oldest towns in
the Province, having been founded in 1634, and its advantageous position
at the mouth of the River St. Maurice, one of the most important tributaries
of the St. Lawrence, draining an immense " lumbering " area, gives it importance as a centre of an extensive lumber trade. Its present population is
about 10,000. From Three Rivers an excursion may be made to the Falls of
Shawenegan (meaning " the foot of a rapid "), about thirty miles up the river
St. Maurice. " Here the river, suddenly bending, and divided by a rocky
island into two channels, falls nearly 150 feet perpendicularly, and dashes
violently against a wall of opposing rock, where the united stream forces its
way through a channel not more than thirty yards wide. There can be no
more striking scene in its savage grandeur than this fall." Above the falls a
tug steamer runs as far as the Hudson Bay Company's post of La Tuque,
about 100 miles above Three Rivers. This remarkable place is separated
from the falls by a conical hill, principally composed of granite rock, containing quartz, mica, and feldspar. The falls of Grand Mere are another
-attraction to the tourist in this region. The River St. Maurice and its tributaries abound in fish. From Three Rivers daily steamers proceed to
Quebec, passing through beautiful scenery on each bank of the St. Lawrence,
including the village of Batiscan, the Richelieu Rapids, the mouth of the
Chaudiere River, Cap Rouge, the Sillery and Wolfe's Cove, where, in 1759,
the landing of the general led to the complete overthrow of the French
supremacy in Canada.
LAKE MEMPHREMAGOG,
" The Geneva of Canada," offers another pleasant excursion from Montreal.
Taking the Boston train of the South-Eastern Railway at the Bonaventure
station, the traveller has1 before him a run of 100 miles, occupying four hours, ( 23 )
to Newport in Vermont, United States. Crossing the Lachine Canal and
the Victoria Bridge the train strikes across level country to the valley of the
Richelieu River, which in ante-railway days was the chief route between
Canada and the United States, and by means of which an important trade is
even now carried on between the two countries. At Chambly Basin the
Richelieu changes from a rapid stream to a wide and tranquil expanse,
into which the Chambly Canal discharges itself. Chambly Canton is a
thriving English village on the west side of the river, between the rapids and
the east side of St. John's Canal. Mons. de Chambly built a fort here
in 1711, and thus gave his name to the place. Passing the important
manufacturing village of West Farnham, Cowansville, the county town, and
Sutton Junction, United States territory is entered between Sutton Flats
and Richford. Passing Jay's Peak (4,018 ft.), the most northern spur of the
Green Mountains, the train follows the valley of the Missiquoi River, and
re-enters Canadian territory only to pass from it again to Newport, a
pleasing village in the State of Vermont (U.S.), at the head of Lake
Memphremagog. The hotels at Newport are Memphremagog House, a
large and excellent hostelry, and Bellevue House. Lake Memphremagog
is a beautiful sheet of water,, thirty miles in length and from two to four
in width, lying partly in Canada and partly in the State of Vermont. Its
shores are rock-bound, and indented with beautiful bays ; its waters are
studded with finely-wooded islands, while its western banks are overshadowed by mountain ranges clad with dark forests, and on its eastern
shore, sloping gradually to the water's edge, are beautiful villas and
prosperous farms. The Indians fully realised the charms of the lake when
they named it " Memplowbowque," or beautiful water. A steamer leaves
the pier at Memphremagog House every morning for Magog, a pretty
village at the foot of the lake, returning the same day. Leaving the pier
behind, Indian Point, the Twin Sisters, and Province and Tea Table Islands
are passed within a few miles of Newport. Half-way down the lake, the
steamer lands at Bay View Park, and then crosses to the Mountain House,
at the foot of Owl's Head, towering to a height of 2,743 feet. A footpath
leads from the hotel to the summit, and may be ascended in one to two
hours. The view from the summit in fine weather is veiy beautiful and
extensive, taking in the whole length of the Lake, the White Mountains,
Lake Champlain, Willoughby Lake and Mountain, the St. Lawrence River,
and even the towers of Notre Dame de Montreal. Near by are Skinner's
Island and Cave, said to have been the haunt of the smuggler Uriah
Skinner, whose daring exploits in the war of 1812 form the basis of much
local romance. Sir Hugh Allan's summer residence is on the right shore,
near which is Mount Elephantis or Sugar Loaf, so called from its peculiar
shape. Just beyond is Georgeville (Camperdown House), a favourite
Canadian summer resort. Beyond, at the point where the Memphremagog
discharges its waters through the Magog River into the St. Francis, is the
small village of Magog (Park's House). Stages run from this point for
sixteen miles to Sherbrooke station, 101 miles from Montreal, on the Grand
Trunk Railway ; or return may be made by the steamer to Newport.
1
LAKES CHAMPLAIN AND GEORGE.
To Rouse's Point, Lake Champlain, and Lake George is another
interesting excursion from Montreal by Grand Trunk Railway. Lake
Champlain—known to the Indians as Cheonderogo, i.e., Sounding Waters
—is 130 miles in length and from a half to ten miles in width, extending
from Whitehall, in New York, northward a few miles across the Quebec
boundary  line.    Lake  George, the Indian name of which was  Horicon, (   24   )
meaning Silvery Waters, is more picturesque, measuring thirty-six miles
from north-east to south-west, and from three-quarters to four miles wide.
The two lakes have been thus compared :—" On Lake George the mountains
come down to the edge of the waters, which lie embowered in an amphitheatre of cliffs and hills ; but on Lake Champlain there are mountain
ranges stretching in parallel lines far away to the right and left, leaving
between them and the lake wide areas of charming champaign country,
smiling in fields and orchards and nestling farmhouses. There are on
Lake Champlain noble panoramas ; one is charmed with the shut-in sylvan
beauties of Lake George; but the wide expanses of Lake Champlain are,
while different in character, as essentially beautiful. It is in every way a
noble lake. Ontario is too large—a very sea ; Lake George is, perhaps,
too petty and confined; but Lake Champlain is not so large as to lose for
the voyager upon its waters views of either shore, nor so small as to
contract and limit the prospect."
CHAPTER   IV.
OTTAWA.
(Hotels: Russell House, Grand Union, Windsor, &c).
No visitor to Canada will wilfully exclude the capital of the Dominion from
his programme. It may be reached from Montreal by rail or by water, and
if one route be taken on the upward journey, the other should be chosen for
the return. Selecting the river as the upward route, we take the early train
by the Grand Trunk Railway to Lachine, eight miles distant. Here we
embark on the steamer, and leaving the Indian village of Caughnawaga on
the south bank of the river, we pass through an expansion of the St.
Lawrence, twenty miles long by seven miles broad, known as Lake St. Louis.
Leaving Point Clare on the right, we pass on the north bank Ste. Anne—a
village, the simple beauty of the surroundings of which inspired Tom Moore
when writing his famed " Canadian Boat Song." Through a lock, forty-five
feet wide by 180 feet long, to avoid a succession of falls, and we enter the
Lake of Two Mountains, an irregular expanse of the River Ottawa, near
its outlet into the St. Lawrence, and passing the Riviere des Prairies, or
Back River, forming the north boundary to the island of Montreal, we stop
at the rock of the High Mountain, situated at the foot of the Island of the
Grand Calumet, in the middle of the Portage des Sept Chutes. Here,
surrounded by a wooden railing, lies the tomb of Cadieux. The fate of this
brave interpreter is full of romantic sadness. Learning that a party of
Iroquois contemplated inveigling the canoes, in which the furs he and his
companions had toiled the winter through to secure were to be taken to the
traders at Montreal, he and a young brave sought to lead the Indians astray
into the woods while the canoes descended the rapids, they themselves
intending to rejoin the voyageurs by a circuitous route. In their perilous
adventure the young brave was shot by the Iroquois, while exhaustion,
hunger, and anxiety, brought about, after days of hopeless wanderings, the
death of Cadieux. When found by his companions, his hands were clasped
over a large sheet of birch bark bearing his dea,th song, for Cadieux ranked
as a poet among his fellows. Passing Rigaud Mountain, the steamer lands
at the antiquated but pretty post village of Carillon. Here we take the cars
for twelve miles around the Carillon, Chute a Blondeau, and Long Sault
Rapids, to Grenville, where another steamboat continues the voyage up the ( 25 )
river through a thickly wooded region. Six miles above Grenville is
L'Original, a village of some importance, near which are the Caledonia
Springs, long famed for their medicinal qualities. Nearing Ottawa we pass
New'Edinburgh, where the Rideau River, in its fall into the Ottawa over a
limestone ledge 50 feet perpendicular, forms a beautiful curtain, from which
the river derives its name. This interesting, feature of the river has
unfortunately been spoiled by the encroachments of commerce. New Edinburgh contains Rideau Hall, the residence of the Governor-General of the
Dominion. A mile and a quarter more and we reach the capital, beautifully
situated on the south bank, just below the point where the Chaudiere Falls
are formed.
Founded as Bytown in 1827, by Col. By of the Royal Engineers, when
engaged in the construction of the Rideau Canal to Kingston, Ottawa was
incorporated under its present name in 1854, and in 1858, in view of the
Confederation of the Provinces of Canada (Ontario and Quebec), Nova
Scotia, and New Brunswick, its favourable position on the border of the two
chief provinces of the then " Dominion of Canada" led the Queen to select it
as the capital. Ottawa is placed between two waterfalls, the Chaudiere on
the west and the Rideau on the east, and its natural attractions are great;
but the pride of its citizens naturally centres in the Government buildings,
which occupy the rock known as Barrack Hill, guarding, as it were, at a
height of 150 feet, the town from the river. The view from this point of
vantage is very fine. Below runs the river laden with busy craft, hemmed in
on either side by waterfalls ; in the near distance the suspension bridge
spanning the Ottawa breaks the view of the Chaudiere ; while far beyond,
across the broad waters, rises a range of lofty mountains. The Parliament
Building, facing Wellington Street, is the main structure, forming the south
front of a quadrangle, with the Deparmental Buildings to the right and
left, and contains the corner-stone laid by the Prince of Wales in September,
i860. It is built in the Italian-Gothic style of the twelfth century, of
cream-coloured Potsdam sandstone, found in the township of Nepean, in the
valley of the Ottawa ; the dressings on the walls and arches being of Ohio
stone. Its length is 500 feet, and the total frontage of the quadrangle
1,200 feet, the depth being 370 feet. The central tower, called the Victoria
Tower, projecting in front of the building, and surmounted by a large iron
crown, is 185 feet high, while the body of the buildings measures forty-three
feet in height. The main entrance is under the central tower, 250 feet high,
and leading through a large vestibule, with stairways to the chambers and
offices of the Senate and the House of Commons. The chambers, forty-five
feet wide by eighty feet long and fifty high, are of similar dimensions to the
Imperial House of Lords. Close to the Commons Chamber are the
Reading-room, the Speaker's apartments, and the Library. The latter is a
fine circular building, with a dome ninety feet high in the rear of the central
tower, constructed after the plan of the library of the British Museum, to
hold 300,000 volumes. There are at present about 100,000 volumes on the
shelves. In the centre stand a white marble statue of Her Majesty and
busts of the Prince and Princess of Wales. The two Departmental
'. Buildings contain in the aggregate 300 rooms. The Western block accommodates the following departments of the Dominion Government:—Public
Works, the Customs, Post Office, Militia, Marine and Fisheries, Bureau of
Agriculture, Railways, and Canals, and the Model-room connected with the
Patent Department. In the Eastern block are found the Governor-General's
offices, Privy Council Room, Minister of Justice, Secretary of State, Finance
and Audit Offices, Registrar, Secretary of State for the Provinces, Inland
Revenue and Interior Departments. The buildings are so constructed as to
allow of extension at any future time without injuring the general archi- (   26   )
tectural effect.    They now cover an area of nearly four acres, the ground
extending over 25 acres, and cost about four million dollars.
Ottawa is, like Quebec, divided into an upper and lower town.    It is
DOMINION   PARLIAMENT  BUILDINGS AT OTTAWA.
in Upper Canada, but only by a stone's throw, for crossing the suspension
bridge into Hull brings one into Lower Canada. It has about 25,000
inhabitants, and, as the great entrepdt of the lumber trade, is a place of
considerable commercial importance. The lumber mills, occupying every
available spot around the Chaudiere Falls, are said to be the largest of the (   27   )
kind in the world. Among the prominent public buildings of the city is
the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Notre Dame, called the Basilica, one of
the finest sacred structures in Canada. It is built of blue limestone, and
has two lofty towers over 200 feet in height. Its interior dimensions are
200 by 72 feet, and it will seat 2,000 persons. Knox Church, and the
Dominion Methodist Church, are handsome buildings. The Post Office,
City Hall, Collegiate Institute, Normal School, and the University of
Ottawa, are among the other public buildings. Rideau Hall, the residence
of the Governor-General, is across the Rideau River, in the suburb of New
Edinburgh. This edifice was purchased in 1868 by the Canadian Government for its present purpose from the late Hon. Thomas McKay. It is
a handsome stone structure, with thirty-five acres of well-laid-out grounds,
and its many attractions make it a centre of life at the capital. A street
railway connects the city with the villages of Hull and New Edinburgh.
UP THE OTTAWA RIVER.
Above the city the Grand River, as the Ottawa is sometimes called, is
navigated for nearly 200 miles by the steamers of the Union Navigation
Company, though the many portages make the journey a somewhat disconnected one. Just beyond the city, surrounded in autumn and winter
by massive bare rocks, come the Chaudiere Falls, whose rapids commence
six miles higher up. This part of the journey must therefore be made by
coach for nine miles, to Aylmer, at the foot of the Chaudiere Lake, whence
the steamer proceeds through the Lake, 18 miles in length, to the village
of Pontiac. Here the horse cars journey for three miles to Union Village,
around Chats Rapids, a picturesque series of cascades, descending 50ft. in
the three miles. From this village the magnificent Lac des Chats is
traversed to Arnprior, a flourishing village on the Madawaska River,
surrounded by a district rich in marble and iron. At the head of the
lake, which is fifteen miles throughout its entire' length, the Cheneaux
Rapids are ascended to Gould's. Here passengers disembark for the
portage, necessitating a rather tedious stage journey of twelve miles to
Cobden, at the head of Muskrat Lake. Thence the steamer runs to
Pembroke, the capital of the county of Renfrew, and a city of some importance. The surrounding country is prominent as a timber district.
