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UBC Theses and Dissertations

A survey of Greek historians of the 5th and 4th centuries B.C. Alston, Jessie Winifred 1935

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A SURVEY OF GREEK HISTORIANS OP THE 5TH AJJD 4TH CENTURIES B.C.  By J E S S I E WINIFRED ALSTOE  A THESIS SUBMITTED "FOB THE DEGREE OF MA  S T _E_R__ OP  A  H^S  I I THE DEBARTHEHT  TEE USIVERS ITY OP BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER  t  1935  A SUBVET OP CHEEK HISTOEIAHS OF THE 5 T H AJfD 4TH CENTURIES B.C.  T A B L E  OF  C O N T E N T S  Page 1  Introduction.  I  4  The H i s t o r i e s o f H e r o d o t u s and his Predecessors.  II  86  The H i s t o r y  III  115  The H i s t o r i e s o f G r a t i p p u e &n<5 Xenophon.  I?  123  The H i s t o r i e s o f P h i l i s t u s ; E p h o r u s j Theopompusf T i m a e a s ; H e g e s i a s j Durisf Clitarchus; Aristolmlus and P t o l e m y .  of  THucydides.  0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0:0  A SURVEY OF GEEEE HISTORIANS THE 5TH AHD 4TH CENTURIES B.C  OF B e f o r e we h i s t o r y o f the sents,  look into  5 t h and  i t seems t o me  history  what we  should The  t h a t a few  expect  from  to o u r  survey.  limited  they  had  the h i s t o r i a n  into  an  ly  to p r e s e n t  first  events  t o p o s t e r i t y an  adopts  the  On  (1)  the  third  society  which (I)  i s used  by  same i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h  the  r e l a t e s $ he faculty,  second.  h i s aim  image o f them as c l e a r  by v i r t u e  as  the  events  i s merethat  o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n or  the o t h e r  hand, the  spirit  method, t r a n s c e n d s spirit,  a  i s to manipulate.  Philosophy of H i s t o r y , P . l .  In  changes t h e s e and  us,  most  shared."  t h e word the  not  tells  f o r the  they  us  from  second  t h a t o f t h e e l e m e n t he  spirit  kinds  Let  c a t e g o r y , he  i n which  a p p r o a c h e s h i s t a s k w i t h h i s own  from  three  method  concept!ve  descriptions.  h i s t o r i a n who  two,  sta'tes o f  who se  t h a t he  h i m s e l f possessed  life-like  He  the  first  first  sense  i s molded  o b j e c t f o r the  w h i c h he  the  e y e s and  h e r e , d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  determining  philosophical.  o f the  To  i n the  perhaps,  h i s t o r y , and  "whose d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e  their  This idea of s p i r i t ,  shaped  and  t o d e e d s , e v e n t s , and  before  of  historian.  reflective  the h i s t o r i a n s  have  an  pre-  subject  come a m i e s ; t o u c h i n g ,  at h i s d e f i n i t i o n  part  first  Greece  German, H e g e l , assums t h a t t h e r e a r e  look merely  belong  which the w r i t t e n  r e m a r k s upon t h e  methods o f t r e a t i n g  History, original,  pertaining  limitations  4th c e n t u r i e s of Ancient  i n g e n e r a l would n o t  upon t h e d i f f e r e n t  of  the  the  spirit His  of  the  present.  distinct  readers,  therefore,  s h o a i d c o n s i d e r the p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h have  the a u t h o r  i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e h e a r i n g and  t i o n s and  e v e n t s he  of h i s n a r r a t i v e .  d e s c r i b e s , and  I t o f t e n happens t h a t  than that  modified  o f w h i c h he would  i n accordance  great  to t r a v e r s e  low have  and we and this  the  i s t r u e , and thus  fundamental  of vision? and  two  do we  requirement  Honesty critical  a c l e a r , readable s t y l e .  A modern e x p e c t s , I s u p p o s e , social,  literary  one work.  E u t we  and  of  i n measuring  wherein  they f a l l  of i n s t i n c t i v e first  grasp  of a l l ,  i n l a r g e measure; And  up  to  the  from  o f the  scope \  I think; breadth j impartiality,  i n the c o n t e n t o f a  facts,  how  s h o r t of i t .  geographical, p o l i t i c a l ,  philosophical  we  Herodotus  o f them, t o show  must not hope t o f i n d  the a n c i e n t G r e e k s .  pro-  categories,  i n an h i s t o r i a n , a p a r t  of purpose ability  i t s original  i n the case  they succeed  desire  a  mention.  most i m p o r t a n t  wherein  that a b a t t l e ,  to b o t h o f t h e s e  especially  as  I t must  the h i s t o r i a n s w i t h whom  essay, belong  s e t f o r them, and  What e l s e  of history?  that  travel  individual  existed.  longer maintains  i t seems to us  Thucydides,  so  by w i t h a hare  have e n d e a v o u r e d ,  standard  this  by a b s t r a c t i o n s ,  i s passed  to d e a l i n t h i s  i s not  long periods of time, to g i v e  of  different  the h i s t o r i a n ,  forgo the attempt  v i c t o r y , a s i e g e , no  p o r t i o n s , hut  form  the i n d i v i d u a l i t y  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f t h e p a s t as I t a c t u a l l y shorten i t s p i c t u r e s  the  b e l o n g i n g to a  he  ac-  w i t h t h e d i s t a n c e h i s r e c o r d must  a h i s t o r y which a s p i r e s to he u n i v e r s a l , must  o f the  which have d e c i d e d  t o n e w h i c h must c h a r a c t e r i z e a w r i t e r culture  motives  guided  history? economic,  p r o p e r l y combined  such a h i s t o r y  Geographical i n f o r m a t i o n they  among  supply to  in\  3« ns  liberally.  pages,  Political  h u t i f one s e e k s  history, therein  too, f i l l s  the h u l k of t h e i r  f o r the o t h e r f a c t o r s  that are  taken f o r granted  i n any modern work o f s u c h a n a t u r e , he  scarcely  them, e x c e p t where  are  discover  suggested  barely  through  mentioned -  they e x i s t  t h e \7orks o f p e r s o n s  v/hose  will  i n t h e germ o r names a r e  4.  H i B Q B B We  will  appertains the  review the  to our  ations but  not  tent  he  short  man  that  and  i n the  the  by  we  By  d o i n g we  fairly  of H a l i c a r n a s s u s ; who  was  certain.  the  with,  took p a r t  and  i n the  date o f  the  the port  that  he he  ex-  falls  he  f o r , that  early f i f t h  i n such an a  of  confirmed  of  the  spent p a r t by  can  assert  century,  fourth, that died fairly  a b o u t 484 t o a man  spent  sea-port  had  an  important  town, t h e n even more t h a n now, f o r a w a k e f u l , eager  the  boy  the  fami-  fifth,  accurately B.C. born  in  his l i f e .  histories.  afforded  with  he  there j  so  of  and  early  special  had  nature  may  story of  of h i s  his  island?  we  connected  ages who  s u b s e q u e n t w r i t i n g and  Herodotus.  well-born  was  H e r c u l e s and  that  life  was  c o l o n i z a t i o n o f T h u r i i and  h i s c i t y was  opportunities  investigation,  they are  C e r t a i n obvious advantages accrued  that  Limit-  l e a r n to what  the  as  which i s borne out  favour  to have been i n t h e  fact  compile  w h e r e i n he  for  second, that  h i s b i r t h , w h i c h we  such a p l a c e ,  to  h i s t o r i a n himself,  First,  poet of  colonization! third,  i n Samos, a f a c t  liarity  him  what were  limitations.  will  learn c e r t a i n f a c t s , that,  a native  life  enabled  see  f o r t r a v e l and  main a u t h o r i t y  as  the  so  may  ideal.  consider  Ionian  t h a t we  that  facilities  i n d i c a t i o n s i n t h e work o f  Panyasis,  H e r o d o t u s i n s o f a r as i t  name o f H i s t o r i a n , and  Suidas i s our Prom him  advantages  himself.  merits  of  of  what were h i s h a n d i c a p s and  only  i n the  life  i n q u i r y , i n order  opportunities  h i s work, and  g ¥ S  The  hearing A  on  sea-  innumerable  to meet and  listen  to  widely  diverse  types  o f human b e i n g s j and H e r o d o t u s was a k e e n  l o v e r o f human n a t u r e .  He l o v e d  o r y and knew how t o d e p i c t i t . grooms, d o c t o r s , another.  nurses,  How a k i n g  loafer,"  ^ )  personal?  n  the personal I n h i s pages  element  statesmen,  p e a s a n t s , g o d s , t h i e v e s , j o s t l e one  s p e a k s , now a p h i l o s o p h e r ,  He l i v e d  political,  now a c a f e  among a l l t h e t a l k o f t h e m a r k e t - p l a c e ,  commercial  manner o f m a r v e l l o u s  i n hist-  9  international.  t a l e s and s t o r e d  t h o u g h somewhat u n f o r t u n a t e l y  He heard a l l  them up in. h i s memory,  f o r u s he n e g l e c t e d  their  chronology^ His him  writes  may be t r a c e d  i n Herodotus* H i s t o r y . ^ ^ 2  Panyasis,  one o f t h e e p i c  B  u  t  H i s h i s t o r y o f the  There i s v e r y  freedom* little  philosophy,  reference  talk  But  w h a t e v e r gaps t h e r e  perpetual  to t h e E l i z a b e t h a n f o r  t o music  reliable.  i n h i s pages*  He does  t h o u g h i t had i t s i n f l u e n c e upon h i m . were i n h i s t r a i n i n g ,  G r e e k , and Greek e d u c a t i o n  man t h e a r d e n t  have e n -  H i s a r i t h m e t i c i s not always  not  eminently  could  t h e r e were gaps i n h i s e d u c a -  H i s s p e l l i n g h a s b e e n compared  spacious  (1) (2) (3)  poets,  t o a new s u b j e c t , t h e f r e s h e s t t h a t  gaged h i s a t t e n t i o n , ' * (3)  the  "Herodotus,"  i n v a s i o n i s but the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f  Panyasis  tion.  The influence of  B r , Macan, "wa s t r a i n e d , so to s p e a k , i n t h e s c h o o l o f  uncle  great  its  t o o , must have b e e n o f use t o  i n f u r t h e r i n g h i s own n a t u r a l b e n t *  Panyasis  his  f a m i l y connect ions?  and I n q u i s i t i v e  not o n l y  i t was left  pre-  alive i n  mind o f t h e b o y , xvith i t s  d e s i r e t o know, b u t f o s t e r e d and f u r t h e r e d i t .  P, w„ L i v i n g s t o n e , "The Greek G e n i u s " , P.151 c f . e s p e c i a l l y 11,43-5; I T , 8 - 1 0 j 1,142-150 " I n t r o d u c t i o n to Herodotus" pp.¥11,TIII,IX y^l 1, f  f  We  pass  from  the c h i l d  454 B.C., t h e h i s t o r i a n tyrant  L y g d a m i s , who  death.  He  t h e n went from  stayed  the  first  His  subsequent  vary.  Prom A t h e n s  included and  life  I s undetermined that  this  t o us t h a n  H i s most i m p o r t a n t  p l a c e around  ible  to suggest  rate  i n t h e n o r t h and e a s t .  commerce,  tions terms.  449 B.C.  that  by w a t e r ,  He  which  P h o e n i c i a , Egypt, narrative are which as  and d i d no t under  Of t h e d a t e s o f h i s  to d i s c u s s the d i s p u t e d j o u r n e y s , to B a b y l o n  As t o t h e i r  Herodotus  survived  o f g e o g r a p h y as w e l l  travelled  motive,  and  Egypt,  i t Is plaus-  as a merchant, a t any  i s careful  t o mention  articles  i s f o n d o f d e s c r i b i n g methods o f t r a n s p o r t , men-  c u r i o u s f o r m s o f t r a d e , and u s e s what  seem t o be t r a d e  Of c o u r s e h i s t r a v e l s were e s p e c i a l l y  invaluable  to T h u r i i .  War.  i n his actual  l e a v e the c o a s t .  took  of  i n 431-30  At b e s t he  Babylon,  the f a t h e r  i t i s not n e c e s s a r y here  chronology.  accounts  t h e s e v o y a g e s o f h i s own,  He went, a s a r u l e ,  circumstances  B.C.).  have t o f i t h i s t r a v e l s ,  stories  have made him i n some ways  visits  and t r a d i t i o n a l  i s uncertain.  the c o a s t s o f the Euxine,  history.  (445  he r e t u r n e d t o A t h e n s  framework we  recitations  t o I t a l y as one o f  years of the Peloponnesian  p r o b a b l y G y r e n e . Few  ordinary  he p r o c e e d e d  i f be d i d he p r o b a b l y r e t u r n e d t h e n c e  more i n t e r e s t i n g  of  delivered  o f t h e ne?/ c o l o n y o f 5?hurii  Even t h e d a t e o f h i s d e a t h  Into  by i t s  u n c l e P a n y a s i s to  where he s u p p o s e d l y  It i s possible  only the f i r s t  about  f o r some t i m e , a p p a r e n t l y , i n Samoa, a n d  citizens  B.C., t h o u g h  Somewhere  H a l i c a r n a s s u s , banished  had p u t H e r o d o t u s *  to Athens,  h i s books.  left  t o t h e man*  i n that  they enabled  him t o c o l l e c t  i n t e r e s t i n g and the m a t e r i a l s  f o r h i s h i s t o r y from extent  the v a r i o u s  t o use h i s eyes i n s e e i n g  oral  sources,  and t o some  t h e s c e n e s o f t h e e v e n t s he  describes. The the  mention of m a t e r i a l s  evidence  It  H e r o d o t u s made u s e o f i n w r i t i n g t h e h i s t o r i e s *  may be c l a s s i f i e d  archaeological sidered  "brings us t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f  under  t h e heads o f w r i t t e n , o r a l and  evidence*  Each o f these  kiads  must be c o n -  separately. H e r o d o t u s c o n t i n u a l l y q u o t e s p o e t r y } he i s c e r t a i n l y  indebted  t o t h e 'Persae * o f A e s c h y l u s ,  Phrynichus • 'Taking Above a l l ,  both  orations  o f M i l e t u s , though  short, pointed  of considerable  Homeric q u a l i t i e s  h i s t o r y an epic work w h i c h , l i k e  f o r h i s world  world  and d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o  conversations  length.  speak,  another  epic  d i g r e s s i o n s and  o f H e r o d o t u s , w h i c h communicate  Homer*'®, s h o u l d  with  intro-  and d i a l o g u e s , and  He a d o p t e d  h i s work w i t h  f l a v o u r , accord  I t was h i s a i m t o h o l d do  c a n n o t be p r o v e d .  L i k e Homer, he made h i s c h a r a c t e r s  f e a t u r e , and d i v e r s i f i e d "The  this  1 1  he knew h i s Homer t h o r o u g h l y  i m i t a t e him. ducing  and p e r h a p s a l s o t o  the object  episodes. to h i s  t o produce a  f a s c i n a t e t h e minds o f men.  h i s audience or readers  e n t e r t a i n e d ; to  i n p r o s e what Horaer had done f o r t h e a n c i e n t  i n numhers.**  (I) . .  We must remember t h a t H e r o d o t u s , i n common w i t h a l l the  Greeks, c o n s i d e r e d  the  c o r r e c t s e n s e o f t h e word  tent, at least, and  principal (1)  they  Homer h i s t o r y , l o n g b e f o r e  were  history i n  came to be w r i t t e n .  justified,  i n that  t h e groundwork  m o t i v e s o f t h e e p i c s were h i s t o r i c a l ,  Bury. " A n c i e n t  To t h i s ex-  Greek H i s t o r i a n s , " P.43.  and  during  the  later  form.  c e n t u r i e s t h e y were b e c o m i n g qua s i - h i s t o r i c a l  Q?he body o f t r a d i t i o n s was  rudimentary processes The  later  poets of  Hesiodic  and  the H o m e r i c  school., worked  systematic ed  o f what we  arrangement  and  examining of  a w h o l e , would  literature  But  scatter-  and  likely  the  same time t h e  to b r e a k out  s t r o n g , but  felt  to  t o be  does not  toward  the  t a l e , he  and  i t now  end  impossible.  the  not rest  truth  and  paved  of  to answer.  the  the  the  this  epic  era  p e r h a p s , but  of  as  It a  sceptical At  G r e e k s was  still  rationalize  It i s believed  t h a t much  G r e e k , T h e a g e n e s o f Bhegium,  such l e n g t h s  realising  to  that  as  Herodotus, this,  strip  but  h i s own  he  was  of does  stories  i n rejecting part  of  of i t i n a c c e p t a b l e .  other  made use  traditions,  remains o f  a g r o w i n g t e n d e n c y to  to  expected  their  one  of  less  moment i n t o i n c r e d u l i t y .  make i t h i s c u s t o m  makes the  Homer and with,  the  incredulous,  a t any  proceed  supernatural,  realize  of  i n t e r p r e t Homer a l l e g o r i c a l l y .  large extent  of the  questioning  mythopoe i c i n s t i n c t i t nas  and  seeds of c r i t i c i s m  same t i m e a w e s t e r n  attempting course,  with  nor  the  of  more o r  I t m i g h t be  literature  paucity  arose, i n I o n i a , not  what men  past.  makes t h i s .question a d i f f i c u l t  seem, however, t h a t  spirit  the  thought  the  the  while  the a n c i e n t  no  of  chronological order,  have sown the  for unbelief.  iliar  the  and  inquiry.  the p o e t s  c o n t r a d i c t o r y t r a d i t i o n s were h a r m o n i z e d  though e f f e c t e d w i t h  a  historical  s c h o o l , and to  crude  need  this  to a  call  to  found  that  about  submitted  new  a consistent picture of  would  may  i n obedience  Into  way  being  in  poets,  then,  of for evidence,  to have b e e n .  But  besides  H e r o d o t u s was doubtful t h e s e , he  fam-  though  we  owed much  to  certain prose-writers  only  who p r e c e d e d  one.. The w o r k s o f t h e s e  included  very  were p r o p e r l y  important  w r i t e r s , however, w h i l e  episodes  i n t o them o n l y  o f P e r s i a j the h i s t o r y o f  incidentally.  X a n t h u s , f o r example, composed Lydia*  i n Greek a h i s t o r y o f  C h a r o n o f Lampsacus w r o t e a h i s t o r y o f C r e t e  o f P e r s i a d own t o 492 B.C., and D i o n y s i u s as  of  a sequel  and one another followed  n a r r a t i n g t h e e v e n t s o f the P e r s i a n war.  Caryanda, a P a r i a n  hero the  of Miletus  f a r a s M a r a t h o n and t h e d e a t h o f D a r i u s , w h i c h he  with  they  i n the h i s t o r y o f Greece,  and f o r m a l l y h i s t o r i e s  Greece entered  h i m , t h o u g h he m e n t i o n s  G r e e k , w r o t e a h i s t o r y w h i c h had a s i t s  H e r a c l e r i d e s , P r i n c e o f S y l a s a , who d e s e r t e d P e r s i a n s and h e l p e d  the cause o f  t h e Greeks i n t h e i n v a s i o n o f G r e e c e .  How f a r i t was " b i o g r a p h i c a l ws do n o t know, b u t a t l e a s t noteworthy as the e a r l i e s t Individual  the centre  Antiochus posed  o f an h i s t o r i c a l  and  narrative.  o f S y r a c u s e made-a s t e p  the e a r l y h i s t o r y of S i c i l y  i n g o f t h e Greek c o l o n i e s I n t h o s e Hellanicus  of Lesbos, pointed  h i s importance  written-history  i t is  Greek book we know t h a t made a n  forward  a work o n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e w e s t e r n  vestigated  Skylax  Greeks, having i n -  and I t a l y  lands.  when he com-  and t h e p l a n t -  H i s contemporary,  o u t a way f o r a g r e a t e r  i n t h e h i s t o r y o f the development  i s considerable.  advance, o f Greek  H i s r a n g e was a wide one.  He w r o t e on t h e h i s t o r y o f P e r s i a , and t h s customs o f t h e B a r b a r i a n s ; on t h e m y t h i c a l Greek c i t i e s and  o f Greece?  i n A s i a M i n o r ? on t h e l a t e r  especially  using  period  the h i story o f Athens.  t h e few n a t i o n a l o r p r i e s t l y  the o r i g i n  o f the  h i s t o r y o f Greece,  M o r e o v e r he t r i e d , by  r e g i s t e r s that  presented  something l i k e foundations ily  on  arily  the  contemporary r e g i s t r a t i o n ,  of a  scientific  lists  of the  on g e n e a l o g i e s ,  at  Athens),  and  by  generations. The  Dionysius bare,  what v a l u e us.  to  the  lists  of  as  Professor impulse  Few  p r i e s t e s s e s o f U e r a , and  second-  o f m a g i s t r a t e s , (e.g. the  ^)  can  fragments of  Bury  ^2}  a f f o r d e d by  be  the  Empire and  Egypt..  title  the r e a l m  testimony  first  Sea,  The  but  and  they  may  the  foremost  o f " T r a v e l s Around of geography.  though, as  influenced (1) {2)  remain men  work o f H e c a t a s u s,  a geographer.  interior  the  only  o f the  the W o r l d , " and  h i s t o r y , and  field  collected» he  I t contained  the  Greek  Persian  published i t went  under  beyong  i n a d d i t i o n a great  most o f a l l , I t i n t r o d u c e d  East.  I n a d d i t i o n to  "Genealogies"  e p i c s , i t was  His  o f geo-  of  the  Greece.  genealogical epics, written i n  its title  by t h e  matter  books o f t h e s e  t h e W o r l d " , Hecataeas w r o t e a h i s t o r y  a c o m p i l a t i o n from  somewhat  have had,  i n c l u d e d not  the  f a c t s he  Greeks to t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e Around  of  them, however, no  geographical  His t r a v e l s  Black  e t h n o g r a p h y and  reckoning  b e l i e v e d , was  attributes the  old  archons  w r i t e r o f them a l l .  science.  l a n d s , and  But,  primar-  c o n t r i h u t i o n s to knowledge were i n the  graphical  of  chronology,  these works, i f the  Hecatae us was  the  based  precursors of h i s t o r y  the most i m p o r t a n t  chief  of  d a t e s , i n p l a c e o f the  of Halicarnassuo  i f concise,,  to  Argine  oriental  style  system  to l a y down the  shows, i t was  a critical  'Be T h u c y d i d e * , f ' A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r i a n s *,  P.26.  deal the  "Travels It  was  prose. strongly  investigation.  His  11. o p e n i n g words l e a d oughgoing  But t h e f r a g m e n t s  unfortunately,  a  which  h i s s c e p t i c i s m went.  we spoke To  We  him.  That he u s e d  2  scruple  indicate  i s most i n d e b t .  h i s theories  we may  o f p l a g i a r i s m , made  w i t h book I I p a r t i c u l a r l y  who  tries  to prove  that  infer against  and e l a b o r a t e d  on t h e works o f t h e w r i t e r  quoted  that  Herodotus he d e s i r e d  t h o s e who  by  the genuine  i f Herodotus  Hecataeus  borrowed  that  they held  The whole p o i n t  to supersede*,  first  made i t , - i t  e v e r , have h e l d  the g e n u i n e  Hecataeus  borrowings  t h e view  perished  that  e a r l y , and t h a t  n o t by H e r o d o t u s  i n the t h i r d  i n their  hands - some-  i s o f some  importance,  f r e e l y w i t h o u t acknowledgment i n elsewhere.  a forger  'drew w i t h o u t  by E u s e b i u s f r o m P o r p h y r y - knew f o r c e r t a i n t h a t i t  Book I I , he may have borrowed  of  would  Herodotus.  But t h e c h a r g e  t h i n g by no means s u r e . for  t h a t we c a n  of i m p r o b a b i l i t i e s , of  him but r e j e c t e d  depends upon t h e a s s u m p t i o n  MS  to  )  aayce,  is  as t o the l e n g t h s  to q u e s t i o n ,  with  history  he knew t h e works o f Hecatae u s , and he a l l u d e s t o  i n connection  (  a tendency  thor-  r e m a i n do n o t e n a b l e  The few i n s t a n c e s  i n connection  from h i s p a g e s . ^ ^  o  the ancient  Hecataeus, i f t o a n y , H e r o d o t u s  know t h a t  him  of i t that  i t was o n l y a r a t i o n a l i s a t i o n  which  t h e h i s t o r y was a  t o form an o p i n i o n  f a s t e n upon a s showing that  that  r e v i s i o n o f what was c o n s i d e r e d  of H e l l a s . us  us to expect  Many s c h o l a r s , how-  B.G.  10  $f 0  the borrowings  but f r o m H e r o d o t u s  century  f>  f^S are .  on t h e p a r t o f  An answer t o t h e whole  q u e s t i o n . i s put f o r w a r d by How and W e l l s . (1) Of. 11,21$ I I , 15-16 {2} " H e r o d o t u s " XXI s e q . (S) "Commentary on H e r o d o t u s " , PP.25-6.  I f there  were  an  easily  a c c e s s i b l e prose  literature  A t h e n s o r Samos, H e r o d o t u s p e r h a p s he  did  so.  But  u n c e r t a i n t y o f the decessors, the  certainly  connections  mass o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n ,  been l a r g e l y the  fact.  could  not  literary,  traced  too  tained  access  of P e r s i a n  We  responses  so  those  gave  collection  still  more as  f o r he  the  He  history of  the  - the  the  a  must have c o n s u l t e d  Spartan  With regard  beginning kings  he  to o r a l  collected  his  of  sources  be  his obligations." that  Herodotus  e x p l a i n , he  ob-  documents from w h i c h t h e  us,  that there  temples.  would  be  own  source  carefully interest,  lists  of the  lists  and  enquirer  i t had  been,  men  think i t  to  of kings  and  Greek s e c u l a r  official  twice.^  tradition,  i t i s usually  accepted  fact  t h a t he  s i x of h i s informants  VIII,132.2.  by  a  upon i t f o r most o f h i s e v i d e n c e .  fII,E04|  the  kept  from which the  o r a c l e wished the  were  Obviously,  as  list  book, must  H e r o d o t u s depended  (1)  of  popular $  that  names o n l y  pre-  c l e a r e r evidence  past, partly  keepers of the  the  his  by word  Had  cannot  them, i f o n l y i n t h e i r be  of  and  t h a t he  of evidence  tells  sought a f t e r  p r i e s t s w h i c h were t h e records  out  t h a t we  official  o f o r a c l e s would  write  been.  itj  eyes.  kind  of o r a c l e s i n the  eagerly  could  had  know t o o ,  collections  who  some way  to P e r s i a n  studied  satrapies, for instance, i n his third  have come. great  In  to have  s u c c e s s f u l a w r i t e r to  i s , however, one  used.  at  between him  have had  many would h a v e "been e a g e r t o p o i n t  certainly  century  from p o e t r y ,  h i s own  should  fifth  s i l e n c e and  conclude  apart  use  we  H e r o d o t u s was  There  ought  i n view o f h i s own  i t i s more n a t u r a l t o  mouth, when he  i n the  by  no  means  The  implies  that  these  largely of this  were a l l . The f a c t  s o r t had an i m p o r t a n t  •of h i s n a r r a t i v e , c a u s i n g tions as  that h i s evidence effect  him t o r e p r e s e n t  was  upon t h e c h a r a c t e r  the p o p u l a r  tradi-  o f the p a s t , whether o f E g y p t , o f P e r s i a or o f Greece,  he l e a r n t them f r o m t h e v a r i o u s  races  with  whom he  achieved  contactFinally, of course itself  H e r o d o t u s made use o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  he had n o t t h e w e a l t h o f o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t  t o t h e modern h i s t o r i a n  check.  Ancient  Greece c a r r i e d  o f the p a s t ,  purging  could  full  use o f them.  be c o n s u l t e d  and we may  Indeed  the works o f a r t o r o t h e r with  be s u r e  he i s f a r more objects  w h i c h he h e a r d  that  to g i v e  offerings  f r o m w h i c h he d e r i v e d , o r i n t h a t make up h i s There  For H e l l e n i c lands  i s hardly  but besides  i t i s im- .  innumerable  of Mardonius a t Tegea; 2  a n d many o t h e r s .  1,164;  IX,70  -1, .62., 92'  Spartan  prows o f  o f f e r i n g s of Croesus a t Thebes;^ ^ 3  c e l e b r a t i n g a v i c t o r y over  Athens;(4)  {5J-  H e r o d o t u s made  a t D e l p h i , Samos, and e l s e w h e r e , t h e r e were  Samian s h i p s a t A e g l n a ; ^ J  (1)  land  f r e e i n mentioning  the s t o r i e s  a complete l i s t ,  and t h e manger  trophies  But  w i t h i n t h e wide r a n g e o f h i s t r a v e l s , t o whose  monuments he does n o t r e f e r .  fetters  upon  s o r t s i n every  work, t h a n i n naming h i s a c t u a l I n f o r m a n t s .  possible  scientific  o f t h e tombs a t D e l o s were p u r e l y i n c i d e n t a l .  that  a country  on a  came t o l i g h t  t h e r e were t e m p l e s and monuments o f v a r i o u s  connection  presents  t o i n v e s t i g a t e and  on no e x c a v a t i o n  b a s i s . w h a t s o e v e r | e v e n t h e few f a c t s t h a t the  evidence  Thebes and C h a l c i s i n  In countries outside {2} {4}  I I I , 59, 5  T, 7 7 , 4  Hellas,  Herodotus mentionss an i n s c r i b e d temple cris  o f Amasis Memphis  (6) and  of P a u s a n i a s  and  Ladice  In P a l e s t i n e , the  ( 8 ) , and  and  the S a i t e  tombs o f t h e k i n g s  (11) and  inscriptions  (13 }§  at  not read  inscriptions  i n any  of  Byzantium,  o f D a r i u s {12 );  at Cyrene, statues  t h o u g h a l l t h e s e mines  near  Lake  (10 ) ; a t  to  sent  by  Aristeas(15).  o f i n f o r m a t i o n were  to t h e h i s t o r i a n , y e t i t must be remembered could  Eito-  kings  t h e L a b y r i n t h and  (14 ); a t Metapontum, a s t a t u e  Available  and  ( 5 ) ; i n E g y p t , the m a n u s c r i p t s  the tombs o f I s i r i s  (9 ); i n S c y t h i a ,  (2}.  {1}  (3) ; i n B a b y l o n , t h e tomb o f  the temple o f B e l  Thrace, lake d w e l l i n g s  Amasis  t h e tomb o f A l y a t t e s  stone of Croesus  (7 ); the P y r a m i d s  the bowl in  boundary  of M e l c a r t h at Tyre  (4) and  Moeris  i n Lydia,  foreign  that  Herodotus  l a n g u a g e , and  was  t h e mercy o f h i s g u i d e s . c""f  W i t h h i s e v i d e n c e now H e r o d o t u s made use o f i t . the m y t h i c a l the e p i c s him  period  as f a c t ,  a w i t n e s s who  circumstances.^ ground  He  We  before have  u s , l e t us  already  o f Greek h i s t o r y was practically  does  not  'contradict  events.  beginning with a period  himself  age  otus r e a l i z e s  a difference  Homer i s to under  ordinary back-  Greek h i s t o r y  o f g r e a t m i g r a t i o n s , and  to f o r e i g n i n f l u e n c e s ?  as f a r as  as t h e h i s t o r i c  He r e p r e s e n t s  s a t i o n as due  that  how  c o n c e r n e d , he a c c e p t s  without question.  r e g a r d s t h e whole  f o r subsequent  said  see  Greek  as  civili-  At t h e same t i m e , H e r o d -  between h i s t o r i c  and  prehistoric  (1) 1.93 (2) V I I I . 3 0 , 2 (3) 11.44,2 (4 ) 1.187 (5 ) 1.181,183 (6 ) 11.175 (7) I I . 1 6 9 , 1 7 0 (8) I I . 1 0 1 , 2 ; 125-7; 134; 136; 149 (9) I I . 1 4 8 - 9 (10) IV.71,1 (11 ) IV.81,3 (12) IV.87,1 (13 ) V.16 (14 ) 11.182,1, 181,5 (15) IV.15,4  periods.  He  c o n t r a s t s Hinas  different  categories,  o f t h e myths, be to  rationalize  which they  treats  He  can, r e a l i z i n g  urged  the  established  of the h i s t o r i c a l  history  He  sides.  past h i s t o r y ,  occasionally  g i v e him,  critical  where  of the l a n d  possible  or p r o o f s  and  o b s e r v a t i o n s and  t h a n n o t he sides.  people  inquiries,  the r e p o r t s o f  conflict,  l e a v e s the p r o b l e m  But  does n o t  i t must be  save  him  that  eye-witnesses  are a l l important  that  i t I s n e c e s s a r y to put a l l e v i d e n c e  the  though own  to h i s  admitted  These attempts, a t  g r a s p i n g as he  and  that  from a b i a s e d a c c e p t -  n e v e r t h e l e s s , some c l a i m  historian,  I I I . 122,2  he  Hence  comes to some d e c i s i o n on h i s  ance o f A t h e n i a n t r a d i t i o n .  first  f a r as  of evidence.  drawn i n the m a i n from  general reticence  evidence  h i s subject  T h u s , when s p e a k i n g o f E g y p t , he makes a  readers, quoting both this  tendency  p e r i o d , however., h i s  t r a d i t i o n s , and  Where, m o r e o v e r , a u t h o r i t i e s  a c c o u n t , more o f t e n  marvellous  of fact5 a  handles  Is a matter  t h a t depends m a i n l y on h i s own  Herodotus  the  o f d i v e r g e n t accounts., w i t h t h e r e a s o n s  on b o t h  Egyptians*  above, forbear  immerses h i m s e l f i n the a c t u a l a s  that  acceptance  i n the next g e n e r a t i o n *  d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e d e s c r i p t i o n  their  of h i s  elements.of  commonplace m a t t e r  a n x i e t y to r e c o r d accepted  the o r i g i n  belonging to  have mentioned  o f vie?/ u n d e r g o e s a c h a n g e .  differently.  his  changing  contain into  •'/When H e r o d o t u s point  c a n n o t , as we  fully  P a l y o r a t e s as  (I ) M o r e o v e r , i n s p i t e  them by  w h i c h came to be  and  has  weighing  t o be the  called  principles  - when r e l i a b l e to t e s t .  the  -  and  This point  with  regard  to H e r o d o t u s ' c r i t i c a l  One  must g i v e  full  les  of c r i t i c i s m ,  credit  On  the  must be  remembered  things  apart  in  s  ent of own  c a r e f u l and  those  verify.  c o u r s e , be  no  who As  sort  r e p o r t to him  answer.  and  knowledge o f  We  can  today,  True,  certain  on  and  we  what he  learnt  could  stipulation,  guides,  priests  their  has on  not  can  and  cannot  does not  o t h e r moderns b e f o r e of the  one  informants  as  the works  d i s c o v e r s an  entirely  different  Mr.  G.  B.  Grundy, s p e a k i n g  to m i s n n d e r s t a h d • t h e  t i o n at his d i s p o s a l , * (1)  Bury, "Ancient  liable  but  the to  and  f a r into  himself  'peculiarly  our  good  inaccurate  f i n d s him  and  by  c h e c k to  H e r o d o t u s aiid m i l i t a r y . m a t t e r s , 9  depend-  read  historian.  of  s p e a k , I t h i n k , more s u r e l y .  t h e n as  one  and  of o u r s e l v e s . ^ With regard  Herodotus, f i r s t  but  see  con-  there can,  s c h o l a r s , o f whom P r o f e s s o r S a y c s i s a  a liar,  the  reliability  t r u s t where we and  two  conscience  e n q u i r y , and  representative, dismiss  estimate  depends on  on h i s own  what he  o n l y check  author  Herodotus' conscience  accurate, i t  a r e aware t h a t H e r o d o t u s was  extent  we  common s e n s e o f our  latter  the  methodology."^1  f a r he was  s e e n and  particular  f o r the  to a v e r y g r e a t every  himself  b a s i s of  historical  that a writer's accuracy  has  princip-  permanent  the  f r o m h i s memory, o f c o u r s e s  f r o m o t h e r s by  cannot  l i e at  q u e s t i o n o f how  d e s c r i b i n g what he  science of  they  o f what i s c a l l e d  great  overlooked.  s p o r a d i c though h i s  "They a r e maxims o f  properly qualified  modern d e v e l o p m e n t  i s often  f o r r e c o g n i z i n g these  u n s a t i s f a c t o r y and  a p p l i c a t i o n o f them i s . validity;  to him  ability  *his p a i n f u l  'eminently  of  unmilitary informa-  conscientiousness  Greek H i s t o r i a n s , "  P.71.  of  seems t o "be g e n u i n e , bear  not  fictitious,^  and  to c o n c e a l . " ^ ^ 2  find  i t h a r d ' t o "bear w i t h p a t i e n c e t h e  Herodotus  until  he  knows him  o t h e r t h a n the most c a n d i d - a n d 3»he h i s t o r i a n had ancient  world.  known.  correct  him  no  accuses  him  likely  be d i s a p p o i n t i n g  for  e v e r , not a p r i z e  Later  t o the  writer  ear.  My  on S t r a b o  was  most  he  i n wanton z e s t  tells  speaks  c h a r a c t e r o f my  narrative  history i s a possession  contemptuously  reliable  and  of  t h a n Homer * s ; )  i n at l e a s t  w r o t e an  one  forgotten!  Herodotus' some o f i t  i n s t a n c e the  he  prefers  to omit  us  ill  older-  he  their  Grundy, " G r e a t I b i d , P.266  i s a lover religion  P e r s i a n war,"  f  r e p o r t s of  several  themf he  P. 373  peoples them;  accounts  o f B a r b a r i a n s and  from  was  'Maligni t y .  what i s -good about  p r a i s e ; where t h e r e a r e  the worst; learnt  e s s a y on h i s  a s , l o v e s to t e l l  o f a b u s e , and  damns w i t h f a i n t  (1) (2.)  i s i n h i s famous  famous o f a n c i e n t a t t a c k s on H e r o d o t u s  he  Greeks  severe  correct, against Strabo.  made by P l u t a r c h , who Herodotus,  to  ••  v e r y wrong, hut  The  that  criticism  c o m p o s i t i o n which i s heard  g e o g r a p h y as b e i n g l e s s indeed  proceeds  m i n o r p o i n t s i n a most  • •••  (I)  among t h e  contemptuous a t t i t u d e i s  the non-mythical  may  he i s  men."  o f i n a c c u r a c y and  on more o r l e s s  "Very  of  who  intimacy w i l l  suggestion that  laok of c r i t i c s  f a s h i o n , b u t h i s most c a u s t i c phrase:  with r e a l  truthful  Thucydides' rather  He  tendency  I n t h e words o f T* P.. G l o v e r , "Anyone  read  to  acumen  o f h i s n a r r a t i v e has a  will  was  "brought  upon h i s m a t e r i a l a c e r t a i n amount o f c r i t i c a l  which the extreme s i m p l i c i t y  well  "he  calls  suggests the  burning of Sardls stroke  t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t r o u b l e , when i t was  f o r freedom;  he b i t t e r l y  w r i t e and  his story  and  upon h i s t a l e s ; be  bloom  According to  be t h a t  (unless that  i s pleasant;  t o T . R.  