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British Columbia and the Canadian Pacific Railway. Complimentary dinner to the Hon. Mr. Trutch, surveyor-general… 1871

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Array 
BRITISH   COLUMBIA
AND  THE
Canadian Pacific Railway.
COMPLIMENTARY   DINNER
TO  THE
HON.   MR.  TRUTCH,
Surveyor-General of British Columbia,
GIVEN  AT  THE
Russell  j
Ottawa
On  MONDAY, 10th  JTPRIL,  1871.
Ibvobtbd   for   the   Moxteeal   Gazette.

MONTREAL:
Thk Gazbttb "PsiKTiyG IIocbb, cobker Fbaxcois Xavier akd Cbaig Stbrets.
1871.J  COMPLIMENTARY  DINNER
TO THE
J40N,yVL^ jRUTCHjOFpRITISHpOLUMBIA
Ottawa,   ioth .April,   1871.
(From the Montreal Gazette.)
One of the most interesting events of the
present session of the Dominion Parliament was the complimentary dinner given
to the Hon. Mr. Truteh, Surveyor General of British Columbia, on the evening of the 10th April instant, at the
Eussell House, Ottawa. . The dinner was
participated in by Ministers and by members of both Houses, who, having aided
in the work of Union, met together to
congratulate each other upon what they
had accomplished, and to do honour to
our new sister Colony in the person of her
representative. Among those who were present were many who, in various capacities,
have been warm supporters of that policy
which has resulted in the practical admission of British Columbia and ^the extension
of the boundaries of the Dominion to the far
away shores of the Pacific Ocean.
The large dining room was decorated in a
very tasteful manner with flags, evergreens,
and appropriate mottoes; among "the latter
we noticed
"Westward the march of Empire takes its
way."
"The Star of Empire glitters in the "West."
"One Queen, one Flag, one Destiny, one
Empire."
"British Connection."
"Vis unita Fortior."
"Quis separabit ?"
"A Pacific Kail way."
" Ontario ;" '' Quebec ;" " New Brunswick;"
I Nova Scotia;" " Manitoba ;" ■" British Columbia ;" together with several others.
Gowan's band was in attendance in the
gallery, and did much to promote the enjoyment of the evening by the performance of
some excellent music.
At eight o'clock the guests walked into
the hall to the number of about 200, and
seated themselves at the tables.
The chair was occupied by Sir G. E. Car-
tier. On his right was Mr. Truteh, and on
his left, Hon. Mr. Cockburn, Speaker of the
House of Commons.    The  vice chairs were
occupied by Mr. Angus Morrison, M.P., and
Mr. Alonzo Wright, MP.
.When justice had been done to the very
excellent dinner provided, the chairman rose
and proposed the first toast, which was drunk
with the usual loyal honors.
I The Queen."
Band—" God save the Queen."
The next toast was " the Prince and Princess of Wales and the rest of the Boyal
Family."
Band—" The Bed White and Blue."
Sir G. E.~Cabtier then proposed the Army,
Navy, and Volunteers. He might be considered as too intimately connected with the
latter to propose a toast of the kind with
propriety, but he might, at all events, say
that the volunteers of Canada had on more
than one occasion during the past few years
been called upon to defend their country and
they had done so bravely and nobly, and like
patriotic men (cheers).
Band—" British Grenadiers."
Lt-Col. Chamberun, C.M.G., in response to
an unanimous call responded, saying that he
thanked the company most heartily for the
honor done to the volunteers. In presence.
of the chief of the Canadian Navy and also of
an officer of the British regular army (Captain Cameron) he could not say anything on
behalf of those branches of the service, but
speaking for the volunteers he could,without
any hesitation, testify to the gratification
they experienced at having the services which
they had rendered in defence of the Empire
so heartily recognized, and also at finding
their brother volunteers and fellow subjects,
from the Atlantic to the Pacific, united with
them in the glorious privilege of defending
the flag of the Empire.    (Cheers.)
Captain Cameron was also called upon
to respond. He said he regretted that a
distinguished volunteer officer like Colonel
Chamberlin had not undertaken to speak on.
behalf of the regular army- as well as for the
volunteers. He alluded to the Imperial
policy of withdrawing the troops from Can a- da, and to the doubts which that policy seem-1
ed to have given rise to in the minds of Canadians.   These doubts are very painful toi
Imperial officers, who know perfectly well
that the old English heart still beats beneath
the English breast. (Cheers.)   The Imperial
Government- had  a right to withdraw the
troops from Canada, and to pursue a policy |
of concentration  which   any military man
would say was a wise one.   But Britain would
not forget her children. (Cheers.)
Commodore Forth? replied on behalf of the
Navy. He said he was not a member of the
Boyal navy, but only of the Provincial
navy, which was a comparatively small
affair. Still it must be remembered that a
navy did not consist in ships alone, but in
the bone and muscle of its sailors, and in
the eighty thousand fishermen whom Canada possessed lay the strength of the Canadian navy.   (Cheers.)
Hon. Mr. Mitchell also replied on behalf of
the navy. He said that the events of the
past years had shown that the navy of Canada was of some account, and as for the Royal
Navy that great and glorious service which
has done so much to uphold the honor of the
Empire for years past, its fame was world
wide.    (Cheers.;
Sir George E. Cartier then rose and said
he had now to propose the toast of the even-
in et, "Our Guest •' the Honorable Mr. Truteh.
Before doing so, however, he hoped to be allowed to make a few observations. Lust
year we achieved a great deal in extending
the boundaries of the Dominion a» far as the
Rocky Mountains. That was a great and
difficult work to accomplish, but it was merely an extension of the territorial limits of the
Dominion. Now they had achieved a greater
work, they had carried the limits of Canada
as far as they could go in a westerly direction,
and the end attained was worth the struggle.
