Open Collections

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

BC Historical Books

Some account of the Tahkaht language, as spoken by several tribes on the western coast of Vancouver Island Knipe, C. 1868

Item Metadata


JSON: bcbooks-1.0221722.json
JSON-LD: bcbooks-1.0221722-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): bcbooks-1.0221722-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: bcbooks-1.0221722-rdf.json
Turtle: bcbooks-1.0221722-turtle.txt
N-Triples: bcbooks-1.0221722-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: bcbooks-1.0221722-source.json
Full Text

Full Text



Strangeways and Walden, Printers,
Castle St. Leicester Sq. W.C. INTRODUCTION.
The or Nootka, is an Indian language occurring on the
American coast of the North Pacific. It extends over a region
at present wanting in exact definition. This region, at any rate,
embraces the coast of the continent from Milbank Sound to Cape
Caution, and extends probably as far as Bute Inlet. It further
includes the north-east coast of Yancouver Island, as far as Cape
Mudge, the north-west coast of the same island as far southward
as Nitinaht, and the main land from Cape Flattery, or Classet, to
a point some twenty miles further south.
The term ' Tahkaht,' here used for the whole family, as coming
nearest to a genuine name, is strictly only applicable to the tribes
on the exterior coast of Yancouver Island, which apply that title
to themselves, and whose dialects are so similar as to be nearly
In three vocabularies—one coming from the north-east of Yancouver Island^ and two from Milbank Sound—I find that two
have one word in ten allied to the Tahkaht proper, and the other
is nearly identical with it.
Mr. Greorge Gibbs, well known for his labours in the field of
Indian language, kindly enables me to furnish the numerals from
these three sources,—
N.E. of V. Island.
Milbank Sound.
Milbank Sound
1     ..
Cha-wak ...
2     ..
.    At-lah
..    Maatl
...    Mah-loh
3     ..
N.E. of V. Island.
Milbank Sound.
Milbank Sound
4     ..
,    Moo
...    Mo
...    Moke
So-chah   ...
...    Seh-k'yah...
6    ..
Noo-poo ...
...    Kahtlah   ...
Ma dowse
8    ..
..    Mal-kwa-nahtl
9    ..
...    Maa-me-ne<
10    ..
...    La lis-toh ...
20    ..
30    ..
Chakiets hio
40    ...
The Makah and Klahuaaht, near Cape Flattery, are closely allied
to the J&itinaht type of the Tahkaht proper.
The name ' Tahkaht' is applied by the people themselves to
some' eighteen tribes living on the exterior coast of Vancouver
Island, and ranging from Woody Point northward to Nitiunlit on
the south. As far as the island goes, the Tahkaht speech stops
at Nitinaht, not entering the Straits of Fuca, but coming into sudden
contact with the language of the Selish family at that point. It
however, does not end here, but crosses to Cape Flattery, or, as
some maps have it, Classet (». e. Klahusaht), some distance to the
south of which it terminates. The supposition that it is closely
connected with the Chinook, at the mouth of the Columbia, has
been proved by the exact researches of Hale, Gallatin, and Gibbs,
to be an error. The mistake arose from the fact that the trade
jargon used between traders and Indians on the coast, and having
many Chinook words in it, was found also to contain several Tahkaht terms. It is, however, clearly shown that these latter terms
were brought in early days from Nootka  Sound, which  was an INTRODUCTION. O
earlier trading station than even Astoria, and that the true vocabularies of the Tahkaht and Chinook are as widely different from
each other, at any rate in sound, as any other two families of Indian
The Tahkahts proper, extending from Nitinaht to Woody Point,
are not in any way connected among themselves by government,
each tribe having its own chiefs, settlements, territory for hunting,
and fishing grounds. But a common language gives rise to a
good deal of mutual intercourse, as it no doubt points to a common
origin. They have no single national term embracing all the
tribes. The word \ Tahkaht' is linguistic, and means straight or
correct (i. e. correctly speaking) people, in contradistinction to
f Owsuppaht/ by which they designate all those whose speech they
do not understand, jj Tahkaht' is a term of honour, and ■ Owsuppaht'
of reproach, like Greek and Barbarian in ancient times.
The whole people is flat-headed, altering the shape of the head
by pressure commenced at birth, and continued for many months.
They have a peculiar custom—not usually practised by the Indians
of the Selish family—of tying their hair in a knot behind. Some
of these habits, apparently trivial, are less changeable than language, and may tend to exhibit a common origin or particular
affinity, where Ungual agreements are obliterated.
The following are the names of the Tahkaht tribes, in their
order, from south to north:—Pacheenaht, Nitinaht, Ohyaht, Ope-
chisaht, Howchuklisaht, Toquaht, Seshaht, Ewkloolaht, Kiltsmaht,
Klahoquaht, Ahousaht, Manosaht, Hishquayaht, Moouchaht, Noo-
chahlaht, Ayhuttisaht, Ky-yooquaht, Chayklisaht.
The common terminal, aht, means house or settlement, and
thence people, and is, the root of mahte and makkahte, a house.
The same tennination with the meaning of people may be noticed
in Tahkaht and Owsuppaht. In speaking of the English people,
whom they have been taught to call 'King George-men,' they
use the term 'King- Georgeaht.' Their territories do not always
go by similar names with their settlements, and never end in aht, 4 THE  TAHKAHT  LANGUAGE.
a termination implying house or population, but not land. Thus
the territory of the Pacheenahts is called 'Paeheenah,' that of
the Seshahts, ' Seshah.' The uniformity of the terminal aht
has been overlooked by surveyors and travellers, Jewitt included,
so that we find the greatest variety in spelling this final syllable. For Klahusaht, the Cape Flattery tribe, I find ' Classet'
in the Charts, and {Klaizzart' in Jewitt; for Howchuklisaht,
'Uchuklesit;' for Seshaht and Toquaht, 'Seshart' and 'Toquart;'
for Ewkloolaht, * TJcluelet;' for Klahoquaht, ' Klayoquot' in the
Charts, and ' Klaooquate ' in Jewitt; for Kiltsmaht, ' Kelsemart;'
for Manosaht, ' Manawussit;' for Hishquayaht, Ayhuttisaht, Ky-
yooquaht, ' Eshquate,' '* Aitizzart,' ' Cayuquet.'
Jewitt's little book is most interesting and trustworthy, and his
knowledge of the language, colloquially, no doubt very perfect,
but he seems to have missed the fact that the names of all the
tribes have the same termination. It may be mentioned here that
he speaks of one tribe in his day (1803) which formed an exception
to the above rule, and went by the name of Wikinninish. There-
is little doubt, from his description, that this was the Nitinaht
tribe of the present day. The term ' Wikinninish,' which has died
out as a tribal name, was found as a personal name, held by a chief
at the time of the destruction of the Tonquin, 1811, and by a
Seshaht chief, who died at middle age in 1864.
The religion of the people is, like that of all the North American
Indians, not idolatrous, .but pantheistic. Everything animate and
inanimate has its spiritual counterpart, and spirit influences spirit,
and often changes its habitation regardless of its material repre-.
sentative. Their word for shadow and reflexion is the same as that
for soul; and a tree, a blanket, a musket, has as much a soul, or
spiritual being, as a man. This principle underlies all their superstitions and beliefs. When a person .is sick the soul is supposed
to be weak, and the medicine-man performs a cure by bringing
his own soul into conjunction with the sick man's, and so giving
it renewed strength.    In case of great sickness, the soul is supposed INTRODUCTION. &
actually to have left the body, and entered the place of spirits. „ If
it go into a house there the sick man dies; but so long as it has not
done so it may yet be brought back by the medicine-man sending
his own soul in pursuit, seizing that of the sick man, and bringing
it back again. Their mythologies are singular, very numerous—-
for they seem to have stories connected with almost everything
in nature—and often very poetical. The whole tone shows a belief
in metempsychosis, and is in thorough accordance with the Indian
legends of Longfellow's ' Hiawatha.'
The people are by nature violent, brave, and treacherous, and
have from time to time engaged in the most horrid wars against,
or rather surprises of, each other. They nearly always attack in
the night; and there are instances of whole tribes being thus cut
off. In one case some travellers from a distant tribe.sought shelter
for the night, and, while their entertainers slept, rose and killed
nearly the whole of them. In another instance a whole tribe, while
engaged in fishing, was caught by its enemies and destroyed.
We have detailed published accounts in connexion with these
people from three different sources. The first is that of Captain
Cook, who stayed at Nootka Sound for a month (March and April,
1778), and kept on friendly terms with the natives the whole time.
He gives a vocabulary of some two hundred words, showing their
language to be substantially the same as at present. The next
is contained in a very interesting little book published by Andrus,
Gauntlett, and Co., New York, and entitled ' Jewitt's Narrative.'
Jewitt was an Englishman of some education, who sailed on board
the American ship Boston, as armourer, and in her visited Nootka
Sound. While anchored there this vessel, manned by twenty-seven
hands, including the captain, was captured by the savages', and every
soul slaughtered except Jewitt and another. These stayed with the
savages nearly three years, and were then rescued. Jewitt's book
deserves to be better known than it is. Of the ninety words which
he sets down in his vocabulary, I recognise all but six as being
substantially the same as the language now spoken. 6 THE  TAHKAHT LANGUAGE.
The above were both visits to Nootka Sound; the third was to
Klahoquaht Sound, and presents a tragic story not often equalled
in horror. The fall account is given with graphic power in
Washington Irving's ' Astoria.' John Jacob Astor's vessel, the
Tonquin, of 290 tons, carrying ten guns, and manned by twenty
men, was destroyed by these savages, who murdered every soul on
board except one, who died by his own act, and an Indian interpreter, who afterwards escaped and gave a full account of the event.
The savages were rejoicing in their success, and ransacking the
captured vessel, when a wounded man, the sole survivor of his comrades, put a match to the gunpowder, killing of course himself,
as well as some forty Indians. Washington Irving does not give
either the exact locality of the occurrence, or the names of the
tribes engaged. The Indians themselves, at the present day, have
the story by heart—no doubt it is often told at their firesides, as
there are still some of their elder men who were eye-witnesses of
the deed. They give a most circumstantial account of the whole
matter, and name- Klahoquaht Sound as the scene of the terrible-
outrage, and the Klahoquahts and Ahousahts as joint perpetrators.
Both these tribes have a name among their neighbours of being
particularly fierce and warlike; and the Ahousahts, having lately
destroyed a trading sloop and murdered two men, have been severely
punished by a British man-of-war.
The Tahkaht legends and superstitions agree entirely in character with North American tradition generally. It may be well
to describe one custom among them, clung to with great tenacity,
and said to be of very ancient origin; it is mentioned by Jewitt,
who, however, from his position as a slave, and from the necessity
he was under to leave the lodge at the tune the celebration was
going on, was unable to give a very full account of it. The name
of this celebration is ' Klooquahnah.' It always takes place in the
winter, near upon Christmas-day: in Jewitt's time, at any rate,
with the tribe with whom he lived, annually, but amongst the
tribes of Barclay Sound, at the present time, only about every three
years. It lasts for several days, a great part of the performance
consisting. in a pretended attack upon the lodges by wolves, which
carry off the chief's children. Among the younger children, who
are not initiated, there is often a good deal of alarm, as the whole
tribe turns out painted, and armed as if to resist an attack; and
there is much shouting and firing, with advances and retreats.
The celebration culminates in a human sacrifice, in which some poor
old slave, whose day of usefulness is gone by, is generally the victim.
Stabbed to death by an excited and furious crowd—for the worst
passions are aroused on such an occasion—the body is exposed for
several days upon the rocks, in a state of nudity, and various rites,
consisting of howling, dancing, and shouting, in which the elder
children are made to take part, are performed over it. The sacrifice,
although considered an integral part of the celebration, is not
always carried out, although it was so in the case of which I was an
eye-witness, an old female slave being put to death in a most brutal
manner. Such a dreadful addition to the proceedings was not
expected by the small civilised population of the neighbourhood,
or it might probably have been prevented. The Indians themselves
describe this custom as an institution having the effect of making
fierce and bad hearts. They tell us not to come amongst them
while it is going on, as life would not be safe. I am of opinion—
in which I am supported by another person well acquainted with
these tribes—that the whole aim of the performance is to accustom
the young rising generation to alertness in war, and indifference to
the sight of blood and death. It is probably kept up by the mass
merely for superstitious reasons, though the chiefs and more cunning
heads may see this use in it.
I here give Jewitt's account of what is evidently the same
custom. It will be remembered that Jewitt and Thompson lived in
the condition of slaves, with a tribe of the Tahkaht Indians, for
nearly three years. Jewitt writes: ' On the morning of the 13th
of September commenced what appeared to us a most singular farce.
Apparently without any previous notice the chief discharged a 8 THE TAHKAHT' LANGUAGE.
pistol close to his son's ears, who immediately fell down as if killed;
at which the women set up a great howl of lamentation. At the
same time a great number of the inhabitants rushed into the house
armed with daggers, muskets, &c, inquiring the cause of the outcry.
These were immediately followed by two others, dressed in wolfskins, who came in on their hands and feet, in the manner of a
beast, and, taking up the prince, carried him off upon their backs.
We saw no more of the ceremony, as the chief, our master, ordered
us to quit the house, and not return for seven days, as if we
appeared before that time' he should certainly kill us. At the
end of seven days we returned, and on the following day the
proceedings terminated with a most extraordinary exhibition. Three
men, each of whom had two bayonets run through his sides, between
the ribs, apparently regardless of pain, traversed the room backwards and forwards, singing war-songs, and exulting in this display
of firmness. We shortly afterwards visited the Aitizzarts, with
whom we witnessed a similar exhibition. On this occasion twenty
men entered the chief's house, with each an arrow run through
the flesh of his sides, and either arm, with a cord fastened to the
end, which, as the performer advanced, singing and boasting, was
forcibly drawn back by a person having hold of it. Maquina,
the chief, in explaining the similar proceedings at his own settlement, informed me that it was an ancient custom of the nation
to sacrifice a man at the close of the solemnity in honour of their
god, but that his father bad abolished it, and substituted this in
its place.' Such, somewhat abbreviated, is the description of Jewitt,
which, though he mentions no particular name as connected with
the performance, evidently applies to the Kloohquahnah.
Perhaps it is not fanciful to suppose that the Tahkaht language
is in that elementary condition from which the more formed languages have sprung, or rather is exhibiting that incipient process
of mutation, by which they came into their present condition. It
is easy to detect, underlying the whole, a system of roots; but
these, unlike what we are told of the roots of the Chinese tongue,
are not generally in themselves words, and suffer so much change
by the abbreviation of contraction, or elision, as sometimes to lose
their identity. There are appearances of grammatical construction,
just enough to indicate an unconscious effort after more systematic
expression—an effort continually foiled by the limited reasoning
powers of those who use the language.    One feature to be noticed
is, that it is essentially a language of consonants, all the stress,
as a rule, being on these and the main significance contained in
them. Owing to this, while it is comparatively easy, after practice
and careful listening, to take down the consonants correctly, it
is much more difficult, and one is liable to much more mistake, in
getting the vowels. This is exhibited in what has before been
noticed with regard to the terminal of the tribal names, where all
agree with regard to the final t, while differing so much in the
vowel. Even Indians themselves pronounce uncertainly and variably in this respect.    At the same time, after experience, and with 10 THE'TAHKAHT LANGUAGE.
care,  the  great majority of vowel sounds can be written down
There is one sound peculiar to the language, and very predominant in it, which has been noticed by other writers, particularly
by Mr. Anderson, surgeon under Captain Cook's command, in 1778.
It cannot exactly be signified by any letters of our alphabet, but
has been greatly misrepresented by the use of too many letters,
in a vain endeavour to give its full force. The test of all such
attempts is to pronounce the word so written to a native, and see
if it be recognised by him. The sound—which has one or two
what may be called cognate forms—may be spelt most correctly,
though still inadequately, by tl, tlh, Ih. In pronouncing, care must
be taken not to introduce a vowel; and in giving the I sound the
breath must be prolonged between the tongue and roof of the mouth,
thus introducing the h with almost, but not quite, a hissing sound*.
Instances of these sounds are presented in the words Moolahitl, in
which the tl is not to be pronounced tel, Hahquatlh, Missoolh.
Another point of considerable interest is the wonderful readiness-
of the Indian in the invention of new words. No novelty comes
under his notice but it soon gets a name, which rapidly spreads
among the tribes, and is added to the national vocabulary. This,
I suppose, is likely to be a feature of language in its natural and
elementary state, where the roots, if not always understood, are
felt, and find an unconscious expression.
The parts of speech are not very determinate or strictly defined:
at the same time not a few substantives, adjectives, and verbs, as
well as a few prepositions and pronouns, may be found; but a
considerable body of words is only in a position, as it were, of
becoming some of these, and at present in a state of transition.
While the people are so ready m forming new words, and most
skilful in specifying, the language exhibits a great deficiency in
the power of generalisation. For some most patent genera I have
a difficulty in finding out that they have any terms at all. If they
have any words for fish or beast, they are at any rate far from
being in common use. At the same time, the name of each beast
and fish is a household word with them. It is probable, however,
that this peculiarity belongs to savage language generally, as
distinguished from that of civilized nations.
It is a feature of this language that, to a certain extent,"the
words are like sentences and the sentences like words, no definite
distinction in every case existing between the two. An Indian
having translated a sentence into bis own tongue, will often be
unable to point out the different words of which it is composed.
Although it consist of a long sentence, he will say it as all one
word. In conversing among themselves they use many contractions
and elisions, which they often purposely increase to prevent a person only partially versed in their language from understanding
them. An Indian expressed this feature of their speech to me
by saying that ' they only speak half when among themselves.'
In like manner, many of their words retain, to a certain extent,
the structure of sentences. A good instance of this is the name
of an eatable berry growing upon rocky and mountainous places,
at some distances from their houses, which are always by the sea
or river side. The name of the berry is sinnamoossyets, as at
present pronounced. It is no doubt derived from the descriptive
sentence first spoken by the person (probably a woman) who discovered it. She would arrive, weary but proud, with her basket
of fruit, at her lodge. Her friends would crowd round and ask
eager questions about the new berry, and she, as the Indian
manner is, would begin to magnify the toil and merit of her discovery, and say some such words in a plaintive tone as syyah
nahshetlah mooxyeh yatsook, which conveys the idea that she had
looked for them far away walking upon the rocks. The radical
portions of this description would combine to form the word
sinnamooxyets, being si, far off; na, to look or see; moox, rock or
stone; yets or yats, to walk. To take another example: They
have a word, toah-uin, which means he or they speak or shout,
but the termination tcin, as the sign of the third person of the verb. 12
is only used when the person or persons spoken of are out of sight.
Now this same word wah-win is only used of a kind of hunting
in which those engaged surround their game, and, concealing
themselves, drive them them together by shouting. Often as one
visits the Indian houses or coasts along in a canoe, the weird
voices of these hunters come musically forth from the depths of
the forest, while not a man is to be seen. In answer to the
question ' What is that ?' the reply is * Wahwin;' which, though
originally a verb, is now used substantively, and is the specific
name of that manner of hunting.
1. Tsow-wauk, Noop.
2. Atlah.
3. Kots-tsa.
4. Mooh.
5. Sootcha.
6. Noop-pooh.
7. Atl-pooh.
8. At lull-qui Hi, Atlah-si in.
9. Tsow-wauk-quilh, Tsow-wauk
10. Hy-yu.
11. Hy-yu ish tsow-wauk.
12. Hy-yu ish atlah.
And so on to 19, inclusive — ish
meaning and or with.
And the numeration is continued in a similar manner to almost
any number.
I should mention that I was acquainted with this people
almost a year without getting to know a very patent peculiarity
of their numeration. As will be seen, they derive their term for
forty, sixty, eighty, one hundred, not as we do ours, but respec-
20. Tsokkits.
21. Tsokkits ish tsowwauk, and
so on.
30. Tsokkits ish hy-yu.
31. Tsokkits ish hyyu ish tsow-
wauk, and so on.
40. Atleyk.
50   Atleyk ish hyyu.
60. Kots-tseyk.
70. Kots-tseyk ish hyyu.
80. Mooheyk.
90. Mooheyk ish hyyu.
100. Sobcheyk.
200. Hwuevk.
L >
three, four,  ar
id five.
first hear
als, i
even traders and o
thers who
cated with 1
some time,
take it
granted that they use
the natural decimal mode and apply the terms accordingly; and
the Indians readily adapt themselves to this, altering their words
to suit the mistaken idea. But among themselves they adhere
to the manner of numeration given above.
It may also be noticed that the terms for one {noop) and two
{atlah) occur in those for six and seven, because they are counted
on the first and second fingers of the second hand. As the
Indian (until taught to copy our habit) counts, not by extending
bis fingers, but by bending down one after another, the most
prominent feature of his hand when he has reached" eight is that
two fingers are left extended—when he has reached nine that
one more is left. This accounts for the recurrence of atlah and
tsowwauk in their words for eight and nine respectively. This
explanation comes from an Indian.
A very curious feature of the numeration is that while when
applied to certain objects the numerals are-used simply and without any addition, there are other classes of substantives the individuals of which are apparently of a most incongruous nature, with
which the numeral is Only used with a particular suffix. Man
{ko-us), woman {hahquatl, klootsmah), salmon {tsoowit, hissit), frog
{wah-it), with many others, take only the simple numeral, and
never noop, but only tsowwauk for one. Many other words use
only noop for one, and with them every numeral takes the addition
kamilh. Perhaps this is the most numerous class, including all
sorts of money, clothing, birds, and beasts, as well as houses,
stones, guns, paddles, months, and many more. , A second suffix
used with the numeral is sok or sokko. It is added when trees,
masts, canoes, boats, or ships are spoken of.
