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Report of the superintendent of Indian affairs, for British Columbia, for 1872 & 1873 Powell, Israel Wood, 1836-1915 1873

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1872 1873.
n in
1872   <fe   1873-
PRINTED   BY  I.   B.   TAYLOR,  29, 31   & 33  RIDEAU STREET.
1873.  RETURN
To an Address of the House of Commons, dated 28th April, 1873 ; For a Copy
of the Report of the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for British Columbia}
for 1872-73, with any subsequent Correspondence concerning the Indian
Affairs of the said Province.
By command.
Secretary of Stcde.
Department of the Secretary of State,
7th May, 1873.
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, 6th May, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to forward herewith, in compliance with the Address of the
28th ult., from the House of Commons, " a Copy of the Report of the -Superintendent of
Indian Affairs for British Columbia, for 1872-73 ;" and also, copies of | any subse-
| quent correspondence which has been received at or despatched from this Office,
" concerning the Indian Affairs of that Province."
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
The Honorable J: C. AiMns,
Secretary of State for Canada, &c. &c.
W. Spragge, D. S. I. A.
British Columbia,
Victoria, January 13, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to transmit herewith my Report upon the native tribes of
this Province, together with the accompanying map, shewing their geographical division
accoi'ding to dialect, which will be delivered to you by Mr. McLennan, of the Canadian
Pacific R. B. Survey Corps.
The limited time which has intervened since I assumed the duties of my office has
prevented me, perhaps, from entering more fully into details respecting many important
subjects of the Report, but I trust it will be found sufficient, as a basis upon which to
inaugurate some wise policy for the future government of British Columbia Indians.
23—1 Application has been made to me for a grant of five hundred dollars, to be presented
to the Indians of Fraser River in prizes, at the celebration of Her Majesty's birthday at
New Westminster, 1873. This has heretofore been the custom of the Colonial Government, and I shall be glad to have instructions as to its continuance or.otherwise.
I have refrained from proposing any other money grants, as they will quite depend
upon what the future treatment of our Indians is to be, and which, I need not add, a
personal explanation in connection with my Report would much facilitate. If consistent
with your own duties to afford this by an early visit to our Province, it will, no doubt,
be attended with much benefit, and it will give me great pleasure to extend to you a
hearty welcome.
Immediate action is very desirable, as soon as practicable, in locating Reservation
lands for Indians in those portions of the Province where white settler's are now anxious
to pre-empt homesteads. The Local Government at present frequently urge this upon
me, with a view of withdrawing reserves which have been put upon land in order to
allow Indian Reservations to be made previous to white settlement.
I have the honor further to acknowledge the vreceipt of your telegram, authorizing
a credit in favour of this Agency of fifteen hundred dollars; and, in my next letter, I will
enclose vouchers for any payments made from that sum.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) J. W. Powell,
Superintendent Indian Affairs.
William Spragge, Esq., D. S. I. A.,
British Columbia,
Victoria, January 11th, 1873.
Sir,—In submitting my first Report upon the native tiibes of British Columbia,
agreeably to your instructions, I have the honor to state that the short period which has
intervened from the date of my appointment-as Superintendent of Indian Affairs for this
Province, the lateness of the season, with the consequent difficulty of obtaining the.
reqtiired material, have precluded me from accompanying it with very desirable statistics
in respect to the precise number of our Indian population,—only to be obtained by a
careful census, which, I need not add, will be a work of time, in respect to the vast
interior and extensive coast-line of the main land and adjacent islands, all inhabited by
numerous tribes of Indians, speaking a variety of different languages.
In order to convey some systematic idea of the native tribes of this Province, I
have made for the purposes of this Report a geographical division of the several nationalities of Indians using entirely different dialects, and which you will find more particularly exemplified and shown in the map of the Province transmitted herewith. Generally,
the generic name of the principal or chief tribe of any nation is that by which such
nation is distinguished. The Chinook jargon, usually alluded to as the common language
of the coast, and which, according to a celebrated author, | does not baffle all attempts
at its mastery," is very little used or understood by natives outside of white settlements,
and is generally (I think justly too) despised by them, as being far inferior in every way
to their own tongue.
Beginning at Victoria, the capital of the Province, the nation of | Cowichan"
includes a large number of semi-eivirked tiibes, extending eastward to Beechy Bay, on
the Straits of Fuca, and on the east coast northwards to Baynes Sound, Vancouver's
Island ; on the main land, from the mouth of Fraser River to Yale; and northwards to
Bute Inlet, including all the islands in the Gulf of Georgia. Southwards, the CUallum
tribes of the Territory of Washington, United States, at one time very powerful and
numerous, also use the dialect of the Cowichans.
These tribes are in a much better condition than many others in the Province, and
for many years have had Roman Catholic missions. established among them, and for the
last eight or ten years missions under the Anglican and Wesleyan Cbui ches. They have
made considerable progress in agriculture, and many of them, especially on the Fraser
River, speak the English language well, and some of them can even read and write.
They are most useful aids to the settler, and as a general thing very good workers ; and
with the scarcity and high price of white labour, their presence seems almost essential to
the development of this magnificent part of the Province.
In November, I visited Cowichan, Vancouver's Island, for the purpose of attending
an Indian Industrial Exhibition, inaugurated some three or four years ago for the benefit
of the tribes of this portion of the nationality. I observed some very good samples of
wheat and root crops ; but the exhibition of needle, crochet, and knitted work, by the
native women, was both surprising and most creditable.    There was a lively competition for the prizes, which consisted of agricultural implements, seed grain, calico, cotton,
woollen goods, yarn, etc., and much interest was manifested in the conduct of the Exhibition generally.
I afterwards addressed the Indians, congratulating them on this evidence of thrift
and industry which I had witnessed, and assured them of my warm co-operation in all
future' efforts of the kind. Great satisfaction was expressed on their part, and three
hearty cheers for Her Majesty terminated the colloquy. These Indians were all well
dressed and well behaved, the women of the tribe especially being remarkably clean and
neat in appearance.
They have a beautiful reserve, containing some twenty-seven hundred acres of land,
the gardeD plot of the district, but have made but little use, comparatively, of it. The
burden of their complaint is the necessity of proper allotment of the land among themselves, and the constant dread of having some portion of it taken away from them.
Crime is not uncommon among them, and numbers of the tribe have been executed from
time to time for the most atrocious murders.
The Cowichans include many tribes, and number probably some seven thousand in
Further north, on the east coast of Vancouver Island and adjoining the Cowichans,
the Gomox nation is the smallest in the Province, and composed of two tribes numbering
about one hundred. Originally, the Comox were driven from Valdez Island by the
warlike Euclataws, and were hospitably entertained by the Pumlahts or Puntledges, then
residing at Comox, and of the same general family of the Cowichans.
The larger tribe has gradually absorbed the smaller, almost decimated by war and
The Comox dialect is quite different from any other in the Province, and I am told
by an intelligent informant is very similar to that spoken by the Umpquaws in California.
The Anglican Church has a mission among them, but as yet very little can be said of
their social or moral progress. Fish of all kinds are most abundant here, and constitute
their chief ailicle of diet. Game—such as bear, elk, deer, mink, marten, beaver, wolverine, otter, &c, is as yet easily procured in this district. They number two trices', with
a population of one hundred.
The nation of Alits inhabit the west coast of Vancouver Island, from Woody Point
south to Port San J uan, at the entrance of Fuca Straits. I believe one tribe of this
nation—the Markah or Classets—live south of the Straits, at Cape Flattery,. United
States. They are a nation of savages, and are. without the civilizing influences of any
Christian mission. Quite a large trade in furs and oil is carried on with them, which
I am informed last year amounted to $75,000.
They have suffered greatly from bloody internecine wai-s, and have committed, from
time to time, the most cruel atrocities upon white traders and luckless merchantmen
shipwrecked \ipon their coast. Punishment has, no dcubt, followed some of these crimes,
but the great difficulty of securing the real perpetrators has more often led to their
escape. A notable instance of this kind occurred in 1864, when, in consequence of the
murder of the captain and crew of a trading sloop, Admiral Denman, with two or three
of Her Majesty's ships of war, proceeded to Klaoquhat Sound to demand the murderers
from their tribe, the Ahousahts. On this occasion, notwithstanding all their villages
were shelled, numberless canoes destroyed, and some of the Indians killed, the <milty
chief still defied capture. The Admiral gave the tribe a month in which to deliver him,
. promising to return in that time, if they failed to comply. Fortunately for the chief, but
unfortunately for the execution of the law, the fleet never returned. The chief enjoys his
liberty, and the tribe to this day consider themselves to have been victorious on that A wholesome dread, however, of Her Majesty's
ships was firmly estab-
occasion.    .a. wnoiesome areaci, nowever, ot Jier jQiajestjy s war
No reservations of land have as yet been made for the Alit tribes, and they consequently claim all the land on the coast. A portion of land at Alberin was purchased
from the Seshahts by Messrs. Anderson & Co., who subsequently pre-empted it under the
Colonial law; and complaint is now made to me by the agents of that Company on
account of recent threats on the part of the Seshahts to drive them off.
Should it be the intention of the Militia Department to establish posts anywhere in
British Columbia, there is no place where it would be attended with so much satisfaction
and general utility as at Alberin, the centre of the Alit nation. The prestige and moral
force of such an establishment would1 be felt by all coast tiibes of the Province, and be
productive of good alike to the Indian and settler.
The Alit nation number twenty tribes, the population of which is estimated at three
thousand, or three thousand five hundred.
The Quackewlth or Quakule nation extends from Woody Point, on the west coast
of Vancouver's Island, to Point Day, Millbank Sound, and south to Loughborough's
Oanal, on the main land, and on the east coast of Vancouver's Island to the country
inhabited by the Comox tribes, including all the intervening inlets. The Quackewlths
partake of the general characteristics of the savage tribes of the coast, and ai*e not more
enlightened as to the right and wrong than the Alit nation just described.
The first murder of a white man in the coiintry was by members of one of these
..tribes (the Newitte or Clatilseaquilla), and the first expedition of white men against
Indians was undertaken by the crew of Her Majesty's ship Daedalus, during the administration of Governor Blanchard. Their population is estimated at about Wo thousand,
and the number of tiibes sixteen or seventeen. The sub-tribes, called Euclataws, are
classed with this nationality, and number about fifteen hundred additional.
These nationalities seemingly have no affinity in dialect with either the Tsimpshean
or Quackewlths.
I They inhabit the country and "inlet about Bentinck Arm and Dean's Canal and
'Millbank Sound, as far north as Carter's Bay. They consist of eleven tribes, and a
population of about two thousand.
/The Tsimpshean nation occupies the sea coast of British Columbia, north of the
Millbanks, and inland up the Nass and Skeena Rivers to the vicinity of Babnie Lake,
where they trade with the Tahelies and Siccanies, the adjoining interior bands. This
nationality consists of about twenty-five tribes, and a population rougtilj estimated at.
five thousand.
The Hydahs inhabit the Queen Charlotte group of islands. Two tribes of this
nation (the Kygahine and Chatseenie) live in Alaska, on the southern islands of the
Piince of Wales' Archipelago.
The Hydahs include some ten tribes, numbering about twenty-five hundred.
The Takalie or Tahelie nation (signifying people who go upon water, from the fact
that they used to go from one village to another in canoes,) embraces with the Siccanies
all the interior tribes north of a line from Bentinck Arm, by way of Chilcoatin,
$o Athabasco Pass or Boat En-c^^p^ent, The Siccanies are not very numerous, but have a dialect quite different from the
Takalies. They occupy the region of Peace River north of Fort McLeod. The general
condition of these Indians is wretched, and their local, social, and moral character
extremely low. An occasional visit from one of the Roman Catholic missionaries is the
only Christian teaching they have had. One of their chief pharacteristics is treachery ;
and it was a tribe of the Takalies (the Chilcoatins) who, in 1863, massacred all but two
or three of the late Mr. Waddington's party, who were employed at the time in constructing a trail through the Chilcoatin plains to Carriboo. From sixteen to twenty
thousand pounds sterling were expended by the Government (and even then -without
complete success) in the endeavour to bring the guilty parties to justice. They live upon
fish and game, and know nothing whatever of agriculture1. Among the fish, easily obtained,
are whitefish, trout, carp, sturgeon, salmon, &c. ; of game—besides wild fowl—moose,
carriboo, bear, beaver, fox, mink, marten, lynx, otter, fisher, wolf, wolverine, musquash,
Mm are procured with facility. They have particular places^for hunting and fishing
peculiar to and claimed by each tribe. The boundaries of these localities cannot be
transgressed without tribal consent, obtained by purchase or otherwise. There are as
yet no reservations of land made for them, and the early prospective development of that
part of the Province, together with the future welfare of> these Indians, render the immediate selection of their lands imperative. They number a population of some fifteen
The territory south of a line drawn from the mouth of theUhilcoatin River to Boat
Encampment, Columbia River, with the exception of the Fraser River region below
Alexandra Bar, is inhabited by a comparatively superior race of Indians, the Shuswhap-
mouch or Shuswhaps : though of a nomadic disposition, they are industrious, and many
of them have accumulated considerable wealth by packing and boaung for the whites.
