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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The London citizen in Elizabethan drama, 1590-1620 Heaps, Doreen Mary 1950

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THE LONDON C I T I Z E N I N E L I Z A B E T H A N  DRAMA  1590-1620 by' DOREEN MARY H E A P S  A thesis  submitted i np a r t i a l  the requirements  fulfilment of  f o r t h e degree o f  MASTER O F ARTS in  t h e iiJepartment of ENGLISH  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H A p r i l , 1950  COLUMBIA  ABSTRACT of THE LONDON CITIZEN IN ELIZABETHAN DRAMA, 1590-1620 by DOBEEN MARY HEAPS  A thesis the  submitted  In p a r t i a l  fulfilment of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r the d e g r e e o f  MASTER OF ARTS  In  t h e Department of  ENGLISH  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  A p r i l , 1950  J.  Abstract The London C i t i z e n In E l i z a b e t h a n  Drama. 1590-1620.  T h i s essay deals with the London c i t i z e n i n E l i z a b e t h a n drama from 1590-1620. to  In I t I have t r i e d '  g i v e a p i c t u r e of the c i t i z e n ' s p o s s e s s i o n , h a b i t s and  b e l i e f s as they appear In the p l a y s of the p e r i o d . In the I n t r o d u c t i o n I d e f i n e d the terms I used, defended the l i m i t s of the essay,and d i s c u s s e d the  Sources.  I set f o r t h , a l s o , the neethod that I f o l l o w e d In arranging the m a t e r i a l . I d i v i d e d the essay Into two  s e c t i o n s . In the  first  I gave the background f o r the p l a y s by describing,ifttchapter one,  the development of the c i t i z e n c l a s s ; In  chapter two,  the appearance of London; In chapter  the i d e a l s of the s i x t e e n t h century c i t i z e n .  three,  In the second  s e c t i o n I d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s peptlons of the c i t i z e n ' s l i f e and supported  my  c o n c l u s i o n s by many r e f e r e n c e s to the  drama. The plays.  second s e c t i o n was  based almost d i r e c t l y on  The f o u r t h chapter was  the one  exception.  the  In I t  I d i s c u s s e d the p l a y w r i g h t s ' c o n t r i b u t i o n to the middle c l a s s drama and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards the The  f i f t h chapter  citizens.  I l l u s t r a t e d the t h i r d one  the whole, followed the same p i a n .  and,  on  I Included In i t , however,  2  r e f e r e n c e s t o the v i c e s i n t o which the c i t i z e n was l e d by two, eager a p u r s u i t of h i s I d e a l s . Chapter  s i x dealtte with E l l z a b e t b B n business management  and chapter seven with the p o s i t i o n of the c i t i z e n ' s womenfolk.  Under business management, I considered the merchant  adventurer, the l a a n merchant or u s u r e r , the craftsman and the a p p r e n t i c e .  In the f o l l o w i n g chapter I examined  the c i t i z e n ' s a t t i t u d e towards women and I t s r e f l e c t i o n In the drama.  The hotuses and gardens,  food and d r i n k , jewels  and c l o t h i n g o f the London c i t i z e n were the s u b j e c t s o f chapter e i g h t . R e l i g i o n and S U p e r s t l t i o n was the heading f o r chapter nine and Morals and Mores f o r chapter t e a .  In the former  I gave i l l u s t r a t i o n s of the Londoner 's a t t i t u d e towards P u r i t a n s and Roman C a t h o l i c s and examples of blue c i t i z e n ' s amazing b e l i e f i n a l l forms of magic. The tenth chapter contained «ft^&$Mr«¥o  -fheft, m u r d e r ™  d  a d u l t e r y as wetl- as  to smoking, swearing, d r i n k i n g and p l a y g o l n g . T$e  succeeding two chapters were c o n c e r n e d , f i r s t l y ,  with the Londoner's o p i n i o n o f s o c i a l welfare and, with h i s concept of the s t a t e .  secondly,  Under these headings I-  d i s c u s s e d laws a g a i n s t vagrants; imprisonment f o r debt, I n s a n i t y or Immorality, Ideal state.  and r e f e r e n c e s to the c i t i z e n ' s  In the t h i r t e e n t h chapter  I l i s t e d the amusements  of the middle c l a s s and examined the c i t i z e n ' s response to the t h e a t r e , p l a y s , books, games, puppet shows, dances,and songs.  I attempted to d e f i n e  In the second l a s t chapter  the conventional E l i z a b e t h a n o p i n i o n of v a r i o u s trades  and  professions. In my  c o n c l u s i o n I r e c a p i t u l a t e d the p o i n t s that I  had made throughout the essay. constant  appearance of two  a t t i t u d e s towards.the c i t i z e n ,  mentioned again;; the feasons stated,once I repeated  more, my  I drew a t t e n t i o n to the  that I gave f o r them, and  opinion of t h e i r respective t r u t h s .  that I thought a middle course  between the two  attitudes.  had  to be  takBB  Then, I d i s c u s s e d b r i e f l y the . r  a r t i s t i c value, of the middle c l a s s drama and concluded I t possessed  little,  I f any,  few memorable f i g u r e s .  l i t e r a r y merit and  I spoke, f i n a l l y , of the  that I t  contained, plays'value  as s o c i a l documents. I s a i d that they contained much i n f o r m a l t i o n on d e t a i l s of food and d r i n k , but added that only i n the e a r l y p a r t of the p e r i o d could they be s a i d to the c i t i z e n ' s ethos completely. seemed to me much value  to be too one-sided  In h e l p i n g one  London ^citizen's 1  From 1610  reflect  on tbe drama  to be very r e l i a b l e or of  form a balanced  a t t i t u d e of mind.  p i c t u r e of the  T A B L E OF  CONTENTS  A  HISTORICAL I.  SKETCH  Cities a.  II.  THE IV.  V.  b.  The M e r c h a n t s  c.  The  Class  1  Guild.  London  11  a.  History  b.  In the Sixteenth  c.  The Government  d.  The E l i z a b e t h a n  e.  Importance  Century •, Inhabitants  and I n f l u e n c e  Ideals o f the Middle  a.  Medieval  b.  Contemporary  Class  . , , 1  .  .  .  22  PLAYS Dramatists  ang, &h:e.,. D r a m a  a,  The P l a y s  Considered  b.  Dramatists  and A t t i t u d e s  Illustrations a. b.  VT.  and t h e M i d d l e  The R e v i v a l o f Trade  ^he  B.  1  1  Introduction  Class  Ideals  56  Medieval Contemporary  Business a. The b.  o f Middle  .37.  Management  . . .  Theories  The M e r c h a n t  Adventurers  73  c.  The Loan  d.  The  e.  Merchants  Peddlars  Speculation  f.  The C r a f t s m a n  g.  The  VII.  a n d H i s Shop  Apprentice  T h e p o s i t i o n o f Women  a.  The E l i z a b e t h a n  b.  The Wives  c.  The D a u g h t e r s  d.  Women S e r v a n t s  ee. T h e C o u r t e z a n VIII.  X.  XI  Attitude  and Craftsmen and t h e C i t i z e n  Homes, F o o d , C l o t h i n g  a.  T h e Homes..  b.  The Food  c.  The C l o t h i n g  •IX.  112  . 129  R e l i g i o n and S u p e r s t i t i o n . . . . . . . . . .  a.  The R e l i g i o u s  b.  The P u r i t a n s  c.  The E l i z a b e t h a n  Background  Mores and Morals  and t h e Supernatural . .  a.  The E l i z a b e t h a n  b.  Major  Offences  c.  Trivial  Faults  201  D e f i n i t i o n o f Moral Behaviour •  S o c i a l Welfare  \  a.  The Paupers  b.  The D i s b a n d e d  c.  The Debtoiss  d.  The C r i m i n a l s  184  and Beggars Soldiers  and t h e P r i s o n s  .  214  XII.  a.  Order  b.  Mobs and B u s i n e s s  XIII.  XIV.  »  XV.  226  The S t a t e and Trade  233  Amusements a.  Reading  b.  Fairs  c.  Hunting  Classes  and P l a y s  a n d Games and  Music  and. C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n  a.  Professional  b.  Merchants  c.  Carpenters  d.  Body  e.  The M i d d l e  and  Men Craftsmen  and Clowns  Servants C l a s s and t h e A r i s t o c r a c y  Conclusion  a.  The  b.  The  c.  The  250  Citizen i n t h e B r a m a Plays a s l i t e r a t u r e Flays a s 5 o c i a l D o c u m e n t s  267  Introduction In  this  portrayed  paper I s h a l l  i n t h e drama from  term, c i t i z e n ,  1 5 9 0 t o 16'20.  i na city;  stage, d i r e c t i o n s t h a t  and  give  I shall use the  Mayors, c l o t h i e r s ,  and-I  shall  and  disregard the  a n d t h e Rome o f B e a u m o n t  F l e t c h e r . , was, i n a l l e s s e n t i a l s , t h e c i t y o f tjondon.  Strictly guild",  speaking, that  I shall  extend  a citizen  the definition  i s , he h a d s e r v e d  his  a journeyman,  this  essay, however, I s h a l l discuss  the  untrained  his  wife.  apprenticeship,  had  and h a d produced h i s m a s t e r p i e c e . I n  workman  But I shall  and of t h e c o u r t  of citizen.  v/as a m a n who w a s " f r e e o f a •  been  I  citizens  E d m o n t o n , V e n i c e o r Rome a s a  'The V e n i c e o f J o n s o n  Furthermore,  to  theElizabethan  t o refer- t o a l l Lord  s h o e m a k e r s who l i v e  setting.  discuss  as w e l l  and  as t h e mastercraftsraan  and  e x c l u d e t h e members o f t h e n o b i l i t y  c i r c l e unless  illustrate the l i f e  the apprentice  their  actions  o f themiddle class.  c a n .be u s e d I n other  words,  s h a l l u s e t h e t e r m s , " c i t i z e n s ' , a n d "members o f t h e m i d d l e 1 c l a s s " , a s synonyms. 1  1 See C o r b i n , J , The R e t u r n o f t h e M i d d l e C l a s s : Gretton.R.H., The E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s ; P a l m , F.C., T h e M i d d l e C l a s s , T h e n . a n d Now; P i r e n n e , H e n r i , l*he M e d i e v a l C i t y S t a t e , f o r definitions of c i t i z e n and o f middle c l a s s .  i i I  d i d . n o t t h i n k t h a t i t w o u l d b e p o s s i b l e f o r me  writeoabout  the plays unless  economic, g@crgraphical, London c i t i z e n . in  this  of  the r i s e I  and  essay  and r e l i g i o u s  I t seemed  necessary,  a description  I used t h e term, " E l i z a b e t h a n " , thirty  somewhat a r b i t r a r y ,  and a S h o r t  to refer The  They  first  increase u n t i l  disappear.  The  1605-1610  stylized  o f less worth than  i n t h e t h e p e r i o d . As  written  after  limits,  cannot  and, t h e n ,  p i c t u r e o f the c i t i z e n  earlier  1  play  no  doubt, any  Plays written  they  given  about begin  1590. to  i n these  later  and c o n v e n t i o n a l  that found a rule,  say, however,  i n those  and,  written  I disregarded  that ± rigidly  play written just  observed  I n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e d a t e s  h a v e nctit a n d c a n n o t b e d e t e r m i n e d .  ignored  limits,  essay  dramas  1620.  1590-1620.  some a s p e c t  t o any  a p p e a r i n some n u m b e r s  p l a y s becomes s t e a d i l y more therefore,  f o r thss  served b e t t e r than  o t h e r s upon which I might have d e c i d e d . about the c i t i z e n  account  class.  as l i m i t s  years.  but they  o f the  therefore, to include  o f ^ondon  c h o s e t h e years:* 1590-1620,  an o u t l i n e  background o f the  o f towns and o f t h e middle  w r i t t e n w i t h i n these are  I had given  to  before  of citizen  Consequently,  1590 o r j u s t  life,  a l lcontroversy over  after  I u s e d i t i n my details  of  1620 essay;  the plays  i f a illustrated and  I  of composition. Yet,  i i i for  the  sake o f  dating, set  and  A l f r e d Harbage  Since  I was  t r y to  read  In general I  not  early or  the  was  my  fhe  H o n e s t Whore. B u t  in  latest  average reader. source  f o r the  t e x t f o r The  the  were not Blays»  I was  numbered.  sometimes  and  JWi'ti  act  If act or  the  or  to  I used The  supplied  of Dekker, relyupon  edition such  as  Pearson's  l e d to  a  divergence  t e x t s d i d not  agree  upon lines  edition of Dodsley's Old play  1 only.  into  On  line  the  acts other  and  English  scenes  hand,  and  Grosart's  numbers, sometimes  of  a play and  act,  were not  scene,  and  line  footnote  thus;  I f I were d i s c u s s i n g  scene or  act,  numbered, I  page, thus:  S h a k e s p e a r e , my  a complete  obtain.  without  Scene.  lines  l,ii,97.  plays.  s c e n e s a n d , i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  Greene g i v e s  sceStSF, i f a n y ,  edition  could  Idid  Girl.  separates the  edition of  either  forced  Hazlitt's  sometimes i n d i c a t e s Act  I  Drama.  o n e s m o s t r e a d i l y available  w e l l known p l a y s  footnotes.  acts  the  example, Rhys Mermaid  editions that  f o r m o f my into  For  Roaring  varying  divisions  editions that the  English  of  of  that  texual matters  facsimile copies  t h e s e w o u l d be  to  The  a d o p t some s y s t e m  i n h i s Annals of  concerned with  I used the  thought that  1873  to  I found i t most c o n v e n i e n t t o i e l y ~ u p o n  f o r t h by  not  e f f e c i e n c y , I had  contained  I  l,ii,p,64. as  act,  in  I f  the  KittredgeIs  scene,and l i n e ,  ideas  i n d i c a t e d the  quoted  contained  act  or  seene  in  thus  iv without the  any p a g e o r l i n e number.  reader  I have l i s t e d , i h " a n  w h i c h my f o o t n o t e s • he r e a d e r L  to I  shall  refer,,  w i l l n o t i c e t h a t I h a v e made f e w a l l u s i o n s  s t a t e i n d e t a i l my r e a s o n s f o r o m i t t i n g t h e c h i e f dramatist. I s h a l l only  of the c i t i z e n s itself  involve a long  confine myself,  a n a l y s i s o f Shakespeare's  i n the middle c l a s s ,  Elizabethan  the period.  printed,  In the f i r s t  and, s e c o n d l y ,  read  a l l o f those  decided written  dramatists.  only  a l l the plays  written  p l a c e , n o t a l l o f them were a f r a c t i o n o f these  b e e n r e p r i n t e d and w e r e a t h a n d . to  I  a s much a s p o s s i H e , t o t h e p l a y s  I make no c l a i m t o h a v e c o v e r e d in  essay  1  and w o u l d  by t h e o t h e r  say h e r e t h a t a d i s c u s s i o n  i n ^ S h a k e s p e a r e s p l a y s w o u l d f o r m an  a t t i t u d e towards and p l a c e to  appendix, t h e e d i t i o n s t o  Shakespeare o r t o h i s p l a y s . I n t h e body o f t h e essay  Elizabethan  by  F o r the convenience o f  have  B u t I h a v e made a n a t t e m p t  available with t h e e xception o fthe  masque and r e l a t e d f o r m s o f t h e d r a m a . The  treatment o f m a t e r i a l i n t h i s  essay  h a s been  a l m o s t e n t i r e l y c o n f i n e d t o g i v i n g a summary of f a c t s I h a v e a t t e m p t e d l i t t l e o r no i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o r l i t e r a r y criticism,  b u t have been s a t i s f i e d  o f t h e eveyyday l i f e able  to give  o f t h e London c i t i z e n  t o r e c o n s t r u c t i t f r o m t h e drama.  the d e t a i l s as I have been  THE  LONDON C I T I Z E N I N ELIZABETHAN DRAMA,' 1590-1620  1  1 Cities This  essay deals with  Elizabethan the  and t h e M i d d l e  Class  t h e London c i t i z e n i n t h e  drama f r o m 1590 t o 1620; b u t ,  plays written i n this period,  city  playwrights.  the  o f t h e c i t i z e n and o f  i n w h i c h h e l i v e d so t h a t we may h a v e i n o u r  minds a s e t t i n g  citizen  f o r t h e Quomodos a n d t h e E y r e s of t h e  I n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n I have s a i d t h a t t h e  evolved  i n p a r t f r o m t h e m e r c h a n t a n d t h a t the r i s e o f  l a t t e r was c o n n e c t e d v ^ t h t h e g r o w t h o f t o w n s .  chapter  I s h a l l give  In this  i n more d e t a i l t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e  c i t i z e n from t h e merchant towns.  £ turn to  i t would be as w e l l f o r  me t o s a y s o m e t h i n g o f t h e h i s t o r y the  before  I n a succeeding  and t h e r e l a t i o n . o f  one,  I shall consider  each t o t h e t h e London o f  t h e l a t e s i x t e e n t h and t h e e a r l y s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y . I! F o r t h e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o : Ashley,W.J., The Beginnings Boissonade,P.jLife C l a r k e , M . V. ,The  o f Town L i f e  Gross,  i n the Middle  Ages.  and Work i n M e d i e v a l E u r o p e , t r . E.Power.  Medieval City  State.  Cunningham,W.,"Economic Change", Green, A i i c e ,  chapter  Town L i f e  G., T h e E n g l i s h  i n Cambridge Modern  i n the Fifteenth Gild  History,.  Century.  Merchant,  Law, A l i c r e , "The E n g l i s h N o u v e a u R i c h e i n t h e F o u r t e e n t h Century," Transactions o f the Royal H i s t o r i c a l Society. Meseul,  A.,"The M i d d l e  Pirenne,  Power,  Class",  Encyclopedia o f thetocialSciences.  H., T h e M e d i e v a l C i t y S t a t e , E c o n o m i c and. ' S o c i a l H i s t o r y Ages  E., M e d i e v a l  People,  o fthe Later' Middle  2 I n  u r b a n  E u r o p e  d e v e l o p m e n t  E x i s t e n c e  r e m a i n  w e r e  a  w a s  i  n  o  n  t  t i m e ,  n o  m u c h  r e p a i d  t  h  e  u  n  t  i  t h e  l  t  h  o  e  o n  t o  f  f o u n d  t h e y  a n d  o  t  a  f  l a r g e  q u i c k l y  a n d  e  f  a  o  f  w a s  b  n  t  u  t  m a n y  t  o  t  h  c o a s t ;  t  h  e  e  o  e  h  f  t  o  l a t e r ,  t h i s  c o n t i n e n t  s a l e  h e  l  e  t  t o w n s  a  t  a n d  s u c h  i  t  g o d d s  f  o  f  t  h  w h i c h  the  d e a d l o c k  P i s a n s  a c r o s s  s  e  a  t  f  a n  o w e d  l  t h e i r  y  s  e  a  y j u s t  r e a c h e d  t  t o w n s  e  t o w n s  o  f  r a p i d  t h e s e  e m p i r e  b u i l t  f o l l o w e d  r o u t e s  a  h  p r i n c e s ,  p e n i n s u l a  b  d e f e a t e d  t r a d e  t r a d i n g  g r o w t h  o  w a s  t h a t  e c o n o m i c  a n d  e  o  t h a t  M e d i t e r r a n e a n . u T h e  m a n n e r  a n d  o  p r o s p e r o u s  t r a d e  t h e y  e  r o u t e s  l a n d  t r a d e  t h a t  t  t o o k .  t h i s  c a p i t a l  t h e m  e x t e n d  n  e  m e r c h a n t  t o w n s  I  e  y  o  t h a n  t  e  Italian  i  r a t h e r  h  h  t y p i c a l  b  h  t r a d e  f  h  T h e  h o w e v e r ,  o  t  N a t u r a l l y ,  in  e  i  c o n t e n t  t  b r e a k  t  t  n  t h a t  h  l  d a n g e r o u s ,  t  b o t h  n e a r  b e c a m e  E u r o p e .  a c r o s s  r  i  r i s k s  n u m b e r  g o v e r n e d  t o w n s  M e d i t e r r a n e a n  s p r e a d  o n  V e n i c e  t r a v e l l e d  o  h  r  c e a s e d .  l u x u r i e s ,  I m m e d i a t e l y ,  t p r o f i t a b l e  i n t e r i o r  a l m o s t  r t  o  v e r y  t  t r a d e  i  o  w a s  r e o p e n e d  t h u s  V e n i c e ,  l a n d  d  o  w e r e  c a m p s .  a n d  O t h e r  o  v i l l a g e s  T h e n ,  c o m m e r c e  w a k e  f  s i g n  e s t a b l i s h e d  I  a  w a s  a c t i v i t y .  p e o p l e  c e n t u r y .  i n c r e a s e d ,  t o w n s .  t h a t  t y p e  h  t h e r e  raerchantile  a r m e d  m a i n l y  n o  M e d i t e r r a n e a n .  e x p a n s i o n  a n y  w e r e  A g e s  e l e v e n t h  A r a b s  w e r e  f  t r a d e  w a s  D a r k  s c a n t y  t h a n  m e r c h a n t  T h e r e  e  b a r r i c a d e d  t h a t  c a r r i e d  h  h a z a r d o u s  m o r e  t r a v e l  t  a n d  s o  t h e i r  w o n d e r  w e r e  d u r i n g  h  e  .  i  n  t  h  e  p r o s p e r i t y  T h e i r  m e r c h a n t s  i n l a n d .  b e y o n d  t h o s e  f  r e v i v a l  i s o l a t e d  t  a  o  f  F i r s t ,  h  r  f  o  e  i  n  t  h  t r a d e  r  m a n y  e  3  years  saw,  corners  of  The for  in their  s t r e e t s , merchants from the  Europe.  t r a d e r who  c a r r i e d goods to the  a l o n g t i m e an o d d  v a g a b o n d and s man  was  Strange  the predecessor  piece together  who  had  for  sale there,  felt  and  the  t h a t he  could  certainty  might have been  a port,  t h e new  seen the  how  articles offered  c o u l d be  disposed  town o r c o u n t r y .  merchant would f i n d h i s  Sometimes, w a y l a i d  roads,  he  He  s a v e enough money t o buy  new  had  way or  articles  by r o b b e r s  would l o s e everything  afresh, perhaps p r a c t i s i n g  of  went i n l a n d , i n  and w o u l d e x c h a n g e h i s w a r e s f o r  bad  or  and  a craft until  have  he  merchandise.  number o f m e r c h a n t s i n c r e a s e d i n s p i t e ^ s f a l l  d i f f i c u l t i e s , and,  e v e n t u a l l y , many o f them became  w e a l t h y enough t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r homes and to t r a v e l  to  a villager '  f e u d a l f o r t r e s s e s , e c c l e s i a s t i c a l towns  hampered by  The  any  s e l l more g o o d s i f he  interior.  'these  to  ^e  thought t h a t they  made i n t h e  could  prosperous  o t h e r h a n d , h a v e b e e n a s e a - t r a d e r who  small v i l l a g e s  start  such  I must try:, t h e r e f o r e ,  i n his native village,  either instance,  to  s e t t l e d and  to describe with  f o u n d h i s way  slowly to  and  craftsman,  some p a r t o f h i s h i s t o r y .  t h i s merchant o r i g i n a t e d ,  m i g h t , on  remained  as i t seems, h o w e v e r ,  o f the  citizen,  i s impossible  profitably  interior  c o m b i n a t i o n o f m e r c h a n t and  peddlar.  sixteenth century  It  far  f o r them.  They would t a k e  to h i r e others  their places  again  i n town o r v i l l a g e o r make new  ones f a r themselves;  and,  as w e l l - t o - d o c i t i z e n merchants, f a m i l i a r with much o f Europe, they would form one o f t h e more p o w e r f u l groups i n t h e i r towns. From t h e t w e l f t h t o t h e f i f t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e  was  a steady i n c r e a s e i n m e r c h a n t i l e a c t i v i t y a l l over Europe. I n I t a l y , i t c u l m i n a t e d d u r i n g the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y i n .y. the wealth and d i s p l a y o f men B a r d i and P e r u z z i .  such as the D i Medic i s o r the  I n o t h e r p a r t s o f Europe i n t h e  next  c e n t u r y t h e r e were names e q u a l l y famous among the Welsers and t h e Fuggers and i n Jacques Coeur o f M o n t p e l l i e r . I n England, m e r c h a n t i l e development d i d n o t come to a head u n t i l t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , although i t f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n s i m i l a r to t h a t o f t h e r e s t o f Europe. I have i n d i c a t e d i n a g e n e r a l way  the b e g i n n i n g s  the merchant c l a s s , but I cannot leave the merchant  of  and  craftsman u n t i l I c o n s i d e r c e r t a i n f o r c e s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d l a t e r to middle c l a s s s t r e n g t h and d i m i n i s h e d t h a t o f o t h e r ranks o f s o c i e t y .  These f o r c e s were the  Crusades,  the B l a c k Death, and the r i s e o f c e n t r a l i z e d monarchies. All,  i n one way  o r another, i n c r e a s e d the numbers and  wealth o f the merchants, and, t h e r e f o r e , o f the c l a s s and the  middle  cities.  The Crusades added both d i r e c t l y and i n d i r e c t l y t o the wealth  and power o f the merchants.  They c r e a t e d  new  demands among the n o b i l i t y o f Europe and thus they made  5  a  m a r k e t  f o r  m e r c h a n t  n o b l e s  s o  L a n d .  a s  t o  T h e  a s  b y  b o r r o w  t h e y  l o n g  m e r c h a n t ' s  i n d i r e c t l y  h a d  t h a t  t h e  c o u l d  g o o d s .  w e a k e n i n g  l a r g e  f o l l o w  o f  t h e i r  w e r e  t h e y  r e p a i d  w e r e  t h e  s u m s  m e r c h a n t s  h e l p e d  f e u d a l  m o n e y  t o o  n  g l a d  t h e  l o r d s .  T h e  f r o m  t h e  m e r c h a n t s  t o  t h e  H o l y  s o v e r e i g n s  o n l y  i  T h e y  t o  s u p p l y  l o a n s  r i g h t s , p r i v i l e g e s ,  a n d  l a n d .  I t  t o o k  i n  s e e m s  t h e  l i v e s  t h e  s i z e  A s  I n  t h e  w h o  a  r  a n d ,  e  s  u  l  t  o f  c  u  l  t  t o  m e m b e r s  o f  t h e  s e r f s  o f  b o u g h t  p r o f i t a b l e  e s t a t e ,  m e n  b e c o m i n g ,  f u r t h e r  a n d  m a c e  l i t t l e  t h e  T h e  f o u n d  i  w h o  n  r i s e  t o  o f  t h e  d i f f i c u l t i e s  o f  i  a n d  s a f e r  t h a n  u p o n  t u r n ,  t h e  t h e  t h e  t h e  o f  w e n t  l i f e  a n  a  o r  R o M l i t y ; .  d e c r e a s e  o  t o  t h e  t h e  i  n  i n t i n e r a n t  d e p e n d  a n  T h e s e  t h r o u g h  t r a d e r s .  a d d e d  t o  s  t  i  l  l  t h e  f o u n d  u p o n  h e  r  m o r e  m e r c h a n t s  k i n g  e  s e a r c h  o n  s l a v e .  T h e  f  m o n e y ,  r o a d s  e x i s t e n c e  a n d  f  t r a d e .  o f  t h e  e f f e c t .  h a d  m a n o r  B o t h  s  L a n d l o r d s  t o  m e r c h a n t  t  l a n d .  s a v e d  m o n a r c h i e s  t o  i  i n t o  b o n d  o f  l a n d l o r d .  p r o f i t a b l e  f e u d a l  o f  r a n k s  t h e  a n d  m a n o r  t h a n  t i n k e r s  f e u d a l  m o r e  a n d  t h e  w h i c h  i n c r e a s e  s e r i o u s  m a n o r s  w o r k e d  a n  w a s  a  w o r k  D e a t h ,  w i t h  s u c h  w a s  t h e i r  w a n d e r i n g  c e n t r a l i z e d  i n f l u e n c e  tout  t o  f r o m  t h a t  B l a c k  c l a s s e s ,  f r e e d o m  t h a n  t h e  * h e r e  s e r f s  a t t r a c t i v e  s w e l l e d  t h e i r  l  o n  m o v i n g  t h e  b e t t e r  l  c l a s s ;  m e n  t h e  t h e i r  t h e i r  a  a v a i l a b l e  S o m e  w a g e s ,  o f  p l a g u e  wages.  h i g h  r e c o n c i l e  m e r c h a n t  t h e i r  o f  c l a s s  i  k e e p  t h r o u g h  w a s  f  t h e  O t h e r s ,  t  f  t o  l a t e r ,  w e r e  i  o f  o f  n u m b e r  w i s h e d  m o n e y  d  a n d  t h e  t h e  t h a t  m i d d l e  6 m e r c h a n t  t i o n .  s a w  T h e  t h a t  k i n g  r e c e i v e d  t o o k  f o r m  r e s u l t ,  a n d  g o v e r n e d  w e r e  h e  b y  W h i l e  t h e  n  s o  a g a i n .  s e r f s  T h e y  o f  a t  m o r e  f o r c e d  f  o  r  f o u n d  i  n  a  t i n k e r  l  t o  f r i e n d s h i p  t h e  t h e i r  w a s  n o b l e s ;  e  w e r e  r  o  y  a  l  n  a s s o c i a v ~  a n d  i  a n d  U u s a l l y  m a n y  T h a t  c l o s e  m e r c h a n t ,  o f  s  t o  t h e  t h e s e  w h i c h ,  n o b l e  b u t  c  t  h e  f r o m  t h e  r  i  g  h  t  a s  a  i n t e r f e r e n c e  t h e y  v  m i d d l e  c  s a y ,  f  o  r  a  a n d  t h e  t h e  i  n  t h e i r  s o n s ,  c o m m e r c i a l  a n d  h e  o r  t o  H e  i  s  n a u g h t  f e l l o w s  t  a  i  n  T h e y  t h e  k i n g .  w o r l d  o f  r e a l i z e d  w h a t  t h e m s e l v e s  o r  r e s u l t  r  t h e i r  f u e d a l . w D x r l d  a l l y  e  f r e e  t h e  p r i n c e .  h  c  m e r c h a n t ' s  t h e y  s  h e  e v e r .  o b e y  h a d  a t  t o  a  t h e  t o  a  t h a n  s  t o  l o n g e r  n  a  m e r c h a n t  n o b i l i t y  i  m e r c h a n t  s e t  n o r  s  t h e m ,  m a r r i a g e  a s  t h e  i  l  n o b i l i t y  t h e  o r  w h e n  e a g e r  t h r o u g h  k i n g  o f  t h e  m o n t h s  o r d e r  p l a c e  c e n t u r y ,  h  m a d e  t h a t  t h e  o f  m e r c h a n t  t h e  t o o  s  m e r c h a n t  d i s c o m f o r t  o n l y . ,  f e w  t o  a i d e d  c o m m a n d e d  p a y m e n t  n e i t h e r  f a v o r s  u n c o n s c i o u s l y  f o r c e s ,  t h e  i  u p o n  e i t h e r  g r e a t  w i t h  r  e x p e n s e  a n d  t h e s e  t  e i t h e r  s i x t e e n t h  a  s  w h e n  t a k i n g  k i n d ,  l  t o w n s ,  b o t h  o f t e n  n e w  c l a s s  a  r  b o r r o w  t o  m i d d l e  o f  t h e  t h e  r e t u r n .  g r a n t i n g  d e p e n d e n t  t h e  t i o n  h e  t o  h a p p e n i n g ,  t h e  t o  c o u r t  w a s  B y  n  a f f a i r s .  w a s  m o n e t a r y  c u r r e n c y  p a y m e n t  o w n  k i n g  t o  a  t o  i  f r o m  i  m e r c h a n t s .  l o r d s  d e g r e e ,  m o n e y  f r o m  e x a m p l e ,  h i m  t h e  w e r e  f r e e  d o i n g  F o r  a t t e m d  p u t  g r a n t s  a t t e m p t i n g  i  a d v a n t a g e s  p r i v i l e g e s  t h e i r  r u l e d  w a s  a n d  o f  b e c a n e  w e r e  b o r r o w e d  m e r c h a n t  t h e  t h e r e  w i t h  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p .  o f  t h e  i n t e r a c -  c h a n g e d  c o u l d  t h e  f r o m  c l a i m  p o w e r  c o u l d  h a v e  o f  reached t h i s p o s i t i o n without the organization, could  i n the g i l d  adapted to the The  and  they gradually  n e e d s o f t h e modern and  first  had  and  the h o s t i l e a c t i o n s o f the  Gilda Mereatoria at the  o f ^bosrg o r As  f a i r s h e l d by  cities  by the  and  an  competitive  attacks  e a r l y bourgs. p r i c e and  one  world.  traders of  robbers  This  quality of  i t s members o u t s i d e  The and  as  life  the  goods  walls  became more o r d e r l y ,  m e r c h a n t s demanded a n o t h e r  the G i l d a Mereatoria  power b e c a u s e i t no  necessary  the  e x p a n d e d and  problems f a c i n g the  merchants.  such  village.  of organization its  t o combat t h e  regulated  they  changed i t from  g i l d v/as composed o f w a n d e r i n g  banded t o g e t h e r  of  f r a t e r n a l a s s o c i a t i o n to  who  the  wMch  some i n s t r u m e n t t h r o u g h  e s s e n t i a l l y m e d i e v a l and  sold  some, f o r m  e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s a s a g r o u p . They h a d  organization an  of  aid of  longer  protection  filled  i t had  l o s t much  the  given  form of  needs o f the  was  no  l o n g e r ••:  i t s p r i c e r e g u l a t i o n s were t a k e n o v e r  t h e more c o m p l e x c r a f t g i l d s t h a t d e v e l o p e d  .,.-T  n  within  towns. The  craft  large village,  g u i l d was of  a l l the  an  a s s o c i a t i o n , i n town  w o r k e r s i n one  craft.  or Through  I I u s e t h e t e r m , b o u r g " , as f o u n d i n P i r e n n e . A b o u r g i s a t o w n t h a t h a d i t s o r i g i n i n «£ni e c c l e s i a s t i c a l c e n t r e i n t h e l a t e Roman E m p i r e . I t had not been founded by m e r c h a n t s and was f r e q u e n t l y h o s t i l e t o them. n  8 i t s  m a s t e r t f r a f t s m e n ,  i  a n d  m a d e  c o n c e r n i n g  o f  r e g u l a t i o n s  g o o d s  G i l d a  I t  b y  t  s  a n d  c o n t r o l  o l d e r  A l l  t y p e  o  c r a f t  j o u r n e y m e n ,  s  m e m b e r s .  M e r c a t o r i a  c o u l d  t h e  i  t  h  a  f  t  d  c  g u i l d  e  h  e i x e q u i r e m e n t s  t  h  e  feraft  r  t  a  i  b o t h  s a l e  n  f  a n d  g u i l d s  c o m p o s e d  b  r  e n t r a n c e  m a n u f a c t u r e  o v e r  t  h  o  u  s e l l i n g  f  t  t  h  e  s a a d O n a a n u f a c t u r e  s u p e r v i s e  c r a f t s m e n ,  o  s u p e r s e d e d  a d v a n t a g e s  s a l e  c o u l d  w e r e  m a s t e r  t  T h e  d i r e c t l y  g u i l d s  a n d  e  e  l a t t e r .  v i i e r e a s  o n l y .  a p p r e n t i c e s ,  o n l y  t  h  e  m a s t e r -  1 c r a f t s m e n  p a r t  i  u s u a l  t i m e  n  w e r e  t  h  e  t e r m  w a s  l o o k  w e  e  t  g o v e r n e d  1  i n  e  T h e  t  s e e  f  f  o  r t  s e l l  h  i  s  e  t  h  e  a n d  h  e  t h a t  t h r o u g h  o  f  e  t  h  e a r l y  e  s i n c e  t  f  t  h  s u c c e e d i n g  n  e w  e  a n d  t  i  l  e  h e  c r a f t  t  h  h  e  a  w a s  W h e n  t h i s  d  w i t h  g u i l d  f  t  h  t  h  b e  e  u  t  e  c o u l d  c r a f t .  r  e  l  t h a t  a  t  c i t i z e n s - ,  e  h  T h e  s e e n  w e r e  t h e  o  b  t  s a t i s f i e d  t m a y  a n d t o f  t  y e a r s  s e r v i c e s ,  i  t o o k  j o u r n e y m a n .  v a r i e d  t  h  " " l i v e d  e  c  m e r c h a n t  b  c r a f t y  c r a f t s m a n  a p p r e n t i c e , i  a  t h e y  r  a  f  t  e  d  i  f  w e  g u i l d  g r a d u a l l y  t o w n  t h a t  o  u  i  t i m e s  h  S e v e n  b e c a m e  d e v e l o p m e n t  t o w n s  l i f e  h  , o n l y  a p p r e n t i c e .  g o o d s  t  s  g u i l d .  m e r c h a n t s  h  i  p a r a g r a p h s  t  v e r y h  e  T h e s e  i n t o  c o n t r o l  t  h  a p p r e n t i c e  m a s t e r c r a f t s m a n a  f  f o r e g o i n g  o  o t h e r w i s e  t h e  e  M e r c a t o r i a  F r o m  b e  h  f u r t h e r  a s s u m e d  h  o  T h a t  m a s t e r c r a f t s m a n  l i v e s  s h a l l  m e m b e r s .  r e g u l a t i o n s .  G i l d a  h  l  s e r v i c e  t  a  F r o m  t  l  c o u l d  a d d i t i o n a l  t o  f  o v e r  b e c o m e  t h e  u  g o v e r n i n g  o  j o u r n e y m a n  n o t  f  l  l  c h a p t e r .  b e  g u i l d  t r a d e .  a n d  t  h  e  d i s c u s s e d  h  I  i  h a d , t  c o u l d  s w o r k  k e p t  j o u r n e y m a n , i  n  a s  g r e a t e r  a  r u l e ,  h a r d l y  t  h  e  a n d d e t a i l  t o w n  alive. as well.  But the c r a f t g u i l d won control o f other centres The guildsmen, whenever they had the opportunity,  forced the feudal landlord; to grant them r i g h t s over tne 1 f o r t r e s s bourgs within h i s domain.  I f he l i v e d f a r away  or display no i n t e r e s t i n h i s town they t a c i t l y assumed control.  This s h i f t i n power from l o r d to g u i l d had  almost been completed by the f i f t e e n t h century. In theory, government i n the towns c o n t r o l l e d by the g u i l d s should have been reasonably democratic.  Nearly  every inhabitant i n these towns was connected with t h e guilds i n some manner or another, and, \thus, ,was'entitled to have some voice i n the decisions o f the g u i l d s , especially i n those that had to do with" a f f a i r s o f the town. Furthermore, a l l apprentices, i f they had the a b i l i t y , were e n t i t l e d to become mastercraftsmen and someday to share i n the government o f the g u i l d and, therefore, of the town. In r e a l i t y , things were f a r otherwise. The guilds quickly became monopolies. and power.  A few mastercraftsmen gained wealth  Then, they r e s t r i c t e d the entrance to the  masters' c l a s s and allowed only t h e i r friends and r e l a t i v e s to enter i t .  In time, consequently, a select group came  to r u l e the g u i l d s and, through them,, the towns. By the seventeenth century, both merchant and c r a f t g u i l d s bore more resemblance to the modern company than 1 The feudal l o r d was often forced by circumstances to grant c o n t r o l of h i s town to merchants. See pp. 5,6.  10 t o t h e i r m e d i e v a l c o u n t e r p a r t s and t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t h e two The  had  almost  guilds.  disappeared.  i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f w e a l t h y  hastened t h e  part  the  o f t e n c a r r i e d on t h e i r t r a d e i n s u c h  i t was  i m p o s s i b l e t o "tell whether t h e y  were c r a f t s m e n o r m e r c h a n t s o r b o t h The  merchants  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e o r i g i n a l form o f  T h e s e men  a manner t h a t  between  at the  c o n f u s i o n a r o s e as t h e y t o o k l e s s and i n t h e work o f t h e i r c r a f t .  T h e y now  r e s o u r c e s t o h i r e jouneymen t o m a n u f a c t u r e r e s t r i c t e d themselves  to s e l l i n g .  became v e r y numerous i n t h e  Such  same t i m e . less had  active the  while  they  merchant-craftsmen  s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y and  their  1 c o u n t e r p a r t s appear  frequently  i n t h e E l i z a b e t h a n drama.  • I T E T s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e two t y p e s o f g u i l d s h a s n e c e s s a r i l y been v e r y b r i e f . Pirenne's Medieval C i t i e s and E c o n o m i c and S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f She M i d d l e A g e s g i v e the development o f t h e g u i l d s and t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e towns i n i n t e r e s t i n g a n d m i n u t e d e t a i l .  11 London* I  s h a l l t u r n now  J a m e s 1, so t h a t  to the London ofL'Elizabeth  d e s c r i b i n g i t and i t s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h we  may  be  able to imagine  the  sixteenth century c i t i z e n  how  he was  near a f o r d over the r i v e r  at  which  it.  flourished  where t r a v e l l e r s c r o s s e d f r o m  to c a r r y on t r a d e .  ecclesiastical,  i t was  an i d e a l p l a c e  It is little  i m p o r t a n t as a n  and c o m m e r c i a l  Romans, and t h a t  because  S i t u a t e d a s i t was,  s o u t h , e a s t and w e s t , i t was  consequently, t h a t  the  and t o u n d e r s t a n d  i n f l u e n c e d by i t .  merchants had passed through  and  trade,  t h e s e t t i n g i n which  lived  From i t s f o u n d i n g L o n d o n h a d  north  and  wonder, administrative,  c e n t r e from t h e time  i t teas-:Temal®ed so up  of  to the present  day. Merchantile fully  life  i n England developed f i r s t  i n London; t h e g u i l d s and m a s t e r c r a f t s m e n  Cheapside,  and m o s t of  o f B r e a d S t r e e t , o r o f G o l d s m i t h s ' How  be c o n s i d e r e d as e x a m p l e s of: a s i n p r e d e e e s s o r s o f  may similar  men and movements t h r o u g h o u t t h e c o u n t r y . 1 For the background information, c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o : Gomrae,G.E., The HaBBison,  W.,Description of  J u d g e s , A . V . , The Old  London  Onion, Sharpe,  Governaunce o f London,  CT. R.R.  Stow, J o h n ,  England.  E l i z a b e t h a n Underworld.  Illustrated. ed., Shake s p e a r e s E n g l a n d . 1  L o n d o n and A purvey  t h e Kingdom.  o f London.  Lotion,  12 By  the time  expanding rapid  city  g r o w t h , however, i t s t i l l  spires  times.  To t h e t r a v e l l e r c o m i n g t o i t  as i n t h e M i d d l e  wealthy abbeys  lords, and  passed  into  town and  the  huddled  the g r e a t monastic  n o t been d e s t r o y e d .  churches  o f the reformed  great alteration, others into  t h e i r n a v e s and b u t t r e s s e s s t i l l  rose  buildings.  Among a l l t h e c o n g l o m e r a t e  and  St. Paul's  towers,  churches,  t h e hands o f t h e crown,  t h e i r chapels had  any  of  estab-  of  o r o f i n f l u e n t i a l c i t i z e n s , b u t many o f t h e  been t u r n e d i n t o  without  Ages, a c i t y  With the Reformation  l i s h m e n t s had  and  rapidly  l o o k e d much a s i t h a d  o f which dominated the  outskirts.  had  a  g o u t h w a r k o r down t h e GreatN&pth. Road, i t w o u l d  seem t o b e , the  L o n d o n was  o f a b o u t 100,000 p e o p l e . D e s p i t e i t s  done i n m e d i e v a l from  of Elizabeth  i n the  Some  religion  dwelling places, above t h e  mass o f  lesser  spires  centre of the c i t y ,  and  t h e Tower o f L o n d o n , j u s t o u t s i d e tiae e a s t e r n b o u n d a r y , were t h e m o s t f a m i l i a r and The  t r a v e l l e r from  cross the  But  boundary o f London. St, both  Paul's  and  f o r p l e a s u r e and  e n t e r e d the  I t was  Cheapside  landmarks.  south would have to  t h e r i v e r was  and  city  city  and  more t h a n  walked the  southern  as-much a p a r t o f i t as were i t was  used c o n s t a n t l y  f o r commerce.  various sections of the the  the  Thames b e f o r e he  under i t s s p i r e s .  commanding  w i t h one  Since i t l i n k e d another,  with  s u b u r b s , and w i t h o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y much  13 m o r e  e f f i c i e n t l y  s p e n t  a'  w e r e  t o  h e  a n d  t h e i r  b e h i n d  t h e  g o  b r o a d e s t  o t h e r s ,  i  n  i  t  s  o f  t h e  o f  i n t o  t h e  a n d  t h e n  s t r o l l  h  i  o f  s  t h e  t i m e  b y  t h e  L o n d o n e r  o n  b o a t  i  o f  f r o m  a n y  o f  a c r o s s  t h e  r i v e r ,  w e a l t h y  t h a t  .  I  r a t h e r  w a t e r m e n  g a r d e n s  t  c i t i z e n s  i  t  t h a n  t h e  t h e  l a y  f  b y  T h a m e s  n u m e r o u s  p a s s i n g  a l o n g  o r  i  t  ,  a d j o i n i n g  n o b l e s .  t h e  r i v e r  o f  a n d ,  t h e  c u s t o m e r  P a u l ' s ,  m i g h t  m e e t  f  a  r  n o r t h  s h o p s  w e r e  w a l k  o b t a i n  w h i c h  h i s  I  o f  t  i  o n  t h e  f r i e n d s  w i t h  i  a l o n g  t  h e  n e a r b y .  o r  o r  C h e a p s i d e  w h a t e v e r  l a y  t  w a s  i n , c o m p a r i s o n  c o u l d  s t r e e t s ,  S t .  n o t  C h e a p s i d e .  s t r e e t s  M o s t  T h e  t o  a n d  d i s t r i c t ,  L o n d o n  h e  o f  j o u r n e y  o r  t h e  a d j o i n i n g  a i s l e  r o a d s ,  l e a v e  d o w n  c l e a n e s t .  a n d  s  o n e  s h o p p i n g  v i c i n i t y .  c e n t r e  o n  t h e  t h e  i  p l e a s a n t  w i t h  m a i n  h  w o u l d  h o u s e s  o f  l  o r  t h e  P a r a l l e l  t h e  l  u p  w a y  t h e  a  p o o r  p o r t i o n  m a k e  T h e y  p a l a c e s  r a n  c  1  h i m .  w h a r f s  t o  w o u l d  t a k e  o n  t h e  c o n s i d e r a b l e  p o s s i b l e  r o a d ,  t h a n  b o r r o w  d e s i r e d ^  I n  t h e  m o n e y  f r o m  2 t h e  b r o k e r s  T h e  o f  w h o  m u n i c i p a l  C h e a p s i d e .  L e a d e n h a l l ,  t h e  m o r e  w a s  c a r r i e d  t o o k  p l a c e o f  L e a d e n h a l l  2.  . c f t . .  c  f  .  b  u  i  l  t  3  T h e  o n  i  n  i  n  t h e  s t a t i o n e d  b u i l d i n g s  T h e  i m p o s i n g  m o n a s t r y  ,.1.  w e r e  B  o  ^  a  E y r e ,  o f  t h e s e t  t h e  o f  a n d  t h e  E x c h a n g e  r o s e  b u i l t  n  b y  n e a r b y ,  t h e  w e r e  o f  g o v e r n i n g  o f t o  t h e t h e  s l i g h t l y  l  ,  i  .E v e r y  a m o n g  t h e  o f  i  f o r m e r e a s t  n o r t h  o f  o f  ~  1 , i . p . 158.  . G i r l .  v i c i n i t y  G r e s h a m ,  t r a d i n g  t h e  b u l k  a n d .  i  G u i l d h a l l  m a j o r  a n d  T h e  E x c h a n g e  T e r m ,  g r o u p e d  t h e  T h e  G u i l d h a l l ,  J R o a r i n g  M i c h a e l m a s  w e r e  E x c h a n g e ,  b y  B l a c k f r i a r s  a n d  l  there.  M a n .  B o b a d i l .  c i t y  t  14  Cheapside.  F  o r a s h o r t pe r i o d f o l l o w i n g the  Parliament had met  Reformation  t h e r e . Thus, f o r a few y e a r s , the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f England  and o f London was c a r r i e d o n i n  "buildings w i t h i n a stone's throw o f one  another, ^ u r i n g  E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n , however, P a r l i a m e n t moved t o the suburb; o f Westminister  and ^ l a c k f r i a r s became a t h e a t r e .  Between and around the l a r g e b u i l d i n g s , such  as  S t . P a u l ' s and the G u i l d h a l l , houses o f a l l shapes and s i z e s , some m a g n i f i c e n t , some shabby, huddled t o g e t h e r the narrow and winding  along  s t r e e t s . The modest d w e l l i n g s o f  the average c i t i z e n , the town houses o f the wealthy c o u n t r y g e n t r y and o f the g r e a t nobles, the p a l a c e s o f the queen's officials  and o f the :;rayal f a m i l y , c o u n t l e s s t a v e r n s  and o r d i n a r i e s , and the g a t h e r i n g p l a c e s o f the  city's  underworld j o s t l e d each o t h e r i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y . I n the p l a y s t h a t have d w e l l i n g s as t h e i r s e t t i n g s a  similar  v a r i e t y i s shown. Theseus, f o r example, e n t e r t a i n s i n the g r e a t h a l l o f a p a l a c e , F a l s t a f f i n the p u b l i c rooms o f the ^ o a r ' s Head, Outside the w a l l s l a y the suburbs, growing p l a n l e s s l y and r a p i d l y , much to the d i s t r e s s o f the c i t y f a t h e r s , who  r e p e a t e d l y passed o r d i n a n c e s f o r b i d d i n g the e r e c t i o n  o f new  houses o u t s i d e London. These were d i s r e g a r d e d ,  however, f o r the c i t y had no j u r i s d i c t i o n over the suburbs.  I n them London's c o n s t a b l e s c o u l d n o t  b u i l d i n g , a r r e s t f o r debt, o r shut bawdy houses.  forbid Consequently,  15 ' they became the d w e l l i n g p l a c e s o f d e b t o r s and o f c o u r t e z a n s , and a l l o f the suburbs, w i t h the. e x c e p t i o n o f the r o y a l one o f - W e s t m i n i s t e r , acquired, e v i l r e p u t a t i o n s . According! to the drama, i t was  i n the suburbs t h a t t h e  unscrupulous  c i t i z e n , w i t h the a i d o f courtezans d e p r i v e d many an "easy h e i r " o f h i s e s t a t e , and many a son o f a newlywealthy c i t i z e n gambled away h i s father' »s hard  earned  money. C e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f London, the s c a n t u a r i e s and the l i b e r t i e s , were supposed t o be f a v o r i t e r e s o r t s o f t h e underworld.  They had  a r e p u t a t i o n as e v i l .as t h a t o f the  suburbs and, perhaps, more deserved. But they' had n o t z~ H.., always been i n such i l l r e p u t e , and i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how  they came t o harbour  t h i e v e s , debtors,  and  c o u r t e z a n s , ©riginally they had been the h o l y p l a c e s o f t h e i r d i s t r i c t s and were f r e q u e n t l y the s i t e s o f l a r g e churches o r abbeys.  On  such s a c r e d ground, a c c o r d i n g t o  Roman C a t h o l i c t e a c h i n g , t h i e v e s a i d murderers might f i n d r e f u g e from the*law* By E l i z a b e t h ' s time, o f course, there was  no e s t a b l i s h e d Roman f a i t h to e n f o r c e such d o c t r i n e ,  but, n e v e r t h e l e s s , the t r a d i t i o n remained, and the l a w l e s s Continued to f i n d s h e l t e r i n the s c a n t u a r i e s and although i t was  no l o n g e r g i v e n by the church.  liberties The  colorful,  i f v i c i o u s , l i f e o f these s e c t i o n s so d e l i g h t e d the d r a m a t i s t 1 c f . The P u r i t a n , l l , i , p . 4 0 8 . Michaelmas Term a l s o . E a s ^ r i s an "easy h e i r " .  '  16 and the pamphlet w r i t e r t h a t there are c o u n l l e s s r e f e r e n c e s to both s c a n t u a r i e s and l i b e r t i e s i n the l i t e r a t u r e o f the time, e s p e c i a l l y to the most n o t o r i o u s of a l l , Whitefriars, or A l s a t i a ,  as i t was  called in  the p l a y s . The playhouses, among them The Theatre, the Globe,the Fortune,  the Swan,  the Red B u l l , were o u t s i d e  the w a l l s , e i t h e r i n the suburbs o r beyond them, in  their vicinity,  and,  were o t h e r p l a c e s o f amusement such  2 as the Bear Garden, the zoo Fields, to  i n thcjTower, and  Finsbury  I n the l a t t e r , b u t t s were s e t up f o r archery  encourage the Londoners to continue p r a c t i s i n g  the E n g l i s h longbow.  Here the c i t i z e n walked  with  and  p i c n i c k e d on h i s holidays. He might a l s o visit the s e c t i o n o f the Tower t h a t was  open to the p u b l i c and marvel at 3  the animals i n i t s s m a l l zoo.  Y e t , however much he might  enjoy t h e a t r e s o r puppet shows he must always have been conscious  o f o f f i c i a l d i s a p p r o v a l . The  and the c i t y .  n a t i o n a l government  c o u n c i l frowned on t h e a t r e s a n l F i n s b u r y  a l i k e and d i d a l l they c o u l d to stop the r i o t  and  Fields  extravagance  which o f f e n d e d t h e i r p u r i t a n c o n s c i e n c e s and which they 1 B l a c k f r i a r s was an e x c e p t i o n . We have seen t h a t i t l a y i n s i d e the c i t y ^ p. 13 above, 2 c f . Volpone. I V , i , 37-40. 3. The Tower l a y j u s t i n s i d e the w a l l s . Yet i t was conc V B n i e n t l y near the o u t s k i r t s . Many f a m i l i e s l e a v i n g London f o r the day v i s i t e d the Tower b e f o r e they f t the c i t y .  17 thought were i n e x t r i c a b l y connected w i t h p l a y s and bear and b u l l b a i t i n g .  1  The government o f London wasin the hands o f the g u i l d s | known i n London as the twelve great l i v e r y companies.  2  They r u l e d through a mayor and a c o u n c i l  of aldermen, who c o u l d be chosen from the membersof any g u i l d , regardless-of i t s r e l a t i v e s i z e o r importance. Once e l e c t e d , the mayor and h i s c o u n c i l had absolute c o n t r o l w i t h i n the w a l l s f o r London v/as a f r e e town. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  o f the c i t y presented many  problems to the mayor and h i s c o u n c i l .  The p o l i c i n g  system, f o r example, was a l t o g e t h e r inadequate. The constables o r eatchpols were u s u a l l y drawn from the lowest stratum o f s o c i e t y and were completely untrustworthy. Consequently, they c o u l d not be expected to handle r i o t s or t h i e v i n g e f f e c i e n t l y .  To make matters worse, the  g e n e r a l populace l i t t l e r e a l i z e d how necessary was law and order w i t h i n the c i t y . Many Londoners seemed t o d e l i g h t i n confusion and uproar. They appeared, f o r i n s t a n c e , to be content t o watch the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f law pass i n t o the hands o f the apprentices when the cry o f "clubs" rang through the s t r e e t s . 1  The p u r i t a n a t t i t u d e o f the city,) c o u n c i l becomes  E v i d e n t very e a r l y i n our p e r i o d .  2. The twelve great l i v e r y companies were: the mercers, grocers, drapers, fishmongers, goldsmiths, skinners, merchant t a y l o r s , haberdashers, s a l t e r s , ironmongers, v i n t e r s , cloth vorkers.  18 The large no  'problem o f keeping  a s t h e one  o f keeping  L o n d o n c l e a n was i t o r d e r l y . There  r e g u l a r system o f sewers. Water had  the houses from the c o n d u i t s and g a r b a g e was  t o be  i n the middle  s u p p o s e d t o be  carried  open c e n t r e g u t t e r t h a t d i s c h a r g e d i n t o d i t c h e s connected  With  such  i n e v i t a b l e t h a t the  c o n s t a n t mass o f f i l t h the d i r t  The  and  and  away down t h e one  the  often  windows  i t fell  this arrangea  refuse of a l l descriptions.  ttepoor s a n i t a t i o n of Elizabethen. as the c o n s t a n t  than order,  and  they  d i d very  anc:aore s a n i t a a ^ y .  of  example o f t h e i r  c i t y we  h a v e an  P e t e r M o r r i s , a Dutchman, a s k e d  riots,  little  In the  inertia.  f o r permission  to  a d e v i c e t o r a i s e w a t e r f r o m t h e Thames so t h a t he inadequate  a p p l i c a t i o n was end  on  repeated  s t r e e t s w o u l d be  make L o n d o n l e s s d i r t y  enlarge the  not,  sixteenth century c o u n c i l l o r s cleanlifiess  important  the  of  an e l e m e n t a r y  L o n d o n w o u l d seem a s i n t o l e r a b l e  less  th  streets,  " t a k e the. w a l l " s p r i n g s f r o m  haphazard arrangement.  but to the  o f the  t h e g u t t e r . I n many c a s e s ,  E l i z a b e t h a n phrase,  To u s  c a r r i e d to  thrown from the upper f r o n t  t h e h e a d o f t h e unwary p a s s e r b y .  ment i t was  was  w i t h t h e Thames. More o f t e n t h a n  however, w a s t e was and n e v e r r e a c h e d  as  supply r e a c h i n g the c i t y .  s u m m a r i l y r e f u s e d and n o t  o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n p e r i o d was  a s a t i s f a c t o r y water system i n London.  to  records In  1582  install could His  long after  there anything  was  the  approaching  19 The  r e g u l a t i o n o f tirade a n d : o f t h e m a n u f a c t u r e o f  g o o d s w i t h i n t h e c i t y was a l s o t h e c o n c e r n and  o f t h e mayor  t h e a l d e r m e n , who* t i i m i g h . m u n i c i p a l o r d i n a n c e s ,  the wishes o f t h e g u i l d s e f f e c t i v e .  They would  for  example,  and  t h e n t h e national government p a s s e d  made  supervise,  s u c h m a r k e t s a s t h a t a t S m i t h f i e l d s . Now  or over-lapped  those  occurred very r a r e l y  o f the citizens, i n the^case  laws t h a t b u t such  superseded  a c t i o n c,;-  o f trade that  completely  c a r r i e d on w i t h i n t h e c i t y . Since there  a r e few r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e p l a y s t o t h e  p a s s i n g o f r e g u l a t i o n s by t h e mayor and h i s c o u n c i l and no  scenes  It  t h a t p i c t u r e meetings o f t h e g u i l d s ,  seems  h a r d l y necessary.; t o g i v e any d e t a i l s c o f t h e d a y b y d a y functioning o f either guild or dity must h a v e t h o u g h t  t h a t g u i l d g o v e r n m e n t was t o o much a  commonplace t o i n t e r e s t are t o l d  c o u n c i l . The p l a y w r i g h t s  their  audiences.  t h a t Quomodb was g i v e n a g u i l d  C a n d i d o was an a l d e r m a n , we know n o t h i n g  p a r t t h e y tsok i n g u i l d m e e t i n g s We now know s o m e t h i n g b o t h  Although  we  f u n e r a l and t h a t further o f the  o r i n the c i t y  council.  o f t h e appearance and  o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t o f L o n d o n , b u t , b e f o r e we l e a v e t h e city, its  we s h o u l d g l a n c e  i n an e q u a l l y c u r s o r y f a s h i o n a t  v a r i e d p o p u l a t i o n . We must n o t t h i n k o f i t a s t h e  home o f m i d d l e composed. and  their  craftsmen I  c l a s s c i t i z e n s o n l y , f o r no c i t y  Men o f a l l r a n k s made up t h e l i f e  i s so  o f london  i n t e r e s t were o f t e n t h e same a s t h o s e  o f the  and merchants.  c f . T r e v e l y a n , G. M., E n g l i s h S o c i a l  History,pp.190-192.  20 From t h e c i t i z e n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w , t h e m o s t important  and  0  t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l g r o u p i n London  w o u l d be composed o f t h e metobers o f t h e c o u r t . them w o u l d be with  titles  who  found nobles o f the h e r e d i t a r y a r i s t o c r a c y ,  d a t i n g from  and c i t i x e n  and  the time  of William  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , such  had been r a i s e d  state.  Anong  S u c h men  thtConquerer,  as L o r d B u r l e i g h ,  to the peerage f o r s e r v i c e to  and  t h e i r wives would s e t the f a s h i o n s  p r o v i d e the b e s t market f o r the c i t i z e n s J  W e a l t h y m e r c h a n t s who  h e l d honored  were n e x t  importance.  i n rank  and  any o f t h e g u i l d s ,  the  and,  s e c t i o n s o f the c i t y  as  goods.  