As has been before remarked, the words of the language are
composed of roots, which often undergo a good deal of change
in composition, and are sometimes so altered as not to be readily
recognised by the natives themselves. The people, however, exhibit
the greatest aptitude in inventing names for new objects, and any
neat and appropriate name is quickly taken up by the rest and
so becomes universal. The following are instances of compounded
words of which the original meaning can be traced:—
Mahmathleh. A term applied to every person not an Indian.
Its original meaning is 'house-like' {inahta-maylM), and refers to
the ships in which strangers first visited their shores.
Yetseyetsokleh. A screw steamer. So named from yetse-yetsah,
to kick frequently, because when first the Indians saw such a
vessel they thought that the propulsion must be effected by something like the stroke of a swimmer's legs. -
Ah-asky. A turkey. These birds were first seen by the natives
during my stay among them. A woman invented the name,
which means 'bald hen' {ah-ah-he-asky).
Sinnamooxyets. The name of a berry. It contains the four
roots, si, nah, mooxyehj yets, which mean severally distance, sight,
rock, walk. The name, of course, implies that the first person
who discovered the berries walked over the rocks a long distance
to look for them — a description which quite agrees with the
locality of the berry. It may be noticed that the root yets, here
meaning to walk, enters into yetse yetsokleh, mentioned above, with
the meaning of kicking. The full word meaning to kick is yetshitl,
and to walk yetsook, or, as it is more frequently pronounced,
lahkpus. A proper name, signifying beard man, and derived
from yahkpekuksel, a beard, a ko-us, a man. Yahkpekuksel contains
the root yahk, which means long.
Himmitkyh. The cross on the roof of a church; from himmittah-
peh, a cross-bar, and kokkyh, a house-staff.
I cannot discover any common rule by • which the above and
similar formations are governed, so as to enable me to form words
in a similar manner myself. Composition with the word oh-oh-kook,
like to, is the only instance upon which I have been able to
found a rule. So far as I have observed, they only seem to form
words according to the following rule in giving names to different
articles of food,' but this is doubtful. In forming the names of
things by using oh-oh-kook, and describing them as ' like to'
something else which has already got a name, this rule applies.
The first syllable of the name of the object after which the other
is. to be called is reduplicated and the terminal exchanged for the
final syllable of oh-oh-kook. If, however, the reduplicated syllable
end in a consonant this is dropped in the reduplication. Thus we
find the term oh-oh-kook, signifying likeness, apparently only
represented in the new composite by the terminal kook, which of
itself would be insufficient to convey the meaning of its original.
But we must notice that oh-oh-kook has a double syllable which
is in itself significant, and conveys the idea of two similar things
standing side by side. This reduplication, then, in itself implying
likeness, is transferred from oDe word to the other. And thus the
new name composed of two words is made up of the body of one
and the reduplication and terminal of the other. It will be
readily seen that this applies to the following instances, which
have all been explained to me on this principle by a native:—
Kli-klitskook.    Flour.    From klitsmis, chalk, and oh-oh-kook.
Sissidskook.    Rice.    From sidsmen, maggots, and 6h-oh-kook.
Oh-ohpkakook.    Sugar.    From ohpkamits, sand, and oh-oh-kook.
We-wets-akook. Beans. From wetsai-ee, a small brown shell, and
the same.
Wah-wah-ehr-kook, turnips, from wah-oh, a small eatable bulb,
might seem to be an exception, but is not so in reality. When
first  the Indian  saw  turnips they were small  and very like the
-J 16
wah-o/t, whence they were called waJi-urrfi-kook. When the turnips
grew large the name was felt to be inappropriate, and was changed
into that given above, the additional syllable ehr, or ayhr, meaning
great or large.
Though unable to trace the complete derivation of many words
the presence of significant roots is often very discernible.
Na, nah, nats, an, ahn, nach.    Perception by the senses; light, as
opposed to darkness.
Ahnneh!    Look f
Ntinich, Nashetl.    To look.
Yatspannich.    To  walk   out   and
look about.
Klayherpannich.    To   paddle   out
and look about.
NaTi-choilh.    Found, i.e. seen (of a
thing lost.
Nah-choolh.    A copy or pattern.
Nah-chalh.    A prophet or seer.
Nah-tuch.    The stock duck, noted
among Indians for its quick sight.
Natsoh.    To see.
Nah-ah.    To hear.
Nay-yee-e.    Echo.
Annah-ah. To gamble (in which
the great aim of one party is
to see what the other tries ta
Nah-uktl.    To feel.
Nah-ah-pay-chitl.    To taste-
Neetsah.    The nose.
Nas.    The sky, day.
Nahpee, Nayitluk.    Light.
Nas-shitl.    The day-spring.
Mutl.    Binding, tying, and thence fastening and locking.
To  tie   or   bind   to-
Iron   hoop  of   a
Mutlilh.    Imprisoned, locked-up.
Mutlilhoowilh.    The lock-up; the
Mutlsahp:    To lock (of a door).
Mutlshitl.    To bind round.
Mutltoop.    String.
Mutlyu. Bound, tied, locked, fastened.
Che-ckah-mutl-pyik. A boat. The
mutl points to the distinctive
feature of a boat being made of
many pieces of wood fastened
together, while the canoe is
mainly of one piece. TAHKAHT  GRAMMAR.
Atl, atlah.    Duality
Atlah.    The numeral 2.
Atlshinnik.    Together; in company
with (said of two persons).
Ah-atlsoowit.   Equal.
Atlanewk.    The fork of a bough,
or of a river.
Atlkyh.    Small   branches   knotted
together to show a trail.
Chuk, tsuk, ts.    Water.
Chunk.    Water.
Tsuuk.    A river.
Chukootsuk.    A storm at sea.
Uktsukklis. Name of a tract of low
land full of tide sloughs and
often partially overflowed.
Out of seventy words in the vocabulary beginning* with ts, of
which several belong evidently to another root—sixteen have
something to do with water, as being names of fish, waterfowl,
or watergrass, or describing some such act as washing or pouring.
Ish, hish, ishinnik, chinnik, ishimilh, ishkamilh, kimilh.    With,
conjunction, union, indefinite quantity.
Noop-kamilh, Atlah-kamilh, fyc.
One, two, &c, as used with
many objects in place of the
simple numerals.
Muh-quinnik. To trade. (Mukook-
Of the name of the thirteen lunar
months, nine have the termination kamilh or shimilh.
Klakkimilh. Palisade fortifications
(from hlakkas, a tree).
Tseekmilhr-huppeh. To make an
oration. ( Tseeka, kmilh, hup-
Ish.    And, with.
Ishinnik.    With, together with.
Atl-shinnik. In company with
(spoken of two together).
Ishimyohp.    To assemble.
Ishinnik-quaht.    Next door.
Ishook, chooehk.    All.
Kots-tsachinnik. Three together.
(And so on with the other
Ey-yeh-chinnik. A great many together.
Hishhnilh. A collection, an assembly, a crowd.
Toquk-kimilh.   A lot of skins.
Klah.   Now, present time, novelty.
Klah-houye.    Now.
Klah-haylhut.     To   renovate;   to
make uew.
Klah-mulh.    New-born.
Rlah-huksik. The present generation.
Klah-choochin. A stranger, i.e.
one newly come.
J 18
Maht, mahs, mah, kaht, aht.    A house, a tribe.
Mahs, Mahte, Makkahte. A house,
a population, a tribe, a settlement.
Maht-mahs.   The entire population.
Tahkaht. A name applied to the
eighteen tribes speaking this
Owsuppaht. A barbarian; a barbarous people.
Akkahta ?    What tribe ?
Ishinnik-quaht.   Next door.
Maeheelh.    In the house.
Kochtsa Mahte Maeheelh. A three-
roomed house.
Ilh-kahs.    Stopping in the house.
Seshaht, and other names of tribes,
apply  to  the   population  and
houses, but not to the territory.
Thus the territory of the
Seshahts is named Seshah.
Mahmathleh. A term applied to
any persons not Indians, and
meaning 'houselike,' from the
ships in which foreigners first
visited the natives. Some years
ago the word Mamatle (no
doubt the same) was used in
the Chinook jargon to signify
a ship.
Histokshitlkahs. Come from the
house. (The kalis, kaht, and
quaht, is connected with an old
word Makkahte, a house.)
Mahtsquin.    A house-fly.
Che.    The action of pulling.
Che-eke!    Pull along !
Che-chitl.    To pull.
Che-chik.    A trigger.
Che-cha-mutl-pyik.    A boat.
Here the two features most distinguishing the boat from the canoe
are noted in the che, which denotes pulling, and the mutl, fastening,
i.e. the fastening of many pieces together. Cha probably means
Up, ahp, ap.    Central, midway.
Ahpeelsoo.    Central. Upanoolh.    A boundary, a dividing
Ahpunnuk.    Applied  to anything line.
placed   between    two    other Upitsaska.    The top {i.e. centre) of
things. the head.
Appoonit-nas.    Midday. j  Up-kyh.   The top of a mountain.
Apponit-uttyh.    Midnight.
Ayhr, ehr, ayh, oi.    Size, excess, superlative.
Ay-aykr-ske.    Be quick!  be very I Ay-chim.     A   very  old   man,  or
quick! woman. TAHKAHT GRAMMAR!
Ay-entuk.    Always. I Eiyahkshltl.   To escape the memory.
Ayhr-wuktl.    Of great value; valu- {Ei, very; yahk, long or farj
able; expensive. shitl, borne, carried, or  some
Ay-yah-koomts.    The thumb. such equivalent.)
Ehr-sooktl.    Brave. Ayhr.    Large, great.
Eiyalh.    Wing feathers; in contrast Ey-yeh.    A great many; very.
to py-yalh, small feathers.
Eyyehchinnik.    A great many together.
Kaa, kah, kaas.    Killing, wounding, dying.
Kaashitl.    To die, to kill.
Kaasoohstoop.    To grieve.
Kaasookstootlah.    I am grieved.
Kaasup.    To wound.
Kah-huk, Kah-hukkit.    Very sick,
Klooch, Moots.    Woman.
Klootsmah.    A married woman.
Klooch-hah.     Espoused;   engaged
to be married (of a man).
Kloochmoop.    A sister.
Klooch-hunh.    To commit fornica«
i tion (of a man.)
M-'thl, m-'lh, m-l.    Sameness, likeness.
Maylhi.    Similar to, like to.
Maylhuppeh.    Balanced (of scales).
Milk us.    Flat ground.
Milchinnius.    Abreast.
Mitlash. A boy's name, referring
to his likeness to one of his
Mahlh. Antlers, may possibly be
thus derived.
Mut.   Flying.
Mutshitl.    To fly.
Mnfsutl.    To alight (of a bird).
Muttis.   Alighted;  sitting on the
ground (of a bird).
Mutamisinkl.    To fly upward.
Mut-ah-ah-toh.   To fly downwards.
Mu-mut-teh.    A bird, i.e. the flut-
Hah, hay.    Ghange, exchange, compensation.
Hahooye.    To exchange.
Hahoquitl.    To requite.
Hahoquitlchitl.    To change
Quis-hay-chitl. To change the
mind or heart, to repent.
{Quispah, hay, chitl.) 20
Tahk.   Straight, correct, truthful, essential.
Tahkoktl.     Correct,  proper,  true, I   Tahhscheet.    Straight.
the truth. Tahkappeh.    The shaft of a cross
Tahkokstootl.    To tell the truth. or a pillar.
Tahk-ay-us.   Parallel.
Tahk-ay-uk.    Straight.
Tahkuk.    To grant a request.
TahtS'tahk-soolh.    A guide.
Tahput.   Thought, preparation, computation.
Tahputayik.    Weighing-scales; a
Tah-tah-put-hup.    An  object set
up to shoot at.
Tab-inli put-hi. To consider, to
think over, to prepare, to practise, to rehearse.
.  Tsik, tsayk, tseek.    Speaking
Tseka.    To speak.
Tseka-tseka.    To   speak much, to
Tsay-uk-palh.    To wrangle.
Tscek-inilk-liiippeb.    To make  an
Tsik-kaytnli.     To    command,   to
Wik.   Negation. "
It is probable that nearly all the words beginning with wik in
the vocabulary are negatively compounded.
Yets, vats.    Walking, kicking.
Yatsook.    To walk. Yatsqttiup.    To stamp upon with
Yetshitl.    To kick. the feet.
Yetseh-yetsah.    To kick frequently.     Yatspannich.     To walk oat  and
Yatsetsos.    A ladder. look about*
Yatsmoos.   To walk on the sea-     Yetsooilh.    Walking up and down
shore. in a confined space.
Yatsqiristus.    To slip. I Sisiiinmooxyets. Avacoineousberry.
Yak, >/(i lik.    Long, of time or sr
Yak-a-wimmiL    Having  stayed  a I   Yahk-pckuksel.    A long beard (not
long   time   (said   of  old   in- applied to short hair).
habitants,   as   well   as   in   a     )'nkk.   Long.
general acceptation). Ei-yakk-shitl.     To    escape    the
Chitl, shitl, signify action, or being acted upon, or movement.
They are thus generally, but not always, confined to verbs. Thus
klees-shitl, the dawn (from, klees-sook, white), has this termination
from the moving, active nature of the morning light, which is ever
on the increase. Similarly toop-shitl, evening (from toop-kook, black),
ahk-shitl, hoo-ah-menchitl, and others.
Ah-chitl.    To reach after.
Ahk-shitl.     A   little   below
Ahtk-shitl.    To set apart.
Chah-hat-shitl. Astonished, balked,
Cheetashitl.    Cold (applied only to
personal sensation j.
Chuk-shitl.    To awaken a person.
Ei-yahk-shitl.  \ To     escape    the
Hah-oh-quitl-chitl.    To change.
Hay-her-salit-chitl.    To  bleed.
Histokshitl.    To come.
Hoo-ah-men-chitl.      An   eddy   or
How-mis-shitl.    A pledge.
llowtskitl.    To sprinkle.
Hus-chitl.    A fugitive, a vagabond,
a refugee.
Syshitl.    Black currant. (Probably
the first syllable of this word
is   hysh,   in   which   case   its
radical terminal would be id,
and it would not rightly come
into this category.)
Kaa-shitl.    To die, to kill.
Kah-shitl.    To steal, to plunder, to
Klahk-ih-shitl.    To stand up,  i.e.
to rise to standing position.
Klah-kinch-hy-chitl.'  A dead body.
Klahr-milh-uk- shitl.    A thing future.
Klay-chitl.    To shoot.
Klay-huk-shitl.    Thin,  wasted (of
a person).
Klees-shitl.    The dawn.
Kleetshitl.    To steer.
Elimmukshitl.   To wake up another.
Klohp-shitV. -To wash the face.
Klutchitl.    To take in sail.
Kohpshitl.   To point with the finger.
Ko-i-chitl.    To grow (of a child).
Kut-shitl.    To pinch.
Ky-y ah-chitl.    Adrift.
Mamakshitl.     To fasten the dress
or blanket by tying.
Mook-skitl.    The hammer of a gun.
Mool-shitl.     Flowing    tide,    flood
Mutl-shitl.    To bind round.
Mutshitl.    To fly.
Nah-ah-pay-chitl.    To taste.
Neelshitl.    To bend the head backwards.
Nikshitl.    To scratch, to claw.
Nisk-shitl.    To sneeze.
No-hah-shitl.    To bury. 22
JVupk-shiit.    To open the eyes.
Nuk-shitl.    To drink.
Pool-tee-chitl.    Sleepy. •
PoW'Wel-shetl.    To bo lost, to be
the same root as the terminal.
Shoh-shitl.    Rusted, rusty.
Taytsk-shitl.    Flame.
Taif-ckitl.    To throw.
Qiiaw-ijiik-shiil.    To  sting  (of a Tohk-shitl.    To melt. (in trans.)
wasp or other insect). Toop-shitl.     Evening,    sun-down,
Quis-hay-chitl.     To   change   the twilight.
heart, to repent. Tsohpshitl.   Flood-tide, a flood, to
Quis-to/ip-cliitl.     To   become,   to overflow.
change into. Wit-shitl.    To nod the head.
Shaytl-ook.    To  change quarters, IVelshetl.    To go home.
to migrate (of a tribe or family). Vetshitl.    To kick.
It is probable that in the first Yuk-shitl.    To sweep, to fan.
syllable of this word we have I
Mappeh, uppeh, sappeh.   Greatness, excess, superiority, the
Ckak-ck it m - unt s-sa p pck.    Very
sweet, sweetest (from chummus).
Eh-ehr-happeh.     Greatest,     very
great (from <■//;•).
The other superlatives with this terminal are given in connexion
with the rules of comparison.
Maylh-huppeh. Balanced, i.e.
Maylhi-huppeh, very much, or
completely alike.
rrseek-milk-kuppeh.     To make an
Huppeh adds additional force to the tscclc-milh {fseeka kamil/t)
which means ' to speak abundantly.'
Uh, Ih. Tins syllable or sound, generally occurring as a terminal, but sometimes in other positions, affords great room for
inquiry. Its usual meaning appears to be in contrast to shitl (acting
or being acted upon), and to express diffused quality, or what may
be barbarously called 'all-overishness;' but the condition which it
describes is eminently, if it may be so termed, sessile, and not
moveable. For instance, the names of the different coloured blankets
are derived from the names of their respective colours, with the
addition of this terminal—in other words, they take their names
from a diffused sessile quality. Kleesook, is white; kleeselh,, a white
blanket; klees-shitl (to show the contrast), the growing white light
of early dawn. In like manner, we have toop-koop, black; toop-kulh,
black blankets ; and toop-shitl, evening {i.e. growing blackness).
Ey-yoh-quUh.      Green     blankets. Uh-kahs.    A being in the house, at
(Ey-yoh-quh.    Green.) home.
Wish-wish-ulh.    Blue blankets.        j Mache-ilh (or Maeheelh).    In the
Klay-hulh.    Red blankets.   {Klay- house.
hook, dark red, purple.) Yetsoo-ilh.    Walking up and down
Attn III. iiiiiilli.    Black, i.e. nighty in the house, or any confined
(from uttyh, night). space.
It may be as well to notice that this does not transgress the rule
that ilh indicates stationary quality or condition. The motion of
walking is expressed in yetsoo; the ilh declares that the person
spoken of is thoroughly engrossed by or occupied in walking—walking is, for the time, his fixed condition.
Klali-ilh.    Lying down.
Tuk-ko-ilh.    Sitting.    (Tuk-quas-
seh.   To sit.)
Klahk-ih-pUh.    Standing.
Atho-milh.    Curly-haired.
1\ 11-ilh is probably derived from tuk-ko-ilh, sitting; and with this
meaning of sitting or abiding, it probably enters into the following
Ahn-nuk-ko-ilh.    Serious.
Sunday-Itb-ilh.    A church.
In-nikseh-ko-ilh.    A wood-shed.
The terminal ilh belongs also to kamilh, referred to under the
root ish. As ilh or milh (the tn sometimes appears) signifies, as is
conjectured, diffused quality, and ishinnik, conjunction, combined
number, we can understand that ishinnik-milh and its kindred forms
might be used to express the idea of quantity.
Kamilh. This terminal has been already explained in connexion
with the root ish. /?
Is.   Small, young.
Unnah-kis, Uchkinnah-his.   Small.
Takn-is.-   A young boy.
Hah-quahtl-is.   A girL
Nashook-is.    A strong littlo man.
Clii>niiius-is.    A bears cub.
Mpt, pt, pts.    Growing plants and trees.
Hlooktupt.    Veins,   arteries,   pro-    Hucheempt.   Berries.   (Generic.1)
bably   so   named   from   their     Oots-mupt.     Some pine-tree, pro-
likeness    to    some   sproutii
vegetable growth.
Klakkamupt.    A sort of pine-tree.
Klak-kvpt.    Grass.
Koto-wipt.    The salmon berry-bush     Tsa-e-tnupU    Oak-wood.
{kow-wih is the  name of the     Tsa-itnpts.    Watergrass.
)ably the Douglas.
Sa-eempts.    A sort of grass or reed
growing on the coast.
See-whipt.    The Spiroea Douglasii.
Sup, up.    Curtailment,.injury, extinction, destruction.
Ash-sup.     To  break  a  string  or Kaw-kusch-up.    Having sick eves.
rope. . Kiits-quy-up.    To make smaller.
Choo-pay-up-pah.   To extinguish. Ooh-sup.    To cut down.
Cha-fay-up.    To cut off with  a Quny-up.    To break a stick.
knife. Teelh-qu-up.    To crash, to pnl-
Knit-siip.    To hurt, to injure. verise.
Hy-yus-a-ty-up.     To    lessen,    to Yats-quoy-up.   To stamp upon with
diminish. the feet.
Kluk-sup.   To untie, to unbind.
Toop.   The termination of words implying genera.
Tsistoop.    Rope, cordage.     (C'<>n-
E-rsk-tiinp.    Household things.
Muk-toop.    Tilings for sale.
Susk-toop.   Beasts of the forest* Mutl-toop.    String.    (From   the
Telk-toop.    Fishes, creatures of the root ntutl.)
nected with tsitksup. to twist.