From Pembroke the steamer passes through the Upper and Lower Allumette
Lakes to Les Deux Joachim (forty miles). The wild beauty of this part of
the river is very striking. The Deep River, or Riviere Creuse, is another
remarkable section. For twenty-eight miles the water is to all appearance
quite motionless, very wide, and of great depth; while in contrast with the
comparatively level plateau on the south side, bold mountainous scenery
prevails on the north, Syenitic rocks rising in places from the water's
edge to great heights. Further in a north-westerly direction, and the
steamer' reaches the pretty village of Mattawa, at the point where the
Mattawan, the widest and deepest of the western tributaries, enters the
Ottawa River. A sandy ridge of only three-quarters of a mile separates the
head of the Mattawan from La Riviere de Vase, a small rapid stream, five
miles long, running into Lake Nipissing. Mattawa is the stopping place of
the steamers, and a station on the Canadian Pacific Railway, the main line
of which—now open for traffic from Montreal through Ottawa to Sudbury
Junction, a distance of 444 miles—passes through the village. A fort ot
the Hudson Bay Company stands on the point of land between the two
rivers, while the village clustering round the railway station, with a
population of one thousand, is on the south side of the Mattawan. What
is before this place is impossible to say, but the natural advantages of its ( 28 )
position as a chief station in the Upper Ottawa lumbering business, and as
the centre of a country possessing great attractions for the tourist and
sportsman, would seem to point to an important future.
OVER THE NORTH  OF LAKE SUPERIOR.
Beyond Mattawa the Canadian Pacific Railway proceeds for 26 miles to
Callander, through a promising country dotted with good farms. From
Callander the line runs through what may be termed historic ground, for by
the western trail close at hand the intrepid Champlain travelled on his noble
mission to the lake of the Nipissing and down the French River to the Mer
Douce, the lake of the Huron Indians. Passing through the interior chain
of lakes he came to the Bay of Quinte, and completed the first passage
made by a white man across Lake Ontario. To the North Bay of Lake
NIPISSING is but a run of 20 miles. This lake is one of the finest of the
interior waters of Ontario, measuring fifty miles in length and thirty-five in
width. It contains many islands, and discharges itself into Georgian Bay, a
north-eastern arm of Lake Huron, by French River. An idea has long
been entertained of utilising this lake and river as part of a canal, stretching from Montreal up the Ottawa, for 305 miles, to Mattawa, thence for
forty-five miles to Lake Nipissing, and down the French River for fifty miles
to its outlet in Lake Huron. The distance from Montreal to Chicago by
the present line of navigation is 1,145 miles ; vid Ottawa and Lake Nipissing
it would be 575 miles, about one-half. The total cost of such a canal,
utilising the Lachine Canal, is estimated at 12,000,000 dols. At the mouth
of French River is an excellent harbour, and a channel a quarter of a mile
wide and thirty feet deep. The lake abounds in fish, some new to the great
majority of anglers. From a purely commercial point of view Lake Nipissing
is destined to be a very important lumbering centre. A large trade has
already sprung up in the carriage of square pine timber from the lake to
Montreal for the transatlantic trade.
Leaving North Bay, the railway passes for some distance along the north
shore of the lake; afterwards, just above the falls, crossing the Sturgeon
River, the principal source of the supply of the lake, having its rise in Lake
Watagamashing to the north. Following the valley of the Veuve River,
Sudbury Junction, the present terminus of the line, is reached at a
distance of 125 miles beyond Mattawa and 324 beyond Ottawa. At this
point the Algoma branch of the Canadian Pacific system leaves the main line
and proceeds for 100 miles to Algoma Mills on the north shore of Georgian
Bay. This section is not, however, as yet in operation. The main line will
proceed from Sudbury along the north shore of Lake Superior for 550 miles
to Port Arthur, where it joins the line now in operation, to Winnipeg, and
on through the North-West Territories to British Columbia. At Michipi-
coten, at the extreme end of the lake, 225 miles from Sudbury, extensive
deposits of iron, copper, and silver, have been found ; indeed, the whole
district abounds in mines which only await capital to insure their profitable
working. Near the Pic River, 140 miles further west, where the line first
touches the lake, docks have already been erected, and there seems every
probability of the place becoming an important centre in the near future.
Further west still for 130 miles, the Nepigon River, a fine outlet of the very
large lake of the same name, is crossed by a substantial bridge, 700 feet long
by 80 feet high. The railway is now in operation between Nepigon and Port
Arthur, a distance of sixty-five miles, thus leaving a gap as yet unopened to
the public of some 490 miles, the construction on much of which is far advanced, and on the whole of which no effort is being spared to secure an
early and thorough completion,   It was recently officially computed that the ( 29 )
road-bed work on this section of railway on the north shore of Lake Superior
would be practically finished by July ist, with the exception of two tunnels,
of which one is on the thirty-sixth mile from Nepigon, and is 320 feet long,
and the other on the thirty-seventh mile, and 350 feet long. Both are through
substantial red granite. It is expected that the working of both tunnels will
meet by the end of August; and there is a good chance of the rails being laid
throughout the whole section along the north shore of the lake by March
next, and certainly by the ist of May. There can be no question that the
district through which this main line runs is one of great mineral value, and
the approaching completion of the railway in the very heart of some of the
most valuable of the deposits must make the region one of untold wealth to
Canada in the near future.
OTTAWA TO MONTREAL BY RAIL.
Leaving Ottawa by the Canadian Pacific Railway, the first link in the
great system that will shortly connect the Atlantic with the Pacific shores of
the Dominion, a pleasant run is had to Montreal, occupying from 3^ to 4
hours. Crossing the Suspension Bridge, 262 feet long, and remarkable for
its solid construction, where a fine view of the Chaudiere Falls is obtained,
Hull is reached. The Gatineau River, a large and important lumbering
river, 400 miles long, is next crossed, after which is Buckingham, a station
of importance upon the Riviere du Lievre, a remarkably rapid stream, falling
seventy feet in a very few miles. From the Gatineau River as far as
Buckingham, the railway crosses the mineral belt of land, averaging from 20
to 25 miles in width, in which are very extensive and valuable deposits of
phosphate of lime and other economic minerals. A remarkable revival has
taken place in recent years in the mining of this district. In 1880, 7,500 tons
of phosphate were exported ; in the following year the numbers were 10,327 ;
in 1882 the exportation was 15,556 tons, and last year no less than 17,160.
The whole region abounds in valuable minerals, apparently only awaiting
energy and capital to yield a handsome return. Passing Rockland and Thurso,
and crossing a lumbering stream at North Nation Mills, we reach Papin-
eauville, so called because the late Hon. Louis Joseph Papineau, the
O'Connell of Canada, resided here. Crossing the Rouge and Calumet
streams, the train stops at Calumet, from which point the Caledonia springs
may be visited. The next station, Grenville, is a good point from which to examine the Laurentian country. The mountains abound in apatite, graphite,
mica, and other minerals. At this point in the river, the Long Sault Rapid
commences, and here also is the upper end of the Carillon and Grenville
Canal. Leaving the main Ottawa River, the line proceeds through St.
Philippe, and passing between the river and the base of the Laurentian Hills,
comes to Lachute, the chief town of the county of Argenteuil, situated on the
falls of the Riviere du Nord. Several small stations, each named after some
patron saint, are passed, and we cross the northernmost mouth of the Ottawa
at Ste. Rose, where a comprehensive view up and down the river is had. At
St. Martin Junction, the North Shore Railway to Quebec diverges. One
more station, Sault aux Recollets, where the train crosses the Riviere des
Prairies, and we alight at the Mile End station, in the western part of Montreal, or proceed to Hochelaga or Montreal station proper. ( 3° )
CHAPTER   V.
No visitor to Canada should miss the beauties of the Thousand Islands.
This excursion may well include the Long Sault, Coteau, Cedar, Cascade,
and Lachine Rapids, as well as the towns of Brockville, Kingston, and
Toronto ; and while at Toronto a visit may conveniently be paid to Niagara.
Leaving Montreal, the traveller will probably take the quicker route, the
recently opened Ontario section of the Canadian Pacific system, passing
through Ottawa, Perth, and Peterborough. Those acquainted with the old
route will also be glad to take advantage of the Canadian Pacific line to
see an interesting section of country hitherto unknown to them. It may
here be remarked that if the tourist so wishes he may, instead of returning
from Ottawa to Montreal, as above described, proceed from Carleton Junction,
on the Canadian Pacific Railway, 149 miles from Montreal and 29 beyond
Ottawa, direct to Brockville, a distance of 46 miles, where is direct
railway communication with Toronto. If, again, time be short, the return
to Montreal may be made by steamer from Brockville; but those who can
arrange to do so should push on to Toronto—"the Queen City of the West"
—which is itself a convenient centre from which to visit places of interest
on the north and south.
TORONTO.
(Hotels: Queen's, Rossin, Walker, and American).
The capital of Ontario (population 90,000), one of the most flourishing
cities in the Dominion, is situated, on a level plateau, overlooking a beautiful
circular bay of Lake Ontario, bearing the same name as the town. The
bay, about four miles long and two in width, is entered from the west
by a narrow channel, and is separated from the main body of the lake
by a low peninsula of sandy beach six miles in length, known as Hanlan's
Island. Within this sand-bay is enclosed a basin 1% miles in diameter,
forming an excellent harbour capable of sheltering a large number of
vessels. What .was once a peninsula is now, however, Hanlan's Island,
a favourite summer resort, and the home of the champion sculler,
who has erected here the Hanlan Hotel, the taxes on which are remitted by
the city authorities as a token of their appreciation of the skill of their fellow-
citizen. On the south-west angle of the island, known as Gibraltar Point,
is a lighthouse which does good service.
Toronto is at this moment completing great preparations to fitly celebrate
its first semi-centenary, and a few words on its history will not therefore
be deemed out of place. The site of the town of York, as it was then
called, was selected in 1793 by Lieut.-Gov. Simcoe, and named in commemoration of the victory of the Duke of York over the French in
Flanders. Where is now a thriving city of close upon a hundred thousand
people, were found two Indian families, the harbour being a resort for
myriads of wild fowl. Its situation was low and marshy, and it well
deserved its then familiar name of " Muddy York." In 1797 Parliament
Buildings were erected, and the Legislature assembled for the first time.
Little of interest occurred until 1813, when the place was captured by
the Americans, under General Pike, though held only a few days. In 1834,
when Sir John Colborne was at the head of affairs, the town was incorporated, and the name of York exchanged for that of Toronto, supposed
by some to be equivalent in the Indian mind to " oak-trees growing out
of the lake," and by others to mean " the place of meeting."     Its people ( 3i )
then numbered 9,254. Since that time nothing has interfered with the
steady progress of the city. In 1856 its population had reached 50,000,
and its commercial prosperity had taken firm root, so that to-day it ranks
as the second city of Canada.
The streets of Toronto are broad, and generally cross one another at
right angles, the whole forming nearly a parallelogram. The main thoroughfares are King, Queen, and Yonge Streets, the latter named after Sir
George Yonge. The city generally is regularly built, of a light-coloured
brick, and the public buildings are substantial and well designed. The
chief building is the University, a fine Norman building at the western side
of the Queen's Park, forming three sides of a quadrangle, each measuring
200 feet in length. The University was founded in 1827 by William IV.,
and erected during 1854-57, at a total cost of five hundred thousand dollars.
Excepting the Memorial Hall in the Harvard University, it is looked upon
as the finest building of its kind on the American continent. The principal
halls are the library, containing 25,000 volumes, the museum, convocation
hall, and the senate hall. A fine view of the city and Niagara in the distance may be had from the massive tower, 120 feet in height, which stands
in the centre of the south frontage of the building. St. James's Cathedral,
the principal episcopal church in Toronto, is a fine English Gothic structure
on King and Church Streets. St. James's is the fourth church that has
occupied this site, the last one having been burnt down in 1849, and the
present building commenced in the following year. Its spire is 315 feet
high, being several feet higher than the Trinity Church, New York, and the
highest in America. In the interior is beautiful workmanship, including some
fine windows and wood carving. Knox Church, a Presbyterian building, is
much admired for its graceful Gothic tower and spire. St. Michael's
(Roman Catholic) Cathedral, in the early English Gothic style, and the
Metropolitan Methodist Church, are also prominent structures. Toronto
is the seat of Law and Provincial Government, as well as the headquarters
of the Educatonal Department of Ontario. Osgoode Hall, built in Classic
style, and named after the Hon. William Osgoode, the first Chief Justice
of Upper Canada is the seat of the superior courts of the Province; and
parliament buildings, in keeping with the importance of the Province and
city, are about to be constructed in the place of the present ill-looking
structure. Government House, the residence of the Lieut.-Governor, is
a modern structure, after the French style. The Normal School buildings,
the Upper Canada College, Trinity College, are among the educational
institutions of the city; while the other public buildings are the Custom
House, the Post Office, the Central Prison, the Mercer Reformatory, the
Provincial Lunatic Asylum, and the Exhibition Buildings, in which the
Provincial agricultural exhibitions are held. The Queen's Park is situated
in the heart of the city, comprising fifty acres. In 1860-the Prince of
Wales laid the foundation of the statue of the Queen, which now stands
in the park. There is also here the Volunteers' Monument, erected by the
citizens in honour of the volunteers who sacrificed their lives in repelling the
first attempted invasion of Canada by the United States Fenian miscreants
in 1866. Some of the band were members of the University, and to their
memory a window has been placed in the college hall. The beautiful
Horticultural Gardens, owned by the Toronto Horticultural Society, were
opened to the public by the Prince of Wales in i860, and are well worth
a visit.
The manufacturing interests of Toronto are large and varied, while its
fine harbour affords facilities for an extensive traffic. Lines of steamers
run daily during the season to all St. Lawrence ports, and no less than six
lines of railway run through the city.    It forms the junction from which a o
H
O
Pi
o
W
H
«
H
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Spur of the Canadian Pacific system extends to its lake port, Owen Sound,
and members of the Association will, therefore, on their Rocky Mountain
excursion, pass through the city before embarking on the Canadian Pacific
steamers.
NIAGARA  FALLS.
