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The dominion at the West. A brief description of the province of British Columbia, its climate and resources.… Anderson, Alexander Caulfield, 1814-1884 1872

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Array       A BRIEF DESCRIPTION
Of THE  PitO^S&CE OF
BRITISH   COLUMBIA,
ITS
CLIMATE AND RESOURCES.
THE OOVERNMEN'TjPRIZE ESSAY, Wt^
•V'BYrALBXANPEEf€fAP.FIBL^^DERS0N,!^^p^.4^
Tendimu$ iiot Latium—
HI Vir0-
We aire all Jsgboard for the Wesfcsp^
\ Sir George E. Cartkr't Vertion.
F^tlfM:&® WOLFENDBir,   GOTBBNMBKT  PbINTBB.
jje~!flfluu?     iv. CONTENTS.
PAGE.
D.-—Exports of Coal in 1871 and part of 1872  ii.
E.—Exports of Pars, Oil, &c, in the year 1871 :.. Hi.
F.— Exports of Gold in the year 1871, and from 1858 to 1871 iv.
G.—Statement of Savings Bank  v.
H.—Rates of Wages current in May, 1872  vi.
I.—Rates  of  Postage to  British   Columbia—Interest of
Money—Exchange upon British Columbia         vi.
K.—Meteorological Observations  vii.
L.—Memorandum of Terms of Union with Canada  xii.
M.—Provincial Estimates for 1872.  xv.
N.—Estimated Revenue for 1872  xxi.
0.—Dominion Appropriations for 1872  xxi.
P.—Rates of Postage  xxii.
Q.—Statement of Yield of Land  xxiii.
R.—-Extracts relating to the Okinagan District  xxiii.
R. R.—Estimate of the Quality of Hops of B. C  xxv.
S.—Invitation of Tenders for the Construction of a Graving Dock at Esquimalt      xxv.
T.—Prices of Farm Produce during the past season     xxvi.
V.—Prices of some articles of Domestic consumption    xxvii.
W.—Hospitals  xxviii.
X.—Theatre  xxviii.
Y.—Gas and Water in Victoria  xxviii.
Z.—.Table of Latitudes and Longitudes     xxix.
A-2.—Table of Altitudes above the Sea of certain points
in British Columbia      xxx.
B-2.—Notes regarding the Coal-mines at Nanaimo    xxxii.
C-2.—Notes regarding the Stone-quarry at Nanaimo xxxiii.
D-2.—Table of Approximate   Distances between certain
ports and Southampton    xxxv.
E-2.—Test of the strength of the Douglas Fir    xxxv.
F-2.—Note regarding the winter-passage  of the Rocky
Mountains xxxvii.
G-2.—List of Works relating to British Columbia, with remarks upon some recent publications xxxviii.
H-2.—Note referring to Beeswax drifted by the Sea         xli.
1-2--Note explanatory of progress of the Salmon      xlii.
tN* CHAPTER I.
Boundaries, and General Geography.
British Columbia sprang into existence, as a Colony,
only in 1858, consequently on the gold-discoveries, the
rumours of which in that year suddenly attracted numbers
to its shores. Previously it had been traversed and partially
occupied only by the Fur-traders, first of the North-West,
and afterwards of the Hudson's Bay, Companies; by whom
its various divisions were distinguished by different names,
most of which are still retained for local designation. The
adjacent Island of Vancouver, separated from the mainland
by a narrow channel, in its narrowest part scarcely exceeding
a few thousand yards, had been partially colonized some
years before; and it might have been reasonably supposed
that these two adjacent and almost contiguous lands, with
interests so closely united, would have been incorporated
under one Government. But the wisdom of Downing Street
willed it otherwise. Established as separate Colonies, each
enjoyed for some years the honor of paying its own highly-
salaried Governor, under the Imperial auspices; with the
dignity of enacting its own special laws, not always in strict
observance of the interests of its neighbour. Of course this
could not last; and in 1866 the common-sense of the two
Colonies, though reluctantly elicited, brought about a union.
Subsequently, on the 20th July, 1871, the united Colony
became confederated as a Province of the Dominion of
Canada.
It is as a sequel to this last-named event, and in view of
the rapid advance of the most important interests of the
country under its new connexion, that the Provincial Government has judged it expedient to invite the production of 
2    boundaries, and general geography.
such information as may meet the enquiries of the industrious
settler whose views tend hitherward. It will, then, be the
object of the following treatise to present, in a brief and
compendious form, such general account of the country and
its resources as may seem appropriate to the end in view.
The limits of the Province may be thus broadly indicated.
Co-terminous on the South with the United States Territory
of Washington, the 49th Parallel of North Latitude forms
the boundary from the Gulf of Georgia to the summit of the
Rocky Mountains, which it intersects in Longitude 114° West,
there touching on the Dominion territory of the North-West.
Thence along the summit of the Pocky Mountains to the
parallel of Mount St. Elias, in about Latitude 62°. Thence
Southward as far as 54° 40', along the strip of coast-line, ten
marine leagues in width, formerly occupied by Russia, recently purchased by the United States, and now forming
part of the Territory of Alaska. Thence Southward to the
entrance of the Strait of Fuca, including Queen Charlotte
and Vancouver Island, and the vast archipelago connected
therewith.
The three principal streams of British Columbia are, the
Columbia, the Fraser, and the Peace. The last-mentioned,
rising in the angle formed by the Peak Range with the
Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range, after receiving the
important gold-bearing tributary, Findlay's Branch, breaks
through the main line of the Rocky Mountains, and, passing
onwards, joins the great River Mackenzie : the united flood,
after a course of some two thousand miles, eventually falling
into the Frozen Ocean.
The Columbia, rising in the Rocky Mountains, pursues a
Southerly course, and, after receiving several important
tributaries, and feeding the two extensive sheets of water
called the Arrow Lakes, enters the United States Territory
in Latitude 49° j and after a course of nearly a thousand
miles, falls into the Pacific in Latitude 46° 20'.
**I~ BOUNDARIES, and general geography.
Fraser River, comparatively the smallest, but in its relation to the Province by far the most important, flows entirely
through British Columbia, entering the Gulf of Georgia a
few miles North of the Boundary Line of 49°, and in about
122° 40' West Longitude; its course throughout being
nearly parallel with that of the Columbia. The main, or
central, branch takes its rise in the Rocky Mountains in
Lat. 53° 45" N., Long. 118 W., there heading with the
Riviere de Miette. a tributary of the Athabasca, which afterwards unites with Peace River in its course towards the
Frozen Ocean. Fraser River was first discovered by Sir
Alexander Mackenzie of the North-West Company, who,
designating it as the Td-cout-che Tesse, or River of the
Tacully nation, descended it for some distance on his way to
the Western Coast in 1793. Afterwards, in 1808, it was
navigated to its mouth by Mr. Simon Fraser and Mr. John
Stuart of the North-West Company; from the former of
whom it has its present name. Fraser River, a few miles
from its. source, flows into a lake some miles in length called
Cow-dung Lake, below which, considerably increased by a
tributary from the north, it enters Moose Lake, a beautiful
sheet of water some nine miles in length. Thence the river
continues rapidly to Tlte Jaune's Cache, being joined midway
by a second feeder, likewise from the North.
Tete Jaune's Cache,* distant about 70 miles from the
summit of the Rocky Mountains and 730 from the sea, is
the limit of canoe navigation on the Fraser. About three
miles lower down, the stream is joined by the Cranberry
Fork, a tributary flowing from the South, which heads in
with the North Branch of the Thompson, to be presently
noticed, and the Canoe Fork of the Columbia.
Between T§te Jaune's Cache and Thle-et-leh, where there
is a post of the Hudson's Bay Company called Fort George,
* Named after an Iroquois trapper attached to the North-West
Company, who formerly frequented this neighbourhood—called
the Tete Jaune from the lightness of his hair. 4 BOUNDARIES, AND GENERAL GEOGRAPHY.
the river is augmented by many tributaries; two of which,
the Mackenzie Fork and Bear River, are of considerable
magnitude. This point is in Lat. 53° 53', Long. 122° 45'.
An important branch here falls in from the Westward, proceeding from the Lakes of Stuart and Fraser. Quesnel's
River, issuing from the great lake of the same name, flows
in 100 miles lower down; and 40 miles below this is Fort
Alexandria, seated on the right bank in Lat. 52° 33' 40".
It is in the mountainous region comprised within the
great bend which the Fraser makes between T£te Jaune's
Cache and this point, that the rich gold-deposits, known as
the Caribou mines, are situated.
At Lytton, about 180 miles from the sea, the Fraser is
joined by Thompson's River,* a copious tributary flowing from the Eastward. This stream waters an important
and extensive section of the country; its northern branch
heading with the Cranberry Fork, before mentioned.
Yale, a small town at the head of steam-boat navigation
on the Lower Fraser, is 57 miles lower down; and New
Westminster, the former capital of the mainland, some 95
miles below it. This last-named town, pleasantly situated on
the northern bank of the river, some fifteen miles above the
entrance, and in Lat. 49° 12' 47", Long. 122° 53', is, practically, the head of-ship-navigation on the Fraser.
For brevity's sake the names of the various extensive
feeders, falling in at intervals from Fort George downwards,
are omitted. Of these the Chil-c6h, watering the fertile tract
occupied by the Chilcotins, and entering on the right about
60 miles below Alexandria, is one of the most conspicuous.
The Harrison, joining also from the right, is another. This
stream flows by a short course from a picturesque and extensive lake; and was at one time the chief route of communication with the upper country; its continuation again striking
♦ Named after the late David Thompson, Esquire, formerly Astronomer to the North-west Company. THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, AC. 5
the Fraser some 40 miles above Lytton, at the beautiful
village of Lillooett.
In order to a due apprehension of the geography of British
Columbia it is necessary to indicate the ranges of mountains
which divide its several portions.
The more Southerly part is separated from the Columbia
watershed by the Cascade Range, so called from the rapids
of the Cascades upon the Lower Columbia; the point where
that river bursts through the chain. This range may be considered as a continuation of the Sierra Nevada of California,
and it vanishes at the junction of Thompson's River with
the Fraser.*
The Coast Range (i. e. the chain of mountains lying between the interior of the Province and the sea-board) commences above New Westminster, and extends, parallel with
the coast, as far as Mount St. Elias at the northern extremity.
CHAPTER II.
The Coast, Vancouver Island, &g.
Having traced the main artery of the Province from its
origin to the sea, we may now proceed to notice the Coast
region, with its insular appendages, and chiefly the important
island of Vancouver.
A reference to the map will show that the North-West
*The designation "Cascade Kange " has been applied by the
Officers of the Royal Engineers, and some others, to the whole
system of mountains in British Columbia except the Rocky Mountains. The writer thinks, however, that on reconsideration these
gentlemen will agree with him in the classification he has always
advocated, not only as calculated to avoid confusion, but as being
geographically accurate. mm
6
THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, AC.
Coast, from San Francisco upwards as far as the Strait of
Fuca, presents a line remarkably free from indentation.
Thence northward, however, the coast is broken up into a
perfect maze of inlets, forming in their ramifications countless islands of greater or less extent. The minute exploration of this extraordinary archipelago by Vancouver, in the
years 1791-93, has given us maps the accuracy of which
under the circumstances has excited the admiration of succeeding "navigators. Outside of the archipelago lie two
principal islands, Vancouver and Queen Charlotte, divided
from each other by a broad sound, and extending from the
Strait of Fuca on the South to the frontier of Alaska on the
North. The southern island, named by the explorer Quadra
and Vancouver's Island, after the Spanish Commander then
on the station and himself, formed originally, with its dependencies, the Colony of Vancouver Island. It extends in
a north-western direction from Lat. 48° 207 to Lat. 51°, in '
length nearly 250 geographical miles; its greatest breadth,
opposite to Nootka, being about seventy. Victoria, the seat
of Government and Capital of the Province, is situated near
the south-eastern extremity of the island, where the adjoining Strait of Fuca is about seventeen miles in breadth. This
strait, extending into the United States territory by the inlet
terminating in Puget Sound on the south, expands northward
into the Gulf of Georgia, which extends to Lat. 60°. This
portion of the dividing channel in no part exceeds 20 miles
in width; contracting afterwards into Johnstone's Strait,
which, at the narrowest part, does not exceed two miles.
Before recurring to the consideration of the mainland of
British Columbia, or entering on the topics which apply
equally to both divisions, it may he well to note some particulars respecting the older portion of the Province. Victoria, its capital town and chief sea-port, above casually alluded
to, is in Lat. 48° 25' 20" N., Long. 123° 22* 24" W., distant
about 70 miles, or six hours' steamer travel, from New
Westminster on the Fraser : three hours from Port Towns-
tIM. * THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, &C. 7
end, the Port of Entry for Puget Sound in Washington
Territory; and about 750 geographical miles, or from three
to four days' voyage of steamer, from San Francisco in California. The position of this rising city, both as a distributing point for the Province at large, and as a nucleus for
foreign trade, is thus extremely favorable: and the fact of
its being the first available sea-port north of San Francisco
confers on it additional importance. The town itself is seated
on the narrow inlet of Camosae, which, completely landlocked, gives accommodation to all vessels whose draught of
water does not exceed eighteen feet. Larger vessels discharge
at Esquimalt, three miles distant; an extensive harbour
capable of receiving vessels of the largest class, and destined,
apparently, to be, in connexion with the projected Railway
across the Continent, the future entrep6t of a national commerce, the extent of which it is not easy to foresee. Esquimalt is the station of Her Majesty's ships on this portion of
the Coast. Here are the naval yard, the hospital, and other
necessary appendages for the requirements of the squadron.
A graving dock is in contemplation, capable of admitting
ships of the largest class, tenders for the construction of
which have been invited by the Provincial Government: and
every thing indicates improvement of a permanent and substantial character. An excellent macadamized road connects
the two harbours.
The situation of Victoria is very beautiful, and the town
boasts of some good streets, with fine drives, over excellent
roads, in various directions. Adjoining the town a large
extent of ground has fortunately been reserved for a public
park. This picturesque locality, known as Beacon Hill, borders on the Straits; and on the opposite shore tower in
grand outline the snow-clad summits of the Olympian Range.
Here is the public race course; and here the cricket-matches
are played; when the fleet against the towns-men, or the
married men against the single, compete for honors. On the
outskirts of the town are many attractive residences: and HP
8
THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, AC.
every cottage displays its pretty garden, cultivated frequently
with no small degree of horticultural taste. Though Victoria
can so far boast of no edifice of high architectural pretension,
there are many neat and substantially-constructed buildings.
Among these, though in rather florid taste, may be mentioned the Provincial Offices on James' Bay. We may also
mention the Presbyterian, Wesleyan, and Roman Catholic
Churches; the iron church of St. John, a donation to the
1 Episcopalian congregation of the Province from that excellent
lady, the Baroness Coutts; the Angela College for young
| ladies, likewise originating in the beneficence of the same
lady; the St. Anne's Convent, and Orphan School; the
large hall occupied by the Mechanics' Institute; the Bank
of British North America; the St. Nicholas Hotel; the
Alhambra; and the fine hotel recently completed, called the
Driard House. Various public buildings, to be built by the
Dominion Government, will shortly be erected; and the'
Episcopalian Cathedral of Christ Church, occupying the conspicuous site of the former building destroyed by fire, is in
progress. Some of these projected buildings, it is to be presumed, will be of a higher order of architecture than the
majority of those hitherto constructed.
About seventy miles from Victoria, on the eastern, or
inner, shore of the island, is Nanaimo, a small town of local
importance, originally established in connexion with the coalmines wrought in that vicinity, and around which other interests have sprung up. Among these may be mentioned the
quarrying and exportation of stone for architectural purposes.
There is a deficiency of good stone along the coast, until this
vicinity is reached: consequently the United States Government, when recently about to construct a Mint in San Francisco, contracted to get the material from Newcastle Island,
near Nanaimo. This contract, the stone having been hewn
before shipment, is now nearly completed, and will probably
be followed by others of a similar description. Nanaimo is
a thriving little town, and, having substantial resources of THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, &C.
9
a permanent character, will doubtless continue to flourish.
Comox, some forty miles higher up on the same shore, is
an agricultural settlement, prosperous and contented. It is
situated at the mouth of a stream of the same name,* and
possesses a very productive soil. There are said to be great
indications of coal here, and elsewhere in the vicinity.
Cowitchan, situated between Nanaimo and Victoria, upon
a river of the same name, is a flourishing agricultural settlement. In the same district are Chemainis, and Salt-spring
(or Admiralty) Island; also agricultural and pastoral in their
character.
Victoria District occupies the peninsula, at the base of
which is the town of Victoria. It embraces many fine and
valuable farms, and includes the settlements of Lake and
Saanich. The latter, especially, forming the extremity of the
peninsula, is a fertile and beautiful tract.
Passing Esquimalt westward, along the Strait of Fuca, are
the settlements of Metchosin and Sooke, of an agricultural
and pastoral character. Near Sooke are gold-diggings, which,
though not excitingly attractive, give earnest of something
better, and meanwhile yield a moderate income to the few
who occupy themselves in the quest.
Upon the Outer or Western Coast there are at present no
agricultural settlements; the business prosecuted there being
only the traffic with the natives for oil and furs. In Alberni
Inlet, Barclay Sound, are extensive saw-mills, erected at large
outlay by an English firm; but they are not at present in
operation. At the northern end are the Saw-quash coalmines ; but they are only partially wrought for the casual
supply of passing steamers, and cannot, it is to be presumed,
be brought into competition with those in the more accessible position of Nanaimo. Fort Rupert, a post of the Hudson's Bay Company, is in this neighbourhood.
It is not, however, the intention to enter into minute local
particulars; but rather to indicate broadly the general features of the country, and afterwards to refer to special points
* Sometimes called the Courtenay Jtiver. ^-ftJi'^M • ^Sf^
10
THE COAST, VANCOUVER ISLAND, AC.
when-necessary. While the coast-line of Vancouver Island
is well known, the interior has been very partially explored.
A mountainous ridge appears to traverse it lengthwise, in
which are certain depressions occupied by extensive lakes;
and it is probable that much agricultural and pastoral country remains yet to be developed. So far the portions that
have been taken up along the inner sea-board are found to
be extremely fertile and easily brought into cultivation.
Little necessity for clearing, save partially in spots, has yet
existed; but, the more open grounds being first occupied,
the use of the axe will become constantly more necessary in
this division of the Province Within the limits of the
mountains rich mineral deposits are known to exist. Coal is
found in several po.-itions, and timber of the finest quality
occupies the forest tracts. But on these and other points
more will be said hereafter.
Queen Charlotte's Island, considerably smaller than Vancouver Island, is generally of a mountainous character, its
shores presenting, however, spots well adapted for the cultivation of the potato and other vegetables. But it is as a
mineral region that this island has chiefly to be considered;
and as such it will, it is believed, eventually prove extremely
valuable. Gold-bearing quartz of very rich quality was extracted at a point called Mitchell's Harbour, as far back as
1852; but for various reasons the quest of this metal has
never been vigorously prosecuted in this locality. Copper
and other ores exist; and a fine vein of anthracite coal, said
to be of a superior quality, has been partially wrought, but
the working is at present suspended. Want of capital is
alleged to be the cause why this last enterprise has not been
prosecuted to a more successful issue.
Fort Simpson, a post belonging to the Hudson's Bay Company, is situated near the entrance of Observatory Inlet, close
by the southern frontier of Alaska. Methlakathla, a missionary settlement under the supervision of the Reverend Mr.
Duncan of the Church Missionary Society, is situated some GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF MAINLAND.
11
30 miles to the southward of it, at a point known formerly
to navigators as Pearl Harbour. Near this, at the entrance
of the Skeena River is Port Essington, in Lat. 54° 15'; a
newly established settlement, to which further allusion will
be made, with reference to the recent gold-discoveries on
Peace River.
A cursory reference to the map will show the almost numberless islands of all dimensions which compose the remainder of this extraordinary archipelago, and of whieh no special
mention can of course be attempted. Many share, doubtless,
to a greater or less extent the attributes of their larger outlying neighbours: and all participate in the facilities for
securing the teeming products by which, as will be seen, the
maritime waters of the Province are notably distinguished.
CHAPTER IH.
Geographical Subdivisions of the Mainland.—General Characteristics of each.—Lines op Communication, &c.
The mainland of British Columbia, apart from the seaboard, may be divided into three sections, each differing from
the other in its attributes. The first extends from the mouth
of Fraser River to the head of the Rapids above Yale : the
second, from that point to Alexandria: the third, thence to
the Rocky Mountains.
The characteristics of the lower district are a surface
thickly wooded in most parts with trees of enormous growth,
chiefly varieties of the Fir and Pine, and intermixed with
the Red Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis of DoUglas, Gigantea of
Nuttall) and the Maple-plane (Platanus Acerifolia). Low
alluvial points fringe these thickets.    These, as well as the 12
geographical subdivisions of mainland.
I
:  f
numerous islets along the river, are covered with Aspens,
Balsam Poplars, and Alders, of luxuriant growth. In the
lower part are some extensive meadows, yielding, in their
natural state, heavy crops of a coarse but nutritious grass,
and, under cultivation, enormous returns of cereals and other
produce. For a certain period of the year mosquitoes are
troublesome along the river, as high, nearly, as Hope: but
there has never been manifested any symptom of fever and
ague, or other similar endemic, so often generated in positions of a like description.
On the verge of the second, or central, division a marked
change commences. The copious rains which fall in the
lower district are greatly modified after we pass the mountainous ridge through which the river bursts near Vale.
Evidences of a drier climate appear at every step. The
character of the vegetation changes. About Lyttdn the
Cactus begins to appear. In spots along the Thompson the
Artemisia, and other shrubs indicative of a dry and hot climate, are found : and in lieu of the thickly-wooded luxuriance of the lower region, a succession of open valleys, covered with fine pasture and bordered by grassy hills in parts
more or less wooded, delights the eye of the traveller.' Here
and there belts of forest intervene; amid which broad expanses of open land lie scattered at intervals. This general
description may be regarded as applying to a very large tract
of country, extending from Alexandria on the Fraser, in
Latitude 52° 33', to the Southern Boundary Line on the
Okinagan River: and thence at intervals towards the southeastern angle of the Province. Near the point just mentioned, where the Boundary Line intersects the Okinagan
River flowing into the Columbia, the country begins to as-"
sume, in its general features, a very sterile character. An
arid sandy region, almost tropical in its temperature, replaces
the rich scenery through which we have been passing. Crossing the frontier into the United States Territory, as we
descend the Okinagan towards the Columbia, this character geographical subdivisions of mainland.
18
becomes more general. The alluvial bottoms alone, where
there is natural irrigation, are susceptible of culture: the
main feature of the prospect is a torrid waste of sand, in
which the Wormwood and other varieties of the Artemisia,
the Cactus, and other vegetation proper to similar wastes of
remote volcanic and diluvial origin, alone find nutriment.
We have entered, in short, upon the North-western angle of
the Great American Desert : and hence, within the
Nevada range, to beyond the frontiers of Mexico, these vast
u Sage Barrens " lie extended before the traveller.* Let us
recede, however, from this uninviting field, and confine our
view within the more attractive limits of our own favored
Province.
The third division of British Columbia, from Alexandria
to the Mountains, varies materially from the other two. The
agricultural region, properly so called, may be said to terminate in the vicinity of Alexandria; though there. are many
small spots beyond that point which may be advantageously
cultivated for culinary vegetables and the harder cereals.
Generally speaking it is a wooded country, through which
many open spots of excellent soil are interspersed, with large
tracts of luxuriant pasture—especially in the direction of
Fraser and Stuart Lakes, and in the Chilcotin country. From
Fort George, however, up the main branch of the Fraser to
Tete Jaune's Cache, none of these open places appear: and
though many cultivable patches along the river banks might
in parts be readily cleared, it is probable that the occurrence
of summer night-frosts would prevent the growth of any save
the hardier vegetables. Fraser Lake, however, and the
neighbouring lake of Stuart, have been for many years the
scene of agricultural operations on a small scale, at the Posts,
formerly of the North-West, and since the coalition of 1821, of
* The prevalence of the scented Artemisia ("Sage" of the
American trappers) upon the Southern Branch of the Columbia
River, led the early Spanish colonists of Califoraia to call it the (
Rio del Oregano, or River of the Marjoram : hence the origin of
the term Oregon since applied to the whole territory. '33§fi&
14
GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF MAINLAND.
the Hudson's Bay Company. At the former place, especially,
these limited operations were invariably successful. Potatoes, turnips, and other vegetables throve wonderfully.
Barley yielded invariably a heavy return; and though wheat
was cultivated occasionally only, on a very small scale, and
rather experimentally than as a crop, it ripened well in favorable positions. The pasture in these vicinities is of the most
luxuriant description, consisting of fine natural grasses intermixed with a nutritious kind of wild pea, or vetch. Cattle
and horses of course thrive well; but the necessity of providing fodder against the lengthened winter of these elevated
parts, discourages their being raised beyond a limited extent.
This upper region, however, is to be considered more
especially as the mining district: and any partial cultivation
that may be attempted to meet an extended market in connexion with the mines, must be regarded only as subsidiary
to the main supply, derived from a remoter source.
We have deferred to notice the Lakes which are dispersed
throughout the interior of the Province, and which constitute one of its most charming characteristics—for British
Columbia is emphatically a Land of Lakes. It would be a
vain attempt to describe the beauties of many of these
superb sheets of water: and impossible to enumerate even a
tithe of their number. In the aggregate there are many
hundreds, varying in dimensions from seventy miles and
upwards in length, by four or five miles in breadth, to the
mere mountain tarn of a few acres in extent. Abounding
with fish, the water of these lakes is generally very pure. In
some, however, where the outfall is deficient, there is an alkaline taint, arising from the presence of the sulphate and other
combinations of soda. Of this condition Green Lake, situated
between Alexandria and Thompson's River, is a notable example. About thirty miles in length, with a beautiful grassy
shore, it has no outlet save very partially by underground
drainage in the direction of the Bonaparte, a tributary of the
•i&iite GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF MAINLAND.
15
Thompson. It is consequently very strongly impregnated
with the accumulated salt; its colour being at the same time
a fine sea-green.* Of the principal Lakes the following
may be mentioned. On tributaries of the Fraser: Stuart's
Lake and Lake Tatla, Eraser's Lake, Lac des Frangais, Bear
Lake, Quesnel and Caribou Lake, Lake Chilcotin, Lac a la
Hache, Lakes Anderson and Seton, Harrison's Lake, Pitt
Lake, near New Westminster; the upper. and lower Shew-
shwap Lakes on Thompson's River; Horse Lake and Lac des
Rochers on the North Branch. On the Columbia water-shed
the great Okinagan Lake and the Osooyoos; the Arrow Lakes;
the Great Lake of the Arcs-plattes on the Kootanais Branch.
On the waters of Peace River, McLeod's Lake &c. Close to
Stuart's Lake, and connected with it by a waggon road nine
miles in length passing over a depression in the Coast-range,
is Nata-punkat, or Babine Lake, a sheet of water ol the first
magnitude heading a branch of the River Skeena: and on a
tributary of the same stream flowing from the northward is
Connolly's Lake; on both of which are posts of the Hudson's
Bay Company.
It will be enquired what facilities of communication exist
by which the extremes of the vast tract of country composing
the interior of British Columbia are connected. Putting
aside the artificial roads that have of late years been constructed, and to which reference will presently be made, it
may be mentioned that from immemorial time a system of
roads or rather trails, has existed throughout, which, originally
traced by the natives for mutual intercourse, served, until
recently, for all the purposes of communication and transport.
*Oaptain R. M. Parsons of the Royal Engineers, in his report to
Colonel Moody, of the 16th September, 1862, says of this ana other
similar Lakes "I did not examine the water of these Lakes, but
they probably contain the same impurities as those met with when
♦ravelling with you near Okinagan, viz: Sulphur, Carbonic Acid,
Soda (as Sulphate of Soda or Sulphide of Sodium and Carbonate
of Soda) and common Salt, probably derived from decomposing
trachyte in the soil." 16
GEOGRAPHICAL SUBDIVISIONS OF MAINLAND.
These pack-trans—for they were nothing more—have since
been improved, where necessary, so as to admit of the passage
of wheeled vehicles along the principal lines. In some parts
long tracts required no improvement and were at once available for all the purposes of transport: and such natural roads,
with interruptions more or less frequent in parts, radiate
throughout the valleys, affording ready communication between various points with pack-animals, and improvable with
moderate outlay of labour into roads of a higher description.
The artificial improvements which have become necessary
since the colonization of the Country, in order to give access
from the Lower District to the interior, are of the most imposing character; and have involved an outlay which, at the
outset, bore hardly upon the resources of the Colony. The
first road opened with this view, commenced in 1858, and for
some years affording the only available route of access, was
from Douglas, at the head of steam-boat navigation on Harrison Lake, round by the Lakes Anderson and Seton, to Lillooett
on the Fraser, some 40 miles above Lytton at the Forks of
Thompson's River. This road, however, though all-important
for the time, and destined probably yet to become of renewed
expediency, was after a while superseded by that which is now
the main channel of communication. Commencing at Yale,
the head of steam-boat navigation on the Lower Fraser, this
last-mentioned road is continued clear up to Barkerville, in
the heart of the Caribou mining-region. The lower portion,
crossing the Fraser at Kequeloose 18 miles above Yale by a
suspension bridge, is conducted along the river through a most
difficult country to Lytton. Enormous engineering difficulties
have been overcome in this great work, completed under the
supervision of the Honorable Joseph W. Trutch, the present
Lieutenant-Governor of the Province. A second bridge, upon
piles, crosses the Thompson some distance above Lytton, after
which the difficulties were of minor importance.
A third route, crossing directly over the Cascade Range in
an Easterly direction to the beautiful valley of the Similkameen
w&m
%&rak NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER, TREES, &C.
17
on the Columbia watershed, leaves the Fraser twelve miles
below Yale, at the pleasant village of Hope. This, though not
opened of breadth sufficient for wheeled-vehicles, is valuable
as a short route of transport with pack-animals, in the direction of Okinagan and the Kootanais mines.
Since the discovery, two years ago, of the gold-diggings on
the heads of Peace River, called now the 1 Omineca " mines,
another route has been opened from the northern coast. Leaving the village at Port Essington, to which I have before
passingly alluded, the Skeena River is ascended by canoe to
the Bear-river Fork; thence by land-carriage and water by
way of the Babine Lake and over a depression in the intervening Coast Range to Lake Tat-la on the Stuart Branch of
the Upper Fraser; and thence across the ridge of the Peak
Range to the head waters of the Findlay Branch of Peace
River, where the gold-deposits are in process of development.
This route has the advantage of shortness of land-transport,
over the route to the same point by the way of Yale: but
each appears to have its advocates, and the balance of. their
relative merits seems to be yet undecided. Leaving, however,
the subject of internal communication to be reverted to hereafter, we proceed to notice some of the natural productions of
the Province.
CHAPTER IV.
Natural Productions—Timber, Trees, Ornamental
Shrubs, &c.
The forests of British Columbia are productive of an inexhaustible supply of timber of the most serviceable kind. Confining the description to very narrow limits the following
varieties may be mentioned:— sw*r
i
18 NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER, TREES, &C.
The Oak, which is not found on the mainland,* grows
abundantly on the southern parts of Vancouver Island, and
the islands adjacent. It is of the variety Q. Garry ana f and,
though nowise equal to the British Oak, affords a very tough
and serviceable timber.
The Douglas Pine or Fir {A. Douglasii). The uses of this
tree, which grows to a gigantic size, are chiefly for the manufacture of deals and scantling for building purposes, and also,
locally, for ship-building. It is peculiarly well adapted for
masts and spars, from its size, straightness, and tenacity.
There is a large and constantly increasing exportation of this
timber, from British Columbia, and the adjacent shores of
Washington Territory, in the shape of sawn lumber and spars
to various Ports in China and the Pacific, and in spars and
masts of the largest dimensions to Europe. The quality of the
lumber procured in British Columbia, at Burrard's Inlet, a
little north of the entrance of Fraser River, is esteemed of
superior quality, and commands, we- believe, an extra price in
San Francisco.
The Weymouth Pine (P. StrobusJ—tlae White Pine of
commerce. This valuable tree is common on the mountain-
slopes between the Coast and the Lower Fraser, It is especially abundant in the upper part of Harrison's River, where
it attains to a large size and is of unsurpassable beauty.
The Balsam Pine, yielding the " Canada Balsam " of the
druggist: a tree of vigorous growth and very ornamental, but
the timber of little value.
The Hemlock Fir (A. Canadensis). Common throughout
the Lower District and along the Coast. The bark valuable
for tanning; the wood valueless for outside purposes, but used
sometimes for indoor finishing as a substitute for better wood.
* This remark, as a rule, is strictly correct; but like all rules
has its exception. A few oaks of small size may be discovered—
or might have been discovered 20 years back—on the eastern bank
of the Rapids above Yale. They did not probably exceed a dozen
in number ; and, unless they may have been considerately spared
for their rarity, it is questionable whether any now remain. NATURAL PRODUOTIONS-
-TIMBER, TREES, &0,
19
The Spruce Fir. Found in most localities throughout the
Province, up to the limits of the Rocky Mountains. An easily
wrought and useful wood.   (A. Menziesii.}
Pinus Banksiana, a variety of the common Scotch Fir, is
found in dry sandy woodlands throughout the interior of
British Columbia, and up to the summit of the Rocky Mountain passes. A useful and durable wood. Found also on
Vancouver Island; but more rarely, and of smaller size.
The Red Cedar (Thuja Occidentalis, or Gigantea). A
most useful tree, found throughout the Province, up to the
heart of the Rocky Mountains, but especially abundant on the
Sea-board and in the Lower District, where it attains to an
enormous size. The wood of this tree is especially valued for
its extreme durability; and for this reason is now in demand
in San Francisco for the purposes of the Southern Pacific Railroad, for ties. Of this wood the natives make their beautiful
canoes; the broad sheets of the bark they use frequently for
roofing; and its fibres are woven into blankets.
The Cypress, or Yellow Cedar (Cupressus Thyoides), confined to the maritime precincts. The wood, of close texture and
applicable to many useful purposes, is of very superior quality.
The tree is not, probably, found south of 49°, and extends
along the Coast into Alaska. The inner bark of this tree contains an essential oil, which communicates its odor, somewhat
as of garlic, to the wood, the effect of which is to protect it, it
is said, against the attacks of the Teredo. This quality of resistance, added to great durability, adapts it specially for submarine purposes, for which, imported from Alaska, it is now I
believe highly valued in San Francisco. The cortical fibres,
like those of the last-mentioned, are spun, and woven into
blankets, but of a finer texture.