Being of a religious turn of mind, successful missions have been established among
them:—at Okanascan and William's Lake by the Roman Catholic, and at Lytton by the
Anglican Churches.
Their prospects in agriculture are most favourable; and in addition to the favourite
product of the natives generally—potatoes-—they have, without much encouragement,
produced cereals of all kinds in considerable quantity.
Notwithstanding their prominent vices, gambling and prostitution, they are beyond
the average of other Indians in honesty and trustworthiness. They are also more prone
to habits of economy and a desire to acquire wealth, many of them indeed being shrewd
usurers. An old settler among these Indians told me, that the only objection he has to
borrow money from one of them, is, not only the amazing regularity with which he comes
for interest, but the, desire he manifests at each time to see the principal as well.
There are some good reservations of land among the Shuswhaps ; but without allotment, or indeed any Government superintendence, they are at the present unsatisfactory
to all concerned. They possess considerable stock, and obtain all kinds of fish and game
with facility.
I have no doubt but these Indians would benefit immensely' by judicious efforts to
promote their educational and agricultural interests. They number about two thousand
five hundred.
The Kootenay Indians are a small tribe of some three or four hundred, who are
located on the Kootenay, D'Oreille and Columbia Rivers, in the Kootenay District, and
seemingly have no affiliation by language to any other nation. They are a most warlike
band, living principally by the chase, but of a friendly disposition towards the white
settlers. The tribe possesses some three or four hundred head of cattle, and some twenty-
five hundred horses. There are no reservations in this district, but the Indians generally cultivate small
patches of land, and already imitate the whites su
procure salmon and other fish in the Columbia and Penn D'Oreille Rivers,
oessfully in growing roots and vegetables.    They _
and obtain all varieties of game, including buffalo. In their general condition and character they, are not inferior to the Shuswhaps, with more careful internal organization, and
I believe less of their vices. I am informed by the Adjutant-General, who visited this
locality during the present year, that they are frequently exposed to horse stealing raids
from the Blackfeet Indians; and in their efforts to retaliate, " the south-eastern part of
the district is frequently rendered unsafe."
A detachment of soldiers, stationed somewhere near Tobacco Plain, he considers
would not only put a stop to this warfare, but promote and secure the peace and development of the district.
The Kootenays barter chiefly in cattle, horses, blankets, fire-arms, &c, with Stoney
and Blackfeet Indians, and consume from twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars' worth
of flour and other articles purchased from the whites annually.
The Roman Catholic are the only missionaries who visit the natives, and they have
exercised much beneficial influence in controlling and christianizing them.
If we except the Takalies and Siccanies, and many tribes of the Cowichans on the-
coast, the interior Indians are far superior in general character and condition to those of
the coast. The coast tribes retain many of their barbarous customs, the existence of
which totally unfits them for the higher life of civilization, and, morally speaking, are
most degraded. Being both thievish and licentious, their corruption and depravity under
the present system is promoted by the lower grades of the white race, with whom they
are mostly brought into contact. The charge of cannibalism, as a characteristic of the
coast tribes, I think is without foundation in respect to its true form, but has probably
arisen from the fact of slaves being sacrificed and devoured at the great medicine feasts,
held by the Tsimpsheans, Quackewlths, and occasionally by the Bella Coolas. Slavery
exists among these tribes at the present time, but I believe the custom of sacrificing
them for the purpose just mentioned has generally fallen into disuetude.
The mental capacity, however, of the coast Indians is very great; and where education has been attempted with any kind of system, as at Metlakathlah, the results have
been not only surprising, but highly satisfactory.
The native mechanical genius of these tribes is wonderful, and a great incentive to
the future establishment of Industrial schools.
Guns are stocked, mainsprings forged, and household furniture manufactured by
them with facility and elegance. They are splendid carvers in wood, metal, and slate,
and the jewellery fashioned from an ordinary gold or silver coin by them would do credit
to first-class artists. The superb canoes made by the Hydahs and Alits are perfections of
design and accurate workmanship; and it might be added, that the lines of the first
clipper built by an eminent ship-builder of Boston were taken from a Nootka canoe.
The women of the coast tribes are depraved and corrupt—virtue being almost
unknown and unappreciated by them. The young girls of the northern tribes, especially
the Quackewlths, are sent down regularly to Victoria and various places on Puget Sound
for the purpose of prostitution. After a sojourn of three months, they return with canoe
loads of whiskey and other proceeds of their ill-gotten gains, which are given over to
the chiefs and their tribal relations. The disease and drunkenness consequent upon this
disgraceful mode of life causes the large decrease in the population of these tribes.
The women also practice abortion and infanticide : among some of the nationalities,
the proportion of female children destroyed in this way is probably fifty or sixty
per cent.
In appearance, the general characteristics of the natives of British Columbia do not.
differ very much. The salmon-eaters of the southern coast are shorter, with broader and darker features
than the Indians of the interior. Those living near lakes and streams, who diet on both
fish and flesh, are much better featured, with more handsome stature. The Indians
living north, especially the Hydahs, are tall, good-looking, with fair complexions and
almond-shaped eyes.    They are shrewd traders, and decidedly intelligent.
The Shuswhaps and Kootenays are superior in condition and general character to
any of the other nationalities in the Province, and will, no doubt, improve and profit
much, almost immediately, by a liberal and enlightened Indian policy. They take well
to agriculture, and are industrious in any pursuit which gives a prospect of profit. To
show the importance of their trade, I quote the following item of the British Colonist
newspaper of November 26th, 1872 :—
| Indian Gold Mining.—From $15-,000 to $20,000 are annually contributed to
the wealth of the Province by the mining on the Thompson and Fraser Rivers, which is
carried on almost exclusively by the natives at low water.    Wherever a bar has collected
some gold, a batch of Indians may be seen, during tht
dest weather, rocking their
cradles and saving the precious ore.    The native trade is at least seventy-five per cent,
of the whole trade of the interior."
internal organization.
The policy of the late Colonial Government, inaugurated by Governor Douglas in
1858, was to treat Indians as British subjects; and it had the effect, in a great measure,
of doing away with their customary internal organization.
The former hereditary chieftain, alike powerful in war and peace, is now the
possessor of merely nominal influence and authority; and the birthright, unless accompanied by wealth, gift of oratory, or some very superior trait of character, is a poor
inheritance. The distant interior tribes pay much more attention to the internal organization, especially those controlled and influenced by Roman Catholic missionaries ; and
their chief has not only his sub-chiefs, but officers of a lower grade, who are empowered
to execute his orders in every particular.
Chiefship is hereditary, descending in both male and female line.
I believe nearly if not quite all the nationalties favour nepotism in this respect, and
a chiefs sister's son is the heir presumptive. Should the line of succession fail, or the
succeeding heir not have any of the qualities appertaining to a chief, the whole tribe
assembles and elects a man of their choice to assume that dignity. Chiefship is generally
maintained by a system of free donations, or | patlatches ;" and the more a chief can
donate or | patlatch," the greater his power and popularity. To accumulate food,
blankets, &c. &c, for this purpose, a chief will often not only deprive himself of the
necessaries of life, but allow his family to suffer from want, practising meantime the most
Tigid and miserly economy.
The custom of holding these free-gift festivals is quite common among the coast
tribes. The presents generally consist of blankets purchased for the occasion, or
preserved from former " patlatches;" and it is expected that they will be returned by
some equivalent at a future gathering. The person who gives away or wantonly destroys
the greatest amount of property acquires much praise, and frequently obtains the highest
tribal rank.
" Patlatches," no doubt, notonly retard civilizing influences, but encourage idleness-
among the less worthy members of a tribe, and will, I trust, by wise administration
become obsolete in time.
-Among Northers, there -is
system of heraldry or crest, which is rigidly
Marriage among these Indians is effected simply by purchase or some presentation
to the relatives of the girl on the part of the suitor. Polygamy is permitted by all the
bands, but is only resorted to where financially convenient. MEDICAL AND  SURGICAL TREATMENT:
Beyond practising sorcery and the most arrant witchcraft, the Indians generally
have no system of medical or- surgical treatment among them, and though subject to
phthisis, pneumonia, scrofula, syphilis, &o, nothing has been /heretofore done for them
by the Government in respect to any humane or proper system of treatment. The missionaries and some of the old settlers have been in the habit of keeping a few medicines
for them, and have occasionally, when application has been made for it, received a small
allowance from the Government Charity Fund for this purpose.
A feeling of humanity alone suggests the establishment of a dispensary supplied with
medicine, vaccine, arid a few surgical appliances and instruments, in different parts of the
Province, where it would be most useful, and where any one could be found capable of taking
charge of it. The erection of one or two small and inexpensive hospitals in the most
populous Indian centres, would also, I feel assured, be highly beneficial.
Very little progress has been made as yet in educating the Indians of this Province.
So far all efforts in this way have been confined exclusively to missionaries, and they
have received no local aid whatever for this purpose.
Without any system of union among those of different persuasions or joint cooperation, it cannot be said that the labor of educating the Indians under these circumstances has been attended with much practical success.
The Roman Catholic, Anglican and Wesleyan Churches have schools established at
their several missions in the Province, but apart from the want, of effective pecuniary
aid, the supineness of Indians in allowing their children to attend has very greatly
obstructed their efforts. The promotion of industrial habits I regard as a necessary
adjunct not only to their seculiar but religious instruction, and 1 believe the different
missions ot British Columbia would be glad, if sufficiently aided, to establish industrial
schools under proper Government inspection, as being the most successful mode of obtaining the future welfare and happiness of the Indian. I am informed that the indus •
trial school established on the north-west coast of British Columbia, at Metlakathlah
(already alluded to), under the auspices of the Church Missionary Society, has 'been
attended with the most signal success, not only in elevating the moral and social states of
the Indians concerned, but in being a source of pecuniary profit to them.
No doubt a number of such schools in different parts of the Province, with some
similar or approximate mode in their conduct, would be of incalculable benefit in making
the rising generation of the native race good citizens and useful members of society.
The nomadic character of the coast tribes is the greatest obstacle to the development cf their agricultural interests, as the season of the year most necessary for cultivation is taken up in wandering from one place to another in search of their winter supply
of fish, berries, roots, &c, &c.
But, a policy calculated to wean them gradually from their migratory habits, by
locating appropriate reservations, and regulating existing ones (which they much desire),
will no doul t encourage their interests in this subject. The agricultural prospects of
the interior tribes, as the Shuswhaps and Kootenays, are much more flattering, and a
supply of the best seed grain, agricultural implements, wagons, harness, &c, furnished
them at the mere cost of these articles (and for which I am generally informed they
would gladly pay), would, no doubt, greatly stimulate them to renewed and more successful exertions.
Among the Shuswhaps many of the reserves require irrigation, which a little assistance in the way of a loan to the industrious and honest,  under certain restrictions,
would easily accomplish.