(Cheers.) Since Mr. Truteh had been in
Canada he bad won many friends, but he
(Sir George Carrier) and his colleagues bad
better opportunities than any one else to
form a more intimate acquaintance with him,
and British Columbia, he was quite sure, could
not have a better representative. He regretted that the two gentlemen who accompanied him as delegates last summer were not
with him. Still, he could not help feeling
that they enjoyed a great pleasure in having
Mr. Trntch, one of the leading members of
the British Columbia Executive-Council, present with them (cheers). We have had our
struggle and are now rejoicing over our success, but we must not forget that Mr. Truteh
and his colleagues have been battling for
Union for years. Our triumph was his
triumph also, and it was our duty to congratulate and do honour to him (cheers).
He (Sir George Cartier) could not forget that
300 years ago a bold navigator set sail westward to discover a way to the eastern coast
of Asia. His name was Jacques Cartier
(cheers). He was followed by Champlain
and La Salle, and when the latter left the
place where now stands the village of La-
chine, seven miles from Montreal, he said as
he sailed westward that he was "off for
China." The Canada of which these early
settlers dreamed was not a Lower Canada,
but a Canada that should really extend to
China (cheers). The Canada which we are
establishing to-day is the Canada which they
desired to see, one that should extend from
ocean to ocean (cheers).
Band—" For he's a jolly good fellow."
Mr. Teutch then rose and replied as follows :—
I thank you most heartily, Mr. Chairman and gentlemen, for the great honour
you have to-night conferred on British
Columbia through her representative, and
my personal acknowledgments are especially due to you, Sir, for the flattering
terms in which you have spoken of me. I
am well aware that I am all undeserving of
the high encomiums which your politeness
has led you to bestow on me. As an Englishman—a loyal British subject—and as a true
friend of Briti.sh Columbia, the home of my
adoption for the past 12 years, my heart has
been thoroughly in the work of extending
the Dominion of Canada to the Pacific. But
I can assume no other merit than this—if
indeed there can be any merit in the performance of a simple and most pleasurable duty—
that I have laboured earnestly under the direction of our most excellent and able Governor, Mr. Musgrave, to promote that great object now so happily attained. But it is not
the less gratifying to me, sir, to be the recipient of the cordial welcome extended here
to-night to British Columbia in the person of
her representative on her entrance into this
Con federation of British North America ; a
welcome which, I can assure you, will be
most gratefully appreciated in that country,
and cannot fail to draw closer the bonds of
union between our community and the people of Canada. Well knowing as I do that I
am expressing the sentiments of joyful gratitude which possess the entire British population of our colony at this moment, I tender
their thanks to those gentlemen whose votes
have secured for us the consummation of our
hopes and aspirations ; and I congratulate
you, Mr. Chairman, and your honourable colleagues in the Dominion Government, on
your far-sighted statemanship in bringing
this measure, so entirely in accord with the
clearly enunciated wishes of the Imperial
Government, to a successful issue, undeterred
by the strenuous opposition urged against it -
and I confidently express my belief, that as
the true merits of this measure are more
thoroughly understood, as the baselessness
and fallacy of the objections to the terms of
our Union, and particularly to the railway
engagement, are realized throughout the
country, the policy of your Government will
be more and more generally and thankfully
sustained.   (Cheers.)
THE  OPPOSITION*  FROM  OXTARIO.
It would ill become me, Sir, a  stranger
occupying the position I do, to offer any 5
criticism   hostile  to   the   action   of  those
who placed themselves in antagonism to this
measure.   I can fully believe that those gentlemen took that position in the conscientious discharge of their duty.   But having
listened to the whole of the debate on this
subject, having taken part in the arrangement of the terms  discussed,   and having
special local acquaintance with the facts involved, I think I may be permitted, indeed I
consider it my duty, to comment on some of
the objections and arguments urged against
the passage of this measure, with the view of
removing   misapprehension.     And   in   the
first place I desire to say that in British Columbia, we have been led to understand most
distinctly from the utterances of public men.
and from the opinions enunciated in leading
journals in Ontario, that from that quarter at
least we  should have no opposition.   We
were aware that there-»were in this country,
some, who   having   opposed Confederation
from its inception, were still hostile to that
great and good measure, or at best doubtful
friends   to   its   accomplishment, convinced
against their will but of the same opinion
still, and  from those gentlemen we anticipated antagonism to our Union with the Dominion.    But the people of Ontario we have
regarded as our natural allies in this connection, and we supposed that the leaders of
political parties in that province would unite
in extending confederation westward on any
reasonable terms which might be laid before
them.     During the  course of this debate I
have heard many statements made and opinions expressed depreciatory,  and as it appeared to me extravagantly depreciatory, of
our country and our people.    (Hear, hear.)
I believe that those statements were made
honestly though upon false information. But
not the less do I regret that those statements
are about to inflict much mortification and
bitterness of heart upon the people  of our
country.     They cannot know the   circumstances under which these statements were
uttered, and will not therefore make allowances for those who uttered them as I do.    I
have never believed that it was a part of my
mission here to vaunt the material wealth of
our country, to extol its excellence, or in any
way to press British Columbia upon Canada.
But I think it is necessary,  after what has
been said, to give you gentlemen here present some just idea of the wealth and worth
of   our   country.     This   is    no    occasion
for   attempting   any   detailed    description
or statistical essiy on British Columbia, but
I will endeavor to sketch with as few touches
as possible,
THE LEADING FEATURES OP THE COUNTRY.