A variety of Yew (T. brevifolia) is found along the Coast,
and on the Fraser as high as the head of the Yale Rapids. It
is used by the natives for the manufacture of bows, and it is
applicable to various useful purposes, but does not attain to
the size of the English Yew.    The Alder, useful for turning 20
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER, TREES, &C.
and carving, is widely distributed, and in the Coast vicinity
attains to a great size. The Plane-maple (Platanus Acerifo-
lid) is abundant in the Lower District and Vancouver Island,
and of very vigorous growth. A useful and highly ornamental
tree, yielding in early Spring a copious supply of sap, which,
though less rich in saccharine matter than that of the Canadian
Sugar-maple, gives a product not inferior in quality. The
Balsam Poplar, or Cotton-wood, and the Aspen, growing
abundantly along the Lower Fraser, are very generally distributed, nearly to the summit of the Rocky Mountain passes.
From the Balsam Poplar, which attains to very considerable
dimensions, excellent canoes are excavated by the Indians of
the interior, which have this advantage over those constructed
of Cedar, that they do not split through exposure to the sun,
and consequently do not demand the same assiduous care.
But these periguas are nowise comparable in form to the
beautiful canoes of the Coast, formed of the more delicate
material, and with a far higher degree of art. The Birch,
which is the chief hard-wood of the interior, is comparatively
rare in the Lower District and on Vancouver Island; but
throughout the Upper Fraser, up to the verge of the Rocky
Mountains, it is common, and attains in parts to a very considerable size. The bark of this tree was formerly employed
at the interior posts for making canoes for transport; but boats
were afterwards substituted. The natives do not employ it,
however, for that purpose, like those of the eastern Continent.
They construct their light hunting-canoes of single sheets
stripped from the trunk of the Weymouth Pine, where procurable : elsewhere of the Spruce.
Peculiar to a portion of the Central District is the Red
Pine (P. Ponderosa); a very beautiful tree, growing chiefly
in gravelly opens, and attaining a large size. The timber ia
good, close-grained, and durable; but, as its name indicates,
comparatively heavy. It is found commonly as far north as
the upper ford of the Bonaparte; but its nearest approach to
the Coast Range, westward, is the head of Anderson Lake. NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER, TREES, &C.
21
A variety of the Larch (i. Occidentalis) is found at various
points along the eastern portion of the Southern Boundary of
the Province. It grows to a large size, chiefly in cold moist
bottoms; but, though a beautiful tree, its timber does not
share the character for durability ascribed to its Eastern congener. Some other varieties of Pine besides those that have
been mentioned are found in the mountainous parts: but none
of these being of marked utility it is needless to enumerate them.
Of ornamental shrubs there is a considerable variety. Of
these a few only will be mentioned. A species of the Arbutus
(A. LaurifoUaX which by the way it is wrong to class as a
shrubf is found abundantly on the shores of Vancouver Island,
and elsewhere in the southern part of the Coast Division.. It
grows to a considerable size, sometimes being found with
trunks eighteen inches or more in diameter. The Red-flowering Currant (R. Sanguinea) grows abundantly in the same
localities. A species of the Juniper, attaining rather to the
dignity of a tree, is likewise found in immediate proximity
with the sea-ahore. In the Cascade Range, behind the village
of Hope, a fine Rhododendron (R. Ponticum F) ornaments the
slopes in the neighbourhood of the height of land. The
Syringa, or Mock-orange (Philadelphus MultiRord) sheds its
fragrance through the woods of Vancouver Island, and is common on the mainland both east and west of the Cascade Range,
and nearly to Thompson's River. A fine Spiraea, rather a
lofty shrub) is found in the woodlands around Victoria and
elsewhere, which, besides the elegance of its flowers, is noted
for producing probably the toughest known wood for ramrods.
The Holly-leaved Barberry (Malionia Aguifolid) is very
generally diffused; and in addition to the beauty of its flowers,
has the merit of producing a fruit valuable for preserving.*
Upon the summit of the Cascade Range, and elsewhere in corresponding positions, are thick beds of the Menziesia, white
and red. This plant, strongly resembling in appearance the
Heath of Europe, has frequently been mistaken for it: but it
• Tlie roots of the Hahonia, yielding a rich yellow dye, and produced in largo
quantities, will probably be found to have a commercial value.
K\: 22
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER, TREES, &0.
is, I believe, a well-established fact that no trup Heath has
yet been found indigenous to any part of America.
Of edible fruits there are many kinds. Of these perhaps the
most important is the Service-berry (Amelanchicr Raccmosa,
or Canadensis ?) ■ a white-flowering shrub yielding a fruit of
great utility. Abundantly produced, and easily gathered, this
fruit is dried in the sun, and forms an important addition to
the winter store of the natives, as well as of the European residents, by whom it is no less prized. This berry is very widely
distributed between this and Manitoba; and along the Saskatchewan the dried fruit enters largely into the composition of
the finer kinds of Pemican. Though the shrub grows freely
about Victoria the .fruit produced is there of indifferent quality.
Between Thompson's River and the Southern Boundary, and
especially along the valley of the Similkamcen, it attains its
highest degree of perfection. The Cluster or Choke-Cherry
thrives in the same localities as the Service-berry, and is little
less abundant. At first harsh and astringent to the palate,
this fruit when folly matured is sweet and well-flavoured.
The Sallal (Gualtheria Shallon) is a well-flavoured fruit,
borne in bunches by a low evergreen shrub, the undergrowth
of woods in the Coast neighbourhood only. Several varieties
of Vaccinium, or Whortle-berry, some confined to the Const
and its immediate confines, others very generally distributed,
as high as the Rocky Mountains, are also found : besides the
Raspberry of several kinds, including one identical in flavour
and nowise inferior in quality to the cultivated varieties; the
wild Strawberry ; and the Cranberry; all widely distributed,
and the hut an article of considerable export from the Lower
Fraser to San Francisco, where the fruit is in great demand.
One might extend, however, indefinitely this hasty enumeration ; but it is time to turn to other objects. Let it suffice,
then, to say, in conclusion, that here in British Columbia
Nature has been profuse in her gifts; and thai while providing
abundantly for the more solid wants of Man, she has not been NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
23
unmindful of those minor luxuries which to all are grateful.
The copious feast prepared by her hand throughout the wilderness, and the varied beauties of the innumerable flowers that
bedeck the plains, are but the earnest of those luxurious additions to her bounty, which the taste and the industry of Man
have been introducing, and will continue to introduce.
CHAPTER V.
Natural Poduotions Continued—Fish.
As may be surmised from the enormous coast-line, and the
great extent of the inland waters, the Fish of British Columbia
enter largely into the consideration of her resources. Of all
the varieties5 frequenting the inland waters, however, the
Salmon is the most important: and, as it will require a longer
notice than the rest, we reserve it for the last. The varieties
of Trout, in the next place, demand attention; and for want
of more legitimate nomenclature, they will in most cases be
distinguished by the native names, adopting those of the Ta-
cully of the Upper Fraser, to the writer the more familiar.
The Peet is a red-fleshed Trout, frequenting the larger
lakes, such as Stuart's and Fraser's. It grows to a great size,
frequently exceeding 20 lbs. in weight, and in some positions,
I have been assured, weighing as much as forty, though I have
never myself seen any nearly so large. They are usually
caught with hooks, baited with a small fish, during the season
of open water. In early spring the natives catch them by
making holes in the ice and roofing them over with pine-
boughs so as to exclude the surface-light. In this way the
fish, attracted by a lure, is readily detected and speared.*
* This device, it may be noticed, is merely a modification of the
Norwegian water-telescope; and shows how readily Man, in exigency, arrives through different processes at a common end. 24
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—PI8H.
The Shd-pai is another variety, equal in all respects to the
last; but differing in appearance, its skin being marked with
faint orange-colored spots, and the flesh having a yellowish
tint.
The Peet-ydz, or Salmon-trout, resembling generally the
ordinary trout caught elsewhere. There are, however, several
varieties, differing in size and quality, as well as appearance,
according to their habitat.
The Talo-ydz (i. e. Little Salmon), is a peculiar variety of
Trout, of excellent quality, confined to certain lakes of the
Upper District, and found, I think, in the Great Okinagan
Lake—a sheet of water abounding also in the larger species.
In addition to the hook and spear, weirs are employed to
capture the various descriptions of Trout as they enter the
rivers from the lakes to spawn. The gill-net, too, set in favorable positions, is employed for the smaller varieties. The
artificial fly and the spoon-bait, which the angler bene on sport
would employ, were of course unknown to the native fishermen, whose devices I have mentioned.
The White-fish (Coregonus Alba), by many esteemed the
Prince of fresh-water fish, found generally throughout the
northern continent, is common to most of the lakes in the
upper part of British Columbia. It varies very much in size,
and no less in quality, in different localities: a variation arising doubtless from the nature of their food. Thus the fish
produced in Fraser Lake, though no larger, are in quality far
superior to those of the neighbouring lake of Stuart; while
those of the small lake of Yoka, in the depression of the Coast-
range between the latter lake and Babine, are superior to both.
Far excelling these, again, are the fish caught in a small lake
near Jasper's House on the Athabasca, a little outside of the
northern frontier of the Province. The White-fish of British
Columbia probably average from two to three pounds only :
elsewhere, in parts eastward of the Rocky Mountains, they
are found much larger.
The Loche (Gallus Barbatula), called also the " Fresh- NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—PISH.
25
•water Cod," is found commonly in the lakes and rivers. The
liyer, like that of the true Cod, is the sole, or chief, depository of its fat.    A fish on the whole of very little mark.
The Pike or Jack-fish, common on the East side of the
Rocky Mountains, is not found in the British Columbia
waters—and, I need not add, is not regretted.
There are immense numbers of Carp of several varieties;
These, when they enter the streams from the lakes to spawn,
commencing in April, are caught by the natives with ingenious weirs, and sun-dried in vast quantities.
The Sturgeon of British Columbia (Acipenser transmonta-
nus of Richardson) differs widely in all respects from the
common Sturgeon of the Atlantic (J.. Sturio). This noble
fish is common both to the Columbia and Fraser River; but
does not by the former stream penetrate to the British Columbia frontier—interrupted, apparently, by the Kettle Fall at
Colvile, near to which point some have been known to reach.
The fish appears in Fraser River in early Spring, following
the shoals of a certain small fish, called by the natives
Oola-han, as they resort to the lower parts to spawn. The
Western Sturgeon attains an enormous size: in the upper
parts of Fraser River, about Stuart.s and Fraser's Lakes,
having been caught weighing as much as seven or eight
hundred pounds. These fish do not, there is reason to believe, always return to the sea; but, finding abundant food
in the upper waters, continue to dwell and propagate there,
frequenting chiefly the neighbourhood of the two lakes mentioned, and probably other localities. Unlike the Salmon,
which constantly deteriorate as they ascend, the Sturgeon conversely improve; and are invariably fatter when caught in
the upper waters, than in the vicinity of the sea. On the
Lower Fraser these fish are caught by the natives in a singular but very efficacious manner. A canoe, manned by two
persons, one of whom acts merely to keep the light vessel in
position, is suffered to drift along the deepest channel. The
fisherman, seated in the bow, is armed with a jointed staff 26
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
which may be lengthened at pleasure, and to the end of
which a barbed harpoon attached to a cord is loosely affixed.
With this he feels his way, keeping the point of his weapon
constantly within a short distance of the bottom. The fish,
slowly swimming upwards, is detected by the touch j and,
instantly struck, is afterwards readily secured. In the Upper
Fraser the bait is chiefly employed; but in the larger eddies
strong nets are found very effective. At the effluence of
Lakes Stuart and Fraser, near which the Hudson's Bay
Company's posts are situated, long stake-nets are set during
Spring and Summer, by means of which a fish is occasionally
caught, the more highly prized for its comparative rarity:
for while the Sturgeon grows to larger dimensions in these
vicinities, it is very much rarer than in the lower parts of
the river.
The Salmon entering Fraser River are of several varieties,
making their appearance successively at various periods from
early Spring till the end of Summer. As a general rule it
may be asserted that the earlier shoals are the stronger and
richer fish. For clearness sake I shall confine my remarks
chiefly to two priucipal varieties, called by the lower Indians'
Saw-qudi and Surk-k&i, by the upper Indians Kase and
Td-loj by which latter names I shall distinguish them. The
first, equal in size and quality to tl
large
almon of V.urope,
enter the Fraser in May; the latter, a very much smaller
and not so rich a fish, arriving a month or so later. In the
lower part of the river the natives secure them in large
quantities by means of drift-nets. Higher up scoop-nets are
ohiefly used, which are wrought from stages suspended from
the rocks bordering on rapid currents; and above Alexandria
the Tacullv tribe construct ingenious weirs for their capture.
The Kase, entering the river as before noted in May, are
caught at Alexandria in the beginning of July; though a
shoal, resorting to a small tributary called the Nascoh, passes
unward at an earlier date. The Td-lo, arriving at Alexandria later, never reach the neighbourhood of Stuart's or mL
mJ*m
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
27
Fraser's Lake before the first week in August; preceded
shortly by the Kase.
To those conversant with the habits of the European
Salmon it is superfluous to mention that each shoal as it
ascends strives perseveringly and with unerring instinct to
reach, for its spawning-ground, the spot where itself was
generated. The course of the Kase, apart from the minor
shoals which may diverge to their native tributaries by the
way, may thus be indicated from the Forks of Thle-et-leh
(Fort George), upwards. A division of the grand shoal here
takes place; one detachnjent ascending the eastern, or Te"te
Jaune, Branch, the remainder ascending the western, or
Stuart, Branch, as high as the point called the Forks of
Chinlac, 60 miles above Thle-et-leh. A further subdivision
here takes place; one portion continuing to ascend the
Stuart Branch, nearly to Stuart's Lake, which, however, they
do not enter. The other detachment ascends the Fraeer Lake
Branch, turning off short of that lake, and continuing its
course up the large tributary there falling in, called the
Nejavcoh, on which its spawning grounds are situated.
The Td-lo, its van-guard reaching Thle-et-leh in company
with the rear-guard of the Kase, do not enter the T6te Jaune
Branch, but continue undeviatingly up to the Forks of
Chinlac before mentioned, where a separation takes place.
One detachment, continuing up the Stuart's Branch, passes
through Stuart's Lake on its way towards Lake Tat-la: the
other following up the other branch does not, like the Kase,
enter the Neja-c6h, but passing on to Fraser Lake, continues
through it, and pursues its route by the tributary stream
towards the Lac des Frangais, on the inner verge of the
Coast Range, and opposite to the Southern heads of the Skeena,.
This process, actuated by an infallible instinct, goes on
undeviatingly from year to year: and though at times there
may occur, from inscrutable causes, a partial failure of the
supply, the periods vary but little, and the regularity of the
system is never interrupted. 28
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
In the Appendix will be inserted a brief notice of several
other varieties of the Salmon resorting to Fraser River, some
of which, diverging up the Thompson's Branch and other
tributaries, do not ascend to the Upper Fraser: and I will
now advert to a peculiarity in their fate, which, strange as
it may appear, distinguishes the majority from all other
known varieties of the genus. There seems to be no question that the shoals resorting to the smaller streams debouching upon the Coast return, after performing their procreative.
functions, to the sea, as elsewhere. Indeed I am disposed
to think that those varieties which resort to the smaller tributaries of the Lower Fraser and the Columbia, probably
fulfil their course in like manner. But as regards the main
body, resorting to the jdistant head-waters of those great
rivers, it may be incontestably asserted that they never return-
to the sea. At first incredulous of this asserted fact, subversive of all my preconceptions on the subject, it was only after
the observation of years, under circumstances which seem to
preclude the possibility of error, that I was constrained to
arrive at the same conclusion. Without prolonging my notes
by entering on the particulars of these observations, I may
confidently repeat the assertion that, the function of spawning over, the fish, still struggling upwards, die of exhaustion.
Upon the main, or Eastern, branch of the Fraser, which as
I have said is frequented only by the large variety or Kase,
the strongest of those fish attain as high as Tete Jaune's
Cache, between 700 and 800 miles from the sea: there their
further progress is arrested by a steep fall. At the foot of
this fall, and elsewhere below, the stream swarms, in September, with dead and dying fish. The once brilliant Salmon, no longer recognisable save from its general form, may
here be seen, the function of spawning completed, almost
torpid from exhaustion j its nose in many instances worn to
the bone, its tail and fins in tatters, nay its very flesh in a
state of half-animated decay, either helplessly floating in the
eddies, or with momentary exertion still struggling to ascend. NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
29
In no case is the smallest disposition to descend perceptible:
its course is still onwards, until, dying at last, it floats with
myriads of others to be cast upon the beach, attracting to a
hideous banquet a multitude of Bears and other carnivorous
beasts from the adjacent mountains. In like manner perish
the other shoals upon the head-waters of the several streams
to which they resort.*
I am not, however, to write a treatise on Natural History,
but to confine myself to such notes as may tend practically
to a useful end. Nevertheless I may be pardoned if I have
dwelt passingly upon a fact which, if for its singularity alone,
is worthy of record. Before quitting this branch of the subject, too, I may supply some memoranda which will convey
an idea of the productiveness, in-favorable years, of the
salmon-fisheries on the Fraser. At the Post of Fraser's
Lake, in 1836, 36,000 dried salmon were purchased and
stored for use; and at other Posts proportionate quantities
were likewise secured out of the superabundant provision
made by the natives. The year in question, it is true, was
one of great abundance. At Fort Langley (some fifteen
miles above New Westminster) large quantities were formerly
salted every year by the Hudson's Bay Company, as well for
home consumption as for exportation. In some seasons between two and three thousand barrels were thus provided;
the fish procured by barter from the natives. For some years
past private fisheries have been established, where large quantities are annually cured : and recently an establishment for
preserving the fish in cans for exportation has been started,
which promises to be very successful. The chief markets-
are South America, the Sandwich Islands, and Australia.
We may here mention cursorily that, while the salmon, of
some particular variety, is common, perhaps, to every stream
issuing along the Coast from the Coast-range of mountains,
* On the Columbia the Salmon attain to the head of the McGil-
livray Fork, more than a thousand miles from the sea. There is
there a small lake, which, before the winter sets in, is crowded, I
have been assured, with the dead and dying fish. 30
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
as well as to the many tributaries of the Fraser, it is not
found upon the waters of British Columbia tributary to the
Peace River, or indeed to any of the streams flowing eastward from the Rocky-Mountain boundary of the Province.
Thus Peace River, and its co-tributary to the great McKenzie,
the Athabasca, as well as the Saskatchewan, are destitute of
this valuable fish. With our knowledge of the habits of the
genus it would be a facile undertaking to introduce the fish
artificially into these rivers, by spawn taken from the western
watershed: but it is questionable whether the extreme length
of the two first-named streams, at least, in their course to the
ocean, might not prove an insurmountable obstacle to their
successful propagation. Nevertheless, it is possible that the
attempt may at some future day be made.
A very valuable fish entering Fraser River to spawn in
early Spring, is the Thaleichthys (or preferably Osmerus)
Richardsonii—locally known as the Oola-han.* It appears
in immense shoals, and is caught either with the scoop-net,
or, like the Herring on the sea-board, with the rake. This
simple device is merely a long light pole, flattened in one
direction so as to pass readily through the water, and with
the edge set towards the lower extremity with a row of
sharply-pointed teeth. The fisherman, entering the shoal,
passes the implement repeatedly through the water, with a
rapid stroke, each time transfixing several fish. Thus a copious
supply is soon secured. The Oolahan is, in the estimation
of most people, one of the most delicious products of the*sea.
Smaller than the Herring, it is of a far more delicate flavor;
and so rich that, when dried, it is inflimmable."j"    This fish
* I was long under the impression that this fish was a variety of
Pilchard (Clupanodon Thrissa) peculiar to the Pacific; and am indebted to Dr. Robert Brown, of Edinburgh, formerly in command
of the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition, for the correction
adopted above.
f So much so, indeed, that, in Alaska, where it is likewise found,
it is I believe called the " Candle-fish." It is mentioned by Fran-
chere, in his account of the Columbia River, under the name of
Oulhe'lekane, from whioh its present designation is modified j and, NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
31
is not confined to Fraser River, but frequents likewise the
Nass, a large stream issuing on the frontier between British
Columbia and Alaska; another stream debouching into
Gardner's Canal; and probably other rivers along the
Coast. Those caught at the mouth of the Nass are of a
quality even richer than those of Fraser River. The natives,
who assemble there in great numbers in Spring to prosecute
the fishery, besides drying them in large quantities, extract
from the surplus a fine oil, which is highly prized by them
as a luxury, and forms a staple article of barter with the
interior tribes. This oil, of a whitish colour, and approaching to the consistence of thin lard, is regarded by those of
the Faculty who are acquainted with its properties^ as equally
efficacious with the Cod-liver Oil so commonly prescribed :
and it is said to have the great advantage of being far more
palatable. With the exception of a few scores of casks salted
annually for local sale, and a quantity prepared like the Red-
herring, this fish has not yet, I believe, been systematically
cured, or become an article of exportation. There can be no
question, however, that, when more widely known and "properly prepared, it will be the object of much extraneous
demand.
As already remarked, all the larger streams along the
Coast abound with Salmon. The Skeena, before mentioned,
discharging at Port Essington, and the Bilwhoola, flowing
into the North Bentinck Arm of Milbank Sound, may be
specially noted; though equalled, doubtless, by many others.
The minor streams swarm during the season with a srnall
variety, known locally to the northward as the Squdg-gan;
inferior in richness to the larger fish, and therefore not so
from the circumstance of its being strung on cords by the natives
to dry, was called by the voyageurs Poisson a la Brasse, or Fathom-
fish. They were formerly very abundant in Spring on the Lower
Columbia ; but suddenly, about the year 1835, they ceased to appear, and thence-forward up at least to 1858, none frequented the
river. I have been informed, however, that they have since reappeared, and that there is now a regular supply as formerly. 32
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
well adapted for salting, but nevertheless of excellent quality.
I may here mention as a peculiar trait that the Salmon of
this Coast—at least those ascending the larger rivers such as
the Columbia, the Fraser, and others—unlike their European
congeners, do not rise to the artificial fly. In the inlets
around Vancouver Island and elsewhere, while they remain
in the sea, and at all seasons of the year, they are readily
caught by trolling. The natives employ generally a herring
as the bait: but the spoon-bait is found by amateurs to be
equally efficacious. It will be inferred that the fish occupy
continuously the narrow waters, adjacent probably to the entrance of the streams of their nativity, until they finally reenter the rivers to spawn: and, admitting the apparently
unquestionable fact that some varieties, at least, never return
to the sea, it follows as a consequence that the whole term
of their existence, from the time when the fry descend the
rivers until their final return to spawn, whatever the interval
may be before they attain maturity, is passed in these retreats. The quality of the winter fish, caught in these
localities in their full perfection, is incomparably fine. The
size varies, apparently, in different positions. In the Saanich
Arm, for instance, a little to the north of Victoria, the
weight may. vary from fifteen to thirty pounds or more: but
it was mentioned about a month ago (in March) in the
British Colonist newspaper, that a fish caught with the bait
in the outer harbour of Victoria had been brought to market,
the weight of which was fifty-five pounds. Fish of this size
are* however, comparatively rare. Repeated examination
leads me to the conclusion that the Herring is here the
favourite food of the Salmon. It is the most successful
natural bait; and I have almost invariably found one, and
frequently several,-of these fish, in the stomachs of ordinary-,
sized .Salmon; but smelts, and occasionally prawns, are also
found. It may be added that, while the Salmon refuses the
fly or any other bait after entering the fresh water, the
closest examination of the intestines of the ascending fish NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
S3
does not, as far as my experience goes, reveal upon what
nutriment they then subsist. A mucous substance alone is
discernible; and it must be inferred that minute infusoria,
the nature of which the microscope might probably detect,
is at this period their sole source of nourishment.
But we have dwelt sufficiently on this theme, and must
proceed to notice the other products in which these waters
are notably prolific. And first of the Herring. This valuable fish resorts in prodigious numbers, at the spawing season
in early Spring, to the bays and inlets of the Gulf of Georgia,
and elsewhere generally along the Coast. The method by
which the natives capture them at this season, mentioned
before while treating of the Oola-han, suggests an idea of
their scarcely conceivable numbers. In appearance they do
not perceptibly differ from the European variety, though
rather smaller. At the period in question the quality of
these fish is inferior j but when caught during their prime,
with the net, on the banks which they permanently frequent,
they are, to my conception, fully equal to their congeners of
the Atlantic sea-board. This remark applies at least to some
of the localities bordering on the Gulf of Georgia j and I
fancy is generally true. The spawn, attached to sea-weed, or
to branches purposely sunk in the shallows for its reception,
is gathered in large quantities by the natives, and dried for
food.
The Cod caught in the narrow waters are inferior to the
Atlantic fish. There are, however, certain outlying banks
upon which they are found abundantly, of a quality, it is said,
approaching, if not fully equal to, the last.
The Halibut attains upon this Coast a very high degree of
perfection. On the outer shore of Queen Charlotte's Island,
especially, it is found of a very large size; frequently exceeding 100 pounds in weight, and not unseldom, I am
assured, of twice that size. Caught with the hook, these fish
are dried in "large quantities by the natives, especially of the
more northerly parts of the Coast. 34
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FISH.
To these may be added the Smelt, the Rock-cod, the Flounder, Whiting, and a host of others, with which, in season, the
markets of Victoria are constantly supplied—chiefly through
the industry of Italian fishermen, who appear here to enjoy
a prescriptive monopoly of the trade. Oysters are very
abundant. Those dredged near Victoria are of small size,
but well-flavoured : northward, in the vicinity of Comox, a
larger sample is procured. Of Cockles, Mussels, and other
shell-fish there is a copious supply. Crabs and Prawns are
not wanting; but there are no Lobsters, save a small kind
found in fresh-water streamlets. Oil-producing fish, such as
the Ground-shark and the Dog-fish, are common to the whole
Coast: the latter so abundant as to give lucrative employment to many fishermen and afford a boundless resource
prospectively to others. Of the Phocidae the Hair-seal is
the most numerous; while the Fur-seal, the Sea-lion, &c,
are found, chiefly on the outer shores.
The Whale-fishery has of late attracted much attention,
and has been prosecuted with a certain degree of success;
though, from want of experience probably, less than one
might have been justified in expecting. On the outer Coast
Whales of the largest description are numerous; which, by
the native inhabitants, who combine in parties for the purpose, are harpooned and captured by an ingenious process
which it is unnecessary here to describe. In the inland
waters of the archipelago a variety known as the Humpbacked Whale is very numerous. These yield from 30 to 50
barrels, or more, of oil; and so far have been killed by the
whaling-parties with the harpoon-gun and shell. Many
wounded victims, however, through some mismanagement of
detail, or perhaps unavoidably under the system, have thus
escaped. The system, however, from its assumed wastefulness, is, I am informed, declared illegal by the general laws
of the Dominion : in which case it will of course be interdicted, and give place to other schemes, less liable to objection. On the whole the pursuit of the Whale in these waters, *!<•
.•w?
NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHASE, &0. 35
vigorously prosecuted, with a competent knowledge of the
business, will doubtless prove ere long a lucrative and extensive branch of the Provincial industries.
CHAPTER VI.
Natural Productions Continued. — Beasts of   the
Chase, Birds, &c.
The Beasts of the Chase found in British Columbia are
sufficiently varied, and in parts very numerous. Of the fur-
bearing kinds the following list comprises the chief exports
of the Hudson's Bay Company, and recently of private
traders who have engaged in the business:—
Bears, Brown, Black, and Grizzly;
Beaver;
Badgers;
Foxes, Silver, Cross, and Red;
Fishers;
Martens;
Minks;
Lynxes, Grey and Spotted;
Musquash;
Otters, Sea and Land;
Panthers;
Raccoons;
Wolves, Black and Grey of the large kind;
Wolves of the smaller kind, known as the Cajote)
Wolverines.
The Black-tailed Deer is very numerous along the Coast,
and on the islands from the Gulf of Georgia northwards,
where they attain to great perfection in due season.    They S8     NATURAL PRODUCTION*?—BEASTS OF THE OHASF, &0.
are also common in the hilly parts of the Interior, as high,
nearly, as Thle-et-leh (Fort George); above which point they
are rarely, if ever, seen. Besides the gun, various devices
are employed by the natives to capture them; along the
Coast frequently by pit-falls, in the interior by the snare.
The large North-western Stag (C. Elaphus) is very numerous in the hilly parts of Vancouver Island, and upon the
Coast of the Mainland as high as about Latitude 52°. This
animal differs considerably, both in size and appearance, from
the Red-deer of the Eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains;
and though this difference may arise partly from the nature
of its habitat, it is probable that they are specifically distinct.
They attain to an enormous size, approaching to that of a
well-grown ox; and being unwary animals are easily stalked.
This animal is locally called the "Elk;" of course erroneously, it being a true stag in all its characteristics.
The Rein-deer ( G. Tarandus), the Caribou * of the Canadian voyageurs, inhabits all the mountainous regions dependent on the Rocky Mountains and the Coast Range, north of
a certain point. In the interior this limit is about Latitude
49°; in the Coast vicinage about 51°; south of which positions it is not found; or, if so, not far, and rarely. The
species found in these localities, distinguished by Richardson
as the Rocky-mountain Rein-deer, differs materially from the
variety common to Hudson's Bay, known as the Rein-deer
of the Barren Lands, than which it is very much larger.
The general characteristics of this animal are so well known
that description would be superfluous. Its susceptibility to
the attacks of the fly, especially of the large Gad-fly called
after it (Estrus Tarandi, and the partiality it exhibits to
the odour of smoke, arising from its habit of resorting to the
* It is from this animal that the famous Caribou mines receive
their designation, from being situated in their ancient resorts,
called by the Ta-cully, Hb-tsee-kaya, or Rein-deer region ; and
translated to the miners in broken French as the Caribou-land. I
have seen this word written, with an affectation of the French
orthography, Caribozuf; but it is probably not of French origin, but
derived from some one of the native dialects of Canada. NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHASE, &C. 37
vicinity of casual fires in the woods as a protection against
the attacks of its tormentors, are taken advantage of by the
Ta-cully of the Upper Fraser, who, even in the winter season,
employ lighted brands of rotten wood to cover their approach
to the herds while feeding.* During the Summer season,
besides other devices, the natives commonly employ the
snare for its capture.
Of the three varieties of the Bear found in British Columbia, the Grizzly is the largest, and, as its distinctive designation ( U. Ferox) implies, by far the most formidable to the
hunter. It does not climb, like the others. The Black and
Brown varieties, only, are I believe found in Vancouver
Island. These are timid; and, with the exception of the
occasional seizure of a stray pig of the settler, comparatively
harmless. Dogs and the gun are an efficacious mode of hunting these animals: but the natives employ various devices
to obtain them—the Coast Indians frequently the dead-fall
trap, the Interior races the snare.
The Panther, or Couguar (F. Concolor of Lin.) of this
Coast is an animal, formidable for its strength and rapacity,
but cowardly, save when wounded or at bay. Deer are its
chief prey: but it occasionally commits a depredation on the
settler's stock. To encourage its destruction, a premium of
ten dollars a head is offered by the Provincial Government.
In the more settled districts these animals are becoming constantly more rare. They are found on Vancouver Island and
along the Coast for some distance northward of 49° , but I
have never known them to be met with in the interior of the
Mainland, within the limits of the Province.
The Lynx (Loup-cervier, or Pichou of the voyageurs) is
found of two varieties : one, the Spotted, being common to
* In the great mountain-plateau lying at the heads of the Chil-
cotin River, and extending along the Coast Range, where the Reindeer are especially numerous, the hunters construct huts during
the fly-season, disguised outside with dead branches so as to resemble the head of a fallen tree. In these huts constant smoke is
maintained ; lured by which the deer approach, and are shot from
the ambush. mOUffi
38    NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHASE, &C.
the southern parts; the second, the Grey, confined, apparently, to the northern interior.    The latter, by far the finer
variety, appears periodically in vast numbers, simultaneously
in British Columbia and in the regions east of the Rocky
Mountains.     These animals are caught usually with  the
snare; and when numerous afford a very lucrative employment to the hunter.    They prey chiefly upon a variety of
Hare (£. Variabilis, so called from its changing its color
in winter from grey to white) which also periodically abounds
throughout the interior.    Increasing with marvellous rapidity, these last animals become for the time a very valuable
source of subsistence; and when the supply of Salmon partially fails in the upper parts of the Fraser, as it sometimes
unaccountably does, the abundance of Hares supplies the
deficiency. When, however, the two fail simultaneously, the
privation is, by the natives, severely felt.   Reading not long
since an extract from some work professing to give an account of British Columbia, I noticed that a mysterious connexion is gravely asserted between the occasional scarcity of
the Salmon, and the periodical abundance of the Hare, as if
they were in some way mutually dependent: but it seems
needless to say that this extraordinary assertion is entirely
fabulous.  As regards the sudden disappearance of the Hare,
after increasing to inconceivable numbers, I may add that it
is caused by an eruptive epidemic, by which all are carried
off save a scanty remnant through which the race is continued and its numbers propagated anew.  The Lynx disappears
from a similar cause, generally the succeeding year; and the
Marten, occupying the woodland tracts of the interior, is in
like manner subject to periodical fluctuation of numbers,
through a similar process.
It would prolong unnecessarily this general account, were
the writer to dwell on the several devices employed to secure
the different fur-bearing animals that have been enumerated.
Before leaving the subject, however, we may notice divers
other objects of the chase whioh, some of them of marked NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHASE, &C. 89
utility to "the native inhabitants, present at least attractions for
the sportsman, if not important to the ordinary settler. Among
these the Mountain Goat is conspicuous, frequenting the precipitous eminences of the various mountain spurs, and especially numerous on the offsets of the Coast-range. Along the
Coast the natives hunt it persistently, as well for its flesh,
which, of the female at least, is sufficiently palatable, as for
the hair and wool, of which they manufacture blankets with
much taste and ingenuity. Beneath the long hair of this
animal, which is of a dull white, there is a thick coating of
wool, in fineness at least, if not in length, perhaps not inferior
to that of the Cashmere Goat.
The Mountain Sheep, or Big-horn, frequents the less precipitous portions of the Rocky Mountains, where they subside
into grassy slopes. It is found on various ridges radiating
from the main range towards the centre of the Province. This
animal, prized for the extreme delicacy of its flesh and the
high condition to which it attains, is stalked as the herds
descend to the • lower grounds to feed—the aid of a telescope
being of advantage to detect their whereabout. As in most
positions they can be approached very closely, loose shot is
preferred by many hunters to the bullet, in the chase of these
animals: and this because, when not killed outright, the progress of the wounded animal is thereby sooner arrested. The
wire-cartridge, however, is the most efficacious missile.
The Moose-deer, numerous in the vicinity of the Rocky
Mountains, is not found on the Coast, and does not penetrate
far into the central parts of British Columbia. A stray Moose
is occasionally found as low down on the Fraser as Fort George;
but very rarely.
Along the verge of the Rocky Mountains the Wood-buffalo
was once numerous, and is still found at the heads of the
Mackenzie Fork of Fraser River and elsewhere, probably in
little diminished numbers. From the heads of the Tlte Jaune
Branch they had disappeared a good many years ago, and numerous relics attested the destruction to which the race had
WPr, 40    NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHA6E, &0.
been' subjected. That portion of the Country, however, has
not of late years been so much frequented by the trappers as
formerly, and it is possible that fresh herds may have appeared
there. The Wood-buffalo does not apparently differ, specifically, from the Bison of the Plains; but is said to attain generally a larger size, probably because less migratory in its
habits, and enjoying scenes of pasture less frequently disturbed.