23—2 '10
Among the Siccanies, the Babines and Carriers, the summer frosts which open pre
vail in these high latitudes, an
Reserves, vide Appendix A.)
a great drawback to all faiming operations.    (For Indian
Perhaps the system of treatment of Indians inaugurated by the first Colonial
Government of Vancouver Island, and carried out by succeeding Governments, cannot
be better described than by quoting the following exurpt from the speech of Governor
Douglas, delivered at the opening of the first Legislative Assembly of Vancouver Island,
in 1856, notable from the fact of being that in which representative institutions were
first granted to the. Colony :—
. | The Colony has been again visited this year by a large party of northern Indians,
and their presence has excited in our minds a not unreasonable degree of alarm.
| I shall continue to conciliate the good will of the native Indian tribes by treating
them with justice and forbearance, and by rigidly protecting their civil and agrarian
" We know, from oar own experience, that the friendship of the natives is at all
times useful, while it is no less certain that their enmity may become more disastrous
than any other calamity to which the Colony is liable."
Again, at the opening of the first Legislative Council, on the mainland at New
Westminister, in January, 1864, the same gentleman, after alluding to some other
matters, said :—
" The native Indian tribes are quiet and well disposed, the plan of forming reserves
of land, embracing the village sites, cultivated fields, and favorite places of resort of the
several tribes, and thus securing them against the encroachment of settlers, and forever
removing the fertile cause of agrarian disturbances, has been productive of the happiest
effects on the minds of the natives.
" The areas thus partially defined and set apart in no case exceed the proportion of
ten acres for each family concerned, and are to be held as the joint and common property
of the several tribes, being intended for their exclusive use and benefit, and especially as
a provision for the aged, the helpless, and the infirm.
| The Indians themselves have no power to sell or alienate these lands, as the title
will continue in the Crown and be hereafter conveyed to trustees, and by that means
secured to the several tribes as a perpetual possession.
" That measure is not intended to interfere with the private rights of individuals of
the native tribes, or to incapacitate them, as such, from holding land ; on the contrary,
they have precisely the same rights of acquiring and possessing land in their individual
capacity, either by purchase or by occupation under the Pre-emption Law, as other classes
of Her Majesty's subjects ; provided they in all respects comply with the legal condition
of tenure by which land is held in this Colony.
11 have been influenced in taking these steps by the desire of averting evils pregnant with dangers to the peace and safety of the Colony, and of confirming by these
acts of justice and humanity the fidelity and attachment of the native tribes to Her
Majesty's rule."
It will therefore be observed that beyond giving Indians the protection of the law,
and reserving certain lands for them in the settled portion of the Province, which, I have
previously stated, have never been regulated by allotment or indeed any superintendence
whatever, no particular Indian policy has ever been adopted. Money payments by the
Government, on account of the native race, have been restricted to expenses incurred by
Indian outrages (in one case, as already stated, from £16,000 to £18,000), and no efforts
have been put forth with a view to civilizing them, it having been considered that the best
mode of treatment was ""to let them alone. Under such a policy, I balieve it was mainly owning to the kindness, well known
tact and firmness with which its author, Sir James Douglas, was accustomed to treat
Indians, that more trouble was not at that time experienced with them.
Naturally they have had little experience in the virtues of the good, but have participated freely in the vices of the bad with whom they have been mostly associated.
Among the greatest obstacles in the way of elevating the Indian there is none more
potent than the present illicit whiskey traffic, with a view to removing which, the following prohibitory Act was passed and made law. An ordinance to assimilate and amend
the law prohibiting the sale or gift of intoxicating liquor to Indians, 2ud April, 1867.
Whereas it is expedient to assimilate the law prohibiting the sale or gift of intoxicating
liquor to Indians in all parts of the Colony of British Columbia, and to amend the same,
be it enacted by the Governor of British Columbia, with the advice and consent of the
Legislative Council thereof, as follows :—
1. "The Indian Liquor Act, 1860," of -the Colony of Vancouver Island and its dependencies, and " The Indian Liquor Ordinance, 1865," of the Colony of British Columbia, are hereby repealed ; Provide, however, that such repeal shall not have the effect of
reviving any Proclamations, Ordinances or Acts respectively repealed by the said Act or
Ordinance hereby repealed or either of them ; and, Provided also, that all liabilities and
penalties imposed and accruing clue under the said repealed Act or Ordinance, or either
of them, and all remedies and punishments for recovering and enforcing the same shall, still,
notwithstanding such repeal, remain iu lull force and effect, and be capable of being enforced and inflicted as if such Act and Ordinance were still in force, but not further or
2. Any person selling, bartering or giving, or attempting to sell, barter or give,
intoxicating liquor to any Indian of the continent of North America, or of the islands,
adjacent thereto, shall be liable on conviction for each such offence to a fine not exceeding
five hundred dollars.
3. Any person found in possession of any intoxicating liquor of any description in
any house, tent, or place of abode of any Indian, is liable under this Ordinance to be
deemed prima facie to be in such house, tent, or place of abode, for the purpose of giving
such intoxicating liquors to Indians, and shall upon conviction be liable to a fine not
exceeding five hundred dollars and imprisonment not exceeding six months.
4. When it shall be proved to the satisfaction of the convicting justice that the
person charged has been before convicted under this Ordinance, or either of the Act or
Ordinance hereby repealed, the justice may, on conviction, commit such offender to prison
for a term not exceeding twelve months with hard labour, without the option of a fine,
should such justice see fit to do so.
5. In any case where it shall be proved to the satisfaction of the convicting justice
that the offender has not attained the age of sixteen years, the justice may order such
offender to be once or twice privately whipped, in lieu of or in addition to the aforesaid
penalties, at the discretion of the justice.
6. Any person holding any wholesale or retail liquor license in the Colony, who
shall be convicted under this Ordinance, shall, at the discretion of the convicting justice,
be liable to the forfeiture of his license, in addition to the other penalties, and shall not
be entitled to a renewal of such license in any part of the Colo ay for a term of two
years from the date of such conviction.
7. When it shall be proved before any justice that any vessel, boat, canoe, or conveyance of any description, whether on the coast of British Columbia, or on any river,
or lake, or stream, in the Colony, is employed in carrying intoxicating liquor to be supplied to any Indian or Indians, such vessel, boat, or canoe or conveyance so employed
shall be declared forfeited ; and every person engaged in the conveyance, sale, or distribution of such liqur r; M manner aforesaid, on board of such vessel, boat, canoe, or con- 12
veyance so .employed shall be liable to all the penalties provided for under this Ordinance
for persons convicted of selling liquor to Indians.
8. It shall be lawful, nevertheless, for any justice before whom any charge is brought
under this Ordinance, notwithstanding anything herein contained to the contrary, to
acquit any person who has given intoxicating liquor to Indians- medicinally, or under
such other circumstances as may af pear justifiable.
9. Any person giving information leading to the conviction of any person under
this Ordinance, shall be entitled to receive one-third of any pecuniary penalty inflicted
under this Ordnance, at the discretion of the convicting justice.
10. It shall beJawful for any Officer of Customs, or for any Superintendent or
Inspector of Police, or any other officer specially appointed by the Governor for that purpose, or for any Officer of Her Majesty's Navy, on full pay, at his discretion to rummage
and search for fermented, spirituous, or intoxicating liquor, any ship, boat, canoe, or other
vessel suspected of containing intoxicating liquor for the use of Indians, and upon reasonable ground in that behalf, to detain and seize the same, and bring her, for the purpose of
investigation and adjudication, to any convenient port or place within the said colony, and
every master of a ship, boat, canoe, or other vessel having on board his ship, boat, canoe,
or other vessel any fermented, spirituous, or intoxicating liquors not satisfactorily
accounted for, shall forfeit and pay a penalty riot exceeding one thousand dollars, and all
such last mentioned fermented, spirituous, or intoxicating liquors shall be forfeited.
11. No ship, boat, canoe, or other vessel having fermented, spirituous or intoxicating
liquors on board shall leave any port in the Colony of British Columbia for any part of
the coast of the said colony, or for any port or place on the coast of Russian America,
or to the northward thereof, without the master of such ship, boat, canoe, or other vessel
making a declaration, in the form marked 1 in the schedule to this Ordinance, setting forth
the quantities, description, and destination of such liquors as aforesaid as may be on
board, and obtaining from the Officers of Customs, at the port of departure, a permit to
carry such liquors, which permit may be in the form marked 2 in the said schedule. It
shall be lawful, however, for the Governor to exempt any vessel from the operation of
this section of this Oxxlinance, whenever -the circumstances shall be such as, in the opinion
of such Governor, to render such exemption expedient and desirable.
12. Every person obstructing any Officer-of Customs, or of Her Majesty's Navy on
full pay, or any Peace Officer, or other officer specially appointed by the Governor for the
purpose of this Ordinance, or any person lawfully acting under their or any of their orders
respectively, in pursuance of the powers given under this Ordinance, shall be guilty of an
offence, and on conviction thereof shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding the sum of
five hundred dollars. •
13. "Whenever any penalty is imposed for any offence under this Ordinance, the same
may, unless other .vise provided, be recovered and inflicted by way of summary proceedings
before any single Justice of the Peace, and every such penalty may, with costs'of conviction, be levied by distress and sale of the goods and chattels of any offender; and in case
such goods and chattels shall prove insufficient to satisfy such penalty and costs, then by
imprisonment of such person so offending for any term not exceeding twelve calendar
14. In the construction of this Ordinance, the word | Governor" shall be held to
mean the Governor of this colony or other the officer administering the Government of
this colony for the time being ; and whenever in this Ordinance in describing or referring
to any person or party, matter or thing, any word importing the masculine gender or
singular number is used, the same shall be understood to include and be applicable to
several persons and parties as well as one person or party, and females as well as males
and bodies corporate as well as individuals, and several matters and things as well as one
matter or thing unless it otherwise be provided, or there be something in the subject or
context repugnant to such construction.
15. In case of any summary conviction under this Ordinance no warrant of commitment upon a conviction shall be held to be invalid by reason of any defect therein, if it be therein alleged that the person offending has been convicted, and there be a good and
valid conviction to sustain the same.
16. This Ordinance may be cited for all purposes as " The Indian Liquor Ordinance
Among the Coast Indians especially, the above law hasv been and is violated with
impunity by thevunscrupulous classes of the community, and it has been debated with
much force and argument in political circles whether it might not be prudent to legalize
this nefarious traffic under certain restrictions, since its suppression under the present law
would seem impossible. Under existing regulations a most vile compound is manufactured,
principally in Victoria, which is not only freely retailed, but cargoes of it, both by canoe
and the ordinary coasting sloop, are obtained and despatched with the greatest facility.
It has been urged that the inability of the Indian to procure good liquors at a moderate
rate, tempts him to pay a most exhorbitant price for this wretched substitute. The very
large profits resulting from such a trade, induce the principal offenders to engage in its
manufacture, while the inadequate means employed by the Government for detection
generally allow the minor agents to retail it without punishment. ! The direct effect upon
the Savage is most untoward and disastrous, producing wild riot, fierceness, rage, and the
most frantic excitement.
During periods of intoxication, murder, and rapine are rampant among them-^—
horrifying even the participants when the poisonous effects have passed off, and when
thy are cognizant for the first time perhaps of having committed some bloody crime. The
most depressing languor, sorrow and despair rapidly follow, and infirmity, disease and
death soon sweep off the victim. Under the present system, apart from the multiplication of difficulties in governing the native tribes, their decimation and utter extinction
is only a matter of time, and before advocating its abrogation, I think the attempt should
be made to inforce the provisions of the law—especially since all intended reforms in
respect to the civilization of Indians are dependent upon this—the most important one
being effected first.
In pursuance of this object, the Superintendent should be invested (ex-officio) with
the powers of a Magistrate and Preventive Officer of Her Majesty's Customs.
The employment of two or three detectives, and an occasional " search " for what is
known as Indian Liquor, would disclose some of the large stores of it in possession of the
principal parties concerned in its manufacture.
A small steamer to be used as a Revenue Cutter is an absolute necessity, not only
for the purpose of visiting the numerous Coast Tribes, but wouldbeanost effectual in overhauling craft suspected of being engaged in this illicit trade \ such a steamer might also
be employed in supplying lighthouses, laying buoys, and much other work required by
the Marine and Fishery Agent, the joint expense to be borne by the two Departments.
Confiscation and fines would materially assist in diminishing the expense of enforcing the
law by the Indian Department. In respect to the trial of these cases, as local influences
have been known to interfere with the rigid administration of justice, discretionary power
on the part of the Superintendent would enable him to transfer any case from the jurisdiction of one Magistrate to that of another.