Sets, setsos.    A stand, a hold, holder, stool, station.
Innek-scls.    A lamp, a candlestick.
(From innik, fire.)
Aeitsetsos.   A writing-table. (From
kcitskill. to write).
L_ Tahkaht grammar.
Quissets.    A pipe.   (From quishah,
smoke, tobacco.)
Turquassetsos.    A  chair.     (From
Turquasseh, to sit.)
Yatsetsos.   A ladder.    (From yat-
sook, to walk.)
Tsque seems to indicate the refuse of anything.
Cheet-sque.    Sawdust.    {Cheetayik,
a saw.)
Hummoots-que.    Bone.    {Ha-oom,
Cheeskts-que.   Shavings, scrapings.
(Cheeskah, to scrape.)
Kloochts-que.     The    mussel-shell.
{Kloochim, mussels.)
Tahkts-que.    Spittle.
Yik, ik, frequently terminates the names of instruments.
Che-chik.    A trigger.
Cheeta-yik.    A saw.
Cheetsyik.   A large iron fish-hook.
His-yik.    An axe.
Innik-yik.    A stove.    (Innik, fire.)
Kak-cke-ik.    A needle.
Kleetch-yik.    A rudder, {Kleetcha,.
a steersman.)
Neeck-yik.    A needle.
Yuk-kay-yik.   A broom. ( Yukshitl,
to sweep.)
The most general force of reduplication is to indicate frequentative action, as in the following instances:—
Ah-ah-puk.  Industrious.  {Ahpuk.)
Ckakkl-ckakkl-nook. Blisters.
{Chahk-ehahkah, to press,  to
rub, to gall.)
Heah-heah-hah.    To breathe.
Heyk-heyk-wah.    To go from side
to side, to tack.
Kloo-kloothl-sik.     To    adorn,   to
tittivate.    (Kloothl.)
Koot-koot-ah.   To beckon.
MUr-mii-teh.    A bird, i.e. a flutterer.
{Mutshitl, to fly.)
Nah-nash.   To beg, to ask for a
gift.     (From  Nah-hay,  nah-
hay I    Give, give 1
Queel-queel-hah.    To pray.
Tah-tah-put-hi.    To consider.
Tseka-tseka.     To talk, to babble.
( Tseka.)
Tsoos-tsoosa.    To dijr.
Waw-waw.    To talk. 26
In addition to this we find it signify parallelism or likeness, as in
ah-ah, yes (the affirmative answer being like to, and an equivalent of,
the question which draws it forth); and in oh-oh-kook, like, with its
various compounds. It is also a sign of intensity, as in the superlatives given under the head of ' Comparison,' and sometimes of
This is effected by the addition of the suffix oonim or tannah in
the comparative, and happeh, uppeh, or sappeh in the superlative. In
the latter, for further intensity, the first syllable of the word is
generally reduplicated. It is probable that these terminations are
not confined to the formation of comparisons, but are used with
various parts of speech, with an intensifying force.
Chum-mus.    Sweet. I Eh-ehr-huppeh.      Largest,     very
Chum-mus-oonim,   Chum-mus-tan- large.
nah.    Sweeter. ffin-nas-wunnim.    Higher.
Chah-chum-mus-sappi.     Sweetest, He-hin-nas-sappeh.    Highest, very
very sweet. high.
' Kloo-kloothl-appeh.    Best.
There are apparent deviations from the above rule, probably
arising from'the originals having been changed after'the comparisons formed from them bad become settled words. The terminal
of the original is also sometimes cut off.    Thus we have:—
Klohk-pah.    Warm.
Klohrfi-muppeh.   Warmer.
M.ithlook.    Cold.
Mathluppeh.    Very cold.
Pishuk, Pishuktlim.    Bad.
Pish-wunnitn.    Worse.
Pishappeh.    Worst.
xuigest, very long.
So far as I am aware, the verbs have no tenses but the present,
and no distinction between singular and plural. Time is indicated
by adverbs, and the plural, if needed, would, I suppose, be signified
by the universal kamilh, which, however, is far too ubiquitous to be
considered a mere verbal termination.
The three persons are distinguished in the following manner, but
the terminations, though most generally, are not exclusively attached
to the verb, but sometimes to some other word in the sentence.
Terminations of the 1st Person.    Ah, tah, utl-tah, and rarely sah and mah.
„ ..      2nd    „ Huk, tuk, ay ts.
„ „      3rd    „ Ma, utl-mah, win, twin.
Of these, in the first person ah is by far the most usual, and huk
in the second. In the third person a very curious distinction
presents itself, ella being used when the person or thing spoken of is
in sio'ht. and win or twin when absent.
Sooquitl.    To bring.
1st Person.    Sooquitlah. ■
2nd     „        Soo-quitl-huk,      Soo-
3rd      },        Sooquitlmah, Sooquitl-
Ee-nees-a.    To carry.
1st Person.    Enneesa.
2nd      .. Enneesa-tuk,  Ennees-
3rd      „        Enneesma.   Enneesat-
Oosh-tuk.   To work.
1st Person.-    Oosh-tukkah.
2nd      „ -      Oosh-tuk-huk,  Oosh-
3rd      „        Oosh-tuk-ma,    Oosh-
Enachitl.   To come.
1st Person.    Enacbitl-ah.
2nd     „        Enachitl-huk,      Ena-
3rd      „       Enachitl-ma,Enachitl-
win. 2a
Kapshitl.   To plunder.
1st Person.    Kapshitl-tah.
2nd      „ Kapshitl-tuk.
3rn      ,,
KoW-wilh.      To steal.
I st Person. Kow-wilh-tah.
2nd     „ Eow-wilh-tuk.
Eapshitlma, Kapshitl- I 3rd      „ Eow-wilh-twin.
JYeena-pee.   To  stay, to stop.
1st Person.    Weenapee-sah.
2nd     „        Weenapeetl-huk.
3rd      „        Weenapeetl-ma.
The above are the general formations, slight variations sometimes
occurring. Occasionally the terminal is transferred from the verb,
as Wik-huk enachitl ? (Are you not coming ?) which is equivalent to
wicklit enachitl-huk.
These terminations also sometimes seem to take the place of the
verb-substantive, and are joined to adjectives in the same manner as
they are with verbs. In reality, however, there is probably no proper
verb-substantive in the language.
lay ilh.   Sick.
Tayilh-ah.    I am sick.
Tayilh-hiik.     You are sick.
lay111/-inuli,   Tuyilh   tei/i.     He   IS
And similarly all other adjectives,   without exceptions,  utlma,
however, being sometimes used instead of
The imperative, so far as I know, is only in use in the second
person. Cliookwah ! and Quawtlik!— both meaning 'coma'—have
apparently no connection with any other words. Tho most general
termination of the imperative is che.   This is used with all the verbs NrriNAHT. 29
ending in itl, as sooquitlche, with the large exception that those in
shitl, for the sake of euphony, more often change that syllable into
she or she-e, instead of adding che, as nah-she ! look! from nah-shetl, to
look; klahk-ih-she-e, stand up, from klahk-ih-shitl, to stand up.
Another not so general imperative termination is ik. This is added
to verbs ending in p, and to some which end in vowels, as, for
instance, kayeepik, from kay-eep, to clear away; mooshetuppik, from
mooshetuppa, to shut; turquassik, from turquasseh, to sit.
There are, of course, slight differences of speech to he found
among the various Tahkaht tribes, but not so much as to prevent a
ready conversation among all. The tribe which most differs from
the rest is the Nitinaht. It has a good many unique words, and
does not entirely agree in the numerals. While the other tribes
hardly ever (if at all) make use of the d and b sound, the Nitinaht
nearly or quite always uses these in place of the frequent n and m of
the rest. This, in addition to vowel changes and contractions often
ffives rises to singular verbal transformations. Thus innik, fire, is
changed by the Nitinaht into adduk; mootsmahuk, a bear or a bearskin into bootsabuk; quequenixo, the hands, into kookadooxyeh;
noohwayxoh, father, into Dooux, and oomoyxoh, mother, into abahx;
and the name of Nitinaht itself into Ditidaht. It must be noticed,
however, that in their pronunciation of the d there is just a tinge of
the n sound remaining, having the effect of a person with a very bad
cold trying to pronounce n. r
The words marked with an asterisk are, so far as I know, not
in any way like those used by the other Tahkahts. Where
it seems advisable for the sake of comparison the equivalent word
of the Tahkaht is placed in brackets:—
Father. Doo-ux. {Noowayksoh.)
Mother. Ab-ahx. {Oomayksoh.)
Boy.    Baaytlux.   {May-etl-kuts.)
*Baby.    Eahdokt.
*Wife.    Ah-hy-up.
*Maiden.    Kah-duk.
*Always.    Do-by.
Long ago.    Ho-i.    {O-uk.)
Fire.    Adduk.    {Innik.)
*Bird.    Hook-toop.
Elk.    Klo-dup.    (Klnluiim.)
Deer.    Boo-uch.    {Moo-uck.)
To look.    Dah-chil.   {Nah-shetl.)
To give.    Klakkay.
To hear.    Dah-ah.   {Nah-ah.)
•Stone.    Teddiehk.
House.   Ba-as.    {Mahs.)
True, correct.   Tahk-chik. (Tahk-
•Above.    Heydupuk.
•Below.    Heydttsink.
•Come !   Hatsi-ay!
Rain.    Beet-lah.    {Meetlah.)
•Son.    h'/iss-ak.
•Moon.    Ihikk.
•Dog.     Ckay-quatl.
Friend.   JBitto-wah-tid. (Oo-wah-
Mallard Duck.   Hah-duk.
Bear.     Boots-abuk.      {Mootsma-
Eyes.    Kill I vli.    {Kusseh.)
Hands.     Kookadooxyeh.     (Que-
To speak.     Ooshabats.     {Ooshi-
•Paddle.     Klay-too-uchtk.     (Oh-
•Hair.   Klattah-boob.
Ear.    Peh-peh.    {Pah-pay.)
Eye-brows.    Ah-ayeh.    {Ah-eh-
•Tongue.   Lukkay-ik.
Chin.    Quaw-ux-e.
•Head.   Kaht-kahL
•Face.      Heetahql.      (Connected
with Tahkaht eetahk-les.)
Neck.      Tseequawubts.      Tsah-
•Elbow.    Heedupuktl.
He.     Yet Huh.
There.    Hahsahs.    {HUtas.)
Blood.    Doobutsubs.    {Hissamis.)
Country,     territory.       JDissibak.
Ground, soil.   Tsahkokubs. {Tsa-
To work.     Babo-ik.    (Ma monk.) NTTTNAHT.
Come!      Shooquahtl!     ( Chook-
Cold.   Cheetsayak!  {CheetashitL)
Tired.    Tay-yewk.   {Quaw-te-vk.)
To cough.    Waw-o-usk.    {Waw-
waw-tsukka )
Warm.    Klohbaht.    {Klohkpah.)
Alone.      Dohbukkiduk.     {Noop-
chinnih.) Tsow-wid-dook.
( Tsow-waw-chinnik.)
How many ?    Adday-ikke ?   ( Oo-
nah ?)
This.    Ahkeek.    (Ahhooh.)
To-morrow.     Ahbaytluk.      {Ah-
It may be noticed that in these cases where the other Tahkahts
exhibit deficiency, the Nitinahts supply a word. They have a
specific name for wife, and for the sun, as distinguished from the
moon; and while the Tahkaht mooyxeh, a stone, seems to be strangely
derived from mookwah, steam, the Nitinahts afford an independent
1. Tsow-wau-uk.
2. Ahtl.
3. Kahkctsa.
4. Booh.
5. Shoots-ali.
6. Chay-uk-palb.
7. Atl-pooh.
r   8. Ahtl-sib.
9. Tsow-waw-sib.
10. Klah-wha.
20. Tsokkits.  75
Ah-ah.    Yes.
Ah-ah-che. Wide (of a canoe, board,
table, &c. but not applicable to
Ah-ah-he.   A domestic fowl.
Ah-ahp-quimulh.    To wrestle.
Ah-ahp-soonilh.    The arm-pit.
Ah-ah-puk. Industrious, hard at
Ah-ah-yits-akulh.    Rich.
Ah-asky. A turkey {i.e. ah-ah-he-
asky, ' bald hen').
Ah-atl-soowit.    Equal.
Ah-che-itsah ?    Whose ?
Ah-chitl.    To reach after.
Ah-chuk?    Who ?
Ah-ehuk-hah? Who? {Ah-chuk-
hah kous ?    What man ?)
Ah-eh-che.    The eyebrows.
Ah-en-soolh.    Cunning, crafty. -
Ah-kooh.    This.
Ah-kootl.    To borrow.
Ahk-shitl. A little below high-
Ah-mah.    A large, grey diver.
Ah-meetlik.   To-morrow (So TJttyh-
.  tlik, the coming night.)
Ahm-ooye.    Yesterday.
Ahn - nuk - koilh.       Grave-looking,
A-fious-aht.    Name of a tribe.
Ah-peelsoo.    In the centre, central.
Ahpuk.    At work, working.
Ah-punnuk.    A thing in the middle
(where one thing is above and
another below it).
Ah-quil-hy-yeh.    To lend.
Ahtk-skitl.    To set apart.
Ahtl-atla-malux-hool.    To pull out
the hair of the chin.
Ah-toosh.   A deer. (Also Moo-uck).
Ak-uk-quoch-you.    A wound.
Ah-um-mus.    Cheeks.
Ah-up-ee-milh.    The shoulder.
Ah-up-pi.    The shoulder.
Aichk.    Good-looking.
Ak-kah-ta ?    Of what tribe ?
Amenoquilh.    A corner.
J f
Amewauts Name applied to the
Tsik-hohtin, when the head becomes white.
Am-mit-teh.    A name.
Am-mit-ty-ee.    To give a name.
Am-mus-skulh.    The bosom.
An-nah-ah.    To gamble.
An-nays.    Short {i.e. not long).
An-neeh ! Look ! (A word calling
An-neeh-mah. I see. (The answer
to An-neeh.)
An-noos.    A crane.
Ap-poonit-nas.    Mid-day.
Ap-poon-uttyh.    Mid-night.
Apuxim.    Hair upon the face.
Ash-sup. To break a string or rope.
(Conf. Kdasup, &c.)
Askeh.    Bald-headed.
Askit.    Bare of hair on the body.
Askoolh.    Bare of trees and shrubs.
Askumilh.    Bald.
As-selh-yuk.    Leather.
As-sits.    A wasp.
A-thlah.    To spew.
Athohmilh. Curly-haired (of man
or beast).
Aita.    Two.
Atla-newk. A fork or branch (as
of a tree, river, &c).
Atla-newk-tsu-uk. Fork of a
Atl-kyh.    Small  branches knotted
together, to show a trail.
At-say-kuts.    The throat.
Attalh (or Uttalh).   Black.   (Conf.
At-toh.    A  beaver  (from Attalh,
black ?)
At-tyh (or Uttyh).    Night.
Ay-ayehen.   One who knows things
of the past.
Ay-ayhr-she.    Quickly ; be quick !
Ay-chim.    An old man.
Ay-en-tuh.    Always.
Ay-hahsh.    To sigh.
Ay-hd-ik.    To cry.
Ay-hih-tah.    To remember.
Ayhr.    Great, large, very.
Ayhr-mis.    To stop.
Ayhr-wuktl.    Valuable.
Ay-is.    Nettles.
Ayk-hay-uk.    Uniform in dealing;
not   paying   either   much   or
little.    (The Indians  consider
this bad.)
Ayk-huk.    To  speak,   to   tell,   to
narrate tidings to a number,
to preach.
Aylh-muht.    Nettles.
Aytl-chauna.    By-and-bye.
Ay-utl.   No more.
Ay-yah-koomts.    The thumb.
Ay-yak-kamilh.    Fifth lunar month
from about November.
Hardly, if at all, occurs in the language, the m sound taking its place
almost or quite exclusively. Curiously, the Nitinahts, who speak the same
language, with only a dialectic difference not at all interfering with free
intercourse, almost or quite exclude the m, using b in every instance. TAHKAHT- ENG LI SH.
Chah-hat-shitl (or, perhaps, more
probably Chayher-shitt). To
be astonished, to be baulked,
to be startled. ( Chayher-shitl
would mean ' struck by the
spirit world'.)
Chah-kah. To support, or bear up
with the shoulder.
Chakk-ckakkah. To press, to press
Chahkl-chqhkl-nook.    Blisters.
Chakk-maykstah, or Ckahk-qus-sup.
To rule, to govern.
Chak-hots.    Indian bucket.
Cha-pook.    Canoe with men in it.
Cha-puts.    A canoe.
Ckastomit.    A mink.
Chd-tay-up. To cut off with a
Ckay-ker. The land of departed
Chayk-kuk. To make to cry, to
Cke-chak-mutl-pyik.    A boat.
Che-eke! Pull along ! (Che incites to action. It is the
terminal of the second person imperative in most
Che-che-che.    The teeth.
-Che-chee-shook. Hostile. (An
Ewkloolaht word, the ordinary
word being Mahptulh.)
Che-ekik. A trigger. (Recentnames
of instruments generally end
in ik.)
Che-chid.    To pull.
Cheelkak.    To smile.
Cheequis-tus-up. To pull up by
the roots.
Ckees-ckeesa. A dance and song
performed by women having
downy feathers scattered on
their hair.
Chees-kah.    To scrape.
Cheesktsque.    Scrapings.
Cheeskuksootl.    To shave.
Cheeta-mah, or Ckeetuk. Sideboards of an Indian house.
Cheetashitl. Cold (applied to personal sensation).
Cheetayik. A saw. (From Cheeyah,
to rip.)
Ckeetsmus. To lead, leading, a
Cheetsque.    Saw-dust.
Cheetsyik.    Large iron fish-hook.
Cheets-wih. A button-hole, and,
. perhaps, any hole going right
through a thing.
Ckeetuk.    Impudent.
Chee-yahkamilh. Thirteenth lunar
^ month, counting November as
the first.
Cheeyah. To rip, to split salmon
for drying.
Cheh-neh, or Chek-neh-mah. I do
not know, or I have not seen.
Che-is. Salutation (of meeting or
farewell) to a woman.
Chek-kottay.    Scar of an old wound.
Ckekoop.    Male, husband.
Chim-mees.    To plough.
Chim-milh. Bed and bedstead,
berth, bunk.
Chimmin. Large wooden hook for
Chim-mit-sas. The right hand, the
right hand side or part-
Ckim-mus.    Arbear.
J 36
Chinepalh. To wrestle by holding
the hair.
Ckoockk.    All.
Choo-chuk.    A spoon.
Chook! A word inciting to immediate action.
Chookwah !    Come!
Choop.    The tongue.
Choo-pay-yuppah. To extinguish
(of fire).
Choop-poox.    Decayed, stinking.
Chooshah.    Wild.
Choo-ut-toh.    To dive.
Choo-up-it-lay!    Stop! stop work
ing!    (Up, with the meaning
of putting an end to.)
Ckuk-koots-uk.    A   storm   at sea.
{Chuk, water.)
Chuk-shitl.    To awake a person.
Chukswih.    A waistcoat.
Chulcha.    Nails (of hand or foot),
claws (of beast or bird).
Ckum-mus.   Sweet, tasty, palatable.
Chum-musoonim, or Chummus-tan-
nah.    Sweeter.
Chah-chummus-sap-pi. Very sweet,
Chu-uk.    Water, a rock in water.
Eech-mah, or Eechuk. The light
fixed on the canoe for night-
Eechukasin (or, perhaps, more properly Aychukasin).    Ancestor.
Eeckinnakoom.    Ear-pendant.
Ee-esktocp.    Things, possessions.
Ee-tak-kles.    Up-hill, steep.
Ee-tah-tus.    Down-hill.
Eetkloohoolh.    The lips.
Eetowayes. To go away and stop
a long time.
Eh-ehr-happeh (or, perhaps, better
. spelt Ay-ayhr-happek). Greatest, very great.
Ehr, or Ayhr.    Great, large,, very.
Ehr-sooktl, or Ayhr-sooktl.   Brave.
Ehr-sook-toop, or Ayhr-sook-toop.
To comfort, console.
Eh-shetl-che !    Go !
Eil-chupamik. The common squirrel.
Eish-kook.    A bottle.
Ei-yalh. Wing-feathers. {Py-yalh.
The smaller feathers.)
Ei-yahk-shitl. To escape the memory.
Ei-yek. Many, a great many (perhaps also J very').
Ei-yeh-chinnik. A great many together.
Ei-yeh-koomts. The thumb (or
Ei-yem-mah. ' There are a great
Elh-whus.    Scattered, divided.
Elh-whus-sip. To separate. (Trans.)
Enako-us. A fish of the salmon
Enako-usimilh. Twelfth lunar
month from November. {En-
akous. The name of a fish,
from which the month takes
its name.)
En-nees-a.    To carry.
En-nitl.    A dog.
Ewkloolaht.    Name of a tribe.
Ewk-sah.    Wind from the sea.
Ewuttih.    Land-breeze.
Ewk-stis.    Wind up the inlet. TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
Eyk.    A brother.
Ey-nuk.    The crying of a child.
Eys-she.    The ankle.
Ey-yoh-quilh.      Green     blankets.
(With one  or  two exceptions
the blankets are  named  after
their colours by the change of
the terminal uk into ilh.)
Ey-yoh-quk.    Green.
Hd-kd-ook.    A lizard.
Hah-ham-kook.    To cure, to heal.