Plutarch  the t r a c t  this  better  things  to  charms and  in  knowing  and  in  and  way, it  what t o  imitating  to the l a s t  rather  "Herodotus  b e g i n and  o m i t ; he  where to  chose  Homer., and  T h u c y d i d e s has  great w r i t e r s ,  down an a s s ,  to  He  compares  chose  a more  showed more leave  off,  has  Herodotus attractive  judgment  what  to p u t  i n the  Homeric  t a k e h i s book we  a l w a y s w i s h f o r more, w h i l e  variety;  a grudge  Herodotus  he  i n d e e d , i f we  s y l l a b l e and  and  Monysius has  against  the s u p e r i o r  seems  incompetence,  v a r y h i £3 s t o r y  chronology b o r i n g ; then Herodotus while  verdict  the o t h e r hand,  h i s townsman.  than defeat;  cleverness  c o n c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y . ^  E a l i c a r n a s s u s , on  say about  dides r a r e l y attempts  a false  can  I s r e j e c t e d ), and  i s a monument o f c r i t i c a l  of  where t o  plea  "he  everybody."  G l o v e r , "the g e n e r a l  favourably with Thucydides. subject, victory  seduces  t i m e has w r i t t e n h i m s e l f  on a b s u r d p a t r i o t i s m Monysius  but  t h e r e i s g r a c e and  i s s p u r i o u s , which  the whole t h i n g  based  s l a n d e r s Thebes,  a  finds  the k i n d l i e r his country. i n character  enjoy Thucy-  Thucydides' disposition, Both  are  drawing  n a t u r a l w r i t i n g , T h u c y d i d e s i n p a t h o s and  i n cleverness  style.  and h a p p y ; t h a t  The  Thucydides  beauty of Herodotus  i s bright  of of  terrible."  L-onginu3, t o o , a f a r s t r o n g e r and supports M o n y s i u s * (1) (2)  and  judgment  that  Herodotus  surer  critic,  "chose  to vary h i s  " H e r o d o t u s " , P.72 Summarized from p a r t o f t h e " L e t t e r t o Pompeius" from t h e "de C o m p o s i t i o n e " , "by T. R. G l o v e r , ••Herodotus" , P.73.  and  story the  i n t h e Homeric  p h r a s e he  i)  way."  l  "Herodotus  p e r m i t us  let  us t a k e one  o f them and  see what  s l a n d e r e d Thebes j  n  can be r e l i e d  uponj  o r d i n a r y contempt  Herodotus*  o f the  Greek  engineering s k i l l Babylon?  the  {4}  suds o f t h e e a r t h ;  He  and  to A f r i c a ;  shows i t s e l f emphasizes ascribes not  also  their  their  to l a c k o f Just  merits  (7)  i s free  (3)  i s his  from  the  extols  the the  the n a t u r a l products of  derives  i n h i s generous  has  Impartial-  o f t h e P h o e n i c i a n s ! (2)  c o i n a g e from and  the  Greek  Lydia;  from n a t i o n a l  to prejudice  e s t i m a t e o f the P e r s i a n s ;  (9) and  d e f e a t to i n f e r i o r i t y  devoted  l o y a l t y , :.nd  i n arms and  discipline,  valor. as the h i s t o r i a n  o f t h e enemy, so he  {5)  alphabet  the debt o f Greece  This freedom  truthfulness,  and  f o r B a r b a r i a n s ; he  he e x a g g e r a t e s {8}  Impartiality  fairness  He  measurement o f t i m a f r o m B a b y l o n ; ( 6 ) from P h o e n i c i a ;  reach con-  Herodotus  p r o o f o f which  enemies.  monuments o f - E g y p t and  Egypt  does  critics.  a striking  t o f o r e i g n e r s and  m a r i t i m e and  their  Space  c o n c l u s i o n s we  f o r Herodotus*  been a t t a c k e d by more modern  attitude  true.  r e m a r k , f o r example $ t h a t  As a g e n e r a l r u l e , ity  suggest  to d i s c u s s a l l t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s , i n d e t a i l , "but  cerning i t | Plutarch's  often  Herodotus  some o f them a r e more o r l e s s  not  "bitterly  is  uses.  Some o f t h e c h a r g e s a g a i n s t ow,n answers*  most H o m e r i c "  i s q u i c k to r e c o g n i s e the  i s cautious i n praising his  own  (1) L o n g i n u s , 13,3; {2 ) V I I , 2 3 , 3 ; 4 4 ; 9 9 , 3 ; (3) 1.93,2; U) III.106-114; (5 ) 1.94; {6 ) 11.109,3; (7 } V.58; (8) I?.180-189; (9) 1.136, 11.138,1; (10) I I I . 1 3 8 , 4 ; 154-5; V I I I . 1 1 8 , 3 ; (11) How and W e l l s , "Commentary on H e r o d o t u s " , P.38.  he  countrymen  unduly, " r e f u s i n g  patriot."  )  This  to see a h e r o i n e v e r y p r o f e s s e d  has drawn down upon h i s head  d e n u n c i a t i o n o f P l u t a r c h , as we a c c u s e s him o f d i m i n i s h i n g estimating  have  the g l o r y  t h e number o f t h e s l a i n ,  r e p r e s e n t i n g i t as a drawn b a t t l e  s e e n a b o v e , who  sense and  critical  Unblinded  disposed and  - a l l o f w h i c h m e r e l y pays  to p l a c e  Athenian p r e j u d i c e .  ^'  true.  i n backing  historian's  We  2  resolute  and  stories  last  judgment  c a n p a r d o n a somewhat n a t u r a l  surrender the  whole  t o be  on w o r l d p o l i t i c s ;  the i t is could  "our o l d  passage, not l e a s t f o r  f o r w a r d an u n p o p u l a r t r u t h , " desire  slowness of S p a r t a .  elaborate  Athens  ^ ^  most  seem t o be r e m i n i s c e n t  1  '  to e x a g g e r a t e t h e  erbial  7.78 ( 2 ) V I I . 139,2 V I I . 1 6 1 , 3 ; IX.27  h i s judg-  considered  contrasted  (1) (4)  of  e n e r g y to h e r  of the A t h e n i a n s at Marathon,  would  a  'freedom* w h i c h  valour  The  beliefs;  the w o r l d i n v a i n ; he  shines i n t h i s  candour i n p u t t i n g  and  i s a n o b l e d e f e n s e , and  not t r a v e l l e d  sound  greatness  claim  o f the  pre-  to become t h e m i r r o r  to d e v o t e t h e i r their  simplicity  of  i n his authorities,  in extolling  )- this  H e r o d o t u s had  form a shrewd  l e d him  right  her c i t i z e n s  saviors of H e l l a s , *  his  His very  But he d i d n o t w h o l l y  S u r e l y , he does  service,  to Herodotus*  escape the i n f l u e n c e  a ready confidence  weakness w h i c h f r e q u e n t l y  encouraged  or d e s i r e  t h o u g h H e r o d o t u s m i g h t be by t h e glamour  to a c c e p t a s t r u s t w o r t h y c u r r e n t  ment.  by  judgment.  sympathies o f h i s day. him  absurdly  and o f A r t e m i s i u r a  p a t r i o t i s m , y e t he d i d n o t e n t i r e l y political  fierce  o f M a r a t h o n by u n d e r -  t r i b u t e w i t h o u t t h e a u t h o r ' s knowledge good  the  with  the p r o v -  praises  o f the f u n e r a l  of orations  (3) T.B.. G l o v e r , " H e r o do t u s "  P.35  in  the Ceramicus,  Attic  o r a t o r So  e q u a l l y ready  and  are  suitably  put  But. I f H e r o d o t u s I s r e a d y i f need  Athenian people  as  arise  to c e n s u r e .  suffering  childish  trick  the mouths o f  to p r a i s e , He  tyranny g l a d l y  •• • the  into  he i s  represents and  the  as duped  by  f 1}  of P i s i stratus %  '  x  he  condemns  their  iP ) cruelty  to t h e P e r s i a n h e r a l d s ,  r e t e n t i o n of Athens that  the A e g i n e a n  up  to t h e  day  hostages;  implicitly he  t e l l s us (A)  that  and  admits  t r a i t o r s w i t h i n her w a l l s . ^ ' 5  Herodotus*  pages.  plan of f i g h t i n g  at  statesmen,  The  creation  sea he  at Salamis a n a  -  glory  o f the g r e a t  Moreover„  i s a scribed the  Themistocles  c o u l d not  mention of h i s Long W a l l s .  philus  their  o f M a r a t h o n t h e r e were •araverers w i t h i n the  Of a l l A t h e n i a n  fight  and  s e t the example o f a p p e a l i n g to P e r s i a ,  army and  in  '  deny him,  suffers navy and  but he  the f i n a l  most the  makes  decision  no  to  i n p a r t to the a d v i c e o f Hue s i -  o f the  victory  i s dimmed  by  the  v i c t o r s a t t e m p t to s e c u r e h i m s e l f a r e f u g e a t t h e P e r s i a n court.* ' T h e m i s t o c l e s ' " c r o o k e d ways," h i s d e a l s i n money, h i s f o o t i n g i n b o t h camps, h i s e x t o r t i o n . , r e v o l t e d the s i m p l e ?  l8 1 minded , c a n d i d  nature  represents, i n fine,  from a c r o s s t h e Aegean.  g a i n i s exaggerated  the nobleness  '  Herodotus  the a m b i t i o n o f a g r e a t l e a d e r as  s e l f - s e a k i n g , h i s c l e v e r n e s s as for  %  ' and  cunning,  ^)  emphasized  while by  his  mere greed  contrast with  o f A r i s t i d e s , whom he h e l d " t o have been the  b e s t and most u p r i g h t of a l l t h e A t h e n i a n s . " ' (1) 1.60,3 (2) V I I .1.33 ,J2 (3 ) V I . 86 (4) 7.73 (5) VI.109,5';• -11"5 •(6) V H I . 5 7 . (7 } T i l l . 1 0 9 , 5 (8) T. R. G l o v e r , " H e r o d o t u s " , P.33 (9) VIII.110 (10) V I I I . 4 , 5 , 1 1 2 (11) V I I . 7 9  However wrong and against him  as  Herodotus a r e , being  Among t h e  too  states that  opponent  to  i n the Yet  the  Herodotus h i m s e l f  "Hedized. hundred  n  men  Greek c o u n c i l s o f striking  (1}  and  i s the  Herodotus w i l l Thebans, that not  and  not  bribed  in-  by •• • chief  his  by the  on  the  plea  brought  that  zeal of  under  later  whole p e o p l e ; and  the  four  remain only  the  of  that  malice;  and  accept  weight  states  t h e i r l i e d i z i n g was  insists  no  represented  a l s o as  the  leader, Timagenidas, declare  state Medized,  he  d i f f e r e n c e i n the  to T h e r m o p y l a e go  oligarchic  Corinth.  war.  employs i n d e a l i n g w i t h  sends  yet  A d l m a n t u s , as h a v i n g to be  at Artemisium,  a n a r r o w c l i q u e , and  the  records;  she  the  represents  o f T h e b e s and  a s s a i l e d almost with  2  by  p o i n t when he  Thebes he  compulsion.^ ' forward  fight  more  s e v e r i t y he  makes a good  accusations  fought at Salamis, C o r i n t h played  Corinthian admiral,  Themistocles  by  he  Plutarch*s  harsh i n h i s treatment  g l o r i o u s p a r t , as the  even absurd  the  put about  he  makes  whole  t h e Thehans f o r  (41 the  Persians. On  the  other  Argos H e r o d o t u s d e a l s Thessalian vention  princes  had  of P e r s i a ,  hand, w i t h gently.  the  of Thessaly  and  A l t h o u g h w i t h o u t a doubt  the  been f o r e m o s t and  the  faults  in advising  whole p e o p l e had  his a r r i v a l ,  yet  i n their  plea  he  the  T h e b a n s , namely t h a t  denies  to  a l o n e were t o blame f o r t h e  b e t r a y a l , and  (1) T i l l . 5 , 2 (2) V I I . 2 2 2 (5) V I I . 6 , 2 ; 130,3; IX.1  (3)  IX.87  admits  the  inter-  gone o v e r  X e r x e s on that  c a s e he  the  the  the  people  to  very  nobles did  (4) IX.40,67  but  submit  to n e c e s s i t y , when t h e  Tempe, abandoned ishing of  i s the  Thessaly  case  Greeks,  to t h e  o f Ar go s «  by  refusing  Barbarian*  The  P a u s a n i a s * march a g a i n s t him;  Argines (1)  to  defend  Even more  warned  indeed  the  aston-  Mardonius very  circum-  "s  (2 ) stance  of t h e i r  further at  n e u t r a l i t y was  confirmed  Susa t o t h e  inclines  as i t was  Argine  to a c c e p t  on  later  embassy by  the  gloomy o r a c l e s and  a proof  t h a t t h e y had. Bledised ,  on by t h e  r e c e p t i o n accorded  Artaxerxes.^ ^  Argine apology, the u n j u s t  with  l e t Herodotus  i t s insistence  claims of Sparta  to  (4) •  on  hegemony. '  •  •  W i t h a l , however, H e r o d o t u s does n o t c o n c e a l h i s opinion  that Argos  5  dealings with  its  honour,, p a l l i a t e d  and  he  has  a few  Corinthiansfoi1  (8) and  spicuous i n an  Thebes.  valour  and  may  A t h e n s and  Thebes;  c a v a l r y o f Thebes  Timagenidas,  come to t h e  Twice  an  ths  (7) to  of  i n the the  their  patriotism.  showed  fleet  con-  l e a d e r , engages (12)  conclusion that i f occasionally  t r a c e s o f m a l i c e o r c a l u m n y i n the work of  t h e y come r a t h e r from  {5}  a t M y c a l e behave w i t h d i s t i n g u i s h e d  At P l u t a e a t h e (11) and  on  p r o j e c t s f o r the: e n s l a v e m e n t  reconcile  act of s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g  there are  of others,  they c o n t r i b u t e l a r g e c o n t i n g e n t s both  (10)  Ue  the misdoings  unjust Spartan  to t h e array,{9)  gallantry.  P e r s i a n were a s t a i n  p r a i s e s f o r C o r i n t h and  A t h e n s ; (6 ) once t h e y P e r s i a n war  o n l y by  the  over-faithful  r e p r o d u c t i o n of  Herodotus, the  s t o r i e s t o l d him, t h a n from any n a t i v e m a l i g n i t y ; h i s own (1) IX.12,2 (2) V I I I . 7 3 , 3 (3) V I I . 1 5 0 , 1 (4) V I I . 1 4 8 , 4 (5 ) V I I . 1 5 2 ; V I I I . 7 3 (6) V.75,92 (7 ) VI.108,6 (8) V I I I . 1 , 1 ; 43 (9) IX.28,3 (10) IX.105 (11) IX.67-9 (12) IX.87,2 - - " •  judgments a r e his  mind  jast,  i s towards excess The  question  l a r g e l y a moral ings  may  history part,  be  i s too  to p o i n t  i s not,  may  a as  emphasize a "It  but  the  divine tus  Tet  the  frequently there But  could  not  shared  world.  I t was  and  on  (2}  We  the  did  gods or  the to  art with  spirit  hot  their  lead  his  rate  r e l i g i o u s machin-  of  and  half-conscious ethical by  inevitable that  narrative."  nations  workings  above  that but  a l l his  power o c c u r a l m o s t  further  removed  justify  the a p p a r e n t should  & w e l l s , "Commentary", P.43 w . • H • P. 48  men;  action.  t h e ways o f  God  masses  r e s i g n himself  to who  and  i n j u s t i c e s of  his mortal  as  from  in their  pessimism of the  f a c t s t h a t were' beyond  the  affairs.  conceptions of Aeschylus  he  of  Herodo-  t o deny e i t h e r  more u n i t y  to  to  h i s t o r y of  o f h i s age,  divine  gods a r e  caprice  the  s e e n the  him  in  'Pride'  i n t e r v e n t i o n i n human  i t difficult  the  be  fail-  Herodotus i s  The  understanding. (1) How (2) "  the  have m e n t i o n e d  questioning  were o p p r e s s e d  those  case  w h i c h may  i n Homer, the  and  accept  literary  manifestations  Pindar,  sermon on  r e l i g i o u s teaching*  the  the  rise  place,  p o i n t j i t i s e s s e n t i a l to  said that  H e r o d o t u s found He  first  "In h i s  {1}  criticism  as  In the  fa11 *.*  i s less personal  menJ  s t a t e d •»  w i t h L i n y * s p r o d i g i e s , a mere ornament  partook of  while  c r i t i c i s m s of h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l  text  stage  of  i m p a r t i a l i t y of Herodotus i s •  is a  Providence."  of  bent  charity.  a m o r a l , and  grand  existence  of  any  be  rationalistic  than defect  t h e o l o g i c a l . " I t i s w r i t t e n , at  striking  well  even generous; the  rather  the  one? the  l a r g e l y a means of is  of  more b r i e f l y  goeth before ery  s i n c e r e , and  the to  comprehension  The a  foolish  aries  second  fondness  made a  joke  fault  se  f o r the of  find  marvellous,  i t l  (1)  numbers i s t h i s a c c u s a t i o n a P e r s i a n army, t h o u g h estimate,  is still  H e r o d o t u s had to a c c e p t shown t o he  be  should  on  hopelessly  on  have e s c a p e d  history  materials  difficulty  w h i c h he  are  now  i n the  used  being  butt  of  the  general  Greek  t r u t h i s that prepared  t h a t have s i n c e much to e x p e c t o f humorous or  generations,  anthropologists  may  make a g a i n s t He  been that  mali-  though as  most  the p r i m i t i v e  the  oriental  him  never attempted  i n Greek h i s t o r y , a l t h o u g h  the  does g i v e  investigation  problem o f  records.  may  from  s t o r y of be the  Solon  safely said work o f  i s his lack to grapple  many o f the  synchronizing  The  historical  As of which  f o r the  and  Croesus.  with  Hellenic  perspective famous  (2)  Such  writer,  dates  without  Monysius  Hecataeus.  c o n t r a d i c t i o n s i n the works o f  some w r i t e r s make much, t h e y cf. Aristophanes' 1.29 seq.  of  episodes  to have b e e n c o p i e d  some e a r l i e r  o f M i l e t u s , C h a r o n , or more l i k e l y  {1} (2)  of  s t o r y i s t h u s f r e q u e n t l y d i s t o r t e d , the most  instance he  by  matter  t h a t he was  I t i s too  succeeding  the The  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of  count we  related raise  t r a d i t i o n s with  as  than  wonders  becoming the  a c h r o n o l o g i c a l framework.  of h i s  lower  had  contempor-  h i s estimate  exaggerated.  fact.  and  even h i s  he  of m a n k i n d . A third  this  one;  mere h e a r s a y ; wonders  c i o u s p e r s o n s o f h i s own  valuable  true  considerably  unfounded  some o f h i s s t o r i e s  and  E s p e c i a l l y i n the  seen so many r e a l  others  i n Herodotus i s that  a r e bound  • B i r d s ' , 1130  with  Herodotus,  to o c c u r  11.127;  1.4  in a  work drawn, a s t h e h i s t o r y a t many t i m e s his  failure  relation  i n many p l a c e s *  o f events.  and m o t i v e ,  Herodotus  A f a r more s e r i o u s c h a r g e i s  w i t h Herodotus dramatic  continually  and seems to u n d e r s t a n d  little  way i n w h i c h he t e l l s  persons?  both  a n c i e n t and modern.  The t e n d e n c y  t o throw  I n t e r e s t i n g a s t h i s may be f r o m  its  fictional  history  attractions  conclude,  has a c h i e v e d . ' A p p a r e n t l y  sion of f i e r c e been  debate  studied.  hishistorical  ever  i t took  and c e r t a i n l y  ient  to Athenian  evidence.  In ancient times, apart  underestimated continue  that  the  p o i n t o f view, value. Heroaotu3'  a leading place at  classical from  literature  the parodies  o f the f a m i l i a r i t y  Thucydides''  Though he d i d n o t l i k e  character Into  i t has been t h e o c c a -  s i n c e , wherever  audiences,  i n history  i n Herodotus,  the l i t e r a r y  o f A r i s t o p h a n e s , w h i c h a r e good p r o o f history  said  l e t us l o o k a t t h e s u c c e s s  once i n Greek l i t e r a t u r e ,  has  impair  attitude  h i s p r e d e c e s s o r and  the capture  Xenophon pay3 H e r o d o t u s t h e c o m p l i m e n t  o f the  i s suffic-  h i s work, n e v e r t h e l e s s he w r o t e h i s own  t h a t o f t h e o t h e r , from  by  genius, a heritage  o f t h e Greek n o v e l a r e t o be found  but  To  In fact,  t h e mouths o f  so l o n g  i t has been w e l l  activ-  To him i s due  speeches i n t o  a custom t h a t has p r e v a i l e d  t h e age o f t h e e p i c s ;  beginnings  personal  o f the great  h i s story*  s t o r y was a n i n n a t e p a r t o f Greek d r a m a t i c  from  t h e mere  e v e r y t h i n g i s p e r s o n a l , as Is I l l u s t r a t e d  real  to  confuses  are the o n l y e x p r e s s i o n .  t h e custom o f p u t t i n g i m a g i n a r y  a  c a u s e s and  He i s a l w a y s s t r e s s i n g  movements o f w h i c h p e o p l e  the  many s o u r c e s , and w r i t t e n  t o a p p r e c i a t e and t o t r a c e t h e r e a l  o c c a s i o n and t h e c a u s e . ity  i s , from  history  of Sestos.  of i m i t a t i n g h i s  phrases.  E p h o r u s , A e n e a s , T a c t i o n s , and o t h e r s , i n t h e 4 t h  century,  made u s e o f h i m .  A l l the a t t a c k s  upon t h e h i s t o r y hy  s u c h men a s C t e s i a s , M a n e t h o , P l u t a r c h and L u c i a n , has To  survived. recognize  with  Sore recent  attacks  i t continues  Herodotus* weaknesses i s o n l y  attempt their  to t e s t  various  degrees of v a l u e ,  history.  t i o n and a r r a n g e m e n t o f the great  forgiven,  story-tellers  f o r he i s n e v e r d u l l .  easiest, i s i n reality is  a l l the greater  T.  E. Glover,  the  " I f he used  to the f u l l ,  the to  combination o f hard  talking, planning,  that  a p p e a r s the th© m e r i t  I n t h e words o f  i f he t r a n s c e n d e d  the  l a y t o h i s hand , i f by some i n -  work and i n t u i t i o n , he c a n r e c r e a t e s c e n e , and g i v e  i t to y o u w i t h t h e  t h i n k i n g and e m p h a t i c a l l y  alive a l l  t i m e ; i f i n a d d i t i o n h i s h o n e s t y i s s u c h as t o e n a b l e y o u check h i a s t a t e m e n t s , and sometimes f r o m h i s d a t a  a t r u e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f his, reported if  subordina-  To him a l l c a n be  b e c a u s e he was a p i o n e e r .  f o r e i g n or the a n c i e n t  people  gift  elaborate  L a s t l y , he i s  t h e r a r e s t , and i n h i s c a s e  means and o p p o r t u n i t i e s t h a t spired  foundation of  i n due  whole.  o f mankind. This  estimate  a l o n g and  are continued  t o make one g r e a t  He r e a l l y d i d  and t o  a t the very  to c o n s t r u c t  i n w h i c h many p a r t s  His merits f a r  already.  o f evidence,  a principle  He was the f i r s t  narrative,  one  kinds  to survive.  to s a y t h a t h i s t o r y  him was n o t h o r n c o m p l e t e and a t o n c e .  o u t w e i g h h i s d e f e c t s , as has b e e n s a i d  the h i s t o r y  throughout  (1)  f a c t s t h a n he has g i v e n ;  he i s human, and makes h u m a n i t y mean more and  more to y o u as y o u l i v e strong  t o seize,  with  c l a i m t o be c a l l e d T. E . G l o v e r ,  hira, t h e n he has s u r e l y some  a historian."  " H e r o d o t u s " , P.49.  (1)  2 8'.. The pertinent  first  to our  essay.  the P e r s i a n s ; the Persians again;  f o u r "books o f H e r o d o t u s * h i s t o r y a r e The  first  second w i t h  and  the  deals with  the  Egyptians;  fourth with  B e v e r t h e l e s s , what a c c o u n t  of  •this-maze o f i n f o r m a t i o n , we  the  the  Lydians  the  third  Libyans  G r e e k s can  will  the  and  he  not  so  and  with  the  Scythians.  gleaned  from  d i s c o v e r s m a r s h a l and  d i s-»  • ettss. •• • • H e r o d o t u s * i n t e n t i o n was t h e P e r s i a n war, several times to  generations  - times  record  days o f sian  hut  i n t o what  preserve  Greece  epoch.  Peoples  peoples  be  made known.  in  truth  "the  temples of like  must  him;  to  be  bered  He  went  live  back  fact,  history  before  of  reader  the o l d  he  before  Pertheir  must know  set h i m s e l f o f these  them, and  events  historic  the  task  generations,  their  o f one  blood,  and  one  gods i n common, common s a c r i f i c e s  these  part ideas  of the and to  task  preserves,  supply  of Spartan  f a m i l y , and  o f the  "ways o f l i k e i t to  shirk h i s self-imposed  Periander*s  the  generation  this the  the  of  were r e m o t e , u n c e r t a i n  I n account  known to  t h a t h i s a u t h o r i t i e s were few  t h a t he  history  traditions  E x p a n s i v e n e s s i s the mark o f t r u e h i s t o r y .  k i n d , " i t was  d i d not  him  r e l e v a n t to  know one  might  saw.the n e e d , u n d e r t o o k  of  he  Greek r a c e was  the  something of  and  but  Herodotus, r e a l i z i n g  their  there.  even t o  d i s c o v e r i n g to h i s r e a d e r s  that  begin  for posterity.  could not  wars c a n i n t e r e s t  of  d i d not  the  which, n e v e r t h e l e s s , afforded h i s t o r i c a l  and  several»  he  to n a r r a t e  duty. and  wars w i t h  with  and  ways of  historian  to show  kind."  the  speech,  If  best  Bat  Herodotus of h i s  i t must be  uncertain.  ability remem-  Stories  I e g e a , f o r example,  or  his colonies, are, i n a l l probability,  a matter steals  o f folk-memory.  an a n a c h r o n i s t i c  whi ch h i s t o r y , such  stories  Moreover , i n t o  a l l h i s stories  element , a f l a v o u r  indeed, r a r e l y  there  o f h i s own d a y , .  seems t o e s c a p e .  But a f t e r  all,  a r e a g a i n and a g a i n o u r o n l y c h a n c e o f r e c a p t u r i n g  h i s t o r y , and-we must  take  them a s t h e y a r e w r i t t e n .  Y e t when  we come t o examine what v?e have o f h i s t o r y , or o f s t o r y "before the opening would  like  o f t h e P e r s i a n war, we r e a l i s e t o have*  With  taigrati ons, Herodotus events for  earlier on  has l i t t l e  century than  day he m e r e l y  i n their  that  the e x c e p t i o n o f L y c u r g u s to t e l l  b e f o r e 700 P-C. , end n a t u r a l l y  the s i x t h  how much more we  us o f h i s t o r i c a l  h i s Information i s f u l l e r  f o r the seventh.  alludes  t u r n a s we r e v i e w  to.  and t h e  Many f a c t s  Of t h e s e we w i l l  chronologically  of the  speak  later  the i n f o r m a t i o n  he does a f f o r d u s . Herodotas  knew t h e t r a d i t i o n  Cretans, and ••accepted i t , t h o u g h scholars are prepared  o f t h e s e a empire  he went  further  w i t h a n c e s t o r s , by name.  e x i s t e n c e , and f u r n i s h e d h i m  He he.d h e a r d  also  own d a y , a t P r a e s o s , o f t h e g r e a t d i s a s t e r  inhabitants  from  The men o f P r a o s o s  h i s t o r y hy c r y s t a l l i s i n g  a process  Cretans of h i s  which o v e r t o o k the  s u b s e q u e n t l y , " t o C r e t e , thus  - o t h e r men, and e s p e c i a l l y  settled."  t h a n modern  t o go when he r e c o r d e d M i n o s - were he  man o r god - a s h a v i n g had a r e a l  i s l a n d % and t h a t  of the  destitute of  t h e Grecians.;, went and  were no doubt f o r e s h o r t e n i n g into  a single  event? b u t  t h e t r a d i t i o n was t h e r e , and i t c o n t a i n e d a measure o f t r u t h , He know Is  today  that  substantially {1}  ¥11.171  Herodotus*  correct?  that  account  of Minos' t h a l a s s o e r a c y  C r e t e was once a supreme power  in  the M e d i t e r r a n e a n wo rid.}  s t r u c t i o n was not  fall  fatally  sudden  and  we  know, l i k e w i s e , t h a t  complete,  from o v e r - r i p e n e s s and arrested  i n full  were n o t G r e e k s , and  its  work I n p r o f o u n d l y a f f e c t i n g ,  c u l t u r e , which  must n e x t  element  independent  possible The  The Minoans, of  except  to mention  culture  Mycenae and  had  that  e x i s t e n c e and special  influence  Tiryns.  previously  spoken  Greek  were a n i n v a d i n g m i l i t a r y north; a pastoral* Seeking adventure establishing and  and  Greece  took wives  from  of these  ing  a much l a r g e r  beyond  castles,  subject living  o f the s o i l , the c o l l e c t i n g  but  sunny  L a c o n i a , and  small  the s i d e  yet having l i t t l e of their  dues.  mainland  the  South,  elsewhere,  princes for an  wealth of  i n numbers and  of t h e i r  as  intruder  p o p u l a t i o n , t h e y came t o l i v e by  new  retainers.  I n h e r i t i n g t h e a r t and  M i n o a n s whom t h e y s u c c e e d e d ,  tillers  o f c h i e f t a i n s and  - e v e r a f a v o u r i t e way  the  fortified  on t h e  men  l a n g u a g e , o r n o t . They  t h e d a u g h t e r s o f the n a t i v e  strengthen h i s position.  Greece.  o f the  came o v e r l a n d from  t h e m s e l v e s i n the A r g o l i d ,  be  among the  p l u n d e r , some s t a y e d i n t h e  P e l o p s wedded H i p p o d a m i a to  or a c o g n a t e  folk  done  Achaean  that  the language  r a c e , who  fighting  i t had  attention.  i n mainland  Greek was  account  on l a t e r  l o r d s , whether t h e p e o p l e o f t h e C r e t a n c u l t u r e had  the M i n o a n s  i t can hardly  o f the A c h a e a n s o v e r l a i d  flourished  was  I n Homer the M i n o a n  however, c l a i m more o f o u r  which  But  i f not c r e a t i n g  c o n c e r n us.  t o d i s t i n g u i s h any  Achaeans,  growth.  i t I s not n e c e s s a r y to t a k e i n t o  earlier  no  f o r the M i n o a n kingdom d i d  s t r e n g t h and  Minoan f a c t o r ,  de-  decay} i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n  the  has  her  serfs,  rul-  in  the  i n common w i t h them This  subject  people  was  known t o  the  Pelasgians.  ancient  G r e e k s and  Herodotus  i s known t o  seems t o  portion  o f the  p o p u l a t i o n which  country  before  ths  in.  {She  only  Dorians.) gians  So  we  Aeolians,{2)  find  which, according  to  clearly  ' P e l a s g i * the  This  meant by  may  be  changes o f  names, n o t  Pelasgi with  that  a l l the  those the he  on  other  the  the  Hellespont  h a n d , t h a t he oj-  :  f u s i o n was,  may  •Pelasgian*  i n two  were i d e n t i f I e d  Greeks  these  times  with  the  were  of  special should  (7) the  fact  the  peoples  traces  these  i n speech  But  the  theoreticargues  because noted,  mentioned  on  i n 11.52, where  how  easy  the  con-  that Thucydides a l s o  development  Tyrrhenians  stage.  Attic  I t should, be  contrary  .  Herodotus  undeveloped  first,  second, f o r  be  Pelas-  t h a t name, when he  'barbarians*  Greece;  are  least.  Herodotus confuses  the  came  the  'unchanged*  q u i t e d i f f e r e n t senses: (8)  One  Hellenism  are  i n an  among the  assumes  s e e n by  (9)  i n ancient  that  were s o .  the  A r g i n e 3 j j { 4 ) A t h e n i a n s , (5 )  a P e l a s g i a n word.  i n h a b i t a n t s of  barbarians. theory  be  have been i n  to him,  had. c h a n g e d  people  * P e l a s g i * were  ma kes  primitive  real  name of  indicate that  i n ¥ 1 1 1 . 4 4 , where he  of race,  Unfortunately  to  the  f o l l o w i n g peoples  seen  tradition,  seen e s p e c i a l l y  population, al  be  to  by  t h a t produced  Arcadians,(3)  It will  term  aocording  the  Dodonaeans*{6)  the  claimed  f r e s h element  true Hellenes,  (1)  use  us  for  uses  the  contemporary of  the  Pelasgian  separately.  or T y r s e n i a n s ,  and  w i t h the E t r u s c a n s . This combination appears f i r s t i n (1) 1.56 (2) 711.95 (3) 1.46; ¥111,73 (4) I I . 1 7 1 (5 ) 1.56-7; V I I I . 4 4 ( 6 ) 11.50 (7 ) 1.57 (8) T h u c y d i d e s ' ' H i s t o r y * , 1.3 (9) I b i d , IV.109  They so  Hellanicus  ( f r . I.F.H.G. 145}  "being c o m p e l l e d  by the  Greeks,  £&si« t© T y r s c n i , aaa • f o u n d e d from is  who  states  settled  that barbarian tribes  neighbours ries  as  i n the north-west  them S e m i t e s ,  in' t h i s regard  it  i s o p e n f o r him  e n l a r g i n g our  t o do  insight  p r o p r i e t y a p p l y the carries range  h i s story  T r o j a n war though  is inclined  theo-  true today t o ca11  by t h e name o f  this  the  hi story.  "We  may  that  as un-  Pelasgic,  i s a name - no way without  'the man  P e l a s g i a n s , t h a n * -whatever t h e i r i n v a d i n g Achaeans.  i n some d i s t r i c t s ,  quarrel  that  feeling  and with  arose  of im-  who  out o f  the  o r i g i n , became  the time o f was  and  Achaeaniaed, a l Arcadia»  less  their  r e g a r d t o Homer and  of a  houses o f these w a r l i k e Laomedon, w h i c h  involved  p r e d a t o r y and e x p l o r a t o r y  l e d to p o s t - w a r • d i s o r d e r s a t home. the  Herodotus*  s t o r y of the T r o j a n  i n a previous paragraph.  see W a i t e r  the  Homer * s e p i c i s the a c c o u n t  between two  interrupted  been n o t i c e d But  By  such as A t t i c a  t h e h o u s e s o f A t r e u s and  vassals,  voyages,  {1}  came  certain  o f the modern  ^ •) a r e a s  t h e whole p o p u l a t i o n o f G r e e c e  chieftains,  has  t a k e n as  the i n v i s i b l e w o r l d , passes  thoroughly than i n o t h e r s .  their  be  Kost  remark o f H e r o d o t u s ,  into  s u b j e c t s o f the  great  But  real  the E t r u s c a n s  of c r i t i c i s m * . " The  the  into  their  I l l y r i a n S : , or Hycenaeans»  o f Greece  so.  changed  i n making t h e name r a c i a l ,  when t h e y were w r i t t e n : " I f any man period  Pelssgi,  T y r r h e n i a n s and- P e l a s g i a n s were  t h e words o f G r o t e  known a n t e - H e l l e n i c  That  What may  Aegean.  to the P e l a s g i a n s agree  whether t h e y c a l l But  called  the  in Italy,  Etruria.  the east i s very p r o b a b l e .  that  He  Leaf i n "Troy", ch. V I I ,  took, t h e  war  Iliad  who {continued page 33 )  for  h i s t o r y and  the  e p i c s has  ject  has  Homer f o r h i s m o d e l .  also  Suffice  I t then  other  o f two  immigrant  technical latter  skill  to  in classical  G r e e c e we  unusually gifted - the  former  self, it  of  the p e o p l e s ,  i s one  peoples,  who  of early and  confidently  fullest  of H e l l e n . "  district  the  i n Thessaly, closely  the  and the  with  the  north  H e l l a s was  i t i s also  these  than  even  i n the  originally  with  used  and  that  d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g  connected  him-  Hellenes,  Greek e t h n o l o g y farther  i n this  A Dorian  and  Catalogue  a l r e a d y used  the  coordina-  to review  (2)  • H e l l a s * was  of  tradition  whose f o l l o w e r s were Myrmidons and  i n the  warfare  results  by A c h i l l e s , But  by  superflu-  autochthonous,  invasion.  from  the A e o l i o p e o p l e s , are "children  the  more e p i s o d e  Dorian  came s o u t h l a s t  sense  be  native c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  the D o r i a n s  of the paradoses  sub-  language.  the  Herodotus i d e n t i f i e d  would  i n s t i t u t i o n s , power o f  T h e r e r e m a i n s o n l y one shifting  see  contributing  an a l l - c o n q u e r i n g  of  t h e whole  the wounds o f  r a c e s , one  of a h i g h l y advanced  value  so many a n g l e s and  say t h a t i n time  i t s h e r i t a g e of Aryan  t i o n . , and  from  indeed  t h a t a l o n g d i s c u s s i o n here  were h e a l e d , and mingling  historical  u p o n , and  b e e n so much w r i t t e n a b o u t  so many a u t h o r s ous.  been touched  The  as  i n a g e n e r a l sense  ruled  Hellenes.  a general  by  a  name.  Archilochus  and  (3) Hessiod, lished  ' i . e . , i n the  i n this  sense  7th  c e n t u r y , and  b e f o r e 580  B.C.  had  become  Thucydides  estab-  describes  t r a n s i t i o n from t h e s p e c i a l t o the g e n e r a l s e n s e . ^ ) The .(cont.from P.32): takes as from and 2 " n e i g h b o u r s " , "march-men", a n y p e o p l e on or j u s t o v e r the Greek f r o n t i e r . (1) IX.395 (2) 11.684 (3) S t r a b o , 1370 I  I  .  (4) 1.3  I  I  .  the  adoption  o f t h e name may he c o n n e c t e d  influence.  Herodotus* account  with  the spread  of the Dorians  of Dorian  i n 1.56,145, w i t h  ¥ 1 1 1 . 4 5 and 73, i s i n t e r e s t i n g a s s h o w i n g t h a t t h e s t o r y o f t h e Dorian  i n v a s i o n was f u l l y  .fir  developed  i n h i s time.  • . .  i t s - m a i n p o i n t s , and even r e f e r s  to d e t a i l s .  D o r i a n i n v a s i o n was a n undoubted  fact  a c c e p t e d ; though was of  He assumes  -  see B e l o c h  an i n v a s i o n , c o n n e c t e d southern  mixed  Greece,  r a c e , from  ^ '  i s almost  That the universally  {B.M. XIV} f o r t h e c o n t r a r y . with  by r u d e r  the Phrygian  tribes,  migration  It  ^ ^  i n a l l probability of  the n o r t h o r n o r t h - w e s t ,  w h i c h swept away t h e  Achaean c i v i l i z a t i o n  after  t h e Homeric a g e , i n f u s i n g a new  element  into  Greece,  which  stood  thought  than  t h e Achaean.  have b e e n a s s i s t e d nesus .  by t h e d i s c o n t e n t e d  Herodotus says  invaders t i l l I t was n o t , whole.  after  they  A e o l i a n , i t came from  had r e a c h e d  smaller  ones n e a r ,  Asia Minor,  forpolitical  by A t h e n s .  elements i n the PeloponDorian  isa difficult  the Peloponnesus.^ X s  from  a district  called  o f C o s , Hhodes, o t h e r  b y S p a r t a and her n e i g h -  e x a c t l y a s t h e I o n i a n was assumed  Hence i t i s t h a t t h e G r e e k s t h e m s e l v e s  us no g e n e r a l a c c o u n t  o f t h e m e a n i n g o f the word  (1} c f . V I . 