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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Unamuno and the Quijote. Weinberg, Florence M. 1963

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U N'A M U N 0  A N D  T H E  Q. U I J 0 T E  by FLORENCE MAY WEINBERG  B . A . , P a r k C o l l e g e , 19514-  A Thesis  Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of  The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D e g r e e  of  MASTER OF ARTS In the  Department of  Romance  We a c c e p t  Studies  t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA September,  1963  the  the  In presenting  this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y  of  1  B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and mission for extensive p u r p o s e s may his  be  study.  I f u r t h e r agr.ee t h a t  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  g r a n t e d by  representatives.  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  the Head o f my  c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain w i t h o u t my  written permission. .  Department of  Romance S t u d l a a  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia,.. V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada. Date  S e p t e m b e r 25,  1963  scholarly  D e p a r t m e n t or  I t i s understood that  copying, or  s h a l l not  per-  be  by publi-  allowed  -iiABSTRACT T h i s essay c o n s t i t u t e s an attempt to t r a c e the  develop-  ment of the Q u i j o t e theme I n the w r i t i n g s of Unamuno from 1 8 9 6 to 1 9 0 5 .  In these nine years which were c r u c i a l i n the  e v o l u t i o n of Unamuno's p h i l o s o p h i c a l and r e l i g i o u s  thought,  the theme of the Q u i j o t e c o n s t a n t l y r e c u r s i n h i s e s s a y s . Unamuno's a r t i c l e s on the Q u i j o t e theme r e p r e s e n t only, a f r a c t i o n of h i s t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d but they give v i v i d evidence  of the r a p i d l y changing concepts  of t h e i r ,  author. Moreover, t h i s essay seeks to e s t a b l i s h that La V i d a de Don  Q u i j o t e y Sancho, completed by Unamuno as e a r l y as 1 9 0 £ ,  a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s the f u l l gamut of h i s major e x i s t e n t i a l ideas as they repeat themselves i n almost endless v a r i a t i o n s throughout h i s l a t e r work.  These ideas are here examined  along w i t h t h e i r rapport w i t h the problems they r a i s e  or  imply. F i n a l l y , the a l l e g o r i c a l meaning which each major charact e r of Cervantes'  Qui,jote g r a d u a l l y assumes i n Unamuno's i n -  t e r p r e t a t i o n i;s g i v e n d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h i s  essay.  -iiiTABLE OP'CONTENTS PART I CHAPTER; I. II. III.  PAC-E  -UNAMUNO'S" WRITINGS TO 1905,  A COMMENTARY . . . .  UNAMUNO AND THE PROBLEM OF SINCERITY . . . . . .  .  .  .  . o . . . . . . . .  o . .  TV.  UNAMUNO. AND IMMORTALITY. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  V.  CENTRAL• /PROBLEMS . IN UNAMUNO'S INTERPRETATION OF  11 19  THE QUIJOTE.  25  A.  Don Q u i j o t e : >symbol of S p a i n . . . . . . .  25  B.  Logic vs. F a i t h . . . . .  26  C.  "Unamuno's l a c k of humor.  D.  Unamuno's envy of Cervantes  E.  The p o e t - c r e a t o r  . . . . . . . .  31 . .  Importance of the w i l l Unamuno as poet. . F.  A c t i o n as a means o f s a l v a t i o n . . . . . .  DIONYSUS AND UNAMUNO. A.  C h r i s t i a n i t y and Dionysus  B.  N i e t z s c h e and Unamuno. •  C.  C h r i s t i a n sources o f the D i o n y s i a n element  33 37 1|0 l\l J4.3 h$  lj.8  i n Unamuno's w r i t i n g s .  50  UNAMUNO VIS-A-VIS OTHER SELVES . . . .  52  • VII.  1  EVOLUTION OF UNAMUNO'S VIEWS ON THE CHARACTER OF DON QUIJOTE.. .  VI.  1  A.  Unamuno, romantic v i s i o n a r y . . . . . . . .  53  -iv-  PART I I CHAPTER  PAGE  I.  MAIN  THEMES  II.  FORM  OF L A V I D A .  III. IV. V. VI. VII.-  OF L A V I D A  UNAMUNO'S 'VIEW CHRISTHOOD  D E DON  Y  SANCHO  .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  OF C H R I S T  .  OF DON QJJIJOTE.  I N F L U E N C E 'OF H E G E L  .  .  60  . . . . . . . . . . . .  6l  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  . . . . . . . .-.>-.  '68  .  71  .. . . . . . . . . .  .  CONCLUSION NOTES.  .  .  £6 59  ON UNAMUNO.  SANCHO DULCINEA.  QJJIJOTE  78 85  ... .  BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  . •. . . . . . . . .  .  .  . *. .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ;  .  .-  .  .  95 100  PART I CHAPTER I UHAMU&O'S WRITINGS TO 190$, A COMMENTARY In  L a Vida de Don Qui.jote y Sancho (1905), Miguel de  Unamuno f i r s t  expresses f u l l y the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  t i o n s w h i c h remain his  life.  preoccupa-  c e n t r a l i n h i s w r i t i n g s f o r the rest of  The books and essays which he had p u b l i s h e d e a r l i e r  were e i t h e r t o o fragmentary the author's thought,  t o p r e s e n t a c l e a r statement o f  o r a t best they showed i t i n an i n t e r i m  stage o f development between h i s y o u t h f u l p o s i t i v i s m and the p h i l o s o p h y of s t r u g g l e which was t o become a way of l i f e f o r Unamuno,  H i s major works p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e 1905 are E n torno  al  castici3mo  (1895) which l i k e the Idearium espanol  of  Angel Ganivet, was p u b l i s h e d b e f o r e the c r i s i s of I898,  Paz en l a g u e r r a (1897), and Amor y pedagogia  (1902).  (1896)  In  a d d i t i o n , he p u b l i s h e d hundreds of essays i n j o u r n a l s a l l over S p a i n .  The f i r s t  t h e i r form and purpose similarities. ly  —  two important p u b l i c a t i o n s ,  though  are e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t , have b a s i c  I n both, Unamuno t r e a t s h i s s u b j e c t s o b j e c t i v e -  hy c o n t r a s t t o h i s l a t e r w r i t i n g s —  and does not make  the reader aware of h i s i n n e r s t r u g g l e . En torno a l c a s t i c i s m o c o n s i s t s of a c o l l e c t i o n of f i v e essays i n which Unamuno seeks to make c l e a r the reasons f o r the decadence o f Spain, and t r i e s t o o f f e r suggestions f o r a n a t i o n a l resurgence. undoubtedly  H i s thoughts  on t h i s s u b j e c t were  deepened and r e f i n e d by h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  Angel Ganivet, and no doubt r e f l e c t t h e preoccupations o f many young s c h o l a r s i n the U n i v e r s i t y of Madrid d u r i n g the 1890's.  The two young men had f i r s t  met i n Madrid w h i l e  they were both competing f o r c h a i r s i n Greek; Unamuno f o r the c h a i r i n Salamanca, Ganivet f o r a p r o f e s s o r s h i p i n Granada.* Paz en l a g u e r r a i s a l o n g r e a l i s t i c novel i n which Unamuno s e t s down h i s c h i l d h o o d memories o f l i f e i n B i l b a o and of the second C a r l i s t War (1870-76).  The n o v e l  expresses  i n every way the l i t e r a r y c l i m a t e of the time; i t c o n t a i n s minute d e s c r i p t i o n s of the l i v e s of the members of a middle class family i n Bilbao, their  homes, p l a c e s of business and  d a i l y t a s k s , and i n c l u d e s i m i t a t i o n s of t y p i c a l c o n v e r s t i o n s and modes of speech.  I n s h o r t , i t makes another  contribution  to the 19th century Spanish s c h o o l of " r e g i o n a l i s m o " .  In  a d d i t i o n t o i t s being a roman a these, the l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n s of the c i t y , i t s I n h a b i t a n t s and surrounding c o u n t r y p l a c e it  i n t o the r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n , a l t h o u g h i t a l s o shows romantic  aspects.  These become evident when Unamuno w r i t e s of the  c o u n t r y s i d e and shows us the calming and c u r a t i v e power of nature, which convinces Pachico, the s i c k l y , c i t y - b r e d  intel-  l e c t u a l , of the u n i t y of man and the u n i v e r s e , of man and God#2  The attempts  a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m b r i n g t o mind  the novels of E m i l i a Pardo Bazan, not t o mention h e r F r e n c h models.  The passage i n which Unamuno's c h a r a c t e r s become  p h i l o s o p h i c a l leave us w i t h a vague f e e l i n g tion.  of d i s s a t i s f a c -  As human beings they are somehow incomplete,  confused  -3and unconvincing In t h e i r s e a r c h f o r peace.  Obviously,  Unamuno h i m s e l f f e l t h i g h l y d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r  facile  s o l u t i o n s f o r the b a s i c problems of human e x i s t e n c e , f o r only f i v e years l a t e r he p u b l i s h e s Amor y pedagogfa, i n which he p r e s e n t s b r i e f l y a l l the c o n f l i c t s which were then t o become c e n t r a l f o r h i s thought. are s t i l l  apparent,  His h e s i t a n c e and u n c e r t a i n t y  f o r he has D, P u l g e n c i o Entrambosmares  pronounce the words which l a t e r become the nucleus of D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de l a y i d a en l o s hombres j en l o s p u e b l o s . U n t i l t h i s c h a r a c t e r u t t e r s them, he seems t o be both a c h a r l a t a n and a f o o l , 3 Seen from a l i t e r a r y viewpoint, Amor y pedagog^a breaks completely w i t h the r e a l i s t t r a d i t i o n ,  and reminds the r e a d -  er of the r e j e c t i o n of the c l a s s i c a l r u l e s of u n i t y and which took p l a c e i n the Romantic drama. defies c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : s e r i o u s undertones  opposite of t r a g i c o m e d i a — pseudo-science,  Amor y pedagodjfa  i t i s a p i e c e of comic prose  and a t r a g i c  ending —  a satire  form  with  i n t h i s , the p o l a r  against  superficial  and a r e v e l a t i o n of human nature as an over-  whelming and i n e x o r a b l e f o r c e , unchangeable by any puny e f f o r t . on the p a r t of reason.  Unamuno makes no s e r i o u s e f f o r t  analyse c h a r a c t e r , however.  He p r e s e n t s u n i v e r s a l  to  types,  s i m p l i f y i n g c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n t o an extent which reduces h i s personae dramatis t o mere c a r i c a t u r e s .  Here, as i n Paz  l a Guerra, he seems t o i m i t a t e , v e r y much a g a i n s t h i s will,  the DIckensian technique of c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  en own  As a  r e s u l t , Unamuno s i r o n y seems t o m i s f i r e because h i s c h a r a c 1  t e r s , r a t h e r than l i v i n g , resemble  allegories.  incarnate h i s thought, and  thus  They f a i l t o be b e l i e v a b l e human types,  those hombres de carne y hueso, of whom Unamuno o f t e n speaks. They are hombres de c a r t o n , and the w o r l d i n which they move is  as f l i m s y as they a r e , f o r d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e i r  ings are almost t o t a l l y absent. is  surround-  C l e a r l y , Amor y pedagog^ia  a worthy predecessor to N i e b l a , and l i k e the l a t e r n o v e l ,  a l s o deserves the t i t l e  " n i v o l a " , the a s s o c i a t i v e  nonsense-  name w i t h which Unamuno j e s t i n g l y c h r i s t e n s Hlebla» f o r he i s w e l l aware that he has not w r i t t e n a " n o v e l a . " La V i d a de Don Qui jote y Sane ho i s , i n our o p i n i o n , the f  first  g e n u i n e l y s u c c e s s f u l work by Unamuno.  (We do not i n -  tend to d i s c u s s here h i s minor essays, some of which are superb.)  L i k e a l l of the author's books, i t s purpose  s t r u c t u r e remain h i g h l y ambiguous:  and  . u n i f i e d o n l y by i t s t o p i c ,  the Q u i j o t e , and by the u n i t y and f o r c e of Unamuno's p e r s o n a l i t y , the stamp of which i s omnipresent title,  i n t h i s work.  The  and the f a c t t h a t the author takes up and c o n s i d e r s  the Q u i j o t e chapter by chapter, would l e a d the reader t o b e l i e v e that La V i d a i s a commentary on and c r i t i c i s m of Cervantes' masterpiece.  A c t u a l l y , the book i s o n l y to a minor  degree a work of c r i t i c i s m .  D e s p i t e Unamuno s e x p l i c i t r e f  j e c t i o n of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m as a l e g i t i m a t e concern,  he  makes value judgments about Cervantes' treatment of h i s heroes which f a l l i n t o the category of l i t e r a r y c r i t i c i s m .  Unamuno  uses e x p l i c a t i o n of each chapter of Cervantes' novel as a p r e t e x t p e r m i t t i n g him t o r e a d i n t o the c h a r a c t e r s and events of the Qui.jote h i s own ideas on the nature of the i d e a l Spanl a r d , as w e l l as o f man i n g e n e r a l , and t o i n d i c a t e  covertly  what p a t h one must f o l l o w I n order t o reach greatness and immortality.  F o r Unamuno b e l i e v e s t h a t Alonso e l Bueno  achieved greatness through h i s courageous metamorphosis  into  Don Q u i j o t e . To use the Qui.jote i n t h i s way takes a good deal of d a r i n g on t h e p a r t o f any w r i t e r , and e s p e c i a l l y so on the p a r t of a S p a n i a r d .  Unamuno a c t u a l l y f o l l o w s i n L a V i d a what  he had h i n t e d a t doing t e n years e a l i e r i n En t o r n o a l c a 3 t i cismo,  and i n a l l the essays which mention Don Q u i j o t e :  breaking away from the t r a d i t i o n a l views on Cervantes'  a hero.  I t i s c l e a r from t h e beginning t h a t Unamuno p r o j e c t s i n t o ' the Qui.jote a symbolism a l l of h i s own and which e n t i r e l y i g nores the i n t e n t i o n s of Cervantes,  the n o v e l i s t ^  F o r from  the very b e g i n n i n g o f L a V i d a i t i s obvious t h a t Unamuno has no d e s i r e whatever t o study the n o v e l I n I t s own r i g h t .  He  f l a g r a n t l y misuses i t as a convenient v e h i c l e f o r the express i o n of h i s own growing p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h a p e r s o n a l immort a l i t y t o which he f e a r s a l l roads are b l o c k e d .  He develops  h i s ideas -- not p r e c i s e l y on, but a g a i n s t the background o f the Qui.jote i n order to combat the p e t r i f y i n g i n f l u e n c e o f l o c a s t l z o , t h a t d r y e x p r e s s i o n of the C a s t i l i a n s o u l which he b e l i e v e s t o be present i n most golden age l i t e r a t u r e ,  notably that of Calderon.^  I n L a V i d a , Unamuno wishes t o  present a c l a s s i c i n an e n t i r e l y new p e r s p e c t i v e , and t o use i t as the p o t e n t i a l beginning Spain.  f o r a s p i r i t u a l renewal o f  Unamuno a l s o uses other themes from the c l a s s i c a l  literature  of Spain  as s t a r t i n g p o i n t s f o r h i s own s p e c u l a -  tion.  Thus Caldero'n's  L a V i d a es sueno appears i n s e v e r a l  essays  as w e l l as i n the c o n c l u s i o n of N i e b l a .  His l a t e  work, Don Juan, i s , as the t i t l e t e l l s us, a v a r i a t i o n on the theme o f Don Juan T e n o r i o .  The boldness of Unamuno's s e i s u r e  of the Qui.jote as h i s own p r o p e r t y ,  and the r u t h l e s s n e s s  which he c a s t s Cervantes a s i d e as not understanding  with  h i s own  hero, demonstrate b o t h h i s s t r e n g t h and h i s enormous egotism. F e a r l e s s l y , he d e f i e s the age-old  taboos which p r o t e c t the  c l a s s i c s a g a i n s t new i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s .  Unamuno's e v a l u a t i o n  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l and s p i r i t u a l c l i m a t e of S p a i n proved p a t e n t l y c o r r e c t , f o r d e s p i t e h i s b o l d e f f o r t s to l i b e r a t e Spain from what he c o n s i d e r e d t o be o u t l i v e d t r a d i t i o n , h i s work e f f e c t e d ho t r u e change.  I r o n i c a l l y , h i s essays,  p o e t r y and t h e a t e r , now a v a i l a b l e i n b e a u t i f u l  leather-bound  tomes, have found, t o g e t h e r w i t h e q u a l l y magnificent tes e d i t i o n s — b o t h authors  novels,  Cervan-  a r e s t i n g p l a c e on Spanish bookshelves where  remain unread by the m a j o r i t y o f those whom  Unamuno was anxious t o reach.  -7CHAPTER I I UNAMUNO AND  THE  PROBLEM OF SINCERITY  In a l l of h i s work, Unamuno wears the mask of s i n c e r i t y . It  i s p o s s i b l e , and almost tempting at times,  to dismiss h i s  e n t i r e agonia as one more t r i c k by which the author t r i e s g a i n the sympathy of the reader. pose i n l i f e was it  to  Since Unamuno's s t a t e d p u r -  t o g a i n p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y , no matter  how,  appears t h a t he attempts to create an i d e a l image of him-  s e l f and h i s s u f f e r i n g i n the minds of h i s audience, thus v i c a r i o u s l y t o l i v e on w i t h i n them. i n t r u d e s upon L a V i d a de Don  and  Unamuno h i m s e l f  Qui.jote y Sancho i n order  to  p r o t e s t h i s absolute s i n c e r i t y , and to t e l l us t h a t what he is  s e t t i n g down comes from the bottom of h i s e o u l . ^  He  ex-  p l a i n s more f u l l y h i s ideas on s i n c e r i t y i n an essay w r i t t e n in  1906.7  There are two  and a permanent one.  types  of s i n c e r i t y :  a temporary  Temporary s i n c e r i t y i s s u p e r f i c i a l  and  i s , perhaps, a f u n c t i o n of language, f o r a s i n c e r e judgment can change i n t o i t s opposite  (as i n Unamuno's r e v e r s a l of h i s  p o s i t i o n from t h a t expressed  i n "iMuera Don  presented  the u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s  i n La V i d a ) , while  the same. man's s k i n :  In the the  same way, outer man,  remain  two persons l i v e t o g e t h e r i n e v e r y shaped by s o c i e t y and f o r c e d t o  communicate by means of l o g i c F o r the i n n e r man,  Qui j o t e i " to t h a t  and language, and the i n n e r  the s o u l and  i t s ideas are not  and d i s t i n c t , but fuse i n t o a s u p r a - l o g i c a l whole.  man.  separate Unamuno  -8confesses t h a t t h i s i s a defense of h i s own a s s o c i a t i v e method of w r i t i n g .  Nothing,  he t e l l s us, has any value or e f f i c a c y  " s i n o l o que a r r a n c a de l a p r o p i a v i d a c o n c r e t a " — t h a t which has i t s source i n the i n n e r l i f e . t e s t s that he h i m s e l f at times  except  Unamuno p r o -  cannot i n t e r p r e t what he  writes. Muchas de e s t a s o c u r r e n c i a s de mi e s p ^ r i t u que te confxo, n i yo se l o que q u i e r e n dec i r , o p o r l o menos, soy yo quien no l o se'. Hay a l g u i e n dentro de mi que me l a s d i c t a , que me l a s d i c e . " By p r e s e n t i n g t o the reader h i s P r o u s t i a n moi profond  —  p a r a d o x i c a l l y .on the l e v e l o f the moi s o c i a l , and i n p r i n t , at  t h a t -- Unamuno claims t o be t r u l y s i n c e r e .  Is  indeed m u l t i v a l e n t , f o r not only i s he c o n s c i o u s l y " s i n c e r e " ,  he uses h i s s i n c e r i t y . s i n c e r i t y , the necessary destroyed.  In becoming conscious  His s i n c e r i t y  of one 's own  innocence needed to be s i n c e r e i s  This may be one aspect of Unamuno's anger a g a i n s t  l o g i c and the i n t e l l e c t which here demonstrates I t s " k i l l i n g power". all  He uses h i s s i n c e r i t y i n order to c o n v e r t and save  of h i s f o l l o w e r s from deadly orthodoxy and s e l f  ment.  content-  Only the. man who s u f f e r s i s t r u l y a l i v e , and thus Una-  muno's m i s s i o n , through the use of " s i n c e r i t y " i s t o awaken us t o our p r e c a r i o u s s i t u a t i o n , and t o cause us t o s u f f e r . His s i n c e r i t y i s thus an e v a n g e l i s t i c "gimmick" used pragm a t i c a l l y t o f u r t h e r h i s Unamunian r e l i g i o n .  He  expresses  t h i s i n L a V i d a , s a y i n g " E l a f e c t o p r a c t i c e es e l u n i c o c r i t e r i o v a l a d e r o de l a verdad  de una v i s i o n  cualquiera."9  Unamuno i s c l e a r l y a prophet  and an e v a n g e l i s t (hence h i s  h a b i t of d r e s s i n g as a P r o t e s t a n t m i n i s t e r ) .  There i s ob-  v i o u s l y t h e r e f o r e more than a b i d f o r sympathy i n Unamuno's o u t c r i e s , although the reader's sympathy Is a necessary r e q u i s i t e f o r h i s c o n v e r s i o n t o the new convinced t h a t Unamuno was as a prophet  when we  faith.  pre-  We become  g e n u i n e l y persuaded of h i s m i s s i o n  see the u n i t y of h i s thought  divergent aspects of h i s works.  d e s p i t e thee  Essays, poems, p l a y s , novels  a l l repeat the same problems, t h a t of the d e s i r e f o r p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y and the p a r a d o x i c a l s a l v a t i o n of man d e s i r e , over and  this  over again, from v a r y i n g p o i n t s of view,  E s t h e t i c a l l y , Unamuno's works may c r i e s may  through  be flawed,  and h i s out-  be embarassing t o Anglo-Saxon modesty, or they  might even become e x a s p e r a t i n g , but  the work g r i p s us because  we see i n t h i s r e f l e c t i o n of the author's naked s o u l , ped of the c l o a k of p r o p r i e t y and f a l s e modesty, an s i o n of our own  fears.  strip-  expres-  I t c o u l d e a s i l y be argued t h a t t h i s  i s not l i t e r a t u r e , f o r i n Unamuno's terms, " l i t e r a t u r e " i s by d e f i n i t i o n i n s i n c e r e —  i t is arte.  Unamuno hopes to be  the v o i c e c r y i n g I n the w i l d e r n e s s , warning of the dangers of becoming mere a b s t r a c t cogs i n an i d e o l o g i c a l machine.  We  must awaken, become conscious of o u r s e l v e s as hombres de carne y hueso; awaken to our agony by analogy w i t h the agony d i s p l a y e d before us i n Unamuno's w r i t i n g s . An examination  of Unamuno's essays  to 1 9 0 5 w i l l show how  on the Qui.jote up  h i s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h p e r s o n a l immor-  -10tality — essence  the key t o the awakening o f every man to h i s true —  which was t o tornure him f o r the r e s t of h i s l i f e ,  g r a d u a l l y grew t o take on the dimensions obsession.  of an  The p e r u s a l o f these essays w i l l  omnipresent  a l s o show how  unamuno*s ideas on Don Q u i j o t e , and h i s d e s i r e t o use the h i d a l g o as an a l l e g o r y , grew s t e a d i l y and developed they r e a c h t h e i r climax i n La V i d a .  until  -11CHAPTER I I I EVOLUTION CP UNAMUNO'S VIEWS ON THE CHARACTER OP DON QUIJOTE Prom h i s e a r l i e s t t o h i s l a s t essays, Don Q u i j o t e appears i n c e s s a n t l y i n Unamuno's w r i t i n g s .  