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Sketch of the proposed line of overland railroad through British North America Waddington, Alfred, 1800?-1872 1871

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   SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED LINE
OF
OVERLAND    RAILROAD
THROUGH
BRITISH NORTH AMERHJA.
BY
ALFRED  WADDINGTON WHERE THERE'S A WILL THERE'S A WAY.'
[Second Edition, zoith Cori'ections.]
OTTAWA:
PRINTED BY I. B. TAYLOR, 29, 31 & 33 RIDEAU STREET.
1871 
NORTH-WEST   TERRITORIES.
After the Fifteenth day of June next, Emigrants will be
sent to Fort Garry at the following rates :—
TORONTO TO FORT WILLIAM.
Adults, $5; Children under 12 years, half price. 150 lbs.
personal baggage free.    Extra luggage, 35 Cents per 100 lbs.
FORT   WILLIAM   TO   FORT   GARRY.
Emigrants, $25; Children under 12, half price. 150 lbs.
personal baggage free. Extra luggage, $1.50 per 100 lbs. (No
horses, oxen, waggons, or heavy farming implements can be taken.
THE   MODE   OF   CONVEYANCE.
96 miles by Railroad from Toronto to Colling wood.
532 miles by Steam from Collingwood to Fort William.
45 miles by waggon from Fort William to Shebandowan Lake.
310 miles broken navigation in open boats from Shebandowan Lake
to North-West Angle of the Lake of the Woods.
95 miles by cart or waggon from North-West Angle of the Lake of
the Woods to Fort Garry.
Between Fort William and Fort Garry huts and tents will be
provided for the accommodation of Emigrants on the Portages.
Passengers should take their own supplies. Provisions will, however,
be furnished at cost price at Shebandowan Lake, Fort Frances, and
the North-West Angle of the Lake of the. Woods.
F. BRATTN,
Secretary.
Department of Public Works, )
Ottawa, 1st April, 1871.       J
NOTICE.
THROUGH TICKETS to Fort Garry, via Fort William, can
be had at all the stations of the Northern 'Railway and on the
steamers between Collingwood and Fort William.
By direction.
F. BRATJN,
Secretary.
Department of Public Works, )
Ottawa, 20th May, 1871.        j
■:Z3Sr~ T-.&Sr.' v'
.•jprara^TyflQjgr^-^ffi * | SUS SKETCH OF THE PROPOSED LINE
OF
THROUGH
BRITISH NORTH  AMERICA.
BT
WHERE THERE'S A WTLL THERE'S A WAV.'
[Second Edition, with Corrections.]
. OTTAWA:
PRINTED BY I. B. TAYLOR, 29, 31 & 33 RIDEAU STREET.
1871.
v»*P*iwg./ gna»*< m i %. ta.g«&dB»s.:T -€^->^?m^^/ i ■' ; "^
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OVERLAND     RAILROAD
I
i
ALFRED  WADDINGTON
i
A
a&SSfi&Si .^u^-r...^-..   ..Mi. 
Entered according to Act of the Parliament 
James Morgan, in the Office of the Minister of Agriculture. PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
 
In my pamphlet of September last, on a proposed " Overland Route
through British North America," I merely showed the general practicability of such a route, without entering into details which would
have been tiresome to the general reader. The pamphlet has had a
wider circulation than I expected; and as doubts have been raised
on several points, more especially as regards the direct line of railroad
to the north of Lake Superior, my friends have urged me to answer
them. This I cannot do better than by the following more detailed
description of the road, which will serve as a supplement to the
pamphlet. With the few elements at my disposal, such an abridged
sketch must necessarily be very imperfect, if not occasionally incorrect ; but it is the first attempt yet published, and as such, will, I
trust, be found useful by those who take an interest in this grand
scheme, and their number is daily increasing.
The discovery of a practicable route through the mountains of
British Columbia was naturally the first step towards opening an
Overland communication. I have already explained how that difficulty was overcome ; and now that the Hudson's Bay Company have
accepted the proposal made to them by Lord Granville for the
surrender of the North-West Territory, another obstacle, hitherto,
considered as next to insurmountable, has also been removed. The
speedy accomplishment of this important measure, owing chiefly
to the untiring efforts of the Canadian Delegates, and the good sense
and energy of Lord Granville, can but encourage the writer to fresh
perseverance in his efforts. The difiiculties still to be grappled with
are great, it is true, but the worst, it is believed, have now been
surmounted. The future of the Dominion, the development of its
great resources, and the consolidation of its power depend on the
opening up of a communication between Canada and the Pacific
through the Red River Settlement and the Fertile Belt. These will
therefore now be quickly thrown open ; the general confederation of
British North America will naturally follow ; and the lately so-called
impossible project of an Overland Railroad (which,, when accomplished,
will make Canada the emporium of the trade of Europe with China
and Japan) may be looked upon ere long as a simple question of
pounds, shillings, and pence. I am aware that the sum required
(thirty-two millions, in^Uiding interest till the road becomes self-
paying) appears at first ^feght something enormous; but the applU
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IV
preface.
cations to Parliament this Session for Bills relating to railroads in the
United ELingdom alone (where any new line of railroad seems almost
impossible) amount to more than sixteen millions, or over half that
sum, with the chance of much smaller returns. With the enlightened
assistance of the Canadian Government by liberal grants of land, and
a properly guarded system" of guarantee, by means of which the
credit of the Dominion might in the first instance be made available
—especially if endorsed by the Home Government—subscription lists
to the above amount could be easily covered. The Government
guarantees in India amounted, April 1st, 1867, to a much larger
sum £67,254,802, and they have been a complete success, as everybody in financial circles is aware of. Besides, by providing for the
payment of the interest, the above guarantee would be rendered
almost nominal.*
The Central Pacific Railroad across the American Continent has
j ust been opened. Its professed purpose is to transfer the trade of
the Old to the New World; and when the commercial fate of England
is trembling in the balance, the urgent necessity of a rival route of
our own, independent of foreign regulations or tariffs, can no longer
be disguised, or the question lightly postponed. What the writer
has so long been striving to forward ■ will soon become the question
of the day; and if, .as some pretend, Englishmen can only act
vigorously when fairly aroused, that day may not be far distant—.
when we shall set to work in good earnest to carry out this truly
great and national undertaking and make up for lost time.
o
ALFRED WADDINGTON.
Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden,
May 25th, 1869.
* For further details as to the probable traffic and returns of the proposed railroad, see "Overland Route through British North America," by the writer.
Longmans and Co., Paternoster Row, 1868.
Map, and at Durie & Son's, Ottawa.
Price One Shilling, with  Colored
•-.la^xTgr -agacs-M-
' •"-*""**
■T^irffv K'}viy9g*"^ PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 
The first edition of this little pamphlet contained the only then
complete and well-grounded description of the proposed line of communication between Canada and the Pacific, combining all the
previously existing data I had been able to collect, with my own
information. It is, therefore, not astonishing, that in spite of its
shortcomings, the demand for it should have been continually on the
increase, at a time when the public naturally feel so much interest in
this great undertaking. The first edition having been exhausted some
time since, I have been induced, at the repeated request of my friends,
to issue a new one, and I have endeavored to render it as complete as
the present state of our information would permit. In making the
corrections and additions, I have been enabled, by the kindness of
Mr. A. J. Russell, C.E., Inspector of Crown Timber Licenses, to
consult the very complete survey of the Montreal Valley, made by
Col. A. G. Forrest, in 1867, and I have profited by the explorations
of Professor Bell, of Mr. G. F. Austin, P.L.S., and my own, at
Neepigon Bay. The explorations of Mr. L. Russell, P.L.S., in the
neighborhood of the height of land west of Neepigon Lake, have also
afforded me considerable information, as well as in a less degree those
of the exploring party under Mr. Fleming, to the north of Lake
Superior. An original notice at the end concerning the proposed extension of the railroad to Vancouver Island, is accompanied by an
approximate calculation of the distances and expense.