5 2 ; IX.26,3 (3) 1.56  Doris,  H a l i c a r n a s s u s , and one or two o t h e r  I t was assumed  reasons,  as a  t h e names I o n i a n and  the i s l a n d s  Cuidos,  towns o n t h e m a i n l a n d .  and may  name o f t h e i n v a d e r s  i s that l i k e  which i n c l u d e d o r i g i n a l l y  was g r a d u a l  o f a r t and  t h a t t h e name was n o t g i v e n to t h e  therefore, a primitive  The p r o b a b i l i t y  i n the scale  The c o n q u e s t  Why i t s h o u l d have been c a l l e d  question.  bours  lower  (2)  could  Dorian.  give On  H e r o d o t u s , " H i s t o r y " , 711.73  . 35.  the  mainland  i t included  ians, Argines, Phocians,  Spartans  (with.Messenians),  Megarians., and e x c l u d e d  though  their  Eleans,  Corinth-  A e t o l i a n s and  d i a l e c t s iTere a k i n , and t h o u g h , moreover,  t?ho o c c u p i e d  the  Aetolians  the  d e t a i l s o f t h e i n v a s i o n , i t must he f r a n k l y a d m i t t e d  we know n o t h i n g .  Elis  I t was p a r t  had b e e n among th© I n v a d e r s . Of that  o f a s e r i e s o f movements 5 T h u c y -  dides^ ^  connects i t , though not c a u s a l l y , w i t h the conquest o f  Boeotia,  and i t may have l e d t o t h e m i g r a t i o n  1  That  i t took p l a c e  a l l at once, a s Herodotus  u n l i k e l y ? w h e t h e r , t o o , any g r e a t from•the north and  i m p l i e s , i s most  mass o f t h e c o l o n i s t s came  o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s e , a3 s t a t e d  by S t r a b o  to A s i a M i n o r , ^ '  by Herodotus  - though w i t h v a r i a t i o n s - i s v e r y  (5 s  uncertain.  However, t h o u g h we do no t know t h e d e t a i l s 0 f t h e i n v a s i o n , we know I t s r e s u l t s .  I t marked  which.had  endured  for nearly  name l e f t  a memory.  possession  of the northern  henceforth  was c a l l e d  no marked  practically nies  a  faint  together,  by t h e i r  and f o u g h t  and spoke a  o f t h e i r neighbours.  vanished, ahsorhed  Ionian  the i r way i n t o  and D o r i a n ,  s u r v i v a l o f the o l d order  In the colo-  i n t h e new  of things.  The k i n g s h i p o f  the  hi storical  are  purely  age a r e no t t h e l e s s s i g n i f i c a n t  a mark o f honour and d i v o r c e d  (3)  1.45  of i t i n  because  they  from a n y p o l i t i c a l  function. (2) 1.145  classifica-  But even h e r e we c a n t r a c e  o l d f a m i l i e s d i d not d i e out a t once; the t r a c e s  1.2,3  pre-  dialect  the  (1)  us, a  name t h o u g h t h e i n h a b i t a n t s  i n d i v i d u a l character,  t h e name w h o l l y  But t h e A c h a e a n  c o a s t l i n e o f the P e l o p o n n e s u s , which  t h e same a s t h a t  tion of Aeolian,  two c e n t u r i e s .  dominion  On the m a i n l a n d , a s H e r o d o t u s t e l l s  remnant o f t h e Ache eans h e l d  served  t h e end o f t h e A c h a e a n  (4)  383  The period,  Dorian  t h e age  i n v a s i o n l e d , then,  o f Greek c o l o n i z a t i o n .  means t h e b e g i n n i n g  o f Greek  o f the Aegean.  Achaeans, i n t b e i r  The  been n a t u r a l l y section  o f the A s i a t i c from  into  cities  the  lying  been taken  coast  D o r i a n i n v a s i o n gave t h e movement new the  rich  central  cities  o f the  E p h e s n s , M i l e t u s , Smyrna - was and  the  become t h e most p r o s p e r o u s ' a n d the next  two  exte'nded  by a new  tion,  mainland, in  Euboea.  B.C.  666;  secondary  time  as  These  advantageous erranean.  by  the  8th  civilized  the  and  C o r i n t h and cities  sites  along  Many were Syracuse,  the 734  city  the  coast  important B.C.;  filtering But  of  before  the  century  from  C h a l c i s , afterwards  settlers Eunine  site  more  had In  widely  distinc-  Many  cities  city  the  Eretria  to c o l o n i z e  or the  founded?  c o l o n i e s sent out  colonized a  from  Ionia  sake o f  C o r c y r a ; S y b a r i s , 721  f o r example, the  some o f  Greece} some on  towns t h u s  i n their  long  settlers  C h a l c i s and  out  nies  the  a s , f o r example,  of  In time,  t u r n , as,  by  i s given.  Megara , and  began t o send  by  flourished  f o r the  M a s s i l i a , Cyrene, e t c ,  Heapolis.  south.  to become s t i l l  colonization  foremost  had  p o r t i o n of H e l l a s .  i n i t } some i n A s i a M i n o r ,  this  such  further impetus,  movement, t o w h i c h ,  t h e name o f  M i l e t u s , at  o t h e r s were  Greek w o r l d  c e n t u r i e s , H e l l a s was  were c o n c e r n e d  migration,  possession of  being occupied  P e l o p o n n e s u s } and  no  eastern side  p o r t i o n o f t h e c o a s t , where a f t e r w a r d s  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  Attica  the  by  the more n o r t h e r l y  Boeotia, while  a l o n g the  great  of course  initial  L e s b o s and  c o a s t had  T h e s s a l y and  I t was  s e t t l e m e n t s on  drawn t h i t h e r .  settlers  t o t h e next  MeditByzantium,  B.C.; other  o f Uuraae,  colofounded  n o t many m i l e s away -  B e f o r e we the h i s t o r y daughter, other  perhaps  and  in detail  o f the more i m p o r t a n t i t would  c o u n t r i e s which,  ically this  notice  not  though  what H e r o d o t u s  Greek s i t e s ,  come a m i s s closely  h i s t o r i c a l l y with Hellas,  e s s a y , o w i n g to  their  and  speaking a d i a l e c t  known, e v e n t o t h e i r  of  genuine  Hellenes e i t h e r ,  Greek d e s c e n t .  tells  us  i n Bk.  That  7.22.  know m y s e l f , - — a n d , t h e games a t Olympia» 7III.139,  Perdiccas,  the  he  very  people though  He  decided  that  suffered  the  scended,  descendants say,  that  the  he  of  I happen t o  Argos,  Illyrian  ( M a c e d n i a n ) n a t i o n s were o r i g i n a l l y  called  have been  manage Then,  o f A l e x a n d e r , and But  brings  the  Mace-  n a t i o n , or at  intermixture with  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the D o r i c d i a l e c t ;  g i v e n much c r e d e n c e .  The  t h e y were s o , " e t c .  d e t e r / o r i a t i o n by  statement  civil-  b e l i e v e d , as  M a c e d o n i a n tongue does no t a p p e a r  otherwise unsupported ian.  of  G r e e k , were  k i n g s may  these  o f t h e l i n e , . from  least  peculiar  Thracians,  m o r e o v e r , t h e H e l l a n o d i c a i , who  g i v e s the descent  founder  The  their  they themselves  seem t o have b e e n an  Illyrians.  namely,  The  to  geograph-  i n Greek h i s t o r y , were  says, "that  donia n people t o have  similar  and  discussed i n  i n the h i s t o r y  they were, Herodotus  P e r d i c c a s a r e H e l l e n e s , as  i n Bk.  "both  be  of  those  Greek n e i g h b o u r s , as B a r b a r i a n s .  M a c e d o n i a n s , a most i m p o r t a n t not  connected  ISacedon.  although a n a t i o n of great importance i s a t i o n , and  to mention  c a n not  us  "both mother  non-Hellenic origins;  Epirus , I l l y r i a , Paeonia , Thrace  tells  hence  Dorian  to have  the any  Herodotus» and  identical,  Macedoni s not  A c c o r d i n g to o t h e r a u t h o r s , Macednus i s  son o f L y c a o n ,  from whom the A r c a d i a n s were  o r Macedon i s the b r o t h e r o f Magnes, o r a son  deof  38. Aeolus, according  t o Hestod  m e r e l y v a r i o u s a t t e m p t s to tween t h i s  and  Hellanicus.^)  Bat  form a g e n e a l o g i c a l  semi-bartarian  race  these  are  connection  "be-  and  the  r e s t of  the  Greek  therefore,  can  have no  place  nation* '9  These p e o p l e s , investigation, history, of  save o n l y where t h e i r  now  come to  of i n d i v i d u a l c i t y  at  deal  s o , as  states*  the  Priehe  a part  lower  and  of the  time of  Miletus.  against  Croesus the  the  only a plundering ascended ians  the  first.,  one,  forced  and he  Asiatic  had  as  I n 560  other  friendships.  and  than f o r 716  An  a conquest  son,  Ionian  He  continued until  earlier  and  Aeolian  Hellenes  W i t h t h o s e i n the  Greeks sought  j e c t s on the same t e r m s as t h e y had (1) S t u r z , H e l l a n . Bragra. P.79 (3) 1.7  the inva-  of c i t i e s  attacked  he  took  H e r o d o t u s remarks.B.C.  B.C.,  Smyrna, and  Alyattes  f r e e . f** )  T?hen C r o e s u s * own  C y r u s , t h e Mede, t h e - I o n i a n  rather  Ardys, his  not  3ubdued a l l t h e  tribute.  introduced,  Greek c i t i e s , b u t  I o n i a was  throne  t h e n the  them to pay  ^)  Herodotus*  Greek h i s t o r y  They a r e  H i l e t us and  Sadyattes  expedition,  Lydian  until  formed  the  early history  became k i n g a b o u t  Greeks remained  s i o n o f Cimmerians i n t o  the  they deal with  Lydia  town o f C o l o p h o n .  of  f o u r books o f  h i s t o r y of Lydla  Gyges of  invaded  these attacks  he  first  soon a f t e r l e d an- army a g a i n s t  took  by  The  Greeks i n A s i a M i n o r .  themselves alone. and  Herodotus* account  l a r g e l y , i n s o f a r as  a l l , with., t h e  even  h i s t o r y becomes  our  Hellas.  We  history  in  but  Croesus the  Ephe s-  cities  i n Asia,  one  and  i s l a n d s , however,  kingdom f e l l  before  to become C y r u s *  been s u b j e c t s o f (2) Her. 1.14  his  sub-  predecessor, but t h e i r pared  to resist  request  was r e f u s e d .  They t h e n  h i m , and s e n t m e s s e n g e r s t o S p a r t a  pre-  to a s k f o r  a i d , which Sparta  refused to g i v e .  finally  by C y r u s , and t h e Greeks i n t h e I s l a n d s s u r -  conquered  rendered son,  t o him o f t h e i r  they remained  Under CambyseS,  from  regarded  h i s father,  during h i s career of  T h i s , then, with of  own a c c o r d .  I n subjection, being  a r c h as s l a v e s i n h e r i t e d them i n h i s a r m i e s  I o n i a , o f c o u r s e , was  unique  and he made u s e o f  the e x c e p t i o n of a b r i e f  But c e r t a i n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l experiences  w h i c h he a l s o  t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g were t h o s e o f Te.os.  When C y r u s  Greeks a s a  s t a t e s had more o r l e s s  relates.  Among t h e s e ,  perhap  o f t h e P h o c a e a n s and t h e p e o p l  s e n t h i s g e n e r a l Harpagos t o subdue t h e  P h o c a e a n s , most o f them, g r e a t l y jection,  description  by H e r o d o t u s i n t h e  f o u r books o f t h e H i s t o r y , o f t h e A s i a t i c  whole.  h y t h a t mon-  conquest.  t h e I o n i a n c l i m a t e , I.a a l l we a r e t o l d  first  Cyrus*  'drew down t h e i r  g r i e v e d a t the thought  sacred g a l l e y s  o f sub-  to the s e a , put i n t o  them t h e i r women and c h i l d r e n , and a l l movable g o o d s , t h e images o u t o f t h e t e m p l e s * and  varied  were t h e i r  came t o s e t t l e founded and at  While  towards C h i o s .  subsequent a d v e n t u r e s ,  i n Kyrnos,  Alalia.  where, t w e n t y y e a r s  this  t i m e were a t t h e h e i g h t o f t h e i r was a d i r e c t  common danger  from  Many  but f i n a l l y  they  b e f o r e , t h e y had  them.  power.  The E t r u s c a n s The o c c u p a t i o n  c h a l l e n g e t o them, and no doubt t h e Greeks t h a t l e d them t o form  m e r c i a l t r e a t y w i t h t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s . '' 1  (1) H e r . 1.164  ^ ^  t h e y were t h e r e , however, the E t r u s c a n s  C a r t h a g i n i a n s made e x p e d i t i o n s a g a i n s t  of A l a l i a the  - and s a i l e d  Although  ( 2 ) A r i s t . P o l . 111.9,6. 12 80a.  i t was a com-  t h e Greeks  were, i n t h e m a i n , v i c t o r i o u s  i n these  moved e v e n t u a l l y to Bhegium and t h e n c e settled  at Eyele  (Velia).  valuable, as g i v i n g  .Greek  t o O e n o t r i a , where  us o u r e a r l i e s t  and p r e v e n t e d  they  is in-  e v i d e n c e o f the B a r b a r i a n  t h e Greeks  o u t o f C o r s i c a and  the M e d i t e r r a n e a n  from b e c o m i n g a  lake* The  urous  people  o f T e o s had a s i m i l a r ,  an e x p e r i e n c e , which.arose  rather city  they r e -  -This whole d i g r e s s i o n here  r e a c t i o n i n t h e west, which kept west S i c i l y ,  encounters,  than submit  and s a i l e d The  to Herodotus,  t o Gyrus  o u t o f t h e same c a u s e .  history  For  g e n e r a l Harpagos, they l e f t  11  t o T h r a c e , where t h e y r e f o u n d e d  their  Abdera.  o f Smyrna, t o o , i s i n t e r e s t i n g .  According  Smyrna, b e f o r e the end o f t h e 8th c e n t u r y , was an  A e o l i a n c i t y , b u t was t a k e n a result  b u t n o t so a d v e n t -  from  them by I o n i a n s by a t r i c k , a s  o f w h i c h t h e A e o l i a n s were c o m p e l l e d  to depart out o f  the c i t y ,  b a g and baggage, and l e a v e i t i n t h e hands o f t h e  enemies.  When t h e L y d i a n s t o o k  i t was, a c c o r d i n g to S t r a b o , o — r it a s a c i t y and o n l y i n h a b i t e d K /* V * o V . (x }  destroyed The  L y d i a n conquest  was a s a r u l e m e r c i f u l , b u t Smyrna, command-  i n g as i t d i d t h e o u t l e t a b l e t o be s p a r e d . mentions,  its  o f t h e Hennas V a l l e y , was t o o f o r m i d -  Clazomenai  to secure t h i s Herodotus*  it,  was a l s o  a t t a c k e d , as  valley.  account  o f M i l e t u s i s concerned  connection with the Lydian h i s t o r y o f Asia  as we have cities  s a i d , a r e most o f b i s a c c o u n t s  there.  We a r e t o l d  Herodotus  mainly  Minor,  with  as i n d e e d ,  of the other  Greek  o f t h e a t t a c k s made upon i t b y  Gyges, L a d y a t t e s , and A l y a t t e s , w h i c h i t s u c c e s s f u l l y w i t h s t o o d (1)  XIV.1,3?  due  to the f a c t  Cyrus*  friendly  that  i t had 'command o f t h e s e a *| and o f  agreement w i t h i t ,  but  deplore i n every account,  us,  the o m i s s i o n o f the d e t a i l ,  that  a modern h i s t o r i a n would  hut l i t t l e  as w e l l a s that  else.  We c a n n o t  merely  of Milet-  nay even o f t h e "broad  deem n e c e s s a r y  in a  outline,  history.  There  i s no m e n t i o n o f I o n i a n s o c i a l  o r e c o n o m i c h i s t o r y , no-  thing  of their  the mention of Anacreon  of  Teos.  literary  save  But i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e s t o r y  c e i v e a meagre a c c o u n t that  history  of i t s p o l i t i c a l  T h r a s y b u l u s was d e s p o t , o f  the c i t y  o f M i l e t u s we r e -  h i s t o r y , when we and a f r i e n d  d e r , the t y r a n t  of Corinth? Periander, a special  of  informed  Thrasybulus,  against them.  h i s c i t y , and t h u s  shall  carried  see, l a t e r .  about  that  o f t h e C h i a n s , who  623 t o  of Alyattes•  was e n a b l e d  designs  to f r u s t r a t e  thrai.  s o v e r e i g n s , which  came to t h e i r  lasted  the Chians  throughout  enemy? i t was a l s o  trade competitor  than  a i d because t h e M i l e s i a n s t h e war w i t h E r y -  C h i o s , commanding the sea a p p r o a c h  was i t s n a t u r a l  that  612 B.C., t h e y waged w i t h no o t h e r h e l p  formerly assisted  petual  guest-friend  The e l e v e n y e a r s * war  on w i t h t h e L y d i a n  from  had  the t y r a n t  of Perian-  T h i s man, P e r i a n d e r , " i s i n t r o d u c e d t o us a t g r e a t e r  l e n g t h , a s we Miletus  him b e f o r e h a n d  learn  a rival  to E r y t h r a i ,  o f Samos, t h e p e r -  o f M i l e t u s ? hence t h e a l l i a n c e  of M i l (1 )  e t u s and C h i o s was a n a t u r a l that  O l b i a was  founded  from  647 B.C.) and was t h e o l d e s t from  such  more from (1)  one. Miletus  IV.78  learn  i n Book IV  (we may p l a c e t h e d a t e a s  c o l o n y beyond  s c a n t y and s c a t t e r e d the f i r s t  We  t h e Danube.  i n f o r m a t i o n , we  f o u r books o f t h e H i s t o r y .  learn  Apart  little  When we d i s c u s s  later of  Herodotus  and  Greek  the h i s t o r i a n ' s l i s t  power t o D a r i u s . ^ ) tells  t h e n l e t us  i n the  'le have a l r e a d y w h o l e ; t h a t when G r o e s u s f r i e n d s w i t h them, and G y r u s , when, f e a r i n g  at  of t h e i r  t h e most i m p o r t a n t  l e a r n a n y t h i n g about this  states  books o n l y *  them  s e p a r a t e l y , - and  than  to draw them c o m p l e t e  history  free  I t remains  i s an account of the I t seems f i t t i n g  to keep  a s a young man, ^e  review.  at f i r s t  of  have  himself  quite a explains  h i s a c c o u n t o f i t i n I.GO.  postponed (1 )  the t y r a n t  The  sur-  can  from t h e can  first  from  our p i c t u r e s  later  on,  with extracts  taken  from  f o u r books a r e not a -  He  what  spent  learned fair  Greek  history  to the dramatis T.  It is  some t i m e t h e r e  a good  deal  the d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e story  and  of i t s  amount o f m a t e r i a l  to  length  o f Samos comes to us  P o l y o r a t e s , and  a d i s c u s s i o n of Herodotus  IV. 157  they  of  bearing i n  commences i n Bk.  s e e n , and  have t h e r e f o r e  wrapped a r o u n d  as a  he made  f a r a s we  taken  o f B a r b e r y ; and  knew Samoa b e s t .  as we  Herodotus  history  i n mind.  Herodotus  history,  as  i t i s a t b e s t o n l y an i n t r o d u c t i o n  this  Herodotus  to g l e a n what we  p e r s o n a e , as i t w e r e , whose h i s t o r y well  their  the conquest  always  Greeks  t r y to c o m p l e t e  o f Greece a t a l l , b u t  notice  f o r u s , t h e n , to l o o k  individually,  o f the h i s t o r y . For. t h e f i r s t  enters into  until  them f r o m H e r o d o t u s ,  four  t o what  s u b j u g a t e them f o r c i b l y ,  accord*  that  owed  t h e I o n i a n Greeks  they remained he  turn  something o f t h e i r  conquered  mind  every part  t a k e more  islands.  seen  lest  own  will  o f t h e I o n i a n d e s p o t s , who  Until  us o f t h e Greeks  rendered  d e s p o t i s m , we  s o , t h o u g h we  Greek  have  tyranny to a  later  chapter,  despot here.  we f i n d  He had r i s e n a g a i n s t  t h e r u l e had d i v i d e d  later  She  s t o r y o f P o l y c r a t e s * good  he s l e w  'Amasis, t o g e t h e r  with  one a n d d r o v e o u t t h e o t h e r  with  ^Herodotus ignores  fortune  good  the tale  Amasis..had e n d e a v o u r e d  time  o f the rang,  the treachery  to protect  and r u l e d  i s well  and  P o l y c r a t e s went o v e r  to the Persians  t h o u g h he i g n o r e d  attendant  o f Samo s . " ^ ^  Egypt, i n accordance with the  changed  a league of s a r i -  the balance  a l l this,  o r perhaps d i d not f u l l y  s i g n i f i c a n c e , H e r o d o t u s makes i t c l e a r  was  the r e a l a g g r e s s o r  Polycrates posing  against  i n the midst  . him h a s c a l l e d  Egypt,  that  only  definite  supports  a f o r c e and made a n e x p e d i t i o n t o  (1) (2) .(5)  helped  them w i t h  reference  s e r v i c e s , be-  ships against the  T h i s passage i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  the l a t e r  Polycrates  i n t h e L a c e d a e m o n i a n s t o a i d them.  Gaa.se t h e Samians had f i r s t 3  realize  \?e a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o  Samos, a s t h e Samians s a y , I n r e p a y m e n t o f f o r m e r  ^ ^  Even  o f a c i v i l war, i n w h i c h t h e p a r t y op-  Lacedaemonians prepared  Messenians.  of  o f power,  to the side o f the s t r o n g e r .  its  It  of Polycrates  s t a t e s , b u t t h s d e s e r t i o n o f C y p r u s and t h e s u b m i s s i o n Phoenicians  the  alone.'  known.  the lemeais  o f t h e S a i t e d y n a s t y , by f o r m i n g  the  "The  h i s two b r o t h e r s .  the r e a l reasons o f the p o l i c y  f o r t u n e , which, h i d e s  usual.policy  particular  and h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h  g i v e s us i n s t e a d a story, i l l u s t r a t i n g  on  this  t h e g o v e r n m e n t , and o b -  i t at f i r s t  But  and  to c o n s i d e r  P o l y c r a t e s , t h e s o n o f A e a c e e , became a d e s p o t  a b o u t 552 B.C. taining  i t necessary  i n t e r e s t i n g as  i n H e r o d o t u s to t h e l e s s e n i a n w a r s .  t r a d i t i o n that  t h e second  How & W e l l s , "Commentary", P. 266. H e r o d o t u s , Bk. 1.44. Herodotus, III.47  H e s s e n i a n war  had  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  allies of  c h a r a c t e r , Argo s, A r c a d i a , and P i s a  o f M e s s e n l a , ^ ! ) and E l i s , ^  the Lacedaemonians.  zea.£ I n t h i s ingly She  C o r i n t h , and S i c y o n  The C o r i n t h i a n s a l s o  took  but t h e c h r o n o l o g y  *insuit» was about  P e r i a n d e r , who  part with  i s inextricably  confused.  550 B.C., and y e t i t i s i n t h e t i m e o f  d i e d about  585 B.C.  "Plutarch * l  1  puts the  ' t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s ' b e f o r e P o l y c r a t e s and t e l l s  Independent IV.396) t h a t  sources  (Dion, o f C h a l c i s .  i t was O h i d i a n s  b o y s t o C o r c y r a ; he c o n f i r m s granted  by C o r c y r a  to C n i d u s .  by h i s Samian I n f o r m a n t s . be a c c e p t e d  ^  e x p e d i t i o n o f Samos, f o r r e a s o n s w h i c h a r e a c c o r d -  set f o r t h ,  events  being  as f a c t ,  the C y p s e l i d a c .  )  fl.c.350;  us  from  f r . 3 . F. H.G.  (not S a m i a n s ) who  r e s t o r e d the  this  to honours  by an a p p e a l  H e r o d o t u s may have been mi s l e d  The t y r a n t ' s b r u t a l i t y ,  characteristic  h o w e v e r , may  of the o r i e n t a l  leanings of  <phe L a c e d a e m o n i a n s and t h e C o r i n t h i a n s ,  t h e n , had come w i t h a g r e a t armament and were b e s i e g i n g Samos. Then f o l l o w s an account Suffice  i t to say t h a t  departed then,  and l e f t  sailed  o f t h e s i e g e w h i c h need after  away from  its  p r o s p e r i t y , we a r e t o l d ,  C y c l a d e s , was a t t h a t  The S I p h n i a n s  fine.  From  the men o f H e r m i o n e , n e x t ,  island  o f Hydrea and gave i t i n c h a r g e  These, Siphno s ,  more w e a l t h  r e f u s e d to lend some  they  time a t t h e h e i g h t o f  and p o s s e s s e d  Samians a n y money, and t h e y t o o k  (1) (4)  own d e v i c e s .  Samos t o S i p h n o s f o r money.  o f the western  islands.  days o f i l l s u c c e s s ,  t h e Samians t o t h e i r  one  the o t h e r  forty  not concern us.  from  than a l l  the e x i l e d  them by f o r c e a s a  t h e Samians bought t h e to the T r a e z e n i a n s , but  S t r a b o , 362. (2) S t r a b o , 355 ( 3 ) P a u s . IV.15,5 U.S.C. 22 (5) How & W e l l s , "Commentary"? P.269  they themselves Zakynthians sixth them.  settled  ont.  in. C y d o n i a ,  Here  they  the Aeginetans, with  lived  recalls  Aeginetans  had a g a i n s t the. p e o p l e  the t y r a n t  Amphicrates,  the  for five  y e a r s , hut i n t h e  the help o f the Cretans,  The m e n t i o n o f A e g i n a  done them much h u r t .  i n Crete, to drive the  conquered  to Herodotus a grude t h e  The S a m i a n s , under  o f Samos.  had made a n e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t them and  Hany c h a p t e r s  later,  Herodotus  s t o r y o f Samo s, and r e c o r d s t h e m i s e r a b l e  c r a t e s , who, i n t h e h i s t o r i a n ' s  resumes  death o f Poly-  own w o r d s , "was the f i r s t o f  t h e H e l l e n e s o f whom we have a n y k n o w l e d g e , who s e t h i s mind upon h a v i n g and  command  o f the sea, e x c e p t i n g Minos t h e C n o s s i a n ,  a n y o t h e r who may have had dommand o f t h e s e a b e f o r e h i s  time? one  w i t h whom, e x c e p t i n g t h o s e of  "besides t h e H e l l e n i c  magnificence."  ^ ^  find  despot,  Eacandros  trust  from  despots  When n e x t  H e r o d o t u s m e n t i o n s Samos, we  ' h a v i n g r e c e i v e d t h e government a s a  e x p e l l e d from  S y l a s o n , a Samian e x i l e ,  ing  o f Samos.  i sinstalled  The  I n a d d i t i o n , he  f e a t s w h i c h i n h i s judgment  been a c h i e v e d aqueduct  can s t i l l bour.  the l i t t l e  (1)  by the P e r s i a n s ,  us o f t h e p o l i t i c a l  records three great surpassed  t h i s we w i l l we a r e t o l d  111.122,25.  his-  engineer-  a n y o t h e r s t h a t had a mole a n d a  was d i s c o v e r e d i n 1382, and r e m a i n s six feet  Araites.  by them i n h i s p l a c e .  by t h e H e l l e n e s s a n a q u e d u c t ,  be seen a b o u t  With  away t o v i s i t  the i s l a n d  T h i s i s t h e sum o f a l l H e r o d o t u s t e l l s tory  o f the Syracusans, not  was w o r t h y t o be compared i n  P o l y c r a t e s ® , when he s a i l e d  T h i s man i s f i n a l l y and  despots  temple.  o f t h e mole  below t h e s u r f a c e o f t h e h a r -  l e a v e Samos and t u r n our a t t e n t i o n t o  o f other important  islands,  Cnidas,  Xanos, Aegiaa>  Eutoea, e t c .  Cnidus Ot was  colonized  i s mentioned  i n several  p l a c e s by  "by S p a r t a , a c c o r d i n g to him,  Herodotus.  hut Strabo b r i n g s  • (1) the  C n i d i a n s from Megara.  coast  i t s u r r e n d e r e d to h i s g e n e r a l Xanos f i r s t  istratus  o f h i s own  v i d i n g b o t h men X a n o s , about  538  i a n y o u t h s , who delivered  The  later  on  by e n s l a v i n g them. had  which  settling  probably  of  t h e y had the-exiled  o f X a n o s , came to P i s -  behavior of  the  Samians who  story  them.  had  The  purchase  on t h e n o r t h - w e s t  t h e t r e s p a s s on t h e i r i n t r u d e r s , and  Athens,  o f the  i n the took  i n Crete, Samians island  of  p e n i n s u l a , and  c o a s t o f C r e t e , were  A e g i n a and  alliance.  extend  The  preserves, joined secured  of  They  settled  south o f the A r g o l i c  resenting  Athen-  them .because  against  o f a movement t o i s o l a t e  the  upon i t c e r t a i n  against  made war  Corintho-Samian  i n pro-  conquered  B o t h o f the p r e v i o u s a c t s o f t h e  o f Cydonia  of  Lygdamis.  a grudge  o f the  expelling  a man  remember, came i n t o  relations  in  i n the a c c o u n t  f o r t h e good  charge  had  l a y to the  part  Harpagos.  placing  been p r o v o c a t i v e to A e g i n a .  Hydrea, the  will  Aeginetans  time of Amphicrates vengeance  the  Ionian  showed v e r y g r e a t z e a l  and a f t e r  were h o s t a g e s  i t into  the  In r e t u r n P i 3 i s t r a t u s  money.  B.C.,  A e g i n a , we Samos.  Lygdamis,  a c c o r d , and  and  subdued  e n t e r s the h i s t o r y  P i s i s t r a t u s of Athens.  he  When C y r u s  their  Aeginetans, the  hold  the  Cretans  by a c o l o n y  {3 ) at  Cydonia.  (For the  friendly  relations  between C r e t e  A e g i n a , c f . t h e proverb.* K f> "7 f ^ f S " {1} XIV.2,6 (2) H e r o d o t u s , V . l (3) S t r a b o , 376 0  {  Y '  V  1  " 1 ' r  V  and *  Our  scanty  Aegean a l l tend great  to  first  of  this  C h a l c i s and  commercial  Chalcis  As. a m a t t e r  books o f  h i s t o r y of  ' e a r l y wars*  the  that  to a n t i c i p a t e h e r e i s n o t  history, Chalcis  appears f o r the  recalled  triremes  i n the  very  the  w h i c h t h e y had  the  E r e t r i a n s and  the  subject  on  was  beginning  of  concluded  that  the  Oth  the  p u r p o s e s was  whole  i s given  or of  Euboea.  are  so  the  in  bound  persuaded  The  Greek  story  the  is just  Eretrians  " f o r the  v a r i o u s l y as 7th  centuries.  d i v i s i o n of  the  world this  to  Milesians  in  burden of a l l at  by .the  date  and  of  the  t i m e when  Samians the  being  war-  upon  to  at  have  f o r t r a d i n g and the  Thucy-  the  Scholars  cleavage of  against  colon-  Euboean  1.99 1.15  up  paragraph,  Greek w o r l d , a c c o r d i n g  with  in  part  early  The  the  connected  the  between E r e t r i a  Chalcidians,  ^ 1  i s said  important  E r e t r i a n s the  the  to  its principal  events of  of M i l e t u s  Milesians,"  divided, the  with  us  serious.  t h e i r s i d e were h e l p e d  of which  dides,  aid  west.  preceding  struggle  p l a i n of  borne w i t h the  Chalcidians  (S)  to  But  such an  most s i g n i f i c a n t  Lelantine  the  (1)  to  to have b e e n the  t i m e s had  t h a t war  izing  referred  i n Herodotus; A r i s t a g o r a s  five  former  the  a l l .  Greek w o r l d , and  the  of  at  two  Corinth,  "brings  f a c t , nothing  played  with  One  of  of  Eretria,  l a y i n the  Eretria  the  rivalry  ranged a g a i n s t  and  Island  Eretria,  the  A e g i n a , Llegara , and  north-east,  mention o f  Euboea«•  four  cities,  the  e a r l y wars i n  theory of  C h a l c i 3 , whose c h i e f s p h e r e  The island  these  e s t a b l i s h the  mainly with  Samos, and  send  to  t r a d e - l e a guess M i l e t u s ,  trading  the  references  .  •  cities all  and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e a l l i e s .  Megara and M i l e t u s  had,at  e v e n t s , a p r a c t i c a l m o n o p o l y o f t h e B l a c k S e a , and l i n e d  it  with  colonies.  C o r i n t h and Samos l o o k e d  Herodotus preserves Greeks. we w i l l  some o f t h e h i s t o r y  touch  upon f o r t h e p r e s e n t .  lays  stress  on t h e i r  coverers' o f the west. Their a c t i v i t y In  gave t h e name  the Etruscans  inians Siletus city  t h a t kept  importance.  Herodotus  'opener s-up', not t h e d i s -  seen,  ' I o n i a n * to t h e s e a s o u t h o f I t a l y . they  came i n t o  and t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n s .  violent  contact  I t was t h e C a r t h a g -  t h e G r e e k s out o f S a r d i n i a , where T h a l e s of  had a d v i s e d  fora l l .  being  $e have a l r e a d y noted t h e  ( c f . 17.153,2 f o r Samians i n T a r t e s s u s . )  the w e s t , a s we h a v e  with  o f the western  We have a- few' r e f e r e n c e s i n B k s . I - I 7 , w h i c h a r e a l l  v o y a g e s o f t h e P h o c o e a n s , and t h e i r rightly  westward.  (1 )  t h e Greeks t o s a i l and t o found  C o r s i c a was a l r e a d y p a r t l y  a  single  h e l d by them.  (2 )  (3 } In  t h e s t o r y o f A r i o n and t h e d o l p h i n ,  m e n t i o n o f I t a l y and S i c i l y . thither from  and h a v i n g  Taras  acquired  A r i o n conceived large  on a C o r i n t h i a n s h i p .  for  no o t h e r  reason  than  the  6th century a t l e a s t  from  the o l d world  held  a glamour f o r t h o s e  we  a d e s i r e to s a i l  sums o f money, he s e t f o r t h This  story  i s interesting I f  t h a t i t shows t h a t a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e r e was c o n s t a n t p a s s a g e o f s h i p s  t o t h e new; t h a t t h e n , a s now, t h e new  Africa (1)  endeavour  to find  1.170  Greeks,  some t r a c e o f t h a t o f t h e Greeks i n  and i n t h e B l a c k Sea a r e a . Herodotus,  world  i n the o l d .  B e f o r e we come t o t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e m a i n l a n d we w i l l  have  (2)  1.165  49.  One  very  i n A f r i c a was  important  the  founding  length  i n Herodotus,^ )  People  from  on  the  s e t t l e m e n t a t the  island  dwelt  At t h e end  o f t h a t time  the  L i b y a n s , and  it  was  henceforth the  ries,  and  i n the  about  without  as  i t i s evidence  years  as when t h e y  the  first  B.C.  i t was as  But  Delphic oracle,  to  o t h e r H e l l e n e s who f o r h e l p , and  Greeks b u t was of Battos occurred  settle  i n the  lived  to  there,  under the  set o u t ,  centu-  the  world  same number  Battos  third  and  kind,  upon t h e i n j u n c t i o n  Libya, together with The  the  Libyans appealed  A p r i e s t h e E g y p t i a n k i n g marched by them i n two  of  g r e a t numbers  battles.  against  After In h i s  f o u n d i n g o f B a r c a , w h i c h came about as  V.145  Herodo-  5th  "with the  I I , A r o e s i l a u s , h i s s o n , became k i n g . the  at  pene-  the P e r s i a n w a r s .  r u l e of  of a q u a r r e l w i t h h i s b r o t h e r s , that induced (1)  6 t h and  Greeks l o o k e d  came to them t h e r e .  defeated  site spot  of Cyrene.  i n t h e r e i g n o f the  they  island*  i s no need, to t r y t o  told  to how  of L i b y a ,  Cyrene on t h e  of the p l a n t i n g  set f o r t h , *  Battos the Prosperous,  later  t o change t h e i r  founded  There  colonists  A r c e s i l a u s , h i s son.  here.  p r o s p e r i n g , and  spot o p p o s i t e t h e  g r e a t f o r m a t i v e p e r i o d t h a t l e d up  Fifty-six  Egypt  630  to o c c u p y .  story  at  D e l p h i c o r a c l e , made a  t h e y were i n d u c e d  true d e t a i l s  t u s g i v e s us t h e  briefly  o f T h e r a , and  P l a t e a to t h e m a i n l a n d  f o r s i x years at a  by  Greeks  o f P l a t e a o f f the n o r t h - A f r i c a n c o a s t .  from  lived  noted  island  f o r t w e n t y y e a r s hut  where t h e y  the  s t o r y whioh i s t o l d  o n l y he  i n s t r u c t i o n o f the  t h e y removed  t r a t e here  need  Lacedaemon c o l o n i s e d t h e  Theraeans, at  finally  i n the h i s t o r y of  of Gyrene, a  hut  1  There they  event  the  the  of to the  death  reign result  them f i n a l l y  to  leave  Gyrene and  they persuaded l a u s pursued and  make a c i t y  the L i b y a n s  d f l a i n by  infirmities,  the  Delphic  T h i s man of and  the  turned  Arce s i l a u s  was  Galled  their  a third  into  over  to  up  Cyprus.  But  Cyrene.  He  three  the p e o p l e .  death  o f her  granted  her.  Samos, and  when  i t and  about  518  months the B a r c a e a n s  B.C.  her  After to  Samian f o r c e s , r e g a i n e d his  enemies,  mother o f A r c e s i l a u s , who Cyprus, f l e d  but  and  to Egypt  neverhad  upon  the  s a t r a p , f o r a i d , which  this  army was  to  laid  by  horrible  s e n t out  subdue L i b y a . siege  surrendered.  s a f e t y were d i s r e g a r d e d  Pheretime exacted  asked  to B a r c a , where he was  Herodotus remarks t h a t  real  this  h i s mother  vengeance on  A r y a n d e s , the  After  i a n s , and  but  to  s e t out  the  reign of  exiled  expedition  made f o r t h e i r  the  he was  so much t o avenge P h e r e t i m e *s l o s s ,  nine  p r i e s t h o o d s , but  of h i s f o r e f a t h e r s .  t o ask  of  Then f o r t h e  protested against  Cyrene from  son  Peloponnesians  rights  to  them  consisting  royal  P h e r © t i m e , the  son,  one  satisfactory,  f e a r i n g a s s a s s i n a t i o n , removed  by  Battos,  o f the  During  b e g a n , however, t o t a k e  meanwhile r e t u r n e d  Arccsi-  name o f Demonan.  tribes,  A r c e s i l a u s , r e t u r n i n g with  slain.  When  owing to h i s p h y s i -  o f a l l the i s l a n d e r s *  arrangement remained  strife,  time  i n , upon t h e a d v i c e  domains o f l a n d , a n d  g i v e n back the  theless  but  d e p e n d e n t s , one  I I I became k i n g , he  stirring  and  a lawgiver  set apart  lame k i n g t h e  t o be  throne,  o r a c l e , a c e r t a i n M a n t i n e a n by the  C r e t a n s , and  power he  Haliarchus.  