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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Does ethical value transcend culture? Peacey, Arthur Thomas 1951

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DOES ETHICAL VALUE TRANSCEND CULTURE?  by ARTHUR THOMAS PEACEY  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of  PHILOSOPHY AND We a c c e p t  this  thesis  standard required  from  PSYCHOLOGY as c o n f o r m i n g candidates  t o the  f o r the  d e g r e e o f MASTER OF ARTS  Members o f t h e Department o f Philosophy THE  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH September, 1951  and  Psychology  COLUMBIA  A B S T R A C T  Since we accept it  i s important  a democratic s o c i e t y as d e s i r a b l e ,  t o have a sound b a s i s f o r e t h i c a l a c t i o n .  To s u b s t a n t i a t e such a b a s i s i t i s necessary  to controvert  the e t h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y which has become widespread as a r e s u l t of the a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l evidence customs and standards maintains  of the d i v e r s i t y of  in different societies.  This t h e s i s  t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o adopt a n a t u r a l i s t i c p o s i -  t i o n and a t the same time h o l d t h a t e t h i c a l value culture.  transcends  I f i t i s assumed t h a t w i t h i n man i s f o c u s s e d the  h i g h e s t development of the u n i v e r s e , the e t h i c r e l e v a n t t o humanity a c q u i r e s a u n i v e r s a l c h a r a c t e r . approach provides  An e v o l u t i o n a r y  the j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  E t h i c a l value  concerns the "ought" and comes i n t o  being when one person c o n s i d e r s the r i g h t s of others and m o d i f i e s h i s conduct a c c o r d i n g l y . manifestations:  (1) I n t r i n s i c value  E t h i c a l a c t i o n has two c o n f e r r e d on o t h e r s ; and  (2) E t h i c a l v a l u e , the e x p r e s s i o n o f an o b l i g a t i o n , which incidentally  leads t o an a c c e s s i o n of i n t r i n s i c value by  the agent performing  an e t h i c a l a c t i o n .  E t h i c a l value  i s viewed as a b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f  human nature r e g a r d l e s s of any s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e and the 3  corresponding  " e t h i c a l ought" i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d from the  " s o c i a l ought" which i s a r u l e of conduct imposed  implicitly  - II by society.  It is maintained that there is a universalisra  implicit in the ethieal ought  man is an ethical creature;  the ethical ought i s an obligation to foster what i s right and can not be reduced to custom or convention.  After  considering briefly the influence of psychology on ethics, the evolution of man's ethical nature i s traced, and the endeavour made to show that ethical value i s an evolving capacity of man. Anthropological data showing the influence of training and society on personality is reviewed, and criteria for comparing cultures advanced.  It is suggested  that our present culture with a l l i t s faults Is superior to others and that the f i n a l influence of Western democracy, i f i t s f u l l implications are realized, may be beneficial. Pour criteria are presented as constituting the essential marks of ethical conduct; reverence for l i f e , honesty, truth t e l l i n g , and respect for personality. A rapid survey of a number of societies suggests that while no definitive pattern can be found, i t i s a reasonable hypothesis that men behave within certain limits of acceptable conduct, and that a social need lies behind departures from the criteria mentioned.  The conclusion  is drawn that ethical value, the moral imperative, i s the expression of a capacity natural to man as a species  - I l l(although i t can be manifested f u l l y only under  conditions  of mature development of personality and environment) and that since humanity i s greater than any s p e c i f i c culture, e t h i c a l value does transcend culture.  - i i -  TABLE OP CONTENTS Chapter  Page ABSTRACT D e t a i l e d Table of Contents  i i i 1  Introduction I. II. III.  Some P r e l i m i n a r y Defining  V. VI. VII.  t h e Scope o f t h e I n q u i r y  The R e l a t i o n between E t h i c a l and  IV.  Considerations  Evolutionary  32 o f P s y c h o l o g y on E t h i c s  Ethics  I s T h e r e a Common E t h i c a l Cultures?  48 54 66  Anthropology and E t h i c s  All  14  Value  Culture  The I n f l u e n c e  4  Pattern In 77  Conclusion  91  Bibliography  92  - - 0 - -  - iii  -  DETAILED TABLE OP  CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION T h e s i s stems f r o m c o n c e r n a b o u t c y n i c i s m d e r i v i n g from e t h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y L o s s o f f a i t h i n c o s m i c s a n c t i o n r a r e l y accomp a n i e d by e f f o r t t o f i n d b i n d i n g e t h i c F o r democratic s o c i e t y (which i s a c c e p t e d as d e s i r a b l e ) i t i s i m p o r t a n t t o have a s o u n d basis f o r e t h i c a l action T h e s i s : p o s s i b l e adopt n a t u r a l i s t i c p o s i t i o n and a t same t i m e m a i n t a i n t h a t e t h i c a l v a l u e does transcend c u l t u r e - e v o l u t i o n a r y approach provides basis CHAPTER I :  1, 2, 2,  3.  SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS  E t h i c a l views c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m e t a p h y s i c s E t h i c a l imperative a unique aspect o f p e r s o n a l i t y f u n c t i o n i n g as a whole I n t u i t i o n i s t t h e o r i e s r e j e c t e d - i f man a n d a l l h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n c l u d e d no n e e d t o r e l y on another realm E t h i c s compatible with n a t u r a l i s t i c p o s i t i o n Man e v o l v e d p r o b a b l y f r o m c o s m i c d u s t f i n d s h i m s e l f possessed of e t h i c a l capacity Does t h i s v a r y f r o m one c u l t u r e t o a n o t h e r , o r i s i t a p o s s e s s i o n o f man as a s p e c i e s ? Man h a s d e t e s t a b l e p r o p e n s i t i e s , b u t t h i s i s only part o f the story P h i l o s o p h y s e e k s t o e v a l u a t e r e l a t i o n o f man t o whole u n i v e r s e We b e l i e v e p e o p l e s h o u l d d e v e l o p f a c u l t i e s f u l l y - p l a n e t a r y " e s p r i t de c o r p s " R e l a t i v e Absolute Theory o f E t h i c s adopted w i t h q u a l i f i c a t i o n t h a t i f we assume t h a t w i t h i n man i s f o c u s s e d h i g h e s t development o f t h e p r o c e s s o f u n i v e r s e , t h e e t h i c r e l e v a n t t o man a c q u i r e s a universal character A s o u r c e o f v a l u e o u t s i d e human n a t u r e o n l y c r e a t e s f u r t h e r mystery - e t h i c a l conduct r e q u i r e s knowledge a n d command o v e r m a t e r i a l resources CHAPTER I I :  Page 1  page 4 4, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11,  12,  13.  DEFINING THE SCOPE OF THE INQUIRY  The V a l i d i t y o f t h e Method o f I n t r o s p e c t i o n i n E t h i c a l Theory : A mature, s c i e n t i f i c a l l y t r a i n e d i n t r o s p e c t i o n can be an e f f i c i e n t t o o l o f e t h i c a l a n a l y s i s -  Page 14 14, 15,  D e f i n i t i o n o f Terms "Culture"' the s u m - t o t a l of i n h e r i t e d f a c t o r s n o t t r a n s m i t t e d t h r o u g h t h e germ-plasm "Transcend" See C h a p t e r I I I . " E t h i c a l Value" F i e l d of Value: I. Instrumental Values I I . I n t r i n s i c Values. I I I . Aesthetic Values. IV. E t h i c a l Value. E t h i c a l value i s " s u i generis" - i t e x i s t s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the c o n c e p t o f " o u g h t " , an outflowing to others I t i n v o l v e s the r e l a t i o n between two o r more p e r s o n s - comes i n t o b e i n g when one p e r s o n c o n s i d e r s the r i g h t s and needs o f some one e l s e and m o d i f i e s h i s a c t i o n a c c o r d i n g l y Does man as a s p e c i e s r e s p o n d t o same e t h i c a l principle? E t h i c a l a c t i o n has two m a n i f e s t a t i o n s : (1) I n t r i n s i c v a l u e c o n f e r r e d on some one e l s e (2) E t h i c a l v a l u e , t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f an obligation E t y m o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r u s i n g term e t h i c a l v a l u e f o r e t h i c a l o b l i g a t i o n o r ought In e t h i c a l a c t the p e r f o r m e r a l s o d e r i v e s i n t r i n s i c v a l u e , w h i c h , however, i s n o t t h e motive of a c t i o n The N a t u r e o f t h e Good I n v o l v e s two p r o b l e m s : (1) What I s t h e n a t u r e o f " o u g h t " ? (2) What i s t h e n a t u r e o f I n t r i n s i c v a l u e ? The Good has meant b o t h w h i c h a r e c l o s e l y connected Goodness a l s o two meanings c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o ( 1 ) and (2) above T h e r e c a n be goods ("bona") w i t h o u t g o o d n e s s i n e t h i c a l s e n s e , but s c a r c e l y g o o d n e s s w i t h o u t goods O b l i g a t i o n has two a s p e c t s : S u b j e c t i v e , I n t e r n a l sense of s u b j e c t i o n t o mandate, Objective, external reference to act required t o be done D i s c u s s i o n o f r e l a t i o n between the two a s p e c t s Why i s ah e t h i c a l a c t good? Would s u p e r s e s s i o n o f e t h i c a l o b l i g a t i o n by spontaneous choosing of a c t i o n l e a d i n g t o maximum i n t r i n s i c v a l u e mean a h i g h e r development? Are e t h i c s good? T r e a t i n g o t h e r s w e l l i s e t h i c a l e v e n when c o e r c i v e s e n s e o f o b l i g a t i o n i s overcome; s o , e t h i c s p r e s u m a b l y w i l l n e v e r be s u p e r s e d e d r  - V Two e l e m e n t s i n i d e a o f good so f a r have been d i s c r i m i n a t e d (1) The i n t r i n s i c g o o d t o o t h e r s , (2) The a d d e d i n t r i n s i c g o o d t o t h e performer of the a c t Is there a t h i r d element? The ought c o n t a i n s an o b s t i n a t e e l e m e n t No d e f i n i t i v e d i s p o s a l o f f e e l i n g a v a l u e a c c r u e s by v i r t u e o f e t h i c a l a c t i o n i n i t s e l f , a p a r t from I n t r i n s i c v a l u e r e a l i z e d by p e r f o r m e r and r e c i p i e n t o f deed The N a t u r e o f I n t r i n s i c V a l u e An a d e q u a t e t h e o r y o f v a l u e must c o n t a i n eudaemonism and s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n - c r i t e r i o n o f human w e l f a r e V a l u e an e x p r e s s i o n o f l i f e w h i c h i s u l t i m a t e CHAPTER I I I :  THE  28,  29, 29,  30,  -  30,  RELATION BETWEEN ETHICAL VALUE AND. CULTURE  The q u e s t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s a n s w e r e d i n the a f f i r m a t i v e E t h i c a l v a l u e a b a s i c f u n c t i o n o f human nature regardless of s p e c i f i c culture 32, D e f i n i t i o n o f E t h i c a l Ou&ht - o f n a t u r e o f law w h i c h men must f o l l o w i f t h e y a r e t o be t r u e t o t h e i r n a t u r e as members o f t h e human s p e c i e s 32, D e f i n i t i o n o f S o c i a l Ought - a r u l e o f c o n d u c t i m p o s e d i m p l i c i t l y by s o c i e t y 33, Commentary on t h e E t h i c a l Ought . 33, A u n i v e r a a l i s m i m p l i c i t i n t h e e t h i c a l ought man an e t h i c a l c r e a t u r e - e t h i c a l ought an o b l i g a t i o n t o f o s t e r what i s r i g h t - i t can n o t be r e d u c e d t o custom o r c o n v e n t i o n E t h i c a l v a l u e an e v o l v i n g c a p a c i t y o f man 34, I t has an a e s t h e t i c e l e m e n t and a s e n s e o f 35, f i t n e s s - i n a d d i t i o n i t means a g e n u i n e g i v i n g e l i c i t e d by p i t y , u n s e l f i s h le?ve, o r d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t and s e r v e Conscience i s not a n e u r o t i c compulsion 35, Commentary on the S o c i a l Ought 36, C o n s i d e r e d as sense o f o b l i g a t i o n w h o l l y d e t e r m i n e d by s o c i e t y 37, C o u l d be c a l l e d p s y c h o l o g i c a l ought 37, I n t e r a c t i o n o f E t h i c a l a n d S o c i a l Ought 37, The e x p e r i e n c e d ought i s complex, compounded o f b a s i c human n a t u r e and c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e 37, H e r e d i t a r y f a c t o r of primary importance because i t i s t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e foundation f o r a l l moral conduct, while i n f l u e n c e of  Page ,32 32  t r a i n i n g and s o c i e t y m e r e l y m o u l d i t t o a pattern the t e r m " e t h i c a l " f o r the ought may be r e t a i n e d An e t h i c a l ought can be v a l i d i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c setting P a r a l l e l w i t h p r o b l e m o f h e r e d i t y and environment Meaning of "Transcend" E t h i c a l v a l u e has l o c u s o f f u n c t i o n i n g on p l a n e o f h u m a n i t y and n o t on l e v e l o f a particular culture Por man as a s p e c i e s t h e r e e x i s t s a l o y a l t y w h i c h expands f r o m the g r o u p t o embrace a l l life The R e p u b l i c o f Humanity S o c i e t y i s p o s s i b l e b e c a u s e man is ethical, n o t man i s e t h i c a l because s o c i e t y makes him so Ethical Relativity (a) Extreme E t h i c a l R e l a t i v i t y - o u g h t e n t i r e l y s o c i a l - ethos of a s p e c i f i c c u l t u r e s e t s l i m i t s t o e t h i c a l development O b j e c t i o n , i m a g i n a t i o n can t r a n s c e n d l i m i t s of c u l t u r e — e t h i c a l progress C r i t e r i o n of e t h i c a l p r o g r e s s , r e a l i z a t i o n of more o f man's p o t e n t i a l i t i e s Culture borrowing i n d i c a t e s supra-cultural factors Problem of good i f e t h i c a l r e l a t i v i t y (b) M o d e r a t e E t h i c a l R e l a t i v i t y C l o s e l o p o s i t i o n i n t h i s study except l a t t e r stresses hereditary factor What I s the C r i t e r i o n f o r R i g h t A c t i o n ? No s p e c i f i c e t h i c a l v a l u e s - what a r e different a r e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s ; e t h i c a l v a l u e changes o n l y i n ends t o w a r d s w h i c h d i r e c t e d C e n t r a l f a c t i s e t h i c a l nature of man In a l l s i t u a t i o n s there i s p o t e n t i a l l y a r i g h t course of a c t i o n — r i g h t because o f o b j e c t i v e f a c t s . - Reason o b j e c t i v e f a c t s r e l a t e d t o r i g h t a e s s i s t h a t l i f e , i n t r i n s i c v a l u e , and e t h i c a l v a l u e a r e i n t i m a t e l y and indissolubly connected — t h e y are u l t i m a t e c r i t e r i a f o r any f i n i t e judgement - t h e r e f o r e , my d u t y bound up w i t h my l i f e - e x p e r i e n c e and my duty Is t o promote human w e l f a r e E t h i c a l c o r o l l a r y , the s o v e r e i g n w o r t h o f human p e r s o n a l i t y E t h i c a l economy -  - v i i-  CHAPTER I V :  THE INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY  ON ETHICS  Could p s y c h o l o g i s t s devise experiment t o t h r o w l i g h t on n a t u r e o f t h e o u g h t ? Hypnotism Psychoanalysis - s e l f - a n a l y s i s Is there a process of e t h i c a l maturation? P h y s i o l o g i c a l c o r r e l a t e f o r f e e l i n g and e m o t i o n a n d h e d o n i e tone Is there such a c o r r e l a t e f o r e t h i c a l obligation? CHAPTER V:  -  EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS  ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHICS  R e l a t i o n between c h i l d t r a i n i n g a l i t y pattern -  48, 48, 49, 50, 50, s 52. Page 54  Man's e t h i c a l n a t u r e p a s s e d t h r o u g h l o n g process of evolution K r o p o t k l n , nature not amoral - three elements of m o r a l i t y : mutual a i d , j u s t i c e or e q u i t y , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e M o r a l e l e m e n t s i n man's n a t u r e a s a s p e c i e s Darwin, a l t r u i s t i c element i n e v o l u t i o n foundation of moral f e e l i n g i n s o c i a l instincts - n a t u r a l sympathy L. T. Hobhouse, b a s i s f o r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e a l r e a d y l a i d i n a n i m a l n a t u r e o f man Westermarck, s o c i e t y i s t h e b i r t h p l a c e o f t h e moral consciousness ethical relativity J u l i a n Huxley, c o n t r o v e r t e d g r a n d f a t h e r , T. H. H u x l e y , t h a t c o s m i c n a t u r e i s o p p o s e d to e t h i c a l nature the former maintains the e t h i c a l f a c t o r arose w i t h i n the n a t u r a l evolutionary process Emphasis on d i r e c t i o n , n o t s t a t u s B i o l o g i c a l s e l e c t i o n l a r g e l y s u p e r s e d e d by social selection Sense o f r i g h t a n d wrong f r o m c o n f l i c t i n c h i l d , one t o t h r e e y e a r s , between l o v e a n d h a t e f o r mother - p r o t o - e t h i c a l mechanism "Moral d e f e c t i v e s " C o r r e l a t i o n between p h y s i c a l o r g a n i s m a n d temperament H i g h e t h i c a l s y s t e m i s s a n c t i o n e d by s c i e n c e i n t e r n a t i o n a l order - g l o b a l e t h i c s CHAPTER V I :  Page 48  54, 54 55, 56, 57, 57, 58,  58, 59, 60, 60, 61, 62, 63, Page 66  and p e r s o n 66,  - viii  -  Two s t u d i e s : (1) M a r g a r e t Mead, H y p o t h e s i s d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperament between s e x e s c u l t u r a l l y d e t e r mined - three p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s studied: ( a ) M o u n t a i n A r a p e s h - b o t h male a n d female r e v e a l feminine p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s (b) Mundugumor - b o t h male a n d f e m a l e r e v e a l masculine traits ( c ) T c h a m b u l l - men d i s p l a y f e m i n i n e , women m a s c u l i n e traits (2) Ruth B e n e d i c t , H y p o t h e s i s e a c h s o c i e t y one p r i n c i p a l m o t i v a t i o n - e a c h i n d i v i d u a l m o u l d e d t o dominant p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n three cultures studied: (a) Pueblo Indiana - " A p o l l o n i a n " - s o b e r , moderate, c o - o p e r a t i v e (b) K w a k i u t l I n d i a n s - " D i o n y s i a n " aggressive, competitive, boastful ( c ) Do bus - h a t e - r i d d e n a n d f e a r f u l F u r t h e r r e E t h i c a l R e l a t i v i t y - some c u l t u r e s not v i a b l e account h a t r e d O b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f c u l t u r e s n o t beyond competence o f man A. L . K r o e b e r , t h r e e c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g r e l a t i v e merits of cultures R e j e c t i o n o f argument t h a t s i m p l e r c u l t u r e s better Ways o f r a n k i n g c u l t u r e s complexity - a l s o three important c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : d i s e a s e , ignorance and s u p e r s t i t i o u s f e a r s , c o n t r o l of environment - ^T^RK S u g g e s t i o n t h a t our c u l t u r e w i t h a l l i t s faults i s better C l a s h o f c u l t u r e s g r e a t t r a g e d y , but i f f u l l implications r e a l i z e d , f i n a l influence of W e s t e r n democracy on o t h e r p e o p l e s may be beneficial CHAPTER V I I :  I S THERE A COMMON ETHICAL PATTERN IN A L L CULTURES?  Some 200 c u l t u r e s , a l s o 20 o d d h i s t o r i c c i v i l i z a t i o n s - c o l l a b o r a t i o n between p h i l o sophers and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s i n studying p o s s i b l e r e g u l a r i t i e s o f conduct F o u r C r i t e r i a s u g g e s t e d as e x p r e s s i n g e s s e n t i a l marks o f e t h i c a l c o n d u c t In l i e u o f d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n , r a p i d survey of various s o c i e t i e s regarding four c r i t e r i a l e a d s t o commentaries (1) R e v e r e n c e f o r L i f e - h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s o c i a l need l i e s behind s a n c t i o n e d k i l l i n g  Infanticide Gerontocide, Cannibalism, Head-bunting (2) H o n e s t y - r e s p e c t f o r p o s s e s s i o n s o f others probably general (3) T r u t h T e l l i n g - c o m p l i c a t e d b u s i n e s s . o f s o c i a l l i f e r e q u i r e s prevalence of t r u t h t e l l i n g over l y i n g (4) R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n a l i t y - f a r f r o m r e a l i z a t i o n e i t h e r amongst p r i m i t i v e s o r i n c i v i l i z e d s o c i e t i e s - treatment of women - b e a t i n g w i f e i n C h a u c e r ' s t i m e Objective conditions required f o r t r a n s l a t i n g ethical insights into practical living c h i l d labour - slavery I n f l u e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l s on e x t e n d i n g r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y - treatment of mentally i l l No d e f i n i t i v e p a t t e r n emerges f r o m the s u r v e y but i s i s r e a s o n a b l e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t men behave w i t h i n c e r t a i n l i m i t s o f a c c e p t a b l e conduct - v a r i o u s o b s t a c l e s - d i f f i c u l t e n v i r o n m e n t and s h o r t f o o d s u p p l y U n i v e r s a l sense o f j u s t i c e , R a d c l i f f e - B r o w n Hobhouse, u n i f o r m i t y o f m o r a l judgements C o n c l u s i o n t h a t no f u n d a m e n t a l b a r r i e r t o better e t h i c a l order i s revealed CONCLUSION  INTRODUCTION  This thesis stems from a concern about the apparently widespread e t h i c a l cynicism which Is encountered today.  Amongst contemporaries the opinion that e t h i c a l  standards are simply r e l a t i v e to the p a r t i c u l a r society i n which they occur i s exceedingly widespread and tends to Induce moral cynicism.  The impact of modern science,  e s p e c i a l l y the p r i n c i p l e s of b i o l o g i c a l evolution, l e d to a destruction of old absolutes and the great d i f f e r ences i n cultures, set forth by Westermarck i n his monumental study, E t h i c a l R e l a t i v i t y , projected i n t o popular thinking the idea of the r e l a t i v i t y of a l l values.  This  concept weakens the e t h i c a l sense because the natural reaction to the discovery of extreme c u l t u r a l d i v e r s i t y i s that i t i s a matter of h i s t o r i c a l chance what p a r t i c u l a r code one i s subject t o and the primary binding character of the obligation i s dulled.  When the absolute element  i s taken away from e t h i c a l action the meaning tends to die; the b e l i e f that standards  of conduct are purely r e l a t i v e  to time and place, introduces an adventitious character which destroys the c e n t r a l character of e t h i c a l conduct, namely, the compelling power and sense of inescapably binding nature.  I f moral standards are r e l a t i v e , i t i s  a short step to deny any v a l i d i t y to them at a l l beyond  - 2 -  that of ease and convenience. conventions  They become a r t i f i c i a l  and a neo-Sophistic p o s i t i o n r e s u l t s .  