Alfred Waddington.
e
I
^Russell House, Ottawa, July 6th, 1871,
H    /:/-fO^
■Jlgg-*/*
•YtiyfrYi el  I
SKETCH OF THE
PROPOSED LINE OF OVEBLAND RAILROAD
THROUGH
BRITISH  NORTH AMERICA,
From Ottawa to Fort Garry, ami thence to the Yellow Head Pass
and Bute Inlet.
V*
Xt
5
WHERE THERES A WILL THERE* A WAY.
OTTAWA TO FORT GARRY.
MILES.
A line of railroad from Ottawa to Fort Garry must necessarily
be drawn so as to avoid the mountainous region extending from
20 to 30 miles north of Lake Superior, which is altogether unsuitable for a railroad; and as the valley of the Ottawa offers a nearly
straight line and every facility for this purpose, it will naturally
be the one followed. It is proposed to start the "Overland, or
Canada Pacific Railroad," from near the junction of theMattawan,
437ft. above the sea, and about at an equal distance from Toronto
and Ottawa. The connecting road from Ottawa to that point
would run by Arnprior, on the Madawaska, to Sandpoint, the present terminus of the Brockville and Ottawa railway, six or seven-
miles beyond; and then, crossing Bonnechere river, to Pembroke,
the proposed future terminus, some 40 miles further on, and 100
miles from Ottawa. A little above Pembroke the road would
cross Indian river, and 10 miles further on the Petowawa,
rather a large stream. The ground, however, along the Ottawa
from Pembroke to the Mattawan river, though favorable, is
generally poor; and better land for settlement would be
traversed, without any great inconvenience, by taking the line
more to the west. The distance from Pembroke to the mouth
of the Mattawan .would be 95 miles.
From the mouth of the Mattawan, or in that neighborhood,
the " Canada Pacific Railroad " would continue to follow the west
side of the Ottawa, or perhaps a small collateral tributary called
the Antoine, in a straight line, till within about 10 miles from
the mouth of the Montreal river.    Here the immediate bank of
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(jBcaKa^crag^MBiiae^gaKrMKggrTiM
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J 
PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD
MILES.
the Ottawa, or rather of its expansion into Lake Temiscaming,
could not be followed, and the road would have to pass behind
the hills which border the lake. Distance to opposite the mouth
of the Montreal river in lat. 47? 07', long. 79° 26'
Thence the road would join the west side of Montreal
river about three miles above its meuth, and run with an unusually straight course over an undulating soil, chiefly of loamy
clay, with hills rising gradually to 300ft. above the river, for 24
miles, when it would cross it in order to avoid a short elbow to
the west, and several large tributaries bevond. The river is
here about 250 feet wide by 7 or 8 feet deep. From this point
the road would continue on the east side, in a nearly straight
line, through alevel, fertile plain 30 or 40 feet above the river, and
from three to five miles wide, for 45 miles, till itreached the head
of Elk Lake, having only traversed one small tributary 12 feet
wide^. Here the soil changes and becomes pobr and sandy, but
the same level plain continues over which the road
would pass, crossing one other insignificant tributary (all
the main streams being on the west side) for 30 miles, till it
reached the head of a small lake at the north angle or elbow of
the Montreal, situated on the divide or watershed of the Lauren-
tides, in lat. AS°, some 830 feet above the sea. Total distance
along the Montreal river, of which 69 miles are very favorable
for settlement
N.B.—The whole of the valley of the Montreal was surveyed in 1867 by A. G. Forrest, to a scale of half a mile to the
inch, with side explorations stretching three to four miles and
more backwards.
From this point the road would enter on the level clay
country, that extends north towards Hudson's Bay, and for
several hundred miles west, to the Lawrentian height of land
between Lake Superior and Lake Winnipeg. This vast extent
of slightly rolling, entirely arable- land, of a clayey, stubborn
nature, but found to be capable of improvement and productive,
since wheat is successfully grown at New Brunswick House, in
lat. 49 ° 08', 45 miles north of the proposed line, whilst the line
of limit to wheat cultivation runs still further north, offers a
more favorable line for the construction of a railroad, and at the
same time a country more fit for settlement than that to the
south, which lies in the Lawrentian formation, and is extremely
mountainous, broken and rocky. Besides, the difference
between the straight line from Ottawa to Neepigon Harbor and
the slight curve to the north by Montreal river and through the
great clay level would not be over 18 miles. Thevroad would,
therefore, now be carried a little to the north of the direct line,
and within the margin of the level clay country 12 to 20 miles
north of lab. 48 ° , as ascertained by Mr. Sinclair and afterwards
r0
99
Miles.     169 THROUGH   BRITISH NORTH  AMERICA. 9
MILES.
Over....    169
by Mr. Salter, for upwards of 100 miles westward,  and  indefinitely beyond.
Beginning with a W.N.W. course along its southern limit
and crossing the Waratowaha or south branch of the Abbitibbi
at the end of about 20 miles, it would reach Ion. 83 ° near the
head of Carp Lake on the south or middle branch of Moose
River ; 90 miles north of its source, whence it flows towards
Hudson's Bay, and about 60 miles north of the termination of
the line surveyed by D. Sinclair in 1867. Distance with the
sinuosities.* 112
From Carp Lake the road would continue W.N.W. through .
a country comparatively level to the north end of Minisabe
Lake, (long. 83°50') on the west branch of Moose River,t and
here we enter on the country explored last summer by Mr. \
Fleming. According to his report, the watershed, which runs
about 45 miles back from Lake Superior, presents an immense
plain stretching out on all sides, with a good natural drainage
and rich lands capable of sustaining a very large population.
From Minisabe Lake the road would, therefore, pass along this
watershed and some 12 miles to the south of Cross Lake, to the
85th Meridian, a little north of 49° lat.; whence the road would
run W.N.W to 86° long. The absence of further details must
be attributed to the little knowledge we have of the country
until the above report is published. Total distance, allowing
for sinuosities 155
Tiie road will now have re-entered the basin of the St.
Lawrence, (the country becoming more difficult and undulating)
and continuing a W.N.W. course for about 14 miles, cross first
a branch of the Pie river, and then the river itself flowing
through a rich valley from one to three miles wide towards Lake
Superior. 14
Between Pie River and Long Lake, in long. 87°, we have
no reliable details. Long Lake is from half a mile to three miles
wide, and stretches 50 miles north. It forms a branch of the'
Albany, which flows into Hudson's Bay and takes its rise in Owl
Lake, only six miles from Lake Superior. The road would cross
this lake at one of its narrows, which are little more than a stone-
throw wide, somewhere about lat. 49° 18' or 4§ miles north of Lake
Superior.    Distance from Pie River 30
The line would now run south of west in the direction of
Neepigon Bay to 87° 55' west long., lat. 49° 15'; the whole over
rocky, undulating ground, but with some intervening valleys
of good soil.      In the course of this distance it would cross the
Miles....      480
* Most of the foregoing details are taken from Alex. Russell's valuable work cm.
the Hudson's Bay Territories,
t The latitudes and longitudes must here be considered as approximate.
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Ufa PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD.
Over
MILES.