The Birds of British Columbia are numerous in kind, and
among them are many useful varieties which yield abundant
attraction, not only to the professed sportsman, bent only on
amusement, but as a relaxation, at times, to the laborious
colonist, who finds in them a resource both of luxury and
economical utility. Among these the Ruffed Grouse (T. Um-
bellus) is commonly found throughout the Province, frequenting chiefly the neighbourhood of water-courses and the adjacent
forests. The Blue, or Dusky, Grouse (_T. Obscurus), a larger
variety frequenting the hilly tracts where Fir-trees abound, in
Vancouver Island and in the interior as high as the vicinity
of Alexandria. The Spotted Grouse (2*. Canadensis"). This
variety is very common in the wooded tracts of the Mainland
interior, up to the summits of the Rocky Mountain passes, and
frequents preferably the dry tracts occupied by the Banks'
Pine where the Uva Ursi and the dwarf Whortle-berry flourish. A bird of excessive simplicity; the male being probably
the most beautiful of the genus. The Sharp-tailed Grouse,
or "Pheasant" (T. PhasianeUus)—the Prairie Chicken of the
United States frontier. Unlike the other varieties, which are
found chiefly in isolated coveys, these Grouse congregate in
large packs, and are common to all the open valleys of the
Central District, up to a point a little beyond Alexandria.
They are in parts extremely abundant, and, frequenting the
open country, afford first-class shooting to the sportsman.
The Cock of the Plains (71 Urophasiaims of Wilson and
Bonaparte). This noble bird, approaching a small Turkey in
size, and known to the Americans as the " Sage-hen," is never NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BEASTS OF THE CHASE, &0.    41
found except in the hot, sandy, barrens, among the Artemisia
and the Cactus. I am therefore scarcely justified in classing
it among the birds of British Columbia, saving that a stray
covey may occasionally penetrate within the frontier, at the
point on the Okinagari where, as before mentioned, the extreme North-west angle of the Great Desert partially intrudes.
Lower down the Okinagan they become extremely common;
and after the subsidence of the summer freshets congregate in
numerous packs along the borders of the Columbia. This bird
feeds chiefly on the tender shoots of the Artemisia, the succulent leaves of the Cactus, and other products of the desert
regions it inhabits; and it has this marked peculiarity, that the
gizzard is much less compressed and muscular than usual with
gallinaceous birds, is very large, and in appearance perfectly
resembles a paunch or maw. This peculiarity has not escaped
the notice of Wilson and his fellow ornithologists. It has,
however, in all other respects the characteristics of the true
Grouse, and, like the rest of the genus, the legs and tarse" are
thickly feathered.
The Ptarmigan is found in all the mountainous tracts bordering on the Coast Range and the Rocky Mountains: probably, too, in the mountain-ridges of Vancouver Island. On the
Mainland I have killed it in winter on the elevated divide
between the waters of Thompson's River, and the Fraser, in
the neighbourhood of the point known as Bridge Creek. In
the summer, before moulting, the snow-white plumage of this
beautiful bird becomes of a piebald hue.
The Crested" Quail, though not indigenous, is becoming very
numerous in the settled districts of Vancouver Island. This
bird, introduced originally from California, has thriven well,
and promises soon to yield attractive game to the sportsman.
Of Birds of Passage there is a great variety, including the
Canada Goose, and several other varieties; the Mallard, the
Teal, the Widgeon, and other Ducks; the Swan; and a host
of others. Of these birds, in the Spring on their way upwardf
and in the Autumn on their return from their breeding places,
I, M¥t wm'
42
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
there are immense numbers in every favorable locality. They
become very fat, and are a valuable resource during their
season. • The delta of the Fraser is a noted wintering-ground
for these various fowl, where, over an area of great extent,
they are found in vast flocks. The Passenger Pigeon resorts
to the Interior localities; on the Coast a different species, resembling the Stock-dove, is found. It is, however, needless
to extend the list, which might be done almost indefinitely.
Of singing birds there are comparatively few varieties; and
none equalling the songsters of the Old World. The Meadow
Lark may be instanced as perhaps the finest: but though its
notes are rich, they are not sustained. Beauty of plumage
however, is a frequent characteristic; and prominent among
these is the Humming-bird, a variety of which is found
throughout the Province, as high even as Stuart's Lake.
There are several harmless varieties of Snake, but only one
that is venomous—the Rattlesnake. This reptile, however,
is confined to the dry region between Thompson's River
and the Southern Boundary. Bad as its reputation is, the
Rattlesnake is after all an inoffensive creature, more sinned
against than sinning. That its bite is very venomous, however, there can be no doubt: but in all the writer's experience,
which is not a short one, he has never witnessed a case of
biting by this snake, even in parts south of the line, where
they are very numerous.
CHAPTER VII.
Climate, Agriculture, &o.
Before entering on the subject of the Climate of British
Columbia it is necessary to remind the reader of the following
important fact: namely, that the winter temperature of posi- CLIMATE, agriculture, &c.
43
tions on the northern Pacific Coast, as compared with others
on the Atlantic sea-board, is equivalent to at least ten degrees
of Latitude in favor of the former. Thus the isothermal line
of the mean annual temperature of 50° Fahrenheit, which
leaves the Atlantic in about Latitude 41°, and, curving into
Ruperts-land as high as the 50th parallel, is assumed to cross
the Rocky Mountains in about Latitude 49°, strikes the
Pacific near Milbank Sound, in about Latitude 52°. This is
of course an approximation, only, as regards intermediate
points; but the extremes are marked too strongly to escape
even the most casual notice. We are not, however, to enter
into a disquisition as to the possible causes of this disparity:
it is enough to know that it exists; and that, for instance,
while the winter temperature of Quebec is proverbially severe,
the corresponding season at the mouth of the Columbia, in the
same degree of Latitude, is as mild as that of the South of
England.
Upon the southern portion of Vancouver Island the climate,
as a whole, may perhaps be compared with the last: saving
that there is a greater degree of summer heat, with less
humidity. The maximum temperature in the shade near
Victoria, in parts of July and August, ranges from 80° to 90°
of Fahrenheit; and has on several occasions been remarked by
the writer as high even as 96°, carefully noted on an excellent
thermometer, by Dollond, placed in the shade, out of the influence of reflected heat.* The mercury in winter sometimes
descends as low as 10°—i. e. twenty-two degrees below the
freezing-point of Fahrenheit—in seasons of extreme severity ;
but this very rarely, and for a very brief period. Hence,
though some winters may afford good skating around Victoria,
and this occasionally for several weeks together, more generally
* For instance, at 3 p.m. at a position in Saanich, in 1870—
June 6th, 79° July 6th, 94°
7th, 87° 7th, 92°
8th, 86° 8th, 83°
July 3rd, 90° 9th, 86°
4th, 93° Aug. 2nd to 8th, 84° to 96° on 8th
8th, 94° 9th, 93°
1
1
H 44
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
the ice will last only for a few days, or not become sufficiently
strong to bear.
At New Westminster on the Mainland, as elsewhere on the
Lower Fraser, there is a greater degree of humidity throughout the year, and the temperature, if more equably warm in
summer, does not probably attain to the same extreme of heat.
In winter, on the other hand, the lowest extreme, as might be
inferred from its inland position, is comparatively more severe.
In the Upper Country the climate is dry, and continuously
hot in summer; especially from the vicinity of Thompson s
River towards the southern frontier, east of the Cascade
Range. The same characteristics, however, apply in a somewhat less degree to the portion lying northward, towards
Alexandria. Approaching the Okinagan, on the southern
frontier, the summer temperature is almost tropical in its
character. The winter cold, on the other hand, is comparatively sharp; but there is nothing approaching the continuous severity experienced on the eastern slopes of the Rocky
Mountains. Little snow falls on the general surface; and
in many parts it is almost entirely absent for any lengthened
period.
In the Upper District, beyond Alexandria, notwithstanding the elevation above the sea, the climate is warm in summer : in the higher localities, subject to occasional night-
frosts, But as a general rule these do not affect the lower
levels, where modifying influences exist. In winter, a
moderate degree of cold prevails; alternated occasionally
with severe intervals produced by winds from the northward
and eastward mountains. Thus the thermometer will, during
such intervals, sink to 15° or 20° below zero of Fahrenheit,
and sometimes even to the freezing point of mercury. But
such degree of cold is exceptional, and rarely lasts more than
three or four days at a time, when a genial change ensues.
This, briefly, comprises the main features of the climate of
the Province in its several divisions. For such as may desire
to consult more accurate data, some nieteoroloeical tables K5H
mm,
m.'*m
OLIMATB, AGRICULTURE, &C.
45
will be inserted in the Appendix: meanwhile, in connexion
with the general subject, I subjoin brief extracts from the
published reports of Officers of the Royal Engineers.
Speaking of Fort Alexandria, Lieut. H. S. Palmer says:
"At 11 A.M. on the 16th August (1862) the temperature of
" the air in the shade being 70° 5 Fahrenheit, that of the
" Fraser was 58° Fahrenheit; and at 10 A.M. on the 29th
| of September, the temperatures of air and water were re-
| spectively 58° and 46° Fahrenheit."
With reference to points in the vicinity of Alexandria he
says : " The altitude of this district is frequently quoted as
" rendering it unsuitable to agriculture, but the highly satis-
" factory results obtained at Williams Lake and Beaver Lake,
" two of the most advanced farms in the Colony, where, at
| an elevation of 2,100 and 2,200 feet, varieties of grain and
" vegetables are yearly raised in great perfection and abun-
" dance, indicate the fertility of the soil, and the absence of
"influences materially discouraging to agriculture. There
" are, in the section of country under discussion, large tracts
" of unoccupied land, where the soil rivals that of the farms
" above-mentioned, and where much of the ground is literally
I fit for the plough."*
Of the portion lying between Alexandria and Thompson's
River, Captain Parsons writes: " Bridge-Creek flows into a
"large stream which is said to be a tributary of Horse-fly
" Creek. Troughton's boiling-point thermometer shewed a
" temperature at the level of the house of 206° 0 on the
" 29th August, and of 206° 40 on 31st August, indicating
" altitudes of about 3,119 and 3,054 feet respectively, or a
" mean of 3,086 feet above the level of the sea; nevertheless
"the temperature of the air in the shade at 8 a.m. of the
" 29th was 57°, and of the water of the Creek 54°. On the
" 31st, at 7 p.m. the air was 60° 75, and on the 1st Septem-
* Reports of Lieut. H. Spencer Palmer, R. E., to Colonel R. O.
Moody, R. E., Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works in British
Columbia, 24th November, 1862, and 21st February, 1863. 46
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
" ber, at 7 A.M., it was* 48° of Fahrenheit. ******* Lake La
" Hache is about 2,488 feet above the sea. The temperature
" of the air at 5 a.m. on the 30th August was 42° 5, and at
" 7.30 a.m. 54°, at which time the temperature of the water
"in the lake was 64°. On the same day the thermometer
" (not blackened) shewed 80° at noon in the Slin *********
" From the foregoing description you will see the great alti-
" tude of even the valleys between Lake La Hache and the
" Pavilion, while the casual thermometer-readings mentioned
" will serve to indicate the temperatures during the month
" of August and the first half of September. The whole
" period was excessively hot in the day time, with a pleasant
" mildness at night. There was no frost except at the head
" of the Great Chasm on the occasion mentioned, but it
" seems reasonable to suppose that about a month later night's frosts would be found to prevail.******* Heavy dews were
" prevalent, but it seems probable, both from report and the
" appearance of the water-courses, that very little rain falls
"in this part of the country. During six weeks, from the
"commencement of August, there were only two days on
" which rain fell, and then it was accompanied by heavy
" thunder and lightning." *
Enough, however, has probably been said on this subject;
and a brief review of the agricultural products of the various
sections will serve equally to illustrate the capacity both of
the climate and the soil to second the industry of the agriculturist.
In the settled portions of Vancouver Island all the common cereals are produced abundantly. Wheat yields ordinarily from 30 to 40 bushels per acre %} Oats ~f produce frequently as high as 60 bushels. Indian Corn, though not
largely cultivated, and perhaps not an economical crop for
this locality, ripens freely by the end of September.    Pota-
* Report of Captain R. M. Parsons, R. E., to Colonel Moody,
dated 16th. September, 1862.
f See Appendix Q.
rV% 1 * a
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &0.
47
toes, turnips, and all the usual varieties of culinary vegetables, grow to a great size. The climate seems to be specially
well adapted for the growth of Hops. These are cultivated
sufficiently to meet the local demand; the surplus, if any,
being exported to San Francisco, where their superior quality
secures for them a ready sale.* The average yield is from
1,200 lbs. in ordinary years, to 2,000 lbs. per acre in favorable seasons. On the peninsula near Victoria, and I presume in other choice localities, the Musk-melon and the
Water-melon attain perfect maturity in the open air, without
artificial aid; the Tomato and the Capsicum yield copiously;
the Peach ripens its fruit as a standard; and the Grape (of
the Isabella variety) produces abundantly and comes
to full maturity in a favorable exposure. Orchard fruits,
exclusive of the Peach which is not generally planted, are
cultivated abundantly throughout the settlements, and with
marked success.
On the Lower Fraser the climate is adapted generally for
the same productions, and most of those enumerated are cultivated there.
About Thompson's River the continuous summer heat is
specially favorable for the production of such fruits as the
Melon. Indian Corn would probably be profitable as a general crop. Wheat and other cereals, with all kinds of culinary vegetables, flourish. In parts, where the nature of the
locality demands it, irrigation is resorted to with, as may be
supposed, the most successful results. Approaching the
Southern frontier, upon the Okinagan, the Grape, were it
desirable, might be largely cultivated, and, I do not hesitate
to say, with success. I have already noticed the proximity
of this portion of the Province to the Great Desert, the intense heats from which extend an influence far around.
At Alexandria, long before the general settlement of the
Province, Wheat was cultivated on a limited scale.f   From
* See Appendix RR.
f Wheat was also raised for some years in considerable quanti- CLIMATE, AGRICULTURB, &0.
1843 to 1848, between 400 and 500 bushels were raised annually at the Hudson's Bay Company's Post, and converted
into flour by means of a mill, with stones eighteen inches in
diameter, wrought by horses. As much as forty bushels to
the acre, by careful measurement, and of the finest quality,
were raised on portions of the land cultivated during the interval mentioned. Of late years large quantities arc annually
raised in the same neighbourhood, as well as elsewhere in
the Central District; and it is needless to add with the advantage of very different appliances for its subsequent manufacture.
As before casually remarked, the country from Alexandria
upwards is to be regarded rather in the light of a hunting
and mining region than as adapted for agricultural settlement. Nevertheless, as high as Fraser's Lake, Barley yields
abundantly; and the Potatoe, with of course other culinary
vegetables, comes to great perfection.* There are large
tracts of the most nutritious pasture throughout.
Before quitting this important subject, however, I judge
it well to pursue it a little further than I had at first intended. And first, preferring to quote, where possible, an independent authority, I avail myself of the following excellent
remarks which I find published in the British Colonist newspaper, from the journal of Mr. James Riohardson, conducting the Geological Survey of the Province for the Dominion
Government:—
" The vegetable soil which has  been   mentioned seems
to be of a very productive character, and whether in the
" forest, the field, or the garden, appears, combined with the
" favorable climate, to yield large returns. In the Com ox
41 district, about 140 miles from Victoria, as already stated,
ties at Port George; bat owing to the occasional occurrence of
night-frosts, with varying success.
* In 1839 the return, at Fraser's Lake, from IS bushels of cut
seed, exceeded 700 bushels of Potatoes, of the Ladies' Finger variety. Manure, it should be added, was employed, and iho season
was verv favourable. CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
49
" the soil is spread over a very considerable area of prairie
" country, commonly designated an opening, extending from
" the Coast up the different branches of the Courtenay River
" for seven or eight miles. The surface of this district, which
" is naturally free from timber, with the exception of single
" trees and stumps, chiefly of Oaks ( Quercus Garry ana) and
"strips of Alders {Alnus Oregond) in the bottoms, may be
" some twelve square miles, the scenery of which is pictur-
" esque and parklike. Its margin is very irregular in shape,
" and it is surrounded by a growth of very heavy timber,
" among which are the Douglas Pine (Abies Douglasii) often
" attaining ten feet in diameter and 200 feet in height, half
' I of which is free from branches, and the Cedar (Thuja
" Gigantea), often equally large. The open country in its
" natural state is mostly covered with a growth of ferns,
" which sometimes attain a height of ten feet, with stems
" three-quarters of an inch in diameter, and roots descending
" to a depth of three feet. These roots the native Indians
" prepare in some peculiar way for winter food, and excavate
" deep trenches to obtain them. The farmers are under the
" necessity of grubbing up the fern roots before the ground
"is ready for use, and they are often voluntarily assisted by
" their pigs in this operation; these animals, it is said,
" relishing the fern root as food. I was informed by Mr.
" John Robb and Mr. John McFarlan, two partnership set-
" tiers of the district, that the average yield of land, after it
" is cleared and thoroughly under cultivation, is, of Wheat,
" from 30 to 35 bushels per acre; Barley, 40 to 45 bushels;
"Oats, 50 to 60; Pease, 40 to 45; Potatoes, 150 to 200;
"Turnips, 20 to 25 tons. Some of the Turnips exhibited by
" Mr. Robb at the agricultural show are said to have been
" remarkably heavy; but those of the Swedish and yellow
" varieties, seen by me, I consider rather small. The season,
" however, was said to be an unusually dry one. The yield
" of Timothy hay is said to be about two tons per acre.
" Clover thrives well, and rye grass is valued for its after crop.
i~M&" A»fc*UH
50
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &0.
" The yield of butter per cow, after calf feeding, is about
150 lbs. annually, the ordinary selling price being 40 cents
per pound. Cattle generally require to . home-fed from
the beginning of December to the middle of April. Snow
seldom lies long. Heavy falls sometimes occur; but generally disappear in a few days. Once or twice snow has
remained on the ground for two months. Apples, pears,
plums, cherries, white and red raspberries, red, white, and
black currants, and most kinds of fruit, thrive remarkably
well. Some apples, of which I obtained samples measured
thirteen inches in circumference and weighed nineteen ounces. They were high-flavoured and well-adapted
for eating and cooking. Of the pears many measured
eleven inches in circumference, and were high-flavoured
and juicy.
"At Gabriola, prairie land, or openings, such as those
already described at Comox, occur. More of them are met
with on Saltspring Island, but in neither place of the same
extent as at Comox. Mr. Griffith, one of the settlers at
Saltspring, informed me that the fall wheat thrives well
there, and yields from 35 to 40 bushels per acre. Of other
grains the yield seems to be about the same as at Comox.
In Mr. Griffith's garden there was a large plot of common
winter cabbage, the solid heads of most of which measured
from three to four feet in circumference. Red cabbage and
cauliflowers were equally large and sound. Carrots and
parsnips were large, as well as onions; and there was
abundance of tomatoes, and several varieties of gooseberries, which did not seem to thrive so well at Comox.
Mr. Griffith informs me that at Saltspring the bushes give
in quantity and quality a crop equal with the best English.
The crops of all the varieties of currants and raspberries in
' quantity and quality vied with those of Comox.
" Mr. Griffith's orchard occupies about two acres, and has
' been set out only three or four years. I saw different va-
' rieties of apple pear, peach, plum, and cherry trees, and CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
51
the proprietor informed me that all kinds bore fruit last
year. The apples are excellent in quality, and the pears,
though not large, were equal in flavour and juicyness to
any I have ever tasted.
" Mr. Griffith has about 300 barn-door fowls, which are
fed on the grain of the farm, and enable him to supply a
great abundance of eggs to the Victoria and Nanaimo
markets, where they sell from 25 to 40 cents per dozen.
" At Fulford Harbour, Mr. Theodore Frago shewed me a
pumpkin which measured 32 inches in length, with a
diameter of 15 inches at the small end and 22 inches at
the other; and he informed me that larger ones had been
used before my arrival. The settlements of North and
South Saanich, as well as of other districts near and around
Victoria, show a good deal of prairie land," oak openings/'
as they are called in that part of the country, from the
greater abundance of trees of this species than elsewhere. In
these oak openings many beautiful farms are met with, the
soil and aspect of them resembling those of Comox. In addition to the grain, fruit, and vegetables enumerated elsewhere, the hop vine has been introduced in North Saanich,
and in the neighbourhood of Victoria. In the former place,
Mr. Isaac Cloake and Mr. Henry Wain, with some others,
have each a hop orchard, as it is there termed, of several
acres in extent. Mr. Cloake, who spent nine years amongst
the hop fields of Kent, England, informs me that his hops
are quite equal, if not superior, to the English, which, according to him, was tantamount to saying that they were
the best on the face of the earth; and Mr. Wain, who likewise had practical experience, stated that in regard to
aroma they were equal to the best he knew. They are of
the variety known as the grape hop. It was introduced
from California, and is said to have greatly improved in
British Columbia.
" The yield of hops, is here from 1,000 lbs. to 1,700 lbs.
" to the acre, and it brings in the Victoria market from 22
'/**•* 52
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
"to 60 cents per pound. When Railway communication is
" established, the article may become one of trade between
" the two Provinces, for if I am rightly informed, the hops
" imported from England are superior to any raised in
" Canada.
" Other settlements of a similar character to those de-
" scribed are established between Saanich and Nanaimo,
" which I had no opportunity of visiting. Near and around
" settlements possessing farms such as mentioned, in many
" places rocky hills rise up to heights of 1,000, 2,000, and
" even 3,000 feet and more, the surface of which is in some
" parts craggy, but in others they present patches with a thin
" soil, covered with a firm short bunch-grass, on which sheep
" and cattle thrive well: for such of them as I saw were in
" good condition. The temperature is cooler in suoh places
" than in the lower and more level country, and during the
"heats of summer they afford excellent pasturage, which
" will much assist the industry of agriculturists. Along the
" coasts and in the interior of Vancouver Island, as well as
"on those of the archipelago surrounding it, many localities
" for farms, similar to those which have been here described,
" will be discovered, and hereafter become the homes of
" thousands of a hardy and industrious people."
With reference to the judicious remarks above quoted, I
may observe that the winter-feeding of cattle referred to by
Mr. Richardson does not imply the necessity of continuous
stall-feeding, which of course with large herds, such as some
possess, would be an impossibility. The under-growth of the
adjacent forests affords, even during the severest season, copious and nutritious browsing. A supply of fodder at night,
with the shelter of commodious sheds, serves to maintain the
majority of the cattle in condition; while the milch-kine and
younger stock receive such additional care as they may require. By this winter-tendance a two-fold advantage, beyond
the mere welfare of the herds, is obtained: the straw and
other offal of the farm are converted into manure for the future CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &0,
53
enrichment of the soil, and the cattle, knowing their homes,
continue in all respects more tractable. The fern alluded to
is characteristic of most of the open parts of Vancouver Island,
and a portion of the Lower Fraser. The highest point at
which it appears on the Mainland is at Spuzzum, a few miles
above Yale. The whole of the Central District is free from it.
Though rather troublesome to eradicate entirely, it presents
no serious impediment to the cultivation of the soil. By mowing in early summer—affording, if stored, an excellent litter
for cattle—its subsequent vigour is immediately checked. A
deep ploughing and cross-ploughing with a strong team prepares the soil for a first crop of pease or oats; but it takes
some years of cultivation before the last vestiges disappear. Swedish turnips, I may add, are generally cultivated, and in most
parts attain to an enormous size; though, as mentioned by
Mr. Richardson, at times subject to partial failure, either from
the attacks of the fly, or long continued drought.
The comparatively humid climate of the Lower Fraser,
adapts the vicinity specially for the successful culture of green
crops. With this advantage, operating on a soil of teeming
fertility, enormous products are obtained. The dairy-yield,
promoted by the copious and succulent natural herbage that
abounds, is very great. At the mouth of the Fraser is an extensive delta, of which the soil, many feet in depth of pure
alluvium, is productive in an.extraordinary degree. For instance, a few years ago, the newspapers took notice of a cauliflower, raised in this locality and brought over by one of the
residents of Victoria, the weight of which I am almost afraid
to repeat. It was given, if my memory be correct, at twenty -
eight pounds; and certainly, whatever its exact weight may
have been, excited in Victoria general attention as a vegetable
curiosity. Portions, only, on the borders of this exuberant tract
have hitherto been pre-empted; and before the whole can be
rendered available for occupation a system of dyking must be
resorted to, to exclude the overflow of the summer freshets.
This process, I am informed, has already been entered upon, M2-
*.x£*
54
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
on a small scale, by individual settlers: but a systematic prosecution of the work, whereby a wide expanse may at once be
redeemed, is obviously necessary in an economic point of view.
In a speech at a public dinner recently given at New Westminster, I notice that the Premier of the Province alluded
specially to this important undertaking as having engaged the
attention of the local Government. But there are obstacles to
its immediate prosecution. By reference to the Terms of
Confederation in the Appendix it will be perceived that,
in connexion with the undetermined line of the projected
Railway from Canada, it is provided that, for two years from
the date of union (July 1871) " the Government of British
" Columbia shall not sell or alienate any further portions of
" the Public Lands of British Columbia in any other way than
"under right of pre-emption, requiring actual residence of the
" pre-emptor on the land claimed by him." Hence, until July
1873, the Government is restrained from active measures in
this regard, either as a public work, or by charter to a private
company who might be induced to undertake it. I am not
prepared to state, even approximately, what amount of valuable land might thus be made available, as no actual surveys
have been made; but it may be safely set down at many
thousands of acres, bordering on navigation, and with prolific
salmon-fisheries immediately adjacent.
With regard to the agriculture of the Central District there
is perhaps little to add to what I have already stated. In connexion with the Upper District, however, I may make some
remarks, applicable to it in common with other elevated portions of the vast Territory over which the Dominion Federation now extends. I have mentioned, as a drawback, in parts,
the occurrence of summer night-frosts, rendering precarious
the cultivation of the less hardy cereals, and vegetables of the
more tender growth. In qualification of this remark I may
now state, that by a choice of position this evil may be greatly
obviated. It will be found that in many localities the low
bottoms, too frequently selected for their apparently superior &M»*«
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &0,
55
fertility, are subject to these frosts, while the slopes which
border them are entirely exempt. For this condition, without
wishing to philosophize, a satisfactory reason may, I think, be
given. The cold air, occasioned probably through rapid
evaporation suddenly checked at night-fall, with its suspended
vapour, descends to the lowest level, displacing the warmer
and lighter superficial air below, which in turn ascends the
acclivity. I do not question that a due regard to this natural
law would, in many parts where summer frosts are found to
prevail, save the farmer from frequent disappointment. The
fertile bottoms, meanwhile, specially favorable for certain
classes of vegetation, should be'reserved for these: such as the
turnip and other crops that are virtually frost-proof.*
The capacities for pasturage of the Central District are very
extensive, and t)f a character unsurpassed, perhaps, in any part
of the world. While the valleys, as shown, are fertile for the
production of all the cereals and other produce in ordinary
cultivation, the hills which bound them, extending on all sides
in endless continuity, sparsely dotted with wood in parts, are
covered with herbage of the most nutritious description.
Along Thompson's River, and throughout the Southern por-
*NotbP. S.—Visiting the Hudson's Bay Company's post at
Edmonton, on the Saskatchewan, at several times between the
years 1832 and 1842,1 heard constant complaints that the wheat
crops cultivated there were subject to blight from the cause referred to in the text. Subsequently, in 1849, when in command at
Port Colvile on the Columbia, Mr. Rowand, the Chief Factor at
Edmonton, wrote to me again complaining, and asking for a supply of seed-wheat to replace his own degenerated produce. I accordingly sent a few bushels across the Rocky Mountains by the
Autumn Express ; and at the same time mentioned the result of
my own then recent experience at Alexandria. Whether owing to
this suggestion or not, I am not prepared to say, but a change in
the system of culture was subsequently adopted ; for Dr. Rae, to
whom I mentioned the subject in Victoria in 1864, partly doubtful
of the adaptability of the Upper Saskatchewan for wheat-raising,
assured me that, on his recent passage across the Continent, he
had witnessed, both at Edmonton and Lake St. Anne in the immediate vicinity, crops of the finest wheat, while flour of excellent
quality was manufactured yearly.
A1   W1    ft**    I*   l*l■ j*V
^^^^F
'                     < •■--     r   \   Vj*"'         • ■j^TQiz,   .   $£""« •- ',*    •-'# •'#'*• ™ .
ilP7» CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
tions, there is a species of grass, called by the Voyageurs Fain
Rond, by the English settlers Bunch-grass, which is specially
noted for its valuable qualities.* The whole tract is well
watered—in the intervals between the hills by frequent streamlets, in the level depressions by small lakes: while the groves
and scattered trees afford a grateful. shade by day, at night a
shelter. Under this conjunction of favorable circumstances it
is not surprising that the herds of cattle, roaming at large in
the natural pastures, attain a condition approaching to that of
stall-fed stock. Winter-feeding is in most parts quite unnecessary ; and it is found that the cattle in early spring, if short
of their summer condition, are still in order for the butcher.
The Similkameen | beef, for example, when occasionally a
herd is brought to Victoria, excites the attention of epicures
by its excellent quality, and commands always the highest
market-price.   In such parts, on the other hand, as it may be
* The late Mr. Jeffrey, a botanist who visited the Country under
the auspices of the Hudson's Bay Company, employed by the Duke
of Buccleuch and other gentlemen to make collections, informed
the writer that the grass in question appeared to be the most valuable for pasture of any he had ever met with. He collected a
quantity of the seed, with a view to its propagation in Europe;
but it is questionable whether it would thrive in any save the warm
dry localities which are its natural habitat. It has the peculiarity
that it never ceases to grow : thus, however apparently dry the
exterior, the heart, shrouded from view, is always green, even in
the depth of winter.
Poor Jeffrey, it may be added, after wandering, sometimes in
company with the writer, through a considerable portion of British
Columbia, and braving all its fabulous dangers, met his fate in
New Mexico, in 1852. He was murdered by a Spanish outcast, for
his mules and his scanty travelling-appointments.
j- Similk-ameen—literally Salmon-river—so named by the natives,
apparently on the principle of lucus a non lucendo; for no salmon
now frequent it. I am, however, disposed to think that in bygone
times it was otherwise, and that the fall or rapid near the mouth,
by which their ascent now appears to be prevented, has been not
very remotely occasioned through some convulsion of nature. The
erection of fish-stairs at this point might, I think, be easily effected ; and, this done, the fish might be readily re-introduced : a boon
to the settlers along the banks. This river, joining the Okinagan
near the Boundary Line, and thence flowing to the Columbia,
waters a very picturesque valley, affording,in parts,fertile lands for
settlement and abundant pasturage. CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
57
found expedient to give occasional assistance to the cattle
during winter, when snow is on the ground, an. advantage is
indirectly gained : the herds become more domestic in their
habits, and are gathered afterwards, when necessary, with less
difficulty. Horses, however, even during the severest winters,
require no such aid. Unlike horned cattle, they instinctively
scrape through the snow for a subsistence; and such is the
nutritious quality of the herbage that they winter well. In
this way the large herd of horses, some two hundred in number, formerly maintained by the Hudson's Bay Company at
Alexandria, were constantly kept in that vicinity : and the
band at Kamloops, on Thompson's River, including broodmares and young stock, probably from five to six hundred, in
like manner shifted for themselves at all seasons.
There are probably now, grazing at large throughout the
Central District, under the circumstances I have mentioned, a
good many thousands of head of cattle, chiefly of superior
breeds. Of these a large proportion belong to permanent settlers ; the rest to graziers resorting thither from Washington
Territory and Oregon, as to a lucrative market, and for facile
feeding. The capacities of the Country are, however, so extensive, that the herds at present scattered through it have no
appreciable effect upon its resources, beyond the comparatively
limited area of their feeding-grounds. It might be supposed
that, free to wander as they are, the cattle might gradually
become wild and unmanageable, as formerly in California, or
as still in the Southern Pampas. I have heard, however, no
complaint on this score. By a simple expedient indeed—
resorted to formerly at the interior posts, as well as by the
Indians for their horses, and practised, I do not doubt, by the
modern settlers—the herds can be readily attracted homeward
during the summer season. While the hills are free from flies
at night, during the heat of the day the animals eagerly seek
refuge from their attacks. The smoke from a smouldering fire,
maintained near the homestead, readily attracts them; and,
once accustomed, they afterwards habitually resort to it. This, 58
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
however trivial the relation may appear, is by no means an
unimportant consideration, for the ulterior effect produced:
and thus even the gad-fly, pest though it be, is not without
its uses.* On the whole it may be safely affirmed that there
exist throughout the region great facilities for rearing cattle on
an extended scale, so far only very partially availed of.
Sheep thrive well in the Interior, but, so far, no large flocks
exist. The paucity of their numbers, indeed, has prevented
the establishment of a woollen-factory which was projected
about three years ago. The abandonment of this project is to
be regretted, as its prosecution would at once have given an
impetus to a branch of pastoral industry which, failing a convenient market for its product, has so far been only partially
attended to—and then rather for the butcher than the weaver.
There are, however, extensive tracts which I can recall to
mind which seem specially adapted for the pasturing of very
extensive flocks. For their successful nurture, moreover, the
dry nature of the uplands, the quality of the pasture, and the
* The powerful effect exercised upon the migrations of the Reindeer by a species of this fly {OEstrus Tarandi), and the system con»
sequent thereon adopted by the nations of Northern Europe in the
management of their domesticated herds, Will not escape the notice
of the observant reader. The device mentioned in the text may be
regarded as at least a partial adaptation of a similar natural cause.
The mosquitoes, on the other hand, execrate them as we may while
suffering from their punctures, are presumably not without their
direct utility in the order of Nature. I have never been able to
discover what the creatures feed upon when a living subject fails
them—for they are always apparently fasting. It may be assumed,
at any rate, that these tiny tormentors consume, or absorb in some
mysterious way, subtile gases, the result of humidity and decaying
vegetation, which might else be noxious to Man. I have alluded
to the prevalence of these insects at certain seasons upon the Lower
Fraser; and may add that, though not generally prevalent, they
are also found in a minor degree along the wooded water-courses
of the Interior. Where they exist they are certainly troublesome
at times ;'but it may be fairly questioned how far the Country in
its unimproved state would be habitable without them—if this be
any comfort to the afflicted; for it is noticeable that when the conditions that produce these insects are modified or removed, they
vanish with them The further consideration of this abstruse enquiry, however, I leave to those curious in the arcana of entomology—and I crave pardon for the digression. CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
59
character of the climate, would, as it seems to me, be conducive in a peculiar degree.*
As regards salubrity of climate there is probably no part of
the world that enjoys greater advantages. We are aware of
no endemic disease that manifests itself in any part; and even
Upon the Lower Fraser, which from its comparative humidity
might be supposed favorable to the generation of fevers of the
ague type, we know of no single case that has originated there.