When  moral codes are considered to be compromises to make s o c i a l l i f e possible, i t i s not f a r to moral scepticism. The loss of f a i t h i n the absolute character of e t h i c a l value i s rarely accompanied by the patience, desire, or a b i l i t y to f i n d an e t h i c binding on man which i s based on other than cosmic sanction.  No s t a t i s t i c s exist to show  how prevalent t h i s attitude i s but there can be no doubt that very many people f e e l that i t does not matter very much what e t h i c a l standards are observed. and humanitarian —  society i s desirable —  I f a democratic and t h i s we accept  then the loss of e t h i c a l s e n s i t i v i t y i s to be deplored. Since i t i s e s s e n t i a l f o r a democratically  ordered society that c i t i z e n s believe i n the rights of others, as well as i n t h e i r own, i t i s of great importance that e t h i c a l theory should be able to substantiate the position that action which considers the rights of others i s not based on i l l u s i o n .  Therefore, an inquiry as to the  nature of e t h i c a l value i n r e l a t i o n to culture has more than t h e o r e t i c a l i n t e r e s t , and the p o s s i b i l i t y of substant i a t i n g and providing a sound basis f o r e t h i c a l action has great importance.  The exploration of such an abstract  problem In a time of c r i s i s i s accordingly j u s t i f i e d when  - 3 -  i t has p r a c t i c a l implications i n actual human l i v i n g . I t i s the contention  of this thesis that i t i s  possible to adopt a n a t u r a l i s t i c position and at the same time maintain that e t h i c a l value does transcend culture. The evolutionary approach to man's adventure i n the cosmos provides the basis f o r a dynamic, progressive  ethical  value and the endeavour w i l l be made t o set t h i s  forth.  CHAPTER ; i SOME PRELIMINARY It  CONSIDERATIONS  has been f r e q u e n t l y p o i n t e d  views are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with has  t o have some p e r s o n a l  blindly on  hostile, those  there the  one t a k e s  friendly,  value  I s a cosmic guarantor  and d e s c r i b e  who  business  rily  constituting  t o man.  On one h a n d  c a n be no e t h i c a l v a l u e  tion  o f one a n o t h e r  deny any s p e c i f i c a l l y  of maintaining life  and t h i s  unless  and s u s t a i n e r o f v a l u e s .  life.  social  just  One's e t h i c s depend  t h e " o u g h t " as s o c i a l l y  very  On  ethical  determined,  A f u n c t i o n , because the the myriad r e l a t i o n s calls gives  f o r reciprocal rise  necessaconsidera-  t o what i s d e s c r i b e d  ethical action.  The  fact  o f an e t h i c a l  Imperative  phenomenon, e s p e c i a l l y i f we a c c e p t n a t u r a l endowment.  emotions.  i s an amazing  i t as p a r t o f man's  The e t h i c a l e x p e r i e n c e  c o m p o n e n t s , b u t i t i s s o m e t h i n g more t h a n  for  or else  Man  as t o w h e t h e r t h e u n i v e r s e i s  who s a y t h a t t h e r e  a f u n c t i o n of s o c i e t a l  as  of l i f e ,  or indifferent  o t h e r , are those  ethical  one's m e t a p h y s i c s .  f o l l o w custom and t r a d i t i o n .  the p o s i t i o n  are  theory  out t h a t  has  a complex o f  I t r e q u i r e s the e x e r c i s e of reason  i t s o p e r a t i o n , b u t i t i s more t h a n  unique aspect  emotional  reason.  a n d judgement It i s a  o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y f u n c t i o n i n g as a w h o l e .  - 5 -  Since different temperaments characterize different persons, the e t h i c a l temperament -- the temperament which finds e t h i e a l promptings congenial and not i r k some  w i l l predominate i n some people more than i n others.  I t might be asked which type of person i s beat f i t t e d to study the problems of ethics. e t h i c a l pleasure may  The man who  experiences  be biassed i n thinking he i s serving  an absolute law; the man who has l i t t l e experience of e t h i c a l commitment may  lack a necessary element i n coming to  grips with the problem.  Those who  deal with evolutionary  phenomena i n c l i n e to a n a t u r a l i s t i c theory. Those, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the past, concerned primarily with abstract ideaa, tended to absolute theories.  But at the present conjunc-  ture of human thinking, we can not f i n d adequate evidence for accepting a metaphysical order from which e t h i c a l value descends to man  through i n t u i t i o n or revelation.  We must  reject i n t u i t i o n i s t theories which imply or posit a realm of a different order from the natural universe, including within the laat term a l l those phenomena which are manifested through human beings.  I f we include man and a l l  his experiences there i s no need to rely on another  realm.  Some temperaments, however, can not accept a n a t u r a l i s t i c explanation; they must go beyond material categories and postulate aome divine source of the e t h i e a l Impulae.  Those who undergo mystical experiences may have  t h e i r varying interpretations of the ultimate r e a l i t y which gives r i s e , as they believe, to t h e i r experiences. e t h l o a l experience, indeed, may  The  sometimes have a f f i n i t i e s  with the type of experiences which are c a l l e d mystical  —  i t i s transporting i n character and i t i s i n e f f a b l e . However, those who perceive the dangers and inconsistencies of a mystical i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , whether they reject this method outright or not, are not prevented thereby from incorporating the e t h i c a l experience, with a l l i t s v i v i d promptings of the s p i r i t , within t h e i r philosophy.  Por  them, i t i s s u f f i c i e n t to accept the fact of the e t h i c a l Imperative with a l l i t s d i f f i c u l t y of comprehension.  Its  existence i n such a universe as man's matured and t o t a l experience presents to him, makes him wonder, but i t i s no solution to push the mystery back on to some even more mysterious, remote power-; or p r i n c i p l e which exercises i t s creative energy -in some other area of the cosmos. n a t u r a l i s t i c position may  A  be accepted without derogating  from the supreme Importance of ethics.  Even though we  may  believe, that there w i l l never be any complete unfolding of a l l the unknown factors i n the universe, i t i s a sound and v i t a l methodological p r i n c i p l e that the universe should be regarded not as an ineffable mystery defying understanding, but as a problem to be solved.  Man  should confront  the natural universe and operate on the assumption that  - 7 by p a t i e n t r e s e a r c h and maintain a worthwhile then, in  t h a t man  discipline  existence.  physical  velopment through determined living man,  and  a t the  and  impulses  aa w e l l as He  has  tremendously  beastlineas.  He  himself capable  perfect  order.  can  activity  own  accompanyand  feelings  or f o r  had  himself  viciou8  which  degrading  of s p i r i t u a l  only accept  and  he  the  within his experience.  f a c t s nece8Sitates the  its  finds  T h e n h i s powers o f  s k i e s and  as  of Pate  ex-  them t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t  from  has  Man  banishes  spiritual A  a l o n g what we  ethical  being  analysis the  gods  experiences  human  the p o t e n t i a l i t y  call  and  s c r u t i n y o f a l l the  r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t the  of i t s c a p a c i t i e s  of  drama.  so t r a n s p o r t i n g i n t h e i r i n c i d e n c e  the u n l i k e l i h o o d of t h i s  actualities  act.  powers and  show him  one  de-  which  moving  concept  f o r enhanced l i v i n g  t h a t he p e r f o r c e r e f e r s  o f a h i g h e r and  one  being the b a a i s f o r c r u e l t y  finds  p e r i e n c e s which are  as  of  This creature,  w h i c h have t h e i r  also emotional  carry potentialities  the  evolved  definitively  dilemma, and y e t  stupendous cosmic  of animal  actions.  recognizes  a p e x o f w h i c h i s man.  awful  an e x q u i s i t e  of t h i s  ing values  to  c o l l o c a t i o n and  not y e t  Greek d r a m a t i a t s w i t h t h e i r  possessed  effect  This inquiry  p a r t i c l e s , w h i c h by  l a i n a s o r r y and  a vision  able  d u s t , i n o t h e r words, out  a fascinating  organisms,  great  be  c o s m o l o g i c a l e v o l u t i o n have p r o d u o e d a r a c e  constitutes The  will  f i n d s h i m s e l f i n a u n i v e r s e w h i c h has  some manner o u t o f c o s m i c  primitive  he  lines.  animal  of ordering Prom  this  - 8 s t a r t i n g point, then, ethical  we s e e k t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r  c a p a c i t y v a r i e s f r o m one c u l t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t t o  another,  o r whether i t i s a p o s s e s s i o n  I t w o u l d seem t o me t h a t e t h i c a l v a l u e o r m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f p l a n e t a r y man. of r a c i a l  classification,  or c u l t u r a l with  distinction,  a n d enjoyment  abstract  of the species. i s an e x p r e s s i o n  A l l men,  regardless  o r o f any o t h e r economic, c a n p o t e n t i a l l y have e q u a l  of t h i s  A theory  ethical  by men.  t h e e x t r e m e modes  manifested  a high ethic  which i s p o t e n t i a l l y w i t h i n the moral  In seeking  o f a l l men, o u r s c a n s i o n must n o t d i s m i s s  to discern  imagining.  p r o p e n s i t i e s o f human b e i n g s  —  b l i n d n e s s , t h e r a p a c i t y o f w i c k e d men a n d t h e i r indifference predatory  destructiveness  from thought. how s e l f i s h , species is  cruel,  o f modern war  and d e t e s t a b l e  No g r e a t  required t o subscribe denunciation  the moral chilling  and f a t e o f t h e i r v i c t i m s , the  I f we a r e r e a l i s t i c  can be.  his p i t i l e s s And  t o the r i g h t s  compass  t h e e a r t h l y scene  human a c t i o n f o r r e a l m s o f p u r e  must t h e e v i l  commerce  a b o u t e t h i c s must n o t be s o l e l y a n  s p e c u l a t i o n b u t must e n v i s a g e  of concrete  social,  value.  of behaviour  Nor  this  stretch  be  dismissed  we s e e o n l y t o o c l e a r l y a c r e a t u r e t h e human of evaluative  t o the sentiments  perception  o f Mark T w a i n i n  o f h u m a n i t y i n What i s Man?  i t w o u l d be e a s y t o y i e l d  t o the temptation  t o agree  with  Swift's merciless  judgement:  I cannot but conclude the bulk of your n a t i v e s t o be t h e most p e r n i c i o u s r a c e o f l i t t l e o d i o u s v e r m i n t h a t n a t u r e e v e r s u f f e r e d t o c r a w l upon t h e s u r f a c e of the e a r t h . 1  If  this  evaluation  c o n s t i t u t e d t h e whole t r u t h , a  judgement w o u l d be e a s y , a n d we c o u l d r e s i g n to  living  final  ourselves  i n a s o c i e t y i n w h i c h t h e most t h a t  hoped f o r w o u l d be a s e t o f r u l e s d e s i g n e d t o  c o u l d be facilitate  the  most h a r m o n i o u s i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p s p o s s i b l e  between  the  members o f t h e community  contract  —  a refined social  to modify the " s o l i t a r y , poor, nasty, existence  o f Hobbes. But  t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s more c o m p l e x ; t h e  human e x p e r i e n c e category. This  We  c a n n o t be c o m p r e s s e d w i t h i n  do f i n d  instances  requires explanation.  human a d v e n t u r e and  destroy  likely;  life  itself, will  whieh d i s m i s s e s the  i n s e l f i s h n e s s i s inadequate  I n d e e d d e n o t e s an a b d i c a t i o n  may p u r s u e a n e v e n t u a l  any s i n g l e  o f conduct whieh i s e t h i c a l .  A theory  as an e x e r c i s e  a suitable hypothesis.  even  b r u t i s h and s h o r t "  from the t a s k  of  I t i s quite possible that  framing mankind  p a t h o f e x t r e m e s e l f i s h n e s s ; i t may  though complete a n n i h i l a t i o n i s un-  probably  Man a s a s p e c i e s  will  growing t o h i g h ,  ethical  go on a g a i n  probably  a t some  level.  a l w a y s have t h e c h a n c e o f  stature.  1 Swift, Jonathan, G u l l i v e r ' s T r a v e l s , Toronto, M a c M i l l a n Co., 1946, p . 152, C h a p t e r V I . , P a r t I I .  - 10 "High e t h i c a l almost  r e q u i r e s a word o f e x p l a n a t i o n .  haps o f p i o u s nothing  s t a t u r e " -- s u c h  aspiration.  wrong w i t h  realistic  phraseology I t smacks  Well, pious  a s p i r a t i o n has  i t i f i t i s n o t e x e r c i s e d i n an un-  eloudland  of sentimental  vapouring;  a c c o m p a n i e d by a f r a n k a v o w a l o f t h e f a c t s duct.  To d i s c u s s t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  development s h o u l d calculation  in the  o f human  o f one l i n e  suggests  o f d e v e l o p m e n t may n e v e r be f o l l o w e d .  rule  i fi t i s  n o t be f o r b i d d e n b e c a u s e a  o f the p r o b a b i l i t i e s  of i t s i n t e r e s t s  per-  and i n s p i t e  o f human  rational  that that  Philosophy,  of the p o s i t l v i s t s  out a l l s p e c u l a t i o n which bears  con-  line as one  who  no i m m e d i a t e  would  return  the form o f demonstrable p r o p o s i t i o n s , seeks t o e v a l u a t e relation  o f man t o t h e whole u n i v e r s e  now a n d may e x i s t  hereafter.  I f such conjecture  d e t r a c t from the r e s o l u t e coping  with  of the age, i t i s not i l l e g i t i m a t e . probing  into  the s i g n i f i c a n c e  we f a c e t h e most a w f u l to f i n d  know t h e a n s w e r s . i n t h e book o f l i f e  Accepting  o f man's p l a c e  then  reads  this  i n the u n i v e r s e ,  We a r e s e e k i n g  f o r w h i c h we w i l l  Each i n q u i r e r  does n o t  the p r e s s i n g problems  of f r u s t r a t i o n s .  solutions t o questions  as i t e x i s t s  never  o n l y a few p a g e s  and i s f o r b i d d e n , f o r e v e r  we b e l i e v e ,  t o l o o k up t h e a n s w e r s i n t h e back o f t h e book, a s s u m i n g even t h a t be  these  written.  passion  a n s w e r s a r e w r i t t e n somewhere, o r w i l l  Cursed  with  this  t o know, t h e s e a r c h e r  ultimate  stultifying  has t h e r i g h t  ever  of h i s  t o put f o r t h  - 11 his  theories  ethical  and  future  a i r hia speculations.  f o r mankind a h o u l d not  Somehow we that  way  ence. live not  which w i l l  We  present time.  living  powers i n a u c h a way them 8hould e x t r a c t  who,  we  that  know i n o u r own  a l l people  t h a t t h e y and  We  thoae  n o t have p r i d e , a f t e r a l l ,  predicament exquisite  This  feel  I f we  possibilities  are, i n truth,  that i t  and  sensitivities  corps".  a8  a creature on a  lonely hazard8,  Every  of  evil  achievement  i n the  perilous  w h i c h make us  a c u t e l y t h e wonder a n d m y a t e r y a n d f r i g h t e n i n g  certain feel  immensitiea  of t h e coamoa, and m o r e o v e r , w i t h no s u r e g u i d e n o r to t e l l  us what i t i a a l l a b o u t ;  their  de  of d w e l l i n g i n a l o n e l y u n i v e r s e , with  feelinga  judge-  I t would  a thouaand  a better future?  from the f i n e  appliea  from e x i s t e n c e .  race.  i n man  c i r c u m s t a n c e and  men  asaociated with  a l t h o u g h s u b j e c t t o 80 many v i c i s s i t u d e s  o f t h e human r a c e .  exiat-  should u t i l i z e  d e s i r a b l e t o develop a p l a n e t a r y " e a p r i t  derogates  of  community a t  t h e maximum o f a d v a n t a g e  y e t manages t o work t o w a r d act  t o behave i n  other things being equal, that  i n a p r e v i o u s age.  p l a n e t , t o chance a n d  possible  strictures.  enjoyment  r e d u c e s , I n a aen8e, t o a d u t y t o the  S h o u l d we  a  I t c o u l d be made as a h i s t o r i c a l  w o u l d be more f i t t i n g  be  ought  enhance t h e i r own  t o some p e r a o n s  ment o f p e o p l e  This  suggest  draw down  f e e l t h a t people  would p r e f e r ,  To  ao aa t o d e v e l o p more o f t h e i r f a c u l t i e s . just  thia  -  t h e n the v e r y l e a s t  mentor we  i - 12  -  should do i s to be d i g n i f i e d and l i v e our l i v e s according to the best plan we can f i n d .  This mode of action i s en-  joined on ua by the kind of nature we f i n d ourselves possessed of. I f i t be objected that only those persons trained i n a certain way have t h i s kind of i d e a l envisageraent of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of human l i f e , we can reply that somewhere i n the human adventure t h i s concept has come into existence and those who have the v i s i o n should seek to expand and make i t available to more and more people. This i a not just to indulge i n wishful thinking but to be the vehicle of a t r a d i t i o n —  the human t r a d i t i o n .  The c r i t i c i s m of high e t h i c a l thinking which dismisses i t as merely wishful thinking would seem to overlook the fact that a creature has been able to wish along these certain l i n e s . The n a t u r a l i s t i c position assumed i n t h i s thesis i s close to the r e l a t i v e absolute position of Dr. Barnett Savery, with one qualification,which i s t h i s .  I f we assume  that value exists only i n conjunction with man  and that  there are no powers external to him supporting him, and i f , further, we assume that man i f , that i s , within man  Is the highest species  developed,  i s focussed the highest development  of the process of the universe, then the ethic which i s relevant to man  acquires a u n i v e r s a l , i f not absolute  -  character.  13 -  I f a transmoral source i s postulated f o r e t h i c a l  value, that only creates a further mystery; we are s t i l l l e f t with the i n i t i a l problem of what we experience as ethical.  I f there i s a general value as well as s p e c i f i c  values, how can the general become s p e c i f i c ?  The f i n a l  sanction f o r right conduct need not be cosmic; i f i t i s binding on one i n order to f u l f i l his nature as a member of his species, that i s a v a l i d sanction.  This, of course  constitutes a much more d i f f i c u l t ethic than one based on supernatural authority. Whitehead said that neither matter nor l i f e can be understood i n i s o l a t i o n ; likewise, ethics are not a mere conceptual system but have meaning only i n conjunct i o n with l i f e .  E t h i c a l conduct to be f u l l y  requires more than good motives.  manifested  Also e s s e n t i a l are the  following; Intelligence and knowledge; Primary emphasis on t h i s  (Socrates was correct)  life;  Reasonable freedom from unconscious complexes, repressions and motivations; Abundance of material resources; A high degree of command over natural forces. These requirements constitute the indispensable matrix  with-  i n which a mature human ethics could develop, as w i l l be made more e x p l i c i t i n the l a t e r chapter on evolutionary e t h i c s .  - -0- -  - 14  -  CHAPTER DEFINING THE The  Validity  of the  II  SCOPE OF  THE  INQUIRY  Method o f I n t r o s p e c t i o n i n  Ethical  Theory Has  the  c o g e n c y i n the is  an e t h i c a l  only  method o f I n t r o s p e c t i o n any  r e s o l u t i o n of e t h i c a l  value If  there  ought w h i c h o p e r a t e s i n human b e i n g s ,  i t is  i n them t h a t i t c o u l d be  questions?  and  detected  and  analysed  and  method o f i n t r o s p e c t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o d e t e r m i n e I t s and  content.  the  I n q u i r e r to get  at c e r t a i n f a c t s .  not  be  p e r s o n ' s f e e l i n g s , on  of  one  Possibly this  b a a e d on  one  be  has  validity.  r e a c h e d amongst d i f f e r e n t  I f a p e r s o n has Influence  Ethical theories the  But  i f aome agreement  observers,  as  on  the  p a i d complete  conscious  then the  judgement, and  danger of f o r m i n g p r e j u d i c e d  la  method  internal  scientific  various  ethical  o f modern p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h  conclusions  inner  method, by an t h e o r l e 8 , by i n t o the  which  i n s p e c t i o n must  e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n t o the  i n f o r m e d by  knowledge o f t h e  The  acutely  opinions  o b j e c t i v e Impressions, then h i s of value.  can  deliverance  and  a f t e r a l l be  must be  to  of unconscious p r e j u d i c e s , needs, d e s i r e s ,  f a r more t h a n an it  available  the  aware o f t h e him  tool  nature  attention to  mental habits  may  only  person's inward i n v e s t i g a t i o n .  can  strike  Is the  the  working; intimate  the  nature  be  findings of  the  - 15 e m o t i o n s , and gigantic  i t must above a l l be  informed  and  S u c h an  s h o u l d be  impulsion  induced  by  accepted  validity.  There i s a l l the  DEFINITION OF By  an  be  as  dismissed  in a l l scientific  d i f f e r e n c e i n the world  and  terms of the  a mature,  between informed,  reporting.  title,  "ethical  " c u l t u r e " , as u s e d h e r e i n ,  Inquiry w i l l  be  indicated.  an  i n c r e a s i n g degree o f d i f f i c u l t y  in  reverse  and  The  will  three  be  the present  dealt  with  order.  What i s meant by Culture man  w h i c h s e t him  the  sum-total  through  verdict  TERMS: d e f i n i n g the  of t h i s  of  i s more t h a n  t r a i n e d mode o f i n t r o s p e c t i v e  value", "transcend", scope  An  purpose.  i f i t b r i n g s i n the  lacking  and  a n a l y s i s should,  for this  i g n o r a n t i n t r o s p e c t i o n and  scientifically  itself  instrument  s o c i e t y , should not  subjective activity  the  followed.  sense of o b l i g a t i o n ,  a suspect,  emotionsl,  conduct  an e f f i c i e n t  instrument,  ought, the  deceive  of i n t r o s p e c t i v e  r e c o g n i z e d as  i n v e s t i g a t i o n and  the  f o r the  refined tool  t h e r e f o r e , be  an  a c u t e l y aware o f  c a p a c i t y o f t h e human m i n d t o  adduce e s t i m a b l e m o t i v e s  that  -  the  "Culture"? i s a term d e n o t i n g o f f from the  rest  of i n h e r i t e d f a c t o r s  germ-plasm.  those o f the  activities animal  which are  Lowie u s e s t h e  term  not "the  of  kingdom  —  transmitted social  - 16 tradition";  Linton's  term  "social heredity"  i s amended by  Kroeber t o " s o c i a l i n h e r i t a n c e " , which i s as a p t a ization  character-  as a n y . Two a c t i v i t i e s o f man w h i c h make t h e  of the elements of c u l t u r e p o s s i b l e faculty  of  transmission  a r e speech and the  symbolizing.  