In connection wuth the above subject, I have received the following communication
from General Milroy, Superintendent of the Indian Affairs for the Territory of Washington-, complaining of our Indians who visit his Superintendency, and the want of E.uthprity
to reach them, owing to their claiming to belong to British Columbia. Office Superintendent Indian Affairs,
Washington Territory,
Olympia, Nov. 29th, 1872.
J. W. Powell,
Superintendent Indian Affairs,
Victoria, B.C.
Dear Sir,—During our personal interview at your residence, in Victoria, on the 27th
ult., I spoke to you about Indians from Vancouver Island and other points in your superintendency, coming over and causing trouble among our Indians around Puget Sound, and
on the southern side of the Straits of San Juan de Fuca. Since then I have visited many
points in these localities, and learned more about these matters,land desire more especially
to call your attention to them in the hope that some efficient measure may be concerted between us, or our respective Governments, that will lead to measures that will give each of
us the same power and ^control over all Indians who come into our respective Superin-
tendencies from each other, as over those who are natives and resident. Both the Congress of the United States, and the Legislature Of this Territory, have enacted stringent
laws against the sale or giving of intoxicating liquors to Indians, but, it has been held by
our courts, that these laws are only applicable to Indians subject to the jurisdiction of
the United States, and residents of the States or Territories, and hence, not applicable to
Indians belonging to British Columbia' or the British Provinces. These Indians come
over and hire out in large numbers to the many Logging Camps and Saw Mills around
the Sound; and having the same rights and privileges as white British Subjects, they
purchase intoxicating liquors with 'the same impunity that it is sold to white citizens,
and sell and give away the resident Indians, occasioning much intemperance,
degradation, trouble and often bloodshed and murder.
Another fruitful source of evil, and degredation, flowing from the free intercourse of
the Indians of your Superintendency with this Territory is, that large numbers of Indian
women come over with their husbands, parents and friends, and lay around our logging
camps, saw mills, villages and towns, for prostitution | several large brothels at different
points around the Sound are wholly supplied by Northern,or British Columbia Indian
women, aid are having a most baneful influence upon both whites and Indians of their
Doubtless the Indians 'of this Superintendency, cross over into British Colum
and occasion trouble and degradation  among your Indians and  whites, more or less, as
your Indians clo here.
In view of the evils that now'exist on both sid^p, without any prescribed remedy, I
respectfully suggest that an arrangement be made between us (or authority be obtained
for making such arrangements if not now possessed), by which offending foreign Indians
of both sides shall be arrested and sent home, and delivered to the Superintendent to
whom they respectively belong, with the charges and proofs against them, to be dealt with'
as may be thought best, and that each Superintendent defray the expenses of the arrest,
and bringing home of their respective Indians. I make this suggestion for your consideration, and will be pleased to1 here'your views thereon.
The evils spoken of are growing and must be met.
I have the honor to be, with much respect,
Your obedient Servant,
R. N. Milroy,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, W.T, In my reply, I considered that the fault rested in the law, or interpretation of it,
which made any discrimination between the two Nationalities,—that on this side all are
treated alike—and the man who sells whiskey to any Indian, American cr British, is
equally subject to punishment. No doubt a very slight amendment of the American law
would reach the difficulty the worthy Superintendent complains of. In regard, however,
to the prostitution of our Indian women, I think the same principal should apply, but
if not, I would gladly welcome any reciprocal arrangement by which we might assist each
other in checking this gross evil. I have already alluded to the prostitution of native
women carried on in Victoria, without any hinderance whatever, the suppression of which
I consider quite possible, were they prevented from living in town for that purpose, and
the Reservation for the Shoughees located elsewhere.
The custom among the lower classes of white men in this Province, of purchasing
Indian women (the Indian form of Marriage), and keeping them for a time, is another
of the obstacles in the way of their social and moral advancement. After a short time
the women, with the issue of their concubinage, is returned to her tribe to eke out a future
miserable existence, and in this way a generation of half-breeds is growing up, for which
provisions will have to be made, or suffer them to become a disgrace to society and
trouble hereafter to the State.
I am not sure that the people who choose this way of living are not, " ipso facto"
married " in the eye of the law ;" but if not, it is a matter of great importance that the
sooner they are made so, by the proper legal remedy, the better.
Previous to closing a Report, which (from the brief tenure of my Superintendency
thus far) is to a certain extent imperfect ] I may be permitted to call attention to the
great value of Indians to the country as inhabitants. Being large consumers, they are
large contributors to the general revenue. The exports from British Columbia of furs
and fish oil, nearly if not all, obtained by Indians, from date of Union with the Dominion,
20th July, 1870, to 30th June, 1871, were ;-—
Furs—United Kingdom.... $121,989
|      United States     78,418
Fish Oil—United Kingdom , I      16,850
I United States !     10,788
Export of cranberries varies according to favorable seasons. In 1869 it amounted to
$10,790 00, in later years less. Of the imports, the Indians are of course the chief
By the very large quantities of fish, game, &c, with which they supply all the white
settlements, the cost of living is materially reduced, and the poor or unfortunate are
enabled at all times to prevent even a risk of hunger. The high price and scarcity of
labor make the men invaluable aids to the settler and manufacturer, while the women
often make excellent laundresses and general servants. I have no doubt that the Dominion survey parties, while exploring the wilds of British Columbia during the last two
years for a practicable railway route, experienced what many an old pioneer trader or
miner has heartily felt, i.e., the great importance of the natives as expert boatmen and
industrious packers. These considerations point to the great necessity of preventing, as
far as possible, even in a financial point of view, the ruin and'decimation of this class of
our inhabitants now going on ; but when added to this, the higher and holier purpose of
elevating them from a savage and degraded state to the. position of useful citizens, the
duty of judicious administration in their behalf on the pact of a wise and humane
Government becomes imperative. Not by providing them, according to their own simple
and primitive custom, with gifts which encourage a want of ambition and idleness, but 16
by measures calculated to improve their moral condition and promote their regular and
systematic employment.
They soon understand how strong the arm of the Government is to punish their
wrong doing, and none therefore, appreciate more, the ability of that power to protect
them and redress their grievances.
Some five or six sub-agents, who will reside among the different nationalities, having
as a chief duty, their instruction, improvement, and protection. Men who will acquire
their respect and confidence, I regard as a necessary, in addition to the recommendations I
have already had the honor of making.
Annual reports from such appointees, would not only furnish necessary statistics in
respect to the several native tribes, but might convey much additional information of
great use and profit to other departments of the Government.
I am well aware that innovations of whatever nature, must be most cautious and
gradual to be even hereafter effective, but, I believe that a policy which is characterized
by firmness, kindness, and justice—with the requisite power, independence of action and
machinery, to make these virtues felt and appreciated by the Indians of British Columbia, will vastly contribute to their welfare and future happiness.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Tour most obedient servant,
J. W. Powell,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, British Columbia.
To the Honorable
The Secretary of State for the Provinces, Ottawa. 17
During the existence of British Columbia as a Colony, the power of reserving lands
for the Indian Tribes was solely vested in the Governor, by virtue of his commission ;
after being made, the reserves were published in the " Gazette." Under the articles of
agreement, by which British Columbia was united with the Dominion, it will be seen that
the charge of the Indians, and the trusteeship and management of the lands reserved for
their use and benefit, shall be assumed by the Dominion Government, and a policy as
liberal as that hitherto pursued by the British Columbia Government, shall be continued
by the Dominion Government after the union.
To carry out such policy, tracts of land of such extent as it has hitherto been the
practice of the British Columbia Government to appropriate for that purpose, shall from
time to time be conveyed by the Local Government to the Dominion Government, in trust
for the use and benefit of the Indians, on application of the Dominion Government, and
in. case of disagreement between the two Governments, respecting the quantity of such
tracts of land to be so granted, the matter shall be referred for the decision of the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
The following letter with accompanying schedule of existing reservations in the
Province, fiom the chief Commissioner of lands and works, dated, October 16th, 1871,
will explain the system hitherto pursued by the Colonial Government, in laying off and
locating lands for the sole use and benefit of the native tribes :—
Lands and Works Office,
Victoria, 16th October, 1871.
Sir,—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your instructions under date of
5th September, to prepare tracings of the Indian Reserves existing in this Province,
together with statistics of the natives generally. I have now to transmit herewith a
series of tracings, lettered from A to Q inclusive, shewing all the Indian Reserves which
have been surveyed, together with a schedule showing the locality, number of section,
general description, acreage, name of tribe in whose favor each reserve has been made ;
also, an appendix one (1), shewing what portion of any particular reserve have been leased
to white men, together with the terms of lease. Parts of the Soughees' Indian Reserve
opposite to Victoria, have been so leased by Commissioners appointed by Sir James
Douglas.    These leases have all expired or been cancelled
A certain sum of money, nineteen hundred and eighty-four dollars and eighty-two
cents is now lying in the treasury to the credit, of this reserve, and is constantly increasing.
The leases shewn in the appendix were executed by me, in virtue of the authority of
the late Governor, and are only binding so far as the Government may have the poAver.
The rents shewn, in the appendix are due from the date of each respective lease. I have
no statistics as to the number of Indians in each tribe, and have no means of obtaining
them. It would cost a great deal of time and money, and would involve a visit to each
Indian village throughout the Province. There are, especially in Vancouver Island, a
great many tribes which have no reserves marked out, either on plan, or on the ground.
The Land Ordinance (1870) under which alone lands £an be acquired by intending
settlers, specially exempts all Indian lands and settlements from its operation. It has
23—3 18
generally been the practice to lay out on the ground, the Indian reserves synchronously
with the settlement of the district by the whites. This system has been found effectual,
and far less costly than that of surveying the reserve altogether, as they are materially
scattered, and often at great distances apart.
In the latter case, the posts and marks on the ground might become obliterated
before the white men advanced; as the Indians, though tenacious of their rights in the
lands, when once surveyed will not take the trouble to perpetuate these posts and marks,
or to preserve them in any way.
Appendix two (2) shews the portions of land included in the Quamichan District
(sheet B) which have been promised to certain settlers in the district, with the consent of
the natives.
There are various missions established in different parts of the Province, but as they
are chiefly located on lands taken up under the pre-emption laws, I have not reported
them as existing, inasmuch as the Indians have no direct interest in the land.
The Metlakatlah Mission on the north-west ,coast of the Province, is established on
lands specially reserved by the Government for the purposes and uses of the mission.
Other reserves can be made from time to time as may be found necessary.
No titles to lands held by the Indians have been issued.
The Executive has always exercised a general control and supervision over the Indians
and their lands, and has always prevented them from alienating in any way, any portion
of their reserves. No Indian reserves have been laid out on Vancouver Island on the
west side, and none beyond Comox, on the east side. No Indian Reserves have been laid,
out on the coasts of the mainland beyond Burrard's Inlet.
The total area of land laid out oh the ground for the use of the natives is 28,437 acres,.
I have the honor- to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) B. W. Pearse,
Chief Commissioner of Lands' and, Wo7-ks, Szwoeyor General
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PQ 20
Schedule of Indian Reserves.—Continued.
Short Description of Reserve.
New Westminster.;
of 1st Narrows and
Inlet, junction
Rapiland Creek ,	
Burrard's Inlet,	
North side of Eraser's River, near mouth of
Coquitlam River	
Next Reserve, farther up Coquitlam River	
Coquitlam River, 200 yards from Eraser's River
. j North arm of Eraser's River...
. |West bank of Harrison's River I
Left bank Eraser's River, 1| miles from Harrison's River	
Right bank of Eraser River	
Left bank do 	
do do     	
do do 	
Sumass River near Chadsey's Slough	
Upper Sumass River	
Right bank Eraser River, near junction with
Nicoamen Slough	
Nicoamen Slough	
Junction'of Harrison and Eraser River. ■
Right bank of Nicoamen Slough	
Left bank of Nicoamen Slough, at junction
with Small Slough	
Left bank of  Eraser River,  about 10 miles
below Hope	
Left bank of  Eraser River,
below Hope*
20 miles
Left bank of  Eraser River, about 18 miles j
below Hope   I
Left bank of   Eraser River, about 13 miles j
below Hope '.	
do    Greenwood Island, opposite Hope )
do    Left bank Thompson's River, at junction with!