From Toronto a visit may readily be paid to the Niagara Falls. The
steamers of the Toronto and Niagara Navigation Company leave the port
three times daily, and by them a pleasant trip of 36 miles may be made in
about two hours to the town of Niagara, on the Canadian side of Lake
Ontario. This is the oldest town in the Province of Ontario, and was mainly
settled by the sturdy United Empire Loyalists, at the close of the American
Revolution. From Niagara to the Niagara Falls station is a short run of
15 miles over the Canada Southern Railway. The best view of the famous
cataract may be had from the Canadian shore, near Clifton, reached from
the station by the new Suspension Bridge. From Clifton House, a good
hotel, the whole of both cataracts is well seen. The Prospect House is
also a good hotel on the same side. Having taken the tourist to the Falls,
we will leave him to form his own impression, feeling that in attempting to
undertake this on his behalf we should be going beyond our province.
THE NORTHERN LAKES.
Toronto is also a convenient centre for all points in the district of the
Northern Lakes of Canada, and the country stretching 100 miles northward.
Until recently this vast region of forests, lakes, and rivers was a wilderness
neglected by tourist and settler alike, but within the last twenty years
numerous towns and villages have sprung up in the wake of the railways
and steamboats penetrating the country. The chief lakes and places worthy
of a visit are Simcoe, the largest of the inland lakes of Ontario, characterised
by great sylvkn beauty. Couchiching ("lake of many winds"), with the
pleasant park of the same name ; Sparrow, first among the sporting districts
of Muskoka ; Gravenhurst, the key to the regions of Muskoka, Maganetawan
and Nipissing, and an excellent centre for tourists ; Lake Muskoka itself, the
largest in size ; Lake Joseph, whose waters are, unlike those of its neighbours,
beautifully clear and deep, in the midst of characteristic scenery; Lakes
Rosseau, Maganetawan ("smooth flowing water"), Nipissing, and others too
numerous to mention, though well worthy of a visit from the tourist who can
spend a few weeks in this most interesting district. Comparatively few
visitors to Canada will have that time to spare, and we therefore hasten to
Toronto to make the return trip to Montreal, through some of the most
charming of the St. Lawrence scenery. It should, however, be added that
from Toronto visits may be paid to Hamilton, St. Catherines, and London,
the first two named by steamer, or by rail. The prosperous city of
Hamilton (Hotels: St. Nicholas, Royal, and American) is pleasantly built
on a plateau of slightly elevated ground, winding around the foot of a hilly
range, which extends from Niagara Falls, and here receives the name of
"The Mountain." Its population is 35,000. St. Catherines (population
18,000) is much resorted to for its mineral waters. Its favourable situation
on the Welland Canal, and in railway communication with all important
points, has made it the centre of a large and rapidly increasing business,
shipbuilding being among its industries. LONDON (Hotels: Tecumseh and
Griggs1), ill miles west of Toronto, with 16,000 inhabitants, is the capital of
the county of Middlesex, on the River Thames, and has a fine appearance.
As the centre of one of the finest agricultural regions of Canada, it is a place
of commercial importance, while its medicinal white sulphur springs make
i (34)
it a favourite resort among health-seekers. About fifty miles west of
Toronto is the picturesque city of GUELPH, on the river Speed. Here, in
the midst of an extensive agricultural and noted stock-raising district, is the
well-known and admirable Ontario Agricultural College and Experimental
Farm.
the thousand islands.
On the return journey to Montreal, we embark on one of the steamers of
the Richelieu and Ontario line. Sixty-two miles brings the boat to Port
Hope, advantageously situated on the north shore*of Lake Ontario, where
lumber and grain are much traded in. The steamer next stops at Cobourg,
a formidable rival to Port Hope. Leaving this pleasant port town, the
broad waters of the lake are made for, and KINGSTON is soon reached
(Hotels: British American, Albion, and City). This city, once the capital
of Upper Canada, is situated at the outlet of Lake Ontario, on the northeast shore of the river, opposite Wolfe Island, the harbour and shipping
being in front. Kingston is, after Quebec and Halifax, the strongest city
in Canada. Its natural position is bold, and all the accessible points are
secured by batteries, Point Henry fortress completely commanding both
harbour and town. The history of the place dates back to 1672, when the
French, led by De Courcelles, began a settlement here under the name
of Fort Cataraqui, afterwards called Fort Frontenac, in honour of the
French count of that name. It is upon the site of this old fort that the
present city is built. Kingston is the name given to the city by the
British in 1762, when it fell into their hands. It was incorporated in 1832,
and its population now numbers nearly 15,000. The streets are regular,
and the buildings, well worthy of the fifth city of Ontario, are chiefly of the
blue limestone underlying the town. Wells of mineral water resembling
those of St. Catherines have been obtained in the neighbourhood. The
city is connected with Ottawa, by the Rideau Canal, making it a place of
considerable commercial importance.    It has also good railway facilities.
Leaving Kingston, the expansion of the St. Lawrence, studded with
islands, and well called Lake of the Thousand Islands, is entered,
extending down the river for 40 miles, with a width of 7 miles. Numbering
about 1,700, these woody and rocky islets are of every shape and size ; some
hardly seen, others many acres in extent ; some little but bare rock, others
beautified by plenteous foliage. The navigable channel, marked out by
wooden lighthouses, runs from isle to isle, at times within a stone's throw
of land. The gorgeous mass of foliage presented in autumn, when the
trees exchange their summer green for numberless tints, is a scene of
striking beauty. The chief resting-place among the islands is Alexandria
Bay (Hotels: Thousand Islands House, and Crossman House), a small village
on the New York side of the river, from whence good boating and fishing
may be had. A steamer plies between the Thousand Islands House and
Clayton, whence all rail connection can be made with New York via Utica.
South-east of Alexandria Bay, distant some eight miles, are the romantic
Lakes of Theresa, with good fishing, and shores and islands rich in rare
minerals. Passing Morristown on the south bank, and the thriving town
of Brockville on the opposite Canadian shore, the Lake of the Thousand
Islands ends, and the river widens to two miles. Thirteen miles further
on lies Prescott, a city of 4,000 inhabitants, immediately opposite, and
presenting a poor contrast to, the prosperous little American city of
Ogdensburg. A few miles beyond, and the first rapids, Gallopes Rapids, are
descended, closely followed by the Rapide de Plat. The former is a stretch
of two miles long, through which the descent is made with full steam on.
Thirty miles further is Louisville,  whence   stages   run   for seven miles (35 )
to Massena Springs, a popular American resort. Opposite Louisville,
on the Canadian shore, is Dickenson's Landing, just below which are
the Long Sault Rapids, nine miles in length, with a gradual fall of 48
feet, the longest and wildest on the St. Lawrence. Indeed, up to within
half a century ago, the passage was thought impracticable, though no one
need now hesitate to undergo the peculiar sensation experienced as the
vessel shoots over the huge and heaving billows. In ascenc.ing the river,
use is made of the Cornwall Canal, eleven miles in length. At the foot of
the rapids lies the thriving manufacturing town of Cornwall, boasting in
4,000 people. Opposite is the large Indian village of St. Regis, within the
boundary line of both the United States and Canada, whence Lake St.
Francis, dotted with islets for a distance of twenty-five miles, expands to
a width of from two to six miles.
Now entirely in Canadian territory, we pass Coteau du Lac, at the
head of the Coteau Rapids, extending for two miles. Nine miles below,
these take the name of the Cedars, and still farther on, the Cascades,
or Split Rock, at the foot of which is Beauharnois, prettily situated
in a bay, and we are once more in still water. From this point the
river expands for twelve miles to the head of the Lachine Rapids, the
expanse measuring five miles in width, and going by the name of Lake
St. Louis. At Isle Perrot the dark waters of the Ottawa are seen flowing
into those of the St. Lawrence. Touching at the Indian village of
Caughnawaga, an Indian pilot is taken on board, and the last, though the
most turbulent and dangerous of the rapids, the Lachine, are run amid
feverish excitement. Thence, leaving Isle aux Heron and Nun's Island
formerly an Indian burial ground, now well cultivated under the care of the
Grey Nunnery at Montreal, we pass under the Victoria Bridge, and land at
Montreal.
CHAPTER  VI.
THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN  EXCURSION.
The excursion to the Rocky Mountains by the Canadian Pacific Railway
is a feature in the programme of every visitor to Canada. The excursion
is made up of three stages. First comes the railway journey through
Ottawa, and over the new Ontario section of the system to Toronto—
passing through valuable mining, lumbering, and agricultural districts for
a distance of 478 miles, and thence to Owen Sound, making.altogether 600
miles. From O.ven Sound, by steamer, through Georgian Bay and Lake
Superior to Port Arthur, is 575 miles. At Port Arthur the main line of the
railway is joined, and runs for 435 miles to Winnipeg, and thence for 962
miles to Stephen, in the Rocky Mountains.
MONTREAL TO TORONTO.
From Montreal the train proceeds to Ottawa, a distance of 120 miles, over
the route already described. Thence to Carleton Junction is a run of
29 miles. This town, more generally known as Carleton Place, has a
population of 2,000, and is on the Canadian Mississippi River, and at the
junction of the Brockville and Ottawa with the main Ontario section of the
Canadian Pacific Railway. It has unlimited water power privileges.
Steamers ply between it and several places on the River Mississippi on
its way to the Ottawa, which it enters about 30 miles above the capital.
D 2  (37 )
Passing Franktown, more than a mile from the village of the same name
and Smith's Falls, we come to Perth, the capital of the county of Lanark,
situated on the River Tay, eight miles above its mouth, and 300 miles
east from Toronto. The Tay has been rendered navigable from this
point to the Rideau Canal, a distance of seven miles, thus opening up
water communication with Kingston and Ottawa. The population of
Perth numbers 3,000. In its vicinity are extensive deposits of iron, mica,
plumbago, and phosphate of lime, while gold in paying quantities is among
more recent discoveries. Traversing the centre of the counties of Frontenac
and Addington, interspersed by numerous small lakes and rivers, we pass to
the south of the flourishing village of Madoc, in Hastings county, a neighbourhood abounding in gold mines, of which the Malone mines to the northwest have been for some time successfully worked. Large deposits of iron
are also being worked in the neighbourhood. The demand for the iron of
this district is very great, and several mining companies are already at
work getting out the ore. It is magnetic, and is largely used in the United
States, especially Cleveland, to mix with other iron for smelting purposes,
whence large quantities of the crude ore are sent.
On through a rich agricultural country and we come to Peterborough,
with a population of nearly 10,000 in the centre of the district. The town
is advantageously situated on either bank of the Otonabee River, which is
spanned by a number of bridges in use for railway and ordinary traffic.
The town is about midway between Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay,
on the route of Trent Valley navigation. The water power at this point
in the river is unlimited for manufacturing and other purposes. The extent
of the trade of the town is shown from the fact that annual exports of
wheat average 150,000 bushels; of flour, 15,000; of barley, 275,000; of
butter and cheese, 5 50,000 cwt.; while the export of lumber' reaches thirty
million feet annually. The opening up of the direct rail route to Ottawa,
Montreal, and Atlantic cannot but still further develop this fertile agricultural region. The site of the town was three-quarters of a century
ago covered with scattered oaks and small bush. It was then known
to the Indians as Indian Plain or Scott's Landing, and was at the head
of the Otonabee navigation on the portage of Lake Chemong. In 1825,
under the patronage of Earl Bathurst, a Colonel Peter Robinson, of Newmarket, conducted 2,000 Irish emigrants to the Plains, and settled them
in the neighbourhood. The name Peterborough was given the settlement,
in honour of Colonel Robinson. From this point the line runs through
the agricultural counties of Durham and Ontario to Agincourt in York
County, near which the Toronto and Nipissing Railway is crossed by a
substantial bridge. Through the neighbourhood of Wexford, and Carlton is
soon reached, five miles west of Toronto, on the Owen Sound spur of the
system.
TORONTO   TO OWEN SOUND.
Toronto is now left behind, and passing over what was once known as
the Toronto Grey and Bruce, but now part of the Canadian Pacific system,
through highly cultivated land, we come in about 3^ hours to Owen Sound,
a distance of 122 miles. Carlton, a small village on Black Creek, is the first
station from Toronto ; a few miles beyond is Weston, an agricultural centre.
At Humber Summit the River Humber is crossed by an elevated and lengthy
bridge, having five spans of 50 feet each, and one span of 83^ feet, with
stone piers. Passing Kleinburg, rich in agricultural resources, and the
villages of Bolton, Mono Road, Charleston, and Alton, we come to Orange-
yille, a, rising townj of |3,ooo inhabitants, where a jspur of the railway runs -( 3« )
for 73 miles to Teeswater, thus giving connection with the county of Bruce
and its Lake Huron ports. Orangeville, 49 miles from Toronto, is on a
j branch of the River Credit, a stream taking its rise in the Caledon Mountains.
Caledon Lakes are within easy reach, and afford excellent trout fishing.
Shelburne, 15 miles beyond, and Flesherton, 37 miles, are also good trout-
fishing centres. Near the latter small village, the Beaver River takes its
rise, anu pursues its course through strath and wood and glen to the thriving
village of Thornbury on Georgian Bay. Five miles from Flesherton, on one
of the branches of the Beaver, are the beautiful " Eugenia Falls," where the
stream, falling perpendicularly for 70 feet amid peculiar sylvan beauty, forms
a great attraction to lovers of nature. Markdale, 92 miles from Toronto, is
on a branch of the River Saugeen ; 15 miles beyond, and 13 miles from
Owen Sound, is Chatsworth, another favourite centre for sportsmen. One
cannot but be struck by the fine situation of the rising young town of Owen
Sound. At the mouth of the river Sydenham, which at one time gave its
name to the town, it is said to have the best natural harbour of Lake Huron.
This harbour is 12 miles long and 5 miles wide, and throughout its entire
length is completely sheltered on both sides. Its anchorage is decidedly
good, and the depth of water considerable, so that vessels of any size may
come to the mouth of the river with perfect safety. The town, boasting in. a
population of more than 5,000, is pleasantly situated on a small plain, surrounded on three sides by well-wooded hills. Many manufactories are
carried on here, and the town is well supplied with churches, banks, and
hotels ; while the charming falls, the many pleasant drives in the neighbourhood, and the excellent boating in the bay, make it a favourite pleasure
resort.     The Coulson House is a leading hotel.
GEORGIAN BAY.
