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British Columbia. Columbia River exploration, 1865. Instructions, reports, & journals relating to the… British Columbia. Department of Lands and Works 1866

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Array  \   CONTENTS.
1.—Letter of Instructions from Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works
to Mr. Moberly    1.
2.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works  2.
3.—Do.                     Do.                     Do.                     Do  3.
4.—Do.                      Do.                      Do.                      Do  3.
5.—Do.                      Do.                      Do.                      Do  5.
6.—Do.                      Do.                      Do.                      Do  6.
7.—Do.                      Do.                      Do.                      Do  9.
8.—Mr. Green to Mr. Moberly ^  9.
9.—Do.                     Do.  9.
10.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works  10.
11.—Mr. Green to Mr. Moberly,  10.
12.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works  11.
13.—Mr. Turnbull to Mr. Moberly  11.
14.—Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works to Colonial Secretary  12.
15.—Mr. Moberly's Journal     14.
16— Mr. Green's         Do  22.
17.—Mr. Turnbull's   Do  25.
No. 1.—Letter of Instructions from Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works to Mr. Moberlt.
Lands and Works Department, New Westminster,
8th July, 1865.
The recent discoveries of Gold on the Columbia River, above the Arrow Lakes and on the
head waters of the Kootenay River, having rendered it of immediate importance to determine and
lay out the best line for a Waggon Road from the Lower Fraser to these New Mining Districts, you
have been selected to conduct a reconnaisance of the Country lying to the Eastward of the Okanagan
and Shuswap Lakes, and between the Columbia River north of the Upper A&bw Lake, and the passes
of the Rocky Mountains, in the vicinity of the sources of the Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
Mr. Dewdney's reports of the character of the country bordering to the North on the 49th Parallel
of North Latitude, leave but little hope of the practicability of a Waggon Road being constructed to
the Eastward of the Columbia River, in continuation of the existing Trail from Hope; it'i§,'"!therefore,
hoped, and confidently expected, that the desired connection with the South Eastern section of the
Colony may be secured by way of Lytton, and the Kamloops and Shuswap Lakes.
Your attention will be first directed to determine at what point a Road, to connect with a good
Steam-boat landing at the lower extremity of Kamloops Lake, should branch off from the Cariboo
Road. This point, it is supposed, will be found to be near the junction of Cache Creek with the
Buonaparte, from whence a good line to Kamloops Lake, with easy grades and good road material,
is reported to exist.
Your report on this subject will be looked for at an early date, including an approximate estimate
of cost of constructing an 18 feet Waggon Road, in accordance with the usual specification furnished
by this Department for similar work.
' From the lower end of Kamloops Lake, there is stated by Mr. Turner, who passed up this route
last October, to be uninterrupted navigation for Steamers not drawing over 18 inches of water, to the
upper or Eastern extremity of Shuswap Lake, a.distance of about. 120 miles.
The only doubtful portion of this long line of navigable water seems to be about 2 miles below
the Little Shuswap Lake, and the three miles of river connecting Little Shuswap Lake with Shuswap
Lake proper. Of these portions, you will make a careful examination, by sounding and otherwise,
and you will obtain all possible information from the Indians living in the neighbourhood, as to lowest
depth of water, greatest rise of freshet, duration of ice obstructions, &c. Of the whole length of navigation
you will, in passing along make a casual survey, and report generally, and as fully as possible, all
the facts you may be able to ascertain on the subject, as well as your own opinions as to the practicability of this navigation.
From Kamloops, you are to detach a Surveyor of your party to pass over the Trail by the head
©f the great Okanagan Lake to Cherry Creek, and thence up Cherry Creek by way of the pass through
the Gold Range, the existence of which pass has been communicated to Government by Captain
Houghton (a copy of whose Keport is furnished you herewith,) to the Columbia River. Having
thoroughly examined this pass, the geatleman whom you may select for this duty is to make his way by
canoe up river, carefully noticing whatever indications may be afforded by the Country (North of the 50°
Parallel of North Latitude) on each side of the river for a practicable fine of Road; and to rejoin
and report to you at or above the Dalle de Mort.
In the meantime, yourself and the remainder of your party will continue carefully reconnoitering
and noting the features of the navigation on to the Eastern end of Shuswap Lake, and will thence
undertake the first main object with which you are entrusted—which is, to ascertain the best line
for a Waggon Road from the Eastern end of Shuswap to the Columbia River.
Mr. Turner reported a practicable route for a Waggon Road by the Trail along which he passed,
but this line bears too much to the North ward to suit the direction of the communication sought
to be opened up, which should be, if possible, about due Eastward from the end of the Southern or
South-eastern arm of the Lake, to strike the Columbia River in the neighbourhood of the Dalle de
You will expend whatever time may suffice to convince you that you have ascertained the best
line of communication between the Shuswap Lake and the Columbia River; and this done, should
your reconnaisance result, as I confidently anticipate it will, in the discovery of a fair line for a
Waggon- Road, you are to leave one of your party to blaze out the exact fine, and send a report of
the same by express to this office, stating what in your judgment would be the cost of cutting out a
good Pack Trail, with an estimate for the construction of an 18 feet Waggon Road. In deciding on
the advisability of any expenditure on this work, Government desire to have the assistance of any
information you may acquire on the spot, as to the richness and extent of the Gold working on the
Columbia River; and I have to request, therefore, that you will furnish in your report any reliable
data on this head toat may come to your knowledge.
Having, as I am sanguine you will do, succeeded thus far in accomplishing the object of your
expedition, and having established a depot of provisions to fallback upon, you will now proceed to
explore the Country to. the Eastward of the Columbia River and Arrow Lakes, and endeavour to
continue the line of communication from the point where your line from Shuswap strikes the River
in a South-easterly direction, across the Selkirk Range of mountains, to the head waters o-f the
Columbia and Kootenay Rivers.
So little is known of this region that I can offer no suggestions for the guidance of your reconnaissance, further than that, although it would be preferable that the line of road should cross the
Columbia by Ferry and continue directly from the opposite bank on its proper course, yet, failing
this, you may find a pass across the Dividing Range, to the Eastwards from some point on the Columbia further South than that where the Road from Shuswap strikes the River—so that, in case it be
necessary, the traffic might drop down stream to take a fresh departure by road from some more
available point.
Mr. O'Reilly will be informed of your probable arrival in his District in October, and will be requested to aid your Exploration by all means in his power; and I will forward to Mr, Dewdney
extracts from these instructions, so' that he may be informed of your probable movements, and be
enabled, should circumstances so direct, to put himself in communication with you.
I desire to impress upon you the importance of your giving full .details in your Exploration
Journals of all that presents itself to your notice—and that you should convey the same strict injunctions to each of your party, when on detached duty—so that your Journals when forwarded
from time to time as occasions offer to this office, the Government may be placed in possession, not
only of the opinions derived by you as the result of your observations, but of the very facts on which
such opinions are based.
The strength of the party, with the charge of which you are entrusted, is to consist of two Surveyors, Mr. Green and Mr. Turnbull—of Mr. Lay ton, who is to act as your Commissary and in any
other capacity you may find him of use—of Mr. Wm. Hick, Mr. Conway, and two other Assistants
to be selected by yourself, and of such further Indian helpers for packing and canoeing as you may
find it necessary to employ.
I need perhaps not add to what I have already verbally impressed upon you as to the economical expenditure of the means placed at your disposal. I look to you to ensure that all the camp and
travelling expenses of this Expedition be kept as low as the exigence of the service will admit; and,
as the importance to the Colony of the successful issue of the service with which you have been entrusted is great and immediate, so do I rely on the zeal and unremitting exertions of yourself and
those under you in securing such a result, as far as circumstances will permit. %
I have, &c.
W. Moberly, Esq. Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General.
No. 2.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Kamloops, July 16th, 1865.
I have to inform you that I arrived here last night, having been detained a day and a half
at Cornwall's, as the, Indians would not pack our things up here; the remainder of the party with the
baggage have only just come in.
As yet I have not been able to make any arrangements with Indians to accompany our party,
but hope to be able to get some to-morrow, and if so shall leave on the 18th, for Shuswap Lake.
I shall detach Mr. Turnbull with one white man and Indians to explore the line vid Okanagan
Lake and Cherry Creek, and thence up the Columbia River until he meets my own party. I propose
to try for a more southerly fine than that explored by Mr Turner last year, and shall send Mr.
Green over the above line with Mr. Layton and the supplies to the Columbia River, as from all
I can learn this-is the only way we can get our supplies conveyed across the portage between Shuswap
Lake and the Columbia River.
I have heard that Captain Mouatt was well satisfied that the navigation from the foot of Kamloops
Lake, to the head of Shuswap Lake, is suitable for River Steamers.
The current report here is, that there are about 400 men at work in the neighbourhood of the Big
Bend, but no reliable information has as yet been received.
As Mr. Nind informed me on my way through Lytton, that I might be disappointed in getting,
supplies at Kamloops, I purchased about two months' supplies from Mr. DeNuvian at Lytton, which
I expect will be here to-morrow, the prices deliverd at Kamloops being much lower than the rates
you gave me as those of the Hudson's Bay Company.
Mr. Layton has just arrived, and by him 1 have received your letter of the 13th, Instant.    It is
my opinion that the point where the branch road to Kamloops Lake should connect with the Yale
and Clinton Road is where the last named road first strikes the Buonaparte River, the distance from
that point to Savana's Ferry is about 20 miles, and a road 18 feet in width between these two points
would cost about £5,000, the grades would be excellent, and only two short bridges required.
I shall write again before I leave for Shuswap.
I regret to say that I cannot find out where JVIr. Orr's party are at present, Mr. Bennett of the
Hudson's Bay Company, says he thinks they are camped on the North River about 200 miles from
this place, and probably have gone across by the Clearwater Trail to the Big Bend. Mr. Bennett
informs me that the Indians make this portage in one day, with horses. If I can find out before my
return that Mr. Orr's party have not examined this pass, I will endeavour to have it explored in the
I have, &c, &c.
3P T^teh'Esq'' (Signed.) W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General,
British Columbia. COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. 3
No. 3.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works
Hudson's Bay Post, Great Shuswap Lake,
hlR>     _ .  . July 25th, 1865.
I have to inform you that I arrived here this morning with my party, and to-m;orrow shall
send the whole of them, with the exception of two Indians, over to the Columbia River; I shall
take the two Indians and examine the easterly and southerly shores of Great Shuswap Lake, and if I
find a pass through to the Columbia, shall cross to it in order, if possible, to connect the navigable
waters of the Shuswap and Columbia Rivers by a direct line.
I have instructed Mr. Green to examine two lines from this place to the Columbia, one by the
original trail, and the other by a new line discovered by Mr. Perry, (The Mountaineer,) whose,
services I have engaged. Mr. Perry tells me he considers the original trail seventy miles in length
and the new one from thirty-five to forty miles; he also informs me that the grades are good on the
latter line, and the principal work to be done in opening a trail or even waggon road, will be chopping
and clearing the timber.
I find the distances in all cases much over estimated, particularly from Kamloops to this place. The
following are my estimates of the various distances from Cache Creek .-
Cache Creek to Savana's Ferry 20 Miles.
Savana's Ferry to Kamloops 25    „
Kamloops to foot of Little Shuswap Lake 25    „
Little Shuswap Lake  4J £
River between Little and Great Shuswap Lakes ... 2    „
Great Shuswap Lake 36
From Kamloops to the foot of the Little Shuswap Lake on the southerly branch, there is almost
a natural Waggon Road; on the northerly bank to the same point, a good deal of work would be
required above the Okanagan Trail. There are good pack trails for horses on both sides of the tiver
from Kamloops to this lake; the one on the southerly bank terminates here, as the shores of the
lakes and rivers are mountainous, thickly timbered, and rocky, the Indians, however take horses along
the northerly side of the Little Lake, and a portion of the Great Lake during low water, when they
make trips to Kootenay and the Rocky Mountain: animals cannot pass at present.
Enclosed I forward a tracing shewing that portion of the Shuswap River and Lakes explored by me.
From Kamloops to the Little Lake, there is abundance of bunch grass, but hardly any timber;
from the Little Lake to the head of the Great Lake there is not any bunoh grass, the whole Country
being thickly timbered with Fir, Poplar, Birch, and Cedar, of a small size, excepting on some of the
flats where there is a finer growth.
I hear from Mr. Perry that about 75 men are at work on a Creek (Cairne's Creek), flowing into
the Columbia on its easterly bank, a short distance from where the trail I send Mr. Green to explore will strike it. These men he says are preparing to mine in a substantial manner, sinking shafts,
building flumes, &c, &c, and are sanguine of good returns, having found veiy coarse Gold, with
such prospects as lead them to believe that it exists in large quantities.
I have, &c, &c,
J. W. Trutch, Esq. (Signed.) W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General, B. C.
No. 4.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner op Lands and Works.,
Columbia Eiver, 4 miles below Dalle de Mort,
August 15th, 1865.
Since writing my last Eeport, I have to inform you that I examined the Country in a
southerly direction for a distance of forty-five miles from the Hudson's Bay Post, at the head of
the north-west arm of the Great Shuswap Lake, to the Spili-e-mu-chem River, (improperly called
on our maps the Pellumchur River) which falls into the Great Shuswap Lake, at the south end
of the south-east arm, and have been unable so far, to find a pass suitable for a Waggon Road.
Finding that to continue exploring up the Valley of the Spill-e-mu-ehem River would take me
much time, and would bring me into the district I intend Mr. Turnbull to explore after he
completes the Cherry Creek line, and as it was necessary for me to meet Messrs. Green and
Turnbull on the Columbia, and see that the supplies were being properly forwarded, (I have had
much trouble with our Indians) and as I wished to ascertain definitely where the Head of Navigation
for Steamers on the Columbia River, above the Upper Arrow Lake really is—the character of the
banks of the Columbia River for roads—the exact position of the different mines now being
worked—the character of the passes examined by Mr. Green—and if possible, the locality of the
pass through the Selkirk Range, on all of which the location of a Waggon Road from Shuswap
Lake to the Columbia River would to a great degree depend, I decided to go over to the Columbia
Eiver and having ascertained as much of the above information as possible; resume the examination of the mountains to the south for a pass, if possible, to connect with the south-easterly waters
of the Great Shuswap Lake or its tributary the Spill-e-mu-chem River, particularly as I found
that the high dividing range between the Shuswap and Columbia waters is immediately west of
the Columbia River, and therefore much more easily examined from it.
I find the pass proposed by Mr. Perry, and explored by Mr. Green, to be a very good mountain
pass and about 40 miles in length, over the whole of which a good Mule Trail can be constructed
at a small outlay. This end of the Trail will be 4 or 5 miles below the "Dalle deMort," 30 miles
below Gold Creek, and 10 above Cairne's Creek (by the miners estimates of the distances), the
two principal creeks at present worked by miners on the Columbia Eiver, and immediately
opposite to if is a large valley running into the Selkirk Eange (Downie's Creek Valley), which
has been explored by Mr. Perry for a distance, he says of 60 miles, and reported by him to be a 4 COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865.
very good line for a road as far as he went. I think it probable Mr. Perry Iras over estimated
the distance he went up the valley, but as I have found his description of the valley from Shuswap
Lake to this place very correct, I am inclined to place some confidence in his description of the
valley above mentioned.
Oii my way over here I examined the Horse Trail which I originally intended Mr. Green to
explore, but finding it went up a mountain for two miles, at an angle of about 60°, I gave it up on
reaching the top.
The objections to this Pass for a Waggon Eoad are that after the twenty-third or twenty-fourth
mile from Shuswap Lake is reached, the "Divide Mountain" has to be ascended, which by
Barometer I made 2837 feet above the river bottom at its foot, and which I followed all the way
from Shuswap Lake. The elevation of this valley, at the foot of the mountain is 962 feet above
Shuswap Lakvthus making the whole height to be attained in getting from Shuswap Lake to
Columbia River about 3800 feet. A good grade can be got up the mountain, but the road will
have three or four zigzags. On the plateau at the top of the mountain, there is a good deal of
soft ground, with gravel bottom. The descent to the Columbia River is long, being a distance
of eight or nine miles.
I should say this road in ordinary seasons will be passable for waggons from the beginning of
June until the end of October. This line, with the exception of four or five miles on the summit
plateau,' is thickly timbered with large sized cedar, fir, hemlock, spruce, and some white pine.
The cost of a Waggon Road 18 feet in width, with a 66 feet bush clearing, I estimate at about
£26,000.    This line will make a capital Sleigh Road in the winter.
Finding it to be a most difficult, tedi6us, and expensive undertaking to get our supplies over
to the Columbia River; that this is the shortest and cheapest line to get supplies into the mines
now worked on it, as animals are now at the head of Shuswap Lake with loads of provisions, &c,
on their way to these mines—as the miners are almost destitute of provisions, and such as they
have costing enormous prices, therefore, rendering it impossible for them to prospect, and in
danger of being starved out altogether—as the immediate opening of a passable trail for animals
will, in all probability secure the trade of these mines to the Fraser River route—and as the
season is well advanced, I concluded it would be better to make immediate preparations to have
the fallen timber and brushwood cleared away sufficiently to get animals over, and have therefore
sent Mr. Hick back to set eight or ten men to work, with an order on the Hudson's Bay Company
to forward for this work: 1,000 lbs. Bacon, 1,500 lbs. Flour, 250 lbs. Beans, 150 lbs. Sugar,
2 doz. Axes, and a few other supplies, and have told him that as I shall not be back, I have
written informing you what I have done, and that he will receive further instructions from you,
as to the execution of the work, the obtaining of further supplies if necessary, and money to pay
off his men with. I think, that at the outside, he should not have to expend over £600 on this
work, and if he can avoid some corduroying,'twenty men ought to complete the work in three or
four weeks. I have instructed Mr. Hick to cut away the timber and underbrush throughout the
entire length at first, so as to enable my Indians to pack over, and afterwards he may go back and
execute such corduroying and grading as may be absolutely required.
It is my impression that any line that may hereafter be discovered, if one should exist,
from the Valley of the Spill-e-mu-chem to that Of the Columbia River, will be altogether too far
to the south for the supply of the country above the "Little Dalles," (the rapids eonie twenty
miles above Upper Arrow 'Mke) and which includes all the different localities where mining is
now carried on above the Upper Arrow Lake. The only line north of this one, would be that
traversed by Mr. Jenkins, in October, 1864, which is some thirty or thirty-five miles lono-er
than this one, and is now being examined by Mr. Green. The one from the North River to the
Boat Encampment could only be brought into requisition should we find that there is not any
Pass through'tne Selkirk Range, and then that line if found to be practicable, could not compete
with this for the supply of the mines below the Boat Encampment, but might be used to connect
the road from the Vermillion Pass and Upper Columbia with Kamloops Lake.
Goods can now be packed to the foot of the Little Shuswap Lake, a disi&nce of twenty-six
miles from Kamloops, over a capital trail, with abundance of grass; from that point to the head
«f the N. W. Arm 1 i cents per lb. ought to pay very well for the boating; from the head of the
N. W. Arm to the Columbia River, 4 cents per lb. would be a very fair rate indeed; there is feed
for animals about eleven miles from the head of the Arm, and a great abundance at the Summit
some twelve or fourteen miles further on.
As the canoe I am building will be fiuished to-morrow, I shall start down the Columbia the day
after to explore its banks to the Upper Arrow Lake, to'try again fora southern pass, and to ascertain
where Steam-boat navigation ends above the Upper Arrow Lake, about which the greatest difference of
opinion exists amongst the boatmen I have seen on this river, some saying that Steamers can get
up to the "Dalle de Mort" four miles above this place, and others affirming that they cannot
possibly get above the head of the Upper Arrow Lake, they tell me that a boat heavily laden will
take from eighteen to twenty days to get from Shepherd to Cairne's Creek.
Colville flour is held at 60 cents per lb., credit; bacon (nominally) hardly any on the river
$1.12£ per lb.; beans 75 cents; mining tools, boots, and clothes are not to be had.   I
There are about 150 miners on Gold, French, and Cairne's Creeks. I am told that French
Creek flows from the N. E. and falls into Gold Creek about twenty miles from its mouth. The
mining reports are very good, and the men I have seen are much inclined to believe that the
creeks of the Columbia will rival those of Cariboo, provided they can get food at such a rate as
will enable them to live cheaply and prospect the country. Up to the present time, no prospecting
has been done,_ excepting on the above creeks, and on a few bars on the Columbia, ahrfcouo-h the
creeks falling into the Columbia are very numerous, and have plenty of water in them   I
I have posted a notice on the Hudson's Bay Company's flagstaff, at the head of the N W Arm
making,a:J&eserve of the land in that locaj&y; the enclosed is a copy of it. '        f
*    TIT    m ■"" reHlamj &C->
J. W. Trutch Esq.,   _ , (Signed.) M MOBERLY.
Chief CGnfcMBSioner of Lands <and Works and Surveyor General, B. C. COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. §
No. 5.*—Mr. Mcberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
Sir» Columbia River, September 10th, 1865.
Since writing my last Report, I have examined the Columbia River, from a point about four
miles below "Dalles de Mort" to the head of Upper Arrow Lake, and am of opinion that Steam-boat
Navigation terminates at a rapid known as the Little Dalles, the foot of which is about twenty-one
or twenty-two miles above the head of Upper Arrow Lake. •
I found a valley, or rather a split, through the Mountains, by which "The Eddy," two miles below
"The Little Dalles," on the Columbia River, can be reached from the mouth of Eagle Creek, which
falls into the south-easterly arm of Shuswap Lake, and a branch valley running from it in a southerly
direction from "Lake of Three Valleys" to the valley of the Spill-e-mu-chem River. I carefully examined the pass, via Eagle Creek, until I reached point A. (shown on Sketch Map), which point
I found to be 240 feet above the level of Shuswap Lake. From the top of a high Mountain above
this point I saw a fine vaUey running all the way to Shuswap Lake, and also the valley connecting
"The Lake of Three Valleys" with the Spill-e-mu-chem River. As we were quite out of supplies
and our boots worn out, we were compelled to return, leaving a portion of this valley that we have
not actually walked over. On my way down I shall go over this portion of the valley,and, if possible,
also the valley connecting it with the Spill-e-mu-chem River. The height of the divide between the
source of the Eagle Creek and the waters running into the Columbia River, I found to be, by
Barometer, 407 feet above the level of the Shuswap Lake, and 280 feet above that of the Columbia
River at "The Eddy." I do not apprehend any difficulty in constructing a Waggon Road by this
route, or even a Railway, but there will be a good deal of heavy blasting in places."
The branch valley to the Spill-e-mu-chem River I look upon as of great importance, as it would
be the line for a Railway—and I believe the only one—connecting the Columbia waters with those
of the Thompson River, in the vicinity of Kamloops, should such a work be undertaken at any future
South of Eagle pass, as far as the Upper Arrow Lake, and north of it to the pass from the head of
the N.W. arm of Shuswap Lake, with the exception of two or three short valleys, I found the country to the westward of the Columbia River blocked up with ranges of high, rugged, snow-capped
mountains, varying in height from three to nine thousand feet.
On the opposite side of the Columbia, I discovered two valleys, which run a long distance into the
Selkirk Range. One of these vallej s is about two and a half or three miles below "The Little Dalles,"
and almost opposite to the Columbia River terminus of the Eagle Creek Pass. The other is at the
head of Upper Arrow Lake.
I am now about to examine the upper of these two valleys myself, and send Mr. Turnbull to explore the Arrow Lake one. Mr. Green is now exploring the valley of Gold Creek, to see if a pass
can be got through the Selkirk Range in that locality.