The position of British Columbia you are
all well acquainted with, commanding, asl
it does, not only the trade of the Western
continent of America, and the islands of the
Pacific, but also that of the Trans-Pacific
countries. It has a sea coast extending 500
miles in a straight line, with a labyrinth of
islands along its whole length, forming innu-
imerable harbours, inlets and canals, together
I with the rivers which empty into them teeming with fish—salmon,sturgeon, mackerel, cod,
herring, hallibut, oolachans, and last but not
least, with whales. These fisheries are a
source of wealth at present totally undeveloped with us. We know only of its boundless richness, but except a small beginning in
whale fishery, nothing has as yet been done
to render merchantable these immense resources. Then our forests, extending all
along the coast and river courses, of vast extents of timber excellent in quality, and, from
I their proximity to water carriage, most
valuable for shipbuilding and lumbering purposes. This industry in British Columbia
has latterly effected a good start, as appears
from the official returns for 1869, that in that
year lumber amounting in value to $250,000
was exported. Our coal fields too are of
vast extent—of bituminous coal in Vancouver's Island, along the coast of the mainland
and 200 miles in the interior of the country.
| These have been worked to some extent for
some years past, and iu 1869, $125,000 worth
of coal was exported to San Francisco. We
have also that which some think more valuable than bituminous coal. In Queen
Charlotte's Island large deposits of anthracite
coal have been discovered, and of this a sample was this year introduced into San Francisco and is now selling at $17.00 a ton as I
learn from San Francisco papers. California
has very little coal within her own limits,
and what there exists is of the poorest quality. She is therefore almost altogether supplied by British Columbia, and strange to
say, to some extent from Australia. Then
in 1869 our exports of furs and hides
amounted to $264,000. We possess, also,
minerals of almost every description. In
fact, I hardly know of any that have not been
found in our country. The gold exported in
1,867 amounted to a million and a half of dollars ; and we have besides, silver, iron, copper,
lead, and many other minerals of less importance. Building materials, too, abound; as
lime, marble, freestone, slate, cement, &c.
And now with regard to lands, I would like
to speak very carefully, as there appears such
conflict of opinion here on this point. It is
true, as has been stated, that the country is
much broken up by intersecting mountain
ranges. But it must be remembered that all
is not mountainous. We have a very large
quantity of valuable land,available for agricultural and pastoral purposes in British Columbia on the high plateaus and interspersed
amongst the valleys, capable of supporting a
very large population, and though not perhaps
constituting what may be called,strictly speaking, an agricultural country, yet amounting,
I think, to from a fourth to a third of the country, a good portion of which is now under
cultivation, and yields heavy crops of grain
and roots. As to the climate I am almost
afraid to touch upon it. It possesses such a
charm for one who has experienced it; varying as it does from the humid West of England climate of Vancouver's Island and the done with our own money, not a penny have i
we ever had from England. The road which I
we have built from the head of the navigation
on the Lower Fraser, to Cariboo cost us a
million and a half dollars. It is wrong to
say that any portion of the population is nomadic. Such is not the case. There are
some two thousand miners who work steadily
in the mining district the year round—they
cannot be called nomadic, and the rest of the
population are farmers for the most part or
traders, or professional men, and small as the
community is, it is, I believe as intelligent,
hardworking and loyal to the British Flag as
any in Canada.   (Cheers.)
THE UNION QUESTION IN THE COLONY.
Permit me now to trace the history of Confederation in British Columbia,
and to review the position of the question^
there at the present time. In March 1867,
while your delegates were in London, completing the negotiations which resulted in the present British North America Act, our Legislative Council, then composed of fourteen
official and nine selected members, but all appointed by the Governor, being in session, passed an unanimous resolution praying that they might be allowed
the opportunity of entering the Confederation at some future day on terms fair and
equitable. And that sentiment exists to-day
and to an increased degree. (Hear, hear, and
cheers.) This resolution was telegraphed by
some parts of the country, but even along the I our Governor to the Secretary of State. I
main road the cost of carrying freight from know not whether this resolution was in-
the sea coast to Cariboo is fifteen cents a strumental in causing the 146th section to
pound. Six dollars a day is considered poor be inserted in the British North America Act,
man's digging there, and wages are mainly but shortly after our message was sentare-
from this cause proportionately high. There ply was received informing us that provision
is another reason which I think has operated had been made for our admittance into the
almost as largely against our obtaining any Confederation. In 1868, resolutions were
increase of population. Up to this year inopportunely introduced into our legisla-
British Columbia has been a Crown colony, ture praying for immediate confederation
with a government, so to speak, despotic, with Canada; but in view of the fact that the
there being no popular representative body, great North-West was still unconnected with
Such a form of government is supremely dis- the Dominion, this movement was voted pre-
tasteful to any Anglo Saxon community, and mature and impracticable. In 1869 a similar
especially so to one situated as that of Brit- resolution favouring immediate confederation
ish Columbia is, in close juxtaposition to the was again proposed in the Council by some
republican territory south of us. The gov- enthuastic friends of Confederation, but again
ernment has, I know, been honestly car- rejected on the same ground as in the year
ried on with the best interests of the before. But in 1870 the North-West, having
country in view, but we have been aware been acquired by you,"and her Majesty's Be-
that the form of government has de- presentative in British Columbia having been
terred immigration. But how is this com- informed of the policy of the Imperial Go-
munity open to the accusations which vernment, it was resolved to take up the
I have heard urged against it, as being a question of our Union with Canada and to
worthless vagrant population. I stand here bring it before the country. The Governor
prepared to state that the population of therefore in Executive Council formed a
!'■:■: ■■■ Columbia will compare favorably scheme and that scheme was passed through
any on this continent, the Legislative Council as   a   government
coast region to the drier climate of the
table-land of the interior, and the more bracing temperature of the mountain districts,
but everywhere salubrious and favorable to
the settlement of the country, and forming
one of its main attractions. I have pointed
out to you sufficient material resources and
advantages to show that apart from its political value to Canada, this is a country worth
having. (Hear, hear, and cheers.) And I
know no reason why this country, now separ
rated and isolated, should not become
a source of great wealth to this Dominion.   (Hear, hear.)
WHY BRITISH COLUMBIA HAS NOT PROSPERED.