480
Pays plat, Gravel and Cypress rivers, all rapid and inconsiderable streams falling into Lake Superior.    Distance
Here the road would reach the northern extremity of a
high range of trap-iock hills running south-east towards Lake
Superior, and forming an obtuse angle, would turn some 35° S. ot
W., and enter on good, undulating, wooded land; crossing a
small stream called the Jackfish at the end of 13 miles, and
having a range of granite and trap-rock hills, 800 to 1,000 feet
high to the north, between the proposed line and Lake Neepigon.    It would then continue through a still more level tract of
mi
good loamy soil for about 13 miles more to the Neepigon. This
is the largest river on the north shore of Lake Superior, into
which it empties itself through the range of mountains bordering the lake; and which are here chiefly composed of
amygdaloid rocks and porphyry, containing valuable copper ore
in many places.    Distance
Neepigon river would be crossed at the rapid immediately
above the harbor, and at an elevation probably of net more than
60 feet above Lake Superior, itself 600 feet above the sea. From
this point a branch line, two miles long, to Neepigon harbor,
would put the railroad in direct communication with Lake
Superior. Apart from the very important accession of traffic,
which this would procure to the projected line, the advantages,
in a public point of view, of uniting the great steamboat routes
of Lake Superior and the Saskatchewan with Ottawa uninterruptedly all the year round, are self-evident, and very superior
to those of any proposed line of railroad from Thunder Bay; which
would not only be isolated during the winter, but in order to
avoid the Lake of the Woods, must either pass through American territory, or, after coming within 25 miles of the proposed
Overland route at the Lac des mille Lacs, have to make a
detour of 100 miles or more to the north, from somewhere near
Rainy Lake, in order, after all, to fall into it north of White-
fish Bay. A railway, subject to such disadvantages, would be
of little or no use, and quite unavailable as a link in the great
Overland communication with the West.    Distance
From Neepigon river the road would run for 14 miles
W.N.W. over a good tract of land to Black Sturgeon,riverlyingin
a valley composed of excellent soil, and from three to six miles
wide,. This river would be crossed in lat. 49° 04', long. 88°
40', after which the road would run up the west side of the
valley for about 8 miles, when it would pass over into that of
the western branch or Little Sturgeon, and after following it
for 16 miles, cross it in the neighborhood of a brine spring in
long. 89°, lat. 49° 14'. Lake Neepigon is 340 feet above Lake
Superior, and stret3hes 70 miles north by about 40 wide. Total
distance
52
26
38
Miles 598
cwHS&raMKfSMrcSti ISSfi i 4.1HU THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH  AMERICA.
Over....
So far the whole line of country traversed after leaving
Ottawa is relatively level, and the variations of altitude unimportant ; but the road has now to cross the height of land
which separates Lake Superior from Lake Winipeg. Of this,
again, little is known,exceptingfrom Mr. Russell'slateexploration.
To the north the rocks are chiefly granite and gneiss, forming
rounded summits or oblong eminences of little altitude, but,
further south, where the railroad would pass, is an elevated,
arid, sandy plateau, covered with stunted timber, but offering
no obstacle for the construction of a railroad.
Proceeding from the crossing of the Little Sturgeon some
15° N. of W., the road would begin to rise along the side of the
7 O O
valley, the surface soil overlying a soft, red, steatitic rock.
Then, passing over a tract of rolling, rich, clayey soil, it would
follow a straight line slightly north of west for 35 miles to the
north end of Lac des Isles, and thence crossing a small tribu-
tary of Gull river, running north, and the head of Muskeg
river running south, reach the divide or watershed some 5 miles
south of Waonga Lake in long. 90° 40'.    Total distance
The height of land here is 542 feet above Lake Neepigon,
or 1,486 feet above the sea, and assuming the height at the foot
of the ascent to be 686 feet, the rise would be 800 feet in 80
miles, or, on an average, 10 feet to the mile, biit, of course,
much greater in particular places. It may be observed here
that Sturgeon Lake and, probably Lac Seul, together with
a portion of English river, are place*d on the maps fully 30
miles further south than they ought to be.
The road would now take a W.N.W. direction towards the
north end of Whitefish Bay, crossing at the end of about IS miles
a small tortuous affluent from the south, which runs into Sturgeon Lake, and continue some 20 miles further on, to within
two or three miles south of a small lake called Pine Lake. Total
distance
From this point, where Mr. Russell's exploration ended,
we have no precise details, excepting that about 20 miles
further on, the road would cross Canoe river, an affluent of Lac
Seul, on the Canoe route from Fort Francis, and that from Lac
Seul the ground is generally considered to be lower, and though
embarrassed with numerous lakes, to present no important
obstacle. From Canoe river the distance in a straight bine N.
of W. to the north end of White Fish Bay, 978 feet above the
sea, would be 90 miles.    Total distance
Crossing an affluent from the North, the road would follow
the north-western side of this bay for some distance, and then
strike nearly due west over a broken sterile tract of country to
the Winnipeg.    This   river, which is of large volume, about
11
MILES.
,  508
80
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35
110
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whether this would be a better line of road.
Distance
in all
Total distance from the Mattawan
And from Ottawa
48
DA
12 PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD.
MILES.
Over.. ..   8l'3
equal to the Rhine, would be crossed at the "Dalles," 958 feet
above the sea, where its width would only be aboub  150 yards,
and the escarpments on both sides 30 to 40 feet high.    Distance
From the Dalles the road would pass a little N. of W. over
easier ground to the foot of Falcon Lake on Labarriere river
It would then run in a straight line due west to Fort
Garry, passing a little to the south of the Fork of White Mouth
river. About five miles beyond this; or 38 miles from Labarriere
river, the road would leave the Lawrentides and enter on the
Silurian formation, which extends to Fort Garry, and forms here
the beginning of the great plain which stretches westward as far
as the Rocky Mountains. It would now run over unusually level
and favorable ground for 52 miles ; passing over several small
branches of the Broken Head, and, finally, across Red River,
200 to 250 yards wide, at Point Douglas near St. Boniface, a
mile bslow the confluence of the Assiniboine, and near the
mouth of a streamlet called German Creek, 50 feet wide. The
river .could be crossed more easily at the Rapids, 3 miles south
of the Stone Fort, and 15 miles lower down, but it is  doubtful
90
Miles    985
„     1,180
PLAIN OF THE SASKATCHEWAN
The railroad, as before said, will now have entered on the
Great Plain, which, further west, takes the name of the Saskatchewan ; passing through Fort Garry and the Fertile Belt in its
whole length, to the foot of the Leather or Yellow Head Pass
(lat. 53° 127) in the Rocky Mountains. This plain rises in successive benches, gradually but almost imperceptibly, from Fort
Garry (647 feet above the sea) to the foot of the Rocky Mountains, where it attains a height of over 3,000 feet; notwithstanding which, wheat is successfully grown at Fort Edmonton in lat.
53° 32', 2,728 feet above the sea. It presents the easiest ground
in the world for the construction of a railway, and, therefore,
only requires a general indication of the line the proposed road
would follow.
Starting from between Fort Garry and the town, this would
be through the Red River Settlement; first, nearly due west for 6
miles along the north side of the Assiniboine to Sturgeon Creek;
then slightly N. of W. for 5 miles, and afterwards N. W. over
another small creek to Lane's Post, 10 miles, and to Long Lake
8 miles beyond; the whole over level, open, and beautiful prairie
ground. From Long Lake the road would follow the Assiniboine in a south-westerly direction for 20 miles  more, to the
££^^ggg3«|j**j*gJ3g{J£
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THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH  AMERICA. 13
MILII.
village at "Prairie Portage" forming the western boundary of
the settlement, in long. 97 ° 35', lat. 50 ° 10' N. The whole
of this portion of road from Fort Garry lies in the Devonian
formation.    Total distance 55
A straight line from Prairie Portage to the foot of the
Yellow Head Pass, a few miles N. of Jasper's House, would
carry the road along the border of the more arid and treeless
plains towards the south, instead of passing through the middle
of the "true prairie land" called the Fertile Belt. In order to do
this, the l'oad would have to follow a west-north-westerly course
(which would not lengthen it materially) to the mouth of a
small tributary of Rapid river, at the foot of the Riding Mountains, in long. 99 ° 45', lat. 50 ° 30'; and thence run a degree
or two more to the north in a straight line to the North Saskatchewan, some 18 miles above the bend, and near the confluence of a small affluent from the Eagle Hills, in long. 107 ° 15'.
