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Residential patterns of the Chinese in Vancouver, British Columbia Cho, George Chin Huat 1970

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RESIDENTIAL PATTERNS OF THE CHINESE IN VANCOUVER, BRITISH COLUMBIA. by GEORGE CHIN HUAT CHO B.A.s U n i v e r s i t y of Malaya, 1968 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIRMENT5 FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f Geography. We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1970 . In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment o f the requirements f an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree tha the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date M A Y \9"|o ABSTRACT This study examines the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s of the Chinese w i t h i n t h e c i t y of Vancouver. The Chinese a re t h e s i n g l e l a r g e s t A s i a n m i n o r i t y e t h n i c group i n Vancouver arid have a u n i q u e l y c o n c e n t r a t e d p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n . The study f i r s t summarises the g e n e r a l h i s t o r y of Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y B r i t i s h Columbia, over the past 100 y e a r s , and a l s o examines the growth of Vancou-v e r ' s Chinatown. Using p u b l i s h e d and unp u b l i s h e d census data the changing p a t t e r n s of Chinese s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n t h e C i t y of Vancouver are d e s c r i b e d . Next, drawing on census data and on m a t e r i a l c o l l e c t e d through a Sample. Survey of 125 Chinese f a m i l i e s i n 1969, some o v e r a l l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Vancouver Chinese community are d e s c r i b e d , i n terms of such f a c t o r s as age-sex s t r u c t u r e , e d u c a t i o n , p e r i o d of i m m i g r a t i o n , and r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . I t i s hy p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h e r e a re b a s i c ' d i f f e r e n c e s • between the Chinatown and suburban Chinese i n Vancouver. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d and i t showed t h a t t h e r e were s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e Chinese l i v i n g i n the s e d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s i n terms of demographic, economic, r e s i d e n t i a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s , In c o n c l u s i o n , the study suggests t h a t i n q u i r i e s of t h i s n a t u r e c o u l d be p r o f i t a b l y repeated w i t h other e t h n i c groups w i t h i n the c i t y . - i -CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENTS Page! •The p r o b l e m . 1 I I " C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada* 1855 1961. 15 I I I G r o w t h and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and t h e E v o l u t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n s , 1881 - 1961 . 38 IV P a t t e r n s o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n . t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1901 - 1961 . 59 V D i f f e r e n c e s between C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n C h i n a t o w n and i n t h e s u b u r b s . 86 V I C o n c l u s i o n s and r e c a p i t u l a t i o n 106 A p p e n d i x I , Canada: C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , 1801-1961, by P r o v i n c e s . 110 A p p e n d i x I I , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n c i t i e s and towns, 1885 -1961. I l l A p p e n d i x I I I , V a n c o u v e r * s C h i n a t o w n : L a n d u s e , 1943. 114 A p p e n d i x I V . The Sample and Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , R a t i o n a l e , Methods and F i e l d I n v e s t i g a t i o n . 115 A p p e n d i x V. I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e (Questionnare)» 119 S e l e c t b i b l i o g r a p h y 123 - i i -L I S T OF TABLES TABLE Page 2.1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : O c c u p a t i o n s o f immigrant-C h i n e s e , 1885. 22 2.2 Canada: C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , 1901-1961. 30 3.1 ' Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , 1881-1961, 39 4.1 V a n c o u v e r : G r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , 1901 - 1961. 60 4.2 V a n c o u v e r : L e n g t h o f s t a y i n p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e s amongst t h e C h i n e s e , 1969. " 66 4.3 V a n c o u v e r : Reasons f o r moving and t y p e s o f r e s i d e n c e s o c c u p i e d by t h e C h i n e s e , 1969. 67 4.4 V a n c o u v e r : C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961, by y e a r o f i m m i g r a t i o n . 71 4.5 V a n c o u v e r : C o m p a r i s o n between t h e 1961 and' 1969 d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n and d a t e o f b i r t h o f C h i n e s e immigrants,, 72 4.6 V a n c o u v e r : M a r i t a l s t a t u s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n 1961, by a g e - g r o u p s . 73 4.7 V a n c o u v e r ; C o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n and age o f b u i l d i n g s in. 1961, by c e n s u s t r a c t s . 76 4.8 V a n c o u v e r : E d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e , 1961, by s c h o o l l e v e l s . 77 4.9 V a n c o u v e r : A s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e , 1969. 78 4.10 V a n c o u v e r : P r e v i o u s and p r e s e n t (1969) o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e , by o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s . 83 5.1 V a n c o u v e r : Summary t a b l e o f c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s , d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m and a s s o c i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s , o f t h e Sample S u r v e y o f C h i n e s e , 1969.- 88 - i i i -L i s t o f T a b l e s i c o n t ' d . TABLE 5.2 V a n c o u v e r : B i r t h p l a c e o f C h i n a t o w n and Su b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 5.6 V a n c o u v e r : O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 5.8 V a n c o u v e r : Some e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. Page. 89 5.3 V a n c o u v e r : P e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. ' 91 5.4 V a n c o u v e r : R e s i d e n t i a l t y p e s o c c u p i e d by C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 92 5.5 V a n c o u v e r : L e n g t h o f R e s i d e n c e i n p r e s e n t home f o r - C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 93 95 5,7 V a n c o u v e r : Income o f C h i n a t o w n and Sub u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969, 95 98 5.9 V a n c o u v e r : Spoken E n g l i s h a b i l i t y as r e p o r t e d by t h e C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n \ C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969, i 99 5.10 V a n c o u v e r : Number o f c h i l d r e n and b o a r d e r s o f t h e C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 100 5.11 V a n c o u v e r : K i n s h i p i n employment among t h e C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 101 5.12 V a n c o u v e r : P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n s by C h i n a t o w n and Su b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 101 5.13 V a n c o u v e r : P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s by t h e C h i n e s e , 1969, 102 5.14 V a n c o u v e r : A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s r e t u r n i n g t o C h i n a f o r C h i n a t o w n and Su b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. 103 - i v -I L I S T OF ILLUSTRATION' FIGURE» 4b V a n c o u v e r : L o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t s o f C h i n e s e i n 1 9 6 1 , by c e n s u s t r a c t s . 4 c V a n c o u v e r : C h i n e s e as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961f, by c e n s u s t r a c t s , 4d V a n c o u v e r : P e r c e n t a g e d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s ( z - s c o r e s ) o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1 9 6 1 , by c e n s u s t r a c t s , . 5a V a n c o u v e r : Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1 9 5 1 . 5b V a n c o u v e r : Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1 9 6 1 , Page, 1 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1951» 41 2a - 2h B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f c i t i e s and t o w n s , 1885 - 1 9 6 1 . 45-46 3 V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n : 1930-1969 and p r e s e n t - d a y ' C h i n e s e * l a n d u s e , 52 4a V a n c o u v e r ? D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n e s e , 1 9 6 1 . 63 63 64 64 69 69 2 L i s t o f A b b r e v i a t i o n s u s e d i n t h e t e x t , BCLA B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y DBS D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s DBSUCM D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , u n p u b l i s h e d 1961 Census m a t e r i a l . DHC D o m i n i o n House o f Commons SSCCV Sample S u r v e y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , 1969. - v i -ACKNOWLEDGEMEN TS I w i s h t o e x p r e s s my s i n c e r e g r a t i t u d e t o t h e f o l l o w i n g i n d i v i d u a l s f o r t h e i r i n v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and g u i d a n c e t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f my g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s ; Dr« K.S.Sandhu, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r , D e p a r t m e n t o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , D r , R . L e i g h , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r , D e p artment o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , And f i n a l l y , t o my w i f e , M a r i o n , f o r h e r c o n s t a n t encouragement and i n s p i r a t i o n . G e o r g e Cho. - v i i -CHAPTER 1 THE PROBLEM Introduefcion» T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t s t o s t u d y t h e r e s i d e n t i a l patt™ e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e 1 community i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r " , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . One r e a s o n f o r b e i n g i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s t o p i c i s t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r have changed d r a m a t i c a l l y * p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e t h e Second W o r l d War, F o r exam-p l e , before t h e Second W o r l d War, most, i f not a l l , C h i n e s e r e s i d e n c e s were l o c a t e d w i t h i n t h e downtown a r e a known as * China-town'• ( F i g . 3 ) . S i n c e 1947, t h a t i s s i n c e the r e p e a l o f t h e ' I m m i g r a t i o n Act o f 1923*3, however, t h e r e has been a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e C h i n e s e t o move t o t h e suburbs«. T h i s t r e n d has s i g n i f i c -a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d p r e s e n t - d a y r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , W i t h i n t h i s o v e r a l l r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n , o f p a r t i c u -l a r i n t e r e s t a r e t h e r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e C h i n e s e l i v i n g i n C h i n a t o w n and t h o s e i n t h e suburbs„ These c e n t r a l c i t y - - s u b u r b a n d i f f e r e n t i a l s c o u l d p e r h a p s e x p l a i n t h e p e r s i s t e n c e o f the e t h n i c e n c l a v e - C h i n a t o w n - i n V a n c o u v e r , T h i s p e r s i s t -ence and even e x p a n s i o n o f C h i n a t o w n i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t c ontemporaneous e n c l a v e s o f o t h e r e t h n i c m i n o r i t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r have s i n c e d i s a p p e a r e d 4 . 2-Scope and aims_ of the t h e s i s . U n t i l t he Second World War, v a r i o u s l e g a l and s o c i a l , r e s t r i c t i o n s tended t o c o n f i n e A s i a n m i n o r i t i e s t o a few t r a d i t -i o n a l c e n t e r s of r e s i d e n c e w i t h i n Vancouver, These overt, c o n s t -r a i n t s were removed i n 1947, s i n c e which time A s i a n s have been f r e e t o r e s i d e wherever they want. D e s p i t e t h i s freedom, many have co n t i n u e d t o r e s i d e i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l e n c l a v e s . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the case o f t h e Chinese, Chinatown b e i n g s t i l l t h e l a r g e s t s i n g l e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of a m i n o r i t y group w i t h i n Van-couver, I t should be noted, however, t h a t i t i s mainly the • o l d e r ' Chinese who s t i l l r e s i d e i n Chinatown as the 'younger* g e n e r a t i o n s have tended t o l o c a t e t h e i r r e s i d e n c e elsewhere i n Vancouver, Does t h i s d i v i s i o n mean t h a t t h e Chinese a r e s p l i t t -i n g i n t o two d i s t i n c t groups? I f t h i s be so, a r e t h e r e under-l y i n g socio-economic f a c t o r s t h a t would account, i n d i v i d u a l l y and/or c o l l e c t i v e l y , f o r these emerging d i f f e r e n c e s ? Perhaps the key t o such q u e s t i o n s l i e s i n the t e s t i n g of the f o l l o w i n g working h y p o t h e s i s t-There a re b a s i c " d i f f e r e n c e s * between the Chinese l i v i n g i n Chinatown and those l i v i n g i n t h e suburbs and the s e • d i f f e r e n c e s * c o u l d be expressed through a number of v a r i a b l e s . For i n s t a n c e , i t cou l d be expected t h a t w h i l e the Chinese i n the suburbs would have adopted a d i f f e r e n t o u t l o o k - s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y - t o those l i v i n g "in Chinatown, they would, i n g r e a t e r or l e s s e r degree, s t i l l r e t a i n t h e i r 'Chinese-ness• i n some aspects of t h e i r c u l t u r a l l i f e ; or t h a t , as they'were l i v i n g away from the core of the Chinese community, the suburban Chinese -3-would be e x p e c t e d t o no l o n g e r i n d u l g e i n C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s and c e l e b r a t i o n s i n t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l ( c o n s p i c u o u s and f a m i l i a r ) manner. I t i s e x p e c t e d t o o , t h a t changes would o c c u r i n o t h e r m a t e r i a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e i r c u l t u r e . F i n a l l y , t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e s u b u r b s would t e n d t o a c q u i r e many o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e ' s o c i e t y - a t - l a r g e ' l e a d i n g t o t h e d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f e x t e n d e d k i n s h i p p a t t e r n s , d i r n u n i t i o n i n t h e s i z e o f f a m i l i e s and g e n e r -a l l y h i g h e r l e v e l s o f income and e d u c a t i o n . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h i s h y p o t h e s i s and i t s c o r o l l a r i e s i s a major aim o f t h i s t h e s i s . As o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e Lower M a i n l a n d l i v e s o u t s i d e t h e c i t y o f Vancouver, i t was d e c i d e d t o c o n f i n e t h e s t u d y t o t h e C i t y , A l s o from a t h e o r e t i c a l p o i n t o f view, i t would seem t h a t r e s i d e n t s i n f r i n g e a r e a s o f t h e c i t y would t e n d t o be more 0 r u r a l ' t h a n 'urban,* T h i s would make i t more d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c e r n c e n t r a l c i t y — s u b u r b a n d i f f e r -e n c e s . F i n a l l y f r o m a p r a c t i c a l p o i n t o f view, i t would appear t h a t a s t u d y o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e whole o f t h e M e t r o -p o l i t a n a r e a o f Vancouver would be t o o l a r g e an u n d e r t a k i n g f o r . t h e t i m e and r e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . The R e s e a r c h S e t t i n g , The C h i n e s e community has been c h o s e n as t h e f o c u s o f t h i s g e o g r a p h i c a l s t u d y f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F i r s t l y , though a s p e c t s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e c i t y o f Vancouver have been t h e f o c u s o f s e v e r a l s t u d i e s 5 , t h e r e has as y e t been no o v e r a l l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c make-up and even l e s s o f t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . The r e s i d e n t i a l „ 4 -l o c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e community i s o f p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c s i g n i f i c a n c e , e s p e c i a l l y when one c o n s i d e r s t h e c h a n g e s i t has b r o u g h t a b o u t i n t h e l a n d s c a p e , and a l s o s u b s e q u e n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e community t o t h e ' c i t y - f o r m i n g " f u n c t i o n s , C h i n a -town i t s e l f p l a y s a v i t a l r o l e n o t o n l y i n t h e l i v e s o f t h e C h i n e s e community as a w h o l e b u t a l s o i n t h e g e n e r a l e c o n o m i c l i f e o f t h e c i t y , e s p e c i a l l y t h e t o u r i s t t r a d e . S e c o n d l y , t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r r e p r e s e n t a s u b s t a n t i a l ' m i n o r i t y g r o u p 9 and t h e C h i n a t o w n h e r e i s , a f t e r San F r a n c i s c o , t h e l a r g e s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , 6 T h i r d l y , as has been p o i n t e d o u t by Mayer , g e o g r -a p h e r s c a n make a d i s t i n c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n i n t h e f i e l d o f i n t e r -e t h n i c r e l a t i o n s . F o r example, by d e s c r i b i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n and r a t e o f e t h n i c change w i t h i n an u r b a n a r e a , a g e o g r a p h e r may a s s i s t " t h e p l a n n e r t o a c h i e v e p o l i c y r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s t h a t may be w o r k a b l e , " T h i s a s p e c t .is o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n. t h e l i g h t o f c u r r e n t d e v e l o p m e n t p l a n s f o r t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , F o r i n s t a n c e , a p r o p o s a l t h a t a m a j o r f r e e w a y be b u i l t t h r o u g h a p a r t o f C h i n a t o w n was d e b a t e d i n t h e C i t y C o u n c i l on 1 7 t h O c t o b e r , 1967. A l t h o u g h t h e p l a n was p a s s e d a t t h i s m e e t i n g , i t was l a t e r r e s c i n d e d as a r e s u l t o f v i g o r o u s o p p o s i t i o n by members o f t h e C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r , I n i t s p l a c e a • b e a u t i f i c a t i o n ' p r o g r a m f o r C h i n a t o w n and p a r t o f i t s e n v i r o n s was p r o p o s e d by t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , I n f a c t what emerged f r o m t h i s ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n * was t h a t b o t h s i d e s had l i t t l e o r no w o r t h w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o s u c h v i t a l a s p e c t s as t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p r e f e r e n c e s o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e i r g e n e r a l s o c i o -economic s t a t u s and r e l a t e d matters of a c u l t u r a l n a t u r e . T h i s study would h o p e f u l l y h e l p t o f i l l such a gap and thereby a i d f u t u r e urban p l a n n i n g and p o l i c y recommendations. A n a l y t i c a l Methods and Sources of Data. Data p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e Chinese i n Vancouver have been c u l l e d from t h r e e main s o u r c e s . F i r s t l y , e x t e n s i v e use has been made of government p u b l i c a t i o n s , e s p e c i a l l y t h e p u b l i c -a t i o n s of t h e Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s (DBS), and those of the Dominion House of Commons (DHC), and t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly (BCLA), i n t h e form of 'Debates,' ' J o u r n a l s , ' S e s s i o n a l Papers,' ' S t a t u t e s , ' and so on, Secondly, e x t e n s i v e use has been made of un p u b l i s h e d Census M a t e r i a l (DBSUCM), r e l a t -i n g t o the Chinese i n Vancouver i n 1961, T h i s was k i n d l y made a v a i l a b l e by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s i n Ottawa, How-ever, due t o the na t u r e and inadequacies of these d a t a , another source of i n f o r m a t i o n became important,, T h i s was data c o l l e c t e d through f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h t h e a i d of a Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? and a sample of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n the c i t y (SSCCV), i n the summer of 1969, In c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n from the p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l of the Dominion House of Commons and the B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s -l a t i v e Assembly, s p e c i a l e f f o r t s were made t o r e l a t e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o p o s a l s and Acts t o t h e numbers of .Chinese a r r i v i n g at d i f f e r -ent p e r i o d s . T h i s , i t was f e l t , had an important b e a r i n g on the r e c r u i t m e n t , c o m p o s i t i o n and age s t r u c t u r e of the Chinese ( l a b o r ) immigrants.. I n the e a r l y stages such l e g i s l a t i v e measures had -6-' l i t t l e o r no immediate e f f e c t on t h e C h i n e s e community, however t h e s e measures became more and more a p p a r e n t a f t e r t h e 1 9 0 0 ' s . The Census R e p o r t s o f Canada, p u b l i s h e d by t h e Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , c o n t a i n f i g u r e s o f t h e number o f C h i n e s e i n Vancou v e r s i n c e 1901. A p a r t f r o m p r o v i d i n g a b s o l u t e numbers f o r t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y o f Vancouver, t h e p u b l i s h e d Census R e p o r t s a r e o f somewhat l i m i t e d u s e . T h i s i s be c a u s e a l l r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o t h e C h i n e s e commun-i t y has been c o l l a t e d and t a b u l a t e d t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e and E a s t I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n s under ' A s i a t i c s . ' The u n p u b l i s h e d Census m a t e r i a l was t h e 19S1 ce n s u s d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e C h i n e s e i n Vancouver, Some o f t h e maps and t a b l e s u s e d i n t h e t e x t a r e bas e d on t h i s m a t e r i a l ' . Data c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h t h e Sample S u r v e y r e v e a l e d f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e , F o r example, i t p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , c u l t u r a l t r a i t s , r e s i d e n t i a l s t a b i l i t y and e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d s . The n a t u r e o f t h e sample o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n and q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i s examined i n d e t a i l i n Appendix IV, I t s u f f i c e s h e r e t o s a y t h a t enough i n f o r m a t i o n v/as c o l l e c t e d i n t h i s Sample S u r v e y t o make t h i s s t u d y w o r t h w h i l e , Some o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l methods t h a t were used i n t h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d d e s c r i p t i v e i n d i c e s ( l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t s ) and t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t o f a s s o c i a t i o n . The s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s j p r o v i d e d t h e b a s i s f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s t h a t f u r t h e r _7~ i n f e r e n c e s and a n a l y s i s were made more m e a n i n g f u l . Data f o r t h e s e t e s t s were o b t a i n e d from t h e Sample S u r v e y . Some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e main s o u r c e s o f d a t a l i s t e d above a r e ment ioned as t h e y o c c u r i n t h e t e x t . B r i e f l y , t h e main l i m i t a t i o n o f p u b l i s h e d census m a t e r i a l i s t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e i s o f t o o g e n e r a l a n a t u r e . F i n e r d e t a i l s about t h e C h i n e s e had t o be o b t a i n e d f r o m u n p u b l i s h e d s o u r c e s . As f o r t h e Sample S u r v e y , one l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e d a t a o b t a i n e d was t h a t i t was d i f f i c u l t t o v e r i f y whether o r n o t t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e whole