Mr. Turnbull reports a very good line for a Waggon Road from the head of Okanagan Lake, via
Cherry Creek to the Lower Arrow Lake, and computes the distance at about eighty miles. As I
think this fine is altogether too far to the south, I do not consider it necessary to give further particulars at present. Mr. Turnbull lost both canoes and a portion of his supplies on the way up the
river, and was deserted by his Indians. This has caused me a good deal of delay in getting the parties;
to the eastward of the Columbia River.
Mr. Green's report of the line he went to explore opposite the mouth of Gold Creek and westward of the Columbia River is altogether unfavourable.
On completion of the explorations we are now about to make of the three before mentioned valleys
I shall bring our work to a close for the season, to the eastward of the Columbia River, as Mr.
Turnbull reports that there are not any valleys between the mouth of the Kootenay River and the
head of the Upper Arrow Lake running into the Selkirk Range, and a high range of mountains on
the westerly side, extending from his Cherry Creek line to the pass from "The Eddy" to Shuswap
Lake, and as the valleys we are now about to explore, are the only ones we have been able to find
between the head of the Upper Arrow Lake and Gold Creek; and also, as we cannot get Indians,
and it would be impossible at this season of the year to get supplies forwarded to continue our
explorations any further to the eastward, particularly as the ones we now have in hand, will most
probably take us from four to six weeks to complete.
I think, that should the country to the eastward of the Selkirk Range, and in the vicinity of the
Big Bend be explored at any future time, the best plan will be for the exploring party to proceed
direct to Wild Horse Creek and obtain their supplies at that point, and then by building canoes on
the Upper Columbia, they will be able to gain easy access to the country on both sides of the river,
from its source to the Big Bend, and avoid the dangerous and tedious navigation from the "Dalles
de Mort" to the Big Bend.
I enclose a sketch map of our different explorations. We found on closing the lines from Kamloops via Okanagan, Cherry Creek, and Columbia River, and that by Shuswap Lake, that we agreed
almost exactly in Longitude, but ivere some ten miles out in our Latitudes; neither our Latitudes
or Longitudes agreeing with the Official Map. As I have instructed Messrs. Green and Turnbull,
on their return, to make a traverse of the fine of trail from this place to Shuswap Lake, and a
from the Columbia River to that Town, so that this will be a fixed line from which branch surveys
can be commenced at any future time. If you could have a traverse made of the Telegraph Road
from New Westminster to Yale, to connect with the one I shall make, it would enable us to fix the
the position of the Columbia River with regard to New Westminster.
I hear from Mr. Hick that he is getting on very well with the trail, and will probably haye it
opened throughout in twelve or fourteen days. Since my recent trip down the Columbia, I am
more fully convinced than ever that this, under any circumstances, would have been the proper
line to open this season for pack animals, not only on account of its direction, but also of its cost.
The accounts from the Mines of French and Cairne's Creeks are daily improving, and the fact
that on both these creeks, immediately after the water fell, the Miners began to take out considerable quantities of Gold, speaks volumes in favour of the supposition that the range to the eastward
of the Columbia is highly auriferous, as these creeks are both in the same range of mountains,
although fifty or sixty miles apart.
The want of an Officer to issue Mining Licences, and settle disputes between^the Miners, is
beginning to be felt, and the presence of one much wished for by the Miners.
I remain, &c,
J. W. Trutch, Esq., (Signed)       W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands & Works and Surveyor General,
British Columbia.
No. 6,—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works
gIR New Westminster, December 18th, 1865.
You will have seen by my last Official Eeport, written on the 10th of September, ultimo,
that I had succeeded in accomplishing one of the chief objects of the Expedition of which I had
charge; namely, the connection of the valleys of the Fraser, Thompson and Shuswap waters with
those of the Columbia River, by a low pass suitable either for a Waggon Eoad or a Eailway; and
that there was only a portion of this pass I had not actually been over. In a subsequent portion of
this report you will also see that my anticipations, with regard to that portion of the pass then not examined, have been more than fully realized, and that there will be no difficulty in locating a line
of road, at a Jow level, from the shores of the Pacific to Palliser's Vermillion pass through the
Rocky Mountains, if the valley of the Columbia Eiver, from the easterly terminus of the above
mentioned pass from Shuswap Lake, is followed. As this route by the valley of the Columbia
would, however, necessitate a considerable deviation from the direct line sought, my next object
was to find a way through the Selkirk Range of mountains, with as little deviation from the above
line as possible. I therefore sent Mr. Green to explore the valley of Gold Creek, Mr. Turnbull
the valley running in an easterly direction from the head of the Upper Arrow Lake, and proceeded
myself up the valley of the Ille-cille-waut River, these being the only valleys by which I thought
it at all likely the much wished for pass through those mountains could be obtained. I regret to
say we were all obliged to leave our several explorations incomplete, owing to the lateness of the
season and the impossibility—principally on that account—of getting Indians to go far into these
mountains. I may here state, judging from the character of the mountains on both sides of the
valley of Gold Creek as reported by Mr. Green, and that of the Ille-cille-waut River examined by
myself, that should a further exploration of them result in the discovery of a pass at a lower level,
I think it very problematical indeed if it would be advisable to adopt either of them as the line
for the main thoroughfare to the Vermillion Pass in the Rocky Mountains, as the valleys in places
are very narrow, and the mountains' on both sides steep and subject to heavy snow slides,
Should the pass partially explored by Mr. Turnbull prove to be a good one throughout its entire
length, and his anticipations realized, it would principally be a matter of distance, expense, and
detailed survey, to say whether it would be advantageous to adopt it in preference to the valley of
the Columbia Eiver. As a mule trail it might. But having in view what I am fully convinced
will be the great and ultimate object to be attained—the opening of a through line of road to the
valley of the Saskatchewan River, the benefits to be derived from which it is unnecessary to enlarge
upon as they must be apparent to all—I am much inclined to think, from the actual data now before
me, that it will be better to follow the valley of the Columbia (from the recent explorations I think
the bend in this river is much exaggerated on all the present maps) from the easterly terminus of
the pass from Shuswap Lake, more especially when it is taken into consideration that it will be
very desirable to construct the road along such a line as will be most likely to ensure its being
kept open for traffic at all seasons of the year. The adoption of this valley for a line of road will
not only secure its being on a low level, as compared with the others, but it will also open up the
whole of the Country contiguous to it, and afford easy access to its numerous tributary streams
particularly to the valley of the Canoe River, or as it is commonly called by miners who have
prospected up the Columbia Eiver, the North Fork of the Columbia. Men who have prospected
on this river have informed me that they have washed as high as fifty cents to the pan on one of
its tributaries—the "Pin Eiver."
It is a most difficult matter to give anything like a definite opinion as to the best line to adopt
for a road when the explorations are incomplete, and in fact I do not feel justified in pledging myself to one. I should therefore recommend that the adoption of a line for the through "Waggon
Eoad be for the present postponed, until I have time to complete the surveys of the lines now only
partially explored through the Selkirk Eange. Had Mr. Turnbull been able to examine the valley
running in an easterly direction from the head of the Upper Arrow Lake all the distance across to
the Upper Columbia, and to report definitely on it, and also where it will strike that river it would
have been an easy matter to decide if it is a preferable one to that of the valley of the Columbia
itself; but, in a range of mountains such as the Selkirk it is more than probable that a valley which
appears large and favourable at one place, may, at a short distance, terminate abruptly, and prove
useless for the desired object. * J ^i«»"
At the beginning of the present year, the great point at issue was whether a good line existed
by which a road could be taken in the direction of Shuswap Lake, through the different ranges of
mountains between the valley of that lake and the Eocky Mountains. That question is, I think
satisfactorily solved, and it now remains to decide which is the most favourable line to adopt This
decision can only be arrived at properly by more detailed surveys than it was possible for me to
make of so extensive, rugged, and almost unknown country as that I had to explore in the short
period of two and a half months, during nearly two thirds of which time we had heavv and
incessant rams. "<=a»^ <tuu
As the reports of Messrs. Turnbull and Green, which I will forward to you as soon as possible,
will give detailed descriptions of the valleys explored by them, I shall merely give one of the valley
of the Ille-cille-waut, up which I went.
On leaving Mr. Turnbull at the mouth of this stream, I proceed up its northerly or right bank,
for a distance of about forty miles, at which point the river divides into two streams of nearly
equal size, the general bearing of one valley above the forks, as far as it can be seen from that
point,_ being north 14° east; that of the other nearly east. The latter valley was evidently the one
that, judging from its general bearing, would bemost likely to afford a pass in the direction wished
for. I therefore tried to induce the Indians I had with me, by every possible persuasion, to accompany me all the way across the Selkirk Eange, and make for Wild Horse Creek. (The Columbia
Eiver Indians would from the first only engage to go as far as the head waters of the Ille-cille-
waut.) All my efforts were, however, unavailing, as they affirmed that if we went on we should
be caught in the snow, and never get out of the mountains. As I now found it would not be
possible to_ complete the exploration of the easterly branch, so as to arrive at a definite conclusion
as to its suitableness for a line of road throughout to the Upper Columbia, and as a partial exploration
would only be a waste of time and money, for should it be explored throughout at any future time,
which I would recommend,.the same ground would have to be traversed again, I decided to explore
the northerly fork, and accordingly continued my journey, still keeping on the right-hand bank
until I reached a point about seventy miles from the mouth of the main river. The valley, which
had been continually turning more and more to the north, took a decided turn at the above point,
its bearing then being nearly N. W., and as the snow, which had been falling on the mountains for
several days, was but a short distance above the river bottom, I concluded to return, it being quite
apparent that nothing further could be gained by a longer continuance in these mountains. I
therefore turned back on the 30th of September, and reached the head of the Great Shuswap
Lake on the 10th of October.
At a distance of about four miles above the forks before mentioned, I entered the slate range,
and continued in it the rest of the distance travelled up this stream. These slate mountains are
intersected in all directions by innumerable veins of quartz, and on the river banks and bars much
hard blue gravel, intermixed with clay, was seen. We hastily washed a few pans of "dirt" which
we scraped from the surface of some of the bars, and obtained prospects which Mr. Perry (the
Mountaineer), who was with me, pronounced to be 5 cents to the pan. I examined some of the
"colors" obtained through a magnifying glass, and when viewed in this manner they appeared to
be thick, coarse, and with rough edges. It is my impression that good and extensive diggings-
will be discovered on this stream, and that there is every probability gold-bearing quartz also
exists in the slate mountains, through which it flows.
In passing a very clearly defined vein of quartz about five feet in width, I noticed traces of
what/I thought was silver, I therefore knocked off a few pieces of the rock, which have been as-       Y
sayed at the Government Assay Office here by Mr. F. G. Claudet, and he returns the following
Description of Mineral. Eesult of Assay.
Argentiferous Galena,
Lead—79.25 per cent.
Silver—84ozs. per Ton of 20 cwt.
The valley of this stream is heavily timbered with large sized Cedar, White Pine, Fir, Cypress
and Spruce; there is much fallen timber and underbrush, and we found it very difficult and tedious .
indeed to make headway through it.
I may safely say that the whole country traversed by us north of the latitude of 49° 10', and
east of the longitude of the Great Shuswap Lake, is quite useless for agricultural purposes.
I remained three or four days at the head of Shuswap Lake, not being able to get a canoe on
my arrival there, and availed myself of the opportunity to settle the Indian accounts for our packing, &c, and also those of the trail I had opened from this point to the Columbia Eiver. As I
found Mr. Greer: had already returned from Gold Creek, I set him at work to lay out some lots
on the proposed town site to guide the settlers, then busily employed erecting buildings, as to the
probable disposition of the streets, &c, &c, as shewn on the plan forwarded to you a short time
before my arrival here.
Having at last succeeded in purchasing a bark canoe, I left with two Indians to complete the
exploration of the valley of the Eagle Eiver, and at the same time sent Messrs. Green, Cowan,
and Perry to Kamloops, with instructions to make a survey of the Kamloops and Shuswap Lakes
and Eiver, and to take soundings, &c, &c.
As I was on the point of starting for the Eagle Eiver, I received instructions from the
Government to act as Gold Commissioner on the Columbia River, and in consequence thereof
only went up the valley of the Eagle River and its tributary, to the point formerly reached by me
from the Columbia, when having fully satisfied myself that an almost level line for a road can be
obtained by this route from the Shuswap Lake to the Columbia River, I returned to the head of
the Lake, leaving the Branch Valley, that I had originally intended to explore, from the "Lake
of Three Valleys" to the Spill-e-mu-chem River, unexplored; I remained a day at the head of
the Lake recording claims and issuing Mining Certificates, and then again returned to the
Columbia Eiver, where I met Mr. Eobert T. Smith, to whom I was authorized to hand over the
papers, &c, belonging to the Gold Commissioner's Office, should I find that the work of my own
department would render it inconvenient for me to remain on the Columbia, as this was the case,
and as there was really no necessity for the presence of a Gold Commissioner after the 1st of
November, I laid over the claims from the 10th of November, until the 1st of May, next, and
then handed Mr. Smith the books, &c, to enable him to issue Mining Certificates, and record
claims Having discharged this duty, I returned to Shuswap. Lake, and, on my way across, in
anticipation of the freight that I fully expect will go over this trail next spring, if our merchants
and forwarders shew even a fair amount of enterprize, I set men at work to build all the bridges
that will be required on this road, and from last advices, expect they are now completed.
From the date of my arrival at Shuswap Lake, until my return to New Westminster, I was
occupied on business connected with the Indian Eeservations on the North and ShUswap Rivers,
and other work, as set forth in your instructions to me. As these are matters for a separate
Report, it is unnecessary to say anything further in this one. ■
It may, perhaps, be superfluous for me to say anything with regard to the mines of "The Big
Bend," after all that has been said and written on this subject; but as I have had the opportunity
of seeing a larger section of the Country this season in their immediate vicinity than anybody
else, it may not be amiss for me to state that it is my firm conviction they will prove not only very
rich, but will also be found to extend over a large extent of Country, and that gold-bearing quartz
will be found in the slate range, which is most unquestionably the gold one. From my observations, as well as what I gather from Messrs. Turnbull and Green, this range crosses Gold Creek a
short distance from its mouth, then touches the Columbia River at the mouth of Cairne's Creek,
and thence bears away in a south-easterly direction, crossing the Ille-cille-waut River some forty-
four miles from its mouth, and the Ill-com-opalux River (which falls into the head of Upper
Arrow Lake,) as well as the stream which fails into the head of Kootenay Lake, and I think most
probably continues on in the direction of Wild Horse Creek. This being the case, I fully
anticipate that rich Gold Fields will be discovered on the head waters of all these streams and
rivers, as well as those of the different streams that have their source in this range, and which,
flowing in an easterly direction, fall into the Columbia.
As the reports of the yield of Gold since I left the Columbia River, have much exceeded what
was the case then, a statement of the yield by me, when Gold was only beginning to be found in
quantities, might give a wrong impression of what now it most probably is—as high as $34i to
the pan (see Mr. Green's report) had been taken out on French Creek in September, reports were
also current at that time, that a single pan of "dirt" had yielded $100. On Cairne's Creek, at
the same date, from $30. to $50 per day to the hand was not an uncommon yield with sluices.
One" great advantage these diggings have over others in the Colony, is that they are not deep,
and may, so far as yet substantially known, be considered as surface or "poor men's" diggings.
Now that the trail from the head of Shuswap Lake to the Columbia River is opened, it is a
very easy matter to reach the. mines at present known, and not expensive. This trail strikes the
Columbia twelve miles above Cairne's, and twenty and a half miles below Gold Creek.
It is most important, that the work of opening trails from the terminus of this one, should be
resumed as early in the spring as possible, so as to connect it with French and Cairne's Creeks,
and also with the head of Steam-boat navigation at the foot of the Little Dalles.
The trail to French Creek I should have opened this autumn, as I considered my instructions
were sufficient to justify such an outlay as would have been required to make it passable, but
when it became at all certain that the diggings were really good, or in fact at any time after my
first arrival on the Columbia, in August, it was impossible to get the necessary supplies at any
price to carry on the work, and the season was so far advanced, that before they could have been
procured,, the winter would have set in and stopped all further work. The truth is, had it not
been for the persevering energy and enterprise displayed by Messrs. Smith and Ladner, in
forwarding supplies-when the mines were uncertain, and the modes of conveyance most difficult,
I doubt if a single miner could have remained at the diggings after the middle of September.
If the cost of labour, including food, does not exceed $5 per day, ten thousand dollars ($10,000)
will be ample to open a good trail from- French Creek to the Columbia River terminus of the
present trail. Three thousand dollars ($3,000) will open one from the latter point to Cairne's
Creek, and for a trail from Cairne's Creek to the head of navigation, eight thousand dollars ($8,000)
will be ample, and for the completion of the work on the trail from Shuswap Lake to the Columbia,
at the same rate of wages, two thousand five hundred ($2,500) or three thousand dollars ($3,000)
will be all that is requisite, or in round numbers twenty-five thousand dollars ($25,000) for. these
several works will be sufficient.
As it is very probable that other trails may be needed during the next summer, the necessity
for whiGh it is at present impossible to foresee, and as the cost of labor may be higher than- that
upon which I have based the above estimates, I would suggest that the sum of fifty, thousand
dollars ($50,000) be appropriated for the purpose of opening trails in this District. I would also
recommend that tools and supplies be forwarded early, in the year to carry on these works and
that the system of their construction be by day labor and not by contract.
I do not think that under existing circumstances it would be at all judicious to undertake the
construction of any Waggon Road in this District during the coming season, but that all available
funds should be devoted to the opening of pack, trails for animals, to such localities where mines
of sufficient richness may be worked to justify such an outlay.
It appears to me that one of the most important works for the Government to undertake would
be the opening of a good, trail from the Upper Columbia' through the Rocky Mountains to the extensive open country which, from the best information I. have been able to gather from various
sources, extends along the easterly slope of that great dividing.range. There is now a very large
population spread over the country south of the Boundary line, and it is rapidly inereasino- With the
mines of the Big Bend as an attraction, and a good trail by which animals could get°over to the
vicinity of those mines, large numbers of people would, be certain to make their way into this
Colony. In fact I am convinced that it is in this direction we have to look for the large imrni°ra-
tion into the Colony, and not by way of the sea. If the above, work could be accomplished^
would not be at the mercy of steam-boat proprietors, whose interest it is and will be to take as
many people as they possibly can to the different territories bordering on the Lower Columbia and
should a much smaller sum than that needed to subsidize a direct line of steamers from San
Francisco to thi  '       -   - '   '        ' ' .
circumstances which to many appear,
portion of it, the result will be that we shall
benefit the Colony at large.
likely to injure the Colony, or I should rather say aTerS
!   !'       a much larger population, and thereby ultiMat%
As Mr. Green's Report on his return will give a description of the Shuswap River, which he has
surveyed and sounded, I shall not at present touch upon that subject, but will forward his Report,
together with my own observations made on my return journey down that river.
In the event of the exploration I had in hand this year being continued, it is my impression that
a depot of supplies should be forwarded from Wild Horse Creek to the head of the Columbia, to be
in readiness for the parties that should commence exploring in an easterly direction from the head of
Kootenay Lake and the mouth of the Ille-cille-waut River to the Upper Columbia, so that when
they arrive at it one party could arrange to explore the country on one bank, whilst the other is
similarly engaged on the other bank. Canoes should also be provided, and the explorations carried
on down stream, as this method will save much time and, therefore, expense. It is quite out of the
question to pack supplies for any lengthened trip across the Selkirk Mountains without a trail.
The addition of a good astronomer to the expedition would be invaluable, particularly to fix the
longitudes of all important points.
With my Report on the Shuswap River, I will also forward to you the Journals, Sketch Maps, and
other detailed information connected with the Expedition.
I remain, &c,
J. W. Trutch, Esq., (Signed.) W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General, B. C.
No. 7.—Mr. Moberlt to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
New Westminster, January 18th, 1866.
I beg to forward you Mr. A. H. Green's Reports and Sketches of the trail from the Head
of Shuswap Lake to the Columbia River, and of that portion of the Columbia River situate between
the easterly terminus of the above trail and the Mouth of Gold Creek, and also of that Creek and
some of its tributaries.
I remain, &c, &c,
J. W. Trutch, Esq., (Signed.) W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General, B. C.
No. 8.—Mr. Green to Mr. Morerlt.
Columbia River, August 2nd, 1865.
I beg to inform you that I have reached the Columbia River, and found a very good pass,
over which a Mule Trail can be easily made.
I followed the Indian trail to the Columbia for a distance 'of about twelve or thirteen miles, and
then, instead of ascending the mountain, followed the river to the head waters of one of its branches,
where I found a stream called Salmon Creek, which flows into the Columbia.
The height of the " divide" is 3,800 feet above Shuswap Lake, and the distance from the lake to
the Columbia I estimate at 37 j miles, though I think it could be reduced to 35. N
Over the first 20 miles very good grades could be obtained, but after that the mountains rise so
precipitously that it would be difficult to get any other than a Mule Trail over them.
A good gravel bottom can be obtained the whole way, with the exception of about three miles on
the summit which would be wet in the spring.
The only feed for animals is on a prairie about ten miles from the lake, and on the summit where
there is plenty of grass and water.
Should a trail be made this summer, two bridges with a span of sixty feet each would be required,
one over the river, and the other over a branch of it.
Pine, spruce, red and white cedar, and hemlock abound, but excepting near the lake it is under
the average size* the underbrush consists of the huckleberry, prickly ash, and scrub, yew and
I enclose a Sketch of the country gone through, and remain. &c,
W. Moberly, Esq.
No. 9.—Mr. Green to Mr. Moberlt.
The Camp, Columbia River, October 2nd, 1865.
( I beg to report my return from Gold Creek. I left this Camp on the 8th September in a
canoe with three Indians, and reached the mouth of Gold Creek on the 9th. The next day I proceeded up the Creek as far as the first portage where navigable water commences, but finding no
canoe I went on next day to the second, where I found a canoe and a boat. Taking the canoe I
proceeded to French Creek, where I laid over a day to sketch the Creek and gain any information
I could with regard to the route I proposed going.
On the 19th I reached the first forks and went up the north one a day's journey, but finding its
course was too much to the north concluded to return and go up the east branch. Finding our
provisions were likely to run out, I put the Indians on half rations and pushed on, P^poning
sketching till I returned. I reached the second forks, a distance of about six miles, on the i«5rd, and
found myself in a ba&in of the mountains.
m II;
The north-east fork, which is the only one in the right direction, is quite impracticable for a
Waggon Road on account of the height, even if a road could be found through the canon at the
mouth of the eastern branch of the first forks, which I think very unlikely. I, therefore, decided to
return, and sketched my way back to the second forks, where we made a raft and came down the
river to within three miles of French Creek, which we reached on the 271 h.
Gold Creek enters the Columbia through a cleft in the mountains which forms a canon, but it
evidently originally entered about a mile above, as there is a low pass which strikes the Creek at the
second portage. At the head of the canon is the first portage, where navigable water commences,
though it is rather rough up to the second. From the latter to French Creek the river runs with
about a 3| mile current through a muddy flat, thickly covered with small willows, interspersed with
small prairies and beaver meadows. The mountains on the north side of the river descend almost
..perpendicularly to the water; on the south they stand back from two to three miles, but I was unable
to sketch them very accurately on account of fog.
A trail has been cut by the miners from French Creek to the Columbia River, but when I was
there about three miles were unfinished.
On French Creek some of the men were taking out very good pay; I saw one pan of dirt washed
that yielded $34|, and was informed that a previous one had given $194.