At Owen Sound we embark for a journey of 575 miles across the lakes to
Port Arthur on one of the new steamers of the Canadian Pacific Railway,
vessels so complete in every way as to deserve a word of mention. Built at
Glasgow last year, at a cost, including complete equipment, of 300,000 dols.
each, the Algoma, Alberta, and Athabasca, each has a length of 270 feet, a
width of 38 feet, and a depth of 23^ feet, with a gross tonnage of 1,780 tons,
and propelled by compound engines of about 1,700 horse-power. The passenger accommodation on the boats is extensive and excellent, while the
saloon is tastily fitted. They are lit throughout by the electric light, and
thus form an innovation in Canadian lake travel. On leaving Owen Sound,
the immense grain elevator erected by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company stands out near the wharf. Passing up the harbour, with Point William
on the right, and Cape Commodore on the left, the middle waters of
Georgian Bay are soon reached. On the left appears the well-timbered
■Griffith's Island, after which the pretty Flower-Pot, Echo, and Cove islands
are passed ; and rounding Cabot's Head and- Cape Hurd the main waters of
Lake Huron are entered. Ahead lie Middle and Outer Duck Islands, while
away to the east as far as the eye can reach stretches the coast-line of the
Grand Manitoulin Island, known to the Indians as the Sacred Isle—they
firmly believing it to be the abode of "The Manitou" or Great Spirit.
This island is 30 miles long and 20 broad, and has an area of 1,600
square miles. Its shores are deeply indented with numerous bays, and
backed by steep precipices, on whose summits are clusters of beautiful pine
trees. The Little Manitoulin or Cockburn Island, resembling in general
features its larger neighbour, and Drummond Island, presenting a rugged
surface for 24 miles, are passed on the right hand, and the head of the vessel
is turned towards the Detour Strait, scarcely a mile wide, with the American " ( 39 )
shore on the west. Ahead, on passing through the channel, is seen the
mainland of the District of Algoma, now populated chiefly by Indians, but
in the near future likely to be the home of more civilised races attracted
thither by the great wealth of copper and silver mines awaiting capital and
skill. The opening of the branch of the Canadian Pacific system to Algoma
Mills will do much to develop this valuable region. Behind St. Joseph's
Island, which we now coast; is the village of Bruce Mines : twenty years
ago the centre of a busy copper mining district; now, from no lack of
valuable ore, but a shadow of its former self. Passing up the St. Mary's
River, some of the prettiest of lake scenery is met for 30 miles, reminding
one forcibly of the beauties of the Thousand Islands. At times we are.
face to face with some huge rock, and seem about to run headlong into it,
when a turn of the wheel brings the boat safely round a sharp corner and
into a spacious channel beyond. In a short time we reach Lake George, a
beautiful sheet of water, some fifteen miles long and four to five broad,
studded with numberless islands. At the head of the lake is Churchville,
at one time a place of some importance as a timber station, but now the
dwelling place of but two or three families. In the shallow waters of the
lake wild rice is seen growing plentifully, and serves to feed countless flocks
of wild ducks. Along the north shore we coast Sugar Island, an American
possession, owing its name to its rich growth of maple trees, under which
large quantities of excellent sugar are made every spring. On the Canadian
side of the river are seen pretty villages, surrounded by hilly country;
followed by Garden River and Garden city, a small but pretty village of 500
inhabitants, forming part of an Indian reserve which extends for nine miles
along the St. Mary's River. The Indians here are chiefly engaged in fishing
and the chase, though the neighbourhood abounds in mines of silver, lead,
and copper. Passing through Little Lake George we soon reach the two
towns of Sault Ste. Marie, the one on the left in the State of Michigan, and
that on the opposite shore in Canadian territory. It is a rule that no vessel
shall pass after nightfall through the canal which leads from this point to
Lake Superior, so that a stop is often made here for the night.
SAULT STE.  MARIE STRAIT.
The old village of Sault Ste. Marie, on the northern side, is neat, though
smaller and with less of the go-ahead air characterising its American neighbour. The streets of the Canadian village are broad, and some of its
buildings are fairly creditable. The inhabitants are now largely engaged in
the fur trade and fisheries, though it is anticipated that the contemplated
erection of a dock for the accommodation of the new Canadian Pacific
steamers will open up new industries and give considerable impetus to the
trade of the place. There is, however, no immediate probability that it will
outdo its American rival, which has] now a population of nearly 2,000. All
vessels passing through the canal call at the latter village and take in coal,
and a garrison of two American companies of infantry and four fieldpieces
are placed here. The rapids at this point have a descent of 22 feet in less
than a mile, and form the natural limit of steamboat navigation. The scenery
is very charming, the width, length, and picturesque surroundings of the
Sault combining to give it much beauty. " In front, we see the waters
churned into foam as they leap over their rocky bed and over the boulders
which for three-quarters of a mile stand in their way. The river is about a
mile wide at the chute, and the waters come down a gentle slope and glide
into the river, first gurgling, then jumping, and then quietly dying away into
the smooth surface of the waters below."    During the vessel's stay at Sault (4° )
Ste. Marie, the rapids may be run with the aid of a canoe and two Indians,
whose services are obtainable for 50 cents per passenger.
To overcome these rapids and afford uninterrupted water communication
between the great lakes, a canal was, in 1855, cut largely through rock on
the American side, thus placing the upper and lower reaches of the river
in direct communication. Traffic increased so rapidly that in 1874 a grant
of three million dollars was made by Congress to increase the capacity of
the canal. In seven years it was finished, and is now classed as the finest
structure of its kind in existence. The old canal, which cost in _ all close
upon ^200,000 sterling, had two locks, each 350 feet long, 70 feet wide at the
top, and 61 feet at the bottom of the chamber. The new canal, added
between 1874 and 1881, at a cost of over .£500,000 sterling, has one lock,
515 feet long inside the chamber, and 80 feet wide, intended to hold several
vessels at once. The movements of the gates and valves—indeed, everything connected with the operation of the locks—is regulated by powerful hydraulic machinery, worked by the natural fall of the water, for
Lake Superior is said to be 26 feet above Lake Huron, of which 18 feet
is accounted for in these falls. The strait is about a mile long, and the depth
of the water 12 feet. The season during which the canal is open averages
from the ist of May to the end of November, and its waters are at all
times free to the use of the vessels of every nationality. The volume of
traffic passing through this channel shows its importance both to Canada
and the United States, In the season of 1882, 4,774 vessels, with a tonnage
of 2,468,088, passed from the one lake to the other. Twelve years before, the
returns showed 1,091 sailing vessels and 2,567 steamers, with a gross tonnage
of about one and a half millions. In connection with the figures for the
year before last, it must moreover be borne in mind that at that time no
contributions came from the Canadian Pacific or Northern Pacific (United
States) systems, both of which being now in active operation, may be
expected to add largely to the traffic of the canal. The opening of the
second canal in 1881 completed the inland navigation of the St. Lawrence
and Great Lakes for vessels not over 180 feet long, 44 feet wide, and 9
feet draught, only 72 miles being artificial. -
When looking at the busy villages on either side of the river, and
admiring the rock-cut channel by which navigation is made possible from
one great inland sea to another, it is somewhat difficult to realise that, two
and a half centuries ago, where is now seen so much activity and the outcome of so great engineering skill, a cluster of Indian wigwams was the only
sign of man. Among the followers of Samuel de Champlain in his efforts to
Christianise the Indians of-the continent was John Nicolet, a young man full
of religious fervour and ready talent. To him Champlain looked with unerring confidence to develop his schemes of exploration in the Western
world, as yet unseen by civilised man, of which his limited hearsay knowledge made him still more eager to realise its full limits, its resources, and
to reach the hearts of its savage peoples. Fond expectations were held by
the colonists in Quebec and Eastern Canada, of reaching China and Japan
across the American continent, and it was to solve the problem of a near
route to China that Nicolet was chosen in June, 1634, to make a journey
to the Winnebagoes, an Indian " People of the Sea," dwelling in that part
of the American State of Wisconsin known as Green Bay. Accompanied
by a party of Jesuits, he and his companions ascended the River Ottawa
under great difficulties to Isle de Allumettes. On to the tributary of
Mattawan he reached Lake Nipissing, whence he floated down French
River to the north shore of Georgian Bay. Leaving the Huron villages
in the company of seven Indians, he came in his birch-bark canoe to the
Nation  of Beavers, supposed to be descended from the Great Beaver ( 41 )
their supreme divinity next to the Great Hare. The hunting grounds of
these people lay to the north of the Manitoulin Islands. Further still on
the margin of the Great Huron Lake were the Amikoiiai, of the Algonquin
family. Pushing on, he finally entered St. Mary's Strait, and urging his
canoes for many miles came to the falls of Sault de Sainte Marie, surrounded by a cluster of Indian wigwams, which two and a half centuries
have changed into an active American village. Then for the first time
white man trod " the territory north-west of the River Ohio," known to us
as the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and so
much of Minnesota as lies east of the Mississippi River. Here, among
the Algonquins, "the People of the Falls," Nicolet rested. Returning
down the strait he came to Lake Michigan and reached Green Lake
County, Wisconsin, the destination set before him, having carried out the
object of his visit, and secured a treaty of peace between the maritime
tribes and the Hurons. A century later the mantle of Nicolet was taken
up by Pierre Gualtier de Varennes, Sieur de la Verandrye, then in command
of a French trading post at the new fort of Nepigon. Here was the very
outpost of trade and civilisation, for the spirit of adventure in the interval
between Nicolet's journey and Verandrye's appearance led the " remote
West" to be pushed from the Saulte Ste. Marie along the rocky shore
of Lake Superior to this north-western fort. With his little band Verandrye
left the shores of Lake Superior in 1731, and made the first visit of white
man to the Winnipeg district. Resting at Lac Du Pluis, the Rainy Lake,
and establishing there Fort St. Pierre, his first trading-post, he came in the
next year to Lac des Bois, Lake of the Woods, building on its shores Fort
St. Charles. Thence they descended the picturesque River Winnipeg
(Ouinipique) to Lake Winnipeg, thus marking out a route which Colonel
Wolseley did not hesitate to follow with his troops in 1870, when charged
with the putting down of the Riel Rebellion. They then ascended the
river of the Assiniboine, called by him the St. Charles, but known to us
as the Red River, and in 1736, in the angle formed by the Red and
Assiniboine Rivers, built Fort Rouge, just across from the point where
now stands the city of Winnipeg. On up the Assiniboine and Souris he
ultimately reached the great Couteau de Missouri. Six years later
Verandrye followed the Missouri to its source, and thus discovered the
Rocky Mountains. Another six years, and following the Assiniboine to its
northern limits he reached the Saskatchewan River, traced its course for
hundreds of miles, and only when about to realise the long-wished-for hope
of sighting the great "bitter sea" across the mountains, of which the Indians
had spoken, the years of toil and suffering through which he had passed
brought about his death, towards the close of the year 1749, his hard-earned
discoveries being left to benefit a selfish and ungrateful people.
I
LAKE SUPERIOR.
Leaving the Sault and steaming for 15 miles up the river, the vessel
commences to plough the waters of Lake Superior, the largest freshwater
lake in the world. " What a farce!" justly exclaims the voyager; " how poor
our mother tongue must be, that this immense expanse should of necessity
be called a lake." In the old country we look with pride upon our Windermere, with its paltry ten miles length of water; how then shall we regard
this inland sea of 32,000 square miles, measuring 420 miles from end to
end, and 1,750 miles in circumference? Drop New Brunswick into it, and
you make the Province an island ; while Switzerland would occupy little
more than half its area. Though 630 miles above sea level, the waters of
the lake average a depth of no less than 900 feet, and many of its depressions (  42   )
have never yet seen plummet line long enough to reach their base. To
its great depth is attributed the peculiar coldness at all times characterising
the water of the lake. Even though the sun be at its height and the weather
ever so warm on land, let the voyager bear in mind that an overcoat is a
comfort when crossing from land to land. Passing from the River St. Mary,
up Whitefish Bay, and nearing the headland of Whitefish Point, the coast
line is seen for miles on either hand. To the north is the low-lying Isle
Parisien; beyond it Point Iroquois; while far in the distance rises Gros Cap.
Some activity is shown in the working of the silver, copper, and other
valuable minerals with which this region abounds. The Lake Superior
Native Copper Company here mine native copper in a formation similar to
that in which it is found by the successful companies on the American shore
of the lake. The average so far is said to be from iyi to 3 per cent, of
copper. One hundred miles after losing sight of land, Michipicoten Island
and River are reached. Silver Islet is the next port, and here we find the
pioneer silver mines of the district, which have probably produced more
actual bullion than any other mine from the same amount of territory
worked. Originally the islet was a rock, no more than a few yards long,
rising from the waters half a mile from the mainland. Sinking their shaft
600 feet, and bringing the ddbris matter to the surface, the miners have,
as report goes, enlarged the island to its present size. The development of
the mine still continues with considerable energy, though there is ample
scope for both capital and mining experience. The mainland is now soon
visible again, and Cape Thunder is seen rising boldly from the water on the
right, with McKay's Mountain in the distance. Passing Page Island and
Isle Royal, which, with the indentation of the north coast, affords good
shelter for vessels, we enter Thunder Bay, between the imposing headlands
of Thunder Cape, rising majestically to a height of 1,350 feet, and Pie
Island, with an altitude of 850 feet, so called from its resemblance in form
to an immense pork pie, from which one may fairly conclude that this
adjunct to civilisation was not altogether unknown to the early inhabitants of
these regions. The bay is a north-west expansion of Lake Superior, and the
most southerly of three large indentations, the two above being Black Bay
and Nepigon Bay. It measures 32 miles in a north-easterly direction, and
14 miles from Thunder Cape to the mouth of the Kaministiquia River. The
spaciousness and majestic grandeur of bay and cape cannot but be admired
as the vessel approaches the Port Arthur wharf, where a landing is effected
after a lake voyage of some thirty-six to forty hours.
CHAPTER VII.
rocky mountain EXCURSION (continued).
PORT ARTHUR.
Port Arthur (Hotels: Queen's, Pacific, &*c), or Prince Arthur's Landing as
it used to be called, is well spoken of as " The Silver Gate," in that it is the
natural door of entrance to the North-West. Its future importance can
hardly be a matter of doubt. Its land-locked bay affords an excellent and
safe harbour; it is surrounded by a country in which vast stretches of rich
agricultural lands, including the Kaministiquia and other valleys, and large
lumbering resources combine with gold, silver, iron, copper, zinc, and other
mineral deposits, to make it one of the greatest value ; while westward, and ( 43 )
tributary to it, lie the great wheat fields of the Canadian North-West, the
extensive cattle ranches of Alberta, and the fertile acres of northern
Minnesota and Dakota.    During the first half of the present century what
Q
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s
we now know as Port Arthur was content to lead the humdrum life ot an
ordinary fur-trade village. Its first event was the expedition of Mr.