A l r e a d y before  1905,  he had w r i t t e n s i x essays about C e r v a n t e s ' hero; he mentions him s c o r e s of times i n the. remainder  of h i s work.  Along  w i t h La V i d a es sueflo, the Q u i j o t e i s the work most d i s c u s s e d i n En t o r n o a l c a s t i c i s m o .  Obviously, Unamuno c o n s i d e r e d  the h i d a l g o manchego of utmost importance  f o r the  understand-  i n g of the Spanish c h a r a c t e r , a l t h o u g h h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of j u s t what Don Q u i j o t e symbolizes undergo a r a d i c a l change between 1895  and 1905*  the same throughout:  One b a s i c purpose, t o shed l i g h t  however,  remains  on S p a i n and the S p a n i s h  c h a r a c t e r (and hence on the p l i g h t of Spain) by u s i n g Q u i j o t e as both analogy and symbol. which,  In En torno a l c a s t i c i s m o ,  along w i t h the essay "Quijotismo", i s the e a r l i e s t  the l o n g e r Q u i j o t e passages, Unamuno speaks the Spanish c h a r a c t e r betv/een " i d e a l i s m " " r e a l i s m " or "common sense" two  Don  i n one person.  of  of the s p l i t i n  (Don Q u i j o t e ) and  (Sancho) and the need to u n i f y the  There i s a f a t a l d u a l i s m i n Spanish  thought and l i f e which p r e c l u d e s p r o g r e s s , s i n c e the two tremes c a n c e l each o t h e r o u t . ^  Unamuno here uses Don  ex-  Qui-  jote and Sancho i n a h i g h l y c o n v e n t i o n a l sense; he i s not p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the two heroes, but  -12r a t h e r i n diagnosing the s i c k n e s s of h i s country.  By  means of t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the immortal p a i r , he a t t a c k s the s p l i t between the Spanish the s t r e e t " . 1895,  In "Quijotismo",  intellectual  and the "man i n  an a r t i c l e a l s o w r i t t e n i n  Unamuno d i s c o v e r s the theme of Paz en l a guerra i n  the Qui.lote.H  He e x p l i c a t e s the passage which occurs i n  P a r t IT, Chapter £ 8 of the Q u i j o t e , where Don Q u i j o t e and Sancho, f r e e a t l a s t from the Duqu.es, meet a dozen l a b o r e r s who are c a r r y i n g carved wooden images of f o u r s a i n t s : George, S t . Martin, S t . P a u l and S t . James —  St.  a l l Christian  k n i g h t s who, as Don Q u i j o t e remarks, conquered heaven by f o r c e of arms. labors,  He wonders what he i s conquering  through h i s  " . . . s i mi D u l c i n e a d e l Toboso s a l i e s e de l o s ( t r a b a -  jos) que padece, mejorandose mi v e n t u r a y adobandoseme e l j u i c i o , p o d r f a s e r que encaminase mis pasos p o r mejor camino d e l que l l e v o . " saddest  Unamuno considers t h i s passage to be the  one o f the whole sad e p i c . l ^  j£e i n t e r p r e t s I t as  discouragement on Don Q u i j o t e ' s p a r t , a sudden l a p s e of h i s madness and a r e t u r n t o the " e t e r n a l goodness" and wisdom of Alonso  e l Bueno.  I t i s the melancholy of one who  suddenly  r e a l i z e s that he i s alone, and t h a t a l l h i s e f f o r t s have l e d him nowhere.  Don Q u i j o t e i s tempted here, according t o Una-  muno, t o turn h i s a t t e n t i o n inward, and b y p u r i f y i n g —  h i s own v i s i o n and intentions —  himself  t o p u r i f y the world.  His  s e l f - d o u b t does not l a s t long, however, f o r he soon plunges i n t o another  adventure w i t h more energy than e v e r .  The  "descent  i n t o s a n i t y " has s e r v e d Don Qui jote as the e a r t h  d i d Antaeus:  he has gained v i g o r and s e l f confidence  i n h i s madness. peace:  I n the midst  paz en l a g u e r r a .  again  of h i s s t r u g g l e s he has found  T h i s a r t i c l e , although  illogical  i n t h a t i t departs almost a l t o g e t h e r from the meaning of the episode  on which i t i s based, demonstrates Unamuno's a b i l i -  t y t o f i n d I n h i s r e a d i n g s , by way of r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , of h i s immediate, very p e r s o n a l In 1 8 9 6 ,  echoes  concerns.  i n the essay " E l c a b a l l e r o de l a t r i s t e  figura",  Unamuno amuses h i m s e l f by p i e c i n g t o g e t h e r the passages desc r i b i n g Don Q u i j o t e p h y s i c a l l y . ^  " R e t r a t a r a Don Q u i j o t e  s i n m a l t r a t a r l e es v e s t i r su alma con cuerpo i n d i v i d u a l t r a s p a r e n t e , es hacer simbolismo  p i c t o r i c o en e l grado de  mayor c o n c e n t r a c i o n y f u e r z a , en un hombre simbolo."-^ "symbolic  This  man" or "man-symbol" l i v e s o u t s i d e the pages of  "Cide Hamete's biography"  —  he Is a r e a l , a l i v e  . . . e x i s t i r es v i v i r , y quien obra e x i s t e . " - ^ no doubt t h a t throughout  being.  There can be  the c e n t u r i e s , Don Q u i j o t e has  g r i p p e d the imaginations of h i s readers, and thus has worked i n them t o a g r e a t e r extent than most of t h e i r temporaries.  He i s r e a l —  l a r g e r than l i f e  —  i n c a r n a t e s the c o n c e n t r a t e d s o u l o f a people.  living  con-  because he Echoing  Herder  and a n t i c i p a t i n g C. G-. Jung, Unamuno proclaims t h a t , i n any l i t e r a t u r e , the hero i s the " c o l l e c t i v e s o u l " of the people ( e l pueblo) made i n d i v i d u a l .  T h i s s o r t of hero i s not born  o f woman but r a t h e r of masculine  imagination, ^ 1  Don Q u i j o t e  -Illsurges out o f the C a s t i l i a n s o u l , as a l i v e as i t i s  Here  Unamuno p r e s e n t s an i d e a which he used as the c e n t r a l theme o f  N i e b l a i n 191I4.:  that of the independent  existence (or  l i f e ) which a f i c t i t i o u s c h a r a c t e r assumes once he has been created. So f a r , Unamuno has been f a v o r a b l y i n c l i n e d towards Don Q u i j o t e , and has spoken of him, among other t h i n g s , as of a n a t i o n a l hero. his attitude.  I n the 1898 essays, he completely r e v e r s e s Here, Don Quijote symbolizes o b j e c t i o n a b l e  tendencies i n the Spanish c h a r a c t e r , but Unamuno^ h o s t i l i t y does not l a s t ; by 1905 he has r e t u r n e d to h i s o r i g i n a l benevolence toward Cervantes  1  I t i s of no t r i v i a l  hero. s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t i n the c r u c i a l  year of I 8 9 8 , Unamuno wrote no l e s s than t h r e e Q u i j o t e e s s a y s : "iMuera Don Q u i j o t e 1", " i V i v a Alonso e l Bueno J " , and "Mas sobre Don Q u i j o t e . " ^ jote . p o s i t i o n might  sudden change t o an anti-Don Q u i -  be i n t e r p r e t e d as "shock t a c t i c s " i n t e n d -  ed t o anger h i s r e a d e r s and t o s e t them t h i n k i n g about the r e a l causes of the d e f e a t o f S p a i n . around a s i n g l e theme:  A l l the essays c e n t e r  Don Q u i j o t e i s an un-Chris t i a n , wart-  l i k e p e r v e r s i o n o f Alonso e l Bueno, o r , i n o t h e r words, the i d e a l o f c h i v a l r y Is a pagan one. made:  S e v e r a l equations are  between Rocinante who leaves Don Q u i j o t e s t r e t c h e d on  the ground when he l e a s t expects i t and the government which does the same w i t h t h e Spanish people, between Don Q u i j o t e as the n a t i o n (the h i s t o r i c a l S p a i n ) , and Alonso e l Bueno as the  -15-  people  (the e t e r n a l , the e t e r n a l l y Spanish, element).  Q u i j o t e ' s madness i s an e x p l o s i o n  Don  of h u b r i s i n which the  h i d a l g o b e l i e v e s h i m s e l f t o be God's m i n i s t e r on e a r t h and His temporal arm of j u s t i c e .  (What more obvious p a r a l l e l  c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h Spain's h i s t o r i c a l r o l e ? )  The  novels of c h i v a l r y are equated w i t h h i s t o r y i t s e l f which ens l a v e s the people, p a r a l y s i n g them by f o r c i n g them f o r e v e r to l o o k backwards at p a s t g l o r i e s .  Unamuno condemns the  a n x i e t y t o s u r v i v e i n h i s t o r y s i n c e i t l o s e s out o f s i g h t survival i n eternity.  M  . . . e s s a c r i f i c a r e l hombre a l hombre,  e l pueblo a l a nacion."- -^ 1  see m i r r o r e d  He i s c o n s i s t e n t i n continuing to  i n h i s readings  c e r n f o r him at the moment.  whatever may be o f major conThese are the p r e o c c u p a t i o n s  t h a t he p r o j e c t s i n t o what he pretends t o be i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of major works of l i t e r a t u r e .  Of great  importance f o r the  understanding of Unamuno's l a t e r w r i t i n g s desire —  as i t i s formulated  h i s earthly existence shares w i t h him. all  i s Don Q u i j o t e ' s •  i n these essays —  to s u r v i v e  i n h i s t o r y , a wish which the e s s a y i s t  I t i s evident  that at -tils p o i n t ,  t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s concept of i m m o r t a l i t y  yet occurred  in 1898, have not  t o Unamuno, but the s e e d of an i d e a has been  sown, which w i l l grow t o t o r t u r e him f o r the r e s t o f h i s l i f e . " E l fondo d e l q u i j o t i s m o "  (1902),  published  year as Amor y Pedagogfa, shows a c o n s i d e r a b l e of the author's thought on the Q u i j o t e 1902,  i n the. same  development  since 1 8 9 8 .  After  Unamuno devotes an ever g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f h i s w r i t i n g s  -16t o the s u b j e c t of p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y , b o t h i n h i s t o r y ( i . e . i n the minds of men), t h i s preoccupation  and  i n an " a f t e r - l i f e " .  By  reaches the p r o p o r t i o n of an  Unamuno i s a b l e t o c o n t r o l o r sublimate  190£,  obsession,  h i s l i f e - w i s h , how-  ever, by using i t as the basis of a p h i l o s o p h y which he first  develops a t l e n g t h i n La V i d a .  tismo", the  source  In " E l fondo d e l q u i j o -  of the Q u i x o t i c madness i s shown to be  the same " e r o s t r a t i s m o " e x p l a i n e d by D. F u l g e n c i o Entrambosmares i n Amor y pedagogfa; de su l o c u r a (de Don talidad."  2 0  "...se ve b i e n c l a r o que  e l fondo  Q u i j o t e ) es ... e l a n s i a l o c a de inmor-  F o r the f i r s t  time, Unamuno equates  w i t h " l a G l o r i a mundana".  Dulcinea  (In h i s p r e f a c e t o En torno a l  c a s t i c i s m o , a l s o d a t e d 1902,  Unamuno s t a t e s t h a t he has  seen only a symbol of La G l o r i a i n Dulcinea,21 d e s p i t e f a c t t h a t i n 1898,  always the  he had equated her w i t h e l H o n o r . )  Don  22  Q u i j o t e d i e s r e p e n t i n g of h i s madness as though i t were a s i n , w r i t e s Unamuno, and i t was  a s i n , s i n c e i t had  i t s source  in  " e r o s t r a t i s m o " , the v a i n g l o r i o u s , tormented t h i r s t f o r e t e r n a l fame. 3 2  Although Sancho enjoys  the f u l l e s t , i n Don  the p l e a s u r e s of l i f e  Q u i j o t e the t h i r s t  f o r immortality  p a r a d o x i c a l l y , smothered h i s enjoyment of l i f e # ^  has,  L i k e envy,  i t d r i e s up any p l e a s u r e taken i n the present moment. s t e a d of a c c e p t i n g l i f e  to  In-  as i t comes, the v i c t i m of " e r o s t r a -  tismo" must f o r e v e r t o r t u r e h i m s e l f over a g o a l he f e a r s he can never a t t a i n .  " E r o s t r a t i s m o " i s not  altogether  however, f o r the g r e a t e s t heroes and b e n e f a c t o r s  of  bad, their  -17n a t i o n s and f e l l o w men are people who dream of e t e r n a l fame , and g l o r y . ^ for  The e v o l u t i o n o f Unamuno*3 ideas on the quest  h i s t o r i c a l " i m m o r t a l i t y " becomes c l e a r .  r e j e c t i o n i n I898 of such a t h i r s t ,  Prom a t o t a l  the author has gone h a l f -  way to a c c e p t i n g i t , f o u r years l a t e r ,  as b e n e f i c i a l .  He  s t i l l h a l f h e a r t e d l y condemns " e r o s t r a t i s m o " as a s i n , but he a l s o condones I t , b y c l a i m i n g i t t o be a powerful  source of  heroism and p h i l a n t h r o p y . The f o l l o w i n g year, 1903, Unamuno w r i t e s "La causa d e l qui jotismo", h i s last major a r t i c l e p u b l i c a t i o n of L a V i d a .  on Don Quijote before the  Cervantes,  t o o , t h i r s t e d f o r immor-  t a l i t y , and i t Is t h e r e f o r e n a t u r a l t h a t he should have d i s covered Don Quijote  i n t h e recesses  of h i s own s o u l .  The  o b s e r v a t i o n that Don t^uijote i s Cervantes h i m s e l f i s w e l l taken, w r i t e s Unamuno; he i s the Spanish and by Cervantes.26  soul incarnated i n  Unamuno, who b e l i e v e s t r u t h t o be nearer  the s u r f a c e i n p a r a d o x i c a l than i n l o g i c a l thought, p r e s e n t s an apparent c o n t r a d i c t i o n :  Spaniards  love l i f e  w i t h enormous  f e r v o r , s i n c e i t i s so d i f f i c u l t and empty f o r them. t i o n k i l l s both t h i r s t f o r i m m o r t a l i t y and love i s evident  i n the " v a n i t y o f v a n i t i e s ,  Solomon, who had e v e r y t h i n g i n l i f e muno continues his  ty.  of l i f e , as  a l l Is v a n i t y " o f K i n g  he could wish f o r .  Una-  t o e x p l a i n how a man's s i t u a t i o n i n f l u e n c e s  a t t i t u d e toward l i f e .  conceives  Satia-  a powerful  An I d l e poor man, l i k e Don Q u i j o t e ,  l o v e of l i f e  and a t h i r s t f o r i m m o r t a l i -  (This love of l i f e i s an a b s t r a c t one, and i s t o be d i s -  -18t i n g u i s h e d from the j o i e de v i v r e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s Sancho). A busy poor man l o v e s l i f e moment by moment as Sancho does, without  a thought f o r t h e h e r e a f t e r .  A busy r i c h man be-  comes a p h i l i s t i n e , while an i d l e r i c h man becomes melancholy, sceptical,  and shows signs of " i n t i m a t e d e s p e r a t i o n " .  i n Don Q u i j o t e ' s p o s i t i o n i s impoverished  s t i l l more, he be-  comes a p£caro l i k e Guzman de A l f a r a c h e , who l i v e s one  I f a man  only from  minute to the next, (or r a t h e r , from one mouthful to the  next).  2 7  These l a s t two essays important  are dress r e h e a r s a l s f o r the more  p r o d u c t i o n , L a V i d a de Don Qui .jot e y Sancho, and  t h e r e f o r e they c o n t a i n i n rudimentary form, many of the same themes as the l a r g e r work.  Unamuno's ideas on Don Q u i j o t e  have developed s t e a d i l y and l o g i c a l l y from h i s f i r s t to L a V i d a .  The most s t r i k i n g  writings  development i s h i s c o n s t a n t l y  changing a t t i t u d e towards Don Q u i j o t e s quest f o r fame and f  renown.  Before  examining other aspects  of L a V i d a , i t would  be w e l l t o see how " e r o s t r a t i s m o " , which Unamuno r e j e c t s i n the beginning, phy  o f h i s mature y e a r s .  entirely  becomes the b a s i s of the p h i l o s o -  -19CHAPTER IV UNAMUNO AND IMMORTALITY By 1 9 0 5 , Unamuno has dropped the term " e r o s t r a t i s m o " i n f a v o r of other means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h i s thought.  There are  s e v e r a l reasons why he d i s c a r d s such a convenient  term.  Since i t was i n v e n t e d by D. F u l g e n c i o Entrambosmares i n Amor y pedagogfa, i t has p e j o r a t i v e connotations and u s e l e s s pedantry. vocabulary",  of f o o l i s h n e s s  Unamuno p r i d e s h i m s e l f on h i s " l i v i n g  on u s i n g , i f p o s s i b l e , o n l y words which he hears  spoken b y the peasants i n C a s t i l l e .  Obviously,  "erostratismo",  w i t h i t s aura o f c l a s s i c a l s c h o l a r s h i p , would be q u i t e u n i n telligible  t o them, and thus  i t s continued use i s out of the  question. As we have seen, Unamuno becomes very anti-Don i n 1 8 9 8 , f o r he seems t o r e a l i z e f o r the f i r s t portance  of the h i d a l g o ' s quest f o r fame.  he i n t e r p r e t s i t as he would continue  Quijote  time the im-  F o r the f i r s t  time,  t o do t h e n c e f o r t h :  the c e n t e r , the essence of the Q u i j o t e .  as  Above a l l e l s e , the  t h i r s t f o r fame, which he equates w i t h the t h i r s t f o r immort a l i t y , determines Don Q u i j o t e ' s a c t i o n s . had benevolent  Although  Unamuno  f e e l i n g s toward Don Q u i j o t e up t o t h a t  once he has t h i s new i n s i g h t , he r e j e c t s him u t t e r l y .  time, His  a t t i t u d e changes g r a d u a l l y from t o t a l r e j e c t i o n to p a r t i a l acceptance i n 1 9 0 2 ; he r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Don Q u i j o t e ' s quest i s  -2 0 -  a terrible  s i n , f o r i t i s s e l f i s h and v a i n g l o r i o u s , but he  a l s o admits that most heroes and even s a i n t s have sought glory f i r s t , 1905  and t h e n have sought the kingdom of God.  i n La Vida,  h i s convictions  have come f u l l  By  circle:  he  sees i n the t h i r s t f o r fame, a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c o n s c i o u s n e s s of s e l f ,  and the o n l y s i n c e r e motive power f o r h e r o i c  action.  I t would seem t h a t as Unamuno grows o l d e r , he i s i n c r e a s i n g ly  aware of h i s m o r t a l i t y , and hence i s overtaken and over-  whelmed by a t h i r s t f o r i m m o r t a l i t y quently,  i n any sense.  he becomes l e s s harsh i n h i s judgement o f the  e f f o r t s o f others  t o survive.  I n L a V i d a , Don Q u i j o t e be-  comes San Qui j o t e and nuestro senqr Don Q u i j o t e : figure. for  Conse-  a Christ  P a r from blaming him f o r h i s v a i n g l o r i o u s  desire  fame before a l l e l s e , he canonizes him f o r i t .  It is  r i g h t and proper, Unamuno t e l l s us, that Don Q u i j o t e first  seek renown f o r h i m s e l f ,  to the n a t i o n .  should  and then worry about s e r v i c e  Perhaps t h i s might seem e g o t i s t i c a l ,  would seem b e t t e r t o s e r v e the n a t i o n f i r s t ,  and i t  i n order to  seek the kingdom of God and i t s j u s t i c e , and f o r t h e pure love  of the Good, but . . . n i l o s cuerpos pueden menos de caer a l a t i e r r a , pues t a l es su l e y , n i l a s a l mas menos de obrar por l e y de g r a v i t a c i o n e s p i r i t u a l . p o r l e y de amor p r o p i o y deseo de h o n r a . 2 "  Bodies f a l l t o e a r t h because of g r a v i t a t i o n , the mutual a t t r a c t i o n between two o b j e c t s  i n space.  Likewise there  mutual a t t r a c t i o n between man and God.  is a  F o r man, God above a l l  -21e l s e i s the e t e r n a l producer o f i m m o r t a l i t y . that Unamuno should  It is ironic  choose t o phrase the d e s i r e f o r s e l f  p r e s e r v a t i o n i n terms of a n a t u r a l law.  He c o u l d best have  g i v e n " s c i e n t i f i c " support t o h i s argument by c l a i m i n g the d e s i r e f o r i m m o r t a l i t y  i s an e x t e n t i o n  hypothesis t h a t every l i v i n g  creature  a l i v e and t o dominate a l l others. theory  of the Darwinian  s t r u g g l e s t o continue  Y e t , Unamuno r e j e c t s the  o f s u r v i v a l of the f i t t e s t as mere v e r b a l hocus-pocus:  a tautology, vive.)  that  (What are the f i t t e s t b e s t f i t f o r ?  Nevertheless,  To s u r -  he s t i l l wishes t o l e n d the e s s e n t i a l l y  e g o t i s t i c a l phenomenon o f the d e s i r e t o l i v e f o r e v e r a c l o a k of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y by u s i n g the v e r y type of p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c hocus-pocus which he condemned and s a t i r i z e d three  years  e a r l i e r i n Amor y pedagogjTa. Unamuno thus e s t a b l i s h e s that i s the f i r s t  law of man's a c t i o n s .  the d e s i r e f o r  immortality  I f man i s conscious o f  t h i s , he w i l l behave i n such a way as t o w i n fame and g l o r y ; Unamuno b e l i e v e s most people p r e f e r to be famous than i n famous, though c r i m i n a l s seek i m m o r t a l i t y  through t h e i r  crimes, t o o . Our everyday tasks become l i g h t e r i f we cons c i o u s l y perform them f o r our own g r e a t e r g l o r y . v e r y w e l l t o convert  It is a l l  one's work i n t o a p r a y e r for::the  greater  g l o r y o f God, but I t i s n ' t very human, and does n o t b r i n g h a l f the j o y t h a t working f o r fame d o e s . ^ 2  Unamuno c o n t r a d i c t s these shocking ideas i n v a r i o u s p l a c e s by i n t r o d u c i n g concepts which he maintained i n h i s  -22e a r l i e r Quijote essays.  F o r i n s t a n c e , he maintains  (after  s e t t i n g up h i s n a t u r a l law t h a t man b y nature must seek immort a l i t y ) t h a t man's quest i s i n essence  a s i n f u l one, but, he  adds q u i c k l y , a l l h e r o i c and s a i n t l y l i v e s have been l i v e d i n p u r s u i t of glory.3®  Unamuno repeats a theme which appears i n  the essay "JMuera Don Q u i j o t e J" where he condemns Don Q u i j o t e f o r c o n s i d e r i n g h i m s e l f t o be the m i n i s t e r o f G-od on e a r t h . The h i d a l g o ' s o r i g i n a l s i n (and the s i n of the Spanish peop l e ) i s t o b e l i e v e h i m s e l f the executor of d i v i n e  justice.  Don :Quijote p a i d d e a r l y f o r h i s p r i d e , and the people o f Spain continue t o pay.  Unamuno cancels out t h i s i d e a c a r -  r i e d over from 1 8 9 8 i n h i s commentary on the episode of the freeing  of the g a l l e y s l a v e s .  Don Q u i j o t e ' s j u s t i c e i s l i k e  divine justice, f o r i t strikes i t s v i c t i m Judgeirent and punishment are simultaneous.  immediately. "Dios, l a natu-  r a l e z a y Don :$uijote c a s t i g a n p a r a perdonar.''^!  There i s no  h i n t o f censure f o r Don Q u i j o t e ' s r o l e as executor of d i v i n e j u s t i c e here.  His contradictory presentation i s p a r t l y pre-  meditated and p a r t l y , no doubt, due to the way i n which Unamuno gathered h i s m a t e r i a l t o g e t h e r f o r L a V i d a . doubtedly used e x p l i c a t i o n s  He un-  of episodes and notes w h i c h he  had made over a p e r i o d of y e a r s .  As we have seen, h i s i d e a s  on i m m o r t a l i t y developed v e r y r a p i d l y , thus withJb, La V i d a i t s e l f v/e see r e f l e c t i o n s o f v a r i o u s stages i n the author's thought• Unamuno a g a i n c o n t r a d i c t s h i s own " n a t u r a l law" b y  -23reducing  the d e s i r e f o r i m m o r t a l i t y  engender c h i l d r e n .  