On the contrary, where the seeds of these troublesome complaints have been imported from abroad, their effects have been
re-produced, if at all, with less virulence, and the sufferers, we
have been informed, have gradually recovered. Of course, as
in all other countries, occasional epidemics run their course:
but as far as the intrinsic healthiness of the climate, throughout, is concerned, nothing is left to be desired. The warm dry
climate of the inland summer, it may be observed, is specially
favorable in cases of pulmonary disease: and in a more marked degree as we approach the Southern frontier. Lower down
on the Columbia River, beyond the limits of the Province,
where the climate is analogous in character, we have known
cases of the recovery of consumptive patients, of the most
signal nature.-)"
* Note P. S.—An article by a writer in the British Colonist
Newspaper has recently appeared, so closely corroborative of some
of the foregoing remarks that I gladly reproduce it in the Appendix
For the encouragement of Agriculture and stock-raising, I may
here add, several societies have at different times been organised.
Of these there are now five: one in Victoria, another at New
Westminster, a third at Saanich, another at Cowitchan, and the
last, and most recently commenced, at Clinton in the Central District of the Mainland.
f I cite two instances, well known to the older residents of the
Country. The first, a daughter of the late Joseph Felix Larocque,
Esquire, of Montreal, formerly of the North-West and Hudson's
Bay Company, the wife of Mr. William Pion. The second, a then
young man, a native of Assineboia, who formerly acted occasionally as the writer's body-servant, while travelling on the Lower
Columbia. Both of them, reduced apparently to the last degree at
Fort Vancouver, were sent to the Upper Country, and recovered 60
CLIMATE, AGRICULTURE, &C.
To sum the qualifications of British Columbia as a field
for settlement, I may succinctly state, that, though it may
never become a large exporter of cereal products, like the
Western States of America or California, it possesses within
itself all the requisites for success: and the power to support,
in connexion with its varied industries and its external relations, a population, at least of several millions, in ease, happiness, and comparative affluence. I would fain avoid the
imputation of seeking, possibly, to draw a picture too highly
coloured; but I am free, nevertheless, to state my own personal convictions in all sincerity. I conceive of no country
presenting greater solid attractions. The varied climate and
capabilities of the several sections, whereby diversity of taste
is accommodated; the general salubrity and proved fertility
of the whole; the magnificent commercial prospects that
loom in the not distant future j and, not least, the genuine
home-feeling which impresses every English settler whose
lot has hitherto been cast within the Province—all combine
to recommend it as a future home for those who, weary of
the Old World, are bent on seeking a wider scene for the
expansion of their energies, amid | fresh fields and pastures
new.
with almost miraculous celerity. The lady first named, after the
lapse of many years, is still, or was recently, living at Colvile,
near the Boundary Line ; the second, hale and strong, was afterwards attached to one of the Hudson's Bay Company's parties in
the Interior, and his name is now widely known in connexion with
a pass in the Rocky Mountains on the line of the projected Northern
Pacific Railway—Cadotte's Pass, to wit. ^'-wL
TERMS OF LAND GRANTS.
61
CHAPTER VIII.
Terms of Land Grants—Roads, &c.—Probable Line
through the province of the canadian pacific
Railway—Estimate of Distances compared with
other Routes—Notes on Traffic likely to ensue—
Advantages of Esquimalt as the great Western
Sea-port of the Dominion—General Remarks.
From the account given in the preceding Chapter it will
be inferred that both the soil and climate of a very large
portion of British Columbia are highly favorable to encourage
settlement. We may now add that vast tracts of land, and
especially of the Central District, lie waiting for the plough.
It is of course impossible upon a mere cursory review of the
subject such as this professes to be, to state, even approximately, what number of cultivable acres there may possibly
be: but we may safely assert that, in addition to the many
farms already scattered along the main lines of communication, there is immediate room for many thousands more in
various directions, all more or less easily accessible.*
The terms upon which the settlement of unoccupied and
unsurveyed lands is permitted, are very liberal. Every male
person of eighteen years of age or over, being a British sub-
* It would be utterly fallacious to attempt to give an estimate of
the number of available acres scattered over the broad surface of the
mainland of British Columbia. The Country, as before remarked,
is capable of supporting its several millions at least. On Vancou-
Island, an estimate made'by the Surveyor-General gives more than
300,000 acres of good land, known to be available for agriculture;
but this estimate refers only to the Districts bordering on the sea,
on the southern and eastern shore. Elsewhere, and in the interior
are doubtless valuable and extensive tracts yet to be developed.
Its exhaustless coal-fields are, however, the great feature of Vancouver Island—pointing to it as the future manufacturing emporium of the Pacific. Its agricultural claims, though very substantial, must be regarded as secondary to those of the mainland.
ma 62
TERMS OF LAND GRANTS.
ject, born or naturalized, may enjoy the right to pre-empt,
under certain stated conditions, a tract not exceeding three
hundred and twenty acres in extent, to the northward and
eastward of the Cascade Range of Mountains; and one hundred and sixty acres in extent in other parts of the Province.
Personal occupation during a period of four years, (intervals
of absence when necessary being permitted), and improvements to the value of two dollars and fifty cents per acre, are
necessary to complete the pre-emptive right. On proof of
this, the title is finally issued by the Government, on the
payment of such sum, not exceeding one dollar per acre, as
may be determined upon by the Governor for the time being.
This payment, if required, may be extended, in equal instalments, over a period of four years after the pre-emptive right
is established, and the necessary surveys made. Power, at
the same time, is reserved to the Governor in Council to
make such free, or partially free, grants of the unoccupied
and unappropriated Crown Lands of the Province, for the
encouragement of immigration, or other purposes of publio
advantage, as may seem advisable.
For pastoral purposes very great facilities exist, beyond
the limits actually pre-empted. In every part of the Central
District extensive ranges of hilly or partially wooded land,
rich in the finest pasture, are accessible. These may be regarded as common-land: but each bond fide pre-emptor is
permitted to lease, in the vicinity of his farm, a tract of unoccupied land for pastoral purposes, to which, during his
lease, he possesses the exclusive right. Eligible portions of
such leased lands, however, are open to pre-emption, meanwhile, by intending settlers: the lessee, of course, being entitled to claim a corresponding deduction from the trifling
amount of rent he may be required to pay.
The upset price of Surveyed Lands, for agricultural purposes, is fixed at one dollar per acre; subject to public sale
in lots, at.certain intervals, to the highest bidder. All lands
remaining  unsold  after   such public exposition,  can  be
Wm
%imM .«»
ROADS, &C.
63
purchased by private contract from the Government at the
upset price.
A market is constantly available: on the sea-board through
the local demand incident on the various industries of the
towns, with the fleet and the mercantile shipping: in the interior through the mines. The products of the farm command, consequently, always a remunerative price. .
Owing to the high rate of wages current for European
labour, Indian laborers are largely employed. These can be
obtained at a comparatively cheap rate; and for most purposes connected with agriculture and fishing they are very
efficient. Being cheerful, obedient, and generally industrious,
the services of the young men are of much local value.
I have before noticed the principal routes of communication with the Interior, and it seems needless to dwell with
minuteness on this point. A brief summary may, however,
be given. There is a regular steamer-service twice a week, or
oftener when necessary, between Victoria and New Westminster ; the running time being about six hours. Thence
large stern-wheel steamers navigate the Fraser as high as
Yale j the ascent occupying a day or more, according to the
condition of the water. From Yale there is a weekly mail-
service by stages, up to BarkervUle, in the heart of the
Caribou mining region. Transport along this line of road is
performed with waggons drawn by mules or oxen; relieved,
when required, by a steamer which runs from Soda Creek,
twenty miles below Alexandria, to Quesnel, forty miles above
that point; or some twenty miles higher when necessary.
The navigation is then interrupted by a rapid, the ascent of
which is not attempted. Above this point there is a clear
navigation for steamers for a distance of sixty miles, to within twenty miles of Fort George, where another rapid, impracticable for steamers, occurs. From this point upwards,
both by the Stuart and Fraser Lake Branch, and in the direction of TSte Jaune's Cache, there are stretches very favorable for steam-navigation: but the occasional breaks are a 64
ROADS, <fcc.
great drawback. Nevertheless, with the extension of the
mining operations these will doubtless in time be made available, in parts, so as to meet the increased demand for transport j and inducements for settlement thus arise in the
upper portion of the Province which do not at present exist.
The route of access to the mining-region on the heads of
the Peace River, known generally as the Omineca Mines, to
which I have before casually alluded, has the great advantage of shortness of land-travel, and consequently of economy,
to persons desiring to proceed thither from Victoria. By
this route the first stage is, by steamer to Port Essington,
about three days voyage. Thence the Skeena River is ascended by boat or canoe, as far as the Babine Forks*; after
which the remainder of the distance to the mining locality
(estimated at from 180 to 200 miles) is performed partly on
foot, partly by water on the intervening lakes, As I have
perhaps before remarked, both lines of approach to these
mines have their advocates; and each has in some respect
an advantage. For the introduction of live stock it is needless to say that the route from the Interior is the only one at
present used.
To the excellent natural roads that traverse the country
in most parts, I have already alluded. I may add that liberal
appropriations for the improvement of these roads in all directions are annually made."j" Thus constantly increasing
facilities of access to the main lines of transit are afforded.
The completion of these last, as has been remarked, involved
a very large outlay, aud bore hardly on the early resources
of the Province.    Hence it became necessary to impose oer-
* Babine (Fr.) A large lip, as of a beast, &c. The name was
applied by the early voyageurs to the Ta-cully of the Nata-pnnkat
(Babine Lake) on account of their having adopted' the custom of
the tribes of the Coast immediately adjacent, of inserting a wooden
appendage into the lower lip of the females.
j-Note P.S.—Since the above was written an excellent stage-road
has been opened from near the mouth of the Thompson to Osooyoos
on the Okinagan—a distance of some 200 miles, as travelled. A
weekly line of stages is now running on this route. ■%IM
PROBABLE LINE OF CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
65
tain Road Tolls from which a considerable revenue was
annually collected. The improved financial condition of the
Province, however, since the Confederation with the Dominion, has enabled the Government, during the recent session
of the Legislature, to repeal this tax: and all the communications are now entirely free.
By the terms agreed upon on the admission of British
Columbia into the Canadian Confederation, the Government
of the Dominion undertakes, among other things, to construct
a Railway from Canada. to the Pacific, through British Columbia, within a period of ten years.* In July of 1871,
almost simultaneously with the proclamation of our new
political relations, the surveys were vigorously commenced
on the Pacific water-shed, in connexion with those already
in progress on the Eastern slopes. It would be vain to
augur, by anticipation, how soon the great work in question
may be accomplished; or to speculate on the unforeseen
facilities for its completion which will probably be found to
exist. It may, however, be permitted to indicate generally
the line, up to a certain point, which the road will probably
follow, from the Saskatchewan westward. Leaving that
river near Fort Edrnonxon, a line of country bordering on
the divide between the Saskatchewan and the Athabasca,
presenting no engineering difficulties of moment, is available
up to the Rocky Mountains. Entering the Pass at Jasper's
House, the line then diverges up Miette's River, across the
height of land, and down the Fraser to the vicinity of Moose
Lake or Tete Jaune's Cache, before noticed. Thence by
the heads of the Cranberry Fork, and down the North Branch
of the Thompson.
It is of course impossible to predict the conclusion at
which the engineers may arrive after a full survey of the
several passes shall have been effected : but some of the advantages possessed by the route in question may be briefly
stated.
* See Appendix L.—Terms of Union. 66      PROBABLE LINE OF CANADIAN PAOIMO RAILWAY.
The Pass by the heads of the Miette * and the Fraser is
so gradual of ascent, with so few obstacles worthy of consideration, that it may be characterized almost as a natural road.
Its shortness and directness with regard to the probable terminus on the Pacific Coast, give it moreover an advantage
over any other line of approach : and although the depth of
snow at the summit, during winter, is much greater than I
have seen gravely stated, there is far less than by any other
Pass with which I am acquainted, either from personal observation or report. The snow, too, through the effects of
certain natural phenomena which here prevail, and for which
I do not profess to account, becomes more compacted, consequently does not drift in an equal degree, and is therefore in
all respects more manageable than elsewhere; The importance of this consideration is material j bearing in mind that
the stoppages upon the Union Pacific Railway during the
past winter arose chiefly from drift.
It is a curious fact that, in the valley of the Athabasca,
upon this line of transit, for a distance of thirty miles or
more both above and below Jasper's House, the snow never
accumulates. There is constant grass : and the large herds
of horses formerly kept there by the Hudson's Bay Company,
for transport over the mountains, wintered there, fat, upon
the natural pasture. Crossing by this Pass many years ago, *
on his way from the Saskatchewan, the writer found, in the
month of January during a winter of almost unexampled
severity, that the snow had entirely disappeared from the
immediate banks of the river, at the mouth of the Cranberry
* Some of these names are destined to be perpetuated, and in
any future account of the Province it might be well to
notice them. Miette, for example, known in his time as the
"Bon-homme Miette," whose name this river bears, was an old
voyageur of the North-west Company, who first ascended the
stream on a trapping-tour. There is a conspicuous rock near
Jasper's House—forming, as it were, with the opposite hills, the
portal of the pass—which likewise bears his name. Jasper Klyno
was a post-master of the Hudson's Bay Company, long in charge
of the little outpost (now abandoned) culled after him. A Swiss,
I believe, of DeMenron's Corps, brought oat to Red River by Lord
Selkirk, in 1814 or thereabout. , PROBABLE LINE OF CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.     67
Fork, near Te*te Jaune's Cache; and, for a distance of some
forty miles down the Fraser, the ice was perfectly denuded
of snow. A warm wind prevailed, accompanied at intervals
by a gentle rain. It could only be inferred that this warm
current, extending through the Pass, exercised a modifying
influence there ; and, spreading afterwards through the
Jasper's Valley, produced the effects noted. As these effects,
however, are known to be constant in the latter named locality, we way infer that the same cause is likewise constant.
I may remark, passingly, that similar effects are also produced in a marked degree in other parts of British Columbia:
but, as before mentioned, I do not profess to account for
these phenomena in all their bearings. Such conclusions
could be arrived at only after minute and protracted observation; and are beyond the scope of the passing traveller, bent
on penetrating through the wilderness, and eager to get
home.*
The point at which the projected Railway will be made to
strike the Coast, is still a problem to be solved. Bute Inlet,
north of Nanaimo, is the most eligible, provided it shall be
found practicable to bridge the Narrows of Johnstone's Strait,
and thus continue the line to Esquimalt. Otherwise a point
further South, perhaps Burrard's Inlet, will probably be
selected; with a steam ferry to Nanaimo, and thence again
by rail to Esquimalt,—the great natural terminus which it
is indispensable to attain. In any case the line, after descending the North Branch of the Thompson (assuming the route
by Jasper's to be the one preferred) will have to diverge to
the westward, and approach the Fraser through some of the
depressions near Bridge Creek. It is bootless, however, to
anticipate that which the surveys now in progress will soon
decide.
On the whole it has been made apparent, by the explorations already effected, that the difficulties in the way of accomplishing the grand national object in view, are far less
* See Note- m$
68      PROBABLE LINE OF CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY.
than were expected. Hence, with the vigorous determination to proceed that has been manifested, we may regard the
undertaking as in a fair way for speedy accomplishment.
Its future effects in a national point of view, and especially
the influence it is destined to exercise on the immediate
interests of this Province, might well be left to the imagination of the reader; nevertheless, I may hazard a few remarks,
which, if superfluous as regards some, may not be without
interest for many.
An undertaking of this nature is not, of course, to be regarded from a merely local point of view : its successful
completion involves the future commercial interests, not only
of England in particular, but of other nations also. I think
it is in the work of Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle that the
route is significantly termed the "True North-West Passage;" just as the Suez Canal may be designated that of the
South-east; and as such, in its general relations, we will
regard it. It is, however, with reference to Great Britain
alone that I shall consider the subject, albeit imperfectly.
Our active and enterprising competitors for commercial supremacy, the United States, have already, for three years
past, had a line in full operation to San Francisco; of which
the signal success presents noteworthy encouragement for
other enterprises of a similar nat uro. As far back as 1866,
however, as appears by a pamphlet which lies before me,*
while yet this success as a pecuniary question was problematic, a second over-land Railway, called the Northern Pacific,
was projected; the proposed terminus of which, in Washington Territory—still I believe undecided—was either at Seattle
on Admiralty Inlet, or Olympia at the head of Puget Sound,
distant respectively about 85 and 150 miles above Esquimalt,
the proposed Canadian terminus, on Fuca's Strait. The last-
named enterprise, however, though not formally abandoned,
* Northern Pacific Railway. Memorial, Correspondence, and
Report of Engineer in Chief. Washington, 1868. Other competitive Railways through California have since been projected, which
it is unnecessary to notice here. ESTIMATE OF DISTANCES. 68
has not apparently been, so far, prosecuted with the wonted
energy of our neighbours. Last in the field is that of which
we now specially treat—the Canadian Pacific Railway.
I subjoin a comparative statement of the distances by these
several routes, compiled chiefly from a pamphlet by the late
Mr. Alfred Waddington,* and that before alluded to. I have
not, I may add, attempted to verify the estimates in either,
but accept both as nearly correct:—
New York to San Francisco (Railway in operation).
Distance from New York, by Chicago, to Cmaha
on the Missouri  1,531 miles.
From Omaha to San Francisco, about  1,830
English miles....-    3,361
Northern Pacific Railway (projected).
From New York to Superior City, on Lake Superior, about  1,500
To Judith Mountains, Long. 109° W  895
To Columbia River, above Walla Walla  660
To Seattle or Olympia, on Puget Sound,about 220
  1,775
English miles    3,215
Canadian Pacific Railway (projected).
From Montreal to Ottawa, via the Ottawa River     115
From Ottawa to Bute Inlet, about  2,885
3,000
Head of Bute Inlet to Esquimalt, 85 miles nearer
to the Ocean than Seattle, about      200
English miles    3,200
With reference to the commerce of the East—if it be not
paradoxical to term that the East which we are now approaching from the contrary direction—the following considerations
may be noted. Assuming Yokohama, in Japan, for a starting
point, the direct distance to Esquimalt may be taken, in
round numbers, at about 4,200 geographical miles; equal to
about a month's voyage of a sailing vessel.f    Canton is pro-
* Overland Route through British North America, by Alfred
Waddington.    London, 1868.
f The Flying Squadron, reaching Esquimalt in May, 1870, performed the voyage, under sail, in 26 days—but this was regarded ro
ESTIMATB OP DI8TANCES.
bably about a fortnight farther, in point of time. Measured
across the map, San Francisco may be regarded as equidistant. The actual distance necessary to be traversed by a
sailing vessel in order to reach that port is, however, considerably greater; as will appear from the following remarks
which I find quoted from a recognised authority of the highest standings—Professor Maury, of Washington. " The trade
" winds place Vancouver Island on the wayside of the road
" from China and Japan to San Francisco so completely, that
" a sailing vessel trading under canvas to the latter place,
" would take the same route as if she were bound for Vancouver Island. So that all return cargoes would naturally come
" there in order to save two or three weeks, besides risk and
" expense." Hence it is manifest that the Canadian Pacific
Railway, terminating at EsquimaH>r-and in a minor degree
the projected Northern Pacific Railway, owing to the perversities of the inland navigation necessary to reach its proposed
terminus—would possess a great advantage over the. line,
now in operation, from San Francisco to New York. The
last-named port, moreover—about equidistant from Liverpool
or London with Montreal—is considerably farther than
Halifax, to which point it would be necessary to extend the
transport during the period of closed-navigation of the St.
Lawrence. This necessity would involve a further land-
transport of 482 miles, by the Intercolonial Railway now in
operation: but then the shipping point on the Atlantic would
be some five hundred miles nearer to England than is New
York. Hence it is obvious that the route now under process
of survey, if the foregoing estimates be nearly correct, presents the advantage, as from China to England, of some
seven hundred miles over the projected Northern Pacific
Railway; and, under the consideration advanced by Professor Maury, of more than a thousand over the present route
by San Francisco.
as an unusually short voyage. Probably from 30 to 35 days might
be considered a fair ran. In connexion with this subject see Note—
Appendix D-3. wp.m
WOTES ON TRAFFIC LIKELY TO ENSUE. 71
As a pecuniary investment the Central, or Union, Pacific
Railway has been so far very successful, as will appear by
the following statement, issued by the Company, which I
extract from a late number of the San Francisco Bulletin:—
" Official Statement of business for the three fiscal years,
ending April 30, 1872.
1869-70 1870-71 1871-72
Gross earnings $8,364,593    $7,333,961    $7,679,753
Expenses     5,797,099      3,898,704      4,062,914
Net earnings  $2,567,494   $3,435,257    $3,616,839 "
The sources of the above income are, the sale of land-
grants along the line, and the enormous traffic, local and
from abroad, that has been developed. The outlay is incurred by payment of current interest on Bonds, and running
expenses.*
When first the project of constructing a line across the
Continent to San Francisco was mooted, sceptical vaticinators
augured that it would, at best, be available for the transport
of the lightest and most costly description of goods, only. To
show how groundless these anticipations have proved, I subjoin
a memorandum of the receipts on two successive days of the
present season, casually quoted in a recent number of the
Weekly Bulletin, above referred to. " The receipts of freight
" by railroad yesterday included 2 cars of Agricultural Im-
I plements; 200 cases Alcohol; 18 cases Boots ; 1 car, and
154 packages Bacon ; 40 packages Eggs; 74 tierces Hams;
1906 cases Cheese; 97 boxes Lard ; 35 kits Mackarel; 10
" barrels Neats-foot Oil; 35 barrels Lard Oil; 907 bundles
"Paper; 44'barrels Pork; 1 car Shovels; 488 cases and 65
| packages Tobacco; 48 barrels Whiskey; and 640 bundles
I Wire." Again: | The receipts of freight by railroad yes-
I terday included 1 car Bacon; 155 cases Boots; 10 cases
% Cheese; 10 packages Cordage; 24 bundles Iron Tubes j
* Supplementary to the above statement the estimated gross income for May is given at $812,000. The actual earnings for the
previous month were $724,446. MMWm
72 ADVANTAGES OF -ESQUIMALT AS THE WESTERN SEAPORT.
" 34 bundles Iron; 6 packages Leather; 2 Pianos; and 355
"packages Tobacco."
The return-freights from San Francisco are of varied char-
acter; including fresh fruits, flour, wines, and other articles,
the product of California; and entire cargoes of Teas and other
merchandise from China and Japan. British Columbia affords
her quota of patronage in both directions; and recently, I am
informed, the Hudson's Bay .Company forwarded from Victoria
to San Francisco a number of casks of valuable Furs, for
transmission. thence, overland and by steamer, to London; at
most a three-weeks passage.
I shall not, I trust, be suspected of arguing from a purely
local stand-point, when I indicate briefly some of the advantages which Esquimalt presents as the future terminus of the
Dominion Railway. The feasibility of bridging the Narrows
opposite to Bute Inlet is, as I have remarked, still undecided:*
otherwise the question would be one simply of cost; which,
all other considerations admitted, would be of inferior moment.
But, whether by bridging here, or with the intervention of a
ferry from some other point, it is necessary to the full measure
of future success that the line should be continued to the extreme limit I have named. Lying immediately within the
broad Estuary of De Fuca's Strait, Esquimalt seems destined
by Nature as the future emporium of a vast commerce. Its
splendid harbour is at all times readily accessible from seaward ; and, with a light-house which stands some ten miles
'westward, and another which, like the Pharos of another
Alexandria, indicates the immediate entrance, it may be
securely approached and entered at any hour, by day or night.
It is not, however, upon this ground alone that the position is
* In a former chapter I have mentioned that the channel at this
point does not exceed a few thousand yards in breadth—the exact
measurement I have not at hand. It is here, however, necessary
to explain that a large island, called Valdez Island,'separates the
whole channel into two parts, each of which is narrowed, at points
lying diagonally to each other, to very small dimensions. The
depth of the water, and the strong effects of the tides, appear to be
the chief engineering difficulties to be encountered.
iJjjrL--!: t«y&.«~
GENERAL REMARKS.
78
founded. Above Esquimalt the navigation, though still good,
is rendered more uncertain through the effect of cross-tides
and baffling winds; and especially to reach a comparatively
remote point like Bute Inlet. This difficulty, it will be suggested, might be overcome, with a certain outlay, by the employment of tug-boats: but there is another incidental difficulty, prolific of delay, against which it is impossible to provide.
This is the occasional interruption of the inland navigation with
large craft, at times by dense smoke from forest-fires, at times
by fog, and sometimes by the combined effects of both. The
autumn, chiefly, is the season when these impediments might
be anticipated: and under the circumstances mentioned,
serious delays might occasionally occur to the shipping, which,
the terminus being at Esquimalt, would be avoided.
As regards the speedy completion of the work that has been
undertaken, a few words may be said. I am aware that there
are some who, whether really sceptical or not, profess to doubt
either the power or the inducement to carry it through. In
the uncertainty of these doubters I do not share. With a line
devoid for the most part of engineering difficulties, traversing,
with few interruptions, a region conspicuous for its fertility
and its pastoral advantages, and fringing elsewhere a tract
teeming with mineral riches, the local inducements are surely
great: and beyond these are the wide commercial interests
which I have feebly endeavoured to indicate. Up to a certain
period, indeed, many, and myself among the number, questioned the probability of the enterprise being seriously considered for many years : but the declaration of the Terms of
Union, and the prompt and energetic action of the Dominion
Government since, in fulfilment of their engagements, preclude
the question of doubt. To repeat it, then, is to question the
good faith of the Administration: a mark of disrespect, or
want of confidence which, by its liberal and manly treatment
of the Province, it has not certainly deserved. The preliminary
surveys completed, and the line decided, active operations will
be commenced simultaneously at both ends: and all augury IP '#^f-
74
GENERAL REMARKS.
is fallacious if the grand undertaking be not soon an accomplished fact. To Mr. Alfred Waddington, I may add, from
whose pamphlet I have quoted, and whose acquaintance I enjoyed in Victoria, is due, not indeed the conception, but certainly the earnest advocacy of this important national work.
Through ^him the project was first introduced in a tangible
form to the British public; to its furtherance the whole energies of his latter years were devoted; and it was while thus
engaged that he recently died at Ottawa—I believe of smallpox. The death of this worthy gentleman, while the pet project of his life was still in embryo, created much sympathy in
Victoria, as elsewhere: and I do not resist the opportunity
which I now have, of paying at least this passing tribute to
his memory.
Before leaving this topic I ought not to omit to notice an
incidental advantage which the route I have indicated across
the Rocky Mountains possesses over all the rest, and of which
the importance does not at first appear. It is the freedom from
all danger of Indian molestation. In conversation, not long
ago, with Sir James Douglas, the former Governor of the
Colony, whose great local knowledge and sound judgment in
these matters it is needless to dwell upon, I drew his attention
to this point, and he agreed with me in ascribing to it very
great weight. Crossing the Saskatchewan at Carlton, the line
would pass through a country occupied by the Crees—a
friendly and inoffensive tribe. Leaving the Cree tract near
Edmonton, and proceeding towards Jasper's, a few scattered
families of Strong-wood Assineboines alone wander over the
country—poor, harmless, and hospitable, whose sole care
is to hunt and live. West of the Pass, by the heads
of the North Branch of the Thompson, some scattered
Shew-shwaps hunt and fish for a livelihood. To reach the
Southern Passes, on the other hand, it is necessary to pass
through a tract frequented by the roving tribes of the broad
Prairie, including those Arabs of the West, the Blackfeet. It
does not indeed follow that collision with these must neceeea-
j&ffrajag POLITICAL CONSTITUTION.
75
rily ensue: but the risk is there; and it might involve, in
time, the necessity of maintaining a permanent military force
to guard against attack; just as the United States Government
is compelled, under similar circumstances, to do, for the safety
of travellers by the Southern Railway.
CHAPTER IX.
Political Constitution—Schools—Churches, &c.—
Postal Service—Telegraphs—Mechanics' Institutes, &c. — Newspapers — Banks — Population —
Indians—General Remarks on Gold Mining—Mineral Riches—Coal-Mining, &c.—General Remarks
on the attractions of the province as a field for
Settlement.
The Government of British Columbia, as of the other Provinces provided for under the " British North America Act,
1867," is administered, by a Lieutenant-Governor, appointed
by the Governor-General of Canada. The gentleman now
filling this important position is the Honorable Joseph W.
Trutch, formerly Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works in
the ci-devant Colony.
The responsible advisers of the Lieutenant-Governor are
three in number; occupying respectively the offices of Provincial Secretary, Attorney-General, and Chief Commissioner of
Lands and Works. Provision is made by the Constitution of
the Province that the number may, if found advisable, be increased to five.
The Legislature is composed of a single House, styled the
Legislative Assembly, and consisting of twenty-five members
returned by twelve Electoral Districts, as under; viz.:—On SCHOOLS.
Vancouver Island: Victoria City, 4; Victoria District, 2;
Esquimalt, 2 ; Cowitchan, 2 ; Nanaimo, 1; Comox, 1. On
the Mainland: New Westminster City, 1; New Westminster
District, 2; Yale District, 3; Lillooet, 2; Caribou District, 3;
Kootanais District, 2. The expenses of the members during
the session of the Legislature are paid by the Province; and
there is an allowance for travelling expenses to and fro.
The franchise, confined to British subjects, born or naturalized, is so liberal as to be almost equivalent to manhood suffrage. The elections are for four years: the voting done by
open poll.
Foreign residents may acquire all the rights of British subjects, within the Province, through a very simple and inexpensive process of naturalization.
The Province returns six members to the House of Commons at Ottawa; and three Senators are appointed by the
Governor-General to the Upper House. The expenses of these
Representatives are defrayed by the Dominion.
The only direct general tax levied in the Province is for the
maintenance of Roads, and is expended within the Districts
where levied. This tax is an- annual poll-tax of two dollars
each on every male resident above eighteen years of age. In
addition the owners of land are charged, for the same purpose,
four cents per acre on their land, beyond the limit of 10 acres.
A well-devised law for establishing free Schools, unsectarian
in character, throughout the Province, is now in force. A
Superintendent of Education has been appointed under the
Act; and a Board of Education, consisting of six members,
holds its sittings in Victoria. Local details are superintended
by Trustees, elected in each School District. As will be seen
by reference to the Appendix, liberal allowance has been made
in the Estimates (since voted) for carrying out the provisions of this important law. Among other definitions of the
duties of the Board of Education under the recent Act, is the
following, embodying a provision of great prospective importance : " To establish a High School in any District where
*— •      <- ™ ■ .«_! ■    SSI     >■ II
&OT5 CHURCHES, &C.
77
" they may find it expedient so to do, wherein the classics,
"mathematics, and higher branches of Education shall be
" taught; and such school shall be subject to the same obliga-
" tions and regulations as other Public Schools generally."
For private education Victoria affords good facilities: for
boys, the Collegiate School; for girls, the Angela College.
Both these schools are under the visitorship of the Episcopalian Bishop of the Diocese, the Right Reverend Dr. Hills.
There are besides other good schools for pupils of both sexes;
noteworthy among which is the excellent establishment conducted by the respected Sisterhood of St. Anne.
In Victoria there are two Episcopalian Churches—the
Cathedral of Christ Church, and St. John's; and there is a
third at Esquimalt. The Wesleyan community have a well-
built church, which it has been found necessary recently to
enlarge. The Presbyterian congregation likewise have a very
neat church. The Roman Catholics have two commodious
churches , the Bishopric of that communion, however, consequently on the death of the late highly respected Bishop,
the Sight Reverend Mgr. Demers, being at present vacant.
In addition to these places of Christian worship, there is
the Jewish synagogue, a substantial edifice of brick. New
Westminster is the residence of an Archdeacon, the Reverend
C. T. Woods; and its church has the enviable distinction of
possessing the only set of bells in the Province; a fine peal,
presented to the congregation by the same amiable Christian
lady whose name I have had occasion already several times to
mention—the present Baroness Coutts. Elsewhere in the
various Districts, where congregations can be assembled, there
are established facilities for public worship, and small churches
have been built here and there ; in other parts, necessarily,
it is only by occasional visits, at stated intervals, that the religious wants of the community are met.*
The Judicature of the Province is composed of a Chief
Justice, and, at present, one Puisne Judge—a second one, it
* Hospitals, see Appendix W. 78
POSTAL SERVICE—TELEGRAPHS—NEWSPAPERS.
is understood, to be shortly appointed. At Victoria and
other principal stations there are Stipendiary Magistrates,
who act also as Judges of the County Courts: in other parts
order is maintained by Honorary Justices of the Peace. The
vigilance of the Magistracy, and the salutary rigour of the
Judges, have repressed that tendency to violence and crime
which is assumed, however erroneously, to be inseparable
from young communities such as this. In brief, the laws
are here as vigorously administered, and there is as much
security for life, limb, and property, as in the oldest Provinces of the Dominion—and this, if my meaning be duly apprehended, is saying not a little on the question of law and
order.
The Postal Service of the Province is now entirely in the
hands of the General Government of the Dominion; and
whatever deficiency may exist in the details of the system as
lately re-organized, will shortly be remedied. A special Agent,
it is understood, is now on the way from Ottawa to place
these matters on an unexceptionable footing. At present
there is a direct mail from Europe and Canada, by way of
San Francisco, twice a month; reaching the latter place by
railway, and brought thence to Victoria by a subsidized
steamer. There is also an overland mail twice a week from
San Francisco to Olympia, on Puget Sound, by which letters
are, under the present arrangements, less regularly brought.
From Victoria there is a mail-service twice a week to New
Westminster; and once a week to all other parts of the Province, upon the regular lines of communication. The rates
of postage will appear in the Appendix.
There is constant telegraphic communication between
Europe and Victoria, by way of New York and San Francisco.
The line, which crosses the southern part of the Gulf of
Georgia to Victoria by a submerged cable, has a branch extending to the verge of the Caribou region.
Victoria supports two daily newspapers, the British Colonist and the Standard, which also reappear in a weekly form. MECHANICS' INSTITUTES—BANKS—POPULATION.      79
New Westminster has likewise two, the Dominion Pacific
Herald and the Mainland Guardian. The Upper Country
boasts of one; a useful publication, called the Caribou
Sentinel.
At Victoria and several other of the towns, Mechanics'
Institutes and Reading Rooms have been established. At
these, besides the standard collection of books that has been
accumulated, the latest European and American periodicals,
with the principal newspapers from abroad, can always be
perused.
There are three principal Banks in Victoria, with branches
elsewhere: the Bank of British North America, the Bank of
British Columbia, and Wells, Fargo, & Co.—the last an
American firm, too widely known on this Continent to require more than mention. In addition to their banking
business the last-named carry on an Express Agency, ramifying throughout Christendom. Through their means the
most important business may be transacted: and any article of use or luxury, from a piano probably to a penny whistle, can be readily obtained. This institution, originating in
the early necessities of the California Mines, has been of
marked utility and success: and there are probably few*
dwellers upon the Pacific Coast who have not been at some
time indebted to the care or the courtesy of the Agents of
Wells, Fargo's Express. The several Banks allow interest
on time-deposits of three months or upwards. In addition to
the private Banks there is a public Savings Bank, of great
utility in its way.