p l a c e s i n the  They might b e l o n g  they walked through  devoted  city to  the  to t h e i r c r a f t s ,  ambitious  a p p r e n t i c e s w o u l d l o o k u p o n them a s m o d e l s . S i r Thomas Gresham w o u l d be The  t y p i c a l o f such  b u l k o f L o n d o n ' s p o p u l a t i o n was  m e r c h a n t s and  carriers,  the Eyres  tapsters,  and  pictured  o f the  above  are  adequately  Although  and  i n the p l a y s , they are,  the  fairly as a  l e s s memorable t h a n t h o s e b e l o w them i n t h e  scale.  The  f o r the  d r a m a t i s t s seemed t o h a v e  an e s p e c i a l  l o w e s t members o f E l i z a b e t h a n s o c i e t y .  remember F r a n k , 1  and y e t s a f e l y  drawers o f t h e i n n s .  these comfortable c i t i z e n s frequently  made up  c r a f t s m e n Mabose w e a l t h p l a c e s them b e l o w  t h e g r e s h a m s abd  far  men.  rule,  social affection We a l l  t h e d r a w e r , i n H e n r y .IV, P a r t l ^ f o r  Henry l V , P a r t  L i , l,iv,37-125.  his  21 excellent  s & u p i d i t y j but  second c i t i z e n s or  discuss  an  i n any  recall  the  to  the  year  capital  younger, sons, d i s p l a c e d s e r v a n t s , and  sailors.  London  But,  C h e a p s i d e was in  during  seasons, the  Italian  and introduce  incident  crowded a l l the  with visitors  first  p l a y o n l y beeause they  important  L o n d o n was citizens,  we  the  law  c i t y was  thronged with  with of  and  i t s  own  England,  unemployed s o l d i e r s  terms, v h i c h marked  e s p e c i a l l y busy, visitors  and  eager f o r the  r a p i e r s , French cloaks, or yellow  the  newest  starched  ruffs. W h e n we  look  b a c k we  can  hardly  L o n d o n e r o f E l i z a b e t h ' s t i m e was However f i l t h y heart  or  without its  and or  and  to  Somerset r e b e l l i o n  because i t had if for  we  may  her  London  judge  not  i t s  by  years  the  support  of  the  importance, succeed  c a r e f u l to  before  a g a i n s t Mary had  from the  astuteness and  had  i t was  c o u l d hope t o  i t s p o p u l a c e . No  a few  the  city.  movement o f n a t i o n a l  E v e n E l i z a b e t h was  flatter  remembered t h a t , o n l y the  no  financial,  i t s approval.  favor  proud of h i s  d i s o r d e r l y i t m i g h t be,  of England,  either political  wonder t h a t  doubt, her  mainly  capital;  p l a y s , E l i z a b e t h was  well  the u n q u a l i f i f i e d . a l l e g i a n c e  citizens.  she  coronation,  failed  the  retain  and, repaid of  1 Ideals  o f the Middle Class  22  Having outlined i n the preceding historical  and g e o g r a p h i c  pass on t o t h e p l a y s . the citizen.  related  background o f t h e London  Ijfc h a v e b u t o n e m o r e s e c t i o n t o c o v e r b e f o r e  citizen,  of  chapters t h e  I n i tI s h a l l  These i d e a l s ,  to the geographical  C a m p , C.W., Craig,  ^Peafcrof t h e i d e a l s  nationally, w i l l  and h i s t o r i c a l  previously discussed. 1 F o r the background information c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o :  R.H.  Herbert,  ., K n i g h t s ,  factors  contained  The E n c h a n t e d  i n this  Glass.  C u n n i n g h a m , -ty, , T h e Qrowt-h o f E n g l i s h  Hall,  be c l o s e l y  The A r t i z a n i n E l i z a b e t h a n L i t e r a t u r e ,  Hardin,  Gretton,  I  The E n g l i s h M i d d l e  Industry  Class.  Society.in the Elizabethan  L . C , Drama and S o c i e t y  Age.  i n t h e Age o f J o n  Lee, Sidney, " T o p i c a l S i d e o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n T r a n s a c t i o n s o f t h e Hew S h a k e s p e a r e S o c i e t y . Powell,C.L., English  and Commerce.  son.  Drama",  DomesticxRelations.  B o u t h ^ A . V . ,"The A d v e n t o f M o d e r n T h o u g h t i n P o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e , " Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Literature,val.7«p4B6. " The P r o g e s s s o f S o c i a l L i t e r a t u r e i n Tudor Times," Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e n a t u r e , v o l . 5 , p . 9 3 . T a w n e y , R.H.,  Religion  and t h e R i s e  V e b l e n , T . , The T h e o r y o f t h e L e i s u r e Willey,  B., The S e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r y  W r i g h t , L B . M i d d l e CJa s s C u l t u r e  of Capitalism. Class. Background.  i n Elizabethan  England.  23  I s h a l l consider the c i t i z e n ' s ideals i n t h i s chapter f o r c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e reasons.  In the f i r s t - p l a c e ,  ideals are frequently expressed i n the plays, and I could not give a survey of the c i t i z e n without taking them into account.  Secondly, when I know what the Elizabethan  c i t i z e n thought most praiseworthy i n conduct and what he desired most i n material goods, I s h a l l be able to account f o r c e r t a i n of h i s actions. F i n a l l y , by comparing what he d i d with what he said, I s h a l l see how he to  attempted  reconcile theory and pr actice and, thus, may obtain  a more comprehensive picture of h i s l i f e than would otherwise have been possible. In t h i s chapter I have made no e f f o r t to give a composite picture of the c i t i z e n ' s thought. who wishes to form h i s own,  Anyone  however, has only to read  a number of the plays of the period, or even large sections f quotations from them, such as are given 0  i n t h i s essay. At f i r s t glance the Elizabethan's ideals appear to be a welter of inconsistencies and h i s judgements on men  and morals seem hopelessly confused.  Such  confusion and contradiction sprang d i r e c t l y i from the world i n which he l i v e d . Change was i n the a i r . The foundations of f a i t h had been shaken, and even the globe i t s e l f and the people on i t seemed to have changed. For instance, o l d customs i n r e l i g i o n were disappearing  24  and new c o n v e n t i o n s were b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d . other  h a n d , d i s c o v e r i e s made  former  boundaries  o u t m o d e d , a n d many t r a n s l a t i o n s f r o m and  ancient languages  concept  of other vL  If  altered  contemporary  cultures.  s h a l l have t o impose  contradictory  ideals  sight.  o t h e r men, f o r m e d  The E l i z a b e t h a n , h i sideals  had been taught, the t r a d i t i o n s  from  him, the conventions o f the  world. Naturally,  then, I can divide h i s ideals  from  the past  When M o t e d - ' a t ' , f r o m unrelated tory  form  explain I  and those  this  f o rthe ideals  the past. This time conventions  unity,  into  those  by h i s present. the hopelessly  and t h e t o t a l l y  contradic-  a g a i n t o t h e M i d d l e Ages t o  that the citizen  I shall  inherited  from  speak o f t h e m e d i e v a l  and b e l i e f s r a t h e r than d i s c u s s m e r c h a n t i l e  d e v e l o p m e n t a s I have done The  contemporary  themselves.  s h a l l have t o t u r n  account  formed  p o i n t o f view,  coherent groups  what  o f t h e p a s t , and from  w h a t he saw a r o u n d  inherited  I  some o r d e r u p o n t h e m . T o d o s o  seems i m p o s s i b l e a t f i r s t  he  both  of travel  and e n l a r g e d t h e E l i z a b e t h a n ' s  2-TTi t o sfc&dy t h e s e  however, l i k e  On t h e  previously.  main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  founded  i n religion,  o f the medieval and expressed  of l i f e .  T h e r e was much l a y a c t i v i t y  diversity  of people  e r a was i t s  i n every part  and a m u l t i t u d i n o u s  i n t h e M i d d l e Ages,  i ti s true$ but  most o f t h e i n h a b i t a n t s o f Europe r e g a r d e d  themselves  25 primarily  as members o f a s i n g l e  dom, r a t h e r Both  than.as  church  philosophy character  that  and  eternal,  all  encompassing  to  life  position  writing  Christen-  o r Germans.  gave a l l e g i a n c e  t o a common  t h e w o r t h l e s s and  transitory  and y e t regarded both  temporal  and i m p e r f e c t , as p a r t d f God's  plan.  Both  church  and s t a t e  a d v i s e d man  be c o n t e n t w i t h h i s l o t a n d t o a c c e p t t h e  his  he  stressed  perfect  unit,  Frenchmen, Englishmen,  and s t a t e  of this  religious  w a s p a r t ..of a l a r g e u n i t .  feet  As l a t e  that  as t h e  o f t h e A n g l i c a n B o o k o f Common P r a y e r , f o r i n s t a n c e  i stold  t h a t h e s h o u l d do h i s d u t y  i n the state o f  1 life  unto  which  i tshall  p l e a s e God t o c a l l h i m .  Such t e a c h i n g , t o a s o c i e t y nobles,  clergy,  to  move f r o m  of  discontent.  incentive  and serfs,  would  rigidly  divided  imply that  one " c l a s s t o a n o t h e r were  t o change h i s p l a c e .  He c o u l d  attempts  evil  M e d i e v a l man, o n t h e / w h o l e ,  into  and had  even  symptomatic little  bear  unhappiness  o n e a r t h whenhfee w a s a s s u r e d b y t h e c h u r c h  that  f o r t h e good l i f e  reward  s u f f e r i n g was t o be f o u n d In  and compensation  f o r a l l  i n heaven.  this medieval world, according to  religious  and p o l i t i c a l t h e o r y , t h e r e was no p l a c e f o r t h e m e r c h a n t . 1 . T h e B o o k o f Common' P r a y e r , "A c a t e c h i s m " . Q u e s t i o n . What i s t h y d u t y t o w a r d s t h y n e i g h b o r ? A n s w e r . M y d u t y t o w a r d s my n e i g h b o r . . . . H o t t o c o v e t , o r d e s i r e o t h e r men's g o o d s ; b u t t o l e a r n a n d l a b o r t u j f t l y t o g e t m i n e own l i v i n g , a n d t o . d o my d u t y i n t h a t s t a t e o f l i e u n t o w h i c h i t s h a l l p l w a s e G o d t o c a l l me.  26  The  church  need, from  and  the  one  would  state feared  c l a s s to  shake  although the  condemned h i s p r o f i t i n g  another  i t s ordered  Ages, gave  t h a t condemned t h e i r ad  the  to  voice  religious  activities. the  gift  to  o f God,  many w a y s ,  i n the  traditional  in  offering hospitality  in  the  of penniless  o r p h a n s by The  other  i n medieval  and  continued  s o c i e t y were  transitory  i t c o u l d be  giving of  guild  to  members and  i t  life was  expressed the  in poor,  the  indigent,  their  widows  guildsmen.  diregard of  i n theElizabethan  generosity  show t h a t many E l i z a b e t h a n s  i d e a l s s p r i n g i n g out  of  this medieval virtue  the  o f h o s p i t a l i t y m i s e r l i n e s s , and  past.  were  To  usury  o n e ' B f e l l o w w o r k e r was  was  Generosity,  alms to  and  the  of  late  good fortune, which  to wanderers  numerous complaints  neglect  as  They toId"man t h a t  concerning  and  during  standards  w i t h h i s f e l l o w men.  a virtue,  by  positions  Elizabethan citizen  share  became  care  merchants,  In England,  i n character.  commanded him  the  fortunes  Even the  to hoard w o r l d l y goods f o r t h i s  they  rise  precepts.  therefore,  and  amass g r e a t  important  i d e a l s that developed  useless  always  held  to  allegiance to medieval  such m e d i e v a l  primarily  and  to  another's  ability  foundations.  sixteenth century,  The  that his and  i n p r a c t i c e they  Middle  from  drama of  influenced  s u c h men,  were v i c e s , a sin.  lack  27 The of  Elizabethans  evil  as  believed, constant of  his  the  well  as  i n h e r i t e d m e d i e v a l man's  his  therefore, fight  to  complete  aid of  God,  that  inability man  chastity  honesty,  riotous  and  to  imperraanen.ee.  on  earth  was  and  that,  chaste,  achieve  s h o u l d be  i n the  life's  existence  keep pure  counterparts and  sense o f  this  end  say  aware  without Their  in praise  t h e y condemn o s t e n t a t i o n  spending, which they regard  as  a  They  a  c o n s i s t e n t l y humble.  drama h a v e much t o and  awareness  sign  of  of and  man's  pride. The  m e d i e v a l church had  compel the and  making of  quality of  the e v i l  of  used  regulations  g o o d s and  i t s influence governing  in doing  desiring riches  on  so  had  earth  f o r the  that  one's o b l i g a t i o n to  one's f e l l o w  unit  s h o u l d be  i n honest  Naturally,  sake o f mere w e a l t h . .  expressed  therefore,  demanded f a i r  and  inherited  these.  have  that  said  because of to  his  his  the  sixteenth craftsman  position  in  price  sin of  said,  in  a common r e l i g i o u s  competent  had  ideals  Elizabethan  and  work.  that citizen  century merchant  society  taking  furthermore,  and  s h o u l d be  again  would  conscientious of  his  relationship  God.  Medieoal the  c a r e f u l w o r k . The The  the  I t had  m e d i e v a l man  the  stressed  and  gain  to  state  ideals concerning  were d e t e r m i n e d by  b e t w e e n r e l i g i o u s and mentioned  the  political  above. A g a i n ,  In  the  the  place  close theory  o f man  within  relationship that  sixteenth  we  have  century,  we  shall  f i n d .Elizabethans echoing medieval thought  say t h a t rank  the  of people  believed in  ideal nation  also  s h o u l d be  t h a t no  one  of ideals, different  was  should t r y t o occupy  two  definitions  sets two  o f h a p p i n e s s , o r of' w h a t  that h i s  m o r e a p t t o b e m e d i e v a l t h a n c o n t empo-r  ment o f one's i d e a l s  should result  absence  of a desire  the  from medieval concepts would  generous,  quiet  spoken,  and g o d l y .  characters occur frequently to  g o d l i n e s s and  Such  citizen  who  generosity  to  perfect be  man  humfole,  idealized  i n the plays.  the accounts o f the p e r i o d  t h o s e w r i t t e n by H a r r i s o n and M o r y s o n  attain-  with  t o change o r  n e e d e d f o r o n e ' s w o r k . The  formed  the  i n contentment  k n o w move t h a n o n e citizen  differ  constituted  According to medieval tradition  one's l o t , i n the  They  born.  at least  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note  e x p r e s s e d i d e a l was i n origin.  was  upon  a place  conflicting  the E l i z a b e t h a n c i t i z e n had  the good-life.  rary  i n w h i c h he  i n f l u e n c e d by  they  composed o f r a n k  a r r a n g e d i n an o r g a n i z e d . h i e r a c h y .  society higher than that S i n c e he  when  also  The  guides  such  as  favor the  possessed the t r a d i t i o n a l v i r t u e s 1 and h u m i l i t y ,  of  1 Q t h e r w r i t e r s as w e l l p r e f e r r e d the m e d i e v a l type o f c i t i z e n . " L a t i m e r and Mgre d e p l o r e d t h e appearance o f c o m p e t i t i o n , t h e i d e a c&f e a c h man s e e k i n g t o b e r i c h e r t h a n h i s n e i g h b o r , a n d d e c l a r e d i t t o be c o n t r a r y t o t h e l a w s o f g o d a n d men, f o r e a c h t o sleek h i s own profit i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f t h e p r o f i t o f t h e c o m m u n i t y . " Gomme, The G o s e p n a u n o e o f L o n d o n , p . 3 7 1 .  29 The m e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n s - t h a t 1 h a v e b e e n would have given to  work hard,  explore the  strange  a godly  happiness.  for  adventure.  or to  o f past  was n o t h i s o n l y  ideal of  he g l o r i e d ' i n h i s r i s e i n  i n f a r countries,  traditions.  and was  eager  to justify  the restrictive  I s h a l l now t u r n  t o see what standards  Eventually  that  to the  i t gave t h e  we m a y u n d e r s t a n d h i s c o n t r a d i c -  ideals. I  been  t o another,  He h a d i d e a l s f r o m h i s p r e s e n t  sixteenth century  tory  life  and t o counterbalance  Elizabethan.  incentive  p r a i s e medieval v i r t u e s alone and  lifeed t o t r a v e l  actions  influence  did-not  On t h e c o n t r a r y ,  world,  little  c o u n t r i e s . B u t we k n o w , o f c o u r s e ,  and q u i e t  the  such  citizen  t o move f r o m one p l a c e  Elizabethan  that  the Elizabethan  discussing  have  already  said that  a l t e r e d and t h a t  religious  d i s c o v e r i e s had reformed the face  the  globe by t h e s i x t e e n t h century.  give  u s no i d e a o f t h e m a g n i t u t d e  taken place  customs had  i n many f i e l d s  B u t such  statements  o f the changes that had  o f human a c t i o n  and thought.  s h a l l have t o go i n t o f u r t h e r d e t a i l b e f o r e define  of  I attempt to  t h e new i d e a l s t h a t g r e w out. o f t h e s e  altered  donditions. Reform  i n r e l i g i o n h a d n o t l e do n l y completely  t o new c u s t o m s .  It  had eradicated  of  a u n i t e d C h r i s t e n d o m . E u r o p e was no l o n g e r  [together, l o o s e l y b u t f i r m l y ,  m e d i e v a l s man's  concept held  i n a single faith.  On  I  30 the  contrary,  by t h e r i s e ground  i t had been  of diverse  since  split  sects  each claimed  into  sharply  defined  a m o n g whom t h e r e  t o •have  was  the exclusive  groups  no  common  religious  truth. With the growth of nationalism in  religion  began  T h e snan who, himself  t o be  as a C h r i s t i a n ,  Frenchman nation^  than  now,  i n the sixteenth  Dutchman. The  shift  individual  m a n k i n d no  sinful,  t h e C h r i s t i a n man was,  longer  worthless  that  him  wholeheartedly life  of the  on  earth Reform  priesthood  and h a d r e m i n d e d him t h a t ,  study  o f Greek  i t was  not forbidden  development o f trade  and God  evil  to  find  ana.Roman l e t t e r s  shown h i m t h e m a g n i t u d e o f man's p a s t taught him that  By  and t r a n s i t o r y .  he n e e d e d o n l y h i m s e l f  The r e n e w e d  efforts  and  rewarded. I t i s l i t t l e  had had  to enjoy t h i s  and t h e g r o w t h o f t h e  c l a s s had demonstrated to him t h a t sometime  1  with  i n the European*sroutlook.  to the medieval doctrine  completely  t h o u g h he  was  Huguenot  developments and r e s u l t e d  movements i n t h e c h u r c h h a d t o l d  The  century,  or  changes combined  and p o l i t i c a l  sixteenth century,  grace.  described  a s a ^oman C a t h o l i c  and c u l t u r a l  a profound  subscribed  of  life.  a united European Christendom^  these r e l i g i o u s  was  Ages, would have  o r as a P r o t e s t a n t  Economic  the  i n political  found  and t h e r e l i g i o u s group were becoming more  important  in  duplicated  i n the Middle  would t h i n k o f h i m s e l f  the divisions  effort  merchant  i n this  wonder t h a t  life.  world  the  31  sixteenth century man's focus was i n the contemporary world rather than i n eternity and that he f e l t an increasing pride i n himself and i n h i s nation. The Elizabethan c i t i z e n , i n common with other slowly b u i l d up a new philosophy to f i t the new  men,  facts  that he had observed and he modified many of h i s i d e a l s concerning r e l i g i o n , the state, success, and education. !&; s h a l l not pay much attention to that part of h i s philosophy which duplicated the thought of members of other c l a s s e s . For instance, knowing that both he and the nobles and c l e r g y exalted the Cgueen and England and were proud of l i v i n g i n an e x c i t i n g age t e i l s us l i t t l e  new  about the c i t i z e n . But we s h a l l notice p a r t i c u l a r l y c e r t a i n ideals that he seemed to have formed f o r himself alone. No other dlass i n soicety gave these i d e a l s such 1  l o y a l adherence and such voluble expression. Of a l l Elizabethans the c i t i z e n was most d i r e c t l y influenced by the extension o f trade and the growth of  the importance of money, and, therefore, the i d e a l s  that he made h i s own were rooted i n commerce and, p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n the use of c a p i t a l . As a r e s u l t , both time 1 " The new world was to be d i f f e r e n t . Commerce was to rule i t s ways and to govern events. Feudal dues were to give way to economic laws. Discorvery and adventure were to be the passwords of a new l i f e . The hero of the o l d world was perhaps Henry Vf/the hero of the new world was to be Drake, and, l a t e r on, Gresham." Gommet, The Governaunce of London, p. 370.  32 and money grew t o be o f g r e a t In  importance t o tbe  a s e n s e , b o t h c o u l d be u s e d a s c a p i t a l  produce p r o f i t s .  i d e a l s to the c i t i z e n , thrift The hiB  and he  and i n d u s t r y , c i t i z e n was  ideals  i n v e n t e d two  f o r instance, The  of  attendant virtues Wives,  apprentices,  are a l l t o l d to  c i t i z e n repeated  be  Polonius'  " n e i t h e r a b o r r o w e r n o r a l e n d e r b e " many/times a shopkeeper-warned  those  t o complement h i s i d e a l s .  and o f t h e power o f t h e i r  servants^  virtues,  so c o n v i n c e d o f t h e i m p o r t a n c e  p r u d e n t w i t h money.  The  •re-  a s p o s s i b l y became  t h a t he u r g e d them u p o n a l l a r o u n d h i m . s o n s , and  and made t o  To k e e p and t o make money and t o  c o n s e r v e and t o u s e t i m e a s f u l l y  of  citizen  day.  t h e h o u s e w i f e n o t t o w a s t e h e r money  o n u n n e c e s s a r y c l o t h e s and r e q u i r e d h e r t o more t h a n make the  f u r n e r meats f u r n i s h f o r t h  w e a l t h y merchant  told  the marriage t a b l e s .  t h e y o u n g man  i n c r e a s e h i s i n h e r i t a n c e . The m a s t e r to  s p e n d t h e i r wages i n d i d i n g  name o f t h r i f t , shop, 1  that t h r i f t  The  would  forbade the apprentices  and d r i n k i n g ,  and,  i n the  u r g e d them t o s e l l a l l m a t e r i a l i n t h e  even i f i t were p o o r and  inferior,  H a m l e t , 1, i i i , 7 5 .  2. c f . H a m l e t ' s  "thrift,  t h r i f t , H o r a t i o I » Hamlet,  l,ii,180.  , In  a s i m i l a r manner the c i t i z e n  conservation  o f time  33  i n s i s t e d on the  and the p r a c t i c e  of industry.  To  him l a z i n e s s an&3ta&ctivity were s i n s , because b o t h wasted 1 t i m e . He h a d l i t t l e s y m p a t h y w i t h t h e u n e m p l o y e d f o r h e  2 thought  that  a m a n who d i d n o t l a b o r d i d n o t w a n t  In the plays, their from  for instance,  servants  the masters  and the servants  urge work  complain i f i t i s  addition to i d e a l i z i n g the saving  moderation,  -gobMety,  s e e m a s i f we  At f i r s t  discussed  citizen  much t o  B u t vl  changed  thrift  sight,  these virtues  tradition.  plays.  as ones  them so t h a t  and i n d u s t r y .  say i n praise  He was eager  Counter  i t might  i n h e r i t e d from  f o r debt  they  now seem  The merchant,  o f honesty,  medieval  equally  sobriety  has  was  In the  i f ifcheyididrnot pay h i m .  to  On t h e  dishonest.  at an u n f a i r  He  price  and moderation i n the  same m a n n e r . H e p r a i s e d s o b r i e t y because  f o r example,  send h i s customers  always ready to s e l l poor goods He e m p h a s i s e d  the  subsidiary  a s we s h a l l s e e l a t e r enough t o  have  but h i s honesty  other hand, he condoned p r a c t i c e s  apprentices  and  mention:)them a g a i n h e r e b e c a u s e  tempered by prudence,  was  withheld  o f time and  money t h e m e r c h a n t p r a i s e d h o n e s t y ,  the  upon  them. In  to  to.  i n h i s servants  i t l e d to less  wasteful  and  spending,  and  1 o f . m e d i e v a l a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s S l o t h , one o f t h e s e w n deadly sins. 2- c f . H a r r i s o n . He r e a l i z e d p r o b l e m c a n n o t b e s o l v e d at whipping post.  34 he was  p l e a s e d , when h i s w i f e showed m o d e r a t i o n  because I t Is  i n dress  h e r r e s t r a i n t c o n s e r v e d m a t e r i a l a n d money.  d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r he w i s h e d  p r a c t i c e t h e s e v i r t u e s as The  citizen  formed  a g r e e w i t h h i s new  to  c r i t e r i o n o f happiness  to  well.  a new  ideals.  s e l f - s e e k i n g rewarded  h i s noble customers  I n a w o r l d where he  saw  he no. l o n g e r f e l t c o m p e l l e d ,  h i s m e d i e v a l p r e d e c e s s o r had o f m i n d and r e s i g n a t i o n  done, t o c u l t i v a t e  t o God's w i l l , . & e no  as  peace  longer  wanted t o w a i t f o r compensation  i n eternity.  h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f the good l i f e  contrasted strangely  w i t h t h a t o f m e d i e v a l man. c i t i z e n who t o be  was  Happiness,to  Consequently,  the E l i z a b e t h a n  i n f l u e n c e d by contemporary  ideals,  was  found in success i n the world. T h i s success c o u l d  t a k e many f o r m s .  I t might  be  shown b y  the  accumulation  of g r e a t w e a l t h , by t h e p u r c h a s e o f l a n d , o r by attainment of Wealth, desired  knighthood. titles,  l a n d , the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y merchant  and f r e q u e n t l y , he  B u t t h e r e was  the  one  succeeded  i n obtaining a l l three.  t h i n g t h a t many c i t i z e n s w a n t e d e v e n  more t h a n t h e s e t a n g i b l e  evidence o f t h e i r  industry,  1 Ividence o f t h e d e c e i t t h e c i t i z e n s o m e t i m e s p r a c t i s e d i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n a t i t l e w i l l be f o u n d i n t h e p l a y s . B u t one o r two o t h e r e x a m p l e s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g . S i r W i l l i a m D e t h i c k , G a r t e r - K i n g - a t - A r m s , 1586-1605. whose m o t h e r was a J k i t c h s h o e m a k e r ' s daughter and whose g r a n d m o t h e r was a b a k e r ' s d a u g h t e r , was a c c u s e d o f s e l l i n g and f o r g i n g p a p e r s . The a c c u s a t i o n was b r o u g h t f o r t h b y o t h e r members o f t h e C o l l e g e o f Arms. The famous a n d s u c c e s s f u l attfflmp& o f S h a k e s p e a r e t o o b t a i n arms i s f a m i l i a r t o e v e r y o n e , b u t i t i s n o t so w e l l known t h a t an u n p u b l i s h e d p a m p h l e t a c c u s e d h i m o f d o i n g so i l l e g a l l y . Two o t h e r p l a y e r s , P h i l l i p s and . Pope were a c c u s e d o f t h e same a c t i o n . S h a k e s p e a r e ' s E n g l a n d , v.11,82—83,  35 T h i s was idealized today. every  education academic  for their  belief.  It  that  and t h e y  it  class  would open e v e r y  true  that  the  do  d o o r and  h a d some j u s t i f i c a t i o n  is certainly  a middle c l a s s  The m i d d l e  l e a r n i n g as t h e i r d e s c e n d a n t s  They thought problem,  sons.  for  intelligent  m e r c h a n t who o b t a i n e d a g o o d  c o u l d r e a c h a p o s i t i o n open f o r m e r l y o n l y t o  solve  their son o f  education a member  1 of  the  clergy  S u c h were  o r the the  nobility.  values  and t h e b e l i e f s  that  the  E l i z a b e t h a n c i t i z e n b u i l t up f r o m t h e w o r l d a r o u n d h i m . Yi/hen he v i s u a l i z e d see  a thrifty  an i d e a l man t o  merchant,  honest  as f a r  shrewdness,  proud o f h i s t i t l e s city,  them he w o u l d  p r o b a b l y w i t h one  university,  h o n o u r s from the  fit  as h o n e s t y  and t h e  son at  the  was c o m p a t i b l e  from the owner o f  the  with  k i n g and o f  a large  town  h o u s e and a c o u n t r y e s t a t e . 1 An a m a z i n g number o f t h e E n g l i s h grammar s c h o o l s were founded and supported by t h e London c i t i z e n s , eg. S t . P a u l s S c h o o l was f o u n d e d i n 1509 b y C o l e t b u t - w a s m a i n t a i n e d b y t h e c i t y . T h e M e r c e r s ' S c h o o l a n d The M e r c h a n t T a y l o r s ' w e r e a l s o endowed by m e r c h a n t s . C h r i s t ' s H o s p i t a l was one o f H e n r y V l l l ' s f o u n d a t i o n s , b u t was s u p p o r t e d by L o n d o n e r s a n d was t h e r e c e p i e n t o f l a r g e s u m s g i v e n b y Dame R a m s a y , t h e widow o f a f o r m e r L o r d Mayor, ^ h a r t e r h o u s e was s u p p o r t e d b y C h a r l e s S u t t o n , a g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c a l who h a d a m a s s e d g r e a t w e a l t h . S e e , M u l l i n g e r , J . B . , " E n g l i s h Grammar S c h o o l s , " CHUL, v o l . I V , p. 368.  36  I f we compare t h i s  i d e a l i z e d , merchant w i t h the one  t h a t the c i t i z e n migfht have formed from m e d i e v a l  traditions  we can see how g r e a t l y they would d i f f e r and we c a n understand the c o n f u s i o n t h a t r e s u l t e d when he t r i e d t o combine m e d i e v a l and contemporary v a l u e s i n one man. No merchant, r e a l o r imaginary, c o u l d be generous, y e t s a v i n g ; w i l l i n g to l i s t e n t o the complaints o f beggars  and to open h i s  house f o r every man's entertainment and never ready t o l e a v e h i s work; humble, and y e t proud o f h i s success. In  a l a t e r c h a p t e r we s h a l l see the i d e a l s t h a t  1.: have d i s c u s s e d i l l u s t r a t e d i n the p l a y s . A t t h e same time,/,we s h a l l l e a r n t h a t the drama r e f l e c t s the c o n f u s i o n &n.A ihe  i n s e c u r i t y o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y merchant who  t r i e d to r e c o n c i l e c o n t r a d i c t o r y i n f l u e n c e s from the p a s t and from t h e contemporary world  The  Dramatists  and  37  t h e Drama  i Up and I  to t h i s p o i n t I have g i v e n  the e c o n o m i c , p o l i t i c a l  t o p o g r a p h i c a l background o f the  shall  tance  plays.  suppose t h a t the r e a d e r h a s  with  the  Elizabeth. detailed  I t w i l l not-be necessary  concerned  be  but  s h a l l c o n s i d e r them p r i n c i p a l l y  the  then,  serve  more i n f o r m a t i o n on obtained Red in  from the  l i t e r a r y merits  o f the  f o r the life  essay.  The  I  the  life  o f the  p l a y s p r a i s e d by  courtly circle  i n favor  and  plays  times. come  rabble  the  Indeed  c i t i z e n may  be at  at B l a c k f r i a r s  o f the Countess o f  any  shall  anonymous and  the  of  information  a s w e l l as t h e m a s t e r p i e c e .  B u l l than from those the  time  to give  every: typet'of'pitay w i l l  w i t h i n the range o f t h i s mediocre w i l l  to the  f o r me  c o n t a i n about E l i z a b e t h a n  Naturally,  acquain-  t h e E l i z a b e t h a n drama.  not  t h a t they  with  addition,  a moderate  h i s t o r y o f l i t e r a t u r e up  i n f o r m a t i o n on  In  the or  Pembroke,  Some s y s t e m , however, w i l l h a v e t o be  imposed  on  the p l a y s i n order to s e l e c t the i n f o r m a t i o n needed to judge i t s worth. The m e t h o d I s h a l l u s e w i l l be I For the background i n f o r m a t i o n c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o : B r o o k e , T u c k e r , The Chambers, E.K. Clark,  A.M.  The  this  T u d o r Drama. • Elizabethan  Stage.  Heywood.  Hunt, Mary L e l a n d , J.C.  in  Heywood.  Cromwell, O t e l i a ,  Jordan,  contained  and  Robert  Thomas D e k k e r ,  a  Study.  Greene.  B e l t e , Mowbray, B o u r g e o i s E l e m e n t s i n t h e Drama o f Thorn Heywood. " - —  38  to group under separate headings r e f e r e n c e s customs, houses, o r play and  to  habits,  laws, i r r e s p e c t i v e o f the  i n which each r e f e r e n c e sorted the m a t e r i a l  occurs.  to g i v e ,  as  I have  time  gathered  f a r as p o s s i b l e ,  c o m p o s i t e e s t i m a t e o f t h e L o n d o n e r ' s o u t l o o k on and  other My  varied  comments f r o m d i f f e r e n t p l a y s , as  a ruff,  are  very  This divergence u s u a l l y hand the thirty  On  the  o r more d r a m a t i s t s  favour  o f the  r e g a r d e d b o t h as dispose  o f the  conditions order. It  The  c o u l d be  various them and  apt  other,  who  had  ruff  and  s e c o n d one  dramatists. their  written  by  on  the  playwright  other. the  as much  I  subject  in  as  were  v/as,perhaps,  attempted  p o i n t i n g out  the m a t e r i a l  one  two  o f f i n e d i s p l a y ; another  called  s o l v e d o n l y by  insignificant  a t t i t u d e o f the  d i f f i c u l t y by  arranging  example,  c a u s e s . On  signs of ostentation;  first  o r by  these  to c o n t r a d i c t each  the  0;ne  For  s u c h an  a r o s e f r o m two  o f t e n c o m p l e t e l y opposed. in  even on  s o u r c e s were s o m e t i m e s s e p a r a t e d  years.  a  subjects.  m e t h o d i n v o l v e d some d i f f i c u l t i e s .  article  of  often to  changed  chronological  f o r more d e t a i l e d a t t e n t i o n .  knowing the  Therefore, 1 backgrounds.  I  attitude of  shall briefly  the  describe  X 1 J e s t i n g P i l a t e ' s q u e s t i o n , "what i s t r u t h " , m i g h t ' c a u s e f u r t h e r c o n f u s i o n . E v e r y man, therefore, every d r a m a t i s t ^ s e e s h i s own t r u t h . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n we must s a y w i t h A l d o u s H u x l e y t h a t t o c a r r y on an i n t e l l i g e n t e x i s t e n c e we a r e f o r c e d t o p r e s u p p o s e c e r t a i n t h i n g s . I f ~ Ben J o n s o n c h o s e s t o a t t a c k " f o l l i e s and f o i b l e s " s o m e t h i n g m u s t h a v e e x i s t e d t o w a r r a n t h i s b i t t e r n e s s . As f a r as p o s s i b l e I w h a l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n r a t h e r t h a n w i t h the judgement.  39 The  p r i n c i p a l d r a m a t i s t s who  M i d d l e t o n , Dekker, Marston,  w i l l be  Chapman, Heywood and  Anonymous o r b a r e l y known w r i t e r s and M a c h i n  also wrote  men  divided  may  be  into  two  o t h e r u s e d him  purpose,  solely  One  A l l o f these  on t h e b a i i s o f group  o f the  a source o f r i d i c u l e .  These  life.  speak  a shoemaker o f D u t c h o r i g i n .  The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , b e a r s o u t t h i s t a l e .  the  b e s t account  one  o f the c h a r a c t e r s , Lacy,  H i s most p o p u l a r  i n t h e d r a m a o f t h e shoemakers* assumesihe  have been, p u b l i c  life  from t h e Counter With  imprisoned f o r debt  a t another  such a background  him  idealized.  a  this  writings  knew p o v e r t y  and j u s t  saved  time. Dekker c o u l d be  f a v o u r the c i t i z e n s . Indeed, carried  and  p o s i t i w i and  r e c o r d s , h i s own  and t h o s e o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s show t h a t he and d i s g r a c e . He was  play,  disguise of  Whatever Dekker's  calls  I t contains  B u t c h j o u r n e y m a n . Many r e f e r e n c e s w i l l b e made t o  a n e e s t r y may  and  Tradition  him  essay.  h i s enthusiasm  expected t o f o r them  so f a r t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r s a r e u n d e n i a b l y Any  e v a l u a t i o n o f D e k k e r m u s t be g o v e r n e d  o n l y b y t h e knowledge o f t h i s  my  writers.  i s known o f D e k k e r ' s  play througout the  For  a r e D e k k e r , Heywood,  anonymous and m i n o r  Very l i t t l e  their  favored the ciUzen;  I s h a l l c o n s i d e r f i r s t t h e w r i t e r s who  on b e h a l f o f the L o n d o n e r . a few  r  groups  as  Jonson.  s u c h a s C o o k e , T o m k i n s , .>  p l a y s on London l i f e .  approach t o the middle c l a s s . the  c o n s i d e r e d are  idealization  e s t i m a t e o f h i s c h a r a c t e r a s w e l l . He  was  b u t by  an  o f an o p e n  not  40 and  friendly  into  the  disposition  sources  of  which did not  i n c i d e n t and  c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n c a n n o t he other  hand, t h e r e  surface be  the  judgement same a s  Furthermore, allowed  him  that created have not generally his  are  that given  gives of by  the  The  this brightness regarded  to  collaborators.  be  For  plays  this  and  contemporary interest  result  of  would  fellowmen touch  collaborated  darker the  The  citizen.  a friendly  The  the  people  in.his  i n w h i c h he  of outlook. the  On  approach.  events  d e p i c t c h a r a c t e r Wi£hT  reality.  deeply  from him.  v i r t u e s i n Dekkers  t h a t he  too  e m o t i o n . Deptfft o f  expected  h i s good humour and to  look  tone  i s  influence  of  essay Dekker i s the  creator  1 of Eyre andMargery, ~T~  See R h y s , E,, I n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e M e r m a i d e d i t i o n : Much o f the d e s c r i p t i o n s i n h i s p l a y s c a s t a a v i v i d l i g h t u p o n t h i s w i l d l i f e o f t h e p]gg$iouse and t a v e r n w h i c h he, w i t h o t h e r " y o u n g p o e t s o f t h e " e x t r a o r d i n a r y decade t e r m i n a t i n g the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y must have live...Some o f the scenes i n The H o n e s t W h o r e , and a g a i n i n S a t i r o m a s t i x and o t h e r o f t h e l e s s e r known c o m e d i e s are f u l l o f t h i s interest, p.xii.  The c r a f t s m a n ' s l i f e , m e r g i n i l s e l f i n t h e c i t i z e n s . ! i s t h e end and a l l o f t h e p l a y ; t h e K i n g h i m s e l f i s b u t a shadow o f s o c i a l eminence compared w i t h t h e L o r d Mayor. Simon Eyre, the shoemaker, j o l l i e s t , m o s t exuber a n t o f a l l comedy t y p e s , i s t h e v e r y i n c a r n a t i o n o f t h e h e a r t y E n g l i s h c h a r a c t e r dn i t s p r o s p e r o u s workaday s i d e , u n t r o u b l e d by s p i r i t u a l m i s g i v i n g s and i n t r o s p e c t i o n s a n d h e i s so s e t a m i d s t t h e r e s t o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s as t o d e l i g h t f u l l y f u l f i l t h e j o y o u s m a i n i n t e n t i o n of the play.JJ. x v E i . T h e s t r e e t s a n d s h o p s s c e n e s , ( M a t c h Me i n L o n d o n ) supposed t o be p l a c e d c h i e f l y i n S e v i l l e might j u s t as w e l l be i n L o n d o n . D e k k e r t r a n s f e r s t h e " C o u n t e r " t h e r e w i t h o u t h e s i t a t i o n , and wxcept f o r o c c a s i o n a l d o u b t f u l attempts at Spanish l o c a l c o l o u r , the p l a y i s as n a t i v e as a n y t h i n g t h a t D e k k e r h a s d o n e , p . x x x v i i i .  41 Heywood. s h o u l d playwrights  who  f o l l o w Dekker  i n a discussion o f the  f o rthe c i t i z e n . He h a s b e e n 1 c a l l e d t h e f o u n d e r o f d o m e s t i c drama. Many w r i t e r s have disputed and  will  plays belief  h i stitle,  but I./shall n6t question i t  go f u r t h e r and e q u a t e  domestic  d e a l i n g w i t h m i d d l e c l a s s home that  interest  woman's p l a c e and  spoke  i n i t came w i t h t h e i n c r e a s e d 2  drama c o u l d n o t e x i s t  domestic  life.  L e t me  I t i s my  i n t h e home, a n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y , i n '  knowledge o f t h e middle c l a s s .  citizen.  drama and t h e  until  p r o v e my  wealth  Therefore,  domestic  p l a y s were w r i t t e n a b o u t t h e point  by i l l u s t r a t i o n . I f  drama i s t o r e f e r s o l e l y t o r e l a t i o n s  within the  home, O t h e l l o , M a c b e t h , L e a r  a r e domestic dramas. T h i s 3 statement, o f course, i s r i d i c u l o u s , 1 c f .Powell, E n g l i s h Domestic R e l a t i o n s , O t e l i a C r o m w e l l , Heywood, f o r . t w w . o p p o s i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . 2  c f . d i s c u s s i o n o f women, p o s t .  pp. 112-120.  3 C o n d u c t b o o k s a n d r e l i g i o u s t r e a t i s e s s u p p o r t my c o n t e n t i o n . They a l s o show'an i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n women's p l a c e i n t h e home.  42 If  domestic  drama i s d e f i n e d  Heywood d e s e r v e s h i s t i t l e . are  in this  middle and  field.  solely  as  A Woman K i l l e d  Frankford" i s not 1 gallant.  a the  subject  beings  draws,  i n average circumstances  o f m o r a l s t h a t c a n n o t be plays  display a  treats  a sympathetic  manner  for ridicule.  the t y p i c a l  though inadequately  similar  easily interest  manner  with Kindness  typical citizen's  Wendoll i s not  above  foremost c o n t r i b u t i o n s  c l a s s m a r i t a l problems with  not  both,  His  i n the  Mistress  wife  duped by  seducer.  rather  average  confronted 2 solved.  They  by  a  a are  human question  A l l Heywood's  i n middle c l a s s  life.  His  v a l u e may b e d e s c r i b e d t h u s : W h i l e he p o s s e s s e d t h e g i f t o f g e n u i n e p a t h o s , he was i n c a p a b l e o f l e n d i n g w o r d s t o p a s s i o n , his s a t i r i c g i f t was s m a l l and h e r a r e l y s o u g h t to e x e r c i s e i t , h i s w i t and humour m o v i g g more o r l e s s w i t h i n c o n v e n t i o n a l b o u n d s . . . . H e was d e v o i d o f any l y r i c v e i n t h o u g h t h e popular s y m p a t h i e s b y w h i e n h ^ was s t i r r e d m i g h t h a v e s e e e d seemed l i k e l y t o move h i m t o s o n g - f o r p a t r i o t i s m , b o t h n a t i o n a l and c i v i c was s e d o n d n a t u r e t o him. 2 Beaumont and F l e t c h e r o p p o s e d t h e v u l g a r t a s t e o f t h e day ahd J o n s o n t h e u n l e t t e r e d , b u t o f a l l t h e d r a m a t i s t s Heywood was t h e m o s t c o m p l i a n t with t h e p u b l i c and y i e l d e d w i t h e a s y acquiescence whole-hearted surrender. What t h e p u b l i c demanded t h a t would i t get, whether i n c r e d i b l e romances o r l a c r y m o s e t r a g i c o m e d i e s o f t h e home, c h r o n i c l e h i s t o r i e s , showy m y t h o l o g i e s , o r c l a s s i c a l t r a g e d i e s , a d v e n t u r e on t h e h i g h seas, i n t r i g u e c o m e d i e s o r c o u r t l y romances. 3 1 Yet her easy surrender i l l u s t r a t e s t h e E l i z a b e t h a n c o n c e p t o f woman's e s s e n t i a l f r a i l i t y . H o w e v e r , she d o e s n o t t a k e h e r l a x i t y a s n a t u r a l a s do s o m a n y o f t h e o t h e r women i n t h e p l a y s . '  2 W a r d , A.W.,"Thomas H e y w o o d , " C a m b r i d g e H i s t o r y E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . 6,pp.119-120.  3  cI a r k , *A.V. T j w m a » tf « V  of  43 Heywood's p l a y s those  are o f use f o r reasons other  s u g g e s t e d above. They a r e f i l l e d  with  than  details  of  the  furnishings and customs o f a middle c l a s s household.  The  country  house  reconstructed directions  o f a well-to-do  i n imagination  c i t i z e n c a n be  from c e r t a i n o f the stage  a n d f r o m t h e s p e e c h e s i i n A Woman K i l l e d  with  Kindness. B o t h D e k k e r a n d Heywood, however, Dekker's n a t u r a l cheerfulness, idealize of  the existence  o f physical hardship.  between them d e s c r i b e  citizen's  activity.  s h o p a n d home l i f e ;  to  plays  s a i d , makes h i m and seems  unaware  Y e t , t h e two  a goodly portion o f  H e y w o o d t h e m i d d l e c l a s s home  o f Lodge  the citizen,  weaknesses.  Dekker i l l u m i n e s t h e combined  and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s c r e a t e d The  as I have  h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Heywood i s n a i v e  dramatists the  have  withini t .  and Greene  are usually^.^avorable  b u t a r e o f such minor importance and  indefinite  worth t h a t t h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e w a i t e r s c annot  be c l e a r l y  formulated.  other  hand,  outlook  speaks v i v i d l y  o f Lodge  references  Their  of the evils  and o f Greene  to their  plays  pamphlet l i t e r a t u r e ,  will  on the  o f L o n d o n , The  be i l l u s t r a t e d as  may b e u s e d .  1 The pamphlet l i t e r a t u r e m a t e r i a l f o r a stuifly o f t h i s  forms e x c e l l e n t background type.  44 Two the is  things  citizen.  are n o t i c e a b l e  In the f i r s t  s u r p r i s i n g l y large*  number o f t h o s e the  two  Mayors s i x who  i n theplays  when i t i s c o m p a r e d  important  with  Instead  playwrights  who  present  one t h a t i s i n m o s t c a s e s  in preservation.  and  Lord or  gullible.  an a l m o s t u n i f o r m  extremely  T h i s l a r g e number may  of  are f i v e  condemn them a s s t u p i d , r i d i c u l o u s , plays  the  thinks  and a l d e r m e n w o r t h y o f p r a i s e , t h e r e  Secondly, these  attack  p l a c e , t h e number o f t h e m  f a v o r i n g the c i t i z e n .  or three  that  picture,  bitter.  be t h e r e s u l t  o f an  accident  J u s t a s much o f t h e p a m p h l e t  literature  must h a v e p e r i s h e d b e c a u s e o f i t s i n a d e q u a t e b i n d i n g transitory citizen may  interest  so many o f t h e p l a y s f a v o r i n g t h e  and d e s i g n e d  f o r t h e audiente  have d i s a p p e a r e d .  thrown t o g e t h e r  more r a r e l y p r e s e r v e d . w r i t t e n w o u l d be l e s s  little  care given  of popular  rarely published,  The  one.  Bull  been  and  still  audience f o r which they  literary  and more e a s i l y  were  pleased  There would, t h e r e f o r e ,  to e i t h e r the w r i t i n g o r the  be  printing  plays.  Such a s u p p o s i t i o n for  a t The R e d  These p l a y s must have  hastily,  t h a n an a r i s t o c r a t i c  and  seems t o b e t h e o n l y  t h e l a r g e number o f e x t a n t  middle c l a s s .  I t i s impossible  London c i t i z e n s would have been  plays  explanation  that r i d i c u l e  the  t o b e l i e v e that, the satisfied'  with  t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e p a t t e r n o f M i c h a e l m a s Term  plays  only  45 Members o f no  o t h e r audience would l i s t e n  g u y e d a s m o n o t o n o u s l y as the- c i t i z e n  to  themselves  vrould h a v e b e e n  f o r c e d t o i f t h e p l a y s e x t a n t were t o r e p r e s e n t a l l t h o s e acted i n Elizabeth's Now  that  day.  I have attempted  to account",for t h e  number o f p l a y s d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t t h e c i t i z e n , try  to f i n d r e a s o n s f o r the  them.  s i m i l a r i t y o f tone  I t i s s u r p r i s i n g l y uniform.  contemptible there  I  Was  large  shall found i n  the c i t i z e n  as t h e s e d r a m a t i s t s f e l t him  t o be o r  as  was  some o t h e r r e a s o n f o r t h e i r u n a n i m o u s a d v e r s e  criti-  cism? These a t t a c k s might have In the  first  p l a c e , the  and  He m i g h t  of a great lord  and  be  London;  annoyed by the The  p r e v e n t the  several  causes.  h a v e f o u n d i t more audience  than  to  be t a k e n u n d e r t h e  t h u s have h i s p l a y s p u b l i s h e d  a c t e d . w i t h o u t f e a r o f the c e n s o r .  might  be  aristocratic  composed o f c i t i z e n s .  patronage  from  d r a m a t i s t might  p r o f i t a b l e t o c a t e r t o an one  sprung  Secondly,  a t t i t u d e o f the  he  authorities i n  town c o u n c i l l o r s d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o s p r e a d o f p l a y - g o i n g . The  expected,  therefore, to  especially  late  the  livelihood.  i n t h e p e r i o d , many o f  t h e p l a y w r i g h t s were g e n t l e m e n o r , i f n o t , t o be c o n n e c t e d  might  s a t i r i z e t h e members o f  g r o u p w J i i d i t h r e a t e n e d h i s means o f Finally,  playwright  w i t h the l e i s u r e d c l a s s .  c o n s e q u e n t l y , w r i t e f o r t h e c o u r t and  they  wished  They would,  f o r the  46 aristocrat rather The  uniformity  as  w e l l as t h e  be  equally  the  o f the  may  2  not  same t r u t h . The  found i n the  attack  on  the  l a r g e number o f p l a y s  deceptive.  m o t i v e s and  1  t h a n f o r the' c r a f t s m a n .  B o t h may  be  the  group o f playwrights  by  m u s t be  the  enthusiastic praise  and  Heywood.  o f many men  middle  c a r e f u l l y balanced  f o u n d i n . t h e works o f  F l e t c h e r . The  minor w r i t e r s  w i l l be  o f t h e s e l e s s e r men the  end  o f the  c i t i z e n by Ben  against Dekker  man,  The  consider  important  l a r g e number o f t h e  w i l l be  s e c t i o n , so  Jonson i s the  discussed that  the be  as  pointed  most important o f  t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . He  c o n v i n c e d t h a t he  prophet.  was  The  a whole  favor  In h i s case both h i s plays  a self-appointed  anonymous  included with these.  c e r t a i n o f them may  playwrights. must be  aristocratic  a r e J o n s o n , M i d d l e t o n , Rowley, Chapman,  Beaumont and and  class  t h e members o f t h e  s e p a r a t e members o f t h i s g r o u p s .  playwrights  varied  observing  K e e p i n g t h i s w a r n i n g i n m i n d , I s h a l l now the  i t , may  from w i d e l y  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the  plays written  therefore,  that contain  spring  result  citizen,  towards  extended out the  and  a proud,  to  the  separately. major  his  personality  headstong,  L i k e G a r l y l e , he  alone u n d e r s t o o d the  work  t h r e a t to  was English  c u s t o m t h a t a r o s e f r o m an i n c r e a s e d d e s i r e f o r w e a l t h . 1 eg. "Webster was t h e son o f a m e r c h a n t t a i l o r , S h a k e s p e a r e o f a d e a l e r i n l e a t h e r ; but t h e i r ancestry d i d not prevent' them f r o m r i d i c u l i n g t h e c i t i z e n when i t s e r v e d t h e i r t u r n . 2.  The  truth that  the  citizen  deserved only  contempt.  47 His  f e a r and h a t r e d  citizen. truth  o f materialism  B u t , i n many i n s t a n c e s ,  and i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  txrath and make h i m p r e s e n t , and  searching  service i n this  essay.  arose from h i s c o n v i c t i o n o f i n h i s plays,  picture of c i t y  determined to f o r c e  he seems t o speak t h e  o f great  H i s power and i n t e g r i t y  s e t him against t h e  life.  a  forceful  T h r o u g h them he was  a w a r e n e s s u p o n t h e m a s s e s and c l a s s e s  o f h i s d a y . He a t t e m p t e d t o do So .'with v i r u l e n t  satire.  His  e n e r g y made h i m . i n t e n s i f y h i s b i t t e r  and  hypocrisy  are  r e d u c e d t o t h e f i n a l , e s s e n c e o f s t u p i d i t y and s y n c o -  t o t h e p o i n t where h i s g u l l s a n d p a n d e s s  phency. H i s c i t i z e n s , and  a t t a c k o n sham  blindness.  similarly,  are embodied l u s t ,  H i s vehemence makes h i m h e a r d .  avarice,  His sincerity  f o r c e s b e l i e f upon u s . H i s ; d e f i c i e n c i e s are p a r t o f h i s v i r t u e s . H i s b u r n i n g i n t e r e s t made h i m s e e t h i n g s made h i m d i s r e g a r d  citizen  may b e d i s r e g a r d e d .  vigor  Because o f t h e d i r e c t n e s s ,  truth o f their presentation  of JonsonASi  t o see c l e a r l y ,  nuances o f f e e l i n g ; b u t h i s  outweighs h i s f a u l t s . and  too v i v i d l y  plays  power  o f L o n d o n , n o t one  t h a t comes w i t h i n  He may h a v e s e e n o n l y  our period  the e v i l s o f  wealth, b u t he d i d n o t manufacture evidence, o r accept a paid  and prepared  morality.  M i d d l e t o n may w e l l f o l l o w J o n s o n . He w r o t e many about t h e c i t y administration.  plays  a n d h e was i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h i t s b u s i n e s s He a n d J o n s o n w e r e b o t h c i t y  chronologers.  48 Naturally, folk  t h e n , t h e h i s t o r i c a l d a t a a s w e l l as t h e  l o r e o f London would he f a m i l i a r t o him.  f u r t h e r r e p o r t e d t o have m a r r i e d t h e daughter city his no  c l e r k s . Although contemporaries  little  said  He i s o f the  more i s known o f h i s l i f e ,  t h a t he was a g o o d b u s i n e s s man,  dreamer, and t h a t he knew t h e s l a n g o f t h e s t r e e t s a s  w e l l as Dekker. supplied with  Middleton, certainly,  was  source m a t e r i a l f o r c i t i z e n  t h e u s e he made o f i t i s d i s a p p o i n t i n g .  abundantly plays, but  He  never  i d e n t i f i e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h e Londoner, and h i s a t t i t u d e towards c i t y be the  life  was e x t r e m e l y  s t e r e o t y p e d and may  j u d g e d o n l y from h i s p l a y s o f i n t r i g u e . I n t h e s e standard a r i s t o c r a t i c  interpretation  i s given o f the  citizen. N e v e r t h e l e s s , u s e l e s s as t h i s t y p e o f p l a y i s f o r the  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f middle  documentary  evidence  o n many i n c i d e n t a l m a t t e r s .  f i n d much m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s of  class character, i t furnishes  essay  i n M^ddleton's  i n t r i g u e because thayare u n u s u a l l y f u l l  the walking, d r e s s i n g , d r i n k i n g London,  I can comedies  o f d e t a i l s on  and e a t i n g c u s t o m s o f  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , b e i n g p u r e l y f a c t u a l , may b e  t a k e n a s i t s t a n d s , and M i d d l e t o n ' s p h i l o s o p h y d i s r e g a r d e d . The  p l a y s 4h which Rowley c o l l a b o r a t e d a r e e q u a l l y u s e f u l . Both Marston  attitude  a n d Chapman a r e a r i s t o c r a t i c  i n their  t o w a r d s t h e c i t i z e n , MarSfan was o f g o o d f a m i l y  49 and  boasted  marred by  of h i s gentle b i r t h . His  excessive pride  W i t h t h i s b a c k g r o u n d and he  and b y  temperamenWas  extreme b i t t e r n e s s .  disposition  should write plays of i n t r i g u e .  i t was  natural that  Such c o m e d i e s g i v e  playwright  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o  to  disregard of conventional morality.  express  therefore, life  i n many p l a y s g i v e s t h e  as d o e s By  the  c h r o n i c l e r o f the  life  E a s t w a r d Ho. she  in ridicule  same p i c t u r e o f  the London c i t i z e n  b e c a u s e he  shared  M i l d r e d i s s a i d t o be  standards  w i t h them a n d  h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n , and  typical citizen virtues.  o f value  of  She  i s the  M a r s t o n knew  e v e n i f he  d i d not  s h a r e d w i t h M a r s t o n and  w r i t i n g E a s t w a r d Ho, r a t h e r ] a t e t o be  becomes an  o f much u s e  c h a r a c t e r i z e d him  d i s p o s i t i o n who  found  important  t o me. as  h i s best outlet  playwright contemporaries,  o f melancholy  i n high heroic  drama. T h i s s i d e o f l h i s work d o e s n o t c o n c e r n few  o f h i s comedies o f i n t r i g u e ,  and  Rowley, g i v e d e t a i l s o n  like  dresses,  those wines,  same g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n c a n b e  work o f Beaumont and  F l e t c h e r as h a s  laughter.  