But it has been asked why is it that
you have so small a population in this
country ? Vou have not far to seek for
the answer. To my mind the reasons
are very plain and very simple. British
Columbia is a most isolated country, cut off
from Great Britain by a sea voyage of 150
days, and walled in to the east by the Rocky
Mountains, preventing all communication
with this country, and still more shut off on
the south by the United States, through
which all immigrants to British Columbia
have to .pass. We know what is done in San
Francisco to prevent those immigrants from
coming to us,—how our eountry, government, and institutions are misrepresented.
Another difficulty is its inaccessibility.
Good roads have, to be sure, been made to
man for  man with
And I adduce to you as a proof of. what I
have said what has already been done in that
colony still in its cradle.    Only ten years ago
measure, it being however distinctly promised that the people of British Columbia should
have   an   opportunity    of    concurring
it was-established as a colony, and now look or rejecting the terms of Union in a Leg-
at the towns, farming settlements and roads islative Council in which there should be a
we have constructed. _ I see nothing in this majority of representative members. These
eastern portion of this continent to compare assurances have been strictly fulfilled. The
with our coach roads; and  all this we have | terms of Union   agreed upon between the
I delegates from British Columbia and the Dominion Government last year, were submitted
on the 18th! of last January, to a Legislative
Council, composed of nine representatives
and six appointed members, and unanimously
adopted. (Cheers) I should now like to
speak about
THE  TERMS  OF UNION  THEMSELVES
and show you how they appear
from a British Columbian point of
view, and I will confine myself to the questions of the financial arrangements, the representation and the railway undertaking—the
only points which were really opposed during the discussion in Parliament. I will first
speak off the financial arrangement, and with
your permission, I will take you back to the
time when the scheme was first discussed in
the Executive Council of British Columbia.
As soon as we came to consider the question
of terms we arrived at the conclusion that
no scheme based on the actual population of
the country was capable of being adopted ;
that it was simply impossible that we should
receive a sufficient subsidy on those conditions to carry on the affairs of the Province,
and that it was impossible to proceed according to the strict terms of the British North
American Act in this respect. Having arrived at this conclusion, that by some means
we must have a certain sum of money, we
resolved to adopt a fictitious scheme, based
upon the customs revenue of the country.
This scheme was rejected by your government
in conference with our delegation last June,
and I think properly so, but we then insisted
that we must have a certain sum of money,
and urged that it was unwise to cut the
means of the Colony down below the revenue actually required for necessary
expenditures, as the Dominion would only
ultimately find itself obliged to make a more
liberal arrangement;- and we pointed out that
the Colony was giving up the only elastic
source of revenue which we have—the Custom's revenue—the only source of revenue
capable of meeting the growing requirements
of the people, and that even if we got at
first more subsidy than our population en
titled us to, year by year as our numbers increased the Dominion would get the better
bargain financially. It was then proposed
that for the land to be made over by the
Colony for the construction of the railway,
we should get a certain sum of $100,000 annually, and to this arrangement we assented.
A false impression has been created on this
point. We came here last year willing
enough to give any reasonable amount of
land in aid of the- railway, and asked no
compensation for it. But it should be borne
in mind that the extent of land to be contributed by British Columbia for this object,
is manifold greater in proportion to her
population than that to be supplied by Ontario or by the Dominion, whose people are
equally interested with us in this railroad enterprise, and it cannot therefore be justly
held that we drove a hard bargain in this
matter. (Hear, hear.) I assure you that the
question of representation has not been considered of so much importance in British
Columbia as it has here. I have always
I thought and stated as my opinion, that the
| strength of British Columbia in the Confederation must consist in her weakness,
that in oraer to make the Dominion prosper,
you must make British Columbia prosper,
and that therefore the whole country would
cherish our interests, and that the main use
of our representatives must be at first
to give information as to a country of-
which so little is known—as has been so
clearly shown by the late debates. When
our delegation came here last year our
scheme proposed a representation in the Commons of eight members, proportioned to a
population based on the customs revenue of
the country. This was reduced to six, and we
not unwillingly agreed to the reduction. But
we have never been able to appreciate that we
were bound by the British North America
Act in this matter of representation, and had
we been told that we could have under that
Act no representation, as I have heard argued,
or only one member, we would have certainly
said, "Much obliged to you, we will remain a
little longer as we are." (Hear, hear.) And
now with regard to
THE  RAILWAY  CIiAUSE
of these terms. After all the rest of the
scheme of union had been framed in Executive Council, it was unanimously agreed, and
this conclusion has been supported by the
sentiment of the whole community, that
there could not be any real union with Canada without a material connection by the
construction of a coach road first, to be followed at once by a railway. That was the
conclusion arrived at by our Legislative
Council in, 1870, and urged upon your Government by the British Columbia delegates
as a sine qua non of our union. There was a
very great lack of confidence in Canada at
that time on the part of some members of the
Legislative Council, and among the people of
Victoria, not because those gentlemen, who
were nearly all Englishmen, had any leaning
towards the United States, but because they
feared that Canada was not in a position to
undertake the construction of this material
connection by railway between British Columbia and this part of the Dominion. If
Canada were not to make this connection,
then we might just as well seek union with
Australia or New Zealand (hear, hear.) If
we were only to become a mere isolated colony of Canada we had better remain as we
were, a separate colony of England. We argued " If Canada is now ready to make
this railway, then let us join her at once,
if not we shall do better to stay as we are
until she is prepared to undertake the responsibility of that enterprise." We never
thought of requiring the construction of this
railway as the price of our union with the
Dominion, but we\had been told that Canada
was ready to build this railway, that it was a
	 8
political and commercial necessity for her to
do so, and that she wanted British Columbia
chiefly for the purpose of making this railway through our country to the Pacific.