The railroad would thus connect with that noble stream, near
the middle of its course, and consequently with the vast tracts of
country which it traverses, both above and below; at the same
time that it would open up the very richest ground on this side
of the Assiniboine, and run nearly the whole way through the
Fertile Belt beyond.
Following this line from Prairie Portage, the road would
cross at the end of five miles a small stream, called Rat river, running in a valley six to seven miles wide, north to Lake Manitoba.
It would then run W. N. W. up the valley of White Mud river,
through a country of prairie lands of the richest description,
thickly interspersed with woods, to a tributary in long. 98 ° 40',
where the valley takes a more westerly direction; and crossing
the river, continue due west over several insignificant streams
from the southern foot of the Riding Mountains, to the N. E.
elbow of Rapid river in long. 99 ° 30' *, a stream about 50 feet   .
X O 7
wide, which here turns adruptly to the S. W. A little before
reaching this, the road will have left the Devonian and entered on
the Cretaceous formation, which (more or less covered with
superficial deposits), extends to the foot of the Rocky Mountains.
Crossing Rapid river near the Bend, the road would then follow
the south side of the valley, half a mile to a mile wide and 80
feet below the general level, for about 12 miles to the tributary
below mentioned in long. 99 ° 45', where the line changes
direction.    Distance from Prairie Portage 100
Turning very slightly northward, the road would continue to
follow the rich fertile valley of Rapid river in a line nearly
parallel to the Riding Mountains, for about 30 miles more, and
then cross the head of Oak river, 10 miles further on. After
this, it would cross consecutively two branches of Arrow river,
^nd the sources of Pine Creek, Bird-tail Creek, and another ; all
S>,
H
Miles,...    155 PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD.
MILES.
Over.. .. 155
rising in the Riding Mountains, a fertile table land, about 1,000
feet above the plain and thickly wooded to the north-east. It
would then cross Shell river, flowing from a valley further north,
and distant about 40 miles from Oak river; then, another affluent
of the Assiniboine, and finally cross the latter in lat. 51 °
half way between Fort Ellice and Fort Pelly. Total distanee,
through a country composed of a rich, sandy loam, sinuosities included 95
The Assiniboine flows here in a valley about a mile wide,
150 feet below the plain. Leaving the valley, the road would
enter on a rich, park-like country, similar to that previously
traversed, interspersed with small lakes, and partially wooded ;
and crossing the head of a tributary of Calling river, reach at the
end of about 40 miles a small stream flowing to the north, called
Little White Sand river, three or four miles to the north of Leech
Lake on the Big Cut Arm, which runs south. The road would
then continue for about 35 miles more to the S. E. foot of the
Little Touchwood Hills.  Total distance, allowing for sinuosities,    75
The tract of country embraced by the Little and the Great
Touchwood Hills, which are about 20 miles apart, is of the best
quality, rich, fertile, well wooded and watered; coal is also said
to be found in abundance. The road would pass over the first
34 miles to a point 8 miles north of the deserted Fort, at the
S. W. foot of the Great Touchwood Hills, in lat. 51 ° 33', long.
104° 20', and thence cross to the north-west side, about 16
miles distant, where a tributary at the foot of Heart Hill runs
S. W. towards Last Mountain Lake on Calling river.    In all        50
The road now enters again on the plain, composed here in
some places of a fighter inferior soil; and crossing at the end of
twenty miles a second tributary to Last Mountain Lake, would
re-enter the "time prairie land" near the S. W. end of a Lake in
long
106 ° 03', lat. 51 ° 58'.    Distance
Thence it would continue for about 22 milas to the South
Saskatchewan, 180 to 200 yards wide, and 10 to 14 feet deep, flow-
ino- in a deep-cut valley, the sides of which are steep and wooded,
230 feet below the plain. This it woidd cross, in lat. 52 ° 08',
some 35 miles below the Meose Woods and the Half-breed
settlement there, and proceed over rather poor soil to the North
Branch, at the confluence of Eagle Hill Creek, a distance of about
35 miles.    In all
The road might now follow a direct line to Fort Edmonton,
so as to join the beaten track by the settlements of St. Alban
and St. Ann, to Jasper's House and the Yellow Head Pass.
But this would take it 50 miles to the north of the straight line,
besides passing through a very marshy country; and that, without any adequate compensation; the more so, as a branch line to
Miles..'..
58
O'i
490
g^-jKJt^
*JQi
•IMtel
'■.-«*•
g^sa&iiosiggg THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH  AMERICA.
Over
15
MILES.
490
Edmonton, if found desirable, would only be 35 miles long. A
straight line from the north of the Eagle Hills to near Jasper's
House would therefore be far preferable.
Following this direction, the road would run for the first 20
milesormore between the footof the Eagle Hillsandthe Saskatche-
wan ; and then in a straight line W. N. W. to the south bank
of Battle river, near Ear Hill Creek in long. 108 ° 33'. Crossing the Creek, it would follow it a little S. of W., and then run
for 30 miles along the south side of "The Chain of Lakes" to
the end of Manito Lake, and along two smaller ones beyond ;
then south of Eyebrow Hill, where it would cross Eye Hill Creek
in long. 109 ° 42', and the foot of a lake on Nose Creek, in
long. 110 ° 05', a stream flowing north from the Neutral Hills.
O 7 O
Twelve or fifteen miles further west it would reach Battle River
again, and after following the south bank for six or seven miles
over a broken country, partially wooded, cross itin long. 110 ° 40',
lat. 52 ° 45' The road would now run north of the Dried Meat
Hills, through a country rich, fertile, and clothed with luxuriant
vegation, to Long Lake Creek, a tributary of Battle river, which
it would cross in long. 112 ° 50', lat. 52 ° 57'. It would then
run north of Beard Hill and across Smoking Wood Creek in
long. 113 ° 37'; north of the Woodpecker Hills, across Pigeon
Lake Creek, and for several miles along the south side of this
lake, where there is a Wesleyan Mission : the whole through a
country of the richest description. Thence the road would
strike to the south end of Bull Lake; on leaving which it would
enter the line of "true forests" in long. 114° 05', and pass
through them for about 30 miles, to the North Saskatchewan.
This it would cross about lat. 53 ° 08', long. 114 ° 50', a little
below the rapids, 3,048 feet above the sea, and near its bend
towards the East, about 6 miles below the mouth of Brazeau
river ; from which point downwards it is believed to be navigable
for steamers.    Total length from Eagle Hill Creek, allowing for
O O 7 O
sinuosities, 350
The road would then run due west over easy ground, but
covered with dense pine forests, and cross the Pembina at the
end of about 80 miles, and the McLeod 40 miles further on ; two
clear, shallow streams from the south, flowing over pebbly beds,
about 80 feet below the plain. From the McLeod to the entrance
of the Pass at the foot of the Rocky Mountains, a few miles
north of the Roche a. Miette, the country becomes gradually more
and more rolling and hilly.    Distance, allowing for sinuosities, 145
«*vl
I
Ii
m.
Total distance from Fort Garry        Miles    985
•*gfr»»/&
^
«gw»sraJ 
PROPOSED OVERLAND ROUTE.
ROCKY MOUNTAINS.
MILES.
The road now enters the Rocky Mountains, and turning
south, passes for several miles between a small lake to the east,
and the Athabasca, a stream 200 yards wide, swollen and turbid
with glacier water, which rises in the Rocky Mountains, some 90
miles aMove, and runs here nearly due north at the bottom of a wide,
flat valley. A little higher up, the river expands into two small
lakes, the lower one bathing the foot of a perpendicular limestone (?) bluff forming part of the Roche a, Miette, a singularly
shaped mountain, 6,000 feet high from its base, or 9,400 feet
above the sea. This bluff would require a cutting of a quarter
of a mile or more in length. Immediately beyond, the road
enters- on a little sandy plain; opposite which, and in a lovely
expanse extending some 5 miles on the left bank of the river,
between the two lakes, lies Jasper's House, in long. 118° 10',
lat. 53° 12', 3,372 feet above the sea. The road now crosses
several fordable mouths of a stream from the south, and continues
in a southerly direction for about 18 miles up the narrowing
valley, along the right bank of the Athabasca, and over easy
ground, requiring, at most, an occasional-cutting or embankment.