Dekker i n  His  a man  the  agree  f r e q u e n t l y made them t h e o b j e c t s o f  Chapman, who  The  city  i n the  i n the p r o d u c t i o n  honest, i n d u s t r i o u s , t h r i f t y heroine.  furthermore,  Marston, .  i s forgiven for h i s conventional picture  embodies a l l t h e  citizens'  and  Middleton..  drama, h o w e v e r , he of city  indulge  the  me,  of and  but  a  Middleton coaches.  drawn from  the  been i m p l i e d i n d e a l i n g  50 with  the-plays  of M^ddleton, Marston  Beaumont aiB'Fl e t c h e r s p l a y s 1  o f i n t r i g u e . They r e p e a t g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s on expected  with  citizen  i s to  was  a c o u r t cone Ay,  fcund  Little m i g h t be  a knight.  Their  i g n o r e i . F o r example, one  a d i s c u s s i o n o f the  has  plays, o f them,  a scene w h o l l y  citizen.  devoted  Material for  this  i n the most u n l i k e l y dramas.  i s known o f  the minor groups o f  dramatists  c a l l e d Anon, T o m k i n s , M a c h i n .  Only  their  p 3 a y s s u r v i v e . T h e y most f r e q u e n t l y w r o t e p l a y s followed  be  -  Philaster.  who  T h i s outlook  stock,  as b o t h w r i t e r s were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d s w i t h  however, cannot be  essay  also maimily comedies  l e t t i e sympathy t h e  life.  •the n o b i l i t y , Beaumont b e i n g  to  are  aniChapman.  that  t h e comedy o f i n t r i g u e p a t t e r n w i t h i t s  1 conventional the  s i t u a t i o n s . Otherwise, they  followed  l e a d o f Heywood and w r o t e drlsmas t h a t were  i n d i s c r i m i n a t e hodge-podge i n p r a i s e o f t h e No the  general  statement  can  an  citizen.  be made" c o n c e r n i n g  w o r t h o f t h e p l a y s w r i t t e n by  t h e members o f t h i s group  gometimes a comedy o f i n t r i g u e w i l l  supply  a description  o f a d w e l l i n g house} s o m e t i m e s -a m u r d e r s t o r y w i l l a discussion o f middle c l a s s morality. p l a y s c a n be  disregarded,even  thouglr  i n f o r m a t i o n v e r y o f t e n have l i t t l e conclude,indeed,  t h a t the  Not those  that  other merit.  everyday existence  seems t o be more o f t e n r e f l e c t e d  one  of  coxt a i n the  contain I  could  of a nation  i n t r a n s i t o r y and  second-rate  51 m a t e r i a l than I  i n the great masterpiece.  have l e f t  the d i s c u s s i o n o f Shakespeare  end o f t h i s s e c t i o n . . 5 ' h a v e h a d s e v e r a l r e a s o n s so.  v  f o r doing  S i n c e he i s b y f a r t h e g r e a t e s t d r a m a t i s t o f t h e  age h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d s t h e c i t i z e n Secondly debate. he  to t h e  i s o f much  importance.  , t h i s a t t i t u d e has been t h e b a s i s o f h e a t e d Also,  according to the standards s e t i n t h i s  d o e s n o t seem t o t a k e  sides.  essay,  He a p p e a r s t o s r t a n d a l o o f .  He was o f t h e c i t i z e n s r a t h e r t h a n f o r them. This  last  statement,  h o w e v e r , 'cannot b e a t o n c e b e  t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . The e v i d e n c e o f t h e w r i t e r s who his in for  debate  a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e m i d d l e c l a s s must b e c o n s i d e r e d ; a v e r y summary  fashion.  the a r i s t o c r a t s base t h e i r  They s a y t h a t  T h o s e who c l a i m  Shakespeare  arguments on t h e p l a y s .  a c y n i c a l n o t e may be d e t e c t e d i n S h a k e s p e a r e  t r e a t m e n t o f t h e common man a n d t h a t c o n t e m p t and h a t r e d d i c t a t e d h i s mob  s c e n e s . T h e y go a s f a r a s t o c a l l  into  . 1 question h i sbirthplace  and p a r e n t a g e .  On t h e otherMaahd., t h o s e who  say that  i d e n t i f i e d himself with the c i t z e n point and t o P a l s t a f f prove  and t h e London scenes  their contention.  They  Shakespeare to h i s background  i n h i s plays to  a d d t h a t he a l w a y s  expressed  scorn o f the noble. o  To Kill  support the p o s i t i o n taken i n t h i s essay r e f e r e n c e  b e made f i r s t t o S h a k e s p e a r e ' s  much c o n j e c t u r e a b o u t  background.  There i s  the d e t a i l s o f h i s ancestry.  Yet  52 enough i s known t o p l a c e squarely- i n t h e middle stand  for the typical  Shakespeare.and h i s  class.  The f a t h e r ,  citizen  discussed  m i d d l e c l a s s i d e a l s . I n h i s own l i f e those in  a responsible  like  He w a s a  dealer  He h a d t o t r y t o a v o i d  before  This  he h a d completed?  son r e v i v e d  virtues of thrift,  o f a gentleman.  for  arms.  The s o n saw them g r a n t e d  his  land.  middle  order  fortunes, middle  f o rland  T h e f a t h e r made  He  and f o r  application f r  and, t h e n ,  seems t o s p r i n g  c l a s s a n d y e t t o be t o t a l l y  this  bought  from t h e  u n c o n s c i o u s o fi t .  unconsciousness a n d i n h i s emphasis on l a w and  he i s t r u l y  bourgeois.  He i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n o r  o  does n o t understand t h e duty o f c r i t i c i s m Ben  leave  to satisfy the  class desire  ways Shakespeare  lost  and a p p l i c a t i o n .  status  other  he  "the s o n h a d t o  o f the standard  the  In  i nStratford.  h i s education.  industry  Shakespeare's middle  Eyre  imprisonment f o r debt.  s o s u c c e s s f u l t h a t h e was a b l e  older  post  and improved t h e f a m i l y  perhaps through the exercise class  forl i k e  o f the plays,  a consequence o f these misfortunes  school  In  i n the section on  p o s i t i o n i n t h e town,  many o f t h e p r o d i g a l s  h i s money.  was  might  he e m b o d i e s many o f  London, he r o s e t o an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  Also,  As  indeed,  l e a t h e r a n d a member o f t h e g u i l d . A t one t i m e he  held in  ideals set forth i n the plays.  father  J o n s o n . Nowhere does he a t t a c k  forced  upon  the strengthened  53 acquisitive  attitude  i n t h e m a n n e r f o u n d i n The  N e i t h e r does  he  for  g r o u p . He  the c i t y  feel  the contempt seldom  of intrigue  with  He  does  sentimentalize  he  seems t o h a v e no  not  i t sf a r c i c a l  need  :c& M a r s t o n  indulges  Alchemist,  and  Chapman  i n Middleton's type  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the  Londoner.  i n t h e f a s h i o n o f Heywood f o r  to laud  an i m a g i n a r y p e r f e c t  citizen. This unawareness  makes him g i v e h i s London and  scenes without f o r c i n g :ence». ,  He  ;  a  s e t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n upon h i s  shows u s E l i z a b e t h a n  life  and  leaves  The  Boar's Head i n E a s t c h e a p i s background  and  any u n e m p l o y e d  Wives T-he i  n  o f Windsor  crowd  soldier.  tells  that pushed  C o r i o l a n u s m i g h t be  Elizabeth  reflected  us  The  of Essex.  i t at  i n Julius  same c r o w d  The  that  London.  p l a y o f Bottom  the and  Snug Garden,  S h a k e spa a r e ' s r e f e r e n c e s t o l a w a n d o r d e r h a v e  in  sympathy,  typical  ciizen.  supporters was-the  but here The  merchants  i s the  always found i t s strongest  a n d t h e k i n g s who  a revolt  but the merchant  lords.  been  aristocratic  among t h e m e m b e r s o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s .  power o f the f e u d a l foster  was  a g a i n i t seems t h a t he  monarchy had  or  applauded  swallowed  o v e r a g a i n t o p r o v e t h a t he  Merry  Caesar  the t a s t e s o f t h e p a t r o n s o f t h e B e a r  u s e d o v e r and  that.  for Falstaff  something o f Washday i n  and b i c k e r e d the  audi-  l a u n d r y b a s k e t i n The  b e f o r e t h e Armada o r that  plausibilities  citizen  Middle  had broken  I t  the  class o p p o s i t i o n  might  i f monarch!al power t h r e a t e n e d i t s p r i v i l e g e s always returned  to a system o f law  and  64 order  under which b u s i n e s s  may  be  safely  and  profitably  conducted. S h a k e s p e a r e and unrestt"with The  f e a r . The  Wars o f t h e R o s e s were n o t  t r o u b l e s o f E d w a r d and  removed. if  h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s remembered  P e a c e and  p l a y s were t o b e  M a r y were b a r e l y a  forgotten.  generation  a s t r o n g g o v e r n m e n t were presented  civil  necessary  i n the Globe o r  luxuries  sold i n Cheapside. In the to  f o r e g o i n g paragraphs a n o e f f o r t has  show t h a t S h a k e s p e a r e h a d  and  t h a t , i n many ways, he  expresses  c i t i z e n group. H i s u s e f u l n e s s r e f l e c t i o n w h i c h makes London scenes i n h i s In t h i s references  essay,  c h o s e n t o do  much h a s that I i  him  lies  give v i v i d  nevertheless,  to the.other  and  truthful  I h a v e n o t made many I h a v e more o r  that the an e s s a y  s h o u l d have f e l t  those  that I  d e f e n d e d by  S h a k e p e a r e and  have  in itself. the  have t o d i s c u s s t h i s c r i t i c i s m I  less  treatment of  b e e n w r i t t e n a b o u t S h a k e s p e a r e and  justified  a g r e a t many i n c i d e n t s f r o m h i s p l a y s .  c o u l d be  unconscious  E l i z a b e t h a n dramattstj. I  S h a k e s p e a r e would be  nght before  the  plays.  so b e c a u s e I f e l t  should  used only  background  the thought of  in this  to Shakespeare's p l a y s .  confined Myself  c i t i z e n by  a middle c l a s s  b e e n made  at  the So  citizen great  i n using I  have  f e l t w e r e v e r y w e l l known and  that  the  the m i d d l e  Therefore,  foregoing b r i e f discussion of class.  55  of  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to compare d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s Shakespeare's p l a c e i n t h e drama. F o l l o w i n g are examples: Shakespeare's Characters are almost a l l p l a i n g e n t l e o r s i m p l e ; he d o e s n o t a n a t o m i z e t h e b u r g e s s ' a m b i t i o n and t h e f a s h i o n a b l e y o u n g w i f e . R a l e i g h , "The Age o f E l i z a b e t h , ' i n Shakespeare's England,vol.1 p. 25. In Henry IV...the growing master o f r e a l i s t i c d e l i n e a t i o n and u n a b a t e d i n t e r e s t i n a l lt h a t l a y betfiPBe h i s e y e s , t o i n t e r p o l a t e h i s n a r r a t i v e w i t h s c e n e s t h a t b o r e no t i n c t u r e o f a n t i q u i t y and t o show t h e v e r y age a n d b o d y o f h i s t i m e i t s f o r m and p r e s s u r e i n v i v i d t r a n s c r i p t s o f c o n t e m p o r a r y l i f e as i t was l i v e d f r o m d a y t o day i n a m i d l a n d c o u n t r y t o w n o r i n t h e c r o w d e d s t r e e t s o f Londontown . C h a m b e r s , E,.K, Shakespeare, a s u r v e y , p . 118. One w h o s e f a t h e r w a s b a i l i f f o f S t r a t f o r d a n d who h a d m o r e t h a n a t o u c h o f b o u r g e o i s i n h i s blood. I b i d . , p. 20. Falstaff  on  the s t r e e t s  o f contemporary Brooke,  London.  T., T u d o r p. 335.  Drama,  P a l m i n T h e M i d d l e C l a s s , T h e n a n d Now; G r e t t o n , i n T h e E n g l i s h M i d d l e C l a s s a n d Wc-oB i n tfislartMe V L.L:. S h a k e s p e a r e M d c i h e C P J f c e b s . , t a k e . /.:,, o p p o s i n g s t a n d s t o t h o s e i m p l i e d above. The conteM" t h a t Shakespeare sympathized w i t h the n o b i l i t y .  561 I l l u s t r a t i o n s of Middle Class, Ideals In t h i s chapter, i l l u s t r a t i o n s o f the  2L s h a l l  turn t o  the  plays  middle c l a s s i d e a l s that  for  . i. have  2 outlined earlier  above.  chapter,giving  down f r o m t h e  so  s h a l l add,  t h a t I may  however, an  consider  too  I s h a l l have to  the  present  become u n b e a r a b l e vicious  i d e a l s handed  extra  arose  the  eager  s e c t i o n to t h i s v i c e s i n t o which  a pursuit of  include  The  dramatists  fact that  laudable  a r r o g a n c e and  their  intermingled  apparently pride  were  could  honest t h r i f t  turn  into  the  Elizabethan  when he  i n f l u e n c e d by m e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n s . T h i s  was  r e f l e c t e d i n the  Holiday,for  t h a t may  honesty,  citizen  v i r t u e s of s i m p l i c i t y ,  will  very  easily  p r a i s e d the  he  the  avarice.  I have s a i d e a r l i e r t h a t  is  chapter  t h i s p o r t i o n because  citizen virtues closely  with c i t i z e n v i c e s . the  the  then of those th^,  some o f  ideals.  much aware o f  of  life.  c i t i z e n s were drawn b y  plays  order  examples f i r s t o f  M i d d l e A g e s and  from contemporary I  .1 s h a l l f o l l o w t h e  and  drama. Simon E y r e , i n She  exanple,  t e l l s us  o v e r and  He  i n s i s t s t h a t he  outlook  Shoemakg* s'  over again  r e m a i n " s i m p l e Simon E y r e " d e s p i t e come t o h i m .  humility  that  a l l honours  has  not  become  o 1 Background m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s c h a p t e r i s w i t h t h a t g i v e n f o r c h a p i t e r 3. 2 See above pp. 22-36  identical  57 p r o u d and t h a t he w i l l c o n t i n u e t o m i n g l e w i t h h i s 1 workmen. The p i n n e r o f W a k e f i e l d i n G e o r g e a G r e e n  2  i l l u s t r a t e s the "honest  pinner".  same v i r t u e s . He  He  modestly refuses to  o r h o n o u r s o f any o t h e r k i n d and r e m a i n i n h i s humble  i s called  says  that was  a l a r g e h o u s e and  former p l a y , the k i n d l y l  James IV,  n  hospitality  prefers t o  show t h e  often expressed  numerous r e t a i n e r s .  Frescobald:.relieves the  Bohan m a i n t a i n s even though the  o f bankruptcy.  titles  surroundings.  virtues of generosity, of  accept  t h a t he  Thomasi L o r d C r o m w e l l and J a m e s I V  keeping  the  the  traditional  are t o l d  p o o r a r e f e d a t O l d c a s t l e ' s , W o l s e y ' s and Gresham, p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  i s p r a i s e d over  in  the In  poor.  to the  that  over  of verge  the  Gresham's  and  the 3  standard  e f f o r t b r i n g s him  I n o t h e r p l a y s we  medieval  doors.  again  in  4 t h e drama f o r h i s h o s p i t a l i t y . in  t h e d r a m a who  n e g l e c t the  s h a r p l y reprimanded.  On  the  o t h e r hand c h a r a c t e r s  v i r t u e o f g e n e r o s i t y a r e -"\-.';~  3hfEhe L o o k i n g  :  G l a s s f o r London  Radagon i s condemned f o r h i s r e f u s a l t o g i v e money t o h i s n e e d y mother."Bfo c h a r i t y w i t h i n t h i s c i t y b i d e s , " 5 cries.  Scarborfow, i n the M i s e r i e s o f Enforeed  1  The  2  3  G e o r g e a G r e e n e , 1.1360. Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l . l l l , i , p . 3 5 7 .  5  The  Shoemakers  Looking  1  Holiday, V , i i .  G l a s s f o r London.  1.1186.  she  Marriage.  „  58 also  arouses  complain  the  i r e of those  b e c a u s e he 1  about him.  His  servants  does n o t keep the house t h a t h i s  father did. Medieval but  i d e a l s n o t o n l y demanded t h a t man  a l s o t h a t he b e  Spendal's  contented with h i s p o s i t i o n  reformation i l l u s t r a t e s  this  be  generous,  in  society.  i d e a l . He  says  t h a t u n h a p p i n e s s and m i s f o r t u n e h a v e come t o him b e c a u s e . he  attended to l i v e  i n w h i c h he  was  i n a h i g h e r rank  born.  He  of society  r e s o l v e s from  now  than t h a t  on t o  keep  2 t o h i s c l a s s and  to  live  a "sober c i t i z e n " .  i n Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l echo S p e n d a l ' s d i s c u s s the n e c e s s i t y o f keeping harm c a u s e d  by  the  p i n n e r " , who  "honest  Two  citizens  thought  when t h e y  o n e ' s p l a c e and 3  envy o f t h e g r e a t .  the  George a Greene,  has been mentioned b e f o r e ,  serves  t o show c o n t e n t m e n t w i t h o n e ' s p l a c e as w e l l a s h u m i l i t y and h o n e s t y .  He  w i l l not  accept  retain his allotted position Sir  Thomas O a k l e y ,  equally  2  »  p r e f e r s to  The  L o r d Mayor,  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y h a s traditional  t o k e e p t o h i s own  t h a t h i s daughter The  i n society.  s t r o n g awareness o f the  t h a t o b l i g e him  I  i n The  a t i t l e but 4  class.  restrictions He  realizes  should not t h i n k o f marriage  Miseries o f Enforced Marriage,  G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque, p .  289.  3  Thomas,Lord Cromwell, V,  4  George a Greene,  1.1360.  i v , p.368.  an  1 1 1 , p.  with 521.  59  1  a member o f t h e n o b i l i t y . B u t , f a s h i o n , he  i n the b e s t romantic  i s overruled, by love  a t t h e end o f t h e  play. The m e d i e v a l t r a d i t i o n o f f a i r expression i n the plays. i n obedience to i t . customary  We  also  Simon E y r e ' s j o u r n e y m e n  f i n e work. 2  The  cobble  shoes  a r e an e x a m p l e . Many o t t e r p l a y s  imply t h a t the t r a d i t i o n a l standards o f l a b o r should  be c l o s e l y o b s e r v e d and condemn " s h a r p p r a c t i c e " the  finds  are l e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t i t i s  f o r them t o p r o d u c e  made b y R a l p h f o r J a n e  and h o n e s t work  such  as  selling  o f p o o r g o o d s i n t h e manner o f F a l s e l i g h t r. 3 and S & a r t y a r d . C a n d i d o , f o r example, i n s i s t s t h a t h i s 4  b e s t g o o d s be  shown t o h i s c u s t o m e r s  on a l l o c c a s i o n s .  I n o r d e r t o s e e an example o f t h e i d e a l man a c c o r d i n g t o t r a d i t i o a a l v a l u e s s u c h as I  have b e e n  d i s c u s s i n g , I s h a l l t u r n to S i r John 0 Ideas t i e . Gobham i n t h i s p l a y h a s many o f t h e m e d i e v a l o f g e n e r o s i t y , h o n e s t y and h o s p i t a l i t y . The Murley  shows h i s a l l e g i a n c e  The  2  Ibid.,11,i,260-270'  3  Michaelmas  4  The  tip-neat  virtues brewer  "ala»s-giver,  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , l , i , " : ...8-15.  Term, 1,1,  Lord  t o t h e s e by h i s a d m i r a t i o n  o f t h e n o b l e m a n , whom he d e s c r i b e s a s an 1  formed  94-96.  W h o r e , l , v , p . 110.  "  60 1 house-keeper, a v i r t u o u s ,  r e l i g i o u s gentleman".  As  sixteenth  a c l o s e , however, such  idealized  c e n t u r y drew t o  p i c t u r e s "become i n c r e a s i n g l y s i m p l e n o b l e m a n and described way  to  i n the  the  when we  from the  o f those  turn  are M  are  s h a l l give  i n the  although  that  she  A g a i n as the  value of  the  citizen  the  virtue  saving.  i m p r e s s upon h e r  p e n n i e s as p o s s i b l e .  the 2  attention necessity  2  i d e a l s and  citizens^  of obtaining in The  to In i t , tries  as many  contrast, Shoemakers'  r e m o n s t r a t e s w i t h Simon f o r h i r i n g  a  cannot a f f o r d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  n o t e t h a t two c i t i z e n v i r t u e s c o n f l i c t S i r John 0 1 d c a s t l e , l l , i i , p . 3 2 6 . The  There  t o h i s w o r d s , he  Dame M a r g e r y E y r e ,  virtues  class.  instance.  She  1  111,  with  Candido's speech  Holiday*  to  shared  p l a y s fcf t h e  i n s t r u c t i o n i n t h i s matter. In  they  see  ideals  middle  n e e d s no  journeyman t h a t  to  shall  of t h r i f t .  H o n e s t Whore, i s one  pays l i t t l e  give  i n chapter  examples o f  examples i n t h e  i n The  c r o w d and  illustrate  p r i m a r i l y with  s h a l l begin with  his wife,  to  plays  those that  associated  countless  belief  I  merchant  above them.  contemporary world.  other classes.  and  Dekker  s u c h a r i s t o c r a t s we  to t h e  shall disregard  that  unassuming  a r i s t o c r a t s contemptuous o f the  S u c h c i t i z e n s and  I  b l u f f and  generous  e a r l y p l a y s o f Heywood and  citizens jealous  now  r a r e . The  the  H o n e s t Whore, P a r t  in their  l}.- l , v , p p . 111-112.  61 discussion. accordance give  1  Eyre,  i n employing  Lacy,  i s acting i n  w i t h t h e m e d i e v a l code t h a t  d e c r e e d he s h o u l d  a i d t o o t h e r members o f h i s g u i l d . H i s wife?, o n t h e  o t h e r h a n d , i s i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e newer i d e a l o f s a v i n g money.  We h a v e e v i d e n c e , however, l a t e r  justify  that  Simon i s j u s t  as t h r i f t y  i n the p l a y , t o  a s Dame M a r g e r y .  I n one s c e n e he i s f o r c e d t o o r d e r b e e r  f o r h i s angry  workman, b u t he c o u n t e r m a n d s h a l f t h e o r d e r a s s o o n 2 as he s e e s t h a t t h e y a r e f o r g e t t i n g t h e i r g r i e v a n c e s . Eastward also  Ho, The P u r i t a n ,  emphasize t h e importance  and Gr«eno's"-t:u Quo ejus .. of t h r i f t .  In the f i r s t  p l a y , M i l d r e d and G o l d i n g a r e examples Of t h i s v i r t u e , and T o u c h s t o n e t r i e s t o f o r c e i t u p o n Q u i c k s i l v e r . Touchstone. . . . I h i r e d me a l i t t l e shop, f o u g h t l o w , t o o k s m a l l g a i n , k e p t no d e b t book, g a r n i s h e d my shop, f o r want o f p l a t e , w i t h g o o d wholesome t h r i f t y s e n t e n c e s , a s ' T o u c h s t o n e , 3 k e e p t h e y shop, and t h e y shop w i l l k e e p t h e e ' . . . I n The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l , D e l i a ' s s p e e c h  e p i t o m i z e s much  o f t h e a d v i c e g i v e n t o y o u n g h e i r s o f t h e day when t h e y a r e t o l d n o t t o s p e n d t h e i r money o n r i o t o u s D e l i a , ...Brother take heed t h r i f t adieu.... . . . I know n o t how i t comes, T h a t t h o s e whose f a t h e r s And t o o k no p l e a s u r e b u t 1~1 2  of pride,  Ill,i,93-105.  3:1 E a s t w a r d  Ho,' l , i , 6 2 - 7 0 .  i t soon b i d s  b u t so i t f a l l s o u t . have d i e d wondrous r i c h , to gather wealth,  The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y . 1 1 . i i i . 6 9 - 7 2 . Ibid.,  living.  62 Thinking o f l i t t l e that they leave behind F o r them t h e y h o p e w i l l be o f t h e i r l i k e m i n d But i t f a l l s o u t c o n t r a r y : f o r t y y e a r s s p a r i n g I s scarce t h r e e seven years spending; never c a r i n g What w i l l e n s u e , when a l l t h e i r c o i n i s gone, And, a l l t o o l a t e , when t h r i f t i s t h o u g h t u p o n . O f t have I h e a r d t h a t P r i d e and R i o t k i s s e d And t h e n R e p e n t a n c e - c r i e s - f o r h a d I w i s t . 1 S i m i l a r l y , t h e c i t i z e n who r e l i e v e s M a r t i n F l o w e r d a l e ' s want d e l i v e r s a s e n t e n t i o u s 2 the  fashion o f Polonius.  contains  discourse  Finally,  t o him a f t e r  Greene?s Tu  a sermon o n t h e same s u b j e c t .  c i t i z e n ' s widow who  fiuoque  The w e a l t h y  s a v e s S p e n d a l , t h e wayward  man, f r o m i m p r i s o n m e n t f o r d e b t , o r d e r s  journey-  him to l i v e  within  3 his  limit. The  members o f a m i d d l e c l a s s a u d i e n c e w o u l d  commend  b o t h s p e e c h e s . T h e y w o u l d s a y t h a t t h e two y o u n g men h a d g o o d examples t o f o l l o w a n d d i o u l d h a v e known b e t t e r thanrto  a  w a s t e t h e i r money. T h e y w o u l d p o i n t t u t t h a t  S p e n d a l h a d b e e n g i v e n a shop b y a s u c c e s s f u l m a s t e r and t h a t F l o w e r d a l e ' s f a t h e r was a. w e a l t h y a n d t h r i f t y 4 merchant. Industry,  t h e companion v i r t u e o f t h r i f t ,  r e c e i v e s much commendation i n t h e p l a y s .  also  Indeed, i f  we a r e t o b e l i e v e t h e drama, b o t h t h e c i t i z e n s a n d t h e i r 1 The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l , 1 1 , i , p . 3 8 2 . 2  C i t i a e n . F i e , f i e , y o u n g manl T h i s c o u r s e i s v e r y b a d . Too many s u c h h a v e we a b o u t t h i s c i t y ; Ibid.V,i,392.  3  G r e e n e ' s Tu Q.uooue, pp.244,269-270.  4  I b i d . p . 1 8 5 , The L o n d o n  Prodigal,1,i,p.372  63 men  thought  if  so h i g h l y o f h a r d work t h a t t h e y  i t were n o t  instance,  the  son when he  a v a i l a b l e . I n Thomas, L o r d journeymen remonstrate w i t h  a s k s -themt. t o  1 for their the  idleness.  s t o p work and  see  as t h e y  s u r r o u n d e d by  their  o f f e r s t o pay  that  seenes c o n s t a n t l y u r g e s  them  can.  Later,  i n the  i n t o the 2  h i s money b a g s .  i s given Eyre's'slop  M a y o r , he  t u r n s t o the  that they  and  o f Eyre  i f they  Industry it  he  may  same p l a y ,  night,  reach  not  t o o k the  place of  f o r the  citizen.  For  a d v i s e s J a n e , who  Eyre's, advice,  m a n a g i n g h e r own  Thofflas, L o r d C r o m w e l l ,  2  Ibid,  3  The  l,ii,  at the  Ibid.,l,i,234-237.  success;  philosophy Holiday,  l o s s of her 4  sorrow.  p.351.  lV,ii,l-5.  hus  Jane see  has-recovered-from  11,i,p.353.  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  them  that  Shoemakers'  i n t h e p l a y , we  s m a l l s h o p . She  X  4  i n The  f o r g e t s her  later  Lord  enough.  the c o n s o l a t i o n s o f  she  and  assures  path t h a t l e d to  i s desolate  h u s b a n d , t o work u n t i l takes  Simon's a p p o i n t m e n t a s  work h a r d  instance,  Shoe-  industry.  a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r to 3  o n l y the  felso  Eyre  on  we  signifi-  Hodge, i n The  o t h e r j o u r n e y m e n and  w i l l but  was  them  fact  makers' H o l i d a y , a l s o b e l i e v e s i n the. v i r t u e o f When he  for  master's  They c o m p l a i n d e s p i t e the  young Cromwell working l a t e  cantly  Cromwell,  ,  e l d e r Cromwell i n o t h e r  t o work a s h a r d  complained  her her  64 sufficiently  t o consider  when he t e l l s Prate,  Lollia, world  h e r that Ralph  the lawyer,  contentment  complains  as q u i c k l y  will  such  praised,  not for  to  themselves  be used  Delia's  earlier  he t e l l s  to hard  that  y o u n g men t o l i v e  When h i s w i f e , i n the  her that, i f  and constant 1  effort,  certain other citizen  intrinsic  to further thrift.  speech,  thinks  and contented.  as s o b r i e t y , honesty, their  also  labor.  husband  i n France.  they a r e n o t advancing  as she w i s h e s ,  said  virtues,  could  that  through  become s u c c e s s f u l  We h a v e  has been k i l l e d  i n T h e Dumb K n i g h t ,  can be found  they b&th devote they  Hammond a s h e r s e c o n d  their  value b u t because I f we r e f e r e  they  agains she a d v i s e s  t h e y may c o n s e r v e 2  morals.  A speech  their  means  as w e l l a s improve  elder  F l o w e r d a l e , i n The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l , i l l u s t r a t e s t h e  aame a t t i t u d e . H e d o e s n o t b e c o m e c o n c e r n e d v i c e s o f h i s son u n t i l he l e a r n s  • ,  and m o d e r a t i o n a r e  f o r e x a m p l e , we c a n s e e t h a t q u i e t l y so t h a t  \ ••••  that  o ft h e  about t h e  t h e y o u n g man i s 3  trying Only  to obtain  then  a large  does Flowerdale  portion o f h i s father's senior urge  sobriety  money.  and modera-  tion o n y o u n g M a r t i n . 1 2 3  T h e Dumb K n i g h t , p p . 1 2 4 - 1 2 5 . See above, p. 62. London P r o d i g a l , 1 1 1 , i i , p . 3 8 2 .  .  65 I  have p o i n t e d  out  t h a t the  m a t e r i a l rewards f o r t h e i r l i k e d to the  see  success  playhouses  satisfy and  and  their  the  are  l a b o r and  f o l l o w hard  In the  thrifty  houses, honours, t i t l e s ,  tohen  They  they  did their  plays both  and  and  expected  saving.  work  dramatists  audience.  w o r k m e n who  citizens  -  also attended  best  to  merchants  industrious obtain  access  to  the  university  for  t h e i r sons. F o r e x a m p l e , Hp,dge i n T h e Shoemakers' 1 2 H o l i d a y , S p e n d a l i n G r e e n e ' s Tu' Quo q u e , a n d G o l d i n g i n 3 E a s t w a r d Ho  obtain their  for'their  i n d u s t r y and  property.  He  places  master's  thrift.  looks forward  of residence  i n the  shops  Eyre  as  also  a  reward  acquires  to having  two  two  following his  years  different appoint-  4 ment has  as L o r d M a y o r . two  houses,  on b e i n g in  the  able  at  knighted,  afford t h a t he  Sheen, and 1  one  i n London  The  and  t h i n k s t h a t he  s t r e e t i<n w h i c h h e  to  father  S i r Roger Oakley, Eyre's  a new  had 5  house.  i s able to  Shoe m a k e r s H o l i d a y , 1  will  in Gornhill. no  w o r k e d . He  longer will  Rash, live  now  Young C r o m w e l l t e l l s  w i l l build- a palace he  one  predecessor,  as  fine  be his  as K i n g  keep h i s promise before 1 1 1 , i v , 185-186.  2 G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque, l , i , p , 1 8 5 . 3 G o l d i n g m a r r i e s h i s m a s t e r ' s d a u g h t e r and will i n h e r i t t h e s h o p . E a s t w a r d Ho, lV,ii,445. 4 T h e S h o e m a k e r s ' H o l i d a y . cf. H u . ; 1 1 1 , i ^ 7 V , n ; V, /'. 5 G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque, l , i , p . l 8 6 .  Harry's the  1 the  end. o f t h e  land,"through In  the  sovereign,  play.  Quomodo o b t a i n s " l a n d ,  a combination of deceit  drama, honours from as w e l l  as  land  and  fine,  and h a r d  the c i t y  and  neat 2  work.  from  p r o p e r t y , come t o  the the  c l t i a e n who w o r k e d h a r d . E y r e , G r e s h a m , W h i t t i n g t o n , t h e f a v o r i t e h e r o o f the a p p r e n t i c e s , become L o r d 2 3 Mayors. G o l d i n g and Candido are aldermen and S p e n d a l 4 expects to of  recive  the middle  instance, He on  a similar  honour.  Other  members  c l a s s , a r e k n i g h t e d o r hope t o be.  Rash,  i n G r e e n e ' s Tu  Quoque, i s g i v e n a  For title.  says, however, t h a t h i s knighthood does not s i t easy h i s s h o u l d e r s a n d t h a t he i n t e n d s t o make i t e a s i e r  5  by custom. golden His  Murley,  spurs  the brewer  of Dunstable,  carries  i n h i s bosom i n e x p e c t a t i o n , o f b e i n g k n i g h t e d .  workmen a s s u r e him  that  elevation  i n rank  i s the  6 natural  outcome o f  Critics through  the  a life  were not  of hard  lacking,  work.  however, t o  d r a m a t h a t many c i t i z e n s w e r e t o o  1  Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l ,  2.  Michaelmas  3 4  E a s t w a r d Ho, I V , i i , 7 0 - 8 0 The H o n e s t W h o r e , P a r t 1,111,i,p.139. G r e e n e s Tu QuQque, l , i , p l 8 & . S i r John O l d c a s t l e , l l l , i i , p . 333.  5  1  6  suggest,  Term,  l~,ii,p.351.  l,i,114.  eager for.  67. h o n o u r s and c a r e d l i t t l e what means t h e y u s e d t o 1 o b t a i n them. S i r John O l d c a s t l e w i l l again serve illustrate.  In this  persuade Murley Both  Lethe  this  be o f noble  him  who  l e a d the  t o f i n a n c e i t by p r o m i s i n g  and t h e c o u n t r y  infected w i t h to  p l a y the nobles  branch  although  rebellion 2" ' knighthodd.  him a  i n M i c h a e l m a s Term a r e  fever f o r honours. Lethe  birth  toi l l  pretends  i n the play remind 3 t h a t h i s f a t h e r was b u t a t o o t h d r a w e r , and t h e  c o u n t r y wench d e c l a r e s t h a t  others  she w i l l  be i n a swoon  until  4 she  i s gentle. The p l a y s g i v e  academic Glass  learning.  examples of the c i t i z e n s ' ; b e l i e f i n Thomas, L o r d  C r o m w e l l arfd  The  Looking  f o r London, f o r i n s t a n c e , c o n t a i n p i c t u r e s o f  citizens  who  s o n s may  be  a r e w i l l i n g t o make s a c r i f i c e s educated.  Cromwell grumbles wished  t o send  provides  In the f i r s t  play the  so t h a t  their  smith  and s a y s t h a t n o t he b u t h i s w i f e  their  son t o s c h o o l . N e v e r t h e l e s s ,  t h e money f o r t h e joung man's e d u c a t i o n  he  and  becomes i n c o h e r e n t w i t h p r i d e when h i s son o b t a i n s a 1 c f . t h e speech o f T r i n e a l o i n Albumazar. T r i n e a l o i s t o be c h a n g e d i n t o a g e n t l e m a n by magic means. T r i n e a l o . . . . H e ' l l s t e e p me I n s o l d i e r ' s b l o o d , o r b o i l me i n a c a u l d r o n O f b a r b a r o u s l a w F r e n c h ; o r a n o i n t me o v e r W i t h s u p p l e o i l o f g r e a t men's s e r v i c e s ; F o r t h e s e t h r e e means r a i s e yeomen t o t h e g e n t r y .  11,ii,p.333.  2  S i rJohn O l d c a s t l e ,  3  M i c h a e l m a s Term,  4  Itoid.,l,ii,64-68.  111,ii,p.333.  1,1.161-301,  68 1 a position  as  a result  of his learning.  G l a s s fool? I g o n d o n , R a d a g o n ' s m o t h e r educated  at  "micile  position  as  a result, 2  with his parents. less  praisworthy  tion.  In these  fraud  i n order  play,  the  her  1  but  The  son,  he  The  has  no  longer wishes  examplesat»f t h e  Looking  that her  He  P u r i t a n and  obtained  son  an  was  honorable  to  associate  Michaelmas Term c o n t a i n  citizens'  desire for  educa-  p l a y s , t h e m e r c h a n t s o b t a i n m o n e y "by to  send t h e i r  scantimonious  husband  their  charge .*'.*  says  In  "deceived  sons to  school,  widow i s f o r c e d t o  In  the  admit  first  that  the  w o r l d t o g e t r i c h e s " t o send 3 college. Quomodo, i n M i c h a e l m a s  Edmund, t o  ' 4 Term, c h e a t s  to  pay  f o r Sim's attendance  cannot f i n d d r a m a who 1  possesses  have been  m a n y who number o f In  o n l y the  medieval  idealized give  Ages; but,  citizens  on  the  Consequently,  o l d and  1 2. 3. 4  «  Thomas, L o r d The  ideal  citizen  in  Looking  the  ones alone. are  other  ideals  of  new  Glass  the  the  the  hand,  they  that  to point to greet er  pictures.  traditions were  of  incongruously  1,ii,pp.351-352.~  f o r London,  1294-95.  1 1 , i i i . 108-120. •  the  often  sixteenth century.  T ^ h p - a f t i t a n y l , i , p . 3 9 8 . Mjchalemas term,  The  composite  virtues  Cromwell,  university.  contemporary v i r t u e s  allegiance to  i n f l u e n c e d by  1  an  d i s c u s s i n g , a l t h o u g h i-.vwas a b l e  possessed  part, they  Middle  easily  at the  rub  m  69 elbows of  i n t h e drama.  Stephen  S i r A l e x a n d e r Wengave's d e s c r i p t i o n 1 a s he w o u l d l i k e h i m t o be o r M a s t e r K n o w e l l ' s  advice  t o h i s nephew c o n t a i n examples o f t h i s ' 2 . citizen.  composite  Knowell. What w o u l d I h a v e y o u do? I ' l l t e l l y o u , kinsman; L e a r n t o be w i s e , a n d p r a c t i s e how t o t h r i v e ; That w o u l d I have you do; and n o t t o spend Your c o i n on e v e r y f o o l i s h bauble t h a t you fancy, Or every f o o l i s h t r a i n t h a t humours y o u . I would n o t have t o invade each p l a c e , Hor t h r u s t y o u r s e l f on a l l s o c i e t i e s T i l l men's a f f e c t i o n s o r y o u r own d e s e r t , Should w o r t h i l y i n v i t e you t o your rank, He t h a t i s s o r e s t l e s s i n h i s c o u r s e s , Oft s e l l s h i s r e p t u t a t i o n at cheap market. N o r w o u l d I , y o u s h o u l d m e l t away y o u r s e l f In f o o l i s h b r a v e r y , l e s t , w h i l e you a f f e c t To m a k e a b l a z e o f g e n t r y t o t h e w o r l d , A l i t t l e p u f f o f sehorn e x t i n g u i s h i t ; A n d y o u b e l e f t an u n s a v o r y s n u f f , Whose p r o s p e r i t y i s o n l y t o o f f e n d . lUd. h a ' y o u s o b e r a n d c o n t a i n y o u s e l f N o t t h a t y o u r s a i l be b i g g e r t h a n y o u r b o a t ; B u t m o d e r a t e y o u r e x p e n s e s , now, a t f i r s t , A s y o u maj£' k e e p t h e s a m e p r o p o r t i o n s t i l l ; N o r s t a n d so much d n y o u r g e n t i l i t y , W h i c h i s an a i r y , and mere b o r r o w e d thing, From d e a d men's d u s t , and b o n e s , and none o f y o u r s , Except  y o u make, o r h o l d i t .  B e f o r e I e l e a v e t h e s e e x a m p l e s 1? s h o u l d a d d t h a t r  the In  ideal citizen the early  nates. end  plays the medieval type o f c i t i z e n  He w a s b o t h  of our period,  Eures  generous  and hardworking.  however, there  a n d men  The R o a r i n g G i r l ,  2. E v e r y M a n  as e x i s t e d p . 145  predomi-  At the  a r e more Quomodos  and r e l a t i v e l y f e w p i c t u r e s o f such Happy  between master 1  changes as the p e r i o d progresses.  than  relationships  i n t h e shop o f Simon  .  i n H i s Humour, j t , i . 7 3 - 9 9 .  Eyre.  70 Naturally, we ask ourselves whether the merchant c l a s s was becoming more acquisitive than i t had been. But i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to decide to what extent the plays r e f l e c t the outlook of the c i t i z e n andjow much they are dependent upon the attitude of the dramatist.  I have discussed t h i s  question i n a general manner i n a preceding chapter^  It  seems impossible to reach any more d e f i n i t e conclusion here. I can say only that there must have been a marked increase i n the competitive s p i r i t .  Otherwise,  so many  attacks would not have been made upon'^t i n the drama. At the same time, I shall:*)t forget the complaint o f the c i t i z e n i n The Knight of the Burning Pestle«who implies that the constant r i d i c u l e directed at the middle c l a s s 2 was u n f a i r and biased. I s h a l l look f o r a moment at the f a u l t s i n the a i t i z e n that the dramatists attack most vigorously, the se were frequently the defects of h i s v i r t u e s or the r e s u l t s of too strenuous a pursuit o f i d e a l s , and, consequently, they may be r e l a t e d to the general subject of t h i s chapter.  The attacks, on the whole, resolve  .:••  themselves into a c r i t i c i s m of the c i t i z e n ' s avarice and pride. *  The Dumb Knight the merchants themselves complain  n  at the increase o f greed i n trade.  They think that  t h r i f t has turned into avarice and say that a l l men"neglect ' 1 see_above, op. 44-46. ' 13  -  -•  -  1  - - - - - -  ° ;  . '  -  •  }  ••-  ?. The Knight of the Burning Pestle, Induction, 7-11.  t h e i r health i n regard  o f t h e i r profit'.'  i n M i c h a e l m a s Jerrn, c a n s e r v e of c i t i z e n that to  criticism  a s a n example o f t h e t y p e  t h e y condemn. He w i l l go t o any l e n g t h 2  satisfy h i scraving  This  f o r "land,  fine neat  :  s a i d t o have dropped  i n this play i s  " s t a r k d e a d " when he was a k e d t o 3  four  shillings  f o r a shoulder  o f mutton.  The  excessive  p r i d e o f c e r t a i n c i t i z e n s who  that;:: i n d u s t r y h a d r e w a r d e d them w i t h is  land".  i s c a r r i e d t o a r i d i c u l o u s extreme i n C>;  G r e e n e ' s T u Quoque* B u b b l e ' s u n c l e  pay  .'1 1. Quomodo,  also c r i t i c i z e d  adversely.  t i t l e sand  The f a n t a s t i c  found  wealth  pretensions 4  o f Rash on.being k n i g h t e d Bubble  make h i m an o b j e c t o f l a u g h t e r .  i s e q u a l l y r i d i c u l o u s . He t h i n k s t h a t he must  speak l a t i n  n m r t h a t he i s a g e n t l e m a n a n d a d d s t h e  o n l y L a t i n he knows, " t u quoque", t o e v e r y t h i n g  t h a t he  5 says. He i s a l s o c o n v i n c e d t h a t a s u i t o f b l a c k c a r n a t i o n v e l v e t i s t h e o n l y f i t costume f o r a w e a l t h y 6 man.  O l d Fortunatus  pride, 1  1  also contains  an a t t a c k  on t h e c i t i z e n s '  i n t h i s case expressed by o s t e n t a t i o u s  h e Dumb K n i g h t , 1 1 1 , i , p . 1 6 0 .  2  M i c h a e l m a s Term,  3.  G r e e n e s T u Quoque, p . 190.  :  dress. :  !  11,iii,116-120.  1  4. I b i d . p . I 8 6 ^ i : * . l . 5 J I b i d . p.209-211. 6 7 are  I b i d . p.209. O l d F o r t u n a t u s . 1,1.330. F o r t u n a t u s always"gallant".  and h i s  sons  IZ glance  a t Volpone, the  f o u n d anywhere i n t h e In j o n s o n s play 1  most b i t t e r Elizabethan  satire  a l l classes of  motive, t h a t o f greed. Corvino,  the  lawyer, Gorbaccio, the  The  his  s a y s t h a t by  f o l l o w e r s he  greater  ease  can  than the  play  a l l of  increase  i s summed up the  I f we  are  to  succumbed t o t h e  "neglect  Dumb K n i g h t ,  lll,i,  i n Volpone's  even and  disease  t h e i r health"-' i n  p.160  of  believe  Volpone, l , i . 3 0 - 5 1 . F u r t h e r r e f e r e n c e s t o t h i s scene i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r . The  on  sacrifice  whose m e t h o d s he  1  2  Voltore,  avarice  h i s wealth with  merchant, 1  s o c i e t y has  t h e m e r c h a n t . A l l men 2 of their p r o f i t . "  merchant,  They w i l l  p l a y i n g on  laosca c o n t e m p t u o u s l y l i s t . Jonson  the  from  o b t a i n more money.  whole p o i n t o f t h e  •~ w o r d s when he  society act  o l d gentleman, o n l y w a i t  Volpone because they d e s i r e r i c h e s . sons, f r i e n d s t o  materialism  drama.  one  wives,  on  of  regard  w i l l be  made  73 Business The  Citizen's  Management  theory  1  of thrift  embodied i n a system o f b u s i n e s s a  strange  mixture  o f the  management t h a t was  o l d andarew. O l d w a y s o f  a l i v e l i h o b d - ' ; thaifi h a d f i t t e d  earning  economy e x i s t e d i n company w i t h by  a n d i n d u s t r y was  new methods.  a  into  o r were being  I n theElizabethan^economy  1 l or t h e background m a t e r i a l contained c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o : v  C a m p , C.W.  The A r t i c a n i n E l i z a b e t h a n  C a w l e y , R.R. U n p a t h e d Clark, Alice, Century. ,  feudal superseded  the ideal In this  l i t erature.  Waters.  The Working L i f e  o f Women i n t h e  C u n n i n g h a m , w.Tne g r o w t h o f E n g l i s h I n d u s t r y Harrison, Gretton, Gross,  Seventeenth  a n d Commerce.  W.,Description o f Englandf R.H. T h e E n g l i s h M i d d l e  C ,  The E n g l i s h G i l d  Merchant.  O n i o n s , C.T., e d . , S h a k e s p e a r e ' s Power, E i l e e n , M e d i e v a l  Class.  England.  People.  R o t h , C e c i l , "The J e w s i n t h e M i d d l e M e d i e v a l H i s t o r y , v o l . 7, p p . 6 3 3 - 8 6 3 .  Ages,"  i n Cambridge  S i s s o n , C. S, "A c o l o n y o f J e w s i n S h a k e s p e a r e ' s L o n d o n , " i n E B s a y s ana. S t u d i e s b y m e m b e r s o f t h e E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , v o l . 2 3 , p . .38, 1 9 3 8 . Toesch, Carl,"A Histogy o f the Concept o f Usury,"in The J o u r n a l o f t h e H i s t o r y o f I d e a s , p p . 2 9 1 - 3 7 8 , J u n e , 1 9 4 2 . U n w i n , G., I n d u s t r i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n and s e v e n t e e n t h C e n t u r i e s .  i nthe Sixteenth  7 4  o f  t h e  s i d e  i n  f a i r  b y  a n d  s i d e  m e r c h a n t  o l d  w i t h  o f  I n  s i d e  t h e  a n d  s t r e e t s  s i d e  b y  c  i  r  o n e ' s  t  f  w o r k  w a s t  e x c i t i n g  t h e  y  o  t h e  h  i  s y m b o l  f  t h e  s  m a d e  o  f  t h e  n e w .  T h e  a n d  d a n g e r o u s  a  & a f e  a n d  g r a n d f a t h e r ' s  h e a r d  e x p e d i t i o n s ,  s h o e s  f o u n d  n o v e l t y ;  E x c h a n g e  m e n d e d  s  g a i n s  r e t u r n s  d e s i r e d  c h o s e  i  e n o r m o u s  a d v e n t u r e r  w h o  i  o  s m i t h  w h o  m a n  c o b b l e r s  s i d e  c o m b i n e d  m a n  t h e  a s  n e w s  b u t  t h e y  i  c r a f t .  o  n  f  t h e  h a d  d o n e  b e f o r e .  s t r a n g e  e v i d e n t  T h e  u n s u c c e s s f u l  c e n t u r i e s  T h e  w a s  t o  o  e v i d e n c e  o f f e r e d  t h e  h e a r t - i o f  s u c c e s s f u l  t w o  t o  f  m e r c h a n t  b u s i n e s s  i n c o m e  t h e  t h e  t h e  i n v e s t i m e n t s  s u r e  r e t u r n  v e n t u r e s .  e c o n o m y ;  f i e l d  s e t  n  l i n k  m a n y  w i t h  b o t h  b e t w e e n  w a y s .  p u r e  t h e  T h e  a n d  l  o l d e r  t r a d i n g .  h a n d i c r a f t  o  d  t h e  n e w  h a n d i c r a f t s  M a n y  t r a d e  a n d  o  a n d  f  t h e  w e r e  f l o u r i s h e d  .  m e r c h a n t s  c r a f t s m e n  1 s p e c u l a t o r s  b e e n  m e r c h a n t  f  m a d e  t h e  o  f  t r a d i n g  d u r i n g  E d w a r d  o  11  r  a n d  g u i l d  m e r c h a n t s  d e v e l o p m e n t  c  p r e v i o u s  f  h a d  o  h a d  f  f  p l a y s e d  n o r t h e r n  , A l b u m a z a r ,  h a d  b e e n  E v e n  f a i r l y  r e - o r g a n i z e d  h a d  i  n  t h e  g e n e r a l .  T h e  t h e n  l i v e r y  i n t o  c h a r t e r e d .  m e r c h a n t  o  h o w e v e r ,  c e n t u r i e s .  b e e n  g e n e r a l l y  E l i z a b e t h a n  w h o  c o m b i n a t i o n ,  t r a d i n g  T h e  t r a d e r s  a d v e n t u r e r s .  t h i s  f r a t e r n i t i e s  c o m p a n i e s  I  r  P r e p a r a t i o n  r e i g n  t h e  o  h  i  s  h a d  o w n  s u c h  a n  E a s t e r n  I V , i i , p . 3 7 8 ,  f o r e r u n n e r s  r a c e  b u t  a m o n g  n o t  t h e  i m p o r t a n t  p a r t  E u r o p e a n  t r a d e .  S h o e m a k e r s '  i  n  o n l y  a m o n g  G e r m a n  t h e  In  H o l i d a y , 1 1 1 , i .  7 5  These  fg+eigo merchants had. an establishment  Steelyard. English.  i n London, the  They were c a l l e d the Easterlings by the I t i s hard to say exactly bow much they,  influenced the English merchant. C e r t a i n l y with t h e i r presence i n London he had a school at h i s front door and must have learned inuch about business organization from them.  Thus, even i n medieval London the t o o l s and  examples of organization were at hand that would produce the merchants-craftsman o f seafaring Tudor England. Many of thee^ merchants who  wished to have another  source of income than that provided by their c r a f t took advantage of the brave Mew  world o f America and India.  They invested t h e i r money i n sea voyages. of these investments i s amazing.  The  extent  In the records of many  of the o l d expeditions shareholders range from lords to sempstresses. These investments are well authenticated by the plays. Before I turn to the dramas f o r i l l u s t r a t i o n s , however, I s h a l l give ear to one o f the conservatives who sea trading.  detrusted  He i s William Harrison and he fears that t  the great amount of merchantile  a c t i v i t y w i l l hinder the  advance of h i s beloved country. ...that great numbers of merchants were nothing to the furtherance o f the state of the commonwealth: wherefore i t i s to be wished that the (huge) heap o f them were somewhat restrained (as also o f our lawiers) so should the rest leave more e a s i l y upon t h e i r own, and few 1 The evolution of the g u i l d of the merchant t a y l o r s furnishes a good instance of the development that various guilds underwent. I t was o r i g i n a l l y the g u i l d of the l i n e n armourers.  76  h o n e s t chapmen be bought t o d e c a i e % breaking o f the b a n k e r u p t . I doo n o t deny but t h a t t h e navy o f the l a n d i s i n p a r t m a i n t a i n e d by t h e i r t r a f f i c , and so a r e the h i g h p r i c e s o f wares k e p t up, new t h e y have g o t t e n the o n l y s a l e o f things(upon pretense of a b e t t e r furtherance o f the commonwealth) i n t o their(ownej} hands: whereas i n t i m e s p a s t when the s t r a n g e bottoms were s u f f e r e d t o come i n , we had sugar f o r f o u r pence the pound, t h a t now ( a t the w r i t i n g o f t h i s t r e a t i s ) i s w e l l w o r t h h a l f a crown, r a i s o n s o r c o r i n t s f o r a p e n i e t h a t now are h o l d e n a t s i x pence, and sometime a t e i g h t pence and tenpence t h e pQund: nutmege a t two pence h a l f p e n i e t h e ounce: g i n g e r at a p e n i e an ounce....Whereby we may see the s e q u e l o f t h i n g s n o t always ( b u t v e r y seldom) to be such as p r e t e n d e d i n the b e g i n n i n g . The wares t h a t t h e y c a r r i e out o f the r e a l m , are f o r the most p a r t brode c l o t h e s and c a r s i e s o f a l l c o l o r s . . . a n d t h e r e e i t h e r exchanged f o r o t h e r wares o r readie" money: to t h e g r e a t g a i n and c o m m o d i t i e s o f our merchants. ...They have sought o u t t h e e a s t and west I n d i e s and....they b r i n g home g r e a t c o m m o d i t i e s . (But a l a s I see n o t by a l l t h e i r t r a v e l t h a t the p r i c e o f t h i n g s are any w h i t abated.) C e r t e s t h e i r e n o r m i t i e ( f o r so I do accompt i t ) was s u f f i c i e n t l i e p r o v i d e d f o r An 9, Edward 3, by a n o b l e e s t a t u t e made i n t h a t b e h a l f , but upon what o c c a s i o n the g e n e r a l e x e c u t i o n t h e r e o f i s s t a y e d and n o t c a l l e d on, i n good s o o t h , I cannot t e l l . T h i s o n l y , I know, t h a t e v e r y f u n c t i o n and s e v e r a l v o c a t i o n s t r i v e t h w i t h o t h e r , w h i c h o f them s h o u l d have a l l the w a t e r o f commoditie r u n intotheVr own e i s t e r n . -  lo  1  The  b e s t known i n c i d e n t c e n t e r i n g i n t r a d e  showing t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f the'jmerchant i n t h e  and  Elizabethan  drama i s t h a t which forms t h e main p l o t o f the merchant 2  —  V e n i c e  »  The  i n c i d e n t i n r t h i s p l a y i s too  familair  H a r r i s o n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f E n g l a n d . Book 1 1 . C a p . v . o p l 3 l pp.131-132 2.  The  name i t s e l f would i m p l y rromance t o the  Eliaabethan.  7? to be  d e s c r i b e d i n any  as an  example o f  wealthy  fehere  the merchant  a l t h o u g h he  t h e p l a y and his  upon the  detail,  was  and  success  the  of  A n t o n i o may  a d v e n t u r e r . He  serve  was  very  threatened with loss  during  found h i m s e l f i n a  position  a l t h o u g h he  goods  but  fate  a single  of his friend fleet.  depended  His' wealth  might  have been t h e w e a l t h o f a l a r g e number o f  London  merchants  as  of  and h i s i n v e s t m e n t  taken  an  i n sea  investments  atifoe p i e r  cargoes.  and  tow  remain  a t home t o  atch f o r their  as d i d A n t o n i o .  These  r  trade.  A l l merchants d i d not their  supervise  ships  Many s a i l e d w i t h  stormy  Shakespeare.  Such a merchant i s anotherAntonio,  his  place, his  o c e a n n i g h t s as  i n A l b u m a z a r . The  absence.  farmer,  a s was  Trinealo,  the  play hinges  for  looked forward t o the  travelling  other  the  Venetian Antonio's,  Albumazar.  s e a t r a d e r who  of  one  riches through  o f the  not  as  invested i n  of h i s master's The  their  the s ea boy  p l o t o f the  A l l h i s money was  however,  doming  s a i l o r merchants must have been  familar with  Antonio  eHaipple  ;~y 2u  those because o f the E l i z a b e t h a n craze f o r  speculation  in  c a n be  the  Antonio  aid of  seizure  wizard  serves as  an  retained h i s connections  sections of Elizabethan business.  on  example with  78 T h i s p l a y has aid of  i n forming  a number o f r e f e r e n c e s i n i t t h a t  a picture  of the  E l i z a b e t h ' s London. Antonio  b u s i n e s s was his he  very  daughters  h i s great  r e t u r n e d he  as  by  was  told 2  the  t h a t he h a d  The  and  order  that  Barbary.  been given  Exchange took note  s h i p s i n much t h e  same way  as  up  of Lloyds  now. Some i d e a o f t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s  m e r c h a n t s may his  that h i s  d e l a y e d h i s own  sums o f g o l d i n  the Exchange.  v o y a g e s and  does  seemed t o . t h i n k  i m p o r t a n t . He  When h e  the  trader-merchant  marriage, f o r three, m p n ^ s l i n  might c o l l e c t  lost  wealthy  be  obtained from  hardships, his" shipwreck,  undergone by  Antonio's  daring  account  h i s c a p t u r e by  of  pirates  3  and  h i s service  i n the galleys.'There are also  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e E a s t I n d i a company and of  charting  his  voyages.  Albumazar,  a l m a n a c made f o r t h e h e i g h t  to  methods  f o r example, has and m e r i d i a n  had  of-Japan.  • He  some  4  c o n s i d e r s g i v i n g i t t o t h e E a s t I n d i a Company. T h e r e t h e y may s m e l l o u t t h e p r i c e o f c l o v e s and pepper, Monkeys and c h i n a d i s h e s , f i v e y e a r s e n s u i n g , And  know t h e  success  of t h e  A l l merchants were not Antonio's  i n having their  1  Albumazar,  2.  Ibid.,IV,i^,p.378.  3 4  as f o r t u n a t e as t h e  ventures t u r n out  l,v,p.320.  Ibid.,111,ix,pp.376-378. Ibid.,l,v,p.318.  voyage o f t h e  Magores, two  successfully.  79 Many i n v e s t m e n t s  failed,  and shipwreck  s t o r i e s meant d i s a s t e r - t o I n t h e drama t h e r e  both  l o r d s and  are specific  m e r c h a n t s who w e r e r u i n e d t h r o u g h e x p e d i t i o n s beyond t h e seas. in  Thomas, L o r d  misfortune  references t o  investment i n  The u n f o r t u n a t e  Similarly,  the merchant p e t i t i o n i n g  seas,  sempstresses.  C r o m w e l l l o s e s h i s money 1  a t sea.  states b i t t e r l y  i nElizabethan  Bannists?  through  i n T h e Dumb  Knight,  Prate, the unscrupulous  t h a t he i s exposed t o the. h a z a r d  lawyer, of the  t h a t he needs c o n f i r m a t i o n o f a 2 charter to trade with Spain. The r i c h Turkey merchant i n T h e M e r r y D e v i l o f Edmont o n h a s l o s t a l l h i s m o n e y 3 at  and, further,  sea.  The V o y a g e s o f t h e  Two E n g l i s h B r o t h e r s  r e f e r e n c e s t o t h eItest I n d i a n t r a d e  have  and several  instances o f misfortune. Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l f u r n i s h e s f u t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning  the conduct o f the t r a v e l l i n g  business.  I n i t there  i s some i n d i c a t i o n  o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h emerchants. over  a l lthe  furnished Lord in  known w o r l d .  t h emodel.  