About three miles of the river above French Creek is unfit for canoe navigation, though I think
with portages and towing one might be got up. Beyond that they can go with ease to within half a
mile of the first forks. The bush above French Creek is very thick, in fact so much so that once or
twice we were obliged to cut our way through. On the east fork travelling is comparatively easy;
the benches are thickly timbered, but as the water does not overflow the banks there is no small
brush worth mentioning.
A man told me he had found very good prospects on this fork, and was going back when he could
get provisions. The bed rock is mostly slate, with quartz and wash gravel. The timber comprises
pine, spruce, white pine, hemlock, red and white cedar, and a little cottonwood.
Although I found no trace of any other mineral than gold in its natural state, I have no doubt that
silver will be discovered before long on French Creek, as small nuggets of argentiferous .galena, and
also nuggets of native copper, are found in the sluice boxes almost every day in some of the claims.
I remain, &c,
W. Moberly. (Signed)       ASHDOWN H. GREEN.
No. 10.—Mr. Moberly to Chtef Commissioner of Lands and Works.
New Westminster, January 22nd, 1866.
, I enclose Mr. A. H. Green's Report and Map of the Shuswap River and Lakes, from
Kamloops to Express Point, near the foot of the Great Shuswap Lake, which he surveyed and sounded.
You will see from the Report that at the time Mr. Green surveyed these waters, in the lattetf'part
of November, that the shallowest place he could find was three and a half feet in depth, but
from information collected from Indians and others who have resided there during the winter, it
appears that the water is much more shallow in the coldest weather, but rises again early in the
spring. The water this year may probably have been higher than it is in ordinary seasons, owing
to the great quantity of rain that fell during the latter portion of the summer and throughout the
autumn, and if so, it is to be inferred that as a general rule the depth of water will be less at the
same season of the year than Mr. Green found it to be; if this is the case, I think the best and
cheapest plan to adopt in order to render the shallows navigable for Steamers in the low stages of
the water, will be to have a dredger on the river to clean out channels wherever bars may form—
other means, such as wing-dams would be most expensive, and ?I apprehend only remove the
obstruction from one part of the river to another.
I remain, &c, &c.
J. W. Trutch, Esq., (Signed.) W. MOBERLY.
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General, B. C.
No. 11.—Mr. Green to Mr. Moberlt.
New Westminster, December 26th, 1865.
I beg to report the completion of the Thompson River survey, and my return to New Westminster.
I make the distance from Kamloops to the Little Shuswap Lake 37£ miles by the river the length
of the little lake 4| miles, and the distance between the lakes 2% miles.
I have also sounded the river, and find that there will be no difficulty in taking a Steamer up on
account of the depth of water, as the most shallow part of the channel is 3£ feet deep. I am informed
that the water is much lower in winter than I have mentioned, but as the river is then frozen over
no Steamer could run until it breaks up, when the water rises again. I would call attention to a
rock (which I have marked on the plan) between Walker's ranch and the little lake, which although
a Steamer could pass, would be very dangerous, as the stream is swift and the channel crooked. A
very little work early in the spring, when the water is low, would take it out as it is not large.
| 1 found but little ground (except where the Indian potato patches are) on the north bank of the
river suitable for arable land, on account of the alkali in the soil and the absence of any Water to
irrigate with, but very good grazing might be had the whole Way up. From the foot of the big lake
to Express Point there is some good bottom land, but it is heavily timbered and liable to be flooded
HI pid.C6S«.
I'enclose plan, and remain, &c, &c,
W. Moberly, Esq. ASHDQWN H. GREEN.
No. 12.—Mr. Moberly to Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.
New Westminster, January 23rd, 1866.
I beg to forward you Mr. J. Turnbull's Report, together with his Journal, Sketches, &c., &c,
of the different routes explored by him during the past season, when connected with the Exploration
party of which I had charge.
As Mr. TurnbuU's Report and Journal give the detailed information respecting the country to
the south of the section explored by Mr. Green and myself, and as I have already given you my own
opinion of the different routes as far as known it is unnecessary for me to say anything further now;
it may, however, be as well to add that Mr. Turnbull's Report shows more forcibly the great necessity
there is to have the Explorations (mentioned in my Report) through the Selkirk range by the head of
Kootenay Lake and the south-east branch of the Ille-cille-waut River, as also the valley of the
Columbia River, completed at as early a date as possible, in order to ascertain which will be the best
line to adopt for the through line of road.
J- W. Trutch, Esq.,
I remain, &c, &c,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General, B. C.
No. 13.—Mr. Turnbull to Mr. Moberly.
New Westminster, 23rd January, 1866.
In obedience to your instructions, I beg to lay before you the following Report relative to
my late explorations in the neighbourhood of the Columbia and the Kootenay Districts.
In my daily Journal I have given all the information I considered necessary to explain the
nature of the country through which I passed, both as regards Road making, formation of country,
and agricultural resources.
On my plan, which I will furnish you with on the first opportunity, I will give all information as regards routes by which the Columbia can be gained, their altitudes, &c, and if you
think it necessary, I am prepared to furnish you with sectional plans which will shew you the
features and geographical nature of the country. In this Report I will, therefore, confine myself
wholly to general remarks, and refer you to my daily Journal for all details of my journey.
After leaving you at Kamloops, I proceeded to Captain Houghton's (Okanagan), and there made
arrangements—with the assistance of Mr. Vernon—with Indians to carry my provisions, stores,
&c, to the Columbia.
Leaving Captain Houghton's, I proceeded along the line of route recommended by him, examining carefully everything connected with the route, construction of Trails, Roads, &c. Up to
within a few miles of Cherry Creek Silver Mine, the line follows along the bottom of a beautiful
vride valley, covered alternately with meadow and bunch grass, and ornamented in a most
pleasing manner with groups of pine timber. This valley for 12 or 14 miles east of Captain
Houghton's, is eminently adapted for either stock raising or agriculture, and offers every facility
for any description of road building.
The Silver Mine is connected with the Okanagan Conntry by a very passable pack trail, but in
the event of any horse traffic in that direction it would be necessary to expend say $1,000 in improving the trail, cutting out logs, &c. By following the line A. B. (see plan) several expensive
bridges wilL be avoided and the distance shortened, and I think for the above amount this route
can be opened.    From Captain Houghton's to point A. no improvement of the trail is necessary.
After leaving the Silver Mine, the valley narrows considerably, and is bounded on either side
by steep, wooded hills, and continues thus until reaching the summit at C. The rise of the valley
between B. and C. is about 800 feet; there are, however, no engineering difficulties in the way of
road building, more than heavy grading, cribbing, chopping, &c.
From the summit down to the Columbia at point D. the valley falls with a scarcely perceptible
grade, and is wide, and in every respect favourable for any description of road. The difficulties
of road making would be mere chopping and grading. The valley from its summit down to the
Columbia is bordered by high sloping hills, the summits of which are all thickly covered with
splendid feed, and wild flowers of various descriptions, the wild lupine being very numerous.
Should a pack trail or road at any time be made through this valley, it will be necessary to cut
horse trails up to the summits at regulated camping grounds. In conclusion with respect to this
portion of the route, viz: from Captain Houghton's to the Columbia a good trail or waggon road
can be constructed with ease, and at a very moderate expense.
Having determined in my own mind that it was quite practicable to reach the Columbia by
means of the latter described route, my next duty, according to your instructions, was to examine
the [openings through the Selkirk range, and having built a bark canoe, I proceeded to Fort
Shepherd, in order to supply myself with provisions, and procure the assistance of some Indians
who knew the country, and endeavour, if possible, to get some information regarding the country.
On my way down, I received such information ag led me to believe that a pass did exist by way
of the Ill-com-opalux Valley, and I at once made up my mind to explore it. I was, however,
prevented from at once carrying this out in consequence of the desertion of my Indians. Had I at
that time been provided with good, willing Indians, I would have examined the pass to the head
waters of the Columbia by the latter end of August, and I feel satisfied in my own mind that I
would have been successful in proving to you that this same valley is the only one through this
formidable range. ,
In my Journal I have described the difficulties I laboured under in getting Indians to accompany me, in it I have also described the route and country as far as I have seen, and I therefore
Tefer you to it for further details. I may however, here state, that I feel perfectly satisfied that
the valley shewn on Sketch at A. springs from the same divide as Toby Creek, and that the divide
is low and will be found favourable for a Waggon Eoad or Mule Trail. All the Indians whom I
have^questioned are perfectly unanimous in this belief, and as the distance between the head of
Kootenay Lake and the mouth of Toby Creek cannot be more than 40 miles at the most, and
taking into consideration the distance Toby Creek runs westwards, and the large body of water
emptying through the valley at A., I think you will see the necessity of continuing the exploration
at the earliest opportunity. I
From what I have seen of the pay dirt, &c, on. the Upper Columbia, I am of opinion that gold
will be found on the bars of the river separating the Upper and Lower Kootenay Lakes, and i Iso
in the banks of the river, shewn on plan, emptying (from the north) into the Uppsr Lake. This
stream heads from the same source as the east branch of the Ille-cille-waut Eiver. In the event
. of gold being found in the above mentioned locality, I would advise the Government to keep in
mind the advantages the Americans will have in supplying the mines in this direction, from the
fact of it being quite practicable for steamers to navigate for some considerable distance below the
49° Parallel t i   he head waters of the Upper Kootenay.
Having done all in my power in seeing and collecting information as to the routes running eastward
from tha head of the Kootenay Lakes, I made all haste in returning to Shepherd en route for
Kamloops, in obedience with your orders. As I travelled along the trail lately constructed by
Mr. Dewdney, I took all the necessary observations with the Barometer, to enable me to make
sectional plans of the route, my reasons for doing so, was to enable you to compare his route with
others which might be discovered during our explorations.
When I reached Osoyoos Lake, Mr. Haynes requested me to assist him in surveying some
Indian Reserves on the Okanagan Lake, and, thinking under the circumstances, that I was quite
justified in acceding to his request, I surveyed the Reserves. In my Journal I have given fall
particulars on the subject, and have also given the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works an
explanatory Report on the subject. After completing the latter surveys I made all haste to New
Westminster, which by reference to my Journal you will see to be the case.
In conclusion, I beg to give the following summary of my whole observations, as regards the
respective worth of the different routes, of which I am aware, running through the Gold and Selkirk
When on the summit of the divide, between Captain Houghton's and the Columbia, I had a
full view of the whole of the country for miles round, and could see as on a plan, all the valleys
stretching through the range in the neighbourhood. Since then, on my way up and down the
Columbia,' I have had a good opportunity of studying its banks, and am of opinion that the best
route through (should a continuous road or trail be contemplated) will be found on examination
via Okanagan; from thence along the valley of the Shuswap or Spill-e-mu-chem River (see plan)
and from thence by one of the routes shewn in red dotted lines to the Columbia.
A road by this route will have the advantage of good feed nearly the whole way, will be free
from avalanches, heavy snow drifts, &c, and will open out a good agricultural district. In addition, a road connecting the Okanagan with the head waters of the Columbia would be of great
benefit to the mines of Wild Horse, for the following reasons: should the said mines turn out such
as would warrant emigration to that quarter, the present trail to that point will never answer as-
the highway, on account of the many high mountains it crosses over; first, the Hope mountain,
which is about the lowest; next, the mountains (5,200 feet in height) between Osoyoos and
Shepherd; next the Kootenay mountain,.which is 6,200 feet. These mountains will be impassable
. until late in the season, and, so soon as the snow leaves them, the numerous creeks and rivers, as-
yet unbridged, will be impassable; the Kootenay meadows will be totally so. Considering, therefore, the great expense of keeping in repair and making good bridges, &c, it might be found on
examination best to make one good trail which would connect the whole of the mines and would
pass through the centre of the country.
With regard to the navigation of the Columbia, I will merely say that as far as I am capable of
judging, all navigation stops at the Little Dalles without doubt; and that, in my opinion, it should,
and possibly will, stop at the mouth of the Kootenay River, owing to a rapid there (known as.
the Kootenay Riffle), which is much more dangerous than any of the rapids in the Fraser, between
this place and Yale.
As I am hurried in this Report, I will at any time give further information if necessary.
I have, &c.
$$m    ,    _ (Signed) J. TURNBULL.
yi i " ■ Moberly, Esq.
No. 14.—Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works to Colonial Secretary.
Extracts from General Report.
Lands and Works Department,
New Westminster, 23rd January, 1866.
«fWD*S U°-W W8i M.<Jerly's Report, I appreciate as a cause of general congratulation that
the first main object with which he was entrusted" by my letter of instructions, namely: "to
ascertain the^best line for a Waggon Road from the eastern end of Shuswap Lake to the Columbia
bv the i'fT f if ctorily attained. The pass from the south-eastern end of Shuswap Lake
by the yalley of Eagle Creek to the Columbia River affords, as reported by Mr. Moberly, such
tivJlv lUri  grad6S "* t0 *? D<Vn 7 S,Uitable fOT a WaSS°n Bo*Vt adaptable with compS
tively small expense even for a Railroad. w^aa*
£=*±s£r 1 ",is Cotay ot other '^u'— m^» 1 m ^
I he second point to which mj instructions directed Mr. Moberly'. attention was to endeayonr,
i ^1
should he succeed in obtaining a good line of road to the Columbia River, to continue that line
m a south-easterly direction, across the Selkirk Eange to the Eocky Mountains, but it will be
seen from his Eeport, that his explorations in this direction were unfortunately arrested by the
inclemency of the weather in the mountains at the approach of winter.
It had previously been ascertained by the reconnaissances of Captain Palliser and others, that
no great difficulty exists to hinder the construction of a good Coach Road or Railroad from the
Red River settlement, up the Valley of the Saskatchewan, and across the Eocky Mountains into
the Valleys of the Upper Columbia and Kootenay Rivers in the neighbourhood of the Columbia
Lakes. The connection between this last named point and that where the route by the pass
explored by Mr. Moberly from the Shuswap Lake strikes the Columbia, remains yet to be
determined. No doubt exists but that this connection can be effected by following round the
Bend of the Columbia, as suggested by Mr. Moberly, but I am still hopeful that a route may be
traced through by the line partly explored by Mr. Turnbull, under Mr. Moberly's direction last
year,_ which will not Only be more direct to the passes of the Eocky Mountains and the gold
districts of the Upper Kootenay, but afford easy grades, without passing over any high acclivities.
No just opinion, however, can be formed as to the selection of the best route from the point
where the line, determined by Mr. Moberly, from Shuswap Lake strikes the Columbia Ewer to the
Eocky Mountains, until it be decided by what pass these mountains can most advantageously be
crossed. The Eeports of Dr. Hector, of Captain Palliser's Exploring Expedition, describe the
Vermillion pass as a natural Waggon Eoad, and state that but very little expenditure is needed
to enable a waggon to travel by this route from the Kootenay Valley to that of the Saskatchewan.
Indeed, all our present information seems to point to the Vermillion as the pass for which we
must make, in reconnoitring for a line of Waggon Eoad to the eastward of the Eocky Mountains,
and to this pass the route partly explored by Mr. Turnbull was directly tending at the time when
his explorations were broken off.
Further surveys of this district of country seem to me most desirable, as it will certainly be of
'very great importance to the permanent interests of this Colony to have indubitable assurance of
a route by which a continuous direct line of communication with British Settlements, east of the
Eocky Mountains, can be effected from the sea-board of British Columbia. I have, therefore,
earnestly to recommend that I may be authorized to continue reconnaissances to this end, as soon
as the season will permit of travelling in the mountains, and that the sum of $10,000 be appropriated for this purpose.
The subject, however, in Mr. Moberly's Eeport which is of more immediate interest, relates to
the construction of Trails to connect Shuswap Lake with the Mining District on the Columbia
Eiver, so successfully prospected last summer. A good pack trail, 34£-miles in length, has been
constructed under Mr. Moberly's direction to the Columbia River. Improvements are needed to
this trail, and its continuation to French Creek will be necessary, as also branches to other creeks
on which mining will doubtless be carried on to a large extent next season. With the limited
knowledge existing of the features of this region, and of the points to which the attention of the
mining population will be-chiefly attracted, it is impossible to indicate with any degree of exactness, the directions these trails should take, their respective lengths, or the expenditure that must
be incurred in their construction. It is certain, however, that there will be great need of these
trails in the early spring, and that their immediate formation will be urgently called for. It is,
therefore, not practicable that due time can be allowed before they are commenced, to lay out the
lines that should properly be selected for Waggon Roads or for permanent trails. I am, therefore,
quite of accord with Mr. Moberly, that these works should be commenced by day's labour; that
the best line that can be found in the time allowed for its selection must be temporarily adopted,
and work done along it, so as to render it passable as soon as possible for pack animals. From
time to time this line may be improved, unless in the meanwhile a more thorough survey shall
have determined a preferable route for the permanent road.
I certainly am of opinion that the construction of a Waggon Road into this District shouldnot
be undertaken until much more is known of it than is at present ascertained. A sufficient
opportunity, also, should be given for a thorough reconnaissance of the country, so that should the
yield of gold, and amount -of population warrant the construction of a road of a permanent character, it may be laid out on a carefully chosen line.
It is impossible to form anything like an exact estimate of what may be the requirements^ of
this District in the current year. Should a numerous population pour into it, as many are sanguine
will be the case, and a large Revenue be consequently derived therefrom, increased expenditure
may be called for, and deemed advisable by Government, but under present circumstances, I do
not think it desirable that a larger sum than $35,000 be named for this purpose; which will in
my op'nion be sufficient to provide easy access from the Shuswap Lake, to all the Mining Creeks
now known to yield paying prospects.
I have, &c, &c,
Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works and Surveyor General.
The Hon. the Acting Colonial Secretary. 14 COLUMBIA RIVER EXPLOEATION, 1865.
Mr. Moberly's Journal.
Kamloops, Thursday, July 20th, 1865.—Dispatched Turnbull and Howman at 2 p.m. to explore
line from Kamloops, via Okanagan and Cherry Creek. Left Kamloops with whole party and supplies
in two batteaux, one so leaky was obliged to abandon it and put whole party in other. Proceeded
up river about 4 miles and camped on north bank. Level flats on both banks of river, with benches
and mountains in back ground, and the whole covered with a fine growth of bunch grass. A few
scattered and stunted red fir.    Weather very hot.    Current of river 3 to 3| miles per hour.   .
Friday, July 21.—Started at 5 a.m. Was delayed nearly all day waiting for some of the Indians
to join us. Travelled about 8 miles, and camped on south bank of river. Flats on both sides of
rive*, with benches and mountains in back ground, the whole covered with fine growth of bunch
grass, with scattered red firs.    Weather very hot.    Average current 3 miles per hour.
Saturday, July 22.—Started at 5 a.m. and made about 11 miles. Current just above camp very
strong, and also from Tod's house to Indian gardens (Nesqumith's camp) running at the rate of 5
miles per hour, the rest of this portion of river has a current of about 3 miles per hour. On north
bank of river high sandy cliffs and ravines in places. On south bank extensive flats, the whole
covered with bunch grass. Timber, red fir, grows more thickly than before. The land on the flats
where the Indian gardens are situated, and also in the neighbourhood of Tod's house, is very good
for agricultural purposes. A short distance below the' Indian gardens, on the south-east bank of the
river, a spur of the mountains runs out to the river, and would render more work necessary, perhaps
a little blasting, in order to get waggons round it.
Sunday, July 23.—Left camp at 6 a.m. and travelled about 8 miles. The current from this camp
to the Little Shuswap Lake is very strong, running at the rate of about 6 or 7 miles per hour, and
in places the water is shallow. The Indians say that in winter it is not more than two feet in depth
'.Where they ford their horses, as shewn on sketch. The bunch grass is abundant on both banks of
the river, and the hills timbered with firs. A settler on the extensive flat below the Little Shuswap
Lake, on the southerly bank of the river, has a good crop of barley. At the lower end of this lake
the aspect of the country changes, the bunch grass almost entirely disappears, the mountains become
higher and more rugged, and are covered with a thick growth of timber and brushwood. It is almost
impossible to define the general bearing of the ranges of mountains which surround Little Shuswap
Lake. This lake is about 4| miles in length, and the scenery is very beautiful. The river between
the Great and Little Shuswap Lakes is about two miles in length, and the current very strong. There
is plenty of water for steamers at this season of the year, but in order to know what it is at low water
it will be necessary to examine it in the winter. Between the two lakes, on the north-westerly bank,
is an extensive well-timbered flat, which is a favourite wintering place for the Shuswaps—its Indian
name is "Che-mouse." A short distance from the foot of the Great Shuswap Lake, on its northerly
side, a large creek falls into it, which flows in a south-easterly direction from Adams Lake about
four miles distant. This creek is described by the Indians as very rapid and unfit for canoe navigation.
About six miles from the lower end of Great Shuswap Lake, there is an Island called by the Indians
"Kum-tal-qua." It is about f of a mile in length, and is high and rocky. On the south-west
corner I discovered traces of copper. The waters of these lakes are very clear, and salmon trout, 6
or 7 lbs. in weight, abound in them. High mountain ranges, thickly covered with timber and underbrush, surround the Great Shuswap Lake. The timber on the flats and in some of the ravines
attains a good size, and consists of fir, poplar, birch, cedar, a little white pine, and some vine maple.
The Indians take their horses at low water along the northerly side of the Little Lake, thence over
the flat between the lakes and along the bank of the Great Lake, and, turning off about 2 or 3 miles
beyond "Kum-tal-qua Island," cross over the mountains, and again strike the lake at the head of the
north-west arm.
Monday, July 24.—Left camp at 5.30 a.m. and travelled about 24 miles, to within 7 or 8 miles
of the head of the north-west arm.
Tuesday, July 25.—Reached the Hudson's Bay Post in the morning, during a heavy storm of
rain. Camped, and prepared to send a party over to the Columbia River next day. Wrote to the
Surveyor' General and the Colonial Secretary, and sent rough tracing of Shuswap Lakes and River to
the former.
W§dimd.ay, July 26.—Dispatched Indians with packs for the Columbia River, with all the party
except Hwk, under Mr. Green's charge, who I instructed to examine the fine proposed by Perry for
A mule traih/.said to be 30 or 40 mifegin lerigBh, and then to return and examine the Indian horse
trail, and both banks of the Columbia River between the easterly termini of these two lines; and if
I should not then meet him on the Columbia Eiver, to continue his explorations through the Selkirk
Range. I left at 10 a.m. in a skiff with Hick and two Indians; discovered a vein supposed to contain
silver and iron, about 10 miles below the Hudson's Bay Post, on the southerly shore of lake, and
camped at night at the narrows called " Cium-moust-un," which means " Come and go back again,"
Thursday, July 27.—Left camp at 5 a.m. and reached the mouth of Eagle Creek at 3 p.m. Went
up this stream about 7 miles and camped. This is a very fine creek, or rather river, and stern-wheel
steamers can ran up it a distance of 4 or 5 miles, at which point a small rapid would stop further
navigation. There is a good deal of low flooded land about the mouth and banks of this stream, and
the mosquitoes abounded. High mountains a short distance back from the banks, covered with a
thick growth of timber and underbrush; in some places fine timber.
Friday July 28.—Left camp at 3.30 a.m. and after travelling about 3 miles found the current COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. 15 «
so strong that I left the skiff and proceeded on foot about 6 miles, and then ascended a mountain
on the southerly bank of stream at a point about 15 or 16 miles from its mouth, to get a view of
the valley. The main valley appeared to run north, 35° west, with a branch valley running northeast into a high range of snow-capped mountains. The whole distance travelled was covered with
an almost impervious growth of small pine brush and fallen timber. Some good sized cedar fir
and white pine. Finding there was not much chance of being able to complete the exploration of
this valley at present, and as it appeared more desirable for me to see the rest of the Shuswap Lake
to the south, and then get over to the Columbia Eiver, where I proposed to establish my depot,
and explore back from that river, I returned to the boat and ran down to the lake again which
we reached in the evening and camped at the second narrows, called by the Indians "Schik-mouse".     V
Saturday, July 29.—Left camp at 5 a.m. and rowed and sailed nine miles to mouth of Spill-e-
mu-chem River. No valley through the mountains to the eastward of this portion of the lake.
