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Herd size impacts dairy goat hoof overgrowth Tse, Tiffany Mar 22, 2014

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Herd Size Impacts Dairy Goat Hoof Overgrowth Tiffany Tse Supervisor: Gosia Zobel MURC March 22, 2014  animal welfare program Why study dairy goats? Image credit: geoatlas.com, 2014  Why study dairy goats? Worldwide: 26% increase  (FAOSTAT, 2012) Image credit: geoatlas.com, 2014  Why study dairy goats? Worldwide: 26% increase  (FAOSTAT, 2012) Top 3 continents: (FAOSTAT, 2012)  Asia  Africa  South America Image credit: geoatlas.com, 2014  Why study dairy goats? Canada: 43% increase  (AAFC, 2006) USA: 24% increase (USDA, 2012)  Image credit: geoatlas.com, 2014  Why study dairy goats? Canada: 43% increase  (AAFC, 2006) USA: 24% increase (USDA, 2012)  Image credit: geoatlas.com, 2014  Lack of knowledge: hoof health Hoof Health Issues  Abnormal behaviour  Hoof overgrowth can indirectly lead to:  Image credit: goatworld.com, 2013  Abnormal behaviour  Lameness  Milk production? (Chapinal et al., 2013)  Hoof overgrowth can indirectly lead to:  Hoof Health Issues  Abnormal behaviour  Lameness  Milk production? (Chapinal et al., 2013)  Diseases Hoof overgrowth can indirectly lead to:  Hoof Health Issues Prevention requires:  Trained workers  Trimming Image credits: fiascofarm.com, 2012 (right) blog.fairview.co.za, 2014 (left) Hoof Health Issues  Herd sizes increase = focus on milk production  Hoof health not primary focus  Hoof Health Issues Objective  To determine the impact of herd size on hoof overgrowth  Data collected as part of larger project, and results are in preparation. Please contact Gosia Zobel (g_zobel@yahoo.ca for most recent analysis).  Experimental Design  Seven Ontario commercial farms  Herd size: 100 – 650 milking does  Mean number of animals sampled = 61±27  What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Toe What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Toe Sidewall What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Toe Sidewall Sole What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Toe Sidewall Claw Sole What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Toe Sidewall Claw Sole What overgrows on hooves? Image credit: tractorsupply.com, 2014 Measurements: Hoof Scores TOE length and presence/absence of curling   Scale 1 – 4   Score Status 1 Recent trim Measurements: Hoof Scores Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Slight overgrowth,  no curling TOE length and presence/absence of curling   Scale 1 – 4   Measurements: Hoof Scores Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Slight overgrowth,  no curling 3 Overgrowth, curling TOE length and presence/absence of curling   Scale 1 – 4   Measurements: Hoof Scores Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Slight overgrowth,  no curling 3 Overgrowth, curling 4 Severe overgrowth, curling TOE length and presence/absence of curling   Scale 1 – 4   Score Status 1 Recent trim Measurements: Claw Scores Image credit: Infovets.com, 2014 SIDEWALL growth and SOLE visibility   Scale 1 – 3   Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Sidewall overgrowth,  sole visible Measurements: Claw Scores SIDEWALL growth and SOLE visibility   Scale 1 – 3   Image credit: Infovets.com, 2014 Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Sidewall overgrowth,  sole visible 3 Sidewall overgrowth  across claw,  no sole visible Measurements: Claw Scores SIDEWALL growth and SOLE visibility   Scale 1 – 3   Image credit: Infovets.com, 2014 Score Status 1 Recent trim 2 Sidewall overgrowth,  sole visible 3 Sidewall overgrowth  across claw,  no sole visible Measurements: Claw Scores 3 1 SIDEWALL growth and SOLE visibility   Scale 1 – 3   Image credit: Infovets.com, 2014 Statistical Analysis 1. Averaged scores per milking doe  Front & rear = one hoof score   Both claws = one claw score Statistical Analysis 1. Averaged scores per milking doe  Front & rear = one hoof score   Both claws = one claw score 2. Averaged scores for each farm Statistical Analysis 1. Averaged scores per milking doe  Front & rear = one hoof score   Both claws = one claw score 2. Averaged scores for each farm 3. Ran regression models to test impact of herd size on:  Hoof score   Claw score R² = 0.649 012340 200 400 600 800Average Hoof Score Herd Size (# of Milking Does) Results: Hoof Score * Results in preparation: Please contact Gosia Zobel (g_zobel@yahoo.ca) for most recent analysis R² = 0.9333 01230 200 400 600 800Average Claw Score Herd Size (# of Milking Does)  Results: Claw Score * Results in preparation: Please contact Gosia Zobel (g_zobel@yahoo.ca) for most recent analysis Discussion Most farms: as herd size grows, hoof score and claw scores increase  However, the largest farm achieved low scores  Conclusions  Increasing herd size is associated with poorer hoof health    Further Studies  Examine farm management practices of the large farm that achieved good hoof health: Further Studies  Examine farm management practices of the large farm that achieved good hoof health:  Worker training  Trimming schedule  Cleanliness of pens Further Studies  Expand monitoring to include more farms  Especially more large farms    Take-home Message As farmers expand their herd sizes,  they must continue to ensure their goats have healthy hooves by having proper management.  Acknowledgements Supervisor:  Gosia Zobel Research methods course professors and teaching assistant:  Dr. Dan Weary  Dr. Nina von Keyserlingk  Joanna Makowska animal welfare program References Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC). 2006. Canadian dairy goat industry profile.  Online: http://www4.agr.gc.ca/resources/prod/doc/dairy/pdf/goatprofile.pdf  (accessed on Mar. 17, 2014). Chapinal, N., M.A.G. von Keyserlingk, R.L.A. Cerri, K. Ito, S.J. LeBlanc, and D.M.  Weary. 2013. Short communication: Herd-level reproductive performance and its  relationship with lameness and leg injuries in freestall dairy herds in the  northeastern United States. J. Dairy Sci. 11:7066-7072. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAOSTAT). 2013. Livestock  Primary. Online: http://faostat.fao.org/site/569/DesktopDefault.aspx? PageID=569#ancor (accessed on Mar. 14, 2014). United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2012. U.S. dairy goat operations.  Online: http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_health/nahms/goats/ downloads/goat09/Goat09_is_DairyGoatOps.pdf (accessed on Mar. 14, 2014). Image Credits    As indicated on slides: geoatlas.com, 2014 fiascofarm.com, 2012 blog.fairview.co.za, 2014 tractorsupply.com, 2014 infovets.com, 2014 All other photos: Gosia Zobel Thank you!  

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