Since  t o a sublimated wish t o  Alonso e l Bueno was unlucky i n  h i s love f o r Aldonza Lorenzo (as one of h i s c e n t r a l themes, Unamuno proposes t h a t Alonso e l Bueno went mad because of f r u s t r a t e d love f o r Aldonza), he turned elsewhere to f i n d a means of p e r p e t u a t i n g  himself.  M i r a , C a b a l l e r o , que e l a n s i a de inmort a l i d a d no es s i n o l a f l o r d e l a n s i a de l i n a j e . ...Sdlo l o s amores desgraciados son fecundos en f r u t o s d e l e s p i r i t u ; s o l o cuando se l e c i e r r a a l amor su c u r so n a t u r a l y c o r r i e n t e es cuando s a l t a en s u r t i d o r a l c i e l o ; s ^ l o l a e s t e r i l i dad temporal da f e c u n d i d a d e t e r n a . 3 2  These passages domenstrate the c o n f u s i o n  s t i l l present i n  Unamuno s mind about the nature of the d e s i r e f o r i m m o r t a l i 1  ty; we'will  examine elsewhere the c o m p l e x i t i e s  of h i s t h e o r i e s  on l o v e , women and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on Don Q u i j o t e pp.  78 — 8I4.)«  f  Unamuno drops, o r a t l e a s t modifies,  by the timehe w r i t e s D e l sentimiento  (infra this  theory  t r a g i c o de l a v i d a ,  f o r how can he, f a t h e r of a l a r g e f a m i l y , e x p l a i n h i s own. unslaked t h i r s t f o r e t e r n a l l i f e ? theory  of the d e s i r e t o s u r v i v e  than i n L a V i d a . any  He no longer  In Del sentimiento, h i s  i s broader and l e s s e x c l u s i v e t r i e s t o reduce i t s o r i g i n t o  one human d e s i r e , but i n c l u d e s  l i n a j e and the wish t o immortalize  these d e s i r e s , a n s i a de o n e s e l f through works,  as two e f f e c t s of the p r i m a l d e s i r e —  the d e s i r e f o r e t e r n a l  life. Despite  surface  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s , however, Unamuno has  thought out t h e essence o f h i s p h i l o s o p h y  by 1 9 0 5 , f o r he  -2khe had w r i t t e n about i n 1895,  now e x p l a i n s the episode  where Don Quijote meets a group o f workers who are c a r r y ing  carved wooden a l t a r f i g u r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i o u s s a i n t s ,  i n a s t a r t l i n g l y new way.  Don Q u i j o t e doubts h i m s e l f be-  cause of a sudden a t t a c k of anguish: del  ahogo e s p i r i t u a l . "  "esa suprema congoja  This a n g u i s h i s caused b y the f e a r  of a n n i h i l a t i o n . Aunque t u cabeza d i g a que se t e ha de d e r r e t i r l a c o n c i e n c i a un d f a , t u corazon, despertado y alumbrado por l a congoja i n f i n i t a , te ^ensenara que hay un mundo en que l a razon no es g u i a . L a verdad es l o que hace v i v i r , no l o que hace pensar.33 The  anguish which we f e e l when we suspect t h a t we are not  immortal i s the motive f o r c e o f our s t r i v i n g and f o r t r u t h . muno's thought.  f o r immortality  Here i s the essence and f o u n d a t i o n  of Una-  -25CHAPTER V CENTRAL PROBLEMS IN UNAMUNO'S INTERPRETATION OP THE QUIJOTE A.  DON QUIJOTE:  SYJVBOL OP SPAIN  Why d i d Don Q u i j o t e r a t h e r than Segismund o r Don Juan become Unamuno's f a v o r i t e hombre-sjfmbolo? Don  An examination of  Q u i j o t e ' s e s s e n t i a l q u a l i t i e s -- according  t o Un muno a  —  w i l l answer t h i s q u e s t i o n and throw f u r t h e r l i g h t on Unamuno's  work. Don  Q u i j o t e and Sancho have always been c o n s i d e r e d by  both the Spaniards of  themselves and by o u t s i d e r s as expressions  the essence of the Spanish c h a r a c t e r .  f a c t which f i r s t  Perhaps i t was t h i s  c e n t e r e d Unamuno's a t t e n t i o n on them.  As  we have seen a l r e a d y , Unamuno b e l i e v e s t h a t Don Quijote i s an e x p r e s s i o n o f the  c o l l e c t i v e C a s t i l i a n s o u l , and he c a l l s  the Q u i j o t e " l a B i b l i a e s p a n o l a . " - ^ the i d e a l f i g u r e t o use — to  He saw i n the  i n h i s own way —  hidalgo  as an all©gory  make c l e a r e r h i s ideas on Spain and through whom t o p r e -  sent h i s p l a n f o r the s a l v a t i o n o f Spaniards, the s a l v a t i o n of mankind as a whole.  as w e l l as f o r  S i n c e Don Q u i j o t e i s  u n i v e r s a l l y known, he has had u n i v e r s a l i n f l u e n c e . as the non-Spanish world understands him, panized".  Insofar  i t has been " h i s -  Unamuno's s e l f - i m p o s e d t a s k i s to e x p l i c a t e en-  t i r e l y the meaning of the l i f e " h i s p a n i z e " the world s t i l l  o f the h i d a l g o , and thus t o  further.  I n doing so, he hopes  -26to ter  save i t from complacency  and the nada.  By u s i n g a c h a r a c -  as u n i v e r s a l l y known and l o v e d as Don Q u i j o t e , the author  g i v e s added l u s t r e to h i s own  ideas.  They become more memo-  r a b l e , more a c c e p t a b l e , and seem more b r i l l i a n t ed l i g h t of the borrowed hero's B.  i n the  reflect  glory.  LOGIC VS. FAITH  Other reasons f o r Unamuno's c h o i c e of Don Q u i j o t e only become apparent upon c l o s e r a n a l y s i s of La V i d a .  From the  beginning of h i s c a r e e r , Unamuno f e e l s h i m s e l f trapped by logic  and reason.  He r e v o l t s a g a i n s t l o g i c ,  do so u n t i l the end of h i s l i f e ,  and continues t o  a l t h o u g h he knows that he i s  bound i n e s c a p a b l y by i t , f o r w i t h every word he w r i t e s , he must use I t . recounts how  He expresses h i s d i s g u s t f o r p h i l o s o p h y , and as a mere boy he had worked out a complete  complex system of h i s own, aside c h i l d i s h t h i n g s . a p h i l o s o p h e malgre  and  o n l y to d i s c a r d i t when he put  Unamuno p r e s e n t s the c o n t r a d i c t i o n of  l u i ; a man who  wishes to save the world,  and t o do so must use the v e r y t o o l s he r e j e c t s and d e s p i s e s . His  s t y l e i t s e l f r e f l e c t s t h i s r e v o l t a g a i n s t reason.  muno i s t r u l y a r o m a n t i c i s t , as may  Una-  be gathered from h i s  a d m i r a t i o n f o r such authors as Senaneour and Byron.  Unamuno  p r e f e r s open form i n b o t h s u b j e c t matter and i n composition. Nothing must be planned or f i x e d ahead of time. sentences may tonous.  Hence h i s  become heavy, rough, r e p e t i t i o u s , even mono-  As r e f l e c t i o n s o f the s e l f of the p a s s i n g moment  the s i n c e r e s e l f contradict i t s e l f  (which Unamuno admits i s ambiguous, and i n the next moment) —  these sentences  — might  -27cannot be s u b j e c t e d to the s c r u t i n y of reason, f o r t h a t would k i l l t h e i r o r i g i n a l i t y and s p o n t a n e i t y . f o r e i n a rough, u n f i n i s h e d form.  They remain t h e r e -  Unamuno scorns those  passages of the Q u i j o t e (e.g. where Don  Quijote v i s i t s  a  p r i n t shop i n Barcelona) i n which Cervantes makes a l l u s i o n t o what Unamuno c a l l s " t i q u i s m i q u i s y minucias d e l o f i c i o " . I t i s excusable f o r an author t o r e w r i t e , t o p o l i s h h i s p r o s e , he adds, but he must never b r i n g such t e c h n i c a l i t i e s reader's a t t e n t i o n .  to the  Unamuno confesses t h a t he sometimes  p o l i s h e s h i s own d i s c o u r s e , but he i n s i s t s t h a t i t Is mainly i n order to i n t r o d u c e terms c u r r e n t l y spoken by the p e o p l e . He hopes to unearth words "que  chorrean v i d a segun c o r r e n  f r e s c a s y rozagantes de boca en boca y de oldo en boca de l o s buenos lugarenos de t i e r r a s de C a s t i l l a y de Unamuno makes t h i s  Leon.^  c o n c e s s i o n t o "minucias d e l b f i c i o " not i n  the s e r v i c e of reason, but t o f i g h t  it;  t o combat those  wish t o make Spanish i n t o a f i x e d and p r e c i s e  who  language.  Pero les que vamos a e s c r i b i r a l g u n D i s curso d e l me'todo con e l l a ? i A l demonio l a l o g i c a y l a c l a r i d a d esas 2 Que'dense l o s t a l e s r e c o r t e s y podas y redondeos p a r a lenguas en que haya de encarnar l a lc^gica d e l r a c i o c i n i o r a c i o c i n a n t e , pero l a n u e s t r a , £no sabe s e r acaso, ante todo y sobre todo, instrumento de p a s i o n y e n v o l t u r a de q u i j o t e s c o s anhelos conquistadores?"3° Unamuno's p r e f e r e n c e f o r open form i s obvious i n many of h i s essays, which were begun "a l o que of what would come out of them.  s a i g a " w i t h no i d e a  The l a r g e r essays l i k e D e l  s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de l a v i d a , have no r e a l s t r u c t u r e , When  -28we  examine the " n i v o l a s " , Amor y pedagogfa and  Niebla,  we  see that i t i s almost a p o i n t of honor w i t h Unamuno to break w i t h the f o r m of the novel, i n as The  j a r r i n g a way  as p o s s i b l e .  very name " n i v o l a " expresses, his triumphant v i c t o r y over  form.  N i e b l a cannot be c l a s s i f i e d under any known l i t e r a r y  term, so Unamuno i n v e n t s one s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t reason zation.  —  which i s m e a n i n g l e s s !  and form i s a l s o a g a i n s t d e p e r s o n a l i -  He must show h i s reader h i m s e l f , the man  and bone", and thus he r e t r e a t s i n t o h i s own world  i n order to r e s i s t , i n every way,  Unamuno the man  His  to an a b s t r a c t i o n .  of  very  personal  the r e d u c t i o n of  That h i s attempt to be  unique i m p l i e s as w e l l an ever renewed e f f o r t t o h i m s e l f cannot be Ignored or d e n i e d .  immortalize  I t i s because of h i s  d e s i r e always to show h i m s e l f i n h i s work t h a t h i s c h a r a c t e r s never come a l i v e , and  "flesh  fictional  can never cut the u m b i l i c a l  c o r d binding them to t h e i r c r e a t o r . The  essays  "La i d e o c r a c i a " , "La f e " , "Los n a t u r a l e s  l o s e s p i r i t u a l e s " , and many others, explore logic.  "Sobre l a f i l o s o f i L a espanola",  the author t e l l s us, are i r r e c o n -  c i l a b l e o p p o s i t e s , c o n s t a n t l y at war  w i t h one another.  man,  i n order to l i v e , must have f a i t h i n a God.  no's  case, b e l i e f i n God  i s necessary  f o r personal immortality).  it  among  the s u b j e c t of the k i l l i n g power of  L o g i c and f a i t h ,  seeks the support  y  (In Unamu-  to b o l s t e r up h i s hope  But f a i t h , which c o n s t a n t l y  o f i t s enemy, reason,  i s not s t r o n g enough.  A  is quickly k i l l e d i f  In La V i d a , where Unamuno a l s o  -29condemns reason, he f o r he  shews how  great Don  succeeded i n f r e e i n g h i m s e l f  faith.  In the  Quijote"  Quijote  really  was,  of the g r e a t e s t enemy of  i n t r o d u c t i o n to La V i d a ,  " E l sepulcro  de  Don  ( w r i t t e n a f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n of the f i r s t e d i t i o n  of La V i d a , but  attached  to i t as an i n t r o d u c t i o n i n a l l sub-  sequent e d i t i o n s ) , Unamuno urges h i s crusaders tomb of thei? hero from the dukes and  canons who  f o r they are  Carrascos,  have occupied  "hidalgos  reasoned d i s c o u r s e we  They are To  the enemy,  their studied  must r e p l y w i t h i n s u l t s and  and  shrieks  passion,  f o r i f we  lost.3?  A s h r i e k of p a s s i o n i s , v/ithout doubt, s i n c e r e .  t r y t o answer them r a t i o n a l l y , we  advocating  p a s s i o n as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r reasoned  Unamuno —  perhaps u n w i t t i n g l y —  t r a d i t i o n , and  shows how  Senancour's Obermann.  and heroes.  of  are In  hypocrisy,  f o l l o w s i n the Romantic  w e l l he has  absorbed the message o f  F o r the French C l a s s i c i s t s ,  sonae, the masks of kings and heroes, represented of kings  the  p r i e s t s , barbers,  it.  de l a Razon".  to rescue  the  the  per-  essence  Through t h e i r h i s t r i o n i c s , the Romanti-  c i s t s demonstrated a g a i n and  again t h e i r c o n v i c t i o n that  any  mask, .including the mask of s o c i a l grace, i s h y p o c r i t i c a l . Unamuno l i k e w i s e t e a r s away the p o l i t e mask of s t y l e and academic t r a d i t i o n to r e v e a l h i s agony by s h r i e k s of He not  only r e g r e t s t h a t the paper i t s e l f j u s t to convey h i s own  their plight —  passion.  cannot c r y aloud  torment, but  to the human c o n d i t i o n .  to awaken others  — to  -30-  S i no he l o g r a d o desasosegarte con mi Q u i j o t e , es, creemelo b i e n , por mi t o r p e z a y porque este muerto pap e l en que e s c r i b o n i g r i t a , n i c h i l l a , n i suspira, n i l l o r a , porque no se h i z o e l lenguaje p a r a que t u y yo nos entendi£ramos.3o /  To i n d i c a t e how the mad  h i d a l g o , we  deep was  Unamuno's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h  s h a l l proceed t o an examination  Q u i j o t e ' s v i c t o r y over r e a s o n through h i s c r e a t i v e  of  Don  faith.  When Sancho r e t u r n s to h i s master i n the S i e r r a Morena and recounts h i s f i c t i t i o u s meeting w i t h D u l c l n e a , Don jote hears o n l y h i s own men  t r u t h i n Sancho's words.  two  l i v e on such d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s t h a t communication does not  take p l a c e .  Sancho's account, based on h i s everyday  i e n c e of l i f e ,  i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y transmuted  by Don  i n t o a t r u t h i n harmony w i t h h i s i n n e r l i f e . is purely verbal, like deeper, ca  The  Qui-  exper-  Quijote  Sancho's l o g i c  the s c h o l a s t i c s ' , b u t Don  Quijote's i s  "...cae toda l o g i c a que no se basa en l a f e y no  en l a v o l u n t a d s u u l t i m o s u s t e n t o . " 3 9  Unamuno a g a i n demon-  s t r a t e s the n e c e s s i t y of r e b e l l i n g a g a i n s t reason and throwing i t , t h a t Don thoughts  —  himself.  Don  His  i s based  logic  Quijote has done t h i s ,  his logic —  bus-  over-  and t h a t h i s  are based on a deep f a i t h w i t h i n  Q u i j o t e has become a p e r f e c t Unamunian hero. on f a i t h and w i l l ; he Incarnates a c o n t r a -  d i c t i o n , and thus becomes f o r Unamuno an a l l e g o r y of the s t r u g g l e which i s the h e a r t of h i s p h i l o s o p h y .  The  author  expresses the problem c l e a r l y i n D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de la  vida:  -31Razon y f e s o n dos enemigos que no pueden sostenerse e l uno s i n e l otro.n-0 L a paz entre estas dos p o t e n c i a s s e hace i m p o s i b l e , y hay que v i v i r de l a g u e r r a . Y hacer de e s t a , de l a guerra mismp. cond i c i o n de nuestra v i d a e s p i r i t u a l Don  Q u i j o t e has found an e q u i l i b r i u m between f a i t h and reason,  but i n doing  so, he has become mad, C.  UNAMUNO S LACK OP HUMOR 1  In h i s a n x i e t y t o show t h a t Don Q u i j o t e w i l l i n g l y threw reason i n f a v o r of madness, Unamuno sometimes  over-  over-  s t a t e s h i s argument, v e r y o f t e n t w i s t s the meaning of the t e x t , and ignores i t s s u b t l e t i e s .  Such i s the case i n h i s  d i s c u s s i o n of Don Q u i j o t e ' s " p e n i t e n c e "  i n the. S i e r r a Morena,  Sancho asks h i s master why he must go mad ( " d e s a t i n a r " ) , i f D u l c i n e a has n o t yet deceived him w i t h another k n i g h t , cho  i s confused:,  Don  Q u i j o t e here c o n f r o n t s  pretending  San-  he knows h i s master t o be mad already, y e t him with the s p e c t a c l e of a madman  t o be even madder than he i s .  him t h a t to go mad w i t h a reason  Don Q u i j o t e  i s nothing:  ",.,el  tells toque  e s t a en d e s a t i n a r s i n o c a s i o n y d a r a entender a mi dama que s i en seco hago e s t o , q u i h i c i e r a en mojado,"  Unamuno i n t e r -  p r e t s t h i s as a r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t l o g i c , t h a t "harsh t y r a n t of the  spirit."  True madness i s what we need, he i n s i s t s ,  Unamuno, i n h i s haste  t o drive home to us t h a t madness i s our  s a l v a t i o n , ignores the complex p l a y of Cervantes*  humor, and  the f a c t t h a t , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , the h i d a l g o ' s madness i s not " l a verdadera l o c u r a " , but a manoeuver t o win  Dulcinea's  -32favor.  I t i s an out and out i m i t a t i o n by Don  Q u i j o t e of  A r i o s t o ' s Orlando f u r i o s o , but the h e r o makes i t c l e a r t h a t he has no i n t e n t i o n of committing  any of the d e s t r u c t i v e acts  t h a t Orlando d i d , s i n c e he i s not r e a l l y "mojado"; D u l c i n e a has not deceived him y e t . a l s o passes  With the utmost g r a v i t y , Unamuno  over the passage where-Don <©uijote, i n order t o  supply Sancho with a l i v e l y impression of h i s "madness" t o r e l a t e to D u l c i n e a , takes o f f h i s c l o t h e s * Quedo' en carnes y en p a n a l e s , y luego, s i n mas n i m£s, did' dos zapatetas en e l a i r e y dos tumbos de cabeza abajo y l o s p i e s en a l t o , descubriendo cosas que por no v e r l a s o t r a vez v o l v i d Sancho l a r i e n da a R o c i nante y se d i o por s a t i s f e c h o de que p o d f a j u r a r que su amo quedaba l o c o . " i Admirable el  que  a v e n t u r a j " exclaims Unamuno solemnly,  l a s d i o o es capaz de d a r l a s (zapatetas) puede dar cima  a grandes e m p r e s a s . " ^ In saying that no man t o appear absurd.  Unamuno i s p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d  thoughts secutors.  here  can r e a c h greatness unless he i s w i l l i n g  The g r a v i t y of h i s tone may  p l a i n e d i n p a r t , f o r t o laugh at Don  a l s o be  Q u i j o t e without  ex-  second  i m p l i e s j o i n i n g f o r c e s w i t h the c r u d e s t of h i s p e r Unamuno's e r r o r l i e s  f o r Unamuno i t i s a "sad e p i c " . causes  "So'lo e l que  i n o v e r s i m p l i f y i n g the n o v e l ; A c t u a l l y , the Qui jote  us t o laugh and a t the same time t o f e e l deep com-  passion.  Of course we  g e n t l y , f o r we  cannot help laughing, but we  i d e n t i f y with Don  e v i t a b l y t u r n out wrong —  like  laugh  Q u i j o t e , whose l a b o r s i n our own.  Precisely  this  awakening of compassion i s , a c c o r d i n g t o D o s t o i e v s k i , the  -33deepest s e c r e t of humor, but Unamuno c r i t i c i s e s any such compassion.Mi-  The s p a r k l i n g and  j o y f u l sweep of Cervantes'  w r i t i n g escapes Unamuno e n t i r e l y . s i d e r s Cervantes' s t y l e  On the c o n t r a r y , he  to be a r t i f i c i a l ,  h i g h l y d e t r i m e n t a l t o those who  attempt  affected,  con-  and  to i m i t a t e i t . te  D. His  enmity t o Cervantes i s not l i m i t e d to s t y l e , however.  Since 1903, his  when Unamuno wrote  benevolence  and s c o r n . 1903  UNAMUNO'S ENVY OP CERVANTES  towards  "La causa d e l q u i j o t i s m o " ,  Cervantes has changed to s u s p i c i o n  Prom i d e n t i f y i n g Cervantes w i t h h i s hero i n the  a r t i c l e , Unamuno has reached the o p p o s i t e extreme of  c o n s i d e r i n g Cervantes as a mere midwife who had no r e a l p a r t i n the c r e a t i o n of Don Q u i j o t e , and who stand him.  This h o s t i l i t y may  d i d o o t b e g i n to under-  be b e t t e r understood i n the  l i g h t of a passage from D e l sentimiento t r a g i co de l a v i d a ; Sentimos celos de l o s genios que f u e r o n , y cuyos nombres, como h i t o s de l a h i s t o r i a , s a l v a n l a s edades. E l c i e l o de l a fama no es muy grande, y cuantos ma's en e l e n t r e n , a menos t o c a cada uno de e l l o s . Los grandes, nombres d e l oasado nos roban l u g a r en Cervantes has a c h i e v e d g r e a t n e s s .  Unamuno, i n h i s a r t i c l e  "Sobre l a l e c t u r a e interpretaeio'n d e l Q u i j o t e " (190f?)> t r i e s hard t o rob Cervantes of h i s p l a c e i n the "heaven of fame" by a s s e r t i n g t h a t Cervantes i s only the f a t h e r of the Q u i j o t e , i t s mother i s the people which produced Cervantes, kl  Thus  Cervantes, Unamuno t e l l s us, r e a l l y had o n l y an i n c i d e n t a l  -3kr o l e t o p l a y i n the p r o d u c t i o n of the Q u i j o t e ;  "Cervantes no  fue' idis que un mero instrumento para que l a Espana d e l s i g l o X V I p a r i e s e a Don Q u i j o t e k &  As a supporting argument  n  9  a g a i n s t Cervantes, Unamuno r e s u r r e c t s an i d e a which he f i r s t develops i n " E l c a b a l l e r o de l a t r i s t e which he repeats i n N i e b l a : a life  figura"  ( 1 8 9 6 ) , and  t h a t a c r e a t e d c h a r a c t e r assumes  of i t s own, independent  of the c r e a t o r . k9  Hence, Don  Q u i j o t e , who i s a c t u a l l y a product o f the n a t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n of Cervantes, was independent  of h i s " f a t h e r " from the  start.  Unamuno continues by attempting to persuade  h i s readers t h a t  Cervantes was a mediocre w r i t e r and c r i t i c ,  and t h a t he, alone  c o u l d never have w r i t t e n the Q u i j o t e .  The Nbvelas  ejemplares  are i n s i p i d and d u l l , the V i a j e a l Parnaso i s " i n s u p p o r t a b l e " . The  c r i t i c a l passages  and u n i m a g i n a t i v e . except f o r the  .Obviously, Cervantes was a w r i t e r who,  Q u i j o t e , would be f o r g o t t e n b y l i t e r a r y  s c h o l a r s today. demonstrate  i n the--Quijote are f r i g h t e n i n g l y v u l g a r  To c l i n c h h i s argument, Unamuno attempts t o  t h a t Cervantes d i d not understand h i s hero.  . . . l l e g o a sospechar que Cervantes murid' s i n haber c a l a d o todo en alcance de su Q u i j o t e , y acaso s i n h a b e r l o entendido a derechas. ...cada vez que e l bueno de Cervantes se i n t r o d u c e en e l r e l a t o y se mete a hacer c o n s i d e r a c i o n e s p o r su p a r t e , es p a r a d e c i r alguna i m p e r t i n e n c i a o j u z - ^ gar male'vola y maliciosamente a su h e r o e . ^  1  Unamuno c i t e s the case of Don Q u i j o t e ' s d i s c o u r s e on the G o l d en Age t o a group  of goatherds, which Cervantes c a l l s an  " i n u t i l razonamiento".  Obviously i t was n o t u s e l e s s , Una-  -35muno p r o t e s t s , s i n c e i t l e f t  the geatherds amazed and speech-  less J These arguments a g a i n s t Cervantes seem l a r g e l y cious.  falla-  They are based on e n v i d i a , which Unamuno h i m s e l f  b e l i e v e s t o be one of the g r e a t e s t e v i l s of the Spanish character,  and about which he w r i t e s A b e l Sanchez,  and A b e l n o v e l .  