The valley of the Spill-e-mu-chem appears to be large, and runs in a southerly direction from foot
of lake with mountains on either side. Much low land at mouth of river. Very severe thunder
storm with lightning came on as we reached the mouth of river. Having seen the most westerly
part of Shuswap Lake, I started on my return, and camped about 4 miles above | Schik-mouse "
on easterly shore of lake.
Sunday, July 30.—Rowed up to head of north-east arm of lake. No valley to eastward of lake
through the high range of mountains, which runs all the distance along that shore. Am now
satisfied the only chance for a pass from the Shuswap Lake to the Columbia River, at a low level
and in a direct line, is by Eagle Creek valley. Camped at "Cium-moust-un." Saw many veins of
quartz with appearance of much "mineral".
Monday, July 31.—Returned to Hudson's Bay Post at head of north-west arm.
Tuesday, August 1.—Waited for return of Indians with Green's Report, and roofed house for
storing supplies.
Wednesday, August 2.—Remained at Hudson's Bay Post as Indians have not yet returned.
Examined head of lake for Reserve.
Thursday, August 3.—Remained at Hudson's Bay Post.    Indians not returned.
Friday, August 4.—Left Shuswap Lake at 7.30 a.m. Travelled until 6.30 p.m. Detained
much by the Indians. Travelled about 8 miles and camped. Weather clear and hot. The first
5 miles are nearly level; soil sandy, with gravel; not much underbrush, some fallen timber,
standing timber principally cedar, fir, hemlock, and some white pine, all averaging from 2 to 4
feet in diameter. Very little labour to make a road beyond clearing and grubbing, the removal of
vegetable matte* and rotten wood from surface necessary. Only one hill of consequence about
sixth mile, which can be overcome by side hill grading.
Saturday, August 5.—Left camp at 5 a.m. and reached first crossing of stream at 11a.m.
Met Indians, and shortly afterwards Green and Perry came in, we all camped. Wrote letters to
Surveyor General, Nindk and DeNouvion, made sketch of Reserve, and notice for Green to post
on the Hudson's Bay flagstaff at Shuswap Lake; got Green's Report of trail, &c. Weather clear
and hot. There were several wet and boggy places on the trail crossed to-day; a good number of
short easy side hills; a good deal of stony ground; more underbrush than on the first portion,
timber about the same. A prairie covered with grass on the north-east side of trail, about 1£ from first crossing of stream.
The Sketch of the trail from Shuswap Lake to the Columbia River is by Mr. Green, who makes
the distance about 4 miles shorter than I do.
Sunday, August 6—Sent Mr. Green back with all the Indians for a load of provisions. Went
out with Perry to explore the Indian horse trail, came to a mountain which we went up a distance
of about 2 miles, at an angle from 60° to 70°, gave the line up as bad and returned to camp. Sent
Chief to Lytton with letters.
Monday, August 7.—Waited for Mr. Green and Indians; caught some fish. Rained in afternoon-
Tuesday, Augiist 8.—Remained in camp; Mr. Green and Indians arrived in afternoon, and we
cached 4 loads, (the ones I brought out) and travelled until 7 p.m. and camped.
Wednesday, August 9.—Left camp at 6 a.m. and travelled to second crossing, where I waited
for Indians who came in about 6 p.m. Camped on open bar. Weather clear and hot. Ground
passed over to-day sandy, with vegetable mould on top; a few undulations; a good deal of underbrush; timber as before described.
Thursday, August 10.—Left-camp at 6 a.m.; commenced raining in the morning and rained
hard all day; laid over two hours and then travelled the rest of day and camped at the upper end
of first small lake on top of mountain. For 2i miles from camp on bar ground tolerably level;
over hill good bottom for road; timber as before. At the end of the 2\ miles from last camp we
crossed the third time, and almost immediately commenced rising at a tolerably good grade for 4
or 4\ miles to foot of mountain, which we ascended at a steep grade; mountain stony. A good
grade can be obtained by making zigzags, and perhaps a better line by keeping further along the
main valley. As we ascended the mountain the timber got smaller, and at last we only had fir,
which does not grow very thickly; much underbrush, and a good many large boulders, particu-
%Friday, August 11.—Rained hard all night, and all next day. Left camp at 12 m., travelled
to Divide Lake; no provisions left and Indians not arrived; Perry went out and shot 4 ground-
hoe's made a rather poor supper on them. There was a considerable altitude attained to-day in
the 4 or 4£ miles We travelled over; ground very wet, but with gravel bottom; a great many stones
and boulders Scattered firs, thick fir, and other underbrush in places; much very fine grass.
This will be the worst portion of road to build. Height of Divide Lake (the fifth lake we came
to) above Shuswap Lake, 3799 feet. WWM     v   -r w
Saturday August 12.—Left camp at 5.30 a.m. Rained hard all day; reached Columbia River
about 4pm- descended for about two miles along valley of creek, the bottom of which is wet,
but gravel bottom i then took side hill until we reached the Columbia Eiver, at a distance at»
miles from Divide Lake; a good grade can be got down this hill by zigzags, or b^ keeping the
line along side of mountain to Downie's Creek, 4 miles above our camp. 16
Sunday, August 13.—Indians arrived in afternoon; dried cargo, &c, &c; took latitude of camp,
which is 51° 31' north; regulated and put scale on Barometer, &c, &c.
Monday, August 14.—Sent Cowan back with Indians to Shuswap Lake for supplies. Dispatched
Green to examine west bank of Columbia River to Gold Creek, and the route traversed by Mr.
Jenkins.    Worked all afternoon with Perry making a log canoe.
Tmsday, August 15.—Wrote report to,Surveyor General, and letter to Hick; balanced accounts,
&c, &c, worked at canoe.
Wednesday, August 16.—Completed canoe; wrote to Mr. Birch; engaged 5 broken miners to
work on trail;   purchased a large;
for $30, and 350 lbs. Flour at 40 cents per lb.    The
' Columbia River has fallen 7 feet 6 inches below high water mark.    Weather clear ond fine.
Thursday, August 17.—Left camp at 7.30 a.m. in canoe, with Perry and Dick; ran to Cairne's
Creek in two hours; visited mines; good prospects of coarse gold; bought 350 lbs. flour at 40 cents;
took 100 lbs. with us and left 250 until return; paid $20 on account; ran about 16 miles below
Cairne's Creek and camped at 6 p.m.; weather clear and fine; nearly lost our canoe and Perry
in a rapid; got into Little Dalles before we knew it; Indian boy frightened; canoe turned round and
nearly all sent to Jericho; saw a good gap through the mountains in the direction of Spill-e-mu-chem
arm of Shuswap Lake; will explore it on return from Upper Arrow Lake; also gap to the eastward.
The east bank of river to within 3 miles of the upper side of the Little Dalles will make a very good
and not expensive line for a Waggon Road, with the exception of about 1 or 1^ miles where some
rather steep sandy hills will have to be got over; the other 1 or 1\ miles Will be tolerably steep
side hill cutting; the rest of river banky, a distance of 3 miles, to foot of Little Dalles is steep side
hill, some rock and several ravines; fine level banks on both sides of river below Little Dalles to
camp. The bank of Columbia River on west side is hilly, rocky, and a good deal cut up with ravines.
Both banks are thickly covered with cedar, fir, spruce, hemlock, and some white pine and birch.
Barometer at Cairne's Creek 27.93G> at camp   8
Friday, August 18.—Left camp at 7 a.m.; ran about one miledown stream and came to mouth oflarge
creek flowing from the eastward; went up it a short distance and returned to river, as I shall explore
this creek on my return; saw another low valley about 1| miles below it; one of them will probably
•take us to the Shuswap waters; also low valley running into Selkirk range, nearly opposite the lowest
gap on the other side. The west side of river is rough, broken, and rocky, and would be bad for a
road, and with exception of above two gaps there does not appeal* to be any chance of a pass through
the mountains to westward. The east bank of river is well adapted for a road, and with exception
of above gap, the others are narrow and high, with snowy mountains in background. A few streams
and sloughs, and one steep rocky bluff 300 yards long; rest level gravel benches; two small rapids,
but rest of river good steam-boat navigation to Upper Arrow Lake, which is about 21 miles below
Little Dalles. Very high mountains'to westward of head of lake, 10 to 12,000-feet. Shot a bear.
Weather clear and hot. Barometer at camp in morning 28; evening 28.04. The valley of the
Columbia changes a good deal below the Little' Dalles, becoming wider, with extensive flats and bars
thickly-timbered; the climate also appears to be much milder.' We saw very few mosquitoes until
we got below them, but every place where we landed, both on the banks of river and shores of lake,
were infested with swarms of them.
Saturday, August 19.—Left camp at 8 a.m. Explored a short distance up north-east arm; landed
aud repaired canoe, made oars, and returned and camped again on island at mouth of river. Weather
hot and hazy; appearance of rain; heavy wind in night, and a little rain.
Sunday, August 20.—Remained in camp, waiting for Turnbull's party, having heard from an
Indian that they are on their way up. Weather very hot; mosquitoes innumerable. Four miners
arrived and camped with us; told us they passed Turnbull at foot of lake, on his way up.
Monday, August 21.—Waited for Turnbull on Island; mosquitoes very numerous.- Sky cloudless
not any wind, hot and hazy.
Tuesday, August 22.—Left camp at 7 a.m. Poled up river until 6 p.m.; camped on upper end of
small island; rained hard all day; swarms of mosquitoes. Barometer on Island, Arrow Lake in
morning, 27.91; do. on Island, 12 miles from mouth of river, 28.025.
Wednesday, August 23. Barometer at camp in morning 28.10; rained hard; swarms of mosquitoes,
poled against strong current; stopped at Bear Bar, nearly killed a large black bear in river- four
miners camped with us.
Thursday, August 24.—Left camp at Bear Bar at 7 a.m. Barometer 28.325; poled against very
strong current until 4 p.m. Met a canoe of miners,from French Creek (the same whose boat of provisions was lost below Dalles de Mort). They were inclined to give bad reports of the mines, but as
they had only been there 15 or 16 days I am doubtful if they mined at all. The four miners who
were going up at once stopped, and were on the point of returning, but I told them not to be discouraged but see for themselves, so they came on. Weather very fine and cool; mosquitoes more
numerous.than ever; camped on sand bar with Indian family; Indian speared 10 fine salmon with
hunting knife.    Barometer 28.325 in evening.
Friday, August 25.—Left Camp at 8 a.m. Weather clear and cold, strong breeze from north
Barometer in morning on bar 28.40; poled against stream until 2 p.m., when we reached creek-
posted notice for Turnbull, and wrote him letter which I sent down with Indian, who is to go over
mountains with us in morning; camped a short distance upstream; saw a great number oflarge
salmon, some going up and some down stream; prepared to start in morning. Barometer 28 25 in
evening on creek.
_   Saturday, August 26.—Went a short distance up stream, found we were in wron°- valley   got
into canoe and went about one mile lower down stream, left our canoe and started up valley at 1
p.m.    Barometer at canon (in eddy) 28.28.    Travelled up valley about 2 miles, and then com
menced ascending mountain, in order to get a view of country.    Camped at 6 p.m.    Barometer
Zb.oJ.    A few drops of rain, and fine night.
Sunday, August 27.
dined.    Ba
ascended alor.
i iew arops or rain, and fine night.
I August 27.—Barometer in morning at camp 26.36. Travelled up mountain until 1 n m •
Jarometer 24.70. Continued to travel until 6 p.m., when we camped, having graduallv
alogg the ridge of mountain. Barometer 24.152 in evening. Windy, cold, and a little rain
 i   j
Monday, August 28.—Barometer in morning 23.95. Weather clear, cold, and windy. Travelled
until 12.50 p.m., dined on ground-hogs; continually ascended. Barometer 23.45. Had a good
view of valley leading to the Spill-e-mu-chem Eiver; after dinner began to descend, crossed a small
divide, and ascended a very high bare peak; got a good view of the valleys to Spill-e-mu-chem
Eiver, and via Eagle Creek to Schik-mouse; descended to valley leading down to Eagle Creek,
which we followed a short distance and camped; supper ground-hogs.    Barometer 23.51.
Tuesday, August 29.—Left camp at 8 a.m., cold and misty. Barometer in morning 23.51.
Descended mountain until 12.15 p.m., very steep hill side all the distance along the creek
followed; at foot of mountain crossed a short flat about i mile in] width, and struck the Eagle
Creek, at which place the Barometer was 28.05. Eat some dried ground-hog, and as boots were
completely worn out, and provisions exhausted, I started to explore valley to Columbia Eiver,
and reached the Lake of "Three Valleys," where I camped for the night. Barometer 28.01.
Weather fine, and clear.
Wednesday, August 30.—Left camp at 6.50 a.m. Barometer 28.01. Weather cloudy, but fine.
At Lake of "Three Valleys" there are low valleys running to Columbia River, to Spill-e-mu-chem
River, and to Eagle Creek, all suitable for waggon roads. After leaving the Lake of "Three
Valleys" I followed the easterly valley until I reached a point about half a mile above a small
lake, some 7 miles above Lake of "Three Valleys," when I camped. Barometer 27.91 in evening.
There is about If or 2 miles of heavy rock work and blasting along the sides of these two lakes,
which would probably cost 80 or $35,000 for an 18 feet waggon road; but by keeping on opposite
sides of lakes, it is probable a good deal of the work can be avoided; some swampy ground between
lakes, and a little side hill, but generally good soil. Timber: cedar, fir, white pine, birch, yew,
generally of fine growth.
Thursday, August 31.—Left camp at 6.50 a.m. Barometer in morning 27.84. Weather misty
and windy. Barometer on Divide (9 a.m.) 27.80, at "the Eddy" Columbia River (2.30 p.m.)
28.10. Travelled to the Columbia River, a distance of about 12 miles; the valley from the camp
to the small lake passed to-day is level and the soil gravelly; along the shore of lake very steep
rocky bluff, over which it will cost from 15 to $20,000 to construct an 18 feet waggon road; from
the easterly end of this lake to the Columbia River an 18 feet waggon road can be constructed
for about £500 per mile, being generally level or gentle side hill, and timbered with a remarkably
fine growth of white pine, cypress, fir, &c, &c. On reaching "the Eddy" we found Messrs.
Turnbull and Howman camped on the opposite side of the river, having lost both of their canoes
and a portion of their supplies on their way up the river, their Indians had also all left them.
I stopped at their camp for the night; in evening the old Indian Chief "Gregoire" paid me a
long visit.
Friday, September 1.—Left camp at 9 a.m., taking Turnbull with us; Howman remained in
charge of camp and stores; camped on small Island about 8 miles above "Eddy." Gregoire and
three Indians camped with us.
Saturday, September 2.—Left camp at 7 a.m., and camped about 1 mile above Cairne's Creek;
miners in high spirits at creek; saw some very fine coarse gold.
Sunday, September 3.—Left at 7 a.m., and reached our depot in the evening, where we found
Layton.    Shortly after our arrival, the Indians with packs arrived from Shuswap Lake.
Monday, September 4.—Commenced to prepare Sketch map, &c, &c; rained all day; cold and raw.
Tuesday, September 5.—Wrote letters to Surveyor General, Colonial Secretary, Nind, and Hick;
worked at Sketch map. In evening Cowen and Green arrived; received private letter from the
Government, wrote answer to it.    Weather cloudy and some rain; cold and raw.
Wednesday, September 6.—Worked at Sketches with Turnbull; dispatched Cowen and 2 Indians
for supplies to Shuswap Lake. Sextant arrived in evening, with letters from Mr. Trutch and
Hick. Unable to get latitude. Weather raw and cold, with much rain; it snowed on the mountains a good deal during night.
Thursday, September 7.—Worked at Sketches with Green and Turnbull; rained hard nearly all
day; could not get latitude.    Weather cold and raw.
Friday, September 8.—Dispatched Green and party to examine Selkirk range via Gold Creek
Valley; drafted letter to Surveyor General; not well.    Eained nearly all day.
Saturday, September 9.—Sick.    Eained all day.
Sunday, September 10.—Finished letter to Surveyor General; wrote to Messrs. Green and
Hick.    Eained part of the day.
Monday, September 11.—Got Sketch map completed; completed arrangements to go below to
Ille-cille-waut Creek. Eainy and windy. Two Columbia Indians came to engage for trip to eastward of Columbia Eiver. -,   n  -,   "
Tuesday, September 12.—Waited for return of Indians from Shuswap Lake. Eained all day
and most of the night. .
Wednesday, September 13.—Waited for return of Indians from Shuswap Lake. Rained until
1 p.m.; cold and windy; rained in evening.
Thursday, September 14.—Indians arrived in afternoon; also, Cunningham and J. Blacks
agant.   Eained all day; cold and raw; not much wind; 22 inches of snow reported on summit by
Indian trail. ,
Friday, September 15.—Left Layton's camp in morning, with Turnbull and Perry, 6 Shuswap
and 2 Columbia Eiver Indians; the Shuswap Indians that were to have gone with Turnbull,
refused to go at the last moment. Stopped for twenty minutes at Cairne's Creek, and borrowed
large canoe from J. Claighton, leaving him our small one; ran down to camp below "the Eddy,"
where we found Howman and stores all safe; met two boats with Chinese going up the river.
Eained hard nearly all day, and very cold. Saw some very fine gold at Cairne's Creek, as large
as pumpkin seeds, and somewhat similar. j
Saturday September 16.—Left camp in morning, and ran down to the Ille-cille-waut River, up
which we proceeded about one mile, and stopped on a bar to dry cargo, and prepare cache and
loads for trip into the mountains; decided on spot for a bridge, should road cross river, it is wat
below "Big Bar," and about § or \ a mile above mouth of Ille-cille-waut River, and about 300 feet 18
in width; it can be known by some rocks on west bank of river at waters edge. Weather misty but fine.
Sunday, September 17.—Rained hard until 10 a.m., when we started, towing the canoe and cargo
up stream; reached foot of canon at 12.50, where we left canoe and a few things, and, having dined,
travelled about 4| miles, where we camped on north bank of river; it rained a little in the afternoon;
banks of river thickly timbered with fir, white pine, cypress, cedar, and spruce, of large size. A
waggon road from Columbia River to hill at canon can be built on good gravelly ground, timbered
principally with fir, pine, and poplar; it can shoulder round hill with easy grade, and probably with
little or no blasting; the rest of distance travelled to-day the road would pass over flats and along
easy side hills, and would be for the most part immediately along the north bank of the Bli-cillie-waut,
the whole distance thickly timbered with above description of timber.
Monday, September 18.—Left camp at 8 a.m. and camped at 6 p.m., having travelled about 8J
miles along north bank of river, which is thickly timbered with cedar, cypress, white pine, fir, and
spruce oflarge size, the whole distance. All the ground passed over to-day is of a very good character for a waggon road, and is generally nearly level or with easy side hill grading. Should a
waggon road be built along the bank of this river, a clause respecting the removal of fallen timber
from the outer edge of road will be necessary, as in places during high water (which rises to a great
height in certain places) if the fallen timber, or timber which may be chopped down, is left, it may
damage the outer side of roadway very much. The fine of road will follow close to the north bank
of river, with the exception of places where bars project, and then it will generally be immediately
at foot of hill which extends the whole distance. Weather clear, warm, and cloudless; a light breeze
at noon; killed a porcupine.
Tuesday, September 19.—Left camp at 9 a.m.. Weather clear and fine. Travelled three miles,
when, being very unwell, was obliged to camp; shot a very large porcupine; bank of river thickly
timbered as before, and nearly same description of ground (flats and easy side hills).
Wednesday, September 20.—Left camp at 8 a.m. Travelled until 5 p.m., and made about 8| miles,
6 of which will be heavy side hill cutting, and 2\ are flats and benches; it is very probable it would
be better to cross to other bank of river, which can be done in many places with a span of 80 or 100
feet. The whole distance travelled to-day is thickly timbered with fir, cedar, cypress, white pine,
&c, &c, of large size. The white pine is of a very superior quality. A very great quantity of fallen
timber nearly the whole distance.
Thursday, September 21.—Rained hard most of night and until 11 a. m., with much wind. We
then started and travelled until 4 p.m., having made about 8 miles. We passed over good flats and
two benches on this section; ground gravelly, hardly any side hill cutting necessary; heavily timbered with the same description of timber as before; passed two small meadows with a very little'
coarse grass. We found four bark canoes cached by a party of Indians, who had gone to hunt in the
mountains. There was a good deal of fallen timber and much brush; bill-hooks on this entire line
will be most valuable in making trail or road. The mountains next to river were much lower to-day.
Friday, September 22.—Left camp at 8 a.m. Travelled about 7| miles. Weather clear and fine.
Three bad side hills, in all about 2 miles in length, were passed to-day, and a slide of large boulders
about 4 or 500 feet in length; also a short rocky bluff of about 150 feet; road may go above or
perhaps below and avoid blasting. The mountains next to river were low and without snow, but
very high snow-capped ones could be seen in the background to the southward; white pine almost
• disappeared to-day,- and generally timber of a smaller growth than before.
| Saturday, September 23.—Left camp at 8 a.m., and travelled about 8 miles. Weather clear and
fine until 1 p.m., when it became cloudy, but did not rain until Sunday morning. There are about
2 to 2\ miles of steep side hill on this section, and a few rocky points, but none of any length. The
rock is generally soft and easily worked; the rest of distance consists of good flats. To-day we got
into the slate range, in which are innumerable quartz veins of all sizes and colors; the benches also
appear to be composed of the same soil as the "blue lead" of Cariboo. Along the banks of river and
on sides of benches there is grass with nettles, fern, and other weeds. This grass we met with after
we had travelled about 3| miles, and it continued throughout the whole day. Prospects on bars
gave 5 cents to the pan. This, doubtless, is a very rich locality. About a \ af a mile from our camp
the river divides into two forks; we followed the most northerly one; the other, the Indians informed
me, is straighter but more rocky; they say that the head waters of these are close together. This
south-easterly fork should be examined before a road is finally determined upon. Timber fir cedar
yew, eypress, and spruce, of smaller growth than before.
Sunday, September 24.—Left camp at 9 a.m., and travelled about 7£ miles; most of distance over
good flats; a few steep and rocky side hills; timber about as yesterday; slate and quartz veins abundant; rained a little in morning but cleared up.
Monday, September 25.—Left camp at 8 a.m.; rainy; travelled over flats for a distance of 1J
miles, with the exception of 100 feet of steep side hill, when the rain, which continued to increase
came down in torrents, and we were obliged to stop; at 4 p.m. it cleared up; timber spruce, fir and
cypress; snowed on mountains to-day.
I would strongly recommend the Government to empower the person having charge of the completion of this exploration to take up some mining tools, and two sets of fight blasting tools and powder, together with provisions, say in all to the value of £800 to the centre of slate formation, and
there to issue supplies to small parties of prospectors, (no party to exceed 3 in number), so as to get
the country round, for a distance of 15 or 20 miles, well prospected. I think the result of this would
be the discovery of rich quartz mines, as quartz veins of all kinds abound in the slate rock, and-are
very easily found and traced.