At this point it would probably cross the river, hardly as wide
here as the Thames at Westminster Bridge, deep and tranquil;
thus avoiding the "Maligne," a large tributary which enters the
Athabasca lower down from the opposite side.- The road would
then follow a sparsely timbered flat on the left bank, for 7 or 8
miles, up to a small prairie, the site of an old Lodge, called
Henry's House; when the track leaves the valley of the Athabasca,
and the Pass properly speaking begins.    Total distance
Turning abruptly to the W. N. W. (which direction the road
will now follow with little variation for the next 55 miles, as
far as the west end of Moose Lake) it would enter the rocky
valley of the Miette, a deep, tortuous, rapid stream, 30 yards
wide. The road would follow this valley for about 12 miles :
and then crossing a small tributary called the Pipestone, pass
over easy ground, rising gradually and imperceptibly, till it
reached the summit of the Pass, 3,760 feet above the sea. The
twistings of the Miette would require several bridges, or else
considerable side cuttings, in order to avoid the stream ; these,
however, it is believed, would seldom reach the rock. After
leaving the Miette the mountains diverge, and the valley opens.
Distance from Henry's House
10
99
Miles     52
.km.**!* -•<«rapy*>t-» ■»-*•«***>'
>vi»*rig-»:<
*>•■*, ■/gg^^'-rea 
THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH AMERICA.
17
MILES.
BRITISH COLUMBIA.
The summit of the Yellow Head Pass forms the limit of
British Columbia. It presents a camparatively open and level
space for about 3 miles; after traversing which, the road would
pass over easy ground along the north side of Cow-dung Lake,
and at the foot of verdant, swelling hills; the lake consisting of
two portions connected by a short narrow channel, and in all
about 7 miles long. It would then follow the direction of the
small stream issuing from the western extremity of the Lake for
several miles, down to where the Fraser, flowing through a
narrow gorge from the south-west, sweeps round into the valley.
The road would run for the next four or five miles along the north
side of this stream, between the river and the steep hill sides of
the straitened valley, over level but low ground, subject to be
overflowed and encumbered with fallen timber; till it reached
Moose river, a-rapid stream falling in from the north. Two or
three miles below, the Fraser expands into Moose Lake, 12 to
15 miles long by 2 to 3 wide. The mountains on the south side
of this lake rise perpendicularly to a height of 2,000 feet. On
the north side, tlough less abrupt, they still come down in many
places to the water?s edge, and close in on the, road, thus
necessitating several miles of side cutting along the lake. The
valley now begins to acquire a more rapid and continuous descent,
and, changing direction, runs nearly due west for the next 30
7 O       O 7 v
miles. Four or five miles below Moose Lake, it opens somewhat,
after which it is much encumbered by large timber, till the mountains close in once more, and the road between them and the Fraser
is obstructed by lofty cliffs of crumbling slate rock, the first met
with beyond the Summit. A side-cutting of about 200 yards
would be necessary at this point, besides several other smaller
ones lower down, where the mountains shut in the* valley very
closely. Four or five miles below this, or about 15 miles from
Moose Lake, a considerable branch called the "Grand Fork"
enters the Fraser at right angles from the north, through five
separate mouths, which would have to be crossed. At this point
the Fraser runs through a narrow rocky gorge : after which the
valley, for the next 10 miles to opposite the Indian camp at the
" Cache," becomes much more open, and the ground easier, though
intersected by several streams from the north, and obstructed by
fallen timber of great size. Total distance from the Summit to
the Cache.
The latter half of this distance is heavily timbered, and the
descent between Moose Lake and the Cache rapid and continuous,
but nowhere steep ; averaging less than 45 feet to the mile, and
probably never exceeding 70.    There would also be some con-
58
I
o
Miles......    58
^Zb-'S>&>.m^yim
^f&t^^^^mei^R 
PROPOSED, OVERLAND  RAILROAD
MILES.
.    58
Over	
siderable side cuttings and embankments, but not a single tunnel
in the whole length of the Pass.
The continuation of the road in a straight line to the Pacific
is now interupted by a barrier of mountains, beginning some
five miles below the Cache, and riurning north and south.    These
present the most extraordinary accumulation of mountains behind
mountains, as far as the eye can reach ; whilst they arrest the
course of the Fraser, which turns suddenly north.    The possi-
i bility of carrying a road or telegraph over them in a straight
line from the Cache to William's Creek, one of the principal
centres of the Cariboo gold mines, about 80 miles distant and in
nearly the same latitude, has been tested by two distinct lines ot
exploration.    These were run from Richfield ; the one diverging
slightly towards the south, and following Swamp River up to
its source, 5,828 feet above the sea, near which the Shouswap,
the North Thompson, and the Canoe Rivers also take their rise;
the other northward towards the " Grande Rapide" on the Fraser,
a few miles below the Cache.    The result was, that the road
would not only pass over the point of greatest elevation, whence
the above rivers flow north and south,   but that it would have
to cross three indescribably rugged mountain ridges,  running
perpend icular to the axis of the line, and separated by the narrowest
valleys; one of them 6,444 feet above the sea, and all subject to
continual avalanches.    Features much the same as those accompanying Howse Pass to the south, and presenting an accumulation of obstacles which render any such Line utterly impracticable.
T he proposed railroad must therefore necessarily follow the
valley of the Fraser to the North; or else take the line travelled
by Milton and Cheadle down the Thompson to the South. But
the latter, besides continuing for 120 miles below the Cache to
run through a mountainous uninhabitable region, covered with
O O 7
dense forests, and being costly in proportion, would lead to
nothing definite beyond the opening up of a small portion of the
Colony ; since, in spite of every effort, no really available line
for a railroad between Fort Kamloops and New Westminster
has as yet been discovered through the Cascade or Coast range.
The road down the valley of the Frasfjr, on the contrary,
though describing a circuitous route, would turn the Cariboo or
Gold Mountains, and communicate immediately, either below
Westroad River, or lower down at Quesnel-Mouth, with the
Chilcoaten or Great Western plain of the Colony; whilst below
the Mouth of Bear river, the valley opens upon a fine tract
of rolling country, with a climate considerably milder than that
of Canada, and ready for immediate settlement; instead of the
interminable mountains and forests on the Thompson route.
The Fraser, moreover, (whatever may have been said or written
Miles     58
dtan^i
' "viiiiif "ijffiinuTj"""***j
('>-wy-vwa?.«
%?WA 
THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH   AMERICA. 19
MILES.
Over 
to the contrary), offers a valuable water communication, and one
immediately available, through the whole of this cultivable district. Nor must it be forgotten that the gold diggings, together
with the mining population, are constantly moving on towards
the northern limit of the colony, and that this is the direct line
of route to Peace River, and all the latest gold discoveries.
This route, it is true, would require several considerable
bridges ; over the North Fork, the Salmon, the Stuart and
Westi oad rivers on the north side ; or over Bear river, and twice
over the Fraser, if carried along the south bank, besides some
considerable gradings and cuttings ; but it would nowhere present
any very serious obstacle.
Following up this line, the road would run nearly due west
O J. J
for the first five miles below the Cache, over easy, open ground,
along the right bank of the Fraser, which then turns nearly due
north. Several miles below this, it would cross an important
affluent from the east, called "Rock Creek," and reach the
" Rapide des Fourneaux."    In all about 10 miles
The river here takes a north-westerly direction. But in order
to be able to continue a further description, it would be necessary to have a more complete survey of the valley, as regards the
streams to be crossed, and the principal impediments on either
side of the river; so as to know positively which bank the road
should follow down to Fort George, and thence to Quesnel-Mouth.