Dawson and Professor Hynd, in 1857-8, and the opening up of the Dawson
route to the Red River country: indeed, the former gentleman is looked
upon as the founder of the place.    In 1867 the commencement of the (44)
Government railway from the shores of the lake to Manitoba gave the
" Station" the appearance of a busy frontier village. The landing of Colonel
Wolseley and his troops in 1870, on their way to quell the Red River
Rebellion, was an important event in the history of the place, for at the
request of the colonel, the village, then known as the " Station," was thenceforth called Prince Arthur's Landing, in honour of the young prince who
had become so popular in the Dominion. In 1872 the town and surrounding
country was placed under a regular form of government, and its progress in
succeeding years, when the railway continued to be pushed westward and
eastward, has been rapid but comparatively steady, without that fever-heat of
speculation, the " boom," apparently so necessary to the development of
most western cities. The population of the town has doubled itself in less
than one year. It is now 3,000, and continues to increase rapidly, while fine
buildings are springing up on all hands.
The town of Port Arthur—for it was so incorporated last year—is
beautifully situated on a gradual slope towards the lake. From the hill in
the background the whole landscape is laid out before one. To the right,
some six miles distant, McKay's Mountain, a grand headland, rises 1,000 feet
high, with Fort William and the Kaministiquia River at its foot; further lies
Pie Island, and the smaller Welcome Islands protecting the harbour ; in the
dim distance is the northern portion of Isle Royal, and more to the north
Thunder Cape, while in the bay vessels may be seen approaching for
thirteen miles. Still farther to the left, at the north end of the town, are
the new Canadian Pacific Docks, generally known as the Government Dock,
upon which stands the immense elevator erected by the company, and
capable of storing 250,000 bushels of grain of the Western farmer to await
shipment. This structure is considered the most complete of its kind in
America, and the facilities for handling grain are such that one car is on an
average unloaded every three minutes, while in the same space of time thrice
that amount of grain is passed from the elevator into the hold of the vessel.
Bordering on the bay at this end of the town are fifty acres of land occupied
by the railway company. Among the other docks are those of the Lake
Superior and Thunder Bay forwarding and elevator companies. A vote of
150,000 dols. has recently been made for a breakwater to run from the lighthouse at the end of the Canadian Pacific depot, parallel with the coast to a
point opposite the elevator of the company. Farther south are the emigrant
sheds, which have happily been much in requisition this season; while
farther inland are the Catholic, Presbyterian, and Methodist churches, the
public school, the court-house, the post-office, and other public buildings.
Six miles south-west of Port Arthur, over the railway originally built by
the people of the village, is the town plot of FORT WILLIAM, on the
Kaministiquia River, about three miles from the lake. This was the first
starting-point of the Dawson route, and the original Lake Superior terminus
of the Canadian Pacific Railway, as proposed by the Mackenzie (Liberal)
Government. Certain reasons, however, gave Port Arthur the preference,
and Fort William has now fallen back almost to its former obscurity, and its
population hardly numbers 300. The natural harbour, 11 miles in extent,
has an average breadth of 350 feet, and a depth of eight or ten feet, so that
vessels drawing over nine feet of water cannot ascend the river. The old
Hudson Bay Company's port of Fort William, erected in 1802, is about half a
mile from the mouth of the river. A branch line of the Canadian Pacific
Railway has been projected to the fort, and it bids fair to rival the " town
plot."
Eighteen miles from Port Arthur are the Kakabeka Falls, on the
Kaministiquia River, the drive to which from the town is very pleasant.
The falls, otherwise called the Cleft Rock, form one of the most magnificent ( 45 )
of cascades. Contracted to a width of 50 yards, and supplied with a
volume of water unusual for such a breadth, the river in one dense sheet
drops abruptly into a deep, narrow canyon, more than 130 feet below, from
the edges of which, for nearly half a mile, rise rugged, abrupt walls of slate,
in many places overhanging their bases. Below the falls, the river presents
a continued rapid for 20 miles, from whence it quietly passes to its mouth
and into Thunder Bay.
PORT ARTHUR TO WINNIPEG.
From Port Arthur to Winnipeg, the line of the Canadian Pacific Railway
runs through a remarkable tract of country, wild and rocky, in places
magnificent in scenery, and abounding in gold, silver, and the economic
minerals, as yet but very scantily worked. After leaving Port Arthur and
the old fur-trading port of Fort William, we follow for some distance the
course of the Dawson route, formerly the only means of reaching Winnipeg.
Through the valleys of the Kaministiquia and' the Mattawan, the train
passes over a broad belt of low swamp and ascends a gravelly plain,
catching in places beautiful glimpses of the swift and winding waters of
the Kaministiquia on their course to Thunder Bay, surrounded and overhung by huge rounded hills of rock. Ten miles farther the rivers are crossed
by fine iron bridges, and taking a north-western course we leave the old
Dawson route to pursue its way westward to the Rainy Lake district, on
through a chain of lakes to the Lake of the Woods, and thence by water to
Winnipeg. Following the course of the Sunshine Creek, a bright stream
flowing impetuously over a rocky bed, we come to Finland, 37 miles from
Port Arthur. Thirteen miles beyond, we cioss the watershed, which divides,
at an elevation above the level of Lake Superior of 1,100 feet, the streams
of the St. Lawrence from those flowing into Lake Winnipeg and Hudson Bay.
For the next 100 miles to Tache is a fairly level expanse of wood, rock, and
lake. Here a serious obstacle in the construction of the railway had to be
overcome, in the form of a " floating muskeg," one of those undrained
marshes of unknown depth, so green and pleasant to the eye, but so
treacherous under foot. West of Tache, sand deposits are a noticeable
feature, and farther still, at Wabigoon^ near the large and beautiful " lake of
flowers," which gives its name to the district, is a stretch of good black
loam. At Barclay, the next station, one of the worst of muskegs is passed.
Rock and swamp again prevail until the landscape is relieved by a vast
sheet of water on the left.
Skirting the wide bay for a short distance, we cross the northern part
of the Lake of the Woods, and enter the picturesque little town of Rat
Portage, situated on a strip of land lying between the lake and a bay
of Winnipeg River. Here, in the place of the out-of-the-way Hudson's
Bay Company's post, known to the Indians by the highly euphonious name
of Kakabekitchewan (which, translated, means "The Steep Rock Fall"), is
now a busy town, the centre of what bids fair in the near future to be one
of the most important mining districts on the continent. The natural
water power of Rat Portage is perhaps the finest in America. By many
it is pronounced superior to that of Minneapolis, and the water power of that
American city is admitted to be the most valuable of any in the United
States. Rat Portage is the seat of an extensive lumber trade; several
large mills and manufactories have already been established, and the
recently discovered gold mines in the vicinity have stimulated trade and
enterprise. Almost in sight of the town are the two beautiful falls over
which the two outlets of the lake begin their downward course to Lake
Winnipeg.    Opposite the falls the clear, sweet waters of the Lake of the
I ( 46 )
Woods extend amid great natural beauty on all hands for more than one
hundred miles to the south and west, though the view is confined to the
limits of a broad river by the verdant slopes of a thousand closely
clustering islands. The scenery in the neighbourhood of the lake is very
charming.
A short journey from Rat Portage, and we leave the vast territory of
Keewatin, now in dispute between the Provinces of Ontario and Manitoba,
through which we have been traversing since we left the Rainy Lake district
'is
I
THE LAKE OF THE WOODS.
behind. Past low mountains of primitive rock, clothed with tall, slender
tamaracks, growing on a thin soil, and between lake after lake, through deep
rocky cuts and tunnels, and over lofty embankments, for 37 miles, we reach
Cross Lake, cut in two by the track of the railway. Westward still we leave
behind the clear rapid streams, and pass along the banks of muddy prairie
rivulets through low-lying land, where tamarack, poplar, and other trees give
place to clumps of stunted shrubbery as we near the Red River valley.
Whitemouth, at the crossing of Whitemouth River, a depot for the timber
supply of the district, is the only considerable station, and here we notice the
land of rock and swamp gradually gives place to the deep-red [marly soil of (47 )
the prairies. Forty miles from Whitemouth the railway strikes the Red
River at Selkirk, and turning south, runs for twenty miles along the east
bank to Winnipeg Junction. Here it is joined by the branch line from
the south, which makes communication with St. Paul and Chicago, and
both turning westward, cross the Red River and enter the city of Winnipeg.
CHAPTER VIII.
ROCKY mountain EXCURSION (continued).
WINNIPEG.
(Hotels: Pacific, Queen's, &*c.)
On entering the city of Winnipeg, the capital of Manitoba, and the distributing point of the great territories stretching to the north and west
for hundreds of miles, one feels at the threshold of a vast region whose
characteristics have but recently been examined and clearly understood.
Who, fifty years ago, thought of the Red River settlement without a shudder
and a word of pity for the few hardy Scotchmen of the Selkirk colony,
shut up amid those " frozen acres " ? Yet these northerners flourished, in
spite of hardships and discouragements of no mean kind, and after years
of patient toil became the pioneers of thousands of European and Canadian
settlers, whose prosperous farms and cheerful testimony have in recent
times done much to sweep aside the extravagant and unjust prejudices
created in the minds of old-country folk, for the most part by those having
a personal interest to serve. The history of the Cajiadian North-
West is soon told. In 1670 Charles II., with that free-handed generosity
when dealing with Western lands so characteristic of the monarchs of the
period, granted to Prince Rupert and a number of English nobles and
gentlemen a charter, the effect of which was to secure to them the proprietary rights over a large portion of the North-West. In this way commenced that great and wealthy corporation, the Hudson Bay Company.
In 1736, as we have already seen, Verandrye and his fellow-adventurers
established Fort Rouge at the angle of the Red and Assiniboine Rivers, and
for a century fur trading was the chief business and controlling power of the
country. In 1812 and 1814, Lord Selkirk's Scotch colonists came in, and
establishing themselves on the banks of the Red River, near Lake
Winnipeg, battled bravely with adversity for fifteen years, in time to reap
their full reward. Settlement proceeded but slowly, until in 1869 the Hudson
Bay Company, in return for ,£300,000 and a land grant, surrendered its claims
to the North-West as a private property for trading purposes. In the
following year, when the Riel Rebellion had led the Canadian Government
to give the people representative rights, the entry of Manitoba into the
Confederation was effected, and the territory commenced its second
epoch, a period as marked by rapid and substantial development as that
preceding it had been by obscurity and stagnation. Mr. Fraser Rae tells a
story which well illustrates the lifeless state of affairs prior to 1870.
A flag bearing the letters H.B.C. was the sign of the possession of the
fort by the Hudson Bay Company. Some Americans when first visiting
the country puzzled long over the mysterious letters, and at last concluded
them to signify " Here before Christ," as from the appearance of the country
there had been no change since then !
Winnipeg, covering an area of nearly three square miles, is situated on  ( 49 )
the west bank of the Red River, upon an elevated plateau about sixty feet
above the river level, where the waters of the Assiniboine enter the main stream.
The city itself (for it obtained its charter of incorporation in 1873) is full of
activity ; it is neither the collection of " houses enough to form a sort of
scattered town," which the Earl of Southesk found in 1859, nor the
"miserable little village of Winnipeg," of which Col. Butler wrote in 1870,
when it was nothing more than Fort Garry, the chief trading post of the
Hudson Bay Company. From a population of 150 in. 1870, with an assessment roll of two million dollars, the number of its inhabitants rose in ten
years to 8,000, and is now 25,000, while its present rateable property is assessed
at 32,845,100 dols., or £6,569,020. The majority of the public edifices are
well built, of the excellent limestone brought from Stonewall, or of the
cream-coloured brick made from prairie clay. Main Street, the principal
thoroughfare, is 132 feet wide and a mile and a quarter long, running
from the railway station to the south of Fort Garry. Near the Fort are found
the land and other offices of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company,
the Pacific Hotel, the Custom House and Inland Revenue office, the
Dominion Lands office, the Government Emigration office, all of which are
pure white brick buildings. The new warehouse and stores of the Hudson
Bay Company and the Hon. Callchon's buildings are handsome structures,
while the other notable buildings on Main Street are the post-office, city
hall, the Bank of Montreal, and the Ontario, Merchants', and Imperial
Banks. Portage Avenue, running from the Red River in a westerly direction,
parallel with the Assiniboine, is another leading street. Notre Dame
and Princess Streets are also business thoroughfares of importance.
The ecclesiastical divisions of the Canadian North-West are six:—The
diocese of Rupert's Land, of Assiniboia, of Saskatchewan, of Moosonee, of
Athabasca, and of Southern Athabasca.   The Bishop of Rupert's Land is the
Metropolitan, and his palace is situated in St. John's, Winnipeg.  The churches
of the  city are  numerous.     Among the more noteworthy are St. John's
Cathedral, the principal structure of the Church  of England, St. Boniface
Catholic Cathedral in the St. Boniface suburb, Holy Trinity, Christ, and
Knox Churches, as well as  those of the   Congregational and   Methodist
bodies.     Its   educational institutions   embrace   the Manitoba College, the
Catholic   College   of  St.   Boniface,   and  St.   John's, representing respectively the Presbyterian, Catholic, and  Episcopalian religious bodies, and
together forming the young University of Manitoba, with power to grant
degrees in arts, science, law, and medicine.    It is matter for congratulation
that at least in one portion of  Her   Majesty's dominions  religious principles are not  allowed to hinder   a hearty co-operation  in  the common
interests of a higher education;   indeed, so fully and successfully do the
different denominations work together in this respect, that in no  other
Province in the Dominion is there so complete an organisation of higher
education, and at so small a public expense.    Another institution one is
pleasingly   surprised   to   find  in   so  young  a city is the Historical and
Scientific Society of Manitoba, which, though only some few years old, has
rendered, and is rendering, much valuable service to the Province in the
disclosing of its early history, and in the exploration and revealing of its
hidden mineral and geological wealth.    As the Provincial capital, Winnipeg
is the   head-quarters   of the Provincial  Government, the residence of the
Lieutenant-Governor,  and the   abode   of the  Provincial   superior courts.