Tuesday, September 26.—Left camp at 8 a.m., and travelled 1\ miles; rained incessantly nearly
all day; about 5-miles of the above distance was'along steep slate side hill, generally covered with
thick growth of alder, brush, yew, and fern; the other 2\ miles was over good flats, timbered with
good sized cedar, spruce, and fir. We crossed a fork of river about 3 miles below where w
in evening; this fork
e camped
>rk has its source in high mountains to the north-west; \ of a mile below camu
we crossed to opposite side of stream on a snow bridge, under which the stream ran for about 250
ieet without being seen; this was evidently a show slide; the valley nearly whole distance to-dav
was merely an angle between the mountains, which are on each side of stream at an angle of el
tion of from 45° to 60°; this side hill will be bad for making road along on account of snow slides,
but the road when once made in slate rock (which is soft) will be good.
Wednesday, September 27.—Left camp at 8 a.m., and travelled 8 J miles. Eained all day lon'g;-
Nearly the whole distance travelled from camp 10 to camp 11, was over good flats; much grass
and underbrush; timber, balsam, cedar, and yew; the cedar appears to run out, at about 68
miles from mouth of stream. The general bearing of valley from camp 11, was north-west, and
as we have got so far now out of our course, I have determined to give this valley up as useless
for a pass through the Selkirk range; it is possible, that the other fork which branches off at
camp 6, may lead more directly into the mountains; but Victor (an Indian with us who knows it)
says it also turns to the north, and after a short distance runs nearly parallel with this one.
Barometer reads to-night 26.45; and it read near mouth 28.32. It is impossible to get a view of
the mountains, as they are always enveloped in niist and fog; this range should be explored in the
latter end of June, July, and August, or perhaps in March, April, and the early part of May,
before the ice breaks up, as the explorer could travel on snow-shoes on the ice, and avoid the.almost
impenetrable underbrush and fallen timber with which the flats and mountain sides are covered.
One of the principal results of the exploration of this river, has been to settle definitely the
direction of the slate range, (with the blue lead and quartz veins). It commences about 25 miles
from the Columbia, and bears off to French Creek where the mines are now being worked, and
thence in the direction of Wild Horse Creek; the head waters of Cairne's Creek are also in it;
and I have no doubt but that rich diggings will be found on all the creeks flowing from this range
in a westerly direction, and probably, also to the eastward; but miners will have to penetrate some
distance back from the Columbia, all the distance from Cairne's Creek to Wild Horse Creek, as
this range, does not, I think, run in any place near the Columbia River; diggings will in all
probability be struck on this river (both branches); on the Ill-com-opalux River, which flows into
the head of Upper Arrow Lake; on the stream which falls into the north end of Kootenay Lake;
and on the head of Downie's Creek; all of which streams take their rise in this range. Quartz
ledgeslof gold, I feel convinced will also be discovered in this range, as it is intersected in all
•places by veins of quartz of all colors, which are very easily seen and traced.
Thursday, September 28.—On getting up in the morning, we saw a large grizzly bear about i a
mile from the campy and immediately started after him; four shots killed him, and as we were
running short of provisions his flesh was a welcome addition to our supplies, having lived for four
days on bread and porcupines, (which we found in great abundance,) we therefore stopped in camp
in order to cure the .meat, and have a day's rest before our return journey to mouth of river.
It did not rain to-day, but was cloudy with cold wind; the snow is rapidly getting lower and lower
on mountain sides, and I fully anticipate snow in the valley in a few days.
Friday, September 29.—Started on return journey at 7.30 a.m., we had hardly left the camp,
when a fine cariboo, about 4 years old came trotting over the prairie to us, when a shot from
Victor's gun brought him down, he weighed about 4 or 500 lbs., and had a splendid pair of antlers.
It was with great difficulty I got the Indians away, as he was very fat; however, after getting his
skin and some of the sinews and fat, I got them off and made about 12 miles, camping at the forks
below snow bridge.    Weather clear and fine.    Barometer in evening, at camp 27.25.
Saturday, September 30.—Left camp at 7.30 a.m.; travelled hard all day, with exception of one
hour for dinner; made about 14 miles; waded river continually; discovered rich vein of quartz,
and some mineral supposed to be lead and silver; this vein is 3 or 4 feet
diagonally across stream,  about 3 \ miles below snow bridge.    Weather
Barometer in evening 27.40.
Sunday, October 1.—Left camp at 8 a.m.; travelled about 10 miles,
morning; clear and fine in evening. Blazed trees on north bank of river,
forks; we crossed to south side at forks, and found good flat for 3 miles, then a_short rocky bluff,
and the remainder was along easy side hill to flat on which we camped, opposite to camp No. 5.
Barometer in morning 27.30; in evening 27.52.
Monday, October 2.—Left camp at 8 a.m.; at 10 p.m. reached place where Indian canoes were
cached; took one canoe, leaving £ sack of flour and $5 to pay for loan of it, (it belonged to a
brother of one of my Indians). I then took the two Columbia River Indians, and all the packs,
and ran down nearly to camp No. 2, sending the others by land. The water in river was a succession of rapids, falls, and riffles, and very dangerous to run. Barometer in evening 27.80.
Weather clear, and very fine.
Tuesday, October 3.—Left camp at 8 a.m.; Perry and 3 Shuswap Indians travelled by land;
I took other 2 Indians and provisions, blankets, &c, in canoe, and ran down to lower canon, which
I reached at 10.30 a.m.; we ran 4 very bad rapids, and broke the canoe in one or two places; on
reaching canon I left canoe and $ sack of wet flour cached for Indians, and then walked across
portage by Indian trail to our own canoe, in which we ran down to Columbia River, (picking up
some things we had cached on our way up) and camped about i of a mile above the mouth of
Ille-cille-waut River, on east bank of Columbia Eiver. Weather fine and rather cold all day, with
a few clouds. Barometer in morning, at camp 16,28.05; ditto, in evening, on Columbia Eiver 28.38.
Wednesday, October 4.—Left camp at 8.30 a.m.; travelled up river to island above "Little
Dalles" (the same place where I camped before with Gregoire and Columbia Eiver Indians),
where we camped.' We found the river at the stage of water now, which is very low, to be very
different to what it was the last time we went up it; most of the bad rapids and riffles had disappeared and there were only three or four places above the "Little Dalles," where it is very
questionable if Steamers, even with tow-lines, could get over. The weather was fine and warm,
but became cloudy in evening.   ; *     j   ■
Thursday October 5.—Left camp at 8 am.; rained a little m mornmg, but became fane during
the day; camped at Cairne's Creek at 5 p.m.; heard of rich strikes having been made on French
Creek; saw some very heavy coarse gold of dark color, which had been taken out of the canon on
Cairne's Creek.    Barometer in morning 28.35, do. in evening.
in width, and runs
very  clear, and fine.
Weather  cloudy in
about £ mile above
^m 20
Friday October 6.—Left Cairne's Creek at 9] a.m., and towed canoe all the way up to termi-
nation'bf trail, which we reached at 5 p.m. Weather fine, but became cloudy in evening. Found
Hick had only about two miles more to make in order to reach the Columbia River with the trail.
Mr. Curby has got a house well forward at termination of trail, where ferry will probably be.
Saturdliy, October 7.—Paid off two Columbia River Indians, and sold a little flour and bacon to
some of the' Cairne's Creek miners, who were in a starving state, to enable them to hold on until
trains get in with provisions. Left camp at I p.m., and went out about 4 miles to Hick's camp, where
I stopped until Sunday morning.
Sunday, October 8.—Left Hiek's'eamp at 11 a.m.; travelled to first Lake from Shuswap Lake, and
camped at 6 p.m.; it rained hard most of the day; met 5 pack animals about 2 hours drive from
Columbia River; these were the first that packed over the trail; very heavy rain during night, but
weather warm and mild.
Monday, October 9.—Left camp at 8 a.m.; reached prairie about 12 miles from Shuswap Lake in
evening, where we camped; purchased $4.50 worth of supplies from man in charge of DeNuvion's
cargo which is all stored at the above point and Mr. De Nuvion has a log house nearly finished.
Tuesday, October 10.—Left camp at 9 a.m.; saw Mr. Smith at prairie on way to Columbia River,
with a train loaded with provisions; reached Shuswap Lake at 2 p.m.; found Mr. Ladner, who was
on point of going below. Wrote to Messrs. Trutch, Birch, and Nind. Took up Hick's orders to men
for wages to extent of $281.37, and order to J. Fraser for flour $120; gave Smith and Ladner, who
had cashed above orders, draft on Chief Commissioner for $681.37 on account of trail, and $220 on
account of Exploration party, out of which I left $400 with Smith and Ladner for Hicks, and got
$100 for my own party; found several houses built and others in course of construction.
Wednesday, October 11.—Employed all day making up accounts, and getting lists of supplies made
out by Cowen.    Very foggy weather until 2 p.m.
Thursday, October 12.—Busy all day with Indian accounts; set Green and Cowen surveying shore
of lake opposite town site.    Weather foggy until 2 p.m.
'y'Fkday, October 13.—Paid off three Indians; settled all accounts at this place in full; gave draft
to Smith and Ladner for $696.69. Green and Perry nearly completed survey of 2 blocks of lots.
Bought bark canoe for $20.
Saturday, October 14.—-Busy balancing books, &c.; got supplies ready for trip to Eagle Creek;
Green, and Cowen finished survey of 29 town lots.    Weather mild but foggy until 2 p.m.
Sunday, October 15.—Prepared to start for Eagle Creek in morning, when Lavian's boat came in
bringing me authority to act as Gold Commissioner pro. tern., and forms of licences, &c. As Lavian's
boat was going down again to Kamloops, I sent Messrs. Green, Cowen, and Perry down in her; we
left head of lake at 1.30 p.m., and made about 12 or 13 miles and camped. On my way to-day I
was followed by one "Bernard Riley" who gave me some prospects from a new creek lately discovered by himself and partners, and which is a tributary of Gold Creek, and falls into it about 6 miles
from the mouth of French Creek. Riley wished to take out licences for his partners and record
claims for both self and partners, so I gave him a receipt certifying that he had paid me licence for
John Huff $5, for John Clemens $5, for John Gallagher $5, for James Cunningham $5; also had
paid for recording claims for the above four men and himself $12.50. He paid me $40; not having
change I was obliged to give him the $7.50. Wrote in evening to Messrs. Birch, Nind, and Hick,
which I forwarded by Mr. Green.    Sky cloudy but weather warm; no wind.
Monday, October 10.—Left camp at 4.30 a.m., and travelled 4 miles in Lavian's boat to Cium-
moust-un, where got into bark canoe, in which we made about 1 mile and had to stop, being nearly
swamped by wind. We started again at 9 a.m. and got about 7 miles, when we were again driven
ashore by the wind and detained 2| hours; our canoe being altogether too small, I left the greater
part of supplies cached and managed to cross the lake and reach the small island at the mouth of
Eagle Creek, where I met the Shuswap chief Nesquimith and about 15 Indians. I camped on this
Island; the weather was clear and fine in the afternoon and evening. Barometer read 28.70 on Island.
By giving chief $5 got promise of a larger canoe in morning.
Tuesday, October 17.—A good canoe was brought in morning but, as usual, I was obliged to give
the rascally old chief Nesquimith another $1 before I could get her traded for my damaged one.
Started at 10.30 a.m. from mouth of Eagle Creek, and made about 8 or 10 miles; good dry sandy
flats on both sides of stream all the way up; bought some potatoes, fish, and wild fowl, for which I
paid $4.25, and a basket of pitch $1.25; camped on the north side of river on a large flat of burnt
land, with low mountains about 200 yards from bank of river. To-day the weather was chilly, although the sun was out most of the day, a strong breeze was blowing. Barometer in morning.28.65,
in evening 28.51. Timber on banks of river, poplar, fir, and a few white pine, generally of small size;
the larger timber has been burnt.    North side of river the best for waggon road.
Wednesday, October 18.—Left camp at 9 a.m.; cloudy and a fight breeze; travelled until 4 p.m.
and made about 8 miles in a direct course, but nearly double that distance by river, which is a succession of short bends; road can be taken along north bank better than on south bank; two short
points of rock, from 30 to'40 yards each but not steep, come down to bank of river, and a little
blasting would be required; along the last 2 or 3 miles, where the valley of river widens very much
in places—even to 3 or 4 miles—the low ground will in places probably be covered at low water,
and in drawing specification care must be taken to insert clause to keek top of roadway at least 4
feet above high water mark; the soil is sandy and gravelly, and the timber a small growth of poplar,
fir, and pine, with some birch and cedar; the stream gets more rapid than before, and there are
many shallows; many signs of beaver, bear, and otter; innumerable dead salmon covered all the
bars. It rained hard from 1?
It rained hard from 12 m. until 6.30 p.m. Barometer in morning 28.45, in evening 28.41.
An Indian and his wife stopped at our camp and promised to return and assist us in morning as our
canoe is too heavily loaded for shallow water, which he says we will get into to-morrow. It will take
a good deal of time and much care to locate the line of road through the wide parts of valley, and it
wiflvery probably be found better to take it immediately along the foot of mountain.
'ober 19.—Left camp at 9 a.m.; travelled until 3.30 p.m., through a heavy drizzel-
lere we leave the main stream, and go up a small tributary
ing nun, wheh-we reached the point whe COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. 2tf
to the eastward; arranged with an Indian family to lend me a canoe, and, also, for an Indian to
help us, as the stream to-day was very rapid, and the small tributary is described as much more
rapid, with many fallen trees. The north bank of river would be the best for a waggon road to
forks; about 1£ miles below forks is a rocky bench, which may be got round with little or no
blasting, or a road may even be taken over it. The banks of river to-day were much more thickly
timbered, particularly with cedar and cypress, and the timber generally of a larger growth.
Barometer in morning 28.38; ditto, in evening 28.30. The Indians have a stationary camp here
and some are always to be found at this place, except in winter. They inform me, that the greatest
depth of snow on the flats is not over four feet, but comes and goes very irregularly. The locality
about the forks of the main river and the tributary up which I go, is called Scouk-kein, or the ;
"good land," as the mountains are some distance back from river.
Friday, October 20.—The river raised about 3 feet during the night. 'Left camp at 9 a.m., and
proceeded about 2£ miles in direct course (probably 5 by stream), and were obliged to leave canoe
and most of our things cached; we then proceeded on foot along the north-easterly bank of stream,
about 2 J- miles, and then camped. The bank travelled over by us is the best for a road, being a
succession of side hills and benches; road can be level all the way. It rained hard the whole day.
Barometer in morning 28.30; ditto, in evening (reading taken about 65 feet above level of stream)
28.05. '
Saturday, October 21.—It rained in torrents all night, and continued to rain hard the whole day.
Barometer in morning 28.00; ditto, at point A. 27.96; ditto, at camp of previous evening, where
we camped again 28 05. We left camp at 9 a.m., and reached point A. (previously explored to by
me, from "the Eddy" on Columbia Eiver, August 29th), in 2| hours, distance 4£ or 5 miles, and
then returned to camp. Two-thirds of the above distance, along rather steep side hills (good
material for road); the rest of distance along good sandy and gravel flat; the whole distance
heavily timbered with cedar, cypress, fir, and a few white pine. Course about east 10° north and east.   •
Sunday, October 22.—It rained nearly all night, and snowed heavily on mountains. We left
camp at 9 a.m., and reached canon at 12 m.; having dried ourselves, we started in canoe and ran
down to the Indian camp at forks, where I returned the hired canoe for which I paid $5, and
discharged the Indian, paying him $6; we then ran down to camp No. 3, which we reached in 3f
hours. The main river and tributary had both raised very much (about 4 feet), and at this stage
of water a river Steamer could run all the distance we came down to-day in canoe. By building
a dam near the mouth of river, I think it very probable some 20 or 25 miles of this stream might
be ^made available for steam-boat navigation; a dam would cost a trifle, probably 3 or £400.
The Indians tell me that there is gold up the main river. The weather was clear and fine about
10 o'clock, and got cold as sooc as rain commenced. Barometer in morning 28.19; ditto, at forks
Indian camp 28.44; ditto, in evening, camps 3 and 8, 28.79.
Monday, October2&.—Left camp at 9 a.m., and ran down to Schik-mouse, where I stopped and
purchased $1 worth of potatoes and, also, 7 marten skins, and 1 mink skin, for $19; we then went
on nearly to Cium-moust-un and camped. Wind so strong, I was obliged to get into an old
Indian's canoe, with the larger portion of cargo, and help him to paddle, whilst my 2 Indians took
my small canoe with a few things. Barometer in morning 28.79 ; ditto, at Schik-mouse (12 m.)
28.81; ditto. Shuswap Lake in evening 28.80. Weather beautifully clear, sky without a cloud.
To-morrow I place my party, &c, on Gold Commissioner's account, as I return to head of Lake
and Columbia in that capacity.
Tuesday, October 24.—Left camp at 9 a.m., and reached head of north-west arm at 3 p.m.
Weather clear and fine, but cold. Eeceived letters from Messrs. Birch and Trutch, in relation
to Indian Reserves, &c.
Wednesday, October 25.—Remained at head of lake, to issue mining licences and record claims;
wrote to Messrs. Birch, Trutch, and Nind.    Weather very fine and warm.
Thursday, October 26.—Remained at head of lake, on Gold Commissioner's business; got ready
to leave for the Columbia River.    Weather fine.
Friday, October 27.—Left at 10 a.m., for the Columbia River; reached "the prairie" and
camped.    Weather dull and cold.    Recorded some claims on road, and received $15.
Saturday, October 28.—Left camp at 9 a.m., and reached stream at foot of mountain, where I
camped.    Weather damp and disagreeable.
Sunday, October 29.—Crossed mountain and camped 4-^miles from Columbia River. I stopped
at Mr. Hick's camp and gave him instructions to build all the bridges that will be required on trail.
Monday, October 30.—Left for Columbia River at 8 a.m., leaving my camp and Indians on the
mountain; on my arrival at river, saw Mr. R. T. Smith, who had already received a letter and
blank licences, &c, from Mr. Nind, authorizing him to act so far as the issuing of mining certificates and recording claims went; I handed Mr. Smith over all my records, accounts, blank forms,
&c, &c, and the sum of £25 I had collected, also, gave him copy of notice, to lay over the claims
in the Columbia River district, from the 10th of November, until 1st May. I then returned to
my camp on mountain.    Snowed and rained all day long. .,,,-,       •>
Tuesday, October 81.—Crossed mountain and camped with Hick.    Snowed heavily all day,   but
very mild; 9 inches of snow on summit.    Met Romano's train.
Wednesday, November 1.—Left camp at 9 a.m., and camped at "prairie." Snowed and rained
all day.    Trail muddy. . . ,
Thursday, November 2.—Travelled from "the prairie" to Shuswap Lake.  It ramd hard all day.
Friday, November 3.—Remained at lake to get supplies and forward them to Hick; drew
sketches for the two largest bridges he is to build; wrote to Messrs. Hick and R. T. Smith, and
drew out of Mr. McGuie's hands $800, received from'Mr. Nind, and a parcel (unbroken) from the
Lands and Works Department, said to contain $3,000.    Weather fine and clear.
November 4 to 18.—Engaged on business connected with Indian Reservations on the bnuswap
and Kamloops Rivers, the details of which are given in a separate Report. 22
Mr. Green's Journal.
July 26.—Started from the Hudson's Bay Company Post at the head of the Great Shuswap Lake,
at 11.30 a.rh., with 9 pack Indians, exclusive of the chief (Nesquimith) and his servant, to try and
find a pass to the Columbia River low enough to make a waggon road over. Messrs. Layton, Cowen,
and Perry also accompanied me, the latter as a guide. Camped at 3 p.m. as the Indians were tired,
having been up the whole of the previous night dancing a war dance previous to entering a hostile
country.    Made about 3 \ miles.
Barometer 28.830 Thermometer 79° H. B. C. Post.
1.15 p.m. 28.630 „ 77
3 p.m. 28.525 „ 80   at camp.
July 27.—Started at 4.15 a.m., I and Perry going ahead blazing trail, while Messrs. Layton and
Cowen kept with the Indians. Stopped at a prairie (of about 75 acres) at 11 a.m. for dinner; as.
we were packing up to start again met Mr. Ladner returning from Gold Creek via the horse trail.
Camped on the river at 5 p.m. at the Cache. The country gone through to-day was thickly timbered
with trees oflarge growth, with little underwood except where swampy. The trail over which we
travelled was very hilly, having been blazed out more with regard to open land than levels.
July 28.—Left camp at 4.55 a.m.; travelled 2 miles on the horse trail and then left it as we intended going up the valley of river to its source; stopped at 11 a.m. for dinner, afterwards travelled
till 5.30 p.m., when we reached a level place and camped, though rather swampy. About 8 p.m. a
thunder storm came on, so we had to turn out and pitch our tents.
July 29.—Thunderstorm all day, so laid over in camp.
July 30.—Started at 5.15 a.m.; crossed the river as the Indians told us the travelling was easier,
though I think we should have kept on the right bank as the fallen timber was very thick, and we
should only have had to cross one large stream instead of four; at 2 p.m. we re-crossed the river, and
here the Indians wanted to camp as they said there was no more water before we came to the divide;
as it was too early to think of camping, I made them go on till 5 o'clock when we camped near a
swamp; the chief and his servant left us at dinner time to hunt for cariboo, saying he would join us
next day.
July 31.—Rained early in the morning but, leaving off, we started at" 8.45 'a.m. The whole
of the country we went over to-day was quite unfit even for a mule trail, being alternately swampy
hills, precipices, and rocky slides. I now found out the Indians' object in bringing us up here; at
dinner time two of them went off on a hunt, contrary to my orders, leaving their packs for the others
to carry; in the evening they returned, bringing four ground-hogs they had killed; the chief also
returned about dark bringing in some. Had a long talk with the chief on the consequences of disobedience, stopped the two Indians' rations, and threatened stoppage of all pay due for the next
offence. As we had lost all confidence in our guide, I sent Perry up a hill (view hill on plan) to
see if he could recognize the country; he returned just as it was getting dark, and reported having
seen a valley that he believed connected with the valley we came up, so I determined to go up on.
the hill myself in the morning. On the top of the mountain there is excellent feed for animals, in
fact in some places the ground was quite blue with lupins, and the grass was halfway up to our knees.
August 1.—Started at 5.15 a.m. I and Perry went up to the top of view hill and saw the valley
through which the trail now runs; we then descended to Divide Lake, from which the water flows
into the Columbia and also into the Shuswap Lake; here we had to wait half an hour for one of our
party who had lost us, and then pushed forward to try and reach the Columbia by night. For about
3 miles we travelled over an open country, very swampy, but with plenty of grass; as we descended
the bush grew thicker until we reached the slope of the Columbia, where we found an open timbered
country, whieh continued until we came to within a mile of the river, where we found a swamp, and
as it was nearly dark we camped for the night.
August 2.—Started at 5-45 a.m., keeping round the swamp until we came to the end of it, and
then struck the river about a mile and a quarter below Downie's Creek at 8 a.m.; the remainder of
the day was spent in fixing the camp and making preparations for a journey over the horse trail to
strike the river above Gold Creek. The width of the Columbia I measured and found it 8 chains,
from high water mark to ditto. The distance from Shuswap Lake to the Columbia I estimate at 37|
miles, though I think it might be reduced to 35.
August 3.—Left Columbia at 8 a.m. with Perry to explore the horse trail. Made several short
cuts and improvements in our blazed line.    Reached Divide Lake, where we camped.
August 4.—Sent the Indians over the way we came to return to the Hudson's Bay Company Post
and fetch up more provisions, while I went with Perry to explore the valley we had previously seen.
Found it to be a very good route for a mule trail, but cannot recommend it for a waggon road,'
though, should no other pass be found, one might be made. On reaching the intersection of 4he old
trail, found that the Indian^ had already passed so camped.    No supper.