Culture  consists of a l l non-biological  elements  and  d e n o t e s n o t m e r e l y t h e ways o f w i n n i n g a l i v i n g  the  p h y s i c a l environment and I n s t r u m e n t s and a r t i f a c t s ,  but  a l l t h e complex o f h a b i t s , c u s t o m s , a n d v a l u e s  Through education culture, within  new g e n e r a t i o n s  are inducted  l e a r n i t s ways o f d o i n g t h i n g s  i t s system o f i n s t i t u t i o n s  generally.  i n t o the  a n d become  integrated  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y  attuned t o i t s ethos, or t o t a l c u l t u r a l tial  from  pattern,  a t t i t u d e t o the e x t e r n a l w o r l d and the  i t s essen-  universe  generally. What i s meant by This  "Transcend"?  term i n v o l v e s  be  called  the e t h i c a l  be  d e a l t with i n the next  ought a n d t h e s o c i a l  What i s meant by " E t h i c a l It values;  the r e l a t i o n  between what c a n ought a n d w i l l  chapter. Value"?  w o u l d be a s w e l l n o t t o s p e a k o f t h e r e a l m o f  t h i s m i g h t Imply a kingdom o f e n d s ; a  or trans-natural  realm s u b s i s t i n g apart  supernatural  f r o m men.  The t e r m  - 17 field  o f value w i l l  not e n t i r e l y  p e r h a p s be more a p p r o p r i a t e , a l t h o u g h  suitable.  The f i e l d  o f v a l u e may be d e s c r i b e d  as f o l l o w s : I. II. III. IV.  Instrumental Values. I n t r i n s i c Values. Aesthetic Values. E t h i c a l Value.  I.  Instrumental Values:  sic  which subserves  to i n t r i n a i c II.  A value  some e n d beyond i t s e l f .  I t i a a meana  value.  Intrinsic  Values:  Intrinsic  a r e v a l u e d f o r themselve8 a l o n e . general  i s instrumental or e x t r i n -  category  v a l u e s are those Economic v a l u e  largely instrumental i n nature.  which  ia a  broad,  There a r e ,  however, e c o n o m i c v a l u e s , i t w o u l d aeem, w h i c h a r e p r a c t i cally,  i fnot d e f i n i t i v e l y , i n t r i n a i c j  f u r t h e r purpose but t h a t enjoyment.  they  sense  life.  Economics i a concerned men'a a f f a i r a  no  of p e r s o n a l a p p r o p r i a t i o n and  They a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l o n l y i n t h e l a r g e r  o f m i n i s t e r i n g t o human  and r e l a t e a  w i t h t h e management o f  essentially  t o hi8 w e l f a r e .  E c o n o m i c v a l u e may, t h e r e f o r e , be t a k e n broad  aubserve  as the type  of a  s e t o f v a l u e s which a r e i n t r i n s i c , and y e t are not  aesthetic  or ethical.  w h i c h men v a l u e  They denote v a l u e , w o r t h , good t h i n g s  f o r themaelves.  - 18 III. from  Aesthetic Values: the  aesthetic  d e r i v e d from and  the  is  from  but  of i n t r i n s i c  value  human b e i n g s  just  restricted  v a l u e m i g h t be  as any  i t by  IV.  E t h i c a l Value:  "sui  g e n e r i s " ; i t has  concept  "ought".  duty, v i r t u e , v a l u e s and by t h e an  We  It.  person  The  sensitivity  subdivision enjoyed its  However, on a c c o u n t  possessed  term  limited.  shown as a  by own  of  by a e s t h e t i c s i t i s  itself. may  note  a radical  that e t h i c a l value i s differentia  from  i n connection with  a l l other the  I t s d i s t i n g u i s h i n g mark i s m o r a l  o b l i g a t i o n , moral e x c e l l e n c e .  those  sensuous  those  other value which c a r r i e s  E t h i c a l value e x i s t s of  and  s i n c e i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e d and  specialized Interest  sound t o c l a s s i f y  so  senses"  works o f a r t ,  t o denote  n e c e s s a r i l y be  meaning and v a l i d a t i o n w i t h  values.  " p e r c e p t i o n by t h e  v a r i o u s modes o f p e r s o n a l a c t i v i t y .  i t need not  derived  "aesthetic" i s  c o l o u r s of the n a t u r a l w o r l d ,  Aesthetic  the  term  of a l l k i n d s , from  f r e q u e n t l y and u s e f u l l y  to beauty  The  experience, therefore, s i g n i f i e s  to impressions  f o r m s and  arising  experience.  a Greek word m e a n i n g  the a e s t h e t i c  receptivity  A e s t h e t i c v a l u e s are those  called  concerned.  aesthetic  Ordinary  a r e r e c e i v e d and  enjoyed  Ethical value, i n contrast, i s  out-flowing to others, a  giving.  Further, e t h i c a l value  i s t o be d i s t i n g u i s h e d  - 19 from the o t h e r valuea can  enjoy  a e s t h e t i c value  other i n t r i n s i c is and  as f o l l o w s .  concerned  the  indicated.  not t o say, o b v i o u s l y , that other people necessarily involved.  In r e l a t i o n  must e x i s t ;  i n the p r a c t i c a l  are not v i t a l l y  and a l l the  persons  factors  v a l u e s must e x i s t  But t h e a c t u a l v a l u e  This  to aesthetic value,  and mechanical  providing other i n t r i n s i c appreciator.  in isolation  beauty, f o r example, and t h e  and i n s t r u m e n t a l v a l u e s  f o r example, t h e a r t i s t  in  One p e r s o n  involved  apart  transaction  from  concerns  o n l y t h e l a t t e r as f a r a s t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e v a l u e is  concerned.  thetic  One s i n g l e  experience  human b e i n g may e n j o y  of viewing  a sunset,  o r some a r t - o b j e c t .  E t h i c a l v a l u e , i n c o n t r a s t , has an a d d i t i o n a l gives  i ta radically  relation arily, at  a n d by d e f i n i t i o n ,  comes i n t o  needs o f some  ingly. the  status.  between two o r more p e r s o n s .  a minimum, i n a c e r t a i n  value and  different  The s e n s e  concerns  factor  which  I t i n v o l v e s the Ethical  value  necess-  a number o f p e o p l e ,  form o f i n t e r a c t i o n .  b e i n g when one p e r s o n one e l s e  the aes-  two  Ethical  c o n s i d e r s the r i g h t s  and m o d i f i e s h i s a c t i o n accord-  o f o u g h t comes i n  ought i s n o t a n e c e s s a r y  t h o u g h i t may  p a r t o f the highest  be t h a t  ethical  aetion. A f u n d a m e n t a l d i f f e r e n c e i s t o be n o t e d aesthetic  and e t h i c a l v a l u e .  on h i s i s l a n d  could experience  To i l l u s t r a t e , the f i r s t ,  between  Robinson  Crusoe  but never the  -  second, unless  some o t h e r human b e i n g  s h i p with him. is  20 -  Or u n l e s s , f u r t h e r , t h e s p h e r e  h e l d t o i n c l u d e other than  other parts of nature,  human b e i n g s  are  c a n n o t be s a i d  e t h i c a l value  values  that the four subdivisions T h i s p o i n t s out again  i s different  study  i n k i n d from the other  i s now c l a r i f i e d  we may v i e w i t a s t h e a t t e m p t  different  cultures,  Is  the  fact  with?  i n an u n s e l f i s h  i n mind, a t l e a s t  lead to d i f f i c u l t i e s ?  the e t h i c a l him.  juncture  about  that  people  way, w i t h t h e g o o d o f  The p e r s o n  I t i s a form o f v a l u e  revolves  the f a c t  value.  description  t o some d e g r e e .  a c t i o n receives value  whether  responds  of e t h i c a l  Our s t u d y  of non-self-regarding a c t i o n ;  other person  this  At t h i s  " e t h i c a l v a l u e " t h e most a c c u r a t e  do a c t t o w a r d s o t h e r s the  principle.  as t o the a t t r i b u t e s  what we a r e c o n c e r n e d  that  i s different f o r  o r w h e t h e r man a s a s p e c i e s  t h e same b a s i c e t h i c a l  more must be s a i d  t o the e x t e n t  t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n  what we may f i n d t o be e t h i c a l v a l u e  for  or  noted. Our  of  animals  T h i s i s beyond the scope o f  f o u r s p e c i e s o f one g e n u s .  that  of  of the e t h i c a l  study. It  to  —  relation-  on t h e one h a n d , a n d a d i v i n e o r  c o s m i c f o r c e on t h e o t h e r . our  came i n t o  Does  who i s t h e r e c i p i e n t  which I s not e t h i c a l  which f o r him i s i n t r i n s i c .  - 21 Does an e t h i c a l a c t , t h e n , radically enjoyed,  values are  the  two  to  latter?  the  at a l l ?  same e n t i t y  sides of a coin  the  Can  first,  someone e l s e ; a n d  we  say t h a t  Rather,  two  adhering of  second,  what we  " v a l u e " d e r i v e s from  existence w i t h and  priate. equated  aspects  a c t w h i c h has  —  convex accurate  two  conferred  have c h o s e n t o  on  call  obligation.  the the  "ethical value". Old French Latin  possible. arises  out  Since value  obligation  I t seems f i t t i n g w i t h the  "ought".  meaning  "valoir" —  "to  " t o be  i n m a k i n g an  be strong".  ordered  i s intimately associated  o f the e t h i c a l a c t , the  ethical  The  " v a l e r e " --  a c t i s o f supreme v a l u e  v a l u e " f o r the  the  i s an e t y m o l o g i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r  t o the t e r m i n o l o g y  ethical  value  logical  i t m i g h t be more  the i n t r i n s i c value  w o r t h " , w h i c h comes f r o m The  of  c o n c a v e and  e t h i c a l v a l u e w h i c h i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n o f an  There  type  What i s t h e  viewed from  t h a t what i s i n v o l v e d i s one  manifestations:  value  value i n v o l v e d  of v a l u e , o r t h e  o f an a r c o f v a l u e ?  say  i s , the  of  What j u s t i f i c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r  i t e t h i c a l value  two  sides  That  types  i n the a c t of u n s e l f i s h n e s s ?  o f the  calling  i n nature?  w h i c h i s n o n - e t h i c a l , and  centrally status  different  i n v o l v e two  term  i s legitimate  that e t h i c a l value  "ethical and  should  approbe  - 22 I t may f u r t h e r be n o t e d genuine e t h i c a l of value  a c t , the person  himself.  that i n performing  who does s o d e r i v e s a mode  This i s a species of i n t r i n s i c  w h i c h i s n o t , however, e t h i c a l  are  r e v e a l i n g the nature  principally  (a) t h e v a l u e  interested i n .  conscious  performing  intention  of the a c t — Arising  concerned.  t o him from f a t e .  course  f o r t h e sake o f t h e e m o t i o n a l  The  character.  added,  glow a n d t h e s e l f -  o f t h e mode o f a c t i v i t y t o another  i n which t h e doer  being;  this  central  the concepts o f  conscience, u n s e l f i s h n e s s , and moral e x c e l l e n c e .  Intrinsic value, potential terms  concomitant  By e t h i c a l v a l u e , t h e r e f o r e , we mean t h e  b e n e f i t t o accrue  duty,  above.  I f , h o w e v e r , he p u r s u e s t h e e t h i c a l  character includes within i t s connotation virtue,  as m e n t i o n e d  derived i n f e e l i n g virtuous, h i s act loses I t s  c e n t r a l nature Intends  result-  r e c e i v e , i s something  a gift  ethical  i s what we  from t h i s i s  the action,  w h i c h he may i n c i d e n t a l l y  satisfaction  value  of the a c t o r i s t o c o n f e r the value  r e c e i v e d by t h e o t h e r p e r s o n value  the c e n t r a l  c o n f e r r e d , and (b) the p o s s i b l e value  i n g t o the person The  value  in itself.  In e t h i c a l a c t i v i t y , t h e n , the essence  a  value  i n c l u d e s t h e numerous d e g r e e s o f  and r e a l i z e d , expressed  designating value  i n enjoyment  w e l l as the d i f f e r e n t  aspects  in various theories.  A l l the f i r s t  by t h e v a r i o u s  o r p o t e n t i a l i t y , as  of value  which a r e s t r e s s e d  three  divisions  noted  - 23 -  above a r e e s s e n t i a l l y  one.  o r w o r t h t o human l i f e . different is  and t h a t  Value i s t h a t which i s of v a l u e  Only e t h i c a l v a l u e  by r e a s o n o f t h e e n t i t y w i t h w h i c h i t  c o n c e r n e d , namely, the sense o f  THE NATURE OF THE It  i s radically  obligation.  GOOD:  seems a p p a r e n t t h a t  i n s t u d y i n g the n a t u r e  o f t h e g o o d , p h i l o s o p h e r s have been c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r o b l e m s w h i c h have n o t a l w a y s b e e n c l e a r l y and p o s s i b l y really  this  p a r t l y accounts  incredible,  that  o f agreement.  A —  B —  t h e most p e n e t r a t i n g  other;  there  The  intellects  t o reach a  two p r o b l e m s a r e t h e  greater  following;  What i s t h e n a t u r e  of "ought", o r , i n other  what i s t h e n a t u r e  of e t h i c a l  What i s t h e n a t u r e  of i n t r i n s i c  The e x p r e s s i o n the  discriminated,  f o r the f a c t , which i s  o v e r some 2500 y e a r s have n o t been a b l e measure  two  "The  value? value?  Good" h a s sometimes meant one;  s o m e t i m e s , no d o u b t , t h e two t o g e t h e r .  i s no doubt t h a t  t h e two a r e v e r y  closely  sometimes For  connected  a n d u n l e s s t h i s were s o t h e c o n f u s i o n w o u l d n o t have  The word meanings;  (a) the goodness i n t h i n g s , t h e goodness  i n g o u t o f one's d u t y .  T h e r e can be goods  impossible  goods, e i t h e r r e a l i z e d ,  the  two  expercarry-  (the o l d L a t i n  t e r m "bona") w i t h o u t g o o d n e s s I n t h e e t h i c a l is practically  arisen.  " g o o d n e s s " i s a l s o u s e d ; i t c a n have  i e n c e d by somebody; a n d ( b ) g o o d n e s s a s v i r t u e ,  it  words,  s e n s e , but  t o e n v i s a g e goodness w i t h o u t  or envisaged, or intended,  i t would  - 24 clarify A and  t h e s e two  c o n c e p t s i f t h e above  B, were d e s i g n a t e d as goodness  ively.  The  latter  various  goods. This  impulse.  been thrown  the t h e s i s , whether t h i s v a l u e experiencing  compulsion, t o the d i c t a t e  jective  respectone f o r  transcends c u l t u r e . has two  sense o f b e i n g  Then t h e r e  between  aspects:  subject  to kind,  sub-  i s the e x t e r n a l r e f e r e n c e This  i s the o b j e c t i v e  t h e s e two  factors?  interior  s e n s e o f command a l w a y s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t  I t would  seem a l w a y s t o be  so a c c o r d i n g  e t h i c a l t h e o r i e s which conceive t o a law o r p r e s c r i p t i o n .  this,  on t h e c e n t r a l p r o b l e m o f  T h i s m i g h t be c a l l e d t h e  t h e a c t r e q u i r e d t o be done. What i s t h e r e l a t i o n  can determine  o f a law o r mandate o f some  be o v e r w h e l m i n g .  component.  I f we  of o b l i g a t i o n  there I B the i n t e r n a l  w h i c h may  a n d t h e Good  study i s concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h problem A ,  much l i g h t w i l l have  first,  categories,  t e r m w o u l d t h e n be a c o l l e c t i v e  the n a t u r e of the e t h i c a l  The  two  Loyalty  factor.  Is the one?  t o the c l a s s  duty i n terms t o the  to  of  of adherence  categorical  i m p e r a t i v e , f o r I n s t a n c e , w o u l d seem t o l a y t h e p r i m a r y and overwhelming  stress  on t h e s u b j e c t i v e  t h e o r i e s which take the f u r t h e r a n c e  o f an i d e a l  s u c h as h a p p i n e s s o r s e l f - f u l f i l m e n t , objective  factor.  factor. as  Those central,  r e v o l v e a r o u n d the  - 25 It  i s i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p with  element t h a t the connection intrinsically  and without  e t h i c a l imperative goal in  lies.  o r consummation  the primary  clusion  between  ethical  intrinsic  The m o r a l I m p e r a t i v e  sense.  This  simply in  connected with that  i n t r i n 3 i c  t h e way i n t e n d e d  In the l a t t e r to  act if  e t h i c a l goodness. good i s b e i n g  or t o i t s effect  our statements are We  gopdnes8.  State  reference.  State  i s good".  the apple  itself.  the reference  good I f we  i s t o the  there  ia little,  B u t , more i m p o r t a n t ,  there i s  But when we make t h e f i r s t two s t a t e -  aeems t o be t o t h e q u a l i t y o f e t h i c a l  protect a l l i t a citizens." I f s o , on whom l i e s  conceived  a s an e n t i t y  Ia there  the o b l i g a t i o n ?  in itself?  apart  from the t o t a l  an e t h i c a l I s the  But t h e a s s e r t i o n ,  c o u l d be made by someone who d i d n o t c o n c e i v e as e x i s t i n g  brings  Take t h e f i r s t s e n t e n c e ; " I t i s good t h a t t h e  should  reference?  do n o t mean  e n j o y e d by aomeone  on o u r own w e l l - b e i n g ;  any, o b j e c t i v e reference.  o f the good.  o r " i t i a good t h a t  when we s a y , " T h i s a p p l e  s t a t e m e n t we mean t h a t  ments t h e r e f e r e n c e  final  " i t i s good t h a t the  be r e a p e c t e d " ,  " I t i s good t o e a t a p p l e a " ,  no e t h i c a l  has a s  u n d e r t h e one c o n c e p t  us a n d we r e f e r t h e q u a l i t y t o t h e a p p l e  say,  and the  accounts f o r the i n -  protect a l l i t s citizens",  human p e r s o n a l i t y s h o u l d closely  considered  some a c t w h i c h e f f e c t u a t e s human good  o f both e n t i t i e s  should  the good  connotations,  When we s a y , f o r e x a m p l e , State  the o b j e c t i v e  o f the State  of i t s c i t i z e n s .  In this  - 26 case, the statement ferred  does n o t mean s i m p l y t h a t g o o d i s c o n -  on some human b e i n g s , a n d by i m p l i c a t i o n ,  when t h e maxim i s o b s e r v e d . d u a l s have an o b l i g a t i o n is  good t h a t t h i s  applies  personality  t o perform  statement,  why i s i t good?  than appears  than  a higher  be a g r e e d  t i o n where p e r s o n s  So a s o c i e t y  value  for i t s citizens  Again,  i t would  t h a t i t i s b e t t e r t o have a s o c i a l co-operate than  harmoniously because  situa-  owing t o n a t u r a l  of any sense  any d e d u c t i o n  f o r the f e e l i n g action  produces an i n t r i n s i c  o f duty.  of respect  value  resulting.  value  a c c r u i n g t o the person  brought  o f an e t h i c a l  This i s correct;  impulse)  i t i s the added  acting ethically  referred to  But I t may be i n t e r p r e t e d more  as the value  I t may be  o f i t s own o v e r a n d above t h e  directly  above on page 22.  f o r the negative  of constraint.  ( the obeying  value  well-being  personality  o b t a i n e d w o u l d be b e t t e r b e c a u s e i t a c h i e v e s  chargeable  s a i d t h a t noble  difficult  I t may be s a i d t h a t  r e s p e c t s human  quantum o f v a l u e w i t h o u t  tically  glance.  i n which spontaneous observance  for personality  value  conclusion  I t i s g o o d t h a t human  i s not the case.  sympathy a n d a f f e c t i o n ,  its  A similar  degree o f i n t r i n s i c  one i n w h i c h t h i s  probably  duties and i t  T h i s i s a more  at f i r s t  a s o c i e t y which h a b i t u a l l y achieves  n  certain  indivi-  s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d . "  But question  I t means a l s o ! t h a t some  s h o u l d be done.  t o t h e second  a majority,  resulting  from  the sense  a b o u t by e f f e c t i v e  realis-  of joy or  expression of innate  - 27 capacities  i n harmonious p a r t i c i p a t i o n  The  q u e s t i o n must be a s k e d w h e t h e r e t h i c s  Would t h e s u p e r s e s s i o n o f e t h i c a l c h o o s i n g o f the intrinsic  course  except t h a t  i n the  value  enjoyed r e s u l t s  respective  from e t h i c a l  (A)  balance  which a r e i d e n -  spontaneously.  res^d:  I n t r i n s i c value c o n f e r r e d by a g e n t s  -  Added v a l u e f r o m e x e r c i s e o f e t h i c a l f e e l i n g , enjoyed by a g e n t s  Nett value (B)  100 U n i t s  10 TTO"  constraint 5  realized  105  I n t r i n s i c value conferred by a g e n t s  100 U n i t s  Added v a l u e f r o m s e n s e o f w e l l - b e i n g In harmonious s o c i e t y , e n j o y e d by a g e n t s T o t a l value  T h i s a c c o r d s w i t h what we reasonable admirable the  that  the  realized  should expect.  society  10  "  110  "  I t would not  a c t i n g spontaneously  manner would n o t have more i n t r i n s i c  other.  intrinsic  a c t i o n , whereas i n t h e  sheets might  of  spontaneous  of the t o t a l  others a r i s e s  Less account sense f e l t by a g e n t s  good.  o f human d e v e l o p m e n t ?  societies  f i r s t , part  a l l action involving  by  are  l e a d i n g t o t h e maximum o f  c o n s i d e r two  tical  The  of a c t i o n  obligation  g o o d n o t mark a h i g h e r s t a g e Suppose we  second  in society.  be  i n an  value  than  - 28 But  this i s to restrict  e t h i c a l value. ceivable well Is  Even i n t h e most a d v a n c e d s o c i e t i e s c o n -  there  w o u l d be e t h i c a l v a l u e .  i s e t h i c a l e v e n when t h e c o e r c i v e  overcome.  one's  Indeed t h e sense  duty i n d i c a t e s  gration not  u n d u l y t h e meaning o f  failure  of personality.  felt,  taneously  except  course i s f e l t  sense o f o b l i g a t i o n  of constraint  t o achieve  When t h e s e n s e  the r e f l e c t i o n  do i t .  even i n the highest  presumably w i l l mode  advanced that situation,  of l i f e  happen w o u l d be t h a t  i a of Individuals  I f a certain  n e v e r be s u p e r s e d e d  the inner  and of aociety,  t h e r e were q u e s t i o n  i s an o b l i g a t i o n  w h i c h e a n be e n v i s a g e d ;  no c l a s h w o u l d o c c u r .  a c t i o n not being  It  under the c i r c u m s t a n c e s , i t  to  So e t h i c s  spon-  o f an o b l i g a t i o n .  t o do more t h a n one's d u t y . t o be t h e b e s t  inte-  of obligation i s  r i g h t t o do i t ; i n o t h e r words, t h e r e  that  when e x e r c i s i n g  t h e maximum  is  what c o u l d  others  by i n t r o s p e c t i o n , t h e d e e d done  is still  Is not possible  Treating  a n d o u t e r harmony,  w o u l d be s o h i g h l y  But i f , i n some u n u s u a l  o f some n e c e s s a r y  done, i t w o u l d i m m e d i a t e l y  or suitable  become t h e  d u t y o f t h e p e r s o n c o n c e r n e d t o do i t .  So idea ality  f a r we have  diacriminated  two e l e m e n t s i n t h e  o f good i n t h e s e n t e n c e , " i t i s good t h a t s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d " , (a)  The i n t r i n s i c the  (b)  as  The a d d e d i n t r i n s i c ethically.  person-  follows:  good r e a u l t i n g t o o t h e r s .  more i m p o r t a n t  who a c t s  human  This i s  factor. good a c c r u i n g  t o the person  - 29 A purely n a t u r a l i s t i c But  we  must a s k  traditional cal  value  cal  ethical  aura  of s a n c t i t y  in itself, will principle  i f the v a l u e  then  by  reason  experience  recognition  than  is  Since  I am  recipient  and  the  had  can  from the  realization  at l i v i n g  i n where s u c h  of  r e c o r d the  in  such  i n the  t h a t an  can not  be  chosen and  yet  myself,  the  y e t I seem t o realized  by  judgejudge the  performed.  i s merely a s u b t l e  that i n t r i n s i c o f my  value  place.  is  unconscious  k i n d o f s o c i e t y I want  absolute  an  When I  d e e d , i t i s i n some  a reflection  a c t i o n takes  feeling  situations  o f the  ethically.  judgement t h a t i t  value  Perhaps t h i s  Or i t m i g h t be  satisfaction  And  higher  ought c o n t a i n s  a c t i o n s h o u l d have been  i s good i n i t s e l f .  