C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e C i t y . However, used t o g e t h e r , t h e a v a i l a b l e d a t a does p r o v i d e w o r t h w h i l e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e n a t u r e of C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t -erns . I n summary, t h e r e were t h r e e l e v e l s of a n a l y s e s o f t h e d a t a so c o l l e c t e d . A t t h e l o w e s t l e v e l , a q u a l i t a t i v e assessment was made w i t h t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e . T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e i n - d e p t h s t u d y o f t h e r e p o r t s , books and a r t i c l e s r e l e v a n t t o t h i s s t u d y . A t t h e second s t a g e , and o f a more q u a n t i t a t i v e n a t u r e , census m a t e r i a l was used t o t r a c e t h e g r o w t h , t r e n d s and s p r e a d o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t . T h i s i n v o l v e d t h e use of maps and diagrams t o p r o v i d e a v i s u a l i m p r e s s i o n , The t h i r d and f i n a l s t a g e o f t h i s h i e r a r c h y of a n a l y s i s , c o n s t i t u t e d t h e use of d a t a c o l l e c t e d t h r o u g h f i e l d i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t h e s p e c i f i c t e s t i n g o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . -8 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l A p p r o a c h , V a r i o u s approaches have been p u r s u e d i n t h e s t u d y o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f c i t i e s . Some o f t h e s e have been r e l a t e d t o e t h n i c groups and m i n o r i t i e s 8 , These approaches can-be summarized b r i e f l y as s t h e H i s t o r i c a l 9 , D e m o g r a p h i c 1 0 , E c o -11 1"? l o g i c a l , C u l t u r a l - V a 1 u a t i o n a 1 , and S o c i o ~ P s y e t i o l o g i c a l and B e h a v i o r a l 1 3 a p p r o a c h e s . F o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y however, t h e e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h i s a d o p t e d , as i t seems most amenable t o t h e s t u d y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , T h i s a p p r o a c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e mechanisms by w h i c h any group ( e t h n i c ) a d j u s t s t o o r m o d i f i e s i t s p h y s i c a l environment, w i t h i n t h e c i t y . Of p a r t i c u l a r i m p o r t t o N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s a r e (a) t h e s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of e t h n i c groups and t h e i r r e l a t e d economic a c t i v i t i e s , (b) t h e i r s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n o r f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n h e r e n t i n t h e i r a d j u s t m e n t t o s u b - a r e a s , and (c) t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h one a n o t h e r and w i t h t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e c i t y as a w h o l e . U s i n g t h i s a p p r o a c h , some s c h o l a r s have produced s u c c e s s f u l s t u d i e s o f p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c groups found i n N o r t h A m e r i c a . T h e i r s t u d i e s have r e s u l t e d i n a number of t h e o r i e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s , One of t h e s e i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as t h e 'Wave T h e o r y ' w h i c h d e s c r i b e s t h e r e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y o f i m m i g r a n t s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s and t h e f o r m a t i o n o f immigrant ' q u a r t e r s . ' T h i s t h e o r y has been s u c c e s s f u l l y a p p l i e d by Murphey t o B o s t o n ' s C h i n a t o w n 1 4 . The a r e a of Chinatown i n B o s t o n has p h y s i c a l l y d e t e r i o r a t e d as a r e s u l t o f s u c c e s s i v e o c c u p a t i o n by numerous and d i f f e r e n t e t h n i c g r o u p s . T h i s t h e o r y has a l s o been _9_ a p p l i e d t o C a n a d i a n c i t i e s t o e x p l a i n and d e s c r i b e t h e f o r e i g n i s l a n d s i n M o n t r e a l 1 5 , and t h e J e w i s h community i n W i n n i p e g 1 6 , However, t h i s t h e o r y has s e v e r a l d r a w b a c k s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e t h e o r y r e s t s on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e r e were 'waves* o f immig-r a n t s coming o v e r f r o m E u r o p e i n t h e 1 9 0 0 ' s . B u t the' s o - c a l l e d 'waves' o f i m m i g r a t i o n d i d n o t o c c u r i n Canada. I n s h o r t , i t has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a b i l i t y . T h i s t h e o r y c a n n o t be a p p l i e d t o N e g r o e s , f o r example, m e r e l y b e c a u s e t h e y a r e s t i l l n o t ' s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e ' i n some n e i g h b o u r h o o d s , b u t a l s o b e c a u s e o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r 8 i m m i g r a t i o n . 9 I n some c a s e s , f e a r has b e e n e x p r e s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e N e g r o e s ' b l o c k - b u s t i n g 9 r e s i d e n t i a l n e i g h b o u r h o o d s 1 ? , I f i t were a r g u e d t h a t t h i s t h e o r y m e r e l y ' e x p l a i n s ' and ' d e s c r i b e s * t h e p r o c e s s e s o f n e i g h b o u r h o o d change f o r p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and f o r p a r t i c u l a r m i n o r i t y g r o u p s , t h e n , and o n l y t h e n , w o u l d i t be a c c e p t a b l e h e r e . C o n t r a r y t o t h i s t h e o r y , F i r e y 1 ^ r e g a r d e d f o r e i g n c o l o n i e s i n c i t i e s more as a s t a t i c f o r m i n t h e e c o l o g y o f l a r g e c i t i e s , H i s s t u d y o f t h e I t a l i a n s i n t h e B o s t o n a r e a r e v e a l e d t h e ' s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y ' o f t h e I t a l i a n s , R e s i d e n t i a l m o b i l i t y o f t h e I t a l i a n s was o f t h e i r own v o l i t i o n , f o r . t h e y wanted t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r own l i f e s t y l e s and s y s t e m s o f v a l u e s . Even w i t h upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y , t h e I t a l i a n s have p r e f e r r e d t o s t a y w i t h i n t h e i r own community. T h i s b r i n g s t o f o r e t h e ' f i l t e r i n g 19 c o n c e p t * o f r e a l e s t a t e and r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s t u d i e s . Thi/s c o n c e p t i s one i n w h i c h t h e a v e r a g e r e s i d e n t t e n d s t o f i l t e r , a c c o r d i n g t o s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u c c e s s , i n t o b e t t e r r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e c i t y . T h i s c o n c e p t c o u l d n o t be a p p l i e d t o t h e - 1 0 I t a l i a n s mainly because of t h e i r c u l t u r a l t r a i t s and p a r t l y because of d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t y l e s and v a l u e systems. For our purposes, the q u e s t i o n i s 5 i s t h i s a l s o t r u e of the Chinese? Of l a t e . : however, use has been made of data c o n t a i n e d i n t he censuses. Murdie's w e l l knom study of Toronto has s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s 2 0 . On t h e one hand, S o c i a l Area A n a l y s i s i n • c o n j u n -c t i o n w i t h F a c t o r A n a l y s i s was used as t e c h n i q u e s t o e l i c i t t h e t h r e e f a c t o r s i n t h e s o c i a l geography of t h e c i t y , On t h e o t h e r hand, t h i s strengthened the importance and r e l e v a n c e of t h e study of e t h n i c groups w i t h i n c i t i e s . T h i s method t h e r e f o r e p r o v i d e s a s p r i n g b o a r d f o r f u r t h e r a n a l y s e s of e t h n i c groups on a f i r m and q u a n t i t a t i v e b a s i s , Thus, of the v a r i o u s approaches and t h e o r e t i c c o n s t r -ucts t o the a n a l y s i s of the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e of c i t i e s and e t h n i c groups, t h e e c o l o g i c a l approach as d i s c u s s e d , seems most amenable t o t h i s study. D e f i n i t i o n s . B e f o r e proceeding t o the study proper, we sh o u l d c l a r i f y some terms used i n t h e t e x t . One of t h e most f r e q u e n t l y used phrase i s ' r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n . * ' P a t t e r n ' i s used here t o imply some constancy and r e g u l a r i t y , such as f o r example, s i z e of f a m i l y u n i t , l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e , and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , i n terms of the groups s t u d i e d and t h e i r r e l a t i v e r e s i d -e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . The boundary of Chinatown i s shown on F i g . l and the Chinese l i v i n g w i t h i n t h i s boundary are d e f i n e d as the Chinatown Chinese, w h i l s t those l i v i n g o u t s i d e t h i s boundary are -11-d e f i n e d as t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e . The t e r m ' C h i n e s e e t h n i c g r o u p ' i s u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y t o r e f e r t o p e r s o n s o f C h i n e s e a n c e s t r y , i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r c o u n t r y o f o r i g i n o r n a t i o n a l i t y . ' E t h n i c i t y ' i s b a s e d on and t r a c e d f r o m , t h e e t h n i c o r i g i n o f t h e f a t h e r . F i n a l l y , t h e D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s d e f i n e s a ' h o u s e h o l d * as c o n s i s t i n g o f "... one o r more p e r s o n s o c c u p y i n g one d w e l l i n g and t h e number o f h o u s e h o l d s e q u a l s t h e number o f o c c u p i e d d w e l l i n g s " ^ - . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e t e r m ' h o u s e h o l d ' i s u s e d t o i n c l u d e n o t o n l y members o f t h e i m m e d i a t e f a m i l y b u t a l s o l o d g e r s p a y i n g a f i x e d r e n t , r e g a r d l e s s o f wh e t h e r t h e y a r e r e l a t e d t o members o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e h o l d . F l a n o f Work. The n e x t c h a p t e r examines t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, The c a u s e s o f C h i n e s e m i g r a t i o n t o Canada a r e d i s c u s s e d i n t e r m s o f t h e methods by w h i c h C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s a r r i v e d . T h e r e were s e v e r a l s t a g e s i n t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e . Each o f t h e s e s t a g e s i s r e l a t e d t o t h e p e c u l i a r l e v i e s and l a w s imposed on C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s , These l e v i e s and l e g i s l a t i o n s a f f e c t e d t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C h i n e s e . C h a p t e r I I I t r a c e s t h e g r o w t h and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and how t h e y were a f f e c t e d by s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n s . The e v o l u t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s and towns o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a r e s t u d i e d , V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n i s examined i n t h e l i g h t o f i t s s t r u g g l e , i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s , - 1 2 -f o r e x i s t e n c e . This s i t u a t i o n i s updated w i t h a b r i e f l o o k a t the contemporary scene. R e l a t e d t o t h i s h i s t o r i c a l examination i s t he q u a l i t a t i v e assessment of Chinatown's apparent changing r o l e , from a former 'half-way-house' t o i t s p r e s e n t t o u r i s t i c o r i e n t a t i o n . The p a t t e r n s of Chinese s e t t l e m e n t w i t h i n the c i t y of Vancouver are examined i n Chapter IV. The number of Chinese, t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n and socio-economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a re s t u d i e d i n terms of both t h e p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d census m a t e r i a l , as w e l l as data c o l l e c t e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d y . Chapter V emphasises the c o n t r a s t between t h e Chinese l i v i n g i n the two l o c a t i o n s , Chinatown and t h e suburbs. The hyp o t h e s i s i s t e s t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . Some of t h e more important v a r i a b l e s such as e d u c a t i o n , employment, and incomes a r e s t u d i e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s of the Chinese w i t h i n the c i t y of Vancouver, F i n a l l y , Chapter VI c o n t a i n s a summary and a re-cap-i t u a l t i o n of the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study. I t a l s o l o o k s at some of the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s study and t h e f u t u r e t r e n d s amongst the Chinese community and i t s 'Chinatown.' / -13-F o o t n o t e s . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , t h e t e r m ' C h i n e s e ' i n t h i s t h e s i s r e f e r s t o p e r s o n s who i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s as C h i n e s e and who a r e s o r e c o g n i s e d by o t h e r s , r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r n a t i o n a l i t y , 2 The t e r m ' c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r * o r ' V a n c o u v e r ' i s u s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s t o r e f e r t o t h e a r e a w i t h i n t h e l e g a l c i t y l i m i t s , 3 T h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n C h a p t e r I I , u n d e r ' L e g i s l a t i o n s , * 4 I t has been r e p o r t e d by Walhouse,F«, ( 1 9 6 1 ) , " M i n o r i t y E t h n i c G r o u p s , " pp,221-229 and pp,276-299 t h a t t h e r e had e x i s t e d a "ja-pan-town" o f t h e J a p a n e s e and a " L i t t l e I t a l y " o f t h e I t a l i a n s i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r p r i o r t o t h e Second W o r l d War, However "Japan-town" has d i s a p p e a r e d s i n c e t h e Second W o r l d War, whereas " L i t t l e I t a l y " has d i m i n i s h e d i n i m p o r t a n c e , See, f o r example, Lyman, S.M,, W i l l m o t t , W , E , , and Ho,B,, ( 1 9 5 4 ) , • R u l e s o f a C h i n e s e S e c r e t S o c i e t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , * B u l l e t i n o f t h e S c h o o l o f O r i e n t a l and A f r i c a n S t u d i e s , V o l * 2 7 , No.3, pp. 530-539, and w i l l m o t t , W, i f . , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , ' C h i n e s e C l a n A s s o c i a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r , ' Man, V o l . L X I V , No,49 ( M a r c h - A p r i l ) , pp,33-37, 6 Mayer, H,, ' R e s e a r c h P r i o r i t i e s , 9 i n S c h n o r e , L . F . , ( e d , ) ( 1 9 6 7 ) , S o c i a l S c i e n c e and t h e C i t y ; A S u r v e y o f U r b a n R e s e a r c h , New Y o r k , F r e d e r i c k A . P r a e g e r , P u b l i s h e r s , p.195, 7 The f o r m a t and l a y o u t o f t h i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e owes much t o t h e a d v i c e o f D r s , R . L e i g h and K.S.Sandhu, A copy o f t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e ( Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) i s i n c l u d e d , ( A p p e n d i x V ) , 8 See f o r i n s t a n c e , K c E n t i r e , D . , ( 1 9 6 0 ) , R e s i d e n c e and Race, B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a ' P r e s s , and L i e b e r s o n , S., ( 1 9 6 3 ) , E t h n i c P a t t e r n s i n A m e r i c a n C i t i e s , New Y o r k , F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 9 M o r r i l l , RoL., ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 'The Negro G e h t t o ; P r o b l e m s and A l t e r n a t -i v e s ,' G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l . 5 5 , pp,339-361, 10 T a e u b e r , K., and Taeuber,A., ( 1 9 6 9 ) , N e g r o e s In C i t i e s : h S t u d y i n R e s i d e n t i a l S e g r e g a t i o n , C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , -14-Murphey, ll., ( 1 9 5 1 ) , ' B o s t o n ' s C h i n a t o w n ' E c o n omic G e o g r a p h y , V o l . 2 8 , pp.244-255. 12 F r i e d , H., and G l e i e h e r , ? . , ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 'Some S o u r c e s o f . R e s i d e n t i a l S a t i s f a c t i o n i n an U r b a n Slum,' J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . 2 7 , No,4, pp.305-315, 13 R o s s i , P,H., ( 1 9 5 5 ) , Why F a m i l i e s Move? A S t u d y i n t h e ^ S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y o f Urban i R e s i d e n t i a l ^ I l l i n o i s , The F r e e P r e s s , and W o l p e r t , J , , ( 1 9 6 6 ) , ' M i g r a t i o n as an A d j u s t m e n t t o E n v i r o n m e n t a l S t r e s s , * J o u r n a l o f S o c i a l I s s u e s , V o l . 2 2 , No,4 pp.92-102. 14 Murphey, R,, ( 1 9 5 1 ) , o p . c i t . , p a s s i m . 15 Younge, E.R., (1944'), ' P o p u l a t i o n Movements and t h e A s s i m i l a t i o n o f A l e i n Groups i n Canada, ' C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f Econoraics_ and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e , V o l . 1 0 Mo.3, pp.372-380. 16 R o s e n b e r g , L,, ( 1 9 4 5 ) , The _Jewish M o n t r e a l , pp.21-26, ' B l o c k - b u s t i n g * i s a t e r m o f t e n u s e d t o d e s c r i b e t h e s u c c e s s i v e t a k e - o v e r of» r e s i d e n t i a l b l o c k s by Negroes i n ' w h i t e * n e i g h b o u r -hoods, T h i s p r o m o t e s t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e Negro o c c u p a n c y i n s u c h c i t i e s . F o r a more c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n sees G r o d z i n s , H*> ( 1 9 6 2 ) , • T h e ' M e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a as a R a c i a l P r o b l e m , " E a r l E a a b ( e d ) , A m e r i c a n Race R e l a t i o n s Today, Garden C i t y , New Y o r k , D o u b l e d a y & C o , L t d . , pp.85-123, 18 F i r e y , W , , ( 1 9 4 7 ) , L a n d u s e i n C e n t r a l B o s t o n , C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t e s , H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 19 D a v i s , T . J . , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , ' M i d d l e C l a s s H o u s i n g i n t h e C e n t r a l C i t y , 1 Economic Geography, V o l , 4 1 pp,238-251, 20 • Mu r d i e , , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , F a c t o r i a l E c o l o g y o f M e t r o p o l i t a n T o r o n t o , 1951-1961, C h i c a g o , Department o f Geograohy R e s e a r c h Papers*7~Ho. 116, pp.17-23. 21 DBS, Census o f Canada 1961, ' P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g C h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s by Census T r a c t s ; V a n c o u v e r , ' B u l l e t i n CT 22, C a t a l o g u e 95-537, A p p e n d i x A, CHAPTER I I CHINESE IMMIGRATION INTO CANADA, 1858-1961 Chinese Overseas. The number of Chinese l i v i n g o u t s i d e Mainland China and Taiwan i n 1965 was e s t i m a t e d t o be 16.9 m i l l i o n by the China Yearbook, 1964-196 5 1 . The m a j o r i t y of these Overseas-Chinese or the h u a - c h i a o 2 are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n A s i a n c o u n t r i e s 3 . In a r e c e n t study, Chang 4 observes t h a t t h e Overseas-Chinese i n most c o u n t r i e s are an urban-group and t h a t t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l p a t t e r n s are changing from i n i t i a l p e t t y occupations as cooks, s e r v a n t s , l a u n d r y workers and the l i k e , t o t r a d e , s e r v i c e s and commercial e n t e r p r i s e . Such o c c u p a t i o n a l changes have fundamentally a l t e r e d t h e t r a d i t -i o n a l f u n c t i o n s and s t a t u s of t h e ' o l d Chinatowns' and has a c c e l -e r a t e d the tendency among the younger Chinese t o d i s p e r s e i n t o the suburbs of c i t i e s , There have been numerous s t u d i e s of the Overseas-« 5 • > Chinese-^ m d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s , and t h i s c h a p t e r merely summarizes some of the more important aspects of the g e n e r a l problem of Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n ; i n p a r t i c u l a r i t attempts to examine the case of the Chinese i n Canada. The causes of Chinese e m i g r a t i o n out of China are numerous. At the b e g i n n i n g of t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , the economic s t a t e of China, and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t of i t s c o a s t a l ^ / P r o v i n c e s , was depressed, In a d d i t i o n t h e r e was i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r e s s u r e on the l a n d and the g e n e r a l poverty of t h e people, Famines and f l o o d s were r i f e at t h i s time. These -16-econoraic h a r d s h i p s were a g g r a v a t e d by p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l u n r e s t g e n e r a t e d by l o c a l and c o u n t r y - w i d e d i s t u r b a n c e s and p o l i t i c a l m a n o u v e r i n g s ^ , The p e o p l e o f t h e c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s o f C h i n a had most c o n t a c t w i t h ' f o r e i g n e r s , ' T hese c o n t a c t s w i t h ' f o r e i g n e r s * b r o k e down many o f t h e i r f e a r s and p r e j u d i c e s o f t h e o u t s i d e ' b a r b a r i a n w o r l d ' and t h u s f a c i l i t a t e d C h i n e s e e m i g r a t i o n f r o m t h e s e a r e a s . A- g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e O v e r s e a s - C h i n e s e i n t h e A m e r i c a s and e l s e w h e r e came f r o m t h e two c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s o f Kwangtung and F u k i e n . I t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d by Murphey, t h a t "....the C a n t o n e s e , e t h n i c a l l y and l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e main body o f t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e , a r e C h i n a ' s t r a d i t i o n a l o v e r s e a s t r a d e r s and c o l o n i z e r s , and Kwangtung has been f o r c e n t u r i e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u p p l i e r o f e m i g r a n t s . T h e i r e m i g r a t i o n c a n be s a i d t o stem m a i n l y f r o m e c o n o m i c r e a s o n s . The s t o r i e s o f r i c h g o l d f i e l d s i n t h e A m e r i c a s had f i l t e r e d a c r o s s t o t h e p e o p l e s i n t h e s e c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s o f C h i n a , As a r e s u l t o f s u c h s t o r i e s and news, we o b s e r v e t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a " l a b o r * m i g r a t i o n t o t h e west c o a s t o f A m e r i c a a r o u n d t h e 1840's. More-o v e r , f o l l o w i n g t h e F i r s t and Second Opium Mars, B r i t a i n had f o u g h t f o r t h e l e g a l i z a t i o n o f f r e e C h i n e s e e m i g r a t i o n w h i c h h i t h -e r t o was f o r b i d d e n by t h e Manchu Government (.1644-1911) 8, As a r e s u l t o f s u c h e f f o r t s , t h e B u r l i n g a m e T r e a t y (1868) f o r m a l l y removed t h e r e s t r i c t i o n s on C h i n e s e e m i g r a t i o n 9 . T h i s T r e a t y s t i m u l a t e d e m i g r a t i o n o f t h e Chinese., 1 7 -! J l g ^ . g ^ ^ i l H g . . J ? . f - C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, A c o m p r e h e n s i v e a c c o u n t o f t h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada ca n be f o u n d i n b o t h Cheng,(1931) and i n . . . A n d r a c k i , (1958) . T h i s p o r t i o n o f t h e c h a p t e r on C h i n e s e immi-g r a t i o n i n t o Canada however, d e a l s w i t h t h e more i m p o r t a n t g e o g -r a p h i c a l a s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, The f i r s t C h i n e s e t o s e t f o o t on C a n a d i a n s o i l came 11 n o t f r o m C h i n a b u t C a l i f o r n i a , C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o C a l i f -o r n i a began as e a r l y as 1848, w i t h t h e discovery;;- o f r i c h d e p o s i t s o f g o l d . " M o u n t a i n o f G o l d , * t h e C h i n e s e name f o r C a l i f o r n i a , i s a d i r e c t a s s o c i a t i o n t o t h e s e g o l d . d e p o s i t s . The d e p l e t i o n o f t h e g o l d r e s o u r c e s i n C a l i f o r n i a c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e d i s c o v e r y and announcement o f t h e r i c h p l a c e r beds i n t h e l o w e r F r a s e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1858-'% T h i s a t t r a c t e d many m i n e r s and a l s o some C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s . T h i s was one o f t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e s o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, more s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L o c a l a t t i t u d e ( i n Canada) t o w a r d s t h e C h i n e s e immig-r a n t s i n t h e w e s t c o a s t was c o r d i a l a t f i r s t , L a t e r on, w i t h t h e r e c e s s i o n i n g o l d m i n i n g and d e p l e t i o n o f t h e s e r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s i n g a g i t a t i o n t o l e g i s l a t e a g a i n s t C h i n e s e i m m i g r a -t i o n s . The u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n s were s r a c e p r e j u d i c e , e c o nomic c o m p e t i t i o n , a l a r m o v e r t h e w e i g h t o f numbers and p r o b l e m s o f r a c i a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . Of t h e s e , Boggs p o i n t s o u t t h a t , p r o b a b l y t h e most o b v i o u s and a t t h e same t i m e l e a s t r a t i o n a l B-?asJ r a c e p r e j u d i c e , " I 3 I t s h o u l d he n o t e d t o o t h a t by t h i s t i m e C h i n e s e 18-immigrants were a r r i v i n g d i r e c t l y f r o m C h i n a i n s t e a d o f t h e c i r c u i t o u s r o u t e t h r o u g h C a l i f o r n i a . By 1863, t h e t o t a l C h i n e s e 14 p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a l r e a d y numbered a b o u t 2,500-I n 1891, the Census o f Canada e s t i m a t e d t h e number o f C h i n e s e i n Canada at 9,129, o f which 8,910 were i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s phenomenal i n c r e a s e i n numbers was p r e c i p i t a t e d by t h e b u i l d i n g o f the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y i n 1881. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e Onder-d.onk C o n s t r u c t i o n Company was g i v e n a l i m i t e d s u b - c o n t r a c t to c o n s t r u c t t h e r a i l r o a d . I t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t t o meet i t s l a b o r r e q u i r m e n t s , t h e Company b r o u g h t a t o t a l of 15,701 C h i n e s e labor™ ers f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e o f Kwangtung m 1881—. Thus, i t was a t t h e r a i l r o a d camps t h a t one f o u n d t h e m a j o r i t y o f the C h i n e s e w o r k i n g as l a b o r e r s and cooks,, T h i s s i t u a t i o n has a p a r a l l e l i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , where the C h i n e s e were e m p l o y e d as l a b o r e r s i n t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . A n o t h e r p a r a l l e l b etween C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f o f f i c i a l a n t i - C h i n e s e l e g i s l a t i o n s , , However, i n t h e c a s e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada, t h e s e were c a r r i e d o u t m a i n l y a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l . The C h i n e s e were n o t a c c e p t e d as c i t i z e n s u n t i l some e i g h t y y e a r s a f t e r t h e y f i r s t e n t e r e d Canada . F r i c t i o n b etween t h e l o c a l p o p u l a c e and t h e C h i n e s e began a t an e a r l y d a t e . The f i r s t i n s t a n c e s o f v i o l e n c e a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e seems t o have t a k e n p l a c e as e a r l y as J a n u a r y 1867. .This o c c u r r e d when an a n g r y mob marched t o t h e H c D o u g a l ' s Work / Camp, a c l e a r i n g i n t h e 'West End F o r e s t s ' on t h e n o r t h - w e s t e r n edges o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y West a i d a r e a o f t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , l a t e a t n i g h t and d r o v e t h e C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s t o t h e c l i f f s f o r c i n g -19-them t o jump i n t o t h e i c y w a t e r s - 1 0 . A t t h e o f f i c i a l l e v e l however, t h e f i r s t move i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t u r e t o l e g i s l a t e a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e came i n F e b r u a r y 1872. A head t a x o f $50 p e r head p e r annum was p r o p o s e d 1 7 . T h i s was however d e f e a t e d i n a v o t e . I n 1875, a B i l l was p r o p o s e d i n t h e same L e g i s l a t u r e p r o h i b i t i n g f r a n c h i s e t o t h e C h i n e s e i n P r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s - * - 8 , R e p e a t e d a t t e m p t s were a l s o made i n 1876 and 1878 t o impose a t a x o f $10 p e r c a p i t a p e r annum on e v e r y C h i n e s e m ale o v e r 18 y e a r s and ". . ,who wears l o n g h a i r i n t h e s h a p e o f a t a i l o r q u e u e , " 1 0 These p r o p o s a l s , a l t h o u g h p a s s e d and a p p r o v e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t u r e , were l a t e r r u l e d u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l by t h e Supreme C o u r t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e argument o f t h e C o u r t b e i n g t h a t t h e s e A c t s i n t e r -f e r e d w i t h t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f t r a d e and commerce, and t h e n a t u r a l -i s a t i o n o f a l i e n s - a r i g h t w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e D o m i n i o n G o v e r -nment i t s e l f 2°, The f i r s t i n s t a n c e o f p r o p o s e d l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e a t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l was i n • l a r c h 1878, when a p r o -p o s a l was made i n t h e House o f Commons t o deny work i n t h e Canad-i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y t o p e r s o n s w e a r i n g h a i r more t h a n 5 V l o n g . T h i s p r o p o s a l was s p e c i f i c a l l y aimed a t t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s who wore queues, The P r i m e M i n i s t e r , A l e x a n d e r M a c K e n z i e , o p p o s e d t h i s m o t i o n , f o r he a r g u e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e had'come f r o m Hong Kong, and as s u c h t h e y were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s and s h o u l d t h e r e -91 f o r e oe a c c o r d e d due r i g h t s . The p r o p o s a l was d e f e a t e d i n a v o t e , D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1881-1885, a l t h o u g h e f f o r t s were made a t t h e o f f i c i a l l e v e l t o s e c u r e t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o f C h i n e s e -20-i m m i g r a t i o n , some 15,701 C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s a r r i v e d i n t h e Domin-i o n 2 2 , A d e b a t e i n t h e D o m i n i o n house o f Commons i n May 188 2, v o i c e d t h e f e a r t h a t t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s had numbered some 32,000 and t h a t i f t h i s t r e n d p e r s i s t e d , t h e number of w h i t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be o u t n u m b e r e d 2 3 . The members p r o p o s i n g l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n were r e - a s s u r e d however t h a t s i n c e t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s d i d n o t b r i n g t h e i r f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n , t h e y w o u l d l i k e l y r e t u r n home, T h i s argument, a l t h o u g h sound a t t h a t t i m e , p r o v e d t o be c o n t r a r y t o t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , as we s h a l l l a t e r s e e , "In 1883, a S e l e c t Committee was a p p o i n t e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t u r e t o s t u d y t h e p r o b l e m o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n 2 4 . Two A c t s were l a t e r p a s s e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e 25 ' . r e p o r t and r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o f t h i s S e l e c t C ommittee • The f i r s t A c t p r o v i d e d t h a t an a n n u a l l i c e n c e t a x of $10 was t o be imposed on e v e r y C h i n e s e 14 y e a r s and o v e r . A n o t h e r c l a u s e o f t h i s same A c t made i t mandatory f o r e v e r y C h i n e s e t o have a minimum l i v i n g s p a c e o f a t l e a s t 384 c u b i c f e e t f o r e a c h p e r s o n , T h i s was p u r p o r t e d t o m a i n t a i n a g e n e r a l l i v i n g s t a n d a r d and p r e v e n t o v e r -c r o w d i n g i n t h e t e n e m e n t s . The s e c o n d A c t p r o h i b i t e d i m m i g r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e i n t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and imposed a p e n a l t y o f $50 f o r i l l e g a l e n t r y . The Supreme C o u r t however d e c l a r e d t h e f i r s t A c t • u l t r a v i r e s as i t imposed a d i f f e r e n t i a l t a x on i t s s u b j e c t s . The s e c o n d A c t was d e c l a r e d n u l l and v o i d as t h e q u e s t i o n o f i m m i g r a t i o n was e x c l u s i v e l y a D o m i n i o n r i g h t 2 6 . -21-The F i r s t P e r i o d o f C h i n e s e R e s t r i c t i o n , 1885-1900. A R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n was a p p o i n t e d i n J u l y 1885 t o 27 i n q u i r e i n t o t h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . The r e p o r t o f t h i s R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n l e d t o t h e p a s s i n g o f an A c t i n t h e same y e a r . T h i s A c t aimed a t ' r e s t r i c t i n g and r e g u l a t i n g , ' b u t n o t p r o h i b i t i n g , C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e D o m i n i o n . T h i s A c t t h e r e f o r e marks t h e b e g i n n i n g s o f a n t i - C h i n e s e l e g i s l a t i o n a t t h e F e d e r a l l e v e l . T h i s A c t was a l s o t h e f i r s t a n t i - C h i n e s e 2 8 l a w i n Canada . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e f i r s t c l a u s e c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , a head t a x o f $50 was t o be l e v i e d on e v e r y C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t and 50 t o n s o f goods had t o be t r a d e d by t h e s h i p b r i n g i n g C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s i n t o Canada. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r e p o r t , t h e r e were a b o u t 15,701 C h i n e s e i n t h e D o m i n i o n i n 1 8 8 5 2 9 . Of t h e s e , 10,550 o r a b o u t 6 7.1 were i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t o t a l number o f a d u l t male C h i n e s e i n t h e P r o v i n c e was 9,870. T h i s meant t h a t n e a r l y 9 3 . 3 % o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was m a l e , T a b l e 2.1 b e l o w g i v e s a breakdown o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n 1885. T h i s p a t t e r n o f m a l e d o m i n a t i o n i n t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t p o p u l a t i o n s had i m p o r t a n t i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e C h i n e s e community. F u r t h e r e l a b o r a t i o n o f t h i s p o i n t i s f o u n d i n C h a p t e r I I I , p-,'At t h e c i t y l e v e l , t h e e l e c t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t Mayor i n 1886 saw t h e b e g i n n i n g o f open c o n f l i c t between t h e i m m i g r a n t C h i n e s e and t h e a n t i - C h i n e s e e l e m e n t s . The C h i n e s e f r o m H a s t i n g s M i l l were on t h e i r way t o t h e M a p l e T r e e ( t h e s i t e o f p r e s e n t - d a y "Gastown') t o v o t e . They were met on t h e way -22-T a b l e 2.1s B r i t i s h Columbia! O c c u p a t i o n s o f Immigrant C h i n e s e , 1885. O c c u p a t i o n s Number P e r c e n t R a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n 3,500 M i n i n g 2,240 Farming 800 Canning 390 M i l l i n g 270 S e r v i c e s ( c o o k s , s e r v a n t s , 35.46 22.69 0.81 3.95 2.73 laundrymen, e t c . ) 2,670 27.05 TOTAL 9,870 100.00 Sources same as f o o t n o t e 29 below. by a mob o f w h i t e s . A t t h e same t i m e o t h e r s i m i l a r mobs met s h i p s a t d o c k s i d e s t o t u r n away s h i p s b e a r i n g C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . The C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s f r i n g i n g F a l s e Creek were b u r n t down and t h e a n t i - C h i n e s e elements t r i e d t o r u n t h e C h i n e s e o u t o f town. These elements were m a i n l y w h i t e l a b o r e r s who r e s e n t e d t h e comp-e t i t i o n o f cheaper C h i n e s e l a b o r i n t h e l a b o r m a r k e t 3 0 . J t i m e a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l l e v e l r e q u e s t i n g s t r i c t e r i m m i g r a t i o n laws be imposed on C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . I t was a l s o a t t h i s t i m e , i n 1891 t o be p r e c i s e , t h a t o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e J a p a n e s e were f i r s t mentioned a t t h e P r o v i n c i a l P a r l i a m e n t 3 1 . Such r e q u e s t s and p r o p o s a l s f o r A c t s t o p r o h i b i t i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e were more o f t e n t h a n not t u r n e d down f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t h e e x t e n s i o n o f t r a d e w i t h C h i n a and Japan, t h e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e T r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d , were a l l c i t e d as c o u n t e r arguments. F o r s u c h r e a s o n s . . . 32 t h e M u n i c i p a l E l e c t i o n s A c t o f 1896 and t h e A l e i n L a b o r A c t o f 33 1897 , p a s s e d by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e were b o t h V a r i o u s o t h e r p e t i t i o n s were a l s o r e c e i v e d a t t h i s -23-d i s a l l o w e d by t h e Dominion Government, B o t h A c t s had v i o l a t e d t h e t r e a t y r i g h t s o f t h e p e o p l e i n v o l v e d . The Supreme C o u r t i n 1900 pronounced t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t of 1900 and t h e L a b o r R e g u l a t i o n A c t o f 1900 p a s s e d by t h e 34 B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e t o be u l t r a v i r e s . B o t h t h e s e A c t s r e q u i r e d t h e immigrant t o be a b l e t o r e a d and w r i t e a European l a n g u a g e when a p p l y i n g f o r i m m i g r a t i o n . A l t h o u g h i n appearance t h e s e two A c t s t r i e d t o a v o i d o v e r t r a c i a l d i s c r i m i n -a t i o n , t h e i r c l a u s e s made t h i s f a c t u n d e n i a b l e . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a t t h i s t i m e many p r o p o s a l s were t a b l e d i n t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e and i n t h e Dominion House o f Commons t o r e s t r i c t o r t o t a l l y p r o h i b i t C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . The Second P e r i o d o f C h i n e s e R e s t r i c t i o n , 1901 - 1925. The b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s p e r i o d saw t h e r a p i d growth o f t h e C h i n e s e immigrant p o p u l a c e . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1886 - 1891, some 4,809 C h i n e s e immigrants had a r r i v e d i n t h e Dominion. Betw-een 1892 and 1901 t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada was n e a r l y 35 26,763. Of t h e s e n e a r l y 86% were i n B r i t i s h Columbia . A t t h e same t i m e i t s h o u l d be mentioned t h a t t h e ' o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n problem* i n Canada had changed i t s c h a r a c t e r c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d under d i s c u s s i o n . I n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , i t was l a r g e l y a C h i n e s e p roblem. Now, b e s i d e s t h e C h i n e s e , t h e r e were a l s o t h e J a p a n e s e and E a s t I n d i a n s , m a i n l y S i k h s . These l a t t e r two groups were t r e a t e d d i f f e r e n t l y , as J a p a n was an a l l y of B r i t a i n , w h i l e t h e E a s t I n d i a n s were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . -24-In 1902, t h e Dominion House o f Commons app r o v e d t h e head t a x i n c r e a s e f r o m $50 i n 1885 t o $ 1 0 0 3 6 . The 50 t o n s o f goods t o be t r a d e d by t h e s h i p b r i n g i n g i n C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s remained unchanged. T h i s amended t h e C h i n e s e R e s t r i c t i o n s A c t o f 1885. T h i s i s viewed as a s i g n i f i c a n t e v e n t i n t h i s p e r i o d o f C h i n e s e r e s t r i c t i o n , f o r t h e Dominion seemed a t t h i s s t a g e t o be b e n d i n g t o t h e w i s h e s o f t h e p e o p l e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. However, t h i s amendment was d e s c r i b e d as i n a d e q u a t e by members o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L e g i s l a t u r e . E f f o r t s were c o n t i n u e d i n 1903 b u t t h e y f a i l e d t o i n c l u d e t h e c l a u s e " . . . t h a t no p e r s o n s u n a b l e t o speak E n g l i s h c o u l d occupy a p o s i t i o n o f t r u s t i n a mine..." i n t o t h e 1885 A c t . / I n A p r i l 1903, an amendment t o t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f o f 1900 r a i s e d t h e head t a x t o $500 and a s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t one-h a l f o f t h e p r o c e e d s so c o l l e c t e d s h o u l d go t o t h e P r o v i n c e c o l l e c t i n g i t . T h i s amendment became e f f e c t i v e on J a n u a r y 1, 1904 / i n immediate e f f e c t o f t h i s t a x was t h e r e d u c t i o n o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada. T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e amount was t o o l a r g e f o r t h e a v e r a g e C h i n e s e immigrant t o pay. However, a few y e a r s l a t e r t h e r e was a jump i n t h e numbers o f C h i n e s e a r r i v i n g i n t h e Dominion. T h e i r numbers jumped from 121 i n J u l y 1907 t o about 1,482 i n March 1908. T h i s s i t u a t i o n r e s u l t e d from two r e l a t e d f a c t o r s . F i r s t l y , as a r e s u l t o f t h e $500 head t a x , C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n f e l l . B e cause o f t h i s , t h o s e C h i n e s e who were a l r e a d y h e r e were demanded a l l t h e more i n t h e l a b o r market. They had become, as i t were, a u n i t commanding a monopoly o f t h e •cheap* l a b o r market. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e d o u b l i n g and t r e b l i n g - 2 5 -o f t h e i r wages. S e c o n d l y , t h e demand f o r C h i n e s e l a b o r was g r e a t e r t h a n t h e r e were s u p p l i e s o f them, Businessmen and i n d u s -t r i a l i s t s sought out C h i n e s e l a b o r w i t h h i g h e r wages as i n c e n t i v -es f o r a t t r a c t i n g them. B o t h t h e s e f a c t o r s r e s u l t e d i n t h e w i l l -i n g n e s s o f C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s t o pay t h i s head tar. o f $500 as t h e y 3 8 knew t h a t i t c o u l d be p a i d o f f i n a few months t i m e , , One i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t t h a t needs t o be mentioned h e r e i s t h a t t h e head t a x o f $500 changed t h e c h a r a c t e r o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . B e f o r e t h e i m p o s i t i o n o f t h e head t a x , a g r e a t number o f C h i n e s e were b r o u g h t i n by l a b o r a g e n c i e s and l a b o r c o n t r a c t o r s * The a g e n c i e s and c o n t r a c t o r s , a c t i n g as middlemen i n t h e l a b o r market, p a i d i n advance t h e p a s s a g e o f t h e C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s , who i n t u r n worked f o r a few y e a r s h e r e t o pay o f f t h e i r d e b t s . When t h e $50 and $100 head t a x were i n f o r c e t h e s e a g e n c i e s p a i d f o r t h e t a x e s and p a s s a g e of t h e C h i n e s e l a b o r . But t h e $500 head t a x was t h e ' l a s t s t r a w 1 f o r t h e a g e n c i e s and c o n t r a c t o r s who d i d n o t w i s h t o r i s k s u c h l a r g e sums o f money i n advance. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r head t a x t h e r e f o r e c o m p l e t e l y a b o l i s h e d t h e c o n t r a c t u a l system. T h i s p e r i o d t h e r e f o r e saw t h e change-over 39 from c o n t r a c t l a b o r e r s t o f r e e l a b o r i m m i g r a t i o n , The a n t i - A s i a t i c E x c l u s i o n League was formed i n Vancouver i n 1907. A f t e r a g e n e r a l m e e t i n g on 8 t h . September,1907, a r a d i c a l group, n o t c o n t e n t w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n s a g a i n s t C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s , d e c i d e d t o t a k e t h e lax-/ i n t o t h e i r own hands. T h i s r e s u l t e d i n t h e infamous ' a n t i - A s i a t i c ' r i o t s o f Vancouver o f t h a t y e a r . Damage t o p e r s o n a l p r o p e r t y was e x t e n s i v e , e s t i m a t e d ^ 0 by v a r i o u s s o u r c e s t o be more t h a n $100,000 . However, a c c o r d i n g -26-t o t h e o f f i c i a l assessment made by Mr.MacKenzie K i n g ^ 1 , t h e damage c l a i m e d by t h e C h i n e s e was about $26,900, i n c l u d i n g l e g a l e xpenses. T h i s r e l a t i v e l y low f i g u r e o f c l a i m s f o r damages i n c u r r e d by t h e r i o t s , as r a t i o n a l i z e d by .King, was due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e C h i n e s e d i d n o t w i s h t o appear t o t a k e a d v a n t a g e o f t h e s i t u a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e c l a i m e d o n l y n o m inal sums. T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d t o be t h e minimum amount r e q u i r e d t o s t a r t t h e i r b u s i n e s s e s a g a i n . A n o t h e r l i n e o f t h o u g h t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e low monetary c l a i m s may have been p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t might have been u s e d t o g a i n t h e g o o d w i l l and u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e p e o p l e o f Vancouver. The V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , which was f o r m e r l y a n t i - C h i n e s e , r e p o r t e d i n i t s pages t h e f o l l o w i n g day, t h a t " . . . t h e a c t i o n o f t h e mob was d e p l o r a b l e and a d i s g r a c e to Canada e s p e c i a l l y t o B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " 4 2 -I m m i g r a t i o n as a r e s u l t o f t h e $500 head t a x v i r t u a l l y s t o p p e d . But i t p i c k e d up a g a i n i n 1907, when 1,542 C h i n e s e immigrants e n t e r e d t h e Dominion, I t was a t t h i s t i m e t h a t c h a r g e s of i l l e g a l e n t r y , s m u g g l i n g and m i s c o n d u c t were l a i d a g a i n s t Customs o f f i c i a l s i n V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, T h i s l e d t o t h e appointment o f M r . J u s t i c e Murphy t o i n v e s t i g a t e and r e p o r t on t h e problem o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n and i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The f i n d i n g s o f Murphy, were t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e immigr-a t i o n o f C h i n e s e a t V i c t o r i a was e f f e c t i v e and adequate. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n Vancouver, however, l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d 4 3 . I n 1913, an Order i n C o u n c i l p r o h i b i t e d t h e e n t r y of s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d E a s t Indian ( m a i n l y S i k h ) l a b o r t o B r i t i s h Columbia p o r t s 4 4 . A y e a r l a t e r t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n was a l s o -27-a p p l i e d t o t h e C h i n e s e 4 5 . I n August 1913, c o a l m i n e r s on V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d went on s t i r k e . The mine owners used C h i n e s e l a b o r t o work t h e mines. T h i s a c t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e mine owners a n g e r e d t h e s t r i k e r s and r e s u l t e d i n t h e r i o t s o f August 12th.and 1 6 t h a t E x t e n s i o n , S o u t h W e l l i n g t o n and L a d y s m i t h . C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s u s e d t h e C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n as i t s b a r g a i n i n g body and c l a i m e d damages o f $12,000 f o r l o s s e s s u s t a i n e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e r i o t s . . . 