Hah-han-noo-yik.    Boastful.
Hah-hoh-pah. To advise, to ad-
monisn, advice, tradition, legends of creation, Sue.
Hah-koo-palh.    Poor.
Hah-ohksacheel.    A generation.
Hah-ohk-suk. Chief's eldest son,
heir apparent.
Hah-oom.    Food.
Hah-ook.    To eat.
Hah-oomut.    To subdue.
Hah-oo-ye.    To exchange.
Hak-o-quitl. To requite a blow,
theft, murder, in like kind.
Hah-o-quill-chitl'.    To change.
Hah-quatl.    Unmarried woman.
Hah-quis. Name of the Seshaht
village site on Barclay Sound.
Hah-yew-itl.    Low tide.
Hdn-ndh.    Naked.
Hannah-toop. To disrobe or undress another.
Hannvk-lilh.    Near death.
Hatsoh.    Small.
Hnttees. To bathe, to wash all
Hay-her-salit-chitl. To bleed.
(In trans.)
Hay-nim-soo. To set food before
Heah-heah-hah.    To breathe.
Hee-chook-wah.    Hump-backed.
Hee-seesah.    To beat with a stick.
Hee-sut-kah.    An interpreter.
Heet-tah-pul-hus. Below (of position).
Hee-yah-shinnik. Together (of
He-hin-nas-sappek. Highest, very
Hem-kali!    Look out! Beware !
Hershin. The smallest sort of
Hetetsohkstah.    To swallow.
Hetetsoquaw.    The mouth.
He-tup-pah-us. To pass by. (In-
Heyk-heyk-quah. To go from side
t«f side, to tack as a ship.
Hilspeh. Above (of relative position.)
Him-mik-kahoo.    Gooseberries.
Him-miks.    Lard, melted fat.
Himmit-kyh. The cross on a
church. {Himmittah-peh-kok-
kyh, i.e. crossed house-staff.)
Him-mit-tah-peh.    A cross-bar.
Him-moo-wetsoh. One who knows
the things of the past.
Hinnah-a-wah-kuk. A fore-announcer.
Bxnnah-poop. To burden, to lay a
burden on another.
Hin-nah-yuktl.    To instruct.
Hin-nas. High, aloft, above, on
J (H
Higher,   more
He-hinnas-sappeh.    Highest,  very
Hin-nas-itl. To climb a tree or mast.
Hin-nas-setsos. Above (of relative
Hin-nay.    To offer as a gift.
Hin-nays. The head of Alberni
Inlet (or [ headward,' describing the course of a canoe or
ship up any inlet; or rather
I to the head,' describing their
Hin-naytlah.    Side of a mountain.
Hinnoolh.    The face.
Hiskimilk. A crowd, assembly,
Hishimilh-hus-sup. To assemble,
gather together..   (Trans.)
Hiskim-ryokp. To gather together,
to assemble.
His-pich. A blaze (i.e. a mark on
a tree to show a trail.)
His^samis.    Blood.
HiS'Sayk-soh-tah.    The sea-shore.
His-seekim. To direct, to tell the
His-sin. A light red berry (Vaccine*.)
Hissit.   Red; the first run of salmon.
Hissooah-soolh. To bleed. (Intrans.)
Hissoolh. Covered with blood,
Histokshitl.    To come.*
Histokshitl-kahs. Come from the
house. (So ilhkahs, staying in
His-yik.    An axe.
Hittahktlee.    The base, the under
. side of a thing.
Hittas.    There, yonder.
Hittay-a-tah.      An   end,   an   extremity.
Hit-toh-min.    Sand-hill crane.
Hldh-quay.     To  confess.     (This
word applied to a person when
accused,   who,   not   in    fear,
would say, ' Yes, I did it,' probably not from a good motive,
but to stop the shame attending
further criminations.)
Hlhah-hlah-hah.    The measure obtained by stretching the arms
to their full width.
Un-naylhah ?    How long is it ?
i.e. how many hlhah-hlhah-
hahs ?
Kotstseilh-mah.      It     is     three
Mooulh-mak.    It is four ditto.
Hlebuxti.    The heart.
Hlkeet-as.    A valley.
Hlit-mayktl.    The pulse.
Hloh-pilh.    A bridge.
Hlook-tupt.    Veins or arteries.
Hoh-ha-um.    Percussion cap.
Hohm.    The blue grouse.
Hohpta. Hidden, concealed. {Hohpta
ooyakkamis.    Secret news.)
Hohpta-muk.   Don't tell!    Keep it
Hokptsup.    To conceal.
Hoh-puktlim.    The heel.
Hohts-hohtsh.    Drooping.
Flo-ik.    The willow-grouse.
Hokidskooh.    Biscuit.
Hokqueechis.     To  cover  (with  a
*  Wus-tok skill sooa = Wusseh-hislotehitl soot
or or > Whence come you ?
Wustokshitl huk
Wusseh htstokoshitl huk TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
vessel,    hat,    or    other    stiff
shaped thing.)
Hooah-men-chitl.     An    eddy    or
back-water.    -
Hoopahlh.    Thimble-berries.
Hoopalh.     The sun, the moon, a
Hoop-attoo.  Toset(of sun or moon).
Hoop-cheilh.    Mid-day.
Hoop-peh.    To help.
Hoop-quistah.    To rise (of sun or
Hoop-ukh-klinhl.       Green-winged
Hoo-sattoh.    To blow or puff.
Ho-uch-cheelh.    To mend.
Ho-uts-d-d-chepasim.    To lend.
Ho-utsachitl.     To   return,  i.e.  to
come back.
How-chuk-lisaht.   Name of a tribe.
How-komah.    A wooden mask.
Howk-sap.    To upset, turn over.
How-mis-shitl.    A pledge.
Howtshitl.    To sprinkle.
How-wayktl.    Hungry.
How-way-utl.      To    complete,   to
finish, and so to stop.
Hoxem.    Geese.
Huch-che.     Deep  (of water,   and
perhaps of other things).
Ecucheemt.    Berries.
Huchim-suk-sak.    A girl's brother.
(A man's brother is katklahtik.)
Huchispak.    This side of.
Huk-kay-ik.    A knife.
Hulh-may-hah.    To be drowned.
Hummootisque.    A bone.
Huppah-yuk-kaik.    A brush.
Huschitl.    A fugitive, a vagabond,
a refugee.
Hussis.    Teal duck.
Hyem-kammah.     I do not understand.
Hyem-ham-mayh.      He   does   not
Hyskitl.    Black currant.
Hys-wuktleh.    Dysentery {i.e. with
blood — hiss-amis.)
Hytokstootl.    To tell a lie.
Hytoktl.    False, worthless, useless,
of no account.
Hytoktl chush ahnneh!    Look you,
the news is false!
Htftskitl.   To bend forward, to bow.
Hy-yeh.    A serpent.
Hy-yem-mus.     To   take  a wrong
trail, to miss the way.
Hy-yeskikamilh. -Third lunar month,
from about November.
Hy-yu.    Ten.
Ik-moot.    Old (of things).
Ik-sah-tsook. To be in service, to
serve, attend upon.
Ilhkahs.    Staying in the house.
Im-hah.    Shame.
Im-ich-sahta.    The forehead.
Impigwalkinhl {g soft). The person walking secondinalongline.
Im-tah.    Unable.
Innik.    Fire.
Innikayik.    A stove.
Innik-kaytsoma.     Forehead   mask
(used in their dances).
In-nik-quilh.    To make a fire.
Innikquilche.   Make the fire!   {Che
—■ 40
Innik-quk-tlyik.    Smoke-stack, Ishimyohp (or Hishitnyohp).     To
stove-pipe. assemble.
In-nik-sets.    A lamp. Ishinnik.    With, together with, in
In-niks-yeh.    Fire-wood;  any sort company with.
of felled or fallen wood. | Ishinnik-quaht.    Next door.
In-nimah.    The nipple, milk.
In-nits.    Around, round about.
Ish.    And.
Ish-kolh.    To smear with resin or
Ish-ook.    All.   (AI30 Choochk.)
Itl-mah.    There is, it is here.
Ka-a.    Give it me, hand it me, let *
me look at it.
Kd-d-shitl.    To die, to kill.
Ka-d-sookstoop. To grieve (Trans.).
Ka-a-sookstootlah.    I am grieved.
Ka-a-sup.   To wound.
Kah-cheik.    A needle.    (Also Nee-
Kah-chuk.    A fork.
Kah-huk.   Dead.
Kah-hukhit.    Very sick, dead.
Kah-kin-kutl.    To prick, to sting
like a nettle.
Kali-iiiininiik.    To stop, to stay, i.e.,
not to go.   ' (I nt rans.)
Kah-ohts.    A nephew.
Kah-oots.    A large bucket.
Kah-siHmilh.    The   fourth   lunar
month from about November.
Knk-tnh.   Short (not used of a man).
Kahtskinniksooptahl.     To   run   a
race, or ' a race.'
Kahtsksup.    To tear in two. -
Kah-yupta     The arm.
K.a Ih-kow-wik. The bramble-berry.
Kan-nilk.    To kneel.
Kaitimtlah.    A wolf.
Kap-shid    To steal, to plunder, to
ravish.   [Koic-wilh is the word
for ' secret stealing.')
Kath-lah-sim. Branches of a tree.
(Notice the likeness to Kn think -
Katklahtik. A brother, a peer,
(not used of a girl's brother),
the name of the second lunar
month from November.
Kats-hah.    A long Indian dress.
JKaio-kus-ckiip.    With sick eyes.
Kayeeche I Go home !
Kayeep. To clear away. (Kayee-
pik !    Clear away !)
Kay-ka-skid. To look through or
along a thing, to take a sight.
Kay-ha-yik. A telescope, a microscope.
Kay-kolk.    Sight of a gun.
Ivay-kay-yes-soo. An octave (or
perhaps any other interval in
Kaytsah.    Small rain.
JKuytshid, or JKeilskitl.    To write.
Kaytsinnik.   To shut the eyes.
Kay-utl. A long time ago. (Also
JKeek-quulh.    Submerged.
A cilseh-keitsak.    Writing.
Kcitseih.   Paper, letter, a book.
J\ci(selsos.    A writing-table.
JCeitsuktl.   A scribe, a writer. TAHKAHT
-ENGLISH.                                                    41
Ke-keesh-hak.    To   shake,   quiver,
Klak-mitl.    Pincers, tweezers.
Klah-oh.    Another, some more.
Keys-keysh-ab.    Lame.
Klah-oh-appi.       Something    else,
Kiklee-ukshitl.    Wrecked.
another instead (said in trade).
Kin-nay-yup.    To bring back.
Klah-ok-quaht.    Name of a tribe,
Kinnitsmis.    A bruise.
sometimes means i another tribe.'
Kistok-kuk.    Blue.
Klah-oh-quitlak.    To reply, or per
Kitsmelh-sok.    To stir, to stir up.
haps, to contradict.
Kittie-yu.    A crack, a chink.
Klah-oh-quil.     The day  after to
Klak-chit-tuhl.    To doctor the sick.
Elah-choochin.    A stranger.
Klak-oh-quil-ooye.   The day before
Klah-hah-nik-sup.    To close up (as
of a book).
Klak-puk-mah.    A nail.
Klah-hahs. Lying down (of a brute
Klah-quay.    To beseech.
or thing, not of a man).
Klahr-milh-uk-shitl.     A thing fu
Klah-haytsoh.     A   box   with   lid
fitting over the sides.
Klahr-mulh. New-born. More pro
Klah-haylh-hut.       To   renew,   to
bably recent, new.
make an old thing like a new one.
Klah-san-nup.    A pile-driver.
Klah-hix.    A box.
Klak-shooa.    A wise counsellor.
Klah-howye.    Now.
Klah-us.    A flag-staff.
Klah-huk-sik.    The present genera
Klak-kaks.    A tree.
Klak-kamupt.    A sort of pine-tree.
Klah-ilh.    Lying down.
Klakkimilk.   Palisade fortifications.
Klahk-ih-pilh.    Standing.
Klakkoh.    Thank you.
Klahk-ih-shitl.    To stand up, i.e. to
Klakkoh-pkit.    Small-pox.
rise to a standing posture.
Klak-kupt.    Grass, leaves, foliage.
Klahk-ih-she-e !    Stand up !
Klak-ske.    A parting salutation.
Klah-klah-how-waw-quus.    A rail
Klaskuk.     Smooth  (as  of  planed
ing or fence.
board, fur smoothed the right
Klah-klah-puk-kah.    To hammer a
way, &c.)
Klas-us-utl.    Slippery..
Klah-klah-pulhah.    A lock.
Klat-chah-ut.   To run away, escape.
Klah-klah-seyah.    To coast along.
Klathlah-enkahtoo.    The cramp.
KJah-klak-td-nim.    Notch for  the
Klattomupt.    Yew-tree.
fingers at the end of a spear-
Klat-wkuk.    Soft.
Klaychitl.    To shoot.
Klah-klah-to-wy-yeh.    To    paddle
Klayhah-pannich.    To go out for
full speed.
a   paddle    (literally    klaykuk
Klah-klah-tim.    A foot.
nanitch,   to   paddle  and  see;
Klah-klinch-hy-chitl.  A dead body.
conf. yatspannich).
Klah-hut-chitl.    To grow (Intrans.)
Klay-mah. Large red-headed wood
(of children, plants, &c.)
pecker. r
Kl&yhook.    Purple.
Klayltuk, or Klayhukkah. To
Klayhuk-shitl.    Thin (of a person).
Klayhulh.    Indian matting.
Klayhupper.    A small sea-fish.
Klay-klayhr-tim.    Yards of a ship.
Klayohtshunkl. To commit fornication (of a woman).
Klaytsmitsim.    An apron.
Klayt-klayt-whah. To stride. (Conf.
Klayts-awhk.    A rat.
Klay-uktl!    Look out! Take care!
Kleehooamis.    Clouds.
Kleekstulh.    To make to laugh.
Kleehua.    To laugh.
Kleeklahy-yek.    A martin.
Kleeklamis. To hunt, to pursue
Kleekquushin.    Boots.
Kleequan-nkis. Name of a small
bay or indenture of the inlet.
Kleeselh.    White blankets.
Kleesh-klukkaik.    Trousers.
Kleeshklin. The leg and foot: the
foot. (Compare with the above.)
Klees-shitl.    Just before sunrise. '
Klees-sook.    White.
Kleetcha. Steersman, man in stern
of the canoe.
Kleetch'yik. A rudder (connected
with Nitinaht Klaytoouchtk, a
Kleeteenek.    Small cloak or cape.
Kleetseechis. To cover (with a
handkerchief, paper, or other
thin and yielding substance).
Kleetseet.    Pregnant, with child.
Kleetshitl. To steer. (Conf. Kleetcha, Kleetchyik.)
Kleetsimilh.    Muffled up.
Kleets-klah-soop-tahl. A canoe race.
Kleetsmah. Stuff to sit on in a
Kleetstoop.    Blankets.
Kleetsuppem.    A sail.
Kleetsuppoopeh.    To set a sail.
Kleet-tuk-wah. To keep, to preserve uninjured.
Kleet-yik.    Small fish-hook.
Klee-yuk-stootl. To hit {i.e. not to
Klek-klemahktlee.    A grasshopper.
Klen-nak. Gentle, tranquil (of a
Klennut. Wooden wedge for splitting trees.
Kletshitl.    To split with a wedge.
Klik-klenasm.    A bracelet.
Klik-klenastim.    An anklet.
Klik-klik.    A hoof.
Kli-klitskook.    Flour.
Klilh-mak.    Firm, firmly knit.
Klim-muk-kah.    To be sleepless.
Klimmuk-skitl. To wake up a
Klin-hut-suppoh. Overhanging (of
a rock).
Klinnika.    Bent, crooked.
Klinnik-shitl.    To bend.
Klintim-mis.    Ashes.
Klitsmis.    Chalk.
Kliyahkk! Make haste! (Also
Eh-ehr-she !)
Kloatlutl.    To forget.
Klohk.    Wide.
Klohkpah.    Warm, hot.
Klohksahp. To arouse another
from sleep.
Klohm-muppeh.    Warmer.
Kloh-nim.    An elk.
Klohpkah.    Wakeful.
Klohpshitl.   To wash the face.
Klohseah how-witl. Highest flood-
Kloksem.    A mast.
Klooch-hunh. To commit fornication (of a man).
Klooch-hah. Espoused, engaged
to be married.
Kloochim.    Mussels.
Kloo-chinkl.    Just before sunset.
Klooch-moop.    A sister.
Kloochtsque.    The mussel-shell.
Klooh-peh.    The wharf.
Kloohqueltsah. Name of a mountain.
Klookloothlalh.   Clean (of persons).
Klookloothlsik.    To ornament.
Klool-hut.    A good workman.
Kloopidg.    Autumn (or summer).
Klooshah.    Dry.
Klooshist.    Dry salmon.
Klooshook.    Dry.
Klooshtsoqua.    Thirsty.
Kloosmit.    A herring.
Kloothl.    Good.
Kloothlahs.    A garden.
Kloothlalh.    Clean (of things).
Kloothlilh.    Flooring, a floor.
Kloothluktlim.    Good.
Kloothlwunnim.    Better.
Klookloothlappeh.    Best.
Kloothsoohtl.    Well-intentioned.
Kloothsooktlah. I am well-intentioned.
Klootsinnim. A board for a pad-
dler to kneel on.
Klootsmah.    A married woman.
Kloo-yah-chay-etlmah. He (she or
it) has become good.
Kloquisutlh. A little, above low
Kluk-ka-yik.    A key.
Kluk-sup.    To untie, to unbind.
Kin in ia 11. Carved house pillars,
often in the human form.
Klup-payuk.    Scissors.
Klutchitl.. To take in sail. ■ Compare Kleetsuppem.)
Klut-she-e !    Take in the sail!
Kly-emmi. Give more. (An expression often used in sale or
Koh~hoo.    A black duck.
Koh-pilh.    To hang, to hang up.
Kohpeik.    The forefinger.
Kohpshitl.   To point with the finger.
Kohquennapich.    A wood-pecker.
Kohrswih. A large hole or deep
Koht-kuk.    Hard.
Ko-i-chitl. To grow (perhaps 'to
be a man,' ko-us.)
Ko-ishin.    A raven.
Kokkeh. A house-mast {i.e. a flagstaff or other pole not set in
the ground but on a building).
Kokkoop.    A swan.
Kokkum-yakklassum.    A pin.
Kokkun-nah-a-milh.    A gun.
Kolh.    A slave.
Kooh.   Ice. ^
Kook-quoo-housa.    A seal.
Kook. Food put on board for a
Kookoop-sum-muktlek. To touch
with the fingers.
Koomits-    A skull.
Koonah.    Gold.
Kooquah. Cautious (as in hunting
or war).
Koot-kootah. To beckon with the
Koowih-tuppah. To open (of a
door, lid, &c.)
Koo-wik.    A thief, thievish.
Koo-wilh. To steal. (Compare
Koowihtuppah, to open.)
Koo-wus.    Open (of a door or lid).
Koquawdsathly.    Bold, unabashed.
J 44
Koquawtselh.    A portrait.
Koquissunnapyik.    Corkscrew.
Kotowaut.    Half.
Kotsas. The left hand, the left
Kotsik-poom. Indian pin (for
Kotstsa.    The numeral 3.
Ko-uk-klah-tim.    Nostril.
Ko-ulh.    Morning.
Ko-us.    A man, an Indian. (Homo.)
Ko-utsmah. Soul, shadow, reflected image.
Ko-uxern. Bone barb of halibut
Kow-wih.    The salmon-berry.
Kow-wipt.   The salmon-berry bush.
Kow-wiskimilk. Ninth lunar month
from about November. {Kow-
wih hishimilh.)
Kow-wish-uk.    Red-hot.
Kow-wits.    The potato.
Kulh-kahm-mut-top.     A thing in
the mind, a thought, a fancy.
{Kumotop )
Kulkah.    The little finger.
Kulkin-tupehr.    Strawberries.
Kumatychea.   To learn. (Kumotop.)
Kum-meets.    A pilot.
Kum-met-kook.    To run.
Kumotop.    To understand.
Kuskelp.    The star-fish.
Kusseh.    The eyes.
Kut-che-im.    The palate.
Kut-shitl.    To pinch.
Kuts-quy-up.    To make smaller.
Kyen.    A crow, a rook.
Ky-yah-ckitl.    Adrift.
Ky-yahtsa.    Drift cordage.
Ky-yumen.    A panther.
Lhoo-lhoo-ulquihn-    A roofing shingle.
Ma-cheelh. Into the house, inside
the house.
Mah !    Take it !
Mah-cheetl.    To bite.
Makk.    A whale.
Mah-katte. An eatable liliaceous
Mahlh.    Antlers, horns.
Mah-mayk-soh. Eldest brother, family representative, first lunar
month happening about November. (It does not cover exactly the same ground as our
* elder    brother.'      The    first
syllable is probably derived
from Mahte, a house (as in our
' householder,' ' husband ') and
so the word may mean primarily
' head of the house,' and secondarily ' eldest brother.')
Mak-mathleh. Any person not an
Indian. (A word formed many
years ago from Mahte-maylhi,
which had reference to the
' house-like ' vessels in which
the strangers navigated the
Mah-nah-sip.    To weigh. TAHKAHT-ENGLTSH.
Mah-pees.    A bat.
Mahptulh.    Enemy, inimical, hostile (of a man or tribe).