projection  be  to act  life  a  of f i n a l l y .  obligation  intrinsic  action,  i t attains  t h a t the  objective.  performer  s e n s e g o o d t h a t the  live  one  position  u n d e r no  to believe  of e t h i c a l  concerned,  fact  o f God,  r e g a r d l e s s o f the  d i f f i c u l t to dispose  i n a d d i t i o n t o the  gained.  result  i t w o u l d i f no  ment w o u l d seem t o be  It  place  and  ethi-  f o r whom a m e t a p h y s i -  commendable a c t i o n I can make a  good.  that  fact  persons  g i v e n t o the  o b s t i n a t e element  the  i s the  a naturalistic  be  The  o r awed r e s p e c t a c c o r d e d  taken  realized  of a l l the  How  witness  has  point.  i s a t h i r d element.  cause those  of that very  of value  could stop at t h i s  whether t h e r e  that  degree  theory  -  But  as a  to  matter  character pertains  completely  dismissed.  - 30 THE  NATURE OF INTRINSIC VALUE: Although  tion  n o t c e n t r a l t o o u r p r o b l e m , an i n d i c a -  s h o u l d be g i v e n  adequate t h e o r y  o f the nature  of i n t r i n s i c  value.  o f v a l u e , i t w o u l d a p p e a r , must  An  combine t h e  p a p p r o a c h e s o f eudaemonism of  the i n d i v i d u a l  and h i s happiness  g r e a t e r the degree the of  happiness  existence  more good t h a n things  fact.  component t h e r e o f .  as a good.  we go on l i v i n g  must be a n e x p r e s s i o n o f  i s not s y n t h e t i c a l l y  we a t t h e same t i m e  life  Value  which i s the u l t i m a t e  an i n t e g r a l  We p e r f o r c e must  question the existence  we have v o t e d  or experiences  as worthwhile.  added t o l i f e , but  I f we q u e s t i o n t h e v a l u e  bad.  happiness  I t i s t h e enhancement o f m a t u r e ,  human l i v i n g .  Value is  and the e x p e r i e n c i n g  w h i c h embraces t h e i d e a o f b o t h  self-realization.  life  s o we must b e l i e v e ,  i n b r i e f , must r e v o l v e a r o u n d t h e c o n c e p t  human w e l f a r e  effective  The  must i n v o l v e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y .  criterion,  and  secured;  Self-realization  a r e complementary.  of s e l f - r e a l i z a t i o n ,  g r e a t e r the happiness  The of  and p e r f e c t i o n i s m .  i n favour  We have i n t h e p a s t  of l i f e  of value.  of l i f e ' s  If  being  recognized  a s good; t o t h a t e x t e n t we But when l i f e  accept  certain  accepted  i s r e j e c t e d , then  value  2 A l t h o u g h t h e t e r m " h e d o n i s m " i s sometimes«s«xtended from t h a t o f p l e a s u r e t o i n c l u d e the wider concept o f h a p p i n e s s , i t seems p r e f e r a b l e t o u s e t h e s p e c i f i c a l l y a p t t e r m "eudaemonism".  - 31 Is  rejected.  fices  his life  suicide honour  i s an e t h i c a l  may be e r r o n e o u s .  because  because  sacri-  o f t h e shame o r l o s s o f come t o r e l a t i v e s  reason f o r the a c t , even  But i f t h e t a k i n g o f one's of the subject's  -though  life i s  own c o n c e r n s , p e r h a p s  o f unendurable p h y s i c a l p a i n , then the a c t might  be t h e r e s u l t The  out because  ( s o regarded) which would  done s o l e l y  o f t h e p e r s o n who  f o r an i d e a l ; n o r o f t h e c a s e where t h e  i s carried  here there it  We a r e n o t t a l k i n g  of rational  quantitative  value and l i f e ,  balancing of pluses  assessment r e v e a l s the v e h i c l e  and m i n u s e s .  a lack of i n t r i n s i c  o f v a l u e , i s no l o n g e r w o r t h w h i l e .  - 0 -  - 32 CHAPTER I I I THE  RELATION BETWEEN ETHICAL VALUE AND CULTURE Next we come t o t h e r e l a t i o n  value ing  and c u l t u r e .  I t i a my  c a n be a s s i g n e d  cends c u l t u r e . "  t o t h e statement  The q u e s t i o n  the  "Ethical  I f ethical  value  principle.  apecific  and w i l l  express  itself  will  neceasarily live  other within certain  The necessary  limits  i n relation  of acceptable  ought e x p r e s s e s  the e t h i c a l  Men a s t o each  conduct.  principle  and I t  t o probe t o the u l t i m a t e aemantic r o o t o f t h i s  The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s  ahould  make c l e a r t h e  d i s t i n c t i o n t o be drawn between t h e e t h i c a l  ought a n d t h e  ought.  ethical  o u g h t : The e t h i c a l  ought i a o f t h e n a t u r e  law w h i c h men must f o l l o w i f t h e y nature  an e l e m e n t  i n some f o r m o r  r e g a r d l e s s of the c u l t u r a l environment.  human b e i n g s  The  view o f  i s a b l e t o r e g a r d i t as c o m p r i s i n g  which i a e t h i c a l  social  Ethical  form o f c u l t u r e i n which i t i s m a n i f e s t e d .  human n a t u r e  term.  transcends  regardless of  In o t h e r words, a n a t u r a l i s t i c and r e a l i s t i c  is  trana-  a l l human c r e a t u r e s a r e i n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s  i a a b a a i c f u n c t i o n o f human n a t u r e ,  another  value  o f the t h e a i s i a , t h e r e f o r e ,  i n f l u e n c e d by t h e aame b a a i c e t h i c a l value  ethical  c o n t e n t i o n t h a t a v a l i d mean-  anawered i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . c u l t u r e , then  between  as members o f t h e human  of a  a r e t o be t r u e t o t h e i r  apecie8.  - 33  The  s o c i a l ought:  The  imposed i m p l i c i t l y to  s o c i a l ought i s a r u l e  by  society  and  the  Ethical  ethical  man  to  establish  with a l l other l i f e  and  w h i c h he  discard  i s free  authority  to  of h i s  away t h e  ethieal  impelled  by  his  some k i n d o r  culture.  own  faculty avenue  of  right.  conscious subtle,  of  The  because life.  exists  of  ethical  in  that  arising  live.  of  conduct the  ethical  sense  explain  c r e a t u r e who ethical  Man  has  what he  a  is  code  specific  of  capacity,  believes  c o u r s e , i s not  from a  a  to  separate  organ  or  intuition.  o u g h t i s an  way  of  questions  an  In  relations  rule  the  is a  formulate  Is  so  obligation not  foster  because the  the  to  problem of  what  person's  unconscious,  life  inescapable  i s , i n paying attention d e a l i n g w i t h the  to  because i n an  i t furthers  i t i s a n a t u r a l and  That  (and  Man  c l a i m s i t , nor  inevitable  he  implicit  o f m o r a l c o d e s does n o t  Whatever i s r i g h t  but  fact  obligation,  sense  desire  arbitrary  s o o n as  which to  transcendental  The  but  society  inherent  effective  behave a c c o r d i n g t o  Ethical  i n the  as  nature to  a n o t h e r by  inescapable,  an  sense i t s e l f .  indeed a need, to  is  f r o m one  a universalism  certain  i s not  manifested i n a variety  j?ight.  be  i m p e r a t i v e ; i t i s an  tendency of  be  conduct  Ought:  T h e r e w o u l d seem t o  is  varies  of  another.  Commentary on  the  -  of  society,  concomitant  the  fact  ethical  that value  he  - 34  we  assume t h a t man  man of  unavoidably  does have an  finds himself  e t h i c a l value.  convention,  I t can  not  make s a c r i f i c e s .  to  The  feeling  be  f o l l o w e d has  truth"  a validity  seems t o have m e a n i n g .  seem t o c o n n o t e an activity  has  manifesting  relations  i s not  requirements  far  s h o r t o f what i m a g i n a t i v e Ethical  capacity  o f men,  chapter  because  (and we  have  s u c h as  The  "higher  will earlier  the  the  word " h i g h e r "  The  law  moulding  ethical here  reason  aa  will  be  own  g r o u p s and  total the  s o c i e t y impels  ethical  would  scope this  action;  s e e n aa  an  The  area  in  of o b l i g a t i o n neighbouring This  comprehension of  T h e r e i s a l 8 o a o m e t h i n g o f an Juat  aa an  fall  evolving  the  possibilities.  about e t h i c a l v a l u e .  the  action requires.  group t o i n c l u d e  intellectual  of  considered,  e v e n t u a l l y a l l humanity.  accompanies the  self;  life  s e t f o r t h more e x p l i c i t l y  on e v o l u t i o n a r y e t h i c s .  wider e t h i c a l  i s that  which transcends  v a l u e , t h e n , must be  1  proceas  which  suggested  o f s o c i e t y , when c a r e f u l l y  extended from one a related  social  desire.  c a p a c i t y i s one  ; i n the u n i v e r s e .  the  and  t o custom,  w i t h more o f t h e  i s enlarged  is  reduced  experience  escape from imprisonment w i t h i n the  law  the  be  A concept  of s o c i e t y .  existence)  i n v o l v e d i n the  refined introspection i s admissible)  influence  the  individual  h a b i t , or i n d i v i d u a l  F u r t h e r , the e t h i c a l  that  -  artist  ae8thetic might  nature  cringe  at  - 35 some d i s p r o p o r t i o n  in painting  o r m u s i c , s o one  components o f t h e e t h i c a l a c t i o n proportions i n conduct. sense feel  of the f i t n e s s that  often  Another element  of t h i n g s .  Just  aenaitive  sound person  There i a aomething  con-  t o see p e r f o r m e d t h a t a c t i o n w h i c h i s  appropriate  i n a given s i t u a t i o n .  be a f a c t o r  in ethical  But t h e r e w o u l d  c o n d u c t o v e r a n d above  w h i c h i a more t h a n t h a t tion.  right  intellectual  o f part8 v i o l a t e d  a senae o f v i o l a t i o n .  and a t t r a c t i v e  i s the  to  aa an e n g i n e e r m i g h t  o f m e c h a n i c s , ao an e t h i c a l l y  feels  gruent  is a sensitivity  some c l u m s y a r r a n g e m e n t  principles  o f the  s e e n t o be f i t t i n g  aeem t o  these, conduct  i n a given  aitua-  I t i a t h e senae o f s o m e t h i n g done f r o m a g e n e r o u a  motive; something given of the s i t u a t i o n elements.  beyond what t h e a t r i c t r e q u i r e m e n t s  demand.  I t must be 8 t r i p p e d o f a l l a e l f i s h  I t 13 n o t t h e g i v i n g w h i c h m i n i a t e r a  unconscious need f o r f u l f i l m e n t Inferiority elicited protect  complex.  i n o r d e r t o overcome an  What i s meant I s a g e n u i n e  by p i t y , u n a e l f i a h  t o aome  love,  or a atrong  o r aave someone, o r t o g i v e  life  giving  desire  greater  to  meaning  t o a person In need. The ia  a c c u s a t i o n m i g h t be  a apeciea of neurotic  admit i n t e l l e c t u a l  that  there  radically  difficult  ethical  i s a healthy different  compulsion.  error,  t o abandon o b s t i n a t e  levelled  that  conscience  I t i s f a r easier  though t h i s  concepts,  I would  be, than augge3t  form of conacience which i s  from p a y c h a a t h e n i c d i a o r d e r .  to  In  neurotic dition,  c o m p u l s i o n , when t h e r e i a i n s i g h t the compulsive  drive  ia felt  i n t o the  as an  affliction,  as a burdensome i m p o s i t i o n , e a c a p e  from which would  welcome; e t h i c a l  felt  difficult  compul3ion may  c o u r a e w h i c h may  be  be  as i n f l i c t i n g  a  be t r o u b l e s o m e , b u t i t i a  r e g a r d e d , n e v e r t h e l e s s , as b e i n g r i g h t manner - , w h i c h  con-  the promptinga  and p r o p e r i n a  o f the n e u r o s i s never  possess.  Commentary on the The institutions effect  fact  culture  of the great  and p r o c e d u r e s i n d i f f e r e n t  ia in8tilled  I t i s a matter  although this action.  The  cultures the  haa  the  ethical the  o u t what we  a m a t t e r of pure  taught that  p e r a o n who  would  unselfish  unselfiah.  That  does  and  i t take  i s , i a the  t o conform  and t o  o f o t h e r s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h h i s own?  acts e t h i c a l l y  b e e n t a u g h t ; he  i n childhood.  living,  o f rewarda  common 8ense a n d  i t i a t o h i s advantage  of  call  t r a i n e d t o be  character of the act?  and h i s  and e a s e  and w i 8 e l y p l a n n e d s y s t e m  c o n s i d e r the r i g h t a  him  customs,  I t i s c r e a t e d by  of convenience  human s p e c i e s c a n be  away t h e e t h i c a l  he haa  of  between t h e i n d i v i d u a l  need not r u l e  an e f f e c t i v e  puniahments  The  by a o c i e t y .  an a u t o m a t i c r e a c t i o n  child  disparity  and w h o l l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e r e b y , b e i n g o f t h e n a t u r e  aociety.  Is  Ought:  of suggesting very persuaaively that  prompting  of  Social  He  i s merely a c t i n g  i s following  i n the  a habit i n s t i l l e d  refers his non-self-regarding  way in  conduct  - 37 t o an e t h i c a l i m p u l s e w h i c h , h o w e v e r , i s o n l y zation  of the pattern  Conscience be  impressed  on h i s m i n d by h i s t r a i n i n g .  i s the r e s u l t , not n e c e s s a r i l y  of the desire  to please.  Since  and  a functioning  binds with the l i f e  nature ties  o f t h e s o c i a l group, h i s sense o f l i n k e d w i t h the l i f e o f  group. The  s o c i a l ought m i g h t a l t e r n a t i v e l y be  as  the psychological  is  affected  The  man's v e r y  i n d i v i d u a l depends on h i s t h o u s a n d  social obligation i s intimately the  o f f e a r ; i t may  s o c i a l anthropology  provides the i l l u m i n a t i n g i n s i g h t that as  the I d e a l i -  ought, since  so g r e a t l y  Interaction It  described  t h e sense o f o b l i g a t i o n  by c h i l d h o o d  training.  o f the E t h i c a l and S o c i a l  i s abundantly c l e a r that  Ought:  t h e ought  actually  e x p e r i e n c e d i s a complex e n t i t y a r i s i n g from the i n t e r a c t i o n of an i n d i v i d u a l ' s i n h e r e n t receives, develops.  c a p a c i t i e s , t h e t r a i n i n g he  and the v a l u e - i d e a s o f the s o c i e t y  E t h i c a l c o n d u c t i s compounded o f b a s i c  nature and the c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e . the  hereditary  the  indispensable  the  influence  foundation  human  The r e a s o n f o r t a k i n g  f a c t o r as o f p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e  i s that  f o r a l l moral conduct,  i t is while  o f t r a i n i n g and s o c i e t y m e r e l y mould i t t o  a certain pattern. therefore,  i n w h i c h he  The t e r m e t h i c a l f o r t h e ought  be r e t a i n e d  may,  e v e n i f i t i s n o t v i e w e d as g r o u n d e d  - 38 -  in  a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l power.  an e t h i c a l  haa  c a n be v a l i d i n a n a t u r a l i s t i c  ought The  a close  I t i s worth emphasizing  r e a s o n i n g about  emphaals  ought  of h e r e d i t y and  Both a r e n e c e a a a r y f o r the p r o d u c t i o n  organisma, but the overwhelming  o f good  on e n v i r o n m e n t  o b t a i n e d some y e a r s ago i 3 now b a l a n c e d by r e c o g n i t i o n  which of  setting.  the e t h i c a l and s o c i a l  p a r a l l e l w i t h the o l d problem  environment.  that  the importance  of heredity.  Unleas the genetic  atructure,  the  "formal cause", i s adequate, t h e best environment  not  produce  the  hereditary  the  w o r l d would  Meaning  good  results.  factor  In a certain  Is prepotent.  be f u t i l e  and t h e  80cial  di8tinguished  between t h e e t h i c a l  o u g h t , we may now e x p l a i n  previous chapter. that e t h i c a l  imperative  to the r e s t r i c t e d  evolution  into  loyalty  ought  senae  indicated  o f f u n c t i o n i n g on  a n d n o t on t h e l e v e l o f a  P o r man a s a a p e c i e a t h e r e  ive  i s , as  v a l u e haa i t s l o c u s  The e t h i c a l  i n what  i n its fullest  cornea f r o m human n a t u r e a n d n o t f r o m s o c i a l  loyalty  animal.  as p r o m i s e d i n the  Our m a i n c o n t e n t i o n  p l a n e o f humanity  culture. tion  A l l the t r a i n i n g i n  i f man were n o t an e t h i c a l  e t h i c a l value tranacenda c u l t u r e ,  the  aenae  o f "Tranacend": Having  above,  fundamental  will  particular manifeatatraining.  i a an a b a o l u t e l o y a l t y ;  the early  group expands i n t h e p r o c e s s o f  to a l l l i f e .  The good  p r o p u l s i o n , an i n e s c a p a b l e , i n h e r e n t  i s an i n s t i n c t -  tendency t o  - 39 e s t a b l i s h e f f e c t i v e and harmonious other  life.  The g o o d i m p e r a t i v e ,  r e l a t i o n s h i p with a l l a s we have  must be s u p p l e m e n t e d by k n o w l e d g e . a  dynamic g i v e n  extent  Indicated,  Man i s c o n c e r n e d  element o f h i s e s s e n t i a l s e l f ;  t h e command i s a b s o l u t e .  ethical potentialities  with  to this  Man makes a mess o f h i s  b e c a u s e , f o r one t h i n g ,  of h i s  ignorance. Ethics loftiest  lives  culture  i n t h e sense t h a t t h e  e t h i c a p p l i e s t o the Republic  t o any s p e c i f i c utterly  transcend  futile  o f men.  eulture. pursuit  The p l a n n i n g  o f Humanity a n d n o t of Utopias  i s n o t an  -- i t does have an i n f l u e n c e  I f a large  part  of the population  i n the  were  a d e q u a t e l y e d u c a t e d t o comprehend t h e i r membership i n t h e human r a c e ,  the g e n e r a l  improved r a p i d l y .  standard  The R e p u b l i c  of behaviour could o f Humanity i n c l u d e s  d e a d who have p i o n e e r e d t h e way t o a b e t t e r o r d e r as  w e l l as t h o s e  in  past  members.  i n the f u t u r e .  centuries  be those  of society  The f i g h t e r s f o r l i b e r t y  a n d i n modern c o n c e n t r a t i o n  camps a r e  I m a g i n a t i v e as w e l l as a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n  such s t r u g g l e  i s open t o a l l s i n c e r e  beyond t h e l i m i t s To  of their  summarize  own time  thinkers  who s e e  and p l a c e .  b r i e f l y , e t h i c a l value  transcends  culture  b e c a u s e t h e f o l l o w i n g w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t r u e :  Society  i s possible  not  man i s e t h i c a l  b e c a u s e man  i s an e t h i c a l  creature;  b e c a u s e h i s s o c i e t y makes h i m s o .  -  Ethical  40  Relativity: The  acceptance  of  the  l o g i c a l i n character  leads to  t e r m s , two  be  f o r m s may  (a)  Extreme E t h i c a l  that  the  by  ethical relativity would u l t i m a t e l y complete  jection The tate  the are  complexities  to  of  not  sets  an  arbitrary  on  have the  culture  and  the  talk  to  of  a  or  view deter-  thorough  contemplate.  rule  What  ethical  else  chaos,  the  sub-  imposed from  and  be  question of of  the  above.  necessiand inter-  ethos of  be  t r a n s c e n d the ethical a fatal  n a m e l y , the  ethic  specific  development w i t h i n i t .  being  geniuses  l i m i t s of  obligation objection  fact  a meaningful concept. one  a  practical  occasional ethical  area of  position,  seems t o  I think, in i t s  ethical  capacity to  e x t e n d the  treme r e l a t i v e  The  results  personal, national,  and  r e v e a l a what seems t o  any  broad  is  of mutual understanding  t h i s , that  thinkers  seem t o  out  value  modern i n d u s t r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n  l i m i t s to  imaginative  progress  In  f r o m the  m i g h t c o n c e i v a b l y be  relativity,  judgement comes t o  This  psycho-  levels. Ethical  But  The  that  ordered society,  harmonious c o - o p e r a t i o n  culture  This arises  pleasant  a more d e v e l o p e d e t h i c  national  s o c i a l or  relativity.  a s o c i a l one, eulture.  prevail  society  ethical  Relativity:  breakdown o f  of  ought as  distinguished.  ought i s s o l e l y  mined c o m p l e t e l y  a  -  that  to  others.  the  ex-  ethical  I t would  b e t t e r than  p r o g r e s s i s m e a n i n g l e s s i f one  to  their  rule  another.  ethical  system  - 41 is  a s good as a n o t h e r .  No c r i t e r i o n  j u d g i n g between one c u l t u r e humanistic ethic man,  and another.  i s adopted,  then the c r i t e r i o n  can be f o u n d .  o f more  tical  a s t o what v a l u e l i e s  tent  capacities,  that  I t would l i e i n the To t h e s c e p -  i n r e a l i z i n g more  be s a i d t h a t  life  impulsion to extract  If  c a n be r i c h e r a n d e x p r e s s  c a r r i e s as l o g i c a l  ethical  relativity  right  imply  a n d don't  that  i s a fact,  what  about  that  "Do what y o u t h i n k  what anybody s a y s " ?  i s merely  relativity  breaks  w h i c h f o l l o w s what  i n the s o c i e t y ?  a product  t i o n have any meaning?  o f s o c i e t y how  could this  not conclude  ethical  down i n a t t e m p t i n g t o d e a l w i t h  conduct  seems t o be a h i g h e r p r o m p t i n g  than the  enjoins?  expects  o f one t r a n s l a t e d i n t o an ought  we must a s k , i s h a b i t , o r what  o u t o f a t e n s i o n between my  own  at a l l ?  society  Does i t  d e s i r e s a n d what I must  do t o w i n t h e a p p r o v a l a n d r e g a r d o f s o c i e t y i t whose  injunc-  that  Why,  Must we  require-  But i f t h e e t h i c a l  culture  of  Does i t  he c a n b e t t e r p e r c e i v e what t h e s o c i a l  i s t h a n o t h e r men  impulse  arise  life.  t h a t t h e s u b j e c t makes h i s e t h i c a l e v a l u a t i o n a n d  considers ment  worry  c o r o l l a r y the from  m e a n i n g c o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e a d m o n i t i o n ; is  more  of continuing  the utmost value p o s s i b l e  complete  ofl a -  a l l e x p e r i e n c e and  m e a n i n g i n one c o n t e x t t h a n a n o t h e r ; t h e f a c t with the business of l i v i n g  truly  to planetary  o f man's p o t e n t i a l i t i e s .  i t must  judgement s u g g e s t  But I f a  one a p p l i c a b l e  realization query  c o u l d be f o u n d f o r  or those  members  o p i n i o n I v a l u e , o r good e s t i m a t i o n I want t o  - 42 retain? and  But I f i n d t h a t  know i t w i l l p l e a s e  that  a l t h o u g h I do what I f e e l others,  reason, but p r i n c i p a l l y  t h i n g t o do.  The  fact  b e c a u s e I know i t i s t h e r i g h t  borrowing i n d i c a t e s  I t Is not a v a l i d  the adoption  fundamentally  being.  of culture  cultural factors. that  I do n o t do i t s o l e l y f o r  P e r h a p s man s e e k s a p p r o v a l  b e c a u s e he i s a n e t h i c a l  o f an e t h i c a l  previously  perceived,  may  be more e f f i c i e n t l y  another culture  custom f r o m a n o t h e r  capacity  t o make  of ideas  that  conduct  missionaries.  amusing i n s t a n c e . public,  of the f i r s t  c a n be m o d i f i e d  bath p l a c e ,  In the l i g h t  indicates a relativity.  For  i n s i g h t i n t o the a c t i v i t i e s o f t o please  Dr. G o r d o n Brown o f T o r o n t o g i v e s I n Samoa t h e n a t i v e s  but i n deference  missionaries  w i t h complete  society.  Outward f o r m s a r e o b s e r v e d i n o r d e r  missionaries.  