46 These l o s s e s i n c l u d e d l o s s i n wages, p r o p e r t y and i n j u r y . The p e r i o d o f t h e F i r s t World War r e s u l t e d i n a d e c l i n e i n C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e i n 1913, some 6,227 C h i n e s e i m m i g r a nts l a n d e d i n Canada. When t h e War s t a r t e d , t h i s d ropped t o 1,600 i n 1914 t o 82 i n 1915, a t w hich ti m e t h e 1913 Order i n C o u n c i l became e f f e c t i v e . W i t h t h e r e t u r n t o n o r m a l c y a f t e r t h e F i r s t World War, a Dominion F r a n c h i s e B i l l (1920) was p a s s e d . I t i n c l u d e d a c l a u s e s t a t i n g t h a t t h o s e p e r s o n s d i s q u a l i f i e d by any P r o v i n c e o f t h e Dominion t o v o t e , s h a l l n o t be q u a l i f i e d t o v o t e i n t h e F e d e r a l o r P r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s 4 7 . In t h e 1921 s e s s i o n o f t h e Dominion P a r l i a m e n t , i t became mandatory f o r t h o s e c l a s s e s o f C h i n e s e immigrants who were exempt from t h e head t a x , but whose exemption had l a p s e d , t o r e g i s t e r w i t h t h e C o n t r o l l e r o f Immigr-48 . . a t i o n , A p r o p o s a l f o r t h e t o t a l ' e x c l u s i o n * o f O r i e n t a l s was r e j e c t e d i n t h e Dominion House o f Commons, In i t s p l a c e however t h e M i n i s t e r o f t h e I n t e r i o r p r o p o s e d t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923 i n w h ich the words ' e f f e c t i v e r e s t r i c t i o n * i n l i e u o f ' t o t a l e x c l u s i o n ' were i n c l u d e d . W i t h t h i s amendment, t h e B i l l was - 2 8 -^49 p a s s e d . The I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923 remains t h e most d r a s t i c and e f f e c t i v e p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n aimed a t s t o p p i n g t h e f l o w o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e Dominion. T h i s was p a s s e d on t h e 50 . . . . 4 t h . o f May 1923 . T h i s A c t a t t r a c t e d w o r l d - w i d e o p i n i o n i n c l u d -i n g t h a t o f B r i t a i n . C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada v i r t u a l l y 51 s t o p p e d . The s p e c i a l c l a s s e s o f p e r s o n s who f o r m e r l y were g i v e n u n r e s t r i c t e d e n t r y were r e d u c e d t o Government o f f i c i a l s , C a n a d i a n - b o r n C h i n e s e who had gone a b r o a d f o r s t u d i e s , merchants and s t u d e n t s . The p o i n t s o f e n t r y were r e s t r i c t e d o n l y t o t h e two p o r t s o f Vancouver and V i c t o r i a f o r C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . F i n a l a u t h o r i t y on C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n r e s t e d w i t h t h e M i n i s t e r o f I m m i g r a t i o n and a C o m p t r o l l e r . They were empowered t o d e c i d e on t h e ' d e s i r a b i l i t y ' o f t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . The C h i n e s e v i e w -p o i n t was h e a r d by t h e S e n a t e on t h e 1 4 t h . o f May 1923, and o n l y c e r t a i n c l a u s e s o f t h e A c t were o b j e c t e d t o by t h e C h i n e s e . These c l a u s e s were amended i n t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e A c t . R o y a l 53 A s s e n t t o t h i s B i l l was r e c e i v e d on t h e 3 0 t h o f June 1923 The P e r i o d o f R e - O r i e n t a t i o n , 1926-1947. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e Canada Ye a r b o o k s o f t h e p e r i o d , f r o m t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923 t i l l i t s r e p e a l i n 1947, o n l y 57 C h i n e s e immigrants e n t e r e d Canada. The r e p e a l o f t h i s A c t f i n a l l y came on t h e 14th, o f May 1947, C h i n e s e a l r e a d y i n Canada were a l l o w e d t o a c q u i r e Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p and \fere i a l l o w e d t o send f o r t h e i r wives and u n m a r r i e d c h i l d r e n under-18 y e a r s o l d . In f a c t N a t u r a l i z a t i o n had begun as e a r l y as 1941 -29-when n e a r l y 2,055 C h i n e s e r e c e i v e d t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p , 91 i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 4 6 5 4 and 880 i n t h e p e r i o d 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 9 5 5 . D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923, t h e r e were no o t h e r m a j o r B i l l s n o r were any amendments p r o p o s e d . T h i s c o u l d t h u s be v i e w e d as a s t a g e i n t h e r e - o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e p e o p l e s o f Canada, and e s p e c i a l l y t h a t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A c c e p t a n c e and Modern-day T r e n d s , 1948-1969. The h o s t i l i t y a g a i n s t C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n s o o n d i e d down a f t e r t h e Second W o r l d War. D u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1947-1959, more t h a n 22,000 C h i n e s e a c q u i r e d C a n a d i a n c i t i z e n s h i p . The l a r g e s t number t o z'eceive t h e i r c i t i z e n s h i p was between 1951 and 1952 when n e a r l y 6,000 p e r s o n s o f C h i n e s e e x t r a c t i o n were a c c e p t -ed as c i t i z e n s 5 6 . C e r t a i n amendments t o t h e 1947 I m m i g r a t i o n A c t were made i n 1957, when t h e s p o n s o r s h i p o f s p o u s e s and c h i l d r e n by C a n a d i a n C h i n e s e c i t i z e n s became p o s s i b l e . • Those C h i n e s e who a r r i v e d i n Canada f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f m a r r i a g e d i d n o t have t o s a t i s f y r e s i d e n c e r e q u i r m e n t s o f 30 days n o r was i t mandatory f o r them t o s e c u r e r e t u r n t i c k e t s i n t h e e v e n t t h a t t h e p r o p o s e d m a r r i a g e d i d n o t t a k e p l a c e . C e r t a i n c l a s s e s o f i m m i g r a n t s a r e s t i l l d i s c o u r a g e d , p r i m a r i l y on a c c o u n t o f age, m e n t a l s t a t e , l i t e r a c y i n E n g l i s h and o t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s . A more d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e r e p e a l o f t h e I m m i g r a t i o n •Act o f 1923 was t h e improvement i n t h e s e x - r a t i o o f t h e C h i n e s e / h e r e . T h i s a s p e c t i s d i s c u s s e d i n a g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . -30-The e f f e c t s o f t h e l e g i s l a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s aimed a t t h e C h i n e s e c a n b e s t be s t u d i e d i n t h e l i g h t o f t h e s t a t i s t i c s c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e Y e a r b o o k s o f Canada, 1901-1961. The m a i n p o i n t t o n o t e i s t h e a d v e r s e e f f e c t s o f t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923, and more r e c e n t l y , o f t h e modern-day a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e . ( T a b l e 2. T a b l e 2.2: Canada: . C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , 1901-1961* Y e a r Number Y e a r Numb e r Y e a r Number 1901 2,544 1921 2,732 1941 2 3,587 22 810 42 _ 3 5,329 23 _ 43 - -4 4,847 24 7 44 — 5 77 25 45 -6 168 26 - 46 8 7 1,542 27 2 47 34 8 2,163 28 1 48 276 9 1,883 29 1 49 803 1910 4,667 1930 - 1950 1,746 11 6,660 31 - 51 2,708 12 6,995- 32 1 52 2,320 13 6,227 33 1 53 1,936 14 1,600 34 1 54 1,636 15 82 35 - 55 2,602 16 313 36 56 2,130 17 542 37 1 57 1,686 18 2,988 38 58 2,630 19 1,084 • 39 - 59 2,586 1920 1,329 1940 — 1960 61 1,450 894 S o u r c e : s t a t i s t i c a l Y e a r b o o k o f Canada, 1901, ( p . 6 1 1 ) , Canada Y e a r b o o k , 1911, ( p . 3 9 5 ) , 1921, ( p . 1 3 1 ) , 1931, T p . 1 8 5 ) , 1 9 4 1 , ( p . 1 2 2 ) , 1951, ( p . 1 5 1 ) , and 1961 ( p . 2 3 3 ) . The D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada. The e f f e c t s o f s p e c i f i c l e g i s l a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e C h i n e s e c a n be r e a d i l y s e e n f r o m t h e ce n s u s f i g u r e s ( A p p e n d i x I ) and from t h e i m m i g r a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s ( T a b l e 2 , 2 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e i n t e r c e n s a l p e r i o d 1901-1911 t h e p e r c e n t a g e g r o w t h o f t h e - 3 1 -C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada was 60,76 ( t h a t i s , f r o m 17,312 t o 27,831.) The i n c r e a s e d r o p p e d t o 4 2 . 2 1 % f o r t h e n e x t i n t e r -c e n s a l p e r i o d and t o a l o w o f 1 7 , 5 2 % f o r t h e p e r i o d 1921-1931. T h i s g r a d u a l d e c l i n e i n t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i s v e r y h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h - t h e s e r i e s o f l e g i s l a t i o n s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . D u r i n g t h e i n t e r - c e n s a l p e r i o d 1931-1941 and 1941-1951, t h e p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y d e c l i n e d (-25,56% and - 6 . 0 6 % r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , I n t e r m s o f a b s o l u t e numbers t h i s was a d r o p f r o m 46,519 p e r s o n s i n 1931 t o 32,523 i n 1951. T h i s meant t h a t t h e r e was i n f a c t a l o s s o f p o p u l a t i o n t h r o u g h d e a t h s as w e l l as e m i g r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e f r o m Canada, W i t h t h e e a s i n g o f t h e r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s -l a t i o n s , t h e g r o w t h r a t e o f t h e C h i n e s e p i c k e d up a g a i n , fox-example between 1951 and 1951 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by 78.91%. T h e r e were n e a r l y 58,197 C h i n e s e i n Canada i n 1961. The s t a t i s t i c s q u o t e d above however do n o t c o r r e l a t e w i t h s t a t i s t i c s u s e d i n t h e r e p o r t s o f t h e L e g i s l a t u r e s ^ , T h i s has been f o u n d t o be m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f r e t u r n e m i g r a t i o n f r o m Canada t o C h i n a , w h i c h i s n o t u s u a l l y r e p o r t e d i n t h e o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s , A m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e p e r s o n s r e t u r n i n g home c o u l d p r o b a b l y be t h e l a b o r i m m i g r a n t s who came s o l e l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f w o r k i n g i n t h e mines and r a i l w a y s . A t t h e same t i m e , a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e a l s o d i e d d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The shape o f t h e g r o w t h c u r v e o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada i s an i n v e r t e d n o r m a l c u r v e w i t h a mean g r o w t h p e r decade o f 3 8 . 5 % and a s m a l l e r f i g u r e o f 27,04% f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Between 1901 and 1931, B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a c o n t a i n e d more t h a n 50% o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, T h i s -32-c o n c e n t r a t i o n of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n however has been d e c r e a s -i n g w i t h the d i s p e r s i o n of the Chinese from t h i s P r o v i n c e t o the ot h e r P r o v i n c e s of Canada. From 1941 onwards, the percentages o f the Canadian Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia has dropped s t e a d i l y from 46.84% i n 1941 t o a low of 41.62% i n 1 9 6 1 5 8 . T h i s d i s p e r s i o n of the Chinese from B r i t i s h Columbia may have been due t o t h e ve r y r e s t r i c t i v e l e g i s l a t i o n s i n t h i s P r o v i n c e . I n f a c t t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e evidence of h o s t i l i t y i n t h e oth e r P r o v i n c e s 59 towards the Chinese through l e g i s l a t i o n s . As a r e s u l t of such ' f a v o u r a b l e ' c o n d i t i o n s , t h e r e has been a tendency among t h e Chinese t o move t o thes e P r o v i n c e s . The d i s p e r s i o n and growth of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n the o t h e r P r o v i n c e s i s v e r y marked i n the case of the P r o v i n c e s of A l b e r t a , O n t a r i o , and Quebec. However, the g e n e r a l t r e n d s t o be found i n these P r o v i n c e s are n e a r l y the same. For ins t a n c c , t h e growth and d e c l i n e of the Chinese i n the ot h e r P r o v i n c e s have shown a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the growth and d e c l i n e of t h e Canadian Chinese as a whole. The e f f e c t s of t h e l e g i s l a t i o n s are a l l too c l e a r . These l e g i s l a t i o n s had i n f a c t stemmed t h e f l o w o f Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n t o a g r e a t degree. Another e f f e c t may be found i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y few Chinese women i n the country. The r a t i o of women to men i n 1931 was l e s s than 7.5%, By 1951 t h i s had improved t o 26,7%, T h i s abnormally low r a t i o of Chinese women accounts f o r t h e f a c t t h a t n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e was r e l a t i v e l y unimportant as a . f a c t o r i n the growth of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n u n t i l 1951, /This aspect i s examined i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l on a P r o v i n c i a l b a s i s i n the f o l l o w i n g chapter, . - 3 3 -Footnotes t 1 China Yearbook, 1964-1965, Taipeh, 1965, and The Overseas Chinese A f f a i r s Commission, Taipeh, 1956, 2 T h i s i s a Chinese word used t o d e s c r i b e those Chinese t h a t are now l i v i n g i n overseas " t e r r i t o r i e s a p a r t from Taiwan or M a i n l a n d China, 3 Chang, s-D., (1968), 'The D i s t r i b u t i o n and Occupations of Overs-eas Chinese,* G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, Vol,58 No.1, pp.89-107, Chang r e p o r t s t h a t about 15.8 m i l l i o n o r 97% of the overseas-Chinese are c o n c e n t r a t e d i n A s i a , 4 i b i d , pp. 102-107, 5 For i n s t a n c e , Cough!in, (1960), Freedman, (1957), S k i n n e r , (1958), T i e n , (1953), and Sung, (1967) . 6 Sandhu, K*3., (1961), 'Chinese C o l o n i z a t i o n of Malaccas A Study i n P o p u l a t i o n Change, 1500 to 1957 A.D.' J o u r n a l of T r o p i c a l Geography, Vol.15 (June), p.10 . 7 Murphey, R., (1951), o p . c i t . p,254. T h i s i s a l s o v e r i f i e d by Pyau L i n g , (1912), 'Causes of Chinese E m i g r a t i o n , * Annals, American Academy of P o l i t i c a l and S o c i a l S c i e n c e , Vol,39, p,75 : who opines t h a t they are the most e n t e r p r i s i n g of the l i n g u i s t i c groups i n China. 8 Chen Ta, (1923),'Chinese M i g r a t i o n w i t h S p e c i a l Reference t o Labor C o n d i t i o n s , ' B u l l e t i n of the U n i t e d S t a t e s Bureau of Labor S t a t i s t i c s , No,340, Washington,D,C., p.17. 9 McNair, H.F., (1924), The Chinese Abroad, Shanghai, China, The Commercial Press L t d . , pp,16-17. 10 Cheng, T,F,,(1931), O r i e n t a l Immigratipn i n t o Canada, Shanghai, China, The Commercial Press L t d , , and Andracki,S., (1958),'The Immigration of O r i e n t a l s i n t o Canada, w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o the Chinese,' unpublished P h , D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , Canada. -34-Rung,3.M. , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , C h i n e s e i n A m e r i c a n L i f e , S e a t t l e , W a s h i n g t o n The U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , p,19 . 12 Woodsworth, C . J . , ( 1 9 4 1 ) , Canada and t h e O r i e n t s A S t u d y i n I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e l a t i o n s , C a n a d i a n I n s t i t u t e o f I n t e r n a t i o n a l A f f a r i s , TororvtTj" p. 19. 13 Boggs, T.H,, ( 1 9 2 6 ) , ' O r i e n t a l P e n e t r a t i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I n t e r n a t i o n a l Forumn R e v i e w , V o l . 1 Wo,3, p.9. 14 Kung, 3.W., ( 1 9 6 2 ) , o p , c i t , p.18, 15 Quan L i n , ( 1 9 5 8 ) , ' E a r l y C h i n e s e S e t t l e r s , ' i n a s e r i e s , see,* C h i n a t o w n News, V a n c o u v e r , ( M a y ) V o l , 5 Nos,17-23, T h i s f i g u r e however i s a g r o s s o v e r - e s t i m a t i o n and c o u l d n o t have been more t h a n 4,200 i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r t h a t c e n s u s p e r i o d . 16 S p e a r i n g , D . N . , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , ' C h i n a t o w n - V a n c o u v e r ' s H e r i t a g e , ' P l y w o o d W o r l d , V o l , 9 No.1, p.5 . 17 BCLA, J o u r n a l s , 1872, p.15. 18 BCLA, S t a t u t e s , 1875, No,2, 19 BCLA, j o u r n a l s , 1876, p.45. 20 DHC,- R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , 1885, A p p e n d i x G, pp.375 - 38 3. 21 DHC, D e b a t e s , 1878, p.1027, 22 DHC, R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n , R e p o r t on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , 1885, "The Commission,' p.v . . 23 D H C » D e b a t e s , 1832, p.1476. , BCLA, J o u r n a l s , 1884, 'The A d d r e s s , ' p.88. 25 BCLA, S t a t u t e s , 1884. -35-25 DHC, S t a t u t e s , 1884, ' D i s a l l o w a n c e R e p o r t , ' pp.1092-1095. The R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n c o m p r i s e d M r . J . A . C h a p l e a u , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r Canada, and Mr. J u s t i c e J.H.Gray, sees BCLA, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1885, 'The R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , ' No,54a, p . x i . 28 DHC, S t a t u t e s , 1885, C h a p t e r 7 1 , 29 BCLA, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1885, ' R e p o r t on C h i n e s e I m m i g r a t i o n , ' A p p e n d i x C, pp.363-366, and A p p e n d i x E, pp,370-371, 30 S p e a r i n g , D.N,, ( 1 9 6 9 ) , o p , c i t . p,6. A l s o t h e t e r m 'Gastown' i s u s e d i n t e r c h a n g e b a l y w i t h ' o l d G r a n v i l l e T o w n s i t e , ' T h i s i s t h e c o r n e r o f p r e s e n t - d a y C a r r a l l and Water S t r e e t s , I t was h e r e t h a t a p u b l i c m e e t i n g p l a c e f i r s t emerged i n t h e c i t y . F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e l e g a l a s p e c t s and f r a n c h i s e o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s o v e r s e a s , s e e M a c N a i r , ( 1 9 2 4 ) , o p . c i t . pp,132-136, 31 BCLA, J o u r n a l s , 1891, pp,50-56, 32 BCLA, S t a t u t e s , 1896, C h a p t e r 38, A r t . 7 , 33 i b i d . , 1897, C h a p t e r 1 , 34 i b i d . , 1900, C h a p t e r 14. 35 DBS, Census o f Canada, ^1901, 36 DHC, S t a t u t e s , 1904, C h a p t e r 32. 37 i b i d . , 1904, C h a p t e r 8. 38 The above i s summarized f r o m t h e f i n d i n g s i n D.H.C., R e p o r t o f The R o y a l Commission A p p o i n t e d t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e Method by w h i c h O r i e n t a l L a b o r e r s i Have Boon I n t r o d u c e d i n t o Canada,_1908, p . 7 1 , Fo r i n s t a n c e Cheng, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , r e p o r t s t h a t wages r o s e f r o m $25 t o $60 f o r t h e same s e r v i c e s r e n d e r e d by t h e C h i n e s e , t h a t i s , b e f o r e t h e $500 head t a x became e f f e c t i v e . See Cheng, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , o p . c i t , p. 73-74. ~~~ ~ -36-39 DHC, R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission,,,1908, pp,72-73. 40 / See, M a c D o n a l d , D., ( 1 9 6 9 ) , ' C h i n a t o w n , ' V a n c o u v e r L i f e , V o l . 4 Mo. 1, p.26 and, V/alhouse, F, , ( 1 9 6 1 ) , o o . c . i t . , p. 241. B o t h w r i t e r s seem t o have o v e r - e s t i na t e d t h e amount o f damage b r o u g h t a b o u t by t h e r i o t s and t h e s u b s e q u e n t m o n e t a r y c l a i m s f o r damages by t h e C h i n e s e , 41 BCLA, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1908, * The R e p o r t o f M a c k e n z i e K i n g , * No.74, p.12, 42 E d i t o r i a l , The V i c t o r i a C o l o n i s t , S e p t e m b e r 9 t h . , 1 0 t h , , & 1.1th., 1907, V i c t o r i a , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 43 DHC, D e b a t e s , 1 9 1 1 , 'The Murphy R e p o r t , 1 9 1 1 . 8 44 DHC, C a n a d i a n G a z e t t e , 1913, P.C.8 93. 45 i b i d . , 1914, P.C.23. 46 BCLA, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1919-1920, 'The R e p o r t , 9 A p p e n d i x F. 47 D H C , S t a t u t e s , 1920, C h a p t e r 46, S e c t i o n 30. 48 i b i d , 1921, C h a p t e r 21, 49 DHC, D e b a t e s , 1922, p.1513. s50 i b i d , 1923, pp.2481-2489, 51 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1923-1947, o n l y 57 C h i n e s e were a d m i t t e d i n t o t h e D o m i n i o n , F a m i l i e s o f C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n Canada were s t r i c t l y n o n - a d m i s s i b l e . Canada, S e n a t e ; J o u r n a l s , 1923, p.344. 53 DHC, S t a t u t e s , 1923, C h a p t e r 38. I -37-54 Kung, ( 1 9 5 2 ) , o p . c i t . , p.20. 55 DBS, Department o f T r a d e and Commerce, The Canada Y e a r b o o k , 1 9 5 2 , Ottawa, p.162. ' 56 i b i d . , p.21. 57 See f o o t n o t e 15. The f i g u r e g i v e n i n t h e r e p o r t o f 1885 was 15,701 w h i l e t h e Census q f i Canada,^1691, r e p o r t s t h a t t h e r e were o n l y a b o u t 9,129 C h i n e s e i n Canada a t t h a t t i m e . 58 T h i s a s p e c t i s d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . 59 See, Cheng, T.F., ( 1 9 3 1 ) , op. c i t . , p.83,89 S< 104. > CHAPTER I I I GROWTH AND DISTRIBUTION OF THE CHINESE POPULATION ^ T S R I T I S H COLUMBIA, AND THE EVOLUTION OF CHINATOWNS, 1881 - 1961. The Growth o f C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, 1881-1961. S i n c e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada, n e a r l y 40% o r more o f t h e C h i n e s e immigrants have s e t t l e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, S e v e r a l r e a s o n s h e l p t o a c c o u n t f o r s u c h a dense C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e P r o v i n c e . F i r s t l y , t h e west c o a s t s o f Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s were t h e c l o s e s t l a n d a r e a s t o t h e O r i e n t . T h i s p r o x i m i t y f o s t e r e d t h e growth o f C h i n e s e immigrant c o l o n i e s i n s u c h c i t i e s as San F r a n c i s c o and V i c t o r i a . The l a t t e r was more f a v o u r e d m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f Canada's t i e s w i t h B r i t a i n , as Canada was f o r m e r l y a B r i t i s h c o l o n y , and t h a t some o f t h e C h i n e s e a r r i v i n g f r o m Hong Kong were B r i t i s h s u b j e c t s . C h i n e s e immigrants f a v o r e d V i c t o r i a and o t h e r p a r t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia because o f t h e v a s t o p p o r t u n i t i e s a f f o r d e d them i n g o l d m i n i n g and r a i l r a o d c o n s t r u c t i o n . Then t o o , as economic demands f o r l a b o r i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e e r a o f p i o n e e r s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e i n t e r i o r and t h e g e n e r a l development o f t h e P r o v i n c e . C h i n e s e l a b o r was c o n t r a c t e d f r o m Hong Kong and C h i n a t o meet t h e l a b o r demands o f t h e P r o v i n c e . In s u c h s e t t i n g s , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s i n V i c t o r i a and New Westminster, by t h e i r v e r y e x i s t e n c e , f u r t h e r s t i m u l a t e d t h e f l o w o f e m i g r a n t s from C h i n a . F i n a l l y , p o l i t i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n a g a i n s t C h i n e s e immigrants i n Canada s t a r t e d i n e a r n e s t - 3 9 -o n l y f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . P r i o r t o t h i s , C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s f o u n d i t e a s i e r t o e n t e r Canada t h a n was t h e c a s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s 1 , G i v e n s u c h a s i t u a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d above, i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , t h e g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was enhanced ( T a b l e 3 . 