The city is lighted by electricity and gas, street railways are in operation,
and most of the advantages and conveniences of an old-established city are
found within its limits.
The mercantile and commercial interests of Winnipeg have expanded with
no less elasticity than the city itself.     In 1883, the imports amounted to
E  ( 5i )
24,291,767 dols., and the exports 1,843,481 dols.; a total of 26,135,248 dols.
In the previous year the total was just over seventeen million dollars; in
1881, hardly eight million dollars ; while ten years before, in 1872, the total
commerce of the town was represented by no more than one and three-
quarter million dollars. The carrying trade by rail and steamer is very large.
No less than six sections of the Canadian Pacific system converge here. In a
north-easterly direction runs the eastward section of the main line for 23 miles
to Selkirk ; more to the west on the other side of the river is the West Selkirk
branch, 22 miles in length ; farther west still, taking a north-westerly course,
is the Stonewall line, 20 miles long; next comes the main line, also running
in a north-westerly direction, through the fertile mile belt to the Rocky Mountains ; south-west is the Pembina Mountain section, open for 102 miles to
Manitou, with a branch south to Gretna; while due south is the line to
Emerson and St. Vincent (68 miles), where connection is made with the
United States railways. The passenger station is a fine and commodious
building, lit throughout by the electric light, and in every way befitting
so important a centre. With these facilities, and so vast and fertile a territory tributary to it, what wonder that Winnipeg has made, and is making,
such rapid strides! what wonder that its citizens hold so great expectations
for its future !
LAKE WINNIPEG.
Among the interesting excursions that may be made from Winnipeg is
one northward to Selkirk by rail, and thence down Lake Winnipeg by the
Hudson Bay Company's steamer, which makes trips about weekly. At
Selkirk the Red River is very slightly larger than at Winnipeg—-about 350ft.
broad—and flows in a crooked course between banks partly wooded and
occupied by an Indian reservation, though with frequent stretches of marshes.
The Indians on the Lake are Chippewas, Swampys, Ojibways, and Crees.
Thirty miles below Selkirk, and about sixty from Winnipeg, the river widens
into the lake by several mouths. The lake, 240 miles long, is full of wooded
islands, and affords in many parts excellent scenery. When open to convenient travel the lake will unquestionably be a great attraction to tourists
and sportsmen. On the left bank, some fourteen miles beyond the entrance
from the river into the main body of the lake, is Gimli, where is found a
successful Icelandic settlement, spreading over a shore frontage of about fifty
miles. There are now some fifty families established in the reserve. As Lord
Dufferin pointed out when visiting this settlement, it is not to be expected
that these people, bred amid the snows and ashes of an Arctic volcano, should
exhibit the same aptitude for agricultural enterprise and settlement as those
from intimate contact with the higher civilisation of Europe. Yet they are
endowed with a great deal of intellectual ability and a quick intelligence,
and are well conducted, religious, and peaceable. They are well educated,
and more apt to acquire the speech of the English language than other
foreign settlers. The travellers, in visiting the reserve, will scarcely enter a
house that does not possess a library.
fl
MENNONITES SETTLEMENTS.
To the south of Winnipeg excursions may be made to St. Vincent and
Emerson, including the successful Settlements of Mennonites—a people of
Russian extraction, though German race, moved to leave their native land by
a conscientious objection to the Russian law requiring every male subject to
enter the army. St. Vincent is an American town opposite the British town
of Emerson, at the point where the Canadian Pacific system makes connection
E 2 re*
( 52 )
with the vast network of railways to the south in the United States. This enterprising Canadian city is some ten years old, and was incorporated in 1880.
The first settlement of Mennonites was made in 1876, and in 1880 they had
under cultivation 10,656 acres, and a surplus of wheat that year of 300 000
bushels. The people are indeed thrifty and excellent citizens, and their
settlement has deservedly flourished. "Although," says Earl Duffenn m
1877, " I have witnessed many sights to cause me pleasure during my various
progresses through the Dominion, seldom have I beheld any spectacle more
pregnant with prophecy, more fraught with promise of a successful future,
than the Mennonite settlement." These anticipations have not been falsified,
for village after village, and homestead after homestead, furnished with all
the conveniences and incidents of European comfort, and surrounded by
smiling cornfields and verdant pasture lands, show that prosperity has
attended the patient industry of these Russian exiles. It is a proof of the
innate conservatism of these settlers, that they still preserve their German
speech, though recently they have made a request that English may also be
taught in their schools, an innovation that must lead in time to the disuse
among them of their native tongue.
CHAPTER IX.
WINNIPEG TO REGINA.
The main line of the railway westward from Winnipeg follows generally the
valley of the Assiniboine River for 180 miles. For 56 miles to Portage la
Prairie, the first town of any pretensions, the railway and river run in almost
parallel lines through a level prairie country of great fertility. Portage la
Prairie was in olden times known as the nearest point on the Assiniboine
to Lake Manitoba, and became a place of importance on this line of water
communication. Verandrye built here his Fort a la Reine, and the place
subsequently became a leading Hudson's Bay Company's depot. It is in'the
centre of one of the most promising agricultural districts of the Province, and
is rapidly rising in importance. Its manufactories are numerous and representative, while it is the junction of the Manitoba and North-Western with
the Canadian Pacific system. Passing through a number of rising villages
we come to Brandon, admirably situated on the Assiniboine, with picturesque hills on both sides. Little more than three years have elapsed since
this thriving town was surveyed and laid out; yet it now has a population of
about 4,000, and, being surrounded by successful settlements, is already a
commercial centre of some importance. Its position on the Assiniboine
River, and on the main line of the railway, will, it is thought, so develop the
farming capabilities of the district as to add materially to its importance.
Eight miles to the south of Brandon are the Brandon Hills, which rise, ridge
over ridge, from the level of the Souris as it runs in a deep valley and forms
a picturesque scene. Farther south still, about thirty miles from Brandon,
is the Elliott settlement, a typical group of highly successful farms. The
district around Brandon is indeed fairly well settled.
Proceeding westward, we pass a light sandy stretch of country, with
many boulders, suited rather to grazing than the growth of cereals. Beyond,
Oak Lake and Virden are the centres of a highly productive region. The
latter is a lively little place, with an hotel and several stores. The country
round Elkhorn and Moosomin is of the same promising nature, and here it ( 53 )
will be noticed by those who have previously passed over the ground, that
the land in close proximity to the railway on either side, known as the " mile
belt," is  no longer reserved, but being rapidly placed under homestead
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cultivation. At WAPELLA the line passes across the Indian trail which
leads from Fort Ellice to Moose Mountain, the latter a very favourite
locality for settlement. The mountain is part of an elevated group of Drift
hills, which extend to the northwest, under the name of the Weedy,
Wolf, and Squirrel Hills.    From the east end of the mountain, rising for H^9B — •''■&!?>',
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34o feet in a somewhat conical peak, a wide view over the prairie'is obtained.
About ten miles to the south of Wapella is the " location " of the colony of
Scotch crofters, established last year by Lady Gordon Cathcart, and largely
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augmented this season. Each crofter has a homestead of 160 acres, and
the prosperous condition of the farms and contentedness of the settlers
indicate what perseverance and thrift may make of very small beginnings.
A few miles west of Wapella we come to Broadview, which, though
consisting in 1882 of only a few tents and roughly boarded houses, is ij
►J ( 57 )
now a well laid-out town, and forms the marketing centre of an excellent
farming country. Passing several small towns surrounded by homestead
settlements, we come to Qu'Appelle, until quite recently called Troy.
This district of the Qu'Appelle Valley is a most desirable one from an
agriculturist's point of view, and is well settled. Here is situated the Bell
Farm, 64,000 acres or 100 square miles in extent, spoken of as the largest in
the world. Some idea of the immense area now placed under cultivation
may be gathered from the fact that though the farm was open prairie two
and a half years ago, no less than 6,000 acres have been already put under
seed. Of last year's crop 10,000 bushels were exported to Montreal, and
13,000 sold in different parts of the country as seed. The land is remarkably fertile, and the yield of crops very large. It is also worthy of note
that not a bushel of grain raised on the farm was damaged by frost last
year. To the north by the Indian trail is Fort Qu'Appelle, around which
are several excellent farms of both large and small extent; thirty-two miles
beyond Qu'Appelle is Regina, the capital of the North-West Territories.
REGINA TO MEDICINE HAT.
Had the visitor to REGINA in 1882 been told that the spot on which he
stood would in two years form part of the capital of the North-West Territories, he would probably have disbelieved his informant. Then three large
canvas tents were to be seen on the open prairie, beyond all railway communication and all settlement. The advent of the steam engine soon
brought about a change. Rows of good substantial houses appeared, wide
streets were laid out, and public buildings erected. The site of the town
is not, it is true, picturesque in the same way as Brandon and other northwestern places, but it is in the centre of one of the largest blocks of wheat-
growing land in the country—a rich dark clay—and its citizens hold no small
expectations of its future. As the seat of government for the North-
West Territories, Regina is the abode of the Lieutenant-Governor and
the Indian and departmental offices, and the meeting-place of the North-
West Council, at this moment in session with reforms both useful and
necessary under consideration. Here are also the headquarters of that
well-disciplined and most useful body, the Mounted Police, who, though
comparatively few in numbers, are commissioned to carry out the law and
preserve the peace from Moosomin, on the Manitoba boundary westward,
for 750 miles, to the main division of the Rocky Mountains, and from the
United States boundary northward for about 250 miles. The Wascana
River, better known as the Pile of Bones, flows close at hand in a northwesterly direction, and supplies the town with good water. The citizens of
the capital are at this moment much exercised regarding the construction
of a branch railway past Long Lake, north-westerly towards Battleford,
and in a northerly direction to Prince Albert, thus making the capital the
junction to these fertile regions in the north. Westward from Regina the
main line of the railway runs through agricultural land of the finest
description past Grand Coulee to Pense. Here the Historical and Scientific
Society of Winnipeg have discovered some boulders of considerable interest,
inside one of which were found an innumerable quantity of beautiful shells,
leading to the belief that the boulder had been transported from the parent
rock during the Glacial period, when an immense river of ice carried
fragments of rock eastward, and left them upon the prairies hundreds of
miles from whence they were in situ.
On through gently undulating prairie for twenty-five miles is Moose re*
( 58)
Jaw, pleasantly situated on a slope, rising north of the railway, at the
confluence of the Moose Jaw and Thunder Creeks. The town has
a neat, cleanly appearance, and has made very rapid progress. Fifteen
miles to the north is Buffalo Lake, an expansion of the Qu'Appelle
River, which runs, like all rivers of what is geologically known as the
second prairie-level, through valleys from 150 to 200 feet below the
surface of the prairie. The banks of the lake are ■ therefore from 150
to 250 feet high, and, as may be imagined, the scenery is very picturesque.
Good  fishing   and   hunting   are   to be   had   around  Moose Jaw Creek,
OX TRAIN ON  THE PRAIRIE TRAIL,
Buffalo Lake, and the valleys of the district. From Moose Jaw the Indian
trail leads northward to the Temperance Colony, distant 160 miles, a
journey to which is calculated to occupy three and a-half days. The land
occupied by these settlers is for the most part rolling prairie, plentifully
watered, and of great fertility. The capital of the colony is Saskatoon,
pleasantly situated on a well-wooded bluff, overlooking the broad River
Saskatchewan.
Leaving Moose Jaw, the line of the railway follows Thunder Creek, and
gradually ascends the Grand Coteau of the Missouri. According to common
belief, this was part of the route taken by the sons of Verandrye when they ( 59 )
first sighted the Rocky Mountains. Good pasturage lands are found here,
and no natural requisite for sheep farming is said to be wanting. About
twenty miles west of Moose Jaw we pass Pelican Lake, lying in a northwesterly direction, and abounding in duck, geese, pelican, and other wild
fowl. Secretan is on the summit of the Coteau, and here we find the first of
the farms established to determine the agricultural capabilities of the region
extending from Moose Jaw away to Calgary, in view of the Rocky Mountains,
a distance of over 400 miles. The soil of almost the whole district is light
and variable, and much controversy has been aroused as to its ultimate
value. To fully investigate the point the Canadian Pacific Railway
Company, acting through their energetic Land Commissioner, Mr. J. H.
McTavish, established last season ten test farms at intervals of from thirty
to forty miles apart. Last October "breaking" was commenced at Secretan,
and continued throughout the whole belt, an average of over twenty-five
acres being broken on each farm in such localities as will represent the fair
average quality of the whole tract. The present result of these practical
tests is most satisfactory, proving as it does that the whole region is one
admirably suited to agriculture. The breaking operations revealed on the
land of the first eight farms is "excellent for general farming,".varying from
a clay to a sandy loam of from five to twelve inches in depth, with a sandy-
clay subsoil, while the land at the west end is a rich dark loam, eight to
fourteen inches deep, with a sandy-clay subsoil. The crops on the farms
this season, so far as can be ascertained, show remarkable vitality and
abundance. Indeed, experts declare the wheat on some of the farms to be
the best ever seen in the North-West or in the Province of Ontario. It is
therefore evident that this tract of country is not a " sterile belt," or the
region "without water and utterly unproductive," as was so often and so
confidently asserted. The experimental farms have settled the question of
the value of the soil; the growing crops of every kind are there to speak for
themselves. As for the lack of moisture, the meteorological record shows an
abundant rainfall, and completely disposes of this fallacy.
Leaving Secretan, the railway descends from the summit of the Coteau •
in a westerly direction, passing through cuttings, with fine exposures of sand
and gravel, and leaving behind numerous ponds and the Old Wives' Lakes,
at the head of which is Chaplin Station. These lakes extend to fifty miles
in length, and from six to ten miles in breadth, and abound in wild -duck.