The population of British Columbia, owing to the fluctuations of mining success, has varied much. At no time very
large, it does not now probably exceed twelve thousand
Europeans, of whom one-half reside in Victoria and its immediate environs. The permanent inhabitants of the city,
by a census of 1870, amounted to 4,208, in the proportion of
2,528 males to 1,680 females. No reliable census of the
whole Provinoe, however, exists, so that any estimate made
i 80
INDIANS.
can be merely an approximation. With the recently improved prospects of the country, it is needless to say that
immigration is again setting in ; and it is noticeable that
O O CD S
former residents, who had left under discouragements real or
fancied, are now eagerly returning.
The Indian population, on the other hand, is numerous;
and as the Indians are producers as well as consumers, they
form an important element in the consideration of the commercial relations of the Province. For the rest, it may be
remarked that they are strictly under the law; and that, with
the appliances at command, no difficulty is experienced in
exacting obedience. In saying that the native population is
numerous J ought to confine the remark to the immediate
vicinity of the Coast. In the interior they are comparatively
few, and sparsely distributed. In many points, too, the
Indians of the interior are far mors engaging in character
than those of the sea-board. These last, however, are of a
more ingenious turn. They excel in many simple manufactures, and are not a little advanced in divers,mechanical arts.
I was shown, for instance, by a gentleman in Victoria, a fine
meerschaum pipe, which, having been accidentally damaged,
had been entrusted for repair to an Indian workman. Beating out a gold-coin he had remounted the article with a skill
comparable with that of the most practised goldsmith. It
has already been mentioned that the services of the young
men among the natives are turned to good account in agri-
cultural and other pursuits. I may add that, beydhd this,
little has been done for their improvement, save through
the efforts of private individuals, and the exertions of the
Missionaries of various denominations who are in the field.
The Government has been unpardonably supine: and it is
gratifying to know that, under the new political relations of
the Province, the care of this branch of the population devolves upon the Dominion; and that a sound system of
Indian policy will soon be organized, from which the most
beneficial results may be anticipated.
re**'.*;
?^m GENERAE BEMARKS ON GOLD-MINING.
81
The mining interests of British Columbia are of too great
importance to be treated of summarily in a brief treatise
such as this. A reference to the Appendix will show, however, the large recorded export of Gold for many years past :*
but so much is conveyed away by private hand that the real
product of the mines, of course, cannot be ascertained. The
writer has no practical knowledge of the subjeet of mining,
and he is averse to give currency to reports of the richness
of this locality or of that; which, however apparently well
founded, too often prove fallacious. Large fortunes have
been made, and large fortunes will continue still to be occasionally made, in this exciting pursuit, within the precincts
of the Province: but while some have thus become rich,
others have only been comparatively lucky, while others
again have failed almost entirely of success. He cannot,
however, do better than quote on this subject the following
excellent remarks, which he finds in a Report of Lieut. H.
Spencer Palmer, of the Royal Engineers, dated 21st February, 1863; and which, notwithstanding the lapse of time,
may be regarded as still generally applicable.
" The general tendency of the auriferous ranges throughout the Colony leads to the conjecture that the future ex-
" plorations will discover an almost unbroken continuation of
" rich deposits maintaining a north-north-westerly direction,
"and occupying a large portion of the great elbow of the
" Fraser River.
" Caribou is closely packed with mountains of considerable
" altitude, singularly tumbled and irregular in character, and
"presenting steep and thickly wooded slopes. Here and
" there tremendous masses, whose summits are from 6,000
" to 7,000 feet above the sea, tower above the general level,
" and form centres of radiation for subordinate ranges. This
"mountain system is drained by innumerable  streams, of
* Amounting, for the last fourteen years, to between 21 and 22
millions of dollars in the aggregate—showing an average exceeding one and a half million yearly, exclusive of the large amounts
that have escaped record.   See Appendix F«
j&2£ti£
,*fcj»>
wr R3F8H
3S8f.
82
GENERAL REMARKS ON GOLD-MINING*
" every size from large brooks to tiny rivulets, known re-
" spectively in mining phraseology as " creeks " and "gulch-
" es,w which run in every imaginable direction of the com-
" pass, and, winding among the valleys and gorges, discharge
" themselves into the larger streams or " rivers" which at
" length conduct their waters to the ~piaSQx.**************
" The most remunerating mining is generally found near the
"head waters of the creeks, in close proximity to the moun-
" tain clusters, which seem to be the great centres of wealth;
" and thus some of the less attractive diggings on the rivers
" and on the lower parts of the creeks have as yet scarcely
"claimed attention.**********^**********************
" The gold of Caribou is not easily attainable, and a know-
*' ledge of practical mining, shafting, tunnelling, and drift-
*' ing, is necessary to those who wish to work to advantage.
" The richest deposits are found in the existing and in the
" old channels of the creeks down close to the rocks in situ,
" called in mining language " bed-rocks," which in Caribou
«are talcose slates.*************************
" I should be trespassing beyond my province were I to
u attempt to describe the mechanical methods by which the
" gold is extracted from the earth, or to furnish statistics of
*{ the populations and yields of the various mining creeks.
*' But I beg permission to contribute my testimony to the
*e extraordinary auriferous wealth of Caribou, and, in very
*c few words, to clear up a point upon which an uninitiated
*\ person is likely to be misled, viz.: the nominal yield of a
«< claim.'"
u A miner's nlaim occupies a piece of ground 100 feet
<lsquare. When a creek has ' prospected' well, it is usual
<c for miners to form themselves into companies of from four
*' to eight, or upwards, to take up their claims (for each man
** 100 feet square) in proximity to one another, and to work
•" the whole ground thus claimed for the benefit of the com-
** pany.    If rich * pay-dirt' be struck, and t]
le mine dc in a
"'■'sufficiently advanced state, companies,- anxious to obtain
QsV", MINERAL RICHES.
W-
* the greatest possible quantity of gold in the shortest possi-
4i ble space of time, will frequently employ additional working-hands, and work during the whole 24 hours. The
" wages given last season were £2 sterling for the day of
" twelve hours. By these means extraordinary yields are
" sometimes obtained, and instances were known last autumn
" of as much as 250 oz.J(about £800 sterling), or even more,
■" being f washed up' by some of the richest companies on
" Williams Creek, as the result of 24 hours' labour. Thus,
f although this sum, subject to deductions for hired assist-
" ance, was divided among the four, six, or eight lucky pro-
" prietors, as the case might be, it must be remembered that
jj it was due to the labours of double the number of men, and
" that the dividend thus declared should not, in such in-
■" stances as these, be taken as indicating the direct result of
" one man's work. Cases occur of rich \ pockets' of gold
•" being struck, and incredible sums being rapidly extracted
" by simple means and at no extra expense j these are ex-
•" ceptions."*
The chief mining localities outside of Caribou are, at Big-
bend, above the Arrow Lakes on the Columbia River; the
Kootanais mines, on the tributary of the Columbia of that
name; and on the Peace River. There are besides inferior
■"diggings," occupied >chiefly by Chinese and others who,
like them, are content with minor profits, where by patient
industry a moderate competence is obtained. To such, however, as desire to try for higher prizes a wide field is -open;
and, without committing myself to any assertion as to the
richness of any special locality, I may safely state the
•conviction, which I share with many others—that the mineral gold-wealth of the Province has yet been but very partially exposed. Meanwhile the introduction of machinery,
with the aid of capital and engineering skill, promises to
effect soon a very great change : and though the individual
* Report of Lieutenant H. Spencer Palmer, R. B., to Col. Moody,
R. E., Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.   21st Feh~ 1863-
mr u
COAL-MINING. &C.
joiner will still continue, as before, to share the hazards of
fortune, the great prizes will, as elsewhere, fall to the overpowering combination.
As regards the other mineral riches of the Province the
eommand of capital, beyond any that is locally available,
seems to be indispensable for their development. Rich
eopper-leads abound along the Coast. A few years*- ago perhaps a dozen enterprises, for working as many seams, were
set on foot: but, as might have been foreseen, they all failed
from the cause indicated. Possibly, had all these scattered
endeavours been concentrated, a better result might have
been obtained. As it was, the scanty resources of each were
frittered away—in some cases through sheer ignorance and
mismanagement: and the conclusion became apparent, that
without the assistance of capital from abroad and the employment of competent conductors, it was vain to persist. So>
with certain silver-leads—sufficiently rich it is believed, to
reward richly the investment of money, but for which confidence has not so far been secured. The G-eologieal Survey
of the Province which has been undertaken by the Canadian
Q-overnment, and is now in progress, will doubtless reveal
more conspicuously the existence of these latent treasures j
and we may trust therefore that the day is approaching when
this great source of wealth will no longer be neglected.
The returns given in the Appendix will show that the
Coal-mines of Vancouver Island are more favourably circumstanced. The oldest mine at Nanaimo, commenced by the
Hudson's Bay Company, has for the last twelve years been
the property of an English Company, bearing the name of
the Vancouver Coal Oompany, who share a handsome annual dividend for their investment. There are two other
mines in the same vicinity: one of these, the Hdrewood,
owned also by English capitalists, is not at present worked ■
the other, the Dunsmuir, is in its infancy, but promises to
be very successful. There is also a fine seam of coal, requiring only capital for its working?, at Baynea' Sound, near
tel^t n. ^/m?^
COAL-MINING- &C.
85
Comox; besides that at the north end of tthe leland, and
another of Anthracite on Queen Charlotte's, to which I have
previously alluded. In the event of a future treaty -ef Reciprocity with the United States, in which all -the Provinces of
the Dominion would of course share, the demand for Coal from
Vancouver Island will receive a great impetus. So far as can
be discovered there is no coal of quality at all comparable with
it elsewhere on the Coast: so that were the present restrictions upon its importation removed, it would take a more
prominent place in the San Francisco market than it at present occupies.*
In 1869 an Ordinance was issued, the declared object df
which is "to develop the resources of the Colony by affording
■" facilities for the effectual working of Silver, Lead, Tin, Cop-
" per, Coal, and other Minerals, other than Gold "—the last
being specially provided for in a separate Ordinance. Under
the provisions of the Act in question, it is in the power of any
person, or association of persons, to seek for any of the minerals
enumerated, under special licence over a given space; rsndt, if
.^successful in their object, to obtain a Crown grant of the
locality, under conditions named. It is under this Act that
Mr. Dunsmuir, who I believe was originally an Overseer or
.Foreman in the employment of the Vancouver Coal Company,
and some others, have established their right to what will soon
become, if not already, a very valuable property. Confining
■ourselves to the consideration of Coal, and without going into
•minute particulars, the chief requisites may be succinctly
stated.
1. A "Prospecting Licence'" is first obtained, on application in due form to the proper authorities, not exceeding tww»
* Note P. S.—-Since the above was written the import duty an
foreign coal entering tie United States has been reduced from
$1.25 to 75 cents per .ton. Anthracite is admitted duty fr*e. The
published statements of the exports from Nanaimo, for the half-
year ending 30th June last, show a notable increase, which is pr.®-
fcably due 'an some measure to this cause,, .how.ey.ar short the inter-
v.al for its operation. u
COAL-MINING, &C.
P
years in duration: subject to extension if asked for, upon
satisfactory grounds, at the Governor's discretion. This licence
fe obtained upon cause shown, and the payment of a trifling
fee; and entitles the holder to exclusive mining rights of
search, meanwhile, within the limits described, other than for
gold.
2. A Prospecting Licence for Coal alone, may include within the general limits therein defined, not exceeding five hundred acres to each individual applicant, of previously unoccupied land', or two thousand five hundred acres to an association or company consisting of not less than ten persons. The
licence carries with it the right to make roads, use timber,
erect buildings, and other privileges necessary to preliminary
explorations'.
3. If successful in the quest, the final grant is obtained on
the following terms—viz.: For any quantity up to and including one thousand aeres, at the price of five dollars per acre :
provided always that on proof, to the satisfaction of the Government, that the sum of ten thousand dollars has been beneficially expended on any land held under Prospecting Licence
for Coal, a grant of one thousand acres of the land held under
such Prospecting Licence shall be issued to the company holding it, without payment of the upset price of such land.    In
other words they receive, virtually a bonus of five thousand
dollars, in consideration of the preliminary expenditure of the
larger sum.    Under certain necessary modifications, the same
general rules apply to mining explorations in quest of the
other minerals named.    I do not, of course, profess to go into
details; but I may venture generally on this assurance—that
the most liberal interpretation to the provisions of the Ordinance is always given by the Government, whether as regards
individuals, or associations.*
* Note P.S.—In the Appendix will be found a description of tbe
Coal-works in operation at Nanaimo, which has very recently been
riven by a visitor. Appendix B-2. The great riches of Vancouver
Island in this invaluable fossil, and the excellent quality of the MM
ATTRACTIONS FOR SETTLEMENT.
87
In conclusion, the general advantages of British Columbia
as a field for immigration may be briefly summed.
A temperate climate, remarkably salubrious in its character;
a fertile soil easily brought into cultivation; rich and extensive pastures; abundant natural resources for procuring food;
land cheaply, if not gratuitously, attainable by the industrious;
good government under a liberal constitution; security of life
and property under»rigidly executed laws; facilities for religious worship for every denomination; a liberal system of
education, free of cost; ready and cheap postal communication
with all parts of the world; telegraphic facilities through the
United States to Canada and Europe; a wide and constantly
extending market, soon to be enormously increased by the
progress of the Canadian Pacific Railway and other concomitant enterprises.
To this may be added, the early occupation of a Country
destined, if all augury be not fallacious, ere long to become,
in connexion with the Dominion of Canada, one of the most
important and flourishing dependencies of the Imperial Crown.
The distance of British Columbia from England, added to the
uncertainty or ignorance of its resources, has doubtless so far
acted^against its being regarded favourably as a field for -colonization. A reference to the scale of passages in the Appendix
will, [however, show that the objection of distance, at least,
through increased facilities of locomotion, is gradually vanishing. British Columbia is in reality to-day nearer to London,
in point of time, than was Canada thirty years ago. The cost
is still an objection ; but even this, it is to be expected, will
soon be diminished, if not materially, at least to some extent.
At present the command of about £40 is necessary for a second class passenger; thus:
England to New York or Halifax, £6 to £8     $40
To San Francisco (Currency) by railway       90
coal produced, apart from the commercial advantages directly accruing, point to a great manufacturing future for this part of th«
Province. 8$
ATTRACTIONS FOR SETTLEMENT.
To Victoria 	
Incidental Expenses
15
50
S195
It is to be borne in mind, however, that the passage may be
thus effected within the month; and that consequently the
overland route is on the whole the cheapest.
I am aware of no instance where an able-bodied, industrious,
and sober man, reaching the Province, has failed of success,
What with the gold-mines, the high rate of wages, and the
constant demand for labour in different shapes, the good economist can soon establish his footing, and become a thriving
land-owner. If in this position he may not at once attain to
opulence, he realizes a competence, and, if he have a family,
can bring them up in respectability and comfort,
I may state an instance, though for obvious reasons I suppress the name. A. B. had been a farm-laborer in Scotland.
Securing a steerage passage in a sailing vessel, he reached
O D J. D
Victoria in 1862. He at once procured work upon the road
between Victoria and Esquimalt, then in process of improvement, and found that, living well meanwhile, he could lay by
a dollar a day out of his wages. Li the spring he went to the
Interior of the Mainland, and obtained ready employment;
sometimes as an assistant to mining-companies, but never
mining on his own account. At the end of four years he was
in a position to buy and partially stock a good farm out of the
accumulation of his savings. He is now a prosperous tanner,
having two hundred acres of good land, all enclosed, and with
a large portion under cultivation; about a score of fine cattle,
and numerous swine; a good house; substantial farm-buildings; with horses, and all the necessary agricultural implements, including the half-share of a reaping-machine.
This is not a solitary case, but is cited as the example of
many.
In the Central District of the Mainland large fortunes have
been made, by parties who had capita' at the outset, by caltle-
•*?**% 123 ATTRACTIONS FOR SETTLEMENT.
89
grazing. Two brothers, the Messrs. Harper, citizens of the
United States, from Oregon, may be mentioned as having been
very successful in this branch of business. Several English
gentlemen, it may be added, having a certain command of
means, have settled in various parts of the interior, and are
realizing a rapid return for their investments.
The fishing interests of the Province have not been so far
adequately developed. In this branch of business there is
doubtless a wide field for enterprise, which will not long be
overlooked.
As regards society few words must suffice: in parts refined?
it is throughout decorous, hospitable, and intelligent.
For the encouragement of immigration an appropriation has
this year been made by the Legislature, to the extent of the
surplus funds available,—^since increased by an appropriation
from the Federal Government. So far, no settled scheme in
connexion with this appropriation has been published; but it
may possibly appear in the Appendix. Hitherto a system of
assisted passages for domestic servants has been at times
adopted ty private parties; and it is probable that something
of the same kind may be proposed by the Government with
regard to general immigrants. In the former case a bond was
executed for the repayment of the sum advanced, in due time
after arrival. Female servants, who I may remark are greatly
in demand, were generally the subjects of these private arrangements; but the issue was not always satisfactory, at least
to one party in the contract; for the damsels were likewise in
great demand in another direction; and, whatever their personal charms, were generally snapped up in matrimony long
ere their engagements had expired. But we must not quarrel
with the issue. If the employers were for a while inconvenienced, a public benefit, and much individual happiness,
.were promoted; albeit that this expanded view of the question may have borne with it little consolation at the time.
Leaving aside, however, all question as to the details of the 90
SUPPLE MENTART.
scheme that may be contemplated by the Government to promote the end in view, I may venture at least on this general
assurance—that, whatever the measures adopted, both as
regards the particular class of immigrants referred to, and
others more favorably circumstanced, they will be such as to
contribute to the immediate ease, and ultimate prosperity of
all. And, on the part of the People generally, I may safely
add, that a cordial and a hospitable welcome will be cheerfully
extended to such as may decide on making their future home
in British Columbia—the youngest daughter of the
Dominion—the fair, and fertile, and happy Province of the
West.
CHAPTER X.
Supplementary.
Indians and Indian Missions—State of Society—
Causes of past retardation of the Province—
General  progress on  the   Pacific   Coast, with
EXTENT AND  COST  OF RAILWAYS ALREADY  EXISTING—•
Spars of British Columbia—Usual Dimensions of
THOSE    SHIPPED    TO   VARIOUS    MARKETS—SAN   JUAJf
Question—End.
The foregoing pages, with the exception of some few notes
and addenda made during the progress of the printing
were composed and sent in to the Government previous to the
25th of May, the date originally fixed for the completion of
the competitive treatises. An extension of the time for another
month had been meanwhile accorded, of which, ignorant till
too late, the writer could not take advantage. He avails himself, therefore, of the opportunity now afforded, to add a few
supplementary remarks, unfettered by the  trammels  under Mm
SUPPLEMENTARY"..
91
which the previous portion was composed, and which seem
called for by circumstances which have since come under his-
notice.
It seems necessary to put the reader on his guard against
certain misrepresentatioos to which British Columbia has been:
subjected; and it will not, I trust, be regarded as a case of
special pleading if I attempt to do so. It is true that some
candidly-written works have appeared, to which honorable
reference is made in the resume of the published authorities
elsewhere given. But other works, again, have been written,
of quite a contrary tendency : and, the evil report being toe-
often more readily accepted than the good, the effect of these,
if we may judge from the comments they have elicited, seems
to be predominant. Whatever the instigation to such production—whether the disappointment of over-sanguine hopes, the
exaggerated perception of minor difficulties, or, under a less
charitable supposition, the pecuniary inducement " to make
a book"— it > matters not to enquire : but the effect is
there. A " book " is made; not in the cant acceptation of the
habitues of the turf, but in a sense directly important to the
public, because productive of a positive injury to many.
My attention has been directed to two works coming under
some one or other of the terms of the above category, which
have recently been published. Upon these I have made, in
the Appendix, some passing remarks, certainly not inferring a
very favorable judgment, either of the degree of knowledge or
of good faith by which they are characterized. One of them,
flourishing in fair type and with a very sensational imaginary
picture, might well be dismissed, upon its own merits, from
serious consideration : the other derives factitious importance
from its being honored with notice in a publication so widely
read and so influential as the Saturday Review, through the
columns of which paper, alone, I am partially acquainted with
its tenor. These two books, with the remarks of the reviewer
upon the latter—coldly  expressed and   dubiously worded J*I*^
32
INDIANS.
though his approbation be—form the text for certain remarks
which I now make, inextension of the cursory notice of the
subjects before given.
I have remarked of the Indian population that, in their relation to the colonists, the services of the young men are
turned to good account; and that all are strictly under the
law. At the outset of the general colonization of the Country,
in 1858, it is not improbable that a good many concealed
murders of white men took place; for the sudden influx of
some twenty or thirty thousand men, ere yet the machinery
of government was fairly organised, led naturally to many
disorders. With the multitude, among a majority of well-
disposed persons, no small leaven of the worst characters from
California, as might be supposed, was mingled: and it cannot
be doubted that in certain cases the aggressions, or brutal
■excesses, of such led to retaliation, sometimes upon innocent
victims. Previous to this the Hudson's Bay Company,* with
whom the administration of the affairs of Vancouver Island at
that time rested, under charter from the Imperial Government,
had successfully restrained the natives from molesting the few
settlers who then occupied a portion of the nascent Colony.
The judicious administration of the resident Chief Factor, the
present Sir James Douglas, K. C B.—then Governor of Vancouver Island, and afterwards, when disconnected from the
* The past Hudson's Bay Company—the elSves and successors of
the hardy North-wesbers of Montreal and of the original traders of
Hudson's Bay, united toy the Coalition of 1821—are here alluded
to : a co-partnery of interests between the Stock-holders in London and the Officers in the Country, since terminated, and remodelled on a different basis. Lest it should be supposed, or as
some at a distance might be tempted to insinuate, that the Company as now organised still retain a dominant sway in the politics
of British Columbia, it may be stated that their influence in this
regard is here no greater than possibly in London—or in Timbuc-
too. The Company of the present day is purely a mercantile
Association, denuded, here as elsewhere, of all its former power
a.nd prestige. As merchants, however, under the excellent local
management provided, they obtain justly the highest public confidence ; and, with their vast command of capital, exercise a legitimate mercantile influence, in all respects beneficial to tin- Province. INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS'.
.93
Company, of both sections of the present Province, at first for
some years separate—co-operated with the admirable system
which prevailed throughout the Country, in the management
of the Company's affairs, to maintain an order uninterrupted
by any serious outbreak. Kindness and consideration, tempered by judicious firmness, were the chief secrets of this
marked success: and when an exigency demanded the occasional exercise of severity, punishment was confined to the
guilty alone, and neccessary justice in all cases tempered by
mercy. No wonder, then, that the sudden inundation of the
Country by a flood of adventurers, unhabituated to intercourse
with the native races, and whom they regarded as strangers,
disorganised previous restraint. But British law soon asserted
its sway. The excesses of the evil-disposed among the immigrants were checked with the strong hand. Detected culprits
among the natives suffered punishment under due legal process ; and thus order was restored. Subsequently it became
necessary to employ severe measures upon the West Coast of
Vancouver Island. One or two villages were bombarded by
vessels of Her Majesty's Squadron, in order to compelthe
delivery of offenders-guilty of crimes against a ship-wrecked
erew—and a salutary dread was established in all parts along
the Coast, which the periodical visit of a gun-boat serves to
maintain and strengthen.
In the interior of the Mainland, where, as I have remarked,
the Indians are more sparsely distributed, and are altogether
a race morally superior to those of the Coast, order has been
successfully maintained by the Civil Power. The natives
-long habituated to our customs, through intercourse with the
former traders, harmonise well with the present occupants;
and- the kind treatment generally extended to them by the
well-disposed, secures good-will. It is in the "Debateable
Land" alone, situated between the frontier of the settled
region of the Interior, and the main-land Coast, that any danger of collision, however remote, is to be apprehended. The
natives along this line, seated near the rapids which interrupt
mm n
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS^
the navigation of the minor rivers disemboguing along the
Coast—the points most favorable for their salmon-fisheries—
are numerous; and, owing to their seclusion, comparatively
more rude and uncultivated than the rest. Through this
eause, partly, and partly from causes that have never been
satisfactorily explained, some -eight years ago, a party of men
in the employ of the late Mr. Waddington lost their lives near
the head of Bute Inlet, upon the line of road now under exploration for the Canadian-Pacific Railway: and recently a minor
misunderstanding has taken place at the Forks of the Skeena,
but unattended with loss of life or personal molestation. The
first was settled by the local Government, though at great
pecuniary cost, by the punishment of the murderers.: the
second, originating in the accidental burning of a village,
through the negligent act of some travelling-party on their
way to the Peace River mines, has been arranged by Governor Trutch, on the part of the Dominion Government, by
a trifling money-payment for the loss sustained—an arrangement no less judicious, than equitable under the circumstances. As regards this class of the natives, however, it may
be hoped that, under prudent management, and with the
knowledge of our real power that exists, all occasion for the
■exercise of future severity will be averted.
I have said that the former Governments of the ei-devant
Colony have been uupardonably supiae with regard to the
Indians. I mean this relatively, as concerning their positive
elevation in the social scale: not as inferring want of sympathy in their actual condition. For the Indians have
always shared, equally with the white residents, the protection of the law; and this they have been made to understand, and are fully awane of. But there is a wide field for
■their material improvement—material, indeed, but implying
a concomitant amelioration of a deeper and a holier nature;
for the two go hand in hand, and cannot be dissevered. I
have casually noticed the missionary efforts that are in pro-
•gress; and I may add that, so far as is apparent, a degree of INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
95
Unanimity prevails, despite the formal differences of creed,
which argues well for the general progress. For, admitted
that a common end be in view, it is surely impolitic to disturb the minds of the neophytes, by questions of whether
the good teaching be of Paul or of Apollos. Be not
alarmed, however, kind reader. We are not about to enter
upon a polemical disquisition. The point is noticed because
we have witnessed elsewhere the evil consequences of such
warfare of sect against sect, to the common detriment of all
But as an adjunct to moral and religious teaching, however
zealously applied, the inculcation of solid industry, and the
material elevation of the Indian in the social scale, are elements essential to success; and where such success may have
been hitherto partially obtained, it will be found that to this
combination of effort, mainly, it is attributable. To this
end the co-operation and aid of the Government are an important condition : and it is satisfactory to know, that, under
the new relations of the Province, this co-operation will ere
long be afforded. The success of Mr. Duncan, the Superintendent of the Church Missionary establishment at Methla-
k&tla before referred to, only partially fostered by the authorities as his exertions may have been, is an example of what
may be effected under zealous and judicious management.
I am aware that the efforts of this gentleman have been
occasionally scoffed at or under-rated; but every enterprise
of the same nature has been subjected to similar detraction,
—the value of which, therefore, in this case may be readily
estimated. My own conclusion, from information directly
and indirectly acquired from unquestionable sources, is that
much good has been already effected, and a solid groundwork laid for wide prospective improvement. Yet it is to
be regretted that in the conduct of this mission, admirable
though its success has been, a grave oversight is suffered to
continue by its sustainers. Its policy is too much centered
in an individual—in many points of view an evil, and obviously in this; that, no successor being in course of pre- 9G
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
paration, were the present Superintendent to die to-morrow,
the whole edifice which he has founded with so much pains,
would probably crumble to the ground. Division of labor,
so necessary in the mechanical arts,* is no less beneficial in
missionary enterprise.
Various missions have at different times been established
among the Indians of the North-west; some of which, like
that just noticed, have been partially successful, while
ethers, through neglect of proper conditions, have signally
failed. East of the Rocky Mountains an Episcopalian Mission has been in operation on the Missimpi, or English
River, which has, I understand, attained a fair measure of
success. This mission, which has existed for the last thirty
years, was founded aad liberally endowed under the will of
the late Mr. James Leith, formerly a Chief Factor of the
Hudson's Bay Company, for the special improvement of the
natives among whom it has been placed. Upon the Saskatchewan, and at Lake Winipeg, on my last visit to Hudh
son's Bay, in 1842, a Wesleyan Mission had been recently
established; and there were also Roman Catholic Missions
in various parts. On the Columbia River, in the parts which
* The importance of this axiom is notably recognised by the
Jesuits, in the admirable discipline of their missions. While regular subordination is maintained, aught approaching to a preponderating individual influence is rigidly discountenanced. All unite,
each in his separate path, to promote the common end : and one
leader being removed by death or other cause, another is not
wanting to supply the deficiency. With some I may possibly incur
a degree of odium for thus instancing as an example, the proceedings of a body whom I know it is the fashion to decry. But I do
so advisedly—without reference to the remote political aspirations
which its members are supposed constantly to keep in view, and
of which I do not profess to judge—but solely in accordance with
the beneficent results of their exertions, as missionaries, which 1
myself have witnessed. I may add, that I recall with satisfaction the many pleasant hours which—spite of formal difference ftf-
creed—I have enjoyed, in bygone times, in the remote recesses of
the interior, along the line of the Eocky Mountains, in the society
of my worthy friends of this indefatigable Order: notably, the
Fathers Nobili, De Vos, Yercruysae, Accolti, Mingarini, and
others ; some of whom have since gone to their rest, while others
still continue their self-denying labours in various parts. m&dm
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
97
by the Treaty of 1846, became portions of the United States,
several missionary establishments were founded in 1840 by
American societies, and afterwards abandoned in despair of
success. One of these, howover, conducted, on the more
solid basis I have indicated, by the Reverend Dr. Whitman,
save earnest of a more favorable issue. But a sad* catastro-
phe rudely dissipated the sanguine hopes that had been
formed. The Measles broke out in 1847, and, fignorant or
neglectful of the simple necessary precautions under the
disease, many of the natives were carried off, throughout
the country. Whispers of foul play and evil influence were
insinuated into the credulous minds of the survivors; and
their animosity, once roused, was readily directed against
their benefactors. A sudden attack was made, resulting in
the massacre of the worthy Dr. Whitman, his wife, and
others connected with the. Mission.*    Since this catastrophe
* The mission station of Dr. Whitman was among the Cayooses,
at Wailetpoo near Walla Walla in Washington Territory. There
seems to be little doubt that the instigator to this fearful massacre
was one Joe Lewis, said to have been a Mormon, who subsequently
evaded punishment by absconding to the Mountains. A curious
exemplification of the respect in which the people of the Hudson's
Bay Company were held by the natives, was afforded on this sad
occasion. Two boys, sons of-one of the Officers, who were under
the care of Dr. Whitman, for tuition, were called forth by name as
the massacre began, and from the very presence of the poor lady
who a moment after fell a victim. They were taken charge of by
the chief, and sent on horseback, under escort, to the adjacent
post of the Company at Walla Walla. Subsequently the late Chief
Factor Peter Skeen Ogden, who with the present Sir James Douglas
at that time superintended the affairs of the Columbia Department,
ransomed from the Indians, and thus probably saved the lives, of
a number of American immigrants who had been made captives.
It is of interest, however, to notice how all these matters dovetail with each other. The existence of British Columbia as a Colony—an event that sooner or later must of course have occurred—
was directly hastened by the event related. Debarred for the time
from our usual access to the sea, by the Columbia Eiver, through
the war that existed between the American Government and the
Indians—known locally as the Cayoose War—we were compelled,
in 1848, to force our way to the Coast by the line of the Fraser, in
order to import the annual supplies for the Interior. Fortunately,
as if by prophetic anticipation, routes in this direction had been
explored during the summers of 1846 and 1847. By one of these,
striking the Fraser at the point above Yale where the Alexandra
mSem!, Jp%
98
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS
all missionary enterprise, upon the line of the Columbia
River, has, I believe, been confined to the Roman Catholics.
On the Pend' oreille tributary, near the Boundary Line, a
Jesuit mission has been in operation for many years,
through which much good has been effected—a system of
common-labour, under established rules, being partly the
foundation of success. As far back as 1842, the late Right
Reverend Bishop ^Demers—then a priest, and afterwards
R. C. Bishop of the Diocese — passed a winter under the
writer's roof at Alexandria, where a rude church was erected *
under his supervision by the natives: and at present, at different points there are mission-stations conducted by clergy
of the various denominations, whose labours, it may be
hoped, are more or less encouraged by success.
I have thought it proper, even at the risk of being tedious,
to dwell at some length upon this topic, in order to dispel
the impression that appears to have gone abroad, that j,he
Natives of British Columbia are in a condition of unmitigated
barbarism—than which no statement can be more fallacious.
That the large majority of the Coast Indians are, morally, in
a very degraded condition, may not be concealed: but there
is nothing in their conduct to justify the fabulous tales of wanton blood-thirst, as against the whites, that have been lately
promulgated. Thievish, and deplorably licentious in their
habits, as they doubtless are, they have been over-awed by
the law; and the seeds, at least, of moral improvement—
tardy and remote though the growth may be, and impeded
by the corruptions promoted by the lower grades of the
civilized race—have been cast among them. Nor let this
consideration be received with sneering incredulity. Precept
and example are never without effect, albeit slow, and at first
imperceptible.   The Good is perceived : and though, as with
Bridge now spans the river, we succeeded in penetrating to the
depot at Fort Langley—and thenceforward, at first by this route
and subsequently by the way of Hope and the valley of the Simil-
Rameen, the transport continued to be performed—the prelude to
the great lines of communication which have since been perfected. INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
99
the heathen Poet of old, it may not at once be practised, the
leaven has been introduced which, with time, must operate.
Upon the superior character of the Interior tribes I have
already remarked, and need not expatiate. Yet even to
these, in common with the others, the most groundless
charges have been applied—even to that of cannibalism, if we
may judge from the reviewer's comments. The revolting
charge may be unhesitatingly contradicted : the " brave and
blood-thirsty cannibal," the bug-bear held out to " unfortunate stray settlers," does not exist here. The only instance
that-might in any way countenance the shameful accusation
that I ever knew, took place, or was reported, to have taken
place, many years ago at Fort George, in the remote interior;
where an Indian, whose name I have forgotten, was said to
have had recourse to the horrible expedient, to save life
while starving in the mountains. The Indian thus accused,
however, was regarded as a kind of pariah by the rest; and
by the voyageurs, with a pious horror, was designated the
Mangeur de monde, and scrupulously shunned. Other eases
may possibly have occurred, under similar circumstances;
but this is the only one that, ever came under my individual
notice—and I have witnessed at times, and sometimes haply
had it in my power to alleviate, miseries of famine which,
if aught might questionably excuse the revolting expedient,
might indeed have justified it. But, for the honor of human
nature- in its primitive state, I am proud to say the vile
temptation was resisted, with a persistency of physical endurance which, witness the records of history, is not too strongly
characteristic of our own boasted civilization.