of  i n p r i m i t i v e s o c i e t i e s sometimes e x h i b i t  shrewd a n d p e n e t r a t i n g  the  the l i m i t s  not consistent  example, n a t i v e s  from  F o r one t h i n g , t h e v e r y  a n d customs a d o p t e d f r o m w i t h o u t  flexibility  a  exploited i f Information  of another s o c i e t y i n d i c a t e s a function  t h e mind t r a n s c e n d i n g  Next, the f a c t  environment  judgements a s t o t h e s u p e r i o r m e r i t s  some e t h i c a l h a b i t of  culture  potentialities  j u s t as the m a t e r i a l  i s utilized.  supra-  rejoinder to assert  enables the borrowing s o c i e t y t o r e a l i z e not  i s right  they w i l l ,  bathe naked i n  t o the teachings i f bathing  cover themselves  an  of the C h r i s t i a n  o p e n l y a t some  i f a missionary  village  appears.  - 43 There  i s , however, g e n u i n e b o r r o w i n g .  Gandhi  adopting the e t h i c  One i n s t a n c e i s  of non-resistance  West a n d a p p l y i n g i t i n an a d v a n c e d  degree w h i c h  appear e x t r a v a g a n t i n s o - c a l l e d C h r i s t i a n Nehru  Western  the concepts o f freedom  would  countries.  and Rajagopalachari and other l e a d e r s  have b o r r o w e d  from the  Also,  i n India  a n d democracy  who from  civilization.  Some one s a i d t h a t men f a c e two i n e x p l i c a b l e facts The  -- t h e p r o b l e m  of e v i l  and the problem  t h e i s t has t o face the f i r s t .  extreme  ethieal  relativist  b r e a d a n d showing  great  The  girl  eldest  little  three  it's  as a p r a c t i c a l  straight.  When I a s k e d h e r why, she  i f you don't."  judgement  ( b ) Moderate  Ethical  assurance,  In ultimate  regardless  f o r humanity  of culture,  "Because  a n a l y s i s and i t w i l l not  i f i t does n o t a c t e t h i c a l l y .  Relativity:  Man has an e t h i c a l  w h i c h may be m o u l d e d by e n v i r o n m e n t  Therefore, the e t h i c a l  cutting  a b o u t e i g h t y e a r s o l d s a i d , "You  be v e r y n i c e  city  small children  i m m e d i a t e l y and w i t h complete  not very nice  the second.  concern t o c u t the s l i c e s  should give y o u r s e l f the worst." replied  We may a s s e r t t h a t t h e  has t o face  R e c e n t l y I watched  o f good.  character  and c u l t u r e .  i s relative  t o the c u l t u r e .  T h i s i s n o t f a r removed f r o m t h e p o s i t i o n herein.  The d i f f e r e n c e  capa-  adopted  appears t o l i e i n the r e s p e c t i v e  - 44 emphasis p l a c e d on h e r e d i t y a n d e n v i r o n m e n t . ethical  relativist  The m o d e r a t e  s t r e s s e s the l a t t e r ; i n t h i s  h e r e d i t a r y endowment i s c o n s i d e r e d t h e p r i m e , factor. that  inescapable  Man has a d e s t i n y t o r e a l i z e , a l t h o u g h  d e s t i n y i m p l i c i t i n h i s own n a t u r e  t h e s i s the  he f i n d s  and n o t i n the  stars. What i s t h e C r i t e r i o n  f o r Right  Action?  This t h e s i s deals p r i n c i p a l l y with  the f a c t  that  man r e s p o n d s t o e t h i c a l m o t i v a t i o n , w h i c h i s t h e s u p r e m e l y important gestion  fact  should It  value with  be g i v e n  i s t o be n o t e d  the f a c t  regard  t h e human s c e n e .  o f what s h o u l d  i n the s i n g u l a r .  there  as  i n viewing  constitute right  actlnn.  t h a t we have spoken o f e t h i c a l  This  of obligation.  f o l l o w s b e c a u s e we a r e c o n c e r n e d I am f o r c e d t o c o n c l u d e  a r e no s p e c i f i c e t h i c a l v a l u e s . some p a r t i c u l a r  However, a s u g -  valuable  When we  a c t i o n , such,  that  spontaneously f o r example,  r e s p e c t i n g p e r s o n a l i t y , as an e t h i c a l v a l u e , we a r e  registering separate  in linguistic  elements:  most v i t a l l y existence  have r e s p e c t e d  factor  value  o f two t o the person  enhancement o f h i s hispersonality;  involved i n this  c o n d i t i o n by  who a c t e d e t h i c a l l y i n r e s p e c t i n g t h a t  So t h e r e  different  the i n t r i n s i c  c o n c e r n e d who has e n j o y e d  second, the e t h i c a l  ality.  first,  because o t h e r s  some p e r s o n  usage the c o a l e s c e n c e  are not d i f f e r e n t  cultures.  person-  e t h i c a l values f o r  What a r e d i f f e r e n t  are i n t r i n s i c  values  and  the conduct  involved  v a l u e s may d i f f e r  45 -  i n achieving  from c u l t u r e  them.  Intrinsic  t o c u l t u r e ; e t h i c a l value  does n o t change e x c e p t i n t h e ends t o w h i c h i t i s d i r e c t e d . But  i s t h i s not a l l that  value fact the  i s relative?  if  Of n e c e s s i t y  and s o c i a l  course  the  make i t s o .  i s potentially a right  c o n s t i t u t i n g the t o t a l  The o b j e c t i v e  facts pertain  (but not n e c e s s a r i l y  man) a n d n o t t o a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l  e t h i c a l value,  these t h r e e : are i n t i m a t e l y  They a r e u l t i m a t e  criteria  is  a l l man c a n make.  is  bound up w i t h my  to  promote human w e l f a r e .  life,  life-experience  —  a l l  situation  —  as e x p e r i e n c e d by The r e a s o n t h e  intrinaic  Tightness  v a l u e , and  and I n d i s s o l u b l y  I t , therefore,  facts  constitutes  f o ra f i n i t e  human  t o the w o r l d  realm.  f a c t s a r e r e l a t e d t o what  f o r man i s t h a t  the  t o growth.  but because t h e o b j e c t i v e  and e v e n t s  e x p e r i e n c e d by man  objective  i s t o be e x p e c t e d  I t i s r i g h t n o t because t h e best  so decides  objects  to follow  and v a r i o u s  This  i s subject  a l l s i t u a t i o n s there  of action.  judgement  of the culture  circumstances.  man's e t h i c a l n a t u r e  In  o f man, t h e c a p a c i t y  the end o f t h e e t h i c a l impulse  depend on t h e n a t u r e  personal  that e t h i c a l  The answer i s no b e c a u s e t h e c e n t r a l  i s the e t h i c a l nature ought.  will  we mean by s a y i n g  connected.  judgement  follows  that  which my  and i t becomes my  duty duty  An e t h i c a l c o r o l l a r y o f t h i a i s  a o v e r e i g n w o r t h o f human  peraonality.  - 46 We must b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e situation course  from which omniscience  of action,  i s an o b j e c t i v e  c o u l d deduce t h e r i g h t  o r we meet an i r r a t i o n a l e l e m e n t i n l i f e .  I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e  i s an i r r a t i o n a l e l e m e n t .  men m a i n t a i n  effective  relations  f i n d mystery  i n the universe  with  o t h e r people  If  they  will  but not i r r a t i o n a l i t y , i t  seems t o me. I t may be i n t e r p o s e d t h a t f r e q u e n t l y i n c o m p a t i b l e ethical  c l a i m s produce  In r e p l y , f i r s t , tribunal  time  is  a valid  d e c i s i o n i n many o f t h e s e  such  judgement.  law i s a s y e t i n c h o a t e .  not able t o resolve d i f f i c u l t  registers  impartial  human i n t r a n s l g e n c y may r e f u s e f o r a l o n g  t o come t o a c c e p t  international  resolution.  I would s a y t h a t a c o m p l e t e l y  c o u l d render  cases, although  c o n f l i c t which d e f i e s  the f a c t  We may n o t e  that  Second, i f mankind  c o n f l i c t s , that merely  o f man's p r e s e n t  ignorance  and f i n i t e  limitations. The  utmost a c h i e v a b l e  mature u n p r e j u d i c e d p e r s o n  p r a c t i c a l l y i s what a .  i n possession  knowledge w o u l d j u d g e t o be a p p r o p r i a t e . situation  the d e c i s i o n w i l l  complete o b j e c t i v i t y . person can. purely  be f a l l i b l e  of a l l relevant I n any  particular  and depart  from  Conduct i s wrong e t h i c a l l y i f a  does n o t u s e h i s I n t e l l e c t  t o t h e b e s t e x t e n t he  But we j u d g e t h e c h a r a c t e r o f an e t h i c a l by m o t i v e , n o r s o l e l y  by r e s u l t ,  act not  b u t by a combina-  tion  o f the motive  47 -  and t h e r e s o u r c e s  person  h a d a t h i s command.  either  an a b s o l u t e  This  or a r e l a t i v e  In v i s u a l i z i n g  o f knowledge t h e  indeed  would h o l d  under  absolute ethicv  an e t h i c a l economy we a s k t h e s e  questions: Why i s i t b e t t e r t o u s e t h e m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s country  t o best  advantage?  Because more human g o o d r e s u l t s . this and  A l l men w o u l d  i s d e s i r a b l e -- a s s u m i n g e q u i t a b l e proper  of a  i n t e g r a t i o n with  other  Why i s i t b e t t e r t o make t h i n g s  agree  distribution  values  of l i f e .  as b e a u t i f u l as  possible? I n o r d e r t o maximize t h e amount o f b e a u t y I n t h e world.  Again  beings.  greater  And a g a i n  b e n e f i t accrues  a l l men w o u l d a g r e e  t o human this i s  desirable. Why i s i t b e t t e r t o a c t e t h i c a l l y ? Still and  again,  because t h e sum t o t a l  w e l l - b e i n g w o u l d be g r e a t e r .  or nearly a l l , It  men w o u l d  o f human h a p p i n e s s And s t i l l  again, a l l ,  agree.  i s uneconomic, u n a e s t h e t i c , and u n e t h i c a l not t o u t i l i z e  all  the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s  man s 1  o f the p h y s i c a l environment  nature. - - 0 - -  and o f  - 48  -  CHAPTER I V  influence by  THE  INFLUENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY ON  The  f i n d i n g s o f p s y c h o l o g y have had  on e t h i c a l t h o u g h t .  s t u d i e s of the  behaviour. the  The  existence  nervous  ETHICS  Much l i g h t  s y s t e m and  the  preponderant e f f e c t  arises  whether p s y c h o l o g i s t s  experiment t o throw l i g h t  on t h e  cited  by  certain  can  Dr.  technique,  be  nature  any  was  able  be  kind  s t r e e t i n Boston a l o n g he  h o u s e s had  llection  c o u l d have  subsequently  o f the  numbers was  the  the  is felt  teachers,  sense  w h i c h he  an  only, a t the  The  been t o r n verified  innate present  hypnotism. dating famous  A man,  by  been t a k e n  l e a r n e d numbers o r  instruction  o r w h e t h e r as an  of conjecture  had  down but  light  back case this a as  counting. his  from c i v i c  of o b l i g a t i o n to others  p u r e l y as  of  numbers o f h o u s e s on  Whether s u c h r e p o r t i n g c o u l d b r i n g t o t o how  moti-  ought.  through  is illustrative.  to r e c a l l  of  question  o f the  e l i c i t e d under hypnosis.  Morton P r i n c e  a baby b e f o r e  it  The  devise  p o s s i b l e approach might  shed  concerning  seems t h a t u n c o n s c i o u s memories o f e a r l y l i f e  to infancy  The  been  of unconscious  have been o f paramount i m p o r t a n c e . could  enormous  mechanisms  vation  It  has  r e v e l a t i o n s of psychoanalysis  and  One  an  reco-  records.  information  a r i s e s --  from parents  as  whether  and  prompting, i s a matter stage.  Quite  possibly  t h i s method w o u l d n e v e r  be a c c u r a t e enough i n r e c a l l i n g  mental  states to give certain  knowledge.  Perhaps t h e t e c h -  niques  o f p s y c h o a n a l y s i s w o u l d p r o v i d e more c e r t a i n  A d o c t o r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , E. Pickworth book  Farrow, i n a  t o w h i c h Sigmund F r e u d wrote an a p p r o v i n g  recounts h i s a b i l i t y  data.  foreword,  t o go b a c k i n memory t o t h e age o f  s i x months; he was t h u s e n a b l e d t o d i s c o v e r f e e l i n g s o f r a g e w h i c h he e x p e r i e n c e d a g a i n s t h i s f a t h e r . be  b e y o n d t h e bounds o f p o s s i b i l i t y  analyst  e o u l d u s e t h e same t e c h n i q u e  d i s c o v e r whether h i s f e e l i n g posed  of free  of obligation  direction.  i fthe e t h i c a l  sense  self-  association to  was e n t i r e l y i m -  recovery of p r i s t i n e  i n t e l l e c t u a l element,  impressions  Since a c h i l d first  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , i t m i g h t be  r e q u i r e s m a t u r a t i o n , perhaps  i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f a developed  is  some a c u t e  f r o m w i t h o u t , o r w h e t h e r he d i s c o v e r e d an i n n e r s u b -  jection to ethical that  that  I t may n o t  the f u l l e s t  would n o t p r o v i d e a  has t o be t r a i n e d e a r l y i  by t h e  solution.  to attain  r a n k as a m u s i c i a n , when t h e i n n a t e m u s i c a l c a p a c i t y  p r e s e n t , i s i t not p o s s i b l e  s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d  early?  period f o r i n s t i l l i n g sphere  that  a child's  ethical  sense  P e r h a p s t h e r e i s an optimum  ethical  i d e a l s w h i c h embrace a  than the p r e v a i l i n g ethos  wider  r e q u i r e s , as t h e r e i s t o  3 E . P i c k w o r t h Farrow, Analyze Y o u r s e l f , w i t h F o r e w o r d by Sigmund F r e u d , New Y o r k , I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i t i e s P r e s s I n c . , 1945.  - 50 learn  certain  skills.  I t i s an  old truism, attributed  the J e s u i t s , t h a t i f the  religious  c o n t r o l l e d f o r the f i r s t  few y e a r s , the  the p r e c e p t s  implanted  conditions w i l l in  certain  f o r the  training  rest  l a t e r i n f l u e n c e s o v e r - r i d e the  cases?  Is there a process  and  neglected?  b e y o n d t h e e v e n t u a l competence on t h e s e In  Blair  researches feelings  an e s s a y  Rice  entitled,  concerned  training  not l i e  (that  i s , pleasantness  o f s t r e s s e s i n the  with  suggest  that  or unpleasantness)  feelings; correlates. hedonic  is a  c e n t r a l nervous system,  c o n d i t i o n s are not  in  many i n s t a n c e s seems c l o s e l y  of  t e n s i o n , but  the  Professor  s t a t e s have p h y s i o l o g i c a l  tone  There are  a t work  to recent psychological  neural factors  emotional  the e x a c t  I t may  i n a generic sense,  s t a t e s t h a t recent experiments  that  the o r i g i n a l  training  S c i e n c e , Humanism and  Rice  function  early  of p s y c h o l o g i s t s t o throw  draws a t t e n t i o n  i n t o the  and  U n d e r what  problems.  Good** d e a l i n g w i t h v a l u e Philip  retain  of maturation  reinforce  i n o t h e r s a l l o w i t t o be  child is  child will  of h i s l i f e .  w h i c h i n some i n s t a n c e s w i l l  light  of the  to  y e t known.  connected  direct but  Pleasantness  w i t h the r e l e a s e  s o m e t i m e s , however, w i t h i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y .  a l s o experiments  r e f e r r e d t o which i n d i c a t e  that  4 P h i l i p B. R i c e , S c i e n c e . Humanism, and t h e Good, E s s a y i n VALUE: A C o - o p e r a t i v e I n q u i r y , " E d . Ray L e p l e y , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Sew Y o r k , 1949, pp. 261 - 290. 7  - 51 pleasantness  i s c o r r e l a t e d w i t h smooth f u n c t i o n i n g i n t h e  c e n t r a l nervous As possibly different  3ystem.  p s y c h o l o g i c a l s c i e n c e a d v a n c e s on t h i s  John S t u a r t M i l l ' s qualities  contention that there are  of pleasure w i l l  Or i t may be shown t h a t p l e a s u r e s as f a r a t l e a s t merely  i n degree o f i n t e n s i t y .  of q u a l i t a t i v e qualitatively A meticulous  of a l l types  definitively  pleasures? different  study  being experienced,  differ,  i s concerned,  Assume t h e l a t t e r t o be dispose  o f the problem  Or m i g h t i t n o t be t h a t  a l l have  t h e same p h y s i c a l  of the p h y s i c a l organism  only that pleasure of a c e r t a i n  nature  be s u b s t a n t i a t e d .  as t h e p h y s i c a l evidence  the case; would t h i s  front,  pleasures correlate?  would r e v e a l  i n t e n s i t y a n d d u r a t i o n was  b u t w o u l d g i v e no i n d i c a t i o n  of the  of the pleasure.  Ethics  i s concerned  p r i m a r i l y with hedonic  tone  as I t i s e x p e r i e n c e d a n d n o t i n i t s n e u r a l c o n s t i t u e n t s . Por p r a c t i c a l  questions  o f conduct,  of the emotion o r f e e l i n g People  l i v e d through  and  i s the only important  a l l the experiences  appropriate r u l e s , without relation  the conscious  and e v o l v e d  of the Intimate  between t h e m e n t a l a s p e c t , s o - c a l l e d ,  the p h y s i c a l a s p e c t .  one.  of l i f e  knowing a n y t h i n g  aspect  o f emotion  G e t t i n g b a c k t o man's e n j o y m e n t  - 52  of v a l u e ,  t h i s does not  -  l i e i n the  particular  of the  p h y s i o l o g i c a l organism but  on  the  personality.  of  b o d i l y harmony must e x i s t f o r p l e a s u r e  perfectly  true  but  I t may  the  bare  be  i n the  stated  statement  conscious  that  l a t e , what a r e the  inner  we  then, that  to  s e n s e o f owing a l l e g i a n c e  with i t a c o r r e l a t i o n with organism?  I f so,  imperative  be  p a n i e d by  an  could  s y s t e m be  this  experimentally  feeling  of well-being  forming of  o b s c u r e any clear that  culty cal  t o a m o r a l law  I f the  w h i e h i s an  o f the  correlate  task,  carry  physical ethical  or always latter,  accom-  could  How  neural  of  per-  processes  of  that  a  a component  of man  as  a  the diffi-  physiologi-  f o r e t h i c a l o b l i g a t i o n does e x i s t , t h e n ;  t h i s w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y be  and  I t i s abundantly  c o m p l e x i t y and  established  the  intrinsic  c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t s w o u l d be  i t s h o u l d be  the  could  value,  accession  of the  the  Does  Would t h e  e t h i c a l prompting?  I f , in spite  Is  corre-  w h i c h sometimes a c c o m p a n i e s t h e  e f f e c t of the  difficulty.  the  Would t h e  p e r f o r m e r , r e g i s t e r i n the  t o s e t up  of  i n d i f f e r i n g ways?  investigated?  one's d u t y and  v a l u e t o the  utmost  actuated  a physical  measured?  e m o t i o n a l component?  beyond  e t h i c a l value?  3ome c o n d i t i o n  t h i s be  go  This  body.  e x p e r i e n c e d i n a pure s t a t e  nervous be  to e x i s t .  v a l u e has  judge r e g a r d i n g  impress  a c e r t a i n minimum  does n o t  Greek i d e a l o f a s o u n d m i n d i n a h e a l t h y Accepting,  configuration  since  species,  - 53 it  c o u l d be c o n c l u d e d t h a t  culture.  I f such c o r r e l a t i o n  then t h e problem This of psychology reason  e t h i c a l value  that  remains  s h o u l d n o t be e s t a b l i s h e d ,  as b e f o r e .  inadequate i n relation  since e t h i c a l  s o many h u n d r e d s  does t r a n s c e n d  of years  examination to ethics  of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  has been made f o r t h e  problems remain  unsolved  after  o f s t u d y , any department o f  i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h may a s s i s t t h e i r  resolution  The s u b j e c t w i l l  i s at  least  worthy o f a t t e n t i o n .  dealt  w i t h i n t h e c h a p t e r on e v o l u t i o n a r y e t h i c s .  0 - -  be f u r t h e r  - 54 CHAPTER V EVOLUTIONARY ETHICS We  find  suggestions f o r the s o l u t i o n  problem i n the f a c t  t h a t man's e t h i c a l  t o our  n a t u r e h a s gone  through a long  process  o f e v o l u t i o n as w e l l as h i s p h y s i -  cal  Instead  of seeking  organism.  sense i n a t r a n s c e n d e n t a l of the e v o l u t i o n a r y  Prince and  the o r i g i n  r e a l m , we s e e k i t i n t h e c o u r s e  process.  Kropotkin  i n h i s two v o l u m e s , M u t u a l A i d  ETHICS: O r i g i n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , a s s e r t e d  is  not amoral, but that the f a c t o r  by  the f a c t  o f mutual a i d .  the  connection  of morality  and  a s c r i b e d i t s source e n t i r e l y  Por  him the three  elements  justice  or equity,  arising  i n the n a t u r a l  order  indeed states  with r e l i g i o n  this very  He  t o the n a t u r a l  of m o r a l i t y  that  denied  and metaphysics sphere.  are mutual a i d ,  order.  In opposition  t o the l e c t u r e ,  opposition  t o Thomas  famous Romanes L e c t u r e  Huxley opposed t h e realm o f Nature  referring  i s balanced  i n nature.  on t h e one hand t o t h e e t h i c a l  potkin,  nature  a n d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , w h i c h he f i n d s  H. H u x l e y i n t h e l e t t e r ' s this  that  of struggle  Kropotkin  mutual a i d i s the predominant f a c t  (in  of the moral  i n 1893  o r t h e eosraic  on t h e o t h e r ) ,  states  that  Kro-  H u x l e y i s by  f o r c e d t o acknowledge t h e e x i s t e n c e  * 55 -  of  the e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e  outside  of nature.  But s i n c e  this  d i d n o t a c c o r d w i t h H u x l e y ' s p h i l o s o p h y , he r e t r a c t e d  this  p o i n t of view i n a l a t e r  the of  presence animals.  potkin all  social  states,  "We", "I  M  o f the e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e  t h a t i n the v e r y  animals,  there  came b e f o r e  the s e l f - a s s e r t i o n  by t h e c l a n  to ethics  of obligation  manuscript  concludes  fact  thought.  o f the question  pre-  Social  life,  of p e r s o n a l i t y :  i n consciousness; the  or t r i b e i n  the root of a l l e t h i c a l  feeling  life  s t r u c t u r e o f man a n d o f  a r e c a u s e s i m p e l l i n g them  n o t " I " , was t h e c e n t r a l  importance  i n the s o c i a l  t o w a r d t h a t w h i c h we c a l l m o r a l i t y .  was a b s o r b e d  finds  recognized  I n h i s E t h l c s , w h i c h he d i d n o t f i n i s h , K r o -  suggests  eminently he  6  remark i n w h i c h he  this  Kropotkin  He r e c o g n i z e s t h e  o f t h e source  o f w h i c h men a r e c o n s c i o u s  o f the  and h i s  thus:  The f a c t i s , t h a t w h i l e t h e mode o f l i f e i s d e t e r m i n e d by t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a g i v e n s o c i e t y , c o n s c i e n c e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , a s I s h a l l e n d e a v o u r t o p r o v e , has a much d e e p e r o r i g i n , namely i n t h e consciousness o f e q u i t y , which p h y s i o l o g i c a l l y develops I n man a s i n a l l s o c i a l a n i m a l s . . . 8 What K r o p o t k i n e l e m e n t s i n man's n a t u r e  i s a s s e r t i n g i s that the moral a r e h i s as a n a t u r a l s p e c i e s .  We may, t h e r e f o r e , c o n c l u d e  t h a t i f t h e b a s i c elements o f  5 K r o p o t k i n , ETHICS: O r i g i n a n d D e v e l o p m e n t , Y o r k , D i a l P r e s s , 1934, p . 13. 6 I b i d . , p. 13. 7 I b i d . , p . 60 . 8 I b i d . , p. 338.  New  - 56 morality  come i n t o e x i s t e n c e  i n t h e development  a n a t u r a l s p e c i e s , then they w i l l member o f h i s s p e c i e s A horse on  i s a horse  and r e g a r d l e s s  transported creature  evolved,  regardless  surface  he l i v e s o n .  istic  o f what c o n t i n e n t  i t i s found  by man.  