Under these circumstances we were ready,
we were desirous of entering into this Confederation. In the early part of these remarks
I told you that, we in British Columbia had
been led to expect, from the utterances of her
public men and from the views expressed by
her journalists, that the union of British
Columbia with the Dominion would have
met with the hearty approval of Ontaria, that
the construction at once of the Canadian
Pacific Railway would meet with her ready
support, and I intimated to you, Sir, that I
knew that British Columbia would be, as I
was, astonished at the position taken by many
members of Parliament from Ontario. And
in support of that position I pray you to allow me to read to you an extract from the
British Colonist of the 15th March, published
in Victoria, which I received three days
since. In a leading article our Victoria editor
writes as follow:
" British Columbia owes much, to the Toronto
Globe for the force find ability with which It has
all along pre*ssed upon the Dominion of Canada
the necessity mi adopting a broad, vigorous, and
truly national policy with respect to throwing
open the great North West and pressing onward
to the Pacific. Our big contemporary is doubtless not altogether free from faults and failings,
but this one virtue ought t'» cover a multitude of
sins, to the eye of British Columbia at least. In
arecent number of the Globe weflnda very able
leading article upon the subject of the Canadian
Pacific Railway. Our contemporary alludes to
the argument so commonly put forward by our
American neighbours, viz., that the American
Northern Pacific Railway, running, as it do's
near the boundary line, and draining, as it wi'l,
th? British ossessions lying to the north of the
foriy-ninth parallel, must forever forbid the idea
of a Canadian Pacific line proving a success, if,
indeed it does not forbid the idea of such a line
ever iwinsr built. To this our contemporary the
Gi> be well replied:—
I may remark that the following extract is
quoted by our editor verbatim from the To-
r. nto Globe of the 3rd Februaiy, as I have
ascertained by reference to a file of that
journal :
"T .'• main line of th» North Pacific at no
point of its rout," approaches within a hundred
and fifty miles of British territory, while in general it is at a much greater distance from the
boundary Imp. supposing our great lak^s blotted
out, and a wilderness of a hundred and fifty
mi es stretching along the whole border line of
Ontaria, would any one argue that a railway far
down in Pennsylvania and New York would be
quite sufficient io developp the resources of this
country, and that all Canadian lines would be
really so much money thrown away ? Yet such
an argument would not be so foolish and inconclusive as what is urged against the construction
of a great Canadian Trans-Continental Railway.
"The proposed route of that undertaking is, on
an average, four hundred miles north of that
being made from Duiuth, and instead of being,
as a large part of both the American lines must
be. through an irreclaimable desert, it runs
through a country which, in fertility and climate, will com pare favorably with any part of
the North American Continent.
"When this, has been stated, nothing else is necessary. Any person of ordinary intelligence
can see at. a glance that a railway which never,
throughout its whole course comes within a
hundred miles of the borderline of a country,
can do very little to delevope the resources of
I that country. It is better than nothing, but this
is a'l that c^n be said in its behalf. Tne immediate territory through which it runs would be
benefitted chiefly, and in the first place and
all beyond only incidentally, and after the lapse
of many years.
"inst-ad of the fact that the North Pacific is
under construe ion being an argument for Blowing the Canadian project to lie in the meanwhile in abeyance, it affords the strongest reason possible for its being pushed throi gh without delay. Politically it is a manifest and pressing necessity, whilp commercially It is as evidently of the very highest importance for Canada. I n i his way alone can this country have
any chance for her fair share in hjprative trade
with the North-west which will assuredly spring
up, and in the varied traffic with the Pacfic
world which to a great extent will pa«s through
I Canadian territory, if one; what will be the
shortest and easiest route from ocean to ocean is
in working order."
The British Columbia editor on this remarks :
"Our readers will agree with the foregoing,
while they will most heartily en orse and enthusiastically applaud the following paragraph
with which the Globe's article concludes :
"Our neighbours know the value of the prize
involved, and are making giganlie efforts to secure it exclusively for themselves, uur rulers
will be traitors to their country and to Bri ish
connection if they lose a single season in making
it practicable and convenient for settlers to go
to hort Garry through our own territory) and in
putting things in a fair way for the Canadian
Pacific Railway. It is a question not merely of
convenience but of national existence. It must
be pushed through at whatever expense. W'e
believe it can be so pushed through, ' not only
without being a burden pecuniarily upon Canada, but with an absolute profit in every point of
view. Without such a line a great British North
America would turn out an unsubstantial
dream; with it, and with ordinary prudence
rnd wisdom on the part of her statesmen, it
will be a great, a glorious, and inevitable reality."
I cannot imagine any stronger argument
in favour of the immediate construction of
the proposed railway, by even its most enthusiastically interested British Columbian
advocates, than that here urged by the editor
of the Toronto Globe. This work which he
so pressingly insists on as a political necessity, and as of the highest commercial importance, we proposed to you to undertake ;
and this work you have engaged to commence
at once, and to complete at the earliest practicable period, that is to say, as we have estimated, in ten year* from the date of union.
THE  TEN TEARS'  LIMITATION.
And now, Sir, I speak with special care, as I
desire that full weight should be given to
every word I utter on this point, that is to
say, as- to the understanding which I had
when this clause was framed, and still have;
of the intention of this engagement by the
Dominion to construct the Canadian Pacific
Railway within ten years. When we came
to you in June last,,we proposed that you
should build'at once a coach road from Fort
Garry to the Pacific, and within three years
begin! a railway, and we sought to bind you
to spend a million of dollars annually on the
section of this railroad in British Columbia,
and to complete its construction with the
utmost possible despatch. We fully understood then that once the road was commenced, it must be urged to its completion
raSfc as a matter of course, as a business necessity,
and that instead of $1,000,000 being spent,
probably $5,000,000 would be yearly expended in British Columbia. We knew, in fact,
that if the road were to be completed at all,
it would have to be proceeded with at a far
faster rate than a million a year would insure.
But there were those in British Columbia
who thought that Canada would not undertake the work at all, and it was to satisfy
their doubts, to secure their adhesion to the
scheme, that the guarantee of the expenditure of the $1,000,000 annually was asked.