Mahs.    A house,   a  population, a
settlement, a tribe.
Mahte.    A house, a population, a
Maht-mahs.   The entire population,
all the tribes.
Maht-leetsin.   Circlet of stuff round
the head.
Mahts-quin.    A house-fly (Mahte).
Mamakshitl.    To fasten the dress
or blanket by tying.
Mathlook. ' Cold (of the weather).
Mathluppeh.    Very cold.
Mayetlkuts.    A   boy (more than a
very young child, less than a
young man.)
Mayl-hi, or Maytl-hi.    Similar to,
like to.
May l-h uppeh.   B alanced (of scales).
Meesook, Meeshitl. To smell(Trans.)
Meet-lah.    Rain.
Meetsin.    Shade.
Memetook-mahk.    A spider.
Memilh-hus.    Foot of a mountain.
(Comp. Mil-hus.)
Milchin-nius.    Abreast.
Mil-hus.    Flat ground.  .
Milsi-yeh.      Shaft    of   a    salmon
Min-nik-stas.  Surrounding, circumferential.
Mit-lash.    A boy's name.
Mitl-in.    Gum, India rubber.
Mit-wha.    To revolve.
Moockickoop.    To invest, to put on
clothes for another.
Mooh.    The numeral 4.
Mook-minkutl.    To scorch.
Mook-skitl.    The hammer of a gun.
Mook-wah.    Steam.
Moolquisutlhl. A little above low
Moot'shitl.    Flowing tide, flood-tide.
Mooshe-tuppah.    To shut.
Mooshe-us.    Shut, closed.
Mooshussem.    A door, a lid.
Mooshussemauik.    A hinge.
Moostatee.    A bow.
Mootsasook.    Gunpowder.
Mootsmahuk. A bear-skin, and
sometimes a bear. It is probably the original word, though
now almost supplanted by
Chim-mus, which, in its first
meaning, applies to anything
sweet, tasty, or savoury. The
Indians smacked their lips when
the hunters brought in a bear,
and cried Chim-mus ! (Savoury
meat!) Hence, probably, the
Moo-uck.    A deer.
Moo-uktl. Wet, filled with moisture.
Mooxyeh. A stone, a rock, a rocky,
soilless, treeless mountain, or
Mowalt.    To carry.
Mowah-ishinnik-sup. To carry to,
to add to.
Mueh-koolh. Covered with dirt,
Muck-kulh.    Dirt.
Much-pelsokunhl.    Bitter.
Muk-koolh. Blind. (Comp. To-
Muk-quah. To set free a slave
(perhaps to purchase (Muk)
his. freedom.)
Muk-kook.    To beg.
Muk-quinnik.   To trade," to bargain.
Muk-toop. Things for sale (toop,
generic.) 46
Mu-mii-teh. A bird. (Mutshitl.
To fly.) Mit-mOr-teh means 'the
flutterer.' The reduplicated
syllable giving the idea of frequency, i.e. the frequent movement of the wings.
Mut-ah-ah-toh. To fly downward,
descend in flight. (Comp.
Mut-a-mis-inkl.    To fly upwards.
Muschim. The common people (i.e.
not the chiefs).
Mutlah-sah. To tie or bind together.
Mutlemayaoom. The iron hoop of
a cask or tub.
Mutlilh.    Imprisoned, locked up.
Mutlilhoowilh. The lock-up, the
Miitl-snkp.    To lock (of a door).
Mutl-shitl.    To bind round.
Mutl-toop.    String.
Mutl-yu.   Bound, tied, locked.
Mut-shitl.    To fly.
Mutsutl.    To alight (of a bird).
Mut-tis. Alighted, sitting on the
ground (of a bird).
My-yalhi. Principle of sickness, or
its personification (often said
to be introduced into the system by some ill-disposed medicine-man.)
My-yeh.    A butterfly.
Nah-ah.    To hear.
Nah-ah-pay-chitl.    To taste.
Nah-ah-tah.    Attentive.
Nah-ayx-oh.    An uncle.
Nah-chalh.    A prophet, a seer.
Nahch-ko-muklinhl.        To     look
Nah-cho-ilh.    Found, or to find.
Nah-choolh.    A copy, a pattern.
Nah-hay.     To   give.     (Nah-hay-
mah tikiiitck   Chaputs.    Look
you ! I give a canoe.)
Nah-nash.    To beg, to ask for.
Nah-nayxoh.    An aunt, a guardian.
Nah-pee.    Light.
Nah-shetl.    To see.
Nahtl-nash-hah.    A   copy,   or   to
Nah-luck.    The stock duck.
Nah-uktl.    To feel.
Nanieh.   To look.
Nas.   Day, sky.
A askook.    Strong..
Nashkinnik. A brick (i.e. Nashook
i a n't k, strong to resist fire.)
Nus-shitl.   Day-spring, daylight.
Natsoh. To see, to sight, to note
or mark with the eye, in front
of, before.
j\:.'/y-aytlik.    To illumine.
Nay-it-luk. Light, as opposed to
Nay-ye-ee.    Echo (fr. Nah-ah).
Ne-ah-ah. To run a-ground.
(Perhaps Neah Bay's name
derived from this word).
]S'eeattookoh-palh-hup. To take off
a burden.
Neeche-ik.A need\e(tx\soKah-che-ik.)
Neeputto.    Thread.
Neet-lak. To scold, to quarrel, to
mock, to discuss a matter
angrily (from neetsah, the nose,
and haviug reference to the
contemptuous movement of that
Neetl-nee-yah.    To sew.
Neet-sah.    The nose.
Neel-shitl. To bend the head backward.
Neet-uktl. Deep-laden (and so
near the water) of a ship or
Nenehktook.    Peas.
Net-lah-kahte.    A rib.
Nik-shitl.    To scratch, to claw.
Nisk-shitl.    To sneeze.
Nismah. Country, territory, land,
the world.
Nitinaht.    The name of a tribe.
Nitkin. Roe of fish (or perhaps
only of salmon).
*No-hah-shitl.    To bury.
*Nohr-shitl. To burn, injure anything by fire.
Noo-chee.    A mountain.
Noo-chuk.    An egg.
Nook.    A song.
Noo-mas.    Twins.-
Noo-meelh. Tame (of domestic
birds or animals ; perhaps also
when subdued by hunger or
other causes in a wild state.)
Noo-noo-chee.    A pigeon or dove.
Noo-nook.    To sing.
Noop. The numeral 1 (also Tsow-
Noop-ka-milh-stas. Central, alone
in the midst (not of persons).
Noop-peelh. Rumour, universal
report; or, perhaps, agreed, in
Noop-peelh-sooktl. To make a
friendly agreement (either national or personal).
Noop-pooh.    The numeral 6.
Noop-sik-kuppeh. The highest tree
or mast. (Comp. Tsow-waw-
Noo-quits.    Gum stick; pitch stick.
Nooshah To portion out, to give
Noosh-itl. A great giving away,
an entertainment for making
Nooshookt. • A gift received at a
Nootimilh.    Round, circular.
Noo-wayk-soh.    A father.
Nuk-a-may-ham-ma. I want some
water. (This sentence, like
not a few others, seems like the
fossil of an earlier language,
analogous to, but differing from
the phenomena of the present
Nuk-shitl.    To drink.
Nupk-shitl.    To open the eyes.
Ny-yuk-put-to. Cradle in which the
new-born child is placed, and
in which its head is flattened
and limbs swathed.
Ny-yuk-uk.    A baby.
Oh-huk-quitlah.    To choose.
Oh-koohem. Cross-piece of a paddle.
Ohkskapem.    A cork.
Ohkumha.    Fine   weather.    (Con
trasted with Wikkumka,  bad
Ohn-nah-hay-yup.     To renew,  to
make an old thinglikeanewone.
* These words may possibly be identical, some mistake being made in taking them. if"
Oh-oh-kamilh. Seventh lunar
month, counting the first to
be about November.
Oh-oh-kook.    Like to, similar.
Oh-ohp-ka-kook.    Sugar.
Oh-oomhah.    Greater, longer.
Ohpka.    To whistle.
Okpkamits.    Sand.
Oh-poolh.    Deaf.
Ohpuk.    Calm weather, no wind.
Ohpuksoonlh.    A button.
Oh-quilk. That (?), there (?), beyond .(?), yet (?), more (?),
besides (?). (A word in constant use, but difficult to get
the exact meaning of.)
Oh-quinnik. A box with double
sides, the inner ones being
Oh-shitl.    To fall.
Ohyaht.    Name of a tribe.
Okkahta? What tribe ? (Okkuk
mahte ? The aht is here in
composition just as it is in the
names of all the tribes.)
Okkaktohuk? Of what tribe are
you? (The termination huk of-
tenindicates the second person.)
Okkuk ?    What ?
Okshitl.    To make water.
Oochkamis. Clouds. (Also Klee-
Oochkuk.    Cloud, fog, mist.
Oo-ee-ilh.    To obey.
Ooh-sup.    To cut down (of a tree).
Ooitlche. Go and bring. (Trans.)
(Ootachitl sooquitlche.)
Ooksup. To tempt another to do
wrong. (?)
Ook-you. Friend. (A Ewkloolaht
Oo-mak-kuk. A colour, probably
Oomayksoh.    Mother.
Oon-nah ?    How much ?
Oon-nah-chit.    Shape, form.
Oo-oo-eh. To hunt, to pursue in
hunting. (Trans.) Kleeklamis,
with a somewhat similar meaning, is intransitive.
Oo-ook.    To migrate (of birds).
Oo-ookamilh, or Oh-ohkamilh,
Seventh lunar month from
about November.
Oo-oosh-tuk.    To work.
Oo-quish-stik, or Chookwah-stih.
Let me see ; and often used in
answer to a question when a
person wants time for recollection.
Ooskimitsoh.    To whisper.
Ooskoolh.    Proud, scornful.
Oosh-yuksomits.    Thank vou.
Oosooktlah.    Wounded.
Oostachist.    Surface of water.
Oostahs.    Surface.
Ooste-ilh.    Low down, below.
Ooslepitup. To lower, to place in a
lower position.
Oostsunnuk-huk. The Indian who
speaks for the chief. (The
terminating uk-huk, probably
Ootachitl.    To go.
Ootsmiipt. A tree (probably the
Douglas pine).
Oot-suppeh.    To go and see.
Oo-uktl.    To bless.
Oo-uktlay.    To finish.
Oo-wah-tin. A friend. (Wah in-'
dicates speech, and, probably,
refers to conversational intercourse, the ' taking sweet counsel together.'
Oo-wahtsoh. Third finger, second
brother. TAHKAHT
-ENGLISH.                                                      49
Oo-waylh-sintlh.    Goal of a race.
Ooye-in-hi.    Unfinished.
Oo-way-up.    To begin.
Opechisaht.    Name of a tribe.
Oo-way-uttah.    To precede, go be
O-uk,   O-uk-ooyeh.    A long   time
fore, a leader (as the leading
ago.    (When a very long time
goose in a flock, or the head
is spoken of great emphasis is
man in a single file of walkers.)
laid on the syllable uk.)
Oo-whun.    At the end.
Outlookamilh.    Sixth lunar month,
Ooyak-kahs.     To   relate,   to   tell
counting  about November  as
about a thing.
the first.
Ooyakkameetl.    To go for news.
Ow-suppaht, or Ow-suppat. A bar
Ooyakkamis.   News, tidings.
barian (i.e. one of an entirely
Ooyakkanuk. ■ To bring news.
foreign speech.    ' Tahkaht' is
Oo-yalh.    To dance.
the word applied to the tribes
Oo-yeh.    Soon, presently (a word
speaking this language).
of time occurring in  several
Ow-yup.    An interpreter.
Pacheetah.    One who presents the
Pilluk-pillukshl.    A stone hammer
gift of another.
in the shape of a dumb-bell.
Pacheetl.    To give.
Pin-na-wulh.    A very big canoe.
Paehinaht, or rather, in their own
Pish-aht.    A bad workman.
and  the   Nitinaht pronuncia
Pish-uk.    Bad.    (Also Wik-oo.)
tion, Pachidaht.    The name of
Pishuktlim.    Bad
a tribe.
Pish-wunnim.    Worse.
PahKh-lhik.    Dust of the earth.
Pish-appeh.    Worst.
Pah-pahts-uhil.   A loaf.
Pohkleetum.   Small downy feathers.
Pah-pay.    The ear, the nipple of a
(They  are  sprinkled   on   the
head  during   their   entertain
Pnht-huk.    Rotten, decayed.
ments, especially by the women,
l'utoks.    Canoe full of things.
when   performing the   Chees-
Pat-kook.    Things, small household
Poo-eh.    Halibut.
Pay-ka-yik.    A looking-glass.
Pooh-pootsah.   A dream.
Payh-eyk.   To praise, to speak well
Potsmis.  Froth, foam (as of the sea,
a person's mouth, &c.)
Pay-pay-kayxim. Glass, a window.
Poulteechitl.    Sleepy.
Pee-yak-up, or Pees-sook-stoop. To
Pow-wel-shetl.    To be lost.
excite (as by harangues).
Py-yalh. Feathers. (Ey-yalh. The
Pepcsati.    To work.
E 50
Quah-kums.    Public, well known.
Quas-setsos.   A chair. (From Tur-
Quas-tim-ha.    Well behaved, with
good manners.    (Quas, afraid
of, Imha, shame.)
Quaw-quk-shitl.     To  sting  (of a
wasp or other insect).
Quaw-te-ik.    Tired.
Quawt-lik !   Come!
Quawtl-quuck.    The elbow.
Quawtluk.    Sea-otter.
Ojuawtoquk.    Devious.
Quawtsook.    To walk.
Quaw-utl.    The sound of cracking.
Quayktlah.    Acid.
Queeahta.    Pointed.
Que-e-che-is.    Salutation to a man.
( Che-is, to a woman.)
Queel-queel-hah.    To pray.   (This
word not recognised by all the
Indians  whom I have  asked
about it.)
Queenupshilh.    To attract.
Quee-quee-hah.    To suck.
Quees.    Snow.
Queesah.    To snow.
Queeskidg.    Winter.
Quepalhuk.    Rough.
Quequenixo.    The hand, the hand
and arm.
Quis-aht.     The   further   Tahkaht
tribes.    (Fr. Quispah.)
Quis-hay-chitl.     To   change   the
mind or heart, to repent.
Quis-shak.    Smoke.
Quispah.    On the other side. (Hit-
chispah, on this side )
Quis-sets.    A  pipe.     (From quis-
shah, smoke, and sets or setsos,
which in composition means a
stand or holder.)
Quis-tohp-shitl.     To   become,   to
change into.
Quit-te-yu.     To   fit   together,   to
Quoy-up.    To break a stick.
Sah-uh-he.    Name of the Seshaht
River-house site.
Sah-ook.    A wolf.   (Also Kannat-
Sa-eemits.    A sort of grass or reed
growing on the Goast.
Sak-sak-a-pi.    To turn  over and
Sa-sin.    Humming-bird.
Sat-too.    A fir-cone.
Sayhr-mooh.    A  fish like   or  the
same as the herring.
Seekah.    To sail.
Seekuppeh.     Unequally    balanced
(in a scale).
Seeta.    A tail.
Seshaht.    Name of a tribe.
Setchah-min.    To bound, to limit,
a boundary.
Setsoop.    The hook-nosed salmon.
Setsoopus.    Eleventh lunar month,
counting  about November as
the first.
Seewah.    We.. TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
The Spiroea Douglasii.
Seyah.    I.
Seyas, or Seyessah.    Mine.
Shd-d-ti?i.     Head   of   the   salmon
Shaytlook.     To   change   quarters.
(Said of a tribe when migrat-
' ing from one of its houses to
another, and carrying its goods
and houseboards)
Sheet-lah.      Brake   fern-root   (an
article of food).
Shoh-shitl. Rusted.
Sich-chin-nio-mehr.      An   epithet
applied in some way to some or
all old men.
Sidsman.    Maggots.
Sik-kah-ik.    A frying-pan.
Sinno-moox-yets.   A black-coloured
vaccineous  berry growing on
Siskummis.    Flesh, meat.
Sissidskook.    Rice.
Sit-si-tehl.    Marmot, ground hog.
Sloo-ook.    Roof-boards of a house.
Soo-a:   Thou.
Soo-as.    Thine.
Soo-oolh.    A kettle.
Soo-peh.    To catch (as of a ball or
anything else falling through
the air).
Sooquitl.    To bring.
Soo-sah.    To swim.
Soo-soop-tahl.    To wrestle.
Sootcka.    Five.
Soo-uk-klinthl.     To bite or sting
(of a serpent).
Soo-wah or Soo-wa-tilk.    You, ye.
Soowahs.    Yours.
Soowidg.    The  spring,   a  sort of
Such-kaks.    A comb.
Such-okstootl.      Stoppage   in   the
Sum-met-tok.    A squirrel.
Sunday-ko-ilh.    The church.
Susk-toop.    Beast, brute, beasts of
the forest,    (loop, generic.)
Sus-see~ip.    To sigh.
Sy-yah.    Far away.
Sy-yak-yelk-syah.    Very far away.
Tah-alh-mah. A smooth or fashioned stick.
Tah-ckah.    Low water.
Tah-hap-e-chauna.    By-and-bye.
Tahk-ah-peh.    The shaft of a cross.
Tahk-ay-uk.    Straight.
Tahk-ay-us.    Parallel.
Tahkladkamilh. Eighth lunar
month, counting about November as the first.
Tahkokstootl.   To tell the truth.
Tahkokd. Correct, proper, true,
the truth.
Tahkowin.   A stone hammer shaped
like a dumb-bell.
Tahksate.    The head.
Tahkscheet.    Straight.
Tahkshitl.    To spit.
Tahktsque.    Spittle.
Tahks-ut-tup.     To   wring  (as   of
wet out of a cloth).
Tahkuk.    To grant a request.
Tah-ma.    A canoe pole.
Tah-mookh.    A kingfisher.
Tah-pim.       Cross-stick      of     a
canoe. 52
Tak-putayik. Weighing scales,
a rule, a measure. (From
Tah-tah-put-hi, to estimate.)
Tah-qUah or Tahk-quah. Held in
the hand.
Tah-quinnik. Concealed in the
Tah-tah-put-hi. To consider, think
over, to prepare, to practise, to
Tah-tah-put-hup. An object set
up to shoot at (fr. Tah-tah-
Taktl-ty-yah.    To pole a canoe.
Taktsehe.    The stomach.
Takts-tahk-soolh. A guide (connected with the root tahk meaning straight.)
Tah-us.    A prop or buttress.
Takn-is.    A boy or child.
Tam-mook-you.    A single knot.
Tan-nah. Boy, son, male infant.
Tan-noop-alh. A burden, the
forehead-band for carrying a
burden. (One of these meanings probably wrong.)
Tas-mulh-elh. To stroke, to smooth
Tattay-in. To groan (as in sickness).
Tatti-itshookquum. The second
Tattoos.    The stars.
Tattoos-ah-ah-toh. Shooting star,
falling star.
Taut-nah-chiVh. Increase of population.
Taut-neetsin. Descendants, posterity.
Tay-ah-ah-toh. To throw oneself
from a height.
Tay-ah-to-quah-tah. To make a
Taychitl.    To throw.
Tayilh. Sick. (Opposed to teech,
well, and teechilh, alive.)
Tayish-tish.    A small hatchet.
Tay-itk.    Long.
Tay-pitl. To fall or be overthrown
in wrestling.
Taytltay-yah.    To throw.
Taytosah. To let fall unintentionally.
Taytsk-shitl.    Flame. .
Te-at-too. Below, between decks
(of a ship).
Teech.    Well, convalescent.
Teechilh.    Alive.
Teech-mah-ahktlup. To save, to
save alive.
Teech-utlmah.    He is well.
Teelh-hah.    Bait for fishing.
Teelh-qu-up. To crush, to pulverise.
Teemelh-oomah.    A towel.
Teemelh-hus.    To wipe.
Teenah.    A file. ^
Teetl-tee-yah. To rub. (Reduplication of the syllable denotes
repeated action.)
Teekskutl.    A noise.
Tel-hoop.    Cuttle-fish.,
Telh-toop.    Fish. (Toop, generic.)
Ten-nak-mis.    Mosquitoes.
Tennanakshitl. To bring forth a
child.    (Comp. tannah.)
Tepittup. To throw down, to
bring down. (Comp. ooste-
Tim-melsoo.    A bell.
Tohk-shitl, To melt (of ice, lard,
&c.    Intrans.)
Toh-muktl.    Dark.
Toh-pelh.    The sea. TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
Toh-pi-is.    To jump over a stream.
Tohtspah.    To leap  over  a high
Tokse-ilh.     Very high wind from
the sea.
Toksoquin.    An owl.
Toochey.    The east wind.
Tookamis.    Bark of a tree.
Toolh-toop'us.    A blot, a blemish.
Too-mees.    Coal.
Toop-kook.    Black.
Toop-kulh.    Black blankets.
Toop-shitl.    Evening.
Toosh-koa.    Cod-fish.
Too tali.    Thunder (also taytskin).
Tootooch.    The great supernatural
bird which makes the thunder.
Tootsopstah.    A chasm, abyss, deep
To-quaht.    Name of a tribe.
Toquis-tus-sup.    To  gather  fruits
of sowing.
To-quit-tup.    To sow seed, to put
in roots.
To-quk.    Skin.
To-qukamilh.    A number of skins
Tow-quos.    Gills of a fish.