the  d i v i d e d the p e o p l e  same  overwhelmingly defeated  to  T h e r a e a n s and  k i n g he  was  At the  from. G y r e n e .  his brother  of A r e e s i l a n s , succeeded cal  own.  to r e v o l t  the r e b e l s , he  subsequently  of t h e i r  the  The  to  not  This  Barca.  terms t h e y  victorious  vengeance.  he  The  had  Pers-  Persians of  t h e n made a n a t t e m p t  to take  Cyrene,  i t and r e t u r n e d whence t h e y had come.  fairly  full  be n o t e d , a p e r i o d f r o m  tus  adds a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e l o c a t i o n  little of  about  l o n g and  650 B.C. t o 515 B.C., He rodo o f Cyrene and i t s h a r -  Taken a l t o g e t h e r i t forms a c o n t i n u o u s v a l u e , w h i c h compares  As  f o r the H e l l e n e s i n Egypt, chiefly  quite  early times,  trace  the f o r t u n e s o f t h e a d v e n t u r e r s men who a p p e a r e d  narrative  f a v o u r a b l y w i t h any o t h e r  t h e H e l l e n e s i n a n y one o f t h e f i r s t  bronze  To t h i s  bett  h i s t o r y o f t h e Greeks i n L i b y a , w h i c h c o v e r s , a s  may  vests,  hut thought  four  books.  they  lived  f o r the purposes  and r a v a g e d  from  t h e time  the l a n d , those  D o r i a n s and l o n i a n s whom P s a m n e t i c h u s  account  there  of trade.  o f no  from  We c a n  o f the first  (664-610 B.C.) e n l i s t e d  h i s a r m y , ^ ^ t o t h e E g y p t i a n r e a c t i o n under A m a s i s , (569-  in 526  B.C.), t h e s a g a c i o u s  k i n g who headed  ment w h i l e he y e t c o n t r i v e d  a nationalistic  move-  t o m a i n t a i n and r e e s t a b l i s h t h e  foreigners  i n t h e l a n d ? who a p p e a r e d  to r e s t r i c t  the Greeks'  privileges  o f t r a d i n g where t h e y p l e a s e d , t o g i v e them a (2 )  "concession" at X a u c r a t i s , city  the a  where a r e a l l y  sprang  t h e n o r t h , a s we have m e n t i o n e d , many Greek  Greek w o r l d .  very large  In this  share.  c o l o n i z a t i o n , Megara and M i l e t u s had  We have r e f e r r e d  Clazamenae had f o u n d e d (1)  colo-  up, some d e s t i n e d to become o f major i m p o r t a n c e i n  by M i l e t u s i n 647 B.C.? o f Abdera of  i n p o r t a n t Greek  developed. In  nies  4  Herodotus,  11.152  t o the f o u n d i n g of O l b i a  by men o f Teos a f t e r  and abandoned  Timesias  i t . C h a l c e d o n i a and  (2) H e r o d o t u s ,  11.178  B y z a n t i u m were b o t h M e g a r i a n c o l o n i e s ; B y z a n t i u m b e i n g about and  660  B.C.  Irapezus  includes  S i n o p e was  was  one  i n h i s s t o r y of the  w h i c h , t h o u g h he not  without  mentioned of  their  by  value.  him  Athenians  and  the  reach  the  a l l the  i n the  fact  up  century  the  t h a t they  called  official  gean. (1)  be This  he  the  area,  Pontus,  are  gives  Greek  nothing  no  mystical figure  Spartan  is doubtful.  out  tells  first  and  the w o r s t  that laws  to p r i v a t e a f f a i r s with by  strangers.  not  and How  go  the - that It the  5th  history.  questionable  exclusiveness  of  H e r o d o t u s , i s so  I shall  of  of  the  us  i t i s v a l u a b l e as  Lacedaemonian account  more  Dorian,  of Lycurgus - i n t o  existence  come upon our  to p o i n t  had  Intercourse related  o f .the  first  days of L y c u r g u s ,  had  find  Herodotus* account  suffice  In regard  we  mainland,  Lacedaemonians  first  ^ •  a t r u e h i sto r y , but  seen t h a t  1.25.  and  of  Herodotus  o f S p a r t a , as  the  Here we It w i l l  the  region  w o r d s ? "The  race."  i t .  q u e s t i o n o f whose h i s t o r i c a l c a n n o t be  cities  long; i t w i l l  H e l l e n e s , both  with  i n passing,  the  Ionian  d e t a i l s of  early history  wrapped  i n that  p r e - e m i n e n c e , the  o f the  Lacedaemon, b e f o r e almost  P r o p o n t i s , and  cities  H e r o d o t u s * own  states i s quite  most i m p o r t a n t  i n this  .  had  others  Herodotus  of Darius  f o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n what c o u l d  than  the  the  Other  more or l e s s  i n searching  both  Bosphorus, the  h i story»  appropriate  conquests  cities.  B.C.  i s s t r a n g e l y out i n some o f h i s measurements,  F i n a l l y we and  by M i l e s i a n s i n 630  o f S i n o p e *s d a u g h t e r  a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  is  refounded  founded  i s made  statement. pre-Lycur-  H e r o d o t u s makes t h e Minyae be  received  as  citizens  of a c t i v i t y  i n the e a r l i e s t  days,  i n the  of Thera  founding  There i s a c e r t a i n and  the  colonizing  amount of  (2) Libya.  I n the  7th century  came i n . ( o f . the archaeological that  before  c i t y was  stories  o f T e r p a n d e r and  any  cultural  reforms,  as  They t u r n e d  their  upon t h e I e g e a n s , b e l i e v i n g they  apparently  this  impression,  ill  After  support  Moreover,  the  historian, result  belief  appealed  the a p p l i c a t i o n  gave them, f i n a l l y  Lyeurgus  o f which  e y e s upon A r c a d i a , and  t h a t f o r t u n e was  they  the  with  especially  them?  o r a c l e t h a t had  but  g i v e n them  s u f f e r e d a most h u m i l i a t i n g de-  to the of  the  Iegeans  with  D e l p h i c o r a c l e a g a i n and  the  second  became v i c t o r s .  By  the  time  part  Peloponnesus b e s i d e s .  T h i s e a r l y A r c a d i a n war  t u r n i n g - p o i n t i n the  i a n s , the  stubborn  r e s i s t a n c e o f the  P e l o p o n n e s u s made them g i v e up which they reference w h i c h we the  had  out  conquering  IV.145  of  the  highlanders  attempting  the  of  page.  IV.147,159  is  conquest,  definite i n III.47,  They gave up,  t h e whole o f the P e l o p o n n e s u s , (2)  greater  central  i n Herodotus, occurs  i n a previous  to  Lacedaemon-  complete  i n Messenia j the o n l y  M e s s e n i a n war  have d i s c u s s e d  idea of (1)  carried  to t h i s  policy  subdued  sent  they  as a  had  Croesus  f o r aid against Cyrus,  important  as  piece of advice i t  them t o a s k o f the  the  began to l o o k a b o u t f o r  struggling continually against  success, they  a result.of  and  m i s i n t e r p r e t e d the because  the  a direct  L a c e d a e m o n i a n s became p r o s p e r o u s  feat.  Alcman. )  centre.  r a t e , a c c o r d i n g to  drastic  conquests.  A e o l i o music  e x t r a o r d i n a r y change t h a t came upon S p a r t a ,  an. i m p o r t a n t  introduced  I o n i c Epos and  d i s c o v e r i e s of recent years  the  At  the  and  then,  contented  themselves  Friendship with sometime l a t e r were engaged  w i t h a hegemony o v e r  C r o e s u s was e s t a b l i s h e d t h e y were c a l l e d  at this  time  dependent  about  upon to send  allies.  547 B.C. and him h e l p , hut t h e y  i n a q u a r r e l w i t h Argos., o v e r the  district  o f Thyrea, which the Spartans  had t a k e n from  the time  this  and p r e p a r a t i o n s made  d i s p u t e had been s e t t l e d  for  sending h e l p , Croesus  ing  conquered  Lydia,  not l i s t e n  o f S p a r t a , l e a d e r o f t h e Greek w o r l d  t i m e , t o come to t h e a i d o f h e r f e l l o w has a l w a y s  hav-  s e n t m e s s e n g e r s to S p a r t a t o a s k t h e i r  The S p a r t a n s , however, would  refusal  Cyrus,  By  s e t . o u t t o do t h e same to the A s i a t i c  Greeks,.who t h e r e u p o n help.  had b e e n t a k e n p r i s o n e r .  her.  been a b l o t  This  a s she was a t t h a t  Greeks  o n h e r good name.  t o them.  i n Asia  Uinor,  I t was j u s t  another  example o f h e r 6 t h c e n t u r y e x c l u s i v e n e s s , i f we e x c e p t h e r r e a d i n e s s to a i d t h e r i c h C r o e s u s which her r e f u s a l is 532  not a n i c e  problem  for reflection.  B.C., S p a r t a was engaged their  noted.  They b e s i e g e d  after  he l e f t  Herodotus  Samos, and t h a t  faults, His  inclination.  Samians  This i s almost  i n the f i r s t spent  as a r e s u l t  four  books.  some time i n Athens  his political  were c o l o u r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y by h i s e n v i r o n m e n t , own n a t u r a l  about  d a y s , and a s t h e y made no  own c o u n t r y .  o f S p a r t a we a r e t o l d  have s e e n t h a t  later,  The outcome has a l r e a d y been  Samos f o r f o r t y  headway, d e p a r t e d a g a i n t o t h e i r  We  Some t i m e  i n helping revolutionary  tyrant, Polycrates.  the h i s t o r y  i n view o f  t o h e l p men o f h e r own r a c e i n the same c a s e ,  against  all  a g a i n s t Gyrus?  views  a s w e l l a s by h i s  But he was n o t w h o l l y b l i n d  to her  and on t h e w h o l e what he r e c o r d s i s sane and u n b i a s e d .  earliest  r e f e r e n c e i s t o a war between Athens  and t h e p e o p l e  of Eieusia. mer,  and  Srotet  uses  of A t t i c a .  this  fact 594  at  about B.C.,  here  Athens who  compelled  He.gives Egypt. is  no  for  was  which Herodotus  almost  His v i s i t ' t o  Egypt  t o doubt  c a n not have any  told  us  something  laws  the the  travels  this  i s one  to those of  *the  Pisistratus  c o n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h was the  s h o r e * and  (1) {4 j  had  account  not  to  indeed  there  of S o l o n  that  and noted  o f S o l o n , as  he  e x p l a n a t i o n of  no  interest  in  i s allotted  first  to  6th  i n 560  B.C.,  o f the mountain-lands* *the p l a i n * .  as  During his under the  a l r e a d y i n e f f e c t , without  (3)  same  disturbing  the a n c i e n t l a w s .  III.71 (2) T h u c y d i d e s , 11.15,1 How & W e l l s , "Commentary", P. 6?  to  o f the t y r a n n y o f  a d m i n i s t e r e d Athens  e x i s t i n g m a g i s t r a t e s or changing  might  I t must be  "The  became d e s p o t 'men  b i d d i n g and he  o f h i s most v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n s  by m a k i n g h i m s e l f l e a d e r o f t h e  rule  story  Much g r e a t e r s p a c e  Pisi stratus  Solon,  took p l a c e , except  celebrated  Herodotus*  historical  proposed.  foundation i n fact.  history."^^  century h i s t o r y .  he had  I s p r o b a b l y t r u e , and  of Lycurgus * reforms.  of Pi sistra tus.  subsequent  next  at t h e i r  us n o t h i n g o f t h e laws  the r i s e  opposed  The  o f S o l o n t o L y d i a and  the o m i s s i o n i s p r o b a b l y that Herodotus constitutional  2  records concerns  travels  that  reasons  tells  o f the  union  grounds,^ '  them f o r t e n y e a r s , i n o r d e r t h a t  o f the  Herodotus  man  on o t h e r  for-  c e r t a i n l y a g a i n s t the  f o r the Athenians  to r e p e a l any  that  a g a i n s t the  t h e l a t e n e s s o f the  i s probable  mentioned  made laws  chronological  Croesus  fact  an a c c o u n t  reason  to prove  the b o r d e r town o f E l e u s i s .  afterwards l e f t be  passage  This l a t t e r  but the b a t t l e Megarians  ) assumes t h e b a t t l e was  1  1.29  But h i s  power d i d n o t l a s t and  long.  A c o n s p i r a c y was formed a g a i n s t him  he was d r i v e n o u t .  Some time  later,  however, hy a n a g r e e -  ment w i t h .the c o n s p i r a t o r s j he was a l l o w e d ted to  h i s entry into  the c i t y  by a t r i c k w h i c h  s c o f f a t t h e c r e d u l i t y and f o o l i s h 'who were  (1)  I n 548 B.C., however, P i s i s t r a t u s not t i l l  Eretria, in  ten years  the f i r s t  Athens a g a i n .  b y , d u r i n g c h i c h he l i v e d i n  to e s t a b l i s h  h e l p o f Thebes and A r g o s , and a c t u a l l y  quered and  the i s l a n d  he p l a c e d  Athenian at  citizens.  t h e most  there  and some time  later  he c o n -  who had h e l p e d h i m ,  f o r t h e good "behavior  o f the  T h i s was t h e c o n d i t i o n o f a f f a i r s  as t o which people  i n Athens  s t a t e o f C o r i n t h ; commercial  of a l l the Hellenes  earliest colony  reference  of Corcyra,  here  colonized  We next  1.60  labour with  i 3 to the s t r i f e  each other  t h e i s l a n d , and c i t e s  esteem  C o r i n t h , who the hands.  who r e i g n e d  o n l y t h a t t h e y had  s i n c e the C o r i n t h i a n s an i n d i v i d u a l  from  Our  between h e r and h e r  first  instance of this  h e a r o f C o r i n t h under h e r t y r a n t  son o f C y p s e l u s , (1)  despised  o f which Herodotus says  been a t v a r i a n c e w i t h  strife.  he s h o u l d  i n I m p o r t a n c e , p e r h a p s , to S p a r t a and A t h e n s ,  the i s t h m i a n  least  o f the Hellenes  powerful. Bext  the  rooted,  t r y w i t h the  t h e time o f t h e Lydi«n «-«r «*1 t h t h e E e d e e , when C r o e s u s made  inquiries  was  h i m s e l f as despot  took the c i t y by f o r c e .  o f Xanos f o r a n a d v e n t u r e r  hostsges  i n ability."  was d r i v e n o u t a g a i n ,  B u t i n 538 B.C. he made a n o t h e r  H i s power now became f i r m l y  Herodotus  o f the Athen-  o f the Hellenes  had p a s s e d  d i d he make a n a t t e m p t  caused  simplicity  ians,  and  counted  t o r e t u r n and e f f e c -  625-585 B.C.  Periander, He had a  g u e s t - f r i e n d ship with very  good  Spartans  advice  on  i n their  der,  time.of  gifts  an  three not  Delphic  where the  The  dedicated  d e t a i n us.  Important  o b j e c t s were under  their  pre-eminence of Argos  Herodotus ^ )  i s an  9  Cyclic  h e r o i c age,  poems, t h e  apparently,  subsequently Most  played  enougb t o need  Thebais  her  n o t i c e here,  mentioned  i n connection with  t i m e the  over  i n the own  to  sent treasury  treasuries, We  that f o r e i g n kings  island  a  The  B.C.  the  part  first  only  i s the a c c o u n t o f  Thyrea,  After  subordinate  to Argos i n the  Lacedaemonia.  one.  the  parts  s i t u a t e d on  c u t o f f and |2)  1*81  the other  books  important  t h e war  2  between  have  already  Argos possessed as  the m a i n l a n d , islands.  appropriated.  The  the  she  four  one  5 4 6 , ^ ' w h i c h we  to  even more  Epigone.  power d w i n d l e d , and  of Oythera with  L a c e d a e m o n i a n s had 1.1  the  imputed  whole r e g i o n t o w a r d s the w e s t , e x t e n d i n g  down as M a l e a , b o t h  (1 )  Lydian,  from Homer and  and  i t were, i n p a s s i n g .  Sparta  the  Perian-  n a t i o n a l charge.  fact,  i n Greek h i s t o r y was  A r g o s end  also  about  i n e a r l y times,  inference  of Herodotus* r e f e r e n c e s  were w r i t t e n , a s  this  Samians  o f f e r i n g s under i t s c a r e . The  the  the  reference  their  the  B.C.  l e n g t h i n the  other  s t a t e s had  put  from  One  Gyges, the  the i m p o r t a n c e o f C o r i n t h i n t h i s  by  stories  some  the  Samos, 531  of considerable  Bee  it  Gorinth aided  o r a c l e , w h i c h were l o d g e d  Corinthians.  gave him  o l d grudge a g a i n s t  i s , however, i n t e r e s t i n g .  to the  the  Later  Perlander.  are  f o u r b o o k s , need  Gorinth  occasion.  g o i n g was  of which there  first  of  the  one  o f M i l e t u s , and  fruitless, expedition against  •The cause o f t h e i r d a t i n g from  Thrasyhulus  far  and  Thyrea, two  at  the  antagonists  met  to p a r l e y and. a g r e e d  should  fight  the  s  winning  But  another dispute  and  both armies  defeated.  finally  to  the  this  our  o v e r the  fell  She  states i n helping P i s i s t r a t u s  with  rest  o f the  we  go  on  h i s t o r y f o r what we  have  to books V-IX.  little  Hellenic  We  d i s c u s s i o n of  or  r a c e , and  philosophical  of Bias  discovered  how  Democedes o f  no  place  Samos, who finally  ually  land«  encounter,  Argines  were  Thus we of Priene  to weld  built  bound  twice?  of  the  calendar  as  opposed  the  home i n E g y p t .  transmigration  glance  a  of  as  great  that  Egyptian,  Glaucos of  Prom w h i c h i t c a n  be  the  Chios,  A r l s t e a s of  the ha  who of Proconof  3o sphorus ?  does n o t  Moreover,  criticizes  f i n d s geometry's i f he  act-  Herodotus  comments on the  seen t h a t  or  of  Teos ? H a n d r o c l e s  and  names,  Herodotus  times of Thales  souls?  does  into l i t e r a r y  to n o t i c e  i s clear.  to  Herodotus  h i s t o r y of  Greek r e l i g i o n ? of  look  least  bridge across  inference  to t h e  must  o f A e s o p , Sappho, P i n d a r ;  l e n g t h upon t h e  doctrine  We  other  here.  now  P y t h a g o r a s o f Samos, whom i n d e e d  at  the  before  lacking  political  famous p h y s i c i a n ?  for Darius  name, t h o u g h the  discourses  at  recognized  hear t h r e e  iron;  G r o t o n , the  monej.  c a n n o t h e r e go  feel  books,  surpassed  Greek t y r a n n y .  nestts; A r i o n o f Hethymna ? A n a c r e o n o f  and  side  must a l s o g i v e a p l a c e  i n the  t h o u g h we  h i s t o r y , we  m e n t i o n them.  Miletus?  disputed  The  find  p o i n t s , however, m e r i t  m e n t i o n name's, some o f w h i c h a r e  did  f r o m each  m e n t i o n o f Thebes i n t h e s e essay.  long.promised  that  men  outcome o f t h i s  to f i g h t i n g .  s e c t i o n of our  Several before  hundred  . .  leave  Greek  three  s i d e to p o s s e s s t h e  arose  T h e r e i s one we  that  did  the Greek first not  venture that  f a r i n t o c e r t a i n realms of  they  into Herodotus  part  oracles  world  of  played  as  the  the  i n the  barbarians  Greeks.  colonies  the  case of  that  were s e n t  wished  to  projects  kept  his  own  Delphi  testify  from  this  There a preliminary rule  of warriors (1)  and  how  definite sites  on  noted  wide-  especially  t h a t were  Phocaean episode  in  Pythia,  for Hellenism  one  of  oracle  keys  no  place,he His  one  i t , but The  was  more  Aside  depended  Lydian  of  simply  itself.  than Herodotus.  f o r the  of a  and  not  the  by would-be c o l o n i s t s to  Greek p u l s e ,  in  Corsica  The  projects  as  often  i t s policy.  the  show  from  upon  history, for  s e r i e s of n a r r a t i v e s  derived  source.  remains o n l y  l e t us  i n Greece.  first  marionette  u n d e r i t s d i r e c t i o n , and,  i t s influence  the  One  fre-  out  f o r much o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . i s only  i n the  vast  Barbarian  strings?  suggested  r e l i g i o u s reverence  instance, largely  to  the  them a l m o s t a s  Holm^ihinks  f i n g e r s upon the  i n the  read  the  also, in a l l probability, originated  ready to  unaware  cannot  o r a c l e must have had;  secure  western Mediterranean.  sanctioned  consulted  The  interesting light  unnaturally,  Pythia  not  coming to r e a l i z e  many f i n g e r s  very  f o r them b e f o r e h a n d .  throws a n  the  How  Delphic  G y r e n e , the  One  Greek w o r l d ; and  r a m i f i c a t i o n s of  the  fixed  i s worth mentioning.  h i s t o r y without  Greek h i s t o r y t h e  spread  it  9  a l s o , f o r the  quently  was  existed. Another p o i n t  far  knowledge, he  We  look find,  Greek  t y r a n n y t o d i s c u s s , and  f o r a moment a t i n Homer, a t  the  e a c h community, a k i n g , who  " H i s t o r y of  G r e e c e " , I , p.  232.  the  as  e a r l y monarchic  head  of  i s at  each once  tribe leader  i n war, d i s p e n s e r  o f j u s t i c e , and h i g h p r i e s t  whose s o v e r e i g n t y , or a l e g a c y from and  w h e t h e r bestowed  his father,  superior capacity.  upon him by common  Closely  nobles  i s aristocratical  possess  authority  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h him, as a  their  rulers  of noble  as w e l l as monarchic.  have d e c i d e d  f o r them.  monarchies  existed  The  K i n g and have n e i t h e r  t h e y meet i n a s s e m b l y m e r e l y  to hear  and w a r l i k e a g e , and  I n a l l t h e Greek s t a t e s i n e a r l y  t i m e s , and d i d n o t d i e o u t b e f o r e  the b e g i n n i n g o f the 8th  century*, and i n some c a s e s , a s i n t h a t o f . S p a r t a , not even though here  i t continued  curtailed.  In A s i a Minor,  it  title  i t s powers v e r y much  significance.  entirely  c l a i m i n g descent  from  honorary  K i n g s h i p on the w h o l e ,  as a form into  o f government by t h e hands o f an  the founder.  The p e o p l e  b e t t e r , o r p e r h a p s worse o f f t h a n b e f o r e , f o r a  class,  of a l l ,  Throughout  tended  easily  G r e e c e g e n e r a l l y , a't the o p e n i n g  c o n d i t i o n s c r e a t e d by t h e n o b l e s .  Greek s t a t e s such the  next  f o r the  t o become s e l f i s h and e x c l u s i v e . of the 7th century,  t h e r e was a g r o w i n g d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n among t h e p e o p l e unequal  were  privileged  i n s t e a d of r e g a r d i n g i t s advantages as a t r u s t  benefit  then  f o r example, t h e name o f k i n g where  8th c e n t u r y . I t s a u t h o r i t y passed  oligarchy no  almost  with  o f t h i n g s , was a p u r e l y  and had no p o l i t i c a l  then, disappeared the  to e x i s t  s u r v i v e d the o l d order  what  This o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  s t a t e was a n a t u r a l one i n a p r i m i t i v e aristocratic  birth.  a l l t h e power, and t h e common p e o p l e  nor r i g h t s ;  consent  depends upon h i s p e r s o n a l p r o w e s s  c o u n c i l , are the other w a r r i o r s , also government  f o r h i s people;  I n many  c o n d i t i o n s l e d to the r i s e  a t the  important  of tyrants during  two c e n t u r i e s , 650-500 3.C. - men, u s a a l l y o f t h e upper  class» ally  who e s p o u s e d  the cause  o f the people  o r t o g a i n power f o r t h e m s e l v e s .  essay.we have met s e v e r a l duced  us % T h a s y h u l u s  view  o f t h e s e t o whom H e r o d o t u s  of Miletus,  o f such i r r e s p o n s i b l e  s h o c k i n g and h a t e f u l not  state  ing  his tyrants  his  views  At  least  the in  the tales  from  that  us a l o t a b o u t that  for  found  We w i l l ,  too.  he r e f r a i n s not  to r e a c h a s c l o s e l y  opinion of tyranny.  t h e r e f o r e , expect t o r e v i v e  as we  i t from t h e  feelings  f o u r books,  say  were  This  will  w h i c h we a r e the subject  i n the essay. The  fifth  i n f o r m a t i o n about introduced  In  book o f H e r o d o t u s *  the states  i n books  r e v o l t , which  I-I¥,  history  g i v e s us more  and t h e men to whom we have "been  and t h e n p l u n g e s us i n t o  the I o n i a n  was t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e P e r s i a n war. Book F o u r D a r i u s had a t t e m p t e d  T h r a c e and S c y t h i a . to  find-  whatever  them he does  s i d e , and i n f i n d i n g o u t what H e r o d o t u s * his real  help  does  t h e i r names, and even  t h e h e a r t o f t h e m a t t e r , we must a p p r o a c h  leaving.  later  Herodotus  true that  discredit  I f he d i s l i k e d  B u t i f we w i s h  democracy, d i s c o v e r  i t was  themf he t a k e s p a i n s t o r e l a t e  c a r r y us beyong the r e a l m o f the f i r s t now  born.  The l a t e r  them i n t e r e s t i n g  c o u n t most t o t h e i r  so I n so many w o r d s .  other  free  had g a t h e r e d a r o u n d  comment o f any s o r t .  can i n t o  a u t h o r i t y was t h a t  i t is.probably  on t y r a n n y , H e r o d o t u s  many s t o r i e s  o f Athens.  t o i t , b u t , as we c a n n o t  interesting,  has i n t r o -  C y p s e l u s and P e r i a n d e r o f  t o men who were  h i s own a t t i t u d e  he t e l l s  altruistic-  D u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f our  C o r i n t h , P o l y o r a t e s o f Samos, P i s i s t r a t u s Greek  either  the conquest o f  A t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f Book F i v e he r e t u r n s  S a r d i S j l e a v i n g his, g e n e r a l Megabozas t o c o m p l e t e t h e  conquest.  Hegabozas, t h e r e f o r e , from about  r a n t h e w h o l e o f T h r a c e and t h e M a c e d o n i a n s to demand Amyntas was son.  We  which  claim  at  this  time  have n o t i c e d  *fire  It.  and  He  t h e n sent envoys  water*,  which  King of Macedonia,  b e f o r e the o r i g i n  Herodotus  they  yielded.  andAlexander  that  legend.  p r o b a b l y based  on  most  4  '  and  verdict  o f the judges a t Olyrapia,  legend.  h i m s e l f o f r e w a r d i n g the  service  district  ly,  on  and  t o o k him  Artaphrenes  t h o s e who  Otaxes had  dwelt  conquered  600  had  At  called the  Byzantium  and  done  him  Miletus,  Eut p r e s e n t -  the M i l e s i a n  to  him  same time he made h i s  o f S a r d i s and  ©taxes  Chalcedon, which,  them, must have r e v o l t e d ;  'commander Megabozas.  since  Darius  Antandros  P e r i n t h u s , a S a m i a a c o l o n y founded  a l r e a d y been reduced  by Megabozas. Lemnos and  in about  Then, w i t h  the  Imbros f o r the  time. Rest  until this  to h i s t e r r i t o r y .  o f L e s b i a n s h i p s he c o n q u e r e d  first  over  a l o n g the sea c o a s t * , to succeed  Lamponion, and  B.C.  help  the  governor  a l r e a d y conquered  Troia,  to Susa.  had  be-  Goes he mad e d e s p o t  confirmed i n h i s r u l e  of Myrkinos  w i t h him  H e l l e n e s who  Histiaeos.  the a d v i c e o f Megabo za s, he  brother of  two  i n T h r a c e , Goes and  o f M y t i l e n e ; H i s t i a e o s he adding the  his  they claimed, i n  D a r i u s , meanwhile, h a v i n g r e t u r n e d to S a r d i s , thought  to  s u p p o r t s them? h i s p r o o f s , however, a r e (1)  weak; a f a m i l y  the  subdued  514-512 B. C. , o v e r -  i t was p o i n t we  latter (lj  t h e n came upon the Aegean w o r l d  broken  by  trouble  learn a l i t t l e  state.  Herodotus,  between Xanos and  space  Miletus.  more o f t h e p r e v i o u s h i s t o r y  At t h e time VIII.137  for a  of t h i s  t r o u b l e M i l e t u s was  At of at  the  height  strife  o f h e r p r o s p e r i t y , b u t she had come t h r o u g h much  before  she had a t t a i n e d  c i t y had b e e n t o r n by f a c t i o n , i n and r e f o r m e d  i t .  i t .  F o r two g e n e r a t i o n s  until  their  and s o u g h t  state.  he  help  him t o send  from A r i s t a g o r a s  ships.  the attack.  difficult  position.  failed plans os,  to e f f e c t to r e v o l t  h i s promise were  Hecataeus the h i s t o r i a n . and they  over  himself appeal he  eities  to Artaphrenes.  democratic  by e x h o r t a t i o n s  His advice,  at Athens.  d e s p a t c h twenty  ina  however, was d i s r e g a r d -  drove out t h e i r  of Sparta,  The A t h e n i a n s  In order  noted  of e v i l s  goras l e f t the  for Miletus  Athenian (1J  f o r the Hellenes and p r e p a r e d  ships with  Herodotus , ¥.97  five  to win  d e s p o t s and Then  Aristagoras  states.  meeting with  s h i p s under M e l a n t h i u s .  from H i s t i a e -  no  His success,  a r e s o l u t i o n to "These  s h i p s were t h e {"I )  beginning  last  upon h i m ; a l l save  governments i n them.  t o Cleomenes, K i n g  a  H i s h a l f formed  s e t o u t t o seek a i d from t h e m a i n l a n d  tried  to Artaphrenes  much o f h i s own money and had  t h e same c o u r s e  they  prom-  which were s u f f i c i e n t to  began to make t h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s .  the various  established  Aristagoras  The l a x i a n s r e c e i v e d  strengthened  and h i s f r i e n d s u r g e d  ed,  for Histiae-  A r i s t a g o r a s now found h i m s e l f He had l o s t  from  to be r e s t o r e d to  f o r them, and a p p e a l i n g  minute w a r n i n g , and made p r e p a r a t i o n s frustrate  called  of i t s greatness, arrived  be remembered, was i n S u s a .  to manage t h e m a t t e r  persuaded  were  T h i s A r i s t a g o r a s was h o l d i n g M i l e t u s  o s , who, i t w i l l ised  Parians  But a b o u t 501 B.C. w e a l t h y e x i l e s  X a n o s , w h i c h was a l s o a t t h e summit in Miletus  the  the  and B a r b a r i a n s , to s t i r  ,  ,  Arista-  up t h e r e v o l t . When  from E r e t r i a a r r i v e d , t h e march  against The  S a r d i s was "begun..  ionians l e f t  their  A r i s t a g o r a s remained  ships a t Coresos,  us , and t a k i n g E p h e s i a n s  with  against  S a r d i s and b u r n t  i t . (B.C. 500)  retreat  to Ephesus, whither  ensuing  battle  dispersed left  the.Ionians  to t h e i r  with  Cyprus,  consequence. incensed  T h e y t h e n made a  the P e r s i a n s pursued  also  except  When D a r i u s  e a c h day a t d i n n e r ,  them.  sailed  home and  The r e v o l t went o n .  came t o t h e i r  were made t o  assistance? t o -  Amanthus, w h i c h was b e s i e g e d heard  o f the r e v o l t  he was  and s e t a s l a v e t o s a y t h r e e  'Master,  H i s t i a e o s to q u e l l  arrived  The P e r s i a n s just  sent  i n time.  remember  the Athenians.*  the r e v o l t .  had  then  found  taken  The C y p r i a n s  He  The s i e g e o f Amal-  engaged t h e l a n d  the P h o e n i c i a n  but the Cyprians the i s l a n d ,  defeated,  the Ionians  t h a t t h e P e r s i a n s had a t t a c k e d  sacking  the c i t i e s .  Abydus, P e r c o t e Persians, battles?  . Since  returned  i n that  on t h e C a r i a n c  f o r t h e P e r s i a n s and i t proved  their  commanders  were d e s t r o y e d .  The I o n i a n s the P e r s i a n s  home..  They  o f Dardanus,  had been t a k e n .  and t r o r o t e d  d e f e a t was r e t r i e v e d .  pared  forces of  them t h e r e t o o , and were  and Lampsaeos and P a r s o s  but t h e i r  fleet.  The H e l l e s p o n t i c c i t i e s  then, turned  times  a f o r o e a g a i n s t h i m , and I o n i a n h e l p  t h e P e r s i a n s and t h e I o n i a n s ware v i c t o r i o u s  as a  especially  t u r a was m e a n w h i l e g o i n g on under O n e s i l u s o f S a l o m i s Island.  I n the  Such as s u r v i v e d  The A t h e n i a n s  own d e v i c e s .  a t the Athenians,  despatched  went up q u i c k l y  o f the H e l l e s p o n t i c c i t i e s  them; most o f C a r i a  gether  them a s g u i d e s  own c i t i e s .  B y z a n t i u m and t h e r e s t join  i n t h e l a n d o f Ephes-  t h e I o n i a n s were b a d l y b e a t e n .  to.their  i nMiletus.  thee  An ambush  successful.  But a n o t h e r  The i n two  was p r e -  They and  Persian force  took Oios  In M y s i a  the.author in  B.C.  s  o f these  Ilion,  C l a z o m e n a e , and  evils,  fled  we  leave  i t we  S p a r t a , A t h e n s and we  have p u r p o s e l y  thread  of  the  to  T h e r e was  left  till  of  His  been passed  he  son  the  i n what he  and  after, three  set  out,  this  His years  his f i r s t  time  between S y b a r i s - 510  and  B.C.  this  the c o l o n y  of  himself found  and  When he by  of  the  main  he  to  with  i n the engaged  helped  latter*s in strife  the  not  time. and  The  Leoni-  father, i n son  of  the  c a r i n g to  see  p l a c e , s e t out  Sparta,  the  a  his  to  failure,  Then once more  Crotonians  in Sicily, and  followed.  too  was  stead.  he  became i n v o l v e d " i n a q u a r r e l  arrived  He  i n his  i n L i b y a , was  expedition, Euryleon,  Pithagoras.  he  h i s own  Phoenicians  S e l i n u s , and  despot  himself  returned  b a t t l e which  leaders of  despot  But  surviving  wife., D o r i e n s  Doriens,  attempt,  Croton  ruling  death of t h e i r  considered  for Sicily?  his.men were opposed  their  eldest.  he  longer  r o y a l house a t t h i s  upon t h e  first  no  Cleomenes was  i n the  over  was  a colony*  i n the  book.  further history  o f L e o n , was  wife,  slain  fifth  f o r f e a r of breaking  second  Sybaris  slain  i n i t ; information that  o f Cleomenes, because a l t h o u g h  half-brother  the  the  favour  found  was  story.  some c o n f u s i o n  had  end  now  sons o f A n a x a n d r i d o s by  das,  the  C o r i n t h continued  k i n g of S p a r t a .  two  t o T h r a c e where he  must l o o k a t  A n a x a n d r i d a s , son as  Aristagoras,  499. T h i s "brings us  before  Kyrae..  men  The  place. with  however, he  of Egesta  took p o s s e s s i o n  later  and were the  o f Minoa ,  S e l i n u n t i a n s from s l a i n when he made  Meanwhile the  and  s o l e s u r v i v o r of  f r e e the was  destroyed  Cleomenes  Athenians.  Pisistratus  was  now  dead; Hipparchus, h i s  Harmodius and To  the  Hippias,  secured  Pi s i s t r a t i d s , had  second  having  In r a i s i n g  securing  the  he  the  city.  The  now  help  terms h e ' p r o p o s e d i Eleusis with  his a l l i e s ,  Sparta,  the  rest  example.  some o f had  thus.  this  time  the  C l e i sthenes,  the  ten  tribal  names.  supplanted  Tisan-  a i d to r e g a i n and  his  succeeded  however, b e s i e g i n g him under t r u c e , and  but  the  at t h i s  one  the  made c e r t a i n 'con-  Attica  refused  come a  Hyeiae?  But  Lace-  in  in  restored  f e a r i n g a fourth Invasion  Cleomenes d i d  k i n g , and  aid?  of  people i n t o  by  the  the  army, as  one  to  the  enter-  Boeotians,  the  Corinthians, did also  rest  o f the  A t h e n i a n s were not  They p r o c e e d e d  submit  of  C h a l c i d i a n s , too j began  crises  the  to  f o u r t h time and  h i s P e l o p o n n e s i a n army, w h i l e  Spartan their  He  sought S p a r t a n  to r e t i r e  But  their  the  line  d o m i n a t i o n of  changing  t h i n k i n g b e t t e r o f i t , abandoned  things  to  01eomer.es, and  people.  from D a r i u s ,  country.  of  Athens.  Thessalian  despotic  dividing  Athenians,  t o o k Qiioe and  to r a v a g e the  let  the  Athenians,  him  Then the  sought  other  fled  s u c c e s s f u l , but  shaken o f f the  who  hands  B.C.  cause o f the  A c r o p o l i s , forced  followed  was  01eomenes once more i n v a d e d  Cleistheneb.  the  a t the  despot of  s i d e , accepted  t o power C l e i s t h e n e s  Isagoras,  Spartans,  now  i n v a s i o n under  o f f o u r , and  himself  position.  ed  his  c h a n g e s , s u c h as  instead  der *s son  was  A l e m a e b n i d s had  A t h e n s came under  espoused  stitutional  the  on  h i s e x p u l s i o n - 510 After  tribes  the  b a t t l e which followed  daemonians made a  who  rule,  perished  s u c c e e d e d i n o b t a i n i n g a i d to b r i n g a b o u t  restoration. in  had  A r i s t o g e r t o n . Hippias  escape h i s harsh  where t h e y  son,  against  Demaratus, allies  content  Chalcis  and  to  B o e o t i a and d e f e a t e d .still  hoped  allies  t h e same.day.  made, upon t h e a d v i c e  made a l o n g cities.  The Lacedaemonians  t o r e s t o r e H i p p i a s , and c a l l e d  to d i s c u s s the q u e s t i o n ,  finally  about  both  a council of their  A decision against  o f S o s i c l e s , a C o r i n t h i a n , who  s p e e c h upon t h e wrong o f i n f l i c t i n g  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s man g i v e s  Corinthian history.  The s p e a k e r  tyranny  the  Bacchiadae l a s t e d  The o l i g a r c h y o f  f r o m 745-655 B.C., t h e l a s t  Ampbion, was s u c c e e d e d by h i s g r a n d s o n C y p s e l u s ,  was  succeeded  by h i s son, P e r i a n d e r ,  we have r e c o r d e d  elsewhere.  