Likewise,  man i s a  by v i r t u e o f t h e n a t u r e  of the p a r t i c u l a r  part  he h a s  of the earth's  D a r w i n gave a f u n d a m e n t a l i m p e t u s t o t h e  search  for ethic3.  He r e f e r r e d t o t h e a l t r u -  element i n e v o l u t i o n and found the f o u n d a t i o n  feeling take  a n d n o t a s a member o f h i s s o c i e t y .  regardless  man a n d a n e t h i c a l  naturalistic  be i n g r a i n e d i n h i m a s a  o f how i t g o t t h e r e , w h e t h e r by n a t u r a l  means o r by b e i n g  Charles  o f man a s  " i n the s o c i a l i n s t i n c t s  pleasure  impulsive  f o r them."  9  1 0  them, a n d t o p e r f o r m  The s o c i a l  power w i d e l y  or h a p p i n e s s . "  which l e a d the animal t o  i n the s o c i e t y o f i t s f e l l o w s , t o f e e l a  c e r t a i n amount o f sympathy w i t h services  of moral  different  i n s t i n c t , he s a y s , from a s e a r c h  Darwin d e a l t w i t h  various i s "an  after  pleasure  the c r u c i a l e t h i c a l  of duty which d e r i v e s from the s o c i a l  instinct.  problem  I t i s made  c l e a r t h a t m u t u a l sympathy, l e a d i n g e v e n t u a l l y t o e t h i c a l action  i n man, i s an i m p o r t a n t  below man a n d i s p a r t  f a c t o r i n the l i v e s  of animals  of the animal i n h e r i t a n c e o f the l a t t e r .  9 C h a r l e s D a r w i n , The D e s c e n t o f Man, New Y o r k , C o l l i e r a n d Son, 1902, p p . 135 - 136. 10  I b i d . , p . 163.  - 57 L. T. Hobhouse,  an e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r a l i s t  p h i l o s o p h i c a l p o s i t i o n , made i m p o r t a n t e t h i c a l theory i n h i s study development. sympathy  i n his  contributions to  of primitive  morals and t h e i r  He a c k n o w l e d g e d t h e s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e o f  i n the basic  f o r m a t i o n of e t h i c s , but d i d not  consider i t adequate.  He w r o t e :  ... i t i s n o t sympathy a l o n e t h a t draws men t o g e t h e r . Men have n e e d o f e a c h o t h e r , p h y s i c a l n e e d , a n d a l s o a m o r a l n e e d , f o r w h i c h sympathy i s t o o s i m p l e an expression. H He r e c o g n i z e d permanent  mental q u a l i t i e s  i n humanity:  Thus when we come t o human s o c i e t y we f i n d t h e b a s i s for a s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f l i f e already l a i d i n the a n i m a l n a t u r e o f man . . . H i s l o v e s a n d h a t e s , h i s joys and sorrows, h i s p r i d e , h i s wrath, h i s g e n t l e n e s s , h i s b o l d n e s s , h i s t i m i d i t y — a l l t h e s e permanent q u a l i t i e s , which r u n t h r o u g h humanity and v a r y o n l y i n degree, belong t o h i s i n h e r i t e d s t r u c t u r e . ^ 2  Another e v o l u t i o n a r y n a t u r a l i s t , tance a  i n e t h i e a l t h e o r y , i s E . A. W e s t e r m a r c k ,  huge amount o f a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l  clusion that ness.  society  social  o f the moral  questions  context  f r o m any a b s o l u t e e t h i c a l  involved  consciouslack  derive  i n which they a r i s e and  principle.  judgements e x p r e s s e d e m o t i o n s f e l t  The f i r s t  by s o c i e t y  11 L. T. Hobhouse, M o r a l g i n E v o l u t i o n , Chapman & H a l l , 1923, p . 15. 12 I b i d . , p . 10.  amassed  a r e b a s e d on e m o t i o n s w h i c h  and the p a r t i c u l a r  from the p a r t i c u l a r  who  impor-  d a t a a n d came t o t h e c o n -  i s the b i r t h p l a c e  M o r a l judgements  objectivity  not  o f major  moral  at large.  London,  - 58 Men have a tremendous n e e d f o r t h e a p p r o v a l and  from t h i s  arise  Westermarck d e n i e s judgement.  the e t h i c a l ultimate  of t h e i r  sentiments.  validity  fellows  In general,  t o any p a r t i c u l a r  moral  H i s c h i e f c o n c l u s i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s the s c e p t i c a l  one  of e t h i c a l  our  problem.!5  relativity.  This  brings us t o the heart o f  A c o n t r i b u t i o n of major s i g n i f i c a n c e t o the resolution and  of this  i s s u e i s made by J u l i a n  g r a n d s o n o f Thomas H. H u x l e y .  Romanes L e c t u r e Ethics.  1893  he f o l l o w e d K r o p o t k i n  i n t h e Romanes L e c t u r e  h a d been wrong i n p r e s e n t i n g  c o n t r a d i c t i n g the cosmic process world  this  arose  possessing.  i s a false  i n showing t h a t h i s  of f i f t y  years  before i n  the e t h i c a l process  Julian  genetics  together  nature  H u x l e y l i k e w i s e shows factor i n life  within the n a t u r a l evolutionary process.  Huxley brings  as  -- c o s m i c n a t u r e , t h e  o p p o s i t i o n ; the e t h i c a l  of e t h i c s w r i t t e n subsequently  and  Evolutionary  e x t e r n a l t o man, i s t h e enemy o f t h e e t h i c a l  man f i n d s h i m s e l f that  I n 1943 he d e l i v e r e d t h e  i n E n g l a n d , w h i c h he e n t i t l e d  In t h i s  grandfather  Huxley, the b i o l o g i s t  and p u b l i s h e d  In a  study  i n 1947, J u l i a n  the f i n d i n g s o f s c i e n c e , n o t a b l y o f  and p s y c h o l o g y , b e a r i n g  on t h e p r o b l e m s  combats t h e e x t r e m e v i e w o f e t h i c a l  of e t h i c s ,  relativity.  o p p o s i t i o n t o W e s t e r m a r c k , t o whom he p a y s t r i b u t e  13 E d v a r d A. W e s t e r m a r c k , E t h i c a l Y o r k , H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1932.  Relativity,  In f o r the  New  - 59 s c o p e and  suggestiveness  -  o f h i s work, he  writes  as  follows:  ... s y s t e m s o f e t h i c s a r e d e f i n i t e l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h the major t y p e s of s o c i e t y i n which they are found. T h i s r e l a t i v i t y , however, does n o t i m p l y msre a r b i t r a r i ness and l a c k of o b j e c t i v e v a l i d i t y f o r e t h i c s . But i n o r d e r t o d i s e n t a n g l e e s s e n t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s from une s s e n t i a l v a r i a t i o n s , we must t h i n k i n terms o f d i r e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n o f s t a t i c . a n d immutable s t a n d a r d s . H e r e , i t seems, W e s t e r m a r c k was c o n f u s e d by the m u l t i p l i c i t y and v a r i e t y o f t h e v a l u a b l e f a c t s o f m o r a l n a t u r a l h i s t o r y w h i c h he h i m s e l f had done so much t o discover.I 4  We  note here t h a t  there  is a relativity  w h i c h i t w o u l d be  e r r o n e o u s and  e s s e n t i a l t h a t we  be  It  i s my  contention  of expression ciple  existing  that  of the  itself.  The  status  c l e a r as the  ethical  stupid to  relativity  i s a t some p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n t .  has  any  specific  been a r r e s t e d ,  One c o u r s e , has  i n the  not  i s of primary s i g n i f i c a n c e .  where one  i s not  lies  but  i s going  code i n w h i c h t h e  the  mode  than  It is  The  mankind s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n  14 T. H. H u x l e y a n d E t h i c s , New Y o r k and  prinon  often than  significant  ethical  march  u n i v e r s a l i s t goal.  o f J u l i a n Huxley's main p o i n t s , which,  been s t r e s s e d  lies.  i n the  direction rather  i t i s b e t t e r t o know where one  i t is  relativity  p r i n c i p l e and  e m p h a s i s on  ethics  deny, b u t  t o where t h e  said that  thing  regarding  by  other  i s now  thinkers,  i s that  more i m p o r t a n t  of for  than  J u l i a n Huxley, Touchstone f o r L o n d o n , H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1947, p.  24.  - 60 -  biological evolution.  Huxley  saya:  ... t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t w i t h t h e a d v e n t o f man, e v o l u t i o n h a d r e a c h e d a new l e v e l , i n w h i c h t h e b i o l o g i c a l agency o f n a t u r a l s e l e c t i o n , o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h the mechanisms o f h e r e d i t y , h a d been l a r g e l y s u s p e n d e d by t h e a p e c l f i c a l l y human a g e n c y o f s o c i a l s e l e c t i o n o p e r a t i n g t h r o u g h t h e mechanisms o f t r a d i t i o n . 1 5  s e e t h a t man's d e v e l o p m e n t , i n c l u d i n g h i 8 e t h i c a l  We t h u s  progreaa, i s oriented total  about a u n i v e r a a l  o f h i s resources  as a p l a n e t a r y  focus,  t h e sum-  species.  Huxley  well  saya : However, e t h i c s do n o t m e r e l y v a r y a t random; t h e y also evolve. That f a c t p r o v i d e s our c l u e . Our e t h i c s e v o l v e because t h e y a r e t h e m s e l v e 3 p a r t o f the e v o l u tionary process. And a n y s t a n d a r d s o f T i g h t n e s s a n d w r o n g n e s s must i n some way be r e l a t e d t o t h e movement of t h a t process through time.16  We come now t o a Huxley derivea in  the  8en3e  f r o m one t o t h r e e  important p o i n t .  Julian  o f r i g h t a n d wrong f r o m t h e c o n f l i c t  t h e i n f a n t between l o v e  period  mo8t  a n d hate f o r t h e mother d u r i n g t h e  years  of age.  He  writes:  ... t h e f u n d a m e n t a l p o i n t t h a t man i s i n e v i t a b l y (and a l o n e among a l l o r g a n i s m s ) s u b j e c t t o m e n t a l c o n f l i c t as a n o r m a l f a c t o r i n h i s l i f e , a n d t h a t the e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s c o n f l i c t i s the n e c e s s a r y b a s i s o r g r o u n d on w h i c h c o n s c i e n c e , t h e m o r a l s e n s e , a n d o u r s y s t e m s o f e t h i c s grow a n d d e v e l o p . 1 7  Huxley coins instead  t h e term  " p r o t o - e t h i e a l mechanism" t o s e r v e  o f the t r a d i t i o n a l  "super-ego".  term "conscience"  or the  Freudian  The p r o t o - e t h i c a l mechanism, he s t a t e s , " i s an  15  I b i d . , p . 18.  16  I b i d . , p . 131.  17  I b i d . , p . 4.  - 61 Intellectual construction, like  the  formation  atom o r t h e  of p o s t - n a t a l The  1 8  e a r l y part  The  scientific  critical  of the  time  grounds, for i t s  baby's s e c o n d  year  life. author c i t e s  "moral d e f e c t i v e s " — operative  d e d u c e d on  gene."  i s i n the  -  recent  c h i l d r e n who  moral sense.  He  studies  of  l a c k any  so-called normally  says:  I n the m a j o r i t y t h i s i s due n o t t o any h e r e d i t a r y d e f e c t o f m e n t a l make-up, b u t t o t h e a b s e n c e i n t h e i n f a n t ' s l i f e of a mother or e f f e c t i v e mothers u b s t i t u t e d u r i n g t h e c r u c i a l p e r i o d f r o m a b o u t one to three years o l d . W i t h o u t a m o t h e r , no s t r o n g l o v e f o c u s e d on a p e r s o n a l o b j e c t ; w i t h o u t s u c h l o v e , no c o n f l i c t of i r r e c o n c i l a b l e impulses; without such conf l i c t , no g u i l t ; a n d w i t h o u t s u c h g u i l t , no e f f e c t i v e moral s e n s e . 1 9  It the  i s not  the  the  manner i n w h i c h c o n s c i e n c e  inherited structure  both h e r e d i t y in  c l e a r whether Huxley i s d e a l i n g  p r o t o - e t h i c a l mechanism i n r e l a t i o n  o r as in  entirely  the  and  formation  o f man.  environment o f the  moral  are  to  became But  he  essential  our  own  with society  incorporated emphasizes  that  Ingredients  sense:  P o r w h i l e i t seems c e r t a i n t h a t e n v i r o n m e n t . . . i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f an e f f e c t i v e m o r a l sense, yet i t i s at l e a s t e q u a l l y c e r t a i n . . . t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r a l s e n s e may o f t e n be due, w h o l l y D r i n part, to differences i n i n h e r i t e d (genetic) predisposition. 2 0  18  I b i d . , p.  121.  19  I b i d . , p.  31.  20  I b i d . , p.  154.  - 92 -  B l  B L I  Bane d i e t , Ruth, P a t t e r n s P e l i c a n E d . , 1946.  O G R A P H Y  of Culture, ~  ( 1 9 3 4 ) , New Y o r k ,  B s n e d i c t , Ruth, The Chrysanthemum a n d t h e Sword, New Y o r k H o u g h t o n , M i f T l i n , 1946. B r o a d , G. D., F i v e T y p e s o f E t h i c a l T h e o r y , L o n d o n , Kegan T r e n c h , Trutoner & Co, 1934.  Paul,  B r e a s t e d j James H., The Dawn o f C o n s c i e n c e , New Y o r k a n d L o n d o n , Chas. S c r i t o n e r ' s S o n s , 1934. C h a s e , S t u a r t , The P r o p e r S t u d y o f M a n k i n d , (An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e S c i e n c e o f Human R e l a t i o n s ) , New Y o r k , H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1948. C l a r k , G. H. a n d S m i t h , T. V. e d s . , R e a d i n g s New Y o r k , C r o f t s & Co., 1947.  i n Ethics,  C o l l i e r , J o h n , I n d i a n a o f t h e A m e r i c a s , New Y o r k , Books, The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1948.  Mentor  C o n k l i n , E . G., Man R e a l a n d I d e a l , New Y o r k , Chas. Sons, 1943 D a r w i n , C h a r l e s , The D e s c e n t Son, 1902,  o f Man, New Y o r k ,  Dunham, B a r r o i s s , Man A g a i n s t Myth, Co., 1947 "• - ..•  Boston,  Scribner's  Collier  Little,  &  Brown  E v e r e t t , " W . G., M b r a l V a l u e s (A S t u d y o f t h e P r i n c i p l e s o f Gonouet, New' Y o r k ; H e n r y H o l t / 1918. . E w i n g , A. C., The. De f i n 1 t l o n o f Good, New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n Co., 1947. Fromm, E r i c h , Man f o r H i m s e l f (An I n q u i r y i n t o t h e P s y c h o ^ l o g y o f E t h i c s ) , New Y o r k , R i n e R a r t , 1947. 1  Havemeyer, L o o m i s , E t h n o g r a p h y , 1929,  B o s t o n , New Y o r k , & V a r . ,  Hobhouse, L. T., M o r a l s i n E v o l u t i o n (A S t u d y i n C o m p a r a t i v e E t h i c s ) , London, Chapman & H a l l , 1923. H u x l e y , T. H. & ' J u l i a n , T o u c h s t o n e f o r E t h i c s New Y o r k & L o n d o n / H a r p e r & B r o s . , 1947.  f  1895 -• 1945,  - 63 in  e a r l y months. The  ethical  This w i l l  author gives  be an  d e a l t w i t h i n the  achieved  u n i v e r s a l i s r a and a d v o c a t e s an  by m a n k i n d . reverts  next  illuminating picture  system which,being s a n c t i o n e d  m i g h t be  He  -  Any  by  ties  o f human n a t u r e , n o r  tensions be  less w i l l  read  which t h r e a t e n i n the  a scientist ethics  and  light  of the  neither  a global e t h i c s ; to  realize  e n a b l e man  him.  of the  The  the  facing  potentiali-  to resolve  the  lethal  f o l l o w i n g p a s s a g e s must  f a c t that  20th c e n t u r y  findings,  condemned.  a c h i e v e g l o b a l u n i t y i s the major e t h i c a l problem mankind; a n y t h i n g  an  repudiates  t o g r o u p e t h i C 3 must be  i n t e r n a t i o n a l order,  of  scientific  system which  chapter.  who  they are  written  repudiates  a d i v i n e l y guaranteed moral  by  intuitional  order.  . . . t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y m o r a l i s t . . . c a n t e l l us t h a t t h e f a c t s o f n a t u r e , as d e m o n s t r a t e d i n e v o l u t i o n , g i v e us a s s u r a n c e t h a t k n o w l e d g e , l o v e , b e a u t y , s e l f l e s s m o r a l i t y , and f i r m p u r p o s e a r e e t h i c a l l y g o o d . 2 4  It  i s t o be  parallels It  noted that  c l o s e l y the  this  estimation  i n s i g h t s of past  of e t h i c a l  values  universalist ethies.  i s b a a e d on  the  a8sumption t h a t  life  supreme v a l u e s  are  i n t e g r a l t o the  l i f e - p r o c e s s , and  these values highest  goods f o r man.  ment i n t h i s  24  thereby receive  passage i8  I b i d . , p.  234.  their  I t m i g h t be  i s good, t h a t  certification 8aid t h a t  as  the that  the  Huxley's  f r e i g h t e d with residues  of  judge-  traditional  - 64 e t h i c a l a s p i r a t i o n a n d , t h e r e f o r e , embodies a element there  of f a i t h .  T h i s , however, i s j u s t i f i a b l e ,  i s a reasoned basis  implicit  i n the writer's  must be made t o b r i n g these  considerable  conclusions.  f o r the a s p i r a t i o n and i t i s whole a p p r o a c h t h a t  f u r t h e r proof  This  final  future  contemporary  study  of the v a l i d i t y of  quotation  presents  epitome o f the author's a t t i t u d e t o the e t h i c a l of  since  an issues  society.  The e v o l u t i o n a r y p o i n t o f v i e w . . . e s t a b l i s h e s t h e r e a s s u r i n g f a c t t h a t o u r human e t h i c s have t h e i r r o o t s deep i n t h e non-human u n i v e r s e , t h a t b u r m o r a l p r i n c i p l e s are not j u s t a w h i s t l i n g i n the dark, n o t the i p s e d i x i t o f a n i s o l a t e d h u m a n i t y , b u t a r e by t h e n a t u r e o f t h i n g s r e l a t e d t o t h e r e s t o f r e a l i t y -- a n d i n d e e d t h a t o n l y when we t a k e t h e t r o u b l e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l we be a b l e t o l a y down e t h i c a l p r i n c i p l e s which are t r u l y adequate. Furthermore, while t o the e v o l u t i o n i s t e t h i c s c a n no l o n g e r be r e g a r d e d a s h a v i n g any a b s o l u t e v a l u e , y e t t h e i r r e l a t i v i t y i s n e i t h e r chaotic nor meaningless; e t h i c s are r e l a t i v e t o a process which i s both m e a n i n g f u l and o f i n d e f i n i t e l y long durat i o n -- t h a t o f e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o g r e s s . 2 5  I f man f o l l o w s he  will  be l e d t o t h e n e c e s s i t y  important  for  ethical  f o ra global ethics.  relativist.  This  contention  Man's s u c c e s s a s a  d e p e n d s , n o t on l i m i t e d m o r a l c o d e s  appropriate  s o c i e t i e s i n ah e a r l y phase o f d e v e l o p m e n t , b u t on  ethical principles applicable led  o f h i s own n a t u r e  f a c t , i t seems t o me, i n v a l i d a t e s t h e  o f t h e complete species  the promptings  to postulate  25  t o a l l men.  What we were  on t h e o r e t i c a l g r o u n d s , a r i s i n g  I b i d . , p . 256.  out of  - 65  introspective  r e f l e c t i o n , i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d by t h e  o f modern s c i e n c e . insights science  of the i n the  I n d e e d , we  past 20th  suggestion  adequately c a r r i e d the importance should  we  that  the  that  our  c o u l d not  inductive  feeling  eliminate  the  o f ought c o u l d n o t  t h a t a t h i n k e r o f the scientific may  not  be  must r e c o g n i z e o f the  t h a t we origin  to support  In i t s e n t i r e t y  have i n t h i s o f the  great  stature of J u l i a n  evidence  accept  I t i s of  theory  Huxley  this his  b a s i s of the moral sense i s c h i l d h o o d  explanation  ethical  century.  stamp o f a w i d e r a m p l i t u d e .  provide  the  say  findings  accommodated t o a s o c i e t a l e n v i r o n m e n t ; i t  E v e n t h o u g h we that  may  have been s u b s t a n t i a t e d by  I n i n t r o s p e c t i o n , we strong  -  view. conclusion  conflict, a  reasonable  sense of o b l i g a t i o n  r e s o r t i n g t o m y s t i c a l or s u p e r n a t u r a l  explanations.  without  - 66 -  CHAPTER VI ANTHROPOLOGY AND ETHICS Anthropological  studies  d e c a d e s have thrown much l i g h t hood t r a i n i n g and the nature established patterns  i n differing  two o r t h r e e  on t h e r e l a t i o n between  o f the p e r s o n a l i t y  societies.  Society  o f b e h a v i o u r on c h i l d r e n a n d t h u s  norms f o r a d u l t s . or  of the l a s t  Abram K a r d i n e r  pattern  imposes  says there  isa  dialectic,  personality  ( t h e t e r m he e m p l o y s ) i m p o s e d by a p a r t i c u l a r  s o c i e t y on i t s members a n d t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h a t He r e f e r s a l s o t o a g r o u p b a s i c stituted is  by t h e common  the f o c a l point  personality  not  a vast  of c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n .  2 6  The s o c i e t y  r e f l e x of the s o c i e t a l f o r c e s .  man's r e l a t i o n t o h i s c u l t u r e  given  and a c t i o n s  ample  follows  that  be made h e r e  of e x c e p t i o n a l  data a v a i l a b l e  and the presence  There i s concerning  i n human  of the b i o l o g i c a l inheritance i s  recognition.  necessarily  Mention w i l l  shapes t h e  e x i s t s , then the i n d i v i d u a l i s  wealth of anthropological  attitudes  con-  denominator of p e r s o n a l i t i e s , which  I f this dialectic  the automatic  society.  structure  shapes t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d t h e i n d i v i d u a l i n t u r n society.  certain  establishes  r e c i p r o c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , between t h e b a s i e  structure  child-  So l o n g there  as t h i s i s p r e s e n t , i t  c a n be no c o m p l e t e  o f two o f t h e s t u d i e s  relativity.  which a r e  value.  26 Abram K a r d i n e r , The I n d i v i d u a l a n d H i s S o c i e t y , New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1939.  - 67 The society  i n New  the U n i t e d book, Sex and  study  i s of three  G u i n e a , made by  the  p r i m i t i v e forms  and  described i n  sexes are  recent  work, Male and  that  culturally  very  Female.  determined.  first  although  there  great  part  treat  their  group i s the  they  are  refuses  e x h i b i t the  one  b r o u g h t up the  breast  Mountain A r a p e s h , 7 a g  are  gentle,  responsive  and  with  l o v i n g care  i n f e e d i n g the  and  baby.  t r e a t m e n t r e s u l t s i n the  i n w h i c h b o t h male and by us  as  most  their  feminine  The  co-operative,  the This  and  spends a The  Arapesh  objects;  mother  never  lavishly  gentleness  of  the  society i s characterized  f e m a l e r e v e a l what a r e personality  poor,  non-aggressive,  soft, vulnerable, precious  people mentioned.  regarded  in  i s n e v e r enough t o e a t , e a c h man  as  between  societies  of h i s time h e l p i n g h i s n e i g h b o u r .  affectionate entire  They a r e  babies  started  traits.  m i l d , u n d e r n o u r i s h e d p e o p l e who non-violent.  She  A l l three  s m a l l i n numbers and  personality  The  and  her  d i f f e r e n c e s i n temperament  marked d i f f e r e n c e s i n c h i l d h o o d t r a i n i n g and resultant  of  Temperament i n T h r e e P r i m i t i v e S o c i e t i e s  hypothesis  s t u d i e d are  of  noted anthropologist  S t a t e s , M a r g a r e t Mead, and  a l s o i n her  from the the  first  -  as  commonly  traits. ^ 2  27 The A r a p e s h p e o p l e l i v e i n t h r e e e n v i r o n m e n t s , on t h e b e a c h , on t h e p l a i n s , and i n the m o u n t a i n s . I t i s the l a s t g r o u p w h i c h possesses':r.-tfce p e r s o n a l i t y traits referred to. 28 M a r g a r e t & Co., 1949,  Mead, Male and F e m a l e . New pp. 53, 65 - 68, 417  Y o r k , Wm.  