August 5.—Reached the Cache at 11 a.m., and found Mr. Moberly there. Abandoned the idea
of going over the horse trail as we knew it" to be higher than the pass I had gone over. The Indians
complained of their packs and threatened to leave, so I returned to the head of lake to try and
persuade them to continue their work.
August 6.—Returned to the Hudson's Bay Company Post at the head of Shuswap Lake. Made
up the packs for the Indians ready to start in the morning.
August 7.—Started the Indians at 6 a.m., but did not go myself until 8 a.m. Made about 7 miles
August 8.—Arrived at the Cache at noon, when Mr. Moberly joined us, and we went about 3
miles more.
August 9.—Reached the second crossing of river.
August 10.—Started at 6 a.m. Left Cowen with the Indians at the third
old trail, while Mr. Moberly and Perry accompanied me over the new trail
where we camped; rained hard; no tent; no grub.
August 11.—Rained hard; reached Divide Lake about 4 o'clock
we eat "straight."
August 12.—Rained hard; arrived at camp on the Columbia.
crossing to go over the
Reached the 1st Lake,
Perry shot 4 marmots, which COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. 28
August 13.—Lay in camp.    Pack train arrived.    Took latitude of camp 51° 25'.
August 14.—Sent the pack train back to the lake to fetch up more provisions. About 1 p.m.,
started up the Columbia, to try and find another pass.    Camped a little above Downie's Creek.
August 15.—Started at 6 a.m. Tried to take latitude, but having let my watch run down did
not succeed. Went through Death rapids, where we met a canoe with 4 Scotchmen. The river
still being high, had to travel in the bush most of the way, so made slow progress.
August 16.—Started at 6.30 a.m.; after going about £ a mile, came to a creek coming into the
Columbia through a canon; had to go up the creek about a mile before we could get across; tried
to take latitude, but it was so cloudy I could not get it with any degree of certainty, but made it
about 51° 34'N.
August 17.—Arrived at Gold Creek at noon; in the evening Messrs. Clegston, Kirby, and party
came up in a canoe and gave us some salmon.
August 18.—Went across to the mouth of the creek. Several men came down from French
Creek reporting the whole country "played out." Took my latitude 51° 40'20". At 12.30 crossed
the river, and went up to where the horse trail strikes the river, and camped there.
August 19.—Went up the horse trail till we came to snow, when finding the altitude was so
much greater than the Divide Lake, we returned to the river. Saw the valley of Gold Creek, and
by its looks, thought there was a possibility of a good pass being there. About 5 miles up the
trail, there is plenty of grass and water for animals.
August 20.—Eeturned to Gold Creek, and hearing that a canoe was going down on the morrow,
laid over for the balance of the day. Collected all the information I could of the miners, the general impression being that there was but little gold in the country.
August 21.—The canoe did not start, so I had to lay over another day. Took the latitude
again 51° 40' 20".
August 22.—Went down the Columbia in a canoe, with 4 white men and 2 Indians; canoe •
upset in Death rapids, but as I had taken the precaution to have everything of ours taken out,
lost nothing but a small kettle.    Arrived at the depot camp at 6 p.m.   Rained all day.
August 23.—At camp.
August 24.—At camp. Went in the evening to Salmon Creek and speared 3 salmon. Pack
train came in.
August 25.—The Indians wanted to be paid off, as they said they were all sick; as this would
have spoilt the whole expedition, I returned with them, to try and persuade them to bring another
load.    Eeached Divide Lake.
August 26.—Went over the old trail with the Indians; camped atone of our old camps between
first and second crossing.
' August 27.—Sunday.    Met the road party, and went over part of the new trail.    Arrived at
Shuswap Lake in the evening.
August 28.—Talking to Indians almost all day; at last persuaded 8 of them to go, so made up
packs for them. Took latitude 51° 14'43", but as it was cloudy, was uncertain whether it was
correct or not.
August 29.—Started the Indians on ahead, as I wanted to take latitude at noon, but a thunder
storm came on and prevented me.
August 30.—Started at 1 p.m., with Mr. Cowen after taking my latitude 51° 14' 44" N. Caught
the Indians up at the prairie at Hick's camp; found the Hudson's Bay Company. had sent us
coffee instead of beans, and that we had brought 200 lbs. with us; sent it back by Ladner's train,
and sent two Indians back, one sick, and the other with instructions to get 60 lbs., and catch us
up as soon as he could.
August 31.—Camped at camp 3.    Eained.
September 1.—Eained hard all the morning.    Started at 1 p.m. and reached third crossing.
September 2.—Bained. Started the Indians to go over the old trail, while I and Cowen went
over the new one, to try and find a better incline than at present blazed out. Reached the first
lake, where we camped.
September 3.—Rained hard all day.    Blazed a better trail than we had before, though a little
September 4.—Eained all day.    Lay over in camp.
September 5.—Eained all day; but as we had no provisions started at 7.15 a.m., and reached
the Columbia at 6 p.m.; found Mr. Moberly and Turnbull at the camp.
September 6.—Cowen went back with the Indians to fetch up more supplies.    Eained all day.
September 7.—In camp drawing plans, &c.    Eained all day.
September 8.—Started for Gold Creek in a canoe, with 1 white man, 2 "niggers", and 3 Indians.
Camped a little above Death rapids.    Eained part of the day.
September 9.—Eained hard.    Eeached Gold Creek, and bought some supplies from Messrs.
Smith and Ladner.
September 10.—Sunday. Started up Gold Creek with two men who had been out with Mr. Orr.
Eeached the first portage, having to make two trips to fetch up our supplies.    Eained all day.
September 11.—Beached the second portage, where we found a canoe and a boat; took the canoe
and went up the creek for a few miles.    Eained hard.
- September 12.—Eeached French Creek about 2 p.m.    Eained in showers.
September 13.—Sketched French Creek up to the canon, and gained what information I could'
as to the best route to go.
September 14.—Started up Gold Creek. Eained hard; but pushed on as well as we could,
though the bush was very thick. W9r-
September 15.—Made only 2 miles on account of the willow underbrush, which was so thick 1
had to take the axe and cut our way through in places.    Eained hard all day.
September 16.—Started at 5.45 a.m. Eained all the morning, but leaving off about noon, I
tried to take latitude, but failed. At 2 p.m. it came on to rain again, so camped at 5 p.m. under
a good tree. 24
September 17.—Sunday.    Laid over to try and dry our blankets.    Rained hard all day.
September 18.—Started again; bush so thick that I had to cut through it in places. No rain,
but bush very wet. Took latitude 51° 39'43", agreeing with dead reckoning. Saw plenty of
beaver, cariboo, and bear sign.
September l§,—Reached the forks of Gold Creek about 4 p.m.; threw a tree across the stream.
Rained a little.    Camped at the forks.
September 20.—Started up the north fork, but after going about 4 miles, found that though a
good valley it bore too much to the north. The Indians inform me that the divide by this valley
to the Columbia is very low; but as it would be but very little south of the Boat Encampment it
lays out of our way altogether.    Eained.
September 21.—Eeturned to the forks.    Eained hard.
September 22.—Started up the east fork; the travelling improved, the country being open
timbered land, though a little swampy, with plenty of prickly ash. Camped at 5 p.m., after
making 6 miles. Finding we were likely to get short of provisions, and having no gun to get
any more with, I made up about 3 days supplies, and determined to push through, and try to get
to the summit.    Eained.
September 23.— Cached whatever we did not want with us, and made a start, but after going
about 2 miles came to the second forks, where I had a view of the mountain in front of me. The
east fork descended from perpetual snow, and the other came in from the south; so seeing there
was no chance of getting a trail through by this route, I returned to the camp we had left in the
morning.    Eained and snowed.
September 24.—Sunday. Arrived at the forks about noon, and as it rained hard and we were
wet through camped -there.
September 25.—Eained hard.    Eeturned to the head of navigable water, and made a raft.
September 26.—Came down the creek on a raft as far as we could, and camped.    Eained.
September 27.—Walked to French Creek (about 2 miles), where I heard of the strikes the
miners had been making.    Rained a little.
September 28.—At French Creek, saw one pan of dirt washed that yielded $34£; and was
informed that one washed previously had yielded $104; saw some small nuggets of native copper
and silver lead that had been taken out of the sluice boxes.    Rained as usual.
September 29.—Started from French' Creek in a canoe, which we took as far as the second
jSewkge, then walked to the Columbia, arriving at 3 p.m.    No rain.
September 30.—Walked down Columbia River, the river being low we were able to keep the
beach almost the whole way down.    Camped at Death rapids.
October 1.—Reached the depot camp about noon; found instructions from Mr. Moberly to
survey Shuswap Lake.
October 2.—Left what things the Indians could hot pack with Kirby. Started with Mr. Lay-
ton, but only reached the roadmakers' camp, as our Indians stopped behind, though for what
feason I could never find out, unless to steal Kirby's whiskey.
October 3.—Reached camp 3, about 5.30 p.m., and camped there.
October 4.—Arrived at Shuswap Lake about dark.
October 5.—Sent Mr. Layton off to Kamloops to see if the Theodolite had arrived with instructions to proceed to Clinton if it had not and telegraph for further orders; sent 2 Indians with him.
October 6.—Set the Indians to work making shakes, to make sights for trigonometrical survey
of lake.    Bought a few supplies of Messrs. Smith and Ladner.
October 7.—Borrowed Mr. Black's canoe for three days, and fixed sights on the lake; heavy
thunderstorm in the evening.
October 8.—Sunday.   Thunderstorm in the morning; fixing sights in the afternoon.
October 9.—Laying out a base line for survey; returned to the head of the lake in the evening.
October 10.—Mr. Moberly arrived; making tracings, &c.
October 11.—Writing Report on Gold Creek; making tracings, &c.
October 12.—Surveying coast line of Shuswap Lake with sextant and tape.
October 13.—Surveying Ogden City.    Hired George Kirsop at $4 a day.
October 14.—Surveying Ogden City.    G. Kirsop J day.    Paid Metaloh (Indian) off.
October 15.—Sunday. Numbering posts and driving them in. G. Kirsop A day. Started for
Kan^oops in Lavion's boat, Mr. Moberly accompanying us in bark canoe.
:Started before daylight.    Left Mr. Moberly at junction of lakes.    Reached the end
ittle above Kamloops; he returned with us.
October 16.-
of theyBittle Lake.
October 17.—Met Mr. Layton with the instrument a
Reached Kamloops.
October 18.—Mr. Layton left for New Westminster; paid his Indians off.
October 19.—Bought a canoe for $20 of an Indian.    Engaged Wiliam Ehnes at "ISO a month as
cook, &c. Bought supplies of the Hudson's Bay Company, and got ready for a start in the morning.
October 20.—Rfined all day.    Walked up the river to see where I could run my lines to most
October 21 to December 6.—Surveying Thompson River.
December 7.—Started for New Westminster which place! reached on the 24th.
latittoes: ° '     "
Camp at end of Government trail  *i ok  q7
Mouth of G.,'d Creek .".'.!.'.'.'!!!"!'. 5i 40 20
1st station on Gold Creek   n M i,'
2nd    do. do.           !f
n   j        n- 01 39   0.
0SdenClt5r    51 14 43.
(Taken with small pocket sextart). culi/meia pjvee exploration, isc5.
barometer and thermometer readings.
Ogden City    "283B'80 79°
Car-qual-nuncton .;.';■; 27.950 52
The Cache (camp 2) 27.922 77
CamP 3 ®B 27^500 74
2nd Crossing of River 27.370 68 :™01
3rd do.  27,15 —
1st Lake 25.45 	
Top of hill 24.75 	
Divide Lake 24.275 	
Top of slope to Columbia 24.77 	
Columbia Eiver 28.10
At same place   28.190
1st Camp on Columbia Eiver  28.140
Head of Death Rapids 27.680
Ditto. 27.91
3rd Camp  27.87
Ditto       27.96
Mouth of Gold Creek    '..27.920 -
Ditto. '  27-95
At Horse trail  27.88
Columbia Eiver  27.81
•fi    '-±~i<'i
66 i
Mr. Turnbull's Journal.
July 20.—Left Kamloops at 1.30 p.m., accompanied by Mr. Howman, and with 7 horses packed
with provisions, stores, &c, my instructions being to proceed to Captain Houghton's, there to make
arrangements to procure Indians, and then start, via the Silver Mine, to the Columbia, &c, &c.
Camped about 4.30 p.m. on the banks of the Thompson, about 9\ miles above Kamloops; the whole
distance a perfectly level bunch grass flat.    Weather fine.
July 21.—Started with pack train about 6 a.m., and Camped at 4.30 p.m. on the Grande Prairie,
a distance of about 26 miles. The present trail, on leaving the Thompson (about 18 miles from
Kamloops) crosses over the summits of two small hills, which separate the Thompson and the Grande
Prairie; these summits may be easily avoided by following the small creek near Duck's farm. A
road, with the exception of 2| miles medium side hill cutting, can be constructed at very trifling
expense, as chopping, grading, &c, is of the lightest description, often for miles level bunch g$ass.
flats; the feed along the road is abundant and of first class quality; several very extensive swamp
meadows is passed on the'way; the soil throughout is poor, sandy, and dry. Weather fine and
July 22.—Started at 7 a.m., and camped at head of Okanagan Lake at 5.30 p.m. (a distance'ef 26
miles). After leaving the Grande Prairie, a belt of timber is struck which continues for about 14
miles; the timber is of moderate growth, the fallen timber is also moderate, and consists entirely of
pine and fir, &c. No great expense would be incurred in constructing a road—merely light chopping,
with scarce any side hill or grading. Emerging from the green timber, Salmon River is crossed,
requiring a bridge about 70 feet in length; low banks on either side, the bed of the stream gravel
and boulders. After leaving the creek, the prairie country again begins; the present trail gradually
ascends a gentle slope until reaching the table land, then bears straight to Okanagan, skirting three
small lakes shewn on plan; this portion of the route is almost a natural waggon road. Weather fine.
July 23.—Started at 9 a.m., and reached Captain Houghton's about noon, a distance of about 8
miles; level prairie country, covered with a luxuriant growth of bunch grass the whole distance; one
creek to cross, the banks of which are both deep and steep; about 25 chains of side hill, in order to
cross this creek with a good grade. This ravine is the only portion of route where road making is
necessary, and by keeping lower down close to the small lake shewn on sketch the ravine is avoided.
Weather fine.
July 24.—Engaged making arrangements with Indians to accompany me, also examining the
lower part of the valley in which Captain Houghton's farm is situated; the valley is wide and bordered by high sloping hills, the whole thickly covered with a most luxuriant growth of bunch grass;
the hills bordering the south are thickly covered with firs, pines, &c; the northern slopes are covered
to their summits with bunch grass; the bottom is well watered and occasionally dotted with splendid
belts of timber, consisting of pine, balsam, cedar, silver birch, hazel, &c. This valley is eminently
adapted for stock raiding or farming. Near Captain Houghton's house, there is a large spring from
which a stream heads (shewn on sketch), and which empties into Long Lake; the water of this creek
is of equal temperature summer and winter (I believe about 40°). During the day I made arrangements—with the assistance of Mr. Vernon—with Indians to accompany me as far as the Columbia;
not one of them, however, would carry more than 60 lbs. which necessitated my employing almost
double the number I should have done had they been Hope or Yale Indians.
July 25.—Started from Captain Houghton's at 7 a.m. and camped at the first crossing of Shuswap
River, a distance of about 18 miles. The trail follows the northern side of the valley described yesterday, and continues the same for about 14 miles; the soil throughout is good and well suited for
agricultural purposes, being a level bottom of alternate meadow and prairie, ornamented in plaees
with groves' of excellent timber, consisting of pine, fir, and first class cedar; in places the bottom is
covered with a dense growth of young deciduous trees, such as birch, hazel, cotton wood, &c; the
whole is well watered by small streams from the hills on either side, which spread in all directions
in winding channels through the bottom. On the accompanying sketch I have given such information as regards the road if necessary.    Weather fine. •<m
July 26.—Started at 7 a.m. Immediately on crossing the bridge the valley becomes narrow,
partaking considerably of the canon character; f mile further on it again widens out and is bordered
by more sloping banks. To avoid blasting and difficult road building, it will be necessary to adopt
a steep grade for about 100 yards, after which there will be heavy side hill for about f mile through
scattered firs and thick underbrush. From the latter point the trail follows along flats, thickly timbered and rolling occasionally; slight grading in consequence; the flats are all more or less dotted
with huge fragments of granite rock, the debris of the mountain sides. At about 3 J miles from the
bridge, the trail crosses a small stream, and at 4 miles the mountains slope down to the waters edge;
valley undulating. The trail continues to rise for some distance, until rounding a rocky point situate
about 5 \ miles from the last crossing of the Shuswap River, after which it descends until gaming the
river bank. At about 7j miles opposite this point, the mountains on the north side are almost solid
rock, bare of timber—the rock granite and trap. From the latter point, the valley widens out again,
the river running on its northern side; the trail continues along timbered flats without meeting
with side hill or grading of any consequence until arriving at the crossing of the Shuswap River.
Crossed horses and provisions, and camped on the opposite side, about \\ miles below the junction
of Cherry Creek and the Shuswap.    Travelled 8 miles.    Cloudy. ijj||
July 27.—Started at 7 a.m. Emerging from a thick clump of small firs and underbrush bordering
the river, the trail runs on level ground (washed gravel flats), thickly timbered With a growth of
young firs for about a mile, when it crosses Cherry Creek, at this point about 60 or 70 feet wide,
shallow, with gravel bottom; from the latter point, the trail gradually ascends to the summit of a
continuation of timbered flats, about 200 feet above the oreek; at about 5\ miles it descends into
a low cedar bottom (some of the trees being 5 feet in diameter) watered by a fine stream coming
from a valley bearing north-east, and which joins Cherry Creek a short distance below (see point G.)
This point may be considered the terminus of feed. From the stream the trail gradually rises to the
summit of a timbered flat, partially burnt, and well covered with fallen timber. The valley here
takes a southerly direction for about 3 J miles; at 1 \ miles the Silver Mine, which is situated on its
southern slope, is reached. I may here state that from Captain Houghton's to the Silver Mine, the
trail is excellent, with the exception of two places which should be improved in the event of traffic;
the first place is the last four miles before striking the first crossing of the Shuswap River (see sketch
at D.); the timber, which is very thick, is thrown over the trail in every direction, and it is therefore very winding; by cutting a trail in anything like a straight line the distance would be much
shortened. The second place is the last four miles to Cherry Creek Silver Mine; it also requires
similar repairs owing to fallen timber, &c. $1,000 expended on the trail properly would make the
whole an excellent pack trail. Camped at the Silver Mine, arranging packs, &c. When I made up
my packs I found out, owing to the unfitness of the Indians, that I had to leave some of my provisions behind; I left them with one of Mr. Landvoight's men, taking his receipt for them.
July 28.—Leaving the Silver Mine about 7 a.m., I ascended about half-way up the mountain
side that borders the eastern bank of the creek, as it was almost impossible to make way below,
owing to the dense underbrush, thick fallen timber, &c; by this route I was in a position at all
times to command an extensive view of the surrounding couutry, as well as the valley below; our
travelling however, was toilsome and slow, owing to the steepness of the hill side and the fallen
timber, which was also^lerably thick. About 1J miles from the Silver Mine (see sketch) from
the summit on which I was then travelling, I could plainly see the whole country stretching
towards the Okanagan Valley, through which i had just travelled, and I could see that by following
the valley shewn on sketch, running west, that the distance would be much shortened and a road
much more easily built; feed would also be more plentiful; in addition to all thisptihe bridging
of the different creeks, viz: the Shuswap, Cherry Creek, &c, is avoided. The altitude of this
valley is very little, and is well exposed at all times to the sun; the timber throughout appears
scattered and light. About 2 o'clock one of the Indians gave out and refused to proceed further,
causing me to distribute his pack among the rest and discharge him. About sun-down I camped
at the east and south forks of Cherry Creek (see sketch at G); up to this point from the Silver
Mine a road would be tolerably expensive, owing to the thickness of the timber and the steepness
of the hill sides; by keeping well up the hill side the expense would not be near so great and the
road would-be more permanent, the side hill being more solid and not near so steep; on the whole
the task would be simply a matter of heavy grading and cribbing. Day's travel about 4 miles.
Weather very hot.
July 29.—Started from camp at 7 a.m., and crossed Cherry Creek a little above the junction,
then commenced the ascent of the high divide which separates the east and south branches of
Cherry Creek, in order that I might examine both valleys and 'see which was the most eligible
route; from Captain Houghton's report I could not tell which of these valleys he had taken.
About noon, a heavy storm came on, causing me at once to camp, which I had to do regardless of
want of water.   Day's travel about 1 \ miles.    Rain and fog.
July 30.—Started at sun-rise. Day fine and cloudless. Continued our way up the summit, about
9 o'clock came to a spring and had breakfast; started again about 10.30, travelling in many places
was very toilsome owing to the steepness of the hill, and the amount of fallen bleached timber
which was strewn about in every direction; about 1 p.m. I came to the first summit, and found
that the ridge ran m a south-east direction, and broken up into various summits and isolated peaks,
height above the sea about 3 or 4000 feet. From about 400 feet below the summit line, the ran^e
is covered with splendid feed (much superior to what is found on the Bald Mountain, Cariboo),
the whole ornamented in a most pleasing manner with wild flowers of every variety and color, and
with small stunted firs scattered about at almost regulated distances; in order to get to this feed
branohhorse trails at camping grounds would have to be cut.    Camned about 4.30 n.m. at the
. .   , .  "•■■ " ""*«ave to be cut.    Camped about 4.30 n.m
edge of green timber.   Day's travel 3i miles.    Storm all night.
July 31 —Rained heavily all day; mountain covered with dense fo
remained in Camp all day.
August 1— Started to the summit with Mashell (my guide) andM?. Howman, my object beiuff
sketch the surrounding country as well as get a thorough idea of the country, by questioning
b Indian who accompanied me; from the summit I could plainly see Captain Houghton's, .th$ COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865. 27
Okanagan, and also the valley of the Columbia; I could also see both valleys below me,
and at once concluded in favour of the south branch (see sketch). The Indian, Mashell,
informed me that the low wide valley which is shewn on sketch, and which runs south-west affair
as the eye could reach, empties into Eock Creek; it would be easy to reach this valley by following
up the Mission Creek, Okanagan. After completing my sketching I travelled down to the lower
hip of the hill (see point H.,) where I could trace the whole valley from its junction at G. down to
within a few miles of the Columbia; the summit which is wide and thickly timbered is about 800
feet above point G.; I will hereafter give the height of point G. above the sea. The only difficulty
in the route is from G. to the summit; as the valley is narrow and has that rise of 800 feet, however, the matter will be merely heavy grading and cribbing; there will be no blasting whatever,
or slides to cross. From H. the water runs gradually eastward and falls into the Columbia River,
now distant about 30 miles; the valley itself is wide and thickly timbered, with a very gradual
fall and with two small lakes near its summit (or junction with the long valley before described,
leading to Rock Creek); these lakes are surrounded with a narrow belt of swamp grass. A road
could be constructed via the east branch, and crossing over the small divide! shewn on sketch at
head of creek at M., then lead off in the direction described oh sketch with red dotted lines. The
south branch however is decidedly the best, being bounded by low rolling hills besides being
much lower and wider. On returning to camp I found that 2 of my Indians had returned without
assigning any reason for doing so, it was with the greatest difficulty I persuaded the balance of the
Indians to remain.    Remained in camp filling up my sketch, &c.    Weather fine.