Cromwell  merchant's o f the close  This network  extended  Perhaps t h eH a n s e a t i c  What e v e r  theorigin  Steelyard  Thomas,  s h o w s u s the E n g l i s h f a c t o r y i n  Antwerp  c l o s e t o u c h w i t h L o n d o n . W o r d i s brought t o t h e I  Thomas,Lord C r o m w e l l , 1 , i i i , p . 3 5 3 .  2.  T h e Dumb K n i g h t ,  3  The M e r r y D e v i l  '  111,i,pp.160-162. o f Edmonton,  p.215.  80 governor  there to  had  previously left  just The  the  life  and  excitement  coming o f Hugh has  England  to  a ship. brought  investments. caused  In  the  the  p r i v a t e e r s f a v o r e d P l y m o u t h Hoe.  the  t r a v e l l i n g .merchant h a s  s p n ..has more and  almost  shows u s  I n the  absent  f o r g o t t e n him.  The  where F l o w e r d a l e  had  even  and  London theugh  same p l a y  so . l o n g t h a t  forged w i l l ,  his  further-  i n v e s t e d h i s money 3 c o n f i r m s what has been s a i d - o f such investments. Sir Lancelot. T h r e e s h i p s now i n t h e S t r a i t s and homeward b o u n d ; Two w a r d h i p s o f t w o h u n d r e d p o u n d a y e a r , The one i n W a l e s , t h e o t h e r G l o u c e s t e r s h i r e ; D e b t and a c c o u n t s s a r e t h r i t y t h o u s a n d p o u n d ; P l a t e , money, j e w e l s , s i x t e e n t h o u s a n d more; Two h o u s e n f u r n i s h e d w e l l i n C o l e m a n s t r e e t ; B e s i d e s what s o ' e r h i s u n c l e l e a v e s t o him, B e i n g o f g r e a t domains and w e a l t h a t Peckham. I  have  p r i n c i p a l port f o r the merchants,  been  home-  Catherine  In Elizabethan times  was  the  description  b y -the  Martin;asks what the 2 to port.  aspects of  i t i s a  i n London P o o l  He  1 imprisonment.  avoid  London P r o d i g a l d e s c r i b e s o t h e r  merchants of  apprehend. B a n n i s t e r f o r d e b t .  n  Eastward  Ho % { s t r e s s F o n d  seen a s h i p launched  the  day  and M J s t r e s s before  w e d d i n g . T h e y d i s c u s s t h e l a u n c h i n g and j to S i r P e t r o n a l ' s departure i n another  Gaser  Gertrude's  look fine  forward  a3\7erxtim>\js  1 T^c^^v-Lora^Oyomwell. 11.i &iii,pp354-356. c f . M r s . B a n n i s t e r ' s s p e e c h . " 0 , m a s t e r F r e s c o b a l d , p i t y my h u s b a n d l s c a s e . He i s a man h a s l i v e d . a s w e l l a s a n y , T i l l e n v i o u s f o r t u n e and t h e r a v e n o u s s e a , »id rob, d i s r o b e , and s p o i l u s o f o u r own." 2  The  London P r o d i g a l .  3  Ibid.  11,iv,p.381  l,ii,p.372.  81  1  s h i p . The k n i g h t , however, who was a t t e m p t i n g t o r e v i v e h i s f o r t u n e s by a j o u r n e y t o America,had and u n l u c k y end  v o y a g e ; a n d h i s w e a l t h was l e s s a t t h e  o f i tthan  at t h e beginning.  So many a d v e n t u r e r s ,  indeed attempted  w e a l t h b y s a i l i n g w e s t t h a t ft s e t t i n g became a c a n t t e r m Sebastian,  a short  f o r a hopeless  to gain  a a i l f o r Virginia','  ambition. M o l l  f o r i n s t a n c e , n o t t o chose 2  a wife  tells  as i f h e  were g o i n g o n a v o y a g e t o V i r g i n i a . The  c i t i z e n who c o m b i n e d c r a f t m a n s h i p  m i g h t b e more o f a c r a f t s m a n  than  a trader.  agreement w i t h t h e D t u c h s h i p m a s e r  and t r a d i n g Eyre's  i s t y p i c a l o f the  t y p e o f b a r g a i n i n g c a r r i e d o n b y t h o s e who were  primarily  c r a f t s m e n . E y r e was n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y  with  s h i p p i n g and i t i s d o u b t f u l v w h e t h e r werestrietly  honest.  concerned  h i sdealings  I n t h i s c a s e he was r e a p i n g  t h e r e s u l t s o f a n o t h e r man's l a b o r and " f o r e s t a l l i n g " , a p r a c t i c e f o r b i d d e n byiflae m e d i e v a l m a r k e t c o d e s . No new l e g i s l a t i o n h a d been passed  a t t h a t date  to regulate  s u c h t r a n s a c t i o n s , however, and E y r e was n o t b r e a k i n g any  rule  shipping  i n force  at t h e t i m e .  An o r d e r l y  law had n o t been e v o l v e d t o serve t h e E l i z a b e t h a n  tradesman as t h e m e d i e v a l  system  o f regulating the  c r a f t s h a d done h i s g r a n d p a r e n t s . that  system o f  In fact,  the favor  E y r e r e c e i v e s on t h e s u c c e s J o f h i s b a r g a i n i s  1  Eastward  Ho. 111,11.18-20.  2  The R e a r i n g G i r l ,  l,i.p,165.  82 symbolic trade.  o f the changed o u t l o o k Only a  o f the E l i z a b e t h a n  l i t t l e more than a century  on  earlier  Such an a c t i o n as E y r e ' s might have c a l l e d f o r t h prosecution. Before  I t u r n to a c o n s i d e a t i o n o f the c r a f t s m a n  c a r r y i n g on h i s t r a d e i n h i s shop as h i s f a t h e r had done I s h a l l d e s c r i b e the  a c t i v i t i e s o f another  type o f E l i z a b e t h a n businessman, the loan merchant. H i s development somewhat p a r a l l e l s t h a t o f  the  s p e c u l a t o r o r o f the merchant adventurer. As was  sometimes  the case w i t h the l a t t e r the  use  l o a n merchant might  h i s c r a f t to p r o v i d e c a p i t a l f o r o t h e r  enterprises that  y i e l d e d a l a r g e r r e t u r n than t h a t which c o u l d be from the c r a f t  obtained  alone.  In c e r a i n ways the membersc«f t h i s group were i n a. bfetter p o s i t i o n than were the merchant l e n d i n g money at i n t e r e s t had  advantages over the p l a c i n g  o f one's c a p i t a l i n sea voyages. p e r s o n a l danger and accurate  adventurers,  It entailed far less  i t gave an o p p o r t u n i t y  determination  of business  risks.  l o a n merchant f a c e d one unique drawback.  f o r the more But  the  He had  cope with the s t r o n g d i s a p p r o b a t i o n o f a l l around The  d i s a p p r o v a l o f h i s a c t i o n s was  o f the age. He was by h i s own  to him.  r o o t e d i n the mind  condemned f o r t a k i n g i n t e r e s t , both  people, the c i t i z e n f . a n d by h i s enemies, the  83 the  aristocracy.  This  intangible legislation  much more a h i n d r a n c e t h a n encountered by  period  restrictions  otherumerchahts.  Effective  bethan  any l e g a l  was  as t h i s  disapproval  i t i srather  present  century  weight.  We  was i n t h e E l i z a -  difficult  f o rpeople o f t h e  t o comprehend i t s r e a s o n s o r i t s  forget  that to the Elizabethan  a n y man  made money o u t o f a n o t h e r ' s n e e d w a s a u s u r e r . influence the so  word  of centuries of medieval teaching ahd u n c o n s c i o u s l y  t h a t h e made b i a s e d  effort, that  that  a. m a n who  loaned  The  hung  upon  c o l o r e d h i s a t t i t u d e and  judgements.  however, t o r e a l i z e  who  that money  We  should  make  the Elizabethan at interest  an s t i l l  was a  usurer.  1 The e a r l y c h u r c h f a t h e r s h a d been r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the medieval d i s t u u s t o f usury. They b e d p u t t h e w e i g h t o f t h e i r a u t h o r i t y a g a i n s t t n o s e who r e c i e v e d m o n e y f o r t h e l o a n o f any commodity They had based t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l $h t h e S c r i p t u r e s . The s t o r y o f t h e Godd S a m a r i t a n a n d t h e commend t h a t e n j o i n e d m u t u a l c a r e i n d i s t r e s s b o t h -implied t h a t a i d should, be g i v e n w i t h o u t asking for a return. T h e c a n o n i s t s , f u r t h e r m o r e , made a d i s t i n c t d i f f e r e n c e between u s u r i a a n d i n t e r e s s a . I f one l o a n e d a h o r s e t o a n e i g h b o r t h e r e m i g h t b e a s m a l l m o n e y sum • ( i n t e r e s s a ) p a i d f o r i t s u s e , b e c a u s e one would- be w i t h o u t t h e h o r s e o n s e l f and t h e h o r s e m i g h t b e i n j u r e d i n t h e meantime. A n y t h i n g measurable, on t h e o t h e r hand, had t o "be r e t u r n e d e x a c t l y a s g i v e n ; Finally, the canonists s a i d t h a t t h e money l e n d e r a s k e d p a y m e n t o n t i m e , t h a t was n o t h i s b u t God's.  84  I f we  do n o t r e a l i z e  of loans  was b a s e d , u n c o n s c i o u s l y ,  restrictions m a n we  s h a l l n o t we  As  able  attitude  defence o f lending  one's wealth.  cases,  money l e n d e r s light  the plays  however,  sea  They  counterpart  Middle  Ages j u s t  and as c a p i t a l i z i n g  i n Elizabethan i n the plays*  by  the Jews  Lombards of  usurer  upon  as t h e m e d i e v a l i s invariably/"  life  had antecedents  i nthe had  i n England.  t h e Germans,  First  by t h e church,  o f E u r o p e , a n d bytthe The power  however,  fore-  Loans had-been needed and  merchant houses on t h e c o n t i n e n t , i n most  apprentices.  and, t h e r e f o r e ,  as t h e merchant adventurers  i n medieval times.  by t h e g r e a t  why  favorable  a l l y o u n g e r sons and wayward  runners i n Chaucer's time. supplied  investment.  are g e n e r a l l y p i c t u r e d as  l o a n m e r c h a n t h a d d o n e . .The s t a g e  The u s u r e r  praise  d i d n o t appear i n a  e m e r g e n c y n e e d s i n e x a c t l y t h e same w a y  determined to r u i n  i s , i nthe  i t i s easy t o understand  i n t h e drama  t o t he audience.  there  I t does n o t arouse  m a k i n g lo.<an<s-of n e c e s s i t y  his  that  a s a means o f  does t h r i f t y management o r d a r i n g  I n many  canonical  lenders.  ardent  increasing  o n t h e same  to understand  a consequence o f - t h i s  plays,no  disapproval  t h a t h a d g o v e r n e d the t h o u g h t o f m e d i e v a l  d e a l w i t h money  as  that the Elizabethan's  tfas  then  later  Germans and  o f t h e Lombards  a t e m p o r a r y one  and  omEngland,  85 Long before  the coronation  were'' s u p e r v i s i n g  their  of Elizabeth,  own  -£hB r e s t o f t h e c o u n t r y , advernturers that  they  financial  affairs  and those o f  i n f a c t t h e eompaniescof  had learned  so much  were u n c o n s c i o u s l y  m a n n e r .?as we d o  Londoners  from t h e i r  using  loans  merchant  predecessors  i n t h e same  today.  Thus, i tc a n be seen t h a t by t h e end o f t h e s i x t e e n t h century  both  the material  have been provided  and m e n t a l a n t e c e d e n t s  f o r the loan merchant.  the  Lombards had f u r n i s h e d  had  disappeared.  slowly of  loan  The garmans and  examples. C a n o n i c a l  restrictions  Sine e m e n t a l b a r r i e r s a r e r e m o v e d more  than material  suspicion  should  ones, however, t h e o l d atmosphere  a r i h a t r e d remained t o plague the successful  merchant. The  said,  Elizabethan  had t o face  loan merchant,  strong  t h e n , he demanded l a r g e  therefore,  and c o n s t a n t returns  as I  criticism.  f o r h i s money.  Naturally  Perhaps  a c e r t a i n sense o f i n s e c u r i t y aroused by c r i t i c i s m him,  i n most instances,  Such c o n t a c t The  craft  tions  r e t a i n contact  was n e c e s s a r y  was t h e b a s i s  and o n l y  also  on purely  material  merchant t a y l o r s , the mercers,  For  instance,  a goldsmith  would  grounds  transact  s u i t a b l e machinery  L o a n s w e r e made m o s t f r e q u e n t l y  the  made  h i s craft.  o f t h e money l e n d e r ' s  certain c r a f t s provided  f o r money l e n d i n g .  with  have  and t h e  accept plate  by  goldsmiths. or jewellery  86 as  security f o rh i s loans;  cloth  t h e mercer would  give  i n p l a c e o f a loan. Only r a r e l y I s there  instant craft.  o f loans being But, regardless  o f f e r e d independently  an  of a  o f the type o f lending, the  d i s a p p r o v a l was u n i f o r m l y  severe..The p l a y s w i l l  illus-  trate. The  h u s b a n d i n The P u r i t a n c a n s e r v e  o f t h e mosey l e n d e r the  craft.  stand  1  a s an example  who c a r r i e d o n h i s l e n d i n g  E v e r y m o r n i n g i n Term t i m e , he was a t h i s  i n Westminister H a l l ,  asking  f o r payment o f . h i s  l o a n s . We l e a r n t h a t he c h e a t e d t o g a i n money son's education  and t h a t  o f with  scorn  as w e l l  as b y o u t s i d e r s .  spoken  and c o n t e m p t b y members o f h i s h o u s e h o l d 2  o f money l e n d e r s who u s e d t h e i r c r a f t their transactions.  In the f i r s t  a c c o u n t o f t h e more u n f a v o r a b l e  t h e methods  as t h e b a s i s o f  play there  i s a detailed  a s p e c t s c c f money  lending  o f t h e methods o f t h e m e r c e r s . E a s y i s f o r c e d t o  b o r r o w money f r o m Quomodo,  a m e r c e r , who makes h i m  t a k e up p a r t o f i t i n commodities, Easy,  t h a t i s , i n goods.  i n h i s need, i s f o r c e d t o s e l l  t h r o u g h an a g e n t who d i s p o s e s * o f 1 2  for h i s  a f t e r h i s d e a t h h e was  M i c h a e l m a s Term and Ram A l l e y i l l u s t r a t e  and  outside  the clotheagain  i tat a ridiculously •  The P u r i t a n , l . i . p . 3 9 9 . Ibid, l,i.p.400. ll,i,p.407.  x  low p r i c e .  The agent  i s i n thepay  o f Quomodo.  1  Thus,  the mercer r e c e i v e s r e t u r n s on h i s goods as g r e a t as any  r e c e i v e d by t h e merchant a d v e n t u r e r s .  Alley  Throat  d e a l s w i t h two t y p e s o f money l e n d e r s .  He b o r r o w s j e w e l s f r o m clerk in  I n Ram  t h e gctasmith b u t s e n d s h i s  t o t h e b r o k e r £money l e n d e r ) p r o b o b l y  a mercer,  F e t t e r L a n e , t o pawn them f o r a v e l v e t j e r k i n 2  double  ruff.  and a  Many o f t h e y o u n g h e i r s o r t h e f o o l h a r d y  apprentices i n the p l a y s f i n d themselves s i m i l a r t o those o f Easy  and T h r o a t ,  i n positions  I n every  instance  t h e money l e n d e r i s d e p i c t e d a s a man who u n h e s i t a t i n g l y takes  advantage o f t h e i r  needs.  i n o t h e r p l a y s t h e r e a r e more e x a m p l e s o f t h e h e a r t s ssness o f the brokers. B a g o t i s a*' damned b r o k e r " ,  I n Thomas, L o r d  Cromwell,  who l o a n e d money t o B a n n i s t e r 3  and t h e n  called  i n The L o o k i n g  i t i n before  the l a t t e r had time  G l a s s f o r London t h e m  is a  t o pay,  similar  r e f e r e n c e t o t h e l o a n i n g o f money andifoe c a l l i n g i t i n i n t h e hope t h a t i t c o u l d n o t be p a i d b a c k .  I n such  An  instance t h e b r o k e r miglfc r e c e i v e d s o m e t h i n g o f more w o r t h $ i a n t h e money i t s e l f .  The p o o r man i n t h i s p l a y i s f o r c e d 4 t o 1pawn h i s cow and h i s w i f e ' s b e s t gown. -Volpone M i c h a e l m a s Term, l l , i i i T 2  Ram A l l e y ,  111,i,p.334.  3  Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l , 1 , i i i , p . 3 5 3 ,  4  The L o o k i n g  G l a s s f o r L o n d o n . 652-820.  88 c o n t a i n s a f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t i o n o f such methods. the to  speech i n which r e f e r e n c e  In  i s made t o V o l p o n e ' s a b i l i t y  o b t a i n money w i t h o u t r e c o u r s e t o t h e m e t h o d s o f t h e  1 money l e n d e r t h e t r i c k s o f t h e u s u r e r a r e g i v e n i n d e t a i l . V o l p o n e . . . e x p o se no sh i p s To t h r e a t e n i n g s o f t h e f u r r o w - f a c e d s e a ; T u r n no moneys i n t h e b a n k p u b l i c Nor u s u r e p r i v a t e . Mos...No s i r e , n o r d e v o u r S o f t p r o d i g a l s . You s h a l l h a v e some w i l l s w a l l o w A m e l t i n g h e i r a s g l i b l y a s 2gar D u t c h W i l l p i l l s o f b u t t e r , and n e ' e r p u r g e f o r i t ; Tear f o r t h the f a t h e r s o f poor f a m i l i e s Out o f t h e i r b e d s and c o f f i n them a l i v e I n some I c i n d c l a s p i n g p r i s o n , where t h e i r b o n e s May be f o r t h c o m i n g , when t h e f l e s h i s r o t t e n ; Bttt y o u r sweet n a t u r e d o t h a b h o r t h e s e c o u r s e s ; Y o u l o a t h e t h e widow's o r t h e o r p h a n ' s t e a r s S h o u l d wash y o u r p a v e m e n t s o r t h e i r p i t e o u s c r i e s R i n g i n y o u r r o o f s and b e a t t h e a i r f o r v e n g e a n c e . Loan merchants, merchant  a d v e n t u r e r s and c r a f t s m e n  do n o t c o m p l e t e t h e r a n k s o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n b u s i n e s s men.  A t the bottom o f the s o c i a l  s c a l e t h e r e was  g r o u p o f s e m i - a r t i z a n s and:semi-merchants the  c o u n t r y s i d e as p e d l e r s .  significant,  moved  are not  i t i s true, but i s i n t e r s t i n g  H a r r i s o n ' s account o f t h e i r of  T h e s e men  who  to  a c t i v i t i e s . He,  the  d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t w o u l d be  daily  1  shopper i n London.  Vo l p o n e .  1,1,38-51.  e n c o u n t e r e d by  around  read  no  illustrates i n his description  am^ll  very  lover  t h e middleman, t h o r o u g h l y d i a a p p r o v e d o f them,  incidentally,  a  and,  some o f the  89 I n r e t u r n i n g , t h e r e f o r e , u n t o my p u r p o s e I f i n d t h a t i n c o r n g r e a t abuse i s d a i l y s u f f e r e d , to the great p r e j u d i c e o f the town and t h e c o u n t r y , e s p e c i a l l y the p o o r a r i f i c i e r and h o u s e h o l d e r , w h i c h t i l l e t h no l a n d , b u t l a b o r i n g a l l t h e week t o buy a b u s h e l o f g r a i n o n the« m a r k e t d a y , c a n t h e r e h a v e none f o r h i s money b e c a u s e b o d g e r s , l o a d e r s and common c a r r i e r s o f c o r n do n o t o n l y buy i t •&f>7all, b u t g i v e abotfe t h e p r i c e t o be s e r v e d i n great quantities.  1 One f u r t h e r phenomenon i n t h e remains to and  be n o t e d b e f o r e  the apprentice  was the. g r e a t  i n the  wave o f  f i e l d of  the master,  the  speculation that  the Jacobeans had h e a r d o f  t h e y were r e a d y t o b e l i e v e consequently,  journeyman  shop a r e d i s c u s s e d .  any  t h e y would put  so many fantastic  The  Elizabethans  wondersthat story,  t h e i r money i n t o  i n v e n t i o n s o r i n t o new r e c e i p t s f o r t h e  This  c a r r i e d the  money o f many a L o n d o n c i t i z e n w i t h i t . and  business  and,  absurd  philosopher's  stone. Some o f t h e more i n s a n e t h e o r i e s w i l l later. that  One i l l u s t r a t i o n g i v e n now, wi 11  almost  a believer attention of  serve  e v e r y E l i z a b e t h a n was a t h e a r t in projects.  to  It  w i l l be  Sir Politic-would-be's  be'outlined  a  sufficient  to  show  speculator, to  p l a n s f o r the  draw state  Venice. Si;r P . W e l l , i f I c o u l d f i n d b u t one man One man t o m i n e own h e a r t , $fc>m I d u r s t t r u s t , I would Per. What, w h a t , S i r ? Per. What, w h a t , S i r ? 1 Harrison's*Description\of  E n g l a n d V B o o k '' 11J c a p . 1 8 , p . 2 9 5 .  90 S i r , P. Make h i m r i c h ;  make h i m a f o r t u n e ;  • ••  With c e r t a i n projects that I W h i c h I may n o t d i s c o v e r .  have;  ••• •  O n e i s , a n d I c a r e n o t g r e a t l y who k n o w , t o s e r v e the state Of Venice w i t h r e d h e a r r i n g s f o r t h r e e y e a r s . •• My f i r s t i s Concerning t i n d e r boxes. . •. My n e x t i s , h o w t o i n q u i r e , a n d b e r e s o l v e d , B y pr e s e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n , w h e t h e r a s h i p , Be g u i l t y o f t h e p l a g u e . . . . 1  1  Vo l p o n e .  IV, i,42-104.  91 I the  shall  t u r n now  from the merchant.adventurer,  s p e c u l a t o r , t h e money l e n d e r and t h e s m a l l  to  t h e c r a f t s m a n who  h a d no  interest  He, h i s workmen and h i s shop, w i t h ment and l o c a t i o n w i l l It  seems f a i r l y  b e my certain  sixteenth century chronicles had  become c l o s e l y  L o n d o n . The street In  shops  next  days  other than h i s c r a f t .  i t s goods,  concern.  and p l a y s t h a t  each  associated with "ascertain  o f the l e a t h e r workers were on  o f the period  cooks were on of this  this by  guild  section  of  one  another.  survey,  m o r e , t h e home;: o f t h e g u i l d s m a n w a s u s u a l l y shop.  arrange-  from the evidence o f t h e  and t h o s e o f t h e p a s t r y  the early  aritzan  further-  part of h i s  E y r e ' s , 6 a n d i d o ' s and Hog's houses were b u i l t i n 1 fashion. O t h e r homes were j o i n e d t o t h e i r shops  passageways.  T h i s arrangement  may  have e x i s t e d i n 2-  the  c a s e o f t h e Gallip-txfes a n d t h e T i l t y a r d s .  directions  imply that  such was  These b u i l d i n g s were  Stage  the case.  n o t v e r y large,, whatever  t#pe. I t w a s not u s u a l t o f i n d a n e s t a b l i s h m e n t l i k e of  J a c k o f Newbury m e n t i o n e d  factory groups  five  hundred  workers  i n Deloney,  that  In Jack's  \were employed  i n m u c h t h e same m a n n e r  their  i n specialized  as t h e workers  i n an  1 1 The S h o e m a k e r s ' H o l i d a y , The H o n e s t W h o r e , The Hog Has L o s t H i s P e a r l . I n s t r u c t i o n s i n p l a y s b e a r o u t t h i s s t a t e m e n t , e g . The S h o e m a k e r s ' H o l i d a y , 1 1 , i i i , " b e f o r e E y r e s house." 1  2  The R o a r i n g  Girl.  92 assembly  line.  Both shops  interiors  and e x t e r i o r s  are i l l u s t r a t e d i n the plays.  The Shoemakers'  H&iday  helpful.  settings that  i n Candido's shop.  of the interior  are equally  descrip-  Greene's  3  The R o a r i n g  goods  i s a  Honest  and M i c h a e l m a s Term and o f t h e e x t e r i o r  a tobacconist's,  From  There  o f a mercer's i n both  a Tu Quoque  the  known.  F o r e x a m p l e , many o f t h e s c e n e s i n The  Whore- t a k e p l a c e  in  E y r e ' s shop i n  i s probably the best  However, o t h e r plays have  tion  of a l l types of  o f a feather merchant's 4  of  and o f a m e r c e r ' s  Girl.  s u c h p l a y s we  find  that  inside the building  w e r e s p r e a d o u t on t a b l e s much a s t h e y a r e  today. Candido  inThe Honest  Whore  takes pieces o f 5  cloth  from the t a b l e s and d i s p l a y s them, s p e n d a l a n d Long#ielA i n G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque s a y t h a t t h e y h a v e o p e n e d a n d s p r e a d o u t t e n p i e c e s t o no p u r p o s e i n an u n p r o f i t a b l e 6 sale. < There i s l i t t l e stores  d e t a i l .about t h e l i g h t i n g  a n d "the a r r a n g e m e n t  The l i g h t i n g  o f m a t e r i a l on t h e t a b l e s .  i n some s h o p s w a s  so p o o r t h a t  1  The H o n e s t Whore,  2  Greene's  3  M i c a a e l m a s Term,  4  The R o a r i n g G i r l , l , i , p p . 1 5 4 - 1 6 1 .  5. T h e H o n e s t W h o r e , 6  Greene's  l,v;lV,iii.  Tu Quoque,  p.p.181.  11,iii,  IV,iii,pp.160-161.  Tu Quoque,  o f the  p.185.  dishonest  93 m e r c h a n t s were a b l e t o p l a c e an i n a d e q u a t e l i g h t  that  flaws being noticed. was n o t d i s p l a y e d .  inferior material i n  i t m i g h t be s o l d  without  I n . c e r t a i n cases the best  material  B o l t s o f i t l a y i n the back  f o r f a v o r i t e customers.  • 93  shop  T h e j o u r n e y m a n , R o g e r , f o r example,  is  i n s t r u c t e d t o b r i n g the f i n e goods from t h e back o f 1 t h e shop t o s a t i s f y C a n d i d o ' s c u s t o m e r s . A s i m i l a r 2 i n c i d e n t o c c u r s i n G r e e n e ' s T u Quoque. Sometimes-the g o o d s were d i s p l a y e d and s o l d front  room  i n the  and m a n u f a c t u r e d i n one o f t h e b a c k o n e s .  F r e q u e n t l y , however,  the c r a f t s m e n worked  one room  a s t h e y d i d i n The Shoemakers'  George  Greene a l s o t h e r e shoemakers  and s o l d i n 3 Holiday. 1$  sitting  at their \  work. The s t a g e d i r e c t i o n s  seem t o i m p l y t h a t t h e y 4 room o f t h e s h o p . Sd'also  w o u l d be i n t h e f r o n t  M i s t r e s s Openwork i s s e w i n g i n h e r shop when h e r h u s b a n d 5 . reminds h e r o f a n e g l e c t e d  order.  From t h e d e s c r i p t i o n s g i v e n i n t h e p l a y s i t seems that the front large  o f t h e shop f r e q u e n t l y o p e n e d o r h a d  s h u t t e r s t h a t were t a k e n down. Sometimes  were a r r a n g e d o u t s i d e . The open  front not only  stalls helped  t o d i s p l a y g o o d s b u t a l s o made work more p l e a s a n t f o r t h e men  i n s i d e than i t would o t h e r w i s e have been.  1  The Shoemakers'  Holiday.  2  G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque,  3  Op  4  George a Greene. 991.  5  The R o a r i n g G i r l ,  p.183  cit.Ill,i.  p.  155.  lV,ii,161.  94 I t had yet another use. Goods could he shown by hanging them i n the openings as w e l l as by spreading them on the s t a l l s .  Poulterers, f o r instance,usually hung t h e i r * 1 fowl i n the open windows. Along the length of the street and over the sstalls  there were many signs that explained the c r a f t s the merchants followed.  One reference i n The Hog Has Host  His Pearl i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s custom.  In t h i s play Young  Wealthy speaks of the picture of Hector i n the haberdasher's shop. The  streets i n front of the buildings had to be  kept clean and orderly.  Eyre commands h i s appr* entices 2  to sweep the kennels as son as the day begins.  We  Should remember that the Elizabethan was-never very c a r e f u l ab6]at the disposal o f tiAs garbage, To throw i t out the window seemed to him to be a l l that was Therefore,  necessary.  i f the apprentices had not swept away the  filth  of the day before, the young g a l l a n t s , such as those 3 i n The Ro aring G i r l ,  could never have i d l e d up and down  Cheapside l a t e r i n t h e i r f i n e clothes and Cordovan boots. Early i n the morning Cneapside and the d i s t r i c t around i t must have been f u l l of a c t i v i t y as the wares 1  e f . P h i l a s t e r , Vyyf 36-37.  2. The Shoemakers' Holiday, 11,iii,1-12. 3  The Roaring G i r l , pp.153,155.  95 were arranged the very  f o r t h e day and t h e r u b b i s h  central gutter. greatly from  that  encountered  t h e shops as d e l i v e r y boys  If  one w a l k e d  Cheapside  into  The scene m i g h t n o t have d i f f e r e d i n one o f o u r  t o w n s when m e r c h a n t s a n d s a l e s g i r l s inside  swept  through  arrange  their  sweep t h e s i d e  goods walks.  the streets centering i n  a f t e r t h e b u s i n e s s d a y h a d b e g u n © n e w o u l d have  b e w p u r s u e d b y t h e c r i e s o f t h e shopmen, u s u a l l y , lack  small  you?".  The elemert a r y p s y c h o logy d i s p l a y e d  "What by  s u c h c r i e s w a s m u c h t h e same a s t h a t u s e d i n s e l l i n g wares t o d a y . The t r a d e s m a n flatter  and!the a p p r e n t i c e  the customer's pride  thriftiness  tried  a n d t o a p p e a l to h i s  a t t h e same t i m e .  He t o l d  the  prospective  b u y e r t h a t t h e g o o d s i n h i s shop.'were t h e b e s t cheapest rate.  The  to  at the  "satisfaction-or-your-money-back"  a p p r o a c h was much f a v o r e d  in;jeiizabeth' s time.  example, i n G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque. L o n g f i e l d  For  informs h i s  c u s t o m e r s t h a t he i s g i v i n g them a b e t t e r p r i c e t o 1 buy custom. He h a s a l s o s a i d , " I f y o u f i n d a b e t t e r 2 i n t h i s town, I ' l l g i v e you mine f o rn o t h i n g . " I n the same v e i n M r s . T i l t y a r d feathers  she s e l l s  tells  her buyers that the 3  are worn by t h e b e s t people  1  Greene's Tu Quoque, p.184.  2 3  Ibid,,p.183, The R o a r i n g G i r l ,  p.154.  and  96 Candido  i n s i s t s on 1  customers. he  "We  comfortable  are s e t here  treatment  to please  for his  a l l customers,"  says. References  connected or  to business  directly  training  with the process  w i t h t h e p r a c t i c e o f ot©V c r a f t  H a r r i s o n has accounts. doubtful  comment t o make o n  Therefore,  si  can  of buying  that  or  selling  are  extremely  the  keeping  cogecture  rare.  of  only.  I t i s  w h e t h e r many o f t h e m e r c h a n t s kenew t h e  o f double  entry bookkeeping  duced i n t o written  no  other than  Florence  a book on  is  asked  by  no  more d e t a i l  long before,  the  Rash to  although  i t had  and  been  as  1553.  i n v e n t o r y and  in  kept  i n the merchants' books i t i s amusing to f i n d  the bottom of h i s It  t h a t the E l i z a b e t h a n s had although  governed by  them  accounts  were that  i n a box  at  bed.  i s equally difficult  holidays,  kept  but  keeping  r e c o r d s . . E v e n i f we  v a l u e d h i s so much t h a t h e  k n o w how  Spends!  such  Hog  not  had  account,  i s g i v e n o f the methods used do  intro-  James P e e l e  suTaJsct a s e a r l y  g i v e an  system  to prove  from  any s e t b u s i n e s s  the  hours  i t i s k n o w n t h a t W o r k was  Exchange time.  For most craftsmen  r  plays or  generally the  day  b e g a n a t t e n when t h e E x c h a n g e o p e n e d . I n some o f t h e l2££st Whore, P a r t i ; , l , v , p . l l 2 , ~~ 2 ' f l o w t f t l s I l f a » M M 9 T i ; . I iSffi. i n d e b t e d t o M r . T. L a r s e n . 1  3  G r e e n e ' s Tu  4  Th_§  5  g ery v  Hog  Has  Man  Quoque,  p.186.  Lost His Pearl,  i n H^s  Humour,  V,  p.  484.  111,ii,42-45.  97 p l a y s there  are i n d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s to b e l l s r i n g i n g f o r  l u n c h . I t i s n o t c l e a r whether t h e s e were c h u r c h o r n o t . At  any  r a t e t h e y s e e m e d t o be  much as t h e t w e l v e o ' c l o c k w h i s t l e Longer  and more c l a m o r o u s  rung  as a  i s sounded  peals of b e l l s  bells signal  today.  sometimes  g r e e t e d g e n e r a l h o l i d a y s . The merchants o b s e r v e d by  closing their  They c e l e b r a t e d p e r s o n a l good 1 2 i n t h e same manner. B o t h Rash" and Simon Ejrre  fortune consider  shope.  a day o f f f o r t h e m s e l v e s  a s a f i t t i n g way Such m a t t e r s that  t o mark t h e i r  shop,  shopkeeper's  governing both  t h e i r apprentices  elevation  arrangement  and t r a i n i n g own  and  i n rank.  as h a v e b e e n i m m e d i a t e l y d i s c u s s e d ,  i s , salesmanship,  i n the  these  o f workers  and  goods  i n a c c o u n t k e e p i n g were i n t h e  h a n d s ; b u t t h e r e were s t r i c t  regulations  the m e r c h a n t s and l a b o r c o n d i t i o n s i n  many o t h e r d e t a i l s .  U n d e r t h e T u d o r s , I n d u s t r y was,  in  t h e o r y a t ]e a s t , s t a t e c o n t r o l l e d . P o o r w o r k m a n s h i p f o r b i d d e n by l a w . H a r r i s o n h a s h i s w o r d t o s a y the disregard  o f such r e g u l a t i o n s  and t h e  l o w e r i n g o f t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e work  about  consequent  produced.  I n r e t u r n i n g t h e r e f o r e t o my m a t t e r t h i s f u r t h e r m o r e I h a v e t o say o f o u r husbandmen and a r t i f i c e r s , t h a t t h e y w e r e n e v e r so e x c e l l e n t i n t h e i r t r a d e s as a t t h i s p r e s e n t . But as the workmanship o f t h e l a t t e r was newer, more f i n e and c u r i o u s t o t h e eye, a l s o was i t n e v e r l e s s s t r o n g and  1  Greene's  2  The  Tu  Sftieaue.  n.  185.  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y .  lll,iv,201 206. T  was  98 s u b s t a n t i a l f o r continuance and b e n e f i t o f tne b u y e r s . N e i t h e r i s t h e r e a n y t h i n g t h a t u r v .< h u r t e t h t h e common s o r t o f our a r t i f i c e r s more than haste and barbarous o r s l a v i s h d e s i r e t o t u r n the.penny, andby r i d d i n g t h e i r work t o make speedy u t t e r a n c e o f t h e i r wares which e n f o r c e t h them to bungle up and d i s p a t c h many t h i n g s they c a r e n o t how so they be o u t o f t h e i r hands, whereby the buyer i s o f t e n sore defrauded, and f i n d e t h to h i s c o s t t h a t h a s t e maketh waste a c c o r d i n g to the p r o v e r b .  1  1  H a r r i s o n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f England. 11,v,J>. 135-136  99  It  is  impossible  Elizabethan In the  other.  the  plays  them I that  literature  first  the  to  place  the  Secondly,  consider thee raftsman  without  discussing his  if  7  I neglect  and the r e g u a t i o n s  concerned with the  The g e n e r a l are known a n d , of knight iater.  for the  accepted men i s  sound,  some o f  its  but  it  apprentice  and t r a d i t i o n s ,  in  gbveming  interesting  sections  of  apprenticeship  p a r a l l e l the - relationship  These will-fee  discussed  in  i t may be w i s e t o m e n t i o n  development  idea that  without  citizen.  i n many ways,  F i r s t , however,  reasons  the  terms of the system  and s q u i r e .  apprentice.  one-^could have no e x i s t e n c e  s h a l l m i s s one o f t h e most  is  in  of  apjrenticeship.  p r o v i d e d a means o f  The  widely crafts-  which (gave  most marked c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The practice  a p p r r e n t i c e s h i p was o n e w a y o f o v e r c o m i n g t h e the  the  training  i t had another purpose,  imposed on younger brothershby  detail  entail  it of  handicap  system o f  inheri-  tanc e. We c a n u n d e r s t a n d t h i s of  apprenticeship  of  the  only the  we r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e  younger brother had-been  in . E l i z a b e t h a n d r a m a b u t church, the  a means o f k i n d h a d 1fco tive.  if  reason for the  army,  found.  Therefore,  younger  son  proverbially poor  not  i n medieval  story.  o r an e s t a t e c o u l d n o t  livelihood for him, be  existence  employment  T r a d e was t h e  younger  sons became  of  If  provide some  one r e m a i n i n g apprentices.  other alterna-  ' But, to  enter  s i n c e s o n s o f nobDe men any  restricted, felt  t o be  trade  they  espe c i a l l y more  gentlemen.  could not  desi red,  than  guilds that  others  These r e s t r i c t i o n s  permitted  apprenticeship  i n certain  suitable  be  took  was  were  f o r thysons  the  100  form o f  of entrance  o  requirements.  C e r t a i n standards  T h e s e hacl t o be  met  of  apprenticed to  the  freemen were well to  do  to  l a t t e r w ere not lower  before  he  were  entered  take  TBhe  the  sons  s o n s .of  merchants.  These  appp e n t i c e s  fromaaiy  can  be  s e e n how  erroneous  i s the  idea  that  be  given  a p p r e n t i c e s w e r e p o o r c h i l d r e n who an  opportunity to  if  then,  position century  v/as t h e r e of the  a law  large poor  legislation  A m o n g the  of  livery  justification  sweep. to  In  enforce  to Not  until  1600,  for identifying  that of  the  the  nineteenth  1600,  i t i s true, the  the  apprenticeship of some t i m e  govern-  before  children this  effect.  a feeling  the  natural result  of  of pride i n noble  or  such well-to-do  Certain guilds delighted in claiming  r®yal c r a f t s m e n . ization  any  guildsmen,  r e s t r i c t i o n s was membership.  a livelihood.  f a m i l i e s ; b u t i t was  took  had  earn  apprentice with  chimney  ment passed  the  and  apprentice.  rank. It  in  service.  artizans  s h o p k e e p e r s and  permitted to  set f o r the  the  Edward 11,  guilds  that  for example, :  resulted  companies, became  i n the  a brother  on  the  reorgan-  forming  of the  of  Merchant  101 Taylors.  S i r F r a n c i s D r a k e was a l s o  guild, and t h e powerful of  Mercers'  a member o f t h i s  Company i n c l u d e d members  the nobility. The  p l a y s make u s e o f t h e c r a f t s '  royalty  and n o b i l i t y .  is  a member o f t h e " g e n t l e  made  connection  . I n George^a Greene K i n g craft"  a iTmrcer,  a goldsmith,  a haberdasher,  I n The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , not  man  apprentices 2  and a  grocer.  t h e nobleman, Lacy, 3  s c r u p l e t o l e a r n a shoemaker's t r a d e .  Miseriescfrf Enforced  Edward  I n 'She F o u r  P r e n t i c e s o f L o n d o n t h e f o u r p r i n c e s become . to  M a r r i a g e I l f o r d says  does  I n The  that the gentle-  ?  Scarborrow's young b r o t h e r  with  s h o u l d h a v e "been  apprenticed  4 to  the tailors.  crafts  Although  and expressed  outgrowth o f pure tradition The  much o f t h e p r i d e  felt  by t h e  i n t h e p l a y s must have-been t h e  fancy,  the records  justify  a  certain  of exclusiveness. restrictions  upon e n t r y  l e dto a  similar  t r a d i t i o n 'among t h e a p p r e n t i c e s . U p t o 1 6 0 0 m a n y i n c e r t a i n guilds:could, and d i d p r i d e themselves upon gentle  blood.  A t times,  indeed,  a m a s t e r whom h e c o n s i d e r e d ;  1  .George d G r e e n e ,  the apprentice  socially . 1210-1290.  inferior. ;  served Quicksilver, f/:  2 The Four frenttces ^London. I, i. pJj%%. Q  The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  11,ii,1-24.  4  The M i s e r i e s o f E n f o r c e d  Marriage,  their  111, p.520.  192 for  example, r e p l i e s  to  touchstone  i n terms o f  contempt  1 and  s t r e s s e s h i s won Now  noble  birth.  t h a t I have c o n s i d e r e d  existence entrance  of  apprenticeship  restrictions  I  and  shall  system  working of  the  had  s t a r t e d as  f a r back  was  essentially feudal in origin  as  the  By  encourage f i n e 1300  In  the  and  apprentice  regulated  in this  apprentice be  at  were k e p t o f  f i f t e e n t h c entury  his  had  least  to  had  each of  apprentice he  remain  the  g u i l d s by  could  satisfy  the  1  E a s t w a r d Ho,  as  quality  developed to  recorded.  and  i t was  of  the  point  the  stipulated  the  his service  and  completed". definite  form  sixteenth century.  to  the  the entrance  The  ?:• c t h  craft.  apprenticeship  goldsmiths'  I f  set f o r  learn his craft.  1,1,30-40,135-140.  were  that  qualifications  i n the  master  Working hourse  assumed a v e r y the  goods  apprentices.  s i n g l e througout  andmore d i f f i c u l t as  to  work.  term, however, v a r i e d w i t h  required,  I t  c o n t r a c t between the  be  seven years  Sometimes* longer u s u a l was  had  development  i t tried  p r i c e and  t w e n t y - f a « t E when i t was  u s u a l l y took  length of  to  and  honest  the  the  Apprenticeship  the number o f  contract  Apprenticeship £or  the  and  the  of  the  g o o d womfemen, j u s t  a p p r e n t i c e s h i p had  where r e c o r d s  effect  for  t h i r t e e n t h century.  and  m e d i e v a l r e g u l a t i o n s on to  the  itself.  produce both good c i t i z e n s  tried  reasons  turn to  and  the  the  guild.  than  103  At the end o f h i s term the  a p p r e n t i c e became a  journeyman and e i t h e r worked f o r an independent s m a l l master or s e t up shop f o r h i m s e l f . He c o u l d own h i s shop b e f o r e he produced h i s masterpiece he was  oficially  and,  e n t i t l e d to be c a l l e d a  thus, b e f o r e  mastercraftsman.  As we have seen p r e v i o u s l y , however, i n the l a t e r of the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y i t became i n c r e a s i n g l y for  own  years  difficult  the journeyman t o become a master and f o r a s m a l l  master to work f o r h i m s e l f o r to become important  i n the  1  governing o f the g u i l d .  R e s t r i c t i o n s were imposed t h a t  t u r n e d the g u i l d s i n t o powerful monopolies c o n t r o l l e d by  a few wealthy members who  p r e f e r r e d the s m a l l e r  masters to remain dependent upon them.  Consequently,  at the end o f our p e r i o d many craftsmen must have  tfelt  t h a t the years spent as apprentices and journeyman were wasted. During the g r e a t e r papt o f the s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y , however, the  syfetem o f a p p r e n t i c e s h i p c o n t i n u e d to be  satisfactory.  !Ebe a p p r e n t i c e r e c e i v e d as o r d e r l y and  as competent a t r a i n i n g as c o u l d be p r o v i d e d i n h i s time. H i s education,, h i s manners, and h i s c r a f t t r a i n i n g were w e l l supervised f o r , during master was discipline,  the time o f s e r v i c e ,  the  ,<re s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s c l o t h i n g food, l o d g i n g , and  education.  104 The blue in  y o u n g men  gowns i n w i n t e r ,  summer, f l a t  stockings. but  had. t o w e a r p r e s c r i b e d  No  blue  coats  c l o t h caps, silk  was  a pocket k n i f e .  uniforms,  down t o t h e  calves  s h i n i n g s h o e s , and  t o be  worn and  no  plain  weapons  I n many o f t h e p l a y s , t h e  carried  master  complains t h a t the a p p r e n t i c e i s n o t wearing h i s r e g u l a t i o n 1 clothing. One c a n h a r d l y b l a m e t h e yjaath f o r n o t d o i n g s o , especially  f r o m 1600  c i t i z e n became t h e o f the  As  of 2  the Many  d i d QuicksiHv e r .  the m a s t e r had  and  family  write  and  and  to  t o be eat  could  He  was  apprentice  servant  see  t h a t the  apF  pumps,  under-  Looking  could  had  to  the members o f h i s  But,  i n return,  h o u s e h o l d r u l e s on as he  entice  a g e n t l e m a n , he  at h i s t a b l e .  to beat the  i n The  t h i s r i g h t . He the  wore a h a t ,  a tennis racket  educated with  d i s c i p l i n e him  permitted  to  behave l i k e  master c o u l d enforce He  carried  He  standar-  cloak.  allow the j o u t h  for  cap  b u t t o f never ending r i d i c u l e .  sword, d a g g e r , and 3  neath h i s  read  flat  a p p r e n t i c e s must h a v e r e b e l l e d a g a i n s t t h e  dized clothing as short  onwards when t h e  the  the  apprentice.  c o u l d h i s <m®. c h i l d r e n . y o u n g man.  The  G l a s s f o r London  w i s h e s t o know why  i t i s not 4  smith's questions permissible  to beat h i s master.  1  c f . E a s t w a r d Ho. l . i .  2 3 4  c f . I b i d . , 1,1,135-140. I b i d . ,1,1»stage d i r e c t i o n s . The L o o k i n g G l a s s f o r L o n d o n , 1470> -1490.  105 The extended  restrictions  not  the  life  of the  apprentice  beyond r u l e s governing h i s c l o t h i n g  behaviour strictly  on  i n h i s master's  house.  and  his  His entertainment  regulated, i n theory, i f not  i n fact.  He  supposed t o f r e q u e n t t a v e r n s o r p l a y a t d i c e .  according to the in  taverns than  p l a y s he  was  more o f t e n f o u n d  learning h i s trade i n the  was was  But  roistering  shop.  Quicksilver  d i c e d w i t h g a l l a n t s i n t h e t a v e r n u n t i l h i s money was 1 gone. S p e n d a l , a l t h o u g h he h a d b e e n t a u g h t c a r e f u l habits during h i s apprenticeship, lost gambling  as  soon as he  was  h i s shop  beyond the reach o f  tnhough a  master's  2 discipline. Sometimes a p p r e n t i c e s found unbearable  and  ran  as runaway s l a v e s . made t h e both, and  i n The  by  Eastward  2  G r e e n e ' s Tu  3  The  existed  journeymen. There  i n the plays.  1  Ho,  dislike  The  friendship  terminated  however,  among t h e i s evidence  for  of  between E y r e  p.289.  Knight of the Burning P e s t l e ,  a  master,  IV, i,159-170. Quoque,  for  Venturewell  o f the Burrvtng P e s t l e 3 i n this fashion.  relationship usually  treated  intolerable  agreement.  many i n d e n t u r e s w e r e b r o k e n ,  and  they were  Knight  association  apprentices bond  d i d so  restrictions  I n o t h e r c a s e s when m u t u a l  i n d e n t u r e s were b r o k e n  Not close  they  and  apprentice-master relationship  Jasper  their  away. I f  rules  l,i,l-41.  this and  his  106 w o r k m e n l e a d s h i m t o o r d e r Dame M a r g e r y n o t t o i n t e r f e r e 1 w i t h them. S i m i l a r l y , i n Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l , t h e workmen t a k e t h a t he be  i t upon themselves to  i s wasting  h i s time  in  t e l l  study  young  and  Cromwell  t h a t he  would  b e t t e r e m p l o y e d i n l e a r n i n g a t r a d e . They f e e l  t h e i r master's want t o the to  see  interests  the  are  son g r o w  their  into  f a i t h f u l Hodge's f e e l i n g f o l l o w yaa n g  own  and  a bookish of  they  do 2  not  dreamer.  responsibility  Cromwell to the  that  continent  and  Indeed,  leads to  him  share  % h i s h a r d s h i p s as an e q u a l , and t h e j o u r n e y m e n o f C a n d i d o r e s e n t e v e n more t h a n he does t h e t r i c k s h i s w i f e p l a y s 4 upon him. villany. without  Sometimes master Quomodo's p l a n s  the  Thud, i # may  TOBP  men  could not  close co-operation  of  were j o i n e d i n  have been carriedcout Shortyard  and  spcn £ h a t o f t e n t h e m a s t e r a n d  workmen seemed t o h a v e or  and  identical  Falselight. him  i n t e r e s t s whether  good  evil. The  to  welfare  of the  t h e f roe n d s h i p  the  co-operation  Artificers  and  a p p r e n t i c e w as n o t  good nature  existing  i n 1563  was  The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  2  Thomas,Lord Cromwell,  111,i,80-95.  1, i i , . p . 3 5 1 . '  1,"  Statute  to of  act r e g u l a t i n g the  Ibid.,ll,li,p.355. H o n e s t Whore, P a r t  solely  of h i s master or s h o p . The  a general  1  3  i n the  left  4  The  l l l , i ,  5  M i c h a e l m a s T e r m , 'Li., 8 5 - 1 1 2 .  107 crafts by  and  runaway  1523,  an  should only  attempting apprentices  be E n g l i s h b o r n  l a n d l e s s men.  and  employed.  feeling against  caused  Earlier,  t h a t two  When o n e  i n  apprentices  f o r e i g n ^yorajmeymen  remembers t h a t  a  strong  f o r e i g n workmen must have prompted  i t seems s t r a n g e  should  and  the problem  a c t had been passed r e q u i r i n g t h a t the  c o u l d be  act,  to deal with  that Lacy  have been d e p i c t e d a s  this  i n h i s d i s g u i s e as  Hans  r e a c e i v i n g a warm welcome  1 from b o t h Eye  and h i s  journeymen.  A l t h o u g h much" i n f o r m a t i o n may books  and p l a y s  education of  o f the p e r i o d on t h e  of the  apprentice,  exammples t h a t  s h o w how  ment once h i s  i t e r m was  the  could  journeyman  does not  account  finished.  s e t up  A  legislation  was  not  always  Poor Laws there tfact,  the  regarded reduce 1  easy t o  training,  i s an  found  lack  employ-  shop b u t  could not  fcfois  afford  as coming  i n part  that  statement  t o do  f o r a l lo f them t o o b t a i n of the period t e l l s us  find  something  t o do.  to the  evils  o f peace  from the f e e l i n g  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y .  that the  In  may  t h a t war  11.iii.100-140.  so,  work.  In  i s e v i d e n c e o f much unemployment.  many r e f e r e n c e s  the  clothing,  annoying  t h e n u m b e r s o f l a n d l e s s and &nemp\loyed  The  from  I t has been said  h i s own  f o r t h o s e who necessary  it  there  obtained  the apprentice  a l t h o u g h i t was glance at the  be  be would  men. "~  108 There  a r e ,however,  a few d e t a i l s  Janes  IV, l i k e  Philaster,a play  and,  therefore,  one t h a t might  a reference to the search and  up  bills  bills our  place  paper.  pamphlets  Lacy  found  Eyre  i n this  sends  Life  as t h e advertisement i n be tacked up i n a  prominent  Ivv'.u  a workman t o a k s h i m i f t h e Dutchman  finding  to retain  c a s e s employment  was  have been t h e p r a c t i c e  t h e men t h e y h a d t r a i n e d .  f o r t h e a p p r e n t i c e was n o t a l l t r a i l i n g o r o r w o r r y i n g about  e m p l o y m e n t some t i m e  as h i smaster,  traditional,  some b o t h .  He m a d e  the problem  i n the future.  had holidays,  He, a s  some s t a t u t o r y ,  On t h e s e d a y s  evident t h a t he f o r g o t  could.  i n many  o r i t might  £ arning to read or write,  too  These  I n The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  Perhaps,  fashion,  many m a s t e r s  well  to take.work.  p o s s i b l y be fonmd i n c o r p o r a t e d i n  o f the time.  wants employment.  of  write  o b t a i n s work by w a l k i n g i n f r o n t o f t h e shop.  Eventually,  of  i n another play, 2  are ready  They might  or they might  atmosphere,  f o r employment. S l i p p e r ,  s e r v e d t h e same p u r p o s e  daily  the  say they  a courtly  e a s i l y he overlooked, has  Hodge and C r o m w e l l ,  that  plays,  Andrew, 1 o f advertisement f o r positions.  Nano make o u t b i l l s  Similarly,  with  imcthe  i t seems o n l y  as many r e s t r i c t i o n s  such use o f h i s l i b e r t y ,  1  James I V , I V , i i i ,  2  Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l ,  3  The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  some  i n faet,  1745-1820. 111,i,^,357. 11,iii,90-100.  as he thct  109 h i s h o l i d a y s were d r e a d e d b y o f London. F o r  Not  only  f a c t the g e n t l e c r a f t had  the  Sometimes t h e i r  law-abiding  feared  was  the  city.  their traditional privilege  houses along  Southwark.  apprentices On  citizen  or rogue, the i n the  apprentice. or t h e i r  day  I n t h e 111  city  for high  and  was-tfiie  This  to give g i d .  every  Monday  rioting  apprentices criminal  Shrove Tuesday  May to  Day  bawds'  Biots of  1517  anarchy. alike,  cry of  f o r honest  * c l u b s ' meant  a temporary h o l i d a y f o r c a l l r a i s e d ©hen the  At  s t r e e t s they  such a time  left  there  i l l - o r g a n i z e d p o l i c e f o r c e c o u l d do There  are c o u n t l e s s  and  references  to t h e i r c r i e s o f  the  time. Only a  The  ne ' e r do  the  player with  the  apprentices  few  examples  w e l l i n The  Hog  apprentices  t h e i r work and  was  little  that  to q u e l l the to the  'clubs*  rushed the  rioters.  apprentices'  i n the  are n e e d e d t o  drama o f  illustrate.  Has £ L o s t H i s P e a r l t h r e a t e n s i f the  latter will  2 him  Honest  f r i e n d s were i n d i f f i c u l t y , a n d w h e n e v e r i t e c h o e d  through the London  holidays  i n The  a g a i n s t the On  o r low  apprentices'  inhabitants  t o p u l l down t h e  c e l e b r a t i o n s turned  a l m o s t any  confusion  the  a c t i v i t i e s were t u r n e d  o i near c r i m i n a l c l a s s e s i n the it  law-abiding  example, H i p p o l i t o ' s s e r v a n t  Whore l a m e n t s t h e 1 off.  the  enough money f o r h i s j i g .  1  The  H o n e s t Whore, P a r t 1,  IV,  2  The  Hog-Has L o s t H i s P e a r l ,  i . p.150.  I,p.436.  not  give  110 Shrove Tuesday i s a t hand, and I h a v e some a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h b r i c k l a y e r s a and p l a i s t e r e r s . In t h e c o u r t l y with In  the citizens,  the Knight  threat he  comedy*. P h i l a s t e r , are t o place  o f the Burning  the apprentices,  Philaster  Pestle there  on t h e p a r t o f t h e c i t i z e n  w h i c h h e may f a l l Rioting  piace  such  i n t h e town o n l y ;  Ralph  as a k n i g h t  as these  constant so t h a t  from any danger 2  errant.  scenes imply  a speech  i sa  t o 'cry clubs'  a n d h i s a p p r e n t i c e s may r e s c u e  into  on t h e throne.  d i d n o t take  i n The M e r r y  Devil  o f Edmonton shows t h a t t a ' l u s t y a p p r e n t i c e s ' a s w e l l as t h e i r m a s t e r s went o u t i n t o t h e c o u n t r y o n t h e i r 3 holidays, .Before the  part  thecitizen  and h i s apprentice  t h a t women p l a y e d  in  t h e shop s h o u l d  of  themerchants'  at  present  as apprentices  be s k e t c h e d . wives w i l l  i t will  t h a t women w e r e v e r y  in  but earlier.  o r as helper s  The c o n v e n t i o n a l p i c t u r e  be d e s c r i b e d  later, but  perhaps be s u f f i c i e n t often actively  They were f r e q u e n t l y a p p r e n t i c e d , time  There  o f Bath,  t o point o u t  engaged i n t r a d e .  not ohly  are records  the thirteenth century.  are dismissed  da;Elizabeth?*  o f women  I n Chaucer's  such  as t h e W i f e  ~~~1  Philaster,  V, - i v , 1-24.  2  The K n i g h t  o f the Burning  3  The M e r r y D e v i l o f Edmonton, p. 224.  time  had beenapprenticed.  Pestle, 11,i,  apprentices women, In  14-17.  I l l our  p l a y s both Jane  i n The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y  M i s t r e s s O p e n w o r k jriiThe R o a r i n g apprenticeship-. easily  be  i f  were m a r r i e d  she  as  The  served  their  E l i z a b e t h a n woman i n t r a d e  might  important to  as  Girl  had  and  the master h i m s e l f ,  a master.  She  especially  could take  care  of  jbhe  1 business she  d u r i n g h i s absence as  might  working  share  at h e r  1  c f . The  2  The  did Viola  or'Margery,  h i s r e s p n s i b i l i t i e s , showing goods craft  as d i d Mrs. T i l t y a r d  Shoiemakers' H o l i d a y , l l l , l v ,  Roaring  Girl,  pp.150-155,  and  Mrs.  1-20.  or and  Openwork.  112'  1 The  In this  P o s i t i o n o f Women  chapter  I shall consider  t h e women who  appear i n t h e p l a y s t h a t d e a l w i t h t h e L o n d o n There  i s an i n t e r e s t i n g v a r i e t y o f temperament ando f  occupation  among t h e m  Dame M a r g e r y Gertrude The  range  from  thrifty  and blunt M o l l Cutpurse t o t h e f o o l i s h Bellafrontof  Whore.  Before  to  since they  o f E a s t w a r d Ho a n d t h e c o u r t e z a n  Honest  again  citizen.  I turn to theplays  discuss the outlook  themselves, I  shall  o f t h eLondon c i t i z e n .  k n o w w h a t p o s i t i o n h e t h o u g h t a woman s h o u l d  1 F o r t h e background information c h a p t e r I am i n d e b t e d t o : C a m p , C.W., Clark, Century.  The A r t i z a n - i n E l i z a b e t h a n  Alice,  The Working L i f e  J u d g e s , A.V., T h e E l i z a b e t h a n Knights,  contained  f i l l and  i n this  Literature.  o f Women i n t h e S e v e n t e e n t h  Underworld.  LC.,gran a and S o c i e t y  i n t h e Age o f J o n s o n  O n i o n s , C.T.,M-,, S h a k e s p e a r e ' s E n g l Powell,C.L., E n g l i s h Domestic  I need  and.  Relations.  