1 ) . I t w i l l be o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n e s e i n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w a s . p a r t i c u l a r l y h i g h i n t h e e a r l y p e r i o d s o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . F o l l o w i n g t h e Immig-r a t i o n A c t o f 1923 however, t h i s p r o p o r t i o n f e l l . The p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n e s e i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has r e m a i n e d s t a b l e . T a b l e 3,1 : Canada and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n , 1881 - 1961 . Y e a r Canada: B r i t i s h (3) as % Canada % B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : o f (2) C o l u m b i a i numbers numbers P e r c e n t P e r c e n t i n c r e a s e / i n c r e a s e / d e c r e a s e d e c r e a s e (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1881 4,383 4,200* 95.82 _ 1891 9,129 8,910 97,60 51,98 112,14 1901 17,312 14,885 85,98 89,89 67,05 1911 27,831 19,568 70.31 60,76 31,46 1921 ' 39,581 23,533 59,45 42,21 20,26 1931 46,519 27,319 58.72 17.52 16.04 1941 34,627 16,220 46.84 -25.56 -40.62 1951 32,528 15,933 48,98 - 6,06 - 1.76 1961 58,197 24,227 41.62 78.91 52,05 = e s t i m a t e o n l y . S o u r c e J These s t a t i s t i c s have been cbmp i 1 e d f rom , DBS, Census R e p o r t s , 1881-1961 * S e c o n d l y , t h e r e l a t i v e d e c r e a s e i n t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l -a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has been f a l l i n g g r a d u a l l y s i n c e 1941 -40-when a n e g a t i v e n e t growth was r e c o r d e d . I n f a c t , C h i n e s e p o p u l -a t i o n l o s s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was f a r g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f C a n a d a 2 as a whole. T h i s was p r o b a b l y t h e r e s u l t o f e m i g r a t i o n and a g e n e r a l d i s p e r s i o n o f C h i n e s e f r om B r i t i s h Columbia t o t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s i n Canada. Because o f t h e l a c k o f a c c u r a t e s t a t i s t i c s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o a s c e r t a i n t h e p o i n t a t which n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e t o o k o v e r f r om n e t i m m i g r a t i o n as t h e dominant f a c t o r i n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s o f t h e Department o f c i t i z e n s h i p and I m m i g r a t i o n do n o t p r o v i d e b r e a k -downs s u c h as t h e s e . I t i s e s t i m a t e d h e r e t h a t n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d p r o b a b l y have become i m p o r t a n t sometime a f t e r 1941, F i g u r e 1 compares t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia t o t h a t o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n a l o n e , i n terms o f age-groups and s e x . The g r a p h o f t h e age-group 30-34 y e a r s and l e s s i s shown t o be t e n d i n g towards a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h i s would seem t o s u g g e s t t h a t i f t h o s e between t h e age-group 0-34 y e a r s were t a k e n t o c o n s t i t u t e t h e n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e , t h e n t h e p o i n t where n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e became more dominant t h a n n e t m i g r -a t i o n would l i e someplace between 1941 and 1945. A more i m p r e s s i v e a s p e c t o f t h i s age-sex p y r a m i d i s t h e predominance o f t h e male C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s t o be e x p e c t e d . F i r s t l y , t h e i m m i g r a t i o n of t h e C h i n e s e was male-dominated. T h i s o c c u r e d as a r e s u l t o f t h e e x i g e n c i e s o f economic development o f t h e ' f r o n t i e r l a n d s ' o f B r i t i s h Columbi-a w h i c h c r e a t e d a demand f o r l a b o r , c o u p l e d w i t h a need f o r cheap l a b o r t o be used i n r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n . S i n c e C h i n e s e l a b o r was - 4 1 -A G E GROUPS M A L E S F E M A L E S P E R C E N T P E R C E N T F i g , Is B r i t i s h Columbia: Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e T o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1951, r e l a t i v e l y e asy t o o b t a i n and 'cheap,* many C h i n e s e were c o n t r a -c t e d f r o m Hong Kong and C h i n a f o r work i n B r i t i s h Columbia, C h i n e s e women were however n o t needed i n t h e s e schemes. S e c o n d l y , as Sandhu J has s u c c i n c t l y summarized, t h e m a l e - d o m i n a t i o n o f Ch i n e s e m i g r a n t s a r e a p p a r e n t f o r s e v e r a l r e a s o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h a n t i - e m i g r a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n was s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d i n Ch i n a up t o 1868, when t h e B u r l i n g a m e T r e a t y p e r m i t t e d e m i g r a t i o n from C h i n a , males g e n e r a l l y were a b l e t o evade t h e f o r m e r law. But t h e law was s t r i c t l y e n f o r c e d i n t h e c a s e o f women. The r a t i o n a l e b e i n g t h a t t h e men would r e t u r n t o C h i n a someday t o marry o r t o v i s i t t h e i r wives and p a r e n t s . Moreover, t h e r o l e and s t a t u s of women i n Ch i n a was c o n s i d e r e d t o be i n t h e home. These may w e l l have been b a r r i e r s f o r f e m a l e e m i g r a t i o n . -42-D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n B r i t i s h Columbia, The C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia had grown from 4,200 i n 1881 t o about 24,227 i n 1961, T h i s growth i n t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n a l s o f o s t e r e d t h e g r o w t h o f C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r -a t i o n s i n s m a l l e r towns and v i l l a g e s b e s i d e s Vancouver and V i c t -o r i a ( F i g s . 2a-2h). In g e n e r a l t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n s was m a i n l y a l o n g t h e c o a s t , e s p e c i a l l y t h e s o u t h - w e s t c o a s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and t h e s o u t h - e a s t p o r t i o n o f Vancouver I s l a n d . W i t h i n t h e s e a r e a s , t h e r e were two major c e n t e r s o f C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n 1885, These were a t V i c t o r i a and a t New West-m i n s t e r , b o t h w i t h more t h a n 1,500 C h i n e s e . These were by f a r t h e l a r g e s t nodes o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n a t t h a t t i m e . One r e a s o n f o r t h i s b e i n g so i s t h e f a c t t h a t New W e s t m i n s t e r was a t t h a t t i m e an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r f o r t h e a r e a s between B u r r a r d I n l e t and t h e n o r t h Arm o f t h e F r a s e r R i v e r , Other c e n t e r s w i t h s i z e a b l e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s i n c l u d e d t h e n o r t h e r n i n t e r i o r r e g i o n around Quesnel and B a r k e r v i l l e , S m a l l e r c e n t e r s were a l s o f o u n d around Kamioops and Savona F e r r y . E x p e c t e d l y , t h e s e were m i n i n g towns. By 1901, t h e a r e a s around B u r r a r d and Vancouver ( t h e n known as H a s t i n g s t o w n s i t e ) each had about 2,500 C h i n e s e . However t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s remained on t h e s o u t h w e s t e r n c o a s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e C a r i b o o Region i n f a c t had grown from 979 i n 1891 t o 3,596 i n 1901. - 4 3 -The y e a r 1911 r e p r e s e n t s a marked r e v e r s a l o f t h e f o r m e r t r e n d s , Whereas, p r i o r t o t h i s y e a r t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e c e n t e r e d around a few a r e a s , f o r example, V i c t o r i a , New W e s t m i n s t e r and Vancouver, 1911 saw t h e growth o f o t h e r c e n t e r s o f C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, The predominance of Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , however, p e r s i s t e d . The o t h e r c e n t e r s where s m a l l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s were f o u n d were i n t h e Okanagan and Kootenay R e g i o n s . T h e r e were a l s o about 57 C h i n e s e a t P r i n c e R u p e r t . The d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1921 f o r t h e most p a r t r e s e m b l e d t h e p a t t e r n o f 1911 ( F i g , 2 d ) , and t h e growth and dominance o f V i c t o r i a and Vancouver, c o n c o m i t a n t w i t h t h e d e c l i n i n g i m p o r t a n c e o f New W e s t m i n s t e r , c o n t i n u e d . The p e r s i s t e n c e o f C h i n e s e communities i n o t h e r c e n t e r s c o n t i n u e d , P r i n c e George was b e g i n n i n g t o emerge as y e t a n o t h e r new c e n t e r o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t i n 1921. The C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e was about 145 p e r s o n s . The p a t t e r n of d i s t r i b u t i o n i n 1931 f u r t h e r emphasizes t h e growth and predominance o f Vancouver as t h e c e n t e r o f C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I n f a c t , Vancouver was shown t o have about 13,011 C h i n e s e i n t h e c i t y i n 1931. A l t h o u g h t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t was p a s s e d i n 1923, t h e growth o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n between 1921 and 1931 i s phenomenal, w i t h an i n c r e a s e of 120,56% (see T a b l e 4.1), T h i s growth i s p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d ^ by t h e growth o f t h e c i t y o f Vancouver i t s e l f , and i t s added needs of 'cheap' C h i n e s e l a b o r . A n o t h e r r e a s o n c o u l d be t h e r c - c o n v e r g -ence o f C h i n e s e on t h e c i t y , r e s u l t i n g from t h e d e p l e t i o n o f mines -44-and the co m p l e t i o n of r a i l r o a d c o n s t r u c t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. On the o t h e r hand, i n 1941, the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia d e c l i n e d r e l a t i v e l y . T h i s d e c l i n e c o n t i n u e d t i l l 1 951, In 1961 however, the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n showed a r e l a t i v e i n c r e a s e which might probably have been due t o n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . In a Canadian c o n t e x t , B r i t i s h Columbia has been shown t o have a p e r s i s t e n t l y l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n the country (see Appendix I ) . But i n the c o n t e x t of B r i t i s h Columbia a l o n e , Vancouver has p e r s i s t e n t l y m a i n t a i n e d a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n . Thus as a r e s u l t of such dominance, the growth of Chinatowns i n some c e n t e r s of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n c l u d i n g Vancouver, was f o s t e r e d . Chinatowns i n B r i t i s h Columbian Towns, I n a d d i t i o n t o the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of the t o t a l Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbian towns, t h e r e was t h e emergence of another important f e a t u r e . T h i s f e a t u r e was the growth of 'Chinatowns 8 i n some of the l a r g e r towns. Because t h i s f e a t u r e has seldom been s t u d i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia, the a c t u a l growth of these Chinatowns cannot be e a s i l y t r a c e d , However an examination of W i l l m o t t ' s a r t i c l e 4 does p r o v i d e some i n s i g h t s i n t o the changing r o l e s , of Chinatowns, Of the tw e l v e towns s t u d i e d by W i l l m o t t , o n l y two d i d not c o n t a i n an area r e c o g n i s e d as a 'Chinatown.' The p e r s i s t e n t f e a t u r e s found i n these Chinatowns are t h r e e f o l d . F i r s t l y , Chinatowns i n B r i t i s h Columbian towns are - / / h e a v i l y male dominated. W i l l m o t t ' s study r e p o r t s t h a t , "...the s e x - r a t i o among Chinese i n these communities, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n 2c 2d I j QRevelstoke ^ "«/••. -46-V a n c o u v e r N e w W e s t m i n s t e r . . . _ ••' V i c t o r i a N o i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e 6 0 0 f o r t h e o t h e r t o w n s . C h i n e s e _ _ 2f 1 9 4 1 O. O R e v e l s t o k e V j J C o u r t e n a y „ ( C u m b e r l a n d ~ *vt,Port A l b . ' 0 Ap M I L E S ' K a m l p o p s ^ A r m s t r o n g C / V e r n o n O K a s l o Q M e r r i t t O F e r n i e V a n c o u v e r ^ C h i l l i w a c k V i c t o r i a 'Kelowna C r a n b r o o k ^ DTrail T h e r e w e r e C h i n e s e a t 400 O u e s n e l , P r i n c e G e o r g e a n d £2 C h i n e s e p r i n e e R u p e r t . T r a i l N o i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e f o r 2oo ' o w n s b e l o w 10,000 p e o p l e . C h i n e s e 2h 1 9 6 1 A s h c r o f P o w e l l R i v e r KS*>. I WT Pbrt ^ A l b e r n i ^ - / ) ,„ " I ^ N a n a i m o ' *0 / _ i C j D u n c a n ' M I L E S ^ S a a n i c h ' O K a m l o o p s o V e r n o n K e l o w n a O P e n t i c t o n O V a n c o u v e r P - 9 . - . - - 1 C h i l l i w a c k V i c t o r i a C h i n e s e 15,OOoQ N e t s o n OTraiU. — - - -2,000 T h e r e w e r e C h i n e s e a t P r i n c e R u p e r t , P r i n c e G e o r g e t Q u e s n e l . S o u r c e : s ee A p p e n d i x I I , - 4 7 -of Nanaimo, v a r i e s between one woman i n f o u r t o one i n t e n , w h i l e 7 t h e r a t i o i s c l o s e t o one i n t h r e e i n Vancouver." Of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , most of the men are e l d e r l y , o l d and r e t i r e d , who had immigrated d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d of Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n ( t h a t i s , p r i o r t o 1923), A second f e a t u r e t h a t a r i s e s out of the f i r s t i s , the o c c u p a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e found i n these Chinatowns, The Chinese f o l l o w e d t h e e a r l y miners i n t o the mining communities of B r i t i s h Columbia. The Chinese p r o v i d e d such s e r v i c e s as washing and cooking i n these mining towns. But when the p l a c e r beds were d e p l e t e d , and the demands f o r such s e r v i c e s d i m i n i s h e d , the Chinese turned t o o t h e r p u r s u i t s such as r e s t a u r a n t s , l a u n d r i e s , g r o c e r i e s and t r u c k - f a r m i n g i n these communities. Today, however, the Chinese i n these towns are engaged m a i n l y i n r e s t a u r a n t s and g r o c e r i e s and p a r t l y i n t r u c k and v e g e t a b l e f a r m i n g . The l a s t f e a t u r e found i n these Chinatowns p e r t a i n s t o the o r g a n i z a t i o n of v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s . A c c o r d i n g t o W i l l m o t t , o n l y Quesnel, A s h c r o f t and R o s s i a n d - T r a i l out of the twelve towns s t u d i e d d i d not have any form of an o r g a n i s e d a s s o c i a t i o n , This f e a t u r e i s e s p e c i a l l y i n t e r e s t i n g as most of these Chinatowns have d i r e c t connections w i t h Vancouver's China-town. More s p e c i f i c a l l y , the s m a l l e r Chinese communities l o o k t o Vancouver as t h e i r c u l t u r a l and economic c e n t e r , T h i s b r i n g s us to the examination of Vancouver's Chinatown, and i t s growth and development. _48-THE DEVELOPMENT OF VANCOUVER'S CHINATOWN E a r l y C h i n e s e S e t t l e m e n t i n V a n c o u v e r . L i t e r a t u r e p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e . s e t t l e m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e and t h e g r o w t h o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n i n d i c a t e s t h a t M c D o u g a l ' s Work Camp i n t h e 'West End F o r e s t s '9 was one o f t h e e a r l i e s t C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s i n t h e V a n c o u v e r a r e a . I n f a c t t h e s e t t l e -ment h e r e c o n s i s t e d o f C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s engaged i n t h e c o n s t r -u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . T h i s s e t t l e m e n t o f C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s was however b u r n t down i n J a n u a r y 1 8 6 7 , when an a n g r y mob o f w h i t e s d r o v e t h e C h i n e s e o u t o f t h e i r homes i n t o t h e i c y w a t e r s o f t h e i n l e t s n e a r b y . A f t e r t h i s , t h e C h i n e s e r e -g r o u p e d on t h e s o u t h - e a s t e r n b a n k s o f F a l s e Creek, and s e t up 10 • t h e i r s h a n t y houses t h e r e , The wooden s h a c k s f r i n g e d b o t h s i d e s o f t h e C r e e k and t h e s e C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s s t r e t c h e d due west t o p r e s e n t - d a y C a r r a l l S t r e e t , T h e r e were a l s o p o c k e t s o f C h i n e s e houses a r o u n d t h e v i c i n i t y o f P e n d e r ( t h e n c a l l e d Dupont) and 11 R e e f e r S t r e e t s " . On t h e day o f t h e e l e c t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r ' s f i r s t Mayor i n 1886, a mob b u r n e d down t h i s s e t t l e m e n t and t r i e d t o r u n t h e C h i n e s e o u t o f t o w n . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y meant t h a t t h e r e was s u d d e n l y a s u r p l u s o f l a b o r i n V a n c o u v e r . T h i s meant t h a t wages d r o p p e d c o n s i d e r a b l y and c o m p e t i t i o n f o r j o b s became f i e r c e r . The s t r i k e n C h i n e s e commun-i t y t h e n moved i n t o t e nements a r o u n d S h a n g h a i , C a n t o n and M a r k e t A l l e y s , and began t a k i n g on m e n i a l t a s k s , l e s t t h e y i n c u r t h e 12 w r a t h ot t h e w h i t e l a b o r e r s , The community e x i s t e d a r o u n d t h i s -49-a r e a f o r some t i m e . However t h e C h i n e s e community i n t h i s a r e a was a g a i n d i s l o c a t e d i n t h e 1900's, t h i s t i m e by l a r g e c ommercial i n t e r e s t s i n t h e i r q u e s t f o r warehouse s p a c e , T h i s f o r c e d t h e C h i n e s e t o move t o t h e a r e a around K e e f e r and Pender S t r e e t s . From d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h some o l d e r C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n Chinatown,, i t i s s a i d t h a t , a t one t i m e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Vancouver a w a l l was b u i l t t h r o u g h Shanghai A l l e y , as a form o f p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e C h i n e s e , A l t h o u g h no e v i d e n c e can a t t e s t t o t h i s f a c t , t h i s might be p l a u s i b l e , s i n c e t h e r e have been Known t o be c o n t i n u a l h a r r a s s m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e by t h e w h i t e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h i s a r e a . But as f a r as I am aware, no me n t i o n o f s u c h a w a l l e x i s t s i n any o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l s o u r c e s examined f o r t h i s t h e s i s . T h i s c o u l d perhaps be c o u n t e d as one o f t h e w i l d e r s t o r i e s , as t o l d by o l d e r C h i n e s e f o l k , t h a t have f i l t e r e d down t o us, C h i n e s e immigrants when n o t engaged i n m i n i n g were o c c u p i e d i n m e n i a l t a s k s . I n Vancouver, a g r e a t m a j o r i t y c o n f i n e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s t o t h e p r e c i n c t s o f t h e C h i n e s e q u a r t e r , w i t h o n l y an o c c a s i o n a l 1aundry i n t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f t h e c i t y . A p a r t from t h e s e , t h e y were a l s o engaged i n d o m e s t i c s e r v i c e s , and as u n s k i l l e d l a b o r e r s i n l o g g i n g camps and i n c a n n e r i e s a l o n g t h e 4-13 c o a s t . E v o l u t i o n o f Vancouver's Chinatown. The d e s c r i p t i o n above d i s c u s s e s t h e emergence o f / a d i s t i n c t C h i n e s e q u a r t e r i n t h e c i t y . T h i s q u a r t e r grew r a p i d l y from the e a r l y 1900*s as a s t r i c t l y C h i n e s e a r e a . P a r t o f t h i s -50-C h i n e s e q u a r t e r i s d e s c r i b e d by C h i n e s e i n 1931 as f o l l o w s , "... The b u s i n e s s s e c t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e q u a r t e r , ' C h i n a t o w n ' p r o p e r s t r e t c h e s f o u r c i t y b l o c k s . From P e n d e r S t r e e t , down s o u t h t o t h e C a n a d i a n N a t i o n a l R a i l w a y s t a t i o n , f o r s e v e n o r e i g h t s q u a r e b l o c k s , t h e houses a r e e i t h e r owned o r r e n t e d by C h i n e s e , , . " - 4 I n t e r m s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s a t t h a t t i m e , i t was o b s -e r v e d t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s e c t i o n o f t h i s C h i n a t o w n s t r e t c h e d f u r t h e r e a s t . However, i n C h i n a t o w n p r o p e r , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was l i t t l e s p a c e b etween e a c h h o u s e , t h e r e were s m a l l f r o n t and b a c k y a r d s . These h o u s e s were a l l made o f wood. Some o f t h e s e h o u s e s b u i l t i n t h e 1930's e x i s t t o t h i s day, e s p e c i a l l y a l o n g P r i o r S t r e e t e a s t w a r d s . W h i l e t h e e x t e r i o r o f t h e s e houses l e f t much t o be d e s i r e d , Cheng r e p o r t s t h a t i n 1931 p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f t h e h o u s e s had s u c h modern c o n v e n i e n c e s as e l e c t r i c l i g h t s , g a s , i s r u n n i n g w a t e r , a h e a t i n g s y s t e m and t h e t e l e p h o n e . A c c o r d i n g t o Y i p , by 1936 t h e bounds o f C h i n a t o w n had changed. " . , . V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n i s s i t u a t e d on P e n d e r S t r e e t , s t r e t c h i n g f r o m C a r r a i l S t r e e t t o G o r e Avenue, i n c l u d i n g t h e w h ole o f C a n t o n and S h a n g h a i A l l e y s , p a r t o f C a r r a l l S t r e e t , p a r t o f C o l u m b i a and p a r t o f M a i n S t r e e t . A l s o a s m a l l C h i n e s e c o l o n y i s l o c a t e d a t R e e f e r and G e o r g i a S t r e e t s w h i c h f o r t h e most p a r t 1 6 c a t e r s t o w h o l e s a l e p r o d u c e . . . . " Whether t h i s change was r e a l o r w h e t h e r i t may have r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e d e s c r i p t i o n b a s e d on two d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w , c a n n o t be a s c e r t a i n e d a t t h i s s t a g e , One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e however, t h a t i f s u c h change d i d i n f a c t t a k e p l a c e , t h e n i t must have been due t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s , s u c h as f o r example, t h e e x p a n s i o n o f t h e C e n t r a l A r e a b u s i n e s s e s , and t h e e x t e n s i o n o f - 5 1 -t h e t r a m - c a r l i n e s o f t h e 1930's. Whatever t h e r e a s o n s , t h e d e s c r i p t i o n above p e r t a i n s t o t h e c o m m e r c i a l h e a r t o f ' C h i n a t o w n ' 17 i n 1936. T h i s a g r e e s w i t h t h e map o f C h i n a t o w n drawn m 1943-1-' (Appendix I I I . ) I n t h e 1959 e d i t i o n o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C h i n e s e C i t y 3 8 D i r e c t o r y " , t h e h e a r t o f C h i n a t o w n was d e f i n e d a s , "... t h a t a r e a l y i n g i n t h e r e c t a n g l e bounded by C a r r a l l S t r e e t on t h e West, P o w e l l on t h e N o r t h , G o r e on t h e E a s t and G e o r g i a on t h e S o u t h , t h u s m a k i n g up 214 a c r e s i n a l l , . . , " T h i s d e s c r i b e s t h e h e a r t o f C h i n a t o w n and more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t o f C h i n a -town. I n t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , as w e l l as t h o s e d i s c u s s e d above, i t i s i m p l i c i t t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a o f t h e C h i n e s e has been p a r t i a l l y e x c l u d e d . As s u c h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n l e a v e s much t o be d e s i r e d , b e c a u s e , t h e v i a b i l i t y o f t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t depends t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r e x t e n t on t h e r e s i d e n t s o f t h e w i d e r a r e a . The r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s h o u l d i n a l l c a s e s be i n c l u d e d , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s and t h e c o m m e r c i a l d i s t r i c t s o f C h i n a t o w n a r e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t i n c t u n i t s , i n an e c o l o g i c a l s e n s e t h e y . a r e i n s e p a r a b l e . F i g u r e 3 summarizes t h e s t a g e s o f g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t s a r o u n d t h e v i c i n i t y o f F a l s e C r e e k , as c a n be i n t e r p r e t e d f r o m t h e e v i d e n c e a v a i l a b l e . The p r e s e n t e x t e n t o f C h i n a t o w n i s a l s o shown, w i t h , t h e w r i t e r ' s c o n c e p t o f t h e bounds o f C h i n a t o w n i n c l u d e d . The m a i n c r i t e r i o n o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n was an o c c u p a n c y r a t i o o f o v e r 7 5 % C h i n e s e - o c c u p a n c y i n 1969. -2S-- 5 3 -Urban E c o l o g y of V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n . I n d i s c u s s i o n s of t h e u r b a n e c o l o g y 1 9 o f p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c e n c l a v e s , t h e many f a c e t e d c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e e n c l a v e s have se ldom been d i s c u s s e d . I n