opposing  plans  Spartan  ance o f h e r own f r e e d o m . northern  borders  join their be  Themistocles* ship  subservient  Corinthian h o s t i l i t y c r e a t i o n of a great  years.  He deeds  m o t i v e i n thus o f an  indepen-  and f o r t h e m a i n t e n -  She was a l r e a d y hemmed  by c i t i e s  and the l a t e r  real  to A e g i n a ,  company, C o r i n t h i a n l i b e r t y  menaced-  who made him-  for thirty  f o r A t h e n s , was h e r need  dent A t h e n s a s a c o u n t e r w e i g h t  o f whom,  i n 625 B.C., whose  Corinth's  facts  reminds h i s h e a r e r s o f  wrongs C o r i n t h had s u f f e r e d f r o m d e s p o t s .  prosperously  on f r e e  us a few more  the  s e l f a d e s p o t and r e i g n e d  i t was  i n on h e r  to S p a r t a .  Should  Athens  and even commerce would  to A t h e n s was t o b e g i n navy.  with  Both the e a r l i e r  h o s t i l i t y were d i c t a t e d by c o m m e r c i a l  friendinter-  est. Book S i x c o n t i n u e s revolt. proceed  with  ^ i t h a c l e a r e r and b e t t e r known road a t a greater  rate.  Our d a t a  f r o m here and t h e r e and f i t t e d picture  the s t o r y of the I o n i a n  will  together  before  u s , we can  n o t have t o be  like  the p i e c e s  taken  of a  puzzle. A r i s t a g o r a s was now d e a d , and H i s t a e u s  had t a k e n up  hi3  cause*  and  i n t e r c e p t e d the  ing  them to h i m s e l f as a l l i e s .  7/ith some s h i p s from L e s h o s , s h i p s tha t • s a i l e d  were m a r c h i n g on M i l e t u s , themselves  by  sea and  The  The  out  sailed  o f the  prepared  Ionians  the Samians was  o f most o f t h e o t h e r the  Chians  being  t h e y were s u r e  were the  finally  M i l e t u s was  Ionians, bravest  defeated.  besieged  and  not  and  was  the p r i c e  set  out  took  of  fell  tyrant  town.  of  retained  such  The  possession  from  he  taken  P e r s i a n s and  land.  Afterwards  advice of  and  city.  the won  a sea  fought  severely, B.C.  Certain of fleet  the  i n this which  escaped.  They  Anaxilaus,  the  besieging a to  Hippocrates,  Samians who  thus  A i a c e s became  conquest  however, w h i l e  despot  of M i l e t u s ,  battle against  sailed the  f o r a g i n g i n Mysia,  he  was  slain.  P e r s i a n s now and  had  them t o the  stolen  and  and  from P e r s i a n v e n g e a n c e ,  t he Z a n d est n a were a b s e n t  of the  Subsequently,  Leshos,  the  Lesbians  tyrant again,  M i l e s i a n s as  Histiaeus, after  Chios,  of t h e i r  as  security  betrayed  the H e l l e s p o n t  The  conduct  of  o f Lade, 495  Z-ancleans t h e r e u p o n a p p e a l e d  Chians, by  battle  sea  This  remained  same year..  Aiaces  o f 2>oncle upon  Gela, but  Samos, and  south  with  who  the  i n the  island's  t h a t o f the  those  on  lasaeas  beaten.  s u f f e r e d the most  of the  of Bhegiusi, while  Sikelian  and  to a c c e p t  the  for Sicily  possession  despot  at  wishing  Of  by  Thus ended  w e a l t h y S a m i a n s , ashamed war,  followed  t o be  time  defend  At t h e a c t u a l e n c o u n t e r  the  of  same  to  Samians w i t h d r e w , t h i n k i n g t h a t b e c a u s e o f the  •flight  Byaantium  Pontus, a t t a c h -  the  i n training  to  P e r s i a n s at the  Ionians  by l a n d .  he  set out  Tenedos, then  a g a i n s t the  the  t h e y went a g a i n s t  islands  Ionian c i t i e s the-cities  on  i n the  and the  took main-  Hellespont,  those o f the Chersonese,  P e r i n t h u s , S e l y m b r i a , Byzantium,  connesus,  A r t a k e , and  submitted  to them before,,  cedon  retired  had  Mesambria. pot  Before t h i s  o f the Chersonese, ?/ho  defeated  t h e s e and  prisoner..  t h e war  G y z i c u s , which  of Byzantium  time M i l t i a d e s  settled  Lampsacas and  succeeded  w i t h Lampsacas and was  purpose  d e p a r t u r e he was  The to  Ionia  to  restore  - 495  with a large  not  Merdonius  Hellespont  against  After Stesagoras  b e i n g s e n t out  from  I n 495  had  proved  When, two  years  him,  he  Eretria  and  Mt.  11 would  seem t h a t  fled  this  e x p e d i t i o n by way  Athens,  was  distrust  instrument of  t a k i n g Thasos  Herodotus  o f the •• on the  A t h o s , a storm a r o s e w h i c h  drowned more t h a n twenty  71.43  later,  a l l the d e s p o t s i n o r d e r  a dangerous  n e x t made an  s h i p s and  B.C.  by D a r i u s , but  done o n l y i n some c i t i e s - by a  b u t a s h i s f l e e t rounded  Herodotus,  taken  by a p r e f e r e n c e f o r democracy, as  suggests.  t h r e e hundred  was  s o n - i n - l a w o f D a r i u s , went  deposed  papular government.^'  g o v e r n m e n t , and  them-  B.C.  f o r o e and  i t was  des-  Miltiades  of P i s i s t r a t u s .  restored.  next y e a r , Mardonius,  the t y r a n n y which  (1)  sons  of  His b r o t h e r  the P e r s i a n s were coming a g a i n s t  done - a c t u a l l y of  by t h e  him,  slain.  d r i v e n o u t by nomad S c y t h i a n s p r o v o k e d  once more to Athens  been  by h i s nephew S t e s a g o r a s .  he was  that  Chal-  the L y d i a n , procured h i s r e l e a s e .  for that  he h e a r d  had  the A p s i n t h i a n s .  son o f Kimon, succeeded  their  had  i n the c i t y  o f Athens  Athens  after  and  upon t h e r e q u e s t o f t h e p e o p l e  t h e n went a g a i n s t  Croesus,  Miltiades,  people  were h a r d p r e s s e d by  d e a t h he was  pursued  The  w i t h i n t h e E u x i n e and  selves,  his  t o o k them a l l save  Pro-  way,  wrecked  thousand  men.  M a r d o n i n s , who Thracians pelled  had  before  he  l a n d , s u f f e r e d l o s s a l s o from  finally  defeated  Shortly after  who  were  ing  s h i p s o f war  spending  operations  (491  the and  The  including A t h e n i a ns  aimed a t  Spartan  of  the  noblest  as  hostages.  tell  of the hear  rights  and  gether  with  expedition leave  kings.  privileges certain  of  Island-  submission. it  was  intervention. he  them w i t h  to  Cleo-  siezed  ten  the  Athenians  o f the  other  into  Thessaly He  the  H e r o d o t u s an  opportun-  against  o f the  is retailed  Spartan  lives  o f some  kings  at length.  are  set f o r t h ,  Lacedaemonian customs,  the  was  successor B.C.,  banished  s i n c e he  had  The  accepted  to Tegea and  incident,  as  fled  plotted  tothe  player,  Spartans,  died  e v i l against  as a  an  b r i b e s to there.  to T h e s s a l y  began to  we  The  o f Demaratos, made  but  to A r c a d i a , where he Sparta.  such  t h a t o f cook, f l u t e  i n 478  Aeginetan  Spartans,  gives  d e p o s i t i o n o f D e m a r a t o s , o f whom  Leotychides,  from t h e r e  inhabitants  The  of v a r i o u s o f f i c e s ,  Cleomenes, a f t e r  t o s , and  The  i l l , think!ng  c u s t o m s and  army o f D a r i u s ,  i t untouched.  f e a r o f the  these  sent h e r a l d s  did intervene}  to S p a r t a  more o f S p a r t a n  i n the  etc.  he  tokens  deposited  Thasians  from  gave t h e s e  Spartan  com-  mines i n b u i l d -  water.*  king, f i n a l l y and  the  ' e a r t h and  demanded  reference  us  inheritance herald,  and  then  -  Spartan  later  same y e a r  a c t of Aegina  Aeginetans  This to  this  themselves,  menes, t h e  ity  Aeginetans,  took  gold  s t r o n g e r w a l l s , to d e s i s t i n the  the  to P e r s i a i n  compelled  revenues from t h e i r  B.C. ) and  the  He was  returned  t h i s , Darius  s t a t e s o f H e l l a s to demand  ers,  them.  to abandon h i s e x p e d i t i o n , and  disgrace.  the  gone by  stir  for  Demaraup  the  consequence,  recalled  him t o r u l e  a g a i n , h u t he d i d n o t l o n g  d e a t h was a p a r t i c u l a r l y m i s e r a b l e as  to i t s c a u s e were a d v a n c e d .  we l e a r n t h a t sis,  some y e a r s  o n e , and s e v e r a l  I n the course  himself with  to i n v a d e  H e r o d o t u s does nevertheless  active,  figure  the Scythians  justice  i n an  the m i s t s  t o C l e o m e n e s , who  of o b l i v i o n  o f h i s day a t S p a r t a .  and calumny We  see i n him an  I t may be t h a t he was d r i v e n i n h i s o l d age t o  madness and s u i c i d e by r e m o r s e o r u n s a t e d madness, stamped  tunately, and  Argos? more-  e n e r g e t i c monarch, a s u c c e s s f u l c a m p a i g n e r , a n a s t u t e  politician.  not  Eleu-  Media.  scant  emerges f r o m  t h e one g r e a t  telling  p r e v i o u s l y Cleomenes had i n v a d e d  t h a t he had a l l i e d  a b o r t i v e attempt  His  opinions  of their  and i n 495 B.C. had made a n e x p e d i t i o n i n t o  over,  as  survive.  the p o l i c y  of his earlier  suspicion o f h i s ambition  the g l o r i e s  ambition,  blackened  but g e n i u s ,  years.  Unfor-  h i s name e a r l y ,  o f t h e P e r s i a n war threw h i s e x p l o i t s i n t o the  shade. After to  Sparta  willing, etans and  t o have t h e i r  hostages  b u t the A t h e n i a n s  made  restored.  refused  representations  The S p a r t a n s  t o r e s t o r e them.  t h e n t o o k v e n g e a n c e by c a p t u r i n g a s a c r e d  i t s erew.  help  h i s death the Aeginetans  Athens  retaliated  successes  f o r both  The A e g i n -  s h i p o f Athens  by i n v a d i n g A e g i n a w i t h t h e  o f some C o r i n t h i a n s h i p s , and t h e r e  varying  were  t h e war went on w i t h  sides.  D a r i u s , m e a n w h i l e , had n o t f o r g o t t e n t h e A t h e n i a n s , and  indeed  place  H i p p i a s , t o o , was t h e r e  o f M a r d o n i u s he a p p o i n t e d  ordered  to j o g h i s memory.  I n the  D a t i s and A r t a p h r e n e s , and  them t o conquer A t h e n s and E r e t r i a  and b r i n g  their  people  Into  spared  Delos.  after  When.they came to  h e l p , but  Athenians, from  the  come t o  under  and  The  fought  own  losses.  took  s e t out  strait.  The  Uaxos, "but  captured  Eretria  f o r Athens.  They  Athenians  i t s need had  the P e r s i a n s and  sent f o r  passed.  o f t h a t J k l i l t i a d e s who  had  defeated  only a l l i e s ,  and  The  fled them  they  a c c o r d , b e c a u s e the A t h e n i a n s  w i n g when t h e y were o p p r e s s e d  P e r s i a n s , t h e n , were d e f e a t e d , and  They f l e d  and  sailed  two  hundred  Persian  home. and  to E r e t r i a , picked The  Eretrians,  tip t h e i r  Darius  by  -  had had Thebes  t e n f u r l o n g s from  Susa.  esteem, but o f an put  on  survive  brought  h i s good  Thus ended  of  short duration.  trial  fined  d i d not  the  the  fate  deeds f o r h i s c i t y  fifty  talents.  He  great  A3 a r e B.C.,  he  long  H i s p r e v i o u s g r e a t d e e d s , numbered  i n v a s i o n o f Lemnos, from him  T h i m i s t o c l e s was and  first'  M i l t i a d e s , whose  I n 489  inhabitants, availed  little  w h i c h he  i n his last  to s u f f e r ?  took  the  days.  to a c h i e v e  He  great  to d i e i n ignominy.  T h i s b r i n g s to a n not  the  e x p e d i t i o n a g a i n s t Paros  among w h i c h was  suffered  i n Ardericea,  ill-fated and  great  I t a b o u t , came to be h e l d i n v e r y  f o r t u n e was  his disgrace.  Pelasgian  suffered  p r i s o n e r s there  settled  invasion, favourably for Hellas.  g e n e r a l s h i p had  o f the  they  JB, 0 . The  subject  then  P l a t a e a n s were t h e i r  help of t h e i r  way  Euboea , t h e y  i t arrived  the command  them under t h e i r  i n 519  was  before  Chersonese,  B.C.  taken  their  a t Marathon a c r o s s the  Spartan  sult  On  s i x days of f i g h t i n g  landed  490  his presence.  end  the  s i x t h book.  r e l a t e d h t l t h e r t o , which occurs  Alemaennids, which Herodotus begins  The  in it, with  only other  i s the  Aleraaeon  account and  chronicles to P e r i c l e s . • Darius 485  B.C.  had  at  urged  he  spent  fleet  course  To  an  preclude  and  The  any  across  the  t h e n c e and there  crossed  X e r x e s ' array and that  a t i o n about c o n c e r n uo mention.  The  sixty,  the  mained  to  of  fleet,  gathered  Europe.  at  the  he  had  A bridge  and  furnished  who  one  M s y r o s , and  companied Hellenes much t i m e  Colydna.  X e r x e s , and would to  fight  reflect  the  and  or n o t .  of  the  King  asked  and  built  account  which  composes  a graphic  him  picinform-  e m p i r e , does  men  hundred.  the  interesting  thousand  D e m a r a t n s , the Great  the  meanwhile  point  not  we  may  s h i p s , the  Aeolians  o f Abydos who  And  from  3 u s came A r t e m i s i a , d a u g h t e r o f L y g d a m i s , and Cos,  began h i s cam-  accompanied  excepting  bridge,  he  army p r o c e e d e d  Persian  one  who  cut through i t f o r  contingents  much new the  Aleuadae  overtaken  was  the  this  tribal  was  Four y e a r s  which, though i t g i v e s  Hellespontians, the  fifth  he  O n t a l l a i n Cappadocia  At  Those H e l l e n e s  Ionians  guard  i n the  i n h a b i t a n t s of  here.  of Athens.  In  -Xerxes  G r e e c e , hut  A t h o s , a c a n a l was  immense h o s t , the  with  f r o m A b y d o s , and  into  follows a l i s t  of  Hippias  k i n g "to S a r d i s .  Hellespont  Greece.  s u c c e e d e d him.  s u c h d i s a s t e r as  army was  the  f o r a war  army and  o f H a r d o n i u s a t Mi.  ships.  son,  against  h i 3 c o u s i n H a r d o n i u s , the  by  i n Thessaly  marched w i t h  ture  Xerxes, his  inclination  i n gathering  paign.  the  no  that  were k i n g s  no.more e x p e d i t i o n s  d i e d , and  first to  sent  Halicarnas-  queen a l s o  Spartan, him  re-  also  whether  of ac-  the  Upon D e m a r a t u s ' answer X e r x e s  had  t h e r e a f t e r . . T h r o u g h T h r a c e , down upon  H e l l a s , marched  the  great  s u b d u i n g a l l as  i t passed.  a r r a y , d r i n k i n g the The  fleet  sailed  rivers  dry  t h r o u g h the  and canal  at M i . Athos, its  way  and t h e n c e  eontingentc  them, ana from Skione, the  at  Therma  passed.  power.  the mainland  ant  o f a man  o f Gelon from  previous  sent  tini by  till  Greeks would  the i s l a n d  their  him,  t h e coming  had made the A t h e n i {481  B.G.  common danger had  to seek h e l p  of  Gelon,  n o t g i v e him t h e l e a d e r s h i p .  Gelon  taken  despot  who  Syracuse,  had  succeeded  Saxos, Leonw h i c h was  by r e s t o r i n g  saved  the S y r a -  had been d r i v e n out by the common  o f Syracuse  of  t h e sons o f the  Callipolis,  Gelon,  a descend-  j o i n e d the L i n d i a n s  from  - Hippocrates,  had t a k e n  He was  h i m s e l f became  the t y r a n n y  and had a l m o s t  despot  who  t o meet  o f T e l o s , who  Gela.  h i s b r o t h e r ; who  became  to r e s i s t  t o them by t h e D e l p h i c  i s hereupon recounted*  * l a n d - h o l d e r s ' who  people,  chief  excepting  s t a t e s came t o g e t h e r  C o r i n t h i a n s and C o r c y r a e a n s .  cusan  To him  {485—78 B.C. ), "but he r e f u s e d t o send a i d  by f o r c e , w r e s t i n g  and S a n e l e ,  preparing  prophesied  to S i c i l y  t y r a n t , Hippocrates  Oleander,  of  Thessaly, a  " b r i n g i n g * e a r t h and w a t e r * ,  son o f E e o o l e s ,  o f Bhodes i n c o l o n i z i n g city  leapolis,  t h e r e f o r e , gives us.  The H e l l e n i c  of Syracuse,  history  among  the a r r i v a l  to v i s i t  l e a d e r had a r i s e n  to a general, peace  The  that  t h e k i n g went  the d i s a s t e r  E n v o y s were  because  a7/aited  the f l e e t  o f the Greeks were  Themistocles,  anfl a g r e e d  Potideaa,  on  Thespiae^  I n A t h e n s a new  a naval  tyrant  and  rest  notwithstanding  crisis,  Alynthus  t h e T h e s s a l i a n s , and t h e B o e o t i a n s ,  of Plataea  oracle.  A t Therraa  same a l s o H e l l e n e s  The  ans  of P a l l e n e , i n c l u d i n g  o f which Herodotus,  o f whom were those  those  Iffhile a t Therms  description  Gulf, c o l l e c t i n g  from t h e S i t h o n i a n c i t i e s ,  and Mende-  king.  to the Thermaie  t o o , and grew r i c h and  powerful. no  As a c o n s e q u e n c e o f s u c h  second  showed  p l a c e , and  that  i t was  won  the b a t t l e  The on  the f e n c e and  was  v i c t o r i o u s . The  warned  to  the  their  other  left  to  The  outcome  B.C.,  own  l e d by  victory  Gelon  o c c u r r e d on  the  s e n t no  s h i p s , f o r t h e y chose till  they  The  I t was  T h e s s a l y to her  T h e s s a l i a n s , on to X e r x e s ,  the  now  sent  s e n t to.  i m p o s s i b l e to guard  fate.  I t s departure  knew w h i c h  o u t , when t h e y were  sworn o b e d i e n c e  that  to  Alexander,  the  son o f  w i t h p o i n t e d words o f warnno  c h o i c e but  to go  over  the P e r s i a n s .  s t a n d , and Xerxes  recording  H e l l e n e s now  decided left this,  battle.  forces  Asiatic  found  where t o t a k e  sailed  Artemisium.  south.  fleet fact  no  on t r a d i t i o n  had that  from  thus f a r s u f f e r e d the  the  estimate  The  no  The loss  from  the  after  storm the  o f them, i n d i c a t e s  official  Persian l i s t s .  f o r the number of the t r i r e m e s , and  l a n d f o r c e s , but  fleet  moment i s  o f t h e number o f  descriptions  numbers i n the  the.ir  Herodotus s h o r t l y  enumerates t h e P e r s i a n f l e e t .  i 3 separate  Herodotus relied  The  deliberated  upon T h e r m o p y l a e and  Therma and  a p p r o p r i a t e % the or  The  f o r h e l p ; b u t when an army was  speeded  The  Salamis.  T h e s s a l i a n s , t h e r e f o r e , had  The  of  o f HImera, 480  an o r a c l e .  first  take  Greece.  sane t i m e .  also  a s s i s t a n c e i t found  Aaiyntos, a l s o ing.  had  would  not weakened, h i s  C r e t a n s , too, kept  Greeks  c o u n t r y , and  had  offend neither side  o f m i s f o r t u n e by hand, who  he  the  of  Corcyraeans  sit  other  about  them, the b a t t l e  same day a s  that  s h i p s to  he  f a c e d w i t h a "barbarian i n v a s i o n ,  of Carthage,  over  s e n t no  as w e l l  f o r c e . , f o r he was Amileas  thus  a position,  enormously overestimated  that He  the  numbers o f  the  f o r c e s from  Greece r e s t  m o r e o v e r , dominated three  b y the  million warriors  but  the  for  a l l the  them.  bay  The  by  to i t .  ium  and  numbered  three  hundred  M a n t i n e a n s , one  f o u r hundred Mycenae?  were meant  ships  b a t t l e needs l i t t l e  hurled  their  men  could  only  might  have c o n t i n u e d  path  but  a t the  the  enemy.  of T r a c h i s . first  of  indefinitely the  had  path they  was fled  hundred?  news r e a c h e d  land  but  not  Tegeans  from  The  rest  o f the The  days the  from  Phocis of  the  Carneia issue  Persians  owing to i t s n a t u r e  the  affairs  existence  by  the way  he,  of a  to X e r x e s  guarded  left  Leonidas,  they  eighty  s t a t e of  being  in  Arcadians,  later.  two  This  and  The  twenty  m o u n t a i n been b e t r a y e d  This  Artemis-  thousand  festival  For  pass,  attribu-  barbarians  P h i i a n s , and  reinforcements  the  losses  the  L o e r i a n Opus.  telling*  i m i t a t i o n of  Greeks.  and  eleven  heavy l o s s e s .  encounter  When t h e  as  against  r e t i r e with  which l e d around  Ephialtes  men  small  a t Thermopylae?  hundred  were c e l e b r a t i n g the  o f the  best  t o the  h o p l i t e s , one  hundred  too  took p l a c e a t  positions?  Thespiae,  sent  desertion,  wrecked many o f  i n the  under l e o n i d a s  one  allow-  f o r Magnesia,  i s a patent  fell  t a k e n up  thousand  to be  or  sailed  s k i r m i s h next  a l l the  of Sparta  storm  Spartan  from T h e b e s and  and  exaggeration  C o r i n t h i a n s , two  t h o u s a n d , and  warriors and  i s evident  Hellenes  makes no  i n w h i c h i t a n c h o r e d was  the  s i d e s had  the  he  sickness  then,  Herodotus i s ,  that Xerxes led  storm which arose  f i f t e e n barbarian  T r a c h i s, and  one  a  A preliminary  of both  belief  H e l l a s , and  forth,  Eupe S e p i a s  there  ted  and  set  s h i p s , and  popular  march t h r o u g h  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Homer, and  armies  fleet  mere c o n j e c t u r e .  against  ance f o r l o s s e s on t h e She  on  by  Phocians, open f o r  s e e i n g what  the  end  must "be, s e n t home a l l h i s a l l i e s  stayed  u n w i l l i n g l y , and  save  the T h e s p i a n s ,  the  who  remained  own  accord.  H i s e x p e c t a t i o n s were r e a l i z e d .  ans  with  Thespians  the  Thebans t o o k the  no  Persians. Of  Athenians waived  Thus t h e  the  arose which did  aea,  and  side  took  of Xerxes,  days l a t e r ,  the  to  isthmus  came to A t t i c a burnt  many men  fleet  o f C o r i n t h , and  second it.  and  The  and  removing  of S a l a m i s ,  whither burnt  l a y i n g waste t h e T h i s had  t h a t t h e y wished  The  Doris  P e r s i a n s , having  such to  king's  T h i s had  fleet  was  now  a l a n d army had  at  an  retreat pre-  Phalcrum  been s e n t  a l r e a d y been w a l l e d  o f the v a r i o u s s t a t e s were p r e s e n t  Plat-  country-  were o n l y w i t h d i f f i c u l t y  f o r b a t t l e , while  the'Peloponnesus.  won  through  the A c r o p o l i s .  Greeks i n the  making r e a d y  The  joined  storm  i n h a b i t a n t s o f w h i c h were island  him-  encounter  when a  Athenians  proceeding  goods to the  by T h e m i s t o c l e s .  against  was  per-  having  d u r i n g the n i g h t a  the  they  of  however,  first  to  the  a l l i e s , but  was,  i n the  the  end.  o n l y by b r i b e s  Battle  and  But  repaired.  A t h e n s and  on  and  had  Thespiae,  effect  vented  Euboeans.  same time  only  surrendered  to an  o f the  their  i n favour of E u r i b i c i d e s ,  the b e t t e r .  their  Greek f l e e t  the  the  p l a c e two  and  other  who  Lacedaemoni-  Hellenes at Artemisium,  that Themistocles  towards A t h e n s , the  themselves the  s t r u g g l e , but  the P e r s i a n s much damage., and  army a t the  Phocis  by  of  to a man;  book i s b r o u g h t  command  The  c a p t a i n s to remain at Artemisium,  fleet  s i d e had  b a t t l e took  to  i t i s said  been b r i b e d  there with  land  7th  s h i p s o f the  right  the other  neither  final  f u r n i s h e d more t h a n any  S p a r t a , and  self  f i g h t i n g almost  p a r t i n the  the  their  suaded  fell  Thebans,  to defend  o f f and  i t . A  short this  account  of  the r a c e s o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s e  point. ^  Once more t h e m a j o r i t y o f the  U  fleet  wished  to r e t r e a t  stalled  by X e r x e s  fight?  Themistocles  who  urged  had  desert ber  the  t o him.  2 0 t h , 480  victory  Great  on  the P e l o p o n n e s u s /  a g a i n saved K i n g to t h i s  sea-fight  B.C.  Greeks.  were  f o r i t was  by  took  not - d e s i r i n g  as p o s s i b l e  Mardonius with  forethe  he  p r o m i s i n g to p l a c e on  Septem-  decisive  to r i s k  to A s i a ,  thirty  only  forcing  i n an o v e r w h e l m i n g l y  Xerxes,  quickly  course  at Salamis  I t ended  before.  and  t h e day,  at  Greeks i n the  b e g i n n i n g t h e a t t a c k and  had  The  f o r the  to  fleet  9  d e f e a t , r e t u r n e d as engers  i s inserted  another  s e n d i n g mess-  thousand  men  remained  i n .Greece. The to p u r s u e  H e l l e n e s , d e c i d i n g a g a i n s t Themi s t o c l e s * a d v i c e ,  the b a r b a r i a n s , i n v e s t e d A h d r o s ,  money to T h e m i s t o c l e s . so' l a y i n g their  spoils,  sending  H e l l e n e s and  *first  honoured  i n S p a r t a he  Spartan  Aristides, this battle,  f r u i t s * to the D e l p h i c  by a l l as  the a b l e s t  received particular  w r e a t h , a c h a r i o t , and  t h r e e hundred  when he  k n i g h t s as  departed  f a r as  son o f L y s i m a c h u s ,  t h o u g h he was  i n exile  from  of Athenian  to P s y t t a l e i a ,  hoplltes,  o f f the  Mardonius, Artabazos, having  (1)  VIII.73  cleared  and  island  divided  oracle.  command er o f  the  h o n o u r , namely an an  escort  of  Tegea. was  also  concerned  in  A t h e n s 5 he b r o u g h t  news t o T h e m i s t o c l e s o f t h e P e r s i a n a t t a c k and force  refused  They c o u l d n o t , however, t a k e the  C a r y s t o s waste, they r e t u r n e d to Salamis  Themi s t o c l e s was  olive  w h i c h had  the  l a t e r , with a  t h e P e r s i a n s who  had  swum  island.  m e a n w h i l e , was  e s c o r t e d the  Great  w i n t e r i n g i n T h e s s a l y , but K i n g to A s i a w i t h a  large  f o r c e o f Jffardonius* men, r e t u r n e d and b e s i e g e d was  on t h e p o i n t  of r e v o l t ,  a n s , who had b e e n d r i v e n But when A r t a b a z o s eity And  over  took  to C r i t a b u l u s  t h u s i t was t h a t  Artabazos might  discovered  i n time.  p l a c e and r e t i r e d  it,  the Thermsic  he slew  o f Torone  and t h e n a t i v e s o f O h a l c i d i c e . got p o s s e s s i o n of Olynthus.  i f t h e t r e a c h e r y o f i t s g e n e r a l had been As i t was, t h e y  failed  wintered  numbering  The P e r s i a n  a t Kyrae, and i n t h e s p r i n g  o f f Samos, k e e p i n g w a t c h o v e r  Greek f l e e t ,  to c a p t u r e t h e  to Thessaly with great l o s s e s .  r e v o l t i n g , and a w a i t i n g t h e r e s u l t The  g u l f by M a c e d o n i a n s .  t h e s e men and t u r n e d t h e  the C h a l c i d i a n s  such as r e m a i n e d ,  anchored  from  was o c c u p i e d by B o t t i a e -  n e x t a t t a c k e d P o t i d a e a , w h i c h was i n open r e v o l t , and  have s u c c e e d e d  fleet,  Olynthus  Olynthus, which  Ionia, to p r e v e n t  o f Mardonius*  one hundred  i t from  occupation.  and t e n s h i p s , met a t  S e g i n a , u n d e r L e o t y e h i d e s , K i n g o f S p a r t a , and X a n t h i p p u s o f Athens.  When a l l t h e f l e e t  a r r i v e d , and urged the Lacedaemoniansthem t o go f a r t h e r  was t h e r e , C h i a n envoys from  t h e H e l l e n e s , as t h e y had p r e v i o u s l y to set I o n i a than  free.  But t h e y o o u l d  benefactor ians  of that  The  t o Athens  n o t coax  i n the  s o n o f Amyntos, who was a g u e s t - f r i e n d and city.  He endeavoured  to persuade  to make peace w i t h t h e Great K i n g , who would  remit a l l t h e i r  urged  Delos.  M a r d o n i u s now s e n t an ambassador 3hape o f A l e x a n d e r ,  Ionia  i n return  o f f e n c e s a g a i n s t him and l e a v e them  Lacedaemonians, g r e a t l y alarmed  lest  they  the A t h e n -  independent.  should a c c e p t  t h e s e p r o p o s a l s , s e n t envoys t o them and e n t r e a t e d them n o t to consent. to  The two s p e e c h e s  o f the A t h e n i a n s which they  A l e x a n d e r , and t o t h e S p a r t a n e n v o y s ,  addressed  a r e as noble i n  s e n t i m e n t and  e x p r e s s i o n a s any  t i o n of Athens  to r e m a i n t r u e  ably  i n "both.  set f o r t h  report  With  this  The  to the H e l l e n i c  determina-  cause i s a d m i r -  Alexander departed unsuccessful  to M a r d o n i u s , and  there.  i n Herodotus.  the e n v o y s  fitting  c l o s e we  to make  t o S p a r t a to r a i s e an army are prepared f o r the  last  "book. In June and  479  s  B.C.,  Mardonius  once more t o o k A t h e n s , o n l y  came down from T h e s s a l y  to f i n d  i t deserted.  The  g r e a t e r number o f t h e A t h e n i a n s were  i n S a l a m i s or on the  ships.  more, p r o p o s a l s o f p e a c e ,  which the  Mardonius  sent  t h e y a g a i n r e j e c t e d , b u t t h e y had  Lacedaemonian  army w h i c h  the Lacedaemonians were o f two defend  it,  had  o r keep  upon b u r n t A t h e n s position  diverted  retired  He  on the A s o p a s .  ground  hundred  The  barbarians.  out*  their  retreated  They  Mardonius  for cavalry action.  there-  Spartans  o v e r r a n t h e M e g a r i a n l a n d , and  and  encamped . t h e r e .  The  battlefield  at t h i s  men,  F o r e l e v e n days  point The  against the two  engagement,  Herodotus  was  to the  s e t s out t h e  H e l l e n e s numbered  armies  came to  then s h i f t e d  thirty  then  b a r b a r i a n army l a y  encounter, a cavalry  order of both s i d e s . t e n thousand  now,  H i s purpose  o f a thousand  The  to  to t a k e up a  army o f the H e l l e n e s p r e s e n t l y  Greeks.  and  i n the Peloponnesus  The  first  For  wall  to the A t h e n i a n s .  the a r r i v a l  and  a b o u t P l a t a e a , and  and  completed  to s t a y  of hastening  sent  king, Pausanias.  suitable  advanced  f o r the  number and  time  t i m e and  f o r a t i m e by  i n Boeotia  a victory  their  the e f f e c t  not y e t been  promise  a second  to Thebes.  Erythrae  by t h i s  their  i n Boeotia,  i n Megara.  had  minds as t o whether  however, s e t o u t under  was  to them, once  thousand  one o f the  sat opposite  one  another, u n t i l ,  on t h e t w e l f t h , M a r d o n i u s opened  sending h i s c a v a l r y to  t o a t t a c k t h e Greeks*  such a n e x t e n t t h a t  leaving  the m a j o r i t y f e l l  the t a t t l e by  They h a r a s s e d  them  hack upon P l a t a e a ,  the S p a r t a n s , Tegeans and A t h e n i a n s  behind.  The  final  engagement was f o u g h t b e f o r e P l a t a e a , September, B.C. 479, and t h o s e who  had remained  to r i s k  an engagement had won a d e c i s i v e  v i c t o r y b e f o r e news o f t h e b a t t l e city.  t h e Greeks  Mardonius p e r i s h e d i n the s t r u g g l e .  surviving Mantineans Asia. their  reached  Persians, fled  left  and c o l l e c t e d  Artabozas, with the  T h r a c e , pursued  a s f a r a s T h e s s a l y , and t h e n c e  The G r e e k s , dead  north into  i n the  by t h e  made t h e i r way  into  i n p o s s e s s i o n o f the f i e l d , b u r i e d the s p o i l ,  They t h e n b e s i e g e d  Thebes f o r twenty  M e d i z i n g , and t o o k  the g u i l t y  a particularly  g o l d e n one.  days t o p u n i s h h e r f o r  men c a p t i v e .  Pausanias,  taking  them to C o r i n t h , p u t them a l l t o d e a t h . Thus ended b a r b a r i a n attempts another Plataea.  victory  of the P e r s i a n s .  land  them beached  battle.  victory  had p r o c e e d e d  had f i n a l l y  As i t happened  on the same day as  to Delos a t the p e t i t i o n  determined  But when t h e y went  t o engage  those  i n s e a r c h o f them, t h e y  a t M y k a l e on the I o n i a n c o a s t , and t h e The b a t t l e  that  Once v i c t o r i o u s ,  f o l l o w e d was, t h e r e f o r e , a  t h e H e l l e n e s completed  by b u r n i n g t h e P e r s i a n s h i p s and t h e n  laden with l o o t .  At Samos t h e y added  L e s b i a n s , and o t h e r n o n - m e d i z i n g and  of Greece.  had been won by the Greeks  The s h i p s t h a t  Persians ashore.  o f P l a t a e a , w h i c h ended a l l  upon t h e m a i n l a n d  of the D e l i a n envoys,  found  the b a t t l e  sailed  the Samians,  islanders  s e t o f f f o r the H e l l e s p o n t to b r e a k  to t h e i r  their f o r Samos  Chians, league,  down the b r i d g e s . When,  howeveri  they found  t h i s a l r e a d y done, t h e S p a r t a n s  home, h u t t h e A t h e n i a n s Athens  sailed  t o o k S e s t o s b e f o r e t h e y r e t u r n e d to  w i t h the r o p e s o f the b r i d g e s as o f f e r i n g s  f o r the  temples » This h i s t o r y , and division  o n l y a few  o f our We  Ionic The  ends t h e n i n t h and  last  Herodotus*,  r e m a r k s r e m a i n b e f o r e we,  t o o , end  will  r e v o l t wes  not  be making a m i s t a k e  i n saying that  t h s cease o f t h e P e r s i a n i n v a s i o n o f  P e r s i a n s were l e d to a t t e m p t  the  P e r s i a n s could  n o t be  conquest Julius  sure o f genuine  Hellas.  o f Greece  Caesar peace  the  to  by  always  r e a d y t o send  any a t t e m p t Julius a  t h e y made a g a i n s t  Caesar  could  fighting  on the  Asiatic  men  to t h e  to the I o n i a n s i n  imperial.government%  sure o f genuine  peace  always  G a u l s I n any  shore  just  as  i n Gaul w h i l e  ready  attempt  to  send  t h e y made  rebellion. But  involved  and  telescoped gallantry  Herodotus* difficult,  and  equalling lost  realise  grave  how  narrative and  that  to us.  t h a t men  who  gaps.  it.  defied  The  revolt  is  seven y e a r s  seem  must have f o u g h t w i t h a of Thermopylae  I t i s o n l y by  a struggle  the I a n i a n s maintained  who  of the I o n i c  of the heroes  t h a n some o f H e r o d o t u s *  believe  i t has  the names o f men  Salamis, are  ly  n o t be  hoplites  f r i e n d l y r a c e a c r o s s the c h a n n e l was  s h i p s and at  s h i p s and  the  Britain.  s h o r e o f the Aegean, w h i l e a k i n d r e d r a c e on t h e f a r t h e r was  this  essay.  same.reason t h a t a f t e r w a r d s brought The  book o f  i t was,  inference  and  remarks would  how lead  t h a t we  much more one.to  S u r e l y , m o r e o v e r , we t h e might  and even sturdi-  suppose,  a r e not to  o f P e r s i a n f o r seven  years,  ••would, not- p r a c t i s e r o w i n g i n t h e i r  ferred  to  s i t i n the  whole t o n e . o f t h e cuse f o r t h e i r We  shade. '  narrative.  unsavoury part  must not  he  be  the  R a t h e r must we did  not  integrity  to  supply  know and  and  i n the  clashes  b a t t l e of  blame H e r o d o t u s that  what he  idea  P r e s u m a b l y i t was  theless j while r e a l i s i n g knew.  The  { 1 J  gaps t h e r e  thankful  o f an  d e f i c i e n c i e s out  of  hut  with  are.  that  a Saraian  h i s own  He did  We  can  never-  recorded not  all  record  appreciate  resists  head  ex-  Lade.  he  h i s t o r i a n who  prethe  f o r these gaps,  lead-us a s t r a y .  value  triremes  the  to round  impulse  off his  narrative. The to  envelop  Ionic  the  a f o r e t a s t e of "was  the  r e v o l t , t h e n , began the  w h o l e Greek and S a l a m i s and  b e g i n n i n g , as  Barbarian  Plataea,  Plataea  was  world.  o r , as the  struggle  which  Marathon  Plato  has  was was  i t ,it  completion, of  that  {2} great out  deliverance."  the  that  main t a c t i c s  "that  chaff  the  ally  detail,  was  tell  us  at Marathon with  of legends." lack  winnowed  (3)  of  w  sure,  out  makes h i s a c c o u n t  two  l e a r n t would  hints at  be  an  Her.  71.12  (2)  of  the  nearly  a l l the him,  precise  position But  i s concerned,  gener'what  There a r e ,  Somewhere near A t h o s  a g o r a and  Laws, 707  clearness;  forgive  interesting.'  commissariat.  meadow where t h e y had  sets  interest in constitutional  a m a r k e t , and  q u a n t i t i e s o f wheat came to them f r o m A s i a (1)  Herodotus  general  can  e  s p e a k i n g , where m i l i t a r y i n f o r m a t i o n  "a  that  p o l e m a r c h , C a l l i r a a c h u s , somewhat u n c e r t a i n !  