h i s Cain  I t i s t r u e t h a t the Nov e l as ejemplares do not  compare w i t h the Q u i j o t e i n content, b u t they do compare i n t h e i r s p a r k l i n g and l i g h t h e a r t e d p r e s e n t a t i o n .  Unamuno com-  mits the e r r o r of judging Cervantes from h i s own, t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y moral and e s t h e t i c s t a n d p o i n t . to understand Cervantes' purpose,  He makes no attempt  or the taste of the s i x t e e n t h  and seventeenth-century a r t i s t and r e a d e r .  Cervantes no doubt  hoped t o e n t e r t a i n h i s reader, not t o t e a c h him, and i n l i m i t ing h i m s e l f l a r g e l y t o the r o l e of e n t e r t a i n e r r a t h e r than m o r a l i s t , Cervantes r e f l e c t s t h e c y n i c i s m of h i s age. He wrote what he knew would be amusing, and i n Don Q u i j o t e , he found e x a c t l y the theme f o r which he had been s e a r c h i n g during a l i f e t i m e .  There  i s no doubt t h a t Cervantes knew the  worth o f h i s hero.  H i s profound l o v e f o r h i s c r e a t i o n i s  expressed i n the sentence a t the end of the Q u i j o t e t  "Para  mf s o l o nacid'don Q u i j o t e , y yo p a r a 4l; 4l supo obrar y yo escribir..."  His c r i t i c a l  a t t i t u d e towards h i s hero  reflects  a deeper understanding f o r him than Unamuno c o u l d p o s s i b l y show.  Maeztu, among o t h e r s , has c r i t i c i z e d Unamuno f o r b e i n g  incapable of r e a l i z i n g t h a t Cervantes l o v e d h i s c r e a t i o n a l l  -36the more deeply and understood  i t the more p r o f o u n d l y , p r e -  c i s e l y because he c o u l d l a u g h a t Don  Q u i j o t e and  w i t h him s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  i r o n y i s t o o g r e a t , too  Cervantes  s u b t l e f o r the rough-hewn i n t e l l e c t Don Q u i j o t e i s C e r v a n t e s r a t e attempts  1  1  sympathize  of Unamuno to  grasp.^  2  c r e a t i o n , d e s p i t e Unamuno's e l a b o -  t o dispose of the original a u t h o r .  Q u i j o t e .is more complicated, more human —  Cervantes'  an hombre de carre  y hue so, w i t h a good and a bad s i d e , while Unamuno's Q u i j o t e i s a cardboard f i g u r e , a s a i n t , an a l l e g o r y , a mere t o o l v e h i c l e of h i s thought.  Because Unamuno does not  Cervantes' hero, but r a t h e r r e c r e a t e s him, we  and  understand  see i n h i s i n -  t e r p r e t a t i o n an accurate r e f l e c t i o n ' of Unamuno's a r t i s t i c capabilities.  He demonstrates the d i f f e r e n c e between a  n o v e l i s t of genius and an e s s a y i s t , whose personae when he w r i t e s f i c t i o n ,  dramatis,  remain i n the p r e n a t a l s t a t e of  ideas a r b i t r a r i l y clothed i n f l e s h .  (Ironically, i n his  essay "En t o r n o a l c a s t i c i s m o " , Unamuno i s quick t o c r i t i c i z e e x a c t l y t h i s tendency  i n Calderon's work.)  C e r t a i n of Una-  muno's i n s i g h t s are extremely p e n e t r a t i n g , though they g e n e r a l l y have l i t t l e  t o do w i t h Cervantes' Q u i j o t e , but  r a t h e r are ideas sparked by the e f f o r t t o i n t e r p r e t passage i n the book according to Unamuno's own  every  "philosophy".  Unamuno shows a h e a l t h y d i s g u s t f o r the m a j o r i t y of Q u i j o t e c r i t i c i s m , and he has ample reason f o r t h i s  attitude.  Most Spanish c r i t i c s have been so overawed by t h e i r n a t i o n a l hero, Cervantes, that they have been unable  to r e a c h the  -37essence of h i s g r e a t e s t work. E n g l i s h and  Unamuno r i g h t l y s e e s  that  other f o r e i g n c r i t i c s have shown a g r e a t e r under-  standing f o r the Qui.jote, s i n c e they are Spaniards by  not bound l i k e  the  a p a t r i o t i c reverence f o r Cervantes which b o r -  ders on i d o l a t r y .  Unamuno t e n t a t i v e l y a t t r i b u t e s the  Spanish  l a c k of daring i n i n t e l l e c t u a l matters to the p a r t i c u l a r dogmatic, orthodox e x p r e s s i o n  of C a t h o l i c i s m i n Spain.  are no great S p a n i s h t h e o l o g i a n s ,  There  says Unamuno, but  only  s l a v i s h e x p o s i t o r s , comentators, v u l g a r i z e r s , and  scholars  the great  Unamuno  thoughts of other C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r s . ^  of  attempts to break through the b a r r i e r s of dogmatism i n r e l a t i o n to (Qui.jote c r i t i c i s m , but he becomes dogmatic and himself  i n h i s condemnation of Cervantes.  emotionally himself. Quijote  He has become  i n v o l v e d w i t h a c h a r a c t e r w i t h whom he  identifies  N a t u r a l l y , t h e r e f o r e , he wishes t o possess as a c r e a t o r possesses his c r e a t u r e .  a g a i n s t Cervantes i s the f u r y of a man  blind  who  Don  His anger  has been robbed by  another author of h i s g r e a t e s t i d e a ; one which expresses essence of h i s thought. Don  He  the  t h e r e f o r e does h i s best t o t e a r  ij^uijote away from h i s c r e a t o r . E.  THE  Prom the beginning, Bueno, who  POET-CREATOR  there  i s a r e s t l e s s n e s s i n Alonso e l  s e l l s h i s l a n d i n order t o buy  with the proceeds.  He  novels  i s both c h o l e r i c and  d e s i r e s n o t o r i e t y and i m m o r t a l i t y .  of c h i v a l r y  contemplative;  I f he remains w i t h i n  be the  -38p r i s o n w a l l s of s a n i t y — his goal.  of l o g i c -- he can never achieve  His o n l y way out of the e t e r n a l monotony of s a l -  p i c <5n, due l o s y que bran toa i s t o go mad —  and so he does.  A f a c t o r c o n t r i b u t i n g t o h i s madness, a c c o r d i n g t o don Miguel, i s h i s l o v e f o r Aldonza Lorenzo, whom he converts into D u l c i n e a d e l Toboso.  He combines t h i s sentiment with h i s t h i r s t  f o r e t e r n a l fame, and thus surrenders h i m s e l f e n t i r e l y t o h i s h e a r t , the e t e r n a l l y good h e a r t of Alonso e l Bueno.  His mad-  ness i s a g r e a t one, f o r l i k e C h r i s t and the f a i t h f u l , Don Q u i j o t e c r e a t e s what he wishes by b e l i e v i n g  i t ^ The wind-  m i l l s are g i a n t s , and the herds of sheep are armies, s i n c e Don Q u i j o t e b e l i e v e s them to be g i a n t s and armies.  Those  who know Alonso e l Bueno b e s t c a l l him "mad", f o r they, miserable earthbound  c r e a t u r e s , cannot share h i s f l i g h t s of  fancy, i n which h i s deepest d e s i r e s become r e a l i t y .  They  envy him; they wish t o drag him down out of the h e i g h t s of h i s imaginary world; they wish t o d e s t r o y h i s innermost being.  They r a t i o n a l i z e t h e i r d e s i r e t o d e s t r o y him by d i s g u i s -  i n g t h e i r e v i l p l a n s i n c l o a k s o f benevolence. must come to h i s senses.  He must r e t u r n t o h i s v i l l a g e ,  care o f h i s p r o p e r t y , and l i v e  a dignified life  f e a r i n g gentlemen should, t h e y s a y . stand i s —  Poor Alonso take  as a God-  What they do not under-  and Unamuno r e c o g n i z e s that the b a c h i l l e r e s and  curas can never understand —  t h a t Don Q u i j o t e  T r u t h as c l o s e l y as i s humanly p o s s i b l e .  approaches  The g r e a t n e s s o f  a r t and myth a l i k e l i e s i n t h e i r d i s t o r t i o n o f r e a l i t y .  They  -39are l i e s l i k e t r u t h — graph.  much n e a r e r the t r u t h than any photo-  Paradoxically, r e a l i t y  i s the raw m a t e r i a l of a r t ,  but i t has been f i l t e r e d and r e f i n e d through the senses and the mind o f the a r t i s t and mythmaker.  Alonso e l Bueno i s a  symbol of the g r e a t e s t of human c r e a t o r s — artists,  the g r e a t e s t o f  f o r he c r e a t e s h i m s e l f anew; i n h i s l i f e as Don Q u i -  jote he i s h i m s e l f both myth and work of a r t . t r u e r than Alonso e l Bueno. who touches every Don Q u i j o t e .  Don Q u i j o t e i s  He has become a u n i v e r s a l man,  one of us, f o r i n each o f us there  lives a  The immortal h i d a l g o has the courage t o b e l i e v e  t h a t the world i n s i d e him i s t r u e r than the world  outside.  No man can be an a r t i s t unless he, t o o , b e l i e v e s i n h i m s e l f . To b e l i e v e o n l y i n the i n t e r i o r  world  implies u t t e r l o n e l i -  ness, as Don Quijote was l o n e l y . E s t a s s o l o , mucho mas s o l o de l o que t e f i g u r a s , y aun a s f no esta's s i n o e n camino de l a a b s o l u t a , de l a c ompleta, de l a v e r dadera soledad. L a a b s o l u t a , l a completa, l a verdadera soledad a a n s i s t e en no e s t a r n i aun consigo mismo.55 Out  o f t h i s l o n e l i n e s s must come t o work of a r t , not what the  world  calls  a r t , f o r we must m i s t r u s t t h a t as a p e t t y i m i t a -  t i o n of the r e a l t h i n g . us.  "Que t e baste  t u f e " , Unamuno t e l l s  "Tu fe s e r a t u a r t e , t u f e s e r a t u c i e n c i a Unamuno f e e l s deeply the v a l i d i t y  attempt t o t r a n s f o r m h i m s e l f i n t o myth. recorded by Manuel G a r c i a Blanco,  o f Alonso e l Bueno's In a c o n v e r s a t i o n  Unamuno r e v e a l s the extent  to which he, too, belongs t o the s o c i e t y o f g r e a t c r e t o r s a  c r e a t o r s of s e l f :  —  -ho— &De modo que Ud. es un mito? — iPues c l a r o , hombre, pues c l a r o ! Soy un mito que me v o y haciendo d£a a d f a , segtfn voy l l e g a n d o a l manana, a l abismo, de e s p a l d a a l p o r v e n i r . Y mi obra es hacer mi mito. es hacerrae a rax mismo en cuanto mito.57 Since l a v i d a es sueno, something  which Unamuno repeats I n  both La V i d a and D e l sentimiento t r a g i c o d e l a v i d a , a c r e a t e d life of  i s asgood  or b e t t e r l — b e t t e r because  a r t j a myth c l o s e r t o t r u t h than l i f e .  i t i s a t r u e work Unamuno c r e a t e s  h i m s e l f as an archetype, and, l i k e Alonso e l Bueno, stands as a guideppst to those who would know themselves. o n e s e l f , one must be w i l l i n g approach an i d e a l —  to r i s k r i d i c u l e by t r y i n g t o  the i d e a l , which i s I t s e l f myth.  the attempt which counts, not the f i n a l r e s u l t . of  To know  one o f D o n Q u i j o t e ' s  In speaking  f a i l u r e s , Unamuno remarks:  no t e importe, pues t u t r i u n f o fue' siempre  It is  "...mas  en e l osar-y.no  de c o b r a r s u c e s o . " ^ Importance o f the w i l l . Unamuno as f a i t h .  Will  i s almost as important t o  He makes i t c l e a r i n D e l sentimiento,...that  God's e x i s t e n c e depends upon our c r e a t i o n of Him, by our w i l l i n g t h a t He e x i s t i n order t h a t we, t o o , may e x i s t nally.  eter-  T h i s supreme e f f o r t of w i l l i s p r i o r t o , o r s i m u l -  taneous w i t h f a i t h ,  and i s necessary i f we are t o save  our-  s e l v e s from the depths of d e s p e r a t i o n and c y n i c i s m of one who has l o s t a l l hope.  Don Q u i j o t e demonstrates  the power o f  w i l l , not only i n r e c r e a t i n g h i m s e l f and h i s w o r l d through h i s w i l l , but also by f o r c i n g others, c y n i c a l n o n b e l l e v e r s , to  -Illacknowledge the t r u t h of h i s a s s e r t i o n s .  I n the dispute over  the barber's b a s i n i n the i n n yard, t h e s c o f f e r s q u a r r e l w i t h each other, almost i n s p i t e of themselves, over whether or not the b a s i n i s i n f a c t Mambrino's golden helmet form,  as Don Q u i j o t e m a i n t a i n s .  Unamuno c a l l s t h i s  g r e a t e s t adventures of Don Q u i j o t e , because t i o n , he has imposed  i n enchanted  by pure  one of the affirma-  h i s f a i t h on those who s c o f f e d a t i t ,  and has caused them t o defend the f a i t h w i t h blows and k i c k s —  to s u f f e r f o r i t . ^  a l l truths.  A f f i r m a t i o n , e x p l a i n s Unamuno, c r e a t e s  "Las cos as son tanto mas verdaderas cuanto ma's  c r e f d a s , y no es l a i n t e l i g e n c i a , s i n o l a voluntad, l a que l a s impone."^  We might wonder what the t r u t h o f a p r o p o s i t i o n  has t o do with the power of the person who supports and strengthens i t by f o r c e o f arras, as does Don Q u i j o t e on many occasions.  "...Es  ... l a a c c i o n l a que hace l a verdad"  repeats Unamuno, "...son l o s m a r t i r e s l o s que hacen l a f e mas b i e n que s e r l a fe l a que hace l o s m a r t i r e s . verdad."k  1  The f e a r f u l dangers  Y l a f e hace l a  o f the d o c t r i n e t h a t  affir-  mation c r e a t e s t r u t h were n o t so apparent before World War I as they a r e t o us, d a i l y v i c t i m s of a l l s o r t s of propaganda "truths". Unamuno as p o e t .  I n one o f h i s l a s t adventures, a f t e r  he has been trampled b y a herd of swine, Don Q u i j o t e composes a madrigal, i n which, among other t h i n g s , he says: Asif e l v i v i r me mat a que l a muerte me t o r n a a d a r l a v i d a . iOh c o n d i c i d n no ofda l a que conmigo muerte y v i d a t r a t a l  At  l a s t , writes Unamuno, the h i d a l g o has expressed  the Inner-  most meaning of h i s madness, and he has done i t i t verse.^2 The essence  o f h i s madness must be expressed i n verse form,  f o r i t i s the n a t u r a l language of the deepest spirit.  recess of the  "En v e r s o compendiaron San Juan de l a Cruz y Santa  Teresa l o ma's fntimo de sus s e n t i r e s ,  5 1  Unamuno reminds u s ,  "Y asf Don Quijote fue' en v e r s o como l l e g o ' a d e s c u b r i r l o s abismos de s u l o c u r a . . est  F o r Unamuno, poetry i s the h i g h -  form of e x p r e s s i o n , and he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a poet  all.  above  He has l e f t s e v e r a l volumes of p o e t r y i n p r o o f of h i s  a s s e r t i o n , b u t he a l s o c a l l s e v e r y t h i n g e l s e he has w r i t t e n "poetry" as w e l l .  In f a c t , he ends by d i s c a r d i n g the d i s -  t i n c t i o n s between p o e t r y , drama, prose, p h i l o s o p h y and e s s a y , not only i n h i s own work, but a l s o i n the work of such p h i l o sophers  as Kant and Hegel.  The reason f o r t h i s may l i e i n  the f a c t t h a t Unamuno knew he was not a poet  i n the conven-  t i o n a l sense of the term, f o r he c o u l d not t h i n k i n images. His b e s t work i s c o n t a i n e d i n the essays, and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n L a V i d a and D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de l a v i d a . t i o n i s f a r too c e r e b r a l —  His f i c -  something he l o u d l y condemns (as  i n the case of t h e t h e a t e r o f C a l d e r o n ) .  His c h a r a c t e r s are  never hombres de carne y hueso, the r e a l man, whom he dec l a r e s t o be the o n l y v a l i d s u b j e c t of d i s c u s s i o n .  Unamuno's  c r e a t i o n s are ghosts, cardboard f i g u r e s , and are e n t i r e l y two-dimensional. of  They are f l a t because they are i n c a r n a t i o n s  i d e a s , and hence cannot have a human p e r s o n a l i t y . The  best example of t h e i r two-dimensionality  i s i n Juaquin Monegro,  the hero of Abel Sanchez, an i n c a r n a t i o n of envy.  The p l a y s ,  s h o r t s t o r i e s and novels a l l s u f f e r from the same l a c k of " l i v i n g " characters.  The  one e x c e p t i o n i s Manuel Bueno, the  hero of San Manuel Bueno, m a r t i r , who of  the author.  Even i n p o e t r y , Unamuno remahs an e s s a y i s t .  Hence i t becomes necessary f o r him, h i m s e l f a tendency writes, poetry.  i s a spiritual portrait  i n o r d e r to j u s t i f y i n  he disapproves o f , to c a l l e v e r y t h i n g he  His r e d e f i n i t i o n of p o e t r y may  be deduced  from the d i s t i n c t i o n he makes between l i t e r a t u r e and i n the Q u i j o t e . de temporal  "Literature"  3  poetry  i s " l o que t i e n e ( e l Q u i j o t e )  y de p a r t i c u l a r . " ^  "Poetry", on the other hand,  remains i n the Q u i j o t e even a f t e r i t has been t r a n s l a t e d . Obviously, " p o e t r y " i s t h a t which i s e t e r n a l and u n i v e r s a l i n the Q u i j o t e , and thus any work which Unamuno c o n s i d e r s to have l a s t i n g and u n i v e r s a l value becomes " p o e t r y " . P.  ACTION AS A MEANS OP SALVATION  Alonso e l Bueno, once he has p l a c e d h i s f a i t h and  ideals  above reason, becomes, through an e f f o r t of w i l l , Don Q u i j o t e a whirlwind of a c t i o n .  To achieve h i s g o a l and win the f a v o r  of h i s f a i r l a d y , he must accomplish many deeds of c h i v a l r y , so that h i s fame may he must "padacer  reach her ears.  t r a b a j o s " undoubtedly  abhors i d l e n e s s and r e s i g n a t i o n . defeatism, quoting a g a i n and  His r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t p l e a s e s Unamuno,  who  Unamuno v i o l e n t l y condemns  a g a i n the p o p u l a r r e f r a i n :  -kk" Cada vez que consider© que me tengo que m o r i r , t i e n d o l a capa en e l s u e l Q y no me harto de dormir.°5 which to him expresses the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of h i s deep v i c t i o n t h a t by a c t i o n we may by constant a c t i o n . contemplaciones,  savedj not by thought,  h i s i d e a l hero:  D  Q u i j o t e has  on  by Unamuno t o f i t a l l the  specifications  he i s a v i c t i m of " e r o s t r a t i s m o " , he  has r e v o l t e d a g a i n s t reason, he r e l i e s as the c e n t e r of h i s l i f e ,  a l t o g e t h e r on f a i t h  he r e c r e a t e s h i m s e l f by f a i t h  thus becomes the g r e a t e s t of human c r e a t o r s : an a r t i s t , poet;  but  nuestros a c t o s , y no de nuestras  sacaremos s a b i d u r x a . " ^  thus been reshaped for  "De  be  con-  and f i n a l l y , he i s i n constant a c t i o n , s t r i v i n g  reach an u n a t t a i n a b l e g o a l .  and a  to  This s t r i v i n g , which i s q u i x o t i c  by d e f i n i t i o n , i s recommended to us i n D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a ' g i co de l a v i d a , as the only proper way  of l i f e ,  the o n l y p o s s i b l e one f o r any person who tragedy:  one's i n e v i t a b l e  and  indeed  i s aware o f l i f e ' s  death.  ...Obra de modo que merezcas a tu p r o p i o j u i c i o y a j u i c i o de l o s dema*s l a e t e r n i dad, que te hagas i n s u s t i t u i b l e , que no merezcas m o r i r . 0 t a l vez asi": obra como s i hubieses de m o r i r t e manana, pero p a r a s o b r e v i v i r y e t e r n i z a r t e . E l f i n de l a moral es dar f i n a l i d a d humana, p e r s o n a l , a l Universo; d e s c u b r i r l a que tenga — s i es que l a t i e n e — y d e s c u b r i r l a obrando. ' 6  -14-5CHAPTER V I DIONYSUS AND UNAMUNO A.  CHRISTIANITY AND DIONYSUS  As we nave seen, Unamuno b e l i e v e s . t h a t Don Q u i j o t e reaches the h i g h e s t p o i n t of h i s c a r e e r when he expresses i n ve rse h i s innermost thoughts, and r e v e a l s h i s d e s i r e to become a p a s t o r a l poet.  Up t o t h i s p o i n t Don Q u i j o t e has  been mad, t o be s u r e , but now he can be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the d i v i n e madman whom P l a t o d e s c r i b e s i n the Phaedrus and Ion, the man possessed by the muses. Por a l l good poets e p i c as w e l l as l y r i c , compose t h e i r poems not by a r t , b u t because they are i n s p i r e d and possessed. And as the Corybantian r e v e l l e r s when they dance are not i n t h e i r r i g h t mind, so the l y r i c poets are not i n t h e i r r i g h t mind when they are composing t h e i r beaut i f u l s t r a i n s ; but when f a l l i n g under the power of music and metre they are i n s p i r e d and possessed; l i k e B a c c h i c maidens who draw m i l k and honey from the r i v e r s when they are under the i n f l u e n c e of Dionysus but not when they are. i n t h e i r r i g h t mind. Don Q u i j o t e has f a l l e n under the s p e l l of novelas de c a b a l l e r f a s and nove l a s pas t o r i Is s, which of course are music and metre i n t h e i r  own r i g h t .  There i s no. god, no Dionysus be-  hind Don Q u i j o t e ' s a t t r a c t i o n t o these novelas; the r e a l source of h i s madness i s t h e i r fame and renown.  s i r e n - l i k e promise  o f a way t o  Don Q u i j o t e ' s muse i s D u l c i n e a , who f o r  Unamuno i s the a l l e g o r y of w o r l d l y g l o r y .  Through contem-  p l a t i n g her, the h i d a l g o goes mad; he i s possessed by h e r .  -1*6-  According t o P l a t o , good poets compose t h e i r poems not by a r t ; a r t i s i r r e l e v a n t  to the c r e a t i o n o f r e a l p o e t r y .  A r t i n P l a t o ' s sense must no doubt be understood duct o f the mind, what the "world" c a l l s a r t : artificial.  as a p r o -  a r t i f i c e , the  A r t i n t h i s sense i s t h e r e f o r e a l o g i c a l  con-  s t r u c t , which P l a t o condemns as not being true p o e t r y s i n c e i t i s n o t the product o f madness.  A r t i s l i k e w i s e condemned  by Unamuno, who speaks a g a i n s t f a l s e poets i n a v e r y P l a t o n i c sense, urging h i s crusaders to the tomb o f Don Q u i j o t e t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t those who, the pilgrimmage.  i n t h e guise of poets, t r y to j o i n  When we compare the f o l l o w i n g two  passages,  we see the s i m i l a r i t y of message: Esos que t r a t a r f a n de convert i r t e e l escuadrdn de marcha en c u a d r i l l a de b a i l e se llaman a s i raismos, y l o s unos a l o s o t r o s entre s£, p o e t a s . No l o son. Son c u a l q u i e r o t r a cosa. E s t o s no van a l s e p u l cro s i n o p o r c u r i p s i d a d ... iPuera c o n e l l o s j " "  But he who, having ho touch of the muses' madness i n h i s s o u l , comes t o the door and t h i n k s t h a t he w i l l g e t i n t o the temple by t h e h e l p of a r t — he, I say, and h i s p o e t r y are not admitted; t h e same man d i s appears and i s nowhere when he e n t e r s i n t o r i v a l r y w i t h the madman. 7 °  Only those who are possessed, o r i n s p i r e d by t h e s i r e n song of the muses ( f o r a f t e r a l l , t o be i n s p i r e d is_ t o be p o s s e s s ed by the d i v i n e breath) are p o e t s .  E v e r y u t t e r a n c e of these  poets, and indeed t h e i r v e r y l i v e s , become p o e t r y , f o r they are touched  by d i v i n i t y .  As we have seen i n the passage  quoted from the- Ion, P l a t o draws an analogy between the p o e t i c and the B a c c h i c f r e n z y .  Unamuno, t o o , a l t h o u g h he  does not p o i n t t h i s out, d e s c r i b e s c l e a r l y a B a c c h a n a l i a n  -14-7f r e n z y as the means by which the crusaders of Don Quijote must overthrow  reason.  