August 2.—Started at 7.30 a.m. Leaving the summit peak on my left, I followed round the
southern slope of mountain and descended to a narrow ridge, crossing which I gradually ascended
the next summit on the range of about the same height as the one I had left, and about 2 § miles
distant in a straight line; once on the summit, I continued on it, as it was much easier walking than
below, I was also better able to sketch and examine all other valleys. About 2 p.m. camped in
the valley of the east branch.    Day's travel 4 miles.    Weather cloudy and wet from noon.
August 3,—Started at 7.30 a.m., and began the ascent of the next summit; the north, branch
having cut the main range in two we had to climb a considerable height, when we gained a low
summit on which we travelled for about 2 miles, then descended for some time, when we came to
the base of the third and last summit; I endeavoured to persuade the Indians to keep round
this last mountain, but they insisted upon keeping the summit, I therefore started again to ascend
the third mountain, which I found exactly similar to the others. Camped on the summit and
sketched the surrounding country, &c.    Day's travel 8 miles.    Weather fine.
August 4.—Started at 8 a.m.; descended on a small divide over which we passed, then over
thickly timbered undulating ground for some distance; saw some tarmigan on our way. Camped
on a small stream about 5 p.m.    Day's travel 5 miles.    Weather fine.
August 5.—Started at 7 a.m., and camped at sun-down on the northern slope of the south branch
of Cherry Creek valley (see plan at *); during the day's march saw a very fine cariboo. Day's
travel about 12 miles.
August 6.—Started at 8 a.m.; kept along the northern slope of the south branch valley. I found
the valley in every respect favourable, but very thickly timbered, which was the reason why the
Indians kept me on the summit. A few miles brought me to the creek shewn on sketch;
this creek is wide but fordable, with pebbly bottom; after crossing it we struck an Indian
trail which brought us straight to the Columbia River, thus ending Captain Houghton's route.
On my sketch I have marked all the different routes by which the Columbia can be gained via
the east and south branches of Cherry Creek. Camped at the junction of south branch pass with
the Columbia; the Indians call this stream What-shaan River.    Day's travel 12 miles.
August 7.—Paid off all the Indians that insisted on returning; arranged with two of them to
make a bark canoe for the sum of $15; 4 Indians I persuaded to remain until I could make some
arrangements to supply their place.
August 8.—Eemained in camp all day seeing to the construction of the canoe, which was completed about 5.30 p.m.
August 9.—Sent back the 2 Indians employed making canoe; several Indians came to camp,
tried to engage them and collect all the information I could respecting the Selkirk Eange, as well
as the Gold Eange; found out that all the Indians including the Chief of the tribe (Gregoire),
were either at the mouth of the Kootenay Eiver or Fort Shepherd; made my mind up to proceed
to the latter place, in order to provide myself with provisions to replace those left at th^Jilver
Mine, as well as to see Mr. Dewdney, learn his proceedings, and also procure Indians. Started at
10.30 a.m. and camped at 6.30 p.m. at the Lower Arrow Lake. As it is my intention not to sketch
on my way down stream, but to wait until I return up river again, at the same time gaining an
idea of its general appearance and of the formation of both its banks, especially as I have more
time to sketch when returning up stream than going down, I, therefore, confine my Journal, in
this instance to a brief notice of my days' progress.
August 10.—Started at 6.30 a.m and camped at 6.30 p.m. at the mouth of the Kootenay Eiver.
August 11. Started at 7 a.m., having engaged an Indian to manage the canoe in case of rapids;
arrived at Fort Shepherd about noon.
August 12.—Making arrangements about Indians, canoe, &c.    Could not succeed in procuring
Indians. i | , . ,
August 13.—Started at 7 a.m., having had the promise of Indians who were camped higher up
river Sketched both banks on my way up, taking all the necessary bearings, notes with regard
to navigation, &c, marked on my' sketch. On my sketch map, I have described where
openings through the Gold and Selkirk Ranges take place; at these points only is description
necessary- these descriptions I shall make quite plain oh the map I draw at the office on my return
to New Westminster. Suffice it to say that the whole of the Columbia from Fort Shepherd to my
camp, is bound on either side by precipitous rocky mountains, void entirely of any land that could
be devoted to agriculture; not the least signs of gravel or clay, but merely bare rock, therefore lam
of opinion there can be no gold in the banks, and if gold be found on the bars it must have been
washed down from above.- 28
August 14.—Started at 7 a.m. and camped about 5 miles up the Lower Arrow Lake, where I paid
off the Indian who accompanied me from Fort Shephbfd; on account of its being salmon fishing time
I could not persuade any Indians to accompany me; the bhief Gregoire promised to do his best and
■bring me Indians in a few days on his way up river.
AugustvW-—Starfed at 7*30 a.m. Continued sketching the lake, formation of hills, &c, and
camped on the east side of the lake.
\ August 16.—Started at 6 a.m. and arrived at our camp where I had left an Indian to guard the
stores, &c, at 5 p.m.    Sketched as before.
August 17.—The whole of the Okanagan Indians insisted on returning; I told them I conld not
pay them (not having any money with me) until they brought me up river as far as where Mr.
Moberly was stationed; this they refused and went away without pay in a very angry manner.
Before going, they had a conversation with a Columbia Indian who arrived in camp, which did a
great deal of harm in my opinion. During the day I had a conversation with Gregoire, the chief,
whom I asked to assist me, but I could see quite a marked change of behaviour—a sort of coolness
on his part, owing, no doubt, to my not having paid the Indians—made a great many excuses about
his Indians being afraid to go up river on account of the Shuswap Indians with whom they were
then at war; he, however, promised to do his best and left. Remained in camp all day.
■August 18.—Waited in camp all day; saw neither Indians nor chief.
■ Augmst 19.—Started at 10.30 a.m., Mr. Howman managing one canoe and myself the other.
Sketched and took notes. Found it a very difficult matter to make way on account of the canoe
being loaded.
August 20.—One Indian arrived in camp about 5 a.m.; got him to repair our canoe which had
got slightly broken the day before with snags, &c. After breakfast, started and made the upper end
of Lower Arrow Lake about 11 a.m. We failed entirely in getting over the first rapids at the mouth
of the river, and camped, in hopes of the appearance of Gregoire and his hunting party, part of whom
made their appearance at about 5 p.m. I arranged with them to bring us up to the foot of the Upper
Lake for $10. Started with them about 5.30 p.m., and camped an hour afterwards, about 1 mile
up river.
August 21.—Started at 7.45 a.m. and camped at the lower end of the Upper Arrow Lake at 4 p.m.
I endeavoured to persuade several Indians to accompany me to where I should find Mr. Moberly,
buttfalled. The river between the two lakes, is in every respect better suited for navigation than'
the lower one; the current averages about 2\ miles an hour, with the exception of a few places,
these however, will be easy for a steamer.
August 22.—Started at 6.40 a.m. managing the canoes ourselves as before; camped on a small
creek (running into the east side of the lake, about 5 miles up) on account of a strong wind and
heavy rain. I here mention that this creek, known by the Indians as Kushenox River, appears to me to
run a considerable distance through the Selkirk Range; the valley seems wide as far as I can see; I
shall, however, make marginal remarks upon my plan with reference to it.
August 23.—Remained in camp all day on account of rain and fog. At noon, Gregoire and his
Indians arrived, on their way up to the head of Upper Arrow Lake. I arranged with 4 of them to
bring me to the head of the lake, promising them $2 a day each.
August 24.—Started at 8.45 a.m., sketching the lake as I went along. Camped at 3 p.m. on account of a strong head wind, which endangered the canoes. During the afternoon, passed a canoe
containing 8 miners from the Upper Columbia; all had a very poor opinion of the mines above.
August 25.—High wind blowing down the lake. Started at 10 a.m. during a lull, and reached
the head of the lake about 4 p.m. Camped here with a party of miners on their way up river; tried
to induce them to give us assistance up stream, as the Indians refused to go further, but failed. Paid
off the Indians.
August 26.—Remained at camp, endeavouring to persuade the Indians to accompany us but failed.
August 27.—The Indians positively refused to accompany us, we therefore started ourselves about
10 a.m., with all the provisions, with the intention of getting up as far as possible, cache the provisions
and one canoe, and try it with a light load; after about 2 hours hard paddling, however, the canoe
took a sheer and became entangled with a tall tree which had fallen into the river, several holes were
knocked in the bottom, and she at once began to fill. It being impossible to get her away from the
tree, we began to unload, placing all the provisions, &c, on the tree, Mr. Howman being on the top
to receive them; before we had taken the whole of the stores out she sank, leaving me hangrog to to
the branches of the tree. Articles lost:—frying pan, camp kettle, knives and forks, plates and cups,
1 shovel, 1 blanket, 1 shingle axe, 1 aneroid barometer, 20 lbs. sugar, 100 lbs. bacon,
100 lbs. flour, also some papers and private things, including my hat and boots. During the afternoon, a canoe came down with 5 men'from above; they informed us that they had lost one man that
day in the canon above. I tried to get them to bring me up, but they refused on account of their
going to Kootenay; requested them to inform the Indians below of what had happened, and desire
them to come up.
, "TffiPf Ins—-About 10 a.m. 3 canoes came up to our camp; the Indians informed us that Gregoire,
their chief, would be up during the day, and would bargain with me; that in the meantime they
would convey us 3 miles further up. Started with them and reached the camping ground about 1
p.m., sketching as I went. During the afternoon Gregoire made his appearance, and persuaded 4 Indians'
to undertake to bring us up at a most exorbitant price—viz. half my provisions. As I was entirely iiu
fcfi P°W6r' I was comPeIled t0 agree; there is no doubt they were playing for this arrangement from
l-llt/  111 oL*
August 29.—Star < d at 8 a.m. and camped at 1 p.m. during a thunder storm. As I am entirely
m the hands of the Indians, I have to submit wholly the length of each day's journey to them.
August 30.—Started at 7.45 a.m. and camped at 1 p.m. in consequence of receiving a letter from
Mr. Moberly informing me to wait his appearance at the mouth of the creek, which he is now
August 31.—Remained in camp. About 1 p.m. Mr. Moberly, accompanied by Mr. Perry and an
Indian, arrived.    Mr. Moberly reported very much in favour of the route ho/had examined.    Next
morning Mr. Moberly had made up his mind to start for his camp near Downie Creek, for the
purpose of getting a new fit out for the next exploration through the Selkirk Range. His intention is to travel through the valley known by the Indians as Ille-cille-waut River, which empties
itself into the Columbia about 2 miles below the Little Dalles, and exactly opposite to his last
exploration. I am to explore via the valley named Ill-com-opalux, which empties itself into the
east head of the Upper Arrow Lake.
September 1.—Started about 9 a.m. in canoe with Mr. Moberly and party, leaving Mr. Howman
to look after the provisions and camp. I found the river to increase in rapidity as I proceeded
upwards; in going through the Little Dalles we had to warp our canoe up the whole distance; in
my opinion this point is decidedly the termination of steam-boat navigation; at very low water
it may be navigable, but I feel confident at the best it will be very dangerous, owing to the narrowness of the channel and the different currents and boils; the channel averages about 80 feet
in width. Immediately above the Dalles the river widens out, but is still much worse for steamboat navigation; the riffles are swifter, more dangerous, and in my opinion quite impracticable for
steam-boat navigation. The current in many places runs 9 and 10 miles an hour, in fact for many
miles north of the Little Dalles the river averages 7 miles an hour; I am decidedly of opinion
thatjhis portion of the river is impracticable for steam-boat navigation at its present stage, and
at high water it is much worse.    Camped about 6 miles above the Little Dalles.
September 2.—Started at 7 a.m.; found the river as the day before; bad riffles at almost every
bend; the banks much lower than the day before; called in at the mining camp on Cairne's Creek;
found the miners very much satisfied with the country; saw some excellent gold which had been
taken out, much superior to Cariboo gold; all seem to believe the country is rich. Gold Creek
and French Creek are also reported good, good prospects having been struck in- both places.
Camped about 1£ miles above Cairne's Creek.
September 8.—Started about 7 a.m.; river about the same as the day before for a few miles,
when it becomes more smooth and less rapid. About 6 miles above Cairne's Creek the snow
peaks of the Gold Range show themselves, and fall with precipitous banks to the river. Reached
the depot camp about 4 p.m., where we found Mr. Layton keeping charge of stores, &c; about
sun-down, 7 of the pack Indians made their appearance with packs from the head of Shuswap
Lake, they reported Mr. Green on his way over.
September 4.—Remained in camp all day awaiting the arrival of Mr. Green; reducing my sketch
to the scale of the country sketch map.
September 5.—Filling up sketch map. During the afternoon Messrs. Green and Cowen arrived.
September 6.^-Reniained in camp. Rain all day. Cowen and Indians started for the head of
Shuswap Lake to pack over provisions for the next explorations. During the afternoon a man
from Mr. Hick's party came into camp with a Sextant, &c.
September 7.—Heavy thunder storms during the morning, cleared up during the day. Made
an attempt to take Latitude.
September 8.—Rain occasionally during the day. Mr. Green started for his exploration through
the Selkirk Range.    Took Latitude, which I found to be 51° 25' 15".
September 9.—Foggy; about 12 the clouds cleared slightly off. Made an attempt to take the
September 10.—Rain and fog.    Remained in camp.
September 11 to 14.—Remained in camp.    Rain continually.
September 15.—Rain and fog. The Indians having arrived from Shuswap with the supplies,
I started with Mr. Moberly and party to my camp, near the Ille-cille-waut; 2 of the Indians who
were detailed for me refused to start, being afraid of the roughness of the season; we ran all the
riffles and arrived safe at 5 p. m., at Howman's camp.
September 16.—Drizzling rain; fine about 11 a. m. Started down to the Ille-cille-waut and
took Latitude.    Camped with Mr. Moberly, about 1 mile up the river.
September 17.—Left Mr. Moberly, and started down river accompanied by Mr. Howman, for
the purpose of hiring Indians, if possible, and then start for the Ill-com-opalux to the divide of
the Selkirk Range; had considerable difficulty in getting down the Ille-cille-waut River, on
account of the narrowness of the channel and the rapidity of the current. Camped about 12
miles from the Upper Arrow Lake.
September 18.—Started about 8 a.m., and reached the upper end of the Arrow Lake about 1.30
p.m.; took Latitude. On my way down met several Indians, had a talk with the Chief's son, and
made arrangements to get 4 Indians to go as far as the divide with me; rate of pay $2.50 per
diem each, and a present to their wives of 50 lbs. of flour and some bacon.
September 19.—Preparing packs, &c, till 12 o'clock; took Latitude at mouth of Columbia
River, at the head of Upper Arrow Lake, after which we started. Day fine and cloudless.
Camped at the mouth of the Ill-com-opalux; made arrangement with a man I met here to accompany me, in order that (should the Indians fail me) he might assist me with the packs to the
head waters of the Columbia. j
September 20.—Started about 10 a.m., the whole country enveloped in thick fog. Travelled
along the north bank of the Ill-com-opalux Valley, which I found narrow at its entrance with the
Upper Arrow Lake, and thickly timbered with fir and dense underbrush. A mile up, the valley
gradually widens out; the creek at bottom falls with great rapidity in a succession of small water
falls, owing to the steepness of the grade of the valley. Near Kashesilwha Lake it becomes almost
level, the bottom broad, and thickly covered with tangled low brush. Up to this point, a good deal
of side hill cutting would be necessary; one half the distance, however, the route would be over
wooded flats. The timber is of moderate thickness, consisting chiefly of fir, pine, cedar, silver
birch &c, and the underbrush of young fir, hazel, dogwood, prickly mountain ash, berry bushes,
&c • the rock croppings of granite, quartzose, and slate. Road making up to this point moderate
side hill and chopping; by keeping well up the northern bank of the valley all blasting is avoided
and a great many long flats secured. The grade of the valley is sufficiently moderate for road
making.   Camped about U miles east of Lake Kashesilwha, having completed a distance of about 30
7 miles. Near Lake Kashesilwha, a low valley branches off to the westward (vide sketch); the
water runs both ways, emptying int© the Ill-com-opalux Eiver and the Upper Arrow Lake. In
my opinion, this will be found the most eligible route when examined in detail, the divide being
low and the bordering slopes lightly timbered.
September 21.—Eain and thick fog till 12.30 p.m. At 1 p.m. started, keeping the northern
bank of the valley, and camped about 5 p.m. about 5 miles to the east. From the lake shewn
east of Kashesilwha Lake the water falls eastwards to the Kootenay Lake; the valley widens also,
the bottom being nearly a mile in width, and covered occasionally with good feed; the route is
much more open; the timber being more scattered, and the underbrush and fallen timber less;
the cost of road would be very trifling.
September 22.—Started at 7 a.m. Day showery. Kept along the northern slope as before, and
found the valley to increase in width and its banks more sloping; frequently passed through splendid
belts of cedar and "pine; at about 1| miles the bottom is free from brush, and thickly covered with
good feed but very soft and swampy, and continues the same for 2 miles; width of bottom 1 mile.
From the meadow a belt of thick timber is struck, which continues to Lake de Truite. Camped on
the west bank of the lake, and took latitude. Indians away hunting after a canoe which was hid
somewhere on the lake.
September 23.—Fine and cloudless: The Indians not being able to find the canoe, I started on
foot alono- the north shore of Lake de Truite; this lake (which is very deep) is about f mile wide
and about 10 miles in length, and abounds in splendid trout. Along the north shore the bank is
sloping, the timber (not heavy) consisting of cedar, fir, pine, &c.; in many places the timber is burnt
off. A road can be made along this shore without any difficulty, and all blasting avoided. After
satisfying myself with reference to the shore of the lake, I started up the mountain in order to get
a full view of the surrounding country before bad weather set in, so as to take my future course. I
gained the summit about 4 p.m., Barometer registering 23.400, and obtained a good view of the
whole country in every direction; could see nothing but rough isolated peaks, covered with snow and
glaciers; could not see towards Kootenay Lake, owing to a high peak, a short distance east, intervening.    Found about 6 inches of snow on the summit.    Camped about 5 p.m.
September 24.—Travelled along the summit of ridge for about 4| miles, sketching the features of
the Selkirk Range, which was nothing but one mass of isolated snow peaks. Saw the valley below
the whole time of my journey. Noticed a great many tracks in the snow oflarge cariboo and grizzly
bear, but failed to get a glimpse of the animals. From point B. (see sketch), a lofty peak immediately north of the east end of Lake de Truite, I could see the valley for about 40 miles, and could
also see the valley of Kootenay Lake, apparently almost hid by peaky snow-clad mountains. As far
as I could see of Ill-com-opalux valley it was in every respect suited for any description of road or
railway, it being nearly a mile wide, perfectly straight, and entirely free from rocks or canons, a
moderate growth of timber being the only difficulty. From the end of Lake de Truite, a^arge stream
falls, which the Indians inform me empties into the Kootenay Lake. This stream is very winding in
its course, showing plainly the level grade. After completing my notes, I descended into the valley,
striking the east end of Lake de Truite, and camped.
September 25.—Travelled along the bottom of the valley on the foot of the northern bank; timber
of moderate thickness, fallen timber the same; underbrush very dense and*tangled; "timber consisting chiefly of cedar, fir, pine, &c.; underbrush prickly ash, birch, willow, hazel, &c.; road makino-
light—chopping and rolling off logs. All along the bottom of the valley the rocks (the debris of the
mountains) are trap, granite, limestone, and slate. Camped about 8 miles below Lake de Truite, on
account of the Indians refusing to proceed further. They endeavoured to cover their refusal on the
plea of having shewn me the summit dividing the two Columbias, telling me that was their agreement and they would go no further. I explained to them that my trip was of no use without examining the summit of the valley near Kootenay Lake, then distant about 40 or 50 miles, but to no
use, they would return. I found it impossible for. me to proceed without them, and fearing that Mr.
Howman would leave for Fort Shepherd on their appearing at the camp as I had instructed him I
also turned back, making up my mind to hasten on to Fort Shepherd, thence to Kootenay Lake
procure Indians and canoe or white men, survey the lake, and examine the pass from that direction.
September 26 to 28—Returning to camp at Lake Ill-com-opalux. Eain and storm the whole time.
September 29.—Started at 6 a.m. in canoe for Fort Shepherd. Morning clear and calm. Stopped
16 miles down; took latitude and dinner; started again at 1.30, and camped about 8 miles further
on at 4.30 p.m.
September 30 to October 2.—Travelling per canoe towards Fort Shepherd.
October 3.—Started at 5 a.m. Day fine and cloudless; wind blowing greater part of the day
hard from the south. Took latitude at 12 o'clock, about 5 miles above the Kootenay Eiver and
landed at Fort Shepherd about 7 p.m. '
October 4.—Eemained at Fort Shepherd making arrangements with Indians and Mr. Hardisty
for horses to take me to Kootenay Lake; sent an Indian to Sheep Creek for one of Mr. Hardisty's
horses. Took latitude at noon, in order to test my instrument, the distance of Fort Shepherd from
the 49° Parallel being known.
October 5.—Horses could not be found. Dispatched another Indian to Sheep Creek- here-
turned about 4.30 p.m. with the horse. '
October 6.—Packed up and crossed provisions and horses, about 11 a.m. got started and camped
about 5 miles on Mr. Dewdney's trail at 4.30 p.m., one of the horses having thrown his pack and
galloped back to Fort Shepherd. The trail from Fort Shepherd to the 5 mile creek is very badly
located, considerable very heavy and tortuous grades having been adopted which might have
been easily avoided had the trail been carried lower.
October 7.—Lost one of the horses; sent the Indians in search of it; one brought him in about
noon; the other Indian did not return to the camp until dark, having been looking for the horse
October 8.—Started at 8 a.m.    Met Messrs. Dewdney and Turner
irranged with them to leave 3 borses for me at Fort Shepherd.    Mr. Dewdney could not supply
a few miles on the trail, and
me then with horses, but advised me1 to arrange with a Chinaman whojwas a few miles further on.
Made the 12 mile creek about noon; about a mile further on came to the China Camp, and found
the men packing up for the purpose of going for some of Mr. Dewdney's stores which had been
left near Kootenay Lake; arranged with them to let me have three horses, and camped at a slough
about 2 miles from Salmon Eiver, at 4.30 p.m. The trail from the 5 mile creek to the slough
is very well made, several very heavy grades might, however, have been easily avoided.
October 9.—Horses strayed this morning, feed being very scarce; was unable to start before
10.15 a.m.; about noon forded the Salmon Eiver, quite sufficient for horses to do, even at its
present low stage; when the water is high it will be impossible to ford it, and bridging cannot be
done until the water is very low. From Salmon Eiver the trail ascends a steady steep grade to
the summit; about 3 miles from the summit the trail is very swampy and unfit for safe horse
travel.    Camped with Mr. Howell's party about 2 miles from the summit.
October 10.—Started at 8 a.m. The trail to the summit is very steep and swampy, in fact
almost impassable in places; the summit is like a house-top; immediately it is gained you descend
with a very steep grade (the height I found to be 6,200 feet); for the first 6 miles eastward of the
summit the trail is very bad—one continuous mud hole, which must be corduroyed before it is
practicable for horse traffic. Camped at the 6 mile creek about 4 p.m., having only completed a
distance of about 8 miles. From the summit to my camp, the fall is upwards of 3,000 feet. The
feed at the camping ground is almost worthless.
October 11.—Started at 7 a.m.; found the.trail still very bad in places, owing to the want of
corduroying. Camped at the edge of Kootenay Lake about 4 p.m., and found abundance of good
feed. The greatest portion of the trail from Kootenay Lake to about 5 miles west of the summit
will be quite impassable next summer; it must be corduroyed before it is practicable for horse traffic.
October 12.—Started at 8.30 a.m. and reached the Ferry at 11 a.m. The last 1$ miles must be
entirely under high water mark. Took Latitude at noon. Tried to make arrangements with
Indians to accompany me to head of Kootenay Lake, but failed.