Nevertheless, there was formerly a superstitious custom
among the natives of the Coast, not yet, possibly, quite extinct in parts, which, under an exaggerated or malevolent view,
might be urged to countenance the. charge. This custom is
analogous in character, if not identical with, a practice of
which we read, whether fabulously or not I do not profess to
determine, as having existed among certain European na- 100
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
tions—the Lycanthropia of the Ancients, the Loup-garou of
France, the Persian Ghoule, the Teutonic Wehr-wolj—all,
probably, the result of a simulated ecstacy of superstitious .
origin, resolving itself, at times, into-a real phrensy. In the
case immediately referred to the object was to constitute
power as | a Man of Medicine "—equivalent to the African
fetish, or the like. In the Southern parts of Vancouver
Island this assumed wolf-madness took the shape of tearing
living dogs to pieces with the teeth; among the Bella-bellas
of Milbank Sound of biting pieces of flesh from the arms of
the unresisting bystanders during the progress of the rites;
and farther North, as I have been assured but never myself
witnessed, of tearing to pieces and even partially devouring
a sacrificed slave. Revolting as the statement may appear,
it Will be estimated at its full value, if employed to sustain
a charge which, ignorantly or presumptuously advanced, has
been only too credulously accepted.
The difference to which I have several times adverted as
existing between the natives of the Interior districts and the
occupants of the Coast, in customs, character, and language,
indicates unmistakably a diversity of origin. The natives
of what I have termed the "Debatable Land"—those occupying the line intermediate between the Coast and the
Interior—are obviously of mixed extraction through intermarriage, and participate in the characteristics of both races.
It is, however, aside from my purpose to enter into particulars regarding this question, which is one rather for the.
ethnologist than the general enquirer. Nevertheless, as
regards the several tribes that fringe the Northern Coast of
the Continent, from the borders of California up to Cook's
Inlet, where they interlock with the Western Esquimaux, I
may state the conclusion at which we may, I think legitimately arrive : namely, that they originate from the west-
Waid—from Japan, the Kuriles, and elsewhere. There are
many points of physical resemblance, with probably remote
traces, of customs, which indicate the origin of some of them,
\YXaa£ INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
101
at least, from Japan. Whether the immigration in the remote past has been voluntary or fortuitous, it is of course
vain to conjecture : but the possibility of the latter supposition has been convincingly established, even within the limit
of my own experience. For in 1834, in consequence of
Indian rumours which had reached the Columbia River
during the preceding winter, a vessel was despatched from
Fort Vancouver to Queen-hfi-ilth,* south of Cape Flattery,
to enquire into the circumstances of a reported wreck.
Captain McNeill, the Commander, on arriving there, found the
remnants of a Japanese junk, and purchased from the natives
a quantity of pottery and other articles that had formed portions of her cargo. He likewise brought away three Japanese,
the survivors of a crew originally consisting, as we understood, of forty; the rest having perished at sea, of hunger.
It appeared that, having been dismasted in a typhoon and
lost their reckoning, the junk had drifted for many months
until at length stranded. Since then frequent mention has
been made of disabled junks having been encountered at sea
in the North Pacific, by whalers, and the survivors of the
crews rescued from their perilous condition. All these were
more or less advanced in their drift towards the American
Continent. On board one of them was found, among other
merchandise, about 12,000 pounds of Beeswax. This cir*
cumstance affords the clue whereby the nationality of another
junk wrecked long ago upon the Coast, near the mouth of
the Columbia River, can be inferentially established. A
tradition of this existed when the first traders settled there
in 1810; and some of the crew were said to have reached the
shore alive. ' This tradition, however, derived direct corroboration from the fact, that quantities of beeswax were constantly found in the sands at Clatsap, on the southern shore
of the estuary—the indicated point of shipwreck. As late
as 1855, indeed, after violent storms, cakes of the wax, re-
* This, or its immediate vicinity, was the scene of the destruction
of the " Tonquin," and massacre of the crew, in 1811. See Fran-
chare's travels, and Astoria, by Washington Irving,
. • .._      vdT
m?\ lOi
INDIANS AND INDIAN MISSIONS.
taining their original form and quite uncorroded by time,
were still occasionally discovered—the sole difference observable between it and the recent substance being, that it was
ofa finer quality; harder, and partially bleached by exposure.*
Withal, the race has greatly diminished in numbers since
their contact with Europeans. One tribe, the Chinooks of
the Lower Columbia River,—numerous when first I knew
them,—has almost entirely vanished : and along the Northern Coast a constant diminition is perceptible, more especially
among those who have immediate intercourse with the
Whites. For this, divers obvious causes may be assigned.
The occasional devastation by epidemics, such as small-pox,
is one: of this last-mentioned disease, however, the spread
has been much diminished of late by vaccination. A second
fertile cause has been, doubtless, the supply of intoxicating
liquors—deleterious if not positively poisonous compounds—
by unscrupulous men of the lowest and the laziest class. The
laws established for the prevention of this offence, both
within the Province and in the adjacent Territory of the
United States, are stringent, and every effort is made to
enforce them: nevertheless constant evasions occur; and it
has been seriously mooted whether, if it be found impracticable to suppress the nefarious traffic entirely, it might not
be prudent to legalise it under due restrictions. Upon this
vexed question I am not called upon at present to advance
an opinion. It will doubtless soon come under the notice of
the Federal Government; and be decided either in the way
proposed, or by the adoption of suppressive measures more
cogent in their character, and more efficiently carried out,
than those at present in operation. A third and last cause
may be only passingly adverted to: the physical contamination which a degraded and licentious intercourse carries with
it, against which no laws can provide. Yet, even among
some of the interior races, and while still their communi-
tion with the Whites was very limited, a mysterious decay
was apparent, referrible to none of the causes mentioned.
* See Appendix H-2. STATE OF SOCIETY.
103
Pulmonary affections were the form in which the decay of
the vital power was manifested in the children: and each
successive generation showed a greater ratio of deaths,
chiefly of confirmed phthisis. A great change in the ordinary habits of life might be suggested as the most obvious
cause of this degeneration. The substitution, among many,
of European clothing for the primitive dress of skins, alternated at times with unwonted exposure through uncertainty
of supply, might well induce, in part, the effect noted. But,
while noting the general effect that has resulted, it is bootless
to speculate too narrowly as to the cause.
It may possibly be considered by some, that I have dwelt
with too much minuteness upon the subject of which we will
now take leave. But its importance in considering the condition of the Province is, I trust, an adequate excuse. The
amelioration of the native race, moreover, is a proposition
not to be lightly ignored. While asserting for ourselves the
privileges of civilization, we assume also its responsibilities :
and whether in our relations as a Government, or as individuals, it is necessary that these responsibilities should be kept
in view.
The question of the general condition of society within
the Province has been very summarily dismissed in the text.
I might here repeat emphatically the expressions already
used, and thus convey the only contradiction which I might
condescend to give to the disparaging insinuations which
have been published. But I am not to constitute myself the
apologist of the British Columbians against every absurd
attack; and they would, indeed, be little thankful to me for
the exercise of a chivalry so superfluous. I will confine
myself, therefore, to a brief notice of some of the circumstances that have contributed to the establishment in this
young community, of a degree of order and respect for the
law, which among eye-witnesses has excited general admiration. In 1858, as I have before casually mentioned, Victoria 104
STATE OF SOCIETY,
was suddenly awakened from a previous trance by the influx
of successive crowds of eager immigrants, attracted by the
report of the gold-discoveries on the Fraser. A vast and
motley assemblage was soon collected in the hitherto tranquil
vicinage. How many there really may have been cannot be
correctly estimated. I have set the number down vaguely at
20 or 30 thousand—there were probably more : and among
them, it is needless to add, there was no small proportion of
turbulent characters, each armed with his bowie-knife or his
revolver, and generally disposed to set the restraints of the law
at defiance. Into this crowd of desperadoes the constable—
for primitive Victoria boasted, I believe, but of one—proceeded to arrest an offender. No personal injury was done to the
minion of the law, but as a matter of course his prisoner was'
rescued by the surrounders. Governor Douglas, receiving
notice of this occurrence late in the evening, at once despatched
a message to Captain—the present Admiral—Richards, then
at Esquimalt in command of H.M.S. Plumper. In Jess than an
hour after the receipt of the Governor's message, the Plumper
steamed into Victoria Harbour. The marines were landed, and,
after a very brief interval of search, the rescued prisoner was
re-arrested by the Civil arm, and before midnight was safely
lodged in the bastion of the old Fort—the prison of the period.
The firm, yet quiet, assertion of the law on this occasion had
at once a salutary effect. Afterwards, when the machinery
for maintaining public order was fully organised, all difficulties gradually disappeared. I might here pay a tribute of
acknowledgment, personal to those who have been instrumental in carrying out the laws; but good taste warns me to
refrain. Yet I may safely say, that to the unflinching rigour
of the juduciary, and the energy of the stipendiary magistracy,
the good results are mainly due : and I may add that the
good sense and law-abiding sentiment of the majority of the
population, have co-operated to the desirable end. No extreme
measures, such as the exigencies of society have at times demanded  elsewhere, have   here   been   requisite.      Ail   has CAUSES OF PAST RETARDATION.
105
been conducted with an order and a propriety such as
one might expect to witness in an older country; and although a sprinkling of bad characters may still remain,
the majority find it expedient to quit a scene where their evil
deeds cannot be exercised openly with impunity. The good
understanding, too, which has always existed between the
local Government and the United States authorities, our neighbours—with the Ex-tradition Treaty and the facilities afforded
by the electric telegraph—has aided reciprocally in promoting
the maintenance of order in both communities. I am glad to
have the opportunity of referring incidentally to the existence
of this friendly understanding, which no circumstances have
occurred to interrupt; and which, with the constant inter-
'communication that subsists, is in all respects mutually beneficial. 	
At the outset of his comments on the statements upon which
he professes to found a judgment, the reviewer remarks that
no country has so signally disappointed expectation as British
Columbia. What the sanguine expectations formed may possibly have been, it is needless to inquire; but as far as the
gold-yield alone is concerned, the recorded returns for the
last fourteen years elsewhere given—equal to an average of
£80 sterling per annum for every individual of the present
European population—do not surely justify the assertion.
Withal, we may admit, generally, that just expectations have
not been adequately fulfilled : and for this reasons may be
assigned. In the first place the marvellous policy of the Imperial Rulers in placing the two sections which compose the
the present Province under distinct governments, as separate
Colonies, was directly impeditive of success. The puerile
jealousies hence engendered, moreover, continued to exercise a
baneful influence, even after the cause whence they originated
had been removed. A retrograde step is not readily recovered : and albeit that a reactive movement had begun
to be manifested after awhile, it was not until a new
impetus had been given by Confederation that positive im- 106
GENERAL PROGRESS ON THE PACIFIC COAST.
provement became a reality. The liberal terms of union agreed
upon, and the energetic measures to fulfil them since pursued
by the Administration, have restored that confidence in our
future which had before^been shaken. Meanwhile evil reports
had been spread abroad, either from interested motives, or by
disappointed speculators, who abused the land in order to
screen their own want of energy or misconduct. Books, too,
of a certain class, were written with a view to the mercenary
penny; and these were seasoned with all manner of exaggeration and mis-statement, in order the better to sell. Yet no
public steps were taken to counteract the misrepresentation ;
and if any one at a distance learnt possibly aught of the truth
about the Country, it was by accident rather than of design.-'
Even our Gold, large as the yield has been, has never been
credited, in the public records to British Columbia. Shipped
hence to San Francisco, on its way Eastward, it is re-shipped
thence, and reaches England ostensibly as the return of Cali-
ifornia. So, too, with our noble spars : Oregon Spars have
long had a reputation in the European markets : and because
British Columbia happens to be near to Oregon (or rather to
that division of it now called Washington Territory) her spars
reach England as " Oregon Spars."* In short, save to the
favoured few, British Columbia seems to stand almost in the
position of an unknown land. The great majority, if asked,
would probably assign it a place " somewhere between the
Equator and the North Pole," and there end the geographical
definition.
Yet wherefore complain of this flagrant ignorance regarding
our own comparatively insignificant Province—insignificant,
that is, save prospectively—when even the vast resources of
California are scarcely recognised ? Few, outside of the mercantile world or the circle of well-read students, realise to
themselves the fact that San Francisco—a paltry village
twenty-five years ago,—is now a city of maritime importance
* Of this fact an amusing illustration recently appeared in one
of the local prints.
tifrmi EXTENT AND COST OF EXISTING RAILWAYS.
107
equal to that of many famed sea-ports of the Old World—the
mercantile capital of a State of surpassing opulence.   In direct
connexion with it,  extending- northwards,  are the thriving
communities of Oregon—itself an opulent State; the Territory
of Washington; and last, if not least in importance, British
Columbia.*    To show the large interests developed in these
States on the Pacific slope, if not to gratify the curiosity of the
reader, the following statement, taken from a recent Oregon
newspaper, may not be without interest, nor irrelevant to the
general question.
" According to the latest reports, we now have 2,239 miles
of railroad on the Pacific Coast, constructed and equipped at a
cost of $174,322,000, as follows :—
Miles Cost and
completed. Equipment.
  1,111   $76,902,000
  567   51,500,000
  312   35,400,000
  199   7,900,000
,  50   2,620,000
2,239 $174,322,000 "
To this it may be added that, possibly ere these pages meet
the eye of the reader, the extension of the Washington line
will be completed to Olympia, at the head of Puget Sound,
fifteen hours of steamer from Victoria.    A continuous railway
system will then be in operation from that point to New York.
It is to be borne in mind that the great results of which these
improvements are indicative, have been produced within the
last quarter-century. Gold, despise it theoretically as we may,
has been the miraculous lever which, symbolical of the wished-
for lever of Archimedes, has raised this new world on the
Pacific from obscurity      Gold, too, has  been  the primary
means through which British Columbia has been elevated :
is it too much to infer that, with her varied advantages, and
the great enterprises contemplated and in actual progress, a
* I might add Alaska, the Territory on our north-western frontier, recently accruing to the United States by purchase from the
Russians.
California....
Nevada 	
Utah	
Oregon ....;.
Washington II
108
SPARS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA.
development^proportionate to that witnesed elsewhere likewise
awaits her ?
I mentioned incidentally just now the Spars of British
Columbia; and I am thereby reminded that, in the text, less
has been said upon this source of wealth than its importance
merits. The tree (Abies Douglasii,* or Douglas Fir of
Lindley) already referred to, which produces the material so
valuable among our Provincial industries, is peculiar to the
northern portion of Oregon, to Washington Territory, and the
greater portion of British Columbia. It is, however, only in
the Coast region that it attains gigantic.proportions: elsewhere
it is comparatively small. Stray specimens are found as high as
between five and six thousand feet above the sea-level; but
these are stunted and scrubby.\ In the Appendix will be
found tables illustrative of the tenacity of fibre and flexibility
of this now-celebrated timber, as compared with other similar
woods; § and I subjoin a memorandum with which I have
been recently favoured of the dimensions of the spars usually
prepared for the several markets.
For the French Government masts of very large size are
demanded, varying from 22 ins. to 44 ins. in diameter: for
the English market, generally from 34 ins. down to 11 ins.
In both cases they are dressed octagonally for shipment.
Those from 24 inches downwards, intended for yards, are
* Named by Dr. Lindley in honor of the late David Douglas—a
name too well-known in scientific circles, in connexion with the
botany of the North-west Coast, to require more than mention.
Poor Douglas, after passing some years in the Columbia, at the
Forts of the Hudson's Bay Company, went to the Sandwich Islands,
and lost his life Hawaii. His remains were found, fearfully gored,
in a pit-fall into which he had been accidentally precipitated by
the failure of the ground at the edge, and in which a wild bull had
been previously taken. Curiosity had apparently attracted him to
the treacherous proximity.
f I state this on the authority of Dr. Lyall, formerly of the
British N. A. Boundary Commission, as given in the proceedings
of the Linnean Society, Vol. VII. I do not remember having myself remarked these trees at so graat an elevation.
| See Appendix E-2.
*K
K-*m SAN JUAN QUESTION.
109
cut in the ratio of 4 feet of length to the inch of diameter:
the larger sizes, for masts, in the proportion of 3 feet to the
inch. For the China market the sizes required are about
the same as those for England; but these last are generally
shipped in their natural proportions, the bark only being
taken off. To complete the cargoes, the ships usually carry
large quantities of plank, sawn expressly for decks, which
are supplied,free from knots, from 20 to 100 feet in length.
From the above an estimate may be formed of the
stupendous growth of .the Douglas Fir in the coast vicinage;
J. O O O     7
and, in connexion with the test of the quality of its timber
elsewhere given, of its value in a mercantile point of view.
In further illustiation I add the following extract, which I
find quoted from a London paper, of date some ten years
back. " Since our last a. further example of this tree has
arrived at the International Exhibition, from British Columbia. It consists of ten horizontal sections of that tree, 309
feet high, to which we formerly alluded, and of which a
drawing has been suspended in the building. They are
about to be displayed in the Court of British Columbia, and
serve to show unmistakably what a noble tree this is, and
how superb an ornament as well as inexhaustible source of
wealth to the two Colonies."—[Viz.: British Columbia and
and Vancouver Island, at that time separate.]
Before concluding, it may perhaps be expected that I
should say a few words respecting the Island of San Juan,
which, in view from the house-tops of Victoria, and in close
proximity with Vancouver Island, has always been claimed
by the British as a dependency, in common with all the
archipelago lying west of the Strait of Rosario. An unfortunate ambiguity in the wording of the Treaty of 1846,
usually called the Oregon Treaty, has, however, led to an
international dispute as to what interpretation is to be put
upon the meaning of the framers, by the term " dividing
channel"; the British having always understood thereby the
PfcOsario Strait, the only ship-channel navigated at the time; 110
SAN JUAN.QUESTION.
the United States contending, more recently, for that since
surveyed, and now known to be practicable, called the Strait
of Arro—immediately contiguous to  the  main  island  of
Vancouver.    In 1859 the dispute came to a crisis;  the
American General in command in Oregon having landed a
military force and thus claimtd their asserted rights.    At
first the matter wore rather a threatening aspect for the
international peace.    The prudence of the British Admiral
on the station, Sir Robert L. Baynes, however, prevented a
collision, which the proceeding was only too well calculated to
provoke.    A Company of the Royal Marine Light Infantry
was landed at another point in assertion of the British claim.
Subsequently the disavowal by the American Government of
the action of their General, and his removal from the command, remedied to some extent the soreness that was at first
experienced.    Since then, by joint' consent, both parties
have maintained the occupation;   and it is  gratifying  to
know that the relations between the rival commands have
been invariably of the most cordial nature.    This strange
condition of things, however, is about to terminate.    By the
Treaty of Washington of 1870 the case has been referred
for arbitration to the Emperor of Germany, whose decision
may be shortly expected.    In pursuance of this subject I
need only quote the following words from a recent speech of
the Prime Minister of Canada, Sir John A. Macdonald.
" That [the San Juan question] is settled in a way that no
one can object to.    I do not know whether many honorable
members have ever studied that question.    It is a most
interesting one, and has long been a cause of controversy
between the two countries.     I am bound to uphold, and I
do uphold, the British view respecting the channel which
forms the boundary, as the correct one.    The United States
Government were, I believe, -as sincerely convinced of their
own case.   Both believed they were in the right, both were
firmly grounded in that opinion; and such being the case
there was only one way of it, and that was to leave it to be END.
Ill
settled by impartial arbitration. ***************
Whatever the decision may be—whether for England or
against her—you may be satisfied that you will get a most
learned and careful judgment in the matter, to which we
must bow if it is against us, and to which I am sure the
United States will bow if it is against them."* Here, then*
the matter stands, pending the Emperor's decision.
The writer must conclude with a personal explanation—
at no time a graceful act, but which under . the circumstances seems inevitable. The distant reader, for whom
alone such explanation will be necessary, may possibly enquire as to the conditions which justify the writer in advancing, at times, unqualified opinions upon certain subjects
to render which of authentic value, long experience, and
peculiar opportunities for observation, must be pre-established. To forestal all probable conjecture on this point
he may at once state, that since his youth, for the last forty
years—more than two-thirds of his life-time—he has been a
sojourner in various parts within the vast angle included by
the Columbia River, and the Rocky Mountains: first as a
Clerk, then as a Chief-Trader and Wintering-Partner, of the
Hudson's Bay Company under the old regime; and afterwards as a rather unsettled " settler"—till for some years
past near Victoria, where he is now, probably, permanently
at home. Thus there are few nooks, within the area in
questiou, which he has not either visited in person, or of
which he has not indirectly acquired a knowledge. In
treating the subject the retrospect has been at times a painful
one: for if, as may be imagined, during the earlier period
* Speech  of Sir John A. Macdouald, K.C.B., in the House of
Commons of Canada.    3rd May, 1872. HttKSZJ?
112
END.
he may have passed some anxious intervals amid the scenes
he has attempted to describe, he has also spent very many
happy days, of which the memory alone remains to him.
Nessun maggior dolore,
Che ricordarsi del tempo felice
Nella miseria.—
Nevertheless, he has the consolation to think, that the
region of his former wanderings, already the scene of the
active industries of civilization, will ere long teem with a
numerous and  happy population:   and if to this end the
foregoing pages shall anywise tend to contribute, he feels
that he will at least not have been without usefulness in
his generation.
Rosebank, Victoria, B. C,
August, 1872. APPENDIX rsjf
rV-Sfc'
:tVJtl]^ APPENDIX.
APPENDIX A.
Extract from a Memorandum by the late James M. Yale,
Esquire, formerly of the Hudson's Bay Company, relating
to the Fraser River Salmon.
" I believe, and think it may be asserted as a fact, that none of
the several kinds of Salmon, including Hones, entering Fraser
River and the smaller streams, ever return to the sea. The large
and superior kind called by the natives Sa-quy [Kase of the text)
enter the river in May or June, but do not, it would seem, make so
great a rush to reach the end of their course as the smaller kind,
called by the Quaitlins Suck-ky (Tdlo of the text). This species
enter the river generally about the beginning of July, and are followed in September, some seasons earlier, by the Sa-wen (Fall
Salmon), paler in color of flesh and somewhat larger than the
Suck-ky. When taken in season they are found to be an excellent
■fish. With these come, late in autumn, a few of large size called
Paque, differing from the Sa-quy only in their flesh being whiter,
head smaller, and body broader in proportion. Another white-
fleshed fish called Qua-lo, having the external parts broadly striped
or barred with a pale yellowish green and a dark brown color,
some years enter Fraser River in great plenty, and are nearly equal
in size to the Sa-quy. They have more the resemblance of the
other Salmon, and are a better flavored fish than the Hunnuns (or
Hones)."
Mr. Tale, the writer of the above remarks, wa3 for many years
in command at Fort Langley, near the entrance of Fraser River,
and had therefore peculiar opportunities for observation, as regarded the Lower River.
APPENDIX B.
Exports from Alberni, Barclay Sound, in the year 1862.
Rough Lumber, 7,804,000 feet  $85,844 00
Dressed   do. 270,000 feet       5,400 CO
Four cargoes Spars, value     28,673 00
Oil, 5,000 gallons @ 40 cents       2,000 00
Furs and Skins      1,000 00
$122,917 00
The working of these mills has since been suspended.
rfattSl 11. APPENDIX.
APPENDIX 0.
Declared Value of Exports of Lumber from the Province of
British Columbia in the year 1871.
To England, 1 ship (including Span $2,000)  $4,672 00
To the Colonies :
New South Wales, 3 ships   8,904 00
Now Zealand          1    ,,       5,100 00
Victoria                *3    ,  13,596 00
Gape of Good Hope 1    ,,     (including Spars $600)  3,588 00
To Foreign Countries:
fiatavia                   1      4,823 00
Chili                       10    ,,     (including Spars $1,100) .. 59,671 00
China                     6    ,,        26,402 00
Peru                      10    ,,  49,748 00
Sandwich Islands 4    ,,     (portions of cargoes)     5,784 00
United States **.  258 00
Total 40 ships  $182,490 00
APPENDIX D.
Declared Amount of Shipments of Coal in the year 1871
( Value at the wharf S6 per ton).
TONS.
To San Francisco  18,704
Portland, Oregon  1,632
Port Townsend, Washington Territory  163
Honolulu, Sandwich Islands  4,860
Shipped for Home Consump
Tons...... 80,358
Value $122,148
TOSS.
To Victoria (approximate amount)        5,300
Casual supplies to Steamers (ditto)       4,180
Approximation from ( Tons    9,480
the data of 6 months \ Value... $56,700
Total 29,808 Tons, Value $178,848
The above statement is from the Cnstom-Honse Returns; the
following, since published, is taken from the British Colonist newspaper.    Id both the British ton of 3,140 lbs. it ini* n led. Mm
APPENDIX.
ill.
Nanaimo Coal Exports for the half-year ending
30th June, 1872.
TONS CWT.
San Francisco   , ,  14,135 00
Honolulu  1,300 00
Mazatlan  600 00
Portland  597 10
Oonalaska  332 00
Victoria  4,601 00
Steamers calling  3,981 00
New Westminster  41 00
Total  25,587 10
It is to be noted that during the last half-year the import duty
upon coal entering the United States from abroad has been reduced
from $1.25 to 75 cents per ton, to which the increased demand
apparent is doubtless in some measure ascribable. Anthracite
coal enters free of duty.
APPENDIX B.
Declared Value of Exports of Furs, Oil, &c, in the year
ending December, 1871.
Furs  $246,387
Fish Oil  ~      22,440
Wool       10,875
Hides        4,197
Fish         14,584
Tallow  336
mwF] IV.
APPENDIX.
APPENDIX F.
SI ipment of Gold, product of the British Columbia Mines
during the year 1871.
January  $109,898 26
February  57,309 97
March   64,583 01
April     56,779 50
May  134,360 36
June  102,302 32
July  82,681 13
August  149,023 48
September  138,184 90
October   128,409 47
November   158,304 81
December  167,743 62
Total $1,349,580 83
As under:—
Wells, Fargo, & Co  $372,408 11
Bank of British North America     383,645 87
Bank of British Columbia      593,526 85
$1,349,580 83
Previous Shipments :— -—--———-—
1858  $    337,765 00
1859  1,211,339  00
1860 1,303,329 00
1861 1,636,870 00
1862 2,167,183 00
 6,656,486 00
1864LAPPr0xitmate;
1865 I        seParate returns -5,688.741 00
1866 1,625,311  19
1867 1,850,651 04
1868 1,780,587 08
1869  1,324,871 84
1870 1,002,717 65
 7,584,138 80
Grand Total $21,278,946 63
The foregoing may be accepted as a correct Return as far as the
records show: but it does not^ convey a just impression of the
whole gold-produce of the Country, owing to the" large amounts
taken away in private hands, the aggregate of which it is impossible to estimate. For this statement I am indebted to F. Garesche
Esq., Agent in Victoria of Messrs. Wells, Fargo, & Co.
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m® Tl. APPENDIX.
APPENDIX H.
Rates of Wages current in Victoria, Mayt 1872.
Carpenters,"$3.50 to $3.75 per diem.
Blacksmiths, ~)
Bricklayers,   >- $5 to $6 per diem.
Plasterers, &c J
Female Servants: Nursemaids, $12 to $15; Cooks, &c, $20 to $25
per month.
Men-servants (Chinese), $20 to $25 per month.
Laborers, scarce at $30 to $35 per month, with board.
APPENDIX I.
Rates of Passage.
By Sailing Ship, from England to Victoria, Cabin, £60 @ £70
(120 to 160 days). 2nd    do.     £30 @ £35
By Steamer, via. Panama, from New York to San Francisco (about
3 weeks):
Cabin, $100 Currency = to about $90 in gold.
Steerage      50       ,,       =        ,,       45       ,,
By Steamer, from San Francisco to Victoria (3 to 4 days):
Cabin $30 in gold.
Steerage     15        „
By Rail, from Chicago to San Francisco (about 7 days) :
First Class $118 Currency = to about $106 in gold.
2nd Class       85        „        = „ 76.50   „
And_about $25 Currency for meals, beds, &c.
Exchange.
£20 deposited in London would at present be worth, payable in
in Victoria, $4.85 per £ Sterling; i. e. would buy a draft payable
in Victoria at Bight for $97,
Interest.
Money is worth from 9 to 12 per cent, per annum, with good
security—say an average of 10 per cent. For temporary loans of
small amount, higher rates can be obtained.
m
■M&ljlt mam
APPENDIX.
APPENDIX K.
vn.
Abstract of Meteorological Register kept at Fort McLoughlin,
Milbank Sound, B. C, Lat. 52° 6'N.,Long. 128° JO' W.,
during the years 1833-34-35.
Fa
[irenheit's
Thermometer.
Rainy
Mean.
Mas.
Min.
Days.
1833.
September ...
57°47'
—
—
—
48 69
—
—
—
45 00
—
—
—
37 82
—
—
—
1834,
28 00
42°
5°
4
Min. at sunrise 0°. A-
38  00
52
30
12*
bout 6 inches snow
40 00
56
31
5
during greater part
49 00
62
48
15
of month.
May	
53  00
63
48
22
* A sprinkling of snow
60 00
81
55
11
for a few days.
July	
60 00
78
56
12
62  00
76
63
17
September ...
60 00
79
63
16
52 00
68
47
25
46 00
.  57
38
19
December  ...
37 00
48
26
12
■
1835.
[casional snows.
36 00
48
32
18
Min. at sunrise 26°. Oc-
38 00
54
22
11
Occasional snows.
March	
38 00
43 00
49
51
35
39
25
27
Do.        do.
48 00
56 00
58 00
64
80
71
38
49
51
18
13
10
Do.         do.
July	
Assuming the mean of the month of August, 1834, to complete
the series, the above Observations show a mean for the two years
of 48° 04. The isothermal line of the mean annual heat of 60°
Fahrenheit must therefore be assumed to strike the Coast at some
intermediate point between this and New Westminster—probably
about the northern end of Vancouver Island. The observations
from which the foregoing abstract was made were commenced by
the writer, and continued by Dr. W. F. Tolmie, now of Victoria •Vlll.
APPENDIX.
Abstract of Meteorological Observations taken on board Her
Majesty's Stip Topaze, at Esquimalt, Vancouver Island.
Quarter ending 30th June, 1860.
April, mean daily heat    51°50 Fahrn.
May „ ,,         55 25
June ,, ,,  61 00
Mean of the Quarter     55° 59
July „ „         60°50
August      ,, ,,          63 25
September,, ,,         57 25
Mean of the Quarter     60° 33
October    ,, „         53°00
November,, ,,         50 50
December ,, ,,         42 00
Mean of the Quarter     48° 50
1861.
January    ,, „          38°00
February ,, ,,  44 50
March   '    „ ,,          46 00
Mean of the Quarter     42° 83
Mean Heat of the Year     51° 81
The above Abstract is taken from an Essay on Vancouver Island
by Dr. Charles* Forbes, R. ST., published in Victoria in 1862. In
the same work other tables are given relating to Observations on
land, but without the authorities. These, however, contain obvious
discrepancies, and I do not therefore reproduce them. In these the
minimum of temperature noted is 14J degrees of Fahrenheit,
highest 84°, at 2 p.m. The last, given as a maximum, and as occurring on the 26th June—certainly not a hot month—differs so
widely from the observations of others, as to shake my confidence
in the whole series.
Table of Meteorological' Observations taken by order of Col.
R. C. Moody, R.E., at the station of the Royal Engineer*
at New Westminster, JJ. ('., in the year 1862.
Latitude 49° 12' 47// 5 N.   Longitude 122° 53' 19 W.
IX CUES.
The highest reading of the Barometer,
corrected for temperature, was 30.517 9th February.
The mean height, do., do., at 9.30 a.m. 29.983
Do.       do.     do. do.  at 3.30 p.m. 29.963
The lowest do.     do 29.071 22nd January. APPENDIX.
DEGREES.
Max. temp.m sun's rays (black bulb)... 104.0 29th August.
Do.      do.   of Air, in shade     88.5 do.
IX.
do  9.30 a.m.
.... 3.30 p.m.
73.9 23rd July.
86.0 28th August.
46.8
51.5
2.0 below zero, 15 Jan.
6.0 15th January.
below zero, 16 Jan.
Do.     do.     do.
Do.      do.      do.      do ,
Mean temp, of Air in shade ... 9.30 a.m.
Do.      do.      do.      do  3.30 p.m.
Min. temp, of Air in shade  9.30 a.m.
Do.      do.      do.      do  3.30 p.m.
Min. temp, on the Grass     15.0
Greatest amount of Humidity  1.000
Mean do. do. 9.30 a m. .842
Do. do. do. 3.30 p.m. .772
Least do. do.  320
The cistern of the Barometer is about 54 feet above the level of
the sea. All the observations were made at 9.30 a.m. and 3.30 p.m.
daily throughout the year.
There were slight frosts nearly every night in the month of April,
and once in May (16th); they did not recommence until the 9th of
October. The severe frosts of January and February have been unknown for many years.
Thunder and Lightning occurred on the 24th May, 24th July,
and 22nd, 29th, and 30th August.
Table shewing the depth of rain, the number of days on which
it fell, the mean humidity (9.30 a.m. and 3 30 p.m.), mean temperature of the air in shade, and the lowest temperature on the grass
in each month.
THERMOMETER*
Min.
Inches,
Days:
Humidity,
9.SO a.m.
3.SO p.m.
on grass:
January ...
 855 ..
... 19.0 ..
.... 23.0 ..
.... -15.0
February..
5.727 ..
...    8 ..
 815 ..
... 30.3 .
.... 34.2 ..
....      2.0
March	
5.830 ..
... 17 ..
 862 ..
... 38.0 ..
.... 41.7 ..
....    23.0
. 2.345 ..
... 14 ..
... .767 ..
.... 51.3 ..
....    26.0
May	
3.475 ..
... 13 ..
 718 ..
... 57.1 ..
.... 62.1 ..
....    31.5
... 10 ..
... .712 ..
... 62.7 .
.... 67.1 ..
....    40.0
July	
2.700 ...
... 12 ..
... .713 ...
... 63.2 ..
.... 67.7 ..
....    44.0
August....
2.930 ..
...   8 ..
... .787 ..
... 63.5 ..
.... 69.8 ..
....    43.0
September
1.625 ...
...   9 ..
 751 ..
... 58.4 .
.... 62.7 ..
....   33.5
4.605 ..
... 10 ..
 869 ..
... 49.3 ..
.... 52.9 ..
....    23.0
November-
4.050 ...
...   8 ..
... .938 ...
... 37,9 ..
.... 41.7 ..
....    22.0
December..
7.990 ...
... 17 ...
... .948 ...
... 36.7 ..
.... 39.7 ..
,..    18.5
Total 47.466        135
Rain fell on 8 days when the wind was South, 4—S.W., 3—W.,
5—N.W., 8—N.E., 43 B., 26 S.E., and 38 when calm.
The greatest fall of rain in 24 hours measured 2.260 inches, and
was on the 20th March. The average fall for every day of the year
was 0.130 inches, and for each wet day it was 0.352.