t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l bounds of Chinatown i n V a n c o u v e r , one s a l i e n t f e a t u r e i s that-: t h e a r e a i s a v i a b l e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c u n i t and t h a t i t s p h y s i c a l bounds a r e c o n s t a n t l y c h a n g i n g . These s h i f t s i n t h e bounds have O f ) , , been d i s c u s s e d by Lee i n t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e d e c l i n e of A m e r i c a n C h i n a t o w n s . Two major f a c t o r s were c i t e d f o r t h i s d e c l i n e , namely p o p u l a t i o n l o s s and e c o l o g i c a l i n v a s i o n and s u c c e s s i o n , T h i s l a t t e r t r e n d i s n o t y e t e v i d e n t i n V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n , C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of V a n c o u v e r ' s Chinatown can however be d i s c u s s e d . The e x i s t e n c e of Chinatowns i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s has encouraged many s o c i o l o g i s t s t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e s o c i o l o g y o f e t h n i c e n c l a v e s . One l i n e o f t h o u g h t s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e h a r s h s o c i a l environment o f t h e c i t y has t e n d e d t o f o s t e r a g r e a t e r need f o r e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t s by t h e f a m i l y , t o c u s h i o n blows from t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . The i m p l i c a t i o n i s t h a t t h e h a r s h c o n d i t i o n s o f e x i s t e n c e l e a d t o t h e growth and p e r p e t u a t i o n of c l o s e s o c i a l 21 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , Chinatown s e e m i n g l y has s e r v e d i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s w e l l w i t h i t s a s s o c i a t i o n s and ' h a l f - w a y - h o u s e ' f u n c t i o n s , I n t h e b e g i n n i n g V a n c o u v e r ' s Chinatown p r o v i d e d a s o u r c e of cheap h o u s i n g f o r men. Such h o u s i n g was o f t e n c o n s i d -ered mere temporary s h e l t e r t h a t would be abandoned w i t h t h e p r o s p e c t of r e t u r n i n g t o C h i n a . These ' s o j o u r n e r s , " as t h e y a r e c a l l e d by s o c i o l o g i s t s , c o n c i e v e d t h e p e r i o d o f m i g r a t i o n as -54-a ' j o b ' o v e r s e a s w h i c h had t o be c o m p l e t e d i n t h e s h o r t e s t p o s s i b l e t i m e . A l t e r n a t i v e l y t h e y t r a v e l l e d b a c k t o t h e i r homeland e v e r y few y e a r s t o meet t h e i r f a m i l i e s . From t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f S i u 2 2 t h e s o j o u r n e r " . . . c l i n g s t o t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f h i s own e t h n i c g r o u p and t e n d s t o l i v e i n i s o l a t i o n . . . " and , c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a bove a l l e l s e an e t h n o c e n t r i s t . Thus we f i n d i n C h i n a t o w n , a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t i s made t o c r e a t e a home-away-from-home and t h u s a " C h i n a - t o w n . " Temporary o c c u p a n c y i n C h i n a t o w n has o f l a t e become somewhat semi- p e r m a n e n t f o r t h o s e who have r e m a i n e d . V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n d i f f e r s i n c h a r a c t e r f r o m N e g r o g h e t t o s o r s l u m s e s t a b l i s h e d i n some N o r t h A m e r i c a n c i t i e s . B e c a u s e c i t i z e n s h i p r i g h t s were n o t a c c o r d e d t h e C h i n e s e t i l l a f t e r t h e Second W o r l d War, t h e C h i n e s e s e l d o m a c q u i r e d r e a l p r o p e r t y and n e v e r became, as i t w e r e , r o o t e d i n t h e c i t y . A l s o , due t o t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e and f a m i l i a l t i e s , C h i n a t o w n s s a t i s -f i e d a s o c i a l n e e d . I n c o n t r a s t , g h e t t o s and s l u m s a r e somewhat more e t h n i c a l l y h e t e r o g e n o u s and t h e r e b e i n g l i t t l e o r no b a r r i e r s t o s e t t l e m e n t i n t h e a r e a . From some p o i n t s o f v i e w t h e r e f o r e , one c a n n o t e q u a t e V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n w i t h a g h e t t o o r a s l u m i n t h e s t r i c t s e n s e o f t h e w o r d . The most r e c e n t d e v e l o p m e n t t h a t i s t h r e a t e n i n g t h e v i a b i l i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n has been t h e 'Freeway N o t i o n , ' On t h e 1 7 t h o f O c t o b e r 1967, t h e V a n c o u v e r C i t y C o u n c i l a p p r o v e d t h e C a r r a l l S t r e e t a l i g n m e n t f o r a new f r e e w a y . T h i s a l i g n m e n t would have f l a t t e n e d one c o m m e r c i a l b l o c k o f C h i n a t o w n . A p a r t f r o m t h e i m m e d i a t e e f f e c t o f h a v i n g t o r e l o c a t e t h e C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s a f f e c t e d by t h i s p l a n , t h e r e m a i n i n g b l o c k s o f C h i n a t o w n -55-23 would have been a r t i f i c i a l l y severed from th e c i t y c e n t e r However, a f t e r c o n s t a n t p r e s s u r e from twenty-seven i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s , t h e C i t y C o u n c i l r e s c i n d e d i t s freeway motion a p p r o v a l on the 9 t h of January 1968. The i s s u e was, however, f a r from r e s o l v e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o the freeway problem, an urban renewal scheme was i n progress at t h i s time. T h i s , i f f u l l y implemented, would have had the e f f e c t of d e s t r o y i n g the Chinese r e s i d e n t i a l areas east of Gore and Pender S t r e e t s 2 4 . T h i s scheme t o o , has s i n c e been h a l t e d by p r e s s u r e from r e s i d e n t s , and p a r t of the c l e a r e d area i s now used as a p u b l i c p a r k i n g a r e a . The Chinese Benevolent A s s o c i a t i o n of Vancouver, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h B i r m i n g -ham and Wood, an a r c h i t e c t u r a l f i r m , have proposed a l t e r n a t i v e uses f o r the area. For i n s t a n c e , i n s t e a d of the C a r r a i l S t r e e t a l i g n -ment the A s s o c i a t i o n p l a n s an a l t e r n a t i v e r o u t e f u r t h e r west of C a r r a l l S t r e e t . A l s o planned i s a b e a u t i f i c a t i o n program f o r Chinatown and a p e d e s t r i a n . m a l l w i t h i n the h e a r t of Chinatown thus i n t e g r a t i n g the Chinese community w i t h the downtown core of Vancouver. The main p r o p o s a l s of t h e i r p l a n s are found i n t h e i r 25 b r i e f t o C i t y C o u n c i l . In t h e above d i s c u s s i o n s , o v e r t e x t e r n a l f o r c e s have been d e s c r i b e d . M o s t l y , i t has c o n s i d e r e d Chinatown as an e n t i t y and t r e a t e d i t i n a g e n e r a l f a s h i o n . There i s however a s o c i a l environment present w i t h i n Chinatown. For i n s t a n c e , the Chinatown i n Vancouver i s the headquarters of most Chinese a s s o c i a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and western Canada 2 6. Due to such l i n k a g e s , t h e number of such a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Chinatown i s unmatched anywhere e l s e i n the country. Although the membership i s l a r g e l y d e r i v e d -56-from e l d e r l y Chinese l i v i n g i n t h e a r e a , a m a j o r i t y of the younger g e n e r a t i o n Chinese do not belong t o or support these a s s o c i a t i o n s , I t c o u l d be suggested t h a t i n time the r o l e and importance of these a s s o c i a t i o n s - w i l l d i m i n i s h , and t h i s w i l l have adverse i m p l i c a t i o n s as t o t h e v i a b i l i t y of Vancouver's Chinatown. A d e s c r i p t i o n of the environmental c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u r r o u n d i n g Chinatown i n Vancouver has t o i n c l u d e , a p a r t from the p l u s h facades of the c u r i o shops and r e s t a u r a n t s , the a l l e y s and t h e decaying, substandard wooden frame houses i n t h i s a rea. Many of these houses are c o l l e c t i v e l y owned and c o - o p e r a t i v e l y operated, and are Known t o the Chinese as fang-kou. These are i n h a b i t e d by e l d e r l y men who have no f a m i l i e s . W i t h i n the a l l e y s (Trounce, Shanghai, and Market A l l e y s ) are found Chinese r e s t a u r a n t s t h a t c a t e r t o t h e e l d e r l y men, and so too are the rooms, To conclude, two p o i n t s s hould be emphasised, F i r s t l y , Vancouver's Chinatown i s t h e f o c a l p o i n t of most Chinese i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Secondly, t h i s Chinatown has s t e a d i l y grown from e a r l y s o r d i d beginnings t o a p l a c e of some s t a t u s and i n c r e a s i n g import-ance i n the l i f e of Vancouver. -57-F o o t n o t e s . T h i s r e f e r s t o t h e C h i n e s e R e s t r i c t i o n A c t o f 1882, t h e f i r s t e x c l u s i o n l a w e v e r p a s s e d by t h e F e d e r a l Government o f t h e U n i c e d S t a t e s . I t b r o u g h t an end t o f r e e i m m i g r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e l a b o r e r s , s k i l l e d o r o t h e r w i s e . See Rung, ( 1 9 6 2 ) , o o . c i t . p . 8 0 . 2 The c o m p a r a b l e f i g u r e s f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Canada are - 4 0 . 6 2 % and -25,56% r e s p e c t i v e l y . See T a b l e 3.1 , 3 Sandhu, ( 1 9 6 1 ) , o p . c i t , p.9 . 4 W i l l m o t t , ( 1 9 6 8 ) , o p . c i t . pp.17-36 . 5 - • i The t w e l v e towns s t u d i e d i n c l u d e d P o r t A l b e r n i , P r i n c e R u p e r t , Nanaimo, N e l s o n , Duncan, P r i n c e G e o r g e , Kamloops, V e r n o n , Q u e s n e l , A s h c r o f t , T r a i l - R o s s 1 a n d and K e l o w n a . 6 Of t h e t w e l v e towns m e n t i o n e d i n f o o t n o t e 5, o n l y Q u e s n e l and T r a i l d i d . n o t have a 'Ch i n a t o w n ' p r o p e r . 7 W i l l m o t t , ( 1 9 6 8 ) , o p . c i t . p.29. 8 i b i d , s e e T a b l e 1, p.28 , 9 The 'West End F o r e s t s ' i s t h e s i t e o f t h e p r e s e n t - d a y 'West End' i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r . See, S p e a r i n g , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , o p . c i t . p.6 . 10 I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t a t t h i s t i m e F a l s e C r e e k e x t e n d e d n o r t h -wards t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y H a s t i n g s S t r e e t . 11 F o r a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n , s e e , Y i p . Q . , ( 1 9 3 6 ) , 'Vancouver Chinatown,' A s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r V a n c o u v e r ' s G o l d e n J u b i l e e , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , P a c i f i c P r i n t e r s , L t d . , p.11 . 12 . S p e a r i n g , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , o p . c i t , p>5 . 13 M a c l n n e s , T., ( 1 9 2 7 ) , O r i e n t a l O c c u p a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Sun P u b l i c a t i o n s C o . L t d . , p. 17 . -58- / 14 Cheng, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , o p . c i t . p.233 . 15 i b i d . , p.234 . 16 Y i p , ( 1 9 3 6 ) , o p . c i t . p.9 , 17 C h i n a t o w n , 1943, S p e c i a l C o l l e c t i o n s Map F i l e , The L i b r a r y , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ( A c c e s s i o n No,2698, S c a l e 1 : 1 00'). No s o u r c e , 18 V a n c o u v e r C h i n e s e C i t y D i r e c t o r y , 1 9 5 9 , p u b l i s h e d by t h e C h i n e s e P u b l i c i t y B u r e a u , V a n c o u v e r , p. 15 . 19 The t e r m "urban e c o l o g y ' f o l l o w s t h a t u s e d by M u r d i e , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , o p . c i t . p . l . By u r b a n e c o l o g y i s . meant t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e c o n c e p t s and t e c h n i q u e s o f human e c o l o g y t o a s t u d y o f t h e s p a t i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f i n t e r - r e l a t e d s o c i a l v a r i a b l e s . T h i s i s p e r h a p s b e s t e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f s t u d i e s i n T h e o r d o s e n , ( 1 9 6 1 ) , (ed.) S t u d i e s i n Human E c o l o g y , E v a n s t o n , I l l i n o i s , Row, P e t e r s o n and Co., - p.3 , 20 L e e , ( 1 9 5 1 ) , o p , c i t . , pp.146-160. 21 B e s h e r , J.M. , ( 1 9 6 2 ) , Urb Lan S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , I n c . , p.172 , 22 S i u , P a u l , ( 1 9 5 2 ) , 'The S o j o u r n e r , ' A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f S o c i o l o g y ) V o l . 5 8 , pp,34-44 , 23 See f o o t n o t e 30 ' i n C h a p t e r I I . A l s o C h i n a t o w n s have been .. r e c o r d e d t o ' d i e ' a r t i f i c i a l l y w i t h t h e b u i l d i n g s o f f r e e w a y s t h r o u g h t h e h e a r t o f t h e s e C h i n a t o w n s , as f o r e xample i n t h e c a s e o f P h i l a d e l p h i a ( L e e , 1961, o p . c i t . pp,65-67 . ) . 24 See, S h a p i r o , ( 1 9 6 9 ) , ' The Impact o f t h e G e o g r a p h i c D i s p e r s a l o f D i s p l a c e d H o u s e h o l d s i n Urban Renewal P r o g r a m s ; V a n c o u v e r a Case S t u d y , ' U n p u b l i s h e d M.A, t h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Communiby and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 25 / R e s t o r a t i o n R e p o r t ; A c a s e f o r Renewed L i f e i n t h e O l d C:Lty, A b r i e f p r e s e n t e d t o C i t y C o u n c i l , V a n c o u v e r , 1969; by Ms, B i r m i n g -ham and Wood. 26 W i l l m o t t , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , o p , c i t . pp,33-37, CHAPTER I V PATTERNS 0? CHINESE SETTLEMENT WITHIN THE CITY OF VANCOUVER, 1901 - 1961. Grow t h o f t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n . The f l u c t u a t i o n s i n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e pop-u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r a r e s t r o n g l y r e l a t e d t o t h e l e g i s l a t i o n s t h a t were p a s s e d i n t h e e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y r e s t r i c t i n g C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e DBS Census o f 1901, t h e r e were r e p o r t e d l y 2,744 C h i n e s e on t h e s o u t h s i d e o f B u r r a r d I n l e t i n 1901'^. The number o f C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s i n t h e c i t y i n c r e a s e d s t e a d i l y and by 1931 had r i s e n t o a h i g h o f 13,011, T h i s r e p r o -s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e o f a b o u t 1 2 0 % between 1921 and 1931", I n t h e e n s u i n g y e a r s t h e number o f C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r d r o p p e d f r o m 13,011 i n 1931 t o 7,174 i n 1941 as a r e s u l t o f t h e s t r i c t e n f o r c e m e n t o f t h e I m m i g r a t i o n A c t o f 1923, The p e r i o d s 1941-1951 and 1951-1961 showed a g r a d u a l i n c r e a s e i n t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h was r e p o r t e d t o be 15,223 i n 1961, T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d an i n c r e a s e o f o v e r 7 0 % o v e r t h e 1951 c e n s u s p e r i o d . Thus m v i e w o f t h e l i f t i n g o f r e s t r i c t i o n s on C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s s i n c e 1947, and i n v i e w o f t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a b i l i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n Canada, i t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t t h e number o f C h i n e s e i n t h e c i t y w i l l - i n c r e a s e g r a d u a l l y i n t h e f u t u r e . M o r e o v e r , as i m m i g r a t i o n would no l o n g e r be t h e f a c t o r , n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e w i l l c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n -t i a l l y t o t h e g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c i t y . T a b l e 4.1 summarizes some o f t h e ma i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r f r o m 1901-1961. -60-T a b l e 4.1 V a n c o u v e r ; G r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n , 1901 - 1961. Y e a r T o t a l T o t a l P e r c e n t a g e A b s o l u t e P e r c e n t . C i t y C h i n e s e C h i n e s e o f change i n i n c r e a s e P o p u l a t i o n P o p u l a t i o n T o t a l i C h i n e s e d e c r e a s (3) as a P o p u l a t i o n * C h i n e s e % o f (2) P o p u l a t (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 1901 28,895 2,744 7.14 37,79 1911 123,902 3,781 3,15 1,037 1921 179,087 5,899 3,52 2,118 56,01 1931 246,593 13,011 4,20 7/112 120.56 1941 257,353 7,174 2,17 -5,8 37 - 44,86 1951 344,833 8,729 2,19 1,555 21.67 1961 384,522 15,223 3.36 6,494 74.39 * T h i s i d computed as t h e change i n t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n between two Census p e r i o d s . S o u r c e ; These s t a t i s t i c s have been c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e DBS, Census R e p o r t s , 1901-1961. F o r more d e t a i l s , s e e A p p e n d i x I I , D i s j t j r i b u t i o n o f r t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , /19J51. I n a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , two m a j o r f a c t o r s have t o be b o r n e i n min d . F i r s t l y , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n and s e t t l e m e n t p a t t e r n s o f t h e e a r l y C h i n e s e were i n f l u e n c e d by o v e r t c o n s t r a i n t s as t o t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e i r r e s i d e n c e s . S e c o n d l y , on a r r i v a l i n V a n c o u v e r , t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s have t r a d i t i o n a l l y s e t t l e d i n C h i n a t o w n , T h i s was b e c a u s e some o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n C h i n a t o w n were a b l e t o s p e a k b o t h E n g l i s h and C h i n e s e , w h i c h made i t e a s i e r f o r t h e n e w l y a r r i v e d C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s t o s e t t l e down and o b t a i n a j o b . S u c h f a c t o r s t h e r e f o r e f o s t e r e d t h e g r o w t h and p e x - p e t u a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n as a m a j o r C h i n e s e c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e C i t y , and i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r t o d a y . - 6 1 -To i l l u s t r a t e t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Chinese i n 4 Vancouver, f o u r maps were c o n s t r u c t e d u s i n g census t r a c t data . The dot d i s t r i b u t i o n map ( F i g . 4a) shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e Chinese p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n Vancouver i n 1961. The dot map however does not i n d i c a t e t he r e l a t i v e importance of t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o (1) the p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y as a whole, and (2) r e l a t i v e importance i n terms of t h e p o p u l a t i o n of the t r a c t i t s e l f . F i g u r e 4b shows the r e l a t i v e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Chinese p o p u l a t -i o n i n terms of l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t s 5 . U s i n g t h i s method, a compar-i s o n i s made between t h e f o u r v a r i a b l e s , t h a t i s , the t o t a l o v e r a l l p o p u l a t i o n of the t r a c t , t h e t o t a l Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n the t r a c t , t h e t o t a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n and the Chinese c i t y p o p u l a t i o n . F i g u r e 4c shows the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Chinese by census t r a c t s . F i n a l l y F i g . 4d compares the percentage d i s t r i b u t i o n of the Chinese f o r each t r a c t i n terms of t h e percentage d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s ( z - s c o r e s ) ^ , T h i s method p r o v i d e s a measure f o r each t r a c t i n terms of the mean p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n of Chinese per t r a c t • and measures the importance of each t r a c t i n terms of t h e Chinese p o p u l a t i o n w i t h i n the c i t y . The obvious f e a t u r e p o r t r a y e d i s t h e i n t e n s e concen-t r a t i o n i n the S t r a t h c o n a a r e a , i n f a c t t he area c o n s t i t u t i n g t he whole of Chinatown and i t s immediate e n v i r o n s . Other areas of heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n are found adjacent t o the S t r a t h c o n a area, namely Grandview-Noodland, Taken t o g e t h e r , these two areas c o n t a i n about 60% of the t o t a l Chinese p o p u l a t i o n of Vancouver. -62-S e c o n d l y , t h e u n e v e n e s s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i s v e r y marked i n a r e a s o u t s i d e S t r a t h c o n a and G r a n d v i e w -Woodland. F o r i n s t a n c e t h e r e a r e e x t e n s i o n s s o u t h w a r d s t o w a r d s Cedar C o t t a g e and S o u t h G r a n v i l l e . I n g e n e r a l , t h i s p a t t e r n i s q u i t e c l e a r l y shown i n F i g u r e s 4b and 4 c , w i t h t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l o n g b u s i n e s s t h o r o u g h f a r e s , f o r example, H a s t i n g s ( e a s t ) , M a i n ( s o u t h and Broadway ( w e s t ) , One e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e s e f i n g e r - l i k e p r o t r u s i o n s i s f o u n d i n t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i m m e d i a t e o c c u p a t i o n s o f 7 t h e C h i n e s e , F o r example, i t was o b s e r v e d by Walhouse t h a t o f t h e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 640 b u s i n e s s e s f o u n d o u t s i d e t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a , 180 were g r e e n g r o c e r s , 79 r e s t a u r a n t s and 34 o t h e r b u s i n e s s e s , Due t o s u c h a c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t h e l i n e a r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n a l o n g b u s i n e s s t h o r o u g h f a r e s i s t o be e x p e c t e d . T h i r d l y , i n t e r m s o f a l a c k o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e , a p a r t f r o m t h e a r e a s m e n t i o n e d , n e g a t i v e d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s a r e o b s e r v e d f o r a r e a s t h a t a r e f a r t h e r away f r o m t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a , The a r e a s t h a t a r e f a r t h e r away c o i n c i d e w i t h a r e a s t h a t have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e c i t y f o r some t i m e , and w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d o f a h i g h e r s o c i a l s t a t u s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S o c i a l A r e a I n d e x o f B e l l , I n t h e c a s e o f t h e C h i n e s e , t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f a v e r a g e s o c i a l s t a t u s by l a t e r g e n e r a t i o n C h i n e s e , s i n c e t h e s i x t i e s , has meant t h a t t h e y c o u l d o n l y r e c e n t l y a f f o r d t o l i v e i n a r e a s w i t h m e d i u m - p r i c e d homes,- F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e o f t h o u g h t t h e r e f o r e , t h e C h i n e s e have s e t t l e d i n t h e o l d e r b u t n o t w e a l t h i e r r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f t h e c i t y , w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r t h e c o n c e n t r a t -i o n s i n F a i r v i e w , Cedar C o t t a g e and S o u t h G r a n v i l l e , - 6 3 -F i g . 4a V a n c o u v e r : D i s t r i b u t i o n o f C h i n e s e , 1961. -64-VANCOUVER S o u r c e : DBSUCM P e r c e n t a g e s •—,0.00 T-rlO.25 B 0.50 1.00 5.00 10 a n d o v e r M I L E S F i g . 4 c Vancouver: C h i n e s e as a p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961, by census t r a c t s . VANCOUVER S o u r c e : DBSUCM. Z - s c o r e s M I L E S M o r e t h a n 1 • 0.51 - 1.00 ,0.26 - 0.50 .0-00 - 0-25 -0-00 - 0 25 -0.26 - 0.50 F i g . 