Tow-wawktl.  Pregnant, with child.
Tsa-emupt.    Oak-wood.
Tsa-kook    Straight forward, quickly forward (said of paddling a
a canoe).
Tsakts-ahk-klin.    Roar of the sea.
Tsa-impts.    Water-grass.
Tsa-koomuts.     The   ground,  soil,
Tsa-mdkkles.   A slue (i.e. probably
an up-water. Comp. Eetahkles,
Tsa-ool-kah.    A wave, a billow.
Tsapin.     Diver   with   a   reddish
brown head.
Tsas-noolh.    A river bank.
Tsay-hat-te.    An arrow.
Tsay-kents. Small, low flying,
white marked duck.
Tsaykip-kaylhool.    The smithy.
Tsay-uk-palh.    To wrangle.
Tsay-yuk-koom. Indian wooden
Tsee-atl-soo.    To obey.
Tseek-milh-huppeh. To make an
oration. ( Tseka, to talk ; milk,
kamilh, or hishimilh, which
signifies abundance of anything ; huppeh indicates a
superlative force.)
Tseel-hah.  Relaxed bowels, cholera.
Tsees-an-nup. To water (as of a
Tseeskah.    To buzz (as a bee).
Tseets-a-huktl.    The crab-apple.
Tseetsik-tah-sim.    A finger-ring.
Tseetsootup.    To pour into.
Tse-ilh. Indian sticks for making
fire by friction; lucifer-matches.
Tseka.    To talk.
Tseka-tseka. To talk much, to
Tsttseluktim.    The toes.
Tset-tset-tikatsim.    Seeds.
Tseu-ma.    Full.
Tsik-hoh-tin. The white-headed
eagle. (The word is 'applied
to the bird generally, both
before and after the head has
turned white, a change taking
place, according to the Indians,
when the bird is three years
old. There is another special
name for the bird in its white-
headed condition.)
Tsik-kaytah.   To command, to order.
Tsim-ka. Toothed flat pole for
catching small fish. 54
Tsistoop.    A rope.
Tsit-kay-yuk.    A gimlet.
Tsit-koo-wiltah.     A drop (of any
Tsitktaw.    A roller.
Tsitk-tsup.    To twist.
Tsit-kup-itl.    To lie down.
Tsit-quilche!    Lie down!
Tsit-quilk.     Lying   down,   to   lie
Tsits-an or  Tsits-an-nha.    Angry
(of a wordy anger).
Tsitsikkinnik.    To pray (as to the
moon, to God, &c.)
Tsitsisha.    To shrink back, to be
Tsit-tsit-quus.    A cannon.
Tsohksatinhl.    To knock at a door.
Tsohpshiti.       Highest   flood-tide;
also flood from a river, to overflow (as of water over a cup)
Tsok-kits.    The numeral 20.
Tsokshitl.    Lowing of cattle.
Tsokstelh.    To fight with fists.
Tsoos-tsoosa.    To dig, to  till  the
Tsoot-sah.    Unsteady, crank (of a
Tsootsinnik.    To wash the hands.
Tsootsokktak.    To wash the feet.
Tsoo-wit.    Salmon.
Tsoquitl.    To  wash.     (Fr.   Tsuk
sooquitl ?)
Tsots-howa.    To fight with a knife.
Tsow-waw-chinnik.    One walking
alone,    unaccompanied.       (So
Atlah   chinnik,    in    company
with another.)
Tsow-waw-hoolh. An only-begotten
Tsow-wawk.   The numeral 1. (Also
Tsow-wawklahs.    Alone in a house.
(Comp.    Ilkkahs,    histokshitl-
Tsow-waw-peh.     Eminent,    overtopping those around.
Tsow-wawts-hamma.    A man with
but one wife, a woman with but
one husband.
Tsow-way-yoos.    The rainbow.
Tsow-wista.    One man in a canoe,
a canoe manned by one.
Tso-youk.    To wash the hair.
Tsup-quaw.    To boil.    (Intrans.)
Tsus-quaw-up.     To deceive,  send
on a fool's errand.
Tsus-sis.    To drive (as oxen, birds,
wild animals, &c.)
Tsu-uk.    A river.
Tuk-quas or Tuk-quasseh.    To sit
down in a chair.
Tuk-quassik!    Sit  down!    (Ik  a
frequent   termination   for   tfre
Tuk-koilh.    Sitting or squatting.
Tuk-quulleh.    To sit or squat on
the ground.
Tup-win.    To gird, to girdle.
Tus-she.   Doorway, gangway, trail,
Tus-sheelh.    To  make  a path  or
Tut-tayin.    To bemoan, to lament
TH-tup-win.    A spider. TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
Uchkinnahis. Small. (Perhaps
also 'young.' The terminal is
often occurs with the meaning
of small or young, as ckimmus-
is, a young bear.)
Ukketsuksemhukt What do you
want ? (i.e. What pay do you
ask for work done ? The uk is
probably the same as okkuk.)
Uktsiiklis. The farm at Alberni
(low land full of slues).
Unnah-his. Small. (Comp. Uchkinnahis.)
Unnah-sa-tis.    A few.
Unnaylhah. How long ? (Of space,
not time. Unnah hlah-hlah-
kah ? How many hlhah-hlah-
kas does it measure ?)
Unnaytoquis. Thin (of a board or
paper, not of a man).
Unnayt-soolhis.    Narrow.
Upan-oolh. A boundary, dividing
Up-ki.    Giving much, generous.
Upit-saska. The top of the
Up-hoolh. Bold, immodest (of a
Up-kyh.    Top of a mountain.
Up-pi.    The back.
Upstutchinnik. To meet (of persons walking in opposite directions).
Ut-si-mixem.    Eyelashes.
Ut-sin.    Backbone.
Uttalh.    Black.
Uttaw.    Thick.
Uttyk. Night. (Comp. Uttalh,
*Wah-oh. A bulbous root eaten
by the Indians.
*    Modest (of a woman).
Wash-itl. To throw away, to do
away with.
Waw. To speak. (Oftenest used
in the doubled form, Waw-waw.)
Waw-hah-atlsoo! Good speed! (A
mode of farewell.)
fVaw-hasl-kook ! Do not stumble !
(A mode of farewell to a messenger.)
Waio-it.    A frog.
Waw-kash.    An old form of saluta
tion, still used by the old men,
and mentioned as a very usual
word by Cook and Jewitt.
Wawkneh.    Land otter.
Wawkoahs. An Indian party or
Waw-waw. To speak. (Comp. Waxo.)
Waw-waw-ehr-kook.    Turnips.
Waw-waw-tsukka.       To cough.
Waw-toaw-tlookwaw.    To bark.
Waw-win. A mode of hunting-
deer, in which the animals are
alarmed by the shouts of concealed hunters.
* In both these words the ah is sounded like the a in I mama. 56
Way-ay-chitl. A word used by-
a friend when he pays a
visit after a long period of
Way-ich.    To sleep.
Wayts-kook. Cautiously forward
(of a canoe).
Wee-ahhtl. To curse. (Perhaps
connected with We-uk.)
Weel-hus-sem. A small vaccineous
Weena. Attack, attitude of attack,
to attack, to assault. (Perhaps
connected with We-uk.)
Weenapeh. To stay, stop, abide,
Weenapilh. A being at home in
the house. (Perhaps any staying or abiding.)
Weenaput. To live (i.e. abide upon
the earth, not die).
Weet-shuk-kinnik. To keep on
working day after day. (Comp.
Wee-uk.    Weak, not strong.
Wee-wis-uktl.    Thirsty.
Wekt.    The brain.
Wel-hah-iktl. To go home. (Also
Welshetl.    To go home.
Welshetlche !    Go home !
Welsohktl.    Cunning.
We-oom Unforgiving, implacable.
(From We-uk.)
We-uk. Angry, stern (pourtrayed
in the countenance, but not words).
We-uk-sek. A medicine. or charm
(each Indian having one peculiar to himself) making invulnerable.
We-uktl.    To look for, search after.
Who-ah-tik. Able, (lm-tah, unable.)
Why-yak?   Which?   (Of  things,
not persons.)
Wik-ah or Wik-a-mah.    Not I.
Wik-ahs.     Without   cargo   (of   a
Wik-a-yuk-stootl.    Mad, frantic.
Wik-a-yuktl.    An idiot.
Wik-kaps.    Deaf.
Wik-koos.    To run away, to leave,
to desert.
Wik-koulh.    Invisible   (either   by
the nature of a thing, as the
wind, or  by its being out of
Wik-lit.    No.
Wiklit-ma.    Not he, he is not, it is
not, there is not.
Wik-luk-shitl.    To be weak under
a burden.
Wik-mah-ektlah.    To fast.
Wik-nit.    A wilderness (i.e. a land
without berries or  animals of
the chase).
Wik-oo.    Bad.
Wik-sek.    Wind.
W.ik-sim.    To drive away, to turn
out of the house or from the
Wik-simtl.    A window (i.e. a hole
for the same without frame or
Wik-sin-o-utl.    Empty.
Wik-tsa-koolh.    Inattentive.
Wik-uttomah.    I do not understand.
(Wik-lit kumotomah.)
Win-ns.    Steady (of a canoe).
Wishiksuhll.    Cruel, unkind.
Wishksukilstut.     Violent,    ill-disposed.
Wish-uhtl.    To punish.
Wish-wish-ulh.    Blue blankets.
Wis-mah.    Blacking.
Wit-shid.    To nod the head. TAHKAHT-ENGLISH.
Woo-wit-tayer. To watch at night
(against surprise by enemies).
Woyuktl.    To think.
Wun-nayk. The throat (also At-
Wush-ahkl-nook.    United.
Wush-shuk.    Spoilt, worn out.
Wus-neh.    To delay, to loiter.
Wus-neh-mah. A word expressing
disinclination to work.
Wusseh ?    Where ?
Wusseh-huk ?    Where   are   you ?
.(This exhibits the fact that
huk, with the meaning of
' thou' or ' you,' is not a mere
verbal termination.)
Wussemtuk? Where do you come
from ?
Wus-sokshitl.    To cough slightly.
Wu-wu-puk. Lazy. (The wu-wu
is the repeated negative of one
repeatedly refusing to work, or
implies the continued condition
of not working.)
Yahk.    Long.
Yahk-appeh.    Very long, longest.
Yakk-pe-kuksel.    A beard.
Yahk-pus. A proper name (meaning beard man).
Yahk-yahwha.    A fan, or to fan.
Yah-mah.    The sallal-berry.
Yah-nuk. Slightly sick. (The
soul not migrated to Chayher,
as it does in serious sickness.)
Yah-toop. A whale, or some other
large fish.
Yah-uk.    Pain.
Yah-uk-sem.    A face-pimple.
Yah-ulh. ( Yah-ulhe coensuk how-
wilh are the words in which
the messengers of a chief invite
guests to any entertainment
given by him.)
Yak-ka-wim-mit. Staying a long
time, not recent; applied to old
people and to all other things.
Yatchah.    Dog-fish.
Yatsetsos. A ladder (i.e. walking-
" stand or stepping-stand).
Yatsmoos. To walk on the seashore.
Yatsook.     To   walk.
Yatspannich. To walk out to look
Yatsquistus.    To slip.
Yats-qui-up. To stamp upon with
the feet.
Yay-yay-chim. The largest sort of
Yay-yay-en. Supplicatory (i.e.
the yielding, confession, and
entreaty of a person accused.
The Indian connects the word
with the idea of a craven
Yelk. A word denoting (in some
way) distance. (Syyah yelh
syyah, very far away.)
Yes-sup.    To open (as of a book).
Yetleh. There, out there (i.e. somewhere out of sight).
Yetseh-yeisah.    To kick frequently.
Yetseh-yetsokleh. The screw-steamer
(i.e. the continual kicker).
Yetshitl.    To kick.
Yooch-kahta.    Pointed.
Yook-swee-koolh. A fever, feverish. 1
Yoo-pa-kowr.    A promontory.
Yoo-quayk-soh. Youngest member
of a family or household.
Yooshuk-innik. To leave work uncompleted.
Light (i.e. not
A broom.
To sweep, to fan.
Yuk-yeh-wha.    To shake.
A wheel.
A cart.
A  paddle-wheel PART   II.
To abide.     Weend-peh.
Able.    Whoahtik.
Above.    Hinnas.
Above (of relative position).    Hils-
peh, Hin-nas-setsos.
Abreast.    Mil-ehinnius.
An abyss.    Tootsopstah.
Acid.    Qjuayktlah.
To add to.    Mowah-ishinnik-sup.
To admonish.    Hak-kok-pak.
Admonition.   Hah-hoh-pah.
Adrift.      hy-yu/t-ehitl.
Advice.    Hah-hoh-pah.
To advise.    Hah-hoh-pah.
To alight.    Mnt-atI (of a bird).
Alighted (of a bird).    Mut-tis.
All.    Ckoochk, Ishook.
Aloft.    Hinnas.
Alone. Tsoxo-wau-ckinnik. (Tsow-
wauk, one.)
Alone in a house.     Tsow-wauklalis.
Alone in the midst. No op -k a m i Ik -
stas.    (I think not of persons.)
Always.    Ay-en-tuk.
I Ancestor.    Ay-chuk-asin.
And.    Ish.
An angle.    Amenoquilh.
Angry (of an anger shown in the
countenance, and not expressed
in words). We-uk. (Of a
wordy anger, tsitsan, tsitsanha.)
The ankle.   Eys-she.
An anklet.    Klik-klenastim.
Another.    Klah-oh.
Another instead.    Klah-oh-appi.
Antlers.    Makik.
An apron.    Ktaytsmitsim.
The arm.    Kah-yupta.
Armpit.    Ah-ahp-soonilh.
Around.    Tn-nits.
An arrow.    Tsay-hatte.
! Ashes,    klinti in mis.
To assemble. Hishim-yohp, Hish-
To assist.    Hoop-peh.
Astonished-     Ckah-kat-skid
To attack.     Weena.
I Attentive.    Nak-ak-tak. 60
To attract.    Queenupshilh.
An aunt.    Nah-nayxoh.
To be awake.    Klimmukkak.
To awaken (Trans.)  Klimmukskitl,
Klohksahp, Chukshitl.
An axe.    His-siyik.
To babble.    Tseka-tseka.
A baby.    Ny-yuk-uk.
The back.    Up-pi.
Backbone.     Utsin.
A back-water.    Hooah-men-chitl.
Bad.    I*ishuk, Wikoo.
Bad weather,    Wik-kum-ha.
Bait (for fishing).    1'eelh-hah.
Balanced.    Maylhuppeh.
Bald-headed.  Askeh. Without hair
on the body, Askit.    A bald
country (i.e. bare of trees and
shrubs), Askoolk.
Bank, of a river.    Tsas-noolh.
A barbarian (i.e.   one  not  understanding the Tahkaht speech).
Bare.    Asknmilh.
To bargain.    Muk-quinnik.
Bark of a tree.    Tookamis.
To bark.    Waw-waw-tlookwah.
The base or under side of an object.
Hittahktlee.    (Connected with
Hytoktl,  and  contrasted with
Tahk-sa-te, the head, and tah-
A large basket.    Kah-oots.
A bat.    Mah-pees.
To bathe.    Hattees.
Baulked.    Cha/i-liatshitl.
A bear.    Chimmus, Mootsmahuk.
A bear-skin.   Mootsmahuk.
A beard.    Yahk-pe-huksel.
Beast.    Sushtoop.
To beat with a stick.    Hee-seesah.
To beckon.    Koot-kootah.
To become.    Quistohpshitl.
Bed and bedstead.    Chimmilh.
Before (i.e. in front of).    Natsoh.
To beg.    Nah-nash.
To begin.    Oo-way-up.
A bell.     Timmelsoo.
The belly.     Tahtsche.
Below (of a ship).    Te-at-too.
Below (of position).     Hee-tah-pul-
To bemoan.    Tuttayin.
To bend.    Klinnihshitl.
Bent.    Klinnika.
Berries.    Hucheempt.
Blackberry.    Kalh-kow-wik.
Black-currant.    Hys-shitl.
Crab-apple.    Tseetsahktl.
Gooseberry.    Him-mik-kahoo ■
Huckle-berry.    His-sin.
Sallal-berry (Gaultheria Shallon).
Salmon-berry (Rubus). Kow-wih.
Strawberry.    Kulkin-ta-pehr.
A very small vaccineous  berry
growing    in    damp   places.
A berry of a  vaccineous  evergreen   growing    on   rocks.
Oregon grape (Berberry).    Ko-
Thimble-berry (Rubus).    Hoop-
To beseech.   Klah-quay.
Best.    Kloo-hloothl-appeh.
Better.    Kloothl-wunnim. ENGLISH-TAHKAHT.
Between (Adjectival).   Ahp-unnuk.
Between decks.    Te-at-too.
Beware!    Hemkah!    (Adv.)
Big.    Ayhr, ehr.
A billow.    Tsa-ool-hah.
To bind round.    Mutl-shitl.
To bind together.    Mutlah-sah.
A bird.    Mu-m&t-eh.
Biscuit.    Hokidskook.
To bite.    Mah-cheetl.
Bitter.    Much-pelso-kimhl.
Black.     Toop-kook, Attalh, Uttalh.
Blacking.     Wis-mah.
Blankets.    Kleetstoop.
Black blankets.    Toop-kulh.
Blue blankets.    Wish-wish-ulh.
Green blankets.   Ey-yoh-quilh.
White blankets.    Kleeselh.
A blaze (i.e. a mark on a tree to
show a trail).    Hispich.
To    bleed    (Intrans.)    'Hissooah-
soolh, Hay-her-salit-chitl.
A blemish.    Toolh-toop-us.
To bless.    Oo-uktl.
Blind.    Muk-koolh.
Blisters.    Chahk-ckahkl-nook.
Blood.    His-samis.
Bloody, covered with blood.    His-
A blot     Toolh-toop-us.
To blow with the mouth. Hoo-sattoh.
Blue.    Kistokkuk.
Side-boards  of  an   Indian  house.
Cheetamah, Cheefuk.
Boastful.    Ha-han-noo-yik.
A boat.    Che-chah-mutl-pyik.
To boil (Intrans.)    Tsup-quaw.
Bold.    Koquawdsathly.
A bone.    Hummootisque.
To borrow.    Ah-kootlah.
The bosom.    Am-mus-shulth.
A bottle.    Eish-kook.
Bound.    Mutt-yu.
A boundary.    Setchah-min.
A bow.    Moostatee.
To bow.    Hytshitl.
A box.    Klah-hix.
A boy.    Tak-nis.
A bracelet.    Klik-klenasm.
The brain.     Weht.
Brake-fern root (an article of food).
' Sheetlah.
Branches.    Kathlahsim.
Branches knotted together to show
a trail.    Atl-kyh.
Brave.    Ehr-sooktl.
To break a stick.    Quoy-up.
To break a string or rope. Ash-sup.
To breathe.    Heah-keah-hah.
A brick.    Nashkinnik.
A bridge.    Hloh-pilh.
To bring.    Sooquitl.
To bring back.    Kin-nay-yup.
To bring forth a child.   Tennanak-
A broom.     Yuk-kay-ik.
A man's brother.   Eyk, Kathlahtik,
which probably means peer or
Eldest brother.    Mahmayxhoh.
Second brother.     Oowhahtsoh.
Youngest brother.    Yooquayksoh.
A woman's brother.  Huchimsuksah.
A bruise.    Kinnitsmis.
Brute.    Sush-toop.
Bucket, of Indian make.   Chah-hots.
To  burden,   to  lay  a   burden   on
another.    Hin-nah-poop.
A butterfly.    My-yeh.
A button.   - Ohpuksoonhl.
A button-hole.    Cheetswih.
A buttress.    Tah-us.
To buy.   Muk-kook.
To buzz.    Tseeskah.
By-and-bye.     Aytl-chauna,   Tah-
hap-e-chauna. fm
Calm weather.    Oh-puk.
Canoe.    Cha-puts.
The smallest sort of canoe. Hershin.
Canoe with men in it.     Chapook.
A  canoe  race.     Kleets-klah-soop-
A cannon.   . Tsit-tsit-quus.
Cape, of Indian manufacture. Klee-
To carry.    En-neesa, Mow-wah.
To carry to.   Mowah-ishinnik-sup.
A cart.    Zok-taas.
To catch.    Soop-peh.
To catch sight of.    Natsoh.
To cater.    Hay-nim-soo.
Cautious.    Kooquah.
Central, in the centre.   Ahp-eelsoo,
A chair.     Quas-setsos.
Chalk.    Klits in is.
To change.    Hah-oh-quitl-chitl.
To change into.     Qjuistohpshitl.
To change the heart.    Quis-hay-
chitl (from Quispah).
To change quarters.    Shaytlook.
A chasm.    Toqtsopstah.
To chatter.    Tsttha-tse'ha.
Cheeks.    Ah-hummus.
A chink.     Kit tit• -yu.
Cholera.    Tseel-hah.
To choose.     Ok-kuk-qu idak.
The church.     Sunday-ko-ilh.
Circlet of  stuff*  round the head.
Mali tleetsin.
Circular.    Nootimilk.
Circumferential.    Minnikstas.
To claw.   Kikshitl.
Claws.    Chulcha.
Clean (of things).  Kloothlalh.  (Of
persons, Kloo-kloothlalh.)
To clear away.    Kayeep.
Closed.   Mooshe-us.
Clouds.   Klet■chooamis.   Oocltkainis.
Coal.     Too-mees.