Past Rush Lake, where another of the test farms is established, we come to
Swift Current, a small village. Here we are not far from the South'
Saskatchewan River, as it dips down before proceeding north-eastward to
join the parent stream. Westward still, we pass Gull Lake and Cypress
Stations, north of the Cypress Hills. The country on either hand is devoid
of all vegetation ; no tree or shrub relieves the eye. It must not, however,
be concluded that this region is barren and valueless. Exposures of fine
fertile clay are seen here and there resting on a sand and sandy-clay
subsoil, the excellence of which for general farming purposes could not be
better proved than by the flourishing appearance of the test farms at Swift
Current and Gull Lake. Maple Creek, so named from the numerous ash-
leaf maples found growing along its banks, is the next station of importance,
and here we sight the Qypress Hills, rising 400 feet from the plain, at the
foot of which the valley of the creek lies. Several outcrops of lignite coal
have been known for some years to exist in these hills, and last summer it
was ascertained that one of them is continuous over almost the entire area
of the hills, and shows in places about five feet of fair lignite, not, it is true,
of equal value to that worked farther east, near Medicine Hat. A Government farm for Indians was formerly established at Maple Creek, but was
abandoned for fear of complications with the United States Indian tribes as ( «o )
this creek is on the old route between north and south, and the centre of
many a marauding expedition. It is now superseded by one of the railway
test farms. | (,'Twenty-eight miles to the south-west of Maple Creek by the
Indian trail lies Fort Walsh, one of the head stations of the Mounted Police.
Maple Creek seems likely to undergo some development in the near future,
owing to its proximity to the cattle ranches of Montana in the United States.
The ranchmen have, it is said, found it cheaper and more expeditious to
bring their cattle through Canadian territory, and they have therefore of late
sent large numbers to Winnipeg, and thence to Maple Creek, from which
point they are driven to the ranges south of the boundary line. Passing on
from Maple Creek we leave behind two more test farms near to the main
line, one at Forres, and the next at Dunmore. The latter is remarkable, for
though looked upon by most people as a forlorn hope, it surpasses the
others in its promise. Beyond the farm we soon cross the South Saskatchewan River by an iron bridge, and enter Medicine Hat, prettily situated in
a gorge which runs through high bluffs on to a broad intervale.
CHAPTER X.
MEDICINE   HAT   TO   BOW   RIVER.
Medicine Hat, 2,100 feet above the level of the sea, with a population ot
some 500, is well called a " stirring town," for its people and general appearance are fully in keeping with a real Western city. Here the citizens and
railway company seem to have vied with each other in " rushing up " fairly
substantial buildings. The origin of the peculiar name of the town has been
a puzzle to many, and not a few remarkable derivations have been given.
One thing is certain—the Indians knew it by no such name, nor its
equivalent, for the Chippewas, Crees, and such other tribes as frequented
the spot, always called it " Kah-as-ee-ta-ta-wa-tie," which, translated,
means, " Where the river runs close to the mountain." The appropriateness
of this name is appreciated as one sees the " clear, swift-flowing" Saskatchewan, backed by brown hills. This great river, the South Saskatchewan,
is formed on the south-west by the union of the St. Mary's, Bow, and Belly
Rivers, which rise at the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains. Some
distance below Medicine Hat it is joined by the Red Deer River, and flows
on past the Elbow, where it is 1,848 feet wide, and forms a channel 10 feet
deep. Thence it proceeds due north to The Forks, joining the main stream,
and flowing eastward to Cedar Lake and Lake Winnipeg, ultimately to
reach Hudson Bay. Improvements are now being carried out in the
navigation of this great river, and it will before long greatly increase the
transport facilities of many portions of the Territories.
The future of Medicine Hat is wrapped up in the development of the great
coal fields, directly to the west and beyond, around the Bow and Belly Rivers.
Of the extent of these coal regions there is now no doubt. Three miles
above the town there occurs an outcrop in the side of the river valley, at a
height of about 80 feet above the water level, with a thickness of 4 feet.
Five or six miles beyond, on the north band of the river, are the works of the
Saskatchewan Coal Mining Company, at a distance of one mile only from
the railway. As one passes over the prairie from the station, no indication
is seen of the great ravine through which the Saskatchewan passes close
at hand. Only when right upon it can the great work performed by the
water be realised.    Standing on the bank, 293 feet above the river level, ( 6i)
one sees the channel worn out by the swift waters, and the immense lateral
excavations made by streams no longer seen, and spring freshets of modern
times. The coal comes to the edge of the ravine. The seam, which is 4 feet
6 inches to 5 feet 4 inches in thickness, has but a slight dip south-east, and
can thus be readily worked. The fuel is, according to Dr. George M.
Dawson, distinctly lignitic, resembling in composition, though not in texture,
the better class of Souris lignites. Practical tests have proved its value, one
and three-quarter tons being equal to one ton of anthracite, and it is largely
used in Winnipeg and other places on the railway. The mine is connected
with the main line of the railway by a branch line of about a mile in length
and the coal may thus be rolled down the river's edge, to be transported by
boat, or drawn up an incline to the prairie level, and forwarded—or, as
Canadians choose to call it, "shipped"—by train to points east and west.
Upon the opposite side of the river may be seen some interesting remains
of many petrified trees. Some of these belong to types entirely different
from those now flourishing on the banks of the Saskatchewan, from which
it is inferred that primeval forests of coniferous trees existed here in a
different climate from the present. Two hundred feet below the prairie level
many oyster and other shells have been found, which, in a region now
removed 2,000 miles from the sea, are suggestive of the great changes this
vast country has undergone in past ages. Farther up the river, about ten
miles above Medicine Hat, are two seams of 4 feet 6 inches and 4 feet
respectively, and exposures variable in thickness and character are seen to
occur on nearly every bend of the river. The coal deposits farther west,
in the districts watered by the Bow and Belly Rivers, are practically limitless.
They vary from lignites to coals containing a very small percentage of water,
forming a strong coke on heating, yielding abundance of highly luminous
hydrocarbons, and precisely resembling ordinary bituminous coals, though
of Cretaceous or Laramie age. Again to quote Dr. Dawson : " The occurrence of workable coal-seams at several different horizons, and the proved
continuity of some of them over great areas, guarantees an abundant supply
of fuel in this district—a matter of great importance in a country which, over
wide tracts, is almost entirely destitute of wood. The quality of some of the
fuels is such as to render them suitable for transport to a distance, and it is
doubtless on this belt of coal-bearing rocks in the vicinity of the mountains
that the railways of the North-West will depend chiefly for their supply."
Approximate estimates of the quantity of coal underlying a square mile of
country in several localities give the following results:—Main Seam, in
vicinity of Coal Banks, Belly River, 5,500,000 tons to the square mile;
Grassy Island, Bow River, continuation of Belly River main seam, 5,000,000;
Horse-shoe Bend, Bow River, 4,900,000; and Blackfoot Crossing, a workable
coal seam as exposed on Bow River, 9,000,000 tons underlying one square
mile. The coal from the Gait and other mines in these regions is floated .
down the river in barges to Medicine Hat, and thence forwarded to the east
over the Canadian Pacific Railway.
The Indian trail to Battleford, far on the north, crosses the track at
Medicine Hat. At this northern town of Battleford are most successful
settlements in a situation beautiful and picturesque. The Saskatchewan
is navigable, and forms at present the chief means of communication,
though the settlers anxiously look forward to the time when the railway
shall cross the fertile prairies which they have made their home.
Westward from Medicine Hat the serpentine course of the Saskatchewan
is soon lost in the distance, and for 180 miles to Calgary we pass through
genuine prairie country—no tree or shrub, simply one grassy plain. " The
sky without a cloud forms a blue vault above; nothing around is visible
but the prairie on all sides gently swelling and undulating, with the railway ( 62 )
forming a definite diameter across the circle. The landscape is unvaried,
a solitude in which the only sign of life is the motion of the train." In
making the journey parties of Indians are sure to be met with.    Of these,
P-.
w
W
o
o
z
3       H
tlie Crees, on the Saskatchewan below Medicine Hat, are the most warlike;
the Blackfeet, south* of Gleichen, on the Bow River, are peaceful, and have
made some advances in agriculture; the Sarcees have their i eserve about
eightjniles up the Elbow from Calgary ; and the Stoneys at Morleyville,
about 30 miles up the Bow River from Calgary.   They are all completely ( 63 )
under the kindly control of the Mounted Police. Passing from Medicine
Hat, the track of the railway enters a broad plateau between the Bow
River on the south, and the Deer River on the north. Crowfoot Crossing,
106 miles distant, is the first place of note. Here is a large Indian reserve,
and a few farms are passed. Seams of coal, which occur near here, are
being worked by an enterprising settler, though the seams farther east are
of greater thickness, and more favourably situated for working. Fifteen
miles west of Crowfoot Creek is Gleichen, surrounded by excellent agricultural lands, as is testified by the promising appearance of the Canadian Pacific
Railway test farm established here. This place is in almost a direct line
between the important centres of Fort Macleod and Edmonton, and as
it is twenty-five miles nearer to the former than Calgary, efforts are being
made to direct the trade of the former place to Gleichen. The climate here,
as farther south, is said to be well adapted to stock raising, the animals
keeping in excellent condition on the prairie, without shelter, and without
other food than the natural grasses. A good view of the Rocky Mountains
is obtained at this point on a clear day, when, though distant 130 miles, the
snow-capped peaks seem little more than ten miles away. Passing for fifty
miles through a fine, though uncultivated, grazing land, skirting lakes whose
clear waters are'filled with fish, frightening large droves of antelopes and
buffaloes from their familiar grazing grounds, we ascend to the summit of the
rolling plain, and, approaching Calgary, catch the first full glimpse of the
mountains. Though little less than a hundred miles away, the distant
peaks capped with snow are seen clear and defined on the horizon, standing
as a rampart, and bidding proud defiance to all presumptuous travellers who
may wish to pass beyond. Soon we reach the Bow River, a beautiful winding stream whose cold clear waters run rapidly from the mountains over a
pebbly bed; and passing on through the outer valley we reach Calgary, the
favourite of every traveller and the hope of many a pioneer farmer.
bow river district.
Calgary, 860 miles west of Winnipeg, and 2,280 miles from Montreal, is
beautifully situated on both sides of the Elbow River at its junction with
the Bow River. As one views the town from the summit of a hill at the rear,
over 3,000 miles above the level of the sea, the mountains are seen rising
in one long succession of peaks on the west, north, and south, the nearest
spurs being about 40 miles distant. Nearer are the Foot Hills, some 700
feet high, while the Bow River, clear as crystal, winds its way in the distance
through grassy plains until it reaches the town. Below runs the Elbow
River, soon to join the larger stream, and before us lies the town itself,
situated on a tableland, and surrounded on the north and south by ranges of
hills, or buttes, as they are locally called. Calgary itself is not, it is true, of
great dimensions as yet, but as the centre of an extensive and fertile agricultural region, the distributing point for the cattle ranches to the south, and
probably also of the gold mines to the west, it is likely to become a place of
no little importance. The country round Calgary is eminently suited for
agricultural purposes. That this is so, visits to the prosperous farms on Fish
Creek, Pine Creek, and on the Elbow River will show; and there can be no
doubt that the unlimited supply of good water, the abundance of wood and
fuel, and the genial climate, must together make this a favourable locality for
settlement. As to fuel, coal is found in many places within a radius of
twenty miles of Calgary, and at some points the outcrop is so prominent
that settlers supply themselves by hewing the coal from the bank. The
veins are from 4 to 6 feet thick, and the coal is semi-bituminous. The great
stock-ranches in the Bow River district of Alberta, to the south of Calgary,
f
I ( 64 )
are yearly increasing in importance. Professor Macoun, and other eminent
men well qualified to judge, declare this district to be the best in America as
a stock-raising country. Indeed, cattle owners from Montana and Texas in
the United States, who have resided in the Bow River district for the past
decade, and raised stock west of Fort Macleod, and north towards Calgary,
testify freely to the superior grazing properties of the country, while the excellent condition of the cattle which had remained out all last winter proves
the truth of their assertions. " Nutritious grasses in the greatest abundance
up to the base of the snow-capped Rockies penetrate gorges which frequently
open into valleys walled in by perpendicular cliffs, or grow in lovely glades
amongst evergreen spruce, and other trees, which clothe their lofty sides.
Sheltered coulees and ravines leading from the bottom lands, or valleys of
creeks and rivers, to the higher levels of the prairie, afford ample protection
from storms when they occur. ' Chinook winds' from the Pacific coast rush
through the Kootanie^ Crow's Nest, Bow River, and numerous other passes,
along the head waters of hundreds of crystal streams, and around the ends of
longitudinal ridges which divide the mountain ranges, forming channels
or conductors for those warm winds to increase the temperature and dissolve
the snow as if by magic." Up to April, 1881, the number of cattle in the
Bow River district only amounted to about 3,000 ; now the total is estimated
as 40,000 head of cattle, and 6,500 horses, made up approximately as
follows :—Cochrane Ranch, 5,000 cattle ; I. G. Baker and Co., 5,000 ; North-
West Cattle Co., 4,500; Walrond Ranch, 4,000; Oxford Ranch, 3,000;
Stewart Ranch, 2,000 ; Winder Ranch, 1,500; Halifax, Emmerson and Lynch,
Leavens, and Jones and Inderwick Ranches, of about 1,000 each ; the Barber
and Alberta Ranches, and many others of smaller extent. Estimating the
cattle at 35 dols. per head, and the horses at 50 dols., the value of the whole
stock is seen to be 1% million dollars.
A stage leaves Caigary for Edmonton, and occupies some five days in
the journey. This latter place, the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company's Saskatchewan trade, gives its name to a district of considerable
fertility. The fort stands on a high level bank a hundred feet above the
Saskatchewan River, which rolls below in a broad majestic stream, 300
yards wide. The town of Edmonton is some distance below, on the north
side of the river. Farming operations, boat-building, and flour milling, are
carried on extensively, and nothing seems wanting to fully develop the
settlement except railway communication, though a better steamboat service
would do much in this direction. Abundance of coal may be dug from the
river bank, and less than a mile above the fort are deposits of bog-iron ore
awaiting development. Gold-washing has been practised for many years
in the vicinity of Edmonton, deposits of pure flour gold being left each season
on the bars, but the extension of the industry is left for future years. Nine
miles west is St. Albert Mission—a settlement consisting of French half-
breeds—on the Grand Lac, or St. Albert Lake, presided over by French
Roman Catholic clergymen of the order of Oblates, headed by a bishop of
the same order and nationality. ( 65
CHAPTER XI.
the rocky mountains.