The distance from the " Rapidedes Fourneaux" to the former place,
in lat. 53° 55' long. 122° 40', is 187 miles
From Fort George the road would iun south along the valley
of the Fraser to Quesnel-Mouth, a small rising town on the road
to the gold mines, a few miles below which there are outcroppings
of coal (probably lignite) oh the Fraser. Distance, sinuosities
included
From this place, or the opposite bank, it would then cross \
the rich Chilcoaten plain in a south-westerly direction, and-
nearly in its greatest breadth; crossing Deserter's river, and
passing by William's Lake, to Chisicut Lake, on the Chiscoe or
Chilcoaten, a small river, from 12 to 15 yards wide; then by
Benchee Lake, in long. 124° 05', lat. 52° 13', across a small
tributary of the Chilcoaten called "the Chilanco," 8 to 10 yards
wide, and along the west side of Tatla Lake, 19 miles long, to
the "Gap," or head of the Bute Inlet valley, (long. 124° 30', lat.
51° 47') at the entrance of the Cascade Mountains or Coast
range. This slightly rolling, fertile plain offers every facility for
a, railway. Distance across it 137^ miles. Thence the road
would run down the valley, for 84£ miles, to Waddington Harbor
at the head of the Inlet. Near the entrance of this valley from
the plain, a granite bluff on the uppermost lake, called Bluff
Miles   348
187
93
i
i
I
i
wtttuxnHo^ 
PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD
MILES
Over  348
Lake, would require some blasting.    Below this, the road would
run over level ground for nearly 40 miles, the valley presenting no
kind of difficulty, till the mountains begin to close in ; requiring
in the next eight   miles four short tunnels,  and considerable
blasting in several places.    The road would then reach the defile
or canyon, 31 miles above the head of the Inlet.    This defile is _
exactly 1£ mile in length, and would require two tunnels of 250 •
and 665 yards respectively, both in the granite,   besides considerable blasting.    Below the defile the valley opens again, and
continues perfectly level down to the  Inlet ; the only difficulty
being at the crossing of the Homathco, a considerable stream, a
mile below the defile, which would require a bridge 60 to 70
yards long.    With the exception' of the latter obstacles, which
would be expensive, the whole line, from Quesnel-Mouth to Bute
Inlet, may be said to  offer one continuous level, and to  be
unusually  favorable.    It has  been carefully surveyed, a map
constructed containing the features of the ground, the curves, and
other necessary details, to a scale of four inches to the mile, the
outlay carefully  calculated, and the whole revised and approved
by  competent engineers.     Distance   from  Quesnel-Mouth  to
Waddington Harboi*
► 99
Distance by this line
Miles 570
The above road is the only one to the Pacific, through the
mountains of British Columbia, wliich years of exploration have
proved to be really practicable.    It cannot be denied, however,
that, in view of an overland railroad, the circuit described by
the valley of the Fraser as far north as lat. 54° ,45' is immense,
as compared with a straight line from the Cache to Quesnel-
Mouth, both of them in the same latitude—220 miles against
120.   So much so, that a shorter line was suggested by the writer,
as far back as June, 1867, wliich, though traversing a greater
extent of mountainous country, would, if found to be practicable,
alike open the Chilcoaten plain, and pass over a tract of agricultural country equal to that by the Fraser; at the same time that
it would be more central as regards the southern portion of the
colony.    This Line would follow a portion of Milton and Cheadle's
track,* but only to a point some 20 or 25 miles below the Forks,
where the Upper Thompson falls into the North Thompson from
the N.E.; so as to cross the Bald or Gold Mountains, about
lat. 52° 10', 40 to 50 miles south of their point of greatest elevation, and, consequently, at a much lower level, and reach Horsefly
Lake, beyond; whence the line would continue west  to  the
" Gap," or entrance of the Bute Inlet Valley.
* I am kindly indebted to these gentlemen for a portion of the following,
and some of the preceding details.
I/   ...K.Uiu
:«<»&&% ajv jhb&ssu
Eaa&ft&MK^flra.tam **-<Nvt*niuaw
r aWV tfcSvfn. 4m 4 THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH  AMERICA.
21
MILES.
Carrying out this idea, the distance from the summit of the
Yellow Head Pass to opposite the Cache is 58 miles 58
The road would then cross the Fraser, which is here very
impetuous, to the Cache, situated in a valley about five miles wide
at its base on the river, and running to a point 15 miles seuth.
Part of this valley is rich and fit for settlement, but the southern
end is sandy and undulating. The road would pass up it over
easy ground, cross Cranberry river, a small tributary flowing
north to the Fraser, then skirting a small lake, imperceptibly
pass the watershed between the Fraser and the Columbia. The
valley is divided here by a line of hills to the south, and forks
into two narrow valleys. Taking the more westerly one, the
road would follow it fcr a mile or so, leaving the mountains to
the east, and reach Canoe river, a rapid stream flowing from the
N.W. at the foot of a steep, sandy cliff.    Distance 17
Crossing Canoe river, the road, after running a mile or two
O 7 7 O
S.W. would make a detour of a couple of miles to the west, in
order to get round the point of a range of hills to the south; and
passing among rocks and burnt timber enter a narrow valley to
the west of them, drained by a small stream running north. This
it would follow up, rising imperceptibly for 8 or 10 miles, to a
little marshy lake, called Albreda Lake, occupying the bottom of
the valley, and forming the watershed (2,900 feet above the sea)
between Canoe river and the North Thompson. Following the
stream from this lake, the road would continue south for about
18 miles along a valley closely shut in by steep, pine clad hills,
with snowy limestone mountains in the rear, and over undulating
hilly ground, requiring a certain amount of grading; the timber
becoming  of a very large growth, and the stream gradually
O v O O . O *7
increasing by the contribution of six or eight tributaries from
the west (one of them rather a large one) to a width of 30 yards;
till it joins the Upper Thompson, the first mouth of which (for
there are two with an island between) is about 60 yards wide,
flowing from, the N.W., and charged with glacier water. Distance  from Canoe river 32
The rise of ground between the latter and the Thompson is
trifling, and so far the projected Short Cut presents no very
serious obstacle. But at this point, the aspect of the elevated
ridges to the west of the Thompson is such, as to preclude any
reasonable hope of being able to carry a road over them to above
Clearwater Lake, and again over the divide between the latter
and Great Quesnelle Lake.
The road would therefore have to be continued further
south, down the west, bank of the Thompson, along steep, timber-
strewn hill-sides ; the forest as dense as ever, and the mountains
joining down close to the water's edge, and only separated by
%
107
v*»sg^>aa^>agft
flea PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD.
MILES
Over   10
narrow ravines from the N.E. and N.W. ; till it reached the
neighborhood of Mount St. Anne, the last snow-capped mountain to the west, in about lat. 52° 18', and 10 or 12 miles below
the Forks
Here the river widens and becomes less rapid ; 3 or 4 miles
lower down, where a rocky rapid stream falls in from the N.W.,
the valley also widens somewhat; 8 or 9 miles below Mount St.
Anne another rapid stream, 40 yards wide, falls in from the
N.W., the valley widens still more, and the country opens
generally, though the hills again close in towards the south ; and
3 or 4 miles further, or about 16 miles in all, a third stream falls
in from the N.W., named the Elsecar, 30 yards wide, clear and
shallow, and consequently not fed by snows or glacier water;
showing that the region where it takes its rise (probably to the
N.W. of Mount St. Anne) must be less elevated. The valley
also presents a tolerably level space. It is, therefore,, more than
probable that a pass to the west may be found somewhere near the
second stream below Mount St. Anne, or at a distance from it,
say of 12 miles.
Thus far the road is known, and may be considered practicable, though the hilhjSide cuttings and gradings along the Thompson and elsewhere would be numerous and expensive, as well as
the bridges over the Fraser, Canoe river, and at the Forks. But
the road now enters on an unexplored region ; crossing a little
south of west for 22 miles over an elevated divide to the Elsecar,
and then probably over lower ground to the foot of Clearwater
Lake, which stretches some thirty miles nearly due north.