No system or method may be admitted to the  crusade, f o r reason i s system.  The Garrascos, p r i e s t s , bar-  bers, dukes and canons w i l l defend the tomb with  reasoned  discourse, but: A e s t as r a zones hay que c o n t e s t a r con i n s u l t o s , con pedradas, con g r i t o s de pasicfn, con b otes de l a n z a . No hay que razonar con ellos. S i t r a t a s de razonar f r e n t e a sus razones, estas p e r d i d o . ' 1  In a v e r y u n - C h r i s t i a n f a s h i o n , we are urged t o attack the h i d a l g o s de l a Razon l i k e bacchantes; w i t h stones and l a n c e s .  to t e a r them to shreds  The l i k e n e s s t o a bacchanal  markable, but i f Unamuno intended t h i s resemblance, t a i n l y h i d c a r e f u l l y any r e f e r e n c e t o h i s model.  is rehe c e r -  There i s ,  t o our knowledge, no important passage i n Unamuno's works about Dionysus;  he never mentions the s t a n d a r d p a r a l l e l be*?  tween the i d e a of C h r i s t and t h e D i o n y s i a n i d e a of a god who i s r i t u a l l y s a c r i f i c e d , and who r e s u r r e c t s a g a i n every  spring.  In h i s essay, " E l C r i s t o e s p a n o l " , Unamuno draws an analogy between the c o r r i d a and the S p a n i s h C h r i s t : 'Cuando u s t e d vea una c o r r i d a de t o r o s ... coraprendera' u s t e d estos C r i s t o s . E l pobre t o r o es tambien una e s p e c i e de C r i s t o i r r a c i o n a l , una vi*ctima p r o p i c i a t o r i a cuya sangre nos l a v a de no pocos pecados de b a r barie.' The is  u n i t y o f symbolism between the c o r r i d a and a Bacchic j u s t as s t r i k i n g as i t s p o s s i b l e C h r i s t i a n  Some branches  of the c u l t  rite  significance.  of Dionysus p r a c t i c e d r i t u a l  sacri-  -14-3-  f i c e of a b u l l o c k who t o r n to p i e c e s a l i v e  r e p r e s e n t e d Bacchus.  The  animal  was  and eaten raw by the worshippers i n com-  memoration of a s i m i l a r f a t e s u f f e r e d by the boy Bacchus at the hands of the  jealous gods.  The p a r a l l e l here between  C h r i s t i a n i t y and the D i o n y s i a n mystery  c u l t i s obvious.  worshippers of b o t h r e l i g i o n s are r e q u i r e d to devour flesh  The  the  and b l o o d of t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e gods, although C h r i s t i a n s  s h i e l d themselves from the gory i m p l i c a t i o n s of Holy Communion by h i d i n g behind a b s t r a c t symbolism. a vestige  of D i o n y s i a n ceremonies  the p r e h i s t o r i c  That the b u l l f i g h t i s  which took p l a c e among  I b e r i a n s Is not a new  t h e o r y , and has been  amply d i s c u s s e d by students of the c o r r i d a . to ignore t h i s p o s s i b i l i t y , and  i n t h i s essay he i s as c l o s e  a rapprochement of C h r i s t and Dionysus B.  Unamuno seems  NIETZSCHE AND  as he w i l l e v e r be.  UNAMUNO  I t i s also c l e a r t h a t Unamuno i s not a d i s c i p l e of N i e t z s c h e , f o r h i s admonition t h a t h i s f o l l o w e r s behave bacchantes has an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t meaning.  In h i s a r t i -  c l e s on Nietzsche, Unamuno condescendingly c a l l s pobre  like  him " e l  N i e t z s c h e " , and e x p l a i n s the German author's i c o n o -  clasm by d i s m i s s i n g i t as the bravado  of a weak person  t r i e s to appear s t r o n g : Y toma l a s d o c t r i n a s darwinianas, o mejor dicho sus hipd'tesis y sus a n t i c i p a ciones aquel pobre loco de d e b i l i d a d que, os d e c f a ... de N i e t z s c h e , que ai no poder s e r C r i s t o blasfemaba de C r i s t o y que p a r a  who  -U9e n c u b r i r su hambre de i n m o r t a l i d a d i n v e n ted l a tra'gica bufonada de l a " v u e l t a e t e r na" ...73 Unamuno u n w i t t i n g l y r e v e a l s here h i s amazing ignorance of Nietzsche, f o r he seems to b e l i e v e t h a t Nietzsche was a f o l lower of Darwin, when a c t u a l l y he was h o s t i l e c a t i o n s of Darwin's t h e s i s .  Unamuno mentions the " e t e r n a l  r e t u r n " here, but does not attempt i n g f o r Nietzsche.  to the i m p l i -  t o d i s c o v e r I t s t r u e mean-  Instead, he a t t r i b u t e s t o Nietzsche (as  he does t o Spinoza, K i e r k e g a a r d and Kant) h i s own s i c k n e s s l a hambre de i n m o r t a l i d a d *  ~  He d i s m i s s e s both Nietzsche's  w r i t i n g s and h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r r e a d i n g them: confesses b l i t h e l y t h a t he has read o n l y snatches t h u s t r a and other Nie tzsche an works i n French and c o n s i d e r s even t h i s much e f f o r t badly  he  o f Zara-  translation,  spent.  Tampoco yo he podido l e e r l o p o r entero ( Z a r a t h u s t r a ) n i mucho menos ... Conocl'a sus d o c t r i n a s (de Nietzsche) p o r m u l t i p l e s r e f e r e n c i a s , p o r numerosas y l a r g a s c i t a s de sus obras, p o r ana'lisis de e l l a y p o r un c i e r t o l i b r i t o f r a n c o s , de L i c h t e n b e r g e r , en que est an expuestas. Y francamente, no l e encontraba verdadera o r i g i n a l i d a d de pensamiento .... E n e l fondo de e l l o c e l a s e una r e c e t a de muy f a ' c i l a p l i c a c i o n . TrataTbase p a r a Nietzsche de dar l a ^ v u e l t a e l E v a n g e l i o y d e c i r negro donde e s t e d i c e b i a n c o y v i c e v e r s a . 7MThis passage i s s u f f i c i e n t to demonstrate what an amazingly g a r b l e d i d e a o f Nietzsche Unamuno passes  on t o h i s readers«  I t i s obvious, t h e r e f o r e , that the D i o n y s i a n element i n h i s own works must have quite a d i f f e r e n t  source.  -50-  C.  CHRISTIAN SOURCES OP THE DIONZSIAN ELEMENT IN UNAMUNO'S WRITINGS  As a p r o f e s s o r of Greek a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Salamanca, Unamuno c o u l d not have been t o t a l l y i g n o r a n t of t h e Bacchic myth, but i t i s indeed p o s s i b l e t o r e a c h the p o s i t i o n exp r e s s e d i n La V i d a , from an e n t i r e l y C h r i s t i a n p o i n t of dep a r t u r e , and such, no doubt, i s the case.  Unamuno's source  f o r h i s theory of'the d i v i n e madman (who, as we s h a l l see l a t e r , i s a l s o equated  with C h r i s t ) need not have anything t o  do w i t h a conscious i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with DIonysian myths, but could w e l l be on the l e v e l of the " c o l l e c t i v e  unconscious".  The v e r y f a c t t h a t there e x i s t s mystery i n our world  which  the r a t i o n a l mind cannot  t o give  r i s e t o the idea —  reach or understand,  which i s u n i v e r s a l —  tends  that perhaps a mad-  man may come c l o s e r t o the t r u t h than a sane one.  I t i s the  f e e l i n g of awe and reverence before t h e i n e x p l i c a b l e which prompted the Greek mythmakers t o e x p l a i n the world i n f a n c i f u l terms i n the f i r s t p l a c e — come c l o s e r t o t h e t r u t h than  terms which I n many cases  scientific treatises.  There  are, of course, epistemologiasal c o n s i d e r a t i o n s Implied here: that of the r e l a t i v e v a l u e of p h i l o s o p h i c a l o r a r t i s t i c which i s s u b j e c t i v e , and s c i e n t i f i c be o b j e c t i v e .  The obvious  truth  t r u t h , which p u r p o r t s to  o b j e c t i o n (which Unamuno a l r e a d y  r a i s e s i n Amor y pedagogia) to such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t r u t h i n t o s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e i s the undeniable  f a c t that no  man can crawl o u t s i d e h i s own mind t o g e t to t h e Ding an s i c h .  -51-  and t h e r e f o r e e v e r y t h i n g i s s u b j e c t i v e . Again, the connect i o n of a r t with myth and madness comes t o mind.  If art i s  a m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the madness which comes c l o s e r t o t r u t h than l o g i c , then and only then i t i s true a r t .  It is i n -  c r e a s i n g l y obvious how Unamuno reaches h i s D i o n y s i a n p o s i t i o n , a l t h o u g h h i s p o i n t of departure i s a C h r i s t i a n one. Because he so d e s p e r a t e l y wants t o a v o i d death, he cannot allow h i m s e l f t o be convinced o f i t s i n e v i t a b i l i t y by l o g i c , f o r t h a t would k i l l h i s s p i r i t and t r a n s f o r m him i n t o a l i v ing c o r p s e .  Only madness i s l i f e - g i v i n g ,  life-preserving  —  and hence o n l y i n madness can Unamuno approach near the truth.  Once he has e m b e l l i s h e d h i s theory o f madness, Una-  muno has almost of reasoning  o u t l i n e d a Bacchic r e l i g i o n , though h i s c h a i n  ( i f we dare t h i n k of h i s mental processes i n  these terms) has been e n t i r e l y C h r i s t i a n — orthodox.  i f not e n t i r e l y  -52-  CHAPTER V I I UNAMUNO VIS-A-VIS OTHER SELVES Unamuno's treatment  of Nietzsche i s v e r y t y p i c a l o f h i s  a t t i t u d e toward any o t h e r t h i n k e r , who i s not able to defend the i n t e g r i t y of h i s thought as Ortega y Gasset  a g a i n s t Unamuno's d i s t o r t i o n s ,  and Maeztu v i g o r o u s l y d i d .  Don Miguel  makes no r e a l e f f o r t t o r e a c h o u t s i d e h i m s e l f to an understanding of another person's  nature and, indeed, no doubt  f i n d s i t d i f f i c u l t t o conceive of a nature other than h i s own.  He seems t o b e l i e v e t h a t he can understand  by i n t u i t i o n ,  as he demonstrates i n h i s treatment  o t h e r minds o f Nietzsche„  He does not c o n s i d e r i t n e c e s s a r y t o r e a d Nietzsche i n order t o i n t e r p r e t him.  A l l he needs to do i s t o r e a d p a r t s of  Z a r a t h u s t r a i n F r e n c h t r a n s l a t i o n , and a s u p e r f i c i a l v u l g a r i z a t i o n of N i e t z s c h e ' s thought by L i c h t e n b e r g e r .  With  t h i s equipment, he i s prepared to p o n t i f i c a t e about N i e t z sche's i n n e r n a t u r e , c a l l i n g him "mad w i t h weakness", and, s i n c e he can conceive of no other motive f o r w r i t i n g , sophizing,  philo-  or even being, he a t t r i b u t e s Nietzsche's d o c t r i n e s  to h i s hunger f o r i m m o r t a l i t y .  He reduces Kant and S p i n o z a  t o the same formula i n D e l sentimiento Kant proves to guarantee  t r a g i c o de l a v i d a ;  the e x i s t e n c e of God o n l y because he needs Him h i s p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y ; Spinoza's b a s i c t e n -  net that a l l t h i n g s t e n d to p e r s i s t i n t h e i r p r e s e n t form i s a t r a n s p a r e n t d i s g u i s e f o r h i s own d e s i r e to p e r s i s t i n h i s  -53present form f o r e v e r .  These  ruthless oversimplifications  serve Unamuno's purpose admirably, understand  hence he does not need t o  the t h i n k e r s he i s u s i n g ; i n f a c t , i t would de-  t r a c t from h i s argument i f  he understood  them p r o p e r l y .  a sense, Unamuno i s cheating, f'or he i s not w i l l i n g  In  (and p e r -  haps i s not a b l e ) t o " p l a y the Lcholarly game" of f i n d i n g exact quotations i n another author t o bear out h i s t h e s i s . Such a procedure  would be dangerous to him, f o r i f he s h o u l d  quote the authors he w r i t e s about, he might r e f u t e M s i n t u i t i v e ideas on them.  When he does quote d i r e c t l y ,  own as i n  La V i d a (otherwise an e x c e e d i n g l y r a r e o c c u r r e n c e ) , he i s never w i l l i n g  to l e t the quotations "speak f o r  themselves",  but i n s i s t s on molding them t o h i s purposes by r a t i o n a l i z i n g , and sometimes completely  f a l s i f y i n g t h e i r meanings.  t i f i e s h i s a r b i t r a r y and seemingly  He j u s -  u n f a i r approach by t h e  v e r y b a s i s of h i s p h i l o s o p h y , however, which r e s t s on the overthrow of reason and l o g i c .  Along w i t h reason and l o g i c ,  the h i d a l g o s de l a r a z 6 n are a l s o d i s c a r d e d , as we have shown i n o t h e r contexts..  Nietzsche, Kant, and Spinoza must,  to an e x t e n t , represent these h i d a l g o s , and thus e v e r y t h i n g i n them which does not serve Unamuno's purpose i s d i s c a r d e d . A.  UNAIOTO, ROMANTIC VISIONARY  Unamuno a l s o shows, t o a heightened degree, what a l l a r t i s t s and w r i t e r s s i n c e the b e g i n n i n g o f Romanticism have felt:  t h e need t o create t h e i r own u n i v e r s e , or r a t h e r to  r e - c r e a t e the e x i s t i n g w o r l d i n t h e i r own image — image which they wish t o p r o j e c t .  i n the  I t i s t h e r e f o r e not s u r p r i s -  i n g t h a t Unamuno a p p r o p r i a t e s Don Q u i j o t e and r e j e c t s vantes completely:  Cer-  Don Q u i j o t e , as w e l l as Nietzsche,. Kant,  Spinoza, Hegel and K i e r k e g a a r d are a l l p a r t o f the w o r l d as seen b y don Miguel, and can be used and molded as he wishes. The  t o t a l p r o d u c t i o n o f the a r t i s t i s h i s v/orld, and i f i t  i s worth while , i f i t holds a g r a i n o f t r u t h , i t w i l l vive.  sur-  I n a d i f f e r e n t context, don Miguel expresses h i s  d e s i r e t o i n c l u d e the u n i v e r s e w i t h i n h i m s e l f without personal consciousness.  losing  Every l i v i n g being, he t e l l s us,  not only t r i e s t o perpetuate i t s e l f f o r e v e r , but a l s o wishes t o invade a l l other l i v i n g beings, t o be the others without ceasing to be i t s e l f , t o extend i t s l i m i t s t o i n f i n i t y w i t h out breaking them. Y este v a s t o yo, dentro d e l . c u a l quiere cada yo meter a l Universo, iqai es s i n o Dios? Y p o r a s p i r a r a E l l e amo, y esa mi a s p i r a - • c i o n a Dios es mi amor a E l , y como yo s u f r o p o r s e r E l , tambien E l s u f r e p o r s e r yo y cada uno de nosotros.<5 In the same way i n which don Miguel becomes G-od i n order t o understand about.  Him, he becomes each one o f the persons he w r i t e s  Since he i n c l u d e s Nietzsche, f o r i n s t a n c e , w i t h i n h i s  " l i m i t s " , he need make no f u r t h e r e f f o r t t o understand  himj  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s i n one sense the s t r o n g e s t p o s s i b l e e f f o r t at understanding  and a t the same time i t i s the e a s i e s t  way to a t o t a l l y b l i n d misunderstanding.  To include*' the 1  u n i v e r s e w i t h i n o n e s e l f n a t u r a l l y i m p l i e s the i n c l u s i o n of f i c t i o n a l characters, t h e i r readers hueso.  too, f o r they e x i s t more v i v i d l y t o  than many of t h e i r acquaintances de carne y  Unamuno i d e n t i f i e s  and i n c l u d e s Don Q u i j o t e  within  h i m s e l f , and s i n c e he f e e l s such a deep i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , he cannot bear i t t h a t the immortal h i d a l g o does not belong e x c l u s i v e l y t o him.  Indeed, Unamuno's Don Q u i j o t e does be-  l o n g t o him, f o r he has v e r y l i t t l e I n common w i t h Cervantes' o r i g i n a l , and thus, i n a t r u l y a r t i s t i c sense, Unamuno has been s u c c e s s f u l i n swallowing up and r e c r e a t i n g p a r t of the universe  i n h i s own image.  r  -56PART I I CHAPTER I MAIN THEMES CP LA VIDA DE DON  QUIJOTE Y SANCHO  The k a l e i d o s c o p i c v a r i e t y o f s u r f a c e form i n Unamuno's work i s d e c e p t i v e , f o r the b a s i c i d e a s remain almost unchanged from 1897  t o 1936»  confused:  Unamuno seems d e l i b e r a t e l y to thwart h i s c r i t i c s  by h i s ever-changing  The  reader, understandably,  a t t i t u d e toward h i s own  might become  thought.  Once  the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s have been r e c o g n i z e d , however, a d i s c u s s i o n of any p o r t i o n of h i s work must touch upon ideas which are present i n every o t h e r p a r t . essay, we  Hence, i n Part I of t h i s  have a l r e a d y mentioned most of the themes p r e s e n t  i n La V i d a .  Por g r e a t e r c l a r i t y , however, we  them here before s t u d y i n g the unique A l l men  s h a l l restate  aspects of La V i d a .  and peoples s t a r t w i t h a t r a g i c sense  of  life.  T h i s i s p a r t of the human c o n d i t i o n , and i s the p e n a l t y  man  must pay f o r being conscious of h i m s e l f i n s t e a d of l i v i n g i n b l e s s e d o b l i v i o n l i k e the animals like  the unquestioning b e l i e v e r s  agonized consciousness for  (and, Unamuno seems t o add, of the orthodox f a i t h ) .  of m o r t a l i t y and a compelling d e s i r e  e t e r n a l l i f e become" p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r being human.  son t e l l s us that we  An  are mortal i n body and  e x i s t s no hope f o r our s u r v i v a l —  Rea-  s o u l ; that there  not even i n h e l l ,  which,  a f t e r a l l , would mean a c o n t i n u a t i o n of consciousness, however painful.  Hope crushes i t s e l f  a g a i n s t the i n f l e x i b l e  barrier  of i t s enemy, reason.  I f hope d i e s , d e s p a i r i n e v i t a b l y  f o l l o w s , along w i t h t o t a l d e s t r u c t i o n of the p e r s o n a l i t y . The  only way t o s a l v a t i o n l i e s through a s o r t of i n s a n i t y ,  through the overthrow  o f reason.  When we overturn reason,  f a i t h and hope may s u r v i v e ; we can b e l i e v e i n what we want t o believe,  and t h r o u g h t h e power of the w i l l  can r e c r e a t e the  d i v i n e h i e r a r c h i e s which our own r e a s o n has destroyed.  Even  though we know i t t o be absurd, we must b e l i e v e i n the world which our w i l l has made. Don Q u i j o t e saves us by the example o f the s a c r i f i c e o f h i s reason.  He Is t h e Spanish C h r i s t , f o r he s p r i n g s from  the c o l l e c t i v e s o u l of t h e C a s t i l i a n people, not from the i m a g i n a t i o n ' o f one man a l o n e .  He i s a myth j u s t as profound  as the myth o f Jesus of Nazareth —  b o t h f i g u r e s answer a  deed-seated human need f o r assurance of I m m o r t a l i t y .  Unamuno  urges t h a t Spaniards awaken t o t h e i r p l i g h t and to the Chrisfehood of Don Q u i j o t e .  I f they f o l l o w the g o s p e l according t o  Cide Hamete B e n e g a l i , r e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d by Miguel de Unamuno, they become p r i e s t s of t h e new f a i t h , f i t to go f o r t h to a l l  the nations and H i s p a n i z e the w o r l d .  Unamuno i s con-  v i n c e d that h i s own view of the Spanish psyche soul represents r e a l i t y .  or c o l l e c t i v e  I t does not occur to him t h a t h i s  own view of Spain cannot f a i l t o be d i s t o r t e d , j u s t as e v e r y m i r r o r d i s t o r t s t o a degree  the world i t r e f l e c t s .  In  r e a l i t y , Unamuno asks t h e Spaniards t o Unamunize the world; it  I s o n l y n a t u r a l t h a t he should share the v a n i t y o f most  -58great t h i n k e r s i n b e l i e v i n g that he has pe r f e c t  reflection.  In D el sentimiento t h a t only the agonized can  reached T r u t h i n a  only f u l f i l l  t r a g i c o de l a v i d a , Unamuno s t a t e s life  i s a worthwhile  one,  and  t h a t he  h i s m i s s i o n by awakening as many s o u l s  as  p o s s i b l e t o the v e r t i g i n o u s nada which yawns around them. But Unamuno's m i s s i o n a r y he w r i t e s San  spirit  g r e a t l y s o f t e n s by the time  Manuel Bueno. n a r t i r , i n 1931.  v i l l a g e p r i e s t , does h i s best t o preserve  San  Manuel, the  the Innocent  faith  of h i s p a r i s h i o n e r s ; t h e i r a r t i f i c i a l happiness i n the  illu-  s i o n o f i m m o r t a l i t y t o come. be achieved by p l u n g i n g  He r e a l i z e s t h a t nothing would  them i n t o d e s p a i r .  Here the  martyr  s u s t a i n s hope i n o t h e r s , b u t f o r h i m s e l f there remains suffering  and death i n t h e agony of doubt and  Unamuno unquestionably the name alone  one,  f o r he  consisting In San  disbelief.  i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h San  h i n t s at s u c h an i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  t h a t Unamuno c o n s i d e r s h i s true m i s s i o n t o be  Manuel:  We  a l s o knew  a religious  shows h i s c o n v i c t i o n i n h i s w r i t i n g s -of sermonizing  —  and  only  largely  even i n h i s manner of d r e s s .  Manuel Bueno, the b a s i c problems have remained the same  as those  o f Del s e n t i m i e n t o  t r a g i c o , b u t Unamuno, l i k e  Manuel, has come to doubt, at the end  of h i s l i f e ,  San  the use-  f u l n e s s of d e s t r o y i n g f a i t h and happiness i n o t h e r s .  -59-  CHAPTER I I FORM CF LA VIDA La V i d a i s not the s u s t a i n e d and one might expect from i t s t i t l e . t i o n of parables  continuous  creation  I t most resembles  a collec-  (again underscoring the e s s e n t i a l l y  gious c h a r a c t e r of Unamuno's thought), which without  reliCer-  vantes and h i s Q u i j o t e , would be r e l a t e d to each other o n l y i n t h e i r metaphysical foundations.  They would b© l i k e  a  c o l l e c t i o n of Unamuno's p o e t r y , f o r tlaey would show an e q u a l l y fragmentary  nature.  Each " p a r a b l e " takes as i t s  source a chapter o r episode of the Qui.jote; each one  i s unre-  l a t e d t o the Q u i j o t e except as the d i v e r i s r e l a t e d to the springboard.  The  f o r Unamuno's own  Q u i j o t e a f f o r d s an e x c e l l e n t s t a r t i n g p o i n t sermonizing.  a p u l p i t , s a y i n g , "Our 11:20  ..."  We  can almost p i c t u r e him i n  t e x t f o r t h i s morning i s from Qui j o t e  He uses each episode i n t u r n t o i l l u s t r a t e  d i f f e r e n t metaphysical, r e l i g i o u s  or moral p o i n t , and  a each  p o i n t remains separate from a l l t h e others except t h a t , when one  sums them up i n t h e i r c o n f u s i n g v a r i e t y , they amount to  a statement  of a p h i l o s o p h y which seems c l e a r enough, even  though i t s foundations cannot w i t h s t a n d the s c r u t i n y of reason.  (They should not w i t h s t a n d such a s c r u t i n y , the  author maintains, f o r reason i s i r r e l e v a n t t o h i s system.)  -60-  CHAPTER I I I UNAMUNO'S VIEW OP CHRIST Don  Quijote presents  a g r e a t c o n t r a s t to the t r a d i t i o n a l  Spanish C h r i s t as Unamuno i n t e r p r e t s Him. l i e v e s t o be t r u l y Spanish  The C h r i s t he be-  "nacio* en Tanger", e t e r n a l l y  s u f f e r s and d i e s on the cross, or Is represented  by the  bloody and t o r n C r i s t o s yacentes l i k e the one i n the Convento de Santa C l a r a , which i s so l i f e l i k e  (or should one say  " d e a t h l i k e " ? ) t h a t i t appears to be a mummy.  