Eraser River just outside Town of Lytton
do South-east of Town of Lytton	
do    Left bank of Eraser River, 2 miles north of
Town of Lytton..'.	
do    Right bank of Eraser River, 20 miles above |
Lytton I
do    Right bank of Eraser  River, 5 miles above
do ] Between 35 and 36 mile post on waggon road,
j       Boothroyd's Flat	
do    Left bank of Eraser River, between 42 and 43
[       mile post on waggon road	
do    Right bank of Eraser River, 1^ miles below
I       Lytton	
do    Right bank of  Eraser River, li miles above
do      ILeft bank of Eraser River waggon road	
do j Right   bank  Yankee   Elat,  2£  miles   above
I       Boston bar	
do    | Left bank of Eraser River, Junction of Anderson River, 24 mile post	
do    Left bank of Eraser River, between 16 and 17
|       mile post, Waggon Road	
* Katzie.
488.50!-'r Chamiel.
Stau j ahaurig.
* Katzie number about 125.
■+ The Yale or " Lehalchings | Indians extend from 5 miles above Yale to
umber about 5Q0.
Supaaa's centre, Yale ; tBey Schedule of Ii
M    |Y
Short Description of Property,
Name of Tribe.
Left bank of Eraser River, about £ mile below
Alexandra Bridge and same distance inland
Right bank of Eraser River, between 9,10 mile
Left bank, 2 miles below Alexandra Bridge,
Right bank Similkameen River, "Vermillion
342 .
Left bank Similkameen River, Vermillion Folks
do           do'         about half way between
Right bank of Fraser River, 4 miles below Yale
Right bank of Fraser River, 7 miles below Hope
Small Valley, about 1 mile from Spellumcheen
Left bank of Spellumcheen River	
Junction of Nicolai and Thompson's River....
Left Bank of Fraser River, between 67,68 mile
Nicolai River, Junction of Frail, from Cook's
F .'rry to Savona's Ferry    I	
Buonaparte River, between. 113 and 114 mile
N. W. side of Little Lake, on trail to Adam's
Junction of North and South branch Thomp-
1* Adam's Lake.
These Indians have also 15 chain square on West side of Lake, about 12 miles from outlet o*Adam'
I 22
Schedule of Leases granted of portions of Soughees Indian Reserve, Esquimalt
Name of Lessees.
Description of
How Payable,
6th July, 1871.
Lots 6 and 7—5.34 acres
7 years ...
S75 per annum..
do •      .
William Dalby	
Lot 13—1.52 acre	
do    ...
§40 per annum..
30th June,'71.
do    ...
$25 per annum..
Lot 5—3. OS acres ....
do    ...
•$77 per annum..
25th April, '64.
TheBishopof Columbia
Lot jjl 	
21 years ..
$5 per annum...
* Yearly.  ....
Mejiok.yxdum.—Dr. Ash held a lease of a lot on this reserve.   He is now applying to the Governmen
of the Dominion for another, or a renewal of the old one, which was forfeited for non-payment of the rent
* Indian Mission in connection with the Chtirch of England.
Schedule of Leases promised, being parts of the Indian Reserve at Cowichan,
as she'wn on sheet B. «
To whom promised.
7th August, 1871	
Mrs. Williams by authority of the Governor
* E part of section 2, range II, Cowichan
5th July, 1871	
R. White ,	
no use to Indians.
tE part of section 13, range 11, Cowichan
* Contents 500+2,000 links, 10 acres,
f 10 years at §5 per annum. , 23
The quantity of land intended for each family was (as previously stated) in no case
to exceed ten acres, and was to be held as the joint and common property of the several
No census of Indians has ever been taken, and no surveys of reservations, with a
view of allotting to each family concerned, the proposed quantity of land, has ever been
made. As a consequence, no system of cultivation has been pursued, and very little of
the land comparatively utilized, though in many of the districts the choicest pieces have
been so reserved. In consequence of a want of regulation in this respect, it has been
too customary for the most powerful Indian to claim the greatest q uantity ; and instances
have come to my knowledge of an individual member of a tribe claiming one, two, and
three hundred acres, though making actual use of perhaps a fraction of an acre—widows,
orphans, and the weak among them being Avholly ignored.
No doubt, a properly organized system of allotting these lands and holding them
in. certain quantities open to pre-emption by any Indian, upon condition of improvement
and giving the possessor full lights of ownership among members of his own tribe, would
quiet prevalent apprehensions of encroachment, now so frequently indulged in by them.
Some equable apportionment, I am free to add, would in any event be far more satisfactory to the different tribes concerned, and much more effectual in promoting their
welfare, than the present system.
In prospect of the early settlement of more remote parts of the Province in which
reservations have not as yet been made, as on the west coast of Vancouver's Island, the
coast of the main land, and many parts of the interior, I consider it highly desirable,
both for the safety of the white settlers and the satisfaction of the Indians, that such
reserves should be made as soon as practicable. The plan pursued in the adjoining
Territory of Washington—of gathering Indians upon large reservations—I do not think
at all feasible nor politic in British Columbia.
The native tribes ai*e ardently attached to their ancient village sites and places of
birth and burial; and I opine their consen; to our adoption of the American custom, in
this respect, could not even be purchased. Indian .lands, to be hereafter located and
reserved, should not only include arable soil, but, where practicable, the village sites and
favourite haunts of the natives. Salmon and other fisheries, from which they draw the
principal portion of their food, should be set apart for them along the coast | and some
regulations are necessary, at the mouths of the great rivers, whereby salmon will not be
prevented from running up to spawn. I am informed that some three or four thousand
interior Indians suffered greatly dining the present year, owing to the absence of any
system of .this nature at. the mouth of Fraser River. Reservations for interior" tribes
should also be larger than those on the coast, in ordei; to afford future and ample stock-
runs, of which they are now much in need.
In respect to the cultivation of Indian lands, I may state that no system whatever
has been hitherto followed.
With very few exceptions, from an eighth to two acres are the extent utilized by
each family, and these consist of mere potato patches. They know nothing of the rotation
of crops, and very little of the necessity of renewing seed. They possess no agricultural
implements, and, except at some of the most forward Christian missions, do not attempt
to raise grain of any kind. With a coast celebrated for abundant fisheries, interior lakes
alike productive, and plenty of game among the mountains and woodland, the natives
have neither the desire nor the necessity of paying much attention to agrarian pursuits.
The coast tribes, too, are very migratory in their character, leaving their villages in
early spring after planting their potato patches. They wander during the summer
months, collecting such articles of food as they are able to obtain for winter use, such as
dried berries, kainmass root, clams, &c. &c. At the beginning of autumn, they return,
and devote a few weeks to the " catch" of salmon, now filling the bays and rivers. 24
Upon the " run " of this splendid fish depends the staple stock of provisions for the
coming winter.
The objects to be obtained, by the almost necessary migratory habits, are gradually
growing less, owing to the progress of white settlements in the Province ; and it becomes
a question of paramount importance, in view of the future, to encourage them to depend
mainly for subsistence upon the cultivation and production of their lands. I believe the
judicious distribution of seed grain, agricultural implements, &c, would be attended with the
greatest benefit. Ingratitude being one of the general characteristics of the native race,
I do not think the system of free gifts advisable; besides, the return of a " quid pro
quo " would not only make these presentations more appreciated, but would beget a
spirit of manly independence so essential to their civilization and happiness. Industrial
exhibitions, with prizes of utility, should supplant the present " patlatches " (free
donations) of molasses and biscuits; and the encouragement of Christian missions to
organize and establish industrial schools, should succeed the present custom of allowing
the coming generation of native children and half-breeds to become worthless and
The most important Indian reserve in British Culumbia is the Soughees, in the
suburbs of Victoria, which, though comparativeley useless in an agricultural point of'
view, is valuable on account of its proximity to the city. Some two or three thousand
dollars have already accumulated from the portions of this land which have been leased ,
and in view of the prospective and importtnt growth of Victoria, no d ubt a handsome
sum could be realized by further rental or its absolute disposal. The land itself—being
composed mostly of rock—is quite unfitted for cultivation, and at present, without any
proper superintendence, is simply a disreputable rendezvous.
A reserve, procured a little farther from the city, for the Soughees (numbering
about 120), and a regulation compelling all Indians coming to the place to camp'upon it,
or some adjoining one, during their sojourn, would materially assist in preventing prostitution, already referred to, and the illicit whiskey traflic at present carried on without
any apparent or effective interference.
1. Act to prevent the violation of Indian burial places, imposes a penalty of not
exceeding one hundred dollars for removing anything from Indian graves ; second offence
—lisble to six months' imprisonment, with hard labour.
2. Act for the admission of evidence in certain cases provides for the reception of
Indian unsworn testimony. How such testimony shall be taken. Preliminary caution.
Indian declaration of evidence.    False declaration, perj ury, &c. &c.
3. Act for prohibiting sale of intoxicating liquors to Indians (already quoted).
4. Act to regulate Indian Reserves, and give certain powers to magistrates to settle
disputes ; also, to remove trespassers from said reserves. 25
acknowledged, by
any treaty,
I may state that the Colonial Government has nev
the pre-existing right of the Indian (as such) to the lands of the Province.
The Hudson's Bay Company previously, however, made several treaties with natives
of Vancouver's Island, an abstract of which—although published last year in the able
report on British Columbia, by Hon. H. L. Langevra, OB.—is hereto appended, in
order to complete the history of the past treatment of the Indian tribes of the Province.
No treaties have ever been made with natives of the main land.
I append hereto an abstract made by the authorities with the Indians, for the purchase
of their Lands in order that the same might be thrown open to settlement by the whites.
These treaties embrace the country from Victoria to a few miles beyond Sooke
Harbor, and from Victoria to North Saanich, also the lands around Nanaimo. The total
area might probably be one-fortieth of the whole Island.
I am not aware of any similar treaties having been made with the natives of the
B. W. Pearse,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works,
and Surveyor General, British Columbin,
Return of Treaties made by Hudson's Bay Company with Indian Tribes, shewing Lands
conveyed and sums jsaid.
April 29,1850.
April 30,185bi
Name of Tribe, &c.
Description of Lands Conveyed.
j Teechamitsa, " signed
by Lee Sachasis and ten
The whole of the land situate and lying between Esquimau Harbor and Point Albert, including the
latter on the Straits of Juan de Euca, and extending backward from thence to the range of
mountains on the Saanich arm, about ten miles
' Kosampson," signed by The whole of the lands situated and lying between
Hookoowitz and twenty' the Island of the Dead, on the arm ^or Inlet of
others. -f      Camoson and the head of said Inlet, embracing
thejand on the west side and north of that line;
to Esquimalt beyond the Inlet, three miles of the
Colquits valley and- the land on the east side of
the arm enclosing Christmas Hill and Lake and
the lands west of those objects	
Price Paid.
27 10 00
52 10 00 26
Return of Treaties made by Hudson's Bay 06mpany with Indian Tiibes, &c.—Continued'
Name of Tribes, &c.
April 30,1850.
' Swengwhung," signed
by Snawmich and,twen-
ty-nine others.
April 30,1850.
April 30,1850.
April 30,1850.
: Chilcowith," signed by
Qua*un and eleven
: Whyomilth," signed by
'Hoi whalutstin and
seventeen others.
Description of Lands Conveyed.
Phe whole of the lands situate and lying between
the Island of the Dead and the arm or Inlet of
Camoson,where the Kosampson lands terminate,
extending east to the Fountain Ridge and
following it to its-termination on the Straits of
Euca, in the bay immediately east of Clover
Point, including all the country between that
line and the Inlet of Camoson	
The whole of the lands situate and lying between
the Sandy Bay east of Clover Point at the termination of the Swengwhung line to point Gonzales, and thence north to a line of equal extent
passing through the north side of Minics plain..
The whole of the land situate and lying between the
north-west corner of Esquimalt; say, from the
Island inclusive at the mouth of the Sawmill
Stream and the mountains lying due west and
north of that point. This district being on the
one side bounded by the lauds of the Kechamitsa!
and on the other by the lands ofjthe Kosampsoni
:Chekonein," signed byTh<
Chaythlum and twenty
nine others.
whole of the lands situate and lying 'between
Point Gonzales and Mount Douglass, following
the boundary line of the Chilcowitch and Kosampson families, the Canal de Haro and the
Straits of Juan de Euca east of Point Gonzales
May 1,1850
May 1,1850.