Beyond this it would cross a third, and still easier divide, to near
the eastern end of Horsefly Lake, 18 or 20 miles further west,
and about 2,100 feet above the sea. The road would ere this
have left the mountains ; the width across which from the
Thompson would therefore not be more than 36 or 38 miles,
and the total distance, sinuosities included, about
The line would then run for 22 miles nearly due west on the
south side of the lake, and then follow the stream issuing from
it, to its junction with the Horsefly river, near long. 121°
30', lat 52° 25'.    Distance in all
The road now enters on a country sufficiently known,
and partially settled. Continuing nearly due west, it would
cross a slightly rolling,, fertile tract of country, for about 25
miles, to the divide near Round Tent Lake, about 125 feet
above the Horsefly ; and then proceed, with a nearly equal fall
in the course of the next 10 miles, to Deep Creek, which it
would follow in a varying westerly direction, and with a fall of
about 600 feet in 9 miles, to its junction with the Fraser, 1,450
feet above the sea.    Total distance, sinuosities included
12
12
43
oo
47
256
^-^s^ssz
>0tB«A'£(ia»< THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH AMERICA 23
MILES.
Over 256
The road would then cross the Fraser, and pass over the
Chilcoaten plain in a W.S.W. direction, and with an ascent of
about 900 feet, to the old Fort on the Chiscoe or Chilcoaten
river.    Distance 58
Thence it would run in the same directum, crossing the eastern or main branch of the Homathco, to the " Gap " or entrance
of the Bute Inlet valley, 2,520 feet above the sea. 47
.  Thence south,  down the Bute Inlet valley to Waddington
Harbor. 84
Distance by proposed Short Cut  Miles 445
I
Recapitulation.
Miles.
From Montreal to Ottawa         115
,,     Ottawa to the Mattawan        195
,,     the Mattawan to Fort Garry            985
„    Fort Garry to the Yellow ifead Pass        985
Thence to the Limit of British Colombia  52
 2,022
Route by the Upper Fraser (British Columbia)           570
Less distance by proposed Short Cut        125
        445
 2,467
Total length from Montreal to the Pacific      2,777
Against 3,305 miles, from New York to San Francisco, or 528 miles less.
I
6
w
\
The distances given in my pamphlet are greater than these. In
the first place, because no allowance was made for the proposed short
cut in British Columbia, which in all probability can be realised;
and, secondly, because they were only roughly calculated and rather
exaggerated.
The above distances may also be classed in three categories, as
regards the nature of the soil and country traversed, viz. :—
1. Level, rich, arable country.
2. Rolling country, less fertile.
O «/   7
3. Poor, mountainous, and timbered.
^zemi&mp^f ****~'*t^^ 
PROPOSED  OVERLAND   RAILROAD.
SECTIONS  OF  COUNTRY.
1
Level.
2
Rollins
Yalley of the Ottawa	
Montreal Valley	
Clay Level Country	
Lawrentides, north of Lake Superior	
Neepigon and Black Sturgeon District	
Height of Land, to White Mouth River ,
Great Western Plain	
,, ,, approach to Rocky Mountains
Yalley of the Assiniboine	
Rocky Mountains, to the Cache	
Bald, or Gold Range beyond	
Along Horsefly Lake and River	
Chilcoaten Plain. *	
Cascade Range (the Valley itself fertile)	
Miles.
69
250
20
41
Miles.
70
30
25
1,012
30
Poor.
20
1,544
200
Miles.
30
63
335
80
116
15
84
723
Recapitulation.
Mil
es.
Rich and Cultivable Territory      1.744
Grazing, Timbered, and Mountainous        723
2,467
PROPOSED    EXTENSION    OF    RAILWAY
VANCOUVER   ISLAND.
TO
Since writing the above pamphlet, it has been ascertained, that
by constructing suspension railroad bridges over the three straits,
between the mainland and Stuart Island, Stuart and Valdes Islands,
and Valdes and Vancouver Island, the railway can be eventually
continued down the west side of Bute Inlet and across Vancouver
Island, either to the head of Kyuquot Sound; or to Alberni Canal,
at the head of Barclay Sound; or to Esquimalt Harbor, near Victoria.
By this means all the inconveniences of an intermediate terminus,
and the expense, trouble, and delays of transhipment across the Gulf
of Georgia, which, as compared with San Francisco, would render
the road practically useless for commercial purposes, are avoided ;
and, secondly (and this is more important in an Imperial point of
view), a continuous and permanent communication with the mainland is established at a point offering the greatest strategetical
security, and which would be impregnable; thus dispensing with
the absolute necessity of passing before the disputed Island of San
Juan, and very much diminishing the importance of that vexed
Sti
i r
^^^^j^^j^rjgw^jjjg*^^ 
THROUGH  BRITISH  NORTH  AMERICA.
25
IS
question. With such weighty motives to carry out the scheme, it
becomes interesting to know what would be the probable outlay.
The following approximate calculations show it to be enormous;
such a considerable undertaking must, therefore, necessarily be
deferred, though it points to the advisability of carrying the road
to Bute Inlet, apart from other weighty considerations.
From Waddington Harbor to Vancouver
Island.
o
T3
Bute Inlet.
The road would start from Tobit Point, Waddington
Harbor, and be carried down the west side of the
Inlet, along the slope of the Mountains, some 40 or
50 feet above high tide.
Around House Mountain ,
South of House Mountain	
North Side of Bear Bay	
Embankment and Bridge in the Angle
Bear Bay to Mellersh Point	
MeHersh Point to near Boyd Point....
From Boyd Point, South	
Further South to Alpha Bluff	
Alpha Bluff to Cosmos Height ,
Cosmos Height to Amor Point	
South of Amor Point	
Embankment	
Thence to Inner Angle of the Shore..,
Inner Angle to Foot of Mount Stokes,
Thence to Arran Rapids
Miles
Suspension Railroad Bridge, span 1,000 feet
Stuart Island.
From Arran Rapids to Steep Point	
Steep Point to crossing of Caldero Channel..
Suspension Railroad Bridge, span, 2,000 feet.
Valdes Island.*
Along the North Shore	
Across the Island to North-west foot of Mount Turn-
bull 	
Along East foot of Mount Turnbull to Head of Came-
leon Harbor	
Thence due South to Arm of Sea	
Bridge and Embankment ■....
Thence to Deep Water Bay	
Deep Water Bay to Seymour Narrows	
Suspension Railroad Bridge, span, 2,200 feet	
* Valdes Island has never been explored.
2/5
0) Ah
> o o
53H
^
Deg.
50
45
55
60
60
45
.55
55
45
45
50
45
50
45
50
13
a
c3    .
o a
Miles,
0i
3f
2k
H
3
2£(?)
2J(?)
0£
3 (?)
3i
49
9
+3
CO*
Miles.
Of
5
4
6
2 (?)
3(?)
3 (?)
28i
I
1
\
D
*j r f. *i»i*ft«f .*£»«..* <2°^??&»$.w%
F&^^&mmz-^mi PROPOSED  OVERLAND  RAILROAD.
Recapitulation.
Bridge over Arran Rapids 1,000 feet, say
„ Caldero Channel 2,000      „
,, Seymour Narrows 2,200       ,,
49 miles in the Rock and Earth, at £10,000 	
28*        „ Solid Granite, at £12,000	
1 Miles. T
Total cost to Vancouver Island       78h
Branch to Kyuquot Sound.
From Seymour Narrows to Tahsish Arm, Kyuquot
Sound
U6i
Branch to Alberni Canal.
To Seymour Narrows, as above	
Thence to South Branch of Courtenay River
Thence across the Island to Stamp Harbor, Alberni
Canal .'	
Branch to Esquimalt Harbor.