The Government, on conference with our*
delegation, at once expressed their readiness
to commence at once the railroad to the Pacific, and to complete it as soon as it was practicable to do so; but the coach road was objected to as an unnecessary expense, in view of the
immediate construction of a railroad. We
from British Columbia were prepared to accept this amendment of the scheme, and wc
accordingly proceeded to calculate the time
it would probably take to build the railroad,
and we agreed upon an estimated period of
ten years. If it had been put at twelve or
fifteen years, British Columbia would
have been just as well satisfied,
and if the estimated period had been reduced
to eight years she would scarcely have been
better pleased; but some definite period for
the completion of this work the British Columbia delegates insisted on as a necessary
safeguard to our colony in entering into the
proposed union. To argue that any other
interpretation will be placed upon this railway engagement by British Columbia than
that which I have given to you as my construction of it,—to argue that she expects it
to be carried out in the exact interpretation
of the words themselves, regardless of all
consequences, is a fallacy which cannot bear
the test of common sense. (Hear, hear ) The
case stands thus : British Columbia is about
to enter into a partnership with Canada, and
one of the terms of the articles of partnership is that we are under the partnership to
construct a railway upon certain conditions.
Is British Columbia going to hold her partner
to that which will bring ruin and bankruptcy upon the firm? Surely you would
think us fools indeed if we adopted such a
course. I would protest, and the whole of
British Columbia would protest, if the government proposed to borrow $100,000,000 or
S150,000,000 to construct this road; (hear,
hear,) running the country into debt, and
taxing the people of British Columbia as well
as of the rest of the Dominion to pay the
burden of such a debt. Why, sir, I heard it
said the other evening that British Columbia
had made a most Jewish bargain with you in
these terms, but even Shylock himself would
not exact his pound of flesh if a portion of it
had to be cut from his own body. (Lcud
cheers and laughter.) I am sure that you
will find that British Columbia is a pretty
intelligent community, which will be apt to
fake a business view of this matter. She
will expect that this railway shall be com-
1 menced in two years, for that is clearly
practicable; and she will also expect that
I the financial ability of the Dominion will be
j exerted to its utmost, within the limits of
reason, to complete it in the time named in
the agreement; but you may rest assured
that she will not regard this railway engagement as a " cast-iron contract," as it has been
called, or desire that it should be carried out
in any other way than as will secure the
prosperity of the'whole Dominion of which
she is to be a part. (Cheers.) I have understood this railway engagement in this way
from the first, and I still so understand it.
I believed when we negotiated this clause in
the terms of union last year, and I now believe, that it is not only practicable for this
road to be built by a liberal land grant and
a moderate money subsidy, but that it will
be so built and completed within the estimated period of ten years But if a mistake
has been made in this estimate, do not thiuk
that British Columbia is going to put a
strained interpretation upon the agreement,
to her own material injury; that she is likely,
as the saying is, to bite her own nose off to
spite her face.
ESTIMATED  COST  OP THE RAILWAY.
I will enter into no estimate to-night
of the cost of the section of the proposed road east of the Rocky Mountains.
You have as good means of forming opinions
on the probable expenditure that will be required on this portion of the line as I have.
But I will speak of the probable cost of the
line in British Columbia through a country
with which I am personally acquainted.
British Columbia, Sii, is not such an unknown, unexplored country as it has been
supposed or represented to be. I may mention to you that in 1865 and 1866, in obedience to a despatch from the Secretary of
State, asking for information regarding
the facilities for the construction of a
waggon road across the mountains, to connect with the Red River settlement, I instituted, under the Governor's direction, explo- !
rations of the country between Fraser River
and the Rocky Mountain range, and the report of these explorations, together wit^i.a
minute from myself thereon, summing
up all the information then obtainable,
were printed and have been made public.
It is, I think, pretty certain that the choice
for the line through the Rocky Mountains is
between Leather Pass and Howse's Pass; but
from the Western outlet of either of those
passes, there are several lines of route to the
Pacific, and I do not prttend now to offer
any opinion as to the relative merits of these
several lines. I will speak only of that
one which I am most acquainted with, having passed over nearly this whole line from
the Pacific to the Rocky Mountains, on horseback or on foot, and over parts of it frequently. I mean a line from the mouth of the
Fraser, following up the course of that river
and of one of its tributaries, the Thompson,
to the head waters of the south branch of 10
the latter river, in Shuswap Lake, thence
through the Eagle Pass across a summit of
the Gold Range, four hundred and seventy
feet above the Lake level to the Columbia
River, and up the Columbia and one of its
small tributaries, called Blackberry River, to
Howse's Pass. This is not only a practicable
line but it will give a gradual ascent to the
summit of the Rocky Mountains, from which
point the descent to the Red River will be
almost a regular incline, in very favorable
comparison with the grade of the road now
in operatien between San Francisco and
Omaha, which passes over four successive
I summits, the lowest of which is two thou-
r sand feet higher than that we have to over-
1 come on the Rocky Mountains. Now, Sir,
in the absence of detailed surveys and sections, no one can make a close estimate of
the cost of this line; but I venture to express my opinion in which I am supported by
other gentlemen, like myself engineers, who
have gone over the line, that notwithstanding some portions of the work on this road
along the Canon of the Fraser would be
very expensive, the whole distance from the
Pacific seaboard to the summit of the Rocky
Mountains, a distance of about six hundred
miles, may be set down at an approximate estimate of  $60,000   per  mile.
RESULT OP DEFEAT OP UNION.