The amount of Ozone this year was very small, its mean daily
number would be represented by 3 on the scale, and it seldom exceed 6. During the greater part of October, November, and December there was little indication of its preseuce. In November and
the early part of December there were heavy fogs, during which
there was no Ozone.
H APPENDIX.
COMPARISON op mean results for three tears.
Years
Rain.
Mean
Temperature.
Min.
on
grass.
1   Mean height of
Humidity.           Barometer.
inches
days
9.80 a.k
3,80 P.if
9.30A. M
3."Or.Ji 9.30A.M
8.30 P.K
1860
1861
1863
54.420
60.485
47.466
151
164
185
49.9
48.8
46.8
54.0
62.2
61.2
16.6
10.0
-15.0
.847
.764
.843
.766   1 20.943
.854      29.943
.772      29.983
39.919
29.889
29.963
Means
54.124
150
48.6
52.6
.818
.797    | 39.956
29.924
Rain was more equally distributed throughout all the months
this year than in 1860 or 1861.
In the winter months, January to March, and October to December, 31.682 inches of rain fell in 1862, 41.230 in 1861, and 40.586
in 1860. In the remaining months 15.785 inches fell in 1862,
19.255 in 1861, and 13.834 in 1860.
The prevailing direction of the wind during rain in each year
was E. and S.E. The absolute limiting nights of frost in the three
years were nearly the same.
THE FRASER RIVER AT NEW WESTMINSTER.
Highest I   Lowest   {Difference
vol.
level.
of level.
Remarka.
1860 112th June I 4th Mar.
1861 8th June 17th Mar.
1862 J 14th June |l9th April|
10.5 feet 132 May to 13 Aug. ships did not swing to
9.5 feet |l9 May to 10 Aug. ditto,    [the flood tide.
Tept.  ditto.
10.5 feet     1 May to :
Ice appeared on the 1st Jannary, 1862, and the river at New
Westminster was unnavigable on the 4th ; it was completely frozen
over on the 9th, and the ice attained a thickness of 13 inches in
the channel opposite the R. E. Camp, on the 12th of February.
Sleighs were running from Langley to several miles below New
Westminster, and persons walked from Hope to the latter place, a
distance of 80 miles, on the ice, at the end of January. Lake Harrison and the other Lakes were frozen. Navigation from New
Westminster was open to the mouth of the river on the 11th of
March, and from Yale on the 12th April. Again on the 5th of December, there was ice in the river at New Westminster for one day.
In January, 1861, there was ice at New Westminster, bat the navigation to the mouth of the river was not impeded. In 1860 thcro
was no ice.
The observations were taken by 2nd Corporal P. J. Leech and
Lance Corporal J. Conroy, R.E.
(Signed)   B. M. Parsoss, Captain, R.E.
Abstract of Meteorological  Observations taken at Lillooett,
Fraser River, 1862, by Dr. H. Feuthcrstonchaugh.
Fahrenheit.
January.—Average Temperature for 22 days  14° above zero
Do. do. 9   ,,      9° below   ,,
Coldest da v. 29th 22°     ,,
m
'KM- APPENDIX.
XI.
January.—Hottest day 26° above zero
Ten cold windy days, from N.W. to N.E.
Total amount of snow, at intervals, 28 in.
[N.B. This represents the amount of snow as it fell, not as it lay
on the ground after becoming compacted. It may be added that the
winter of 1861-2 was one of extraordinary severity.]
February.—Average Temperature for 18 days 25° above zero
Do. do. 10    ,,       4° below  ,,
Coldest day, 1st    6°      ,,      ,,
Hottest day, 11th 45° above   ,,
11th, heavy rain and thaw; 4 days heavy rain and thaw,
three cold windy days.
Amount of snow fell during the month, 14 inches.
March.—Average Temperature for 31 days 37°
Coldest day, 10th   20° sharp frost
Hottest day, 31st  50°
Three cold windy days ; two rainy daXs, 14th and 23rd.
Amount of snow fell, 10 inches.
April.—Average Temperature for the month  54°
Coldest day, 4th 31°
Hottest day, 30th 84°
Seven cold windy days ; 14th gale from S.E.
May.—Average Temperature for the month 78°
Coldest day, 6th  64°
Hottest day, 11th 100°
Two windy days ; 4 rainy days; 5th, eight hours heavy
rain.
June.—Average Temperature for the month 81°
Coldest day  60°
Hottest day 104°
Three windy days ; rain fell on 4 days.
July.—Average Temperature for 12 days 97°
Coldest day, 2nd 80°
Hottest day, 5th ». 106°
August.—(Absent.)
September.—Average Temperature for the month .. 81°
Coldest day, 30th   60°
Hottest day, 2nd 98°
Rain fell on 6 days ; 25th, rain and snow; 5 windy days ;
30th, cold S.E. wind.
October.—Average Temperature for the month  71°
Coldest day  50°
Hottest day 81°
Rain fell on 6 days ; six windy days.
November.—Average Temperature for the month... 48°
Coldest day 30°
Hottest day  56°
Rain fell on two days, 1st and 3rd.
December.—Average Temperature for the month ... 38°
Coldest day, 6th  25°
Hottest day, 25th   50°
Rain fell on 4 days ; 9th, eight hours rain ; five inches
of snow fell during the month.
[The above Abstract is quoted from a work on British Columbia by the Rev. R.C. xu.
APPENDIX.
Lundin Brown, M.A., Minister of St. Mary's Lillooett. By the terms "Coldest"
and "Hottest" day, I presume the after-meridian limit is.intended. nillooctt is
Situated on the bank of the Fraser, about 40 miles above the continence of the
Thompson, in Latitude 50° 41' 49" ; elevation above the sea, 692 feet, as established by the Officers of the Royal Engineers. Some of the readings, I may remark,
are so excessively high as to lead to the conclusion that an allowance should be
made for reflected heat.]
APPENDIX L.
Memorandum of the  Terms of Union of the Province of
British Columbia with the Dominion of Canada.
Copy of a Report of a Committee of the Honorable the
Privy Council.
The Committee of the Privy Council have had under consideration a Despatch, dated the 7th May, 1870, from the Governor of
British Columbia, together with certain Resolutions submitted by
the Government of that Colony to the Legislative Council thereof
both hereunto annexed, on the subject of the proposed Union of
British Columbia with the Dominion of Canada ; and after several
interviews between them and the Honourable Messrs. Trutch, Hel-
mcken, and Carrnll, the Delegates from British Columbia, and full
• discussion with them of the various questions connected with that
important subject, the Committee now respectfully submit for Your
Excellency's approval the following Terms and Conditions, to form
the basis of a Political Union between British Columbia and the
Dominion of Canada :—
1. Canada shall be liable for the Debts and Liabilities of British
Columbia existing at the time of the Union.
2. British Columbia not having incurred debts equal to those of
the other Provinces now constituting the Dominion shall be entitled
to receive, by half-yearly payments in advance from the General Government, Interest at the rate of five per cent, per annum on the
difference between the actual amount of its indebtedness at the
date of the Union, and the indebtedness per head'ofthe population
of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick ($27 77), the population of
British Columbia being taken at 60,000.
3. The following sums shall be paid by Canada to British Columbia, for the support of its Government and Legislature, to wit,
an Annual Subsidy of $35,000 and an Annual Grant equal to 80
cents per head of the said population of 60,000, both half-yearly in
advance, such Grant of 80 cents per head to be augmented in proportion to the increase of population, as may be shewn by each
Subsequent decennial census, until the population amounts to 400,-
000, at which rate such Grant shall thereafter remain, it being
understood that the first census be taken in the year 1881.
4. The Dominion will provide an efficient Mail Service, fortnightly, by steam communication between Victoria and San Francisco, and twice a week between Victoria and Olympia; the Vessels
to be adapted for the conveyance of freight and passengers. APPENDIX.
Xlll.
5. Canada wiU assume and defray the charges for the following
Services :—
A. Salary of the Lieutenant Governor ;
B. Salaries and Allowances of the Judges of the Supreme Courts
and the County or District Courts ;
C. The charges in respect to the Department of Customs ;
D. The Postal and Telegraphic Services ;
E. Protection and Encouragement of Fisheries ;
F. Provision for the Militia ;
G. Lighthouses, Buoys, and Beacons, Shipwrecked Crews,
Quarantine and Marine Hospitals, including a Marine Hospital at
Victoria;
H. The Geological Survey ;
I. The Penitentiary;
And such further charges as may be incident to and connected
with the services which by the British North America Act of 1867
appertain to the General Government, and as are or may be allowed
to the other Provinces.
6. Suitable Pensions, snch as shall be approved of by Her
Majesty's Government, shall be provided by the Government oi the
Dominion for those of Her Majesty's Servants in the Colony whose
position and emoluments derived therefrom would be affected by
Political changes on the admission of British Columbia into the
Dominion of Canada.
7. It is agreed that the existing Customs Tariff' and Excise Duties
shall continue in force in British Columbia until the Railway from
the Pacific Coast and the system of Railways in Canada are connected, unless the Legislature of British Columbia should sooner
decide to accept the Tariff and Excise Laws of Canada. When
Customs and Excise duties are, at the time of the Union of British
Columbia with Canada, leviable on any Goods,Wares, or Merchandizes in British Columbia, or in the other Provinces of the Dominion, those Goods, Wares, or Merchandizes may, from and after the
Union, be imported into British Columbia from the Provinces now
composing the Dominion, or from either of those provinces into
British Columbia, on proof of payment of the Customs or Excise
Duties leviable thereon in the Province of Exportation, and on
payment of such further amount (if any) of Customs or Excise
Duties as are leviable thereon in the Province of Importation. This
arrangement to have no force or effect after the assimilation of the
Tariff and Excise Duties of British Columbia with those of the
Dominion.
8. British Columbia shall be entitled to be represented in the
Senate by three Members, and by six Members in the House of
Commons. The representation to be increased under the provisions
of the British North America Act, 1867.
9. The influence of the Dominion Government will be used to
secure the continued maintenance of the Naval Station at Esquimalt.
10. The provisions of the British North America Act, 1867, shall
(except those parts thereof which are in terms made, or by reasonable intendment may be held to be specially applicable to and
only affect one and not the whole of the Provinces now comprising
the Dominion, and except so far as the same may be varied by
this minute) be applicable to British Columbia, in the same way
:*5iEa a'-:',*'.'.'* ijjil
XIV.
APPENDIX.
and to the like extent as they apply to the other Provinces of the
Dominion, and as if the Colony of British Columbia had been one
of the Provinces originally united by the said Act.
11. The Government of the Dominion undertake to secure the
commencement simultaneously, within two years from the date of
the Union, of the construction of a Railway from the Pacific
towards the Rocky Mountains, and from such point as may be
selected, East of the Rocky Mountains, towards the Pacific, to
connect the Seaboard of British Columbia with the Railway system
of Canada ; and further, to secure the completion of such Railway
within ten years from the date of the Union.
And the Government of British Columbia agree to convey to the
Dominion Government, in trust, to be appropriated in such a
manner as the Dominion Government may deem advisable in
furtherance of the construction of the said Railway, a similar
extent of Public Lands along the line of Railway throughout its
entire length in British Columbia, not to exceed Twenty (20) Miles
on each side of said line, as may be appropriated for the same purpose by the Dominion Government from the Public Lands in the
North-west Territories and the Province of Manitoba. Provided
that the quantity of land which may be held under Pre-emption
right or by Crown Grant within the limits of the tract of land in
British Columbia to be so conveyed to the Dominion Government,
shall be made good to the Dominion from contiguous Public Lands;
and provided further, that until the commencement, within Two
Year3 as aforesaid from the date of Union, of the construction of
the said Railway, the Government of British Columbia shall not
sell or alienate any further portions of the Public Lands of British
Columbia in any other way than under right of Pre-emption,
requiring actual residence of the Pre-emptor on the land
claimed by him. In consideration of the land to be so conveyed in aid of the construction of the said Railway, the Dominion
Government agree to pay to British Columbia, from the date of
the Union, the sum of $100,000 per annum, in half-yearly payments
in advance.
12. The Dominion Government shall guarantee the interest for
Ten years from the date of the completion of the works, at the rate.of
Five per centum per annum, on such sum, not exceeding £100,000
sterling as may be required for the construction of a first-class
Graving Dock at Esquimalt.
13. The charge of the Indians, and the trusteeship and management of the Lands Reserved for their use and benefit, shall be
assumed by the Dominion Government, and a policy as liberal as
that hitherto pursued by the British Columbia Government, shall
be continued by the Dominion Government after the Union.
To carry out such policy, tracts of land of such extent as it has
hitherto been the practice of the British Columbia Government to
appropriate for that purpose, shall from time to time be conveyed
by the Local Government to the Dominion Government in trust
for the use and benefit of the Indians on application of the Dominion Government; and in case of disagreement between the two
Governments respecting the quantity of such tracts of Land to be
so granted, the matter shall be referred for the decision of the
Secretary of State for the Colonies. APPENDIX.
XV.
14. The Constitution of the Executive Authority and of the
Legislature of British Columbia shall, subject to the provisions of
the British North America Act, 1867, continue as existing at the
time of the said Union until altered under the authority of the said
Act, it being at the same time understood that the Government
of the Dominion will readily consent to the introduction of Responsible Government when desired by the Inhabitants of British
Columbia, and it being likewise understood that it is the intention
of the Governor of British Columbia, under the authority of the
Secretary of State for the Colonies, to amend the existing Constitution of the Legislature by providing that a majority of its
Members shall be elective.
The Union shall tike effect according to the foregoing terms and
conditions on such day as Her Majesty by and with the advice of
Her Most Honourable Privy Council may appoint (on addresses
from the Legislature of the Colony of British Columbia, and of the
Houses of Parliament of Canada, in the terms of the 146th Section
of the British North America Act, 1867,) and British Columbia may
in its addresses specify the Electoral Districts for which the first
Election of Members to serve in the House of Commons shall
take place. Certified,
Wm. H. LEE,
Clerk Privy Council, Canada.
APPENDIX M.
Estimates of th» total Expenditure of the   Province of
British'Columbia for the year ending 81st December, 1872.
CIVIL GOVERNMENT.
1.—Lieutenant-Governor's Office.
Private Secretary $ 1,452 00
Messenger, also has charge of Government House  600 00
Office Contingencies  100 00
Total  2,152 00
2.—Colonial Secretary's Department.
Colonial Secretary  3,500 00
Assistant Colonial Secretary  1,940 00
Clerk  1,600 00
Messenger   600 00
Total  7,640 00
3.—Printing Branch.
Superintendent  1,320 00
Printer  960 00
Assistant Printer  640 00
Assistant Printer (temporary)  300 00
Total  3,220 00 XVI. APPENDIX.
4.—Audit Branch.
Audit Clerk «     1,600 00
5.—Treasury Branch.
Clerk in Charge (provisional)     1,940 00  .
Clerk     1,452 00
Total  3,392 00
6 —Lands and Works Department.
Chief Commissioner  3,600 00
Assistant Commissioner  2,425 00
Clerk of Records  1,320 00
Draughtsman  1,320 00
Accountant  1,320 00
Messenger and Clerk  600 00
Total ~ 10,485 00
7.—Registrar General's Office.
Registrar General of Titles     1,940 00
8.—Attorney General's Department.
Attorney General i. t     3,500 00
Clerk™     1,600 00
Total  6,100 00
9.—Executive Cocncil.
Cleric *..*&*...... 1,600 00
10.—Legislation.
Mr. Speaker..  1,000 00
Clerk of the House  600 00
Sergeant.at-Anns  250 00
Messenger (Assistant Printer)..  * 200 00
Indemnity to Members, including Mileage  7,800 00
Expenses of Elections  2,600 00
Contingent Fund..  1,000 00
Total :  13,350 00
ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE.
11.—Supreme Court.
Registrar, " Courts Merger Ordinance, 1870"  1,940 00
Deputy Registrar,                    Do.  1,940 00
Usher  600 00
Total     4.4S0 00
12.—Sheriff.
High Sheriff (aid of Expenses)     1,500 00
POLICE AND GAOLS.
13.—Victoria.
Clerk of the Bench.     1,600 00
Warden of Gaol and Superintendent of Police     1,752 00 APPENDIX.
Inspector (provisional)  1,008 00
Serge nt „ 850 00
Four   onstables, at $720 each   2,880 00
Gaole   1,104 00
Do.   Assistant  912 50
Superintendent of Convicts  1,008 00
Two Convict Guards  1,277 00
Two Door Guards  1,095 00
Cook  638 75
Medical Officer  600 00
Total  6,635 25
14.—New Westminster.
Stipendiary   Magistrate and Superintendent of Assay
Office  2,425 00
Two Constables at $720 each  1,440 00
Gaoler  1,104 00
Turnkey  708 00
Me leal Officer   600 00
Constable, Burrard Inlet  600 00
Total  6,877 i 0
15.—KOOTANAIS AND COLUMBIA.
Gold Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate (to be
appointed)  3,000 00
Clerk and Constable (Records, &c.)  1,704 00
Do.                       Do.           French Creek  1,704 00
Two Constables at $1,404 each  2,808 00
Total  9,216 00
16.—Caribou.
Gold Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate  3,000 00
Clerk of Records  1,940 00
Chief Constable  1,940 00
Constable a d Gaoler  1,452 00
Two Constables at $1,008 each  2,016 00
Constable at Quesnel   1,500 00
Constable at Forks of Quesnel  1,452 00
Total  13,300 00
17.—Omineca (provisional.)
Gold Commissioner and Stipendiary Magistrate .'.... 3,000 00
Clerk of Records  1,940 00
Constable  1,500 00
Constable at Port Essington  1,000 00
Total  7,440 00
18.—Hope, Tale, and Lytton.
Clerk of the Bench, Yale  1,500 00
Constable and Gaoler, Do  1,008 00
Constable, Assistant,   Do  1,008 00
Constable, Lytton  1,008 00
Total,  4,524 00 XV11I.
APPENDIX.
19.—Lillooet and Clinton.
Clerk of the Bench and Constable, Lillooet..  1,500 00
Do.                      Do.           Clinton  1,500 00
Total  3,000 00
20.—Nanaimo, Comox, Salt Spring, and Cowichan.
Clerk of the Bench, Nanaimo  1,300 00
Constable, Nanaimo  732 00
Constables, Comox, Cowichan, and Salt Spring Island,
$250 each  750 00
* Total
2,782 00
tl.
ASSAY OFFICE.
Superintendent, New Westminster,  (provided for as
Stipendiary Magistrate)	
Chief Melter. Cariboo     1,940 00
Assistant Assayer  Do         900 00
Indian Messenger, New Westminster-  96 00
Chemicals, Fuel,    c .-... $500 00
Freight, &c  350 00       850 00
Total-     3,786 00
22.   PENSIONS AND RETIRED ALLOWANCES.
Pension to Mrs. Ogilvy-        485 00
23.—ADMINISTRATION OF JUSTICE, ex. of Establishments.
Summoning Jurors, Witnesses, &c     1,000 00
Prosecution, Interpreters' Fees, Ac	
Inquests, &c	
Expenses of Registrars on Circuit	
Criminal Punishments	
Tola
2,000 00
300 00
1,000 00
200 00
'00 00
-CHARITABLE ALLOWANCES.
Hospital aid--Victoria  4JV00 00
Do.           New Westminster..  8,000 00
Do.          .Cariboo  4,000 00
Destitute poor and sick throughout the Province  1,0
Total --ininrv          12,500  00
25.—IMMIGRATION.. „.,.,.. 10,000 00
26. EDUCATION.
Aid to District Schools  40,000 00
ST.—POLICE AND GAOLS, exclusive of Establishment*.
Keep   of   Prisoners   and   other   Police   Expenditure
throughout the Province  20,000 00 mm
APPENDIX.
XIX.
28.—RENTS.
Government House, Victoria  48 50
Do.,                 Lillooet  120 00
Boat House, Nanaimo  36 00
Gaol, Comox  60 00
Omineca  300 00
Total  564 50
29.—TRANSPORT.
The Lieutenant-Governor  1,000 00
Freight on Remittance of Treasure  500 00
Actual Travelling Expenses of Officers on Duty........... 3,500 00
Keep of Government Horses throughout the Province... 300 00
Total  5,300 00
30.—WORKS AND BUILDINGS.
Completion of Gaol at Nanaimo and purchase of Land.. 1,000 00
Construction of Court House, New Westminster - 2,500 00
Total  3,500 00
' 31.—Government House, Victoria.
Repairs  2,000 00
Furniture .,  1,500 00
Water  400 00
Fuel and Light  350 00
Planting Grounds  200 00
Salary of Gardener, and assistance  700 00
Fencing  250 00
Incidentals  100 00
Total  5,500 00
32.—Government House, New Westminster.
Repairs  500 00
Fuel and Light  150 00
Gardener's Salary  500 00
Incidentals  100 00
Total  1,250 00
33.—Repairs to Public Buildings, Provincial.
Government Buildings, Victoria  1,500 00
House of Assembly  500 00
Government Buildings, New Westminster  300 00
Do.               Yale  500 00
Do.               Lillooet and Clinton  500 00
Do.              Cariboo ,  750 00
Do.               Kootenay  2,000 00
Do.              Omineca, Contingent  2,000 00
Miscellaneous Surveys throughout the Province  5,000 00
Total » 13,050 00
H EaSS
XX.
APPENDIX.
34.—Repairs to Roads and Trails throughout the Province.
Yale and Clinton Road 20,000 00
Clinton^and Cameronton Road  14,000 00
Douglas and Clinton Road  1,000 00
Burrard InletRoad  1,200 00
New Westminster  and   Yale   Sleigh Road, including
Bridge over Coquahalla River  6,000 00
Hope and Kootenay Trail  3,500 00
Lillooet and Lytton Trail .'. 1,500 00
New Westminster District Roads and Trails, including
False Creek, Coquitlam Creek, and Sumass Bridges 5,650 00
Trails, Cariboo District  2,400 00
Trail, Quesnel to Germansen Creek, by Nation River  6,000 00
Db. from the Western Coast to intersect same  5,000 00
Roads and Trails, Yale and Lytton District, iicluding
Bridge across Nicola River  4,500 00
Repairs to Road from Cache Creek to Savona's Ferry... 2,000 00
Road from Savona's Ferry to Okanagan  15,000 00
Repairs to Front Street, New Westminster.„  750 00
Esquimalt Road, including new Bridges      9,000 00
Victoria District Roads  15,200 00
Esquimalt District Roads and Trails, including Bridge
across Sooke River  7,150 00
Cowichan District Roads and Trails  8,200 00
Nanaimo District Roads and Bridges  5,000 00
Comox Roads and Trails  5,000 00
Alberni to Nanaimo Trail, and from this point to Nanoose   2,400 00
Total '.  140,450 00
35.—MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES.
Provincial Exhibitions  500 00
Insurance on alFGovernment Buildings  700 00
Telegrams  600 00
Taking charge of Government Buildings, Douglas and
Langley   100 00
Printing General Map of Province in England   600 00
Postage throughout the Province  1,200 00
Tools and Implements for Road making  500 00
Fire Department throughout the Province  2,500 00
Road Tax Commissioners  700 00
Grant to Mechanics' and Literary Institutes  500 00
Grant to Water Company, Victoria  7,000 00
Miscellaneous Services not detailed  2,000 00
Stationery, Fuel, Light, etc  6,500 00
Gratuities to Officers whose services may be dispensed
with  2,000 00
Appropriation for re-establishment of a Ferry at Lillooet 3,000 00
Appropriation to provide temporary accommodation for
Lunatics .../.  5,000 00
Copies of Official Maps for Registrar General of Titles.. 400 00
Copy of Dispatches for Dominion Government  1,000 00
Total  34,800 00 um
APPENDIX.
APPENDIX IT.'
xxi.
Abstract of the probable Revenue of the Provincial Government of British Columbia, for the year 1872, showing also
the Revenue received under the similar heads in the years
1870 and 1871.
Estimate
of1872.
Revenue
for 1870.
Approximate
Revenue
of 1871.
211,000 00
6,000 00
7,000 00
1,250 00
10,000 00
12,000 00
43,000 00
6,000 00
5,250 00
200 00
7,837 00
200 00
6,000 00
2,000 00
6,500 00
4,500 0G
328,737 00
39,302 18
8,087 03
4,792 15
942  50
8,940 00
14,955 00
42,295 83
7,067 51
4,247 28
1,744 81
16,108 01
"256 28
820 00
6,563 87
107,000 00
Roads' Tolls	
48,865 00
Land Sales	
22,665 00
7,227 00
Rents, exclusive of Land 	
Free Miners' Certificates	
Mining Receipts, General	
Fines, forfeitures, & fees of Court
Fees of Office	
1,442 00
11,612 00
19,148 00
41,730 00
11,454 00
5,123 00
Sale of Government property	
Reimbursements  in  aid of Expenses incurred by Gov't	
2,550 00
941  00
887 00
Arrears, Real Estate Tax	
Arrears, Road Tax	
6,233 00
Road'Tax, 1872 	
5,946 00
Interest on Canadian Stock, at
5 per cent., 9 months	
$
156,122 45
292,823 00
APPENDIX O.
At Barkerville, on the 20th ult., Mr. Thompson, M. P., addressed
his constituents. In the course of his remarks, the hon. gentleman presented the following financial statement of the direct
pecuniary benefit British Columbia had derived from union with
Canada, which, we think, will be found to be approximately
correct:—
Appropriations for British Columbia for 1872-3.
Salary of Lieutenant-Governor  $8,000 00
Salary of Auditor     5,000 00
Salaries of Supreme and County Court Judges  29,500 00
Probable expense of Administration of Justice  10,000 00
Expense Collecting Customs  20,000 00
Mail Service—Ocean, $54,000: Inland, $50,000 104,000 00 xxn.
APPENDIX.
Lighthouses — Maintenance,    $16,500;    Construction, «
$9,000  25,500 00
Telegraph Line—Subsidy and Maintenance  29,000 00
Blasting Sister Rock  7,000 00
Marine expenses  2,000 00
Inland Revenue expenses  2,000 00
Victoria Dredger expenses  10,000 00
Steamer Sir James Douglas, expenses  20,000 00
Building Custom House and Post Office, Victoria  25,000 00
Building Marine Hospital  20,000 00
Preliminary surveys for Penitentiary  5,000 00
Indian Affairs jj  20,000 00
Militia equipments, stores and expenses  30,000 00
Grant towards Immigration  5,000 00
$377,000 00
Subsidy in accordance with Union Terms  214,000 00
Interest saved and Sinking Fund  120,000 00
$711,000 00
Less probable receipts from Customs, now collected
by the Dominion Government  300,000 00
—British Colonist, 4th August, 1872. $411,000 00
APPENDIX P.
Rates of Postage.
Letters  $
y2oz.
Papers
each.
Book Post
Lowest Rate.
6 cents
3    "
6    "
23     "
34    "
16    "
16    "
[16    "
2 cents
1 "
2 "
6    "
5     "
4    "
4     "
4    "
9 cts. ^ 4 oz.
1 ct. per oz.
i   <<    it    <(
Throughout the Province   and
Dominion	
United States	
6 cts per 2 oz.
5   u    (<    u
New Zealand	
China	
> 2 cts perl oz.
Money Orders with Canada and England.
< . V APPENDIX.
xxm.
APPENDIX Q.
Note referred to at page 46.
Since writing the statement in the text, the following memorandum has been handed to me by a practical farmer from the North
of Scotland.    I submit it in full confidence of its accuracy..
Memorandum of crop on the farm of Mr. William Reid, Saanich,
near Victoria, B. C.:—
1869.
13 acres of Oats gave 562 Imperial Bushels.... 4T\ Bushels per acre
Average  of  Rough  Barley, within  a small
fraction of.  55        " "
Average of Chevalier Barley  44£     " "
Do      Wheat (Spring) weight  66  fibs.
the Imperial Bushel .'.. 41        " "
1870.
15 acres Oats gave 735 Imperial Bushels  44        " "
Average of Rough and Chevalier Barley, not
distinguished  46|      " "
Average of Spring Wheat  38f     " "
Owing to uncommon drought the crop of 1871 was short of the
above, which may be regarded as the.probable return of fair average seasons, with good cultivation.
Mr. Reid states that on a neighboring farm in 1869 there were
samples of Oats yielding upwards of 70 Bushels to the acre ; and
on another farm a field of Wheat in, clayey bottom, that averaged
50 Bushels throughout.
APPENDIX E.
Extracts from the British Colonist
at Page 59.
iwspaper, referred to
From Cache Creek; to Okinagan.
The announcement (made in our advertising columns) that Mr.
Barnard has placed a weekly line of passenger stages on the route
between Cache Creek and Okinagan, connecting at the former
point with the main trunk line to Cariboo, is suggestive of progress.
The enterprise displayed by Mr. Barnard in thus following closely
upon the heels of the road-makers is deserving of praise. The
fact itself is calculated to arouse a people accustomed to think of
the country as non-progressive,—standing stock still. A coach
road from Cache Creek to Okinagan.! and a weekly line of stages
on it I ! This leads to enquiry about the country seemingly so
suddenly opened up. And here we are made to feel our ignorance,
—the little that is known about "the great interior." We will
tell the reader what little we know about the country penetrated
rhTrrir
*! XX1T.
APPENDIX.
by. Mr. Barnard's enterprise. From Cache Creek to Okinagan, a
distance of about one hundred miles, [150] as the crow flies, six
thousand head of cattle fatten upon nature's rich pastures. There
is room for more than double that number. Calculating seven
hundred pounds of beef to each animal, a low average as beeves go
in that section, that would yield eight and a half million pounds
of the finest beef in the world. In 1871 the yield of grain on the
Tranquille, North and South Forks of the Thompson amounted to
one and a quaiter million pounds. That was the product of less
than a tenth of the land held under pre-emption, the whole being
seven thousand, six hundred and eighty acres, which should be
capable of producing at least twelve million pounds. Of bacon,
upwards of forty thousand pounds was cured. At one dairy, (Mr.
Jones') two thousand, five hundred pounds of excellent butter was
made. The Spellum-cheen Valley will produce fall wheat of the
finest quality without, irrigation, in consequence of a fine surface
soil and clay subsoil. The Okinagan will yield only fall wheat
without irrigation ; spring wheat, oats, and barley, etc., in wonderful profusion with irrigation. The yield of wheat ranges from
one and a quarter to one and a half tons per acre; As high as nine
tons of potatoes has been taken from the acre. Wherever tried
fruit trees have done exceedingly well, while those severer tests of
climate, Indian corn, tomatoes, musk melons, water melons, and
even the grape vine have been cultivated with great success and
without having recourse to artificial expedients. The country is,
for the most part open, dotted with trees giving it almost the
appearance of an old country park. It is so free from wood as to
enable the horseman to canter at will in almost every direction,
and in some instances no obstructions are presented to the free
progress of a carriage. The face of the country is beautiful—
relieved by ever changing succession of hill and dale. The water
system is excellent, the surface of the country being indented by
numerous lakes and rivers or smaller streams, everywhere
teeming with fish of excellent quality. A mild climate will
have already been inferred. It may be added that snow seldom
falls to any depth, and never lies long. Horses, horned cattle
and sheep pass the winter unhoused and uncared for and, as
a rule, -come out in good condition in the spring. On most
of the grass ranges cattle shifting for themselves through winter
are in prime condition for beef in the spring. In the country thus
roughly and very imperfectly sketched, there are a few hundred
settlers—we really do not know how many. In the valleys of the
Thompson, Okinagan, und Cache Creek., there are about one hundred children. There is the making of happy homes for tens of
thousands. In truth no more desirable country can be found, and
it is not unreasonable to hope that the opening of a coach road
leading through the heart of it, and the facilities for travel presented by a weekly line of stages may lead persons in search of
homes to go and see for themselves. The impression has gone
forth that British Columbia is not, and can never be, an agricultural
country. Without pausing to discuss the proper definition of the
term, we will say, without fear of successful contradiction, that,
although British Columbia may never become a large exporter of
agricultural productions, she has at least within herself the means
Ik .*». mm$m
APPENDIX.
XXV
of supporting a population of between two and three millions.
This much may safely be said in respect of what is known. The
unknown we leave to the future. August 9, 1872.
APPENDIX E. E.
Since the remarks in the text were written, the following communication on the subject has been published :
Montreal, 13th May, 1872.
James Richardson, Esq.,
Geological Survey.
Sir :—At your request we have much pleasure in reporting upon
the hops of British Columbia, a sample of which you favoured us
with.
In our opinion they are of very superior quality, rich and fine in
aroma. These hops resemble the California, and would be equally
sure to find ready sale in this or other markets at the highest rates;
they have been well dried and are in first rate condition.
*" Our estimate of the value of these hops is that they are worth
fully 10 cents per pound more than the best Canadian growth, the
prices of which, during the past season, ranged from 50 to 75
cents per pound according to demand. Exceptionally high prices,
however.    Yours faithfully, WM. DOW & Co.
—British Colonist newspaper, June, 1872.
[The hops in question were raised in the vicinity of Victoria.]
APPENDIX S.
The following is the Official Advertisement inviting tenders for
the construction of a Graving Dock' at Esquimalt:
British Columbia.
ESQUIMALT  GRAVING  DOCK.
The Government of British Columbia- are prepared to receive
Tenders for the construction of a Graving Dock, at the Naval
Station, Esquimalt Harbor, under the guarantee provided in the
Twelfth Section of the Terms of Union of this Province with the
Dominion of Canada, which Section is in the following words :—
" The Dominion Government shall guarantee the interest for
ten years from the date of the completion of the work, at the rate
of five per cent, per annum, on such sums, not exceeding £100,000
sterling, as may be required
Graving Dock at Esquimalt.''
The Dock to be of masonry
dimensions :—
Length on floor, 370 feet,
Do.    over all, 400 feet,
for the construction of a
and of not less that the
first class
following XXVI.
APPENDIX.
Width between copings, 90 feet,
Do.   on floor  45 feet,
Do.   of entrance........ 63 feet.
To afford a depth of water on the sill of not less than 261 feet at
high water springs, and to be substantially constructed to the
approval of the Government, upon a site to be provided by the
person whose tender may be accepted.
Further particulars as to site, borings, &c, may be obtained
from T. A. Biuu.ey, Esq., Chief Engineer to Government, upon
application in writing to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and
Works.
Tenders must specify the time within which the Dock will bo
completed, and must be accompanied by drawings and descriptions
showing exact dimensions, materials, and mode of construction of
proposed Dock.
Tenders are to be sealed, superscribed "Tender for Esquimalt
Graving Dock," addressed to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and
Works, Victoria, British Columbia, and delivered at his Office
before noon of the 15th day of November, 1872.
Persons who may consider the above guarantee to be insufficient
are at liberty to tender on the basis of such supplemental guarantee
by the Provincial Government, or upon such other financial
inducements, as they may suggest.
The Government do not bind themselves to accept the lowest or
any tender.
Each Tender must be accompanied by a Bond from the Contractor, and two sufficient sureties, for the payment of £10,000 to Her
Majesty, Her heir* and successors, conditioned upon the due fulfilment of the Tender which it accompanies, provided it be accepted
within three months from the said 15th of November.