195
78*
£
250,000
675,000
743,000
490,000
342,000
2,500,000
£
at 10,000
116
48
164
To Courtenay River, as above j 116
Thence to near Qualchum River	
Thence to Nanaimo  45
From Nanaimo to Esquimalt  60
T
T
rn
248
„   8,500
„ 10,000
8,500
8,500
8,500
1,165,000
3,665,000
2,500,000
318,750
2,818,750
480,000
3,298,750
2,818,750
229,500
382,500
510,000
3,940,750
Comparative" Expense op each Line.
To Tahsish Arm, Kyuquot Sound
To Stamp Harbor, Alberni Canal.
To Esquimalt Harbor, Victoria...
3,665,000
3,298,750
3,940,750
'tT^aiiM, £ I SrV-ftfelH S-"t* 
APPENDIX.
A—CULMINATING- POINTS ON THE LINE.
LTUU"JiSM!I.l
North Angle of Montreal River	
Height of Land between Lakes Superior and Winnipeg
Leather or Yellow Head Pass	
Pass across the Bald or Gold Range	
Summit of Chilcoaten Plain	
Alt.
830
1,486
3,760
3,000(?)
2,520
B.—PRINCIPAL STREAMS AND RIVERS.
Names.
Madawaska, at Arnprior   	
Constant Creek, on the Ottawa   	
Bonnechere, on the Ottawa  	
Indian River, on the Ottawa, above Pembroke
Petowawa, on the Ottawa	
Creek near Chalk Lake	
Mattawan	
Tributaries of the Ottawa ,...
Tributaries of Montreal River	
Montreal River (twice) .•;••;•
Waratowaha, or South Branch of Abbitibbi .
South Branch of Moose River	
Moose River	
Head of White, or Pike River(?)	
East Branch of Pie River	
Pie River	
Little Pie River	
Little Pie, Western Affluent	
Small Stream, no name	
Steel River	
Long Lake (Albany)	
Affluent of Trout Lake	
„        Black River 	
Black River	
Pays Plat River	
Gravel River	
Cypress River	
Jack Fish River	
NEEPIGON	
Black Sturgeon	
Little Black Sturgeon	
West Feeder to Neepigon Lake ,
Small streams ,
Very
Small.
Small.
Carried forward.-.;
1
1
11
1
1
.Middling.
14
1
1
1
1
Large.
12
%
^
>%£    J-7 A?t?3?m-i   V   f f, f flft  APPENDIX.
29
Names.
, ,,
Very
Small.
Small.
Middling.
Large.
31
5
44
1
26
9
Tributaries to stream from Alabreda Lake...
NORTH THOMPSON (one branch 60 yards)
1
2
1
1
Streams near Round Tent Lake	
2
FRASER (200 yards)	
1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
1
3
1
River above 4th Lake, Bute Inlet Valley	
,,    below Jrd           ,,              ,,             ....
„    above 2nd          „    »        ,,             	
,,    below 2nd          „              ,,             ....
,,         „   the Cliff (3 times)      ,,             ....
Stream from Upper Glacier         ,,             ....
River at opening of valley (twice) ,,             ....
1
Lake Creek                  .,              ,,             ....
River above Tiedemann's Glacier (twice) ....
1
Stream from           ,,                     ,,             ....
Creek below third Bluff .'.'	
1
1
HOMATHCO, at Ferry (70 yards)	
1
1
1
1
1
1
6
1
1
1
53
59
34  1
12
Total number 158, but the list of smaller streams is necessarily incomplete.    Department Order No. 5.
POST  OFFICE   DEPARTMENT,
Ottawa, October 27th, 1870. 'M
CORRESPONDENCE  WITH THE PROVINCE OF MANITOBA. %
From and after the 1st November, 1870, Correspondence between the Province of 5*3
Manitoba and the other Provinces of Canada, will pass in closed Mails made ||
up at Fort Garry, Manitoba, for Windsor, Ontario • and at Windsor for Fort
Garry, respectively.  These Mails will be conveyed by the United States'Post
Office, without opening by the way, via Detroit, St. Paul, and Pembina.
The Rates of Postage between Manitoba and the other Provinces of Canada, on *i
Correspondence sent in these closed Mails, will be the ordinary Canada Rates • | i
and the ordinary Postal Regulations will apply to all Mail matter. ,V
Letters may be registered for Manitoba as for other parts of Canada. . |'|
The Mails for Manitoba will be closed at Windsor, Ontario, on every Tuesday,
Thursday, and Saturday afternoon.
GOVERNMENT  HOUSE,   OTTAWA,
Tuesday, 13th day of June, 1871.
Present :
HIS EXCELLENCY THE GOVERNOR GENERAL IN COUNCIL.
On the recommendation of the Hon. the Minister of Customs, and for the
reasons given in his Report of the 8th June, instant, His Excellency has been
pleased to order, and it is hereby ordered, that the Red River, in the Province of
Manitoba, from the point of its intersection with the Boundary Line between the
United States and the said Province of Manitoba (Canada) to its junction with
Lake Winnipeg, shall be, and the same is hereby declared to be comprised within
the limits of the Port of Winnipeg, under the following conditions and restrictions,
that is to say:—
All Steamers, Vessels, and boats of any kind, on entering the said Province of
Manitoba, on the Red River, shall be, and they are hereby required to report at
the Out Port of North Pembina, and to comply with all existing requirements of
the Law, but, on payment of duty at that Out Port on goods destined for any
place between that Out Port and the Port of Winnipeg, they be permitted, on the
warrant of the Sub-Collector, to land and discharge such goods, or the luggage of
such passengers as may desire to disembark, before reaching the said Port of
Winnipeg.
That in like manner, after payment of duties at the Port of Winnipeg, the
same privilege be granted them as at the said Out Port—to land and discharge
goods, under the restrictions aforesaid, at any place on the Red River above or
below Winnipeg and all steamers plying within the limits, and observing the
conditions aforesaid, shall be considered and treated as trading within the limits of
the said Port of Winnipeg.
WM. H. LEE, Cleric, Privy Council.
Circular No. TT. CUSTOMS'   DEPARTMENT,
Ottawa, 31st August, 1870.
Sir,—By an Order in Council, dated at Windsor, on the 23rd June last, Her
Majesty having ordered and declared that from and after the 15th of July, 1870,
Rupert's Land and the North-West Territory should be admitted into and become
part of the Dominion of Canada, and, in conformity with the said Order, Rupert's
Land aforesaid, and the said North-West Territory, having become and now
forming part of the Dominion of Canada, all goods, wares, and merchandise, being
the growth, produce, or manufacture of the said land or territory, are no longer to g,
be dealt with as foreign importations when brought into any of the Provinces
constituting the said Dominion of Canada; but such goods, on due proof of their
being of the bona fide growth, produce, or manufacture of Rupert's Land or the
North-West Territory aforesaid, shall be henceforth, and have been since the said
15th day of July last, entitled to pass wholly free from all Customs' duties from
the said land and territory into other parts of the said Dominion of Canada.
Should, however, the said goods pass in transit through the United States of
America, or through any other foreign country, the said goods, &c., shall be subject 5.
to such regulations as now exist, or may hereafter be made for the admission of goods
passing via a foreign country, from one part of the Dominion to another, such
regulations having for their object to establish the origin and character of such
goods as being of Canadian growth, produce, or manufacture.
I am, Sir, your obedient servant,
R, S.  M.  BOUCHETTE,
The Collector of Customs. Commissioner of Customs.
I
^c° -^-">?:^ -wssr,**/ * ■•■-:Q«*t*ji^^»<wp^*^vcre PREPARING.
MEN   OF   THE   DOMINION:
l^^j^
A CANADIAN BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY.
-BY—
HENRY J. MORGAN.
ALSO,
THE CANADIAN PARLIAMENTARY
COMPANION FOR 1872.
Edited by
HENRY J. MORGAN  

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