Morrow  - 68 -  The until  second  recently  society  cannibalistic, a violent  t r i b e , w i t h e v e r y man a c t i n g contrast  s t u d i e d was t h e Mundugumor.  t o the Mountain  for himself —  Arapesh.  led to hostility  i n marked  C h i l d r e n were n o t w a n t e d  and b a b i e s were t r e a t e d c a l l o u s l y , This  and a g g r e s s i v e  and deprived o f a f f e c t i o n .  between f a t h e r  and son,  antagonism  between t h e s e x e s , a n d t h e g e n e r a l a g g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n o f behaviour i n d i c a t e d . female  T h i s i s summarized a s b o t h male a n d  showing what a r e commonly r e g a r d e d a s m a s c u l i n e  The  third  a g r i c u l t u r a l people  group  i n v e s t i g a t e d was t h e T c h a m b u l l , a n  numbering  u p b r i n g i n g o f the c h i l d r e n  o n l y some 600 i n a l l .  perform  The women  t h e main e c o n o m i c f u n c t i o n s w h i l e t h e men wear pursuits.  The r e s u l t  s o c i e t y where t h e men d i s p l a y what we c a l l a n d t h e women m a s c u l i n e  activity.  was t h e o n l y s o c i e t y  little  consideration  a n d a r e t a u g h t t o be s u b m i s s i v e .  ments a n d go i n f o r a r t i s t i c  this  The  i s m a r k e d by d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  between t h e s e x e s ; t h e boys a r e g i v e n l e s s than the g i r l s  girls  It  3 0  feminine  Margaret  Mead  little  i sa traits, said  intelligent,  boys.  i s considered that  Margaret  h e r h y p o t h e s i s t o a c o n s i d e r a b l e degree  Mead s u b s t a n t i a t e d i n spite  29 I b i d . , pp. 53 - 54, 420 - 421. 30 I b i d . ,  orna-  i n w h i c h she h a d w o r k e d i n w h i c h  o f t e n a n d e l e v e n were more a l e r t ,  and e n t e r p r i s i n g t h a n  traits.  pp. 54, 97 - 9 8 , 424 - 425.  of possibly  - 69 having there the  o v e r - s i m p l i f i e d the must, o f c o u r s e ,  part  played  between men  by  and  be  the  -  f a c t s to f i t her  theory.  mentioned a general  fundamental b i o l o g i c a l  women.  I n any  e v e n t , the  And  neglect  of  differences  diversity  of  temperament f r o m what i s u s u a l l y r e g a r d e d as n o r m a l i s most remarkable. The by  Ruth  three The  second study i s the  Benedict,  Patterns  culture live  w h i e h moulds t h e  according  The  t o the  Indians  first  of the  t h e i r customs and  as  Apollonian,  The Kwakiutl  c u l t u r e examined i s t h a t of the  United  non-aggressive, l i v i n g  their  motivation. a pattern  They are  pattern  The  Dionysian-  and  for prestige  boasting.  Pueblo  States.  of a s s o c i a t i o n i s  elaborate  They  i n harmonious  m o d e r a t e and  sober described  Nietschze.  They were f i e r c e l y by  each  approval.  of  o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , whose p a t t e r n  as  of  society  o f the  second c u l t u r e i n v e s t i g a t e d i s that  designated  vagant  compares  by w i t h h o l d i n g  borrowing a term from  Indians  strove  or punishes  each other.  in  work  p e r s o n a l i t y of i t s members who  South-west p a r t  with  predominant  dominant c o n f i g u r a t i o n .  non-authoritarian,  co-operation  one  i n w h i c h she  i s t h a t e a c h s o c i e t y has  rewards c e r t a i n t r a i t s ,  are  of Culture,  c u l t u r e s e a c h r u l e d by  assumption here  a r t i s t i c a l l y written  is  competitive  p o t l a t c h e s , and  They were a g g r e s s i v e ,  the  danced t o  extra-  exhaustion  - 70  in  their  c e r e m o n i a l dances and  balism,  which probably  earlier  period.  and  manifested The  primitive and  third  There i s b i t t e r and  replaced  tendencies  the  the  on  an  canni-  p r a c t i c e of  no  an  f o r e i g n t o them.  f o r the  by  their  be  limited  gained,  e l s e ' s expense; the They are  neighbours.  m a r i t a l r e l a t i o n s and  experience  of  grandeur.  Dobus o f M e l a n e s i a ,  i s l a n d o f f New  a d v a n t a g e can  is  delusions  sorcerers  and  Hate  culture. "garden magic"  so  idea  a  Guinea.  dominant marks o f t h i s  competition  e x c e p t a t some one  they of  believe,  co-operation  much  distrust  feared  Their hatred  and  extend  to  t h e y f i n d no  a f f e c t i o n i n marriage  sex r e l a t i o n s .  This the  b r i n g s us  problem of e t h i c a l  up  squarely  relativity.  relativistic  judging  between c u l t u r e s e t h i c a l l y ;  view i s t h a t t h e r e  as  a n o t h e r b e c a u s e e a c h can  Do  not  sity  the  foregoing  destroy  deal with  only  instances  p o s i t i o n we  be  that  degree.  h u m a n i t y and  can  be  These a r e  i s no  way  one  i s as  judged from  Of  the of good  within.  o f tremendous c u l t u r a l  have a d o p t e d ?  not  r e j e c t e d on  their existence.  against  essence of  First,  c u l t u r e s which e x h i b i t s u s p i c i o n and  extreme  maintain  the  once more The  extreme  an  i n symbolic  real  to paranoid  g r o u p i s the  group l i v i n g  available  indulged  They u n d e r w e n t e c s t a s i e s o f t r a n c e  s u s p i c i o n are  and  -  the  hatred  adequate c u l t u r e s  the  ground of  Dobus, Dr.  we  will to  for  falling Reo  diver-  to  Fortune  - 71 made t h e comment, a n d i t was d e s c r i b e d as h i s o n l y  value-  judgement as a s c i e n t i s t ,  t h a t he wondered why t h e y  tinued to live  life  ridden culture find of  conditions. was v i a b l e .  was marked by s u c h  hate-  He d o u b t e d w h e t h e r i n t h e l o n g r u n t h e Turning  t o t h e Mundugumor t r i b e ,  t h a t M a r g a r e t Mead was o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e i r  hostility  were s u c h  threatened. the  when t h e i r  con-  that the s u r v i v a l  T h e r e was a l m o s t  no t r i b a l  we habits  o f t h e g r o u p was solidarity  and i f  s o c i e t y h a d n o t c a p i t u l a t e d i n i t s customs t o t h e r e l i -  g i o u s m i s s i o n w o r k i n g amongst i t , i t s e x i s t e n c e w o u l d n o t have and  l o n g been m a i n t a i n e d . other-regarding a c t i v i t y  society  i s apparently  requisite f o r  to survive. Our  of  A c e r t a i n minimum o f c o - o p e r a t i o n  s e e o n d comment i s t h a t o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n  c u l t u r e s i s n o t beyond t h e competence o f man.  scientist ive  should  be a b l e  basis.  whether a v i s i t o r our  On t h i s  would n o t judge  own W e s t e r n c u l t u r e , i n i t s i d e a l a n d p o t e n t i a l  to  be s u r e , t o be o f a h i g h e r  to  above.  order  order than  a n y we have  that  concept  and i t s expression w i l l  o r d e r t h a n t h e u t m o s t we  referred  the p o s s i b i l i t y  a f o r m o f human s o c i e t y may e v e n t u a l l y a r i s e ethical  form  because i t r e a l i z e s more o f  good f o r I t s i n d i v i d u a l members a n d s u g g e s t s  the  i t s m e r i t s on  a s s u m p t i o n , t h e n , we m i g h t a s k  f r o m some o t h e r g a l a x y  Of a h i g h e r  social  t o shed the p r e j u d i c e s and s u b j e c t -  i n f l u e n c e o f h i s own c u l t u r e a n d a s s e s s  a realistic  The  c a n now  conceive.  i n which  be o f a h i g h e r  - 72 A. L . K r o e b e r the a  relative merits  culture  stition the  frees  i t may  three  of cultures.  itself  from  criteria  First,  reliance  be s a i d t o a d v a n c e .  obtrusion of p h y s i o l o g i c a l  into social and  suggests  i n p r o p o r t i o n as  on m a g i c a n d  super-  Second, a l e s s e n i n g o f  or anatomieal  situations, including  f o r judging  considerations  blood o r animal  sacrifices  p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h t h e dead body, l i k e w i s e shows  progress.  T h i r d , advance i n t e c h n o l o g y , m e c h a n i c s and s c i e n c e . ! 3  Next, l e t us take that  a l e s s extreme argument, namely,  c u l t u r e s are comparable, but t h a t our c u l t u r e  can n o t be a d j u d g e d as b e t t e r t h a n the  Pueblo,  existence the  future.  existence  There  i s an a p p e a l i n t h i s  mode o f l i f e ,  then  c l o s e t o the s o i l  i t sappeal  existence.  Nevertheless, this  harmonious  will  of the  industrial  be r e j e c t e d on  reflection  and c h a l l e n g e o f  t o present problems.  love o f adventurous  C i v i l i z e d man  aspects  as p r e s e n t i n g a welcome  and f e v e r of present  solutions  with t h e i r  by h i s c u l t u r e .  simple,  t o escape the d i f f i c u l t y  and f i n d i n g  dangerously.  I f not  and the v i s i b l e  t o the f r e t  as a t e m p t a t i o n  argument.  some o t h e r  alternative  primitives  Perhaps  do w i t h o u r t e n s i o n s , w a r s , a n d d r e a d o f  natural order, carries  facing  others.  f o r example, a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d , l i v e d a b e t t e r  t h a n we  the Pueblo  certain  i n fact  living  Not o n l y can l i v e  c a n , t o o , i n t h e ways a f f o r d e d  M o r a l e q u i v a l e n t s f o r war w i l l  31 A. L . K r o e b e r , A n t h r o p o l o g y , B r a c e , 1948, pp. 298 - 303.  New  York,  presumably  Harcourt,  - 73 exist  f o r a s l o n g a s c a n be c o n t e m p l a t e d  t i m e , a s s u m i n g man w i l l the r e a l  way o f r a n k i n g o u r c u l t u r e , i n i t s i d e a l  as h i g h e s t i s t o c o n s i d e r i t s c o m p l e x i t y .  plexity if  be s a t i s f i e d w i t h s u b s t i t u t e s f o r  thing. One  form,  a t the present  in itself,  Mere com-  o f c o u r s e , i s o f no a s s u r e d v a l u e , b u t  the complexity i s ordered and i n t e g r a t e d t h e c u l t u r e  s h o u l d be a r i c h e r o n e . internationalists  The w o r l d  community e n v i s a g e d by  does n o t embrace a d u l l u n i f o r m i t y o f  c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n b u t , t o use t h e happy e x p r e s s i o n o f I . K. F r a n k cultural  "a w o r l d o r c h e s t r a t i o n  This  symphony w o u l d combine many d i f f e r i n g themes i n a  harmonious whole.  Analogously, a culture  p e r s o n a l i t y t y p e s w o u l d be r i c h e r one  of cultures."  c u l t u r a l theme o n l y , s u c h ,  than  c o m p r i s i n g many  one d e v e l o p e d  around  f o r example, as the Pueblo.  In making comparisons  w i t h more s i m p l e  cultures,  t h e r e a r e t h r e e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w h i c h w o u l d seem t o w e i g h t the>scales First,  heavily  increasing  i n f a v o u r o f our i d e a l Western c o n t r o l over  disease.  dence o f d i s e a s e on some p r i m i t i v e s have no c o n c e p t i o n o f . of the shocking  Albert  suffering  The h o r r i b l e  i s a f a c t many  Schweitzer writes  caused  the A f r i c a n  h e r n i a a s w e l l a s many l o a t h s o m e t r o p i c a l Second, t h e removal fears.  The m e n t a l  of ignorance  burden caused  culture. inci-  people  movingly  n a t i v e s by  diseases. and s u p e r s t i t i o u s  by d r e a d a n d a p p r e h e n s i o n  - 74 o f t h e unknown f o r c e s and  of the universe  many p e o p l e e v e n y e t i n c i v i l i z e d  able  one.  i s f o r many p r i m i t i v e s c o m m u n i t i e s , an i n t o l e r -  Knowledge i s one o f t h e i n d i s p e n s a b l e  of a worthwhile existence once a g a i n .  Witchcraft  under t h i s  f o r man; we come b a c k t o t h i s  and the treatment  increasing  w h i c h m i g h t be m e n t i o n e d i s t h e  c o n t r o l over t h e environment and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  of a s s u r i n g  an a d e q u a t e f o o d  supply  and other  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a l l members o f s o c i e t y . r a n k e d as an advantage, i n r e s p e c t  subject  should  also  of those s o c i e t i e s  that  one who r e a l i z e s t h e p r o m i s e W e s t e r n c u l t u r e h o l d s i n any other  society.  I f he h i m s e l f  choose o t h e r w i s e , he c a n n o t c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y  some o t h e r  culture  made i n t h e f u l l have been —  b e t t e r f o r other  consciousness that  a n d may i n t h e f u t u r e  t o i t s i d e a l s t h a n many a n o t h e r past. since our  This  suggest with h u m i l i t y but with assurance  choose t o l i v e not  material  t o want a n d p r i v a t i o n .  I no  o f i n s a n i t y come  heading. A t h i r d point  be  attributes  I t i s not a manifestation i t i s b a s e d on a s u r v e y  way o f l i f e  rather  men.  This  would  pronounce  statement i s  our c i v i l i z a t i o n p r o v e t o be —  simpler  would  may  less  true  s o c i e t y of the  of c u l t u r a l  b i a s , I hope,  o f the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s of  t h a n on p r e s e n t  actualities.  L. T. Hobhouse s a i d he was n o t c e r t a i n w h e t h e r o u r c i v i -  - 75 -  lization is  was b e t t e r  t h a n some o t h e r s .  not i n p r a c t i c e .  cast  s a i d there  3 2  i t quite  D r . Brock C h l s h o l m i n a r e c e n t  are c i v i l i z a t i o n s  i n the East  more g e n t l e n e s s a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a n o u r s . and an  the other values  open c u l t u r e  to  self-criticism  cultures  Bsrtrand  Russell  i s better  than a c l o s e d  and l e a r n i n g  and i t s a s p i r a t i o n s  in  was, o r i s , b e t t e r basis  that  This,  the e s t i m a t i o n  o t h e r way o f l i f e  point  eould  choose  Ours i s open of other  t h e way t o a h i g h e r  form  has y e t a c h i e v e d .  some o t h e r way o f  f o r a c e r t a i n p e o p l e may be made on  however, w o u l d r e g i s t e r t h e f a c t  that  o f t h e p e r s o n making t h e judgement t h e i s l e s s advanced.  be g i v e n  But i f t h e more p r i m i t i v e  o u r knowledge a n d v i s i o n how  t h e y be a s s i g n e d t o a l e s s p r o m i s i n g not  love.  o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d knowledge a p p l i c a b l e t o  people.  people  described the  from the e x p e r i e n c e s  Of c o u r s e , a judgement t h a t  the  But knowledge  one.  o f human a s s o c i a t i o n t h a n a n y c i v i l i z a t i o n  life  w h i c h show  as one b a s e d on knowledge a n d g u i d e d by  An  broad-  o f the mind are needed t o c o n s t i t u t e  advanced c i v i l i z a t i o n .  good l i f e  probably  culture  could  w h i c h we w o u l d  f o r ourselves? More p r i m i t i v e  cultures  c o p y W e s t e r n man's  use  h i s t o o l s , and adopt h i s i d e a s .  has  p r o d u c e d many g r e a t  tragedies  customs,  The c l a s h o f c u l t u r e s  b u t more s e n s i t i v e  32 L. T. Hobhouse, M o r a l s I n E v o l u t i o n ,  p . 31.  repre-  - 76 sentativea  of our  c i v i l i z a t i o n now  societies  w i t h i n modern i n d u s t r i a l  violating  their existing  their  artistic  forms.  implications  can  democracy on  other  It in  peoples  the  w i l l be  observed  societies values  realized  noted,  there  beneficent.  t h a t throughout  c u l t u r e s what we  following  compared on t h e  by them.  i s an  ethical  are  In the  chapter,  assessing absence  sense  of  b a s i s o f the  of  obligation,  intrinsic  intimate connection  between e t h i c a l  the  i n t r i n s i c value  of c o n s c i e n c e ,  procedure.  achieved  i t i s not  If a society exhibits for practical  be assumed t h a t t h e e t h i c a l  n a t u r a l t o man  t o an  I f we e t h i c a l value presents  imperative  accordant  accept  the  conclusion stated e a r l i e r  whether, i n s p i t e  in  cultural  f o r m s , any  of  expression  we  t u r n i n the next  of the  o f the  regularities  ethical  by  a purposes is  degree.  a p p l i e s t o p l a n e t a r y man,  itself  value  illegiti-  h i g h d e g r e e o f i n t r i n s i c v a l u e , i t may  being r e a l i z e d  are  have p r e v i o u s l y  admonitions  mate t o a d o p t t h i s  this  S i n c e , as we  o u g h t ) and  the  i n f l u e n c e of Western  p r e c i s e i n f l u e n c e of the  must be  sacrificing  that i f i t s f u l l  final  degrees of i n t r i n s i c v a l u e .  d a t a as t o t h e  (the  w e l l be  realized,  different  c i v i l i z a t i o n without  patterns of l i v i n g or  I t may  i s t o be  comparing  varying  be  seek to i n t e g r a t e s i m p l e r  - - 0 - -  problem  radical  then  diversity  a p p e a r i n t h e m a i n modes  injunction.  chapter.  the  that  To  this  question  - 77 -  CHAPTER V I I I S THERE A COMMON ETHICAL PATTERN I H A L L CULTURES? If ethical in  i t i s true  a l l men r e s p o n d t o a b a s i c  i m p u l s e , i t i s t o be e x p e c t e d t h a t  conduct w i l l  regularity. living  that  be m a r k e d t o some e x t e n t  its  expression  by a p a t t e r n o f  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f common p a t t e r n s  should  throw l i g h t  o f human  on man's g r o w i n g knowledge o f  himself. T h e r e a r e some two h u n d r e d c u l t u r e s e x t a n t i n varying agreed for  stages criteria  o f development.  I f we  could e s t a b l i s h  o f t h e minimum e t h i c a l  a t r u l y human s o c i e t y , i t s h o u l d  standards  required  be p o s s i b l e  t o study  t h e s e e x i s t i n g c u l t u r e s , as w e l l a s t h e t w e n t y o r s o h i s t o rical  civilizations,  i n relation  a s c e r t a i n whether a b a s i c exist.  I f philosophers  to ethical  and thus  r e g u l a r i t y d o e s , on t h e w h o l e ,  found from a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n  of e x i s t i n g a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l pertaining  t o the c r i t e r i a  data that  certain  d e v e l o p m e n t were m i s s i n g  suggest  questions  to anthropologists  studies  amongst p r i m i t i v e p e o p l e s .  fortheir  information they  might  future  I f certain regularities  a p p e a r e d t o be i n d i c a t e d , s u p p l e m e n t a r y d a t a n e c e s s a r y f o r conclusive field.  A f r u i t f u l collaboration could  philosophers conduct.  f i n d i n g s m i g h t be g a t h e r e d by w o r k e r s i n t h e  and a n t h r o p o l o g i s t s  be e s t a b l i s h e d  i n t h e s t u d y o f human  between  - 78 Doubtless  s u c h an u n d e r t a k i n g  be  c a r r i e d o u t by one p e r s o n w i t h i n  As  an a l t e r n a t i v e t o a c o l l e c t i v e  i n v e s t i g a t o r might c l a s s i f y number o f c a t e g o r i e s  could  scarcely  any reasonable  enterprise, a single  existing cultures into a  on t h e b a s i s  dominant p e r s o n a l i t y p a t t e r n ,  limited  o f s u c h c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as  fundamental ethos,  prevailing  e m o t i o n a l a t t i t u d e s , a n d t h e n s t u d y two o r t h r e e category.  period.  I t may be n o t e d , however, t h a t  societies  c o u l d n o t be t h u s c l a s s i f i e d  studied.  The d i v i s i o n  i n t o separate  m i g h t have t o be done on t h e b a s i s  quite  until  from  each  possibly  t h e y h a d been  groups o f c u l t u r e s  o f geography,  personal  judgement, o r g e n e r a l i z e d i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e a d i l y a v a i l able  data.  cultures on  P o r i n s t a n c e , M a r g a r e t Mead i n h e r s t u d y o f  i n New G u i n e a s e l e c t e d t h o s e  the b a s i s o f i n f o r m a t i o n  officials  concerned with  The expressing of  t o be i n v e s t i g a t e d  r e c e i v e d from  government  administration.  following four c r i t e r i a  a r e s u g g e s t e d as  t h e e s s e n t i a l marks o f e t h i c a l  conduct  worthy  mankind: (1)  not  Reverence f o r L i f e :  be c o n s i d e r e d  i n the present  wantonly o r u n n e c e s s a r i l y . killing ethics matic that  might require  Human l i f e  be d e s c r i b e d  (other  life  need  s t u d y ) i s n o t t o be t a k e n  An a b s o l u t e  command  against  as m e r e l y a m e c h a n i c a l  rule;  judgement a n d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , n o t t h e a u t o -  compliance w i t h  an a u t h o r i t a r i a n command, e v e n  command be f r o m a m o r a l a u t h o r i t y .  I n any c a s e ,  though life  - 79 to  be a f i t t i n g  The of  criterion  c r i t e r i o n must  must be o f a c e r t a i n  be n o t mere q u a n t i t y o f l i f e ,  Honesty: T h i s i s necessary  (3) T r u t h T e l l i n g : T e l l i n g people for  f o r a stable society.  t h e t r u t h by most o f t h e  most o f t h e t i m e w o u l d a l s o seem t o be  necessary  an o r d e r e d s o c i e t y . (4)  and  R e s p e c t f o r P e r s o n a l i t y : The c o n c e p t  o f the d i g n i t y  supreme w o r t h o f e a c h human p e r s o n a l i t y i s t h e h i g h e s t  principle  of ethics.  subsumed u n d e r t h i s should that  general  three  Por i n s t a n c e , t h i s  good.  Mere  criterion  d u r a t i o n i n time  The one s i n g l e  A l l violation  existence  human a c t i v i t y  which  traditionally  considered moral a f f a i r s ,  such as  sex and f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s  are b a s i c a l l y  are observed.  forms and a t t i t u d e s ,  adornment v a r y w i d e l y  from c u l t u r e t o c u l t u r e .  of  in their  diversity  bearing  unimportant  Obviously  e x p r e s s i o n , as w e l l as c l o t h i n g s t y l e s  major s i g n i f i c a n c e  cruelty,  aspects  customs, s o c i a l e t i q u e t t e , c e r e m o n i a l s ,  The  i s not i n  Other important  l o n g a s t h e above c r i t e r i a  vide  over-rides  of p e r s o n a l i t y involves  p h y s i c a l o r m e n t a l , i n some d e g r e e .  artistic  above c a n be  u n h e s i t a t i n g condemnation i s u n n e c e s s a r y and u n p r i n -  cruelty.  marriage,  criteria  r u l e t h a t human p e r s o n a l i t y  forlife.  the highest  deserves cipled  The o t h e r  be r e s p e c t e d .  o f reverence  itself  so  but l i f e  a q u a l i t y w h i c h has w o r t h f o r i t s own s a k e . (2)  of  quality.  and p e r s o n a l Such are n o t  on e t h i c s , a n d p r o -  and r i c h n e s s i n the t o t a l  life  o f mankind.  f o u r p o i n t s , however, w o u l d a p p e a r t o be t h e minimum  standards  e n l i g h t e n e d people  w o u l d now r e g a r d a s  necessary.  - 80 Economic e x p l o i t a t i o n i s , o f c o u r s e , a m a j o r c o n c e r n b u t c a n be i n c l u d e d u n d e r A l s o under a society  this  Point  o f those unable  is  or g u i l t , in  t o provide f o r themselves.  lines  development  among men.  society,  3 3  o r whether  the s u c c e s s o f the s o c i a l  group?  