113 how h e expected, h e r t o b e h a v e . On t h e w h o l e , h e her  as unstable,  H i s judgement partly  evil.  to  that the  a n & p a r t l y f r o m h i s own  ^  experience.  o f medieval  t o t h e man a n d t h a t s h e was e s p e c i a l l y He b e l i e v e d , a s M s  should  the Bible  the  a s i n o t h e r s , was f o r m e d  c i t i z e n had a l l t h e weight  t h a t God h a d o r d a i n e d sexes  and extravagant.  teaching  h i m w h e n h e s a i d t h a t t h e woman s h o u l d b e s u b -  servient to  immoral,  i n t h i s matter,  from t r a d i t i o n  The behind  inferior,  regarded  fall  g r a n d f a t h e r s h a d done,  t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e  be t h a t o f m a s t e r  and s e r v a n t ; and he p o i n t e d  anilto t h e s t o r y , o f t h e c r e a t i o n ofiEve a n d  o f Adein f o r h i s p r o o f . H e s a i d ,  i ft h e equal  great  prong  ftlmighty  had intended  logically  the f i r s t  woman t o b e  o f Adam h e would h a v e c r e a t e d h e r f r o m  o f t h e man's h e a d r a t h e r t h a n  w o r t h y '"when s i n c a m e i n t o  a bone -2  from one o f h i s r i b s .  added t h a t one c o u l d n o t expect  a n y woman t o b e  the world  through  enough,  He  trust-  Eve's  frailty. 1 I h a v e t r i e d t o u s e t h e same a p p r o a c h a s t h a t f o u n d in the chapter on ideals. I c o u l d h a v e r e p e a t e d h e r e much t h a t I have already said about medieval and contemporary influences on t h e c i t i z e n . 2 T h i s was t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e c h u r c h f a t h e r s and o f E l i z a b e t h a n s who t h o u g h t a s t h e y d i d . S T i P a u l ' s E p i s t l e t o T i m o t h y * " B u t 1 s u f f e r n o t a woman t o t e a c h , n o r t o u s u r p t h e a u t h o r i t y o v e r t h e m a n , b u t t o b e i n s i l e n c e , " w a s t h e t$pe o f a d v i c e g i v e n i n many c o n d u c t b o o k s . H o w e v e r , RC i n ' I T h e G o d l y F o r m s o f Household Government.1598, u s e s t h e example g i v e n here t o p r o v e t h a t t h e woman w a s t h e e q u a l o f t h e m a n . "Woman w a s n o t o u t o f man's f o o t n o r o u t o f h i s h e a d , b u t o u t o f h i s s i d e , t h e r e f o r e , n o t t o be c o r d e d down...but w a l k j o i n t l y . "  114 As century  a consequence o f these b e l i e f s man f e l t  spiritual should  h e was e n t i t l e d , t o l e g a l a n d 1  superiority  be able  disregard  that  the sixteenth  over h i s wife.  He t h o u g h t  t o beat h e r o r lock h e r up w i t h  f o rh e r wishes, i f he found  a  that  he  total  "•2 s u c h a c t i o n ie c e s s a r y .  3 Corvino's treatment o f h i swife of Catherine this  from temptation  that  reflect  as s i n g u l a r .  s i n c e m a n t h o u g h t woman e x t i e m e l y  e v i l he considered  to  o f Enforced Marriage  a t t i t u d e a n d a r e n o t tio b e r a g a r d e d  Furthermore, to  i n The M i s e r i e s  i n VolTDone a n d S c a r b o r r o w ' s  i t was h i s d u t y  and t o urge h e r constantly  susceptible  t o guard h e r n o t t o succumb  i t when s h e m e t i t . In  our plays  l e t c h e r y s eems  women a r e l e d m o s t f r e q u e n t l y Wives, against  sisters,  cousins,  it.Gorvino's  t o be t h e s i n i n t o  by t h e i r moral  which  fraility.  even mothers have t o be warned  determination  t o b a r h i swife's  windows  1 Many o f t h e t r e a t i s e s w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e M i d d l e Ages a t t e m p t t o p r o v e t h a t ftdam w a s n o t t o b l a m e f o r t h e f a l l , c f . Powell, E n g l i s h Domestic R e l a t i o n s , c f . W i l l i a m S m a l l s h a n k s s p e e c h e s t o t h e Widow T a f f e t a : ! i jmRam A l l e y . He c a l l s h e r " a p a r c e l o f man's f l e s h " a n d a d d s " t h a t women a n d h o n e s t y a r e a s w e l l a l l i e d a s p a r s o n ' s liesto their doctrines". 2  Wife beating  was w e l l w i t h i n t h e l a w i f l i E l i z a b e t h ' s d a y .  3  Vo l p o n e , 1 1 , v .  4  The M i s e r i e s  o f Enforced Marriage,IV,  pp.560-561.  115 that  she might n o t have t h e p p p o r t u n i t y  applications  of passersby i l l u s t r a t e s  woman a s p a r t i c u l a r l y 1 of sex. On t h e o t h e r  hand, t h e c i t i z e n  who w e r e u n u s u a l l y he  was m e r e l y  chaste  repeating  man h a d a l w a y s V i r g i n Mary  ready t o f a l l  to yield  thisceaiception o f  into the  temptations  sometimes p r a i s e d  and c o n t i n e n t ! .  a traditional  Again,  opinion.  Medieval  a p p r o v e d o f c h a s t i t y . He h a d w o r s h i p p e d t h e  and h a d been impressed by t h e church's  emphapts on v i r g i n i t y  the  who w e r e w i v e s a n d m o t h e r s .  married 3  evils.  man o r woman h a d o n l y  Saint Paul  than to b u m taught that  had said that  of the flesh  2  I timplied  that  chosen t h e l e s s e r o f two i t was b e t t e r t o m a r r y  t or e n o u n c e  and t o l i v e  noting  o f the great  b u t b o t h h e a n d many o f t h e c h u r c h i t was b e s t  repeated  raised theposition o f  women who b e c a m e h u n s , b u t l o w e r e d t h a t majority  women  however,  commendation o f t h e c e l i b a t e s t a t e . I t i s worth that this  t othe  a l l the  fathers  temptations  i n chastity, le shall  keep  t h e s e w o r d s i n m i n d w h e n I come t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f the  citizens' The  Elizabethan  concerning that  widows. inheritance  o f medieval  opinions  women e x p l a i n s w h y c e r t a i n s c e n e s a n d s i t u a t i o n s  we f i n d u n b e a r a b l j y d u l l , o r e v e n p a t h e t i c , w e r e  1  Volpone,  2  c f .Powell's  very  11,v,47-72. discussion  i n E n g l i s h Domestic  Relations,  3 c f . M i l t o n ' s D i v o r c e g a m p h l e t s . H i s v i e w s o n na r r i g g e are f a r i n advance o f h i s age.  116  amusing t o t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y course,  t o those  audience.  scenes d e a l i n g w i t h  I refer, o f  thecuckolding  browbeating o f t h e husband by t h e w i f e . A great these  occur  t h e r e v e r s a l 6£ u s u a l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s humorous  t h e S i t u a t i o n i sn o tt r e a t e d with  In,a saw  many o f  i n t h e m i d d l e c l a s s p l a y s . M o s t o f u s know  t h a t we f i n d if  or the  similar  t o o much  intensity.  f a s h i o n , t h e E l i z a b e t h a n was amused when h e  t h e man.who s h o u l d  have h a d complete c o n t r o l over  his wife  reduced t o a subservient  p o s i t i o n by the n a t u r a l l y  inferior  woman. T h u s , t h e p a t i e n t C a n d i d o  o f The Honest  W h o r e , who o b e d i e n t l y s u b j e c t s h i m s e l f t o h i s w i f e ' s 1 w h i m s , a n d t h e s e n t e n t i o u s P r a t e o f T h e Dumb K n i g h t who  i scuckolded  by h i s wife  Lollia,  deserve  theepithet,  " f o o l i s h " , because they are allowing t h e order o f nature 2 to b e reversed. Their positi&ms^are r i d i c u l o u s , n o t  3  pathetic. The  Elizabethanw  a s h a r d l y more c o m p l i m e n t a r y t o  women w h e n h e w a s i n f l u e n c e d b y c o n t e m p o r a r y t h a n when h e w a s s u p p o r t e d continued the with  fact  t o regard that  conditions  by medieval traditions.  h e r as i n f e r i o r  theRenaissance  He  and unreliable, d e s p i t e  and t h e Reformation,  coupled  t h e g r o w t h o f commerce, h a d b e t t e r e d h e r m a t e r i a l  1 The H o n e s t Whore, P a r t I,iv,p.l07. 2  T h e Dumb K n i g h t , -  3  c f . T h e Woman K i l l e d  1, 1 , i i , p p l 0 0 - 1 0 1 ;  111,i,pp. 164-166. withKindness  1$,v.pp.112-114.  117  1  condition. century evil.  The c i t i z e n  had only  given  He s a i d t h a t  added t o h e r s i n s . desires'for lity.more  fine  thought that  the sixteenth  woman n e w o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r  l o v e o f m o n e y a n d p r i d e w e r e nowC o n s e q u e n t l y , he condemned h e r  clothes  and f o r m a r r i a g e  often than he p r a i s e d h e r t h r i f t y  The  e s t a b l i s h e d c o n c e p t i o f woman's g r e a t  was  e v i d e n t l y so f i x e d  i n h i s mind t h a t  Revision o f opinion concerning I  s h a l l now d i s c u s s  merchants'  the citizens'  wives since they  o f women i n t h e p l a y s t h a t  miPEil  fraility  a favorable possible.  opinions  turn  first  as they tothe  form t h e l a r g e s t group deal with  the life  o ft h e  class..  L4t  us look  able merchants*  first  at t h e  wives before  pleasant,  see that  a .capable  wife  would  citizen,  whether he be c l o t h i e r ,  One  a s V i o l a who c o u l d  such  u s e f u l , and honor-  we a l l o w o u r s e l v e s  overwhelmed by adverse c r i t i c i s m . to  housekeeping.  h e r was h a r d l y  are r e f l e c t e d i n t h e drama and s h a l l  middle  with t h e nobi-  t o be  I t i sn o t d i f f i c u l t be a great a s s e t  t o any  mercer, o r goldsmith.  attract  customers by h e r  p l e a s a n t m a n n e r , k e e p t h e appr e n t i c e s i n o r d e r , a n d manage-the useful  shop i n t h e master's  absence w o u l d b e as  a s a n e x t r a * p a i r o f h a n d St..  I T h e R e n a i s s a n c e h a d m a d e i t f a s h i o n a b l e f o r women t o be a s l e a r n e d a s t h e i r b r o t h e r s . T h e R e f o r m e r s , b y s e t t i n g t h e i r f a c e s a g a i n s t c e l e b a c y a n d b y m a k i n g t h e home t h e stronghold o f r e l i g i o n , emphasized t h e honorable p o s i t i o n o f woman a n d t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l y life. The g r o w t h o f commerce, b y i n c r e a s i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t i o f women t o w o n t h e i r o w n p r o p e r t y a n d t o t a k e p a r t i n t r a d e f u r t h e r e d t h e i r independence. The d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f convent u a l l i f e f o r c e d some y o u n g women t o l e a r n a t r a d e .  118 T h e d r a m a t i s t s s e e m t o r e a l i z e t h a t s u c h women 1 e x i s t , a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e a r e a g o o d l y number t  of  favorable  pictures of citizens"  T h e s e women a r e n<$fc a l l a s c a p a b l e other for  v i r t u e s , Some a r e p r a i s e d  their  wives i n the plays. as Viola,  f o r t h e i r modesty,  c h a s t i t y , some f o r t h e i r  religious  Among t h e m i s M i s t r e s s O p e n w o r k a n d M i s t r e s s her  friend.  to  The f o r m e r o u t w i t s  b u t they  have  some  spirit. Page and  t h e g a l l a n t who  tries  seduce and defends t h e honour o f c i t i z e n s ' wi#es 2 a long speech, and t h e l a t t e r w i l l n o t y i e l d t o  in the  advances o f a f i n e g a l l a n t even thought he be that 3 " f a t r o g u e , F a l s t a f f " . C o r v i n o ' s w i f e imVo l p o n e a n d  Gazetta  JftiAll F o o l s  are equally  loyal  and continetrt.,  Celia  r e j e c t s the jewels anlifine clothes offered h e r by 4 Vo l p o n e a n d G a z e t t a h a s f r i e n d s who v o u c t h f o r h e r virtue.  When s h e i s t o b e d i v o r c e d  s e v e r a l o f them she  C r o m w e l l and Tomasine i n M i c h a e l m a s Term, a  t h e whole very  also 1 2  and declare  h a s n o t been u n f a i t h f u l . .M i s t r e s s B a n n i s t e r  Lord on  speak o n h e r b e h a l f 5  by h e r husband  favorable  contemptuous o f t h e c i t i z e n s ,  .portrayals.  that i n Thomas, play a r e c::  The one i s s i n c e r e l y r e l i g i o u s  s e e above 110-in . T . MRoaring  Girl,  pp. 206-207.  3 The M e r r y Wives o f W i n d s o r . The p l a y i s s e t i n Windsor but t h e e s c e n e s m i g h t b e i n L o n d o n a n d M i s t r e s s p a g e d o e s not d i f f e r from t h e London c i t i z e n ' s w i f e . 4 6  Volpone. I l l , v i i , 1 8 8 - 2 0 8 . A l l Fools,  I V , i,pp.57^59.  119 and. t h e  o t h e r i s f a r more h o n e s t 1  husband. carrying  She  constantly tries  out h i s e v i l  Sometimes the modern v i r t u e s  than her to  merchant  dissuade  Quomodo  from  plans.  c i t i z e n s ' w i v e s , are p r a i s e d f o r more  than  those  of continence  or  honesty, 2  They  a r e commended f o r t h r i f t ,  Some o i ' t h e m and In  they  seem t o b e  express  on  equal terms with  affection  a previous chapter  that i s not  She  because ways 0  and  can  into  unnecessary and  add as©  believes that i t w i l l  independence  The  I  deplores her husband's  she  independence. their  husbands  at a l l subservient.  I h a v e m e n t i o n e d many o f t h e m 3.  we»B c a r e f u l w i t h money, and list.  industry, or  Gazetta to  expenditure.  mutual esteem I  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y . Margery  For  shall  and  this  ciation with  l e a d him 4 ^  both  gallants  intoevil  expressions  turn again  Simon  who  seem t o  to run 5  the  shop jointly.:/  The  citizen  Pestle,  also  and 3  and  t o be  h i s wife  although  equally fond  i n The  Knight  o f one  of the  another. Burning  portrayed i n a ridiculous  light,  are 1  a t l e a s t one i n t h e i r r e g a r d f o r e a c h o t h e r . T h o m a s , . L o r d C r o m w e l l 11,i,'p.354. M i c h a e l m a s Term, 1 1 , i i i . 1 0 2 - 1 0 3 . 2 These v i r t u e s are c a l l e d contemporary o r modern v i r t u e s as t h e y a r e i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r on i d e a l s . 3 S e e a b o v e ^ © - fob. 4  The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y .  l l l , i v ,  5  The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y  111,  6  The  Knight  175-184.  i v , 175-184.  o f the Burning P e s t l e .  I n d u c t i o n , 40-60.  120 Now I s h a l l the of  citizens'  turn from t h e sympathetic  w i v e s i n t h e d r a m a t o some o f t h e e x a m p l e s  the adverse c r i c i c i s m  against  .picture siof  them. A g a i n  t h a t was so f r e q u e r t l y d i r e c t e d  and again  i t i s suggested t h a t the  increased  wealth  only gave  f r e s h scope t o t h e n a t u r a l v i c i o u s n e s s o f w  women. and  and -importance o f t h e c i t i z e n  The c i t i z e n s '  wives are accused o f sexual  u n f a i t h f u l n e s s . They a r e d e p i c t e d  of resisting sitting  as u t t e r l y  t h e advances;:of g a l l a n t s and they  i n t h e b a y windows o v e r  in  promiscuous f l i r t a t i o n .  i  the Malcontent.  n  any  woman w i l l  she  l i s t s types  t h e shop,  This  opinion  immorality incapable  a r e seen  indulging  finds  I n this play Marquerelle  yield  class  expression says  that  t o a man i f p r o p e r l y c o u r t e d , a n d  of citizens*  wives t o prove h e r theory.  1  Marquerelle. Look y e , a C h a l d e a n o r an fissyrian, I am s u r e ' t w a s a m o s t s w e e t J e w , t o l d me; c o u r t a n y woman i n t h e r i g h t s i g n a n d y o u s h a l l n o t m i s s . But you must take h e r i n t h e r i g h t v e i n , then: as when t h e s i g n i s P i s c e s , a f i s h m o n g e r ' s w i f e i s v e r y sociable; i n Cancer, a physician's wife i s very f l e x i b l e ; i n Capricorn, a merchant's w i f e hardly holds out; i nL i b r a , a lawyer's wife i s very t r a c t a b l e , e s p e c i a l l y i f h e r husband be a t the theatre.  Z Lollia,  who i s f a l s e  to Prate,  and t h e smith's  wife i n  3 The  Looking  Glass  f o r L o n d o n , who c o m m i t s a d u l  the  apprentice, a r e examples o f c i t i z e n s '  erywith  w i v e s who  w e r e s u p p o s e d t o be. e n d l e s s l y 1 J e e h e r o u s s a n d u n f a i t h f u l  -  3  1  T h e Malcontent. V . 1 . p . 3 1 .  2  T h e Dumb K n i g h t , TM  Looking  :  ~~ ' T  111,1, f.168.  Gtass f o r London,  1422-1503.  121 Other wives wastefulness  i n t h e p l a y s a r e condemned f o r  and extravagance.  These  are said  their  to desire  n o t h i n g h u t new c o a c h e s  and gowns i n t h e l a t e s t  and  t o be r e a d y  t h e i r husband's possessions t o  buy  French hoods and y e l l o w r u f f .  the best wife.  examplesooT such  In this  Gertru-de,  to s e l l  Eastward  an o s t e n t a t i o u s  p l a y Touchstone's  to  a s much  up  as p o s s i b l e  want coaches  swearing  tously  and extravagant  a r e d a z z l e d b y t h e p r o s p e c t o f t h e Qatte? 's with t h e n o b i l i t y , a n d they  Both  furnishes  w i f e and daughter,  marriage spend  Ho  style  are equally  o f Touchstone's  eager  moeny.  and F r e n c h hoods and i n t e n d  to take  i n a lady-like  o f Touchstone's  way, and b o t h speak coittemp1 citizen habits. I i n Ram A l l e y  and  T h e Dumb K n i g h t t h e women a l s o w i s h t o w e a r F r e n c h 2 hodds and t o marry w e l l . I n t h e l a t t e r p 3 a y v "the o r a t o r ' s :  wife  regrets  that  she had n o t m a r r i e d  than g r a t e . Shes ays,  a nobleman  father  "who w o u l d  be a l a w y e r ' s w i f e a n d  criticized  women i n t h e m i d d l e  3 not  a  gentlewoman?" The  most  class phys,  seveMy  however, are t h e widows. The s i n g l i n g o u t  o f them f o r e s p e c i a l condemnation medieval prejudice. for 1 2  3  Tradition  a widow t o be c o n t i n e n t . Eastward  H o , 1, i i .  Alley,  l l  7  i ,  said  i s t h e outcome o f that  The Wife  85-170.  p. 303.  T h e Dumb K n i g h t , l , i ,  pp. 121-122.  i t was i m p o s s i b l e o f B a t h , w e remember, :  —  122 was  gat-toothed.  o n e man  was  The f a c t t h a t  a widow had  s u p p o s e d t o make i t i m p o s s i b l e  live  without others.  full  descriptions' of the f r a i l i t y  first  play  wocks  and l e c h e r y .  resolves herself to marry  The  P u r i t a n a n d Ram  lived  f o r her to Alley  o f widows.  to give  up  the death o f h e r husband  luxury  good she  and s e l f i s h n e s s and t o d e v o t e  t o c h a r i t y , even through h e r b r o t h e r 1 again  contain  In the  t h e merchant's widow i s t o r n between On  with  immediately.  urges her  She p e r s u a d e s h e r  daughter to j o i n her i n almsgiving.  gounger  But neither  the  y o u n g woman n o r t h e o l d r e m a i n a s c e t i c f o r l o n g .  The  widow e v e n t u a l l y tan  scholarj  example,  succumbs  t o the advances o f the c h a r l a -  and t h e d a u g h t e r , f o l l o w i n g h e r  deserts  good works  mother's  f o r S i r A n d r e w , who  offered her a cloth of silber, 2. -  a monkery, a  had  parrot,  and a musk c a t . Mistress  C h a n g e a b l e , t h e w i d o w MiRam A l l e y ,  whose husband, h a d been T a f f e t a , t h e m e r c e r , i s t r e a t e d somewhat more She  sympathetically  i s both alert  o t h e r r w i d o w who ready to take restricting  t h a n t h e widow i n The  and i n t e l l i g e n t  i s dull  and  in c o n t r a s t  stupid.  a second husband  to the  Y e t she i s q u i t e  and,makes no  pretence  h e r s e l f t o g o o d w o r k s . G e r t a i n l y t t h e men  the  play  t h i n k no  1  %he  Puritan,  2  Ibid.  b e t t e r 6 f h e r than they would have l,i,p.399.  IV, ii,p.419.  Puritan.  of i n done  123 o f t h e o t h e f c woman. T h e y have  t h e f eminine  an u n u s u a l l y one  expect  susceptibility  strong meaaire.  of her suitors,  expects  when he p r o m i s e s h e r t h a t at  t h e 'idow T a f f a t a t o w  t o men  and c l o t h e s i n  For instance, S i r Oliver, h e r tx> c a p i t u l a t e  she s h a l l b e l a d i f i e d  c o u r t , have j e w e l s , a baboon, p l a t e ,  household the  stuff.  immediately  He i s v e r y much  and  live  c h a i n s , and  surprised to  find 1  she p r e f e r s h e r independence t o h i s o f f e r . Many o f t h e d a u g h t e r s  of citizens  i n the plays  repeat  the unfavorable  I  a l r e a d y mentioned Gertmude, t h e daughter i n  have  Eastward the  Ho.  The e l d e r d a u g h t e r  same t y p e .  #hat  p i c t u r e o f the merchant's  a coach,  wives,  i n The P u r i t a n i s o f  She w i s h e s t o m a r r y  s h e may h a v e  only  above h e r c l a s s  two w h i t e  horses,  so  a guarded  2 lackey  anfl'pied l i v e r i e s .  citizens'  daughters  to  g e r t r u d e . They  of  the nobles,  middle care  class  o f t h e house  accounts  i n t h e t h e p l a y s who do n o t d i f f e r  however,  life.  On t h e o t h e r hand,  We  know J h a t  are not akin  greatly from  and they t e l l they  there are  the  us l i t t l e  daughters about  are able t o take .  a n d t h a t t h e y h a v e some k n o w l e d g e o f  and t h e time  and t h e money t o r e a d  and sew a n d  1 Ram A l l e y , 111,i,p.321. 2 The P u r i t a n , I V , i , p . 4 1 8 . "Guarded",. The t e r m means ' t h a t t h e l a c k e y would wear an ornamented and b r a i d e d c o a t .  124 to  p l a n dances.  learning. of  But  Others have  the  a smattering of  same t h i n g m i g h t  any w e l l - t o - d o f a m i l y ,  whether  he  classical  said of  daughters  i t were n o b l e  or  common. Some o f t h e s e g i r l s display repeat Rose,  intelligence  and  come t o l i f e independence.  Others  merely  conventional patterns. the daughter  itmGreene' s Tu fathers,  Among t h e f o r m e r a r e 1 o f S i r Thomas Oak&ey, and J o i c e 2  Quoque.  do n o t  Both,  Buraing Pestle  lady  She  says that  the  land.  4  i n The  their  unjust orders Knight of  the  t h a n Rose o r Jojcce and 3 ^ t o f e l l o w J a s p e r . George a  i s equally devoged she w i l l  I n The  independent  Luce,  of  goes f u r t h e r  openly d e f i e s her father Greene's  although afraid  take what they consider  from them w i t h o u t p r o t e s t .  tions  i n t h e plays and  to her  not give him  up  to the waiter  example o f t h e young g i r l  well  and h e r  hheir  trained  Delia  Greene's  Tu  Quoque,  3  The  4  George | Greene.  feel  instruc-  i s also  an  i n household  a f f a i r s . She s u p e r v i s e s t h e management o f h e r 1 i h e Shoemakers' H o l i d a y . 1 1 1 . i i i . 3 0 . 2  in  sister  father's  ts  at the ordinary.  pinner".  f o r any t i t l e  London P r o d i g a l D e l i a  enough t o countermand  "honest  sistap '  p.201.  Knight of the Burning Pestle,  l,i,52-54.  210-213,1260-1265.  5 The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l , l , i i , - . 3 7 5 . D e l i a and F r a n k a r e s u p p o s e d t o be t h e d a u g h t e r s o f a k n i g h t , b u t t h e y b e h a v e a s c i t i z e n s ' d a u g h t e r s w o u l d do a n d a r e t r e a t e d a s s u c h .  F r a n k ' s house so w e l l t h a t h e r b r o t h e r - i n - l a w w i s h e s • • 1 t h a t she could, be h i r e d as a permanent housekeeper. Other c i t i z e n s '  daughters, as 1 have s a i d ,  so i n t e r e s t i n g a s t h o s e j u s t m e n t i o n e d . guileless,  fragile,  among t h e m . instance, Merchant Noble  They  are not  are p r e t t y ,  but i ti s impossibl e t o d i s t i n g u i s h  R e b e c c a , i n The H o g H a s L o s t H i s P e a r l , f o r  i s only  a very poor  copy  o f V e n i c e . The j a i l o r ' s  of Jessica  daughter,  jn;The  i n T h e Two  Kinsmen,who wight have b e e n a s o u r c e o f much  information,  i s similarly  insignificant.  She i s o n l y  a  l o v e - s i c k girJfc w h o , l i k e O p h e l i a , g o e s m a d w h e n f a c e d with misfortune. Women w e r e n o t c o n n e c t e d w i t h only  through t h e i r  citizens. or  serve  as wives  o r were employed  homes.  Jane,  i&The  class  and daughtes  Sometimes t h e y w o r k e d k i n t h e shops 3  apprentices  merchants'  positins  the middle  as  of journeyman  as servant s i nt h e  S h o e m a k e r s ' H o l i d a y , may  a s an e x a m p l e o f t h e f i r s t  type  and Luce  o f The  London P r o d i g a l o f t h e second. When I F d i s c u s s t h e s e e x a m p l e s woiaaBf.'S i r c r e a s i n g  ability  we  shall  observe  t o p r o v i d e f o rh e r s e l f , b u t  ww s h a l l c o n t i n u e t o s e e h e r t r e a t e d a s i f s h e w e r e 1~  The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l I V , i * p . 3 8 8 .  2  egi-: T h e : Two N o b l e K i n s m e n ,  3  S e e a b o v e p-p 1 1 0 - 1 1 1 ,  IV,iii.  1126  essentially  immoral.  apprenticeship to e a r n  Jane,  her living.  that  has  served her  a n d i s , t h u s , a b l e t o s e t u p h e r own Hammon, h o w e v e r ,  her f o r her industry think  f o r instance,  she w i l l  as w e l l  although  shop  admiring  as f o r her beauty,  does n o t  p r e f e r h e r shop t o h i s o f f e r s .  Jane, 1  we  notice,  e x p e c t s h i s s u g g e s t i o n s t o be  1she w i f e o f t h e p r o f l i g a t e  Flower dale,  s u p p o r t h e r s e l f and h a s s i m i l a r • ^ a v i n g no t r a i n i n g s u c h a s t h a t 2  service,  and f i n d s  same a t t i t u d e  i s also  Luce,  able to  temptations to withstand. o f J a n e , she g o e s i n t o  that her master's  towards  "wanton."  f r i e n d s have  women3s h a d Hammon.They  the  expect 3  her to y i e l d servant in  immediately  o f t h e widow  t h e same m a n n e r .  and  Taffata, She  their  a r e as  They have  masters  i s spoken  o f as a  by C o n s t a n t i a .  either  an e x a g g e r a t e d  conclusion,  desire  however, mayb e drawn  c l a s s h o m e s . C i t i z e n s who  2  The L o n d o n P r o d i g a l ,  3  Ibid.,  11,i,p.305.  p.  them.  i t appears  imployed  287.  to  t h e number •  i n middle wealthy,  lV«i.10-12."Hammon  111, i S i ,  V,i,p.393.  Alley,  from  h a d r e c e n t l y become  The Shoemaker s M a o l i d av, t h i n k s me w a n t o n . "  2§E  but  loyalty  to cheat  depicted i n the drana.  t h a t more ariimore s e r v a n t s were b e i n g  4 , ; l  naturailbait  s t a n d a r d i z e d a s a r e some o f t h e  o r an o v e r w h e l m i n g  o f women i n s e r v i c e  1 "She  The  a r e o t h e r women s e r v a n t s i n o u r p l a y s ,  many o f them daughters.  importunities.  A d r i a n a , i s r e g a r d e d :'; x,  " t h e p o r c h t o her. M i s t r e s s " There  One  to t h e i r  savs7  127 such \ as  es C i v i t ignoble  l a b o r as  and. F r a n k ,  for  them to  i t was  f o r the  were b e g i n n i n g soil  their  to  think  hands w i t h  1  that  i t w i l  memial  nobility.  Frank. A gentlewomanand a m a r r i e d gentlewoman t o o , t o be c o m p a n i o n t o c o o k s and k i t c h e n b o y s ! Not I , i f a i t h ; I s c o r n t h a t . 1  Before I I  should  leave  the  citizens  draw a t t e n t i o n t o  of  courtezans  in  citizen  and  their  plays.  learn little,  life  the  drama.  I might perhaps h a z a r d the  spend  citizen from  however,  average  td  thing for a citizen  allarge part  Naturally,  the  of h i s  time  courtezans  the  dramatists.  of  the  existence  to  e x t r a v a g a n c e . B o t h m e d i e v a l and  would  say  deplore  that  the  e n a b l e d him into _  2  s i n and T  h  e  See  they  fact to  Their  should  that  keep  number  the  and  not  as  tolerated  Prodigal,  IV,  i , p.  proof  temptation  and  increased  opinion would  wealth  l e a d him  waste.  Tendon  and  treated  regarded  would  i t  suburbs.  contemporary  who  in  a mistress 2  a constant  citizen's  a mistress  presence  unfavorably  as  be  about  guess that  i n the  pre sence. was  lechery  their  to have  are  by  of  womenfolk,  fact*.that a large  the  w/as-'HQt a r a r e  the  their  companion bawds anesprotrayed  I can of  the  and  388.  above pp.H-16  A l s o Ram A l l e y , l , i , p . 2 7 1 . Constantia. What m a k e s he h e r e I n t h e s k i r t s o f H o l b o r n , so n e a r t h e field, A n d a t a g a r d e n - h o u s e ? He h a s some p u n k U p o n my life]  both  128  I t j s c i n t e r e s t i n g to whether they mere for  sticks the  are like  living  creations  c i t i z e n , e v e n when he  closing this  a t t e n t i o n to heorine,  the  The  middle  citizens  and  courtezans,  as  i s " B e 11 a f r o n t ,  always voice them  women I  a l l the  of  her.  Yet  She  Perhaps I habit  of  stalls,  d e l i v e r i e s and  i t is difficult  seems t o can  be  too  f o r us  much a n  c o n c l u d e by  i t s  saying  in  in i t  some  presence  among  Finsbury  generalize  ideal  and  sympathy  picnics in  to  of  feels that  s i g n i f i c a n c e should b e found i n her and  draw  Despite  M o l l h e r s e l f i s completely  sort  Fields.  shall  characters  t h e m , e s p e c i a l l j j / w i t h t h e women. One  shops  ruffs  i s essentially a play  with  the  contempt  as many  Roaring G i r l .  c l a s s . Almost  or  r  wife.  c h a p t e r on  play,  the  gives  buys h i s  i n many ways t h i s  about the are  that  Frances, nearly  and. f a r t h i n g a l e s a s h e In  see  about  character.  that Moll, with  her  a s s e r t i n g h e r s e l f on  equal terms w i t h  indicate  that  m i d d l e c l a s s women w e r e  becoming  aware o f  the  Elizabethan their  w e r e d e s i r i n g more directed  against  importance to  freedom,  them.  despite  the  men,  merchant  a l l adverse  may  and  criticism  129  1 Homes, F o o d , At  this  female,  point  Clothing.  the principal  the citizen  and h i s w i f e ,  The  backdrop o f h i s t o r i c a l  has  been  time my  s e t t i n g I must p l a c e costumes,  chapters, London  I shall turn  of the history  o f London}  the merchant.  practice  But t o complete  the furniture  to the clothing  about  and s u p p l y appro-  a n d h o m e s <& t h e  the houses  h i s wife might  to  sell  o f t h e shop  life  were c l o s e l y  come  linked  from t h e k i t c h e n o r from t h e p a r l o r  although I-have noted t h e i n t e r a c t i o n resulting  when t h e  I n such a case, t h e merchant  goods i n t h e f r o n t o f t h e b u i l d i n g .  life  citizens  I t has been pointed- o u t t h a t b u s i n e s s  p a r t o f t h e house.  or  o f t h e London  given i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n  and p r i v a t e  formed  social  of the  citizens.  have been a l r e a d y  shop  are on the stage.  a n d , i n o r d e r t o do s o , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  A few d e t a i l s  of  both male and  and g e o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l  s u p p l i e d by a d i s c u s s i o n  and by a d e s c r i p t i o n  priate  actors,  from  However,  o f b u s i n e s s and  such a combination I have n o t  discussed t h e a r c h i t e c t u r a l design that caused t h i s 1 F o r t h e background i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d in. c h p p t e r I am i n d e b t e d t o : C a m d e n , W., Harrison, Old  London  this  Britannia.  V/., I ' e s c r f t o f r i o n o f E n g l a n d . Illustrated.  O n i o n s , C.T.,  in  mingling  ed., Shakespeare's  T u r n e r , T . , H u d s o n , Some A c c o u n t England...  England. o f Domestic  Architecture  130 The  arrangement o f t h e rooms beyond  the  partition  t h a t formed t h e back o f t h e shop o r o f t h o s e on second f l o o r  has not been o u t l i n e d .  combined houses  and s h o p s have  t h e y s t o o d on one the  o f the main  theyutnay be  be f u l l y  two i f  s t r e e t s o f London, si t u a t i o n s ,  discussed v.^erever  i n the county beyond,  i n the town,  he were n o t w e a l t h y  and  enough  e s t a b l i s h m e n t s he m i g h t be  able  to leave  in  the fashionable  city  i n the s t i l l  had  seat. Even  i  complete  a rented  shop  the walls  or  s u b u r b o f W e s t m i n i s t e r . B u t , i f he  were c o n f i n e d t i b one  a desire  their  frequently  to maintainttwo  n i g h t f a l l f o r a p l e a s a n t house beyond  could  and  now,'  i n the suburbs,  a country  at  he  But  i n the  f o r the merchant  houses, a town r e s i d e n c e  streets  when  found.  These houses m i g h t be or  Furthermore, such  been mentioned o n l y  houses o f the Londoners, t h e i r  desings w i l l  the  o f the houses  straggling plan  set along the  f a s h i o n mentioned by  city Harrison,  and hope f o r a c o u n t r y house.  seemed t o be p a r t o f  Such  the ambition o f every  London  merchant. From t h e e v i d e n c e o f t h e p l a y s of  t h e m e r c h a n t s were  R o g e r O a k l e y was situation The  to f u l f i l  o f t h e s e men.  o f h i s house  Shoemakers'  a typical  one  able  Holiday  i t seems t h a t many this  ambition. S i r  I f the size  and  i s deduced from the seenes i t may  be c o n c l u d e d t h a t  of i t was  Tudor country.house w i t h g r e a t mullioned  windows  131 arid  set i n spacious  who  i s knighted,  one  h o u s e . He  the  next quarter, to  other  house  to  plans  in  the  of  will  have  a  small  He  in the  looks  neat  land  L o n d o n . The  great  i s the Englishman by  set  number o f as  of  boo&s, pamphlets,  in  as  Gerard's Herbal,  to  flowers  Puritan takes  In  the  are  and  f u l l  plays  i n the  of  This  plays.  interest  Harrison, Other  the  Englishman's  there  are  many  the  widow's garden.  asks her  his  of  andito g a r d e n s . M u c h o f place  city  a t t r a c t e d to today.  fine  gardens  g i v e s much spacfc t o H o r t i c u l t u r e .  i n his flowers.  references  houses were o f t e n  t h e E l i z a b e t h a n was  as  instance such  country  walls  illustrated  o f The  voice h i s ambition.  many o p e n w p a c e s w i t h i n t h e  that  delight  oniyiio  the  indicated  books,  than  i n the  century  for  m u s t h a v e more  Such g a r d e n s were p o s s i b l e even  sixteenth  is  merchant  Essex.  gardens.  of  too  another  t o m o v e f i r s t t o the S t r a n d a n d , 1 Fulham. The m e r c e r , Quomodo, o n  t i m e when he 2  B o t h town and  because  Rash,  feelsitfhat he  hand, i s able  eagerly  plot  grounds.  action She  g u e s t s t o w a l k t h e r e t o g a t h e r p i n k s and gilly. 3 flowers. S i r Godfrey's chain i s found under a rosemary 4 " 5 bush. A n o t h e r g a r d e n i s m e n t i o n e d fry.All F o o l s , 1  G r e e n e ' s Tu  Quoque,  V.186~,  2  M-ichaelmas Term, l l l , i v ,  3  The  4  Ibid.,  5  A l l Fools,  13-.,31.  P u r i t a n , I V , i i ^ p.419. 11,ii,.  p.408.  111,i,p.53.  132 The  widow T a f f a t a ,  orchard river  a s w e l l a s O l d K n o w e l l , h a s h e r own  and garden.  Her land e v i d e n t l y extends t o the  f o r she warns W i l l i a m  S m a l l s h a n k s n o t t o come i$ear 1  her out-houses, h e r garden, It not  i srather  amusing  orchard,  to notice  and p u b l i c ones were  as much  suspicioon  gardens  this  as were t h e s u b u r b s . The  f o rclandestine  evil reputation  plays,  a r e warned  The  meetings.  t h e merchants'  against  e x t e r i o r and the. i n t e r i o r  a large garden  o r none  at a l l ,  or i n the  whether  houses  the  so-called palaces  the  dwellings  followed  that  for x  that  i n many o f t h e houses.  of the Elizabethan  with  i tbelonged t o t h e moderately Indeed,  on t h e whole,  of the nobles differed  that  a  m  A  1  3  y  <  l  lack  r e s u l t e d m a i n l y f rom t h e f a c t  that  house p l a n  v  <  i  <  from  This  had n o t been g r e a t l y  o f the medieval h a l l  ]  even  little  p.34i.  altered  t h a t had been b u i l t  s h e l t e r . T h e h o u s e h a d n o t y e t come t o sefive R  country  a s m a l l one  of the comfortable citizens.  Elizabethan  from  wives,  s o m u c h t h e same p a t t e r n  differentiation  the  objections  i t was s e t i n t h e  town  wealthy o r to the extremely r i c h . the  with  As a r e s u l t o f  going t o garden  h o u s e w e r e m u c h t h e same w h e t h e r with  Both  sometimes r e g a r d e d  seem t o a r i s e f r o m t h e s u p p o s i t i o n  t h e y were u s e d  of  that gardens w e r e  always t h o u g h t o f as innocuous o r p l e a s a n t .  private  to  or riverside.  primarily  equally  133 as  a p r o t e c t i o n from the  of  individual From ^he  of  the  and  plaster.  Description of England  brick.  main A  few  Onlylthe  were o f  stone.  of  the  houses were  The  wood and  i t was  the. E l i z a b e t h a n  was  i n the  enormous m u l l i o n e d  h o u s e s on The of glass  i n the  for, from  plays  can  villages  the  large  period,  the be  i n the  lattice  in that of  come  the  overhanging seen i n  the  Elizabethan  manor  estates'iinEngland.  f u r n i s h evidence.bbth of  and«f t h e  and  expanses  possibilities  this  s t i l l or  wall,.during  a r e a s . , I t seems  T u d o r w i n d o w s and  small  ancient  poor  of  fortress castles  e b r o k e n by  very  s t o r y casements t h a t  cottages  the  sidings  o f w o o d or. o f  plaster outside  f a s c i n a t e d by  sections of glass  second  plaster, ^ ^ s m s ,  r a p i d l y r e p l a c i n g horn  windows except  large  expression  l e a r n t h a t many  entirely  p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s and  of the  we  s t r u c t u r e s were o f wood, t h e  t i m e , b egan t o b  as  an  o f b o t h wood and  Elizabeth's glass  as  taste.  houses were b u i l t  roof,  elements and  popularity of  the  common  l a r g e w i n d o w s . The  use widow  Taffata  s i t s a t an o v e r h a n g i n g c a s e m e n t and w a t c h e s t h e 2 passersby. C o r b a c c i o b l o c k s up the window f r o m which h i s wife  w a t c h e d t h e m o u n t e b a n l as many an E l i z a b e t h a n 3 must have done. l&Doctor Faustus there i s a reference 4 to g l a s s windows. 1 Harrison's-Description p.233. 2  Ram  3  Volpone.  4  Alley,  o f E n g l a n d . Book 11.  l,i,p.278. 11,ii,278-288.  'Doctor Faustus.  l,xi,70-80.  cap.xii.  13$ When t h e considered, its  a r r a n g e m e n t was  simply  kitchen  been suggested,  d i c t a t e d by  In t h i s respect  q u a r t e r s o f f t o one the main h a l l  that  t h a t o f the  medieval  t h e t y p i c a l E l i z a b e t h a n home  dwelling with  s l e e p i n g rooms  and  side or the o t h e r .  Only  become d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  into  parlor  d i n i n g room. However, t h e h a l l s  the  as h a s  still  a medieval  r a r e l y had and  o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n house i s  i t i s found,  common h a l l . was  interior  l a t t e r were f o u n d ,  anil e s p e c i a l l y  the p a r l o r s ,  were f u n n i s h e d w i t h more  than w e r e the o t h e r p o r t i o n s o f the house. Por tie w a l l s  of these  when  care example,  rooms w e r e f r e q u e n t l y i m p r o v e d  by  H a r r i s o n d e s c i b e s t h e method  of  the use  of plaster. 1 plastering:  In p l a s t e r i n g our f a i r e s t houses over o u r h e a d s , we u s e f i r s t to l a y a l i n e o r two o f w h i t e m o r t a r , t e m p e r e d v ^ i t h h a i r , u p o n l a t h s , w h i c h a r e m a i l e d one b y a n o t h e r ( o r s o m e t i m e s u p o n r e e d o r w i c k e r s more d a n g e r o u s f o r f i r e , and made f a s t h e r e and t h e r e s a p l a t h s f o r f a l l i n g down) and f i n a l l y c o v e r a l l t h i s w i t h the a f o r e s a i d p l a s t e r , which b e s i d e the d e l e c t a b l e whiteness o f the s t u f f i t s e l f , i s l a i d on so e v e n and s m o o t h l y as n o t h i n g i n my j u d g e m e n t c a n be done w i t h more e x a c t n e s s . The with  plays bear Harrison out.  " p l a i s t e r e r s " has  P u r i t a n . S i r Godfrey plaster  and  Hog's  already been mentioned. I n  and  Edmond a r e  the hangings o f the  afraid that  g a r r i g f n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f England,  2  The  Has  Lost His Pearl.  The  the  b e s t room w i l l be  1  Hog  acquaintanceship  set  ll.xii.p.235.  l,p.436.  136 afire  at  conjured  the by  appearance o f the 1 the  d e v i l who  i s to  sorcerer.  Sometimes hangings were u s e d o v e r the the  wood t o h e l p  nament.  be  keep  h o u s e warm and  furnishes  to  serve  or as  or-  these hanging 2 w e l l as o f t h e wood p a n e l l i n g and p l a s t e r i n g : The w a l l s o f o u r h o u s e s o n t h e i n n e r s i d e s i n l i k e s o r t be e i t h e r h a n g e d w i t h t a p e s t r y , arras work, or painted c l o t h s , wherein e i t h e r clivers h i s t o r i e s , or herbs, or beasts, knots, and s u c h l i k e a r e s t a i n e d , o r e l s e t h e y a r e c e i l e d w i t h o a k o f o u r own, or wainscot brought h i t h e r out o f the e a s t c o u n t r i e s , whereby the rooms are n o t a l i t t l e commended,:made warm, and much m o r e c l o s e t h a n o t h e r w i s e t h e y would be. As f o r s t o v e s , y e t we h a v e n o t h i t h e r t o u s e d t h e m g r e a t l y , yet do t h e y now b e g i n t o b e m a d e i n d i v e r s h o u s e s o f t h e g e n t r y and w e a l t h y d i t i z e n s . . . .  as  Harrison  the  plaster  a description of  J  Other references such  as H a r r i s o n  passages i n the  the  goes to  the  walls  In  avoid  and  work  occur  Elizabethan 3  i s given.  maps on  arras  mentions,  a reference scholar  to  and  painted  i n many w e l l  drama. I n  this  to  play  a r r e s t has  fine galleries  The  the  known  Puritan house  painted  cloth,  such  into  cloths  around the  main  which and room.  Painted  c l o t h i s m e n t i o n e d a l s o i n The M i s e r i e s o f 4 Enforced Marriage, The b e s t known i n c i d e n t s c o n c e r n i n g 1 2  p.  The  Puritan,  Harrison's 235.  3  op  4  The  IV,ii,p.420-21.  Description  o f England, Book  c i t . Ill,v,pp.412-414; Miseries  of  ll,6ap.xii,  lV,ii,p.421.  Enforced Marriage,  IV,  p.528.  1 3 6  painted  c l o t h and a r r a s work o c c u r  Falstaff hides  behind  the arras  i n thftHenryJXV  plays.  and from h i s speeches i t  • • 1 is  evident  t h a t h e h a s s e e n many  much o f t h e s t a g e  business  a painted  cloth.  o f the E l i z a b e t h a n  Indeed,  theatre  would b e l o s t without t h e use o f these hangings. V i l l a i n s and f o o l s h i d e b e h i n d them. P o l o n i u s ' d e a t h comas t o h i m  2 through The  an a r r a s . painted  householder to  provide  life  cloths not only  t o k e e p warm exciting  the Elizabethan  and t h e E l i z a b e t h a n  The c i t i z e n ' s  serve  as an i n d i c a t i o n  s t a t u s might be judged by t h e  r i c h r e s s and v a r i e t y o f h i s hangings. I f he work  and n o t p a i n u t d than  a m o r e h u m b l e member  In  find  same  magician desires Pandolfo of  silver.  the  of the guild.  s u c h j u d g e m e n t made.  The  toahang h i s p a r l o r with  B u t he has overestimated  m e r c h a n t . -Pandolfo  haditapestry  c l o t h he m i g h t w e l l be a w e a l t h y  alderman r a t h e r A l b u m a z a r we  dramatist  o r amusing i n c i d e n t , b u t i n both  and i n t h e drama t h e y c o u l d  of wealth.  helped  can f u l f i l l  the wealth  the other  of the  demands o f  s o r c e r e r , b u t he h a s t o b o r r o w t h e c l o t h o f 3  from h i smercer.  Nevertheless,  sorcerer  exjs c t e d  to find  Pandolfo  i n d i c a t e s that c e r t a i n merchants,  of  such  cloth  silver  the f a c t that the an a r r a s  i n t h e house o f i n t h e eyes  t h e average E l i z a b e t h a n , were able t o a f f o r d such H e n r y I V , P a r t 1, 1 1 , i v , 5 5 0 - 5 5 1 ; P e r t 1 1 , I V , i i , 2 6 F a l s t a f f says, " . . . s l a v e s as ragged as L a z a r u s i n t h e pa i n t e d cloth...»' Hamlet, 111,iv, 22-24. 1  2  3  Albumazar,  11,iii.  13£ costly  hangings,  The he. was  speech of  S i r A l e x a n d e r Wengave.shows us  a m e r c h a n t who  arras.  He  \  t h i & and  was  of  might well.have  exceedingly  proud of  .  the  wealth  that  enabled  had  a cloth  possessions him  t o buy  that of  such  j-  silver  1  as  thep:  The f u r n i t u r e t h a t d o t h a d o r n t h i s r o o m C o s t many a f a i r g r a y g r o a t e r e i t came h e r e : But most t h i n g s are most cheap,• ' hen t h e y are most d e a r . N a y w h e n y o u l o o k i n t o my. g a l l e r i e s , How b r a v e l y t h e y a r e t r i m m e d u p , You a l l s h a l l swear, You a r e h i g h l y p l e a s e d t o see w h a t ' s s e t down t h e r e : . S t o r i e s o f men a n d women, m i x e d t o g e t h e r F a i r ones w i t h f o u l ? , l i k e s u n s h i n e - i n wet w e a t h e r . W i t h i n one s q u a r e a t h a i - s a n d h e a d s a r e l a i d So c l o s e , t h a t a l l o f h e a d s ' t h e r o o m s e e m s m a d e : As many f a c e s t h e r e ( f i l l e d w i t h b l i t h e l o o k s ) S h e w l i k e t h e p r o m i s i n g t i t l e s " o f new books, ( W r i t c m e r r i l y ) "the r e a d e r s b e i n g t h e i r own eyes W h i c h seem t o move and t o g i v e p l a u d i t i e s : And h e r e and t h e r e ( w h i l s t w i t h o b s e q u i o u s e a r s T h r o n g e d h e a p s do l i s t e n ) a c u t p u r s e t h r u s t s a n d l e e r s ' W i t h h a w k ' s e y e s f o r h i s p r e y ; I n e e d n o t shew h i m , W i t h a h a n g i n g v i l l a n o u s l o o k , y o u r s e l v e s may k n o w h i m , The f ace i s d r a w n s o r e l y ; t h e n , s i r s , b e l o w , T h e \ncry f l o o r ( a s t w e r e ) w a v e s t o a n d f r o , And l i k e a f l o a t i n g i s l a n d , s eems t o m o v e , Upon a s e a , bound i n w i t h s h o r e s afrove. w  Vi*  It to  is interesting  galleries.  the  to note here  These were a s  E l i z a b e t h a n house  as  pictures a  stage  upon to from 1  or for  for particularly the m u s i c i a n s  e n t e r t a i n the  not  only  fine  the  The  Girl,  reference  a feature  ja i n t e d c l o t h s as  showplaces  t a p e s t r y but  o r p l a y e r s who  m a s t e r ' s" g u e s t s .  the r e s t o f Roaring  distinctive  were the  p a n e l l e d w a l l s . They s e r v e d  another  h o u s e made them u s e f u l t o p . 141?-142.  •  and for  a l s o as  m i g h t be Their  of  called  separation the  members  139 of  the  h o u s e h o l d who  when t h e For  g a l l e r y was  example,  gallery,  not  i n The  Pennydub, w a l k s  plans  might wish to walk or i n use  f o r some o t h e r  P u r i t a n , Mary s_^suitor, the  gallery,  and,  there  purpose.  S i r John  1  along  read  from  her  Tomasine-, i n M i c h a e l m a s T e r m , l i s t e n s 2  to  the  o f Quomodd. By  the  sixteenth  century  the  kitchen quarters  frequently been entended beyond the and  to  by  the  a pantry,  medieval  had  plattd  time of E l i z a b e t h they u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d buttery,  be  as  important  of  the  to  them i n t h e  and  kitchen.  Although they would •  i n thKmanagement o f  rooms, y e t  there  plays.  are  of  barely  the  house  as  any  h a l f a dozen  D e l i a s s k i } . ! and  other  references  effecienty in  1  ' are  shown i n h e r  The  m o t h e r i n The  supervision of Frank's kitchen P u r i t a n i s found turning  3 •  arrangements.  a spit  in  the  kitchen. The c l o w n JfriThe L o o k i n g G l a s s f o r L o n d o n s h o w s h i s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h t h e k i t c h e n q u a r t e r s when he s a y s t h a t he c a r r i e s h i s p a n t r y , b u t t e r y , and k i t c h e n w i t h h i m . He  means t h a t he 5 slops.  wine, bread,  1  The  2  Michaelmas- Term,  3  %he  London P r o d i g a l ,  The  Puritan,  4  rr.5. The  Puritan,  has  l.i.p.406.  and  meat i n h i s  '  :  l l l , i v . 111,iii.p.390.  11,i,p.406.  Looking Glass  f o r London,  2448 2460. 7  wide  "  13.4 Despite quarters of  the  use  and  other  the  convenient  the  general  It  was  The  s t i l l  f a r from  householder  extremely  difficult  to  warm. H o w e v e r , tlie E l i z a b e t h a n great  discomfort  done u n d e r  similar  personal  and  aa  to  great  sixteenth in  their  had  had  as  the  i n the  fead  plaster, being  two  constant  remain c l e a n did not  circumstances,  the  lives.  as  and  suffer  f o r the  Londoners had I t i s reported  one.  Firk,  h i s disregard f o r water  they  do  never  f  f  the  Eliza-  completely  twentieth century  Elizabethans  century  kitchen-u  appearance  problems. to  keep  from  man  as  might  problems  of household c l e a n l i n e s s d i d not the  only  the  of  house t h a t r e s u l t e d from  wood p a n e l l i n g and  b e t h a n d w e l l i n g was comfortable.  improvement  p a r t s of the  of hangings,  enlargement  to us.  taken  a  have of  appe a r Many bath  of Elizabeth that  she  ithThe S h o e m a k e r s ' H o l i d a y , c a r r i e s e v e n f u r t h e r . He  objects  strongly  1 to  the  suggestion-that  apprentice is the  he  i n E a s t w a r d Ho,  exception  wash h i s f a c e .  Frank,  i n his desire for a  rather than  the  rule.  On  the  Hotspur's condemnation of the of  the  standard  "dainty lord" 3 sixteenth century opinion.  P e r h a p s f o r t u n a t e l y , the E l i z a b e t h a n slightly  more c o n c e r n e d  over  an  unclean  3T  ihe  2  E a s t w a r d Ho,  3  H e n r y jfey. P a r t 31 . 1, i i i , 2 9 - 6 8 .  bathtub other  i s the  seemed t o  house than  snp_ejnakebs' EoJ^day., 1 1 , i i i , 2 0 - 2 3 . IV,ii,300-305.  the  hand, outcome  be over  14a a dirty the  face.  No  doubt the  extreme d i s c o m f o r t  c a u s e d by  the  use  They b o i h h e l d  the  dirt  a floor  covering.  as  they  were trodden  was  not  it  by  very  bottles, this  such  The  and  the  as t h o s e  these  as  decayed  trampled tried  rushes  to  cover  Casting  mentioned, were used  o f w a r m t h was  the  of cleaniless;  well  as  an  than  f o r , regardless of  ornamental purpose,  f i r e p l a c e s as  "marvellously  for  instance,  three  the  and  t h a t H i p p o l i t o ' s h o u s e was  hangings  and  a useful  as  lists  things  better  servant  lack  houses remained  i n most cases,  doctor's  even more  r a i s e d by  served  the  a l t e r e d " f o r the  of  the r i c h  stoves  among t h e  c i t i z e n ' s h o u s e was,  any  of which  Although Harrison mentions  says  apparently  Elizabethan  plastered walls, both  For  and  Elizabethan  already  from  of rushes  perfume throughout h i s rooms.  problem  importance to  and  odor of  comes  purpose. The  the  on.  pleasant  spreading  greater,concern  cold.  chimney.ss  that  have  s i n : e h i s day,  f a r too i n The  cold for  the comfort.  Honefefr W h o r e  "colder than  a  citizen's  S i n Janivery'J"  house  Harrison's serve  to  •here,  indeed,  times, of  discussion of  two  i n t r o d u c e t h e d e s c r i p t i o n of there  although  had  been  otherwise  the  L-  increase The  interior  h i s comfort through  H o n e s t . W h o r e , - IV,  alterations will  the  house f u r n i s h i n g s .  a geeat change from  t h e h o u s e h a d r e m a i n e d much t h e  could  other  and  same. The the  i v , P. 166.  use  the  medieval  exterior  Elizabethan o f new  and _  143L i m p r o v e d f u r n i t u r e even i f he  could  do  little  about  warmth and c l e a n l i n e s s . Harrison lodging". day.  I n the  f i r s t mentions the  A l l types place  of  of the  great  f u r n i t u r e had old pallet  "amendment improved  of  straw  in  in  the  his goodman  2 f r e q u e n t l y had  a comfortable  bed  with  a  mattress:  The f u r n i t u r e o f "our h o u s e s a l s o e x c e e d e d and i s grown i n manner e v e n t o p a s s i n g d e l i c a c y ; a n d h e r e i n I do n o t s p e a k o f t h e n o b i l i t y and g e n t r y o n l y , b u t l i k e w i s e o f the lowest s o r t i n most p l a c e s o f our south country t h a t have anything at a l l to take to,I..Likewise i n the houses of k n i g h t s , gentlemen, merchantmen, a n d some o t h e r w e a l t h y c i t i z e n s , i t i s n o t unknown t o b e h o l d g e n e r a l l y t t h e i r g r e a t p r o v i s i o n o f t a p e s t r y , t u r k e y work, pewter, b r a s s , f i n e l i n e n , a n d t h e r e t o c o s t l y c u p b o a r d s o f p l a t e , w o r t h f i v e "• o r s i x h u n d r e d o r a t h o u s a n d p o u n d s t o be deemed b y estimation. B u t a s h e r e i n a l l t h e s e s o r t s do f a r e x c e e d t h e i r e l d e r s and p r e d e c e s s o r s , and i n n e a t n e s s a n d c u r i o s i t y t h e m e r c h a n t a l l o t h e r , so i n t i m e s past the e o s t l y f u r n i t u r e stayed there, whereas now i t i s d e s c e n d e d y e t l o w e r e v e n u n t o i n f e r i o r artificiers a n d m a n y f a r m e r s , who b y v i r t u e o f t h e i r o l d and n o t o f t h e i r new l e a s e s , h a v e f o r the. most p a r t l e a r n e d a l s o to g a r n i s h t h e i r cupboards w i t h p l a t e , t h e i r j o i n e d beds w i t h t a p e s t r y and s i l k h a n g i n g s , and t h e i r t a b l e s w i t h c a r p e t s and f i n e n a p e r y , w h e r e b y t h e w e a l t h o f t h e country (God be p r a i s e d , t h e r e f o r e , and g i v e u s g r a c e t o employ i t w e l l ) d o t h i n f i n i t e l y appear. 3 Secondly, H a r r i s o n mentions the Pewter  i s t a k i n g the  place  of  the  improvement  wooden  in  tableware.  trencher:  . . . F o r so common w e r e a l l s o r t s o f t r e e n s t u f f i n o l d t i m e s t h a t a man should hardly f i n d four p i e c e s o f ' p e w t e r ' ( o f ' " w h i c h one' was~peradvef£u're • a s a l t ) i n a g o o d f a r m e r ' s h o u s e . . . . b u t now he 1  Harrison's  D e s c r i p t i o n o f England. Book  2  loc^ct-b.  3  I b i d . ll,xii,pp.238.T;239.  ll.cap.xii.p.240.  142 t h i n k s h i s g a i n s s m a l l t o w a r d t h e end o f . h i s t e r m i f he h a v e n o t s i x o r s e v e n g e a r ' s ren<£, l y i n g b y h i m , t h e r e w i t h t o p u r c h a s e a new l e a s e , b e s i d e s f a i r g a r n i s h o f p e w t e r o n h i s c u p b o a r d , w i t h so m u c h m o r e i n o d d vessels going about the house, three o r f o u r f e a t h e * b e d s , so many c o v e r l i d s and c a r p e t s o f t a p e s t r y , a s i l v e r s a l t , a bowl f o r wine ( i f not a whole n e s t ) and a d o z e n o f s p o o n s t o f i n i s h up the ;;suit. 1 I  shall  turn  of Harrison's ings  again  to  the  plays  for  confirmation;,,  statements.  