October 13.—Engaged 2 canoes and 4 Indians to take me to the north end of Kootenay Lake;
1 canoe and 2 Indians came about noon; the other 2 would not carry out their agreement. I
therefore started with the one canoe, leaving Mr. Howman at the Ferry. When I reached the
foot of the lake I fell in with some Indians, and engaged 2 of them to go with me. I now camped
and dispatched them after Mr. Howman; I was very anxious that he should accompany me, as I
expected I might be compelled to divide my party.
October 14.—Mr. Howman arrived in camp about 9 a.m., and, being myself ready, I started up
the lake, sketching and examining both its sides. Took latitude at 12. I noticed several very
low openings (which I shall explain more fully on plan) in the banks of the lake, particularly to
the westward, some of them I have no doubt fall into the Kootenay Eiver.    Camped at 5 p m.
October 15.—Started at 8 a.m. and made to a point situated opposite to the Kootenay Eiver.
Took latitude at this point, and feel assured that a good pass exists to the eastward of the lake,
which would strike somewhere about St. Mary's Creek (see plan), and there being only about 300
feet of a fall between Kootenay Lake and the Columbia Eiver, and the Kootenay Eiver being a
very large stream, I am confident that by proper and rigid exploration a route must be found to
exist along this valley; it is quite natural to suppose the valley must be wide, having so large a
river running through it; there may be a few canons, but there can be no great engineering difficulties to contend with. For further explanation respecting this route see remarks on plan.
Having completed the observation for Latitude I again started, and camped about 5 p.m., completing a distance of about 28 miles.
October 16.—Started at 7.40 a.m.; passed two low valleys on the east side of the lake, and one
on the west side having a large stream running down it; stopped at noon to take Latitude, and
gained the north end of the Lower Kootenay Lake about 4 p.m.; near the north of the lake I saw
several very low passes, which I am of opinion lead to the Columbia Lake.
October 17.—Started at 7.45 a.m. up the stream which empties into the north end of Kootenay
Lake; this stream is very large, and at high water must be quite navigable for river steam-boats;
at present it is swift and shallow. Took Latitude at noon. About 6 miles north I came to where
the Ill-com-opalux stream empties from Lake de Truite and joins the north Kootenay Eiver; this
stream is very large, and will be navigable for some distance up at high water. Two miles above
the junction I camped, having come to the point where Kimbaskit crosses the range towards the
Columbia Eiver. North Kootenay River is very winding, and divided into numerous sloughs and
channels; it averages upwards of 4 chains wide.
October 18.—Eain and fog. One of the Indians being sick, I started with the other 2 and
canoe up stream, in order to explore still further north; about 6 miles north, I came to a large
lake averaging about \\ miles wide, with steep precipitous banks to the east, and sloping to the
west; I continued on the lake for about 6 miles, but not having provisions or blankets I returned
to oamp, with the intention of exploring the lake the next day. When the Indians pointed me
out the route adopted by Kinbaskit, I at once condemned it, as it crosses over a high bare summit, about 6,500 feet in height; to the north however, I could see a wide low valley extending to
the eastward and parallel to Kinbaskit's trail; this valley is thickly wooded and, therefore, for
that reason was not followed by the Indians; the Indians informed me it lead to the head waters of
Toby Creek (see plan). In order to see whether it extended as I expected, I determined to
dispatch Mr. Howman next morning with half my Indians and provisions, and explore the summit
of Kinbaskit's trail, keeping in view the valley below, which I have described, and, also, from the
summit to report on the valleys near the head of the Lower Kootenay Lake. On my own part I
determined to explore the Upper Lake, sketch it, and see what valleys were towards the north;
and also, examine the Ill-com-opalux Valley, where it joined the North Kootenay. My object for
coming to the head of the Kootenay Lake was to examine this pass of Kinbaskit's; and, therefore,
I made my arrangements both with regard to Indians and provisions to that effect; when I saw
that Kinbaskit's was a failure, and that other routes existed, I had very little time to spare, particularly as the winter had actually set in, and knowing the difficulties I had to contend with in
getting down the lake with our frail canoes, as well as the crossing of the Kootenay summit, fr
Sheep Creek summit, &c, &c; also the want of provisions, and seeing the Indians were determined to return, having once shewn me the summit of Kinbaskit's trail (such being the terms of
their agreement), I had no other alternative but to divide my party and determine at once (in 4
days) whether any pass did exist between the head of the Upper Kootenay Lake and the Lower;
having done this at once return to Fore Shepherd.
October 19.—Morning rain and foggy, snow on the mountains. Waited until about noon undetermined whether to at once return and give up the expedition or proceed; at noon I made up my
mind to start, notwithstanding'the weather; started at 1 p.m. with two Indians, Mr. Howman also
starting with the other two for the summit of Kinbaskit's trail; poled up the river which divides the
Upper and Lower Kootenays, and camped about dusk, about 5 miles from the head of Upper Lake.
I had an idea that this lake was much larger; on my way up lake, I saw a grizzly bear; one of the
Indians fired at it but missed it. This Upper Lake is similar to all the other lakes; nothing of importance to state about it, more than a road can be easily constructed along its banks if necessary.
I may here state that the river which divides the Upper and Lower Lake is quite practicable for
river steam-boats at ordinary medium stage of water; navigation, however, would be extremely dangerous, owing to the sharp curves of the river.
October 20.—Stormy and heavy rain. About 10 a.m. started to explore the head of the lake, and
found that two large strearnji ran into it, one from the north, which is the largest of the two, and must
come somewhere from the divide which supplies Cairne's Creek, Ille-cille-waut, now being explored
by Mr. Moberly, and the north Bl-com-opalux Valley (see sketch at the head of the Ill-com-opalux
arm, Upper Arrow Lake). From what I have seen of the pay dirt on the Columbia, I am of opinion
that gold may be found in paying quantities on this stream, as well as on the bars of the river dividing
Upper and Lower Kootenay Lakes. I had neither time nor opportunities to examine the matter;
to have done so with any degree of accuracy I should have to stay there for 5 or 6 days. Taking
one of the Indians with me, I ascended a small summit which separates the north and east branches,
in order to see up both valleys. From this summit I could see up the north-west valley for a considerable distance; 6 or 7 miles up it turns nearly west, and was hidden from me by high rocky
mountains. The east branch, the one I was most anxious to examine, bore east by north a few miles,
then turned and led straight to the eastward as far as I could see, a distance of about 12 miles; this
valley was low and in every respect favourable for a trail or road; I saw further than it was. possible
for me to walk over, owing to the want of provisions, &c. Got back to the head of the lake hy dusk
and camped.
October 21.—Still stormy and wet; during the night the rivers at the head of the lake rose, about
3 feet. Started about 10 a.m., very much against the wish of the Indians who were afraid of their
canoes, and put ashore at point A. (see plan), leaving the Indians with canoe, I ascended the small
plateau shewn on sketch at A. for the purpose of examining the valley of the Ill-com-opalux. From
this summit I could see that the valley was exactly the same as I have described while exploring
about Lake de Truite (see September 25) only much wider, and if anything more favourable; it is
undoubtedly the lowest and best I have seen in the whole country—it may be termed the Valley of
the Kootenay. Having satisfied myself that the valley was what I had at first considered it to be, I
returned to camp, and, the wind having slightly abated, I started down stream. When I got to the
Upper Kootenay River, I found that it had risen about 6 feet, and was quite navigable for river
steam-boats as far as current and depth were concerned, but navigation would be extremely dangerous
owing to the sharp bends of the river. The Ill-com-opalux stream was also, at its junction with the
Kootenay, quite navigable for steam-boats. At high stage of water, steam-boats can run from the
| Line" to the head of the Upper Kootenay Lake. From Lake de Truite to the junction I have just
described, I am told is quite navigable for bark canoes, therefore should a party be sent to further
explore or survey in this direction, it will be quite simple tor them to build bark canoes on Lake de
Truite, and convey their provisions to the Kootenay. At the junction of the Ill-com-opalux with
the Kootenay, I met Mr..Howman who described to me the valleys running eastwards as follows:—
On attaining the summit of Kinbaskit's trail, an altitude of about 6,000 feet, he observed a still
higher range of snow-capped mountains running in a northerly and southerly direction, but cut
through by three large and apparently low valleys, with large streams running through them. The
first valley runs into the river about 2 miles north of the upper end of the Kootenay Lake, and about
opposite to the pass from the head of the Upper Arrow Lake; the valley appeared to be very low,
and, unless blocked by the summit range of mountains, would run for some considerable distance in
an easterly direction. The second valley runs into the river about 7 miles from the lake; for about
5 miles it takes a north-easterly course, then, turning more to the eastward, it passes through the
mountains before mentioned; this valley also appears low, and, from the fact of a very large stream
running down it, must run in for some distance. The third valley runs into the head of the Upper
Kootenay Lake, described by me as the east branch; he was unable to see how far this extended
but, from the formation of the mountains in its immediate neighbourhood, and also as a large stream
runs through it, he was of opinion that the stream must run nearly through the range, and, from its
position, must be almost opposite the head waters of Toby Creek. He would have extended his explorations still further had it been possible for him to have done so, but having only 4 days' provisions with him, and the absence of water on the mountains, he was unable to do so. The weather
was very much against observing, owing to the snow storms passing over the mountains, making it
difficult to see but a very short distance; during a lull in the storm he was able to see the large
valley running in from the-Ill-com-opalux before explored by me; he estimated the width of the
valley at about 2 miles. Kinbaskit, the chief, who is nearly always encamped about the head waters
of the Columbia, has made a horse trail from the mouth of Toby Creek, which continues along its
bottom for 2 days' journey, then he follows a foot trail which passes over the summit traversed by
Mr. Howman, and reaches the Kootenay Lakes in 2 days more, thus taking 4 days to complete the
jpurney. I have questioned a great many Indians who know this route, and they all agree as to Toby
Creeklbeing a very large, long, and low valley, the whole distance between the mouth of Toby
Greefk. and the Kootenay Lake cannot exceed 40 miles, I am of opinion that one of the three last described valleys must lead to the head waters of Toby Creek. The two northern creeks appear to me COLUMBIA EIVEE EXPLOEATION, 1865
the most favourable, and must^extend a considerable distance eastward, as they are low for at least
10 miles and with no appearance of termination; the divide, therefore, cannot be high by any of
the routes, as the distance to the head waters of Toby Creek is not more than 20 miles. I feel
satisfied from what I have seen of the range, and from what I have gathered from Indian information, that these valleys are low—if not as low as I expect, they Jare undoubtedly the lowest in the
range south of the Valley Ille-cille-waut, now being explored by Mr. Moberly. I have an idea
that the pass now being explored by Mr. Moberly may lead to the head of the Upper Kootenay
Lake via the north-west branch, which I have described before. I am extremely sorry, however
that I have been prevented from at once determining the matter, but the lateness of the season'
want of provisions and assistance, &c, has rendered fhe matter entirely out of my power- with
reference to the locality, I will make some further remarks  or report if necessary.
October22.—Having made up my mind to return direct to Fort Shepherd; started about 8.45
a.m. and proceeded down stream, making the head of the lake about 9.45 a.m., and camped about
4.30 p.m. on west bank of lake.
October 23.—Started about 7 a.m.; proceeded down lake; had to put ashore on several occasions
on account of strong wind, &c; was nearly swamped at one time endeavouring to round a rocky
point, but saved owing to the care and coolness of the Indians.
October 24.—Started at 7 a.m., but was obliged to camp at noon owing to wind and sea.
October 25.—Bemained in camp all day on account of strong wind and sea.
October 26.—Started before day-light during, a lull and made the Kootenay Ferry before noon;
made arrangements for proceeding to Fort Shepherd.
October 27.—Started with the Hudson's Bay Company train, but camped early where the trail
leaves the valley.
October 28.—-Started about 8 a.m., and camped about 5 p.m., about 2 miles east of the summit.
The mud holes were considerably improved with the frost, but, were nevertheless, very dangerous
for horses.
October 29.—Started about 8 a.m., and camped at the 12 mile House; had considerable difficulty in getting off the summit on account of the ice, &c, which owing to the steepness of the
grade was extremely dangerous for horses; had to take Mr. McKie's trail several times.
October 30.—Started at 9 a.m., and arrived at Fort Shepherd about noon; snow all the time
during the march; had difficulty in getting over the steep zigzags near Fort Shepherd; found Mr.
O'Eeilly at Shepherd. Mr- Jane informed me that one of the horses left by Mr. Dewdney for me
had strayed away; sent an Indian to hunt him up, and stabled the other two, which I found very
small and poor.
October 31.—Remained at Fort Shepherd settling up the accounts, &c; horse not found.
to start next morning
November 1.—Horse brought in about 4 p.m.; made up my mind
Hudson's Bay Company train.
November 2.—Started at 10 a.m. with the Hudson's Bay Company train, packing the 2 horses
left by Mr. Dewdney, having made arrangements with Mr. Hardisty to supply me with a horse
for Mr. Howman, none of the horses left for me being fit to carry him. Camped about sun-down.
I may here state that I took readings with the Aneroid sufficient to make a sectional plan of the
country if necessary.
November 3.—Started at 8 a.m., and camped at 4.30 p.m. During the day I took readings with
the Barometer at high altitudes, &c.
November 4 to 6.—Travelling to Osoyoos Lake. ■
November 7.—Started at 7 a.m., and reached Osoyoos Lake at noon. Saw Mr. Haynes, who
enquired if my orders would allow of me laying out some Eeserves on the Okanagan Lake; as it
was according to my orders to proceed by Okanagan, I saw no reason to refuse, particularly as
Mr. Haynes informed me that he must have a Surveyor before the work could be done; I was
told also by some men' that Mr. Green had been seen chaining near Kamloops; and that Mr.
Moberly was Acting Gold Commissioner on French Creek; therefore, supposing Mr. Green to
have completed his chaining, I thought it my duty to remain and assist Mr. Haynes.
November 8.—Bemained at Osoyoos Lake, having promised to wait a day er two for Mr. Haynes
owing to the illness of his constable Mr- Lowe.
November 9 and 10.—Bemained at Osoyoos Lake.
November 11.—Started about 12.30 p.m., Mr. Haynes having found me a horse for Mr. Howman to ride; owing to the illness of Mr. Lowe, Mr. Haynescouldnot accompany me; he promised
to overtake me at the lower end of the lake, where the first Reserve was to be laid out; my orders
were to await his appearance. Camped 10 miles up the valley of the Okanagan. Prairie the
whole way with plenty of excellent feed for animals.
November 12.—Started about 7.30 a.m. Day wet and foggy. Followed along the banks of the
Okanagan River for about 2 miles, then branching off to left followed a trail passing through
alternate woodland and prairie, which kept west of the first tier of low rocky hills which borders
the Okanagan Valley; this trail is much better than the one immediately through the valley,
as it has to round several very bad side hills and rocky points. Struck the Okanagan Valley
again about 2 miles from the head of the last small lake (shewn on sketch), about 4 miles south
of the Great Okanagan. Camped near the head of the said small lake. The whole of this route
travelled to-day is good enough for ordinary pack trail traffic, with abundance of first class grass
feed.    Day's travel about 23 miles.
November 13.—Started about 8 a.m. and camped about halfway between the Small Lake and the
Okanagan, where the trail is shewn on plan crossing the Okanagan River, that being the site of the
first I2.6SCXV6*
November 14.—Remained in camp all day, awaiting the appearance of Mr. Haynes, who arrived
November 15.—Examined, with the Indians and Mr. Haynes, the country between the lakes, and
selected the site of reserve as pointed out to us by the Indians. I may here state that this land is, in
my opinion
about the best in the country, both for stock
for cultivation, the soil being 34
I am informed that very little snow falls 1
lere in,
good and the, place well sheltered from storms.
November 16.—Surveyed out the reserve.    No. of acres 842.
November 17.—Remained in camp, Mr. Haynes horses having gone back to Osoyoos Lake.
November 18.—Snow and sleet.    Remained in camp.
November 19.—Started at 11 "a.m. with Mr. Haynes along the east bank of the Okanagan. Camped
about 15 miles up the Lake.    This portion of the trail is good enough for ordinary traffic.
Nobetfyoer 20.—Started at 9 a.m. and camped at 4.30 p.m. about 4 miles south of the Mission.
The trail leaves the lake at my last night's camp, and crosses over a rocky spur of the mountain, which
slopes to the waters edge; the present grade is very harrassing and the trail of the very worst description. This portion (a distance of about 10 miles) should be altered and brought round the face
of the hill; by a little care and exploration an easy pass could be found.
November 21.—Horses strayed away to-day; searched for them in all directions; they were
brought in at last by an Indian whorr^ I had in search of them. About 1 p.m. started, and camped
at the mission, the whole of the distance (4 J miles) over level flat; several mud holes before coming
to the Mission Creek.
November 22.—Started about 10 a.m. and travelled along the trail via the chain of lakes shewn
on plan to the eastward of the Okanagan Lake; this route is an excellent one, being level bunch
grass flats.    Camped at the head of the small lake near the Railway.    Day's travel 15 miles.
November 23.—Started about 10 a.m. and reached Captain Houghton's about a little after noon,
Mr. Haynes arranging with the Indians about the reserve.
November 24.—Made plans of the reserves I had laid out at south of lake, Mr. Haynes arranging
with the Indians.
November 25.—Started about 10 a.m., accompanied by Mr. Haynes and Captain Houghton, to the
arm of lake shewn on sketch, where Mr. Haynes determined on reserving; examined the locality
which is an excellent patch of level ground of about 1,500 acres in extent, and spoke to the Indians
with reference to it; we found them very discontented with the locality.
November 26.—Mr. Haynes again negotiated with the Indians until late, and ended by giving
up the idea of reserving the arm, the Indians Wishing the land at head of lake and also a portion
shewn on 10 mile map about 6 miles below the lake.
November 27.—Started tat 8 a.m. and camped at the head of the lake; travelled round with Mr.
Haynes and the Indians and laid out one reserve of 1,500 acres a little south of the head of the lake,
on the west bank.
November 28.—Surveyed a second reserve at the head of the lake of 1,100 acres. This should
I think, have been made a Government reserve when both Indians and white men would have an
equal right to it. I am confident the Indians will object to the whites wintering cattle or grazing
there, which will be a pity as it is about the best unoccupied land in the country in that direction;
had this portion been unreserved it would have been farmed years ago; I have known several men
who would have taken it up.
November 29.—Started for New Westminster, arriving there on the 12th December.
Latitude N.
O        I        II
Depot Camp 51 25 15
Ille-cille-waut River 50 58 48
Slough above Upper Arrow Lake 50 44 17
Head of Upper Arrow Lake  50 40 29
West_ end of Lake de Truite  50 38 35
1 i miles S. of Ille-cille-waut River 50 26 18
About 4 miles N. of the foot of Upper Arrow Lake.. 50 11 20
East end of Captain Houghton's route 49 50 20
East bank of Lower Arrow Lake (centre of do.) 49 36 35
Lower Arrow Lake, 4 miles W. of Kootenay River...49 19 52
Fort Shepherd         49    2 20
Kootenay Ferry 49 10 36
About 10 miles N. of Kootenay Ferry....    49 19 53
2 miles N of Kootenay River 49 38 52
10 miles S. of head of Lake     "50 117
West end of Kinbaskit's tagail .....! 50 13 18
tude W
116 40 00
116 52 00
116 50 50
116 55 50
Kamloops  812
The Summit, 5 miles from the Thompson River 1746
Four miles west of the Grande Prairie 2614
QitSan d e Pralri e liijQs
Salmon River crossing <t§'Mr
Okanagan Lake (head)  1088
1st crossing of Shuswap River  996
2nd Do. Do 1181
Cherry Creek Silver Mine IE Ir^fe
Do.        at east and south branches 2580
The Summit (estimated) 3380
The Columbia at end of Captain Houghton's route 1094
Eddy camp, 2 miles S. of Little Dalles, Columbia River 1210
Kashesilwha Lake 2320
Fort Shepherd  996
Creek, 5 miles from Shepherd 1586
12 mile House 1610
3 miles east of Salmon River crossing 3000
2 miles below Do.     ' Do.       (at slough) 1726
2 miles west of Kootenay summit 4816
The Summit.. .6200
Crossing of Creek, 6 miles east of Summit 3616
Cayoosh Creek -. 2419
Kootenay Ferry ; 1274
Kootenay Lake 1260
On trail, at junction of Salmon Eiver and the Pend   \ -. oqo
d' Oreille J
Sheep Creek Mountain.. 4260
Do.        Valley ifoU
Summit between Sheep Creek and Christiana Lake 4660
Christiana Lake    996
Inch-woin-ton Eiver crossing 1318
Summit between Inch-woin-ton and Boundary Creek...4028
Boundary Creek 1840
Eock Creek 1900
Osoyoos Lake  795
Okanagan Lake (at Mission) 1108
J. Turnbull.
Hudson's Bay Post, Shuswap Lake  28.31
1st crossing, large creek, 11 miles from lake  27.78
2nd crossing, on bar, 19 miles  27.38
3rd crossing, 21 j miles  27.15
1st small lake,.26.miles    |  25.45
Do. Do 25.38
Divide Lake, 30 miles >,. *.. 24.28
Do. Do 24.18
Columbia River, 40 miles, at camp  27.80
At mouth of Cairne's Creek 27.93
1 mile below Little Dalles    28.00
Island at upper end of Arrow Lake  » 28.04
At the Eddy 28.2a
Point where struck theEagle Creek 28.05
Lake of Three Valleys 28.01
Camp, 2nd Lake above Lake of Three Valleys    27.93
Do. Do. Do.        "      , 27.84
3rd Lake Do. Do.  27.83
On Divide 27.80
In Eddy 28.10
i /
Depot Camp 28.03
The Eddy 28.23
Do  28.28
1 mile up LUe-cille-waut River     28.32
Do. Do.  28.42
5| Do. Do. - 28.25
14 Do. Do.  28.15
17 Do. Do.  28.05
Do. Do.  27.91
21 Do. Do.   27.80
25£Do. Do.  27.65
Do. Do. 27.90
33 Do. Do.  27.85
Do. Do.   27.94
40JDo. Do.  27.65
Do: Do.  27.60
Do. Do. (at slate ledge) 27.50
48 Do. Do.  27.35
Do. Do.   27.25
53|Do. Do.   27.15
55iDo. Do.  27.05
Do. Do.  26.90
57 Do. Do.   26.92
Do. Do.  -W-4:  26-90
64 Do. Do. (snow bridge)   26.55
64±Do. Do.   26.55
Do. Do.  26.60
72 Do. Do.   26.45
Do. Do.  26.65
Do. Do.  26.70
Do. Do.  26.75
At first forks on return  27.75
Camp 14 27.40
Do  27.30
Do. 15 27.52
At Indian grave cache  27.72
Camp 16  27.80
On bank of Columbia River \ of a mile above mouth of
Ille-cille-waut  28.38
Cairne's Creek 28.38
Island at mouth of Eagle Creek  „.  28.70
Do. Do.  28.64
8 or 10 miles from mouth, camp 3   28.51
■ Do. Do.  28.43
15 or 16 miles (direct course) camp 4  28.41
Do. Do.  28.38
20 Do. Do. camp5 28.30
Do. Do.  28.30
25 Do. Do. camp 6 & 7  28.05
Do. Do.  28.05
Do. Do.  28.19
Do. Do.  28.00
30 Do.  Point A. (the point beforereached from Col. R.) 27.96
Forks of Eagle Creek and tributary.»  28.44
Camps 3-and 8 -  28.79
Do.  28.79
Shuswap Lake.- 28.81
Do.   28.80
W. Moberly.
1866.   %Z  


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