May 1,1850..
Ecb'y. 6,1852.
Kahyaahan," signed by'The' whole of the lands situate and lying between
Point Albert and the Inlet of Whoyung on the
Straits of Juan de Euca and the snow covered
mountains in the interior of the Island, so as to
embrace the whole tract or district of Metchosin
from the coast to these mountains
: Chiatraytsun, " signedjThe whole of the_lands situate and lying ^between
by Alchaynook andtwo
I S o'ok e , "   signed by
Wansela and 3 others
" Saanich, * signed by
Whtsaymullet and nine
the Inlet of Whoyung and the bay of Syusun
known as Sooke Inlet, and the snow covered
mountains in the interior of the Island
The whole of the lands situate and lying between
. the bay Syusung or Sooke Inlet to the Three
Rivers beyond Thloweeckar Eoint, Shirvingham^
on the Straits of Juan de Euca, and the snow
covered mountains in the interior of Vancouver
The whole of the lands situate and lying between
Mount D6uglass and Cowichan Head on the
Canal de Haro, and extending thence to the line
running through the centre'oi Vancouver Mand
north and south , \	
Price Paid.
£   s.   d.
75 00 00
30 00 00
45 00 00
79 10 00
43   6   8
45 10 00
48   6   8
4113  4 27
Return of Treaties made by Hudson's Bay Company with Indian Tribes, &g.—Continued.
EebV 11,1852.
Feb'y8, 1851.
Eeb'y8, 1851.
Dec. 23,1854.
Name of Tribes, &c.
Description of Lands Conveyed.
' Saanich, "   signed   by
Hotutstun and others.
'' Queackars," signed
by Wale and eleven
The whole of the lands situate and lying as follows,
viz :—Commencing at Cowichan Head, and following the Coast of the Canal de Haro north-
west,nearly to Saanich Point .or Quanasung,from
thence following the course of the Saanich arm
to the point where it terminates,and fromthenoe
by a line across country to said Cowichan Head,
the point of commencement, so as to include all
the country and land between those boundaries.
The whole of the lands situate and living between
McNeil's Harbor and Hardy Bay, inclusive of
these ports, and extending two miles into the
interior of the Island	
Price Paid.
: Quackewlths, "   signedlThe whole of the land situate and lying between
by 'Wawattie and fif-        McNeil's Harbor and Hardy Bay, inclusive of
teen others.
" Sarlequun,"
these ports and. extending
interior of the Island ,
70 miles into the1
signed by Country extends from Commercial Inlet twelve miles
and    163       up Nanaimo River	
64 00 00
86 00 00
350 00 00
Know all men, we, the chiefs and people of the Teechansitsa tribe, who have signed
our names and made our marks to this deed, on the 29th day of April, 1850, do consent
to surrender, entirely and for ever, to James Douglas, the Agent of the Hudson's Bay
Company in Vancouver Island, that is to say, for the Governor, Deputy-Governor, and
Committee of the same, the whole of the lands situate and lying between Esquimalt
Harbour and Point Albert, including the latter on the Straits of San Juan de Fuca, and
extending backward from thence to the range of mountains on the Saanach Arm, about
ten miles distant. The condition of or understanding of this sale is this:—That ous
village sites and enclosed fields are to be kept for.our own use, for the' use of our own
•children, and for those who may follow after us, and the land shall be properly surveyed
hereafter. It is understood, however, that the land itself, with these small exceptions,
beeomes the entire property of the white people for ever.
It is also understood that we are at liberty to hunt over the unoccupied lands, and
to carry on our fisheries as formerly. We have received as payment twenty seven
pounds ten shillings, sterling. In token whereof, we have signed our names and made
our marks, at Fort Victoria, 29th April, 1850.
1. Lee Sachaisis +
2. Haylay Kane +
3. Pee Shaymoot §
4. Kalsaymit +
5. Hoochaps +
6. Thlannie   +
Done in presence of—
I -   M (Signed,)
Chamutstin +
tsatsullus  x
Haguynoet +
Kamstetchel  +
•Roderick Finlayson.
Joseph Wm. McKay,
J 28
ajJt-\x* .
Know all men, we, the chiefs and people of the Kosampson tribe, who have signed
our names and made our marks to this deed, on the 30th day of April, 185Q, do-consent
to surrender, entirely and for ever, to James Douglas, the Agent of the Hudson's Bay
Company in Vancouver. Island, that is to say, for the Governor, Deputy-Governor, and
Committtee of the same, the whole of the land lying between the Island of the Dead, in
the Arm or Inlet of Comoson, and the head of the said Inlet, embracing the lands on
the west side and north of that line to Esquimalt beyond the Inlet, three miles of the
Colquils valley, and the land on the east side 'of the arm enclosing Christmas Hill and
Lake, and the lands west of those objects. The condition of or understanding of this
sale is this :—That our village sites and enclosed fields are to be kept for our own use,
for the use of our children, and for those who may follow after us j and the lands shall
be properly surveyed hereafter. It is understood, however, that the land itself, with
these small exceptions, becomes the entire property of the white people for ever. It is
also understood that we are at liberty to hunt over the unoccupied land, and to carry on
' our fisheries as formerly.
We have received as payment £32 10s., sterling. In token whereof- we have
signed our names and made our marks, at Fort Victoria, on the &0th day of April, 1850.
Cor Cor Wibz +    Hoyapahyiuin +    Spaa +    and' others.
Recapitulation of the Indian Nationalities of British Columbia and  their present
estimated population.
Cowichan    7,000
Comox      120
Quackewlths, with sub tribes 2,000
of Euclataws   1,500
Millbanks \      KnA
Bella Coolas     y   A0Ut
T'simpsheans    5,000
Hvdahs  2,500
Tahelies   1,000
Siccannies .*.      500
Shuswhaps  2,500
Kootenays      400
Total 28,520
It may be added that an accurate estimate can only be obtained by a careful census?-
I regard the above estimate, carefully compiled from various sources, to be the utmost
limit of the Indian population of British Columbia.
J. W. P.
The Christian Missions -of British
■   Jy-"fpon.p odfu nl jfP~-
> no  v/nfio  o'i
.gcriliste :lgriin.RJH mi abm/oq
The Roman Catholic Church has had Mi
ssions tor many year:
s at St. Mary's, Fraser
River, William's Lake, Ohanagan, Stuart's Lake, Fort Rupert, Cowichan and Victoria,
besides itinerant missionaries. There are at St. Mary's a convent and industrial boarding
school, with an attendance of from forty to sixty male and female Indian pupils.    I be-
seive instruction here.    There are missibn
lieve a la|§e additional number of natives jj-
schools at William's Lake and Okanagan, and
inu com
fortable convents
of the Sisters of St. Ann at Victoria and Cowichan, where many Indian girls and half-
breeds receive the ground work of a good education. Of the praiseworthy efforts in this
way, of these good sisters, I have had personal observation for the last ten years, England.
The Anglican Church has Indian missions at Comox, Nanaimo, Cowichan, Kincolith,
Metlakathlah, Yale and Lytton, and mission schools at Nanaimo, Cowichan, Kincolith,
Metlakathlah and Lytton. I am informed that the Rev. R. Tomlinson, the missionary
at Kincolith, is a medical man, and in addition to a boarding school has also a native
At Metlakathlah there is a most successful industrial school, under the supervision
of Mr. Wm. Duncan; some 500 Indians form an orderly village, and they have a saw
mill, soap manufactory and market house. About 2,000 more Indians receive instruction
at schools for both sexes at this place.    A new church is'now building.
In connection with the mission at Lytton there are some two thousand Indians, and
about one thousand at Yale.
The Wesleyan Methodists have missions at Nanaimo, Victoria, New Westminster
and Ohilliwhack.
i There are Sabbath schools held regularly at New Westminster and Victoria, and
there is a day and Sabbath school at Nanaimo. They have one travelling missionary, the
Rev. T. Crosby, who is both zealous and untiring and visits a large number of tribes in
the Cowichan Nationality.
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, February 8th, 1873.
Sir,—T have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 13th ult.,
with report and map relative to Indian affairs in British Columbia, and have to express
satisfaction with the comprehensive information which it conveys.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) Joseph Howe.
J. W. Powell, M.D.,
Indian Commissioner, Victoria, B. C.
British Columbia,
Department of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, February 20th, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 3rd ult.,
acquainting me that my powers as Indian Superintendent axe limited by the laws of
British Cohimbia until legislative enactments, in respect to the Indian affairs of the
important amendments ar<
Province, are passed by the Dominion Parliament.
in contemplation for the native population.of "British Columbia, and in connection with
the importance of a clause prohibiting the supply of intoxicating liquors, more stringent
than the same for other Provinces of Canada.
I beg leave herewith to transmit a letter from Mr. Wm. Duncan, who has been very
successful in the establishment of an industrial school among some of the northern
Indians, 'tinder the auspices of the Church Missionary Society. In respect also to one of
the pernicious customs alluded to in Mr. Duncan's letter, i.e.. the indiscriminate-donation
of property for disfilay commonly called a " Patlatch." I enclosea list of articles wMin
th'err v&lue thus disposed of, at a recent gathering of the kind'at Bella Bella, and'which,
I ain told, was not considered as one of their usual " Grand Feasts." Should you regard'
the statement of any importance beyond cur5o3ity, it might be appended to the report j
/& 30
which I have had the honor of submitting to you, and which I might add was necessarily
curtailed on account of the limited time at my command for collecting information previous to despatching it.
I have the honor to be, sir,
Your most obedient servant,
(Signed,) J. W. Powell,
Superintendent Indian Affairs, B. C.
The Ho norable Joseph How e,
Secretary of State for the Provinces, &c.
Metlakhtle, February 3rd, 1873.
Dear Sir,—I was only able briefly to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 6th
November last, by the steamer which brought it, but now I have much pleasure in returning you the circular you sent me filled up, to the best of my judgement, with this
supplementary letter, as you ask me to state " what system of Government I would
recommend for the civilization of our Indians." The subject is one of acknowledged
difficulty, but the system which presents itself to me the most likely chance of success I
divide into two branches. The jfirsiibranch should embrace measures to be applied to the
Indians while in a savage state, and  ai'e the following:—
1. To keep intoxicating liquors from them.
2. To discountenance and gradually abolish those degrading customs which tend to
perpetuate savage taste.
3. Keeping the peace among them.
4. Assisting them medicinally in times of epidemic.
5. To secure each tribe ample reserves of land.
The Second branch would consist of measures adapted for those who. have broken
away from degrading Indian customs, are under the influence of christian teaching, and
in a fair way to become worthy members of society, are as follows :—
1. Keeping intoxicating liquors from them.
2. Keeping whites and lawless Indians from settling in their midst.
3. Gianting allotments of land (of say ton acres) to each family, which "they may not
be allowed to sell at all or even transmit but to Indians of same village.
4. Civil authority gradually handed over to a native corporation.
5. Grant made for educational and medicinal purposes, or any other purpose which
would promote the public wealth of the settlement.
In order to carry out these laws, so far as the coast tribes are concerned, a steam
vessel would be necessary to visit each tribe occasionally j the vessel might hold the
additional business of protecting the levenuo laws. Say captain and crew of thirty souls,
with magistrate and doctor on board. If caie was taken to select only men of good
character for the work, the influence of the vessel, in a moral point of view, would be very
great indeed.
I would also recommend that in each tribe an Indian or" two (the best that can be
found, perhaps a chief in the first iustance) be selected and invested with some authority'
as constable and Government agent for the tribe.
His cost would be very small—the honor would be an inducement to fill the office—
say twenty or thirty dollars a year. I pay ten constables at Metlakahtie fifty cents per
weelc each and they ore amply satisfied. These persons would* report any matter concerning the tribe at every visit of the steam dr. It might be difficult at first to obtain
reliable men, but very soon that difficulty would disappear, at least I have found it so.
You will perceive 1 do not advise the Government to take any direct work in the
education of the Indians. This work I would leave in the hands of the various christian
bodies, who could combine christian teaching with secular instruction. 31
When an agent of any christian society has produced a work among the Indians
which is approved of by the Government, and should the society he represents call for
pecuniary aid for educational purposes, this would afford the proper opportunity for the
Government to aid in-educational matters.