For  example,  among t h e  o f B e l l a f r o n t ' s room  are  a cupboard,  furnish-  dressing  table,  2 and l o o k i n g g l a s s e s . I n a n o t h e r p l a y , I l e a r n t h a t S i r A l e x a n d e r Wengave o r d e r s s t o o l s f o r m o s t o f h i s g u e s t s , 3 but  a c h a i r for  the  gentlemen  o l d S i r John.  and  a cushion  Throat orders  f o r the  stools  heiress,  and,  for  at 4  the  same t i m e ,  Stools  and  chairs,  he  desires  cushions  ^ a r g e oak  the  one  that  stood  and  i n w h i c h he  a fire  were not  served  at the  bottom of  kept h i s 5  kept h i s robes of  the  functions  of  only  chests  state.  storage  a  great  chamber.  substitutes for  equally w e l l . For the  accounts could  a bedroom c h a i r , Candido had he  the  i n the  box  of  bed be  this  These c h e s t s  w a r d r o b e s and  of  instance,  i n Hog's used also sort i n  room as  which  fulfilled seats.  In  same p l a y , T h e H o n e s t W h o r e , t h e r e i s a h v a m u s i n g H a r r i s o n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f $ n g l a n d . Book n . n a p . Y pp.240-241. ~~ 2 T h e H o n e s t W h o r e , P a r t 1, 1 1 1 , i i i , p . 1 4 5 . the  1  3  The  ^oaring G i r l ,  4  £§i  Alley,  5  The  Hog  p.  143.  11,i,pp.300-301.  HasrLoJt  His  P e a r l , V,  p.484.  i M .  M3 incident  that  i n v o l v e s the use  furnishing.  When C a n d i d o  of another  i s unable to get h i s robes  from h i s c h e s t he takes'.the c a r p e t c u t s i t s o t h a t h e may .1 before the a fine  damasked o r  The  H o n e s t Whore  of other  i t as  o f f the table  a robe i n h i s  a carpet would be  embroidered t a b l e  increased popularity examples  use  s e n a t e . Such,  house&o.ld  cloth  supplies us with of pwterwork  furnishings.  and  appearance  similar  to  today.  proof of the  as w e l l  as  with  Candido's wife,  Viola, 2  becomes v e r y  angry at the-loss o f her f i n e  Indidentally, act  that  drinking  i t c a n be  pewter  seen from the r e f e r e n c e  a l l g u e s t s d r a n k f r o m t h e same c u p . was  i n  This  cup, this communal  a sign of courtesy.  I n E a s t w a r d Ho, p e w t e r 3 i s u s e d a t t h e i n n i n t h e same f a s h i o n . The widow T a f f a t a h a s a g r e a t s t o r e o f t h e new p e w t e r d i s h e s a s w e l l a s 4 •a s u p p l y o f f i n e si e e t s . Other plays the  improvement  i l l u s t r a t e -further the extent to i n t a b l e w a r e w as s p r e a d i n g  d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . V o l p o n e shows u s Would-Be c a r r i e s h i s k n i f e w i t h him  i n a special case.  1  The  2  Ibid.,  5  £a£  fork  and  l l l , i ,  Alley,  10-11,90-155,  111,i.p.324.  Volpone, IV,i,26-30.  S i r Politicsilver  toothpick  pp,139,140.  l,v,pp.114-115. 111,iii.  among t h e  However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g  Honest Whore,1|Et_l,  3 E a s t w a r d Ho, 4  and 5  that  which  14& to  note that  was r e g a r d e d the of  Sir Politic's  knife  o f such  as a s i g n o f a f f e c t a t i o n .  new c u s t o m s o f u s i n g eating  possession  the food  silverware  I n many  pewter f o r everyday meals and  with knife  andfork i n s t e a d o f w i t h  a n d f i n g e r s a h d n o t y e t come i n t o f a v o r .  homes f o o d  was s t i l l  cut  with  for  example,  homes  served  i n l a r g e wooden  a k n i f e , and e a t e n w i t h  I n many  trenchers,  t h e fingers.  Bannister,  s a i d t h a t h e h a d f e d B a g o t f r o m h i s own -  1 trencher. were  As f u r t h e r p r o o f  s t i l l  often  called  Perhaps the best plays of  that  i t may b e n o t i c e d 2 scape t r e n c h e r s .  complete i l l u s t r a t i o n  substantiates Harrison's  that  "servants  i nthe  careful descriptions  f u r n i a h i n g s i s found i n Albumazar. Reference has  b e e n made t o t h e u s e o f f i n e h a n g i n g s i n t h i s Albumazar's complete than  a solitary  instructions provide  more  already  play. evidence  3  example:  P a r l o u r t o be s w e p t c a r e f u l l y , Washed, r u b b e d , perfumed, hanged Round from t o p t o bottom, W i t h pure w h i t e l u n a r y t a p e * r y o f needle work. B u t 'twere c l o t h o f s i l v e r , 'twere much b e t t e r . Spread a l l the f l o o r with f i n e s t Holland sheet And o v e r t h i s , f a i r damask t a b l e c l o t h : An a l t a r i n t h e m i d s t , l e a d e d w i t h p l a t e Of s i l v e r b a s o n s , ewers, c u p s , c a n d l e s t i c k s , Flagons, and b e a k e r s ; s a l t s , c h a r g e r s , c a s t i n g b o t t l e s ' T w e r e b e t t e r n o t t o m i s s some b o w l s o f g o d . The primarily  d e s c r i p t i o n s and examples g i v e n t o t h e homes o f t h e w e l l - t o - d o  1  Thomas, L o r d  Cromwell, l . i i i .  2  The M i s e r i e s  of ^ f o r m e d Marriage,  3  Albumazar.  11,iv,  p.338.  above  refer  citizens  p.353. p.471}.  or to  145 those  of the gentry!  Londoners  were  able t o l i v e  ings or to indulge the  B u t as » have  i n such cpnfortable  i n new p e w t e r  outskirts of the c i t y  The  house  His  Humouri  o r i n t h e suburbs were  criptions  a bare  existence.  o f .Every Man i n  i n t h e p l a y we m a y g a t h e r t h a t i t •  was e x t r e m e l y s i m p l e .  I n Ram A l l e y W i l l i a m  is  a similar  house  coming  from  when h e i s f o r c e d t o l i v e 2  imprisonment houses  f o rdebt.  That  small  and  Smallshanks squalid  i n the- s u b u r b s t o  escape  the associations o f the  o f t h e suburbs were f r e c e n t l y  appearance  many  be i n such a l o c a l i t y . From t h e des-  o f i tg i v e n 1  pictured  Near  were those o f t h e d e b t o r s and c o u r t e z a n s .  o f Cob, t h e water c a r r i e r , would  surround*  o r I n f l o c k beds.  p o o r c homes i n w h i c h p e o p l e l i v e d Among t h e s e h o u s e  indicated., n o t a l l  as unsavory  may b e s e e n f r o m o t h e r p l a y s .  Prate  as  their  warns 3  his  w i f e n o t t o go t o t h e h o u s e s  i n t h e suburbs and  M i s t r e s s Openwork a c c u s e s h e r husband second house the  walls  and a m i s t r e s s 4 of the city,  o f keeping  i n the narrow  streets  1 2  E v e r y M a n ~ i n H i s Humour, I V , i i . v i i i . Ram A l l e y , 1 , i , p p . 2 7 1 - 7 3 .  3  T h § Dumb K n i g h t , 1 1 , i , p . l 3 5 .  4  The R o a r i n g G i r l ,  p.160.  a near  14§ In  the sixteenth century,  furnishings and  o f t h eLondon houses were g r a d u a l l y  i n many o t h e r  This  rise,  as h a s been seen, t h e  ways t h e standard  of living  however, was n o t r e f l e c t e d  was r i s i n g .  i na l l parts of  household management.-Tables might be set w i t h pewter dishes, fashion the  b u t t h e amount o f f o o d  o f preparing  increase  of  served  together  weMth i n t h em i d d l e  with our  and,  o u r o w n , we s h a l l  find  eyes t h e Elizabethans  more f r e q u e n t  it  food  seems t h a t  habits  seem t o h a v e c o n s u m e d a t r e m e n -  Consequently, into  while  was e v e r  att a b l e present  l a r g e r and  t h e average  themedieval  as h a d b e e n . a n y o f C h a u c e r ' s overate  eating  T h e i r m e a l s were b o t h  than ours.  They n o t o n l y  and m e d i e v a l  t h a t we e a t m u c h l e s s . I n  E l i z a b e t h a n w a s as a p t t o f a l l gluttony  and t h e  class.  w h e n w e {compare t h e i r  d o u s amount o f f o o d .  f i n e new  i t h a d n o t been much c h a n g e d b y  T h u s , we m a y g r o u p t h e E l i z a b e t h a n s men  improving  sin of  contemporaries. but,  from  i ntheir  the plays,  minds.  P r e s i d e n t i m T h e Dumb K n i g h t m a k e s c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e s t o 1 eating aniiEyre's terms o f a f f e c t i o n f o r h i s wife c o n s i s t  2-  almost  entirely  o f w o r d s t h a t h a v e t o do w i t h  a L o n d o n e r , no d o u b t , w o u l d h a v e Aguecheek's o p i n i o n t h a t l i v i n g 1 t h e Dumb K n i g h t , l,i,126. 2  92, 3  The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , (sausage). Twelfth  Wight,  11,iii,11.  agreed w i t h was e a t i n g  food.  Many  S i r Andrew  and d r i n k i n g .  l l , i v , 1 5 8 , (eel) $111,i,  3  147. The f o o d  served,  although-.: g r e a t e r  w a s m u c h t h e same a s t h a t  eaten today.  i n quantity* A list  given  • k a r r i s o n c o n t a i n s m a n y n a m e s w i t h w h i c h we. a r e  by  familiar:  ...But howsoever t h i s case standeth, white meats, m i l k , b u t t e r a n d c h e e e e , which were (never ao deere i n my time, and) wont t o be accounted <af as one o f the c h i e f s t a y s t h r o u g h o u t the H a n d , a r are now r e p u t e d as f o o d a p p e r t i n e n t o n l i e to the i n f e r i o r s o r t , w h i l e s t such as are more w e a l t h i e , doo f e e d upon the f l e s h o f a l l k i n d o f c a t t e l accustomed t o be eaten, a l l s o r t s o f f i s h taken upon our c o a s t s and f r e s h r i v e r s , and such d i v e r s i t y o f w i l d and tame f o u l e s as are e i t h e r b r e d i n oar H a n d o r brought over unto us from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s o f the maine. In number o f d i s h e s and change o f meat, the n o b i l i t i e s o f England do most exceed, s i t h t h e r e i s no d a i e i n maner t h a t p a s s e t h over t h e i r heads wherein they have n o t o n l i e beefe mutton, v e a l e , larabe, k i d , pork, c o n i e , capon, p i g o r so manie o f these as the season y e e l d e t h ; but a l s o some p o r t i o n o f the r e d o r f a l l o w deere, b e s i d e g r e a t v a r i e t i e o f f i s h and w i l d e f o u l e , and t h e r e t o s u n d r i e o t h e r d e l i c a t e s . . . .  1  The gentlemen and merchants keep much about one r a t e , and each o f them c o n t e n t e t h h i m s e l f w i t h f o u r e , f i v e o r s i x d i s h e s when t h e y have b u t some r e s o r t , . . . T o be s h o r t , a t such times as the merchants do make t h e i r o r d i n a r i e o r tfoluntarie f e a s t , i t i s a w o r l d t o see what greet p r o v i s i o n i s made o i a l l maner o f d e l i c a t meats, from e v e r i e q u a r t e r o f the c o u n t r i e , wherein, b e s i d e s they are o f t e n comparable h e r e i n to the n o b i l i t i e s o f the l a n d , they w i l l , seldome regaad a n y t h i n g t h a t the b u t c h e r k i l l e t h , but r e j e c t the same as not worthy to come In p l a c e . I n such c a s e s a l s o g e l i f f e s ( o f a l l c o l o u r s , mixed w i t h a v a r i e t i e i n the pepjsesentation o f s u n d r i e f l o u r e s , herbs, 1  H a r r i s o n ' s D e s c r i p t i o n o f England. Book 11,cap. v i  pp.144-145.  148 trees, formes of beasts, f i s h , foules and. f r u i t s , and thereunto marehpaine wrought with no small e u r i o s i t i e , t a r t s of diverse hewes and sundrie denominations,) conserves (of o l d f r u i t s forren and home-bred) suckets, codinacs, marmilats, marchp aine, gingerlsre ad, sugerbr e ad, f l o r ent ine s, wild foule, venison of a l l sorts and (sundrie) outlandish confections. 1 In the plays of the '.day there are many references to large meals and to those who loved the eapens served at them.  F a l s t a f f i s the best known of tne l a t e r .  Capon i s almost* as prominent i n h i s mind and i n h i s l i s t 8 as the intolerable deal of sack used to moisten 2 l i t t l e bread. In James IVY Slipper has s i m i l a r tastes. He obtains ale and toast, capon and beef and drinks 3 c l a r e t i n a bowl of s i l v e r . In Ram A l l e y , the Sergeants feed on capon, t e a l s , and woodcocks from the S h e r r i f f ' s 4 own taM.e. Capon, lambs, pheasants, pigeons, as w e l l as rhenish, white, greek, muscadel, sherry, and canary 5 wine are the sorcerer's requirements inAlbumzar. Ngt a l l the Elizabethans,! however, ate such large meals..The food of the lower classes was not so p l e n t i f u l or so varied as that mentioned above. Many times the workman had to be s a t i s f i e d with bread and cheese. When S i r John Oldcastle and h i s wife ese ape? from the inn i n 1 Harrison's Description of England, Book l l , e a p . v i , p.148. 2  Henry IV, Part 1.  11,iv,580-601.  3  James 1V> 960-990,  4  £an A l l e y , IV, 1, p.344.  5  Albumazar.  ll,iii,p,340.  109  c a r r i e r ' s clothes they f i n d bread and cheese i n the 1 packs of the horses. Cromwell remembers that h i s father's former servants had given him b read, and cheese an3 hot 2 cheese cakes when he was a boy. Also, Radagon's ifiather rebukes him f o r h i s pride by reminding him that he had 3 eaten Jaread and cheese and been s a t i s f i e d . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note, that, whatever the c l a s s of the Elizabethan, food was important to him both as a source of sustenance and as a means o f expressing celebration and compliment. In.many cases i t had a further .use as a standard o f measurement f o r wealth and p o s i t i o n . For example, venison i s spoken o f as a delicacy i n 4 Miehae Imas Term.  One s p o s i t i o n i n l i f e i n that play 1  i s judged by one s opportunity to serve venison. When 1  Susan i s considering marriage she f e e l s that i f she marries Lethe she w i l l have venison to eat.  On the other  hand, i f ahe marries Easy she w i l l have no venison but w i l l ' h w e a complete table service w i ^ v a ' • '-"it- V 5 s a l t , c l o t h , and a trencher. v  Elaborate and loaded dishes on a taftbe not showed the wealth of the c i t i z e n , but were sometimes a symbol Siaoido,kt£^Qlagnutle* > V,ix,pp.345-346. of \ aiSimily or business celebrate. When important guests 2  Thomas. Lord'Cromwell.  IV,Ii,p.363.  3  The Looking Glass f o r London. 1248-2250.  4  Michaelmas Term. l,i,209-210.  5  Ibid.,11,iii,50-90.  150  came to dinner r i c h and c a r e f u l l y cooked dishes the best plate and pewtej? were placed on the f i n e s t damask l i n e n t h a t the merchant owned.  No doubt such  preparation was necessary when the patient Candido 1 asked the Neopolitan lords to v i s i t him.  George a  Greene has simpler fare than Candido would o f f e r , but he was equally proud of i t . He i n v i t e s the E a r l of Kendal and h i s t r a i n to eat beef hung since .Martinmas 2 and wafer cakes. B e l l a f r o h t , on the other hand, forms an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast. She prefers to save the best dishes f o r h e r s e l f .  She thinks that wine i s s u f f i c i e n t  f o r her guests, but as soon as they leave the house she 3  orders a lunch of larks to be brought to her. In addition to everyday entertaining, such as that i l l u s t r a t e d abofre, great feasts were given onmany ceremonial occasions, whether they were national, l o c a l , or personal. The Lord Mayor's Banquet was one of the best known of the public feasts. There are many references to i t not only i n the plays but i n the c h r o n i c l e s of London amd i n the records of the l i v e r y companies. From these sources menus o f such large feasts may be obtained.  On  a lower l e v e l , weddings, deaths, or promotions also c a l l e d f o r feasts. 1 2  3  Humble Radagon had f o r t y pence i n cakes and  The Honest Whore. • Part::lit l.v.P.116.  '  George k Greene. 620. The Honest Whore, -gart. 1.11 i, pp. IZ-4 -MS.  :  '  "  151' 1 ale spent on h i s christening. Eyre feasts the apprentices 2 in Leadenhall on h i s becoming Lord Mayor. I f the c i t i z e n were not entertaining.in h i s hoiue or j o i n i n g M great feasts he might take h i s f r i e n d s to the orditoayy.  This was the combined restaurant and  delicatessan o f the day where food or wine and prepared meals eouldb e obtained. One could have dinner i n the ordinary or order home.  a hot meal to be brought to one's  The inn served much the same purpose as the  ordinary. Taverns, however, were more l i k e l y to be the background f o r dieing and drinking than f o r eating. The plays contain many scenes set i n taverns, o r d i n a r i i e s or inns. Jh'.The London Prodigal D e l i a and Frank 3 are taken to a street eafe by t h e i r father and f r i e n d s . The men  order wine f o r themselves and small beer f o r  the g i r l s and cakes to eafc with t h e i r drinks. The g a l l a n t s and t h e i r courtezans also meet at inns and o r d i n a r i e s . At such a time wine was more frequently served than r  food, spendal and Nan Sweetman, f o r example, order hippocras. I have said that the c i t i z e n might extend courtesy to h i s friends by i n v i t i n g them to dinner ±n h i s own house, by j o i n i n g then i n great f e a s t s or by taking them to th-e ordinary. There was yet another way i n which food 1  The Looking Glass f o r London. 1303-1310.  2  The Shoemakers' Holiday. V, i v .  3  The London Prodigal. l,ii,pp.374-375.  4  Greene's Tu Quoque. p.194.  4  15Z  might cement friendship.  I t might fce used as a g i f t .  Instances of t h i s custom also occur i n the plays. Nutmeg and ginger as w e l l as a p a i r o f mittens a r e sent to young QcdHwell on t h e continent from friends and r e l a t i v e s 1 at home. The c i t i z e n ' s wife i n The Knight of the Burning 2 Pestle o f f e r s Ralph a s t i c k of l i q u o r i c e . Volpone o f f e r s 3 Corbaccio's wife food and sweetmeats. Naturally, the most popular g i f t of food was candy or cake. TherElizabethan was very fond of the former, 4 Candies are among the requirements of Albumazar.  He wants  boxes of white comfit and marchpane, dry sueket, macaroons and d i e t bread.  The ship that made Simon Eyre's  fortune c a r r i e d prunes, almonds and sugar candy as w e l l as the more p r a c t i c a l c a r r o t s and turnipa.  From the Hog  Has Lost His P e a r l i t i s learned that marmalade was considered a delicacy as much to be desired as candy. Young Wealthy t e l l s Rebecca that she i s a witty marmalade 6 eater.  Many other things that we ahould consider food  were c l a s s i f i e d as candy by the Elizabethans.  Furthermore  some of our candies werefce,g;arde<Lfas medicinal •tti'£h&3.  1  Thomas, Lord Cromwell, l , i i , p , 3 5 5 .  "  2  The Knight o f The Burning Pestle, l,i,72-75.  3  Volpone. I l l , v i i i , 2 0 0 - 2 0 5 .  4  Albumazar.  ll,iii,p,340.  6  The. Shoemakers' Holiday, 111,1,171-181  6  The Hog Has Lost His P e a r l . 11,p.  451,  For instance, sugar was more a medicine than a sweetening. Tobacco was sometimes regarded as medicine. The advice that Lady P o l i t i c gives to Volpone concerning the cure of h i s i l l n e s s would i l l u s t r a t e many of the ideas c  ,S..:-  1 on fbedicine common among a l l classes o f Elizabethans. Lady P; Alas, good soulsji the passion o f the heart. Seed-pearl were good now, b o i l e d with syrup o f apples, Tincture o f gold, and c o r a l , c i t r o n - p i l l s , Your elecampane root, myrobolanesFinally,  a l l v a r i e t i e s o f food and drink might  serve one other purpose,  when the Elizabethan wished  to pay a compliment or to make a new acquaintance he used taste as h i s emissary.  In t h i s way Rash sends 2 a quart o f maligo to Spendal. C i v i t , when he wished to makel.the acquaintance of h i s future father-in-law, 3 sends him a bottle of wine.  This habit i s commended  by the courtesy books and was much i n favor with the citizen.  1  volpone.  2  Greene's Tu Quooue. p.196.  3  The London Prodigal. 3»,i,p.376.  Act  m  T  - i v y  R O - ^ I  156  I s h a l l now turn from the sur\gy of the house furnishings o f the Elizabethans to a consideration o f t h e i r clothing. The treatment  t h i s subject i n E l i z a -  bethan l i t e r a t u r e follows much the same l i n e s as the discussion o f dress has taken throughout the centuries. The s i m i l a r i t y of tone may be understood when i t i s remembered that changing fasMon has nearly always been regarded from the one viewpoint, that i s , as the l e g i t i mate butt of r i d i c u l e . Consequently, l i t e r a t u r e dealing with i t has been almost uniformly s a t i r i c . This satiric tone has arisen from the f a c t that reformers, whether o f Elizabeth's time or o f the centuries preceding or following the sixteenth, have f e l t that changes i n style and useless ornamentation i n dress have been developed as a r e s u l t o f man's overwhelming  pride.  They have condemned as s e l f i s h the individual's desire, given form through h i s clothing, to emphasize h i s separation from those whom he considered l e s s fortunate. Elizabeth, the only person exempt from open r i d i c u l e , i s the best symbol of the excess that provoked attack i n the sixteenth century. Many o f her p r o t r a i t s show the jewelled farthingale, the doublet, the slashed and ornamented sleeves, the enormous r u f f , the elaborately dressed wig c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f the period. Such c l o t h i n g , worn by a lesser person, almost i n v a r i a b l y aroused the i i r e of both dramatists and pamphleteers.  156  As might he expected, t h e r e f o r e , there are many and v a r i e d references i n the p l a y s to a l l types o f dress f o r there was an endless s e r i e s o f changed i n s t y l e to he described, examined, r i d i c u l e d . I n many msfoae*^ moreover, the a t t i t u d e taken by the dramatists was not motivated s o l e l y by a d e s i r e to r i d i c u l e f o r r i d i c u l e ' s sake. To numerous w r i t e r s i n a l l f i e l d s the change i n a t t i r e was f e l t to be the r e f l e c t i o n not only o f i n d i v i d u a l p r i d e , but, i n some manner, o f the change i n the economic s i t u a t i o n i n the s i x t e e n t h century.  1  At the beginning o f the E l i z a b e t h a n e r a c l o t h i n g was f a i r l y standardized, but i t d i d n o t remain so. At f i r s t , v e s t i g e s o f the i n f l u e n c e o f the f e u d a l system were evident i n the dress of the time and, as a r e s u l t , many c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d by t h e i r clothing.  Tbis s i t u a t i o n , however, changed as the  wealth of the E l i z a b e t h a n merchant grew, f o r when the tradesman found t h a t h i s money had given him powers equal to t h a t of the noble, he decided t h a t he wanted h i s r i s e i n s o c i e t y to be r e f l e c t e d i n h i s c l o t h i n g . Therefore, as h i s wealth and i n f l u e n c e increased, h i s c l o t h e s grew more and more l u x u r i o u s and f a n t a s t i c and more a k i n to those o f the n o b i l i t y .  The r e v o l t i n dress  t h a t he i n i t i a t e d q u i c k l y spread to other ranks i n s o c i e t y . ~T c f . Harrison's comments on the improvement o f housing and f u r n i t u r e . Above pp. 142.-143  15« in  order to  impose a c l e a r  the heterogenous  medley  of  raid-Elizabethan  have d e c i d e d to  use  and to  through i t s  may  trace  serve  it  as  the  ruff.  waxed  one a r t i c l e  a chart to  in other parts It  of Elizabethan  little  began  at  the  been the  first  The b a n d was  the  attire.  My  farthingale  as a simple  depth.  The  Nevertheless,  symbol  of  developmsnt  "failing" band or  abodt  were made b y  that the  first  a man named H i g g e n s  of London on a road f i r s t of Elizabeth.  differs  in  the  s a i d to  and was  have neck.  usually  an i n c h o r two French  form the E l i z a b e t h a n r u f f .  note  collar.  His collar  f a l l i n g band merged with the  to  it  netherstocks.  t h i s band about h i s  i t was  be  and as  and the  linen or cambric  At f i r s t  upright c o l l a r to interesting  of  it  symbol w i l l  the king i s  p e r s o n to wear  I  so t h a t  course  time o f Henry V l l l .  either  embroidered.  in  p&eated  It  Elizabethan  is ruffs  who l i v e d n e a r t h e  called Picadilly  The r u f f e t h a t he made were  i n the called  outskirts  reign picardels  picadels. As time went on the  and v e r y pearls. ruff  of change  a  f r o m t h a t worn b y $he p i l g r i m orrthe l a d y  time of Chaucer.  or  as  was w o r n b y b o t h men a n d women,  The r u f f was  cycle  upon  costume  of clothing  indicate  a n d waned so d i d t h e  Such i t  and v i v i d p a t t e r n  large.  became  very  They were ornamented with  Eventually,  looked as  ruffs  anyone w e a r i n g the most  elaborate lace  or  with  fashionable  i f h i s head had been forced through  a  15a; g i g a n t i c  p l a t t e r .  T h e  o r  c a m b r i c ,  s o m e  B u t  A t  f  t h i s  D u t c h  u s e  w e r e  o f  m e t h o d  t h e m .  A  r u f f s  i  w h i c h  h a d  r  s  t o  t  m e t h o d  s t a r c h .  f u r t h e r  p o k i n g  u s e d  a i d  t o  p o k e  t h e y  w e r e  t h e  a  L o n d o n  o n  t h e  f o u n d  i  n  1564,  a  t a u g h t  w e r e  r  l o n g  u  f  f  t h e  s t a r c h e d ,  w h e n  w e r e  s t a r c h e d  f r a m e w o r k .  a n d  1570  t h a t  s t i f f e n  n  r u f f s  T h e s e  t h e  t o  i  l i n e n  l i g h t  w i r e  c a m e  w a s  o f  b y  t o  s o  o r  w h e n ,  i n t r o d u c e d .  p l e a t s  w e r e  c h a n g e d  t i m e  f a s h i o n  m a t e r i a l s ,  s u p p o r t  b a c k e d  d a u g h t e r  t h a t  t h e  m a d e ,  t o  w a a  s u p p o r t  F r o m  a n d  w e r e  f o u n d  r u f f  o f  t o  s t i c k s  l a r g e  b e  t h e  g e n t l e m a n ' s  o f  s o  m e t a l  s t i c k s  i n t o  p l a c e .  1 T h e r e  a r e  c a r r i e d  a n d ,  a s  T h e y  m a n y  f r o m  p l a c e  t i m e  w e n t  w e r e  a  w i t h  w h i c h  m a n y  m o r e  o f  d e l i c a t e  t h e  w e r e  d r a p e r s '  t h e  b y  o f  A s  c o u l d  w o r n .  T h e r e  t h a n  t h e  n  t h e  s i l v e r  a  a n d  b e  w a s  w e r e  o f  l i n e n  b e f o r e ,  u p  a n d  o f  t h e  T h e y  t h e  w e l l  s t a r t e h e d  m o r e  m a d e  o f  a s  c o n s e q u e n c e  n o w  p l a y s ,  w e a r e r  o r n a m e n t a l  e v e r  w e r e  i  w e r e  r u f f ,  a s  u s e f u l .  d e c o r a t e d  t h e  a n d  a n d  m a n y  e a s e  a d j u s t e d  c a m b r i c  o f  w o r d s ,  t h e  i  o t h e r  c  f  t h e  v a r i a t i o n  y e l l o w  .  c r a z e  f o r  i  n  s t a r c h ,  T h e  Y o r k s h i r e  T h e  H o n e s t  ± t  t h e  r u f f  t o o k  r a t h e r  T r a g e d y .  W h o r e . P a c t  d e c l i n e d  " f i n e  p l a c e .  t h a n  F o r  w h i t e ,  If.  1,.I,^  :  o n e  s o m e  b e c a m e  n  c r i e s  l a w n . "  r i d i c u l o u s  1  d e s i g n .  s e r v a n t s  B e f o r e  o r  t h e s e  b e c a m e  m a d e  r u f f  t o  p l a c e  o n ,  s h o p s  s h o p  f i n e  t o  s o m e t i m e s  w i t h  t h e  r e f e r e n c e s  m o r e  r e a s o n  v e r y  c a m b r i c ,  169 popular. The c i t y fathers, the ministers, and the c h i e f g u i l d masters d i d a l l they could to stop the use and to r u i n ther popularity of the new starch, f o r to them i t was only another evidence o f unnecessary extravagance.  ;^AB;event" that they regarded as a lucky coin-  cidence gave them an opportunity to t r y to degrade yellow starch i n the eyes of the p u b l i c . This chance <name at the height o f the craze when the woman who made i t was condemned to death f o r a crime t o t a l l y unconnected with her profession. The c i t y authorities thought t h a t , i f they could associate yellow starch and c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t y i n the public mind, they would h a l t the purchase o f i t . Therefore, they ordered that the woman, the executioner, and a l l the other o f f i c i a l s should wear yellow starched r u f f s when the death sentence was c a r r i e d out. They displayed, however, a singular lack o f knowledge o f crowd psychology. As a r e s u l t of the i n t e r e s t aroused by t h e i r commands the execution/ground was thronged on the day o f the woman's death and almost immediately; yfllow starched r u f f s became more popular than they had every been.  References i n the  drama vouch f o r the yellow r u f f ' s popularity. The variations i n the r u f f that have been described i l l u s t r a t e the height to which extravagance i n clothes developed i n Elizabeth's day. Similar fads i n other a r t i c l e s of c l o t h i n g w i l l be noted i n succeeding pages. As has  \<5Q  been s a i d b o t h they and the r u f f r e f l e c t t h e changes in economic v a l u e s t h a t took p l a c e d u r i n g t h i s time; The  inereaee  i n the c o s t o f the r u f f i l l u s t r a t e s most  v i v i d l y the r i s e i n p r i c e s t h a t b o t h grew out o f and formed p a r t o f the new v a l u e s . F o r example, i n 1560 a gentleman c o u l d get a r u f f f o r twelve pence. In 1620, at the h e i g h t o f t h e c r a z e when r u f f s were a foefi deep, he c o u l d n o t g e t one f o r l e s s than f o u r pounds. The c l o t h i n g o f the women o f the wealthy c l a s s e s , whether t h a t o f the noble o r o f the commoner, w i l l be d i s c u s s e d now t o add f u r t h e r d l e t a i l s t o our p i c t u r e o f EaizSbethan  London.'..The changes t h a t took p l a c e i n  t h e i r clothing w i l l substantiate the conclusions  already  made on extravagance and changing s ^ J l e s i n r e g a r d t o t h e ruff. The  d r e s s o f these women c o n s i s t e d o f a f u l l  skirt  and a l o n g doublet o r b o d i c e . The b o d i c e came t o a p o i n t farbbelow t h e h i p s i n f r o n t . A n e l a b o r a t e f a n was o f t e n suspended from the p o i n t o f the b o d i c e . I t was more an ornament than a u s e f u l a r t i c l e . The doublet a d d i t i o n a l evidence frequemtlp  sewn with  furnished  o f the l o v e o f ornamentation. I t was i m i t a t i o n o r genuine p r e c i o u s  stones.  Any number o f pendants o r n e c k l a c e s might hang over the a l r e a d y h e a v i l y j e w e l l e d d r e s s . S i m i l a r d e c o r a t i o n was c a r r i e d o u t i n t h e s l e e v e s . Ear^f/in t h e p e r i o d they had been t i g h t , ending i n p o i n t s o r i n l a c e over t h e hands  i6a a n d  h a v i n g  a n d  w e r e  t h r o u g h  b e e s a m e  a  s m a l l  s l a s h e d  t h e  a n d  T h e  f  s o  u  l  l  d o n e .  T h e  a n d  e n d e d  i n j p r d s  e l a b o r a t e  i  v o l u m i n o u s  i n  c h a i r  b e e n  b u t  t h e  i  i  h a d  i  L a t e r  t h e y  m a t e r i a l  1 6 2 0 ,  a t  t h e  b e c a m e  c o u l d  t h e  t o p  t  n  a  f  u  l  l  s h o w  s l e e v e s  r e m a i n e d  d i d  o n e  1  s  o r  i  t  i  a n d  h a d  n  w e a r  o w n  o r  w i t h  w a s  i m p o s s i b l e  f o r  t h e  t o  i  t h e  a  w e a r e r  h o o p s  f l a t  i  n  t h a n  t h e  b y  f a r t h i n g a l e .  t o  s  w e r e  s o  b e e n .  d r e s s i n g  o f  t h e  i  w i t h  a n d  w o r e  w a s  t h e  w e a r ,  ' I n  a  a  i  r  h a d  w o m a n  r i b b o n .  T h e  m a r r i e d  B u t ,  t h e  1 5 9 0 ' s ,  b y  f a s h i o n .  f r o n t s .  p i l e d  p e a r l s .  t o  a  f a l s e  h  w o m e n ' s  i n c r e a s -  u n m a r r i e d  c u r l s .  b e c a m e  w i g ,  o f  t  t  t h a t  h a d  r e i g n  T h e j g m n g  i  c o m p l e t e l y  f r o n t  t h e y  f l a r e  a n  E l i z a b e t h ' s  w o m a n  p u r p o s e .  c a l l e d  t h e  n  s l i g h t  s u p p o r t e d  t h e  i  a  b e c a m e  w i g s  r o p e s  w i t h  -  s l e e v e  t i r e s  t i e d  a  t h e  h e a d  t i f c e s  n  a s  m a n a g e  t h e  b r a i d s  n o t  c o n t r a c t  w a s  m a d e  f a s h i o n .  h a i r  i n t e r w o v e n  f i r s t  a d v a n c e d  n  r i c h  f o r c e d  e x t r a v a g a n c e  i  o f  s t a r t e d  t h a t  w e r e  e a s i e r  E a r l y  a n d  s e r v e d  s k i r t  A t  a n d  m a t e r i a l  w i r e  t h e y  b e  a n d  s k i r t  a r m s .  l o o s e  w o m a n  w h o  e x p a n d  o f  s i m p l e  p i l e d  o r n a m e n t e d  a n d y j a r d s c o f  p e r i o d  w i g s  l a c e  n o t  e q u a l  e l a b o r a t e  w h e t h e r  p  b e f o r e  a l s o  h o o p e d  f a n t a s t i c .  w o r n  o  t h ^ p u f f  w a s  l a t e r  w a s  w o r n  w o m a n  b u t  d i d  w i t h o u t  T h e r e  h a d  t  s k i r t s . m i g h t  i n g l y  t  c o n t r a s t i n g  E l i z a b e t h a n  T h i s  A s  t h e  S h o r t l y  a r r a n g e m e n t  c i r c u l a r ,  a t  t h a t  s k i r t  h a d  h a i r .  l  e m b r o i d e r e d .  b u t  t h e  l  a g a i n ,  m a t e r i a l ,  a  o  o p e n i n g s .  n a r r o w  s l a s h e d  r  E v e n  T h e  a n c l i p u f f e d  m a n y  h a t  e a s e s ,  a n d  a  t h e  h a i r ,  a n d  i  s c r a p  c u r l e d  t  o f  161 It  is  themselves were be  easy to  to  the  see Tom s u c h e o s t u m e s e o u l d l e n d . vanity  queen o r commoner.  o f t h e w e a r e r , w h e t h e r t h e woman S o c i a l p o s i t i o n and w e a l t h  i n d i c a t e d b y damasked v e l v e d  beauty hand,  and f i n e  linen.  c o u l d b e h e i g h t e n e d toy f i n e j e w e l s . defects  b y s k i l f u l b o n i n g inKthe skirt,  doublet,  o r b y b u i l t up s h o e s .  Personal  On t h e  in" f i g u r e o r i n p o s t u r e c o u l d be  other  concealed  by e x t r a f u l n e s s  in  Gertrude's tailir, for  s a y s t h a t he c a n amend a f a u l t  eaid  the  example,  i n h e r w a i s t by r e b o n i n g  1 her  doublet.  just  The men o f t h e w e a l t h y c l a s s  in Elizabeth's  as c l o t h e s  t h e women end were  c o n s c i o u s a s were  as apt t o wear v e r y h i g h h e e l s of height. found t h a t  In f a c t , the  if  to  a c o u n t were made,  These examples,  just  obtain an extra inch it  would be  p l a y s c o n t a i n more;referenee53to  t h a n t o women's.  e r a were  men's  n o t only/prove t h a t  attire the  E l i z a b e t h a n m a l e wore a s b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d and as V a r i e d a costume  as d i d t h e woman, b u t  also  show t h a t  the  clothing  o f b o t h s e x e s went t h r o u g h somewhat s i m i l a r c y c l e s  of  change.  orna-  The men a s w e l l  mented d o u b l e t . tion.  Their ruffs  The s l e e v e s and t h e  expressed h i s  showed t h e  farthingale  Eastward H P .  long  same t y p e  of  exaggera-  t r o u s e r s o f t l e > B l i z a b e t h a n man  i n d i v i d u a l love  s l e e v e s and t h e l  as t h e women wore t h e  o f ornament j u s t  as  o f t h e woman r e f l e c t e d  i.ii.va-afe.  the hers,  162 It  was i n t h e s e  two p a r t s o f h i s c o s t u m e t h a t t h e m o s t  marked changes took  places  In the beginning man's d o u b l e t  o f the period the sleeves o f the  were t i g h t  and p l a i n  andthe u p p e r s t o e k s  o r t r o u s e r s were a l s o r e l a t i v e l y n a r r o w a n 3 . u n o r n a m e n t e d . Later,  about t h e m i d d l e o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n  s l e e v e s became f u l l  and s l a s h e d  e r a , t h e men's  a s thosecaf t h e women h a d  done, andlHong f u l l u p p e r s t o c k s , t h a t  a r e most  nearly  p a r a l l e l e d by contemporary " p l u s f o u r s , " took t h e p l a c e o f t h e narrow t r o u s e r s . slashed,  These, l i k e  were  ornamented, and j e w e l l e d . T f t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n s  o f t h i s p e r i o d make t h e women l o o k full  the sleeges,  sail,  t h e y make tbemen l o o k  like galleons.in  l i k e nothing  so much a s  a c o n f i g u r a t i o n s o f b r i g h t l y c o l o r e d and c o n n e c t e d  squashes.  I n t i m e , t h e l o n g baDoon-like t r o u s e r s g a v e way t o s h o r t , s l a s h e d and e x t r e m e l y p u f f e d u p p e r s t o e k s . Then t h e l e g s were c o v e r e d  with  are t h e n e t h e r his or  long  stocks  silk  stockings o f a l l c o l o r s .  such as F a l s t a f f d e c i d e d  r e p e n t a n c e . The" s t o c k i n g s were h e l d u p w i t h e l a b o r a t e g a r t e r s , j e w e l l e d and h i g h l y  Finefleather  shoes,  t o sew i n "points,"  embroidered.  sometimes a l s o o r n a m e n t e d , c o w e r e d  the  f e e t . A t t h e same t i m e a s t h e t r o u s e r s G T C Q h t r a c A ^ d ,  the  sleeves tightened  again  and r e t a i n e d onlyifhe  p u f f a t t h e top. The unfortunate long legged  beetle.  These  slashed  m a l e now r e s e m b l e d a  163 B o t h men and. women wore c l o a k s A  he  hut  over t h e i r  costumes.  women wore a l o n g one t h a t c o v e r e d m o s t & f t h e s k i r t , among t h e men t h e s h o r t I t a l i a n tjjrpekwas  throughputs  the greater  part o f the reign.  popular I t was, h o w e v e r ,  more o f t e n worn b y t h e g a l l a n t o r b y t h e s o l d i e r o r b y the  prodigal  citizen.  s o n o f a m e r c h a n t "than b y t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e  T h e g a l l a n t and t h e pa«ydig?LL,who wore weapons,  wanted a c l o a k dagger.  t h a t would n o t h i n d e r  The c i t i z e n ,  t h e u s e o f sward and  who c a r r i e d n o t h i n g  more d a n g e r o u s  t h a n a s t i c k , w a n t e d r o n e t h a t w o u l d g i v e warmth. C o n s e q u e n t l y , he  often praised the old English freize The  be  costumes immediately d e s c r i b e d  mantle. would  originally  t h o s e o f t h e members o f t h e n o b i l i t y . However, a s h a s  b e e n i n d i c a t e d , b e t w e e n t h e yea* s, became t h e d r e s s  1590-1620, s u c h  attire  o f the wealthy c i t i z e n s while t h e t r a d i -  t i o n a l c l o t h i n g t h a t r e f l e c t e d c l a s s d i v i s i o n s was r e t a i n e d o n l y Hp. t h e c o n s e r v a t i v e s and  o r b y t h e members o f t h e p o o r  l o w e r c l a s s e s . F o r example, women who d i d n o t h a v e  enough meney t o f o l l o w c h a n g i n g f a s h i o n s manner t h a t h a d b e e n e u s t o r m a r y  dressed  for citizens*  i n the  wives i n  f o r m e r r e i g n s . T h e y wore gowns o f h e a v y m a t e r i a l , woven i n o n e c o l o r , e i t h e r b l u e wnite c o l l a r s  usually  o r brown, smetim.es w i t h  i n t h e s t y l e o f t h e f a l l i n g band.  Their  b o d i c e s ended i n t h e n o r m a l w a i s t l i n e and were j o i n e d t o slightly  gatered  SKirts.  ^he s l e e v e s were o n l y  full  <  enough  169 to  allow  comfortable  had wooden weather. women  Over  wore The  a  a  in  the  or  of  to  which  white  lower  classes  ways  with  a  were  f u l l  trousers,  nether  stocks.  Over  this  f e l t ,  long  cloak.  unornamented Throughout  man or  should two  buff  as  a  j e r k i n  justices wore  times  to  loose  gown,  of  the  clothing  signify  that  t h e i r  today  I t  has  been  noted  apprentices  also  was  not  retained  a  in  and had  f l a t  fur,  l i k e  that  plain  dark  they of  They  the  colored the  sombre  old  dark  that  was  important  kept  one The  Falstaff  i s  introduced Similarly,  members in  consisted  much  in  above.  developed I t  every  soldier.  Puritan  very  who  jewels.  the  been  of  placed  buff-jerkin".  l i k e  of  the  medieval of  the  a  long  college  cap.  previously  supposed every  dressed.  mentioned  functions.  these  coif.  class  iruThe  the  peace,  of  sometimes wet  dressed,  tradition  his  in  plainly  or  these  wear  in  trimmed with and  to  arfllOath  of  was  this  than  the  kinsman, gander,  guilds  gown  other  remained  buff  period  according  instances  "my  the  dress  j e r k i n  wears  the  feet  citizens  were  feathers  and  the  and  hats  the  or  and  clothing  Their  with  cap  c o l l a r  slightly  black  plainly  a!sd  simple  were  protect was  women,  fashioned  Shoes  f i t t i n g  the  the old  doublet  clogs  hair,  tight  men  believed wore  pattens  movement.  to  that  the  be u n i f o r m  instance.  The  wear but  revolt  of  the  that of  the  i t  1 6 5  y o u n g  w o r k m e n  d i s c u s s e d  a n d  M a n y  n e e d  t h a t  i n  s t e a d i l y  a f r a i d  T h e y  p a s t  n o t  a d h e r e n c e  o f  t o  t h e  i  d e a l t  t  s  w i t h  s e c u r i t y .  H a r r i s o n ' s  s o c i a l  b e l i e v e d  n  b y  t o  t h e  b e  f o u n d  w e r e  e l o t h i n g .  t h e m  i m p l i e d  w i s t f u l l y . t o  a n c l i t s  u n i f o r m i t y  o n  o f  a r o u n d  l o o k e d  c o m m e n t s  a g a i n .  w a s  s t y l e s  s y s t e m  t h a t  b e e n  i n s t a n c e s . T h e y  m e d l e y  a n i l ' t h e y  o r d e r l y  T h e y  i  h a s  d i s t r e s s e d  c o s t u m e  o f  d i v e r s i t y  s h o e s  S r d e t a i l  w e r e  n u m b e r  r i d i c u l o u s  c l o t h i n g .  b l a c k  t r a d i t i o n a l  d i s i n t e g r a t i o n ,  w i t h  a n d  E n g l i s h m e n  g r o w i n g  t h a t  c a p s  b e  d e c r e a s i n g  t h e  f e l t  s o c i a l  f l a t  E l i z a b e t h a n  f a c t  a  a g a i n s t  t h e  t h e  s t a n d a r d i z e d  w a s  a  s i g n  e l o t h i n g  o f  o f  E l i z a 1  b e t h ' s  t i m e  <  i l l u s t r a t e  A n  o f  E n g l i s h m a n ,  o u r  a t t i r e ,  s u p p o s i n g w h e r e o n e n d  b y t o  ( l i k e  s o m e  h a n d ,  h e  s h e a r s o t h e r s u c h  o f i  n  a  n a k e d  o n e  t o t h e  e n d  k i n d  o f  t o g e t h e r ,  a n d  o f  t h i s  h i s  w o r k  u n t o  a n d  p i e c e  s h o u l d  s h a p e  l i k e d ,  t h a t h e  c o u l d  c a l l e d  w r i t e  h i s  d i s c o u r s e .  h a d  h e o f  i  a  c l o t h  i  a  p a i r n  h e  p l e a s e  a f t e r  e o u l d  h i m  o f  t h e  a p p a r e l  s i t h  t h e  s a w * n  d r e w  g a v e  h i s  he;,  t a k e n  ansHonly  a n  p u r p o s e , g r o u n d  B u t . i n  e x e r c i s e )  w h o m  a  t o  f o r  s t e a d f a s t  h e  m a n  c n s e r v a t i v e s :  s o m e t i m e  w i t h o u t  o f  h i m s e l f  g a r m e n t  s u c h  f i n d  t r a v a i l ,  h e  a s  t o  h i s  h a n d ,  f a s h i o n  s u m l o n g  p i e c e  o v e r  o f  p l a t f o r m s  t h e m  t h e  o r a t o r  g a v e  p i c t u r e  s u n d r y  o f  b u i l d a n  t h o u g h t  e n d e a v o r i n g  m a d e  a ' . d i f f i c u l t  w h a t  n o  t h e  f i n d  a n y  w h i l e  E n g l i s h m a n . . . .  2 . .  . N e i t h e r  t h a n  w h e n  w a s a n  o w n ' " ? c l o t h , h i s  f i n e  g o w n , s o m e  1  a r e  o f  H a r r i s o n ' s  h o s e n  I b i d .  m e r r i e r  w i t h o u t i  n  w a s  t h e s e  w i t h  k n o w n  h i m s e l f a  m e a n  b r o w n ,  a n d  b l u e  t a w n y ,  o f  v e l v e t  o r  b l a c k  s u c h d a y s ,  D e s c r i p t i o n  p p . 1 6 7 - 1 6 8 .  2  o f  f u r n i t u r e s a d  s i l k , w o r n  e v e r  c o n t e n t e d  c l o a k  p r e t t y  c o m e l y a s  a  t  E n g l i s h m a n  a n d  c a r s e y  a n d  d o u b l e t  i  o f  c u t s a n d  a b r o a d a t  s l o p ;  o r  f u r  .  h i s  w i t h c o a t < $ w i t h  a n d o r  g a r i s h  n e v e r  E n g l a n d  h i s  p u k e ,  v e l v e t , a n d  b y  h o m e  o r  "~  p . 1 7 1 - 1 7 2 .  E n g l a n d  a o t h e r c o l o u r s  b r o u g h t  B o o k  i  n  b u t  l l . c a p . v i i . '  166 by the consent o f the French, who t h i n k themselves the gapst men wnen they have tney most d i v e r s i t i e s o f j a g s , and change o f c o l o u r s . C e r t e s o f a l l e s t a t e s our merchants do l e a s t a l t e r t h e i r a t t i c e and, t h e r e f o r e , are most t o be commended, f o r a l b e i t t h a £ which they wear be very f i n e and c o s t l y , y e t i n form and c o l o u r i t r e p r e s e n t e d a g r e a t p i e c e o f a n c i e n t g r a v i t y a p p e r t a i n i n g t o c i t i z e n s and burgesses, a l b e i t the^grunger s o r t o f t h e i r wives, b o t h i n a t t i r e and c o s t l y housekeeping, cannot t w l l when and where t o make an end, as b e i n g women indeed i n whom a l l k i n d o f c u r i o s i t y i s t o be found and seen, andin f a r g r e a t e r measure than i n women o f h i g h c a l l i n g . By 1590 t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t s t a n d a r d i z e d  dress,  lamented by H a r r i s o n some tv/enty y e a r s e a r l i e r , h a d extended t o every rank o f s o c i e t y i n which some amount o f wealth enabled men and women t o f o l l o w c u r r e n t f a s h i o n s . A t the same time, adverse c r i t i c i s m o f f a r t h i n g a l e s and hoods spread from t r e a t i s e s , such as The D e s c r i p t i o n Q f England , t o conduct books and t o plays. R i d i c u l e o f new f a s h i o n s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y v i o l e n t i n t h e drama. Consequently, the p l a y s o f t h e p e r i o d f u r n i s h examples n o t o n l y o f h ;  the c l o t h i n g o f each c l a s s b u t a l s o o f t h e changes w i t h i n each group and o f t h e v a r i e d . r e a c t i o n s t o t h e new s t y l e s . I  s h a l l now g i v e i n c i d e n t s from the drama t o i l l u s t r a t e  the g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n o f d r e s s s e t f o r t h i n the p r e v i o u s pages. The  f i r s t group t h a t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n t h e l i g h t  o f t h e t h e evidence  found i n t k h e p l a y s w i l l be oomposed  o f young s e r v i n g men, o f a p p r e n t i c e s , journeymen, and !,u  lew y o u n g  o r  m a s t e r s ,  o t h e r ,  c h o i c e  s u c h  I n  w e r e  h a s  h  e  w o u l d  m e n  s e c o n d  b e  t  h  e  i n  t h e i r  i  h  s  g o i n g  e l l s  n  t h e  o  f  t  i  n  o  m i d d l e  o  n  s o m e  f a s h i o n .  t h e  T h i s  f i r s t  n e w  p l a c e ,  c u s t o m s .  c h a n g i n g  o  a  p o s i t i o n  t  r e f l e c t  i  n  e c o n o m i c  e o n s t a n f e  i  o  n  t h e y  f  b e  c l a s s  r e a s o n  o c c u p a t i o n s ,  c e n t r e  a n d  r  f o l l o w  b y  w o u l d  w e a l t h y  I  t h e i r  t h e  t h e y  f  l a t e s t  r e a s o n s .  f o r c i b l y  b e  t h e  e x a m p l e  i  a n d  h  c o m e s  n  a  o  f  t h e  t h e i r  G e r v a s e  t o  d r e s s  d  w o r n  a n  n  t h e  a n d  o ^ r a n g e  l a t e s t  t a w n y  Q u o q u e .  b l u e  m a r k s  t  o  t h e  h  i  t  h  e  b u y i n g  t  o  s e e  c h a n g e  c l o t h i n g  v e l v e t  a n d  s  f  a  l  a n d  o  f  h  t h e e e  h a d  i  s  a n d  c h a n g e s  n e w  p o s i t i o n  h e  n i n e  a  l  B u b b l e  m e r c e r ' s .  f a s h i o n  t a f f a t a ,  o  l i v e r y  i n h e r i t a n c e  H e  c o l o r e d  T u  t h e  i m m e d i a t e l y  i  i n t e r a c t i o n  G r e e n e ' s  i n t o  o f r h o r s e f l e s h  s a t i n  t w o  b e c a u s e  s m a s t e r , G e r v a s e .  s e n d i n g  i  w h o ,  e x p e c t e d  m o s t  f  B u b b l e  h e  i  r  b e  b e c o m i n g  b e s t  fchen  w i t h  o  T h e r e f o r e ,  s e r v i n g n a n  B u t  d r e s s  w o u l d  o  t h o s e  s p e e c h .  T h e  a  m i g h t  p o s i t i o n  f o r c e s  o  f  p l a c e ,  m a s t e r s  i n  m a d e  T h e y  s e l l i n g .  t h e i r  t  i n f l u e n c e d  c o n d i t i o n s .  a n d  a b l e  b e e n  y o u n g  t  p a r t i c u l a r l y  A s  f i n e  c l a s s .  p l a c e s  b y  h e  o r d e r s  y a r d s  b e e n  i  s  n o w  s e v e n  o  f  b e a v e r  y e l l o w  m e l a n c h o l y  1  h a t .  S p e n d a l ,  s i m i l a r  u n i f o r m  I  t h e  j o u r n e y m a n ,  u n e x p e c t e d  ?  f a s h i o n .  G r e e n e ' s  T u  g o o d  f o r t u n e  H o w e v e r ,  Q u o q u e .  L e t h e ,  a n d  S l i p p e r  a n d r r e a c t  a l t h o u g h  S p e n d a l  p p . 1 8 9 . 2 0 9 .  i  n  h a v e  f a i r l y  f u r n i s h e s  a n  168 example o f e x t r a v a g a n c e i n h i s d i c i n g  and d r i n k i n g ,  i n h i s c l o t h i n g h e r e m a i n s c o n s e r v a t i v e . He r e t a i n s t h e w e a r o f t h e c i t i z e n . .Staines, w i t h whom h e q u a r r e l s ,  says  contemptuously t h a t Spendal d r e s s e s l i k e a c i t i z e n d e s p i t e 1 h i s wealth. B u t L e t h e , whose f a t h e r was a t o o t h , - d r a w e r , marks h i s r i s e done.  from one c l a s s t o a n o t h e r a s B u b b l e h a d  He e x c h a n g e s 2  white s a t i n .  h i s s u i t o f k e r s e y green f o r one o f  Similarly,  Slipper,  t h e s e r v a n t i n James I V ,  q u i c k l y f o r g e t s t h e o b l i g a t i o n s and t h e c l o t h i n g o f h i s f o r m e r p o s i t i o n and u s e s t h e money h e o b t a i n e d by s t e a l i n g t o h a v e a f i n e d o u b l e t made o f m a t e r i a l t h a t c o s t  3  groats a yard.  T h e d o u b l e t i s t o be o r n a m e n t e d b y b e i n g  c u t l i k e b a t t l e m e n t s o f c u s t a r d and edged Slue.  Furthermore,  withCoventry  S l i p p e r d e s i r e s t o have shoesooT  c a l f l e a t h e r a n d t o wear a e w o r d a n d d a g g e r sake.  five  I t ahs been seen t h a t Q u i c k s i l v e r  fine  f o r fashion's  shows h i s d i s t a s t e  t o r t r a d i t i o n a l c l o t h i n g i n s i m i l a r f a s h i o n . He a l s o a sword.  carries  a l l servingmen  Not  and a p p r e n t i c e s i n t h e p l a y s  w e r e e x t r a v a g a n t o r d e s i r e d t o f o l l o w new f a s h i o n s . Some o f them condemned " n e w f a n g l e d n e s s "  -  Q  2  Michaelmas  r  e  e  n  e  t  s  -Q  U O q u e t  <  223l  Term. I l l , i . 3 0 .  3c'.James I V . IV, i i i , 4  p  as s t r o n g l y as  1745-1820.  E a s t w a r d Ho, l , i , ( s t a g e  directions)  lfcft Harrison.  The  s e r v i n g man,  i n A Yorkshire  Oliver,  T r a g e d y v o i c e s t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e members o f group.  To h i m  the  fellow  servant,  o f the  wickedness of t h e  extraordinary clothing that h i s  Sam,  has  as g o o d p o k i n g - d t i c k s  1  the  this  b r o u g h t from London i s p r o o f city.  He  says,  i n the country  "have we  as n e e d be  not  put  fire?" The  next  g r o u p t o be  oonsideeed  i s t h a t made  up  o f wealthy merchants. In the p l a y s t h a t d e a l with exampleS'of m o d e r a t i o n and  o f extravagance i n dress  be  already noted  found  their  s i m i l a r to those  servants.  o r Q u i c k s i l v e r had man.  He  He  spent  enough money t o  t h e y o u n g man,  family business  He  of  as e i t h e r B u b b l e was  such  wealthy c l a s s . H i s  dress  had  i n the  latest  i n h i s absence. Young F l o w e r d a l e ,  had  an  a father  s u p p l i e d h i s «onc  i n r e t u r n , t o c a r r y on  litfc&e o f h i s t i m e i n t r a d e  on c l o t h e s .  may  i n the case  d o n e . Young F l o w e r d a l e  b e e n a h a r d w o r k i n g m e r c h a n t and  expected  1  assiduously  i s a member o f t h e new  w i t h more t h a n  them  Some o f the^men-among—the m e r c h a n t  r a n k s f o l l o w e d f a s h i o n as  had  in  arofemaeh o f  his  exaggerated i d e a o f the  fashion. the however, allowance  importance  jA Y o r k s h i r e T r a g e d y . i , i , p . 4 2 7 . Sam d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f : ^You s e e I am h a n g e d a f t e r t h e t r u e s t f a s h i o n ; t h r e e h a t s and two g l a s s e s b o b b i n g u p o n them; two r e b a t o w i r e s u p o n my b r e a s t , a c a p c a s e b y my s i d e , a b r u s h a t my b a c k an a l m a n a c k i n my p o c k e t and t h r e e b a l l a d s i n my codpiece. Nay I am a t r u e p i c t u r e o f a common s e w i n g man."  170 o f h i s a p p e a r a n c e . F o r i n s t a n c e , he because t h e l a t t e r had  curses h i s  tailor  a s u i t o f peach c o l o u r e d 1 s a t i n c u t upon c l o t h o f s i l v e r . In Old Fortunatus there  is  spoilt  a r e f e r e n c e t o t h e M a t e r i a l t h a t w e a l t h y y o u n g men  Flowerda\le  w o u l d buy 2  l a t e s t mode.  when t h e y w a n t e d t o a p p e a r i n  From o t h e r p l a y s we  only/the y o u n g c i t i z e n s o f w e a l t h to the  f a s c i n a t i o n of dLoth  and m o d e r a t e C a n d i d o His r i c h  not  p o s t i o n whossuccumbed  of silver.  i s swayed by  the  l e a r n t h a t i t was and  like  E v e n t h e corc^ •PWnt  a desire for fine clothes.  a p p a r e l i s d e s c r i b e d when h i s s e r v a n t ,  Roger, 3 '  puts  i t on  at the  i n s t i g a t i o n s of Candido's wife,  Viola.  T h e r e w e r e , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , many e s t a b l i s h e d c i t i z e n s who  d i d not  f a v o r gaudy c l o t h i n g  to  the  is  adamant i n h i s r e f u s a l t o  o l d customs i n d r e s s . P r a t e , the  novelty  inattire.  household clothes,  who  lawyer,  kept  for  acknowledge t h e charm  had  exanple, of  condemned e x t r a v a g a n c e  in  management, f r o w n s e q u a l l y on o s t e n t a t i o n i n d e s p i t e h i s w i f e ' s c o n s t a n t demands t n a t 4  keep pace w i t h in this  He,  and who  fashion i n both matters.  a t t i t u d e . When he was  both unfortunate  and  1  The  2  Old Fortunatus.  3 4  The The  P r a t e was  f o r c e d , through  ludricrous,  he not  alone  circumstances  t o wear a p p a r e l  richer  London P r o d i g a l , l , i i , p . 3 7 5 . c f . l . i . p . 3 7 3 . l , i i , 135-140.  H o n e s t Whore, P a r t 1, 111,1,pp.141-142. Dumb K n i g h t . I , i , p l 2 5 .  than t h a t c u s t o m a r i l y found c l a s s , he i s reprimanded feels tnat the latest  among t h e members o f h i s  f o r doing  so b y t h e K i n g ,  who  f a s h i o n d o e s n o t become t h e c i t i z e n .  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e sober c l o t h i n g f a v o r e d by both and  t h e S e n a t e i s g i v e n b y t h e f u r i o u s Duke A l p h o n s o  #ust as u n w i l l i n g l y , h a s t o wear t h e l a w y e r ' s The  city  who, 2  garb.  a t t i t u d e o f D o w n r i g h t i n E v e r y Man i n H i s Humour  supports is  Prate  t h e one t h a t P r a t e t a k e s t o c l o t h i n g .  extremely  Downright  c o n s e r v a t i v e i n h i s d r e s s . He w e a r s a l o n g  c l o a k o f sober r u s s e t c o l o r  and h a s i t l i n e d , n o t w i t h  a b r i g h t c o n t r a s t i n g shade a s t h e f a s h i o n o f t h e d a y  3 demanded, b u t w i t h  a similar dull russet.  Two e x a m p l e s w i l l b e s u f f i c i e n t t o show t h a t c l o t h e s consciousness far  such-aas h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d e x t e n d e d  as t h e unemployed s o l d i e r s  o f the c i t y .  as  and the i n d i g e n t g a l l a n t s  Captain Puff w i l l  serve as the prototype  o f t h e S o l d i e r who i s d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s b u f f  jerkin.  