On leaving Calgary and the Elbow River, the railway proceeds for three
miles through the broad flat valley of the Bow River, and comes suddenly to
the foot of a very high hill on the left, with the surging waters of the river
immediately below on the right. Still keeping to the right bank, the scenery
changes, the high cliffs disappear, and to the left is seen undulating prairie
continuing for many miles to the south. Thus the train proceeds for nine
miles, when we come to a bend in the river, and the railway crosses its
waters for the second time. In the middle of the stream is a large island
covered with lofty trees and fine shrubs. The bridge consists of two spans,
resting on four abutments, and measures 428 feet. The base of rail is 20
feet over the ordinary water line, which is 3,459 feet above the sea. On
the other side of the river the scenery even increases in grandeur. Twenty
miles from Calgary we pass the buildings of the extensive Cochrane Ranch,
and five miles beyond, we cross the Bow River for the third time by a bridge
over 420 feet in length, 3,666 feet above sea level. Morley is some miles
farther, and here is a Methodist Mission among the Stoney Indians. To
this mission Morley owes its name, for it is so called in commemoration of
the late eminent divine, Dr. Morley Punshon. Another eight miles, fifty-
three west of Calgary, and the river is again crossed by a bridge of 470 feet,
at an elevation above the sea of 4,160 feet. Farther west, the track crosses
Karianaski's River, a turbulent stream tributary to the Bow River, running
through a deep, dark channel of slate rock, and leaping from height to height
as it descends the mountain's side. Says Mr. Sandford Fleming, a pioneer
traveller in these parts :—| The prairie diminishes in extent as ■ we advance.
We pass through park-like scenery. Groups of trees appear at intervals, and
the Bow River in its windings gleams pleasantly in the sun. The clouded
atmosphere is partially lifted, and the outline of the mountains in the distance
comes to view. What we see is probably the outlying group ; bold bluffs,
nevertheless; some of them defined precipices to the summit, with long
slopes in one direction, whose fantastic forms look in some cases as if
shaped in masonry."
Thus we pass to Padmore, where the valley is contracted to half a mile,
and we make entry to the portals of the mountains. To the north the slopes
are bare ; to the south they are wooded. The formation of the bare precipitous rock to the north is very regular, the strata varying from two to
twenty feet in thickness. At the entry the rocks rise three to five thousand
feet, showing the whole formation, and rendering the search for minerals, coal,
iron, copper, and silver comparatively easy. Four miles west of Padmore
we are completely in the mountains. Every turn reveals new ■ views of the
grandest mountain scenery. Peaks tower behind and above; and now a
pyramid, again a pinnacle, here an awful precipice, and there a pine-covered
slope. For fifteen miles such grandeur of scenery prevails until we reach
the Big Park, or Aylmer Park, as some call it. The park is about ten miles
long and two wide, a level prairie, covered in many places with beautiful
groves of tall slender trees interspersed with fine stretches of lawn. Though
apparently hemmed in by mountains 3,000 feet high, the river winds its way
through the grounds. On the north side are seen the Three Buttes—a
great curiosity. Close examination shows a perpendicular wall, some eighty
feet  long, twenty   high,   and  eight   thick,   composed   of varied pebbles  ( 67 >
embedded in hard sand, and covered at its top with lichens. Two gaps have
been made by mountain streams. The origin of the mass is as yet unknown ; here are excellent materials, then, for the venturesome geologist.
Proceeding from the head of the park for eight miles, we see, towering:
5,800 feet above the track, Mount Cascade, named from the stream which
issues from its side, and with one leap descends 2,000 feet to the valley
below, its volume becoming spray in the fall. In the flanks of the mountain,
on the Cascade River, near its .confluence with the Bow, and close to the
line of the . railway, discoveries of excellent anthracite coal during the
summer of last year have been followed by mining operations. According
to Dr. Dawson, cretaceous coal-bearing rocks, with a width of about two
miles, and undetermined length, here occupy a valley. They are much disturbed and folded together, it is doubtless owing to the metamorphism
occasioned by this disturbance that the coal has passed to anthracite. It
does not lie flat, as the Saskatchewan seams, but nearly perpendicular to the
stream, and is thus less easily worked than the coal of the plains, but its
more valuable character will probably compensate for this. A preliminary
analysis shows 1-34 per cent, of water, 8-57 of volatile combustible matter,
86*27 of fixed carbon, and 3-82 of light grey ash. This exposure is merely
a special case; there are unquestionably large ores of these cretaceous coal-
bearing rocks in the mountains, containing excellent seams of coal, as, for
instance, on the headwaters of the North Fork of the Old Man, on the Crow
Nest and North Kootanie Passes, and on the Elk River to the south of the
Bow Pass. Should metalliferous deposits also be found in this part of the
range, as is not unlikely, these coals will be of great immediate utility for
smelting purposes.
Westward still for fifteen miles, and we come to Castle Mountain,
named from its resemblance to Cyclopean masonry. It reminds one, indeed,
of an immense fortress, such as many a mediasval general would have gloried
in, with its natural towers, turrets, bastions, and loop-holes of many elevations.
At the foot of the mountain, on the banks of Bow River, nestles Silver City,
where the gold and silver finds and workings have of late made mining excitement run high. Indications of rich copper, silver, and gold-bearing quartz
can, it is said, be seen on almost any of the neighbouring mountains, but the
people of Silver City have yet to learn that capital, experience, and persistent
energy are needed, as well as enthusiasm, before a mining district, however
rich, can enter upon satisfactory development. The next point is Laggan,
or Holt City, 955 miles west of Winnipeg. " It is, indeed," says a recent
traveller, " a motley town, with no particular style of architecture. There are
log-houses pure and simple, houses part log and part boards, frame houses,
houses part frame and part canvas, and tents. There is the Palmer House,
the Grand Pacific. Queen's, Brunswick, and other hotels, almost beyond
counting, down to the Dewdrop Inn, all full of guests and running over, and
although the composition of the crowd is motley, it is exceedingly orderly
and quiet—a fact certainly to be attributed to the presence of the Mounted
Police and the absence of whisky. Mining excitement runs high ; many have
gold and silver mines on sale; a hot spring has been found, and sulphur
springs are numerous ; a deposit of alum is the latest sensation; iron is
common in large deposits, and timber is said to be plentiful and of great size
in the mountain gorges." Whether visitors of to-day to Holt City will thus
find things in this mountain village we know not ; it is,more than probable
that want of capital and practical experience will for a time deaden the
enthusiasm-of its people, and lessen the population of the place. Leaving
Laggan we pass under the shadow of the mountain, and cross wild mountain
streams, and shortly stop at Stephen, named after the president of the
Canadian Pacific Railway, to whom the successful prosecution of the enter-
j ( 68 )
prise is so largely due. This is the highest elevation on the railway, 5>3°°ft.
above the sea, and the present terminus of the line. The boundary line
between the North-West Territories and British Columbia is close at hand,
and here, on the 5th of June in this year, the last spike in the rail was driven
in the Territories and the first in British Columbia, thus inaugurating the
HORSE ROAD OVER ROCKY  MOUNTAINS.
completion of the iron chain through the Pacific Province of Canada, which
the Columbians have so anxiously awaited ever since they entered Confederation and united their interests with those of the other Provinces of the
Dominion.
Westward from Stephen the track passes several summit Jakes, from
one of which streams flow on one side to the Atlantic, and on the other to the ( 69 )
nearer waters of the Pacific. Five miles beyond is Kicking Horse Lake, from
whence the Kicking Horse River empties into Columbia River. It is said
that Dr. Hector, who accompanied the Palliser expedition, was kicked not
far from this spot, and hence the name of the river, which the Indians have
curiously translated to Shawata-nowchata-wapta—Horse-Kicking-River. The
track proceeds down the Kicking Horse Valley amid scenery more magnificent even than before, to the north bank of the Beaver River, and spans
the Columbia River, thence crossing the Selkirk Range by Rogers' Pass,
named after its discoverer, Major Rogers, an approximate distance from
Stephen of 100 miles. The valley of the River Illecille-waet is next followed,
for forty miles, to the second crossing of the Columbia River. Opposite is
the Eagle Pass, through which the line passes, and on through the valley of
Eagle River to East Shuswap Lake, another forty miles. The valley of the
Thompson River proceeds for seventy-five miles to the town of Kamloops, a
post of the Hudson's Bay Company. Continuing through the valley, and
coasting Kamloops Lake, the track reaches Savona Ferry. Still keeping
to the basin of the Thompson, and following the gorge through which the
river forces its way, the railway leaves the westerly direction it has hitherto
pursued, and bends down to the south. Crossing the Nicola River, we reach
Lytton, near where the Thompson River enters the parent waters ©f the
Fraser. Crossing the Fraser, the line proceeds on the western bank past
Yale to Hope, where a westerly course is again resumed to Port Moody, a
distance from Kamloops of 215 miles. The post is most advantageously
situated on Burrard's Inlet, and is the Pacific terminus of the Canadian
Pacific Railway, completing a distance of 2,898 miles from Montreal across
the Continent "to the Pacific. This mileage is, it is worthy of note, 380 and
490 miles less than the shortest of the railways crossing LTnited States
territory from Atlantic to Pacific.
CHAPTER XII.
BRITISH    COLUMBIA.
Little space is left to speak of British Columbia, the Pacific Province ot
the Dominion. But a small number of the readers of this pamphlet will, we
imagine, visit it, for the means of access are both difficult and costly. Putting
aside the course being made through the Rocky Mountains by the Canadian
Pacific track as impracticable—for it is still beset with dangers and obstacles,
though to a less degree than when the parties of Major Rogers and Mr.
Sandford Fleming passed over it—the only entrance is by dipping down
into the United States, crossing half the continent by one of the Pacific
lines of railway to San Francisco or some port higher up the coast, and
thence northward by steamer to Vancouver Island and British Columbia
—truly a journey involving no little expense and time. By the end of next
year the people of the Province will, it is anticipated, be placed in direct
railway connection over Canadian territory with the eastern portions of
the Dominion. Then will its productive fisheries, its valuable mines, and
fertile lands be more fully developed, and its resources and favourable
climate be better understood and appreciated.
The history of the Province does not extend over a lengthened period.
The Pacific Ocean was first visited by Drake, three*centuries ago, in 1579, but
it is doubtful whether he pushed his researches farther north than Oregon ( 7° )
and Washington, of which he took possession in the name of Queen
' Elizabeth, and called it New Albion. Passing by the tradition that De Fuca
discovered Vancouver Island in 1592, we find no historical record until 1778,
when Capt. Cook cruised among the islands, which stretch along the shores
of the then unknown and unnamed land of British Columbia. Captain
Vancouver, of the Royal Navy, followed in 1792, and gave his name to the
largest of the islands. During the following forty years the populous Indian
tribes held sway over the whole region. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay Company
obtained a licence to extend its operations to New Caledonia, as British
Columbia was then called, and in 1843 the Company made the first permanent settlement by building a fort upon the beautiful site of the present
city of Victoria. Six years later, Vancouver Colony was formed. In 1856,
the discovery of gold on the Fraser River brought so large an influx of
miners from California and elsewhere, that another colony was organised
in the mainland, and in 1859 the present boundaries of the Province were
set apart and designated British Columbia. Seven years later, Vancouver's
Island became part of the Colony of British Columbia, and in 1871 they
were together confederated as one of the several Provinces of the Dominion.
British Columbia is a vast region, containing an area of nearly 350,000
square miles, larger therefore than Great Britain and the German Empire
combined. Its present population is 49,500, of which 25,600 are Indians. A
large portion of the Province is mountainous, possessing rich mineral
deposits hitherto only scantily worked, and great forest wealth ; the smaller
portion—still a considerable area—including the fertile Peace River country,
is suitable for farming purposes. The great importance of the Province to the
Dominion is in its Pacific shore line of 450 miles, indented from north to
south by deep inlets, each of which presents an excellent harbour of perfect
security.
The chief city and capital of the Province is VICTORIA, which occupies a
commanding situation on the south shore of Vancouver Island. Its immediate surroundings are picturesque in the extreme, embracing a beautiful
harbour and inlet, pine and oak-covered shores, and rolling hills, with great
forests of fir and pine-clad mountains in the near background. The distant
view is one of exceeding grandeur, comprising the loftiest peaks of the
Olympic and Cascade Mountains. The busy marts of trade in the city,
the ships of commerce, laden with exports for the most distant parts,
numerous manufacturing industries, well-graded streets, and good public and
private buildings, all show what rapid progress this Western city has made
in the twenty years or so since it was a mere wilderness, the trapping and
hunting ground of the Hudson's Bay Company, and the gold field of the
adventurous miner. NANAIMO, admirably situated on the south-eastern
coast of the southern part of the island, is the principal mining centre of
the great coal fields of Vancouver, its. surroundings including the Wellington, Newcastle, and Vancouver coal mines, the most productive in the
Province. New Westminster, with a population of 2,500, was formerly
the capital of the Crown Colony, and is now the principal city of the
mainland. It occupies a pleasant and commanding situation on the right
bank of the Fraser River, about 15 miles from its mouth, and 75 miles from
Victoria. It is surrounded by the most extensive and richest agricultural
lands, with large tracts of the finest timber near at hand, is in the midst
of the most productive salmon fisheries, and, indeed, in the very heart of
the great resources of the Province. One feature in the city should not
escape the visitor. One of its churches boasts in a 4-peal of bells, the gift
of the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, and the only peal on the whole Pacific
coast. Port Moody is higher up the coast, on the south side and near
the head of Burrard Inlet, an arm of the Gulf of Georgia, extending about ( $ )
twelve miles from the entrance between Points Grey and Atkinson. Port
Moody is the Pacific terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and already
its people are busy preparing for the important position it will hold on the
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operation of the line through the Rocky Mountains. The place is even
now something more than a village. A large wharf, having a frontage
of 1,324 feet, has been constructed, and it may not be long before fleets of
ships will sail hence to eastern ports, and connections be made by steam (   72   )
with. American ports to the south. Then will Port Moody flourish, and
become one of Columbia's most distinguished cities. Yale is at the head
of navigation on the Fraser River, about no miles from its mouth, and on
the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway. It is now a town of not
more than several hundred inhabitants. It is surrounded by mountains
of striking grandeur, rising precipitously thousands of feet, and watered by
rushing mountain torrents. The other towns of the Province are small,
though the grandeur of situation of most of them will amply repay a visit.
CONCLUSION.
PlUNTBD BY  CASSELL &  COMPANY,   LIMITED,   BeLLE SaUVACE WoRKS,   LONDON.  

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