Next, as to assisting Indians in a pecuniary manner—I am strongly opposed to the
system of presents—pauperising the Indians is a very pernicious practice.
The Government should not -make individuals the recipients of their bounty ^ut the
tribe. Anything that can be done to elevate the tribe, and something that all could
benefit by, then the money would not be lost, and the people would be made better and
the villages become a more attractive home. Another very important branch of the duty
of Government, is protecting these tribes f rom the baneful influence of intoxicating liquor.
XJnless this is attended to there can be no progress, nothing but a chapter of crime and
misery for every tribe, and to stem which will cost the Government many a dollar and
the Government servants nothing but disagreeable and fruitless work. As to the cry got
up by interested persons in the liquor trade, that the law cannot be carried out is pure
nonsense. How have we managed it here?. There used to be some six or seven small
craft vending liquor up this part of the colony a year gone by. Not one is left. The
Indians used to bring up quantities of liquor from Victoria, but one bold dash of H.M.S.
Sparrowhead, in 1871, soon s track a .death blow, to that traffic. We have only got to
follow up the work done and all is well. I do most certainly hope and pray, sir, that
you will not lend ysur ear or aid to those who would abrogate that most salutary and
humane Indian liquor law now existing. I had occasion some years ago to write more
fully on this subject in one of the local newspapers. I have sent the only copy of the
paper I have for your perusal. The two leading and most degrading Indian customs
which I would recommend the Government to wipe out of the land as soon as possible
are, (1) cannibalism and dog-eating orgies, (2) giving away property for display, commonly
called in Chinook jargon | Patlatches." While these-customs are allowed to prevail in a
tribe there can be no progress in civilization. The cannibalism ought to be stamped out
at once by &fat from the Government, and as to the other custom, though less revolting,
is no less enslaving, and should be forbidden in. the first efforts of the Government to
govern the Indians. It would make my letter too long to enumerate all the misery and
sin which have their root in these degrading customs, and I fully believe many of the
best disposed Indians are only watching for the voice and command of the Government
in this matter. I hope, sir, you will speak and let your voice be heard at once to drive
the demons, who has long lorded it over them our people, to regions where they can do us
no further harm. 1 can speak, for Fort Simpson, that the Indians there will hail the
stroke as a release from a burden under which they have too long groaned,
As to the land question, I wrote fully on that subject to Governor Musgrave, so far
as it effects this mission, and the same argument will apply to all the Indians who are becoming civilized. The letter was dated 16th December, 1870, and the Governor, sent me
a very encouraging reply through the colonial secretary's office.
Heartily wishing you every success and God's blessing upon your great undertaking.
I remain, my dear sir,
Yours faithfully,
W. Duncan. 32
| Patlatches" or Gift gathering of some Bella Coola tribes of Indians, at Bella Bella, on
the 22nd of December, 1872/ by invitation of a Chief of the Bella Bella Tribe.
List of Articles " Patlatched" or given away.
350, 2J & 3 point, white and coloured Blankets, averaging §3 each	
100,  ditto do do (destroyed,) distributed in prices	
1,000 yards of printed and white Cotton,  donated in prices, at 20 cts. p. yard	
Seven Casks of Molasses (costing them §12 per cask)	
10 Boxes of Biscuits, at §6 per box	
200 lb of liice, at 10 cts. per lbs	
40 Boxes containing each 10 gals, of Crab Apples in Oslahan oil, (traded with other Tribes at
2 blankets per Box,) $5 00 j	
Three Canoes, given value each, 10 blankets	
Three Muskets (costing Indians) each §15 00	
-Sundries, as dried fihh, fruits, beads, &c, &c, &c	
400 lb MiddHngs, at 5 cts. per lb	
$     cts.
1,050 00
300 00
200 00
84 00
60 00
20 00
200 00
75 00
45 00
100 00
20 00
§2,154 00
The above is small compared with the grand Patlatch Feasts, of some of the larger  northern tribes,
the feasting lasts from three to five days.
British Columbia, Department of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, February 26th 1873. .
Sir,—T have the honor to enclose a statement of expenditure in the Department of
Indian affairs of this Province to the 26th February.
I might add, that the Indian Small Pox Quarantine at New Westminter, was ordered
by His Honor the Lieutenant Governor, the financial responsibility of which having been
assumed by me immediately after my appointment as Indian Commissioner.
The disbursements on this account amount to five hundred and seventy-two dollars,
and seventy-five cents, ($572.75). A balance of three hundred and forty three dollars
sixty-seven cents ($343.67) remains to the Credit of the Department here, which I will
devote as necessity demands agreeably to your letter of the 3rd ultimo.
I have the honor further to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st instant,
instructing me to distribute the sum of five hundred dollars ($500),inlndianprizes, at the
celebration of Her Majesty's Birthday, at New Westminster.
I would suggest additional credit here to  meet this and other requirements in   the
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your most obedient Servant,
The Honorable Joseph Howe,
Secretary of State for the Provinces,
&c,     &e,      &c.
(Signed,) J. W. Powell,
Superint. Indian Affairs. 33
British Columbia, Department  of Indian  Affairs, Statement of Expenditure, January
and February, 1873.
, 6
1 to 17.
Victoria Daily Standard, Printing Circulars	
Dr. Carroll, Professional services at New Westminster Quarantine
Edward Stephens, 68 maps of 89 Indian Reservations	
Hamilton Moffatt, copying      do do 	
T. N. Hibben & Co.. Stationery, &c, for Office	
B. T.Wiilams, Binding, Ruling, &c	
Muirhead & Bruce, office furniture ,
Telegraph Company, Messages    	
British Colonist, printing vouchers & check books	
Bdgar Marion, Agricultural implements, (Indian Exhibition)	
J. W. Powell, Expenses to Cowichan, &c	
N. Wooton, Postage Account	
Hudson's Bay Company, Indian Blankets	
Sundry persons, Indian Small Pox Quarantine	
At New Westminster, Vouchers 1 to 17	
$1,156 33
Victoria, February 28th, 1873.
J. W. Powell,
Superint. Indian Affairs.
British Columbia.
Department of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, Feb. 28, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to enclose a copy of a letter from the Provincial Secretary
in respect to the sum of $1,984.82, a fund which has accrued from rental of portions of
the Soughees' Indian Reservation. This sum was held in trust for the Indians for some
years by a Board of Commissioners, who, upon dissolving in 1869, paid the balance
which they had in hand to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works—who deposited
it for safe keeping in the Provincial Treasury. It further appears that this amount was
taken over by the Dominion Government as Provincial Assets, without any special
mention. I am of opinion, therefore, that this sum ought to be credited to the Indian
Department of this Province, along with the other sums thus paid in since, amounting
to $527.24. I have the honor also to enclose duplicate receipt for a. balance of $37.50
paid to me on account of the same fund.
I am, sir,
Your most obedient servant,
The Honorable Joseph Howe,
Secretary of State for the Provinces,
&c, &c, &c.
(Signed,) J. W. Powell,
Supt.  Indian Affairs.
Provincial Secretary's Office,
Victoria, 5th February, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor  to acknowledge your letter of the 4th inst., referring to
the moneys Avhich have accrued from the Soughees' Indian Reserve.   In reply, I have to
inform you that no money has been paid into the Provincial Treasury since Confedera-
23—5 34
tion on account of the said Reserve, and that you have been rightly informed as to the
deposition of the balance of $1,984.82, paid on the 3rd of September, 1869, by the Commissioner of Reserve to the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. This sum was
paid into the Colonial Treasury, formed part cf the assets of the Colony at the date of
Confederation, and was taken over by the Dominion Government.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. W. Powell,
,Supt. Indian Affairs,
&c,    &c,    &c.
John Ash,
Provincial Secretary
Court House, Victoria, B. C,
Thursday, 6th March, 1873.
Sir,-—I have the honor to enclose for your perusal,  copy memorandum and sketch
of proposed Bdl for providing for Indian concubines and half-breed children.
I should be much obliged, if you think the subject of sufficient importance, by your
forwarding the same to the Secretary of State for the Provinces, with su,ch alterations or
suggestions as you may think calculated to improve the efficiency of the proposed
I remain, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed.) Matt. B. Begbie, C. J.
Dr. Powell,
General Superintendent Indian Affairs.
In Section I of sketch of proposed Bill, I would recommend that the sum to be
allotted be left to the discretion of the Court.
(Signed,) J. W. Powell.
Memorandum for   the   Secretary   of   State for   the   Provinces.
1. In the Session of the Provincial House of Assembly, British Columbia, 1872
An Act was passed for reserving the old English law—never, I believe, attempted to be
reversed since the famous " Nolumus leges anglice mutari " of the Parliament of Newton,
600 years ago, and declaring (among other things), that the marriage of a man jvith a
woman who had been his concubine should ipso facto legitimatize the previously born
issue of such concubine. The act was, however, reserved ~by the Executive here for the
approval of the Governor.General, and that approval was refused.
2. It is, of course, quite unnecessary to go into the reasons for that refusal. I shall
only say that I cannot conceive myself arguing in favor of such an Act, much less approving or suggesting.
3. At the same time I should wish to be allowed to point out that the supporters
of the measure in the Hou&e here had a very real grievance and public hardship to allege,
for which they proposed their measure as a remedy ; and which I also should wish to see
remedied, but in a very different way. 35
4. There is in this Province a large class of very useful, hard-working, but not
highly educated or refined set of men, who form as it were the van of the settlers. They
generally pre-empt land far up the country, and employ themselves in stock-raising or
other agricultural pursuits, sometimes in mining, in isolated localities, or packing ; some-
trmes in a combination of these or other occupations, according to the season of the year;
but generally in having a log house, which they consider their home, and generally an
Indian concubine, ^vhom they consider and treat in all respects as the wife of a man in
similar circumstances of life would be considered and treated by him in Great Britain.
There is very often issue of the concubinage. These men, being enterprising, frugal
and industrious, and their concubines being, in many respects, " help " more "sweet" to
them than woman of European'descent or education would be, live in a rude comfort, and
often amass property of considerable value—from a few hundred dollars to $10,000 and
upwards. They are generally men separated from their heirs or next of kin by long intervals of time and space, and often ignorant and careless whether there be anybody in
the whole world living to claim kinship with them at all. The concubines, it is to be
observed, consider themselves to be., and are according to the native customs, lawful
wives generally.
5. In the rough and exposed life which these men lead, they are often cut off suddenly, without making the smallest continuing provision for'their concubines or children.
They invariably, I think, die intestate. Probably must men do \ and this is a well-
known weakness of human nature, which it is the business of the Legislator not to
T had a case before me in this present week, in which the property left by the
intestate will probably realize over $1,000. When realized, it will be paid into Court,
under the Trustee Relief Act, to await some application by the next of kin. The
deceased, an Englishman, left England in 1845, as a common sailor ; has never been in'
England since, and has been settled in British Columbia ever since 1858. All that is
known of his next of kin is, that he once told his partner her i that he believed that when he
left England, he had*a brother working somewhere, in London. That seems to be the
latest and most detailed information which he had, or cared to have about them. He 1ms
left a concubine of many years standing and an infant child quite unprovided for.
Another case occurred last fall. The estate of the deceased, a thriving farmer,
realized close upon $12,000 ; he died suddenly at Victoria, whither he had come to get his
will made, and to place his eldest girl at one of the best schools there. The girl he placed
at the school, and paid one year's charges in advance, so she is still there. But he died
suddenly without making any' will. There are none but collateral (legitimate) relatives.
The concubine and three or four children, whom the deceased was educating with great
care, will of course be thrown utterly destitute on the hill-side. There are many of such
cases yearly , the children are worse off than those of full Indian blood, less useful to the
community when grown up, and far more expensive in the meantime \ for, of course, they
have to be maintained alive somehow.
6. It was partly as a remedy for these cases of manifest hardship, that the late
abortive Act was proposed. In addition to the inherent and general objections to the
principles of such an Act, however, it was of course obvious to remark, (1st) that a remedy
so much more extensive than the evil it was to cure, might be suspected of being intended,
or at least of being hereafter perverted, to cover cases of concubinage other than, and of a
very different nature from the cases alleged ; (2nd), that it was not, after all, a satisfactory
remedy; for a man in such a position might  well desire to make some provision for
r persons thus dependant on him, without wishing or thinking that they required, or
aesired, to inherit his whole property ; (3rd), that it was at the same time a very imperfect remedy, as it did not guard against the fatal consequences of procrastination any
more than his testamentary power did—and finally (4th) that a man might always make
such provision as he thought fit by making a will.