Cod-fish.    Toosh-ho-a.
Cold (of personal sensation). Cheeta-
shitl.   ( Of weather, Mathlook.)
A collection.    Hi skim ilh.
To consider.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
A Comb.      Siieh-Luhs.
To come.    Enachitl, HistokshiU.
Gome !     Cknotirah !    Quawt-lik !
To comfort.    Ehr-sook-toop.
To command.    Tsik-kaytah.
Common   people  (i.e.  not chiefs).
Mu ifhim.
Complet-.    Tahkoktl.
To complete,    ffow-way-utl.
To compute.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
To conceal.   Hohptsup.
Concealed in the hand.    Tahquin-
A concourse.    Hishimilk.
To confess.    Hlak-quay.
Confluence of two rivers.    Atla-
To console.    Ehr-sook-toop.
Convalescent.    Teech.
A copy.   Nah-choolh.
A cork.    (dtl.staptm.
A corner.    Amenoquilh.
A corpse.    Klah-kUnch -ky-chitL
Correct.    Tahkoktl.
To cough.    WaW'Waw-tsukka.
To cough slightly.     Wus-sokshill.
A counsellor.    Klah-shooa.
Country.   Nismah.
To cover.    Tlok-qucec/iis.
To cover with a cloth.    Klettsee-
Cradle.    Ny-yuk-putto.
A crack.    Kittle-yu.
The cramp.    Klathlah-enkahtoo.
A crane.    An-noos.
Crank (of a canoe).     Tsoot-sah.
Crooked.    Klinnika.
The cross on the church. Himmit-
kyh (from Himmittah-peh
kokkyh, crooked house-staff.)
A cross-bar.    Him-mit-tah-peh.
Cross-piece of a paddle.   Oh-kookem.
Cross-stick of a canoe.     Tah-pim.
A crow.    Ky-en.
A crowd.    Hishimilh.
Crown of the head.    Upit-saska.
Cruel.     Wishihsuktl.
To crush.      Tselh-quup or Teelh-
_ quoy-up.    (Comp. Quoy-up.)
To cry, to weep.    Ay-hd-ik.
To make to cry.    Chayk-kuk.
The crying of a child.    Eyn-nuk.
Cunning.    Ah-en-soolh, Welsohktl.
To cure.    Hah-ham-kook.
Curly-haired  (of  man   or   beast).
To curse.    Wee-ahktl.
To cut down.    Ooh-sup.
To cut off.    Cha-tay-up.
Cuttle-fish.    Tel-hoop.
To dance.    Ooyalh.
Woman's dance.    Chees-cheesa.
Dark.     Toh-mukil.
The dawn.    Kleeshitl.
Day.    Nas.
Day after  to-morrow.     Klah-oh-
Day   before   yesterday.     Kldkoh-
Day-light.    Nas-shitl.
Day-spring.    Nas-shitl.
Dead.    Kah-huk, Kah-hukkit.
Deaf.     Wik-kaps, Oh-poolh.
Decayed.    Paht-huk.
To deceive.     Tsus-quaw-up.
Deep.    Huch-che.
Deep-laden (of ship or boat).    Nee-
A deer.    Ahtoosh, Moouch.
To delay.    Wusneh.
To deliberate.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
Descendants.    Tautneetsin.
To desert.     Wik-koos.
Devious.    Quawtoquk.
To die.    Ka-a-shitl.
To dig.     Tsoos-tsoosa.
To diminish.  Kutsquy-up, Hy-yus-
To  direct   upon   the  way.     His-
Dirt.    Much-kulh.
Dirty.    Much-koolh.
To discuss angrily.    Neetlak.
To be disgusted.    Tsitsisha.
To   disrobe   or   undress    another.
To divide.    Choo-uttoh.
Divided.    Elh-whus.
A dividing line.     Up-an-oolh.
To do away with.     Wash-itl.
To   doctor   the  sick.     Klah-chit-
A dog.    En-niti.
Dog-fish.    Yatcha.
A door.    Mooshussem.
A door-way.    Tush-she.
Douglas pine.    Ootsmupt.
Down, of feathers.    Pohkleetum. 64
Downhill.    Ee-taht-us
A dream.    Pooh-pootsah.
To drink.    Nukshitl.
To drive.    Tsus-sis.
To drive away.     Wik-sim.
Drooping.    Hohts-hohtsh.
A drop.    Tsit-koo-wiltah.
To be drowned.    Hulh-may-hah.
Dry.    Klooshah, Klooshook.
Dry salmon.    Klooshist.
A black duck.    Koh-hoo.
Duck (mallard).    Nahtuch.
Dust.    Pahkh-chik.
A dwelling.    Mahte, Mahs.
Dysentery.    Hys-wuktleh.
Eagle, white-headed.    ^4me«;aMfe.
Eagle, the same, before the head has
become white.    Tsik-hoh-tin.
The ear     Pah-pay.
Ear-pendant.    Eehinakootn.
The east wind. Toochey. (Of
course Indians do not name
their winds from the points of
the compass, but from some
other properties, as in our sea-
breeze, trade wind, &c.)
To eat.    Hah-ook.
Echo.    Nay-ye-ee.
An eddy.    Hooah-men-chitl.
An egg.   Noo-chuk.
The elbow.    Quawtlquueh.
Eminent.    Tsow-wawpeh.
Empty.    Wiksin-o-utl.
An end.    Hit-tay-a-tah.
Enemy.    Mahptulh.
An entertainment for making gifts
Entire.    Tahkoktl.
Equal.    Ah-atl-soowit.
To escape.    Klat-chah-ut.
To escape the memory.    Ei-yahk-
Espou sed.    Klooch-hah.
To extinguish.    Choo-pay-uppah.
Evening.     Toop-shitl.
To exchange.    Hah-ooye.
An extremity.    Hit-tay-a-tah.    ~.
Eyebrows.    Ah-eh-che.
Eye-lashes.    Utsimixem.
The eyes.    Kusseh.
The face.   Hinnoolk.
To fall.    Ohshitl.
To fall in wrestling.    Taypitl.
To let fall unintentionally. Taytosah.
Falling-star.    Tattoos-ah-ah-toh.
False.    Hytoktl.
A fan.    Yahk-yahwha.
A fancy.    Kulh-kahm-mut-top.
Far away.    Sy-yah.
Very far away.    Syah yelk syah.
To fast.    Wikma ektlah.
To fasten a dress by tying.  Mama/.
A father.   i\ oowa t/xok.
Feathers.    Py-yalh.
Feather-down.    Poh-kleetum.
Wing-feathers.    Ei-yalh.
To feel.    Nali-ukd. ENGLISH-'
PAHKAHT. .                                                 65
Feverish.    Yook-swee-koolh.
Flour.    Klik-klitskook.
A few.    Unnah-sa-tis.
Flowing tide.    Moolshitl.
To fight with fists.     Tsokstelh.
To fly.    Mut-shitl.
To fight with a knife.    Tsots-howa.
To fly downwards.   Mut-ak-ak-toh.
A file.    Teenah.
To fly upwards.    Mutamisinkl.
Fine weather.    Ohkumha.
Foam.    Potsmis.
Foliage.    Klakkupt.
Fore-finger.    Kohp-e-ik.
Food.    Hak-oom.
Second finger. Tatti-its-kooquum.
. Food put on board  for a voyage.
Third  finger.      Oowahtsoh  (i.e.
second   brother,    it   being
A foot.   Klah-klah-tim, Kleeshklin.
second in length).
Foot of a mountain.    Me-milhus.
Little finger.    Kuilcak.
Forbidding (of   the   countenance).
Finger-ring.    Tseetsik-tah-sim.
To    finish.       How-way-utl,    Oo-
A fore-announcer. Hin-nah-a-wah-
Finished.   Ay-utl.
The forehead.    Im-mich-sahta.
A fir-cone.    Sattoo.
To forget.    Klo-a-tlutl.
Fire.   Innik.
A fork.    Kah-chuk.
To make a fire.    In-nik-quilh.
Fork of a river.   Atla-newk-tsu-uk.
Make the fire !    In-nik-quil-che !
Forked, two-branched.    Atla-newk.
Fire-wood.    Inniks-yeh.
Form.    Oonah-chit.
Firm, firmly knit.    Klilh-mah.
To commit fornication (of a man).
Fish.    Telh-toop.
Fish-hook, large and made of iron.
To commit fornication (of a woman).
Fish-hook, small and made of iron.
Found.    Nahcho-ilh.
Four.    Mooh.
Fish-hook, made  of wood,  with a
A fowl.    Ah-ah-he.
bone barb.    Chimmin.
Frantic.     Wik-a-yukstootl.
To fit together.    (Trans.)     Quit-
A friend.    Oowahtin.
A frog.     Waw-it.
Five.    Sootcha.
In front of a person.    Nats-oh.
A flag-staff.    Klah-us.
Froth.    Potsmis.
Flame.    Taytsk-skitl.
A frying-pan.    Sik-kah-ik.
Flat ground.    Milhus.
A fugitive.    Hus-chitl.
Flesh.    Siskummis.
Full.    Tseuma.
A flood.    Tsohpshitl.
The further side.    Quispah.
Flood-tide.    Moolshitl.
A future thing.    Klahr-milh-uh-
Flooring, a floor.    Kloothlilh.
skitl. m
To gamble.    An-nah-ah.
A gangway.    Tus-she.
The gaol.    Mutlilhoowilh.
A garden.    Klooihlahs.
ring.     To-
To gather together.
To gather fruits of'
Geese.    Hoxem.
A generation.    Hah-ohks-acheel.
Gentle.    Klen-nak.
A   gift   received   at  a   Noosh-itl.
Gills of a fish.    Tow-quos.
A gimlet.    Tsit-hay-yuk.
To gird.    Tup-win.
To give.    Nah-hay, Pacheetl.
Glass.    Payhayxim.
To go.    Ootachitl.
Go!    Eh-shetl-che !
To go and see.    Oot-suppeh.
To go away and stop for a long
time.    Eetowdy-es.
To go before.    Oowayuttah.
To go from side to side, to tack.
To  go home.     Welshetl,   Wel-ha-
Go home!     Welshetlche.
A goal.
God. Hinnas-how-wilh (i.e. heavenly
Gold.    Koonah.
Good.    Kloothl, Kloolk.
He has become good.    Kloo-yah-
Good-looking.    Aichk.
To grant a request.    Tahkuk.
Grass.    Klakkupt.
Water-grass.     Tsa-impts,.
A grasshopper.    Klek-klemahktlee.
Grave-looking.    Ahn-nuk-koilh.
To grieve.    (Intrans.)    Kaasooks-
tootl.    (Trans. Kaasookstoop.)
Great.    Ehr, Ayhr.
Greatest.    Eh-ehr-happeh.
Green.    Ey-yoh-quk.
To groan.     Tattayin.
Ground.    Tsa-hoomuts.
Grouse.    Hohm.
To   grow.      Klah-kut-chitl.     (Of
children, Ko-i-chitl.)
A guardian.    Nah-nayxoh.
A guide.    Takts-tahh-soolh.
Gum.    Mitlin.
Gum-stick.    Nooquits.
A gun.    Kohhun-nah-milh.
Gunpowder.    Mootsasook.
Hair upon the face.    Apuxim.
Half.    Kptowaut.
Halibut.    Poo-eh.
Hammer,  of  Indian   manufacture.
Hammer of
The hand, the hand and arm.   Que-
Handsome.    Aichk.
To hang, to hang up.    Kok-pilh.
Hard.    Koht-kuk.
Hatchet.    Tayish-tish. ENGLISH-TAHKAHT.
The head.    Tahksate.
Head of the salmon-spear. Sha-a-tin.
To heal.   (Trans.)   Hah-ham-kook.
To hear.    Nah-ah.
The heart.    Hlebuxti, Lebuxti.
The heel.    Hoh-puktlim.
Heir-apparent,  chief's eldest son.
Held in the hand.    Tahquah.
To help.    Hoop-peh.
Hereafter.   Aytl-chauna.
A herring.    Kloosmit.
Hidden.    Hohpta.
To hide.    Hohptsup.
High.    Hin-nas.
Higher.    Hinnas-wunnim.
Highest.    He-hinnas-sappeh.
A little below high water. Ahk-shitl.
A hinge.    Mooshussemayik.
To hit (i.e. not to miss).   Klee-yuk-
The hither side.    Huchispah.
A hole.    KorSwih.
A hoof.    Klik-klik.
Hostile.    Che-chee-sook, mahptulh.
Hot.    Klohkpah.
A house.    Mahte, Mahs.
In the house.    Ilh-kahs.
Into the house. Ma-cheelh. (Come
into the house, Ckookwah ma-
House-fly.    Mahts-quin.
How much ?    Oon-nah ?
Humming-bird.    Sd-sin.
Hump-backed.    Hee-chook-wah.
Hungry.    How-waykil.
To hunt. Oo-oo-eh (Trans.) Kleek-
lamis (Intrans.)
A husband. Chekoop. (The word
means also' male,' and has therefore no moral significance.)
I.    Seyah.
Ice.    Kpoh.
An idiot.    Wika-yuktl.
Ill-disposed.    Wiskksuktlstut.
To illumine.   Nay-aytlik.
Immodest (of a woman).   Up-koolh.
Implacable.    Wi-oom.
Imprisoned.    Mutlilk.
Impudent.    Cheetah.
Inattentive.    Wik-tsa-koolh.
Increase of population.    Taut-nah-
An Indian.    Ko-us.
Indian-rubber.    Mitlin.
Industrious, hard at work.    Ah-ah-
puh, Ah-puk.
To instruct.    Hinnah-yuktl.
Intermediate.    Up-an-oolh.
An interpreter. Hee-sut-hah, Ow-
To invest, to clothe another. Moo-
chic hoop.
Invisible.    Wik-kouVh.
To keep.    Kleet-tuk-wak.
A kettle.    Soo-oolh.
A key.    Kluk-kay-yih.
To kick.    Yetshill.
To kill.    Ka-a-shitl.
To kneel.    Kan-nilh. 68
A knife.    Hukhayik. I To know.    Kumotop.     (Of sight,
To knock at a door.    Tsohksatinhl. Natsoh.   I do not know, Cheh-
A single knot.
A lad.    Mayetlkuts.
A ladder.     Yatsetsos.
Lame.    Keys-keysh-ab.
To lament aloud.    Tuttayin.
A lamp.    Innik-sets.
Lard.    Himmiks.
Large.    Ayhr, Ehr.
To laugh.    Kleehua.
To make laugh.    Kleehstulh.
Lavish.    Up-hi.
Lazy.     Wu-wu-puk
A leader.   Oowayuttah, Cheets-mus.
To learn.    Kumatychea.
Leather.    Assel'h-yuh.
Leaves.    Klakkupt.
The left hand, the left side. Kotsas.
Leg and foot.    Kleeskklin.
To  lend.        Ho-uts-a-a-chepasim,
To lessen.    Hy-yus-a-tyup,   Kuts-
A lid.    Mooshussem.
To tell a lie.    Hytokstootl.
To lie down.     Tsit-kup-itl.
Light (i.e. not heavy)..    Yoo-whis.
Light.    Nah-pee, Nay-it-luk.
The light fixed  on the canoe for
night-fishing. Eech-ma, eeehuk.
Like to.    Ok-oh-ko&k.
To limit.    Setchah-min.
The lips.    Eethloohoolh.
To be living.     Weendput.
A lizard.    Ha-ha-ook.
A loaf.    Pak-pahts-uktl.
A lock.    Klah-klak-pulhah.
To lock (of a door).    Mutl-sahp.
Locked.    Mutl-yu.
Locked-up.    Mutlilh.  .
To loiter.     Wusneh.
Long.    Yahk.
Very long, longest.    Yahkappeh.
Long-abiding.    Yah-ka-wim-mit.
A   long   time   ago.      Oh-uk-ooye,
To look.    Nah-shetl.
Look !    Ahn-neh!    (I  see,  Ahn-
To   look    back.      Nahch-ko-muk-
To look for.     We-uktl.
To look through or along.  Kay-ha-
Look out!   Klay-uhtl!  Hem-kah !
A looking-glass.    Pay-ha-yik.
Lost, to be lost.    Pow-wel-sketl.
Low water.     Tah-chah, Hah-yew-
To lower.     Oostepitup.
Lowing of cattle.     Tsokshitl.
Lucifer matches.    Tse-ilh.
Mad.     Wik-a-yukstootl.
Maggots.     Sidsman.
To make.    Mamook.
Man (Generic).    Ko-
Many, a great many.
A great many together.    Ey-yeh-
There are a great many. Ei-yem-
A mark made to know a thing by.
A u m ut ii t-k ok.
Marmo t.     Sit-si-teh I.
A martin.    Kleekla-hy-yeh.
A mask.    Howk-o-mah.
A mask projecting from the forehead.    In-nik-kayts6ma.
A mast.    Kloksem.
Matting of Indian manufacture.
A measure.    Tah-put-ayik.
The measure produced by stretching
the arms to full width. Hlhah-
A measuring-rule.    Tah-put-ayik.
Meat.    Siskummis.
Mediate.    Upan-oolh.
Meek (of a person).    Klennak.
To meet (of   persons walking   in
opposite   direction).      Upstut-
To melt (Intrans.)    Tohk-shitl.
To mend.    Ho-uch-cheelh.
A microscope.    Kay-ha-yik.
Mid-day.  Hoop-che-ilh, Ah-poonit-
Mid-night.    Ah-poon-uttyh.
To migrate (of tribes and families).
To migrate (of birds).     Oo-ook.
Mild (of a person).   Klennak.
Milk.     J n iiimn h.
Mine.    Seyas, Seyessah.
A mink.    Chastomit.
To miss the way.    Hy-yem-mus.
To mock.    Xeetlah.
Modest (of a woman).     Wah-uk.
(The ah pronounced like a in
A lunar month. Hoopalh. The
year begins about November,
and is divided into thirteen
lunar months:—
First month. Mah-mayk-soh, i.e.
eldest brother. Seals pair
in this month.
Second month, Kathlahtik, i.e.
Third month. Hy-yeskikamilh.
The month of high winds
and most snow.
Fourth month. Kahs-sit-imilh.
In this month the sea off the
Tahkaht coast presents a
muddy and dirty appearance.
Fifth month. Ay-yak-kamilh.
Marked hy the arrival of a
small fish called seayhr-
Sixth month. Ootl-ohk-kamilh.
In this month the geese leave
the river mouths for the
lakes, to breed. The word
is derived from ootachitl, to
go, oo-ook, to migrate, and
kamilh, a terminal signifying number, a crowd, or
Seventh month. Oh-ohk-kamilh.
In this month the strange
geese from a distance fly
over at a great height on
their way to the lakes. The
word derived from oo-ook
and kamilh.
Eighth month. Tah-klad-kamilh.
Before the end of this month
the salmon-berry begins- to
ripen, and a small forest bird
known for its whistling note
has arrived. 1
Ninth month. Kow-wishimilh.
So named from kow-wik, the
•salmon-berry, and hishimilh
= ishinnikamilh = kamilh, a
quantity, collection, or number.
Tenth month. As-sit-sis. So
named from the wasp, as-sits,
which in this month builds
its nest.
Eleventh month. Setsoopus. So
called from setsoop, a species
of salmon.
Twelfth month. Enako-usimilh.
From enako-us, a kind of
salmon, and imilh = kamilh.
Thirteenth month. Chee-yah-
kamilh. From ckee-yah, to
rip or split, this being the
great time for splitting and
drying salmon.
Only the older men, and that
with considerable thought
and care, are able to enumerate these months correctly.
They say that two of the
moons, viz., Kathlahtik and
Kow-wiskimilh, do not travel
like the rest, but delay for
two or three days.
Morning.    Ko-ulh.
Mosquitoes.     Tennakmis.
Mother.    Oomayxoh.
A mountain.    Noochee.
The side of a mountain. Hin-
Top of a mountain.    Up-kyh.
Muffled up.    Kleetsimilh.
A multitude.    Hishimilh.
Mussels.    Kloochim.
Mussel-shell.    Kloochtsque.
A nail.    Klah-puk-mah.
Nails of the finger.    Ckulcha.
Naked.    Hannah.
A name.    Am-mit-teh.
To name.    Ammittyee.
To narrate.    Ayk-huk.
Narrow.    Unnaytsoolhis.
A nephew.    Kah-ohts.
The nettle.    Ay-is, Aylh-mukt.
News.    Ooyakkamis.
To brjng news.     Ooyakkanuk.
To go for news.    Ooyakkameetl.
To relate news.    Ooyakkahs.
Next door.    Ishinnik-quakt.
Night.    Ut-tyh.
The nipple.    Innimah.
Nipple (of a gun).     Pahpay (i.e.
the ear).
No.     Wiklit.
To nod.     Wit-shitl.
A noise.     Teetskutl.
The nose.    Neetsah.
Nostril.    Ko-uk-hlah-tim.
Not.      Wik-ht.     Not   I,    Wihah.
Not he, Wiklitmah.
There is not, he is not, it is not.
To notice.    Natsoh.
Now.    Klah-howye.
A number.    Hishimilh. ENGLISH-TAHKAHT.
Oak-wood.    Tsa-emupt.
To obey. Tsee-atl-soo, Oo-ee-ilh.
(Neither of these words very
An octave, or perhaps any other
interval in music. Kay-kay-
Old (i.e. worn-out, of things). Ik-
An old man or woman.    Aychim.
One.     Tsow-wauk, Noop.