i n d i c a t e w h e t h e r s o c i e t i e s have  this  Can one s a n c t i o n , shame  the b e t t e r a d j u s t e d and h a p p i e r s o c i e t y ? between o b s e r v a n c e  be as  "shame" c u l t u r e s , a s  be r a t e d a s s u p e r i o r t o t h e o t h e r ?  a correlation  of patterns  o f i n q u i r y might  (A) w h e t h e r t h e r e a r e many  Benedict d e s c r i b e s Japanese  a rare  h e l p i n g by  t o t h e main i n v e s t i g a t i o n  o f b e h a v i o u r , two s p e c i a l  Ruth  f o r Personality.  h e a d i n g w o u l d come t h e a c t i v e  In a d d i t i o n  follows:  (4) Respect  Which  issues  ( B) I s t h e r e  o f the f o u r c r i t e r i a and Is there evidence t o l o n g endured  which  ignored  them?  In l i e u  o f such d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n ,  some  o b s e r v a t i o n s c a n be made b a s e d on a r a p i d a n d i n a d e q u a t e s u r v e y o f some 25 c u l t u r e s . tremendous d i v e r s i t y  Such e x a m i n a t i o n  o f moral customs.  There  reveals i s no p r a c t i c e  Ruth B e n e d i c t , The Chrysanthemum a n d t h e Sword. B o s t o n , H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n Co., 1946, p p . 222 - 223 I n a "shame c u l t u r e t h e m a j o r s a n c t i o n f o r good behaviour i s e x t e r n a l . The f e e l i n g o f shame r e s u l t i n g f r o m n o n - c o n f o r m i n g c o n d u c t c a n n o t be r e l i e v e d by c o n fession. I n " g u i l t " c u l t u r e s , o f which ours i s one, the s a n c t i o n i s an i n t e r n a l i z e d c o n v i c t i o n o f w r o n g d o i n g . A p e r s o n may s u f f e r f r o m g u i l t t h o u g h no one knows o f h i s misdeed. C o n f e s s i o n w i l l r e l i e v e the sense o f s i n . R e g a r d i n g t h e J a p a n e s e , however, t h e a u t h o r s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y sometimes r e a c t a s s t r o n g l y a s any P u r i t a n to a p r i v a t e accumulation of g u i l t .  - 81 -  too  b i z a r r e , no p e r v e r s i o n o f r a t i o n a l m o t i v e t o o g r o -  tesque,  t o have been f o l l o w e d by some human g r o u p some-  where.  I f , however, a l l t h e f a c t s  of  the e v o l u t i o n a r y process,  through a long e t h i c a l sense and  p i c t u r i n g man as p a s s i n g  development w i t h  behind  c r u e l and e x p l o i t a t i v e  poverty  of material resources,  It feeling  o f the poor  quality  p r a c t i c e s --  and  some o f t h e P o l y n e s i a n  with  motivation  t o other  produces a s t r o n g  lived  by most i n h a b i -  backward c u l t u r e s . tribes  o f North  groups, which r e a l i z e d  i s e a s i l y rendered  a l l i t s faults  ignorance,  study  of existence  o f some o f t h e I n d i a n  dignity, a verdict  i s superior i n quality  societies.  possesses  t h e knowledge a n d l a t e n t  the  blackness  i n t o a worthy l i f e  killing, The is  forLife:  There  f o r a l l human  of  o f l i f e and has i t s  of progress  beings.  follows:  i s much wanton a n d m e r c i l e s s  though u s u a l l y a g a i n s t peoples  employment o f magic t o b r i n g a b o u t widespread.  a life  power t o t r a n s f o r m  A commentary on t h e f o u r c r i t e r i a Reverence  America  Our own c i v i l i z a t i o n  and  With  t h a t o u r own way o f  dark s i d e s but I t i n c l u d e s i n a d d i t i o n the concept  (1)  lying  fear of supernatural forces.  o f what we u n t h i n k i n g l y c a l l  exception  pattern  There i s a reason  must be r e m a r k e d t h a t t h i s  the  life  a g r a d u a l l y growing  o f t h e w o r t h o f human p e r s o n a l i t y , a g r e a t e r  coherence e n t e r s the r e c o r d .  tants  are viewed i n the l i g h t  outside  the group.  t h e death o f enemies  The M e l a n e s i a n s a r e i n f e r i o r  generally i n  - 82  their  conduct  t o the  P o l y n e s i a n s and  h i r e d a s s a s s i n s to secure injuries.^ to  take  to  extend  one  was  The  4  -  revenge  their  A z t e c s went t o war  territory.  animal u s e l e s s l y . not take  life  crime  sect  India, a tribe  seems t o be  3 5  gods, not  found,  behind a l l k i l l i n g  regarding k i l l i n g  care  insects.  theft.  any  Jains,  Amongst  buffalo and  3 7  needed.to s u b s t a n t i a t e i t ,  hypothesis  that a  social  w h i c h i s s a n c t i o n e d by applies  any to  to f i n d a clearcut pattern  amongst a l l p e o p l e s .  c e p t grows the  area i n which k i l l i n g  becomes l e s s .  I n our  own  states  i n I n d i a , the  I f the e v o l u t i o n a r y concept  should not expect  of  not t o k i l l  of p a s t o r a l  o f a murder or  and  .  absolutely non-existent  more d a t a w o u l d be  c u l t u r a l group. we  was  reasons,  o f t e n n o t i c e d the  kind, including  w o u l d seem a n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e  morals,  t o the  would take  religious  o f any  r e c o r d e d case  While  need l i e s  chief  Prince Kropotkin  i n S i b e r i a he  The  3 6  t h e Todas o f s o u t h e r n  i s no  picked.  respect for l i f e .  w h i c h h i s Tungus o r Mongol g u i d e  it  f o r two  imagined  t h e o t h e r hand, t h e r e i s much e v i d e n c e  t h a t when t r a v e l l i n g  herders,  or  I f a r e a l cause  i n v e n t e d o r a q u a r r e l was  g e n t l e n e s s and  there  for real  c a p t i v e s as v i c t i m s f o r s a c r i f i c e  On  will  some o f them employ  society  As t h e e t h i c a l  is socially  d u e l l i n g has  con-  sanctioned  died out,  34 L. Haveraeyer, E t h n o g r a p h y , B o s t o n , New Y o r k , London, e t a l , 1929, p. 14o\ 35 I b i d . , p. 370. 36 K r o p o t k i n , E t h i c s , p. 5 9 . 37 C P . Murdock, Our P r i m i t i v e C o n t e m p o r a r i e s , New Y o r k M a c M i l l a n Co. , 1934, p. l i b : " £  - 83 -  penology  t e n d s t o a b o l i s h t h e d e a t h p e n a l t y , a n d war i s  c o n s i d e r e d a crime  by numerous p e o p l e .  sought w i t h success t o s u b s t i t u t e in  sacrifices.  The I n c a s o f P e r u  animals  beings  Amongst p r i m i t i v e s , m u r d e r , a n d o t h e r  3 8  c r i m e s , a r e p u n i s h e d i n most s o c i e t i e s , s o c i a l need which c h i e f ways —  f o r human  lies  i f not i n a l l .  b e h i n d much k i l l i n g  i n the economic sphere  applies  on a c c o u n t  The  i n two  of a  limited  f o o d supply, and i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h s u p e r s t i t i o u s  f e a r s and  the p r o p i t i a t i o n  illustrated  under  four  o f unknown p o w e r s .  I n f a n t i c i d e : A b o r t i o n and i n f a n t i c i d e  in a l l societies. large part  Economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s  i n the motives f o r k i l l i n g  P o l a r Eskimos,  desire  living  i n northwest  girl  offspring,  babies. less  Infanticide  i s common amongst t h e v e r y One o f t h e c a u s e s  esting  one.  move a b o u t  Since the groups  s e a r c h o f f o o d , a mother c a n h a r d l y t o her other.load.  before the next  greatly  older  primitive  i s an i n t e r -  from p l a c e t o p l a c e  carry  two i n f a n t s i n  Therefore, i f a child  i s born  i s able t o walk, i t i s put t o d e a t h .  38 I b i d . , p . 443. 39  1000  means o f s u p p o r t , t o d e s t r o y  of central A u s t r a l i a .  addition  than  although they  tribes  in  Of t h e  p a r e n t s a r e f r e q u e n t l y f o r c e d by c i r c u m -  s t a n c e s , the l a c k o f adequate 3 9  a r e common  probably play a  Greenland  from the P o l e , i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t  children.  may be  headings. (a)  miles  These  I b i d . , p . 211.  40 Havemeyer, E t h n o g r a p h y ,  p . 117.  4 0  - 84 In Tasmania, the i n c o n v e n i e n c e s  o f nomadic l i f e ,  o f f o o d , a n d sometimes t h e d e s i r e wretched  t o spare  l o t , were amongst t h e c a u s e s  (b) G e r o n t o c l d e : T r a v e l l e r s  c l o s i n g years the  killed  of l a s t  daughtera  of i n f a n t i c i d e .  4 1  have s t a t e d t h a t t h e  nomadic Lapps w a n d e r i n g w i t h t h e i r northern Europe,  a  t h e want  r e i n d e e r herds i n  the o l d people  as r e c e n t l y  c e n t u r y , when a h a r d w i n t e r  f o o d s u p p l y t o a dangerous p o i n t .  as t h e reduced  The i n t e n t i o n  was  t o p r e s e r v e the e x i s t e n c e o f the group and t h e o l d people accepted t h e i r  fate  c a l m l y when t h e r e was n o t s u f f i c i e n t  food f o r a l l t o survive. ( c ) Cannibalism:, Africa  Practically  a l l t h e Congo p e o p l e s i n  a r e , o r w e r e , c a n n i b a l s a n d e a t human f l e s h  they l i k e  i t . Not i n f r e q u e n t l y  families  because  who a r e f r i e n d l y AO  exchange t h e b o d i e s reasons The  lying  practice  of p r e s t i g e , there  o f dead r e l a t i v e s  i s often r i t u a l i s t i c , o r because  i s a genuine  of supernatural fear.  i n the o r i g i n  f o r reasons Sometimes  believe  that  each  on L u z o n  f a m i l y must  one h e a d p e r y e a r o r s u f f e r m i s f o r t u n e  starvation,  or  41  Ibid  p . 136.  42  Ibid  p . 59 .  43  Ibid  p . 179.  death.  4 3  that  of the p r a c t i c e .  The N e g r i t o h e a d - h u n t e r s  I s l a n d i n the P h i l i p p i n e s  sickness,  o r adopted  need f o r food and i t i s p o s s i b l e  (d) Head-hunting:  at least  The  b e h i n d c a n n i b a l i s m a r e numerous a n d c o m p l e x .  t h i s was t h e p r i n c i p a l r e a s o n  take  t o be e a t e n .  from  - 85 Hobhouse m e n t i o n s are  that  t h e Dyaks o f Borneo,  c o u r t e o u s a n d h o s p i t a b l e , a r e a l s o murderous  hunters.  One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h e p r a c t i c e  4 4  who  head-  o f head-  h u n t i n g i n Borneo was s o t h a t t h o s e who were once t h e enemies  o f the head-hunters might  guardians. have  Wise D u t c h a d m i n i s t r a t o r s  succeeded, a f t e r e a r l i e r  practice the  4 5  (2)  instances  the hypothesis that  killing  failures,  i n wiping out the satisfies  of the n a t i v e s .  These  primitive  their  i n recent years  by s u b s t i t u t i n g a s y m b o l i c a c t w h i c h  needs  tiate  t h e r e b y become  killing.  give  some e v i d e n c e t o s u b s t a n -  s o c i a l need l i e s  I t i s seldom  b e h i n d much o f  done f o r p u r e  desire f o r  in itself.  H o n e s t y : Some degree o f h o n e s t y , i t w o u l d a p p e a r , i a  necessary f o r ordered aociety.  There I s a aect i n I n d i a  which i 8 r e p o r t e d t o a c c e p t s t e a l i n g this  i s not a widespread state  c l e v e r t h i e v i n g was a d m i r e d . were p r o f e a a i o n a l herds  of t h e i r  practice  cattle  4 6  as l e g i t i m a t e , b u t  of a f f a i r s .  In  I n South A f r i c a ,  Lacedemonia t h e Bushmen  t h i e v e s and p e r i o d i c a l l y r a i d e d the  neighbours, c h i e f l y  the Hottentots.  a t one t i m e t h r e a t e n e d t h e i r  aurvival,  Thia  f o r their  44 Hobhouse, M o r a l 3 i n E v o l u t i o n , p . 26. 45 Havemeyer, p . 206. 46 W. G. E v e r e t t , M o r a l V a l u e s , New Y o r k , H e n r y & Co., 1918, p . 322.  Holt  - 86 -  depredations aroused vigorous r e p r i s a l s . however, a r e f o u n d t o be h o n e s t , and many o t h e r I n d i a n t r i b e s ,  47  Many p e o p l e s ,  i n c l u d i n g the Iroquois  a n d t h e Dyaks o f Borneo.  Amongst t h e Seraang, a r a c e o f t r u e p y g m i e s , i n t h e M a l a y P e n i n s u l a , e a c h a d u l t male owns s e v e r a l w i l d t r e e s nooone e l s e  molests. ® I t Is probable 4  that  respect f o r  t h e p o s s e s s i o n s o f o t h e r s i s more g e n e r a l t h a n amongst p e o p l e s  (3)  love  A c c o r d i n g t o L . H. Morgan, who made a  study o f the I r o q u o i s , t h i s  fine  people  cultural  form  artistic  accomplishment credible  5 7  I t i s considered a  to create verbal f a c t s ;  or i t w i l l  be r e g a r d e d a s i n a r t i s t i c . of l i f e .  example, i f t h e y see a s c h o o l o f f i s h t h e segment o f l i f e  as an a r t a n d s o c i a l l y whole.  There  Lawrence. vagant  At f e a s t s ,  promises  the Arab  social  In winning  But t h i s an e x i s t -  the t r u t h .  i n which  lying i s recognized  o f Arabs  of the  d e s c r i b e d by T. E .  chieftains  w o u l d make  extra-  which they subsequently would not keep.  was a c c e p t e d a n d known t h a t t h e p r o m i s e s  47 Havemeyer, p . 14. 48 Murdock, p . 9 3 . 49 Havemeyer, p . 263.  For  approaching, there i s  accepted i s only a small part  i s a l s o the case  speak  t h e l i e , however, must  ence f r o m n a t u r e t h e Samoans have t o o b s e r v e  lying;  would  i n Samoa t h e r e i s an i n t e r e s t i n g  lying.  could not extend t o a l l areas  no  h a d a deep  o f t r u t h and r e g a r d l e s s o f the consequences  what was t r u e a t a l l t i m e s . *  be  otherwise  o f the world.  Truth Telling:  careful  which  It  were n o t I n t e n d e d  - 87 -  to  be o b s e r v e d .  complicated without  But t h i s  i s not deliberate  business of s o c i a l  some degree  o f mutual  life  sonality is  f o r Personality:  c a n n o t be c a r r i e d o u t  prevails  over  lying.  The a b s o l u t e w o r t h  during i t s time-span  The  understanding and t h i s i s  impossible unless truth t e l l i n g (4) R e s p e c t  deception.  —  which,  of per-  i t i s t o be n o t e d ,  n o t t h e same t h i n g as t h e a b s o l u t e w o r t h  of l i f e  in a  d u r a t i o n a l p r o c e s s -- sums up a n d e x p r e s s e s a l l o t h e r ethical  criteria.  among p r i m i t i v e  I t i s f a r from  realization,  p e o p l e s o r i n o u r own c i v i l i z a t i o n .  necessary only t o refer to the i n f e r i o r women w i t h p a r t i c u l a r in  emphasis  India, to slavery, to child  position  on s u c h p r a c t i c e s  concerned,  the h i s t o r i c  worse r e c o r d t h a n p r i m i t i v e white  accorded as s u t t e e  civilizations societies.  cruel  As f a r a s c r u e l t y  have p r o b a b l y a The t r e a t m e n t  by t h e  r a c e o f A f r i c a n n a t i v e s , and o f the I n d i a n s o f N o r t h  .and S o u t h A m e r i c a , Infliction  I s an u n b e l i e v a b l e r e c o r d o f c a l l o u s  off e x t r e m e p a i n , h u m i l i a t i o n , a n d m e n t a l  Apparently the  It is  labour, t o widespread  p r a c t i c e s ; examples w o u l d be s u p e r f l u o u s , is  either  i n Chaucer's  time  a c c e p t e d t h i n g t o b e a t one's w i f e .  w o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a s f a i l i n g such a c t i o n as a v i o l a t i o n as u n e t h i c a l ,  i n England  i t was  A man who d i d n o t do s o  t o do h i s d u t y .  of personality  i s s u c h judgement m e r e l y  suffering.^  I f we r e g a r d  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  a prejudice  50 J o h n C o l l i e r , I n d i a n s o f t h e A m e r i c a s . New M e n t o r Books, The New A m e r i c a n L i b r a r y , 1948.  of our  York,  ;  - 88 culture, an  earlier  time Or  o r does i t denote an e t h i c a l a n d r u d e r age?  should  should  have t r e a t e d t h e i r w i v e s more a s human  As f a r a s j u d g i n g  judged a c c o r d i n g But  was i t b e t t e r  received  the treatment  tradition,  o f wiveB was n a t u r a l a n d  p r i n c i p l e s a v a i l a b l e t o them.  society that  they  did?  women s h o u l d  Surely,  f o r p e r s o n a l i t y h a d been r e q u i r e d The  influence  I n many I n s t a n c e s o b j e c t i v e  cal  living.  ethical  considerably conditions  by t h e e x i s t i n g m o r e s .  at different  must a c h i e v e  child  labour  Again, the a b o l i s h i n g of s l a v e r y over large  industrial  and  living  parts  But t h e f a c t  was p r e v i o u s l y  Other e t h i c a l  persons  o f the e a r t h  and trends  of  d e v e l o p m e n t made i t f e a s i b l e and l e d t o g r e a t e r remains t h a t  the b e t t e r  e n v i s a g e d by p r o p h e t s a n d  p r a c t i s e d q u i e t l y by i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e i r  action.  practi-  i s an e x a m p l e .  o n l y when e c o n o m i c c o n d i t i o n s  economic e f f i c i e n c y . of  periods.  a certain  i n s i g h t s c a n be t r a n s l a t e d i n t o  The a t t e m p t t o l i m i t  became a r e a l i t y  i f greater  o f i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e e t h i c a l l y i n  adv/ance o f t h e i r t i m e v a r i e s  optimum b e f o r e  have  t h e sum t o t a l o f  human h a p p i n e s s a n d d i g n i t y w o u l d have been g r e a t e r respect  of that  a c t i o n i s c o n c e r n e d , men must be  t o the e t h i c a l f o r that  beings?  i n the context  s o c i e t y , w i t h i t s e x i s t i n g knowledge,  s o c i a l arrangements, the beating  proper?  lacking In  C o u l d we s a y t h a t men i n C h a u c e r ' s  i t n o t be a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t  particular and  perception  own  teachers, lives.  a d v a n c e s c a n be b r o u g h t a b o u t by i n d i v i d u a l  The improvement i n the U n i t e d  i n the treatment  States  way  of mentally  i l l  b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e work o f  - 89 Dorothea  D i x i n the n i n e t e e n t h  o f t h e way a n i n d i v i d u a l be  century,  conception  Here t h e i n d i v i d u a l  n o t s o c i e t y the i n d i v i d u a l .  P o s s i b l y no  e c o n o m i c o r m a t e r i a l o b s t a c l e s e x i s t e d t o a more position and  personal the  o f women i n C h a u c e r ' s t i m e ;  perhaps  of r e l i g i o n ,  m i g h t have  great  great  enlightened  changes i n o u t l o o k ,  been n e c e s s a r y ,  example m i g h t have b e e n e f f e c t i v e  b u t some  i n ameliorating  condition.  It definitive less,  i s clear  from the f o r e g o i n g  p a t t e r n o f conduct emerges.  a reasonable  hypothesis  acceptable  i s primary and t h i s  certain  culties  o f environment and u n c e r t a i n t i e s o f food  behaviour.  The p r i n c i p l e  of social  h a b i t s which are u n d e s i r a b l e  p r a c t i c e had a sound reason  but  i t frequently i s continued of inertia.  some a r e u n e a r t h e d , b y  supply  impossible f o r  persons not t o a c t i n need e x p l a i n s  even t o the group  The  account  When t h e d i f f i -  i ti s virtually  b u t a,few e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y e t h i c a l  h a r s h , ways.  obstacles.  would o v e r - r i d e any  tendency t o a l t r u i s t i c  physical existence,  other  limits of  by v a r i o u s  natural  threaten  t h a t no  t h a t men i n c o n f r o n t i n g  c o n d u c t , when n o t p r e v e n t e d  Winning a l i v i n g  survey  But i t i s , n e v e r t h e -  men n a t u r a l l y behave t o w a r d s them w i t h i n  all  should  change i n t h e a t t i t u d e o f  a l a r g e g r o u p o f i t s members.  changedisociety;  an example  o f how human b e i n g s  t r e a t e d can b r i n g about a r a d i c a l  society^to  provides  underlying  anthropologists.  concerned.  i ti n i t s origin,  when no l o n g e r  Some o r i g i n s a r e l o s t  many  r e q u i r e d on  i n antiquity;  - 90 -  The  Zulus  i n Africa  spent  much t i m e a n d t r o u b l e  si i n a r r i v i n g a t what t h e y anthropologist,  considered  Radcliffe-Brown,  men have a s e n s e o f j u s t i c e . f r o m ah e t h i c a l p h i l o s o p h e r evolution the  justice.  said that  A well-known  i n h i s opinion a l l  The f o l l o w i n g judgement  coming  who made a d e t a i l e d s t u d y  of the  o f morals, i s worthy o f note and g i v e s  support  to  hypothesis suggested i n the previous paragraph: Indeed, the comparative study o f E t h i c s , which i s apt i n i t s e a r l i e r stages t o impress the student w i t h a b e w i l d e r i n g sense o f t h e d i v e r s i t y o f moral j u d g e m e n t s , ends r a t h e r by i m p r e s s i n g h i m w i t h a more f u n d a m e n t a l and f a r - r e a c h i n g u n i f o r m i t y .... . when a l l i s s a i d a n d done, we c a n h a r d l y deny t o any r a c e o f men o r a n y p e r i o d o f t i m e t h e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e p r i m a r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o u t o f w h i c h t h e most a d v a n c e d m o r a l code i s c o n s t r u c t e d . 3 2  The  conclusion  i n man's c o n d u c t  tendencies,  order.  the  these  destructive propulsions.  such aggressions  This aggressive  the  evidence,  the  hope  all  humanity.  be r e g a r d e d  aggress-  increasing ability to It  c a n n e v e r be e l i m i n a t e d ; p o s s i b l y  dynamic c h a r a c t e r o f man's temperament  conflict.  barrier  Man has deep, u n c o n s c i o u s ,  b u t knowledge o f f e r s  c o n t r o l and r e - d i r e c t may be t h a t  the v a r i a t i o n s  do n o t i n d i c a t e a n y f u n d a m e n t a l  to a better e t h i c a l ive  c a n be drawn t h a t  stems f r o m  psychic  e l e m e n t , however, n e e d n o t , on a s an i n t r a c t a b l e f a c t o r f o r b i d d i n g  o f a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r e t h i c a l way o f l i f e f o r  -  51  Havemeyer, p . 3 9 .  52  Hobhouse, M o r a l s  - 0 - -  i n E v o l u t i o n , pp. 28 a n d 29.  - 91 CON c m SI OH  In  conclusion,  of the dismal  prospects  human s p e c i e s  really  i t i s possible  f a c i n g s o c i e t y t o d a y , t h a t the  h a s a g o o d chance o f g e t t i n g  where w o r t h w h i l e , i f t h e o b j e c t i v e and  natural  resources,  are f u l l y  sought t o m a i n t a i n t h a t e t h i c a l v a l u e , is  the expression  of a capacity  it  can be m a n i f e s t e d f u l l y  will  n e v e r be f u l l y  p o s s i b l y t h o s e who do f e e l set  then, e t h i c a l value  the moral  I t may be t h a t  We have  imperative, species;  the highest  promptings  f o rtheir  i s an e x p r e s s i o n  ethical  the e t h i c a l  d e v e l o p e d i n a l l men, b u t  o f man, a n d h u m a n i t y i s g r e a t e r we may c o n c l u d e t h a t  utilized.  n a t u r a l t o man as a  the e t h i c a l tone and s t a n d a r d  Since  f a c t o r s o f knowledge,  o n l y under t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f  development i n d i c a t e d .  principle  some-  f a c t o r s of technology  and the s u b j e c t i v e  i n s i g h t , and emotional maturity  mature  to say, i n spite  society. of the nature  t h a n any s p e c i f i c  value  will  transcends  culture,  culture.  - 92 -  BI  B L I  B e n e d i c t , Ruth, P a t t e r n s P e l i c a n E d . , 1946.  0  G R A P H Y  of Culture,  ( 1 9 3 4 ) , New Y o r k ,  B e n e d i c t , Ruth, The Chrysanthemum a n d t h e Sword, New Y o r k H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n , 1946. 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