7.' I do not propose to evade the force of any of these arguments, on the contrary
I tMnk them so foyoiuic that, in particular the third of them, would have rendered ex- 36
pedient some such measure as I now propose, even if the late proposed Act had been
passed into full effect. It is clear that men would, or that men might delay, until too
late their marriage, just as the v would delay their will. The mother of the children might
be dead.    The children might be by different mothers.
8. The measure I would suggest would meet all these cases, and satisfy (to some,
extent) our humanity, without (I hope) insulting our Christian morality.
It is shortly to enact, that in cases of intestacy, where the deceased has left connections of the kind alluded to, recognized or maintained by him within the year before bis
death, and when he has left no legitimate widow in the Province, and there is a net estate
after payment of all creditors—the Supreme Court may apply for the maintenance, &c,
of such concubine, or children, so much of the real and personal estate, &o. (the course of
descent of lands here is, generally, exactly the same as of personality), as may seem
proper, within certain defined limits in preference to the legitimate next of kin.
For obvious reasons, I would not suggest that this power should be given to the
Court when the. deceased has left a "widow in the Province ; nor where he has made a will;
nor over the whole estate, except when it is of small amount; nor at all, unless all
creditors be satisfied ; nor unless the deceased has recognized the connexion.
10. It is not a sentimental hardship alone, or even cruelty, but only some concrete
evil to the community which can call for the intervention of the Legislature. I venture
to think I have pointed out such, especially in paragraph (5) sub-jvnem; and there is
the same general reason for some such measure as there is for the general statutes for the
distribution of intestate's estates at all; and the parties who alone could complain of
the measure I propose—the heirs or next of kin—could only complain that their windfall
was diminished. They are generally, besides, distant collateral relatives, of whose very
existence the deceased is often ignorant—and Avho often are roused to enquiry, not by the
promptings of blood or the voice of natural affection, but by the correspondence of some
consular Agent.
I enclose a rough sketch of a Bill. All Indian matters being, by the British North
America Act, 1867, exclusively reserved to the Dominion, I venture to trouble the Dominion authorities with this communication.
(Signed,) Matt. B. Begbie,
Chief Justice, B. C.
Sketch of a Bill for providing for Indian Concubines, and Destitute Half-breed Children
of persons dying intestate and leaviiig property in the Province.
WHEREAS, in the [Province of British Columbia] or [remoter parts of clivers
Provinces in the Dominion,] it sometimes happens that divers persons die intestate and
possessed of considerable property, and without any legal relatives in the Province, but
leaving native Indian women their concubines, and children, the issue of such concubines,
or of other concubines, them surviving.
And, Whereas, no proviJ|Sh can now be legally made for such concubines and children
out of the assets of the deceased, and such concubine and children being thrown on the
charity of their neighbours for support, the community are put to undue expense, and the
children are exposed to physical and moral deterioration, to the further -injury of the
community. And, Whereas, it is just and reasonable that some provision should in some
cases be made out of the assets of such intestate, for the maintenance and education of
such concubine and offspring. 37
Be it enacted, &c :—
I. Where any man shall die intestate in the said [Province of British Columbia or
I remoter Districts "] leaving him, surviving, an Indian concubine,- who may at the time
of his death be actually maintained by him, or under his protection, or leaving him any
illegitimate child or children under the age of (16) years, reputed to be by him begotten
on any Indian woman, for the support, maintenance, or advancemnt of which child he
shall have made any provision within the twelve months next before his decease , then
and in such case it shall be lawful for the Supreme Court, or any Judge thereof, in their
or his discretion, to order that there be retained, allotted and applied for the support,
maintenance and benefit of such concubine, and 'of every such child respectively, so much
of the net, real and personal estate, or either of them, of such intestate (after payment of
all his debts) as to such Court or Judge shall seem fit, not however allotting to such concubine, or to any such child, a sum greater for each than $250, or than the amout of 5
per cent, on said net residuary, real and personal estate, whichever limit may be the largest.
II. Any application for an allowance and provision under this Act, may be made
to the Supreme Court of the Province, or to any Judge thereof, by petition or motion in a
summary way by, the administrator, or by any person acting as next friend for such con-,
cubine, or any such infant child. And any such Judge, either on any application for
letters of administration, or on any application under this Act, may if he thinks proper,
direct enquiries as to the existence and mode of life of any such concubine or infant child,
and as to the rate and descriptions of the maintenance allowed to her or them respectively
by the intestate in his life time, and such Judge may, if he thinks fit, appoint some
person to act as next friend for such concubine or infant child.
III. If such intestate leave a widow, him surviving, within the Province, no order
shall be made on any such application, without the consent of such widow..
IV   The amount directed to be allotted and retained by any order on such application
as aforesaid, shall be expended and laid out in such way, as such Court or Judge shall by
the same, or any other order from time to time direct, for the maintenance of such con-
Bareine, or for the maintenance, education and advancement in the world of any such child.
British Columbia.
Department of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, March 8th, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to enclose for your consideration, a memorandum and sketch
of a Bill for providing for Indian concubines and destitute half-breed children, of persons
dying intestate, and leaving property in the Province, by the Hon. M. B. Begbie, Chief
Justice of the Supreme Court of British Columbia. Judge Begbie's long service in this
Province, enables him to understand thoroughly, the many evils of Indian concubinage,
and I have therefore great pleasure in forwarding his views upon one of them.
In the absence of some Act to legitimatize the issue of Indian concubinage, Mr. Begbie's
proposition is most desirable, and would be, if adopted, both useful and popular in this
' I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. W. Powell,
The Honorable Joseph Howe,
Secretary of State for the Provinces, Ottawa.
Superintendent Indian Affairs, 38
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, 18th March, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to transmit herewith copies of a letter of the 28th ult., from
J. W. Powell, Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs in British Columbia, also of a copy
of a letter of the 5th ult., from the Provincial Secretary's office of that Province, addressed to Mr. Powell, shewing that a sum of $1,984.S2, realized in connection with the
Soughees' Indian Reserves, has been turned over to the Dominion Government from the
Colonial Treasury.
And I have the honor to request, that the amount in question may be placed to the
Credit of the Receiver General on account of Indian Funds for British Columbia, and
that this Department may be notified thereof, in order to the proper Ledger entry being
made in this office. I beg also to request, that the sum of $527.24, subsequently paid on
the same account, may be credited to British Columbia Indian Funds; and likewise, a
further sum of $37.60, paid by Superintendent J. W. Powell into the Bank of British
Columbia, on the 27th January last, to the credit of the Receiver General, may be credited
'to the same Indian Fund.
I have the "honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) Joseph Howe..
Honorable S. L. Tilley, C. B..
Minister of Finance,
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, 18th March, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to enclose herein a copy of an account of disbursements made
in British Columbia by Indian Superintendent J. W. Powell, out of the sum of $1,500,
for which-a credit was given to that gentleman on the 4th January, 1873.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
J. Langton, Esq.,
Auditor General, Finance Department,
(Signed,) Joseph Howe.
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, 22nd March, 1873.
Sir,—Reverting to your letter of the 28th November last, relative to difficulties apprehended with British Columbia Indians at Alberni, I enclose herein, a Copy of an Order
in Council of the 21st instant, and I have to notify you that, as provided by the said
Order in Council, the sum of $2,000 will be placed to your credit on account of expenses
in connection with the proposed surveys of Indian Reserves.
I am, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) Joseph Howe.
Dr. J. W. Powell,
Visiting Superintendent and Commissioner, Indian Office,
Victoria, B. C. 39
. The Committee have had before them a memorandum from the Deputy Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, submitting a letter from J. W. Powell, Esq., local
Superintendent at Victoria, • relative to difficulties apprehended with British Columbia
Indians at Alberni.
' 'The Deputy Superintendent states, that the apprehended trouble appears to arise,
- as shown by correspondence, copies of which the  Superintendent has furnished, in consequence of sales of land in that locality having been made by the Local Government to
Messieurs Anderson & Co., and a contention on the part of two settlers who had attempted to pre-empt lands at that place.
That it would seem that no reservation for the Indians had been made there, nor
other satisfactory arrangements entered into with them.
That they objected to surveys being proceeded with, and that Mr. Taylor, a farmer
at Alberni, had been driven off the Post with knives, and that no property is safe with
them at present.
That this and other communications transmitted by Superintendent Powell, prove
the absolute necessity of his being empowered to confer with the Local Government, with
the view to sufficient reserves, on a liberal and just scale, being set apart for the various
bands of that Province.
He accordingly suggests that each family be assigned a location of 80 acres of land,
of average quality, which shall remain permanently the property of the family, for whose
benefit it is allotted.
That it is a matter of urgent importance to convince the Indians of that Province
that the Government of the Dominion will do full justice to the rights of the Indian
population, and thus remove the spirit of discontent, which in various quarters appears to
That Superintendent Powell proposes to make a general visit to the Coast Indians,
at an early day, with a view to a settlement of their, land disputes, for which purpose he
would require the use of a Government vessel, and he names the Dominion Government
steamer " Sir James Douglas," for that service.
The consideration of this proposition, the Deputy Superintendent suggests, may
probably occupy time, he submits therefore, that authority be at once given to Mr. Powell,
to confer with the Local Government in regard to Indian reserves already set apart, which
may require to be extended, and the outlines marked out in survey; also, for the setting
apart such additional Reserves as in his judgement he may deem to be important for the
purpose of fulfilling the just expectations of these Indians.
That it will be requisite to supply the Superintendent with sufficient funds to carry
out the plans proposed, and he therefore suggests that from the amount voted by the
Legislature, the sum of $2,000 be placed in Dr. Powell's hands, to be accounted for in
due course.
On the recommendation of the Honorable the Secretary of State for the Provinces,
the Committee advise that the suggestion submitted in the foregoing memorandum of the
Deputy Superintendent be approved and acted on.
British Columbia.
Department of Indian Affairs,
Victoria, March 27th, 1873.
Sir,—I have the honor to suggest for your consideration the desirability (in making
arrangements for the Government of British Columbia Indians) of procuring a number
of medals and Dominion flags for presentation to the various chiefs who may merit the
same for good conduct and loyalty.    Our Indian chiefs are exceeding fond of any symbols 40
of authority or distinction, and invariably evince their gratitude for them by fidelity and
The late Governor Seymour had a number of bronze tips for flag staffs sent out from
England, the presentation of which, with the accompanying flag, was highly prized by
the recipient of such an honor. The medals might be made of bronze or silver, with spme
appropriate Canadian device, and would tend much to attach them to the country and
Government affording them justice arid protection, and of which their knowledge is at
present very limited.
I had the honor of addressing you on the 26th of February, respecting the balance
remaining to the credit of the Department here on that date.. The vouchers for this
sum, now about exhausted, owing to the calls made upon me by sick and destitute
Indians, will be transmitted in due course.
I shall be glad to be advised of a further credit, which may anticipate future requirements of the Department in this Province.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
(Signed,) J. W. Powell,
Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
The Hon. Joseph Howe,
Secretary of State for the Provinces, &c, &c.
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, April 16th, 1873.
Sir,—I have to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 27th ulto., and to
request that you will state the number of flags, and the size you would recommend, for
presentation to the chiefs, and likewise the number of medals for distribution among
I am, Sir, |
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) Joseph Howe.
Dr. J. W. Powell,
Indian Commissioner, Victoria, Biitish Columbia.
Indian Branch,
Ottawa, 19th April, 1873.
Sir,—I beg to inform you that an appropriation of $2,480 has been made from
Indian funds for general expenditure by you, and. for assisting British Columbia Indians,
and to be accounted for by you in due course.
A letter of credit for the above has issued on the Bank at Victoria.
I have the honor to be, Sir,
Your obedient servant,
(Signed,) Wm. Spragge,
Deputy Superintendent of Indian Affairs.
Dr. J. W. Powell,
Visiting Superintendent and Commissioner,
Indian Office, Victoria, British Columbia.  


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