Open.    Koo-wus.
To open.    Koo-wih-tuppa.
To open a book.    Yes-sup.
To open the eyes.    Nupk-skitl.
To oppress. Chahk-maykstak,
To make an oration. Tseek-milh-
To order.     Tsik-kaytah.
To ornament.    Klookloothlsik.
The other side.     Quispah.
Otter. Waukneh. (Sea-otter,
Ours.    Seewahs.
An overflow.     Tsohpshitl.
Overhanging (of a rock). Klin-
hut-supp oh.
Overtopping.     Tsow-waupeh.
An owl.     Toksohquin.
To paddle.    Klay-huk, Klay-huk-
Pain.    Yah-uk.
The palate.    Kut-che-im.
Palisades.    Klakkimilk.
A panther.    Ky-yumen.
Paper.    Keitselh.
Parallel.     Tahk-ay-us.
Partridge.    Ho-ik.
To pass by.He-tup-pah-us.(Intrms.)
A path.     Tus-she.
A pattern.    Nah-choolh.
A peer.    Kathlaktik.
Peas.    Nenehktook.
Percussion-cap.    Ho-ha-um,
A pigeon.    Noo-noochee.
A pile-driver.    Klah-sannup.
A pilot.    Kummeets.
A pimple.    Yah-uk-sem.
A pin.    Kokkum-yakklassum.
Indian pin.    Kotsik-poom.
Pincers. Klah-mitl.
To pinch. Kutshitl.
Pine-tree (some kind of).    Klakka-
A pipe.    Quis-sets.
A pit.    Korswih.
Pitch-stick.    Nooquits.
A pledge.    How-mis-shitl.
To plough.    Chimmees.
To plunder.    Kapshitl.
To point with the finger.     Kohp-
Pointed.     Queeahta, Yooch-kahta.
A canoe-pole.     Tah-ma.
To pole a canoe.    Tahtl-ty-yah.
To ponder.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
Poor.    Hah-koo-palh.
Population.    Mahte, Mahs.
A portrait.    Koquawtselh.
Posterity.     Tautneetsin.
Potato.    Kow-wits. 72
To pour into.    Tseetsootup.
To practise.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
To praise.    Pajjh-eyh.
To   pray.       Tsitsikkinnik,   Queel-
To preach.    Ayk-huk.
To precede.     Oowayuttah.
To prepare.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
The present generation.  Klah-huk-
Presently.     Ooyeh.
To preserve.    Kleet-tuk-wah.
To press, to press down.    Chakk-
To prick.    Ka-kin-kutl.
A promontory.     Yoo-pa-kowr.
A prop.   jTak-us.
To prop.     Chahkah.
Proper.     Tahkoktl.
A prophet.    Nah-shalh.
Proud.    Ooshoolk, Koquawdsathly.
Public.     Quah-hums.
To puff.    Hoo-sattoh.
To pull.    Cheechitl.
Pull!    Che-che!
To pull out the hair of the chin.
To pull up by the roots.    Cheequis-
The pulse.    Hlit-mayktl.
To punish.    Chayk-kuk, Wish-uhtl
(this   word   I   think   implies
Purple.    Klaykook.
A quantity.
To quarrel.
Quickly, be quick !    Ay-ayhr-she.
To quiver.    Ke-keesh-hah.
Rain.    Meetlah.
Small-rain.    Kaytsah.
The rain-bow.     Tsow-way-yoos
A rat.    Klaytsawhk.
A raven.    Ko-ishin.
To ravish.    Kap-skitl
To reach after.    Ah-chitl.
To reckon.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
To recount.    Ayk-huk.
Red.    Hissit.
Red-hot.    Kow-wisk-uk.
Reflection   in   water,   mirror,
A refugee.    Husckitl.
To rehearse.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
Relaxed bowels.    Tseel-hah.
To remain.     Weend-peh.
To remember.    Ay-hih-tah.
To renew. Ohn-nak-hay-yup, Klah-
To   repent.     Quis-hay-chitl   (from
To reply.    Klah-oh-quitlah.
To requite.    Hah-oh-quitl.
To  return.    (Intrans.)     Ho-uts-a-
To revolve.    Mit-wha.
A rib.    Netlah-kahte.
Rice.    Sissidskook.
Rich, i.e. having many possessions.
The right hand or side. Chimmitsas. ENGLISH-TAHKAHT.
To rip.     Chee-yah.
To rise (of sun or moon). Hoop-
A river.     Tsu-uk.
A road.     Tush-she.
To make a road or path. Tusk-
Roar of the sea.     Tsahts-ahklin.
A rock.    Mooxyeh.
Roe of Salmon.    Nit-kin.
A roller.    Tsitktaw.
Roof-boards.    Sloo-ook.
Roots (edible). Ah-ey-en-newk,
Ah-eyt-soo, Chis-noo, Hah-tih,
Kleetsyoop, Kli-klichkook,
Koo-whuppeh, Nuh-hoo, Quaw-
nis, Quaw-quinniskook,  Sheet-
lah  (root of  the brake-fern),
Too-sup-ehr,   Wah-oh,   Mah-
A rope.    Tsistoop.
Rotten.    Paht-huk. *
Rough.     Quepalhuk.
Round (Adj.).    Nootimilh.    (Adv.
To rub.    Teetl-teeyah.
A rudder.    Kleetch-yik.
To run.    Kummet-kook.
To run a race. Kaktskinnik-sooptahl.
To run away.    Klat-chah-ut, Wik-
To run aground.    Ne-ah-ah.
Rusted.    Shohshitl.
A sail.    Kleetsuppem.
To sail.    Seekah.
To set a sail.    Kleetsup-poopeh.
To take in sail.    Klut-chitl.
Take in the sail!    Klut-she-e 1
Salmon (first run of).    Hissit.
Salmon (second run of).    Tsoo-wit.
Salmon (hook-nosed).    Setsoop.
Salmon (an inferior sort). Ena-ho-us.
Salmon-berry bush.    Kow-toipt.
Salt.     Toh-pelh.
A salutation to a man. Que-e-che-is.
Salutation to a female.    Che-is.
A salutation at parting.    Klak-she.
The same.    Maylhi.
Sand.    Ohpkamits.
The sand-hill crane.    Hittoh-min.
To save, to save alive.   Teech-mah-
A saw.    Cheetayik.
Sawdust.    Cheetsque.
Scales for weighing.    Tah-putayik.
Scar of an old wound.   Chek-kottay.
Scattered.    Elh-whus.
Scissors.    Klup-pay-yik.
To scold.    Neetlak.
To scorch oneself.    Mooh-min-kutl.
Scornful.    Ooshoolh.
To scrape.    Cheeskah.
Scrapings.    Cheeskts-que.
To scratch.    Nikshitl.
A scribe.    Keitsuktl.
The sea.    Toh-pelh.
A seal (the animal). Kooh-quoo-
To search after.     We-uktl.
Secret (Adj.) Hohpta. Secret intelligence. Hohpta Ooyakha-
To see.    Natsoh, Nan-nich.
Seeds.    Tset-tset-tikatsim.
A seer.    Nah-ckalh.
To separate. (Trans.) Elh-whus-
sip. 74
Serious-looking.    Ahn-nuk-koilh.
A serpent.    Hy-yeh.
To serve.    Ik-sah-tsook.
To set (of sun or moon).     Hoop-
To set apart.   Ahtkshitl.
To set food before another.    Hay-
To set free a slave.    Muk-quah.
To sew.    Neetl-nee-yah.
Shade.    Meetsin.
Shadow.    Ko-uts-mah.
The shaft of a cross.    Tahk-ah-peh.
Shaft of the salmon-spear.    Mil-si-
To shake.    Yuk-yeh-wha.
To shaken (Intrans.) Ke-keesh-hah.
Shame.    Im-hah.
Shape.     Oonah-chit.
To shave.    Cheeskuksootl.
Shingles (for roofing).    Lhoo-lhoo-
Shore of the sea. His-sayk-soh-tah.
To shoot.    Klay-chitl.
Short   (not used of  men).     Kah-
The shoulder.    Ah-up-ee-milh, Ah-
To shrink back.     Tsitsisha.
Shut.    Mooshe-us.
To shut.    Mooshetuppah.
To shut the eyes.    Kaytsinnik.
Sick.     Tay-ilh.
To sigh.    Sus-see-ip, Ay-hash.
The sight of a gun.    Kay-holh.
Similar.    Oh-oh-kook, Mayl-hi.
To sing.   Noo-nooh.
A sister.    Klooch-moop.
To sit on the ground.  Tuh-quulleh.
To sit down in a chair.    Tuh-quas-
A skull.    Koomits.
Sky.    Nas.
A slave.    Kolh.
To sleep.     Way-ich.
To be sleepless.    Klimmukkah.
Sleepy.    Poulteechitl.
To slip.    Yatsquistus
Slippery.    Klas-us-utl.
Small.       Unna-his,     Uchkinnakis.
Also is as a terminal.   Hatsoh,
Small-pox.    Klakhoh-pkit.
To smear with resin or pitch.    Ish-
To smell.    Meesook.    (Trans.)
To smell at.    Meeshitl.
To smile.     Cheel-hah.
Smoke.    Quishah.
Smoke stack.    In-nik-quk-tlyik.
Smooth.    Klaskuk.
A snake.    Hy-yeh.
To sneeze.    Niskshitl.
Snow.    Quees.
To snow.    Queesah.
Soaked.    Moo-uktl.
Soft.    Klat-whuh.
Soil.    Tsa-kooniuts.
Some more.    Klah-oh.
Something else.    Klahoh-appi.
Son.    Tan-nah.
A song.    Nook.
Soon.    Ooyeh.
Soul.    Ko-uts-mah.
To sow seed.    To-quit-tup.
To speak.    Waw, Waw-waw.
A spider.    Memetookmahk.
Spircea Douglasii.    See-whipt.
The land of departed spirits.  Chay-
To spit.    Tahkshitl.
Spittle.     Tahkts-que.
To splice.    Quit-te-yu.
To split salmon for drying. Chee-yah.
To split with a wedge.    Kletskitl.
Spoilt.    Wush-shuk.
A spoon.    Choochuk.
To sprinkle.    Howtshitl.
Spring.    Soowidg.
To squat.    Tuh-quulleh.
A squirrel. Sum-met-toh, Eil-
To stamp upon with the feet. Yats-
qui-up.    (Comp. Quoy-up).
To stand up.    Klahh-ih-shitl.
Standing up, erect (of a person).
Stand up!    Klahh-ih-she-e!
Starfish.    Kus-heep.
Startled.    Chah-hutshitl.
The stars.    Tattoos.
To stay.    Weend-peh.
Staying.    Weend-pilh.
Steam.    Mookwah, Yoo-wha.
Steady (of a canoe).    Win-ns.
Screw-steamer.    Yetseh-yetsokleh.
Paddle-wheel steamer.    Zoktihke.
To steal.    Koowilh.
Steep.    Ee-tahh-les.
To steer.    Klcetshitl.
Steersman.    K lee trim.
Stern (Adj.)    Wi-uh.
To sting (of a nettle, not of an insect).    Kah-hin-kutl.
To sting (of an insect). Quaw-quh-
To stir, to stir up.    Kitsmelsoh.
The stomach.    Tahts-che.
A stone. Moox-yeh (probably derived from Mooh-wah, 'steam,'
as Innixyeh, 'wood,' is derived
from innik, 'fire,' hot stones
being used for the boiling of
water, and steaming of meats and
'fish. Terms applied specifically
tend to become generic names).
To stop. (Intrans.) Weendpeh,
Stop! stop working! Choo-up-it-lay !
Stoppage in the bowels. Suchok-stootl.
A storm at sea.    Chuk-oo-tsuk.
A stove.    In-nik-kayik.
Stove-pipe.    In-nik-quk-tlyik.
Straight.   Tahk-ay-uk, Tahks-cheei.
A stranger.    Klah-choochin.
To stride.    Klayt-klayt-whah.
String.    Mutl-toop.
Strong.    Nashook.
To stroke.    Tas-mulh-elh.
To subdue.    Hah-oomut.
Submerged.    Keek-qulh.
To suck.    Quee-quee-hah.
Sugar.    Oh-ohp-kah-kook.
Summer.    Kloopidg.
The sun.    Hoopalh.
Just before sunset.    Klooch-inkl.
Supplicatory.    Yay-yay-en.
Surface.    Oostahs.
Surrounding.    Min-nih-stas.
To swallow.    Hetetsoquaw.
A swan.   Kokkoop.
To sweep.    Yukshitl.
Sweet.    Chummus, Chimmus.
Sweeter.    Chummus-oonim.
Sweetest.    Chah-ehummus-sappi.
To swim.    Soosah.
A tail.    Sectu.
To take off a burden.
To" talk.    Tseka^ Waw-waw.
Tame.    Noomeelh.
A target. * Tah-tah-put-hup. 1
To taste.    Nak-ah-pay-ckitl.
Teal duck.   Hussis.
Green-winged    teal.       Hoop-ukh-
To tear in two.    Kahtsksup.
Teeth.    Che-che-che.
A telescope.   Kay-ha-yih.
To tell.    Ayk-huk.
To tempt.    Ooksup (?)
Ten.    Hy-yu.
Territory.    Ntsmah.
Thank you!   Klak-koh ! Oosh-yuh-
somits !
There, out there (only out of sight).
Yetleh, Hittas.
Thick.     Uttaw.
A thief.y Koo-wits.
Thin (of a person).    Klayhuk-shitl.
Thin  (of a board, or of paper, or
anything flat).    Unnayloquis.
Thine.    Sooas.
-Things,   possessions.      Ee-eshtoop,
To think.     Woy-uktl.
To think over.    Tah-tah-put-hi.
Thirsty.     Wee-wiS'Uktl, Klooshtso-
This.    Ah-kooh.
This side.    Huch-is-pah.
Thou.    Sooa.
A thought.    Kulh-kahm-mut-top.
Thread.    Neeputto.
To threaten.     Weena.
Three.    Kots-tsa.
The throat. Wun-nayk,At-say-kuts.
To   throw.      Taytltay-yah   (more
commonly Taychitl).
To throw away.     Wash-itl.
Throw oneself from a height.   Tay-
The thumb.    Ay-yah-koomts.
Thunder.    Tootah, Taytskin.
Tidings.    Ooyakkamis.
To tie together.    Mutlah'sah.
Tied.    Muthyu.
To till the earth.    Tsoos-tsoosa,
Timber.    In-nihs-yeh.
Tired.    Quaw-te-ik.
The toes.    Tsetseluktim.
Together (of two).     Hee-yah-shin-
nik, atlashinnik.
To-morrow.    Ah-meetlih.   (So Ut-
tyhtlik, the coming night.)
The tongue.    Choop.
To touch with the fingers.    Koo-
A towel.     Teeme/h-oomah.
A trail.     Tush-she.
To trade.    Muk-quinnik.
Traditions.    Hah-hoh-pah.
A tree.    Klak-kahs, Soochas.
Tribe.    Mahte, Mahs.
A trigger.    Che-chik.
Trousers.    Kleesh-klukkaik.
True.    Tahkoktl.
The truth.    Tahkoktl.
To tell the truth.    Tahkokstootl.
A turkey.    Ah-asky.
Turnips.    Wah-wah-ehr-hooh.
Twenty.    Tsokkits.
Twins.    Noomas.
To twist.    Tsitk-tsup.
Two.    At-lah.
Unable.    Im-tak.
To unbind.    Kluk-sup.
An uncle.    Nah-ayx-oh.
To understand.    Kitmotop. ENGLISH-TAHKAHT.
I do not understand. Hyem-ham-
uink. (More commonly, Wim-
He does not understand. Hyem-
Unequally balanced.    Seekuppeh.
Unforgiving.     Wi-oom.
United.    Wush-ahkl-nook.
I Unkind.     Wishiksuktl.
Unsteady (of a canoe).
To untie.    Kluk-sup.
Unwell.    Yah-nuk.
Uphill.    Ee-tahk-les.
To upset.    Howksap.
Useless.    Hytoktl.
A vagabond.    Hus-chitl.
A valley.    1 lie etas.
Valuable.    Ayhr-wuktl.
Veins, arteries.    Hlook-tupt.
Very.    Ei-yeh.
Violent.    Wishksuktlstut.
To vomit.    Ah-thlah.
A waistcoat.    Chukswih.
To walk.    Yatsook.
Warm.    Klohk-pah.
To wash.    Tso-quitl.
To wash the hands.    Tsootsinnik.
To wash the face.    Klohp-shitl.
To wash the hair.    Tso-yook.
To wash the feet.    Tsoots-ohktah.
To wash the whole body.    Hattee.
A wasp.    As-sits.
To watch at night.   Woo-wit-tayer.
Water.    Chu-uk.
To water.    Tseesannup.
To make water.    Ohshitl.
A wave.    Tsa-ool-hah.
Wooden wedge for splitting trees.
We.    Seewah.
Weak.    Wee-uh.
Weak-eyed.    Kawkus-chup.
Weary.   * Quato-te-ik.
To weigh.    Mah-nah-sip.
Well.    Teech.   (He is well, Teech-
Well behaved.    Quastimka.
Well intentioned.    Klooth-sooktl.
Well known.     Quak-hums.
Well mannered.     Quastimha.
A whale.    Makk, Yah-toop.
A wharf.    Klooh-peh.
What ?    Okkuk ?
Of what tribe ?    Okkahta ?
Of what tribe are you ?    Ohhahta-
huk ? or Okhahta-sooa ?
A wheel     Zah-wka.
Where ?    Wusseh ?
Where are you ?    Wusseh-huh ?
Where do you come from ?    Wus-
semtuk f
Which ? (of things,  not persons).
Why-yak f
To whisper.    Ooshimitsoh.
To whistle.    Ohp-ka.
White.   Kleesook.
Who?   Ah-chuk?   Ah-chuk-hah?
(Ah-chuh-Kah   kous ?     What
man ?)
Whose ?   Ah-che-itsah ? 78
Wide.    Klohk, Ah-ah-che.
A wife. Klootsmah. (Having only
one wife. Tsow-wawts-kamma.)
Wild.    Chooshah.
A wilderness.     Wiknit.
Wind.     Wikseh.
East-wind.     Toochey.
West-wind.   Huchleetlh.
Sea-wind.    Ewksah.
Tempestuous sea-wind.   Tok-se-ilh.
Land-wind. Ew-uttih (i.e. night-
Wind from the sea.    Ewkstis.
A window (the orifice). Wiksimtl
(derived from Wikseh, as window is from wind).
A window (the glass and frame).
Winter.    Queeskidg.
To wipe.    Teemelh-hus.
With.    Ishinnik.
A wolf.    Kannatlah, Sah-ook.
A woman.    Klootsmah.
A married woman.    Klootsmah.
Unmarried woman.    Hah-quatl.
A woman with one husband. Tsow-
Wood.    Innihs-yeh.
Great woodpecker.
A small woodpecker.
To   work.    Mamook,
Worn out.     Wush-shuk.
Worse.    Pishwunnim.
Worst.    Pishappeh.
Worthless.    Hytoktl.
A wound.    Ah-uk-quoch-yoo.
To wound.    Ka-a-sup.
Wounded.     Oosooktlah.
To wrangle.    Tsay-uk-palh.
Wrecked.    Kiklee-uk-shitl.
To wrestle. Soo-soop-tahl, Ah-ahp-
To  wrestle by holding  the   hair.
To wring.    Tahks-ut-tup.
To write.    Kaytshitl, Keitshitl.
A writing-table.    Keitsetsos.
Written or printed matter. Keitseh-
Yards of a ship.    Klay-klayhr-tim.
Yes. Ah-ah. In answer to a
question put negatively, which
is the usual manner of interrogation, Ah-ah confirms the
negative. Thus, Wiklit ena-
chitlhuk ? Are you not coming?
Ah-ah.   Yes (I am not coming).
Yesterday.    Ahmooye.
Yew-tree.    Klattomupt.
Yonder.    Hittas.
You, ye.    Soo-wah, Soowa-tilh.
Young.   Is, used as a terminal.
Yours.    Soo^wahs. A
Although taken exclusively from tbe Sesbabt   and   Opechisaht
tribes, many of tbe following names are in common use among all
the Tahkahts.     Tbe words  in  parentheses suggest tbe probable
derivation of tbe name; tbey may be verified by a reference to*
tbe vocabularies.
Eeneyukpah (Ey-nuk)
.Millash (Maylhi, may-
Nan-neklah-ohp (Na-
nich klah-oh-appi)
In-klahp-pa-ik (Anneeh    Pishwinnisim (An
Klappe-nanoo     (Klah-
oh-appi nanich)
Kleeshin .
Klewha-ha-ta( Kleehua i
Quy-ay ts-u kshilh
Si-yah-noop (Sy-yah)
Tahtsi-watsi     (Taht,
Tootismus (Toota)
Tootooch (Tootooch)
Tusheenim (Tushee)
Yik-kay-ah 80
Ayen-chissook  (Ayen-
Chauch-is (George Is,
Chayher-mahtl (Chay-
He-eesin-yup I
Klahp-haytup   (Klah-
Quicheenum   (Que-e-
Te-teechit (Teech)
Tootooch (Tootooch)
Klah-ap       (Klah-oh-
Nas-is (Nas)
Tootima (Toota)
Printed by StkahgeWays and Walden, Castle St. Leicester Sq.    


Citation Scheme:


Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics



Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            async >
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:


Related Items