He h o p e s t h a t m a r r i a g e  enable  him  with a wealthy  widow w i l l  t o buy t h r e e c l o a k s each l i n e d w i t h 4  a s w e l l a s a new s u i t .  a different  W i l l i a m Smallshankd  t a t i v e o f the o t h e r group, i s the t y p i c a l He b o a s t s 1  The Dumb K n i g h t .  2  I b i d . , I V , i,pp.182-183,  3  E v e r y Man i n H i s Humour, I V , v i i i , 7 4 - 7 6 ,  4  Ram A l l e y ,  5  IV,i,p.199.  Ibid.,Ill,i,p.340.  the represen-  swaggering  t o t h e Widow t h a t h e i s a c o m p l e t e  lll,i,p,314,  color,  gallant,  bravo. 5  172: However,-Widow T a f f e t a i s u n i m p r e s s e d b y t h i s tfaunfe f o r she h a s s e e n and j u d g e d many s u c h men o n t h e s t r e e t s o f London.She c o n t e m p t u o u s l y gallant  informs Smallshanks that  a fine  i s a " f e l l o w w i t h h i s h a t tucked up behind,  h i s neck  a standing c o l l a r  who w e a r s a d i r t y p r a t e s by r o t e a complete  shirt,  about  t o k e e p h i s n e c k feand c l e a n ,  a f e l l o w t h a t h a s no i n s i d e s b u t  a s do p l a y i E S a n d s p a r r o w s .  In her definition  g a l l a n t was f o r m e d b y a m e r c e r , made b y a t a i l o r 1  and g i v e n spir'it-tey-- a  plasFeasr-^^e^itese^ptlon-'-eould  be  i l l u s t r a t e d b y many s u c h men i n t h e p l a y s . When we t u r n f r o m t h e s o l d i e r  and t h e g a l l a n t t o  c o n s i d e r t h e d r e s s o f t h e women i n t h e drama, i t w i l l be  seen t h a t n o t a l l t h e feminine c h a r a c t e r s , i n  judgement o f t h e importance  o f clothing, display the  common s e n s e o f t h e Widow T a f f a t a . concern with d r e s s , steadily  increased.  their  lamented  Their excessive  as e a r l y  as H a r r i s o n ' s day  T h e p l a ^ s f u r n i s h more t h a n  illustrations of this interest  a n d g i v e many  adequate  descriptions  o f t h e f a n t a s t i c . d r e s s f a v o r e d b y t h e women o f t h e t i m e . In order that the d i s c u s s i o n o f feminine c l o t h i n g may be e a s i l y groups  f o l l o w e d , t h e woramn w i l l be d i v i d e d  s i m i l a r t o those already used i n g i v i n g  o f t h e d r e s s o f t h e men i n t h e drama. T h u s , wives i  a n d d a u j & e r s w i l l p r e c e d e She Ram  AlX|£7 111,1,p.340".  into  examples  the citizens'  c o u r t e z a n s and s e r v a n t s ; :  }7«3  and, whenever possible, both sides'of the picture w i l l be given. Moderation and extravagance w i l l again be contrasted. The Shoemakers' Holiday, that has provided a s t a r t i n g point many times i n the course of t h i s essay w i l l give us our f i r s t example of a c i t i z e n ' s wife.  Margery Eyre,  the p r i n c i p a l female character i n t h i s play, w i l l most suitably introduce t h i s group, because she stands midway between the o l d and the new, between the preaching of t h r i f t and the growth of extravagance.  For instance,  she cautions her husband i n h i s tise of time aniimoney; yet, although she works i n the shop, she cannot help being swept o f f her feet by Simon' honours.  She feels that her p o s i t i o n  as EheriffJ'Sfwife c a l l s f o r the purchase of a farthingale 1 and a French hood.  But from the excitement that she  shows when she thinks that she i s now able to buy such a r t i c l e s of dress, i t can be assumed that,up to the time of Simon's appointment as S h e r i f f , Margery had worn the standard costume of a c i t i z e n ' s - w i f e , a sober dress with a s l i g h t l y gathereda s k i r t and a t i g h t f i t t i n g l i n e n coi«, Margery, coming as she does at the beginning of the period of most marked merchant expansion, i s moderate i n her demands.  Gertrude and her mother, who  apjaear i n a play  written l a t e r than The Shoemkers' Holiday, show no such r e s t r a i n t . By t h e i r time merchant wealth was taken f o r I  The Shoemakers' Holiday, l l l . l v . 43-46.  g r a n t e d  a n d  t  h  f a r t h i n g a l e s  G e r . h e  c i t i z e n s '  a n 3 f i n e  I a  e  t  e  l  l  l a d y :  w i t h  a  w i t h  t w o  h o o d s  y o u  d o  I  y o u  l o n d o n  a  humoKS o n l y  o  a  t  f  t  a n  s c a r l e t g o w n  a n d  c o i f  h  c l e a n p u r e  s m o c k  a  r  e  a  t  Sftie  h  e  iB  h  i  b e  l  l  u  g  b e  e  b o r n e  t a f f a t a  l a d y ,  I  c a n n o t  i  n  T h e  t y p e  o  f  L o n d o n  v e r y  h a p p y  h  t  P r o d i g a l  e  r  h  e  I  m u s t  a  s o m e  t  c h e r r i e s r i c h  t o l e r a b l e ]  o  f  B  u  !  t  g r o g r a m  t h r e e  p o u n d s  t s p u r  a  m i n c i n g  p e t t i d o a t s  l i f e , i  :  d y e  d u r a n c e  m y  e n d u r e  w o m a n  w h e n  a  w i t h a l j  L o n d o n  e o  v e l v e t ,  p i p k i n s ,  * m s t  :.- Z<:-:-:^ii  l i k e  o t  s m o c k s  b o d k i n s - G o d ' s  I  p e t t i d o a t  I  t  l i n e  w i t h  ,  l a c e .  g o o d X  l o  t h e i r  t  w i t h  l a d y .  w e l l :  p o u n d ,  h  g o w n  v e l v e t a  d a m e s  a  p A e t t y l o  h  i  -\1.-v.".  s t a m m e l  b u f f i n t  C i t y  r  o  e  a n d  l i n e n ,  s i l v e r  F r a n k ,  o f  t  t  n i c e r i e s ,  b e  e  a n g e l  b l a c k ,  T h e i r  a n d  h  w  y o u r  e x p e n s i v e  p e r o g a t i v e s :  e n d u r e  t  I  t h e i r  c a n n o t  l i c k e t ,  g u a r d s ,  l a d y ,  a s  r e g a r d e d  w e a r y p u r  t u f t - t a f f e t y < e a p e , b e  w i v e s  a s  SMLLI  I  . . . .  i  s  a n o t h e r  e x e m p l i f i e d  h u s b a n d ,  b y  e x a m p l e  G e r t r u d e .  C i v i t ,  p r o m i s e s  t  o  2 d r e s s  S h e  h  e  r  a s  e x p e e t s  g a l e s  a n d  c i t i z e n ' s  o  a n y  h a v e  j e w e l s .  h a i r  i  a s  D u t c h  a  n  t  a. r i c h  t  h  a c c e p t e d  e  S h e  l a t e s t  m a i d  o n l y  n u m b e r  a L s o  a p p l i e s  t  o  f  o  W h e n  t h a t  b e  d r e s s e d .  h o o d s ,  s h e  m u s t  f  p o s i t i o n ,  r a  b e l i e v e s  L u c e  t  i  h  c  e  a  r  w e a r  i  o  n  f a r t h i n -  L u c e ,  F r a n k  F r a n k  s h o u l d  F r e n c h  t h i n k s  f a s h i o n .  b e c a u s e  w i f e  h  e  r  d i s g u i s e  n d  r  s h e  e  s  s  i  s  h a i r  3  w i t h  g r e a t  s k i l l .  i s  e q u a l l y  a n  e s p e c i a l l y  1 2  3  c o n c e r n e d  I  b  i  .  ,  l  l  H o .  L o n d o n  d  w i t h  l  l  i t  t  w  i  i  i  ,  p  .  3  e  i  g  w i f e  9  0  l  .  T  i  n  c l o t h i n g .  T h e  S h e  D u m b  K n i g h t ,  d e s i r e s  .  ~  - 1 7 - 5 4 .  f  P r o d i g a l .  ,  h  f i n e  e x t r a v a g a n t  E a s t w a r d  T h e  L o l l i a ,  T  p  .  a  a  s  f  17F  L o l l i a . The t i r e p t h e t i r e , made eastle upon eastle, jewel upon Jewell, knot upon knot: crowns, garlands, gardings, and what not, the hood, the rebato, the French f a l l , the loose bodied gown, the p i n i n the h a i r . 1 The courtezans, i f possible, were even more concerned with lace and cambric than were the L o l l i a s and Franks o f the c i t y .  Frances, the country wench, and B e l i e front, w i l l  furnish representative of t h i s c l a s s . The country wench had quickly learned the fashions aodimanners of the town. She could swoon as g r a c e f u l l y as any ladyand she knew that her head t i r e must be arranged by an expensive hairdresser. She forces Lethe to provide a hairdresser and fine c l o t h i n g f o r her.  Thro at,who intends to marry  ^ r a n c i s j i s b e d e v i l l e d by her extravagance as was Lethe by that of the country wench. On one occasion he has "to ^awtS h i s books to buy a velvet j e r k i n and a double 3 r u f f f o r h i s lady.  Although B e l l a f r o n t «s c l o t h i n g cannot  be i n f e r r e d from similar demands made upon the men  who  attend her, f o r she makes nonej yet cerain d e t a i l s o f ;  her dress can be gathered from the scenes of The  Honest  Whore. She i s seen mending her white s i l k stockings and adjusting her r u f f with a poking s t i c k . A l a t e r scene show® her dressed i n a loose gown and a f e l t hat. The women who l i v e d , thus, oh the border of society were forced to dress w e l l . Their clothes were , i n a sense, 1 The Dumb Knight. i . i . t r a i 2 i - i ? 9 , — ' T  2 ' 3 4  Michaelmas Term. 111,1,1-32. Ram Alfe v.  lll,i,p.334.  The Honest Whore, Part 1, 11, i , pp. 117-119.; l l l , i i , p . i 4 2 P  176 p a r t o f t h e i r t r a d e . However, t h e r e were o t h e r men a n d women among t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s o f t h e c i t y who d i d n o t c a r e a b o u t f i n e c l o t h e s a n d who c a n n o t b e r e a d i l y g r o u p e d any  f o r m a l h e a d i n g . Among t h e s e  under  would be t h e u n t r a i n e d  workman, t h e " r u d e m e c h a n i c " , who wore homespun a n d who was  f r e q u e n t l y t o o p o o r t o p u t more money u p o n h i s b a c k  t h a n was a b s o l u t e l y n e c e s s a r y . found i n t h e p l a y s  Little  information  c a n be  about h i s d r e s s . T h e r e i s l e s s o n t h a t  o f t h e k e e p e r s o f ..taverns a n d o f i n n s , a l t h o u g h  "  i ti s  known t h a t M i s t r e s s Q u i c k l y r e s e n t s F a l s t a f f ' s i m p l i c a t i o n that-she  c o u l d n o t d i s t i n g u i s h between s h i r t s o f f i l t h y  dowlas and those outcasts  of fine  linen.  L a s t l y , among t h e s o c i a l  a n d t h e e x t r e m e l y p o o r , come t h e m o u n t e b a n k s ,  c l o w n s a n d o t h e r c h a r l a t a n s whose c l o t h i n g l i k e the c o u r t e z a n s , w a s paUt o f t h e i r to  them o c c u r  i n the plays  that o f  t r a d e . Few r e f e r e n c e s .  except t h e e x c e l l e n t d e s c r i p t i o n  1 o f tbemountebank g i v e n Before  jniVolpone.  the subject o f c l o t h i n g i sdismissed  some s p a c e must b e g i v e n  completely  to a consideration o f accessories,  o f p r e c i o u s agones and o f f e a t h e r s , fe r o r n a m e n t s ,  such as  necklaces  a n d f a n s , were r e g a r d e d  part o f  costume.  Jewels,  a s an important  e s p e c i a l l y , were p u t t o many use's. Two  m e t h o d s o f e m p l o y i n g them a s o r n a m e n t s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n mentioned. I t h a s been s a i d t h a t t h e d u b l e t s men  a n d women w e r e f r e q u e n t l y  chains favored  and n e c k l a c e s  sews w i t h  were worn b y b o t h  extremely elaborate chains  o f both  p e a r l s and t h a t s e x e s . Women  o r necklaces  and a l s o  177 l i k e d t o w i n d p e a r l s i n t h e i r h a i r . Men p e r f e r r e d t h e one  fine jewel  s u s p e n d e d o n a c h a i n . Anong t h e members  o f t h e g u i l d s a s i n g l e heavy g o l d c h a i n , by  s u c h a s t h a t worn  C a n d i d o , m i g h t be u s e d k7oth f o r ornament and a s a  symbol o f a u t h o r i t y . S t e p h e n , however, p r e f e r s h i s r i n g with  a p o s y t o a c h a i n . He f e e l s t h a t t h e p o s y  demonstrates  2 his' literary precious  taste.  stones  The Hog and t h e Jew o f M a l t a  although  a l s o havec  i t i s h a t known what t h e y  They a r e e v i d e n t l y o f g r e a t v a l u e  f o r much  are .  disturbance  3 r e s u l t s when t h e y a r e l o d f c . Pandolfo, another merchant, f i n d s h i s j e w e l s o f u s e t o f u l f i l t h e demans o f t h e s o r c e r e r , 4  Albumazar.. I t i s known t h a t , i n many c a s e s ,  another  type  o f o r n a m e n t f a v o r e d b y t h e men, t h e e a r jewel» was o f t e n of  as much  s d f i v i d e t o t h e owner as was P a n d o l f o s l a r g e !  s t o r e t o h i m . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n may be drawn f r o m t h e l a r g e number o f r e f e r e n c e s  i n theplays  to the panning o f the  e a r j e w e l . F<fcr i n s t a n c e , M a t t h e w i n E v e r y Man i n H i s Humour pawns h i s a t o n c e when he f a l l s i n t o d e b t and n e e d s r e a d y 5 money. easily  Perhaps the f a c t  t h a t i t c o u l d be d i s p o s e d o f  l e dto the popularity o f the ear jewel.  Fine  f e a t h e r s were a l s o r e g a r d e d  Elizabethans  andwere  as l u x u r i e s by t h e  a l m o s t as h i g h l y v a l u e d  a s were j e w e l s .  1  The H o n e s t Whore, P a r t 1. 1 1 1 . i i . p . 1 4 2 .  2  Every  3  c f . The Hog H a s L o s t H i s P e a r l . V , p.492.  4  Albumaanr. I l l , i i , p . 3 3 9 .  5  Every  Man i n H £ s Humour. 11,ii,40-42.  Man i n H J S Humour.  IV,vii,56-60.  1«8 T h e y were u s e d i n t h e t r i m m i n g o f t h e h a t s and  were made i n t o e l a b o r a t e  fans  o f both  sexes  t h a t t h e women h u n g  from t h e i p a i n t s o f t h e i r d o u b l e t s . The d e s c r i p t i o n , i n •The R o a r i n g G i r l ,  o f t h e shop o f t h e T i l t y a r d s shows t h e  i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e f e a t h e r t r a d e . The I n d u c t i o n  o f The  Malcontent c o n t a i n s a n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g r e f e r e n c e t o feathers, I n t h i s prologue'the players •  s t a g e and d i s c u s s t h e v a l u e  2  s i t on t h e s a t  o f f e a t h e r s i n completing  one's  costume. Both e v e r y d a y o a t t i c l e s o f c l o t h i n g and expensive adcesories  were o f t e n g i v e n  J e w e l s and f a n s popular he  as g i f t s by the c i t i z e n s .  such as t h o s e d e s c r i b e d  f o r t h i s purpose. F o r instance,  atiove were e s p e c i a l l y Flowerdale,  while  i s wooing Luce,  of f i n e jewels  says t h a t he w i l l have a c a r e a n e t 3 made f o r h e r . F r a n k , l a t e r i n t h e same p l a y , 4  o f f e r s Luce h e r f a n as a g i f t . U n f o r t u n a t e l y her  g i v i n g by adding t h a t  she s p o i l s  she e x p e c t s h e r h u s b a n d ,  Civit  1 The R o a r i n g G i r l . p p . 1 5 4 - 1 5 5 . 2 The M a l c o n t e n t , I n d u c t i o n . P P . a - 5 . T h i s scene i s i n t e r e s t i n g not only f o r the reference t o feathers but also f o r the f a c t t n a t one o f t h e p l a y e r s i n i t h a s come f r o m d i n n e r a t t h e h o u s e o f h i s c o u s i n , t h e d r a p e r . S u c h an i n c i d e n t i l l u s t r a t e s t h e c l o s e c o n n e c t i o n t h a t e x i s t e d among many o f t h e c l a s s e s in E l i z a b e t h ' s d a y . The p l a y e r who i s r e l a t e d t o t h e m e r c h a n t d i s c u s s e s me? eh an t i l e a c t i v i t y . I n t h i s way t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e p l a y e r , o f t h e d r a p e * : 'and o f t h e f e a t h e r ? . ^ k a n t a r e l i n k e d a t one moment o n t h e s t a g e o f t h e t h e a t r e . e  3 4  -o  The London P r o d i g a l . Ibid;,V,i,p.395.  11,i,p.375.  to  supply her with  with  a fine  says, " I ' l l  another.  s  j e w e l l e d handle D u  y  thee  Further g i f t s  a new  of jewels  he  i n the  one  and  w a n t s t h e new latest  with  made  fashion. C i v i t 2  a longer  f a n s , such  one  handle."  as t h o s e o f f e r e d  t o t h e Widow T a f f a t a , h a v e b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n p r e v i o u s sections of this Gloves, among t h e well  essay  aniineed n o t be  shoes, h a n d k e r c h i e f s ,  other  as g i f t s .  e f f e c t i v e use  articles  discussed  again.  e v e n c l o a k s , were  of c l o t h i n g that served equally  I n T h e Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , i s made o f t h e g i f t  one  very  of a pair of  shoes.  When Ral£$x l e a v e s t o go  t o t h e w a r s he makes a p a i r 1  of  sheesas a f a i r v / e l l g i f t  to h i s w i f e , ^ane.  care-  fullycut  and  w o r k e d i n an o r i g i n a l d e s i g n  They  are  as t h e  shoes o f  t h e day f r e q u e n t l y w e r e . T h i s i n d i v i d u a l d e s i g n on t h e s h o e s b r i n g s R a l p h and J a n e t o g e t h e r a t t h e e n d o f t h e p l ? y . Lingua,  t h e m a s q u e - l i k e drama o f t h e  five  senses  f o r supremacy, makes an  this  s e c t i o n on c l o t h i n g ,  that  such  although  i t seems a l m o s t this  been c o n s i d e r e d s u i t a b l e  because i t s scenes  and  stage  for this  directions  sum  purpose  up  and  of the gallant showing t h e 1  and  o f the  extravagance  both  o f t h e -tgpical c i t i z e n ' s soldier.  In  11,  wife,  a d d i t i o n to  of the Elizabethans, t h i s  The"Sh"oemakers' H o l i d a y ,  repeat  preceding  pages. For i n s t a n c e , i t c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f foolish c i t i z e n s ,  impossible  function.Lingua,  many o f t h e p o i n t s t h a t h a v e b e e n made i n t h e  w i s e and  the  e x c e l l e n t summary f o r  a formal play could f u l f i l  however, h a s  debate o f  i , 260-270.  play  18Q illustrates middle  once more t h e g r o w i n g i m p o r t a n c e  c l a s s through  o f the  i * s many r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e w e a l t h y  bourgeoisie. Common S e n s e , t h e b e s t o f a l l s e n s e , sense, and It  i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t  t h e sixth'." . 1  o f the characters i n Lingua,  i n t r o d u c e s o t h e r s t h a t c a n be used  f o r our purpose.  i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o s e e t h a t he r e p r e s e n t s t h e i d e a l  c i t i z e n . He w e a r s t h e l o n g b l a c k v e l v e t c a s s o c k flat  v e l v e t c a p #6  the consellor,  and t h e  a n d he r e q u i r e s t h a t  c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n t o a s c a r l e t gown a s t h e symbol o f 1 a u t h o r i t y . He i s g r a v e , Phantastes,  dignified,  and s o b e r l y d r e s s e d ,  o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , may i l l u s t r a t e t h e  c i t i z e n who h a s b e e n c a r r i e d a w a y He a p p e a r s i n a w h i t e v e l v e t hose o f another  by extremes o f f a s h i o n .  satin doublet o f one,fashion, and wears a h a t w i t h  green  a plume o f  2 f e a t h e r s and a S h o r t t a f f a t a c b a k .  One o f h i s s p e e c h e s  g i v e s futher d e t a i l s o f o s t e n t a t i o u s d r e s s , H f a n t a s t i c a l g u l l wearing  a Spanish  is  mentions a  a French d o u b l e t ,  an I t a l i a n cloak, a n d  a Granado s t o c k i n g , a D u t c h s l o p , 3 a Welsh f r i e z e j e r k i n .  felt,  e  T h i s type o f c r i t i c i s m o f c l o t h e s  r e p e a t e d b y P o r t i a when s h e d e s c r i b e s h e r E n g l i e t o s u i t r a r . Mendacio and A p p e t i t i o  a r e n o t 60 i n t e r e s t i n g f o r  our purpose as are Phantastes 1  ifingua,  ll,iii,p,371.  2  Ibid.,  3  I b i d . , I l l , Y., p. 393.  4  The M e r c h a n t o f V e n i c e ,  and T a c t u s , b u t t h e i r \  11,ii,p.367. -  l,ii,32-82.  "  181 costupes  and t i t l e s  throw l i g h t  o n c e r t a i n members o f  *•  t h e L o n d o n p o p u l a t i o n who Mendacio i s d r e s s e d l i k e Appetitio  wore c o n v e n t i o n a l l i v e r y . 1 a page i n a t a f f a t a s u i t .  s u p p l i e s the t r a d i t i o n a l p i c t u r e o f the 2  with h i s leather j e r k i n  soldier  and h i s s w o r d . H i s name i l l u s t r a t e s  t h e E l i z a b e t h a n a t t i t u d e towards unemployed r e t u r n e d soldiers. Towards the  end o f t h e p l a y T a c t u s comes on  s t a g e and g i v e s u s t h e most e n t e r t a i n i n g and complete p i c t u r e o f extravagance o f the p l a y s .  t h e most  i n d r e s s found  in  any  Here again i s the f o o l i s h c i t i z e n ' s  whoohas b e e n s e e n i n G e r t r u d e is described i n detail,  and h e r m o t h e r .  and^the  hundred  as he  o r she w i s h e d  and one  t o be c a n b e  wife  Thedress activities  and o c c u p a t i o n s t h a t must h a v e e x i s t e d t o o u t f i t Elizabethan  the  the  imagined  as t h e w o r d s o f T a c t u s a r e h e a r d o r r e a d . Cactus  knowledge o f d r e s s had been f o r c e d upon  1  and h a s come as a r e s u l t  o f h i s p l a n t o have a boy  a s a " n i e e g e n t l e w o m a n " t o p l e a d h i s e a s e . &e  found  he h a d u n d e r - e s t i m a t e d t h e d i v e r s i t y o f a n i c e attire  and he  i s e x a s p e r a t e d by  h i s complaints maybe o f the time had  t h e y a r e an  and c a r e s p e n t i n d r e s s i n g . He  s t a r t e d a d o z e n m a i d s an h o u r  Lingua,  2  Ibid.,11,i,p.361.  l.ii.o.342.  that  Although indication  states that  ago>to d r e s s t h e b o y  t h a t t h e y were n o t f i n i s h e d y e t , F u r t h e r m o r e , 1  dressed  gentlewoman's  i t s complexity.  exaggerated,  him  he  says  he and that  184  there i s such a "doing with looking glasses, such pinning, unpinning, setting, unsetting, forming and conforming, painting blue veins,and cheeks, such s t i r with s t i c k s and combs and carcanet, dressings, f u r l s ,  falls,  squares, busks, bodies, scarfs, necklaces, rebatos, borders, t i r e s , fans, palisadoes, puffs, r u f f s , c u f f s , muffs, pulses, f u s l e s , p a r t l e t s , f r i s l e t s , bandlets, f i l l e t s , e r o s l e t s , pendulets, amulets, annulets, bracelets, that she i s scarce dressed to the g i r d l e . In exasperation Tactus doncludes that there was such a " c a l l i n g f o r farthingales, k i r t l e s , busk points, shoeties, that seven peddlar's shops, 1  n a j / a l l Sturbridge f a i r , would scarce furnish her."  1  Lingua,  ±V,vi,p.4yb.  183 Religion The  references to  and  contradictory.  concern  religious beliefs At  with religion  first  battles  1590;  and,  i n the  Catholic;  a n d we  seeming l a c k  on  the o t h e r hand, t h a t  We  feel  t h a t men  of  remember  y e a r s b e t w e e n t h e s e two  in  the fought  and  only  women dates  must  claims of Puritan, Anglican,  expect the drama (ifthe time  c o n t a i n many r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e R e f o r m a t i o n Anglican  scattered  not been long established  1620.  thirty  are  s t r a n g e t o u s . We  have o f t e n d i s c u s s e d the r i v a l and  these  o f R o u n d h e a d and C a v a l i e r w e r e t o be  decades a f t e r  living  and  eight this  appears  the R e f o r m a t i o n had  England by  two  and  pla^S d e a l i n g w i t h the London c i t i z e n c o n t a i n  few  that  1 Superstition  and  to  t o c : ::• the  Settlement.  1 For the background i n f o r m a t i o n contained i n c h a p t e r I am i n d e b t e d t o : Craig,  H a r d i n , The  . J o r d o n , W.K,, from E l i z a b e t h Judges, Knights, Murray,  The~£lSzabethan  L.C.,  Drama and Political  i n t h e Age  Consequences of the  The  Oxford  Willey,  The  Seventeenth  Toleration  Underworld.  Society  S e e b o h m , F. B.,  Glass.  The D e v e l o p m e n t o f R e l i g i o u s to the Restoration.  A.V.,  R.H.,  Enchanted  this  of  Reformation.  Reformers. Century  Jonson.  Background  184 Contrary religion  to our  neSter f o r m an  I n d e e d , i f we the  expectations,  majority  i m p o r t a n t theme i n t h e  judge from the  welcomed the Elizabethan  settlement.  no  any  we  wish to  marked the  more and  i s s u e s o f the years  We  vitally  heartily the  d o u b t , t h a t manjB  t i r e d of theological bickering  see  a r e t u r n ef* p e r s e c u t i o n  r e i g n s o f Edward V I  and  and  such  as  Mary. O t h e r s been a c t i v e  who  from  the L o l l a r d s would f e e l t h a t  Reformation had  b e e n s t a t e d and  the  fought  out  before.  must n o t  Elizabethans  that  engage i n  that they  I t i s t r u e , no  t i m e o f W y c l i f f e and  i n the  s h a l l conclude  wish to  remembered t h a t r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t h a d the  of  drama.  comparative peace e s t a b l i s h e d through  o f them m u s t h a v e b een  had  plays,  of Englishmen d i d not  e c c l e s i a s t i c a l controvery  have had  however, q u e s t i o n s  f o r g e t , on  still  the  other  h a n d , t h a t many  thought that r e l i g o u s questions  i m p o r t a n t . T h e s e men,  were  however, were o f t e n  as  sile nt  2 as t h o s e who anyone t o  and  her  that  s i l e n c e was  f a t h e r , had  t h o s e who  Even d e s p i t e some echo i n t h e  dangerous  and,  actively  therefore,  she  one  Anglican  Elizabeth, state  could  accuse  supported e i t h e r the  the r e s t r i c t i o n , drama.  for  the  h e r s e l f with both  would have  old  expected  2 c f . The P u r i t a n - . l , i i , p , 4 0 0 The s c h o l a r says t h a t i s "put t o s i l e n c e l i k e a s e c t a n y y . " ?  he  so  f o r c e d u p o n them.  identified  e s t a b l i s h e d church,  of treason 1  I t was  attempt to meddle w i t h o r to c r i t i c i z e  settlement like  were i n d i f f e r e n t .  185 1 religion  or a very  advanced form o f  protestantism.  A c o m b i n a t i o n o f i n d i f f e r e n c e and f e a r , then,was l a r g e l y responsible religion The  f o r t h e l a c k o f many d i r e c t r e f e r e n c e s t o  i n t h e drama. references^that  with the Puritans,  2  them.  we do f i n d  almost always  e i t h e r t o p r a i s e them o r t o r i d i c u l e  On t h e one h a n d , c e r t a i n d r a m a t i s t s  wrote  m e n t a r y s p e e c h e s a b o u t t h e P u r i t a n s when t h e y t h a t members o f t h e m i d d l e c l a s s among t h e i r would be p r e d o m i n a n t l y P r o t e s t a n t playwrights  remembered audience  i n sympathy • O t h e r  on t h e grounds  that  an<Tplayers were a menace t o g o d l i n e s s ' . L a t e r  period, the  compli-  c o u l d n o t r e s i s t m o c k i n g t h e s e c t t h a t was  attempting to c l o s e the theatres plays  deal  nuch d e r i s i o n f a r o u t b a l a n c e s p r a i s e .  dramatists  dation I  By then  were w r i t i n g f o r an a u d i e n c e whose  were a r i s t o c r a t i c  i n our  tastes  a n d who h a d no wisla t o l i s t e n t o commen-  of the Puritan. s h a l l look  first  a t t h e plajp which r i d i c u l e t h e  f o l l o w e r s o f C a l v i n . The P u r i t a n  i s the only  a t t e m p t s t o do so i n a f a s h i o n t h a t t h o r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e slcairras; scareely deserves the t i t l e ,  one t h a t  i s at a l l consistent  Even i t , on t h e whole, f o r i t d i f f e r s only  in a  1 B o t h Roman C a t h o l i c s a n d P u r i t a n s s u f f e r e d . (She Roman C a t h o l i c s were a c c u s e d o f p l o t t i n g w i t h t h e S p a n i a r d s and t h e S c o t c h , u s u a l l y on b e h a l f o f M a r y o f Scotland^ The P u r i t a n s were a c c u s e d o f q u e s t i o n i n g E l i z a b e t h ' s r i g h t s . Even t h e P u r i t a n w r i t e r o f the M a r p r e l a t e t r a c t s h a d t o move h i s p r e s s c o n s t a n t l y t o e s c a p & e a r r e s t , d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he v o i c e d t h e p o p u l a r f e e l i n g t h a t had been aroused b y t h e r e p r e s s i o n o f W h i t g i f g ,  texts'oftheTltyif^ "* 2  PUrltanlem  ^^ing the  186 few  i n c i d e n t s from the o t h e r comedies -attacking  citizens the  and g a l l a n t s o f L o n d o n . I n t h e s e few  s e r v a n t s i n t h e widow's h o u s e h o l d  husband are r i d i c u l e d .  The  and h e r  principal vice  the  incidents deceased  imputed  to  them i s h y p o c r i s y .  The  attendant  andnaad o f t e n b e e n so e a g e r t o  at church  there i n time  f o r the  husband had been a r e g u l a r be  s e r v i c e t h a t he would l e a v e h i s 1  home w i t h o u t Y e t he  f i n i s h i n g h i s meal o r f a s t e n i n g h i s g a r t e r s .  lied  and c h e a t e d t o o b t a i n money f o r h i s  son's  education. The s e r v a n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y N i c h o l a s , a r e e q u a l l y h y p o c r i t i c a l . T h e y t u r n away from O a t h ' s p r o f a n i t y , yet  they  are w i l l i n g  satisfy their 3 casuistry. braggart cannot 6ne  enough t o l i e as l o n g as t h e y  can  c o n s c i e n c e s b y means o f some d o u b t f u l  They are a l s o  secretly  envious o f the.  s o l d i e r s . N i c h o l a s , d e s p i t e h i s assumed h u m i l i t y ,  hide the f a c t  t h a t he  i s proud  t o be  a kinsman  of  o f them. Perhaps  criticism  t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g p a r t o f t h e  found i n t h i s  adverse  p l a y referee, to the s e r v a n t s '  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r B i b l e s , The^/carry t h e b o o k s w i t h them w h e r e v e r t h e y go  and  pages l i t e r a l l y ,  ignorant to understand  and 1  b e i n g too  a l l e g o r y . Consequently, The P u r i t a n,  t a k e e v e r y word i n the  t h e y make r i d i c u l o u s  11.i,p.408.  2  Ibid.,1,iii,pp.401-402.  3  Ibid.,  1,iii,pp.401-408.  parable deductions. ~  •  187) and  form f a n t a s t i c o p i n i o n s  s i m i l a r ignorance leads the  on  r e l i g i o u s matters.  them t o  accept without  d i c t a t e s o f t h e i r m i n i s t e r who  V v d t h  a holy The  f e a r of plays  scholar  and  contemptuous o f the it  i s better  Puritan."  t o be  In  e r r o r to g i v e  the  and  has f i l l e d 2  Puritan habit  question them  Puritan  former t h i n k s  as N i c h o l a s  the  soothing  that  i t is  opportunity  j u d g e f o r t h e m s e l v e s i n m a t t e r s o f r e l i g i o n . He sceptical in belief,  d o u b t i n g even the  D e v i l , much t o t h e h o r r o r I  leave  the  Puritan  of others  I might say  severe forms o f B r o t e s t a n t i s m  and  lov/er c l a s s e s more t h a n any  It  implies,  not  and  the  latter  Other plays In the  existence  a t t r a c t e d the  other  echo t h e  Looking Glass  spiritual  and  middle  did signifi-  for  avarice  insubordination.  a t t i t u d e f o u n d i n The  f o r London, the  the  Before  servants  former a c l o a k  a reason f o r pride  of  group i n England.  a l s o , t h a t t h e m e r c h a n t s and  because t h e y gave t h e  to  i t suggests that  a d o p t them purely'."because o f t h e i r  cance but  an  i s completely  i n the p l a y .  that  the  are  o f m i n d . T h e y f-freel t h a t  "a c h a r i t a b l e knave t h a n a  s u c h men  A  players.  s o l d i e r s i n the  a d d i t i o n , the  1  Puritan.  prophets, Oseas  and J o n a h , make l o n g s p e e c h e s o f e x h o r t a t i o n and t h r e a t 1 The P u r i t a n : . , l . i v . p . 4 0 4 . T h i s fifit.-t-ra i s , n f x n n T H o d i r e c t e d a t t h e P u r i t a n ' s b e l i e f t h a t t h e B i b l e was the f i n a l authority, 2 3 4  Ibid  .,l,iv,p.404.  Ibid., l,ii,p.401. Ibid,,111,vi,p.416.  186  1 s i m i l a r t o t h o s e found, i n t h e O l d T e s t a m e n t . catalogues  o f punishments are  reformation the to  play  itself,  reform  regards for  o f the  characters  according  to  supposed to cause  the  i n the':play, j u s t  a©  i t s prologue,  supposed  L o n d o n , However, n o t  t h e commands o f t h e p r o p h e t s as law.  instance  made t o g i v e h i m  populace. himself  H  e  continues  and  and  but  penitence  "fast  and  and pray,"  Mildred,  c h a r a c t e r s who  should  be  t i n g t a s t e can  see  and  that r i d i c u l e  audience  i s poured upon  the  and  on  the  the  senten-  Candido's p l a t i t u d e s i n  H o n e s t Whore a r e t r e a t e d i n t h e doubt, intended  similar  a more d i s c r i m i n a -  and M i l d r d d  t i o u s m o r a l i z i n g o f Touchstone.  of  a  T o u c h s t o n e were  admired; but  Puritan v i r t u e s of Golding  servants  fasting  says 3  presents  d o u b t many among t h e E l i z a b e t h a n  thought t h a t Golding,  l i k e the  as  t o 4©to t n e  I n c e r t a i n p a r t i c u l a r s , E a s t w a r d Ho  no  clown,  c o n t e n t e d l y t t o make a g l u t t o n  t h a t h i s master does n o t h i n g  tist,  The  thinks that h i s master  h i s indentures  i n the midst o f reform  p i c t u r e . No  play  i s c o n t e m p t u o u s o f J o n a h and O s e a s 2 H  The  was  everyone i n the  w e l l as o f a l l o t h e r p u r i t a n s . e is  These  same manner. The  drama-  h i s audience to t h i n k t h a t Candido,  imThe P u r i t a n , i s t o o  literal  in his  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f r e l i g i o u s t e a c h i n g s . He becomes a f i g u r e 1 c f . The L o o k i n g G l a s s f o r L o n f l o n . 1953-1970. 2 c f . Volpone,l,ii.30-47. And. L i k e one o f t h e r e f o r m e d , a f o o l as y o u s s e e Counting a l l o l d doctrine heresy.... I n t o a v e r y s t r a n g e b e a s t , by some w r i t e r s c a l l e d d an a s s 3  The  By o t h e r s a p r e c i s e , p u r e i l l u m i n a t e L o o k i n g G l a s d f o r L o n d o n . 2168-2174.  brother....  189, o f fun through h i s s t r i c t  adherence to p r e c e p t  u n l i k e T o u c h s t o n e , i s s u p p o s e d t o be deal with  the  a f f a i r s o f the  not  drama r e p e a t  a t t e n t i o n t o them a l l , c o u p l i n g o f the At  times,  the  f a v o r the P u r i t a n .  throughout the  the  I  latter I  o f the  to  a t t i t u d e found i n p l a y s  Iseated  references  i t . A l t h o u g h I d a n n o t draw  should mention the  tailor's craft  word, t a i l o r ,  and  frequent  the r e f o r m e f l r e l i g i o n .  i s u s e d a l m o s t as  f o r P u r i t a n , e s p e c i a l l y i f the 1 the  totally unfit  world.  I have i n d i c a t e d b r i e f l y t h a t do  and,  a  synonym  speaker wished to  imply  that  i s a hypocrite.  s h a l l t u r n nww Puritan.  The  L o r d C r o m w e l l , and  to the  plays that express  most i m p o r t a n t  of these  S i r John Oldcastiig.  p r e v i o u s l y discussed both plays  approval  i s Thomas,  Since I  have  a t some l e n g t h I  shall  c a l l a t t e n t i o n here only to the r e f e r e n c e s to r e l i g i o n f o u n d i n them. The p r a i s e o f t h e P u r i t a n v i r t u e s o f thrift  and  t o us now  i n d u s t r y i n the than the  said to represent to h e r husband,  firgure the  former playifcB l e s s o f Mrs.  Bannister,  i d e a l P u r i t a n woman. She  sincere i n her  belief,  and  important who is  may  faithful  b o t h humale  T>nL>°l* ^ . M i e y , V,i,p.36a. C o n s t a n t i a says t h a t B o u c h e r was "more f a s t a s l e e p t h a n . . . a p u r i t a n t a i l o r a r a Sunday' e v e n i n g • s l e c t u r e . ' 1  be  190 and  f i r m i n the face  o f adversity.  Despite  Mrs.  however, Thomas.Lord C r o m w e l l i s d i a s p p o i n t i n g ,  Bannister, as a r e  a l l t h e p l a y s when I w i s h t o f i n d i n them some i n d i c a t i o n that e i t h e r the playwright were  o r members o f t h e a u d i e n c e  aware o f any o f t h e i s s u e s a t t h e r o o t o f t h e  r e l i g i o u s controversy. Cromwell, w h i l e Henry V l l l ,  As a matter o f h i s t o r i c a l  fact,  h e was o n e o f t h e c h i e f m i n i s t e r s o f  was a b l e  t o influence the course o f the  Reformat i o n i n E n g l a n d h i s own P t o t e s t a n t  a n d t o p u t i n t o e f f e c t many o f  doctrines. H  e  w  a  s  responsible  a3fcs.o f o r one o f t h e E n g l i a h B i b l e s a n d i s a s s o c i a t e d with  The Book o f Common P r a y e r .  Under Cromwell's  direction,  C o v e r d a l e r e v i s e d a n d c o l l a t e d h i s own B i b l e o f 153©, ivi with  Tindale's  o f 1539,  and M a t t h e w ' s a n d p r o d u c e d t h e g r e a t  w h i c h i s o f t e n c a l l e d C r o m w e l l s B i b l e . The 1  p s a l m s f r o m i t were l a t e r Common P r a y e r . part the  Bible  incorporated  i n T h e Book o f  However, d e s p i t e £ r o m w e l l ' s  i n the intrigues o f Catholic  important  and P r o t e s t a n t  during  E n g l i s h R e f o r m a t i o n , t h e a u t h o r o f Thomas. L o r d  Cromwell, allows  h i s hero only  t o promise t o rid^tlhe  1 l a n d o f w i c k e t abbots and f a t x  sight Lord  he  second p l a y ,  priests.  S i r J o h n O l d c a s t l e . seems a t f i r s t  t o be much more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t h a n i s Thomas, gromwell t o r e l i g i o n  particular.  i n general  andto P u r i t a n i s m i n  T h e c e n t r a l f i g u r e i s t h e famous L o l l a r d  I Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l . I V , i i p . 3 6 9 . T h e rtramatiat. was p r o b a b l y r e m e m b e r i n g C r o m w e l l s p a r t i n t h e d i s s o l u t i o n of the monastries. T  1  martyr of  and f o l l o w e r o f W y c l i f f e . The o s t e n s i b l e  the r e b e l l i o n  eeligious  that  reform.  B u t , a f t e r some w o r d s o f p r a i s e f o r  John  and an a b o r t i v e  the  figure of the wicked^priest, a piece  st>ry the  attack  on C a t h o l i c i s m 1 the play  through  disintegrates  o f P u r i t a n propaganda and becomes  rather the  o f a m e r r y b r e w e r and<:of i n t r i g u i n g n o b l e s exposition of the l i f e  concluding attitude  that Harpool,  that  In h i s heart  of a Lollard.  S i rJohn's  One  servant,  accurately the belief  of the  than  cannot  avoid  has the  i s approved by the E l i z a b e t h a n  expresses most  purpose  forms the background o f the p l o t i s  Sir  as  19*  audience  and  dramatist.  he f a v o r s n e i t h e r t h e o l d c h u r c h  nor the  new,  2 but  wishes to benefit This  in  two-sided  the plays  with  or  both.  a t t i t u d e i s t h e one most  a s a w h o l e . The c i t i z e n  Mercutio,  that  from  religious  "a curse  prodominant  seems t o b e  o n b o t h y o u r h o u s e s " . He  q u a r r e l s , whether  Catholic, led to riots  fomented by  and c i v i l  sayaVng knew  Puritan  disturbance,  which  w e r e b a d f o r t r a d e . The a v e r a g e c i t i z e n , as d e p i c t e d i n 1 c f . S i rJohn Oldcastle. ill.iv PP.334-335. S i r J o h n o f Wfotham i s e s s e n t i a l l y a n o t h e r c o p y o f ^ i r J o h n F a l s t a f f rather than the posrtrai* o f a p r i e s t . » S i rJohn Oldcastle, IV,iii,p.340. Note that H a r p o o l w h i l e a t home w i t h S i r J o h n d e f i e s a t t e m p t s t o p e r s e c u t e S i r J o h n forr.his b e l i e f s . Y e t when S i rJ o h n i s s i n p r i s o n H a r p o o l p e r s u a d e s t h e w a r d e r t h a t he i s " a f o l l o w e r o f t h e o l d c h u r c h n o t a h e r e t i c , s o t t h a t h e may w a i t o n h i s T  2  c f  H a r . I am o f t h e o l d c h u r c h , n o t a h e r e t i c , n o r p u r i t a n I ' l l swear, d r i n k a l e , k i s s a wench, (Bo t o m a s s , e a t f i s h a l l l e n t a n d f a s t F r i d a y s w i t h cakes and a l e , f r u i t and s p i c e r y . . . .  19£ i n the plays,  seems t o p u t h i s b u s i n e s s b e f o r e h i s r e -  ligion. Cash,  i n E v e r y Man  i n H i s Humour, f o r example, i s 1  "no  p r e c i s i o n , . . . n o r a r i g i d Roman C a t h o l i c . "  The  Shoemakers  1  s h o u l d be  Both  are unnecessary  i n d u l g e d i n as l i t t l e  g o e s t o c h u r c h and w i t h d i f f i c u l t y his  f a c e . The  jailor  t h a t he h a s h a d Perhaps  the  i n Eastward  he  follies  a s p o s s i b l e . He i s persuaded  Hft s a y s  never  t o wash  indifferently  b o t h P a p i s t s and P u r i t a n s <in h i s c e l l s .  famous r e m a r k o f S i r T o b y t o M a l v o l i o , " d o s t  thou t h i n k because more c a k e s  of  H o l i d a y , r e g a r d s g o i n g t o c h u r c h as 2  r e g a r d s washing h i s f a c e . and  Firk,  and  thou 4  ale?"  are v i r t u o u s ,  there s h a l l  be  no  sums u p m o s t a d e q u a t e l y t h e g e n e r a l  a t t i t u d e o f t h e drama. R e l i g i o u s f a n a t i c i s m i s d e p l o r e d , w h e t h e r i t be P r o t e s t a n t o r C a c h o l i c i n o r i g i n . In t h e p r e c e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s I have n o t e d t h e s c a r c i t y o f r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e drama t o t h e r e l i g i o u s s t r u g g l e s o f the p e r i o d . I have s a i d t h a t the not  average E l i z a b e t h a n d i d  seem t o be  g i a n s and  aware o f t h e i s s u e s o v e r w h i c h t h e t h e o l o 5 statesmen fought. B u t I must n o t n a y i n t h e  same b r e a t h t h a t h i s i g n o r a n c e in religious  and  dogma meant t h a t he  apparent  lack of  t h o u g h t t h e r e was  interest no  e x i s t e n c e b e y o n d t h e one w i t h w h i c h he v/as f a m i l i a r . E v g r z Man i n H i s Humour l l l . i i 9 6 - Q R .  The ;—  1  T  2  The.Shoemakers  1  f  Holiday.  11,iii,20-23$IV,v,133.  3 E a s t w a r d Ho, 4  foL  V,  11,40-44.  .Twelfth Night. 11,iii,121-125.  a^o^SietSK*i?^ ? aSe  ?5  t  P°smphlet°ri?e?atu?e Jf ?£rtimt d  f  h  e a  f  p  l  a  y  s  a  l  o  n  e  -  One t  h  T  °  U  would g  h  t  h  e  193 E l i z a b e t h a n was his  v e r y much aware o f t h e  e«perience c o u l d n o t  weemed t o be  reach.  other world  A l t h o u g h he  d o u b t f u l whether a b e n i g n o r  power r u l e d i t , n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  he  was  that  sometimes  a demoniac  always  conscious  of i t s existence. This  awareness o f another w o r l d  and  touch  takes  In  i t s lowest  i t s highest and  i n the  incongruously, or the  form i n r e l i g i o n ,  most v u l g a r m a n i f e s t a t i o n  s u p e r s i t i o n . T h i s i s the frequently  beyong our  drama.  f o r m i n w h i c h we I  from a search  s a h l l now  Elizabethan witches with  as we  i t becomes  turn,  somewhat to  freewill  a consideration  b e a r d s and  dwvils  know.  meet i t m o s t  for references  e f f i c a c y o f good works t o  sight  of  smelling  of  brimstone• The  L o n d o n cL t i z e n w o u l d h a v e b e e n u n a b l e t o  where h i s b e l i e f  i n the  s u p e r n a t u r a l , ^ e was - •3 between a d m i t t i n g the he  the  b e l i e v e d a t a l e he  spells  say  as he  existence  t o c o n f u s e man.  of  t h s D e v i l and  When l e & ~ b y h i s immense c o u l d not  t h a t i t proved the was  existence  had  dreading  credulity,  u n d e r s t a n d , he  to a t t r i b u t e i t to the He  the  n e v e r q u i t e c l e a r about the d i f f e r e n c e  power o f w i t c h e s .  as a p t t o  s p i r i t u a l became f e a r o f  say  was  just  o f charms  efforts of  l o s t h i s saints with  and  Satan  thaReformation,  194. 1 b u t he  r e p l a c e d them w i t h  B o t h A l b u m a z a r and Elizabethan's  belief  The  supernatural.  were a b l e first into  contain  sorcerers i s evidence t h a t  i s c o n c e r n e d wiUhtbe  a n o t h e r man.  a b i l i t y o f the  ihe play contains  o f t h e pr e p a r a t i o n s  c l a a r l a t a n , who  I n The  an  demands v a l u a b l e  P u r i t a n , the  He  gold  so t h a t he  s c h o l a r and  the c r e c u l i t y o f the c i t i z e n s .  of a  i n c a n t a t i o n s . They say .^eitfcer t h e  farmer  farmer, T r i n c a l o , into  his  i s , of course, and may the  silver  a  articles  s t e a l them. soldier,  Oath,  playing  on  T h e y p r o m i s e t h e widow t h a t  s o l d i e r - c o n j u r e r , Oath, w i l l f i n d  a s s i s t him.  The  interesting description  make a s i m i l a r a t t e m p t t o o b t a i n money b y  the  men  s o r c e r e r t o cnange him  stars.  t o carryosut h i s magic o n l y  to  such  o f t h e magicimxsnd a n o t h e r o f  methods o f c o n s u l t i n g the  magic  yet  descriptions  transformation  f o r m o f h i s w e a l t h y m a s t e r . The  n e v e r doib t s t h e  the  I t i s true  to p r e y upon a s u p e r s t i t i o u s p o p u l a c e .  play the  the  the c i t i z e n ' s c r e d u l t i t y j  f a c t t h a t t h e y were w r i t t e n and  o f the methods o f  alchemists.  Puritan illustrate  i n the  that both plays r i d i c u l e the  a s t r o l o g e r s and  t h a t he widow n o r  & l o s t chain w i l l c a l l up her brother  t r u t h o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s . When I d l e makes a  through, a  devil  doubt reference  1 B o t h a s t r o l o g y and a l c h e m y a r e t r e a t e d h e r e as p r a c t i s e d b y c h a r l a t a n s . I t s h o u l d not be f o r g o t t e n , however, t h a t a s t r o l o g y was t h e i n f a n t s t a g e o f a s t r o n o m y and a ^ h e m y o f c h e m i s t r y . S e r i o u s / i f e l e m e n t a r y , r e s e a r c h i n -these f i e l d s c o u l d be c a l l e d a s t r o l o g y and a l c h e m y . 2  Albumazar.  3  Ibid.,  l,ii,pp.330,332,  l,ii,pp.310-315.  195  to the law Of James (1604) agaABSt witchcraft, S i r Godfrey begs the sorcerer to carry out the magic with the untmost possible secrecy.  The knight knows that he w i l l be  heavily fined i f the authorities discover a magician i n h i s house, George a Greene  forms an i n t e r e s t i n g contrast to the  plajsr j u s t mentioned. In the f i r s t two plays the c i t i z e n s are pictured as complete f o o l s who  willingly believe  any fantastic story that they are t o l d . MGeorge a Greene, however, the "honest pinner" i s superior to other c i t i z e n s and to the nobles i n that he does not believe i n magicians. On the contrary, he plays upon the superstition of the lords anjftpersuades taem to v i s i t a conjurer who i n a nearby cave. By disguising himself as the  lives conjurer  and taking his place i n the cave he i s able to defeat 2  the nobles p l o t against the king. These p3ays and others lead us to believe that the streets were f u l l of mountebanks, conjurers astrologers who  and  would promise the c i t i e e n s good fortune  i n love, prosperity i n business, or r e l i e f from rheuinatisem. A street scene such aB i s pictured i n Volpone when the magnifico. disguises himself as a mountebank and s e l l s e l i x e r s musfc have been often repeated i n London ar^lits suburbs. The unfortunate j a i l o r ' s daughter "~ 1 2  The Puritan, i l v i p . 4 ] 6 T  T  : r  George a Greene, 600-612, 690-740.  1 S 6  i n  T h e  T w o  N o b l e  m a g i c i a n s •  t h a t ,  k i n s m e n  s h e  h a s  t h i n f e s  s e e n  s h e  s o  m a n y  m e e t s  c o n j u r e r s  o n e  w h e n  s h e  m a y  h a v e  b e e n  t h e  c i t y .  a n d  r u n s  1  m a d .  T h e  wore  a s t r o l o g e r s  o f t e n  b e y o n d  a n d  t h e i r  B e n  J o n s o n ' s  t h e  h o u s e s  S u b t l e .  w e r e  s a f e  t h a n  f r o m  l i v e s  Y e s , y o u v e r e p l a i n e  b e  s o  b y  m y  n  t h e  c i t y  t h e  t h e  f o u n d  T h e r e  t h e y  a u t h o r i t i e s .  s u b u r b s  o r  i  n  t h e m .  g o o d ,  t h r e e - p o u n d  w o r s h i p ' s  W i l l y p u  i  n e a r  o n c e  l i v e r y  m a s t e r ' s  F a c e : * :  a l c h e m i s t s  w a l l s  a l c h e m i s t  H o n e s t Y o u r  a n d  k n a v e ;  h o u s e ,  t h a t  k e p t  h e r e . . .  l o u d ? 2  S u b t l e .  B e l i e f  a c c e p t a n c e  S i n c e ,  i  o f  i n s t r u m e n t s .  n  a s t r o l o g e r s  t h e  F o r  m a g i c  a n d  C a m b r i d g e  w i t h  a n d  b r u s h e d , "  t h r o u g h  a n d  i  t  s  h  a  t h e  b o t h  t r a n s l a t e d  h e  o f  P a n d o l f o  l  l  " f u l l  m a g i c  a n d  s u b u r b - c a p t a i n e .  a l c h e m i s t s  p r o p e r t i e s  i n s t a n c e ,  s e d  " p e r s p i c i l , "  m e a n s ,  i  o f  n e c e s s i t a t e d  t h e i r  s  s u r e  b a r e  a n d  t h a t  c a n  h e  h e a d s ,  q u a l i t i e s  T r i n e a l o  p o t i o n s  o f  a r e  b a l d  A l b u m a z a r  e q u a l l y  7  s  i m p r e s s e d  3 b y  t h e  o t a c o u s t i c o n .  J o n s o n ' s  a l c h e m i s t  a l s o  h a s  m i r a -  r e t o r t s  a n d  b e a k e r s  4  c u l o u s  t h a t  i n s r u m e n t s .  H e  a r e  r e g a r d e d  1  T h e  T w o  2  T h e  A l c h e m i s t .  3  A l b u m a z a r .  4  o p . c i t . F a c e .  w i t h  N o f t l e  1 , * ,  Y o u r B u i l t  i  s  s  s u r r o u n d e d  b y  u p e r s t i t i o u s  a w e  b y  h  i  s  p a t r o n s .  1^iii,v.80-86.  K i n s m e n .  " ~  l . i . 4 S - - 2 f l .  1 , i i i , p p . 3 1 1 - 3 1 3 .  4 3 - 4 5 . s t i l l s , y o u  a  ' y o u r  g l a s s e s ,  f u r n a c e . . . .  y o u r  m a t e r i a l l s ,  19$. V o l p o n e on He  sells  the  o t h e r hand, c o n f i n e s  a wondrous/'urguento" t h a t w i l l n o t  a l l malignant  humoure" h u t 1  a t t a c k e d man. and  the  perform  himself to  cure  every  m  i l l  '  W o r l d My  only  that  "disperse  has  •  2  B o t h t h e bawd M a r q u e r e l l e  gaeme <3o4tor i n A Mad  potions.  i n The  Masters  3  Malcontent can  s i m i l a r m i r a c l e s through t h e i r medicines 4  and  E l i x a b e t h a n d i d not c o n f i n e h i s b e l i e f  his  potions. The  an i n d i s c r i m i n a t e ! a c c e p t a n c e  b e l i e f i n the  supernatural to  of alchemist,  conjurer, or magician.  convinced  1  was  also  firmly  t h a t t h e D e v i l o r h i s m i n i s t e r s were r e a d y  to pounce upon him the p l a y s .  He  from every  bush, as we  may  see  from  jfrAne K n i g h t o f t h e B u r n i n g P e s t l e , f o r i n s t a n c e ,  -Volpone, 11, i i , 110-148.  '  ~  2 Th¥ M a l c o n t e n t , l l , i v , p , 1 6 . M a r q u e r e l l e ' s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e p o s s e t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . Shey s a y s t h a t i t i s made o f , " s e v e n and t h i r t y y o l k s o f B a r b a r y h e n s e g g s , e i g h t e e n s p o o n f u l s and a h a l f o f t h e j u i c e o f c o c k s p a r r o w ' s b o n e s ; one ounce t h r e e drams, f o u r s c r u p l e s and one q u a r t e r o f the syrup o f E t h i o p i a n d a t e s ; sweetneded w i t h t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f a pound o f pure c a n d i e d I n d i a n e r i n g o s stewed w i t h the powder o f p e a r l o f A m e r i c a , amber o f C a t a i a and l a m b s t o n e s o f Muscovia. T h i s p u r i f i e t h the blood, strengthened the v e i n s , m u n d i f i e t h t h e t e e t h , c o m f o r t a t h t h e stomach, f o r t i f i e t h t h e b a c k and q u i c k e h e t h t h e w i t . " 1  3 A Mad W o r l d My. M a s t e r s . l l l , p . 2 7 2 . Penitent Brothel p r e t e n d s t o be a doctoor so t h a t he may see H a i r b r a i n ' . s w i f e . 4 Not a l l a s t r o l o g e r s were p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Goodman C a r o f Thomas, L o r d C r o m w e l l p r i d e s h i m s e l f on h i s k n o w l e d g e o f the s t a r s .  398  the c i t i z e n and h i s wife are c e r t a i n t h a t Ealph must he possessed when he does not f i g h t as w e l l as they had 1 2 expected. Although the clownB inDvetoarffamstus and F r i a r 3 Bacon are t e r r i f i e d by the appearance o f the d e v i l , they never doubt t h a t one stands before them.  The drunken  clown InThe Looking Glass f o r London i s not o n l y sure t h a t he sees a d e v i l , but he speaks g e n i a l l y w i t h h i s 4 i n f e r n a l v i s i t o r . I n A Mad '.World, My Masters a d e v i l appears t o P e n i t e n t B r o t h e l i n the guise o f h i s paramour, M i s t r e s s H a i r b r a i n , When the unfortunate man l e a r n s t h a t h i s supposed m i s t r e s s i s an e v i l angel,he i s f r i g h t e n e d 5  i n t o reform,  H i p p o l i t o ' s servant i n The Honest Whore  e v i d e n t l y expects t o meet a messenger from H e l l as he goes about h i s work. He says t h a t he must not admit women w i t h beards t o the house f o r they are witches and i n 6 league w i t h the nether world,  Gertrude's b e l i e f i n the  supernatural takes a g e n t l e r form than t h a t seen i n the 7  examples given so f a r . She i s sure t h a t there are f a i r i e s . ' Even the Widow T a f f a t a t h i n k s t h a t such c r e a t u r e might 1 The, Knjght o f the Burning P e s t l e , 11,v.52-58. 2  Doctor Faustus, l , i v , 7 3 - 8 0 .  3  F r i a r Bacon and F r i a r Bungay, 1,1,126-129.  4  The Looking Glass f o r London, 1840-1900.  5  A Mad World. My. Masters. lV,p.276.  6  J^ejgonfe&t g J ^ e ^ I V , i i , p . 154-156. '  7  Eastward Ho, V,i,104-121.  199.  e x i s t although  she s c o r n f u l l y r e j e c t s the 1 t h a t a s t r o l o g e r s have any power.  suggestion  T a f f a t a . ( t o Boucher)...A t r i v i a l i d l e j e s t , 'Tis f o r a man o f y o u r r e p u t e and n o t e , To c r e d i t f o r t u n e t e l l e r s ; a p e t t y r i g That n e v e r saw f i v e s h i l l i n g s i n aheap, W i l l t a k e upon him t o d e f i n e men's f a t e , Y e t n e v e r knows h i m s e l f s h a l l d i e a b e g g a r , Or be hanged u p , f o r p i l f e r i n g t a l l e c l o t h s S h i r t s and smocks hanged out t o d r y on hedges, 'Tis m e r e l y base t o t r u s t them, o r i f t h e r e be A man i n whom t h e D e l p h i c god h a t h b r e a t h e d H i s t r u e d i v i n i n g f i r e , t h a t can f o r e t e l l The f i x e d d e c r e e o f f a t e , he l i k e w i s e knows What i s w i t h i n t h e e v e r l a s t i n g book Of d e s t i n y d e c r e e d , c a n n o t by w i t Or a man's i n v e n t i o n , be d i s s o l v e d , o r shunned. F i n a l l y , I s h o u l d m e n t i o n t h a t t h e Elizab*e*Bans had many s m a l l and t r i v i a l s u p e r s t i t i o n s t h a t have t h e i r counterparts twentieth century  i n those o f today.  J u s t as i n the  some p e o p l e w i l l not walk under a  l a d d e r , so C o r n e l i o would not s i g n a c o n t r a c t on the 2 day t h a t two drops o f b l o o d f e l l from h i s nose a n f f i u r l e y 3 would not f i g h t on F r i d a y . B o b a d i l , a l s o , has a. p e t b e l i e f , w h i c h i s v e r y u s e f u l t o him. have an e v i l i n f l u e n c e upon men,  He  says t h a t  and i i h a t he was  not  t o f i g h t w e l l on a p a r t i c u l a r day because a c e r t a i n 4 p l a n e t had power o v e r him.  1  Ram  2  t i l F o o l s , i ^ i y spsso?;^.  3  S i r John O l d c a s t l e ,  4 : 0  Alley, i,i,p.283.  E v e r y Man  11,ii,p.328.  i n H i s Humour. I V , v ,  $76-181.  planets able  1 Mores and M o r a l s I have p a r t i a l l y  described,  i n previous  as they  chapters  the  morals o f the c i t i z e n  are expressed  through  the  drama. I ha^e d i s c u s s e d h i s i d e a l s and h i s o p i n i o n  2 of  sexual  other  immorality.  