Herodotus never he  crop  experts  h i s t o r i a n has  i f h i s general  or o f f i c i a l the  played  honest old  from  therefore,  of  The  (3)  to there  great  r e g u l a r l y , ready  Grundy, " G r e a t War", P. 15 3  Persian  ground f " ^ ) and visions  Xerxes  »wa3 making p r e p a r a t i o n s  f o r h i s army on  the  way,  that  neither  a n i m a l s might  s u f f e r from  scarcity in their  H e l l a s . " ** '  But  the  2  what o f  g e n t s were massed tongues? and  sufficiently  the  his  the  t r u t h i s that  H e r o d o t u s had  nection  and  can  but  penetrate  treats  the  fails  their  he  can  instead  examined  have d i f f i c u l t y This  completely  operations  but  o r i e n t s i t N.S. and  some e x t e n t  able  the  service  Greeks.in  really  not  l a y i n the  realise  the  of  the  even  some o f  close  array and  strategy  that  of  from  con-  fleet,  and  comhatants,  s i t u a t i o n and  the  pass o f  Thermopylae,  e v e n a modern r e a d e r have been t h e r e  E.W.  On  the  battleground  to  medical  grasp  Persian  the  i n reconstructing  is sufficient  so many  t h o u g h t h e y were i n d e p e n d e n t .  hardly of  to  actions  to  as  enough to a l l o w  features,  this  to  are  f o r h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of  i s correct  tion.  to  naval As  visited  key  contin-  witness h i s account  inter-dependence o f the  Herodotus  its  the  We  against  array o f  the  pro-  baggage  various  Persian  backwardness of  Artemisium.  remarks t h a t  march  moved, i n an  e l e m e n t a r y knowledge o f ' w a r f a r e ;  T h e r m o p y l a e and  it  reveals  The  3  an  S a r d i s , and  store  army nor  i n w h i c h the  Once H e r o d o t u s g l a n c e s a t  subject. ^ )  we  at  way  to  other  hand, he  for  he  probably  though  b a t t l e from h i s  show H e r o d o t u s *  recognize  himself,  of P l a t a e a ,  the  to  we  descrip-  shortcomings i n  respect. To  close  our  r e v i e w , we  o f H e r o d o t u s * a t t i t u d e to Since better (1)  we  VII.25  judgment. (2}  c o n c l u d e the  t y r a n n y , which we  have a l l n i n e books o f  form a  will  the  VII.25  began some time  h i s t o r y behind  I n t e r e s t i n g as (3)  the  discussion  us,  s t o r i e s of  VII.181  we the  ago.  can  t y r a n t s were to all  o f an  "the  H e r o d o t u s and  almost u n r e l i e v e d  n e g a t i o n of  vidual,  puffed  sacrifices o f the  law  up  the  and  freedom as spirit,  the  j  poles  f o r he  order?  o f men  moment." U )  w  a  are  a  was  t  e x a l t a t i o n of  true  Greece? an  the  the  yet and  a  s  liberty  with  are  f  the  and  therefore  r o r a  I f he  who  caprice  Greek s p i r i t from  does not  i t forever  beyond  w h i c h A t h e n s had  e x a l t a t i o n which bursts  the  of  Herodotus?  denounce  tyr-  the  in  pale  preserved  from him *of  be  indi-  suspicions?  -fc  Greek.  they  a r b i t r a r y r u l e of an  women to g r a t i f y  a p a r  puts  yet  They show t y r a n n y to  racked  apart,  anny i n so many w o r d s , he the  s  to o u r s e l v e s ,  blackness.  with pride  lives  "are  for  necessity,  Is ) t h o u g h i t may thesis "In  of  the  be  hateful  liberty  last  and  slavery  division,  and  cracy  Hellenic  and  brought  out.  possessed the  we  His  f o r him  Persian  Liberty, .B.  the  of  have the  3  struggle  I t huddled  the  of  and  and  likewise  and  and  the  forcibly  Greece w i t h the the  political  brought  f o r that  sources  mines of  of  is  to  a  the  full  How & W e l l s , "Commentary", p.338. B u r y , " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y " , p.  of  bloom,  onward,  supplementary Greece as  of A t h e n s a l o n e ,  o f much v a l u a b l e  relevant  Orient,  result  invasion  " L i v e s " of Lycurgus, Solon, Themistocles,  Ciraon, a r e  anti-  Persia  e a r l y c o n s t i t u t i o n a l h i s t o r y of  " C o n s t i t u t i o n of Athens", are Plutarch's  of  slavery  present  h i s t o r y o f D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s as For  The  Greek, between o r i e n t a l a u t o -  a d e e p e r meaning t h a n  war."^ )  '  f r o m h i s work,  struggle  between the  the  whole, A r i s t o t l e ' s " P o l i t i c s " ,  (1) (3)  final  democracy, i s ever theme, the  1  i s never absent  contrast  liberty  o f men.*  the k e y - n o t e o f h i s H i s t o r y . For t h e p e r i o d from t h e 2nd P e r s i a n  authority.  and  ears  where the  Greece i s r e l a t e d , t h i s Barbarian  i n the  his  data.  Aristides,  information. (2) 44  a  711.139  86.  TH  YJhat we know o f t h e l i f e up  very b r i e f l y ,  but l i t t l e  but  was b o r n  he a l s o  into  belonged  gold  fault  mines t h e r e . ^  about  t o t h e p r i n c e l y house o f T h r a c e ,  }  I  n  t o a command  i n Thrace.  and he was blamed  i t s capture.  i n T h r a c e , e x c e p t when he was t r a v e l l i n g  material  f o r h i s work.  from  Athens,  living,  o f the S i c i l i a n  by one who After  was a l l o w e d Oenobius. history  data  especially ing  had seen S y r a c u s e  w i t h h i s own  i n part  being recalled  not l o n g a f t e r ,  unfinished..  f o r the  eyes.  about  by a d e c r e e o f  400 B.C., l e a v i n g  from  h i s own meagre s t a t e m e n t s .  Thuc.  A l l other  P l u t a r c h , P a u s a n i a s , and  two Greek e s s a y s , one anonymous, t h e o t h e r  t h e name o f M a r c e l l i n u s , a r e mere a s s e r t i o n s w h i c h (1 }  written  These a r e t h e few f a c t s we know o f h i s  t o i t , d e r i v e d from  from  Sicily,  t h e end of the P e l o p o n n e s i a n War, 404 B.C., he  But he d i e d  relating  to c o l l e c t  e x p e d i t i o n c o u l d n o t have been  to r e t u r n t o Athens,  gleaned  p r o b a b l y , on h i 3  The e x t e n t o f h i s t r a v e l s we c a n o n l y  c o n j e c t u r e , b u t i t seems c e r t a i n he v i s i t e d narrative  too l a t e to  He was condemned and b a n i s h e d , and f o r  estate  life,  Then, due to  for arriving  y e a r s was a b s e n t  his  a rich es-  424 B.C. he was e l e c t e d a  twenty  save  the y e a r 460 B.C.  o f h i s own, A m p h i p o l i s was t a k e n w h i l e he was i n  neighbouring waters, prevent  influenced h i s .  had m a r r i e d , and he i n h e r i t e d  s t r a t e g o s and a p p o i n t e d no  o f Herodotus  by d e s c e n t  can he summed  can see how i t i n f l u e n -  an A t h e n i a n c i t i z e n ,  which M i l t i a d e s  tate with  of Thucydides  as i t I s we  ced h i s H i s t o r y , a3 t h e l i f e Thucydides  E S  P 0 Y D I B  IT.105  hear-  differ  o n l y In degree tradictory  of probability?  statements  contemporary  r e v o l u t i o n w h i c h we  We  Hellenic  have no  teachings their  or  him  an  time  particular and  thet man, he  Athens, and  camps, A t h e n s and independent  d i d not  facts,  must  gave him  many d o o r s .  reason.  positive moulded  by  their greatest by  him  with exceptional  Thrace,  him  to- f a l l  appreciate»  of  military  t o be into  and  this  which  have  citizen  tended  t o the feeling  second  enabled  with  a  home gave him  to  t h a t would  9  same end,  provided  of rancour  against  c o n s i d e r e d an u n j u s t punishment j  His wealth, military  tactical  manoeuvres.  One  can  training  errors  not  ant-  t o o , d o u b t l e s s , opened and  the h i s t o r i a n o f a war. the  have  no. home but  experience  He  was  g i v e him  i d e a o f r e c o r d i n g the  not  of Herodotus,  as H e r o d o t u s d i d , t h e . s i g n i f i c a n c e  c o n c e i v i n g the  had  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h the  Thucydides  to  for  of  unprejudiced  provided  of Athens,  also  agonists of h i s country.  likely  h i s mind was  cs.me to l e a r n  p e r m i t h i m s e l f any  f o r what he  qualified  the  empire w i t h a detachment  Hi? "banishment  i t also  intellectual  i n the l i g h t  accepted  but  been i m p o s s i b l e f o r a p u r e - b l o o d e d  he  any  the S o p h i s t s , when t h e  he  to c r i t i c i s e  l o o k upon t h e A t h e n i a n  that  of that  f o r o b t a i n i n g a u t h e n t i c i n f o r m a t i o n ? he  interest  Attica*  con-  i n the absence of  b e i n g bathed  family connections  opportunities i n two  and  tradition.  His  foot  was  to b e l i e v e  t o w e i g h and  authority  i n the  a s s o c i a t e with  world  reason o f any  lived  general influence  lesson?  s p r i n g up  of confused  evidence.  Thucydides  educated  which  the sort  or  or to  fail  importance  too much  events  so  credit  of a great  war  at  i t 3 i n c e p t i o n , oi' f o r r e a l i z i n g  war; to  and  be  furthermore,  purely  militant  a record  f o r the of  s t a t e s , which  t h a t war  should  geography, anthropology, of " p o l i t i c a l " accustomed  is  the  any  that  f a r as  c o n c e r n e d , one  back on  the  confined,  was  evidence  o f h i s own  h i s own  the  and  particular  30  great  his history  r e l a t i o n s of  i n no  special  the into  became the  sense i n which we  founder are ^  -which T h u c y d i d e s makes use  f o r any  h i s t o r y j moreover, that  He  and  designed  i s s e l f - e v i d e n t , t h a t he  predecessors  ing!.  he  rest;  evidence  point  consult,  that  to "be a  term.  the  documents to  to  or  i t vas  deviate  history in'the  to use So  fact  that  so  but  there  recent  satisfaction  that  were n o t  were  the  likely  to be  e v e n t s he  was  entirely  o f o t h e r s ' when he their  not  fall  a very-slight portion  t h e r e f o r e , almost  e y e s , and  could  possessors  of  many record-  to u s i n g had  -were  of  the  established  reliable.  (1) He  makes a c l e a r s t a t e m e n t  to t h i s  effect  himself,  deploring  to) . elsewhere  the  a h i s t o r y under h i s t o r i a n had had  he  to  to  collect  Sicily he  on  gives  one  informants,  nor  was  an  himself  however, we "•{Il  1.22  compare, and  We  have  glimpse  these  criticize  seen t h a t But  he  no  easy t a s k .  i n i t i a t i v e 5 not  to make a c t u a l  must have gone as  Thucydides covers  i n t o h i s l i t e r a r y workshop?  does he  even t e l l  us  e y e - w i t n e s s o f what he  can p e n e t r a t e (2}  to the 1.20  Writing The only  his m a t e r i a l before  had  he  of mankinds  was  e n e r g y and  work, but  such m i s s i o n *  no  inaccuracy  s u c h c o n d i t i o n s as  i t i n one  i t .  us  and  to possess great  sort,  incorporated  credulity  the  occasions  describes.  source  his he  he  journeys far  as  traces? names  no  on which  he  Occasionally,  of h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I t  is  e a s y , f o r example, to see t h a t  the  siege  and  Sphacteria.  We  are  derived  the o f f i c i a l  ders.  o f P l a t a e a , and  from  can  Athenians  through  the T h u c y d i d e a n  we  to t a k e t h e h i s t o r y  dependent original bears out  that  work r e m a i n s  summary."^ ^  had  quick  may  to doubt,  their  eyes.  but  he  else,  to v o u c h ,  (1)  where  entirely  i n t h e whole  But  though  d i d not  towards  probability  to  and  a l l he critical,  o f non-contem-  at l e a s t  until  - traditions,  Thucydides  as t h e y c o n f l i c t e d q u e s t i o n the f a c t  the a c t u a l  so he c a r r i e d  First  sceptical,  the l e g e n d .  Minos,  a t the  position  of i t .  of scepticism  except i n s o f a r  he g r a n t e d  of r e a l i t y .  Bury,  h i s use  to r e j e c t  rationalized  and  mere i n t r i n s i c  guarantee  But  testimony almost  what modern c r i t i c s ,  such as Agamemnon, P e l o p s and  far;  i t s accuracy.  t h u s our f a i t h  governed  F o r example, he  everyone  seemed  peer  have l i t t l e i n -  he a c c e p t s , i n h i s b r i e f a c c o u n t  traditions,  probability. T r o j a n war,  comman-  the w h o l e , however,  a r e i n a much b e t t e r  have b e e n I n c l i n e d no  On  to t e s t  an a t t i t u d e  Greek h i s t o r y ,  rejected  and  that  he a d o p t e d  recently,  statements  o n l y be a b l e t o make g u e s s e s  seen w i t h h i s own  porary  his  Pylos  unshaken.  the p r i n c i p l e  not  that  on t r u s t , f o r we  exist,  s o u r c e s o f h i s e v i d e n c e , we  foremost  S p a r t a n s about  of decrees or t r e a t i e s  o f T h u c y d i d e s , and  Though we  judge  and  o r d e r s g i v e n to m i l i t a r y  evidence w i t h which documents do  c o n s u l t e d P l a t a e a n s as t o  sometimes d i v i n e  "Sometimes t h e f o r m u l a e  have  he  Like  with  o f the  Herodotus  existence of  heroes  f o r whom the g e n e a l o g i e s  this historical  faith  too  i s by no means a s u f f i c i e n t  For p r o b a b i l i t y  varies;  " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y " , P.  85.  not o n l y w i t h t h e  age  i n w h i c h we l i v e ,  hut w i t h our i n d i v i d u a l  education.  H i s method  deficiency,  needless  i s here,  tempers and  therefore, deficient,  t o s a y , does n o t r e f l e c t  to h i s d i s c r e d i t .  L i v i n g i n t h e age i n w h i c h he d i d , he had t o a c c e p t s u s p i c i o n , what o n l y c o m p a r a t i v e taught us to s u s p e c t .  without  e n h n o g r a p h y and p h i l o l o g y  have  B u t i n h i s a c u t e a r g u m e n t s , he employs  methods w h i c h may be c a l l e d he p o i n t s to t h e c u l t u r e survival  h u t the  modern and s c i e n t i f i c *  o f t h e backward  F o r example  p a r t s o f Greece,  as a  of a culture  that  a t one t i n e had p r e v a i l e d g e n e r a l l y .  A g a i n , when he s t a t e s  that  the islands  tion,  Its  tombs i n . D e l e s , when the i s l a n d  not h a s t e n remains  to minimise  are small.  S p a r t a a s compared of the  such a n a c t . standard  with  One had o n l y  In h i s treatment  o f Mycenae  to r e a l i z e  o f contemporary  i s as s t r i c t l y  the f o l l y events,  scientific  t o be a l w a y s an e y e - w i t n e s s  as t h e  of events,  f o r the  e r r o r and b i a s ,  to u p b r i n g i n g o r temperament, o r t o a p r e c o n c e i v e d  are almost  certain  to e n t e r i n t o  also,  the study of p h y s i c a l  phenomena has a t t a i n e d ? and even were i t p r a c t i c a b l e  due  because  The s t u d y o f human a f f a i r s c a n  hope t o r e a c h t h e e x a c t i t u d e t h a t  student  He  to l o o k a t t h e s i z e o f  her i m p o r t a n c e ,  o f Thucydides  was b e i n g p u r i f i e d .  the importance  nature o f the s u b j e c t permits.never  occupa-  he a d v a n c e s a n a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o o f ; t h e d i s c o v e r y o f  Carian will  once knew O a r i a n  idea,  h i s o b s e r v a t i o n or r e c o r d i n g  o f them, Thucydides  d i d n o t escape  criticism  w o r l d , any more t h a n H e r o d o t u s d i d .  His c h i e f  s i u s o f H a l i c a r n a s s u s , wrote an e s s a y , Thucydides',  which i s supplemented  i n the a n c i e n t critic,  Diony-  'On t h e C h a r a c t e r o f  by l e t t e r s  to Cn. Pompeig,  end  Afflmaeae.  whole h i s dides and  Dionysius  judgment i s u n f a i r .  choice  p  therefore  ity,  but  i f he  :even a t the his  of a  subject.  should  He  The  fault  him.  He  ws-r  out  was  c h o o s e i t , h i s d u t y was  sacrifice  of h i s c r i t i c a l  but  first c  O U T  have been f o r g o t t e n or  must  has  wilful.  with  on  with  ignored to be  the Thucy-  cure  XJLYO^  by  BUTO^^  poster-  patriotic  judgment.  l i s l a c k o f v a r i e t y , and  grants,  however, t h a t he  a clever  brightness 5  and  s t y l e , but  He  subjects  opinion that  remember t h a t  just  the  reverse,  A t h e n s i n the  f a c t s w i t h the {g ) light."  In  namely-  first  years  T h u c y d i d e s was  and  the  fact  impartiality.  modern w o r l d .  general,  i n t h a t most  to  authors.  Let  Some o f  the  look  her  in a  the  at  (1)  'de  Corapositione**,  (2)  Bury. "Ancient  c r i t i c i s m s are  convey  l a c k of more or  Eome o f the most  1S2.  the  two  author's  them; o t h e r s  Greek H i s t o r y " , P.  sug-  favourable  o f the  165:  have  sympathized  n a r r a t i v e can  ones.  is  manipulated  T h u c y d i d e s any  c r i t i c s advance us  "Thucydides  i s a proof  l o r has  light,  some modern c r i t i c s that  that  antagonistic  <*n u n f a v o u r a b l e  purpose of p r e s e n t i n g  Surely  their  "old-fashioned  o f t h o \7ar, and  such c o n t r a d i c t o r y i m p r e s s i o n s ,  our  the  U)  i n t e r e s t i n g when we  critical  i n contrast with  1  showed her  with  bores  shows a s u p e r i o r i t y i n p a t h o s  i t s beauty,  t o w a r d s A t h e n s , and  gested  He  h i s chronology  h a p p i n e s s o f H e r o d o t u s ' , Is  Dionysius*  in  falls  detail,  l a n g u a g e t o a most m i n u t e and: u n f r i e n d l y s c r u t i n y .  finds  and  goes i n t o g r e a t  critics less  are p e c u l i a r Important  He has recognize  been t a k e n to t a s k g e n e r a l l y  the p a r t  human a f f a i r s .  economic  On  and  this point  commercial  two  dreamed (A)  an e n t i t y  of."*-**'  *»fio w r i t e r  importance economic  he:  can b r i e f l y  "He  fully  has  ever l a i d  conditions  realizes  has  economic  of  s t r e s s on the  " T h a t he was the l e a d i n g  finance." supreme  not b l i n d  to  significance  r e s o u r c e s i n the e a r l y  ever traced  dependence o f w e a l t h and  power, and  more c l e a r l y  Primitive  no a c c u m u l a t e d  G r e e c e , he  the  the fundamental  f o r t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e one  the o t h e r .  sum-  he  Greek  (A) '  Ho w r i t e r  necessary  the i m p o r t a n c e  greater  i s shown by  to want o f m a t e r i a l  communities."*  the  up  ( T h u c y d i d e s , a m i n i n g magnate) n e v e r  o f money i n s a r . " ^ '  attributes  was  we  students take  " S o t w i t h o u t humour i s t h e n o t i o n t h a t  f a c t o r was  to  interests play i n  Thucydidean  t h e c u d g e l s I n h i s d e f e n s e , whose r e m a r k s marize.  for a failure  and  s a y s , was  wealth; agriculture  interconditions  the promotion weak, b e c a u s e  only yielded  means o f s u b s i s t e n c e , and  t r a d e d i d not e x i s t  no a c c u m u l a t e d  etc."  of there  the b a r e  because  there  was  (E )  It nished  i s implied,  a detailed  b a s i s on w h i c h interests H i s two  wealth —  e x p l a n a t i o n and  Thucydides  s h o u l d have  a n a l y s i s o f the  the A t h e n i a n power r e s t e d , and  o f o t h e r states®  and  w e a l t h and power; Thucydides d e s c r i b e s  commercial  by her  " T h u c y d i d e s r e l a t e s how  G o r i n t h a r o s e out o f each  empire. the  rivalry  state's pursuit  the bone o f c o n t e n t i o n was the s t r u g g l e  fur-  o f the m e r c a n t i l e  w h i c h were a f f e c t e d  champions c o n t i n u e :  between A t h e n s  (A) (B)  too, that  Megara;  in a l l i t s vicissitudes,"  B u r y , " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y , " Abbott, "Thucydides"  Pp.91-2  of  after  w h i c h he  that  there  says  i s no  no  more " f o r t h e  more to he  said.  The  M e g a r i a n q u e s t i o n , though p r o b a b l y c e r t a i n l y not  so  of a p o l i t i c a l l o o k upon the  to S p a r t a  and  the  commercial  present  part  age,  factors,  ——  certainly  and  and  s i d e r a b l y underrated  them, we  o v e r r a t i n g them.  may  We  themselves  under the p o l i t i c a l Thucydides  the  19th  Another realise,  the  i f he  Peloponneaian  t h e y must  commercial  charge  in  he  easily  the  the p o l i c y  the Peloponnesian  F. H.  u  c  y  d  i  a  e  s  d  i  d  n  as  history?  into  o  t  interpre"Econom-  like  in  the  the  interests  same con-  error  of  o f Athens  to T h u c y d i d e s ,  economical  primarily  point of  view.  economic h i s t o r y  is a  i 3 t h a t he  misrepresent, not  - but  the  entail.  profit  convinced  Whereupon t h e y  c r i t i c , U)  Thucydides this  C o r n f o r d , "Thuc.  missed  them  the  t h a t command  entirely,  economic f a c t o r ?  of  f o r c e d upon  o f c o e r c i o n t o w a r d s Megara, which war.  of  Athenian  the d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f  i n P i r a e u s f o r the  failed  cause  the growth o f  the L a c e d a e m o n i a n s and  advances are o n l y " g r i e v a n c e s " . (1)  fall  t h a t the  war? t h a t i t was  fight,"  o p i n i o n of t h i s  may  actually  the main t r a d e r o u t e s would Pericles  h  was  immense i m p o r t a n c e  a g a i n s t Thucydides  d i d not  interests  T  matter  century."  power , - " w h i c h a l a r m e d that  not  »»  play anything  statesmen,  and  i n the  B u r y , summing up;  such  the was  i f the a n c i e n t h i s t o r i a n s  sure  created p o l i t i c a l  discovery.of  to  be  to  of  d i d not  i n the a n c i e n t w o r l d ,  presented  interest (B)  of  to C o r i n t h ,  as a m a s t e r - k e y f o r the 2  and  reason  economic a s p e c t  strategic nature."  economic f a c t o r  sufficient  paramount  her  t a t i o n o f a i l human a c t i o n ? * ^ ' ic  very  and  resulted i n the the  causes  I t seems i m p o s s i b l e , i n the  Kythistoricus"  the f i r s t of  place,  that  Thucydides  s u c h i m p o r t on t h e p a r t  Piraeus.  "We  are- a s k e d  plunged Athens  reached  any  not  o f the  have I g n o r e d a movement  commercial  to b e l i e v e  i n t o war  the p o p u l a c e , and  could  that  interests  an a g i t a t i o n  went on among t h e n o i s i e s t  the f a i n t e s t  contemporary  hint  observer."'  shoulders.  and  i s a detached  his policy  political him  elements  ability  does  not  The  historian's  one.  The  imply that  i n a l l matters, or held  k e p t i t i n the  attitude  tribute he  saw  his p o l i t i c a l  o f the  he  eye  faith.  As  would  have had  f o r the two  B. Bury  scruples  words w h i c h  •' ckc T C A  "cause », J.  no  T h u c y d i d e s uses  ±nd  shows t h a t  in exhibiting  m~ p o cf  di-rf^  i  t  original range  meaning i t was  i n T h u c y d i d e s , and  thus c l o s e l y  Thucydides i n s i s t s alleged  t o eye w i t h He  certainly  h i s judgment was  against {1} (2)  T h u c y d i d e s and  cannot  wrong. their  to our  of  ,though  " p r e t e x t " , has  sense  of  or  between the distinct  P.93  a wider  "occasion",  from  pretexts the  real  pretext  So much, t h e n , f o r the refutation.  in i t s  "cause".  prove o f e i t h e r  A b b o t t , "Thucy." P.52 " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y " ,  judgment  /'  -tr^ o cj> JL <r i  as  exercised,  T h u c y d i d e s g e n e r a l l y means  the d i f f e r e n c e  f o r the o u t b r e a k o f war,  c a u s e , and we that  on  to h i s  i n the sense  comes to mean " m o t i v e " *  a p p r o x i m a t i n g t o the  Pericles  «• <f ,  n  equivalent  war  h i s weaknesse<|.  /  " c h a r g e " o r " g r i e v a n c e " , whereas  to  pays  r a t h e r , here as i n o t h e r c a s e s , a c o l d , independent and  of  E q u a l l y improbable i s  i n o r d e r t o d e v o l v e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  from P e r i c l e s '  which  of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e  the i n s i n u a t i o n that Thucydides d e l i b e r a t e l y background,  of  or  cause  charges  The work o f T h u c y d i d e s beware o f u n d e r r a t i n g , but from  securing  "out  o f the t w i l i g h t  ing  a literary  Into  but  the  that  has  limitations  i t s d e f e c t s have  immortality,  i n which  ever  '  we  must  not p r e v e n t e d i t  Thucydides  Herodotus  " I t was  still  the l o n g e s t  been t a k e n by a  h i s t o r y what i t i s t o d a y . " *  had  burst  moved, wonder-  '  instant  not  become p o p u l a r .  centuries  For s e v e r a l  n e g l e c t amounting almost  read  most  decisive  towards  making  B u t , a l t h o u g h the g r e a t n e s s  t h e v a l u e o f h i s h i s t o r y won  his history,  and  s i n g l e man  and  successors,  which  s u n l i g h t , where f a c t s a r e h a r d , n o t t o wonder  to understand."*  step  has  o n l y by  recognition, i t did after,  his  immediate  s c h o l a r s , sank i n t o  to o b l i v i o n .  "He  was  a  a g r e a t name, ("5 1  not  a living  the  first  Interest  i n f l u e n c e as a t e a c h e r o r a m o d e l , " *  c e n t u r y B.C.  i n h i s work r e v i v e , and  the  a u t h o r would  and  p h r a s e o l o g y , and  "Thucydides preface  w i t h the r e t u r n  had  that  not  be  the  ultimate  have d e s i r e d .  even  to A t t i c  i n g e n e r a l , aroused  anticipated  the unromantic  very p l e a s i n g  this  not  itself  with  mere s l a v i s h  But he  when he d e s c r i b e d  also  as  style  imitation.  r e c e p t i o n when he wrote  -  until  such  character of t h i s n a r r a t i v e  to t h e e a r .  verdict  Hot  models, d i d  t h e n i t was  I t concerned  '  in his might  anticipated  i t as a " p o s s e s s i o n f o r  ever'." B e f o r e we there are  notice  the  subject  matter  c e r t a i n remarks t o make about  falls  into  two  parts;  Fifty  Y e a r s ' Peace,  (1)  I h i d . P.147  {4}  Abbott,  the f i r s t  the  second (2)  B.C.,  Ibid,oP.147  " T h u c y d i d e s " , P.  234  history,  I t s composition,• It  e n d i n g i n 421 i n 411  o f the  B.C,  w i t h the  the h i s t o r y (3)  Ibid.  being  P.147  unfinished.  The r e a s o n  for this  i s t h a t i n 421 B.C., w i t h t h e  s i g n i n g o f t h e p e a c e , the h i s t o r i a n ed and i t was p r o b a b l y 404  not u n t i l  B.C. t h a t he r e a l i s e d  recorded  after  h i s task  the f a l l  finish-  of Athens i n  t h a t t h e u n d e c i s i v e war which he had  was o n l y a p o r t i o n o f a g r e a t e r and d e c i s i v e war, and  so d e t e r m i n e d whole  considered  to e x t e n d  t h e compass o f h i s work to embrace t h e  twenty-seven y e a r s .  introduces with  a personal  The second  part then,^ ^ 1  e x p l a n a t i o n , announcing  he f o r m a l l y the c o n t i n u -  a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t down t o 404 3 . C m  and e x p l a i n i n g t h a t the  t r u c e w h i c h he had f o r m e r l y c o n s i d e r e d  to have  w a r s , had heen i n r e a l i t y the  time  from  Though t h i s  not made, as we have  suggested,  Athens, h i s statements f o l l o w i n g the course  all  likelihood,  bly intended episode. him  by t h e S i c i l i a n  The d i s a s t e r  vinced  to c o v e r  (1)  as they  from  o c c u r r e d w i t h a view t o  e x p e d i t i o n , w h i c h he had  to the l a r g e r  proba-  separate shown  i n a new  conception o f producing  the whole p e r i o d .  that accurate  ¥.26  t h a t he had not ceased  o f 404 B.C., however, must have  based  o f the year, into  chronology.  the capture o f  o f the p r e v i o u s twenty-seven years  Thucydides division  after  probably  T h i s c o n t i n u a t i o n had been s u g g e s t e d , i n  and hence he r o s e  a history  until  t o be t h e h i s t o r y o f a c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y  the events  light,  one war, l a s t i n g  d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  seem t o i m p l y  of events  c o n t i n u i n g t h i s work.  two  only a cessation of h o s t i l i t i e s f o r  b e i n g , and t h a t t h e wars were r e a l l y  431 to 404 B.C.  separated  h i s m i l i t a r y h i s t o r y on t h e n a t u r a l summer and w i n t e r , b e i n g f u l l y  h i s t o r y was i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t  He p r o v e d  i t by c a s t i n g  con-  strict  h i s own work i n t o  the form  annals  He  0  critics,  c o u l d n o t have f a i l e d  like  h a c k t o any that  Monysius  artistic  he p r e f e r r e d  of h i s t o r i c a l contemporary  to see as c l e a r l y as h i s  of H a l i c a r n a ssus, that  p l a n , hut  i t was  characteristic  Where h i s h i s t o r y was  n a t u r e , however, t h a t  the P e r s i a n war,  giving  H e l l e n i c u s , who  the  inaccuracy were no any  data of a  composition c u s s here  criticised  and  s u f f i c i e n t l y dependable  i s one  mixture  dark  obscurities o u t , he  that  (1)  that  the  there  warrant  But  In s t y l e  Attempts  of  invention  the mouths  who  borrowed i t  and  they  i n argument,  are a b e w i l d -  Greek, and  Greek o f  s a y s , than  s t r u c k the a n c i e n t s no to a t t r i b u t e  the  in  less  these  As M a h a f f y  i n e x p r e s s i o n , but not 1.112  an  a r e c o n s t a n t l y b e i n g made  to a condensation of thought.  II  dis-  into  Monysius  been a mistake  "Greek L i t e r a t u r e " ,  not an  both i n s t y l e  straightforward  must  the speeches  speeches  i s d a r k e r , as  I t has  i s "condensed  briefly  w h i c h we  by H e r o d o t u s ,  t h i s p e c u l i a r i t y , which  than o u r s e l v e s .  had  the  chary of  c h a r a c t e r to  f e a t u r e , and  a r e h i s own.  sayings of Herodotus.  explain  he was  p o i n t was  for all?  of p u t t i n g  seen.  of l u c i d ,  darkness,  non-  o f h i s work and  i n i t s pages,  b e e n used  have  Thucydides-?. s p e e c h e s  to  idea  the c h a r a c t e r s had  obscure  large  have dons w i t h  The  of a  precision.  They a r e a d r a m a t i c  Homer as we  him  f e a t u r e of the h i s t o r y , i n b r e d i n i t s  looming  once and  of the author.  ering  Thucydides*  to c h r o n o l o g i c a l  Thucydides.  from  f o r the i n a d e q u a c y  of i t s chronology.  There  of  he  same p e r i o d ,  pretense  of  i s , where he o u t l i n e d  g r o w t h o f A t h e n i a n power a f t e r  covered  a draw-  t o t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f l i t e r a r y a r t the demand  precision.  d a t e s snd  i t was  pointed  thought."^ ' 1  Bury  advances  what we. may f a i r l y  call  the theory that  When he w r i t e s i n t h e n a t u r a l evidence.  making p o i n t s o f h i s own  style,  G„ P„ A b b o t t  i f he was n o t b o r n  • •  he i s p r o d u c i n g docuraent-  suggests that  c o n n e c t i o n w i t h T h r a c e was a c l o s e r perhaps,  adopts  h i s u n n a t u r a l s t y l e , when he i 3 i n -  v o l v e d , and o b s c u r e , he i s . a l w a y s  ary  "when T h u c y d i d e s  Thucydides'  one t h a n we i m a g i n e ;  that  t h e r e , he s p e n t h i s c h i l d h o o d  t h e r e , and so T h r a e i a n was h i s v e r n a c u l a r , and Greek s a a c quired, tongue. Grundy's great  "Thucydides  t o t h e same e f f e c t  and t h e H i s t o r y  s c h o l a r and v e r y l e a r n e d  "Thucydides* passages, the  Something  "which  p r o s e , " Mr. A b b o t t  might  almost  fancy) external a i d . " *  b e e n advanced  with  to e x p l a i n t h i s  c o n t i n u e to r e m a i n the h i s t o r i a n  being, that  of t h i r t e e n  accept  this  to  B.C.  o r (one  h y p o t h e s i s has  so f a r a s we c a n the f a u l t  lies  t h e m a n u s c r i p t s whi ch have come  i s earlier  hundred  obscurities  years.  than the 10th c e n t u r y , over a  But i f we a r e I n c l i n e d to the m y s t i f i c a t i o n  over  d a t e 3 back to a s e a r l y a s t h e 1 s t  'before t h e c o p y i s t s  had much t i m e  a reputation already established  amply d e s e r v e d .  with  effort,  one? n a m e l y , t h a t  v i e w , we must remember t h a t  recurring  century  be compared  i s , t h e outcome o f s u c c e s s i v e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s  period  their  said,  t h a t he  Another  mystery, which,  but with  down t o u s , none o f w h i c h  where a  suggests  strenuous '  i n Dr.  As f o r t h e  f o r c l e a r n e s s and p u r i t y might  n o t have w r i t t e n them " w i t h o u t  not  2  man i s r e p o r t e d t o have  could  will  of h i s Age,"^ '  Greek i s a t b e s t good T h r a e i a n * "  b e s t examples o f A t t i c  see,  i s advanced  to c o n t r i b u t e  and, i n D i o n y s i u s * o p i n i o n ,  Enough has been s a i d  of hypotheses  (1) "Anc.Greek H i s t o r y " , pp.112,114 (2) P.52 (3) A b b o t t , " T h u c " , P. 226 (4) T b i d , , P. 224  which  can i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y  o n l y remain  I f Thucydides* was to  h i s use* o f them. c o n c e a l the  He  style  i n the  employed  subjective  events.  the  forces that  ure  the c h a r a c t e r s and  well  as  to r e a l i z e  speechesthen, and  as w i l l  He  a d r a m a t i s t , remains o n l y to  v e r y few  licias,  make t h e  serve another  c h a r a c t e r s o f the two  t i o n a b l y Thucydides* are  ready  a much s i m p l e r one (1)  Bury,  the  o f the l e a d i n g  history  He  "Ancient  employed To  actors,  these  itself.  cities,  often ex-  Athens  p a r t y , the was  unques-  g e n e r a l remarks Our  found  Greek H i s t o r y " , P.116-  did  them  g i v e one  of a third  t h a n t h a t w i t h w h i c h we  state-  For T h u c y d i d e s  protagonistic  With  judgments,  These  famous c o m p a r i s o n  himself.^'  to l o o k i n t o  personal  etc.  or  contemporaries.  h i s own.  i n a speech  C o r i n t h i a n s } the author o f t h i s  we  their  purpose.  of studies'of  i n the  i n t r o d u c e them to u s ,  exceptions.  speeches  Alcibiades,  delineated  I n the  Alcibiades  such as P e r i c l e s ,  t a , are  as  ( c f . Cleor/and  there are  a r  o f the a c t o r s ,  affairs,  rule  Sp  t h i n g s happen and  the p a r t s  to t h i s  "The  more to do  to u n d e r s t a n d  i s t o commit h i m s e l f to no  amples  into  as much o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r s  rule  disguises  enters  they a c t .  5  as.dramatic  but  us  comes f o r w a r d  speeches  ao  i s bound, t h e r e f o r e , t o meas-  enable  ments o f c o u r s e a p p l y to t h e  and  show why  i n d i c a t e t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h e y made on  Thucydides  h i s own,  h i s t o r i a n has  the c o n d i t i o n s i n which  The a u t h o r , l i k e  background.  and  He  was  inevitably  penetrate the motives  they are p l a y i n g i n p u b l i c  to  He must  the a c t o r s r e v e a l  personalities  especially.)  that  F o r an  a r e a t work.  speeches  them not as an ornament  element  the composition o f a h i s t o r y . t h a n to c h r o n i c l e  such.  task w i l l  ourselves  be  confronted will The  have h e r e  approached  few  the h i s t o r y o f H e r o d o t u s .  digressions  h i s t o r y , b e i n g the h i s t o r y  period by  when we  o f twenty-seven  us out  o f a war,  years, w i l l  s t e p t o i t s c o n c l u s i o n , and  us.than  to l e a d  o f our  though  We  course.  i t covers a  n e v e r t h e l e s s p r o g r e s s step  will  not n e c e s s i t a t e  more  t h e mere r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t  from  events i n  it. Book X opens w i t h a n a c c o u n t Greece. ancient  As we and  have i n t i m a t e d , i t shows a c u r i o u s m i x t u r e  modern methods, a n c i e n t I n t h a t  on e p i c p o e t r y and  own  day,  the  Greeks  system,,and  closely Greece  life,  limits  reasoned  o f l e g e n d s and  etc.^ ^ or n o t we  to which  new  details  way that  s t o r e o f Greek t r a d i t i o n , march o f d e v e l o p m e n t ,  his  There  accept i t a l l ,  need  a shining  of  the g r a s p o f Is  astonishing.  