By Command. GEO. A. WALKKM,
Ckief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Lands and Works Office,
Victoria, April 21th, 1872.
N.B. The date for the reception of Tenders has since been extended to noon of 31st December.
APPENDIX T.
Prices of some articles of Farm Produce in Victoria during
the past Season.
fats, per 100 lbs i*- 00(3)2 60
Barley, Rough, per 100 lbs„   2 25<S>2 50
Do       Chevalier,  ••       •' ,  *•*..  2 Mffl) 75
Whe**i "       "   2 25&2T5
Potatoes, ' «•       ««  ...„....„.^.„„   1 S0(.«.2 00
Eggs per dozen, 30 to 60 cents, at Christmas...  1 00
Butter, fresh, per lb  40<9>«2f c
Oxen for beef, draeaed weight, per lb  13&16cU.
Swine, fattened,   •• «T «    #WMWW.M.«1.#....- 12(413 eta.
Hay per ton of 2000 lb* $2«-r * $30
Hops,per lb  ,,,-,,,  .      -m,    ..  . . , 35to60ct*. APPENDIX.
XXYll.
N. B. Under the former tariff, recently superseded by the General Tariff of the Dominion, an import duty of 30 cents per 100 lbs.
was levied on Barley and Oats ; on Wheat, 35 cents per 100 lbs ;
and on Potatoes, 50 cents per 100 fts.
APPENDIX V.
Present prices in Victoria of some Articles of Ordinary
Family consumption.
Sugar, Sandwich Islands No. 1, per lb         12 J cts.
Do.        Do.       Do      Lower qualities, per ft  9,10 & lie.
Refined, per ft  17@20 cts.
Tea, from 35 to 75 cents according to quality.
Tea, Japan, per ft  75 cts.
Coffee, Raw      "     20@30 cts.
Flour, extra fine, per bbl. of 200'fts $7 00@7 50
Do   fine,   in   sacks  6 00
Do    ordinary "         5 00
Bacon, per ft., Chicago 20 cts. Home  25 cts.
Butter salt, per ft.,California 30 cts, Home 40 cts. Fresh 50 cts.
Beef, fresh, per lb  12J@18 c.
Pork,    "   '      "         "        "
Mutton," "         "        "
Fish of various kinds, pe"rft "> 6to8c.at the
Salmon, "     J regular shops
N. B.    Fish can  be  obtained  from the natives very cheaply.
Salmon from  25 to  50 cents  each,  or from 1 to 2 cents per lb. ;
when very abundant, cheaper.    Oysters, too, very cheaply.
Salted Salmon per bbl. of 200 fts $ 7 00
Do. Oolahans    "      "      "          7 00
Syrup, refined, per keg of 5 gallons    5 75@6 00
Molasses, Sandwich Island, per gallon  30
Clothing generally, including duty, at a moderate advance on
Invoice ; Canadian manufactures of course enter duty free.
All importations are under the General Tariff of Canada. On
the 1st July, among other proposed reductions, Tea and Coffee will
come in duty free.
N. B. The consumption of Sugar (except refined) is met almost
entirely by importations direct from the Sandwich Islands—the
quality very superior. From the same source there is also a considerable importation of other produce, including Oranges, Bananas
and other semi-tropical fruits. The chief supply of flour has
hitherto been from Oregon ; but in the Interior a sufficiency is
now manufactured to meet the local demand, or nearly so, the Indian
population being great consumers. From San Francisco, among
other productions, are imported Oranges, Grapes, &c, in great
profusion during their season, together with native wines of very
good quality.    Other foreign wines, since the reduction of the XXV111.
APPENDIX.
high duty till recently imposed, are procurable at a moderate
advance for the importer's profit. So of malt liquors from London.
Excel lent beer is, however, brewed in the Province at a rate rather
in advance of the ordinary English price.
APPENDIX W.
Hospitals'.
There are three Public Hospitals in the Province, supported by
private contributions with Government aid One.) at Victoria,
another at New Westminster, the third in Caribou.
In addition to these there is the Naval Hospital at Esquimalt for
the accommodation of H. M.'s fleet; and in Victoria a private
hospital supported by the French Benevolent Society.
APPENDIX X.
Theatre.
The Theatre, though small, is sufficiently commodious for the
present. There is no regular Managements and the performances
are dependent on the visits of occasional troupe*, some of no
mean ability, who annually visit Victoria. Prominent among
these performers may be mentioned the late Charles Kean and Mrs.
Eean, who performed here for a series of nights some years ago,
under invitation. Amateur theatricals and concerts are occasionally performed for the promotion of special objects: and among
its other utilities, the Theatre is frequently the arena or Public
Meetings, when of course much fervid eloquence " splits the ears
of tbe groundlings."
APPENDIX Y.
Qas and Witter.
Victoria Is adequately supplied with the former by a Company
incorporated for the purpose; and with water, by pipes laid down
by smother Company, supplemented by cam—the source of supply
being certain springs on a ridge near tbe town. Surveys are now
in progress with the object of introducing a mere copious supply
from a lake, distant some six miles from the town. ■■C
APPENDIX. XXIX.
APPENDIX Z.
A table of Latitudes and  Longitudes  of  some places in
British Columbia, as determined by the Royal Engineers.
Station.
Alexandria, -
Anderson,       - - - -
Antler, -
Asananny,      -
Beaver Creek, Cut off Valley,
Beaver Lake, Sellers' Hotel, -
Beaver Pass house, Lightning Creek,
Bridge River, mouth,
Bridge Creek house, -
Campment du Chevreuil,
Cameron's Farm, 12 m. from Cottonwood
Campment des Fejnmes,
Chanthopeen Lake,   - - -
Cottonwood,   - - - -
Cokelin, -
Douglas, -
Esquimalt, V. I., Duntze Point,
(Fort Colvile, U.S.,) -
Fort George,  - - - -
Fountain,       - - -
Garry Point, - - - -
Green Lake, opposite Crescent Island,
Harrison River, Mouth,
Hat River, Mouth,     ...
Hope, -
Keitbley,        -
Ko-om-ko-otz, -
Lake La Hache, East end, (camp)    -
Lake La Hache, West end,    -
Langley Barracks,     -
Lillooet, Court House,
Lillooet Lake, 29-mile house,
Lytton, -
Marmot Lake, -
New Westminster,     -
Nimpoh, (camp) -
North River, opposite mouth,
Okinagan Lake, head of,
Osoyoos Lake, -
Pavilion Mountain, North base,
Pembertbn,     -
Pnntzee, -
Quesnel River, mouth,
Quesnel River, Lower Ferry, Donaldson's
1
.iitit
ude
A
nprox.
Nor
th.
" Lod
g. West.
52°33'
40"
122c
26/56"
50
32
13
122
35 22
52
58
44
121
26 22
52
24
40
126
30 7
51
7
6
121
39 59
52
29
19
121
55 4
53
3
58
121
52 49
50
45
33
122
51
39
2
121
24 58
49
20
57
121
8 34
53
1
38
122
14 28
49
32
29
120
45 28
52
8
53
124
30 43
53
0
33
122
5 7
52
22
41
125
50 24 i
49
45
20
122
11 4
48
25
49
123
26 46
48
38
3
118
7 19
53
53
29
122
45 1
50
44
44
122
1 26
49
7
5
123
11 17
51
23
4
121
29 9
49
14
25
121
54 34
50
54
7
121
33 30
49
22
21
121
27 58
52
45
21
121
28 32"
52
22
36
126
47 34
51
49
41
121
35 57
51
51
50
121
44 10
49
12
9
122
35 14
50
41
49
122
2 28
50
O
0
122
35 42
50
13
45
121
40 19
53
0
25
121
35 33
49
12
47
122
53 19
52
22
51
125
13 48
50
39
3
120
27 20
50
21
13
119
26 35
49
1
52
119
36 55
50
59
15
121
58 37
50
17
32
122
43 15
52
12
10
124
2 24
53
0
17
122
27 6
52
58
15
122
26 52 XXX.
APPENDIX.
Station.
Latitude
Approx.
Noi
th.
Lou
g. West.
Quesnel River, Forks,
j
52°39/
42"
121c
42/52"
Round Prairie, Phillips' Farm,
-
52
47
57
122
23 49
Richfield, Court house,
-
53
o
9
121
33 55
Salmon River, Grand Prairie,
-
50
28
34
119
47 35
Seton,             -
-
50
40
18
122
5 47'
Seton Lake, West end,
-
50
42
25
122
26 43
Shtooiht,         -
-
52
21
36
126
5  16
Snowshoe house, 7 miles from
Antler,
52
55
0
121
27 22
Swift River, mouth,  -
-
53
7
39
122
28 34
Tahartee Lake,
-
52
24
32
123
2 49
Vanwinkle, Court house,
-.
53
1
31
121
44 42
Vermillion Forks,
-
49
27
42
120
28 52
Williams Lake, Court house,
-
52
9
24
122
13 32
Yale,  -          -          -          -
-
49
33
44
121
25 58
APPENDIX A-2.
Table showing the Approximate Altitudes above the Sea of
some places in British Columbia from Observations by
Officers of the Royal Engineers.
Central DistbRot. fhbt.
Boston Bar settlement  472
Court-House at Lytton  780
Thompson's River—mouth of the Nicola  788
The Lakes (Venables')  2,170
Ashcroft Farm (Cornwall's)  1,508
Bounaparte River—mouth of Maiden Creek  1,905
Summit Altitude of trail from Green Lake to Bridge Creek.. 3,660
Bridge Creek House  3,086
Lake la Hache  2,488
Deep Dreek (South) at the Crossing  2,255
Court-House, William's Lake  2,135
The Springs Farm  1,850
Soda Creek crossing  1,690
Mud Lake  2,075
Fort Alexandria, Fraser level  1,420
Summit Altitude of trail from Mud Lake to Beaver Lake  3,300
Beaver Lake—Sellers' Hotel  2,110
The " Green timber,"  South limit  2,880
Little Lake Houge  2,535
Summit of trail thence to Quesnelle Forks  3,375
Quesnel City  1,958
Jtitchell's Bridge, North branch of Quesnel River  2,120 APPENDIX.
XXXI.
1   Caribou District. feet.
Caribou Lake  2,566
Snow-shoe Creek, Leon's house  4,920
Snow-shoe Peak  6,130
Snow-shoe Mountain, Leon's house-  5,844
Antler Creek Settlement  4,010
Milk Farm, Malony's  4,490
Summit of trail over Mount Agnes to Lightning Creek  5,850
Marmot Peak  ... 6,310
Marmot Lake  5,540
Richfield Court-House  4,216
Van Winkle Court-House  3,654
Cottonwood  2,530
Fraser River, at Mouth of Quesnel River  1,490
Do. at Mouth of Swift River   1,530
Do. at Fort George  1,690
By the Lillooet Route.
R. E. Observatory, New Westminster        54
Harrison Lake        71
Douglas Court-House      125
Hot Spring House (Temp, of Spring, 130°—Dr. Seddall, R.E.)     474
Lillooet Lake      620
Summit Lake  1,482
Anderson Lake      958
Seton Lake      898
Fraser River at Lillooet (June level)      692
Fountain  1,291
Capt. Martley's Farm-house  2,505
The Grotto, Pavilion Mountain  3,989
Summit of Road, do.       do  5,012
46th Mile Post, Cut-off Valley  2,973
Cut-off stream near head of Valley  2,340
Buonaparte River at the Mound  2,144
Junction of do. with Hat River   1,686
Head of Great Chasm  3,653
Immediately below in Chasm  2,724
Green Lake  3,164
By the Bentinck Arm Route.
Nookeetz (ruined village)      107
Asananny do.       2^7
Nooskultzt do.       316
Nootkleia (inhabited village)      392
Shtooiht (Springs)      464
Foot of Great Slide on Atnah-coh River  1,110
Summit of the Great Slide  2.230
Summit of the Mountain above the Slide  2,890
Hotharko Brook, at foot of Precipice  2,490
Summit of the Precipice  3,840
Nimpoh  3,601
Lake Towteestsan  3,580 xxxu.
APPENDIX.
FEET.
Summit Altitude of the trail on the Plateau  4,360
Summit Lake  4,020
Lake Chantslar     3,820
Lake Chanthopeen  3,780
[N.B.—The Bentinck Arm route has been abandoned for some
years.]
APPENDIX B-2.
Extract referred to at page 86.
A visit to Nanaimo, the seat of King Coal, never fails to impress observant and reflecting pet sons with fresh consciousness of
the power which that sable monarch is destined to wield on the
North Pacific. The Vancouver Coal Company are opening up the
Nanaimo Mines very extensively. Douglas Pit, a largely productive mine, is still competent to, and*for the most part does, supply
present demand. But, in anticipation of increased' demand,
works are being rapidly developed at various other points. The
deep pit, three hundred feet below the surface, will win several
square miles of coal. Workmen have only just commenced to
drive out from the bottom of this shaft and are crossing -what in
mining parlance is termed a " fault," which has somewhat dislocated the strata immediatelv above and below the scam. But the
coal, although contorted considerably, is of excellent quality; and
indications are met with only a few feet from the pit bottom showing that the termination of the " fault" cannot be far off. The
seam is from six to eight feet in thickness, and will continue to
turn out the " Black Diamond" for an indefinite period. On Newcastle Island the same Company have a splendid prospect. Here
there are two seams being-worked into,—the one known as Newcastle, the other the Douglas. Both of these seams crop out near
the water's edge, and are in every respect just as conveniently
situated for working and shipping as one could well conceive or
wish a coal mine to be. Newcastle seam is from eight to nine feet
in thickness, and a " heading " is driven into it two hundred and
fifty yards by way of exploration. This mine is fully ready to yield
a regular out-put of excellent coal: The Douglas seam is explored
bji^lope two hundred and seventy yards from the surface, the coal
improving in thickness as the depth increases.- At the bottom of
the slope, the formation is divided into two parts,—thus : three
and a half feet of coal, and two and a half feet of indurated clay,
and over the clay there are three feet of coal. As the slope deepens,
the fire-clay grows thinner, and experienced miners argue confidently, from this gradual convergence of the two seams of coal,
that they will be found to join not far off. There appears to be no
reasonable ground of doubt as to the extent and continuity of these.
Island coals, as both seams are found in proper position on both
sides of the Island.     Wharf accomodation, and the best and most
jm is?
APPENDIX.
XXXlll.
complete appliances and facilities for shipping the coal are being
projected and provided as fast as the works can be proceeded with.
Other explorations for deep coal are about to be made. It will be
impossible to dwell upon the very complete, substantial, and
extensive character of the Company's Works and machinery.
These might well occupy an entire article. Were we to stop here,
the reader would receive a very inadequate impression as to the
extent of the coal measures at Nanaimo, and the amount of enterprise applied to their development. The Wellington Coal Mine
(perhaps more generally known as the Dunsmuir Mine) on Departure Bay, about three miles above the town of Nanaimo, must not
be accounted as amongst the least important of our coal workings.
Here the indomitable perseverance of Mr. Dunsmuir was rewarded
by finding a seam of very superior coal, having a thickness ranging from eight to thirteen feet; and in a position highly favorable
to profitable development. This mine is about three miles distant
from the point of shipment on Departure Bay and has been
worked for more than a twelvemonth. A very substantial wooden
tramway has been constructed from the mine to the water, where
large and commodious wharves have been built. At present the
coal is transported in trams drawn by horses; but the enterprising
manager has resolved that in the. course of another year the
wooden rail shall be superseded by the iron, and the horse by the
locomotive steam engine. This cursory and necessarily very incomplete sketch may suffice to show that'British Columbia possesses great coal stores and that she is not altogether unprepared
to meet the greatly increased demand almost certain very soon to
be made upon these stores. It also points to the great importance
of Nanaimo, the Newcastle of the Dominion."—British Colonist,
August 15th, 1872.
APPENDIX C-2.
Notes regarding the Stone-quarry at Nanaimo.    From the
" British Colonist" newspaper—August, 1872.
'' Nanaimo is endowed with greater natural wealth than, perhaps, any other part of the wide Dominion of Canada. Her coal
measures already opened formed the subject of a recent article.
Her coal stores still locked might fill a book. In these practio^ily
inexhaustible stores Nanaimo possesses a power which must compel Commerce and Manufacture to kneel at her feet. But Nanaimo
has a mine of wealth of a different kind—the Newcastle Stone
Quarry. This quarry has been worked for upwards of two years,
and yet it may be said to be scarcely opened. Here are several
square miles of a continuous formation of the best free-stone to
be found anywhere on the coast. No more conclusive evidence of
the superiority of this stone need be sought than the fact that the
United States Mint at San Francisco is made of it. The mint cost
considerably over a million and a half, and absorbed eight thousand
mm XXXIV.
APPENDIX.
tons of the Newcastle stone. The introduction of this stone for
so important a purpose naturally aroused a certain amount of
local jealousy and brought out some international prejudice. The
consequence was that the stone was subjected to a rather more
severe test than would otherwise have been the case. It is gratifying to learn that the United States Inspector has, in his recent final
report, given the stone the highest character. To possess a stone
quarry so superior in every respect as to command the patronage
of San Francisco and overcome the prejudices of the Great Republic is something of which Nanaimo may justly be proud. We
have said that the San Francisco Mint took eight thousand tons of
this stone. In addition to this it took a large quantity of flagging-
stone for court-yard, side-walks, and cellar. In the eight thousand
tons were some pieces deserving of specific notice. There were
six columns, twenty-eight feet long, by four feet two inches square.
These columns were faultless throughout. There were two stones
for corner pediment fifteen tons each, and two key stones of fourteen tons each. One circumstance has tended seriously to lessen
the profits of the quarry. Every stone going to make up the
eight thousand tons for the mint has been of specific dimensions;
and in quarrying to fill the order a great deal of such stone as
would be used for smaller buildings or for rubble masonry has
gone to waste owing to there being no demand for it. Of this
waste stone there has been enough to realize fifty thousand dollars
in a market presenting a local demand for it. And yet it has not
yielded fifty cents. Nay, to remove it out of the way has cost
thousands of dollars. We have said that the quarry is scarcely
fairly opened. The last cargo of stone sent to San Francisco has
been pronounced of a superior quality to that previously sent. It
is well understood that the quality of the stone improves as yon
go in. The quarry has now an excellent and carefully prepared
" face" on it, from which stone may be taken superior in point of
quality to any yet quarried, and of almost any conceivable dimensions. Columns fifty feet long (or one hundred if necessary) by
four and a half feet thick can be supplied, without flaw or fault
in them; or if necessary, blocks fifteen feet square can be taken
out. This quarry is doubtless destined to exert more or less influence upon the character of our public buildings. Amongst
other things the Federal Government have undertaken to erect a
Custom-house, Post-office, Penitentiary, and Marine Hospital in
this Province. It is of no little importance that the Newcastle
Quarry, so convenient and accessible for shipping, stands prepared
to sunply the necessary stone for these; and the facilities thus
presented for obtaining the larger sections of the finest stone will
doubtless encourage the Dominion Government to indulge in a
class of architecture that might be considered unattainable under
less auspicious circumstances. When the United States authorities have sent all the way to Nanaimo for stone to construct the
mint at San Francisco, the Dominion Government cannot well entertain the idea of employing less desirable material in the construction of the Federal buildings here. Persons visiting Nanaimo
should not come away without "doing" Newcastle Quarry. A
visit to it will repay the trouble, and will always bo rendered en- *?&;.
APPENDIX.
XXXV.
joyable by the kind hospitality and courteous attentions of the
deservedly popular proprietor, J. G. Dawes, Esq., and of the no
less popular manager, Mr. Nightingale."
APPENDIX D-2.
The following table of Approximate Distances and Times I
find quoted from the work of Dr. Rattray, R. N, noticed
in Appendix G-2.
Distances from Hong Kong to England by the different Routes.
Geo. MileB.     Days.
Distance by Cape of Good Hope (Hong Kong
to Southampton)       12,000        110
Distance Overland by Suez  (Hong Kong to
Southampton)         9,467 50 60
Distance by British Columbia (Hong Kong
to Southampton), by steam and railway      11,121 36
Distances from Sydney to England by the different Routes.
Sydney to Southampton by Cape of Good Hope  11,880 miles.
Do. do. by Suez   11,219     "
Do. do. by Cape Horn  12,746     "
Do. do. by Panama  11,115     "
Do. do. by Vancouver Island   11,794     "
APPENDIX E-2.
Notes Regarding the quality of the   Timber yielded by the
Douglas Fir.
The following extract is taken from Dr. Charles Forbes' Essay:—
*Fhe Flexibility,  Resistance,  and Density of Masts from Vancouver
Island compared with Masts from Riga:
The principal quality of these woods is a flexibility and a tenacity of fibre rarely met with in trees so aged ; they may be bent
: and twisted several times in contrary directions without breaking.
Several poles of the greatest length having the end at the foot,
and the top of the tree cut off, were tried comparatively with polos XXXVI.
APPENDIX.
of the same dimensions cut from a Riga spar of first-class, and the
following result was found :
before rupture at the f
At the head	
ding I
oot /
Om 025  Om 028
0    019  0    016
Mean	
Charge of rupture (per centimeters 1
Squared at the foot j
At the head	
0    022  0    022
16    11.
19   93
21k 00
19 68
20 23
Density of wood at       >
the foot of the tree. J .
Density at the head..
0
0
478	
72t
0    555 0    629
These experiments give a mean almost identical, for the bending
and breaking of the two kinds of wood, while the  density differs
notably to the advantage of the Vancouver wood.
The only question still undecided is that of durability.   The
masts and spars of Vancouver are woods rare and exceptional  for
dimensions and superior qualities, strength, lightness, absence of
knots and other grave vices.
"Toulon," September 2-1, 1860.   Signed, L. A. Sylvester, Du
Perron. Chief Engineer of 3d Section.
The following from an Essay by the Rev. R. C. L. Brown.
The following extract from the Gardener's Chronicle, is given by
a recent number of the British Columbian newspaper:
"The remarks lately made in our columns on the very great
value of the Douglas fib, have led one of the most skilful of our
judges of timber to favour us with the following highly important
information. This fir wood, Mu. Wk. Wilson Saunders, F. R. S.,
of Lloyd's, has had many opportunities of examining carefully;
and, in order to satisfy one of our largest importers, he has made
some careful expia nls on its strength and flexibility in comparison with other similar woods. The following table, with which
'he has favored us, gives the result, which is in the highest degree
satisfactory. Mr. Wilson Saunders has a regular machine for
these experiments, and the results can be implicitly relied on.
Lengths of the woods enumerated in the following table, carefully squared to lj inch, were submitted to pressure of weights
pendent from the centre, the lengths being supported between
standards exactly 6 feet apart. The weight at which each broke
and the amount of deflection from the horizontal line at tbe time
of breaking, are given in the following table: APPENDIX.
lbs. Inches.
Douglas Fir  280 4        Fracture, rough and long.
Pitch Pine  280 4 " short and even.
Canada Spruce..   196 4.7 " short and rough.
Bed Pine  168 6 " rough.
Larch—British..  168 5.2 " short and even.
Deodar from Himalaya... 154 3.8 " short.
Tbe specimens experimented upon were carefully selected from
tbe best description of wood, and free from all defects.   The de-
i flection is given in inches and tenths of an inch.   Each wood had
two trials, and the figures give a mean result."
Dr. Lindley commenting on these tables goes on to say:
"It will be thus seen that none of the firs approached  in
strength the Douglas  or the Pitch Pine;  it having required the
weight of 280 lbs. to break a small bar of their wood, no more than an
inch and a quarter square.    A hundred and sixty-eight pounds broke
a piece of British Larch of the same scantling.    Moreover, between the Douglas Fir and Pitch Pine, whose strength was equal,
there is this great difference, that while the latter snapped short
under a pressure of 280 lbs., the Douglas yielded unwillingly with
a rough and long rend."
APPENDIX F-2.
The winter of 1835-36 is here referred to. Crossing the Rocky
Mountains from Tete Jaune's Cache to Jasper's in September, on
foot, I had returned with a party of some 22 persons, with horses.
After embarking in our canoes and descending Fraser River a few
miles, we were ice-bound—the winter being-premature in an unwonted degree—about the 23rd of October. Short of provisions,
and unable to make our way downwards owing to the unequally
frozen condition of the stream, we made a cache of the canoes and
their contents, at a point noted in Arrowsmith's map, and retraced
our steps to Jasper's—the snow being about nine inches deep at
the Summit of the Pass The supplies obtainable at Jasper's
were inadequate to our wants; and we had to continue our retreat
down the Athabasca, and across to Edmonton on the Saskatchewan. There we obtained copious supplies, with dog-sledges to
convey them. Leaving some of the party there, to follow in the
Spring, we set ont on our return. We had experienced some little
difficulty on the way down: but the return-trip, being now provided with snow-shoes, warm clothing, and plenty of pemican, was
performed with comparative comfort,—the journey from Edmonton
to Stuart's Lake occupying only 46 days. It was on this return
trip that the observations noted in the text were made. The depth
of the snow for a short distance at the summit of the Pass was
about eight feet—but it was melting very fast at the period of our
passage, about the 1st January, and there was a warm rain falling.
Note P. S. referred to at page 67.    ■* ra^*~^j xxxvm.
APPENDIX.
This thaw, as shewn in the text, was repeated (an interval of two
days' cold having been meanwhile experienced) below Tete Jaune's
Cache: and I conjecture was likewise repeated at the summit,
where we had first experienced it. It may be added that the thaw
in question, as we afterwards ascertained, was not experienced in
the lower parts of Fraser River, remote from the mountains, where
continuous cold, of remarkable severity, had prevailed throughout.
The object, it may be explained, of the communication at that
time maintained through the Tete Jaune Pass, was for the occasional conveyance of dressed Moose-leather, supplied from the
abundance of the Saskatchewan, for the use of Stuart's Lake and
the surrounding Posts, where it was much in demand. Hence the
route in question has been frequently called the Leather-Pass.
APPENDIX G-2.
Before concluding, the Writer thinks, it well to append a memorandum of the principal Works treating directly or indirectly of
the-subject in issue which he can recall to memory, and from
which much valuably information can be obtained. From this list,
he has designedly excluded the book of a Mr. McDonald, who
wrote, professing to give an account of British Columbia, some
years ago. The Writer has no desire to criticise the work in
question, which, indeed, he has had no opportunity of judging,
save from extracts that have been largely quoted by the Press: but
these extracts convey an impression so utterly at variance with
the observations of others, that, were the contrary not known, he
might have inferred that the Author had never set foot within the
Province. The valuable work of Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle
will, however, have since corrected many of the false impressions
which the former work was calculated to convey; and the only
object in here noticing Mr. McDonald's production is to put those
on their guard who may have imbibed such impressions through
reading it, without having subsequently met with the salutary
corrective.
For a similar reason the Writer proceeds to notice a commentary
on the climate of a portion of British Columbia which appeared
some years ago; and which, as emanating from a higher and better-
known authority, was calculated, if uncorrected, to convey an
impression more permanently injurious. The passage in question
appeared in the Colonization Circular of 1861, and was from the
pen of Mr. John Maclean, formerly a Wintering Partner of the
Hudson's Bay Company, and now residing in Canada. The Writer's
attention was called to the subject, semi-officially, by the Governor
of the period, the present Sir James Douglas: and he in consequence wrote a reply to the remarks, which was, it is presumable,
officially employed and is here reproduced.
&4* APPENDIX.
XXXIX.
Victoria, V. I., January 3, 1862.
Sir,—My attention has been directed to a passage in a recent
number of the Colonization Circular, having reference to the climate
of Stuart's Lake in British Columbia. I notice it the more readily
since it stands in juxtaposition to another passage in which my
own name appears.
When Mr. McLean mentions his having witnessed so great a
variation of temperature during a single day, he omits, (as quoted)
to advise his readers that such a day was an exceptional instance
and not the rule. So far from presenting anywise an ungenial
climate, Stuart's Lake is an extremely pleasant place of residence
—at least so I have always regarded it. The various wild fruits
flourish and ripen ; and even the crop of the service-berry, which
when in flower you are aware is extremely susceptible to frost, is
rarely blighted. Potatoes do not always succeed, it is true ; but
the failure may, I think, be ascribed usually to errors in the selection of the spots cultivated. Some attention to this point is necessary, in order to avoid the occasional night-frosts to which the
hollows are subject, but from which the slopes towards the Lake
are usually free. No better evidence that the climate is on the
whole a genial one need be adduced than this—that the tender
little humming-bird is common during summer at Stuart's Lake
as well as in the less elevated and hotter parts of British Columbia.
I need not recall Tour Excellency's attention to the fact that
a difference of temperature, equal to at least ten degrees of Latitude, exists during winter between positions on the Pacific Coast,
as compared with others on the Atlantic. The difference is more
marked as we approach the Coast on either side ; but is likewise
very perceptible in the Interior of British Columbia, where the
cold is neither so frequently severe nor so continuous as on the
Eastern side of the Rocky Mountains.
I have the honor to be,
To Sis Excellency \ &c. &c. &c.
Governor Douglas, C. B. f   (Signed) *****
■ WorJcs of Reference.
Vancouver's Voyage on N. W. Coast of America, 1790-95.
Voyage of Portlock and Dixon on N. W. Coast of America.
Voyage of Meares on N. W. Coast of America.
Voyage a la Cote du No;d Ouest dans les Annees 1810-15, par
Gabriel Franchere.
Travels of Sir Alex. McKenzie to the Pacific Ocean, &c, in the
years 1789-93.
Ross Cox's Columbia River.
Jewett's Narrative of a captivity at Nootka Sound in 1804.
An Essay o n Vancouver Island by Dr. Charles Forbes, R.N., 1862.
A work on Vancouver Island by J. D. Pemberton, Esq., Surveyor General of the former Colony.—London 1862.
Travels of Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle.
A work on the West Coast of Vancouver Island by Gilbert M.
Sproat, Esq. a xl.
APPENDIX.
Overland Route through British North America, by Alfred
Waddington.—Longmans, London, 1868.
Official Report on British Columbia of the Hon. H. L. Langevin,
Minister of Public Works of Canada, 1871.
Vancouver Island and British Columbia, by Dr. Rattray, R. N.
There is also a work treating of the North-West Coast by John
Dunn, a young man formerly in the employ of tbe Hudson's Bay
Company as a storekeeper, &c, which gives, I believe, a good deal
of information about tbe Coast, in its condition prior to colonisation.
Note P. S. Since the preparation of the above list two works,
treating of British Columbia, of recent date, have been brought
under my notice ; which, with the reviewer's comments npon one
of them, form the text for some remarks which I judge it necessary
to make in the Supplementary Chapter. A copy of one of theso
works—called, I think, " Queen Charlotte Islands "—by a Mr. 0.
E. Poole, I have seen and cursorily perused. The other, styled
" Very Far West Indeed," written professedly by a Mr. R. Byron
Johnson, I am acquainted with only through the columns of the
Saturday Review of 25th May last. These works may be read as
romances—provided, and provided only, they be sufficiently at
tractive as such ; a very questionable proposition : but as conveying, in the reviewer's words, any " useful hints as to bow end
"where to settle in British Columbia, to the emigrant who has a
" natural taste for ' bars and Injuns,1 or whose sense of daring is
"tickled by the Rapids of the Fraser," both are worse than worthless—ihey are ineffably delusive. In the first we have very wonderful adventures by flood and field. Bears of course figure conspicuously ; Indians are shot down—on paper at least as coolly,
and with as little compunction, as a Cockney sportsman " pots "
sparrows. Formidable trails are followed over imaginary mountains " sixteen thousand " feet in height; and an ordinary canoe
voyage, which had been performed scores of times before, and is
now almost weekly performed by unpretending travellers passing
to and fro, is magnified into an exploit exceeding that of Captain
Bligh, of " Bounty " celebrity, with which it is specially and most
audaciously contrasted. Withal it may be said that tbe author
docs not apparently seek to convey an injurious impression of the
Province as a field for settlement. His faults proceed from a queer
idiosyncrasy, which prompts him, where personally concerned, to
view every matter through a magnifying glass, to the constant
exaltation of his own Individual prowess. The other work, with
all the faults of the first, contains some astounding statements,
even more reprehensible, if possible, from an extraneous point of
view : and, if we may judge from the extracts, is altogether conceived in a spirit of exaggeration and detraction, with motives
which we will not attempt to analyse. A notorious steam-boat
story, for instance—apocryphal at tbe beet—has been taken from
tbe stock traditions of the Lower Mlssisstpi, and adapted to the
meridian of the Fraser. Again a sensational anecdote of alleged
mining adventure In Cariboo, resulting in an asserted execution
under " Lynch-law," is gravely related. Whether the occurrence
ever happened in any placofre cannot pretend to say—bat this APPENDIX.
xli.
maybe safely affirmed, that it never occurred in any part of British
Columbia : neither it nor any other similar case of " Lynch-law."
Miraculous rapids are familiarly talked of, situated midway in the
course of the Fraser, and yet 1,200 miles from its source—the
the whole length of the river meanwhile not exceeding 800 miles.
We will say nothing of the want of good taste that pervades the
Work—manifested in many unjustifiable personal allusions—the
truth of the assertions in one particular case having moreover been
directly controverted—and notably in the coarse sneer at the religious persuasion of a respectable dealer of the Upper Country,
whose name is brought incidentally and unwarrantably on the
carpet. Nor will we comment on the barbarous slang which is put
forward as characteristic of the Country: as if people here habitually talked of " bars and Injuns and grizzlies ;" or that the educated American gentlemen who form a highly-respected portion of
the community, employ a jargon which, if employed at all, is confined to the rudest classes of the remote interior States.
Enough, however, of these productions, which I have been
reluctantly brought to notice. It is a relief to refer once more to
the healthily-written book of Lord Milton and Dr. Cheadle, before
noticed ; and to join with it the work of Mr. Sproat above mentioned—of which, by the way, I cannot recall the exact title. The
perusal of these and other similar writings, proceeding from gentlemen of known standing and reputation, will serve to correct the
erroneous impressions possibly derived from other questionable
sources. Among the former, however, I ought not to omit special
reference to the Report of the Honorable Mr. Langevin, before
noted—the result of that gentleman's tour through the Province
in the autumn of last year. I have not yet seen a copy of this
production, but am informed that it contains a mass of statistical
information of the most valuable kind, with remarks justly appreciative of the varied resources and capabilities of the Province.
APPENDIX H-2.
In direct relation with the remarks at page 102, / quote the
following passage from the work of Captain Vancouver:^—
" Here [at Attowai, Sandwich Islands] we rejoined the American brig Washington.* ********** Amongst other articles
that Mr. Kendrick [the master] had procured whilst at Woahoo
was eighty pounds of very fine bees-wax that had been drifted by
the sea on to the shores of that island, and had very recently been
picked up by the natives ; and I now understood that some pieces
had also been procured from the natives of the other islands by
Mr. Kendrick."—Vancouver's Voyage, Vol. V.,p. 121. 8 vo. Ed.
London 1801.
,    1
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