I n his poem " E l  C r i s t o yacente de Santa C l a r a " , Unamuno reduces t h i s C h r i s t to  "tierra",  i n a f r e n z i e d and v i o l e n t  p o r t r a y a l of C h r i s t  as nothing more than the inanimate substance from which Adam was made, r a t h e r than as a symbol of joyous hope. Don wills, Our  Q u i j o t e , b y c o n t r a s t , i s very much a l i v e .  creates c o n s t a n t l y —  He a c t s ,  c r e a t e s h i m s e l f and h i s u n i v e r s e .  only grounds f o r hope l i e I n f o l l o w i n g h i s example, and  though the e x p e c t a t i o n s may be absurd ones, greatness found i n the man who i s w i l l i n g g a i n h i s ends.  may be  to appear absurd i n order to  C r e a t i n g one's own grounds f o r hope might  seem a r i d i c u l o u s measure, but i t i s our o n l y way t o c a l l a t r u c e i n the c o n f l i c t between our d e s i r e s and our reason.  -61CHAPTER IV CHRISTHOOD OP DON QUIJOTE In order t o enable h i s p o t e n t i a l converts t o v i s u a l i z e Don  Q u i j o t e as C h r i s t , Unamuno f o r c e s Cervantes'  to f i t  h i s mold by f a l s i f i c a t i o n of meaning,  c a t i o n , and even b y g r o s s l y changing  original  oversimplifi-  the t e x t .  The f o l l o w -  i n g examples w i l l i l l u s t r a t e h i s P r o c r u s t e a n method of r e c r e a t i n g Don Q u i j o t e i n the image o f C h r i s t .  He f u r t h e r  d i g n i f i e s Don Q u i j o t e by l i k e n i n g him t o Ignacio de L o y o l a , thus a s s o c i a t i n g him w i t h a great C h r i s t i a n m i l i t a r y l o a d e r as w e l l as w i t h C h r i s t h i m s e l f , Unamuno has made i t q u i t e c l e a r t h a t Don Q u i j o t e ' s quest f o r p e r s o n a l g l o r y and renown i s s e l f i s h , but t h a t he i s p e r f e c t l y j u s t i f i e d , f o r s e l f - l o v e and an attempt o n e s e l f are b a s i c t o the human p e r s o n a l i t y .  t o immortalize  At the same time,  Unamuno i n t e r p r e t s Don Qui j o t e ' s madness, which would seem merely a means tov/ard a s e l f i s h end, as a C h r i s t - l i k e of a man who p u r p o s e l y sets out t o save h i s people  gesture  through  sacrifice. Vino a p e r d e r e l j u i c i o . Por nuestro b i e n l o perdio'; p a r a dejarnos eterno ejemplo de generosidad e s p i r i t u a l . --Con j u i c i o , 6 h u b i e r a sido t a n h e r o i c o ? H i z o en aras de su pueblo e l rads grande s a c r i f i c i o : e l de su j u i c i o , ' Unamuno's i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Don Q u i j o t e w i t h C h r i s t begins w i t h a c o n t r a d i c t i o n , and thus g e t s o f f to a s t a r t t r u l y worthy of i t s a n t i - r a t i o n a l author.  Don Qui j o t e ' s  first  -62s a l i d a i s l i k e n e d to t h a t of Ignacio Q u i j o t e , was  de Loyola,  i n s p i r e d by his readings  w e l l as of the l i v e s of knights i m i t a t e h i s heroes.  Don  who,  like  (of s a i n t s ' l i v e s  as  e r r a n t ) to s a l l y f o r t h t o  Quijote  s e t s an example of C h r i s t -  l i k e h u m i l i t y , f o r he takes h i s momentous d e c i s i o n and home without l e t t i n g  anyone know.  The  upon l a t e r , f o r he does speak of Don  leaves  other p a r a l l e l which  Unamuno does not make here, but which he sees and Quijote's  comments  c a r e e r as  of  a m i n i s t r y , i s that of C h r i s t ' s departure from Nazareth, beginnings of His m i n i s t r y , His t r a n s f o r m a t i o n t e r ' s son i n t o S a v i o r .  Don  Don  Quijote  the  from c a r p e n -  l i k e w i s e transforms him-  s e l f from poor l a n d owner i n t o s a v i o r , and,  as Unamuno amply  demonstrates, h i s adventures amount to a m i n i s t r y by word by  and  example. As Don  Q u i j o t e r i d e s along,  he r e a l i z e s that he has  not  yet been dubbed a knight  and r e s o l v e s t h a t the f i r s t  he meets s h a l l dub  him.  T h i s , we  like.  takes no thought f o r the f u t u r e i n j u s t  the  Don  Quijote  same way  provide".  t o l d , i s very C h r i s t -  i n which Jesus b e l i e v e d t h a t "the Lord would  Jesus, too, b e l i e v e d t h a t the "here and now"  the most important: c i d o l u g a r que finitud."77  are  person  "...  En e l momento que  ocupamos est&n n u e s t r a  is  pasa y en e l r e d u -  eternidad  y nuestra  in-  In the l i g h t of other passages on the problem  of immortality,  this  one would seem to be mere s o p h i s t r y ,  s i n c e Unamuno hopes to .be immortal i n i n f i n i t e time and However, I t f i t s we H I w i t h his commandment i n Del  space.  sentimiento  -63t r a g i c o , that we s h o u l d behave as though we were going t o d i e tomorrow and l i v e each moment i n s u c h a way that i t would be a crime to c o n s i g n us t o the nada. i n f i n i t y i_s i n the present moment — for  Hence our e t e r n i t y and or a t l e a s t our hope  i t and our o p p o r t u n i t y to m e r i t i t . One  demption"  of Don Q u i j o t e ' s f i r s t C h r i s t - l i k e  a c t s i s the " r e -  of the two "mozas d e l p a r t i d o " a t the i n n . . H i s  innocent eye sees o n l y i t s own r e f l e c t e d p u r i t y wherever Don Quijote looks.  Women are s a c r e d t o him, f o r they remind him  of  the b e a u t i f u l Dulcinea.  it  c l e a n s e s the mozas f o r our h i d a l g o ; before h i s gaze they  are him.  Her c h a s t i t y i s "contagious"  transformed i n t o l o v e l y v i r g i n s .  At f i r s t  —  they l a u g h a t  (Here Unamuno condemns l a u g h t e r as b e i n g "matadora de  todo generoso anhelo".  He r e p e a t s the charge s e v e r a l t i m e s  throughout the book, e s p e c i a l l y where Cervantes chuckles at the expense of h i s c h a r a c t e r s . Again and again, Unarano r e veals h i s e s s e n t i a l l y humorless  nature, h i s i n a b i l i t y to com-  prehend t h a t l a u g h t e r may be on v a r i o u s l e v e l s , n e c e s s a r i l y the l a u g h t e r of s c o r n . )  and i s not  A f t e r the innkeeper has  made peace between the women and t h e i r guest, the mozas b e g i n h e l p i n g Don Q u i j o t e to disarm.  He continues t o speak to  them i n h i s h i g h - f l o w n way, and they are s i l e n t except t o ask him i f he wants a n y t h i n g t o e a t . . T h i s , Unamuno e x p l a i n s , shows t h a t Don Q u i j o t e has t r u l y redeemed them, f o r they his  sense  c h i l d l i k e s p i r i t , h i s innocent heroism, and they are mov-  ed t o the depths  of t h e i r "thwarted motherhood".  Women do  a l l a c t s of kindness and c h a r i t y only because they f e e l motherly, Unamuno adds, and p a r a d o x i c a l l y , "toda mujer, do se s i e n t e madre, se adoncella."?®  cuan-  Thus Don Quijote i s  dubbed by a r a s c a l l y o l d innkeeper, who, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  does  not exact payment from h i s mad guest, and by two " a d o n c e l l a das" p r o s t i t u t e s -- two Mary Magdalenes.  L i k e a l l the wrongs  which our h i d a l g o has undone', the p l i g h t of the p r o s t i t u t e s remains the same.  That i s , i n time and space i t i s the same,  but i n e t e r n i t y the wrong i s r i g h t e d , f o r as i n the case of the servant o f Juan Haldudo e l r i c o , " t i e n e n l a s aventuras todas de nuestro c a b a l l e r o su f l o r en e l tiempo y en l a t i e r r a , pero sus r a f c e s en l a e t e r n i d a d , y en l a e t e r n i d a d de l o s profundos, e l e n t u e r t o de Juan Haldudo e l r i c o quedo muy b i e n y para siempre enderezado."?9  I t s roots aire i n the e t e r n i t y  of good i n t e n t i o n s which Unamuno b e l i e v e s t o be more important than good r e s u l t s .  "... Tu t r i u n f o fxx.4 siempre e l de An  osar y no de c o b r a r suceso."  The essence of Qui jotismo,  the moral j u s t i f i c i a t i o n of h i s a c t i o n s , i s h i s d e s i r e t o r i g h t wrongs.  T h i s d e s i r e i s based i n the " e t e r n a l goodness  of Alonso. e l Bueno" which, s i n c e i t f e e l s i t s e l f t o be p a r t of God, s t r i v e s t o immortalize I t s e l f .  C h r i s t and Don Q u i -  jote are both sons o f God i n a sense, f o r both are p a r t o f Him« As Don Q u i j o t e returns t o h i s v i l l a g e t o p r o v i d e hims e l f w i t h the n e c e s s a r y money and changes o f l i n e n , he meets a group of merchants.  A l t h o u g h the h i d a l g o t r i e s t o f o r c e  -65them t o confess t h a t D u l c i n e a , the "emperatriz de l a Mancha", has no peer i n beauty, her.  the merchants r e f u s e to acknowledge  L i k a doubting Thomas, they must see to b e l i e v e , even  i f i t be a p o r t r a i t no l a r g e r t h a n a g r a i n of wheat.  Don  Q u i j o t e r e p l i e s , f u r i o u s l y , t h a t they must acknowledge D u l c i n e a without p r o o f , f o r with p r o o f , what would be the v i r t u e of c o n f e s s i n g such an obvious p a r a l l e l s the one  truth?  T h i s episode  i n which C h r i s t t e l l s h i s d i s c i p l e s  though they have seen and b e l i e v e d , how are those who Like  closely that  much more b l e s s e d  b e l i e v e without s e e i n g .  C h r i s t , Don  Q u i j o t e takes a d i s c i p l e , Sancho, and  g r a d u a l l y convinces him, by example, to s c o r n the r i c h e s of t h i s world.  In the end, Sancho i s completely converted to  the f a i t h , which becomes more important mised  i s l a n d , f o r which he f i r s t  f o l l o w e d Don Q u i j o t e .  Many times Don Q u i j o t e preaches derstand him,  t o him than the p r o -  to those ^vho cannot  as i n h i s speech t o the shepherds.  un-  His words  do not f a l l a l t o g e t h e r on stony ground, f o r h i s hearers are a s t o n i s h e d , and reward  the speaker w i t h r u s t i c  and w i t h s t o r i e s of t h e i r own. to those who  hospitality  C h r i s t , too, preached  mainly  were too simple t o understand H i s words, i n the  f a i t h t h a t somewhere among the masses He would r e a c h a few who  would be capable When the p r i e s t  of understanding  and b e l i e v i n g  Him.  and the barber come to l u r e Don Q u i j o t e  back t o h i s v i l l a g e , Unamuno l i k e n s them to Jesus' f a m i l y whom He r e f u s e s t o r e c o g n i z e when t h e y come to take Him home.  -66There i s no g r e a t e r madman than the s a i n t or hero to h i s own f a m i l y and b r o t h e r s , Unamuno t e l l s us, echoing  a similar  New Testament passage, Don  Q u i j o t e s u f f e r s s e v e r a l p e r i o d s of torment, each o f  which i s l i k e n e d by Unamuno to the P a s s i o n of C h r i s t .  By  d i s g u i s i n g themselves and u s i n g the l o v e l y Dorotea as a decoy, the p r i e s t and the b a r b e r deceive Don Q u i j o t e . pas ion, y l a ma's amarga:  "Empieza t u  l a pasion por l a burla.  Unamuno  f t  compares P i l a t e ' s "He aqui' e l hombre" w i t h "'He aquf e l l o c o ' , d i r a n de t i , mi senor Don Q u i j o t e , y seras e l l o c o , e l u n i c o , el Loco."^  Unamno thus  emphasizes h i s b e l i e f .that madness  i s our s a l v a t i o n ; t h e Spanish C h r i s t i s n o t just a man, he i s a madman, the Madman, our s a v i o r .  Don Qui j o t e ' s " p a s s i o n "  continues as he i s brought home i n a cage, and begins i n the dukes' p a l a c e .  His entry i n t o Barcelona  t o C h r i s t ' s e n t r y i n t o Jerusalem.  again  i s compared  He i s paraded through the  s t r e e t s w i t h an ecce homo pinned t o h i s back:  the s i g n read-  i n g , "This i s Don Quijote de la'Mancha". Unamuno compares Don Q u i j o t e ' s sympathy f o r Roque G-uinart to C h r i s t ' s sympathy f o r the t h i e f on the c r o s s . death i s even more h e r o i c than h i s l i f e , h i s g l o r y and h i s work.  because he renounces  T h i s , Unamuno i s c e r t a i n , i s the  greatest possible s a c r i f i c e — never make.  The h i d a l g o ' s  and one which he h i m s e l f c o u l d  "Y l a g l o r i a t e acoje para s i e m p r e , " ^ Unamuno  adds f e r v e n t l y .  -67In the end, Unamuno promises us t h a t Don Q u i j o t e , Christ, w i l l  come again*  like  "Hay quien cree que se s u c i t d a l  t e r c e r djCa, y que v o l v e r a a l a t i e r r a en carne mortal y a hacer de l a s s u y a s . " ^ his f a i t h f u l carnate.  H i s second coming w i l l be through  servant Sancho, i n whom Don Q u i j o t e w i l l be i n -  -68-  CHAPTER V INFLUENCE OF HEGEL ON UNAMUNO I t must be e v i d e n t from the f o r e g o i n g passages  on the  " C h r i s t h o o d " o f Don Q u i j o t e , t h a t Unaanuno »s ideas on C h r i s t are by no means orthodox.  One  of the p r i n c i p l e  philosophical  i n f l u e n c e s on don Miguel, e q u a l l y as important as t h a t of Kierkegaard —  and perhaps  even more important —  was  that of  Hegel. Pero es un e r r o r v e r e l pensamiento de Unamuno bajo e l prisma u n i c o de K i e r k e g a a r d . E l mis mo eonfeso*, segu"n hemos v i s t o , en su c a r t a a F e d e r i c o U r a l e s : "Hoy mis mo creo que e l fondo de mi pensamiento es h e g e l i a n o . " En s u obra De F u e r t e v e n t u r a a P a r i s r e c a l a : "He die ho y r e p e t i d o que l a h i s t o r i a es e l pensamiento, de Dios en l a T i e r r a de l o s hombre s."°5 Unamuno undoubtedly knew Hegel's work w e l l , s i n c e he l e a r n e d German by t r a n s l a t i n g the P r u s s i a n a u t h o r ' s Log Ik.,.. maintains t h a t Unamuno's thought i s s t i l l  c l o s e r t o t h a t of  the p o s t - H e g e l i a n , David F r i e d r i c h S t r a u s s . phy was  Marrero  Strauss' philoso-  a t r a n s i t i o n between Hegel and p o s i t i v i s m , between  C h r i s t i a n i t y and humanism. a C h r i s t who  According to S t r a u s s , t h e i d e a of  i s w h o l l y human and w h o l l y d i v i n e c o n t a i n s im-  possible contradictions.  Such an i n c a r n a t i o n Is only p o s s i b l e  i n the s p e c i e s as a whole; i t i s Humanity which r e p r e s e n t s the r e u n i o n of both the nature s of God manity —  an a b s t r a c t i o n —  and of man.  Is the Son o f God.  Jesus as i t i s presented i n the New  The  Thus  Hu-  life  of  Testament i s a mere accu-  m u l a t i o n of myths; these are necessary and unconscious products  -69of  the c o l l e c t i v e f a n t a s y and are of slow format i o n .  ^  though H e g e l i a n p h i l o s o p h y does n o t form the b a s i s o f Unamuno's d o c t r i n e of the s t r u g g l e f o r i m m o r t a l i t y nor f o r the "hombre de carne y hueso", i t does seem t o have been d e c i s i v e i n Unamuno's l o s s of orthodox f a i t h .  Hegel's p h i l o s o p h y was the  h i g h e s t p o i n t o f the German A u f k l a r u n g , a P r o t e s t a n t and a humanist  movement.  I t was t h e r e f o r e the v e r y a n t i t h e s i s of  Unamuno's orthodox f a i t h , and proved h i g h l y dangerous t o i t , Unamuno's e s s a y " E l C r i s t o e s p a n o l " and most o f h i s p o e t r y about C h r i s t e x a l t the bloody, dying, c r u c i f i e d C h r i s t .  This  is  the t r u e Spanish C h r i s t , the product of the S p a n i s h s o u l .  It  i s t h i s C h r i s t f i g u r e which,  through c a t h a r s i s , saves the  Spaniards from t h e i r " s i n s of barbarism" — b u l l f i g h t , t h a t b l o o d y re-enactment fails  j u s t as does the  o f the mass.  Unamuno  to see t h a t g e n t l e r , more l i g h t h e a r t e d p o r t r a i t s o f  Jesus are t r u l y S p a n i s h as w e l l . them and chooses  He has c l o s e d h i s eyes t o  t o see o n l y the C h r i s t which r e f l e c t s the  "Espana negra", a l s o a d i s t o r t i o n of the r e a l S p a i n .  His  C r i s t o de Velazquez i s not a p o r t r a i t of the bloody,  suffer-  ing  C h r i s t , but f a i l s  to be v i v i d o r sympathetic.  This C h r i s t  i s f a r too a b s t r a c t , he i s a s e c u l a r C h r i s t , a product of Unamuno's readings i n S t r a u s s .  He, l i k e Unamuno's e a r l i e r  C h r i s t f i g u r e s , i s based on t h e p r e s u p p o s i t i o n that Jesus i s a myth --  a product of the S p a n i s h f a n t a s y . ®7  A f t e r making  such a g i a n t step away from orthodox C a t h o l i c i s m , Unamuno sees no d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a d i n g one myth f o r another.  He equates  -70-  Don Q u i j o t e w i t h C h r i s t , f o r l i k e most 19th and w r i t e r s , he i s l i t e r a l - m i n d e d i n t h a t he has f o r symbolism; he confuses resemblance  20th-century  l o s t the  feel  with i d e n t i t y .  The  same d i s a b i l i t y may be found i n such w r i t e r s as B e r t r a n d R u s s e l l , whose e a r l y system  of symbolic l o g i c had t o be  thoroughly r e v i s e d , because he had f o r g o t t e n t h a t h i s symbols r e p r e s e n t e d r e a l i t y , but were not i d e n t i c a l w i t h the t h i n g s they  symbolized. Don Q u i j o t e , l i k e C h r i s t , i s a product of the  "collective  s o u l " of the- C a s t i l i a n people; he, t o o , Is an e x p r e s s i o n of the w i l l t o s u r v i v e e t e r n a l l y .  Don  Q u i j o t e i s more sympa-  t h e t i c t o Unamuno i n many ways than h i s v i s i o n of a dying Christ:  he i s a c t i v e i n a m i l i t a n t way  like  I g n a c i o de  L o y o l a , he i s not a f r a i d to make h i m s e l f r i d i c u l o u s i n o r d e r t o win fame and g l o r y , and the motive d e s i r e t o s u r v i v e somehow — of men.  of h i s a c t i o n i s h i s  even i f i t be  only i n the minds  Like C h r i s t , he has s a c r i f i c e d h i m s e l f f o r h i s peo-  p l e t o show them the way  to s a l v a t i o n .  Unamuno t h e r e f o r e  s u b s t i t u t e s him f o r C h r i s t ; he would much r a t h e r f o l l o w p a s t o r Q u i j o t i z than the s u f f e r i n g , dying J e s u s .  the  -71CHAPTER V I SANCHO I  ce.  n  ka V i d a , Sancho o f t e n r i v a l s Don Q u i j o t e i n importan-  He-is at once a C h r i s t and a d i s c i p l e f i g u r e .  I f Don  Q u i j o t e and Sancho t o g e t h e r may be c o n s i d e r e d as an a l l e g o r y of the divine-human aspects o f C h r i s t ' s nature, then Sancho xvould r e p r e s e n t the human aspect o f C h r i s t .  Unamuno r e c o g -  n i z e s Sancho's constant development from crass m a t e r i a l i s t to quixotic i d e a l i s t ,  and uses t h i s transformat i o n as an ex-  ample o f the p a t h every Spaniard and indeed every human being, must f o l l o w .  I n h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , Sancho u l t i m a t e l y u n i t e s  w i t h Don Q u i j o t e ( C h r i s t ) , f o r i t i s through Sancho t h a t the h i d a l g o ' s second coming w i l l be Sancho's most obvious disciple.  accomplished.  r o l e i s t h a t of Don Q u i j o t e »s  Unamuno t h e r e f o r e e x p l o i t s the i m p l i c a t i o n s of h i s  d i s c i p l e s h i p f i r s t , b e f o r e moving on t o l e s s  evident  roles.  Don Q u i j o t e needs h i s companion i n order t o t h i n k aloud and t o guage the e f f e c t o f h i s words on t h e world. su coro, l a humanidad toda p a r a e l . " l o v i n g an a b s t r a c t i o n : stead h i s neighbor  —  Man i s incapable of  " l a humanidad", thus he must l o v e I n -  as h i m s e l f ,  amar a todos sus projimos  Don Q u i j o t e "aprendio a  amandolos en Sancho . . . " ^ Sancho,  l i k e C h r i s t ' s d i s c i p l e s , l e f t e v e r y t h i n g behind to f o l l o w Don Q u i j o t e :  "Sancho fue'  him i n o r d e r  "dejando mujer e h i j o s , como pedi'a  C r i s t o a l o s que q u i s i e r o n s e g u i r l e . " ^ ^  Unamuno has a l r e a d y  -72begun i d e n t i f y i n g Sancho and Don Q u i j o t e , f o r he p o i n t s out that Sancho "completes Don Q u i j o t e " and t h a t h i s greed i s a c t u a l l y , beneath the s u r f a c e , sed de g l o r i a . Se ciira' que a Sancho l e s aco' de su c a s a l a c o d i c i a , asi* como l a ambicidn de g l o r i a a Don Q u i j o t e , y que asf tenemos en amo y e 3 c u d e r o , p o r separado, l o s dos r e s o r t e s que juntos en uno nan sacado de sus casas a l o s espanoles. Pero aqui l o m a r a v i l l o s o es que en Don Q u i j o t e no hubo n i sombra de c o d i c i a que l e moviese a s a l i r , y que l a de Sancho no dejaba de tener, aun s i n e'l s a b e r l o , su fondo de amblcion, ambicion que creciendo en e l escudero a c o s t a de l a c o d i c i a , h i z o que l a sed de o r o se l e t r a n s formase a l cabo en s e d de fama. T a l es e l poder m i l a g r o s o d e l a n s i a pura de re nombre y fama."- 1  The  t r a g i c sense of l i f e ,  immortality,  which g i v e s r i s e to the d e s i r e f o r  i s a b a s i c law of human nature  cannot escape* d e s i r e f o r faim •  Por t h a t reason,  Unamuno emphasizes Sancho's  Unamuno a g a i n chooses t o ignore  t i a l l i g h t - h e a r t e d n e s s of Cervantes' order t o a t t r i b u t e t o him a nature a nature  which even Sancho  the essen-  c h a r a c t e r , Sancho, i n  s i m i l a r t o Unamuno's own,  constantly i n conflict within i t s e l f .  F o r Unamuno,  Sancho i s c l o s e r t o C h r i s t i a n , the hero of P i l g r i m ' s than t o the warm and comic peasant most readers know and l o v e . a Purgatory  progress  of the Quijote  Sancho's wanderings w i t h Don Q u i j o t e are l i k e  f o r him:  Pocos ven cuan de combate fue' t u c a r r e r a e s c u d e r i l j pocos ven e l p u r g a t o r i o en que v i v i s t e ; pocos v e n como f u i s t e subiendo h a s t a aquel grado de sublime y s e n c i l l a fe que l l e g a r a s a mostrar cuando t u amo muera."^  -73Unamuno c a r r i e s h i s analogy of Sancho the d i s c i p l e f u r t h e r t o i d e n t i f y Don Q u i j o t e ' s s q u i r e w i t h Simon Peter, who, Unamuno believes, represents  carnality.  Y viene Sancho, e l c a r n a l Sancho, e l Simon Pedro de nuestro C a b a l l e r o ... 93 Como Simdn Pedro, que aun deseando p l a n t a r t i e n d a s en l o a l t o d e l Tabor para p a s a r l o a l l x b i e n y s i n penalidades, y aun negando a l Maest r o , f u l quien con ma's a r d o r l e g r e y d y l e quiso, a s i Sancho a Don Qui j o t e . Since Sancho i s an archetype  of the D i s c i p l e , Unamuno a l s o  uses S a i n t Paul's words t o d e s c r i b e him: Don  "... E l animo de  Quijote es ya tu a'nimo, y ya no v i v e s t u en t i mismo,  s i no que es 6l, t u amo, quien en t i v i v e . ! ' ^  This i s obvious-  l y a paraphrase of G a l a t i a n s 2:20, " I am c r u c i f i e d w i t h C h r i s t , nevertheless  I l i v e ; y e t not I , but C h r i s t l i v e t h i n me."  