t o be a r e v e l a t i o n t o history.  constituted  f o r us  of  a d h e r e s , i t i s a most  i t proved  Thucydides  seized  carrying  power, and  of t r e a t i n g had  depended  the a n c i e n t usages  the  From the mass ill-organized  constructed a  w i t h t h e arguments t h a t  i s no  sketch remains  The  of  the b a r b a r i a n customs o f  i t strictly  a r g u m e n t , and  of a t o t a l l y  clusions.  he had  - the p r e v a l e n c e of p i r a c y , h a b i t u a l  a c c o u n t , whether  W i t h i n the  used  f o r example, to i l l u s t r a t e  arms i n e v e r y d a y this  Thucydides  f o l k - m e m o r y ! modern i n t h a t  upon t h e c o m p a r a t i v e his  o f the e a r l y h i s t o r y of  reasoned  l e d t o h i s con-  to c r i t i c i z e  the  details;  example o f s h e e r h i s t o r i c a l i n -  sight. The after (1)  the end  outline  o f the growth o f the A t h e n i a n  o f the P e r s i a n war,  Thucydides,  1.4  empire  i s a study of another  sort.  The  account  latter  of early  Greece  i s a digression?  r e a s o n which  Thucydides  was a p r e f a c e to t h e h i s t o r y , t h e  b u t one p e c u l i a r l y advanced  to the p o i n t .  a s t o t h e cause  o f the Pelop-  o n n e s i a n war, was t h e f e a r  S p a r t a had o f A t h e n s ' g r o w i n g  The  that  historian  saw t h e need  gave u s , i n t h e a c c o u n t piece of h i s t o r i c a l other a u t h o r . ^ ^ 478  perished.  i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t we have r e c e i v e d  o f t h e seed  has t o o , by t h i s  own h i s t o r y w i t h t h a t  of Herodotus,  o f t h e Greek f l e e t .  There  exists,  2  empire,  narration, linked  up h i s  ended, a s may be r e -  and t h e e v e n t u a l r e t u r n home therefore,  n a r r a t i v e o f Greek h i s t o r y  f o rus, a contin-  f r o m about  650 B.C.  411 B.C. We have made s u f f i c i e n t  comment upon t h e " c a u s e " o f  t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n war i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o c c a s i o n o f i t was t h e i n c i d e n t s had  League,' ^  of the Athenian  which  c a l l e d , w i t h the success a t Mycale,  to  from no  f o r a g r e a t growth b e f o r e i t i n e v i t a b l y  Thucydides  uous h i s t o r i c a l  i n d i c a t e d , and  I n the o r g a n i s a t i o n o f the D e l i a n  was d e s t i n e d  power.  of the "Pentecontactia" a valuable  B.C., we see t h e sowing  which  such a s t a t e m e n t  The  suited  the purpose  w i t h Athens  hitherto?  of Corinth  t o keep on f r i e n d l y service  B u t now, h e r c o m m e r c i a l  t h r e a t e n e d , she d e t e r m i n e d  to destroy her.  who would  Sparta's oft-flagging  Corinth  have r a z e d A t h e n s  when t h e c i t y was f i n a l l y (1.)  T h u c y d i d e s , 1.96  and s o l d  taken.  spirits.  at t i m e s ,  i t was who  who s p u r r e d o n ,  C o r i n t h i t was  her c i t i z e n s  Her i n f l u e n c e  terms  superiority  the congress o f the Peloponnesian a l l i e s ,  more t h a n o n c e ,  The  o f Epidamnus and P o t i d a e a . I t  she had done h e r good  as we saw i n H e r o d o t u s .  called  to T h u c y d i d e s .  into  slavery,  throughout  should hut  be k e p t  i n mind % t h e p a r t  she p l a y e d was an u n p l e a s a n t  i m p o r t a n t one. At t h e end o f Book I war i s i m m i n e n t , "but i t h a s not  actually  broken  out.  "The c o n t e n d i n g p a r t i e s  i n t e r c o u r s e w i t h one a n o t h e r , and v i s i t h e r a l d s, b u t n o t w i t h  each  still other  confidence."^^  entire  keep up  w  e  a  r  without thus p r e -  e  pared  f o r the b e g i n n i n g o f Book I I .  first  book, we have s e e n t h e d i s m a l end o f two g r e a t men, who  were h e r o e s  During the course  a t t h e end o f t h e p r e v i o u s war.  of the  It i s "farewell*"  to T h e m i s t o c l e s and P a u s a n i a s . I n Book I I t h e war between t h e A t h e n i a n s and the Peloponnesians, The  Thirty  and t h e a l l i e s  o f both  sides, actually  Y e a r s * Peace t r e a t y w h i c h had been c o n c l u d e d  the r e c o v e r y o f E u b o e a , B.C. 446, was now b r o k e n attack  begins.  on P l a t a e a .  The c o m b a t a n t s  by a Theban  on t h e one s i d e ,  l e t i t be  remembered, were S p a r t a and a l l the o t h e r P e l o p o n n e s i a n save A r g o s Locris, her  and A m b r a c i a j  which c o n s i s t e d  onfcthe o t h e r s i d e , Athens and  a t that  time  Aegean i s l a n d s and t h e c o a s t c i t i e s  struggle.  In the e a r l y  under A r c h i d a m u s ,  plus Acarn-  The s t r e n g t h o f t h e  invaded  country estates.  summer  Attica.  Pericles*  Thucydides,  1.146  Towards  s e e , even P e r s i a was drawn  into  o f 431 B.C., t h e S p a r t a n s , A l l the A t h e n i a n s , upon  P e r i c l e s » a d v i c e , had w i t h d r a w n i n t o  (1)  Minor;  l a y i n i t s army, o f t h e l a t t e r , i n i t s f l e e t .  t h e end o f t h e war, as we s h a l l the  of n e a r l y a l l the  of Asia  a n i a , P l a t a e a , C o r c y r a and Z a c y n t h u s . former  states  and Aohaea, p l u s M e g a r a , most o f B o e o t i a , P h o c i s ,  Leucas,  empire,  after  the c i t y ,  p o l i c y of t i r i n g  abandoning  their  t h e enemy out by  p r o v i n g Athens * i n v u l n e r a b i l i t y w a s rise  a year  later  Athenian f l e e t  with  Thrace  'Funeral  and  and  s h i p s was  The  about  the  Macedonia.  but  i t gave  Meanwhile  retaliating  an  by r a v a g i n g  Aeginetans, too, received  were e x p e l l e d  concluded  from  their  taste An  Athenians  o c c u r s the g r e a t  t h a n w h i c h no  ever received  a  island.  same time by t h e  In Book I I ^ '  Speech* o f P e r i c l e s ,  d i d e s * work has essence  hundred  coast.  of Athenian anger, a l l i a n c e was  sound one,  to.an unforeseen calamity.  o f one  the P e l o p o n n e s i a n  a  p o r t i o n o f Thucy-  greater admiration.  In i t s  i t i s a e u l o g y o f the A t h e n i a n Democracy? "a m a g n i f i -  cent p i c t u r e  o f a model  s t a t e ; a t once a  school f o r culture  and  12) a p a t t e r n of c i y i c But that  dreadful  into  the c i t y .  virtue."  Book I I a l s o  '  4  r e c o r d s the outbreak  c a l a m i t y w h i c h was Its effect,  the d i r e c t  ( l / 3 o f the p o p u l a t i o n p e r i s h e d ) was  chief  loss i t inflicted  in  political o r had  ability.  left  terminated policies, changed  He was  sound  enough had  the d e a t h  convinced  that  But  to h e r , and Oh.  429,.  a t the end 33  seq.  o f the (2)  i f Pericles  had  would  he d i d n o t , and  lived have  his  them, were  altogether.  Potidaea  summer o f 429 Abbott,  who  Pericles*  o f Book I I , however, the outlook, f o r B.C.,  the  Thucydides,.  he been t h e r e t o d i r e c t  I n the w i n t e r o f 430  man-  of P e r i c l e s ,  i n the h i g h e s t terms o f  by h i s s u c c e s s o r s or abandoned end  and  i n e s t i m a b l e , but  summer, B.C.  f a v o u r a b l y f o r Athens.  brighter.  (1)  speaks  Plague,  of h e r d i n g  a s u c c e s s o r a s a b l e as h i m s e l f , the war  At the is  upon them was  v i c t i m t o i t i n the second  recording h i s death,  result  b o t h upon A t h e n i a n m o r a l e  power  fell  o f the  "Thuc."  B.C.,  Athens  surrendered the  P.109  Athenian  fleet  won a c o m p l e t e  • Ahout  t h e same time  tered  into  v i c t o r y o v e r t h e enemy a t Sitalces,  son o f T e r e s , k i n g o f T h r a c e , e n -  a n u n s u c c e s s f u l war w i t h P e r d i a c o s o f H a c e d o n , and  h e r e , as H e r o d o t u s opportunity involved.  was accustomed  to do, T h u c y d i d e s  to g i v e us some i n f o r m a t i o n about  r e t u r n e d s u c c e s s f u l , thus b r i n g i n g  war  and t h e second In  time Lesbos  the t h i r d  Aearnania, y e a r o f the  book o f t h e h i s t o r y t o a c l o s e .  Book I I I t h e S p a r t a n s , w i t h  their  s e i s e s the  the two c o u n t r i e s  The A t h e n i a n s , under P h o r n i u s , i n v a d e d  and  repeated  Haupactos.  former  revolted  tactics from  and ravaged  Athens.  enaeans we see how r a d i c a l l y  the coming o f s p r i n g , Attica,  I n t h e speech  At t h e same o f the M y t i 1 -  o p i n i o n had a l t e r e d .  now t h e champion o f t h e o p p r e s s e d ,  the s a v i o r s  S p a r t a was  of H e l l a s .  At  t h e end o f 428 B.C., t h e s i e g e o f M y t i l e n e was  still  and  A t t i c a , causing  i n 427 B.C. t h e S p a r t a n s once more r a v a g e d  great  distress.  The M y t i l e n a e a n s were f i n a l l y  going on,  reduced  t o making  t e r m s , w i t h t h e A t h e n i a n s , and f o r a time were v e r y much i n danger o f b e i n g e x t e r m i n a t e d " t h e most v i o l e n t  C l e o n , son o f C l e o e n e t u s ,  o f the c i t i z e n s , who a t t h a t  by  f a r the g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e  of  death  to t h e r e b e l s ,  Fortunately  by them,  over  and spoke  them,"^ * ^  time  exercised  carried  a decree  strongly against i t s repeal.  the f e e l i n g o f clemency  personified  i n Diodotus,  s o n o f E u c r a t e s , p r e v a i l e d , and t h e A t h e n i a n name was spared i n this  i n s t a n c e , the b l o t  incurred  at a later  upon i t w h i c h  date.  the i n c i d e n t  But i f the f a i r  mained u n s o i l e d , t h e S p a r t a n name d i d n o t . sieging (1)  f o r some time Thuc.  III.36  the c i t y  o f Melos  name o f Athens r e They had been be-  o f P l a t a e a , and had f i n a l l y  procured  i t s surrender.  Thereupon,, a t t h e  Thebans* i g n o r i n g t h e p l e a o f t h e t h e y gave the  men  s l a v e r y , and tory ten  they  razed  seen  the  final  the  public  the  fate  of  the  inhabitants for a just  sword, the women and  town to  into  Such was  t h a t had the  to the  converted  years.  state  up  instigation  ground.  l a n d and  The  children  the  to  Plataean  l e t out  o f P l a t a e a , the  trial,  f o r terms o f  gallant  fought  at Marathon with  battle  o f the P e r s i a n wars f o u g h t  terri-  little  A t h e n i a n s , and before  had  her  w a l l s. Corcyra  was  s h i p s o f S p a r t a and strife from  t h a t had  left  own  'for t h e i r This  conflict almost by  r e f l e c t i n g with an  "Politics",  i t s e l f was  designs  a g a i n s t the  the  and  under  Corcyrans, oli-  democracy." the  world;  beginning of a  strife,  effects  up  in  e n c o u r a g e d as i t  was,  Thucydides,  i n t r o d u c e s at  to A r i s t o t l e ' s  causes  Corcyr  t h e m a j o r i t y o f the  or L a c e d a e m o n i a n h e l p .  similar  fleet  o l i g a r c h y .which s p r a n g  civic  the  t o r n with  to draw  Spartan  i n C o r c y r a was  i n the H e l l e n i c  upon the  The  t o w i t h d r a w , and  d e v i c e s , massacred  f e e l i n g on  excursus  m e e t i n g between  r e t u r n of the p r i s o n e r s  to Athens.  revolution  city  island  w i t h the  compelled  t h e hope o f A t h e n i a n  point  The  between democracy and  every  of t h e next  b e i n g o l i g a r c h s , were s e e k i n g  finally  to t h e i r  garchs  Athens..  i t s allegiance  Prasi-das was  scene  originated  C o r i n t h , who,  away from  the  statements  this  i n the  of the r e v o l u t i o n a r y  spirit. The Syracusaas in  and  war  now  entered  new  territory.  L e o n t i n e s were a t war,  o b t a i n i n g a i d from  and  The  Sicilian  the l a t t e r  Athens, f o r the Athenians  had  succeeded an  eye  to  Sicily from  a l r e a d y , and  getting  corn there.  indeterminate earthquakes  they a l s o  fashion,  to p r e v e n t  the  Spartans  W h i l e a f f a i r s were p r o g r e s s i n g i n an  the P l a g u e  shook A t t i c a ,  t h e y were a b l e s s i n g ,  wished  a g a i n r e t u r n e d to Athens  B o e o t i a and  f o r Athens,  Euhoea.  I n one  f o r they prevented  and  respect the  Lace-  d a e m o n i a n s from once more r a v a g i n g A t t i c a ;  a policy  had  summer, the \?ar c o n -  adopted  tinued  permanently.  in Sicily  and  Demosthenes, N i c i a s  In the  following  i n v a r i o u s p a r t s o f the and  P r o c l e s were t h e c h i e f  'They a t t a c k e d t h e I s l a n d  but  Tanagra  took  Sicily  were m e e t i n g  v i c t o r y won  by  I n the w i n t e r  it.  The  Ambraciots  w i t h poor  failed  A t h e n i a n arms i n  the A t h e n i a n g e n e r a l L o c h e s  over the  Locrians.  purified  D e l e s and  restored  end.  We  shall  by a  the  see i n a  o f Athenian d e t e r m i n a t i o n at t h i s time  first  i n the a f f a i r s happening  ravaging A t t i c a  defeated  then blockaded  of  related  o f P y l o s , which and  forced  to  take  the S p a r t -  i n t h e bay  up.  little  The  The  o f P y l o s and island  on w h i c h a L a c e d a e m o n i a n f o r c e , pent  later  i n Book I f  h a s t e n t o a t t a c k him.  S p h a c t e r i a , a d e n s e l y wooded  o f S p a r t a n c i t i z e n s , was  and  Sicily.  of importance  the P e l o p o n n e s i a n s  the mouth o f t h e b a y , chiefly  i t was  offset  Demosthenes' f o r t i f i c a t i o n  Athenians  sent  t h i s was  part  The  to eease  but  on  s u c c e s s , but  b r i n g s Book I I I t o an  a more a c t i v e  ans  into  An A t h e n i a n v i c t o r y o v e r t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n s  book the r e s u l t  is  Athenian generals  Lacedaemonians nest  some A c a r n a n i a n a l l i e s *  the A t h e n i a n s  D e l d a n games.,  mainland.  p r o v i n g u n s u c c e s s f u l they turned  an e x p e d i t i o n under E u r y l o c h u s t o H a u p a c t u s , by Demosthenes and  now  o f M e l o s t o compel the S e l i a n s  the Athenian a l l i a n c e , i n B o e o t i a and  Greek  they  Spartan  in  consisting  g o v e r n m e n t , s e e i n g no way t o save  t h e i r men, o f f e r e d  the A t h e n i a n s , o v e r j o y e d a t t h e i r  s u c c e s s , were p e r s u a d e d  Cleon to continue the s i e g e . ••to t a k e  t h e men p r i s o n e r ,  Thucydides* ing, It  and d i d so w i t h i n  for.  perienced military hundred do  man l i k e  t h e most  violent  o f t h e man o r what  right  i n feeling  come o f f | "hut a p e r s o n might  enormously  occasional  ian  cities  garchical  them t o do s o .  through  Spartan c i t i z e n s  and  o f the  t h a t a non-  C l e o n c o u l d n o t hope f o r one chance i n a  Cleon, guaranteed  The  remark.  the h i s t o r i a n ,  o f s u c c e e d i n g where e x p e r t s had f a i l e d .  twenty  andertak-  be. t h a t T h u c y d i d e s , a s an e x -  m i l i t a r y man, was q u i t e  triumphed and  I t may a l s o w e l l  occasionally  like  61 eon  that  c o u l d n o t here hide h i s d i s l i k e  stood  days.  h a r d l y seems a f a i r  he e x p l a i n e d "by t h e f a c t  who, a s we have s e e n , c a l l e d  he  twenty  comment upon t h e s t o r y - "and so C l e o n * s  can perhaps  hy  E v e n t u a l l y C l e o n h i m s e l f s e t out  mad a s i t was, came off."?  citizens,  p e a c e , hut  Athenians  "Long  shots"  be c a l l e d  But a t l e a s t  mad,  w'iS'O,  Athens  the i n c i d e n t , w h i c h p u t one  hundred  i n t o h e r hands.  i n S i c i l y meanwhile, a f t e r  some  success  l o s s e s , came to t e r m s w i t h t h e l e a g u e o f S i c i l -  and w i t h d r e w  from  p a r t y had g a i n e d  the i s l a n d .  I n Megara t h e o l i -  c o n t r o l w i t h the h e l p of the Spartans  under B r a s i d a s , b u t i n C o r c y r a t h e o l i g a r c h s who had made another attempt  a t power, were c r u e l l y  put to death.  In the  summer o f 423 B.C. a t r u c e f o r one y e a r was c o n c l u d e d  between  the h o s t i l e  the r e t u r n  of  states.  Sparta entered Into i t to secure  t h e p r i s o n e r s o f P y l o s , Athens  because  she was alarmed a t  t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e S p a r t a n g e n e r a l B r a s i d a s , i n T h r a c e ; among other  p l a c e s he had t a k e n A m p h i p o l i s  from  Athens.  Nothing the  summer o f 422  are  related  for  Athens  Athens  o f moment was B.C.  hostilities  i n Book I T . resulted  and  effected  Gleon's  and  of  H i c i a s of Athens,  called one  the  "Fifty  b u t when she former who  b e i n g urged  S p a r t a was  tried  t o do  for their  own  For  good, but  during this  The  "Thirty  was  not  renewed.  hated  the  the t r i c k e r y with to  Argos  the c i t y  s i x y e a r s and  On  the  b e f o r e to  Amphipolis  to  gos  began a war  ary  ofcimi sh, prepared  Spartan  by no and  concluded  a t r e a t y was and  f o r , on  against Epidaurus and s  came t o a head  f o r war  her  Athenians  prisoners  means  held  tranquil.  S p a r t a e x p i r e d and  s e t out  to f o r m  concluded Elis.  an  Corinth,  w i t h Athens.  Through  by  Athens  This treaty led  the s t r e n g t h o f i t , A r Sparta, after  a g a i n s t her  i n the b a t t l e  By  Athens,  w i t h the  c o n f e d e r a c y , a t the p e r s u a s i o n o f  her a l l i e s , Mantinea  a peace  concluded  t e n months the t r e a t y  c o n t r a r y , Argos  of Alcibiades,  and  o f B r a s i d a s ? hut  refused to r e t u r n to  t i m e was  p e a c e S p a r t a had  Amphipolis  "Peace o f S i c i a s " .  r e t u r n e d the  a reop'ening o f h o s t i l i t i e s ,  affair  or the  and  by P l e i s t o a n a n , k i n g  they f i n a l l y  T e a r s " t r e a t y between A r g o s  anti-Lacedaemonian who  end  to g i v e up  part,  taken a t P y l o s . Greece  that  in  resumed,  t o w i n hack  T h i s became a s o r e p o i n t  allegiance*  had,  so  t r u c e , and  than a year  to t h a t  Years" Peace,  o f the terms,  attempt  even more e a g e r  come t o t e r m s ;  this  f o r a time  were  o n l y i n h i s d e a t h and  S p a r t a were  S p a r t a , and  hy  a  prelimin-  i n earnest.  of Mantinea,  B.C.  The 418,  a  viotory for Sparta. The t r u c e t h e n made by S p a r t a and .Argos,v.••••a , l e d to a n o t h e r between S p a r t a and M a n t i n e a , which  severed  peace was  the A r g i n e - A t h e n i a n a l l i a n c e .  still  l o n g remain  so.  f o r m a l l y unbroken, but I t had  been c o n c l u d e d  The"Fifty  the A r g i n e  Years"  truce  by o l i g a r c h s ,  and  did the  not  p e o p l e , encouraged on a h e a v y n o t e smirched  by A l c l b i a d e s ,  f o r Athens.  I t was  at t h i s  her name, by no means u n s p o t t e d  aii u g l y s t a i n * -  The  :  s m a l l , almost  defenceless Island  slavery.  They  settlers  of t h e i r  directed  into  though  carried  she  i t now  be-  was,  a t t a c k on  with the  destroyed  o f f t h e women and  children  then colonized  own*  that  of Melos, u t t e r l y  the i s l a n d  A t h e n i a n p o l i c y was  with five  hundred  probably being  s u c h c h a n n e l s by A l c i b i a d e s , who  treme measures n e c e s s a r y t o overawe t h e the  time  A t h e n i a n s made a n unprovoked  t h e male i n h a b i t a n t s and into  r e p u d i a t e d i t . Book V ends  deemed  s u b j e c t s and  such  ex-  allies  of  city. a Books VI and  themselves.  They a r e an e n t i t y ,  the S i c i l i a n ; er.  e x p e d i t i o n , and  From the p o i n t  finished,  V I I might  o f view  c l a m a t i o n s , and  suffers  relating  a s s u c h we  t a k e n as h i s t o r y t h e whole s t o r y  will  i n intensity very l i t t l e  for carefully  finds  i t s widest  w i t h one emotion  scope and  solitary packed  planned  speeches?  the r e a s o n cannot  and  vigorously  be  i t i s tremendous.'  Thucydides' crowning a c h i e v e m e n t . " ^ ^ Books VI and detail. {1}  We  V I I a r e too w e l l will  Abbott,  Q  of  o n l y a few  "Thuc."  pp. 204,  Beyond The  o f them. 205  why  that  de-  we  the  shall seventh  book the a u t h o r ' s narrative, The  r e s t r a i n e d , but  known to need  notice  history.  sustained  highest expression  exception, i s quite  into  I  togeth-  digressions,  book i s i n c o m p l e t e or even - u n r e v i s e d . " I n t h i s gift  take.them  o f a l l the  from  documents ? t h e r e a r e no  n e v e r know? "but c e r t a i n l y  be  o f s t y l e . Book V I I i s the most  the most d i s t i n c t  Here t h e n a r r a t i v e  almost  a doubt  writing, the i t is  events r e l a t e d  in  setting forth i n  The  account  o f Book 71  beginning  t i o n s o f T h r a c e and sion  such as  o f t h e r a c e s and belongs i n the  H e r o d o t u s made use two  Thucydides.would  have p u t  known o f  It  has  authors*  i n w r i t i n g these  (only) e x i s t s  with  Athenians,  gave her  the o p p o r t u n i t y  rivalries  s i d e o f her  interests.*  Hi c i a s and of  war,  ing  and  thus  o f the  digres-  is this  differ-  such a d i g r e s s i o n . o r an a p p e n d i x  n e v e r have done  had  so. that  T h u c y d i d e s made tt.ee o f of Syracuse, a high  have s e e n , had Dorian  i n 4S4  whioh  now  reputation  one  from  Sparta  ship  f o r the  where he  used  leader  than  his  j o b - a c h a n c e to win  and  had  come to  the  colonies to  p a r t i e s both  outset.  The  Athen-  f o l l y of  divergent  and  trust-  policies  was  nearly  Alcihia.des  was  to e s c a p e c e r t a i n d e a t h  h i s admirable  t a l e n t s and  he  general-  F a t e , however, gave E l e i a s  A l c i b i a d e s , for h i s heart  still.  there,  o f peace  o f madness removed  and  in  interfere  ' f u r t h e r the  successfully.  enemy.  fought  expedition, Alciblades,  of widely  ended  b e n e f i t o f the  able  the  further piece  being  B.C.  incidentally  the  already  Ionian  i n 415  as  on a c h a r g e o f i m p i e t y ,  to  and  commanders o f t h e  disagreed  hope o f t h e war  far less  of  once e n j o y e d  as we  e x p e d i t i o n to men  fled  a  there  footnote  Antiochus  Lamarohus, r e p r e s e n t e d  s u c h an  recalled  descrip-  some d e g r e e o f p r o b a b i l i t y ,  k i n s m e n and  The  soon a p p a r e n t , and all  of the  i n the  ancients.  The  ian  a  (¥1.1-5)  chapters  Sicily.  the  i t with  i n f r a g m e n t s , but  The  on  But  conception  o f S i c i l y " , a work by  among the  of.  such t h i n g s , H e r o d o t u s c o u l d  been conjectured  "History  category  of S i c i l y  Macedonia, that I s , a c o n v e n t i o n a l  ence between t h e  he  cities  The  point of y i e l d i n g  was  not  in  S y r a c u s a n s were i n d e s p a i r should  the  Athenians  press  t h e i r advantage* arrival  But M i c i a s  o f the Spartan  l e t the o p p o r t u n i t y  Gylippus  ended a l l hope o f t h e i r  put courage i n t o  surrendering*  t h e enemy and  Even then  m i g h t have r e t r e a t e d i n s a f e t y , h u t H i c i a s * at  s l i p , and t h e  the  superstitious fears  t h e e c l i p s e o f t h e new aoozi b r o u g h t aTsout a d e l a y  fatal  to the e x p e d i t i o n .  Athenians  The u l t i m a t e c o m p l e t e n e s s  t h a t was o f the  (1) Syracusans'  victory,  geance, proved  followed  t h e t u r n i n g p o i n t o f __the war.  of their  ven-  For the A t h e n i -  ans  a t home had been c a r r y i n g on a s t r u g g l e as v i t a l a s t h e  one  i n which  fered  their  g r e a t l y from  were no l o n g e r  navy a b r o a d was engaged, and t h e y had s u f the i n v a s i o n s o f the Peloponnesians,  p e r i o d i c but continuous.  Alcibiades * advice, a permanent Athenians'  base  had f o r t i f i e d  for their  the  besieged  had  t o come by s e a a t g r e a t  city  city  could  as a f o r t , " ^  I  Decelea  take  -  t  Twenty thousand  at Spartan  no l o n g e r  n  and were using  t o them t h e r e *  had p e r i s h e d  M  cost. s  c  o  n  d  1  on  i t as of the  A l l the Athenian hands.  Provisions for  the o v e r l a n d  'Athens r e s e m b l e d  ition  which  F o r the S p a r t a n s ,  incursions.  slaves deserted  sheep and c a t t l e  a  by the c r u e l t y  route, but n o t so much  she s t o o d when Book V I I  comes t o an end. low  comes t o t h e f o r e the i n d o m i t a b l e  will  t h a t was s t r o n g e s t when h e r danger was g r e a t e s t . position. front that the  'She c o u l d  to t h e enemy.  no l o n g e r  present  them to r e v o l t .  same weakness, f o r t h e f i r s t  fleet (1)  into  t h e Aegean.  413 B.C.  tine  The r e s o u r c e s (2) V I I . 2 3  Consider her  h e r empire w i t h  Her a l l i e s were s e i z i n g  h e r weakness a f f o r d e d  of Athens,  a united  the o p p o r t u n i t y Sparta,  ventured  c o u n t i n g on  to send a  o f t h e enemy were  strong doubled  w i t h the  entry of S i c i l y  rous defeat at Syracuse y o u t h , and, that to  had  be  what was  kept  lifted  the  into had  more  free  w i t h A t h e n s to a s u c c e s s f u l  their  I t i s i n such  democracy appears  its.surprising there evil the  and  i t breeds.  But  Peloponnesian  Book 711,  Book T i l l we  'knock-down blo.w*.  completion  of the  the Athenians  their for of  C h i o s was  war such  s t r u g g l e f o r nine'  as t h e s e  that  the  have drawn t h e remark  i l l i s c a p r i c e , and  and  u n r e v i sed. t o us I n t h e  Thucydides  indeed,  that for  the  caprice  lost  final are  stage  indebted  Here, as i n third  been a b l e to  them i n t o  the i n i t i a t i v e  spared  r e s e r v e fund  t h e purpose',  they  direct  o f the  person  complete  speeches.  Book  s t r u g g l e , but  not  t o Xenophon f o r the  history.  Chios took and  We  that  faee o f  government, compensation  have . r e c a s t and  were  Athens.  t h a t had  V I I I r e c o r d s the t h i r d  was  The P e r s i a n s ,  hands, provided  a gallant  i s incomplete*  i t seems l i k e l y  more hand  l e t , i n the  have a r g u m e n t s p r e s e n t e d  t h e book, he would  the  energy  for  sailors  i n i t s most f a v o u r a b l e l i g h t ;  i t s chief  war  her  skilled  One  done.  circumstances  i s , i n extreme p o p u l a r  ^  but  spirit  flower of  them to p r o s e c u t e the  issue.  ..enormous odds,. A t h e n s m a i n t a i n e d  Athenian  enemies.  disast-  to: a c t i o n by t h e S p a r t a n s , who  them w i t h money t o e n a b l e  y e a r s more.  o f the  s e r i o u s , o f the  o f her  to g i v e I o n i a back i n t o  supplied  her  a g a i n s t her b e f o r e a l l was  l o n g dormant, were r o u s e d willing  f r a y ; w h i l e Athens'  robbed  still  seas  the  no  pains  o f money - one  and  a signal  s e t about  i n the  revolt  to r e c o v e r h e r . thousand  Athens,  They  voted  t a l e n t s - to be  manning s h i p s .  f o r a l l the a l l i e s  from  For t h e  to f o l l o w  used  revolt  suit;  Lesbos,  E r y t h r a e , and Euboea and  had m e r e l y  M i l e t u s s o o n added  entered  now  professed  into  their  liberators  herself first  h e e n w a i t i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y , to t h e i r  ranks.  The S p a r t a n s  t r e a t y w i t h P e r s i a , and  of Hellas  from  though  the A t h e n i a n y o k e ,  they  "f  handed  h a c k i n t h i s agreement  masters. alty, from  At . t h i s c r i s i s  for  Samos gave A t h e n s  to t h e i r  the Delian league.  t o secede  Her p e o p l e , a i d e d by t h e crews o f  s h i p s , r o s e a g a i n s t t h e Samian o l i g a r c h s and  or banished  some  s i s hundred  o f them.  They t h e n d e c l a r e d  a d e m o c r a c y , and t h e A t h e n i a n s , a s s u r e d o f t h e i r  granted  former  a proof o f her l o y -  a l t h o u g h o n l y t h i r t y y e a r s b e f o r e she had sought  three Athenian slew  the Ionian c i t i e s  them i n d e p e n d e n c e .  by t h e C h i a n s , had b r o k e n  M y t i l e n e , by t h i s from  Athens,  time,  devotion, persuaded  b u t prompt a c t i o n e n -  " a b l e d h e r t o r e c o v e r t h e c i t y w i t h t h e who 1e o f the i s l a n d and a f t e r w a r d s Clazomenae. in  Moreover, Athens  t h r e e b a t t l e s , and b r o u g h t  them n e a r  d e f e a t e d the Chians to s u r r e n d e r i n g .  a l s o , with Argine help, blockaded<Miletus, of her g e n e r a l , P h r y n i c h u s , withdrew t h e v i c t o r y . s h e had begun. still fell  fighting into  with Sparta, but a f t e r  fled  the G r e a t K i n g ' s  he  could to i n j u r e  i n t e r e s t s , and by w o r k i n g the Peloponnesian  injuring  have gone o v e r  the s u p e r i o r He f i n a l l y  the a f f a i r  was  o f M i l e t u s he f o r h i s death.  to T i s s a p h o r n e s , the P e r s i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  from m a t e r i a l l y  completing  up t o t h i s t i m e  s u s p i c i o n t h e r e and a n o r d e r was i s s u e d  He t h e r e u p o n  might  b u t upon t h e a d v i c e  t o Samos w i t h o u t  Alcibiades  She  that  entirely  upon him, d i d a l l  c a u s e , w h i l e he kept him  o f Athens.  Indeed,  Tissaphernes  t o t h e A t h e n i a n s , had n o t f e a r o f  numbers o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n  s h i p s p r e v e n t e d him.  a b a n d o n e d , however, any i d e a o f so d o i n g t h a t he  might  have e n t e r t a i n e d , and  Spartans.  The  Oligarchic  elements  A t h e n i a n s meanwhile were  t h e p e o p l e , from against  them.  made a second  The  fear  and  r e s u l t was,  that  after  o f f i v e was  h u n d r e d , and Sparta.  Alcibiades  f l e e t , now did  n e g o t i a t i o n s were  n o t mean to v i s i t  great  the  i n Athens  because  of t h e i r  fear awn  f o r p e a c e w i t h S p a r t a , and t h e expense o f t h e c i t y .  were b u i l d i n g  a fort  whispers  blows,  of t h e i r  a scene the  Thousand  it.  of tumult  rule!"  A t h e n s , and after  had  of  four  these with Athenian  accomplished The  The  two  a deed  oligarchic  former  this  end that  were n e g o t i a t -  the  their  extreme  t h e y might  Theramenes, however, by aroused  i n w h i c h the  demolished,  two  to t h e  Some d a y s l a t e r  these  the A t h e n i a n army i n Samos  i n t e n d e d t o save  To  of  f o r m o f government  c o l l e a g u e s * who  designs, f i n a l l y  f o r t was  of  a t P i r a e u s , so  S p a r t a n s when t h e y w i s h e d .  After  he  Antiphon.  a threefold  o f A l c i b i a d e s , and  at  A  t o f a v o u r , b u t as y e t  to s e c u r e a more c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  t h e y had  end.  were Theramene s, A r i s t o c r a t e s , P h r y n i c h u s ,  A r i s t a r c h u s , P i s a n d e r , and were a n x i o u s  of  i n command o f t h e  been r e s t o r e d  city until  years  created another  enough t o wipe out h i s p a s t t r e a c h e r y .  leaders  ing  was  to an  by  and  combine  a hundred  entered i n t o  a t t h i s time  a t Samos; he had  o b t a i n i n g a hold  brought  e s t a b l i s h e d , which  the  internally.  d i s t r u s t , c o u l d not  p o p u l a r g o v e r n m e n t , t h e d e m o c r a c y was board  suffering  i n t h e c i t y were f a s t  mutual  a l l i a n c e with  cry of  f  admit  to a c t i o n .  n e a r l y came to Five  sailed  by  the A t h e n i a n s , f e a r i n g an a t t a c k , h a s t i l y p u t A b a t t l e was  f o u g h t i n t h e bay  t h e A t h e n i a n s were d e f e a t e d .  The  Spartans  the  circulating  L e t the  a Spartan f l e e t  power  oligarchs  the p e o p l e  parties  own  out  of Oropos, i n which then induced  Euboea  to r e v o l t . pelled  They, c o n l a have  the A t h e n i a n  fleet  P e r s i a n hands, but The  Athenians  four all  hundred who  and  s e t up  could f u r n i s h  oligarchic  ished  earlier.  transferred  to  this  fleet  of Tissaphernes.  o f the  w i t h arms.  "Five  same summer, the  at l a s t  Athenian  pursued  The  war.  With t h i s  that w i t h energy  hope o f the u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s  h i s t o r y of Thucydides  comes t o an end,  year of the P e l o p o n n e s i a n The men pus,  history  set- t h e m s e l v e s and  known; n o t  of Thucydides  There  that  and  was  extant  his history  one,  Hunt w h i c h was  as t h a t  still  win  of A t h e n s ,  the  the  twenty-second  u n f i n i s h e d , and Xenophon,  to i n d i c a t e  a passage  possessed  three Cratip-  little  from  fragment  was  the c h a r a c t e r him  P l u t a r c h , sug-  had  discovered  by  some eminent s c h o l a r s  the " H e l l e n i c a "  o f O r a t i p p u s , and  was  more t h a n o r d i n a r y m e r i t .  a s c r i b e d by  to Theoporapus, whose h i s t o r y , period  was  i t to c o m p l e t i o n ;  Then, i n 1909.A.D., a h i s t o r i c a l Grenfell  Athenian  were o n l y t h r e e o r f o u r r e f e r e n c e s to  i n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e , but gested  victor-  the  Of O r a t i p p u s , t h i r t y y e a r s ago,  even a fragment  o f h i s work.  i n the  the  war.  to b r i n g  Theoporapus.  were  enheartened t h e y might  vacilla-  them, and  ious.  They t r u s t e d  per-  Pharnabozas  o f Cynossema e n s u e d , i n w h i c h t h e A t h e n i a n s victory greatly  the  Peloponnesians  battle  people.  had  the d i s h o n e s t  fleet  the  Thousand",  P i s a n d e r and  t o the H e l l e s p o n t , where  The  news o f t h i s  o f f home.  to D e c e l e a i P h r y n i c h u s  i n c o n t r o l , having realized  tion  leaving Ionia i n  enemies' s a i l e d  t h e government  leaders fled  their  com-  an a s s e m b l y i n t h e Pnyk, deposed  themselves  During  or at l e a s t  q_uit Samos, t h u s  'convenient  then c a l l e d  other  was  these  t a k e n A t h e n s now,  also  covered  been l o s t ;  the  same  by o t h e r s ,  too, of  n o t a b l y Mr.  E . M.  e v i d e n c e would  This and  substantial  W a l k e r , to E p h o r u s ;  seem t o e s t a b l i s h fragment  p r o b a b l y , tho p e r i o d bears  B.C.  from  the  fragment  the  ten  by a c o n t e m p o r a r y ,  The  411  not  t,  u t  t  There  s i m p l e and from any nes  clear,  element  to t h e  occupy  view  free  to 350. B.C.  The  original  compiled  from  speeches  from  that  rhetorica1  higher place than  knowledge o f w a r f a r e . "  enough t o s u r v i v e , and  count  b o t h o f t h e end  Athens  about  428  B.C.  principles.  was  r e s t o r e d , he (1) (2)  left  and  of  will  too, con-  d e v i c e s and incli-  s u r v i v e d , i t would  He  one  indebted and  youth  technic-  his  p a r t y , t o v/hom the o v e r and  on an  three  f o r the  ac-  of  events  horn at  became a d i s c i p l e  an a r i s t o c r a t , and  t o go  o f the  coincided, there-  o f work3 i n defense  when i t was  Athens  embraced,  P r o f e s s o r Bury  G r y l l u s , was  H i s c h i l d h o o d and  wrote a s e r i e s  due;  B.C.  the " H e l l e n i c a t ? o f  are  Xenophon, son o f  were not w i t h the d e m o c r a t i c the war  396  narrative  or d i d a c t i c  o f the P e l o p o n n e s i a n war  Xenophon was  t  composition, w r i t -  however, the  to i t we  f o r e , w i t h the P e l o p o n n e s i a n war. S o c r a t e s , and  h  '  1  lucky  thereto.  