I have been frequently asked of late—and I
mention this point as it has been discussed
so warmly in Parliament. " What would
have been the result in British Columbia had
the address in favor of her union with Canada
been voted down ?" Well, Sir, as I have
said already this evening, the people of British- Columbia are not only an intelligent but
a loyal community—throughout the whole
country there exists strong attachment to
-British connection. They have never as a
people had any inclination for the United
States or any proclivity toward the institutions of that country; and though there-was
at one time in the year before last an attempt
on the part of a few disaffected persons to
raise such an issue, it was so speedily hooted
down thatthe very word annexation has
been ever since taboed among us. But,
had this address not been carried there would
have been the deepest disappointment
throughout our colony and profound discouragement to the best friends there of Confederation. Our people have been given to
understand from all quarters in Canada as I
before told you that the Canadian Pacific
Railway was to be built at once—they have
regarded their union with Canada on the
terms arranged by your'Goyernment as afore-
gone conclusion—and had they been told by
you as they would in fact have been told by
ycur refusal to confirm those terms, " we
are not able to undertake the building of
this Railway, we are not prepared to take the
responsbility of uniting British Columbia
to us, not equal to the occasion which presents itself," they would certainly with embittered   feelings have at once and unani
mously refused to unite with you on any
other terms, and what might have been the
ultimate rosult I would prefer not to conjecture. But, Sir, happily we have escaped any
such risk as this would have occasioned to
the consolidation of British interests on this
continent, and are met here to-night to rejoice over the consummation of the great
work of the union of British Columbia to the Dominion. (Cheers.)
I must apologise for the length of these
remarks on a social occasion such as this is,
but there were some points with regard to
the true bearing and intention of the terms
of union of our colony with Canada which I
have considered it very desirable, not only
for the sake of our community, but" in the
interest of this whole Dominion, to comment
on, and explain from a British Columbia
point of view, and I have availed myself of
this opportunity of doing so as I see no probability of any other being afforded me just
now. And now, sir, I beg to renew my acknowledgements of-the high compliment paid this
evening to British Columbia in the person
of her representative. For myself I can only
assure you that I shall ever cherish a grateful recollection of the very great kindness
which I have received from the many friends
with whom I have had the pleasure of becoming acquainted in Canada, and especially,
Mr. Chairman, from yourself. On behalf of
the people of British Columbia—the youngest of the fair sisterhood of federated provinces now spread across this broad continent
from ocean to ocean—I express the heartfelt
desire—long may this goodly Dominion
flourish and grow in honor among the nations under the dear old flag that now waves
over us—enjoying year by year an increasing
measure of material prosperity, and truest
happiness 1 and in direct connection with this
sentiment I propose to you in the name of
our colony a toast which I know needs no
further preface here to-night—to those to
whom British Columbia and this whole Dominion owe so much—" Her Majesty's Ministers."   (Loud and prolonged cheers.)
The toast having been enthusiastically
drank,
Sir G. E. Cartier, on behalf of his colleagues and himself, returned their most sincere thanks. With regard to this present
ministry it should be borne in mind that it
was the offspring of Confederation. From
the 1st of July, 1867, it had been the task of
the ministry ever to extend the incomplete
scheme of Oonfederation. It was their happy lot to-day to see this in a measure completed.   (Hear, hear, and cheers.)
Hon. Mr. Campbell said that he was happy
to submit to Sir George's response for the
ministry. He was sure they were all delighted that Sir George had been so happy in leading during the absence of Sir John. (Hear.)
The mottoe of the present ministry had ever
been " One Queen, one flag, one destiny."
(Loud cheers.) That had been the feeling
which had influenced them, and when they 11
passed away, the result of that influence would
remain forever. (Cheers.)
Hon. Dr. Tupper, alluded to the rapid
strides which had been made in this country.
Who, he said, in 1867 would have dreamt
tbat they would have been enabled to night
to celebrate the admission of British Columbia into the union. (Cheers.) He would
not add a single word to what had been al
ready said by the leader of the Government.
He begged permission to offer a volunteer
toast that of " our sister Province Manitoba,"
•the representatives of which they had for
the first time sitting with them at the
festive board.
The   toast having   been  enthusiastically
honoured,
Dr. Sohultz, who was warmly received on
rising, said that as " Manitoba" was not on
the list of proposed toasts he had not expected to have had the honor to reply on behalf
of the Province, a portion of which he had
the honor to represent. Still, since they had
chosen to do honor to the Prarie Province,
he would say something on her behalf. He
had listened with a very great deal of plea-
enre to the remarks of their honored guest,
Mr. Truteh, and he felt that hon. gentleman
had made out a very strong and very satisfactory case in favor of our newly acquired
Province of British Columbia. (Hear, hear.)
He felt especially pleased to meet Mr. Truteh
en this festive occasion, because he felt tbat
it would probably be the last time he could
meet him in friendship. (Laughter.) It
was quite evident to him that the two West-
em Provinces were to be rivals, and that
when he met Mr. Truteh on the floor of the
House of Commons next year each one would
insist on the special advantages ,which his
Province offered, and that there would be an
antagonism which he trusted would not result disastrously. (Laughter.) While they
were yet friends, therefore, he must congratulate the hon. gentleman who had setfbe-
fore them so clearly the somewhat intricate
state of affairs in the Province he represent-
jed. Mr. Truteh had dwelt upon the wealth
of British Columbia in its fisheries, its coal
fields, its timber and its gold. Well, Manitoba had something to offer too, or rather
would have when its boundaries were extended. It had its fisheries not to be despised;
it had its gold fields, though people could
not as yet pick up nuggets as in British Columbia. (Laughter.) Still there were those
who when washing the shining sands of the
Upper Saskatchewan argued that on our side
of the Rocky Mountains there existed the
matrix from which these golden grains had
drifted. What Manitoba however had chiefly
to offer to the Dominion was agricultural re-|
sources, homes to the immigrant, a yield of,
grain unequalled in any country. What British Columbia seemed to need was wealth—
what Manitoba needed was population. He
was willing that Mr. Truteh should get for
his Province all the capitalists if he could
•.secure for Manitoba that immigration which
her natural resources gave her the right to
expect. He felt very hopeful about the future of his Province. Indeed since the acquisition of British Columbia he had begun
to take very large views ; he was even beginning to think that the capitol was not central enough in the new Dominion. (Laughter.) He would not be surprised if many
of us lived to see the Capitol removed to
some place in the valley of Sackatchewan
now occupied only by the roaming tribes of
that region. The only want which Manitoba
had besides population was communication,
and it was with great pleasure he learned on
his arrival in Canada that the Pacific Railway had been legislated and determined
upon. (Cheers.) He looked upon the acquisition of these western Provinces in the light
of an investment, profitable if their resources
were developed, useless if not, and a Railroad was the only way to develop them. Without Railroad communication, he considered
the £300,000, expended for its purchase, the
two million dollars spent to put down rebellion, and the proposed payment of $67,000 a
year for the support of its Government, as
just so much means squandered, so much
money sunk for no possible good. (Cheers.)