Both Unamuno and Cervantes remark t h a t i t r e q u i r e s more quijotismo  (Cervantes  says l o c u r a ) f o r a sane man to f o l l o w  a madman than f o r a madman to f o l l o w h i s own a b e r r a t i o n s . Unamuno a t t r i b u t e s heroic f a i t h t o Sancho, who b e l i e v e s h i s master despite what he s e e s .  When Don Q u i j o t e d i r e c t s Sancho  to help search out and c a t c h Cardenio,  the madman of the  S i e r r a Morena, Sancho r e p l i e s p o e t i c a l l y :  "No podre hacer  eso porque en apartandome de v u e s t r a merced, luego es conmigo e l miedo, que me a s a l t a con m i l generos de s o b r e s a l t o s y v i s i o ns s.."^^  Unamuno e x p l a i n s , t h a t t h i s  f e a r represents  loss of  f a i t h r e s u l t i n g from s e p a r a t i o n . Y tu', Sancho f i e l , c r e e s en un l o c o y en su l o c u r a , y s i t e q u e d a s a s o l a s con t u c o r dura de antes, iquie'h t e l i b r a r a " d e l miedo que te ha de acometer a l v e r t e s o l o con e l l a . . . ? " ' Q  ?  -7iiHere again, Unamuno p o i n t s out t h e " k i l l i n g power of l o g i c " . Once h i s s a n i t y i s r e s t o r e d and h i s f a i t h destroyed, Sancho i s a s s a i l e d by agonizing f e a r s and v i s i o n s . ing  Only by f o l l o w -  h i s master and b e l i e v i n g i n him can he be saved.  f a i t h shows a g r a d u a l Increase throughout has t r a v e l l e d half-way  His  the Q u i j o t e . I t  to p e r f e c t i o n when Sancho ( i n the i n n -  y a r d d u r i n g the d i s p u t e over the barber's b a s i n ) c a l l s the b a s i n a "baciyelmo".  This i s not good enough, however, i t  must be a l l b a s i n or a l l helmet: still  all  or nothing.  Sancho  has a long way t o go before he reaches p e r f e c t  and becomes completely i d e n t i f i e d w i t h h i s master.  faith Even  though Samicho wavers at times, s t i l l Don Quijote needs h i s f a i t h i n order t o b o l s t e r h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . "...La f e d e l heroe se aliment a de l a que a l c a n z a a i n f u n d i r en sus s e g u i dores."^  Unamuno adds: Solemos n e c e s i t a r de que nos crean para creernos, y s i no f u e r a monstruosa herejiTa y h a s t a impiedad m a n i f e s t a , sostendr£a que Dios se aliment a de l a f e que en E l tenemos l o s hombres.^9  T h i s "monstrous heresy" and "manifest i m p i e t y " i s s t a t e d q u i t e clearly  and without apology  i n Del Sentimiento  tragico:  Mas, aunque decimos que l a f e es cosa de l a v o l u n t a d , mejor s e r f a acaso d e c i r que es la v o l u n t a d mis ma, l a v o l u n t a d de no morir, o ma's b i e n o t r a p o t e n c i a ani*mica d i s t i n t a de l a i n t e l i g e n c i a , de l a v o l u n tad y d e l s e n t i m i e n t o . La f e , e s , pues, s i no p o t e n c i a c r e a t i v a , f l o r de l a v o l u n t a d , y s u o f i c i o c r e a r , X a fe crea, en c i e r t o modo, su o b j e t o . Y l a f e en Dios c o n s i s t e en c r e a r a D i o s ; y como es Dios e l que nos da l a f e en E l , es Dios e l que se esta' creando a s i * mismo de continuo en nosotros.^OO  -75Not only does Unarano suggest that God s u s t a i n s H i m s e l f by our f a i t h , but t h a t we c r e a t e God by b e l i e v i n g i n Him.  Unamuno  does not attempt t o prove God's o b j e c t i v e e x i s t e n c e by l o g i c a l argument, f o r he scorns  such methods.  His a s s e r t i o n  t h a t God g i v e s us our f a i t h i s dubious, s i n c e Unamuno h i m s e l f makes i t c l e a r t h a t our f a i t h i s only maintained of w i l l .  by an a c t  I n the end, t h e whole system c o l l a p s e s i n t o a v o l u n -  tatis t i c humanism.  Man, the poet, c r e a t e s h i s u n i v e r s e , h i s  C h r i s t and h i s God by an act of w i l l i n order to. keep a l i v e his  hope f o r i m m o r t a l i t y .  Poet — Sancho.  Unamuno p e r s o n i f i e s h i s i d e a l  the u n i v e r s a l c r e a t o r -- i n both Don Q u i j o t e and i n Don Q u i j o t e c r e a t e s h i m s e l f and h i s world  according  to h i s own w i l l , and Sancho b e l i e v e s i n Don Q u i j o t e ' s r e c r e a t ed world  —  a b e l i e f which i s a l s o an a c t of w i l l .  Sane ho's  p o s i t i o n seems at times l o f t i e r than Don <,Quijote's, f a i t h i s much g r e a t e r .  He b e l i e v e s i n Don Q u i j o t e ' s  d e s p i t e a l l he sees to the c o n t r a r y . reflects  for his  This aspect  world  of Sancho  Unamuno h i m s e l f , whose f a i t h has been d e s t r o y e d , or  at l e a s t s o r e l y t r i e d , b y the evidence  o f m o r t a l i t y he sees  around him, and who y e t " b e l i e v e s " by an a c t of w i l l . s p e c t a c l e of towering  The  heavBnly h i e r a r c h i e s , Mary, the Holy  S p i r i t , C h r i s t and God, a l l supported absurd, q u i x o t i c , and, of course,  by Unamuno's w i l l i s  heroic,  c a l l h i s remark t h a t one must be w i l l i n g order t o r e a c h greatness.  j&gain we must r e t o appear absurd i n  J u s t as Sancho's a c t of f a i t h i s  g r e a t e r than Don Q u i j o t e ' s , so man's f a i t h i s g r e a t e r than  -76-  C h r i s t ' s , f o r man  must b e l i e v e what he cannot see.  Sancho's i s an i d e a l Unamunian f a i t h , f o r i t feeds on doubts.  U n t r i e d f a i t h i s not t r u e f a i t h , Unamuno b e l i e v e s ,  j u s t as a l i f e  of s p i r i t u a l agony i s the o n l y noble l i f e  l e a d , not the happy l i f e i n h i s complacency.  to  of the unconscious b e l i e v e r , asleep  L a V i d a as w e l l  tra-  as D e l s e n t i m i e n t o  g i c ? are m i s s i o n a r y e f f o r t s aimed at awakening the S p a n i s h people t o the tragedy of l i f e .  Beneath Unamuno's noble  attempts to save h i s people  from complacent  o b l i v i o n , may  be  seen more s e l f i s h motives.  The gnawings of h i s i n t e l l e c t ,  f e e d i n g upon the works of Kant, Hegel, S t r a u s s , and K i e r d e gaard —  a l l P r o t e s t a n t authors —  t i o n s of h i s f a i t h .  have undermined the  He needs companionship  Again, he g e n e r a l i z e s h i s own  founda-  i n h i s misery.  struggle into a universal  law:  i f his own agonized e x i s t e n c e i s noble and good, then a l l l i v e s i n order to be noble and good, must be l i v e d i n agony. Sancho, too, becomes a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s s t r u g g l e —  and  thus becomes someone v e r y d i f f e r e n t from the Sancho Cervantes  knew. La f e de Sancho en Don Quijote no fue* una fe muerta, es d e c i r , engafiosa, de esas que descansan en i g n o r a n c i a ... E r a , por e l . c o n t r a r i o , fe verdadera y v i v a , f e que se alimenta de dudas. Porque sc*lo l o s que dudan creen de verdad, y l o s que no dudan, n i s i e n t e n t e n t a c i o n e s c o n t r a su f e , n i creen en verdad ... Una v i d a s i n muerte alguna en e l l a , s i n deshacimiento en su hacimiento i n c e s a n t e , no s e r f a ma's que perpetua muerte, reposo de p i e d r a . Los que no mueren, no viven.101  -77In  the end, Sancho's f a i t h becomes p e r f e c t .  deathbed,  On h i s  Don Q u i j o t e resumes the p e r s o n a l i t y of Alonso e l  Bueno, and drops the mask of q u i j o t i s m o , but Sancho i t up, and w i l l wear i t f o r e v e r .  snatches  "Don Q u i j o t e perdib* su f e  y m u r i 6 s e ; t u l a cobraste y v i v e s ; e r a p r e c i s o que e l muriera en desengano para que en engano v i v i f i c a n t e v i v a s Don Q u i j o t e , l i k e  tu."l^  2  C h r i s t , w i l l come again,but next time he w i l l  be i n c a r n a t e i n Sancho, i n whom Unamuno has seen d i s c i p l e , s a i n t , p i l g r i m and Sisyphus, and i n whom he now sees the Spani s h people.  Don Q u i j o t e s s p i r i t w i l l become f l e s h , i n the !  people o f Spain, i n a l l the Sanchos, t o l i b e r a t e from the d e a t h - i n - l i f e  of t h e i r complacency.  them a l l  -78CHAPTER V I I DULCINEA Despite the f a c t that D u l c i n e a never r e a l l y appears i n the Qui.jote, she i s one of the most i n f l u e n c i a l c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l .  In Unamuno's L a V i d a , h e r importance i s even  g r e a t e r , f o r she represents man's b a s i c s t r i v i n g f o r immortality.  Unamuno s t a t e s c l e a r l y from the outset what he sees  i n Dulcinea:  "Y despue's de e s t o busco  quien enamorarse.  /  (Don Quijote ) dama de  Y e n l a imagen de Aldonza Lorenzo ... en-  carno' l a G l o r i a y l a Hamo' D u l c i n e a d e l Toboso."' "^ 1  not a simple love  a l l e g o r y , f o r Unamuno mixes love of woman with  of g l o r y ; c a r n a l and " d i v i n e " l o v e .  immortality  This i s  The d e s i r e f o r  i s p r i o r t o l o v e of woman, and, i n a way causes  love: Ved aquf cd*mo d e l amor a mujer b r o t a todo heroismo. D e l amor a mujer han brotado l o s ma's fecundos y nobles i d e a l es, d e l amor a mujer l a s mis soberbias f a b r i c a s f i l o s c f f i cas. En e l amor a mujer a r r a i g a e l a n s i a de i n m o r t a l i d a d , pues es en e l donde e l i n s t i n t o de perpetuacid'n vence y soyuga a l de conservaci(5*n, sobreponie'ndose a s f l o s u s t a n c i a l a l o meramente a p a r e n c i a l . A n s i a de i n m o r t a l i d a d nos l l e v a a araar a l a mujer, y a s i fue' como Don Qui jote junto' en D u l c i n e a  ;  a l a mujer y a l a G l o r i a . ^ 4 I t i s c l e a r t h a t Unamuno equates l o v e and the mating i n s t i n c t , but a t the same time r a i s e s the mating i n s t i n c t t o a high-flown  and acceptable  mortalidad".  This  l e v e l by c a l l i n g i t " a n s i a de i n -  a n s i a , then,  actions, including love,  i s a t the root o f a l l human  on the surface, i t would seem t h a t  -79Unamuno i s proposing  t h a t a man c a l c u l a t i n g l y approaches a  woman and " l o v e s " h e r only i n o r d e r t o produce c h i l d r e n and perpetuate  h i m s e l f i n some sense through them.  probably means t h a t man's d e s i r e f o r i m m o r t a l i t y  A c t u a l l y he i s so deep-  l y rooted t h a t i t does not need to reach a conscious  level  i n order t o send him o f f l o o k i n g f o r a mate. Unamuno betrays h i s e s s e n t i a l p u r i t a n l s m as w e l l , f o r he i n s i s t s again and again t h a t Don Q u i j o t e *s l o v e " f u l ... de l o s castos y c o n t i n e n t e s . "  Of course, had i t been o t h e r -  wise, Unamuno c o u l d s c a r c e l y have s e t the h i d a l g o up as a Christ figure.  Don Q u i j o t e ' s love i s completely u n s e l f i s h ,  f o r he pledges h i m s e l f t o D u l c i n e a without love him i n r e t u r n .  Nevertheless,  expecting  her t o  Unamuno assures us t h a t  L a G l o r i a l o v e d Don Q u i j o t e v e r y w e l l , f o r " ( e l l a ) l l e v a de comarca en comarca y de s i g l o en s i g l o l a g l o r i a de (su) amor."- - ^ 1  0  Don Q u i j o t e ' s l o v e f o r D u l c i n e a i s both  profane  and d i v i n e , f o r he l o v e s Aldonza Lorenzo with the hopeless love o f one who had always been t o o shy to d e c l a r e  himself.  At the same time he does a l l h i s deeds of c h i v a l r y i n o r d e r to win g l o r y ; i . e . t o win the f a v o r of L a G l o r i a , which i s incarnate i n Dulcinea.  Unamuno w r i t e s a l o n g and s u r p r i s i n g -  l y s e n t i m e n t a l e x p l a n a t i o n of Alonso e l Bueno's love f o r Aldonza Lorenzo.  Por twelve long years Alonso p i n e d i n s i -  lence f o r Aldonza, but always t o o shy t o d e c l a r e h i s l o v e , he at l a s t went mad.  This love-madness seems q u i t e another  matter than the madness o f one who has sought and found i n  -8oi n s a n i t y a compromise, a r e s t i n g p l a c e between f a i t h and son,  or who  has gone mad  because i t became obvious  t h a t he could not achieve  i m m o r t a l i t y i f he  humdrum p a t t e r n of l i f e i n h i s a l d e a . i t was  Alonso's  to  him  continued  the  Unamuno i m p l i e s t h a t  u n s a t i s f i e d p a s s i o n which drove him mad,  yet  i n s i s t s upon the c h a s t i t y and p u r i t y of Don  for  Dulcinea.  hopeless on Don  rea-  Unamuno's s e n t i m e n t a l rendering  love f o r Aldonza  reaches  and  Quijote's love of  Alonso's  i t s climax when he comments  Q u i j o t e * s meeting w i t h " D u l c i n e a " i n the form of a  poor farm  girl. I Oh momento supremo t a n t o tiempo s u s p i r a d o l ... I Ahora, ahora va a r e d i m i r s e su l o c u r a , ahora va a l a v a r s e l a en e l t o r r e n t e de l a s lagrimas de l a d i c h a ; ahora va a c o b r a r e l premio de s u esperanza en l o imposible I I Oh, y cuantas t i n i e b l a s de l p c u r a se d i s i p a r i a n bajo una mirada de amor jl°°  Though he makes a supreme e f f o r t , poor Don  Quijote does not  see  the f a c e of h i s b e a u t i f u l D u l c i n e a , nor does Alonso see h i s s i g h e d - f o r Aldonza.  He  addresses  g i n g her not to t u r n from him, transformed l y farm  her beauty i n t o the  the woman before him,  beg-  a l t h o u g h the e v i l magician  has  outward appearance of a home-  girl. 6No os e n t r a n ganas _ de l l o r a r oyendo este p l a f i i d e r o ruego? 6No o l s como suena en sus entranas, bajo l a r e t o r i c a c a b a l l e r e s c a de Don Quijote, e l lamento i n f i n i t o de Alonso e l Bueno, e l mis desgarrador q u e j i d o que haya jama's brotado d e l c o r a z6n d e l hombre? 6 No o'is l a voz agorera y e t e r n a d e l eterno desengafio humano?!^?  C o u l d t h i s be an echo of Unamuno's own disenchantment, h i s  -81l o s s of f a i t h which he n e v e r t h e l e s s Q u i j o t e has  s t r u g g l e s to r e t a i n ?  seen t h a t h i s goddess D u l c i n e a  l a b o r e r ; has  Don  i s r e a l l y a poor  Unamuno seen t h a t h i s C h r i s t i s only t i e r r a ,  t h a t man's r e l i g i o n i s o n l y a myth c r e a t e d g r a d u a l l y and un- • c o n s c i o u s l y by s u c c e s s i v e generations In a l a t e r adventure, Don and  of  Q u i j o t e opens the l i o n ' s cage  challenges the occupant to b a t t l e .  turns h i s back on him,  mortals?  The  k i n g of  beasts  not out of d i s d a i n , Unamuno m a i n t a i n s ,  but out of compassion and  sympathy:  0 <i,no s e r f a acaso que e l leo*n, sonando entonces en l a l e o n a recostada, a l i a " en l a s arenas d e l d e s i e r t o , bajo una palmera, v i o a Aldonza Lorenzo en e l corazon del.Cabal l e r o ? 6"No fue* su amor l o que le h i z o a l a b e s t i a comp render e l amor del hombre y r e s p e t a r l e y avergonzarse ante el? ^° x<  Through love a l l c r e a t u r e s are,.united: Unamuno seems w i l l i n g Don  love  conquers a l l ,  t o f o r g e t a l l previous -discussions of  Q u i j o t e ' s madness, a l l t a l k about f a i t h , reason and  tality,  f o r w i t h one  mirada de. amor, Aldonza-Dulcinea  d i s s i p a t e the mists of madness. (the Feminine) and  world  that of the s p i r i t  separate p l a n e t s at war gogfa,  The  w i t h one  (spirit},"-  1 0 9  )  change f o r one desgraciados  ("...El i n s t i n conservacion  Q u i j o t e , who  would  f o r immortality  look of love from h i s l a d y .  two  As i n Amor y peda-  (sex) vence y soyuga a l de  w i l l i n g t o give up a l l h i s s t r i v i n g  sex  (the Masculine) are  another.  Thus i t i s with Don  could  of love and  the former g e n e r a l l y wins the b a t t l e .  to de p e r p e t u a c i o n  immor-  be  i n ex-  "S<5lo l o s amores  son fecundos en f r u t o s d e l e s p x r i t u ..• s o l o l a  -82e s t e r i l i d a d temporal da fecundidad  eterna."- -- 1  i m m o r t a l i t y i n the sense o f " c o n s e r v a c i o n " , mation of the f r u s t r a t e d d e s i r e t o mate. p l a i n Unamuno's own c o n t i n u e d remains unchecked d e s p i t e Not  1  0  The d e s i r e f o r  i s merely a s u b l i -  This  does not ex-  d e s i r e f o r immortality  which  the .large f a m i l y he f a t h e r e d .  only are d i v i n e and profane  l o v e u n i t e d i n Don Qui-  j o t e ' s f e e l i n g s f o r D u l c i n e a , but a l s o i n D u l c i n e a , the goddess, mistress  and mother are  combined:  Don Q u i j o t e dudo' por un momehto de l a G l o r i a , pero 6*3ta, su amada, l e amaba a su vez ya y era, por t a n t o , s u madre, como l o e s d e l amado toda su amante verdadera. Hay quien no descubre l a hondura toda d e l c a r i n o que su mujer l e guarda s i n o a l o i r l a , en moment o de congoja, un desgarrador i h i j o mioI , yendo a e s t r e c h a r l e maternalmente en sus brazos. Todo amor de mujer es, s i verdadero y e n t r a n a b l e , amor de madre; l a mujer p r o h i j a a quien ama. Y asf D u l c i n e a es ya madre e s p i r i t u a l , no t a n s o l o senpra de l o s pensamientos, de Don Q u i j o t e . . No doubt there can be found i n Unamuno's works ample m a t e r i a l f o r a c l i n i c a l study  o f h i s Qedipal f e e l i n g s f o r h i s motfce r .  He seems t o have turned t h e t a b l e s on woman, and has t r a n s f e r r e d h i s own f e e l i n g s t o her. lovers  Since a l l h i s f i c t i o n a l  (shadows o f t h e i r c r e a t o r ) love t h e i r wives as sons  love t h e i r mothers, then the w i f e must love her husband as a mother does her c h i l d .  Wherever a woman appears i n Unamuno's  work, t h i s p a t t e r n repeats  itself.  I n Amor y pedagogia, the  w i f e , Marina, i n c a r n a t e s the earth-mother. conscious  She i s an un-  machine which produces m i l k and i r r a t i o n a l  and whose needs are e n t i r e l y elemental.  love,  Unamuno dubs h e r  -83"Materia", Avito —  to c o n t r a s t with "Forma", the male element,  who  i r o n i c a l l y f a i l s e n t i r e l y to "inform"  T h e i r son, Apolodoro, f a l l s i n l o v e — sembles h i s mother.  don  Matter.  because the  girl re-  At l a s t , don A v i t o i s defeated,  and  f a l l s i n t o the arms of h i s w i f e w i t h a c r y of t o t a l submiss i o n : i Mad re I Unamuno's short s t o r y "Dos t i o n s the  same theme.  madres" repeats w i t h v a r i a -  In the end,  i s devoured by t h e female, who death as w e l l , s i n c e she  the s p i r i t u a l male element  i s o b l i v i o n , e a r t h , perhaps  represents  the f l e s h o n l y .  her c u l t always presupposed death of the fice  spirit  Perhaps  as a s a c r i -  to p e r p e t u a t i o n i n the f l e s h of her c h i l d r e n . Through his m u l t i v a l e n t  concept of D u l c i n e a , the  mistress-  mother-goddess, Unamuno comes to speak of the c u l t of the gin.  Vir-  Mary has been e x a l t e d to the p o s i t i o n of co-redeemer  with C h r i s t .  Most C a t h o l i c b e l i e v e r s p r a y to Mary r a t h e r  than to Jesus h i m s e l f ; she has become at l e a s t e q u a l l y as portant.  She  takes her p l a c e  "cuadernity".  The  becomes obvious: the  Father,  at her b r e a s t .  a  importance  to compensate f o r the harsh m a s c u l i n i t y  always f o r g i v e s , who  c h i l d seeking  i n the t r i n i t y to s w e l l i t to  reason f o r her e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g  Judge, the punishing  she who  im-  of  mankind needs the Female,  opens her arms t o the e r r i n g  the t e p i d warmth of p r e n a t a l unconsciousness But  i n the  end Unamuno reduces her, t o o ,  a mere c r e a t i o n of c o l l e c t i v e  humanity:  to  -SUE S l a Madre de D i o s , es l a pobre Humanidad d o l o r i d a . Porque, aunque compuesta de hombres y mujeres, l a Humanidad es mujer, es madre, Lo es cada s o c i e d a d , l o es cada pueblo, Las muchedumb res son femeninas. Juntad a l o s hombres y tened por c i e r t o que es l o femenino de e l l o s , l o que t i e n e n de sus madres, l o que l o s j u n t a . La pobre Humanidad d o l o r i d a es l a Madre de D i o s , pues en e l l a, en su seno, es donde se manif e s t a , donde encarna l a e t e r n a e i n f i n i t a C o n c i e n c i a d e l U n i v e r s o . Y l a Humanidad es pura, p u r i s i m a , l i m p i a de toda mancha, aunque nazcamos manchados cada uno de l o s hombres y mujeres, I Dios te s a l v e , Humanidad; l l e n a eres de g r a c i a Indeed, f o r Unamuno, Humanity i s the C r e a t o r ; mankind c r e a t e s a l l myths:  the myth of God,  j o t e , Sancho and D u l c i n e a ,  of Jesus, of Mary, of Don The  conflict  Qui-  i n Unamuno's mind  rages between what h i s reason t e l l s him and what h i s heart desires.  His world i s f a t a l l y d u a l i s t i c :  faith, flesh with s p i r i t .  reason wars w i t h  A jagged r e n t has been t o r n i n the  comfortable world o f Unamuno's c h i l d h o o d f a i t h by the of h i s reason. emptiness faith. it.  Through the h o l e , he can see the  of the p o s i t i v i s t ' s world —  the world  working  terrifying without  His wound can never h e a l , f o r h i s reason w i l l not l e t  Instead, Unamuno must t r y t o f i l l  s t i t u t e f o r a f a i t h , a new the masses.  the gap w i t h son© sub-  r e l i g i o n which he w i l l p r e a c h t o  F i r s t he w i l l t r y t o disenchant them as he  has  been disenchanted, t h e n he w i l l f e e d them h i s s u b s t i t u t e f a i t h , this  credo q u i a absurdum which i s an a c t of sheer w i l l , a r e -  c r e a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e as i t s h o u l d be, as i t mus t be i f mankind i s to p r e s e r v e i t s e l f from t o t a l d e s p a i r .  -85CONCLUSION A number of biographers severe  r e p o r t t h a t Unamuno underwent a  s p i r i t u a l or r e l i g i o u s c r i s i s i n l897»  e v i d e n t from a mere glance at his w r i t i n g s . startling  i n both s t y l e and preoccupations  l a G-uerra and Amor y pedagogia.  I f we  which Unamuno's a t t i t u d e toward Don can f o l l o w —  The  change i s  between Paz  study  en  the e v o l u t i o n  Quijote undergoes,  we  by examining t h i s mere f r a c t i o n of h i s t o t a l  writings during that period — development from 1895  t o 1905.  