i  Oratippus  d i d n o t p o s s e s s Xenophon *s  Xenophon's h i s t o r y was,  subsequent  e  books| w r i t t e n ,  " i f t h e whole work had  the a u t h o r  w  i n i t ; the phraseology i s  of personal c r i t i c i s m .  a distinctly  Xenophon, t h o u g h al  a r e no  e  history  w i t h o u t , the knowledge o f Xenophon *s work, w h i c h we s i d e r next*  n  o f the y e a r  complete  stamp o f an  >  i t as t h e work of  covers a part  most o f the y e a r 395  ( 1  of h i s  master's  sympathies continuance  t h e democracy  expedition with  P o w e l l & B a r b e r , "Hew d h a p t e r s i n Greek f i r s t series. " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y " , P. 158  of  was  Cyrus  Literature",  of  against  the p r i n c e * s b r o t h e r v A r t a x e r x e s .  The  fate  of  e x p e d i t i o n Xenophon s e t s f o r t h i n h i s p o p u l a r work, Anabosls".  I n 396  B.C.  K i n g o f S p a r t a s and city  i n the b a t t l e  from  A t h e n s - the  is  clear  Xenophon took  probably  fought  cause  and  "The  service with Agesiiaus,  w i t h him  o f G o r o n e a , 3.C.  this  394.  against his  He was  date o f which are  now  In  own' exile  unknown •=> b u t i t  that  he was  wholly  government a s  i t had  been s i n c e t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f the democ-  r a c y i n 403 in  399  and  B.C.  here  the r e s t from  l e a v e 511s  lived,  or p o s s i b l y  t h e e p o c h he  ica".  lived  that  h i s t o r y and one.  But  r e s c i n d e d , but  estimates  B.C.  he  of  never till  an he  spent  banishment returned 355  B.C.,  have been made o f h i s  admirably He  a devoted  fitted  was  an  as an t o be  Athenian  the  the  he  campaigns whi ch he  possessed  historian. the h i s t o r i a n by b i r t h and  f o l l o w e r of S o c r a t e s ? he had Greek w o r l d .  the  i n f o r m a t i o n and  He  had  In of traintravbeen  d e s c r i b e d i n the " H e l l e n -  might have r e a s o n to presume from  therefore,  g i v e n him  i n 371  the sentence  i n many p a r t s o f the  o f the  We  B.C.  his qualifications  descrihed.  i n h i s youth  on s e v e r a l  was  But  i n Sparta,  went t o C o r i n t h , where he  I n 369  different  powers and  and  stayed  occupied with h i s w r i t i n g s ,  some r e s p e c t s he was  elled  and  Socrates  later.•  Widely literary  Goronea he  Athenian  of  where the' S p a r i a s i government had  o f h i s days.  He  s i n c e the d e a t h  some y e a r s a f t e r  A t h e n s a g a i n s t him  there.  ing?  especially  he b e g a n h i s l i t e r a r y w o r k s .  to  foteei  and  For  then i n E l l s  estate? was  B.C.j  out o f sympathy w i t h t h e  these  facts,  temper t o w r i t e a n  impartial  c a p a c i t y to w r i t e an a c c u r a t e  " H e l i e n i c a " i s n e i t h e r a c c u r a t e nor  impcstial.  H i s e r r o r s are  r a t h e r of omission  are  to l e a v e the r e a d e r  an  sufficient  e n t i r e l y wrong i m p r e s s i o n .  the  primary  p u r p o s e o f the  es* n a r r a t i v e ,  own  work's o p e n i n g  precise  closing  o n e s , and  itself.  he was  Instead  by  i n d e e d , but  the a u t h o r ' s f o r Sparta  c o n c e a l made him record  o f her  construe  style,  of i t s vocabulary,  ness,  d i r e c t n e s s and after  and  easy  The from  of  the or i n -  More s e r i o u s  intentional,  as  though  or h i a s - not  f o r Athens,  For  had  Sparta  he  d e f e c t s and  conceived omit  could  her  not  abridge  Part I,  c a r e l e s s n e s s and  from  exaggeration  I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d not a t a l l times  by t h e a m i a b l e  It falls  into  the  the  irregul-  the g r e a t m e r i t s of  freedom  " H e l l e n i c a " covers  411-362 3.0.  s c h o l a r s have vals.  his  about  chapters of  a c t i o n s w r o n g l y , and  possesses  entire  effect.  power, and  g r a c e f u l and  careful  f o r Thebes t h a t he  d e s p i t e the  arity  beauty  little  and  achievements.  His  striving  with  Thucydid-  of Thucydides*  t o e x c u s e her  her  to f i n i s h  know n o t h i n g .  seem to be  h i s hatred  or  know t h a t  o f t e n a l l u d e s to events  Thebes.  an a d m i r a t i o n w h i c h l e d him h u m i l i a t i o n s , while  as  partiality  and  sadly puzzled  there  p a i n s to secure p r e c i s e  different  he  some o f the o m i s s i o n s  dictated  no  chapters  t r o d u c e s p e r s o n a g e s o f w h i c h we still,  either  " H e l l e n i c a " was  c o n t i n u i t y between the  "Helleniea"  o f c o m m i s s i o n , hut  F o r example, w h i l e we  y e t Xenophon t o o k  c o n t i n u i t y between the  than  o f the  writer. fifty  t h r e e main d i v i s i o n s ,  the P e l o p o n n e s i a n  war;  Thucydides*  years  which  shown to have been w r i t t e n a t c o n s i d e r a b l e (1.1.1 - 11.3.11) c o m p l e t e s  by  attractively  p e r s o n a l i t y o f the events  or a  infrequently  i t i s rendered  the  clear-  inter-  account  P a r t I I , (11.3.11 - 7.1.36) c a r r i e s  119. on  from  t h e c l o s e o f t h e war t o t h e p e a c e o f A n t & l c i d a s , and  I I I , { ¥ - 2 . 1 - t h e end} from  Part  battle  o f Mantinea.  The d a t e s  t h e peace o f A n t a l c i d a s to t h e  o f the composition  v a r i o u s p a r t s , have "been a p p r o x i m a t e l y I  i n 395 B.C. or a v e r y l i t t l e  380  later;  fixed  as f o l l o w s ;  brief,  Part  P a r t I I , between 385 and  B.C. ; P a r t I I I , between 562 and 354 B.C.  in  o f these  the story of Sparta's triumph  over  The h i s t o r y i s , h e r o l d enemy,  A t h e n s , o f h e r h e y d a y o f power, and o f h e r o v e r t h r o w by a new enemy, T h e b e s . re  Agesilaus.  The h e r o That  o f t h e n a r r a t i v e i s the r a t h e r medioc-  i t m i g h t have b e e n Eparainondas  r e m a i n t h e s i g h o f modern c o m m e n t a t o r s . At ians f u l l efforts their and  t h e end o f T h u c y d i d e s "  o f t h e hope o f s u c c e s s  to a c c o m p l i s h  enemies, l a r g e l y  the m i l i t a r y  skill  was soon to t u r n . almost In  one a f t e r  the f i r s t  duct  it.  •  h i s t o r y we f i n d  and p u t t i n g f o r t h  through  tremendous  t h e lukewarmness o f T i s s a p h e r n e s ,  and v i g o u r o f A l c i b i a d e s .  t h e o t h e r , changed  p l a c e , t h e Oreat sent  the Athen-  And f o r a tirae t h e y made head a g a i n s t  Three u n f o r t u n a t e  of Tissaphernes,  can o n l y  But the t i d e  occurrences, following the appearance of t h i n g s . •  King, d i s s a t i s f i e d  down h i s younger  w i t h the con-  son, Cyrus, to  r e p l a c e h i m , B.C. 4 0 7 , and a l m o s t  simultaneously the Spartans  sent  who won C y r u s * c o n f i d e n c e ,  o u t a new a d m i r a l , L y s a n d e r ,  and)proved fleet  h i m s e l f t h e most a b l e  had y e t h a d .  Athenians,annoyed and  Some time  later,  i n t h e same y e a r , the  a t a minor n a v a l d e f e a t , d i s m i s s e d A l c i b i a d e s  p u t t e n new g e n e r a l s i n h i s p l a c e , P e r i c l e s  among them, and Conon a t t h e i r the  commander t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n  last  d e f e a t , but before  head.  the younger  The s t a g e was now  i t came t h e A t h e n i a n s  set f o r  were to w i n  one  more v i c t o r y .  At the b a t t l e  o f A r g i n u s a e , B.O.  406-  succeeded  i n s e v e r e l y b e a t i n g a P e l o p o n n e s i a n f l e e t , and  the  of O a l l i c r a t i d e s ,  death  i t s commander.  But  commander?,with the e x c e p t i o n o f Gonon and not  r e t u r n to- A t h e n s ,  were t r i e d ,  illegally  on a c h a r g e  of f a i l u r e  s h i p s , and  put  Gyrus*  Aegospotami,  either  remained  inefficient  war  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r , B.C.  less a battle,  to a c l o s e .  through  the l o n g w a l l s  a n o t h e r , and  405,  "a  sound  of wailing  t o the c i t y ,  one  d u r i n g t h a t n i g h t no  man  man  f o r a s i e g e , and  sea.  Por a l o n g time  many months o f n e g o t i a t i n g  c i t y was  the i n h a b i t a n t s  to the music  w i n n i n g a second  victory,  soon  except  the news  The  victors  of f l u t e s , over  after  pro-  and  the Samians, r e save  and  a t the i n s t i g a t i o n o f •Lysander, an o l i g a r c h y o f  was  established,  II.2.1  land  s u c c e s s , famine  twelve.  S a l a m i s were t a k e n from  itself,  fleet,  by  out, but,  dependencies  Xenophon, " H e l l e n i c a " ,  with  another  the  i n the c i t y  brought  invested  held  to S p a r t a , w i t h a l l t h e A t h e n i a n s h i p s o f Athens  of  s l e p t . " T h e  f o r p e a s e w i t h no  t h e Long W a l l s  Lysander, a f t e r  the b a t t l e  p a s s i n g on  them t o a n U n c o n d i t i o n a l s u r r e n d e r . to lend  Lysan-  r a n from P i r a e u s  their  (1)  o f the  a t Athens  prepared  turned  disabled  indeed, than a s u r p r i s e ,  time nor money to b u i l d  ceeded  i n a body,  head  Athenians, having neither  Induced  They  or u n l u c k y , and  When t h e P a r a l u s a r r i v e d  o f the d i s a s t e r ,  and  did  o f the. S p a r t a n .  t h e y were a c c u s e d  Conon s t i l l  but he was  Athenian  o t h e r s who  t o r e s c u e t h e crews o f the  tidings  to  fate  causing  i n c a p a b l e o f c o p i n g w i t h the s t r o n g c o m b i n a t i o n o f  d e r and  the  the  too, I n that  to d e a t h .  Athenian f l e e t , quite  suffered  two  the  they  All her,  'Thirty'  w i t h Theramenes and  Critias  at  i t s head.  policies,  At  first  hut when C r i t i a s  o f t h e o l i g a r c h y as their  Athens  s e t about  dangerous,  and  had  never  known.  o f the  though  more f l e d  ' T h i r t y * was  i t was  the  the  by a  .Gritias  to d e a t h , and  to  save  their  had  him  despotism  'Thirty*,  B.C. but  Lysander  the  But  Greece  the  supported Thrasybulus,  succeeded  i n defeat-  Critias.,  and  d i d not i n t e r v e n e  general p o l i c y of  throughout  property  lives.  slew  as  t o the  their  to l a s t ,  of the e x i l e s ,  d e m o c r a c y , 408  ing a military  citizens  strong g a r r i s o n of Spartans.  again i n Athenian a f f a i r s ,  Sparta  him.  of the " T h i r t y " ,  too i n t o l e r a b l e  s u p e r i o r numbers o f the  restored  enemies  the r e s i d e n t , a l i e n s f o r  were put  p l a c i n g h i m s e l f a t t h e head  was  establish-  persisted  i n by  for a generation. Thus t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n war  Sicilians, engaged  d u r i n g the l a t t e r  i n one  of t h e i r  u n d e r the l e a d e r s h i p hundred  thousand  own.  The  and  Hlmera.  Three  B.C.  from  to l o s e ,  the  b a r b a r i a n s ; and  the  war.  Sicily  been  years l a t e r by  with  cap-  t h e y r e t u r n e d once  the S y r a c u s a n s , but  they  a seven months' s i e g e . became t y r a n t  I n the f o l l o w i n g y e a r , Gela and fctood  B.C.  one  o f t h r e a months,  son o f H e r m o c r a t e a ,  so m a t t e r s  The  C a r t h a g i n i a n s , i n 410  the S i c e l i o t s a f t e r  Monysius,  end.  o f t h e s t r u g g l e , had  i n the course  were d e f e a t e d i n b a t t l e  took Agrigentum  Syracuse,  part  came t o an  of Hannibal, invaded  men,  S e l i n u s and  more, and  I n 405  a l l the  7/ealthy or o b n o x i o u s  hundred  c o n f i s c a t e d ! thousands  tured  slaying  i n their  Then t h e y i n a u g u r a t e d a r e i g n o f t e r r o r , such  number o f f i f t e e n  ing  l e a d e r s were agreed  w i t h the b a c k i n g o f the r e s t  to d e a t h .  rule  two  w e a l t h , Theramenes s t r e n u o u s l y opposed  thereupon put  these  in Sicily  of  Camarina to  at the c l o s e  of  The  "Hellenioa"  thus c o n c l u d e s the  P e l o p o n n e s i a n war,  and  it.  h o o k s have been engaged  war  The and  first  two  As  i n the c a s e  Herodotus  covered,  histories  of Thucydides  S i c u l u s as a •Lives',  o f the p e r i o d  so we  and  especially,  proceeds  almost  that  the  that  ally,  o f i t are not For  a Persian fleet Cnidus.  with Persia.  recorded  Diodorus  this  Prom 399-38?  ( I t was  at  i n the  this  Greeks'  'Anabaris'.)  former the  were i n dan-  masters.  s u c c e s s f u l warfare disaster  The  struggle  some t i m e , i n t r u t h , S p a r t a , t h r o u g h on  their  was  her  i n A s i a , but a i n 394  B.C.  from  under t h e command o f the A t h e n i a n g e n e r a l Conon,  i n Greece,  meanwhile had no  hard  been s t i r r i n g  up  trouble for  t a s k ; f o r S p a r t a ' s a g g r e s s i v e , domin-  towards her  a deep r e s e n t m e n t . ' T h i r t y ' $ad  the  Nicias, etc.  o f the I o n i a n G r e e k s , who  o n t h e o t h e r hand, met  Persia  eering attitude  by  c e r t a i n of Plutarch*;  gery i m p o r t a n t , because  king, Agesilaus, carried Spartan f l e e t ,  of  e n t e r e d upon the&* s t r u g g l e w i t h  a t the p l e a  inconclusive.  Sparta  covered  of S p a r t a .  ger o f b e i n g s u b j e c t e d once more to t h e i r  at  the h i s t o r y  'march o f t h e t e n - t h o u s a n d  o c c u r r e d , w h i c h Xenophon a l s o L a c e d a e m o n i a n s had  B.C.  the u n d i s p u t e d • l e a d e r s o f a l l  t i m e , 401  B.C.,  o f the  w i t h what i s , from  a history  i n a war  details  t o 401  authority?, a l s o  t h e L a c e d a e m o n i a n s , now  second  in telling  s u c h as t h o s e o f P e r i c l e s , A l c i b i a d e s , "Hellenica"  that followed  Xenophon, t h e h i s t o r y o f  H e l l a s , were engaged  • The  i n Athens  have f o r the p e r i o d  supplementary  The  B.C.  strife  i t s outcome, b r i n g i n g us i n d a t e  H.B.—  point  the c i v i l  s t o r y o f the  Athens,  late  enemies was  which s i n c e  c a u s i n g everywhere  the e x p u l s i o n o f the  been q u i e t l y r e g a i n i n g h e r f o r m e r  commercial  p r e e m i n e n c e , was now i n l e a g u e w i t h Thebes and C o r i n t h . was  not long  i n breaking  o u t (B.C. 3 9 5 ) ,  S p a r t a n d o m i n i o n - a t home f i n a l l y and  forced  h i s army, and t h e Greek c i t i e s  to  Persia.  ing  b e e n waged  enemies i n G r e e c e .  - until  Persian  Sparta  the I n g l o r i o u s  of Hellas  continued  her hands.  the confirmation  brought  as a t -  however,  threatened  of other  h e r power. that  years o f Spartan leadership,  suffered from 387  by sometimes h a r s h , some-  b u t u l t i m a t e l y f u t i l e , e f f o r t s t o c h e c k the  o f Thebes, c u l m i n a t i n g ,  as t h e y d i d , i n t h e b a t t l e o f  371 B.C., w h i c h r e s u l t e d  t h e t r i u m p h o f h e r enemy.  i n the h u m i l i a t i o n o f Sparta  Then f o l l o w e d  the b r i e f e s a of  I t was b r o u g h t t o a c l o s e ,  i t s t u r n , by t h e b a t t l e o f M a n t i n e a , i n w h i c h t h e Thebans,  though v i c t o r i o u s , l o s t battle to  Still,  two o f t h e c i t i e s  Theban supremacy, from369-562 B.C. in  p r o p e r had  to i n t e r f e r e i n t h e i n t e r n a l a f f a i r s  The l a t e r  times treacherous,  and  support-  o f S p a r t a 's t i t l e to  i t to a n e n d .  • to 371 B.C., were e s p e c i a l l y marked  Leuctra,  from  p e a c e o f A n t a l c i d a s , whereby t h e  M a n t i n e a and O l y n t h u s were o n l y  rise  t o cease  The war i n H e l l a s  s t a t e s , and b r o k e up a n y a l l i a n c e t h a t  at  of A g e s i l a u s  Greek s t a t e s , t o c u r b t h e g r o w i n g power o f  k i n g assumed  mistress  the r e c a l l  i n e a r n e s t -from 394 B.C., and i t c o n t i n u e d ,  tempts o f v a r i o u s Sparta  threat to  o f A s i a M i n o r were abandoned  P e r s i a , i n r e t u r n , promised  Sparta's  and t h i s  War  their  great  commander Epaminonda s.  o f M a n t i n e a , B.C. 362, b r i n g s  the " H e l l e n i o a " ,  The  likewise,  an end. Xenophon had i n c l u d e d  brief  chronicles of S i c i l y i n  h i s h i s t o r y , b u t a n o t h e r h i s t o r i a n made t h e i s l a n d h i s l i m i t . Philistus  was b o r n i n S y r a c u s e i n 432 B.C.  Like  T h u c y d i d e s , by  whom h i s w r i t i n g was i n f l u e n c e d , affairs?  he s u f f e r e d  did  not confine  had  done i n t h s m a i n .  earliest in  e x i l e and l i v e d  himself  H e began the• a t o r y  d a y s , and b r o u g h t  t o o , found  Acero  had made T h u c y d i d e s  of  h i s s t y l e , hut rather  imitation  i n temper and method, ana we may s u s -  Fragments, u n f o r t u n a t e l y ,  he was most T h u c y d i d e a n . " ^ ^  are a l l that  2  remain of t h i s  the h i s t o r y o f mainland  Greece down  t h e b a t t l e o f M a n t i n e a , 362 B.C., and f o r the h a l f  o f w h i c h he w r o t e , he i s by f a r t h e b e s t a u t h o r i t y But  Sicilian  . Xenophon c a r r i e d  to  o f T h u c y d i d e s , ^ ' and i n d e e d  h i s model? " n o t by a s l a v i s h  o f a l l Greek h i s t o r i a n s  author.  H i s work was  o f T h u c y d i d e s , u n f i n i s h e d . But  called P h i l i s t u s a miniature  that  as T h u c y d i d e s  someone t o c o m p l e t e i t , i n the p e r s o n o f Athanas  he  pect  But he  of•Sicily.from i t s  i t down t o 363 B.C. that  i n public  to he r e c a l l e d .  t o contemporary h i s t o r y  e l e v e n b o o k s , and l i k e  it*  he had e x p e r i e n c e  he i s n o t t h e o n l y  one.  Two o r a t i o n s  century  we h a v e .  of Lysias,  dealing  w i t h t h e r u l e o f " t h e T h i r t y " a t A t h e n s , and the " C o n s t i t u t i o n of  t h e A t h e n i a n s " hy A r i s t o t l e , c o n t r i b u t e  tion  of great  value., t o supplement t h e e a r l i e r  Xenophon's n a r r a t i v e treat  Additional  the period  informa-  portion of  Books X I I I - X V o f D i d o r u s S i c u l u s ,  covered  by t h e " H e l l e n i c a . "  also  V7e h a v e , t o o , i n  Plutarch's  "Lives"  o f A l c i b i a d e s , L y s a n d e r , A g e s i l a u 3 , and  Pelopidas,  further  f a c t s o f thesa years presented  One following  other  h i s t o r i a n , contemporary w i t h the events  t h e end o f t h e P e l o p o n n e s i a n war, wrote a h i s t o r y o f  Greece, o f which o n l y (?) (1)  to u s .  fragments a r e extant  B u r y , " A n c i e n t Greek H i s t o r y " , Ad.Q. f r , 11,11  today.  P.159  But he i s  very worthy  o f our n o t i c e .  d a t s s a r e 400-320 B.C.  I refer  He w r o t e  a history  from the r e t u r n o f the H e r a c l i d a e t o o k him  hack  almost  into  to E p h o r u s  into  o f Macedon i n 340  unit  had  and  unique, i n that peoples Greek  history.  He  quasi-national that  the  history  thus produced  formed  i n the t r u e  sense  o f the w o r d .  c e p t i o n o f t h e u n i t y o f Greek  Isocrates. of P h i l i p  The had  principally rise  c a t i o n o f Greece u n d e r r u l i n g p a s s i o n , and  i n defiance  and  t o o k r o o t and  as a r e s u l t  t o r y which, particular  up  wrote  under  called  no  national  It  unifi-  I t became h i s  had  his history  seems to have had  states  during  new  flush  a-  by  A t h e n i a n mind,  conception of  been c o n c e r n e d  or g r o u p s .  the f i r s t  the  Macedon, s t a n d i n g square  efforts  either of  hiswith  Greek  P e r s i a ; w i t h i n t e r - s t a t e w a r s ; or w i t h the  of i n d i v i d u a l  was  abilities  Such a n i d e a , f o s t e r e d  s  con-  orator  to a hope f o r the  leadership.  a  remember  then, did t h i s  grew i n t h e f e r t i l e  time  must  he  the e x t r a o r d i n a r y  e p i s o d e s , s u c h as the combined  states against tories  this  might  come to E p h o r u s ?  t h e r e a r o s e an e n t i r e l y till  was  o f Demosthenes, he p r e a c h e d  her b a r b a r i a n enemies.  s u c h a man,  a  connected w i t h  the t e a c h i n g s o f t h e  Macedonian  of  history  They had  How,  i n Isocrates  doctrine of a Hellas, united gainst  history  by  t h e y were  a nation.  o f Macedon and  given b i r t h  which  non-Greek  But h e r e we  never  i n him  The  a work w h i c h  of Greece.  "books,  E a c h hook was  a l l t h e G r e e k s , and  had  inspired  B.C.  i t o n l y as f a r as  history  Greeks  the P e l o p o n n e s u s ,  a p r e f a c e o f i t s own.  i t embraced  entered into  i n twenty-nine  m y t h i c a l t i m e s , to the t a k i n g  P e r i n t h u s "by P h i l i p in itself,  o f Cyme, whose  Ephorus,  his-  therefore,  of t h i s  new  a wide knowledge o f h i s t o r i c a l  and  idea.  He  geographical faculty his  l i t e r a t u r e , and  In u s i n g  i t .  geographical  first  to  tions tra  and  are  the  warfare,  His  But  and  was  h i s t o r y into being,  ber  of d e f e c t s  demanded write  ated  i n the and  by  responsible  popular  panegyrics.  educate.  But He  please  Isocratean  This  will.  the  that  a u t h o r i t i e s claimed  (1)  continued  and  idea  style,  Hunt.  VIII.332  from  others.  that  brought  f o r a num-  f o r one  thing,  to the  at-  narrative i s interrupted Isooratean  Ephorus wrote f o r a to he  read  and  c r a v i n g f o r popular few  b o r n i n 380  s o c i e t y that so had  to  success  had  domin-  exceptions. B.C.,  belonged  h i s h i s t o r y shows the  have mentioned  he  criticism;  much p r a i s e  f o r the  The  land  p u b l i c , whose t a s t e I s o c r a t e s  s c h o o l , and We  of  Leuc-  to a model  truth i s sacrificed  wanted  the  that  Grenfell  this  likewise responsible  effect;  Theoporapus o f C h i o s ,  to  merit  received  h i s t o r i o g r a p h y henceforward, with  the  nature  moralising p l a t i t u d e s , elaborate  what would  to  the  M o d o r u s , S i c u l u s , among  artificial;  condi-  h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of  indeed  w r i t i n g of i t .  such e f f e c t s .  done much to  by  he was  of r h e t o r i c a l  s p e e c h e s and  do  the  geographical  a knowledge o f  of  to  for being  merely  c o n f o r m more or l e s s  used  the  continually  with  showing i g n o r a n c e  I s o c r a t e s was  high-flown  the  ridiculed  battle-scenes  a n c i e n t s , and  tainment  from  critical  much i m p o r t a n c e  p r a i s e d him  h i s work, n e v e r t h e l e s s ,  If  is  but  a sharp  attached  historical  conventional,  scheme.  U)  ' c r e d i t e d him  M a n t i n e a , as  operations. they  the  Polybius*  of naval  Strabo  exercised  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s , and  separate  element.  he  i n connection  also  same bowing  with  Oratippus  the work o f T h u c y d i d e s i n h i s " H e l l e n i c a * , and  But  f o r him he  was  the  also (2)  fragment  discovered  the a u t h o r o f a n o t h e r XII.25g.  by work,  different again, i n s p i r i t , affected  hy  the n a t i o n a l  from  i d e a o f I s o c r a t e s ; he  power o f Macedon a u n i f y i n g his  history.  But  i n this  covers  t h e p e r i o d from  fairly  impartial,  but  him,  he  seemed  more c o n c e r n e d  of  action,  than w i t h  o f the  lurking  pompus was  probably  c e n t u r y , but  he  At Sicily,  who,  suffered  their  t h a t h i s aim  no  real  p o i n t , we  like  P h i l i s t u s , was dates  Italy  with  down t o 320  trips  known w e s t e r n voted  introduce of but  reckoning  countenanced (1)  was  born  Letter  by  the  And  men  capacity. the  The pro-  almost Theo4th  greatness.  on  historian  the  317  authorities  island,  and  of and  also  345-250 B.C. B.C.,  i n thirty-three  books.  and  His  was  of  Not  content  r e c o r d s , Timaeus the i l l -  Ligurians.  was  Sicily  the f i r s t  He  de-  to  clumsy, i n c o n v e n i e n t  Olympic y e a r s .  6,7  indeed  virtue.^)  Timaeus r e j e c t e d  daemonic i n f l u e n c e s i n h i s t o r i c a l  t o Pompey,  not  The  h i s t o r i a n o f the  o f Timaeus a r e  to c h r o n o l o g y ,  of  "Philippica"  to dive i n t o  semblance o f  Greek h i s t i o g r a p h y the  time  The  or m i l i t a r y  n a t i o n s , I b e r i a n s , C e l t s , and  into  "Philippica",  to g a i n a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n about  much o f h i s tirae  i n the  p r i v a t e m o r a l i t y of  come to a n o t h e r  consulting a l l available  made s p e c i a l  was  o f the m a r v e l l o u s .  i n Athens a f t e r  B.C.,  saw  d i s c o v e r the w i c k e d n e s s  c l a i m to  this  The  too  Theopompus shows h i m s e l f  t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g  h i s t o r y , w h i c h he w r o t e and  political  beneath the  has  exile.  the  original.  w i t h the  human s o u l and  invariably  too  too, for his censoriousness.  D i o n y s i u s , says  fundities  he was  i s over-fond  a n c i e n t s blamed  critic,  called  360-336 B.C. he  He  f a c t o r , w h i c h he made t h e p i v o t  t h a t h i s t o r y he  the " M a c e d o n i o a " , and  to be  t h a t of Ephorus.  events.  way myths He  could  not d i s c r i m i n a t e ,  trivial  things.  contemporary and  tacked but of  He was n o t i m p a r t i a l  period  a villain  I n h i s m a t e r i a l , between i m p o r t a n t and  o f h i s h i s t o r y , making a hero o f T i m o l e o n ,  of Agathocles,  Other h i s t o r i a n s  him f o r h i s u n f a i r n e s s ,  Oicero  i n h i s treatment of the  likewise,  bitterly at-  to h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s ,  commended h i m , arid M o d o r u s S i c u l u s made g r e a t use  h i s work.  His s t y l e ,  said  Monysius  and L o n g i n u s , was  frigid but are  not a b l e  t o s a y so much.  standing h i s A t t i c rhetoric,  otherwise s a t i s f a c t o r y . We f i n d  environment  had abandoned  adopted  a new k i n d  style.  I t came I n t o  Attic  measure and A t t i c  being f i r s t  i t f a r beyond  o f rhymes and v e r b a l  public,  however, a d a p t e d  cannot other  dates.  writers  o f the l i v e s  history (1)  o f E p h o r u s , and  i n t h e A s i a n i c way  flourished  about  500 B.C.  he and Timaeus worked  florid  was Strabo,  style.  We  i n d e p e n d e n t o f each  o r n o t , f o r one r e a s o n , because we do n o t know H e g e s i a s "  precise  his  s t y l e w i t h the ease  speaks o f him as t h e f o u n d e r o f t h i s t e l l whether  general  years.  A n o t h e r a u t h o r who wrote  indeed,  e f f e c t s . " T h e  themselves to t h a t  f o r two hundred  H e g e s i a s o f M a g n e s i a , who  the b o u n d a r i e s  the i m p r e s s i o n of a  themselves t o t h i s  t h e y had a d a p t e d  predominated  s a n i t y , and  i n t h e p r o s e o f G o r g i a s and  His prose "produces  revel  it  training i n  o f w r i t i n g w h i c h we know a s t h e A s i a n i c  bacchic  with which  however,  Timaeus, n o t w i t h -  and I s o c r a t e a n  A l c i d a m a s , b u t Timaeus c a r r i e d t h e s e men had s e t .  that  We,  As a h i s t o r i a n he must be c l a s s e d  among the  o f A l e x a n d e r the G r e a t ; t h e f r a g m e n t s o f  t h a t a r e quoted  Bury."A.G.H." p.170  by M o n y s i u s (2)  describe  XIY.1.41  Alexander's  treatment  of  that  this  fragment  ical  work.  and  Cicero  his  work.  Ghsza and  Of  i s p a r t o f a s h o w - p i e c e and  his ancient  disparaged  taste.  bidding Duris  But  t h e r e was  D u r i s was  early years  in'exile.  whom he  at  met  T a r r o , on  He  Athens.  then,  s t y l e , and  f o r p u b l i c favour  o f Samos.  but  Hegesias,  the A s i a n i c school of  He  another  a t the  281  B.C.,  not as  of Agathocles  much w o r t h as  an  historian.  to his. t r u s t w o r t h i n e s s ? \  Photius  work as a l t o g e t h e r  faulty.  of  style?  him  as  an  the  and  B.C.  initiated and  to  the  his Eresus  tyrant of  of Syracuse, to the  Plutarch  Dionysius (3) regards Cicero  i n d u s t r i o u s w r i t e r and  Samos,  He11enico-Macedon-  death of  according  by  passed  of Theophrastus of  work on  art  and  Lysimachus, annals  lists  of  expresses  of  the had  a doubt  speaks d i s p a r a g i n g l y of the  arrangement  of h i s  h a s , nevertheless, praise D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s made  use  h i s works. His  ism  hand, p r a i s e d  I n t h e o p i n i o n o f a n c i e n t a u t h o r i t i e s he  and  for  B.C.  c h r o n i c a l l y arranged,  I n  his  from L e u c t r a , 371  of Hera.  other  became, i n some way,  history,  priests  340  a pupil  ian  Halicarnassus  p o p u l a r i t y shows  same t i m e ,  wrote a comprehensive h i s t o r i c a l  Syracuse,  the  histor-  school of h i s t o r i c a l  born about was  of  of an  were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f  their  and  also a l i f e  not  c r i t i c s , Dionysius  him,  Timaeus and  public  i t s i n h a b i t a n t s ? i t i s p o s s i b l e * however,  o f the  Duris  s t y l e was  intended  s c h o o l o f E p h o r u s and  to o v e r t h r o w the  Theopompus, w h i c h l a c k e d ,  d e c l a r e d , " m i m e s i s " , o r what we  D u r i s was  extremely  (1) P e r i c l e s ,  {4} Ad.  28  i n t e r e s t e d i n the  Att.,71.1  (2) De  conventional-  would  call  "realism".  drama; he wrote books  Compos. Verborum, 4  so  (5)  on  Cod.176  t r a g e d y and t h e h i s t o r y could in  produce  i n history  t r a g e d y ; so t h a t  stirred  o f a r t , and he t h o u g h t the e f f e c t s  the f e e l i n g s  "by h i g h l y - w r o u g h t ,  There  danger.  he i s tempted  "While  to d i s t o r t  the h i s t o r i a n the t r u t h ,  to a r t . While  tunity  simply a branch event  especially fiction.  history  The s h i n i n g  work o n A l e x a n d e r ' s  example oa a w r i t e r was  Clitarchus,  o f Colophon,  his public  descriptions  o f t h e g o r g e o u s Ea s t . " ^ '  the  s t a n d a r d book on t h e s u b j e c t , and i n f l u e n c e d  1  very deeply.  however, were n o t c a r r i e d of t h e i r dreia, of  subject.  and P t o l e m y ,  A l lwriters  the  became  tradition-  on t h a t  they  (1)  " A n c i e n t Greek  Both  recorded. History"  men were  topic,  possibilities  C h i e f among t h e s e were A r i s t o b u l u s o f son of Tagus.  who  by f a n t a s -  H i s work  away by t h e r h e t o r i c a l  the e v e n t s Bury,  the r e a l m o f  He made the most of t h e  o f h i s theme, and " c a p t u r e d  h i s t o r y o f Alexander  the G r e a t .  of q u a s i - h i s t o r i c a l  tic  al  oppor-  of i t s r e c o r d e r s ,  was b e g i n n i n g to i n v a d e  conquests  alike,  w h i c h gave men an  could not f a i l  w r o t e a t the end o f t h e 4 t h c e n t u r y . possibilities  For both  the c a r e e r o f Alexander  epoch a s t h i s  since  understood  of r h e t o r i c .  of importance  t o w r i t e h i s t o r y , was  Such a r o m a n t i c  had  t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l i s t s were a p p e a l i n g to t a s t e  were a p p e a l i n g t o t h e e m o t i o n s .  next  for effect,  and so i t was w i t h D u r i s .  It,  The  for his  the way, t o o ,  i s striving  s c h o o l subordinated h i s t o r y , as Thucydides  h i s t o r y became  s h o u l d "be  i s much t o he s a i d  His  the r e a l i s t s  produced  s c e n e s , c o n j u r e d up "by t h e  r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t c o n v e n t i o n a l i s m , h u t i t opened to a r e a l  histo irians  dramatists  o f the r e a d e r s  pathetic  i m a g i n a t i o n o f the w r i t e r .  that  that  Cassan-  eye-witnesses  13! A r i s t o b u l u s » account e t h n o l o g i c a l ! Ptolemy's memoir, d i s t i n g u i s h e d ety .  m a i n l y g e o g r a p h i c a l and  more of t h e n a t u r e o f a  form; but t h e y were, i n t h e i r  allowed  t h s y had  to p e r i s h unrecognised»  been w r i t t e n ,  of Alexander's  military  by i t s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d h o n e s t y and  T h e i r works have u n f o r t u n a t e l y not  original to be  had  was  survived i n t h e i r  e s s e n c e , too Four  Important  centuries  F l a v i u s A r r i a n u s , composing a  after history  c o n q u e s t s , made them, t o g e t h e r w i t h the  g r a p h i c a l work o f l e a r c l m s , h i s . c h i e f a u t h o r i t i e s ; and history,  c.ompleteand  t r u s t w o r t h y as i t was,  s i m p l e , l u c i d , manly s t y l e , became a f i t t i n g memoirs o f t h e s e With G r e a t , we  sober and  o f the p e r i o d  his  too, i n a  r e c e p t a c l e f o r the  of Alexander  b r i n g our i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the h i s t o r i a n s o f end.  GsOsOsOtOjOsOiOsOrO  JWA:EJ  written,  geo-  veracious historians.  the h i s t o r i a n s  c e n t u r i e s , t o an  sobri-  the  two  B_I B L I Q G B A P "Anabasis"  H I Xenophon. G. B e l l and Sons, L o n d o n , 1919. Half-titles Bell's Illustrated Glassies  "The A n c i e n t  Greek  Historians"  3. B. B u r y . M a c M i l l a n & Company, London, 1909.  "A Commentary on H e r o d o t u s " Volumes I & I I  W. W. How, J . W e l l s . Oxford , Clarendon P r e s s , 1928.  "Crete, the Fore-runner o f Greece"  C.H. Sa H.B. Hawes, Harper & Bros, London & lew T o r k , 1911, second e d i t i o n  "Cyropaedia  Xenophon. B e l l and Sons, London, 1882 Half-title: Bonn *s Classical Library.  and  Hellenicus"  "Hellenioa"  E. A b b o t t ( e d i t o r J Rlvingtons, L o n d o n , 1880.  "Hellenica"  Xenophon. London, 1918. H a l f - t i t l e s Loeb Classical Library.  "Herodotus"  T. £ . G l o v e r . University of C a l i fornia Press, B e r k . C a l . , 1924.  "The H i s t o r y and A n t i q u i t i e s o f the D o r i c Race", V o l . I  C. 0. H u l l e r , O x f o r d , 1830.  "The H i s t o r y o f H e r o d o t u s " Volumes I & I I  G. C. M a c a u l a y , M a c M i l l a n & Co. L t d . London, 1914  X  X  I  I  'Homer and H i s t o r y "  .  I  ,  XIII,  "The  Walter Leaf. M a c M i l l a n & Co. L t d . London, 1915.  Philosophy of History"  "Prolegomena  to A n c i e n t  G. W. F . H e g e l . Colonial Press, Hew Y o r k , I 9 6 0 , second e d i t i o n . Half-titles Library o f the World *s Great C l a s s i c s  History" J . P. M a h a f f y . Longmans, Green & Co. L o n d o n , 1871.  XI?,  " H i se o f t h e M a c e d o n i a n  E m p i r e " A i M. C u r t e i s. Longmans, G r e e n & Co. London, 1886. fourth edition. Half-title: Epochs of Ancient H i s t o r y .  XV.  "The S e a - K i n g s o f C r e t e '  J. B a i k i e . A. & C. B l a c k , L t d . London, 1926. fourth edition.  XVI.  "The  S t o r y o f Greece & Home"  Robertson & Bobertson, •J. M« Bent & S o n s , L t d . London & T o r o n t o , 1928.  XVII  " T h u c y d i d e s " , Volumes I & I I  Jowett. Oxford, Clarendon Press 1900. Ind. ed. revised.  X V I I I . " T h u c y d i d e s ; a Study i n Hi s t o r i c a l R e a l i t y "  G. F. A b b o t t . Routledge & Sons, L t d . London, 1925.  XIX.  "<?ho Were t h e G r e e k s ? "  J . L . Myers. U. o f G a l . Pre s s , B e r k . , C a l . , 1930.  XX  "The W o r l d o f Homer"  A. Lang. Longmans", Green & Co. , London, 1910.  v  Encyclopaedia  Britannica  11th 14th  edition, edition.  

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