aspects  I have  o f h i s outlook  left  on r i g h t  do  n o t k n o w a s y e t how h e r e g a r d e d  or  drunkeness.  to  indicate briefly The  into  In this  untouched,  chapter,  considered  and wrong.  major crimes,  this  such  attitude  such as murder, t h e f t ,  Judges, Knights,  Society  i n theElizabethan  The E l i z a b e t h a n  ed., Shakespeare's  See above, pp. 56-72,  A&e.  i n t h e Age o f J o n s o n .  PoweilJi-C.L., E n g l i s h Domestic 2  minor  Underworld.  Drama and S o c i e t y  O n i o n s , C.T.,  fall  adultery  f o r n i c a t i o n , a n d t h e s e c o n d w i t h w h a t he deemed 1 Foritheebgiel£|^ouftaiOT c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o : Herbert,  matters.  d e a l s w i t h what t h e c i t i z e n  or  Hall,  dicing  therefore, I shall t r y  h i s attitude concerning  The f i r s t  We  murder o r t h e f t ,  incidents that illustrate  two g r o u p s .  however,  England.  Relations.  112-120.  20£ o f f e n c e s , such as drunkeness, d i c i n g , r a c i n g , o v e r d r e s s i n g , swearing, smoking, and c o n s t a n t attendance a t f a i r s o r playhouses. Although r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e s i n s o f the f i r s t  group  are f a r more r a r e than t o those o f tla;second, we can l e a r n e a s i l y from them what the c i t i z e n thought o f a d u l t e r y , murder o r t h e f t ; and we f i n d t h a t h i s judgement d i d n o t d i f f e r from t h a t o f o t h e r members o f t h e audience. Both he and tne a r i s t o c r a t watched Hamlet. The Spanish Tragedy, o r A Woman K i l l e d w i t h Kindness and thought t h a t i t was f i t t i n g f o r death to be punished w i t h death and a d u l t e r y with  banishment. Arden a f Feversham and A Y o p k s h i r e Tragedy b e s t  i l l u s t r a t e tbemlddle c l a s s a t t i t u d e towards murder. t h s e s p l a y s murder committed  In  i n u n p r e t e n t i o u s surroundings  i s condemned j u s t as i t i s when planned and c a r r i e d o u t by r o y a l t y i n A K i n g and No K i n g and T h i e r r y and Theodoret. The c i t i z e n expected nemesis t o overtake the murderer r e g a r d l e s s o f who he was  and o f where h i s crime was  perpetrated. I have j u s t p o i n t e d o u t t h a t the c i t i z e n a d u l t e r y should be punished by banishment  thought  from t h e home.  T h i s statement seems t o c o n t r a d i c t what I have s a i d  1  c o n c e r n i n g a d u l t e r y i n a presjious c h a p t e r .  There, I  drew a t t e n t i o n t o the f a c t t h a t i t was o f t e n t r e a t e d 1  ? e a above, pp. 115-116.  202 humorously. the  I n this  chapter,  h o w e v e r , I am c o n c e r n e d , w i t h ,  s e r i o u s v i e w o f u n f a i t h f u l n e s s . We h a v e  that t h ec i t i z e n regarded wife  o r daughter committed  adultery  ample  as a g r a v e  evidence  s i n when h i s  i t , even t h o u g h h e may h a v e 1  laughed  a t stage  presentations  o f other  men's  cuckoldry.  H i s w o m e n f o l k , o n t n e wh&e, a g r e e d w i t h h i m . T h u s , and  M o l l i nThe B o a r i n g  tion  o f sexual  Girl  a r e one i nt h e i r  condemna-  l a x n e s s . Openwork saje " t h a t masked  show a s s h o p k e e p e r s do t h e i r  Openwork  faces  broidered  stuff, byowl 2 l i g h t . F i n e w a r e s c a n n o t b e o p e n enough'. . M o l l c o n c l u d e s , when she d i s c u s s e s i n f i d e l i t y , t h a t "base i s t h a t m i n d t h 3 t h a t k n e e l s unto h e r body". T h e Woman K i l l e d w i t h K i n d n e s s 1  provides  thebest  summary o f t h e a t t i t u d e  minded London c i t i z e n . I n t h i s is  banished 4  play  o f the serious  t h eu n f a i t h f u l  and i sn o t f o r g i v e n u n t i l she l i e s  wife  on h e r  deathbed. I  need t o add l i t t l e  adultery well  more t o t h e s e  since I have d i s c u s s e d  as i nt h i s  remarks on  i t i nother  one. I s h a l l c a l l  attention,  chapters  as  however,  to  t h e frequently expressed opinion t h a t c i t y l f f e , 1 The c i t i z e n ' s P u r i t a n i s m went so f a r t h a t i n 1650 an a c t was p a s s e d p u n i s h i n g a d u l t e r y w i t h d e a t h . The p e n a l t y was i n f l i c t e d i ntwo o r t h r e e c a s e s o n l y . Then, juries refused to convict. 2 The R o a r i n g G i r l , p. 204. By'masked f a c e s " Openwork m e a n s women who w e a r m a s k s w h e n k e e p i n g t i y s t s w i t h t h e i r lovers. 3 4  Ibid.,p.174. T h e Woman K i l l e d w i t h k i n d n e s s ,  V,v,75-83.  203 particularly into  i n London, i n c r e a s e d the danger o f  adulteryror fornication.  falling  Threat, f o r instance,  i r : f  i n f o r m s B o u c h e r t h a t h e i s mad t o s e e k a v i r g i n i n t n e 1 I n n s o f C o u r t , and W i l l i an S m a l l s h a n k s m i s t r e s s t e l l s him  that  lived city  she  i n the  had  r e m a i n e d i n n o c e n t as l o n g as she h a d 2 country. I t i s t r u e , no d o u b t , t h t f c t h e  a f f o r d e d more o p p o r t u n i t y t h a n t h e c o u n t r y f o r  gallants such  ar&cnerchants t o v i s i t  as Cob,  3  kept. acted  the water  houses o f  c a r r i e r , was  prostitution,  supposed  to  have  Furthermore, the corrupt p o l i c e o f f i c e r s 4 as bawds. They were r e a d y t o o v e r l o o k t h e  t h a t many of  t h e w o m e n who  often fact  s o l d f l o w e r s o r produce  in  5 the  streets There  class  carried are  drama and  few  on  an  illegal  t r a d e as  well.  r e f e r e n c e s to  theft  i n the  middle  none t h a t c a n be  taken  seriously  i n  a  c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f m o r a l s . The s t e a l i n g o f H o g ' s b o x , Albumazar's absconding, or F a l s t a f f ' s robbery are not 6 the i n c i d e n t s t h a t I need. A l t h o u g h men w e r e h a n g e d 1 2 3  Ram  Alley.  111.i p.317.  ~"  t  Ibid.,l,i,p,274. E v e r y Man  i n H i s Humour.  lV,viii.  4 c f . Ram A l l e y . W i . p . 3 7 7 . " t h e - m o s t c o n s t a l S e s i n o u t p a r i s h e s a r e bawds t h e m s e l v e s . " 5 c f . G r e e n e ' s Tu basket of linen.  Quoque, p.182. The  wench w i t h  our  the  6 O t h e r r o b b e r s e s c a p e as w e l l a n d t h e i r c r i m e s a r e n o t r e g a r d e d s e r i o u s l y , c f . S l i p p e r in?Barnes I V . t h e c l o w n i n The L o o k i n g G l a s s and t h e s c h o l a r i n The P u r i t a n .  204  v  f o r s t e a l i n g bread as w e l l as f o r t a k i n g money* I can f i n d no echo of t h i s summary j u s t i c e i n our pla#s.  We  shall  have to t u r n to the pamphlets and to the rogue l i t e r a x u r e to f i n d accounts o f remorseful highwaymen and o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e v e s tea© p w " t h e i r l a s t repentances before they t u r n to the gibbet. These pamphlets also contain the comments of the c i t i z n on the s i n o f s t e a l i n g and t e l l us t h a t he d i d not t h i n k death too great a punishment f o r t h i s any k i n d of t h e f t . These are, however, very many references i n the drama to cheating and to s e l l i n g goods under f a l s e pretences. The merchant who  followed these p r a c t i c e s was as' g u i l t y  of robbing h i s customers or f e l l o w tradesmen as was  the  footpad who h e l d a p i s t o l and demanded t h e i r goods. But t h i s v i c e does not b r i n g severe punishment or wholesale execration from the c i t i z e n as does robbery committed by p r o f e s s i o n a l t h i e v e s . I  When;I t u r n from the s i n s t h a t the E l i z a b e t h a n considered heinous to the p e t t y v i c e s of h i s day I f i n d an abupdance o f v a r i e d m a t e r i a l upon which to draw.  I no-fee  e s p e c i a l l y that there i s no unanimity of judgement expressed i n these references to drunkeness, d i c i n g , or smoking, although such h a b i t s were a l l attacked f o r the same reason They were regarded as i n j u r i o u s to the p r a c t i c e of t h r i f t .  20$ h o w e v e r , t h o u g h t t h a t m o n e y w a s m©Ee  Some c i t i z e n s , foolishly  spent on p l a s  was.more o f t e n fine  on a l e ; others,  that  i t  i n b e t t i n g on cocks than i n buying  feathers. The  very  wasted  than  scenes o f d r i n k i n g i n t a v e r n  w e l l how t h e  Elizabethan's  o r home  illustrate  attitude varied.  As a r u l e  c o n d e m n a l e o r wind d r i n k i n g u n t i l i t w a s 1 c a r r i e d t o excess. Eyre, f o r i n s t a n c e , i sq u i t e w i l l i n g 2 to order beer f o r h i s apprentices, and the tavern scenes  he  d i d not  frequently  picture citizens  and g a l l a n t s gathered  together  3 to  gossip  o r exchange news.  approvingly from them taverns to  o f taverns, "rdd  b u t adds t h a t 4  as cocks".  also  as t h r e a t s  tkaes  on t h eo t h e r  place  t o morality.  Q u i c k s i l v e r wastes h i s time  speaks  men s o m e t i m e s come  To T o u c h s t o n e ,  and t h ed r i n k i n g that  be regarded  that  Harrison  i n them  hand,  are always  He c o m p l a i n s  bitterly  a n d money r o i s t e r i n g i n  taverns. There citizen's  areother disapproval  scenss i n t h e p l a y s o f the  drunkard.  that  show t h e  The clown i n  T h e L o o k i n g G l a s s f o r L o n d o n a r o u s e s t h e i r e o f Jonah £-nS A l e a n d w i n e , o f c o u r s e w a s t h e n o r m a l d r i n k o f t h e E l i z a b e t h a n . Water and m i l k were r a r e l y s a f e and t e a and c o f f e e unknown. 2  The Shoemakers' H o l i d a y ,  3 Ram A l l e y c o n t a i n s Prodigal, l,ii,p.374.  L  H a ?  ? f S  such  111,1,92-94. a. s c e n e , a l s o  The London  D e s c r i p t i o n of E n g l a n d , B o o k l l , c a p . x v i i i , c l . a l s o , B a r d o l p h i n H e n r y I V , P a r t 1, a n d T h e H o n e s t W h o r e , P a r t 1 , M a t h e o s p e a k s o f b a s e rogueF^ho m a i n t a i n a S t . A n t h o n y ' s f i r e i n t h e i r noses." « E a s t ward Ho, l , i , 1 3 0 - 1 8 0 .  p.^yo. 5  S  206 1 and Oseas and t h e i r f o l l o w e r s .  Much to Bessv' rand Olem' s  disgusttfctee zgallants-.:f. spend t h e i r time  i n the F a i r Maid o f the West • 2 i n drunken r e v e l r y . J u s t i c e Tuchih  imRam A l l e y b r i n g s d i s g r a c e on h i s own  head andccn those 3  —  of  h i s fellow o f f i c i a l s  by d r i n k i n g to excess,  o v e r - i n d u l g e s i n a l e d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he to  fie threatens  punish drunkards and quotes the law o f James t h a t  decreed  a laannarrestedifor drunkeness f o r the  f i r s t time  was  t o be f i n e d f i v e s h i l l i n g o r to spend s i x hours 4 i n the s t o c k s . S i r Toby and S i r Andrew are egen worse  drunkards than J u s t i c e T u c h i n . They s t i r the contempt 5  o f the steward, M a l v o l i o . Gambling, on the whole, i s much more wh&eheartedly condemned than i s drunkeness. Almst every r e f e r e n c e t o it  i n the p l a y s i s u n f a v o r a b l e . The  a p p r e n t i c e s are  e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n to i t . T h e i r masters complain  t h a t they  wager t h e i r money away i n c a r d games, i n d i c i n g , i n r a c i n g , o r i n c o c k f i g h t i n g . ^ M d k s i l v e r , f o r example, 1  The Looking G l a s s f o r London. 2140-2200.  2  The  Fair  Ram  Alley.  3  Maid o f the  West.  l V , i , p.335.  4  I b i d . , IV, i , p . 3 3 5 , f o o t n o t e .  5  Twelfth Night. 11,iii,92-101.  203 not  only  keeps a m i s t r e s s , b u t also gambles and b a s 1 a r a c i n g nag. O t b e r membersof t h e London p o p u l a c e .  like  t o wager  as well.  Spendal,  t h e journeyian, 2 through gambling, and M a r t i n  l o s e s m u c h 6f b i s w e a l t h Flowerdale fortunes The  gambled a n d drank u n t i l he c o u l d r e p a i r h i s 3 only through marriage with an h e i r e s s .  citizens  o f L o n d o n who w e r e c o n c e r n e d o v e r  sons and apprentices often or  dicing,  d r i n k i n g , and betting,were  equally disturbed by their  fairs.  Touchstone  attendance  at playhouses  i s sure  t h a t h i s wayward a p p r e n t i c e 4 a t t h eplayhouse. I n The P u r i t a n  has l o s t  h i s wits  Nicholas  e x p l a i n s t h a t he h a s been forbidden t o have  to  do w i t h  e v i l ways.  4  players  since they  s t r e e t s by mountebanks  trate  this  and t h e i r  The m e r c h a n t s .frowned upon  even more than  their  plays  disapproval.  Prate  anything men  shows p u t o n i n t h e  an?;upon f a i r s o u t s i d e  upon p l a y - a c t i n g .  teach  h  the city  Two i n s t a n c e s w i l l  i n T h e Dumb K n i g h t  illus-  tells  5 Lollia I fl  3  n o t t o watch motions, E a s t w a r d Ho.  and H a i r b r a i n i nA Mad World.  IV;ii.300-320.  G r e e n e * s Tu Quogtie, The London P r o d i g a l .  p.198. Ill,ii,p.384.  E a s t w a r d Ho, I V . i i . 4 1 8 - 4 2 2 . 5 T h e Dumb K n i g h t , 1 1 , i , p . 1 3 5 . M o t i o n s w i l l b e l a t e r . See p & , 2 4 * . 4  discussed  208 My  Masters takes  -Barough w h i c h  away M s  she  learns of  ifiorbids her  to  she  motions  may  see  go  S u c h men the as  face  as  and  going  to  attitude  the  wandering  "naughty  work o f  about the  the  Prate  and  they.need o n l y  decided  about  t h a n he  was  Elizabethan  to  our  the  playwright  H a i r b r a i n tnought  dressing  theatre.As  According  1 1  and  s t r e e t s where  as  wicked  be  mentinned  of  as  in  citzen's  smme  far and  detail  less  smoking  playgoing.  s w e a r i n g was  wasteful  The  fashimable  apt  provocation.  s w e a r s a r o u s e s a g r e a t many w o r d s f r o m 2 t h e s l a n g o f the day; Flowerdale's .3  the  rogues'  cant,  speech i s also i n * The take  rich  F a l s e One  become p r o f a n e  in"oaths,  i s so  h i s o a t h s .fmm. h i m  and  at the  rather  t h a n e v i l . a n d was Moll  to  was  swearing  a b o u t t h a t Of d i c i n g o r thought that  and  here.  pley>the c i t i z e n  immorality  painting  vleeez a n d t h e  these  t o w a r d s them have been d i s c u s s e d  previously,  pamphlets  anjmonsters.  elaborate the  wife's  Septimius,  pro fane et h a t A c h i l l e s i s to  take  three  parts  the  the  slightest  soldier,  s ass t h a t of  to  his  4  language. C a p t a i n P u f f i n Ram A l l e y , a m a z e s t h e W i d o w ~ ' 5 T a f f a t a by; h i s f r e q u e n t u s e o f t h e t e r m , "God B l e s s u s . " 1  A Mad  W o r l d , My  2  The  Roaring  3  The  fcondon  4  The  False  Mast eras  Girl,  '.  p.212.  Prodigal, One,  1, p . 2631  l,i,p.372.  l*i,80-85,  5 Ram A l l e y , 1 1 1 , i , p . 3 2 2 . Widow T a f f a t a s a y s t h a t . " s w e a r s 'God B l e s s u s ' " .  Puff  2B.9L  Finally, speaks  Gertrude  like  daughter's it  as  a lady.  Touchstone  of pride  References  to  d i d and  hand,  more because  roused  smoking  and  because  the h a b i t o f  he  was  that  selling  tobacco  i n one  fceign form  and  B o b a d i l are  1 Eastward  Ho.  seven  or another.  the characters i n Lingua.  than i t  was  the  other According  Camden In  tells  the  thousand  Tobacco  those  i s  shops one  •  Moll,  i n f a v o r o f smoking. Ill,ii.110-192j  on  i n 1565.  t h e r e were  2  of  disapproval.  common i n 1 6 8 0 .  d r i n k i n g was  i n  daughter  spreading rapidly.  us  y e a r s o f James  wife or  i t evil  unpleasant. But, was  she  regards  a t t a c k e d because  Stowe, Hawkins i n t r o d u c e d tobacco  early  he  thinks  similar  to  tobacco  that  are e v e n more d i v e r s e  i t was  smoking  thinks  disapproves of h i s  than because  ssaaaring. Taking tobacco  wasteful  and  A p p a r e n t l y many a c i t i z e n ' s  spoke as G e r t r u d e  to  mightily  c h o i c e o f language  sign  itself.  swears  x  dle, Moll  Justice  Clements,  smokes w i t h g u s t o ;  11.i.163-170.  d f . Henry~Tv. P a r t 1, 111,ii,249-260, 2 H o t s p u r . ...'JfHottyours, i n g o o d s o o t h ! " H e a r t , y o u swear l i k e a comfit-maker's w i f e , 'not you, i n good.sooth!' a n d ' a s t r u e a s I l i v e ! ' a n d ' a s g o d s h a l l m e n d me!' and as 'sure as day' And g i v s t s u c h s a r c e n e t s u r e t y f o r t h y o a t h s As i f t h o u n e ' e r w a l k ' s t f u r t h e r t h a n F i n s b u r y . S w e a r me, K a t e , l i k e a l a d y a s t h o u a r t , A good mouth f i l l i n g o a t h ; and l e a v e ' i n s o o t h ' And s u c h p r o t e s t s o f p e p p e r g i n g e r b r e a d To v e l v e t g u a r d s and Sunday c i t i z e n s . 2 Ljmgua_,iy4^ i n a t a f f e t a mantle, h i s a r m s b r o w n a n d n a k e t . B u s k i n s made o f t h e p e e l i n g s o f o s i e r s , his reck bare, hung w i t h I n d i a n l e a v e s , h i s f a c e brown p a i n t e d w i t h b i n e s t r i p e s . On h i s h e a d a p a i n t e d w i c k e r c r o w n w i t h tfcbaceo p i p e s s e t i n i t . Plumes o f tobacco l e a v e s , l e d by two I n d i a n b o y s n a k e t , w i t h t a p e r s i n t h e i r h a n d s , t o b a c c o b o x e s and p i p e s l i g h t e d .  210 Idle  1 prison;  solace i n a debtors' Justice 2 Clements p r a i s e s the weed; and B o b a d i l i m p r e s s e s Cob, 3 the water c a r r i e r , w i t h h i s smoking. Cash, however, 4 strongly disapproves o f t h e unpi?aant fumes and t h e w i f e in  wants tobacco's  The  Knight  o f the Burning P e s t l e  t h i n k s tobacco  i s  5 horrid any  to  stuff.  from  the  It  would  come t o  the  The  g a l l a n t s who  definite  i n the  essay  I have not  do  the  more than  m©rals a n d m o r e s was been found One in  i n the  fact,  1  The  2  E v e r y Man  ideals  space t o Omr  and  women, b u t  difficult  by  evidence  g i v i n g  preceding  as  i s too  this  varied.  attitude  r e f e r e n c e s such  citizen I  can  towards as  have  pages.  emerges c l e a r l y l f r o m t h e  from  in  define or to discuss  i n d i c a t e what the  however,  g e n e r a l as w e l l  3  that i t i s extremely  take  c o n c l u s i o n about the m o r a l i t y o f  c h a p t e r s on  aada w h o l e .  little  refuses to 6 house «  I t i s t r u e t h a t I h a v e made c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a -  tions  morality  come t o h e r  seem, t h e n ,  any  citizen.  courtezan Bellafront  particular  examples.  plays I  can  P u r i t a n . l.iv.-p.403. i n H i s Humour, 1 1 1 , i i i . 1 2 8 - 1 6 0 .  Ibid.,11,i,195-202.  4  Ibid.,111,ii,330-381.  5  The  Knight  6  The  H o n e s t W h o r e , P a r t 1,  of the Burning  Pestle,  1,ii,140-145.  ll,i,pJ23.  s a j with; c e r t a i n t y s t e a d i l y g rowing  i n which  treated  the force  s t r o n g e r , and t h a t  citizen's morality plays  thdu  would  smoking,  as i n d i f f e r e n t  force  of Puritanism i n time  the London  h i m t o condemn  d r i n k i n g , o r swearing matters.  was  completely were  211 1 • So c l r a l i L F e I f a r e in are at  the plays  that  many r e f e r e n c e s t o street corners  deal with  t h e London c i t i z e n  the disbanded  s o l d i e r s who  o r swaggex-ed i n t a v e r n s  " l a n d l e s s " m e n who c a m e to  the city  t h e "sturdy beggars ".These r e f e r e n c e s  of  t h e c i t i z e n s were unemployed  the  of  discuss  and t h a t  legislation  problems o f poverty  I^shall  and t o t h e  show u s t h a t  many  aware o f t h e l a r g e number o f p o o r  i n the c i t y  some f o r m o f s o c i a l  begged  and swelled t h e ranks  of  and  there  a few o f them  was n e c e s s a r y  and crime.  the Elizabethan's  In this  thought  t o cope  chapter,  with  therefore,  a t t i t u d e towards the care  the i n d i g e n t and t h e c r i m i n a l as i ti s r e f l e c t e d i n  the  drama. I n m o s t cae'es, u p t o t h e t i m e o f t h e U u d o r s , t h e  relief  o f the poor  been p u r e l y quently,  and t h e punishment o f c r i m i n a l s h a d  the a f f a i r  o?ftithe p a r i s h o r t o w n a n d , c o n s e -  a l llegislation  dealing with  crime  and  1 F o r the b a c k g r o u n d , i n f o r m a t i o n c o n t a i n e d c h l a p t e r I am i n d e b t e d t o : Judges, Leonard, Old  A.V., T h e E l i z a b e t h a n E.M.  London  i n this  Underworld.  E a r l y H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Poor  Relief.  Illustrated.  O n i o n s , C.T., , Trevelyan,  poverty,  e d . , S h a k e s p e a r e ' s-" E n g l a n d  G.M.,  English Social  History.  2 T h e s e were the t e r m s u s e d i n E l i z a b e t h a n t i m e s d e s c r i b e the u n e m p l o y e d a g r i c u l t u r a l l a b o r e r .  to  213 had. b e e n  extremely  Elizabeth's  reign  that covered of  similar  haphazard.  B u t , by the end o f  a p o o r l a w h a d b e e n worked o u t  t K e whole kingdom  legislation  a n d t h a t was much i n a d v a n c e 1  on t h e c o n t i n e n t .  Under t h e E l i z a b e t h a n poor Law t h e c a r e  of the penniless  remained t h e immediate:'concern o f t h e l o c a l p a r i s h , b u t t h e parish In  the country  relief a  o f f i c e r s were  directly  districts,  responsible  t o t h e crown.  f o r example, t h e  parishkpoor  was o v e r s e e n by t h e J u s t i c e o f t h e g e a e e ,  servant  o f t h e Queen.  i n charge o f workhouses  who  I n t h e towns t h e v a r i o u s and o f  was  officials  a l m s h a d t o make t h e i r  reports  to t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l . These p a r i s h o f f i c i a l s material  and t o b u i l d  who b e l o n g e d i n t h e i r work. They h a d a l s o and  to those  possible, the  who  however,  workhouses f o r those districts  to give  could  were c o m p e l l e d by l a w t o buy  aims and s h e l t e r t o t h e ages  n o t work.  have d e s c r i b e d  London, however,  They d i d e v e r y t h i n g  to avoid giving r e l i e f 2  briefly  throughout England i n the late in  a n d who w e r e w i l l i n g , t o  p a r i s h who w e r e n o t i n t i t l e d 1  among t h e i n d i g e n t  t o any p e o p l e i n  to-it,  the aspect  o f poor r e l i e f i n  sixteenth century.  d i d n o t .always d u p l i c a t e t h o s e  Conditions i n other  p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y ; a n d , t h e r e f o r e I s n a i l now l o o k a t 1 The E l i z a b e t h a n P o o r Law was n o t a l t e r e d i n any s i g n i f i c a n t d e t a i l u n t i l 1 8 3 4 , w h e n t h e New P o o r L a w w a s p a s s e d , 2 The O v e r s e e r s o f t h e P o o r d i d a l l t h e y c o u l d t o f o r c e t h e vagrant t o work, A l a w p a s s e d i n 1547 s a i d t h a t t h e v a g r a n t who r e f u s e d t o w o r k s h o u l d b e f o r c i b l y a p p r e n t i c e d . I n 1567, he c o u l d be s e n t t o t h e g a l l e y s o r b a n i s h e d f r o m E n g l a n d .  214' at c e r t a i n problems that The  Overseers of  difficult  to  confronted  the  the  the  who  into  districts  the  low  ranks of There  and I  to  had  flocked to  thieves,  are  justly  capital.  such  as  debtors,  and  consider  to  the  those  agriculturalllaborers  end  the  city.  Alsatia and  In  These  and  and  crowded  greatly  swelled  beggars. plays  refere  the  were  soldiers  both  to  p r o v i s i o n made f o r  that to  when t h e y  disbanded  many a l l u s i o n s i n t h e  l a n d l e s s men  s h a l l now  P o o r Law  l a r g e numbers of  l a n d l e s s men the  the  Poor i n London, f o r example, f o u n d i t  enforce  by  were p e c u l i a r to  to  indosure  the  soldiers them.  unemployed  that  had  forced  1 them to In sit in  general there  a l e h o u s e on and  "sturdy  ; i  a .man  compulsory  the  the  are. taoreostocks"  "houses to  forbade  town.  S i r John Oldcastle,  i n the  that are  come t o  for  public  leave  giving of  his  road  beggar"  own  alms. But  two  and  old  discuss  men the  pQor  i n p a r t i c u l a r . They  to s et 2  r e l i e v e them". to  instance,  the  latter  They m e n t i o n parish  and  i n than  the  they  say there  statute talk  even though t h e s e o l d  that  about  te  men  a r e1 s yA ml pt ah to hu eg th i ct h et o L to hned o n, ' icsit tu ri dzye bn e gsgeaerm"e d t ht oe y tfh ie ne kl tthhaatt h e e n c l o s u r e was one o f t h e g r e a t e r e v i l s o f h i s day, i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r a s many o f t h e " s t u r d y b e g g a r s " , a s r h e b e l i e v e d , were r e c r u i t e d f r o m t h e r anks o f l a n d l e s s men,i n some c a s e s , w h o l e v i l l a g e s w e r e d e p o p u l a t e d , b u t this o c c u r r e n c e was t h e e x c e p t i o n r a t h e r t h a n t h e r u l e . I t was not u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t the problem of depopul a t i o n became a c u t e , e f . J u d g e s , A.V., The Elizabethan U n d e r w o r l d , " I n t r o d u c t i o n " , ppv-vii. and T r e v e l y a n , G.M,, E n g l i s h s o c i a l H i s t o r y , pp,tl6-l*>o f o r t w o d i f f e r i n g v i e w s . -  215 threatens citizens Doctor  t h e peace o f t h e commonwealth; i n g e n e r a l , a r e of  J  other  t h e same o p i n i o n . T h e s e r v a n t , Wagner,' i n  Eaustus,  f o r instance, has heard  o f l a n d l e s s men  1 and  s p e a k s of. t h e c l o w n a s a " v i l l i a n  The  citizens  of h i s  describe  "Betting  sail  hare  S i r Petronal Plash forVirginia"  and o u t o f  service."  the ffailure  after  a s "coming t o town  like  2 a ma. s t e r l e s s m a n " is  I n t h i s phrase  a worthless person. Before  to  '  the knight  . references  s o l d i e r s o f E l i z a b e t h a n London, 1 -shall  a t t h e E n g l i s h army i n t h e s i x t e e n t h c e n t u r y .  was i n v e r y go  that  imply  I turn to the plays that contain  the disbanded  look  without  would from  bad repute. pay as l o n g  sequently,  or  through  to m a k e  did n o t c a r e  the  pay o f the s l a i n  I t sranks  the activities  elsewhere  h a d t o be s u p p l i e d  o f the p r e s s  gang.  c o n v i c t s and pressed  how many of t h e m w e r e k i l l e d  f o r they  kept  when a n d ^ i f i t w e r e d e l i v e r e d . O t h e r  officers put fictitious  names on t h e i r  c l a i m pay f o r these  imaginary  the whole, t h e p i c t u r e o f P a l s t a f f 1  Doctor  2  E a s t w a r d H o . I V , i i , 110-120.  Faustus.  and, con-  a living  the captains i n charge o f these  men  dould  as she p o s s i b l y c o u l d ;  no man who w a s a b l e  the goals  I t  The queen a l l o w e d h e r s o l d i e r s t o  e n t e r t h e army v o l u n t a r i l y .  Moreover,  ,  they  l.iv.8-10.  rolls  soldiers.  so t h a t Indeed,  they on  and h i s "one h u n d r e d and  fifty  t a t t e r e d p r o d i g a l s " i s not  and  l i v i n g counterparts  the  plays The  the  were o f t e n authentic  l a n d l e s s men, atyany they  who  hoped t o  swaggered  buy  imposters.  a i d of  food  drama t h e r e  and  their  army. boasted  in  Sometimes these of  the  were  city.  borrowed m i l i t a r y  In glory,  lodging.  a r e many  soldiers tried  toobbtain  plays  there  be  seems t o  and  of  begged f o r alms i n t h e " " s t r e e t s  these  authentic  Elizabethan  sometimes the mere r a g - t a g the  truth;  P u f f s andthe Pis t o l s 2  s o l d i e r s who  hordes of  .rate, w i t h  I n the  the  found i n the  L o n d o n tavern® o r  were j o i n e d by  of  1  vefcy f a r f r o m t h e  2ie  three  scenes t h a t t e l l  a living.  us  According  how  to  p r i n c i p a l methods f o r  the  both  and  sham m e n - a t - a r m s t o malLeoends m e e t . They 3 m i g h t p l a n t o m a r r y w e a l t h y women, a s d i d P u f f o r S i r 4 Petronel Flash. They m i g h t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , show t h e i r s c a r s and ask f o r a l m s i n c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r t h e i r s e r v i c e s , a s Mawworm a n d  The  imposters,  and  Trapdoor,  A n t i e n t A u b r e y may  Brainworm, i n The  i n E v e r y Man  have  i n His  Roaring^'Girl, attempt to  1 2  done. 5  Humour, obtain  H e n r y I V , P a r t 1, I V , i i , 1 0 - 1 5 0 . The s w a g g e r i n g s o l d i e r i n t h e p l a y s seems t o t o be a s much a p o r t r a i t o f an E n g l i s h s o l d i e r a s echo o f the " m i l e s g l o r i o s u s V v 3n  Ram  Alley,  111,ii,p.314.  4  E a s t w a r d Ho.  5  E v e r y Man  Ill,ii,70-75.  i n H i s Humour.  11,ii.  me an  2m money i n a s i m i l a r manner. Trapdoor  says t h a t he i s  "a poor s o l d i e r , h u r t i n t h e low c o u n t r i e s , taken by  21 the Turk i n t h e seige o f B e l g r a d e . " Many o f t h e s o l d i e r s , however, p r e f e r r e d t o use y e t another method t o g a i n t h e i r l i v i n g . These men, l i k e B o b a d i l , found t h a t t h e y c o u l d e x i s t through v a r i o u s forms o f c h a r l a t a n i s m .  practising  Thus, some might b r a g o f  t h e i r deeds and f l a u n t themselves  as e x p e r i e n c e d and w i d e l y  t r a v e l l e d men, connoiseurs f o f e v e r y t h i n g from 2 :  fencing  t o food. These men would p r e t e n d t h a t t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p was a p r i v i l e g e g r a n t e d o n l y t o a chosen few;  they hoped t h a t  those whome they impressed j p a r t i c u l a r l y the women, would pay t h e i r b i l l s o r even pawn t h e i r p l a t e to support  such  f i n e g a l l a n t s . B o b a d i l i s an example o f t h i s type o f s o l d i e r . S i r A r t h u r o f The London P r o d i g a l d e s c r i b e s them as h a u n t i n g 4  t a v e r n s and l i v i n g o f f t h e i r h o s t e s s e s . S o l d i e r s such as S k i r m i s h anit.Oath, on t h e o t h e r hand, p r a c t i s e d a s l i g h t l y more e l a b o r a t e form o f c h e a t i n g . They 1 The R o a r i n g G i r l , P1214-215. c f . M o l l ' s a t t i t u d e . She says t h a t such men as Trapdoor a r e a d i s g r a c e t o t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n . He i s a "mere whip-jack, and t h a t i s i n t h e commonwealth o f rogues a s l a v e , t h a t c a n t a l k o f a s e a - f i g h t , name a l l your c h e i f p i r a t e s , d i s c o v e r more c o u n t r i e s t o you than e i t h e r t h e Dutch, Spanish, Rreneh. o r i n g l i s h ever found out; y e t indeed a l l h i s s e r v i c e ^ i s by l a n d , and t h a t i s to r o b a f a i r o r some such v e n t u r o u s e x p l o i t , 2 cf. The Honest Whore, P a r t 1 , 1 , 1 1 , p . 1 0 1 , F u s t l g o says thaj, he w i l l manage t o l i v e by~ p r e t e n d i n g t o be a " t e r r i b l e wide mouthed swaggerer".  218 set  themselves  money from Oath  up  as c o n j u r e r s o r  credulous citizens  and. S k i r m i s h s e y  >t h e i r  wits"  by  that they  i n t h i s manner  so  a l c h e m i s t s ahd  obtained  performing megic. are  f o r c e d to  v.  Both  "turn to  t h a t they w i l l  not  be  1 imprisoned  i n the  Despite  a l lt h e i r  sometimes found to  Counter. scheming, t h e  that they  could not  keep them. Then, they-were  debtors  in,prison. 2  Idle,  disbanded  soldiers  o b t a i n enough money  often forced to  join  f o r instance, i s sent  to  other the  Marshalsea. The  problem  difficult by  the  of  enough  large  soldiers  nor  to  cared  were  unable  was  no  could  they  to  often  i n the  w e r e - m e r c h a n t s who such  show t h e i r  neither usual  had  they were not being  sense  been  unsuccess-  entitled  soldiers  wounds as t h e y begged.  Indeed,  and  t h e y were c o m i t t e d the  Puritan,  Their debts to  they  money t h a t t h e y  Miey  city  were t r e a t e d  a debtors"  prison  owed.  guild  to  as  until  l,il,p.401.  Ibid., l,iv,p.403. A i d was s o m e t i m e s g i v e n b y t h e fhey ran into debt.  '  There  t h e y w e r e . a t t a c k e d by  rather than helped.  couc&d p a y The  paupers  f o r i n the workhouse; not  turn for aid.  crimes,  2 3  nor  were  complicated  government or m u n i c i p a l o r g a n i z a t i o n t o which .3  officials  is  n u m b e r o f d e b t o r s , who l a n d l e s s men,  p e n n i l e s s i n London,  made y e t m o r e  i n b u s i n e s s v e n t u r e s . As be  1  f o r the  a l r e a d y , was  the word. O f t e n t h e y  ful  '  of caring  i t s members  219  The  Elizabethan citizens,  f a u l t with  this  i f  a man  of  i d l e n e s s , and  to  imprison  the  ran  treatment  debtor  into  him  they  pay  when he  was  the  whole,  debtor.  being  found  look  punished  think that  Roaring  Girl  was  voices  sin  ridiculous  and  see  that  earn  i n the  the  that,  f o r the  i t was  to h i s affairs  h i s d e b t s w h i l e he  no  They f e l t  owed o t h e r qien. They d i d n o t  could hardly  zDfflSY-Tpt i n T h e  attitude  he  the  did not  i f he  enough money t o JS'-HT  debt,  of  on  Counter.  citizens  1  says:  When p r o d i g a l r u f f i a n s f a r i n d e b t a r e g r o w n , 1 Should not you c u t them, c i t i z e n s wereod' erthrown. The Coynter their Tu  debtors and,  food.  were U1su^E5f^*^it  while  there,  There  i s an  Quoque t h a t d e s c r i b e s  wrangling  over  the debtors  the  had  to  but  this  c u s t o m e was  had  been  i n a debtor's  Mayor; he charge Kiw Fleet  and  many and 1 The 2  interesting the  with  the  scene  and  water  p r i s o n , a t one  pay  and  the  for  inQGreene's  wine.  in:il450,  lodging  that deal men  and  and  and  with  time.  and  the  Originally,  lodging  also, He  L a t e r , he  became  made i t i l l e g a l  water.  the  and  the  women c o m m i t t e d t o "thorn  are  v a r i e d . They r a n g g f r o m t h o s e R o a r i n g G i r l , p. .  G r e e n e ' s Tu  to  to  a b o l i s h e d fey S i r S t e p h e n F o s t e r .  for their  references  Fleet or  prisoners' mealtime 2  for their  r e b u i l d t Ldugate  debtors  the  they'werae e x p e c t e d  prices of bread pay  to  Q u o q u e , p.557-  260.  Counter  that  speak o f  the  to  220 p r o d i g a l who to  those  argosies is  l o s e s h i s money t h r o u g h w a n t o n  t h a t pfccture t h e h a r d w o r k i n g c i t i z e n have been  lost  an&his income w i t h  a good example o f t h e f i r s t  The he  former i s c o n f i n e d  type,  p a y title r e q u i r e d  could  afford  them l i v e d  luxuries  Ram A l l e y .  In this  about the h e a l t h  o f the second. scene  He i s t o l d  t h a t i f he  does  have t o go i n t o t h e  1  The d e b t o r s  quarters  than  resources.  to t h e debtors' play,  t h o s e who h a d  Francis  prisons  are found  asks the sergeant  o f the keeper o f the Counter.  t h a t when s h e h a d b e e n  who  o r who h a d f r i e n d s t o p r o v i d e f o r  neither wealthy friends n o r other  in  Spendal  and i n one  *&he h o l e "  i n mouse p l e a s a n t  Other references  them.  prison  amount he w i l l  "two p e n n y w a r d " o r i n t o  whose  Bannister  to a debtors'  i s asked t o pay f o rh i s food.  not  speanding  imprisoned  formerly  She  says  he h a d always  given the in  h e r g o o d p* o v i s i o n s t h a t h e h a d r e f u s e d t o g i v e 2 knights. S m a l l s h a n k s , i n t h e same p l a y , i s s o m u c h  debt  a n d so a f r a i d o f t h e C o u n t e r t h a t h e l i v e s  s u b u r b s a n d " d w i n d l e s a s much new p l a y e r The iff/Thomas, ~~1  does  at a plague  a t a sergeant " 3 b i l l .  p r o b l e m o f d e b t i s t r e a t e d more Lord  Cromwell than  i n any o t h e r  i n buff  i nthe as a n  sympathetically play.  In i t  G r e e n e ' s Tu Quoque, P P . 2 6 0 . 2 5 7 .  T h e k e e p e r o f t h e C o u n t e r ? . . . He i s a n h o n e s t m a n ; H a s o f t e n s t o o d f o r me A n d b e e n my f r i e n d ; a n d l e t me g o o ' t r u s t F o r * v i c t u a l , when he h a s d e n i e d i t k n i g h t s . . . . 3  Ibid.,l,L.  221 the  unfairness  o f imprisonment  and t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r  some s o r t o f o l d a g e p e n s i o n f o r l o y a l r e t a i n e r s a r e "both 1 discussed. T h e a n c i e n t s e r v a n t s , S e e l y ar&jo'an, f o r instance,  who h a v e b e e n f o r c e d  the d e b t o r S i and  p r i s o n ^ are given  commended f o r t h e i r  play, fly  cutor,  Bagot,  The  it  income b y C r o m w e l l 2 service. I n t h e same  honorable  t o Antwerp t o avoid b e i n g  sBnt t o t h e C o u n t e r ,  debtor are i n the minority, that  e x p r e s s sympathy f o r however;  the Elizabethans  a n d we  s t u p i d i t y o f imprisonment f o r debt were  few  i n number. Most o f o u r p l a y s  simply  speak o f t h e F l e e t  bethan  life.  must  take  who w e r e c o n c e r n e d  the  over  relatively  a n d many o f t h e c i t i z e n s  andthe Counter  as part  of Eliza-  I t i s e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d why t h e p r o b l e m o f  debt continued^ Marshalsea  i s treated  f o rh i s harshness.  an&pamphlets that  f o rgranted  who h a s b e e n f o r c e d t o  and, a t t h e end o f t h e p l a y , h i s p e r s e 3  i s punished  plays  cow t o escapee  a small  t h e honest merchant Bannister,  with understanding;  the  t o pawn t h e i r  t o be t r o u b l e s o m e  flourished until  f o r many y e a r s .  The  t h e days o f Macawber.  Other problems c o n n e c t e d w i t h  crime  and  poverty  a r e t r e a t e d i n t h e pla#S a n d p a m p h l e t s . I h a v e d i s c u s s e d many o f t h e s e i n t h e s e c t i o n s o n i d e a l s , e t h i c s , a n d 4 London.  I h a v e s a i d t h a t t h e p o l i c e f o r c e v/as i n a d e q u a t e ,  1  Thomas, L o r d  2 3  Ibid.,lVyii,p.362. Ibid.,11,iii,p.356.  4  see a b o v e pp.15,17^53,12.7^ £04 -£05. ?  Cromwell,  111, l i r a . 3 5 2 .  ~"  1  221 that  i t s members were u n d e r p a i d ,  prostitution.  Such  and t h a t they  a c o n s t a b u l a r y c o u l d n o t cope w i t h  half  the crime o f E l i z a b e t h a n London,  more  acts of violence  in  the years before.  result  o f summary  including Newgate,  those  wene  b e i n g committed  and u n i n t e l l i g e n t  the state  prison,  sixteenth  prisons,  governed, than  I may  that  social  i gislation  century. Otherwise  l e d to theft  tive,  f o r its tanee,  Bridewell,  say t h a t t h e E l i z a b e t h a n P o o r passed i n  the Elizabethans  circle.  T h e y made  to reform c r i m i n a l s o r to r o o t o u t t h e  evils  the  The  was n o t much b e t t e r 1  seemed t o b e c a u t h t i n a v i c i o u s attempt  justice.  f o r p r o s t i t u t e s . B e d l a m , wheies as c r i m i n a l s , was t h e w o r s t o f  Law was t h e o n l y i m p o r t a n t  no  than had been  f o r d e b t o r s , were n e g l i g e n t l y  In conclusion,  late  and, a l lt h e w h i l e  Sometimes these were t h e d i r e c t  t h e h o u s e a'€ c o r r e c t i o n t h e i r e ane w e r e t r e a t e d 2 all.  the  encouraged  and murder.  Nothing  social  corstruc-  was d o n e f o r t h e l a n d l e s s m e n  orf o r  disbanded  reduced  s o l d i e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h e y were frequently 3 to stealing. I t i s true that i n our plays, i n  1  T h e W i s e s t w h o r e . P a r t 11,  2  Ibid,,  P a r t 1,  V,ii,pp.270-271.  V,ii,pp.173*190.  3 Sometimes t h i s p r a c t i c e was encouraged b y o u t w a r d l y respectable ..citizens, c f . The L o o k i n g G l a s s f o r London, jh©30-1950. The u s u r e r u r g e s A l c o n a n d h i s w i f e t o s t e a l so t h a t h e may b e n e f i t f r o m t h e i r c r i m e s .  223 a few  instances,  seem t o  consciousness, but The  t h i s had  w e l f a r e w o r k now  to  be,  of  the  not  an  the  awakening  social •  as y e t become v e r y  performs d by  t o many c i t i z e n s , guild.  indicate  duty  state of  the  or  city  active.  s t i l l  individual  or  seemed  224 1 The S t a t e In t h i s chapter!, s h a l l t u r n to the concept for to  of  the  devoting  ideal  state.  There are  a complete chapter  a u t h o r i t y as  i t was  I n the  t o m a k e my  of the middle  survey  to t h e  first  place,  I must c o n s i d e r the  in  to the  n e c e s s i t y f o r an There speeches Not  united  to  would:.not h a v e  2  queen.  after  supported  interesting  He  another  rebellion,  the  1620  the  and  trying  complete  country  references and  to  the  Parliament  see, that  any  class  government.  i n London  i n beheading  the c i t i z e n  approved o f  f o r l o o k i n g a t theise  peaceful  middle  a king,. I t i s  of Elizabeth's  s u g g e s t i o n to depose such  too h o r r i b l e  to contemplate.  he  have b e l i e v e d t h a t he  the  an  drama as  reason  would have considered  would not  aid munici-  established order.  about r i o t ,  raid  national  reaction  l a r g e number o f  organization of  i s , however,  many y e a r s  reasons  citizens'  since I  class  as p o s s i b l e , the plays  several  embodied i n the  p a l governments.  Elizabethan's  action  the  as-:-treason  Despite h i s growing would  day  ever use  power, i t against  throne . We  know, i n g e n e r a l ,  s t a t e and 1, T h e been l i s ideals.  the c i t i z e n ' s  o u t l o o k on  the  c a n see t h e r e a s o n s f o r h i s d e c i d e d s t a n d a g a i n s t background m a t e r i a l f o r t h i s chapter has already t e d . I t i s m u c h t h e same a s f o r t h e c h a p t e r o n S'ee^p. 11.  2 This statement, of course, r e f e r s to the m a j o r i t y o f c i t i z e n s and d o e s n o t i n c l u d e t h o s e t h a t w e r e e n g a g e d i n jJpopish p l o t s " .  22S treason.  I have  said previously  t h a t he  m e d i e v a l c o n c e p t o f d e g r e e . He b e l i e v e d should  c o n s i s t o f rank upon rank  each f u l f i l l i n g  a u t h o r i t y . He  period,  and I  maintaining In  under  peaceful  an o r d e r l y  conditions.  hindered  Secondly,  or  desire  t h e i r way  and a s t r o n g  They  knew t h a t The  through  the c i t i z e n s ,  "influence  wealth  o f rank.  They  the  Howards  noble,  prosperity  i n power, the  at  nobility  wished r a t h e r  and t o e n j o y t h e o f London  b u t t h e y taever  Versailles.  to  latter's and o f  o f t h e power  and  regarded  and t h e S o m e r s e t s as t h e e i g h t e e n t h  Parisians d i d the lords  of  trade.  to destroy  have been j e a l o u s  of the great  c i v i l  remenb e r e d  although growing  among t h e l o r d s  l a r g e t o w n s may  and  and even t h e persecution's  interfering with  to use t h e i r  class  successfully  riot  Elizabethan  t r a d i t i o n a l p r i v i l e g e s . The c i t i z e n s other  i n . oy.r  government  b e c a r r i e d o n .most  had tended to r u i n the  to upset the order  find  &  some o f h i s r e a s o n s f o r  society  commerce.  t h e Wars o f t h e R o s e s  no  i n obedience to  a l l members o f t h e m i d d l e  their business could  the country  had  outline  place,  Edward VI a n l o f Mary of  nations,  d i d n o t change h i s o p i n i o n  s h a l l now  the f i r s t  disturbance that  a  i t so f i r m l y .  wished t o have because  that  of different classes,  a particular function  central  i n h e r i t e d the  century  226  The  m i d d l e c l a s s c r a f t s m a n o r m e r c h a n t who  London had  particularly  against  the  throne.  through  joining  strong  His  the  obtained  reasons to  city  kings  had  and  i t had  its  support. N a t u r a l l y , therefore,  sentiment of or  queen.  it  .against  to  the  almost to  into  the  the  anything  a l l classes  i d e a l of  the  could  and  organization  summary m a n n e r . duty to the  an  be  I  The  the  i n favor  of  f o r any  nobl  for  the the  king  lo^/al threaten  than  use  N  forced of  spirit  and  the  B o t h he  the  of Englishmen  served  organized  state. Pride  ew  and  World  i n her  borders.  for instance,  that  to  -Ralph,  although  leabe h i s wife,  s t a t e t h a t has and  Eyre the  feel  England.  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y .  pressed  never  i t is  F r e n c h knaves""  l,i,241-253.  true  in  questions  t r e a t e d him that  in  defeat,  dared i f England remained  " c r a c k ' theVc'rowns o f  glory of  be  period,  average E l i z a b e t h a n fEeel  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y , army  this  a king would  growth o f n a t i o n a l  A r m a d a made t h e  the  i n return  impossible  h e r s e l f and . u n i t e d w i t h i n h e r  the  liberties  middle class rather  England's achievements i n the of  its;power  nobles.  p a t r i o t i s m of  strengthen  rebellion  against  at  t i m e when  power o f t h e  the  Finally,  the  in  struggles  London c i t i z e n would  foresee  financial  increased  and  I t would have been  tradesman to the  the  privileges  f r o w n on  gained  in their  lived  in his  for  this  With  these  i n f l u e n c e s w o r k i n g upon him  that  the  that  h i s counterpart  The of  citizen  latter's play.  was  Both i n the  deploring riot, decrees,  From  The  that  "order"  ones t h a t  him  he  andpraising the  plays  Looking  Glass  a disturbed  regardless the  and  Shakespeare to outlook  the  and  to  i n  official  most  feeble same.  example,  i s a hell,  tgrpe  dissention,  remains the  f o r London, f o r  commonwealth  the  citizen  subjection  or  authority.  of  speaking against  peace  of  supports  criticise  i s seen  wonder  and "degree",  drama always  o f unknown w r i t e r s the  In say  i n the  of  sentiment never varies,  those thatpvaise  efforts  i n favor  i t isr;no  Oseas  " I f feet 1  h o l d head His  in  scorn,  l a n g u a g e may  the  not  dty  be  as  state  will  elaborate  fall  as  and  that  be  of  forlorn."  Ulysses  2 iniTroilus  ani'Cressida, but  Scarborrow certain  i n The  that  the  Miseries order  t h o u g h he  himself  says t h a t  the world  fights  with  the  Looking Glass Marriage. the  In  sheriff  may  of  turn 3  f o r London  order  Looking Glass  i s no  different.  Marriaggc-  He  upside  "the  butler  mayor t o  2  T r o i l u s andCresside,  3  «Bhe M i s e r i e s o f E n f o r c e d  even  i t .  of  The  equally  f o r a time under  and; T h e  1  i s  preserved  down when  S i r John O l d c a s t M  beginning the  of Enforced  suffer  will  argument  s o c i e t y m u s t be  master".  the  his  Miseries  the  play  t e l l  f o r London,  of  the  echoes.athe Enforced  judge  and  his citizens 1503-1511.  that !  1,iii,83-130. Marriage,  UV,  p.565.  ESS they  should  not  rebel against  their  1 superiors.  ^Pfiiige. You, master mayor, l o o k t o y o u r c i t i z e n s ; ...No m e e t i n g s i n precinct,,/faiiere the srulgan s o r t s i t on t h e i r a l e - b e n c h , w i t h t h e i r cups*"and c a n , . . . M a t t e r s o f s t a t e b e n o t t h e i r common t a l k , n o r p u r e r e l i g i o n by t h e i r l i p s profaned. Near the  end  of  the  play the  s e p a r a t i o n og  the  same d o c t r i n e o f  the  the  nobleman, Acton,  that  joining  with  the  king preaches to  populace.  he 2  has  the  rebels  classes.  He  forgotten h i s place  tells in  King. Y o u s h o u l d be more d i s c r e e t l y t e m p e r e d than to j o i n with peasants; ... And t h o u h a s t made i t ( t h e g e n t r y ) more t h a n popular. We  n o t i c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e j p l a y t h a t M u r l e y ' s men  at ease  about f i g h t i n g 3 bishops". *  against  O t h e r p l a y s b e a r out  the  k i n g and  what I have j u s t  ar.e  never  "learned  stated. 4  Ulysses The  s p e e c h on  "lesson" of.Julius  head o f the and u p o n the is  degree i s too  not  i s t h a t the  country  itself.  similar  only  the  TM&  the  and  the  nobles  w e a l a s w e l l a n d b r i n g t a b o u t t h e i r own 1 S i r John Oldcastle., iyi?p.320.  Ibid.7"l5',ii,p.337.  3  Ibid.,  4  T £ o i l u s and. C r e s s i d a , 1 , i i i , 8 3 - 1 3 0 .  Ill,ii,p.333.  Henry VI,Part  11,  IV,  other  v,vi,vii,viii.  but  the  the  commit i t Cade  rebels  common5 destruction.  2  5  who  r e v o l u t i o n of Jack  m a n n e r . He  k i n g and  quoted.  murder o f  s t a t e b r i n g s d i s a s t e r upon those  treated in a  threaten  Caesar  w e l l known t o be  223  As a r e s u l t of h i s b e l i e f i n degree the London c i t i z e n feared and hated the mob  as did the  aristocrat  above him.  He knew that"the muddy!' throng o f the rank 1 multitude." could upset the even tenor of c i t y trade o r tear down the s t a l l s i n front of Goldsmith's Eow even more e a s i l y than i t could storm the houses of the nobles. He never believed that numbers meant wisdom and sometimes he was dubious about the wo4?th of a popular vote i n c i v i c e l e c t i o n s . For instance, Commonsense i n Lingua, i n many ways the embodiment.of the c i t i z e n ' s i d e a l mayor, regards with scorn the c o n f l i c t i n g judgements of the mustard maker  2 and the c u r r i e r . Commonsense. Crave my counsel! Te}.l me what manner of man he i s ? Can he hold a velvet cap cap i n one hand, -.and vale, h i s bonnet with the other? Knows he how to become a scarlet gown? Hath he pair of fresh posts at h i s door? Can he part a couple of dogs brawling i n the streets? Why then ehuse him m^yor: Fie upon i t , what a t o i l have I had to chuse them a mayor yonder? There's a fusty c u r r i e r w i l l have t h i s mats, there's a chandler wipes his nose on h i s sleeve, and swears i t s h a l l not be so; thece's a mustard maker, looks as keen as vinegar, w i l l have another. In P h i l a s t e r an^The Shoemaker's Holiday, two widely d i f f e r i n g plays, we have the same picture.  According to  the Elizabethan, a group o f people, either large or small, i s more apt to be influenced by emotion than by reason. In the f i r s t play, for instance, the "beast with many 1 2  O l d Fortunatus, 1 1 , i i ,  Lingua,  ll,iii,p.371.  238-240.  :  '  230 heads, the  swaggering m u l t i t u d e " c a l l s f o x the  immediate  e x e c u t i o n o f Pharamond, r e g a r d l e s s o f p o l i t i c a l I n Ehe  S h o e m a k e r s' H o l i d a y ,  composed o f E y r e ' s  a much s m a l l e r a s s e m b l a g e ,  even though the  favors the c i t i z e n c l a s s ,  and  author  with  the confused  France  citizen  of the  rarely criticizes  a n d h i s f e l l o w s , f o r i n s t a n c e , v o i c e two  Finally,  that  a p p r e n t i c e s and j o u r n e y m e n , i s a l s o  d e p i c t e d as u n s t a b l e ,  o p i n i o n s o f t h e war  consequences  completely  i n almost  i n A King  it.  play Hodge opposed 2  as many moments.  and No  King,  amidst  t h e hubbub o f t h e m u l t i t u d e , w i s h e s t h a t p e a c e w o u l d come 3 a g a i n and  the crowd d i s p e r s e .  a government  s t r o n g enough to p u t  so t h a t t h e y m i g h t b e without  He  a b l e t o go  and  o t h e r c i t i z e n s wanted  down s u c h about t h e i r  insurrection own  business  interruption.  1 P h i l a s t e r . V , i v , 3 8 - 4 0 . The m u l t i t u d e d o e s n o t r e a l i z e t h a t Pharamond*s e x e c u t i o n m i g h t b r i n g h i s c o u n t r y ' s army t o t h e i r c i t y . 2  The  Shoemakers' H o l i d a y .  3  A King, and No  King.  l , i , 121-268.  11,ii.  1  Amusements Up  to t h i s  point  I have d e s c r i b e d  c i t i z e n working i n h i s shop, taking  part  little  attention  In t h i s he  t r a d i n g on t h eh i g h seas, o r  i n London's government,  b u t I have  t o what h e d i d i n h i s l e i s u r e  chapter,  therefore,  he had a l a r g e instance,  pamphlet the  the E l i z a b e t h a n  I £fcall  very  time.  shall find t a  entertainment.  s t a y a t home t o r e a d t h e l a t e s t ?  o r the newest t r a n s l a t i o n ,  playhouse,  Finsbury  a n d v a r i e d choice o f  he might  paid  t r y t o l e a r n how  amused h i m s e l f when h e was n o t w o r k i n g . I  that For  23*1  o r he m i g h t go t o  the BearGarden, o r the archery butts  Fields.  In fine  weather  he might  in  venture  away to t h § woods a n d -Streams b e y o n d L o n d o n f o r a  further day's  duck s h o o t i n g o r a n g l i n g . I  s h a l l mention f i r s t  the  citizen's  and  include  to  ability  the a l l u s i o n s that  to r e a d . These  so many d i f f e r e n t  think that  classes  to  a r e so numerous that  the population of sixteenth  v;,l F o r t h e "fcacfkground i n f o r m a t i o n c h a p t e r I am c h i e f l y i n d e b t e d t o :  refer  one i s a p t c e n t u r y London  contained  i n this  .Camp,G.W., T h e A r t i z a n i n - E l i z a b e t h a n L i t e r a t u r e . C h i l d , H.,"The S o n g B o o k a n d t h e M i s c e l l a n i e s , " Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , v o l , 4 , p . l 0 9 . of  C r a n e , R.S., "The Vogue o f Guy o f Warwick," t h eModern Language A s s o c i a t i o n o f America. O n i o n s , C.T., S h a k e s p e a r e ' s  Publications  England.  Routh,A.V.,"London and t h eDevelopment o f P o p u l a r L i t e r a t u r e , " Cambridge H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , v o l . 3 , p . p.316. : Wright, L.B., Middle  Class Culture  i nE l i z a b e t h a n  England.  23a was  unusually  l i t e r a t e . A l m o s t every character  seems t o h a v e r e c e i v e d at  least  enough e d u c a t i o n  to understand the popular  or the black streets^and can.readj  to  i n the  drama  enable him  c h r o n i c l e s and  and J a n %  M o l l Cutpurse,  although only  cobbler,  assurgSHammon t h a t  with  latest  the wife  her  romances  l e t t e r b a l l a d s , t h a t were hawked a b o u t s o l d at every f a i r .  or  the  for  instance,  o f a journeyman  chan f i n d h e r htwband's 2 aame i n a l i s t o f wounded s o l d i e r s . Widow T a f f a t a ' s 3 s e r v a n t i n Ram A l l e y , t h e c o u r t e z a n i n A Mad W o r l d , My 4 5 • M a s t e r s , and B e l l a f r o n t imThe H o n e s t Whore are a l l acquainted the  considered  fiction.  there  illiteracy  In  seems to be  m e n t i o n s someone who the  she  the p l a y s t h a t I only  one  o r two  have  spgiedhes t h a t  i s unable t o read or w r i t e ,  i s spoken o f  as  something unusual.  In  M i c h a e l m a s Term, f o r i n s t a n c e , L e t h e ' s m o t h e r c a n n o