h i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  religious  These t e n years were perhaps  the most d e c i s i v e ones i n h i s l i f e , seen —  T h i s becomes  f o r by 1905  —  as we  have  the b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s which were to remain the same  throughout h i s c a r e e r were a l r e a d y f o r m u l a t e d  and had " c r y s -  talized". Unamuno's r e l i g i o u s c r i s i s was readings i n Comte, Hegel,  undoubtedly brought on  and David F r i e d r i c h S t r a u s s ,  as  w e l l as by d i s c u s s i o n s on the works of these authors. lian dialectics,  the contact w i t h p o s i t i v i s m and  s e c u l a r I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the l i f e a l l y undermined the his  No o r d i n a r y man  Strauss's  must have graduin  would have s u f f e r e d  l o s s of the f a i t h o f h i s childhood;  Unamuno's w i l l and need to b e l i e v e was by years  Hege-  simple f a i t h which he had been taught  e a r l i e s t childhood.  so much from the  of Jesus  by  profoundly  but  ingrained  of p i e t y , and by a sense of m i s s i o n so predominant  that he had even considered three a r t i c l e s  on Don  entering the p r i e s t h o o d .  Q u i j o t e p u b l i s h e d i n 1898,  The  and i n  -86p a r t i c u l a r " j M u e r a Don Q u i j o t e i " , m a r k a c o m p l e t e f r o m Unamuno's p o s i t i o n i n I 8 9 6 , l l e r o de l a t r i s t e Quijote without fasMon.  figura."  reservations  when he composed " E l c a b a -  Now he s u d d e n l y condemns Don a n d i n the must u n c o m p r o m i s i n g  H i s condemnation r e s t s  on t h r e e p o i n t s :  a l l w a r l i k e b e h a v i o u r i s p a g a n , Don Q u i j o t e ism;  (2) Don Q u i j o t e  belief  commits t h e m o r t a l  r e f l e c t Unamuno's p r e o c c u p a t i o n  him  although  f o r long.  with  even t h i s great  pagan-  and (3) Don  The f i r s t  Spain'3  crisis  since  represents  " s u r v i v a l i n e t e r n i t y " by h i s i n c e s s a n t  t o g a i n fame and g l o r y i n t h i s l i f e .  o f 1898,  (1)  s i n of p r i d e i n h i s  t h a t he i s God's m i n i s t e r on e a r t h ;  jote neglects  about-face  Quiattempts  two p o i n t s  political  crisis  d i d not preoccupy  Unamuno's c o n d e m n a t i o n o f Don Q u i j o t e f o r b e -  l i e v i n g t h a t he i s G-od's m i n i s t e r m i g h t a l s o have some  connec-  t i o n w i t h Unamuno's b e l i e f t h a t he h a d b e e n c a l l e d t o t h e priesthood.  To r a t i o n a l i z e h i s f a i l u r e  t o become a p r i e s t ,  Unamuno may h a v e p r e t e n d e d t h a t s u c h a s t e p w o u l d show h u b r i s , s i n c e i t would i m p l y b e l i e f that b y God.  he h a d b e e n d i r e c t l y  The l a s t p o i n t i n Unamuno's r e j e c t i o n o f Don Q u i j o t e  i s more s i g n i f i c a n t when c o n s i d e r e d developments. tem —  called  i n the light  of l a t e r  Unamuno h a s b e g u n t o d o u b t t h e C h r i s t i a n  a n d t o f e a r t h a t man's o n l y p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u r v i v a l i f at a l l —  i n becoming p a r t  of h i s t o r i c a l record.  sysexists The  t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s m i g h t be t r u e r e v o l t s h i m , a n d he condemns i t unconditionally both i n himself  a n d i n Don Q u i j o t e .  mind c o n t i n u a l l y w o r r i e s a t the p r o b l e m .  B y 1905,  His  h i s oppo-  -8?sition  to  vehement a  basic  historical  justification law  of  human  Unamuno h a d faith  was  exactly  what  and  the  the  "killing  may  death  arisen also  of  everything  points  out his  of  spiritual  table at  de  his  when  his  anger,  the  impression  like  a  barely  chosen p a t h  anger b o i l s everyone he  and  becomes  rary  style,  as  over,  a  a  enemy  he  y  i t  priest  of  revolts near  a priest  of  battle  may  v i c t o r y of  well reason  opposition  about. and  reason  reason,  V.  that  resentment  he  ratio-  is  a  es  manantial  mananinago-  we  feel  the  writes  that  he  Unamuno's  books,  that  they  or  something  had  not  allowed  the  faith  against him.  own  gains are 1  him  to  follow  destroyed. and  Despite  his  speech,  dress,  religion,  of  unknown. ^  i t had  himself  is  power  Baroja  his  source  e s p i r i t u a l . " U n a m u n o  something;  to  Marrero  " E l resentimiento  someone  reason,  struggle,  the  that  violent  that  l a y - p r i e s t i n manner, but  equally  calling  mankind  l a rebeldfa,  conciencia  everything,  The  writes  pretending  reading  he  an  v i c t o r y of  of  "resentido",  restrained.  his  by  conviction  f o r Unamuno's  against  enemy,  the  experience.  attacks  upon  to  r e s u l t of  accept:  terrible  rebeld£a,  he  vengeance  Unamuno's his  de  way  cat-and-mouse  The  consciousness.  l a mats a l t a  best  not  everyone  p o s i t i o n by  inagotable  given  f o r fame  the  reason.  Unamuno i s  nalizes  tial  a  own  and  of  Unamuno's  i n part  almost  high  his  is  his  account  desire  victim  faith.  from  the  could  power"  that  a  and he  of  has  nature.  been  between h i s  have  "immortality"  against  loss  the  His  of  and only  faith, l i t e one  -88his  reason w i l l allow him.  I t i s p r o b a b l e , then, t h a t h i s  opinions on S p a i n a f t e r I 8 9 8  (as w e l l as on every other sub-  j e c t of h i s w r i t i n g s ) are not merely a consequence of the Desastre, but i n a l a r g e measure a r e s u l t of h i s p e r s o n a l d e s a s t r e of l 8 9 7 «  Unamuno's work i s f a r too p e r s o n a l t o  have any great p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o r i n f l u e n c e .  1 1  ^ Re-  sentment causes h i s ambiguous a t t i t u d e toward h i s contemporaries.  He w r i t e s t h a t he hopes t o save them, from t h e i r com-  p l a c e n c y , b u t he p r o b a b l y r e s e n t s h i s b e l i e v i n g c o l l e a g u e s , secure and unshaken i n t h e i r f a i t h , and wants to make them s u f f e r as he has had t o suffer.  Whatever i t s motive may have  been, h i s d e s i r e t o undermine the f a i t h of h i s f e l l o w s s l o w l y dies.  By the end of h i s l i f e  Unamuno has mellowed; he con-  cludes at l a s t t h a t simple f o l k should not be d i s t u r b e d i n their belief.  I n L a V i d a and i n D e l sentimiento  tragico,  however, we see Unamuno i n h i s prime, w i e l d i n g the weapons of  h i s r h e t o r i c and h i s " s i n c e r i t y "  to  convince h i s readers t h a t though there i s a c t u a l l y no hope  of  immortal  life,  (which has s o many l e v e l s )  they must c r e a t e t h e i r own hope by w i l l i n g  a God i n t o e x i s t e n c e , who w i l l be a necessary guarantor o f their eternal survival.  Unamuno's s i n c e r i t y i s genuine i n  p a r t , f o r he seems t o be t r u l y convinced of h i s m i s s i o n as a prophet  of a new " f a i t h " .  The mere f a c t t h a t h i s b a s i c  ideas remain the same f o r t h i r t y - s i x years s h o u l d us of h i s s i n c e r i t y —  on one l e v e l ,  at l e a s t .  convince  His writings  may be e x a s p e r a t i n g e s t h e t i c a l l y because of t h e i r  repetition  -89and passionate  p r e s e n t a t i o n , b u t they are g r i p p i n g  because  they r e f l e c t f e a r s which have become i n c r e a s i n g l y prominent i n our century  —  f e a r s of a n n i h i l a t i o n .  Unamuno's rough s t y l e and h i s apparent l a c k of o r g a n i z a t i o n are c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s r e j e c t i o n of reason and h i s attempts to appear s i n c e r e .  No author seems s i n c e r e who  cal-  c u l a t e s h i s sentences and who smooths and p o l i s h e s them. When Unamuno r e v i s e s h i s work, i t i s undoubtedly t o c r e a t e an e f f e c t as u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d  and a n t i - l i t e r a r y as p o s s i b l e .  Unamuno r e v o l t s a g a i n s t accepted form wherever p o s s i b l e , i n the essays, and i n p a r t i c u l a r i n h i s novels plays.  The word n i v o l a i t s e l f  i s a flag  ( n i v o l a s ) and h i s  of v i c t o r y , p r o u d l y  marking the success o f Unamuno's venture i n w r i t i n g an a n t i novel.  The d u a l i s m of the s t r u g g l e between f a i t h and reason  i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n Unamuno's p r e f e r e n c e f l e s h and bone" over any a b s t r a c t i o n . be  as p e r s o n a l  man.  f o r the -"man of  He t r i e s  as p o s s i b l e i n h i s w r i t i n g :  therefore t o  t o speak man t o  I n many ways h i s works are confessions  -- but always  c a l c u l a t e d c o n f e s s i o n s , f o r i n s p i t e of h i m s e l f ,  the Unamuno  he p i c t u r e s i n h i s works i s an i d e a l i z e d f i g u r e , un mito, as he h i m s e l f  admits.  His works a r e not a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l i n  the u s u a l sense, and y e t a l l f i t together p o r t r a i t of the Unamuno-myth.  t o g i v e a complete  He has l e f t us t r a v e l l o g s ,  impressions of landscapes, n o v e l s , essays, p l a y s , and h i s poetry,  which he c o n s i d e r s  t i o n of h i s c r e a t i o n .  t o be the most s i g n i f i c a n t  por-  I t cannot be doubted t h a t Unamuno  -90-  hopes t o i m m o r t a l i z e and fort  himself  i n h i s t o r y t h r o u g h h i s works,  t h a t h i s numerous f a m i l y i s a l s o , t o some e x t e n t , at self-perpetuation.  Unamuno  tries  t o win  t h r o u g h h i s works and h i s c h i l d r e n d e s p i t e t h a t these are merely i l l u s o r y paths attempts ten  assure him only  that  an e f -  immortality  h i s awareness  to e t e r n a l l i f e .  he w i l l n o t be a t once  Such forgot-  a f t e r h i s death. Unamuno's a n t i r a t i o n a l i s m may a l s o e x p l a i n h i s p r e f e r e n c e  f o r poetry son tion  a s a means o f e x p r e s s i o n .  and s e a r c h e s f o r t r u t h i n t h e word.  against  Unamuno i n c l u d e s  highly r a t i o n a l thinkers  Kant, S p i n o z a and  i n h i s chosen c i r c l e  m a t t e r s l e s s t h a n c o n t e n t t o Unamuno. d i s t i n c t i o n s between p o e t t h a t he i s n o t h i m s e l f  that  i n images.  a poet  t o Unamuno.  creation. par  creates  Any w r i t e r who h a s a deep  does h i s b e s t  poetic,  insighti n -  becomes a " p o e t " b y Unamuno's  Unamuno makes Don Q u i j o t e  himself  of K a n t and  and t h e r e f o r e  One o f t h e p o e t ' s g r e a t e s t  excellence.  Form  sense, f o r he  The p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r l d  t o human n a t u r e o r t h e u n i v e r s e definition.  of poets.  b e c a u s e he i s aware  i n the s t r i c t  worlds,  other  He may b l u r t h e f o r m a l  and p h i l o s o p h e r  of Spinoza are m y t h i c a l  according  and n a t u r e .  (Unamuno o f t e n u s e s p a r a d o x as a f a v o r i t e wea-  reason),  cannot t h i n k  rea-  Through t h e c r e a -  o f m y t h he o f t e n plumbs h i d d e n d e p t h s i n man  Paradoxically, pon  The p o e t d i s c a r d s  powers i s t h a t o f  t h e symbol o f the p o e t  He i s t h e s a v i o r o f mankind b e c a u s e he r e as w e l l  as t h e w o r l d  t o i m i t a t e him.  about h i m .  Unamuno  -91-  Such a re-creation implies an overwhelming e f f o r t of will.  In Unamuno's system, w i l l plays the key role< of creat-  ing a God who w i l l guarantee personal immortality.  Unamuno  maintains his balance on the brink of d i s b e l i e f through w i l l power. a sort.  He wants to b e l i e v e , therefore he has f a i t h —  of  The e f f o r t i s naturally exhausting to him, and he  often expresses i n poetry his desire to give up the struggle and r e t i r e to some secluded monastery to l i v e out his days. At times he even longs f o r death, f o r eternal peace and cessation of struggle. His w i l l to continue never r e a l l y breaks; he admires and imitates those men who  l i v e an active,  militant l i f e , f o r i n action there l i e s an antidote to thought.  Undoubtedly his admiration f o r Ignacio de Loyola  —  that s o l d i e r of the f a i t h whom he compares with Don Quijote —  stems from his own readiness to do battle wherever possible.  His violent opposition to the "hidalgos de l a Razoh" takes on Dionysian dimensions i n i t s savagery, but i t arises from his inner struggle rather than from an acceptance of Plato's ideas.  He resents both the sheeplike believer and the arro-  gant p o s i t i v i s t represented i n La Vjda by Sanson Carrasco: neither are t r u l y " a l i v e " , f o r theirs i s a calm, not an agonized existence.  Unamuno's writings on the mad poet re-  mind us both of Dionysian mysteries and of passages i n Plato's Phaedrus and Ion.  The true poet, he who  i s mad, may  enter  the temple of truth with ease, while the poet who uses mere "art" i s forever shut out.  Don Quijote becomes a Platonic  -92poet i n Unamuno's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .  We cannot doubt  t h a t Una-  muno, as a c l a s s i c i s t , was aware o f P l a t o ' s i d e a s , b u t we s h a l l never know whether or not he c o n s c i o u s l y modeled Don Quijote a f t e r a P l a t o n i c  ideal.  Unamuno b e t r a y s h i s 19th c e n t u r y o r i g i n s b o t h i n h i s p h i l o s o p h y and i n h i s s e n s i b i l i t y : manticist.  he i s e s s e n t i a l l y a r o -  Like h i s romantic models, Byron and Senancour,  Unamuno i s a v i s i o n a r y who c r e a t e s a l i t e r a r y u n i v e r s e .  The  i n c r e d i b l e egotism he shows i n a p p r o p r i a t i n g the Qui jote as his  own p r o p e r t y and I n u s i n g (or misusing) Spinoza, Nietzsclhe  and Kant by t w i s t i n g the meanings of passages to  serve h i s purposes, may be j u s t i f i e d s i n c e they a l l are  i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s v i s i o n a r y world. are  i n t h e i r works  Por Unamuno, they  pawns to be d i s p o s e d as the game demands.  Why, then,  should he concern h i m s e l f w i t h a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n ? Unamuno b e l i e v e s he has made the Q u i j o t e h i s own through his  d i s c o v e r y of t h e " t r u e meaning" which Cervantes  never  understood.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , Cervantes keeps r e t u r n i n g t o  plague him.  Not o n l y has he a c h i e v e d i m m o r t a l i t y , b u t Cer-  vantes a l s o r e p e a t e d l y i n t e r r u p t s the n a r r a t i v e o f h i s Q u i j o t e t o poke f u n a t Don £§ui jote and Sancho.  He o f t e n  i n t e r r u p t s thus a t a p o i n t where Unamuno wishes  t o be e n t i r e -  l y s e r i o u s , and i t f o r c e s him t o break the c o n t i n u i t y of h i s sermon i n o r d e r t o e x o r c i s e the g h o s t of h i s r i v a l .  Such a  h i a t u s i n Unamuno's stream of thought n a t u r a l l y d i s t r a c t s the reader from the p o i n t s he i s t r y i n g t o make.  He  -93therefore off  as  tries  a mere  to  r i d himself  instrument  which actually created ment  by p o i n t i n g out  (in his tion.  of  the  the  Qui.jote.  is  laughter  Cervantes'  humor.  too d e a d l y ,  too  i n his world.  Apuntes p a r a and humor, ordinate  un t r a t a d o  but  to  i t  the  seems  true  a fragile  de  purpose  very  animality which Just  his  ideas.  This  raised  new a s p e c t s Because  his  mental  Unamuno i s  i n it,  the  outpost  to  torment  of i t s  cause  to  w h i c h we b e l i e v e  t r u l y our contemporary.  the  has  appendix, irony  It  is  sub-  mind w h i c h  Science Is itself  upon  is  the the  to  used L a V i d a  his  purpose  surface  brought  and  to  of  and  the  light  a  personality.  his  love  have  He i s  f o r he,  fiercely  for  satirize  of the  author,  anti-rationalism,  Unamuno s t a n d s  cannot  i t .  o f Unamuno's purpose  of h i s  imagina-  little  Q u i j o t e , we h a v e  perhaps  don F u l g e n c i o Entrambosmares, seriously.  books:  is  Unamuno's  and f o r c e d .  only scratches but  argu-  really  he  and i t s  n e c e s s a r i l y base  a study  study  sees  —  within  animal nature.  enimical  Unamuno u s e d  a springboard for  problems few  as  is  he  o f the  and f u t i l e  must  since  conflict  somehow i n e p t  overwhelmed by man's i t  his  style  him  soul  c o c o t o l o g i a , c o n t a i n some  quickly  since  The  greater  Amor y p e d a g o g i a  as  absurd  the  serious;  science  more  He b o l s t e r s  a n d h o w i m p o v e r i s h e d was h i s  Unamuno's a n t a g o n i s m i s  nature  by writing  collective Castilian  how a w k w a r d C e r v a n t e s '  estimation),  understand  as  of Cervantes  of paradox  been  genuine,  tragi-comic  too, took himself  alone;  he  is  like too  intensely  and  -9k~ individual,  and y e t he r e p r e s e n t s  gaard and S a r t r e . the absurd leap  a t r a n s i t i o n between  Kierke-  His e x i s t e n t i a l anguish was not that of  of f a i t h but of a l o s s  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n by w i l l p o w e r .  of f a i t h and i t s dogged  -95NOTES  Unamuno, Miguel de, Obras comb l e t as (second e d i t i o n ; Madrid, A . Aguado, 1958} V o l . IV, pp. 953-95^. 2  I b i d . , V o l . I I , pp. l j l l - i p . 7 .  3  I b i d . , V o l . I I , pp. 51i-2-5ij.6.  ^ I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p. 161. ^ I b i d . , V o l . I l l , pp. 223-23l|.. Unamuno s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i s e s the " c a s t i z o " t h e a t e r of Calderdh f o r i t s s u p e r f i c i a l i t y and dryness. Everything i s seen from the outside, and not f e l t from w i t h i n . Thus Calderdn's characters are merely i n carnations of h i s ideas ( j ) . The c a s t i z o s p i r i t i s also a d u a l i s t i c one. Don Quijote and Sancho are always d i v i d e d ; they can never unite themselves, no matter how much a f f e c t i o n they bear f o r one another. °Unamuno, Miguel de, La Vida de Don Quijote 2 Sancho (eleventh e d i t i o n ; Madrid, Espasa-Calpe, 195o) PP. 85, 2l5« 7  'Unamuno, Miguel de, Obras compietas; V o l . I l l , pp.  10i;3-106li.. 8  Unamuno, Miguel de, La V i d a de Don Quijote j Sancho; P. 13. I b i d . , p. 138. 9  10  Unarauno, Miguel de, Obras compietas; V o l . H I , p. 287.  i : L  I b i d . , V o l . V, p p .  707-711.  1 2  I b i d . , Vol. v , pp.  707-708.  1 3  I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p p . 3£4-385.  ^ I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 372. ^ I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 372. I b i d . , V o l . I l l , p . 373. 17 ' i b i d . , V o l . i n , p . 3.75. l 6  l 8  I b i d . , V o l . v , p p . 712-72I4..  1 9  I b i d . , V o l . V, p . 715.  - 9 6 -  2 0  2  1  I b i d . , . Vol." V, pp.. 725-726. I b l d . ,  Vol.  I l l ,  p.  Ibid.,  Vol.  V,  p.  720.  I b i d . ,  Vol.  V,  p.  728.  161.  22  2  3  2  ^Ibid.  2  % b i d .  2  6  I b l d .  t  Vol.  V,  p.  731.  2  7  I b i d . ,  Vol.  V,  pp.  733-735.  ^ ITnamuno, u  p.  2!}..  Miguel  „  2  9  I b i d . ,  p.  153.  3  ° I b i d . ,  p.  27.  3  1  i b i d . ,  p.  75.  3  2  I b i d . ,  p.  60.  3  3  l b i d . ,  p.  180.  La  Vida  ^Unamuno,  Miguel  de,  Obras  ^Unamuno,  Miguel  de,  La  p p . 193-19I|.. 3  6  I b i d . ,  p.  19IL.  3  7  I b i d . ,  p.  13.  3  8  I b i d . ,  p.  215.  3  9  I b i d . ,  p.  ^ I b i d . ,  p.  ^ Unamuno, 2  8l.  i+3  Ibid.,  p.  de  Don  Quijote  compietas;  Vida  de  Don  Vol.  Sancho;  2  V,  Quijote  ~  p.  y  736.  Sancho;  80.  ^°Unamuno, M i g u e l (Madrid, Renaciraiento,  p.  de,  de, D e l s e n t i m i e n t o n. d.) p. 1 1 3 .  tragico  de  l a  vida  109. Miguel  83.  de,  La  Vida  de  Don  Qui.jote j  Sancho;  -97^ J F o r a f u l l e r comparison of D o s t o i e v s k i and Unamuno on t M s p o i n t , see'Marreroi V i c e n t e , E l C r i 3 t o de Unamuno (Madrid, R i a l p , I960), p . 167 f f . ^Unamuno, Miguel de, Qbras completas, V o l . I l l ,  p. 8 5 0 .  ^Unamuno, Miguel de, D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i co de l a v i d a ,  p . 56.  ^Unamuno, Miguel de, Qbras completas, V o l . I l l , ^ I b i d . , Vol. I l l ,  p. 853.  ^ Ibid.,. Vol. I l l ,  p . 8I18.  ^°Ibid., V o l . I l l ,  p. 8 5 2 .  ^Ibid.,  p. 853.  9  Vol. I l l ,  p. 853.  -^Marrero,. op. c i t . , p. 1 6 5 . ^Unamuno, M i g u e l de, Qbras completas, V o l . I l l ,  p. 81j.5«  ^Unamuno, Miguel de, L a V i d a de Don Qui.1 ote 2 Sancho; p. 2 3 . 55  I b i d . , p. 19.  5 Ibid., 6  p. 1 7 .  ^7 • ^ ' G a r c i a B l a n c o , Manuel, Don M i g u e l de Unamuno y_ sus p o e s i a s , (Salamanca, 195l4-)» P» 178. 58  Unamuno, Miguel de, La V i d a de Don Qui .jote % Sancho; P« 3 6 . ^ I b i d . , p. 1 0 3 . 9  60  I b i d . , p. 1 0 1 . I b i d . , p. 1 8 2 .  6? I b i d . , p . 209. 6 3  I b i d . , p . 210. hamuno, Miguel de, Qbras completas, V o l . I l l ,  p. 8 5 0 ,  "^Unamuno, M i g u e l de, Ensayos, (Madrid, A g u i l a r , 19U2), p. 693; Unamuno, Miguel de, Qbras completas, V o l . V, p . 8 5 * e t c . ^^Unamuno, Miguel de, L a V i d a de Don Qui.jote 2 Sancho; p.  225*  -9867 / 'Unamuno, Miguel de, P e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de l a v i d a , P.  258. 68  P l a t o „ Ion,  69  -  533C  Unamuno, Miguel de, L a V i d a de Don Qui.jote v_ Sancho;;  pp. 15-16. 7 0  7  P l a t o , Phaedrus,  2]\$k»  -%namuno, Miguel de, op. c i t . , p. 13.  72 ' Unamuno, Miguel de, Qbras completas, 7 3  7  I b i d . , V o l . VIII, p.  ^ I b i d . , V o l . VIII, pp.  75 '^Unamuno, pp. 206-20 7.  V o l . XV, p . I4.O3.  1097.  1100-1101.  Miguel de, D e l sentimiento t r a g i c o de l a v i d a ,  76  p.  ' Unamuno, Miguel de, La Vida de Don Qui.jote 2 Sancho;  23.  7 7  7 8  7 9  8 o  8 1  I b i d . , p. 36. I b i d . , p. .29. I b i d . , p. 3kI b i d . , p . 36. I b i d . , p. 88.  8 2  Ibid.  8 3  I b i d . , p.  218.  8  ^ J b i d . , p.  225.  8  ^Marrero,  8 6  8  I b l d . , pp. 10i|.-107.  ? I b i d . , pp.  88 p. 111.  Ibid. °Ibid.  9 1  914.-121.  Unamuno, Miguel de, L a V i d a de Don Qui .jote v_ Sancho;  89 9  dp_. c i t . , p. lOli.  Ibid.  •99-  9 2  9  I b i d . , p. 9 8 .  3 l b i d . ,  p. 4 9 .  91+lbid.., p. 62. 9  % b i d . , p. 7 9 . Ibid.  9 6  97ibid. 98 Ibid.,  p. 111}..  "ibid. 100  pp.  TJnamuno, Miguel de, D e l s e n t i m i e n t o t r a g i c o de l a v i d a ,  190-191.  Unamuno, M i g u e l de, L a V i d a de Don Qui .jot e £ Sancho, p . 121}.. 1G1  1 0 2  1  0  1 (  1  0  3 i b i d . ,  P. . ^ r  %bid.,  PP .  5 i b i d . ,  P. 5 8 .  l o 6  1  0  I b i d . , p. 219.  Ibid.,  7 l b i d . ,  1 0 8  Ibid.,  1 0 9  Ibid.,  1 1 0  Ibid.,  l i : L  1 1 2  l x  2  56-57.  P* 1 2 6 . Pr  127.  p. 1 3 3 . 56-57.  p. 6 0 .  I b i d . , P*  181.  I b i d . , p. 206.  3unamuno,  ll%i  a r r Q  Miguel de, Obras compietas, V o l . V, p. 1 7 i | - .  p o , .op. c i t . , p. Ii9.  ^Ibid.,  p. 5 2 .  -100BIBLIOG-RAPHY B a l s e i r o , Jose' Agus-tin. 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