Had we railroad communication, we couid
enter the emigrant centres of the old world
and fairly bid, and even outbid all competitors. Could we at a reasonable cost transport the emigrant into Manitoba, we could
offer him 160 acres of better prairie land that
can be found in the Western States, free. We
can Offer him the fnll privileges of citizenship after three years residence, instead of
the five years insisted on further South. We
can offer him a country where taxes are
scarcely known, where such necessaries of
life, as could not be produced on his own
fields or manufactured by himself, can be
bought at one-half the cost of those articles
in the much lauded Western States Where,
in addition he may expect an average yield
one-third greater than that of the most productive grain raising State of the Union.
(Cheers.) Could we be assured of receiving
such an immigration then, it seemed to
him that success is certain. It is all
right for us, to have these Eastern Pro- ■
vinces depleted for our benefit, but there
is, in that, no substantial advantage to
the Dominion at large. To use the immense resources we must have increased population, and with that, will come wealth
rapidly enough. We must in building up a
nation not depend alone on our own population and the emigrant class of the British .
Isles, we must have our share, a monopoly
even, if we can get it, of that Scandinavian
and German element which is building up the
nation south of us. (Cheers.) In conclusion
Dr. Schultz thanked the assembly for the
good feeling they expressed towards Manitoba, he felt convinced that they would not
find that Province to be the weakest nor the
poorest of that chain which now girdled the
continent; and if this great scheme that we
have set on foot, this effort to establish on
	 >*m
this continent a great and prosperous British
power; if it should so unfortunately happen
that this scheme should be frustrated, this
laudable effort fail, he felt certain that its
failure will have to be ascribed to some other
cause than a lack of natural resources, in
that Confederation which now extends from
the Atlantic to the Pacific and which embraces a territory greater than that of half
the Kingdoms of Europe, or that of our natural rivals, the United States.   (Cheers.)
Mr. Smith, M. P. for Selkirk, Manitoba,
after repeated calls, rose and said that, after
what had fallen from the gentleman who had
preceded him, there was little more to be
said. As it had been determined that they
were to have a railway connection with this
country, he would say something about the
route. It had been said that the route from
Fort Garry to Canada was almost impracticable. He believed, from what he could
learn from people who had traversed that
route, that this was not the case. (Hear,
hear.) By following the old route taken by
the Hudson's Bay Company's officials, going
behind Nipissing, touching Nepigon, and
skirting Lasalle, they would be able to pass
through a country, certainly not quite equal
to some portions of the Dominion, but, both
as regarded climate and soil, not inferior to
much of the country through which the Intercolonial Railway runs. At the Lake of the
Woods they reached the prairie, which extended for fourteen hundred miles to the
westward, and afforded facilities for the construction of a railway unequalled by that
through which any railway in the Dominion
passed. (Hear, hear.) Then as to the resources of the country. They possessed large
fisheries, and though they might not have a
fish with the colour of a salmon, they had the
white fish, which was far superior in flavour.
They, too, had found nuggets of gold, and
they were possessed of salt mines, which
were sufficient to supply the whole Dominion. There were large beds of coal, too,
on the Assiniboine and the Saskatchewan,
and a great deal of coal oil somewhat
north; and, besides, there were copper, iron, lead, &c, in abundance,
and in the Pran River district they have a
country quite equal to that of the Saskatchewan, and a climate which admitted of win
tering herds of cattle out in the prairies,
where they grazed throughout the whole
year, instead of being obliged to staUfeed
them for at least four months, as is the case
both in Ontario and Quebec (cheers). It had
been supposed that the great difficulty in'
Manitoba was the lack of building material.
But the fact was that the shores of Lake
Winnipeg would supply large quantities of
excellent granite and stone, and there were
also extensive beds of clay, which could be
used for the manufacture of bricks, and during the last year a considerable quantity of
bricks had been made. He thought, therefore, that for building material theyweie
pretty well off. (Hear, hear.) He believed
that during the coming years two steamers
would be running on Red River, for a distance of 160 miles, which would connect
that country with the railway system of the
United States. On the Lake Manitoba (from
which to Fort Garry the distance was only
sixty miles over a perfectly level country)
and the Saskatchewan River there would
doubtless also be steamers within a couple
of years, thus to a certain extent opening up
and giving the means of bringing down the
coal and other products of that extensive and
valuable district—but the great desideratum-
was railway communication; and he believed
that within the ten years spoken of the
railway would be built, and that the friends
of those people who were going from Ontario
and Quebec to Manitoba would not let the
matter rest, but would press forward as
rapidly as possible the railway to the North
West.   (Loud cheers.)
Sir George Cartier then proposed the
health of the speakers of the two Houses of
Parliament, regretting that domestic affliction
prevented the attendance of the speaker of
the Senate.
Hon. Mr. Cockburn, Speaker of the House
of Commons, responded in his usual happy
fe train.
Then followed " the Press " to which Mr..
Thomas White of the Gazette responded, and
"the ladies" responded to by Mr. Savary. "The
chairman " was proposed by Mr. Grant M.P.,
and after the toast had been duly honoured,,
the band played God Save the Queen, and
the company separated.
t

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