4d Vancouver: P e r c e n t a g e d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s ( z - s c o r e s ) o f t h e Ch i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961, by census t r a c t s . - 6 5 -P e s i d e n t i a l P a t t e r n s o f t h e Sample C h i n e s e P o p u l a t i o n , ,1969. I n t h e l i g h t o f t h e above d i s t r i b u t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s o f t h e t o t a l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , we c a n l o o k a t some o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e as p o r t r a y e d by t h e more d e t a i l e d s a m p l e s t u d y . The s a m p l e p r o c e d u r e i s d e s c r i b e d more f u l l y i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n ( A p p e n d i x I V ) , Here we c a n n o t e t h a t i t i n c l u d e s 125 f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n C h i n a t o w n and t h e s u b u r b s . We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n more d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e . The m a j o r themes t o be i n v e s t i -g a t e d p e r t a i n t o t h e t y p e s o f r e s i d e n c e , t h e l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y i n p a r t i c u l a r homes and t h e r e a s o n s f o r moving f r o m one r e s i d e n c e t o a n o t h e r . A m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e s a m p l e d , l i v e d i n t h e i r own h o u s e s . T h i s r e p r e s e n t e d a b o u t 6 8 % o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e , ( t h a t i s , 85 C h i n e s e f a m i l i e s o u t o f 125 f a m i l i e s ) . The r e s t l i v e d i n r e n t e d r e s i d e n c e s , o f w h i c h 1 4 .4% were h o u s e s , 6.4% a p a r t m e n t s and 10,4% roo m i n g houses and. h o t e l s , The l a s t c a t e g o r y i s m a i n l y made up o f C h i n e s e f r o m t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a , as i t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t r e s i d e n c e s o f t h i s n a t u r e a r e a v a i l a b l e . I n t e r m s o f t h e i r l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t and f o r m e r homes, t h e r e s u l t s p r o v e i n t e r e s t i n g , A m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e have l i v e d f i v e y e a r s and more i n b o t h t h e i r p r e s e n t - and f o r m e r homes (Table- 4 , 2 ) . The p e r c e n t a g e s a r e 6 8 % and 68.8% r e s p e c t i v e l y . The p e r c e n t a g e s f o r s h o r t - t e r m s t a y s ( t h a t i s , , 0-4 y e a r s , ) i n t h e i r p r e s e n t and f o r m e r homes, sire n e a r l y t h e same w i t h about 3 0 % o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e . Thus f r o m d a t a p r e s e n t e d above, i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e r e i s an u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n o f s t a b i l i t y o f -66 r e s i d e n c e , i n t e r m s o f t h e l e n g t h o f s t a y i n a p a r t i c u l a r home. T a b l e 4.2 V a n c o u v e r ! L e n g t h o f s t a y i n p r e s e n t and p r e v i o u s r e s i d e n c e s amongst t h e C h i n e s e , 1969 . L e n g t h P e r c e n t a g e o f P e r c e n t a g e o f o f t o t a l r e s i d e n t s t o t a l r e s i d e n t s S t a y i n p r e s e n t i n f o r m e r ( y e a r s ) Number house Number house 0 - 1 14 11.2 4 3,2 2 - 4 26 20.8 35 28,0 5 - 9 34 27.2 32 25,6 10 - 14 30 24,6 20 16,0 15 - 19 17 13,6 8 6,4 20 + 4 3,2 26 20,8 S o u r c e : S5CCV, 1969, P r o b a b l y , l o n g t e n u r e i n a p a r t i c u l a r home i s a c c o u n t e d f o r by a m a j o r i t y o f r e t i r e d p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n r o o m i n g h o u s e s , who l i k e t o l i v e i n t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a . T h i s has t e n d e d t o i n f l a t e t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e o f t h e s a m p l e , A l s o , once a p a r t i c u l a r home has been e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e p a t t e r n i s one i n which t e n u r e s t r e t c h e s f r o m 15-20 y e a r s . On t h e o t h e r hand, a t t h e lower end of t h e s c a l e , s h o r t - t e r m r e s i d e n c e , ( t h a t i s , f o r s t a y s between 0-4 years) i n d i c a t e a c o n s t a n t s h i f t i n g , b e f o r e any one p a r t i c u l a r home i s e s t a b l i s h e d . Once e s t a b l i s h e d , we m i g h t e x p e c t t h a t t h e above p a t t e r n o f l o n g t e n u r e w o u l d g r a d u a l l y emerge. L a s t l y , l e n g t h o f stay.at a p a r t i c u l a r home i s a l s o the r e s u l t of o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s , F o r example, s h i f t i n residence i s due . i n p a r t t o t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f new f a m i l y s t a t u s , f o r example, l a r g e r f a m i l y s i z e , o r t h e need f o r b e t t e r l o c a t i o n s ( t h a t i s , s c h o o l s , b e t t e r n e i g h b o u r h o o d s ) . _67-A g l a n c e a t T a b l e 4.3 w o u l d s u p p o r t t h e s e n o t i o n s , The most o f t e n q u o t e d r e a s o n f o r moving was f o u n d i n t h e ' o t h e r ' c a t e g o r y , t h a t i s , s u c h r e a s o n s as newness o f a r e a and n e a r n e s s t o s c h o o l s . T h i s a c c o u n t e d f o r 2 1 . 6 % o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e i n t h i s c a t e g o r y . T a b l e 4.3 V a n c o u v e r : Reasons f o r moving and t y p e s o f r e s i d e n c e s o c c u p i e d by t h e C h i n e s e , 1969 . Reasons f o r M o v i n g . . T Z P e s of ResT dence Own house R e n t e d R e n t e d house a p a r t m e n t Roeming-hous e and ' o t h e r s * T o t a l P r o x i m i t y t o work . 7 9 2% 0,8% 1,6% 9.6% Low r e n t 1 . 6 0 .8 0.8 3»2 T a k i n g o v e r f r o m p a r e n t s 2.4 0,8 3,2 F a v o u r a b l e o x - i e n t a t i o n 1 . 6 0,8 3.2 B e t t e r a r e a 17,6 4,0 1 ,6 2,4 25,6 More s p a c e 17.6 2.4 - 20,0 ' O t h e r 9 21,6 4,0 4 0 5,6 36,0 TOTAL 68.0 14,4 6 4 10,4 100,0 S o u r c e ; S3CCV, 1969. Only a s m a l l percentage r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were t a k i n g o v e r t h e i r p r e s e n t r e s i d e n c e f r o m t h e i r p a r e n t s . An even s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y moved i n t o t h e i r p r e s e n t home f o r i t s ' o r i e n t a t i o n . ' F o r some C h i n e s e t h i s q u e s t i o n o f ' f a v o u r a b l e o r i e n t a t i o n ' o f t h e house has i m p o r t a n t b e a r i n g s on r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n . I t i s b e l i e v e d by them t h a t an e a s t - f a c i n g house i s / more ' l u c k y ' t h a n a w e s t - f a c i n g house. T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h i s o r i e n t a t i o n f a c t o r has been i m p o r t a n t t o t h e C h i n e s e , b u t o f l a t e , t h i s p r a c t i c e o f house s e l e c t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o i t s o r i e n t a t i o n does - 6 8 -not p l a y an important p a r t i n r e s i d e n t i a l s e l e c t i o n , Those i n d i c a t i n g ' p r o x i m i t y t o work' and 'low r e n t ' accounted f o r o n l y 12.8% of the t o t a l . F i n a l l y , under the category 'others* we i n c l u d e the new immigrants from overseas, and the migrants from o t h e r p a r t s of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the Chinese P o p u l a t i o n i n the C i t y j>f Vancouver, 19G1. Of the more important c u l t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x h i b -i t e d by the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n Vancouver, t h r e e main components might be i s o l a t e d . These are t h e demographic, s o c i a l and economic f a c t o r s . These f a c t o r s have important i m p l i c a t i o n s and have a d i r e c t b e a r i n g on the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n i n g of the Chinese, They can be d e s c r i b e d w i t h the a i d of the 1961 DBS unpublished census data as w e l l as data from our Sample Survey of 1969, 1. Demographics a. Age-Sex S t r u c t u r e , In the case of the DBS unpublished census m a t e r i a l of 1961, i t was decided t o l o o k at two major v a r i a b l e s , the age-sex s t r u c t u r e and the sex r a t i o . The age-sex pyramid ( F i g s . 5 a & 5b) compares the p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e of the Chinese i n Vancouver w i t h t h a t of the t o t a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n f o r 1951 and. 1961^, This compa-r i s o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of the c i t y shows a normal d i s t r i b u t i o n curve, f o r both census y e a r s , whereas the p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e of the Chinese f o r both census years i s h e a v i l y skewed. T h i s i s i n favour of males 45 years and ovc^r i n age i n 1951 and of males 60 years and over i n 1961. This p a t t e r n , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i s the r e s u l t of the p r o h i b i t i o n of the -69-AGE GROUPS MALES F E M A L E S PERCENT PERCENT F i g . 5a Vancouver: Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1951. AGE GROUPS 8 6 4 2 2 4 6 PERCENT PERCENT F i g . 5b Vancouver: Age-Sex s t r u c t u r e o f t h e t o t a l and C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n s , 1.961. -70-i m m i g r a t i o n o f w i v e s and f a m i l i e s p r i o r t o 1947, p l u s t h e s e l e c t i v -i t y o f t h e m i g r a t i o n s t r e a m i t s e l f . S e c o n d l y , e x c e p t f o r a s l i g h t t e n d e n c y f o r t h e r e t o be a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n o f C h i n e s e males between t h e ages 15 - 19 y e a r s i n 1951, t h e a g e - s e x s t r u c t u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e compares f a v o u r a b l y w i t h t h a t o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n a t l a r g e , t h i s b e i n g e s p e c i a l l y s o f o r t h e age g r o u p 0-20 y e a r s . These age g r o u p s , one m i g h t e x p e c t , a r e t h e a d d i t i o n s t o t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t e r m s o f n a t u r a l i n c r e a s e . F i n a l l y , t h e i m b a l a n c e s o f t h e p y r a m i d as e x h i b i t e d i n t h e age g r o u p s 15 t o 19 y e a r s i n 1951 and i n t h e 25-29 age g r o u p i n 1961 c o u l d have been t h e r e s u l t o f : (a) t h e l e g a l i s a t i o n i n 1947 o f t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n 18 y e a r s and u n d e r , and (b) t h e r a p i d l y g r o w i n g number o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s a r r i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r s i n c e t h e end o f t h e Second W o r l d War, From T a b l e 4,4, i t w o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t f r o m 1921 onwards, t h e dominance o f males i n t h e C h i n e s e m i g r a t i o n s t r e a m d e c l i n e d . T h i s i s c o n t r a r y t o t h e p i c t u r e e a r l i e r , i n C h a p t e r I I I , where n e a r l y a l l t h e i m m i g r a n t s were m a l e s . As a r e s u l t o f t h e r e l a t i v e d e c l i n e i n t h e numbers o f C h i n e s e males a r r i v i n g as i m m i g r a n t s , t h e s e x - r a t i o o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r i m p r o v e d c o n s i d e r a b l y ( T a b l e 4 , 4 ) , T u r n i n g t o t h e Sample S u r v e y d a t a a g a i n , t h e d a t a r e l a t i n g t o i m m i g r a t i o n ana d a t e o f b i r t h h e r e i n d i c a t e a f a i r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1961 and 1969. T a b l e 4,5 summarizes t h i s . B o t h t h e 1951 m a t e r i a l and t h e 1969 s a m p l e - 7 1 -T a b l e 4,4 V a n c o u v e r : C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961, by y e a r o f i m m i g r a t i o n . Yjear I m m i g r a n t s P r e - 1 9 2 1 1921-30 1931-40 1941-50 1951-60 1961 T o t a l Numbers H a l e Female T o t a l P e r c e n t a g e m a le o f t o t a l 3,047 393 62 491 1,961 31. 5,955 187 44 27 317 2,273 59 2,912 3,204 437 89 808 4,237 90 8,867 93.92 89.89 69.66 60.76 45.28 34.44 67.15 S o u r c e r~DBSJ^P i_JJ96J.. show t h a t a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r a r e i m m i g r a n t s who a r r i v e d p r i o r t o 1920. The p r o p o r t i o n s a r e 2 3 , 1 % and 3 3,4% r e s p e c t i v e l y , The 1961 census m a t e r i a l shows t h a t f o r t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , as a w h o l e , n e a r l y 6 5 % o f t h e C h i n e s e were i m m i g r a n t s , I t i s t h e r e f o r e a r g u e d t h a t s i n c e 6 5 % o f t h e C h i n e s e a r e i m m i g r a n t s , i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e o f t h e C h i n e s e has p r o b a b l y n o t d i s a p p e a r e d , T h i s i s b e c a u s e many of t h e s e e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s s t i l l l i v i n g i n V a n c o u v e r s t i l l e x h i b i t t h e c u l t u r e - t r a i t s and p e c u l i a r i t i e s o f a C h i n e s e way o f l i f e . T h ese t r a i t s a r e i n f a c t v e r i f i e d l a t e r on i n t h e s e c t i o n on c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s . The age s t r u c t u r e and g e n e r a l d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s d i s c u s s e d above, have s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e r e s i d e n t -i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , F o r example, t h e a r e a of C h i n a t o w n c o n t a i n s a p r e d o m i n a n t l y male p o p u l a t i o n . W i t h / t h e d e c r e a s i n g numbers o f o l d e r men, and t h e c o n c o m i t a n t improvement i n t h e s e x - r a t i o o f t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n C h i n e s e and a more -72 T a b l e 4,5 V a n c o u v e r : C o m p a r i s o n between t h e 1961 and 1969 d a t a r e l a t i n g t o t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n and d a t e o f b i r t h o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s . P e r i o d o f P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e i m r a i g r a t - o f C h i n e s e o f C h i n e s e i o n i m m i g r a n t s i m m i g r a n t s a c c o r d i n g ' ' - a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1961 t o t h e 1969 c e n s u s s a m p l e * P r e - 1885 3 , 2 ^ 1885-1900 1 6.4 P r e - 1900 11.4 9,6 1901-1910 ( 2 3 , 1 11.2 l38.4 1901-1910 10,7 13,6 19.11-1920 j 17.6 J 1911-1920 9.4 13,6 1921-1930 3»2 6,4 1921-1930 6.9 28.8 1931-1940 0.7 6,4 1931-1940 10,2 21.6 1941-1950 5.9 20,8 1941-1950 19,5 8.8 1951-1960 31.1 13.6 1951 + 31,9 1.6 1961 + 0,6 8.8 DNA - 2,4 DNA - 5,6 Da t e o f b i r t h P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e o f C h i n e s e o f C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s i m m i g r a n t s a c c o r d i n g a c c o r d i n g t o t h e 1951 t o . t h e 1969 ce n s u s s a m p l e * DNA - D i d n o t answer * r e f e r s o n l y t o heads o f h o u s e h o l d s o f t h e Sample S u r v e y , S o u r c e : DBSUCM, 1961 and SSCCV, 1969. b a l a n c e d a g e - s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n , C h i n a t o w n ' s f u n c t i o n and r o l e has been c h a n g i n g . The C h i n e s e w i t h f a m i l i e s have t e n d e d t o d i s p e r s e i n t o t h e s u b u r b s f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l l o c a t i o n s i n and a r o u n d C h i n a t o w n . M o r e o v e r , w i t h t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f b e t t e r s o c i a l s t a t u s and h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s by t h e y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , t h e need t o move o u t t o more s o c i a l l y a c c e p t e d a r e a s has been i n c r e a s -i n g , These t r e n d s a r e l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e i n t h e f u t u r e , o« M a r i t a l S t a t u s , Based on t h e 1961 c e n s u s d a t a , T a b l e 4,6 shows t h a t n e a r l y 28% o f t h e t o t a l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961 c o n s i s t s o f c h i l d r e n under 15 y e a r s o f age, These i n g e n e r a l c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d as s e c o n d - g e n e r a t i o n and C a n a d i a n n a t i v e - b o r n C h i n e s e , Table 4,6 Vancouver? M a r i t a l s t a t u s of t h e Chinese i n 1961, by age-groups. Age Groups S i n g l e Numbers Percentage of t o t a l Chinese M a r r i e d Numbers Percentage of t o t a l Chinese Widowed/ Divorced Numbers Percentage of t o t a l Chinese Under i 2,310 15,11 15 F 1,962 12,81 T 4,242 27,92 15-19 1 1 307 2,25 • 4 0,01 F 241 2,51 39 0,28 T 548 4,76 43 0,29 20-24 M 432 2.71 115 0,78 F 200 X ® 51_ 474 1 T 623 4.22 589 3,90 1 25-34 1 A 616 4.07 1,086 V 0X5 1 P 122 . 0,87 873 5,75 8 T 738 4,89 1,959 12,90 9 35-44 M 88 0.51 411 2,61 6 F 48 0.32 519 3,41 7 T 136 0,83 930 6,02 13 45-54 M 44 0.21 573 3.79 19 0,13 F 11 0,01 623 4,01 53 0,37 T 55 0,22 1,196 7,80 72 0,50 55-64 M 53 0a37 91 0,51 49 0,33 F 8 0,08 70 0,49 79 0,53 T 61 0.45 161 1,00 128 0,86 65 & M 122 0,82 1,859 12.21 333 1,86 over F 2 _ 159 1,06 124 0,82 T 124 0.82 2,018 13.28 457 2,68 TOTAL M 3,963 26,05 4,896 32.19 408 2,61 F 2,594 17.06 3,080 20,24 282 1.87 T 6,557 43,10 7, 976 52,43 690 4,48 M = males, F= females, T= t o t a l s Source: DBSUCM,1961. -74-The s e x d i s t r i b u t i o n was e v e n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f m a l e s . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n as a w h o l e , t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f m a l e s was n e a r l y 6 1 % . S e c o n d l y , n e a r l y o n e - h a l f o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1961 was i n t h e ' m a r r i e d ' c a t e g o r y . ' S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e n o t i o n t h a t a b a l a n c e i n t h e a g e - s e x s t r u c t u r e w o u l d come a b o u t i n t i m e by n a t u r a l g r o w t h and d e a t h s . The 1969 s a m p l e d a t a i n d e e d showed a s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e (82%) as m a r r i e d . T h i r d l y , a marked f e a t u r e o f t h e c e n s u s s t a t i s t i c s i s t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e m a l es i n t h e o l d e r age g r o u p s . The p r o p o r t i o n o f m a l e s t o f e m a l e s i n e a c h age c a t e g o r y 45 y e a r s and above i s 8 : 2, f o r a l l m a r i t a l s t a t u s c l a s s e s . I n t h e age g r o u p 65 y e a r s and o v e r , a l m o s t a l l a r e m a l e s . The above a n a l y s i s shows t h a t t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r i s s t i l l ' u n s t a b l e ' i n t e r m s o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e . I t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t w i t h t h e h i g h and i n c r e a s i n g p e r -c e n t a g e s i n t h e ' m a r r i e d ' c a t e g o r y , a b a l a n c e d a g e - s e x s t r u c t u r e w i l l emerge i n t h e f u t u r e . T h i s i s l i k e l y t o be c o u p l e d w i t h t h e r i s e i n m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e c i t y f r o m t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and Canada. A l s o a d r o p i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e o l d e r age g r o u p s i s e x p e c t e d , as a r e s u l t o f t h e n a t u r a l d e a t h r a t e , A n o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i s . t h e v e r y l o w number i n t h e w i d o w e d - d i v o r c e d c a t e g o r y . T o summarize, i t has been o b s e r v e d t h a t f o r economic r e a s o n s , t h e p r e s e n t - d a y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r has been n o d a l i n C h i n a t o w n and l i n e a r a l o n g b u s i n e s s t h o r o u g h f a r e s , and t h e d i s p e r s i o n i s t o w a r d s t h e o l d e r but n o t w e a l t h i e r -75-r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a s o f t h e c i t y . A l s o , t h e r e i s a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f f o r e i g n - b o r n C h i n e s e i n t h e t o t a l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c i t y . T h i s s i t u a t i o n i s however c h a n g i n g w i t h g r o w t h o f t h e C a n a d i a n - b o r n s e c t o r . Taken t o g e t h e r , t h e s e s u g g e s t a p o s t u l a t e r e g a r d i n g t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e C h i n e s e i n terras o f t h e age o f t h e houses t h a t t h e y o c c u p y . From t h e f o r e g o i n g , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n b e t ween C a n a d i a n - b o r n C h i n e s e and r e s i d -e nces b u i l t s i n c e 1945 w o u l d e x i s t , T h i s was f o u n d t o be t r u e , 1 0 U s i n g c e n s u s t r a c t d a t a s u m m a r i z e d by B e l l " , and t h e u n p u b l i s h e d c e n s u s m a t e r i a l o f 1961, a c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s was p e r f o r m e d o v e r t h e s e d a t a on t h e c e n s u s t r a c t s o f V a n c o u v e r . T a b l e 4,7 s ummarizes t h e r e s u l t s o f t h a t a n a l y s i s . The most s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was between t h e p e r c e n t a g e ( C a n a d i a n ) n a t i v e - b o r n C h i n e s e and b u i l d i n g s b u i l t p r i o r t o 1921, a l t h o u g h i t was n e g a t i v e . C o n v e r s e l y , t h e p e r c e n t age n a t i v e - b o r n was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h o s e b u i l d i n g s b u i l t s i n c e 1945, T h i s t e s t s u g g e s t s t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : -a. A r e a s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f f o r e i g n - b o r n C h i n e s e as r e p o r t e d i n 1961 a r e a l s o a r e a s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f o l d e r b u i l d i n g s ( t h a t i s , t h o s e b u i l t p r i o r t o 1 9 2 1 ) , w h i l e a r e a s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f n a t i v e - b o r n C h i n e s e a r e a l s o a r e a s w i t h r e s i d e n c e s b u i l t s i n c e 1945, b, A m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e l i v e i n a r e a s w i t h a h i g h p r o p o r t -i o n o f b u i l d i n g s t h a t were b u i l t p r i o r t o .1921. Thus f r o m t h e d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , one c a n d i s c e r n an u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , F o r t h e p r e s e n t i t s u f f i c e s t o s a y t h a t p e c u l i a r d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s t e n d t o e s t a b l i s h p a r t o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f t h e -76-Table 4,7 Vancouver; C o r r e l a t i o n t a b l e of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n and age of b u i l d i n g s i n 1961 , by census t r a c t s . ~ : " Percentage Percentage -!" 7!;rcentago Chinese as V a r i a b l e s Mean S t d . of n a t i v e - of p r e - of p o s t - a percentage Dev, born 1921 - 1945 of t h e t o t a l Chinese immigrants immigrants' census t r a c t B u i l d i n g s B u i l t ;-p r i o r to 1921 33,67 26,69 -0,8516* +0.5837 +0,5152 +0,6162* s i n c e 1945 29.48 23,67 +0,6357* -0,3763 -0,5896 -0.4108 i n need o f m a j o r 6,57 10,40 -0,5019 +0,3522 +0.2698 +0,5794 r e p a i r s ~r~r'3?/*' * ™~ * s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e at the 05% c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l , Chinese i n Vancouver today. T h i s p o i n t w i l l be t a k e n up l a t e r , The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n examines the r o l e of some s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s t h a t determine and modify these r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . 2, S o c i a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i a'. E d u c a t i o n a l . Table 4,3 drawn from the 1961 census da t a , shows t h a t up t o 1 6 . 3 % of the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n were a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l at the time of the census. Comparable f i g u r e s f o r those not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l , up t o and i n c l u d i n g High s c h o o l , make up some 82,2%, A g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n of t h i s , i n a l l grade c a t e g o r i e s , i s composed of the male component. The t a b l e , however, does not p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n as to the language taught, the c i t y i n which major s c h o o l i n g was -77-T a b l e 4,8 V a n c o u v e r : E d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e , 1961, by s c h o o l l e v e l s - . A t t e n d i n g S c h o o l Not A t t s n d i n a School. G r a d e Numbers Pe r c e n t a g e Numbers P e r c e n t a g e E l e m e n t a r y M 1,063 6.9 5,928 38.7 F 310 5.3 3,570 23.1 T 1,873 .12.2 9,498 61.8 H i g h M 272 1.6 1,535 10,0 S c h o o l F 104 1.2 1,155 7,5 T 476 2.8 2,680 17,5 U n i v e r s i t y M 173 1.1 296 1 . 9 F 45 0,2 162 1,0 T 218 1.3 458 2,9 M= H a l e s , F=Females, T = T o t a l S o u r c e : DBSUCM, 1961 o b t a i n e d and t h e number o f y e a r s i n s c h o o l , F o r t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n one t u r n s t o t h e Sample S u r v e y and 1969 d a t a . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e , ( T a b l e 4,9) summarizes some a s p e c t s o f t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e s a m p l e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n 1969, A h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e s a m p l e d i n 1969 had r e c e i v e d t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n i n C h i n e s e , T h i s a c c o u n t e d f o r 40% o f t h e sample p o p u l a t i o n . The p r o p o r t i o n o f t h o s e who r e c e i v e d t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h was 34,4% w h i l e 16/o g o t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n berth mediums o f i n s t r u c t i o n , A m a j o r p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e Chinese; a t t e n d e d e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and o n l y a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e had r e c e i v e d any U n i v e r s i t y educ-a t i o n i n 1969, I n terms o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t h e Chi'uese medium p r e d o m i n a t e s a t t h e l o w e r g r a d e s w h i l e E n g l i s h p r e d o m i n a t e s i n t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s . An e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s i s f o u n d i n t h e - 7 8 -T a b l e 4.9 V a n c o u v e r ; A s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e , 1969. E l e m e n t a r y S e c o n d a r y U n i v e r s i t y I t e m s c h o o l i n g s c h o o l i n g s c h o o l i n g p e r c e n t a g e p e r c e n t ^ A. Language o f I n s t r u c t i o n E n g l i s h o n l y 34.4 51,2 21,6 E n g l i s h 5. C h i n e s e 16.0 7,2 2.4 C h i n e s e o n l y 40,0 10.4 -D i d not. a t t e n d 9,6 31,2 76.0 3. C i t y o f S c h o o l i n g 18,4 V a n c o u v e r 31,2 47,2 B.C. a n d / o r Canada 12,0 2,4 2.4 Hong Kong 16,0 12,3 3,2 M a i n l a n d C h i n a 34,4 6,4 — D i d n o t a t t e n d 6,4 3 X 9 2 76,0 C. .Years i n s c h o o l 0-1 y e a r 4.0 3,2 4,3 1-3 y e a r s 7.2 14.4 1X 4 2 4-6 56 , 8 44,0 5 . 6 7 and o v e r 27,2 7,2 1,6 D i d n o t a t t e n d 4.8 76.8 NT B, e a c h o f t h e m a j o r c e l l s t o t a l 100„0% S o u r c e ; SSCCV,. ..1969. l o c a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l a t t e n d e d . N e a r l y 4 3 % o f t h e sa m p l e had r e c e i v e d t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , as compared t o 34.4% i n C h i n a and 1.6% i n Hong Kong. A t t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l , t h e p a t t e r n i s r e p e a t e d e x c e p t w i t h a l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e f o r t h o s e e d u c a t e d i n C h i n a . However, o n l y 3,2% r e c e i v e d t h e i r U n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n i n Hong Kong, t h e r e s t i n N o r t h A m e r i c a , I n terms o f t h e number o f y e a r s i n s c h o o l , 5 6 , 8 % went t o s c h o o l f o r 4-6 y e a r s i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e , The c o m p a r a b l e f i g u r e s f o r s e c o n d a r y and u n i v e r s i t y s c h o o l i n g was 4 4 % and 5.6% r e s p e c t i v e l y , Some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be made w i t h r e g a r d t o - 7 9 -t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C h i n e s e . F i r s t l y , w h i l e a m a j o r i t y had a t l e a s t an e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n , most o f t h e s e were i n s t r u c t e d i n C h i n e s e . E n g l i s h i s t h e m a i n medium o f i n s t r u c t i o n o n l y i n t h e h i g h e r l e v e l s , n a m ely a t t h e s e c o n d a r y and u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l s . S e c o n d l y , l a r g e p r o p o r -t i o n s o f p e r s o n s have n o t r e c e i v e d any s e c o n d a r y o r u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . Of t h o s e who r e c e i v e d t h e s e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n , a m a j o r i t y a t t e n d e d f o r a b o u t 1-3 y e a r s , b. Language. I n C h a p t e r I I , i t was s t a t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s had come f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n c o a s t a l p r o v i n c e s o f C h i n a , As s u c h , i t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s ( i n V a n c o u v e r w o u l d s p e a k t h e m a i n d i a l e c t s f o u n d i n t h e s e p r o v i n c e s o f C h i n a , namely C a n t o n e s e and F u k i e n , T h i s f a c t i s c o r r o b o r a t e d by t h e Sample S u r v e y , i n t h a t 9 1 % o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s s p o k e C a n t o n -ese and a n o t h e r 2 % F u k i e n , T h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t s p e a k any C h i n e s e , T h i s i s p r o b a b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t s o r g r a n d - p a r e n t s , who m i g h t have been t h e e a r l i e r C h i n e s e i m m i g r a n t s t o t h e c i t y . From a n o t h e r p o i n t o f v i e w however, a few ( 5 , 6 % ) d i d n o t r e q u i r e o r w i s h t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o speak a C h i n e s e d i a l e c t , The m a j o r i t y o f t h e sa m p l e p o p u l a t i o n wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o sp e a k a t l e a s t one d i a l e c t o f C h i n e s e , I n t e r m s o f M a n d a r i n , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r e d among t h e C h i n e s e as an 'e d u c a t e d l a n g u a g e , ' i t was f o u ^ d t h a t o n l y 2 0 % were a b l e t o r e a d and w r i t e Kuo Yu o r M a n d a r i n , w h i l e a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e c o u l d s peak i t , b u t n o t t o o f l u e n t l y . I n a l l , o n l y a b o u t 5 1 % o f t h e p a r e n t s wanted t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o l e a r n M a n d a r i n , T h i s i s t h e - 8 0 -r e v e r s e o f t h e e a r l i e r q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a C h i n e s e d i a l e c t , i n w h i c h n e a r l y e v e r y b o d y had r e p l i e d i n t h e a f f i r m a t i v e . The t e n d e n c y however, i s t o w a r d s t h e u s a g e o f E n g l i s h as n e a r l y e v e r y -one s p o k e E n g l i s h w i t h a f a i r amount o f f l u e n c y w h i l e o n l y 1 3 , 6 % e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e y s p o k e i t p o o r l y , c, : P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e S o c i a l L i f e , E l e m e n t s o f t h e p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d above i s s e e m i n g l y r e p e a t e d h e r e , t h a t i s , t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l l i f e . F o r i n s t a n c e , n e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n had no a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t -i e s o r g a n i s e d by t h e C h i n e s e , O nly 2 9 % i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y e i t h e r b e l o n g e d t o t h e m a j o r A s s o c i a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e C h i n e s e B e n e v o l e n t A s s o c i a t i o n , o r t o o t h e r m i n o r a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s , W i l l m o t t has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e r e were n e a r l y 80 C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s i n V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n i n 1964 and t h a t i t i s t h e c u l t u r a l h e a d q u a r t e r s o f C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada--^, On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s one e x p e c t s an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and s o c i e t i e s by t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , s i m p l y by v i r t u e o f i t s l a r g e numbers. D a t a f r o m t h e 1969 Sample S u r v e y do n o t s u p p o r t t h i s n o t i o n as o n l y 29% o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s r e p l i e d t h a t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d a c t i v e l y i n t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . T h i s may be f o r a number o f r e a s o n s . The s m a l l numbers who a r e members o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e m a i n l y m e r c h a n t s , b u s i n e s s m e n and g e n e r a l w o r k e r s who a r e employed i n t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a , / Those who have n o t j o i n e d t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s a r e o u t s i d e t h e s e o c c u p a t -i o n s o r have r e a s o n s o f t h e i r own f o r n o t j o i n i n g . One o f t h e - 8 1 -more common r e a s o n s , o f t e n c i t e d by r e s p o n d e n t s , was t h e i r o b j e c t -i o n s t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f a p p e a l s f o r f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t by t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . A v e r y s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e a p p e a r t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s , f o r i n s t a n c e C o n f u c i a n i s m and T a o i s m , S u c h f o l l o w e r s make up o n l y 7,2% o f t h e s a m p l e , Of t h e r e m a i n d e r , 3 2 % r e p o r t e d t o be C h r i s t i a n s and 6(0.8% a e t h i s t s , a g n o s t i c s and n o n - b e l i e v e r s , One c a n i n t e r p r e t t h i s t o be a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f C h r i s t i a n i t y on t h e l i v e s o f t h e C h i n e s e , s i n c e t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s t h a t were C h r i s t i a n s must have b e e n l o w . Some 7 3 % o b s e r v e and p a r t i c i p a t e i n t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s . The r e m a i n d e r do n o t o b s e r v e o r p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e s e f e s t i v a l s . However, some r e s p o n d e n t s added t h a t t h e y p a r t i c i p a t e d and o b s e r v e d t h e s e f e s t i v a l s when one o r b o t h t h e i r p a r e n t s were a l i v e , I n sum, a m a j o r i t y o f t h e sample s p e a k C h i n e s e and m a i n t a i n C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s , b u t o n l y a m i n o r i t y b e l o n g t o f o r m a l C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and m a i n t a i n C h i n e s e r e l i g i o u s o b s e r v a n c e s , 3, Economic F a c t o r s , N e a r l y t h r e e - q u a r t e r s o f t h e 1969 sample r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e y were g a i n f u l l y employed. T h i s e x c l u d e s s t u d e n t s and r e t i r e d p e r s o n s who a c c o u n t e d f o r 1 4 , 4 % o f t h e sam p l e , A l i t t l e more t h a n s e v e n p e r c e n t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s were unemployed. Of t h e employed, 25,6% worked i n t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a w h i l e a n o t h e r 33,6% worked w i t h i n t h e c i t y . The r e m a i n d e r worked w i t h i n t h e -82-r e s t o f t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . A s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e (5.6%) were r e p o r t e d t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e i r e m p l o y e r o r e m p l o y e e s . A v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n (81,6%) o f t h e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n had n o t changed t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s , T a b l e 4.10 shows p r e v i o u s and p r e s e n t (1969) o c c u p a t -i o n s o f t h e s e r e s p o n d e n t s . I t w i l l be s e e n t h a t t h e r e was a b i g i n c r e a s e i n t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s between 1967-1969, Whereas i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s o n l y 6,4% were engaged i n w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s , t h e p e r c e n t a g e f o r 1969 was 37,6%, R e l a t i v e l y , i n c r e a s e s were a l s o r e c o r d e d i n t h e b l u e c o l l a r j o b s , a l t h o u g h t h e change i s r a t h e r s m a l l , T h e r e were more p e o p l e who h e l d f a r m i n g j o b s i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s . However, f i f t y - n i n e p e r c e n t d i d n o t answer t h e q u e s t i o n a b o u t t h e i r p r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . Among t h e s e a r e i n c l u d e d t h o s e who d i d n o t ctumge t h e i r j o b s i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s and p r o b a b l y t o o t h e r e c o u l d have been some who were unemployed a t that. t i m e . I n t e r m s o f t h e income e a r n e d , t h e r e was. an e q u a l d i v i s i o n o f income f o r p e o p l e e a r n i n g between $2,500 and $10,000 p e r annum. Each o f t h r e e d e t e r m i n e d c a t e g o r i e s , t h a t i s , $2,500 and l e s s , $2,500 - $ 5 , 0 0 0 and $5,000-$10,000, a c c o u n t e d f o r a b o u t 27 % e a c h . About 7% e a r n e d more t h a n $10,000 p e r annum, and 10.4% p r e f e r r e d n o t t o answer t h i s q u e s t i o n , as t h i s was c o n s i d -e r e d t o o p e r s o n a l a q u e s t i o n , Summary. On t h e b a s i s o f t h e f o r e g o i n g d i s c u s s i o n some g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s c o u l d be made w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e p a t t e r n s o f . r e s i d e n c e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ; t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e - 8 3 -T a b l e 4.10 V a n c o u v e r : P r e v i o u s * and p r e s e n t (1969) o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h e C h i n e s e , by o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p s , P r e v i o u s * P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n o c c u p a t i o n Group p e r c e n t a g e p e r c e n t a g e M a n a g e r i a l 2,4 12.4 P r o f , & T e c h , 2,4 10,0 C l e r i c a l 1,6 7,2 S a l e s 1,6 8,0 C r a f t s m e n 0,8 6,4 L a b o r 6,4 0,0 F a r m e r s 2,4 0,8 T r a n s p o r t 3,2 5.6 S e r v i c e s 7,2 16.0 S t u d e n t s 4,0 3,0 R e t i r e d 10,2 10,4 D i d n o t answer 59,2 12.0 * T h i s r e f e r s t o changes o f o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s p r i o r t o 1969, S o u r c e : S^^JAOM.' C h i n e s e , i n t e r m s o f t h e 1961 c e n s u s d a t a , i n d i c a t e d a m a j o r node o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e S t r a t h c o n a a r e a . T h e r e were however, s i g n s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t d i s p e r s i o n i n t o t h e s u b u r b s may be underway and t h i s i s n o t c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e 1969 Sample Survey,, An i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f C a n a d i a n b o r n C h i n e s e i s a l s o i m p l i e d . Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e C h i n e s e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h t h e q u a l i t y o f r e s i d e n c e s s h o w i n g t h a t a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f f o r e i g n - b o r n C h i n e s e l i v e i n o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , w h i l e C a n a d i a n b o r n C h i n e s e t e n d t o o c c u p y b u i l d i n g s b u i l t s i n c e 1945, However, a m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e l i v e i n b u i l d i n g s b u i l t p r i o r t o 1921. S o c i a l and e c o nomic f a c t o r s examined show t h a t a m a j o r i t y o f t h e s a m p l e speak C h i n e s e and s t i l l m a i n t a i n C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s , w h i l e o n l y a m i n o r i t y b e l o n g t o f o r m a l C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . A l s o t h e C h i n e s e a r e t e n d i n g t o w a r d s w h i t e c o l l a r j o b s , -84-F o o t n o t e s . 1 F o u r t h Census o f Canada, 1901, V o l . I , ' P o p u l a t i o n , ' T a b l e X I I , ' N a t i o n a l i t i e s , ' p. 406. 2 S e v e n t h Census o f Canada, 1931, V o l , I I , ' P o p u l a t i o n o f C i t i e s and. t o wns, 10,000 and o v e r , c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o r a c i a l o r i g i n , 1 931.,' T a b l e 34, p.494. 3 DBS, Census of Canada, 1961, S e r i e s 1,2-5, 'Populations E t h n i c G r o u p s , ' T a b l e 35, p.38,1 , 4 P e r s o n a l c o m m u n i c a t i o n f r o m the DBS, Ot t a w a . T h i s m a t e r i a l w o u l d be known as, DBS, U n p u b l i s h e d Census i f a t e r i a l , (Census Tract S e r i e s ) , 1961, and r e f e r r e d t o s i m p l y a s , P33UCH, I f ' r-o. 5 The l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t i s i n t h e forms C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n L.Q. ~ i n t r a c t ( i ) ± T o t a l C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n T o t a l p o p u l a t i o n * T o t a l c i t y p o p u l a t i o n i n t r a c t ( i ) A l o c a t i o n q u o t i e n t o f u n i t y and above i n d i c a t e s a h i g h r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e i n t h a t t r a c t . V a l u e s o f l e s s t h a n u n i t y i n d i c a t e a l o w e r r e l a t i v e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f C h i n e s e f o r t h a t t r a c t . 6 T h i s i s i n e f f e c t t h e u s e o f t h e s t a t i s t i c a l s t a n d a r d - s c o r e o r *2* s t a t i s t i c p r o c e d u r e and t h e mapping o f t h e s e s c o r e s . The a s s u m p t i o n s u s e d a r e s i m i l a r t o t h a t u s e d i n most s t a t i s t i c a l t e x t s . The f o r m o f t h e z .-score used was;-'z' * (xj ) / cr where x. i s t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f 1 C h i n e s e i n t h e i t h t r a c t , x t h e a r i t h m e t i c mean, and cr t h e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , 7 N a l house, ( 1 9 6 1 ) , o ^ c i t , p. 261 f f . Q • p e l l , L . I . ( 1 9 6 5 ) , ^ t r o p o . l i t a n V a n c o u v e r ; An O v e r v i e w f o r ^ o c i a l P l a n n e r s , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Community C h e ^ t , pasfixiru T -35-9 DBS, Census _of Canada, 1951, V o l . I , ' P o p u l a t i o n ; C i t i e s w i t h more t h a n 10,000,' T a b l e 35, ' O r i g i n s , ' p.35 . 1 and, DBS, Census o f Canada, 1961, o p . c i t . T a b l e 35, p.38,1 . 10 B e l l , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , o p . c i t , 11 W i l l m o t t , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , o p . c i t , pp,33-37, CHAPTER V DIFFERSNCES BETWEEN_ CHINESE RESIDENTS IN CHINATOWN AND IN THE SUBURBS^ ,_ Having analysed some of the r e s u l t s of the sample survey of 1969 and the 1961 and o t h e r census s t a t i s t i c s , t he main purpose here i s t o t e s t the hy p o t h e s i s p o s t u l a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s t h e s i s , and t o e x p l a i n the s t a t i s t i c a l assumptions and method of a n a l y s i s (mainly t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of the c h i - s q u a r e ( %»)) used i n t h i s study. The Chi-square and N u l l Hypothesis. The c h i - s q u a r e (%) i s used to g i v e a s t a t i s t i c a l index of association between two s e t s of v a r i a b l e s . T his index i s computed from the two-dimensional t a b l e of f r e q u e n c i e s , more o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as a contingency t a b l e ^ . Using t h i s c o n t i n -gency t a b l e , the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s . The n u l l h y p o t h e s i s (HQ) i n a form a l s t a t i s t i c a l sense s t a t e s t h a t j "t h e r e are no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the observed v a l u e f o r t h e u n i v e r s e and the hypothesised v a l u e , " This i s f o r g i v e n degrees of freedom and an d.-value (the con f i d e n c e l e v e l ) which suggests whether or not the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s i s t o be accepted or rejected,, The con f i d e n c e l e v e l i s pre-determined, The c h i -square t e s t s assumes t h a t each of the expected f r e q u e n c i e s are g r e a t e r than 1 and no more than 2 0 % of the c e l l s have f r e q u e n c i e s of l e s s than 5 observations-^, The hypothesis t o be t e s t e d i n t h i s study i s s t a t e d - 8 7 -as f o l l o w s t J I t i s h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h e r e a r e b a s i c ' d i f f e r e n c e s ' b e t ween t h e C h i n e s e l i v i n g i n C h i n a t o w n and t h o s e l i v i n g i n t h e s u b u r b s , and t h e s e ' d i f f e r e n c e s ' c o u l d be e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h a number o f v a r i a b l e s . The h y p o t h e s i s i s t e s t e d by c o m p a r i n g t h e r e s p o n s e s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f t h e 45 C h i n e s e h o u s e h o l d s i n t h e s a m p l e who 1 i v e d i n C h i n a t o w n w i t h t h e r e s p o n s e s o f t h e 80 h o u s e h o l d s who l i v e d i n s u b u r b a n V a n c o u v e r , We a r e l o o k i n g f o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e s e g r o u p s i n t e r m s o f o b j e c t i v e d e m o g r a p h i c , s o c i o -e c o n omic and r e s i d e n t i a l f a c t o r s , and most i m p o r t a n t , i n t e r m s o f t h e c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , O v e r v i e w o f R e s u l t s . The t o t a l number o f c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s a m p l e s u r v e y i s 53, o f w h i c h s i x a r e i n v a l i d . T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e o b s e r v e d f r e q u e n c i e s in t h e s e p a r t i c u l a r t a b l e s were less t h a n one o r i n some c a s e s , t h e y were l e s s t h a n 5 i n more t h a n 20c/o o f t h e e e l I s . T a b l e 5.1 summarizes t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d in theCtest, bL(V'"' ,°t „Similarity. I t w o u l d be n o t i c e d t h a t i n o n l y e i g h t cases was t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s a c c e p t e d . T h i s was e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e of t h e n a t u r e o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r v a r i a b l e s , F o r i n s t a n c e no d i f f e r e n c e s were l i k e l y t o a p p e a r i n t h e d i a l e c t s . , s p o k e n , n o r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of C h i n a t o w n , f o r b o t h t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e . S i g n i f i c a n t s i m i l a r i t i e s also e x i s t e d i n terms o f t h e m a r i t a l s t a t u s of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , the number - 8 8 . -Table 5,1 Vancouver: Summary t a b l e of c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s , degrees of freedom and a s s o c i a t e d s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s , of t h e sample survey Chinese, 1969 , V a r i a b l e name c h i - s q u a r e D.F, v a l u e Demographic F a c t o r s , Boarders (Y/N) 24,83 1 Boarders ( # ) 39,19 4 Date of b i r t h 45.33 7 # of c h i l d r e n 51.17 6 Immigr. p e r i o d 56,40 9 B i r t h - p l a c e 115.50 5 R e s i d e n t i a l F a c t o r s Reasons f o r move 34,79 6 Pr e v i o u s r e s i , ( y r s ) 4 0 . 8 4 6 Length of r e s i d . 42.98 5 R e s i d . type 102.04 4 L a s t Address 138.77 13 V a r i a b l e name c h i - s q u a r e D. v a l u e C u l t u r a l F a c t o r s D i a l e c t spoken 17 Years at second,sch 22 M a n d r i n . f o r c h i l d , 27 L i t e r a c y i n Mandrin 38 Y r s , a t e l em,school 49 Spoken Mandrin 50 Univ. l a n g . o f i n s t . 8 3 Elem, l a n g . o f i n s t , 1 3 1 Sec, l a n g , o f i n s t , 145 Secondary ( c i t y ) 148 Elementary ( c i t y ) 164 Spoken E n g l i s h 166 Years a t s c h o o l 166 .48 ,81 .07 ,59 .53 .51 .11, .44 .76 .08 .88 .97 ,97 3 3 1 1 4 4 2 4 4 4 5 3 3 Economic F a c t o r s R e l a t i o n s h i p t o employer 15,10 2 Change i n occup. 23,26 1 P l a c e of work 25,25 4 Answer i n Ch./Eng. 48,89 1 L o c a t , of p r e v . j o b 58,76 4 Income 60,21 5 Job c l a s s i f i c . 77,07 6 Pre v i o u s occup, 82,89 10 Occup, category 148,37 11 Present r e s i d , l o c . 5 8 2 , 3 8 10 Return t o China 12.47 3 A s s o c i a t i o n ( t y p e ) 36,34 5 V i s i t s t o Chinatown 68.69 3 Food h a b i t s 70.37 2 L o c a l Chin, Newsp. 122.95 1 R e l i g i o n 141.47 3 Constant v a r i a b l e compared: Chinese r e s i d e n t s i n Chinatown and Chinese r e s i d e n t s i n the suburbs of Vancouver, 1969. S i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e (CR) s e t at 0.001* . * For the p r o b a b i l i t y t a b l e s of s i g n i f i c a n c e v a l u e s used when n--l, n=2 and n-3, see Croxton, (1959) Appendix V I , pp, 328 -329. MB, Tables t h a t were found t o b e 4 i n s i g n i f i c a n t ' a t the s p e c i f i e d s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l s , and i n v a l i d t a b l e s are not i n c l u d e d here. -89-of r e l a t e d boarders l i v i n g w i t h the households, and f i n a l l y the respondents comments r e g a r d i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and 'study 8 i t s e l f . Chinatown-Suburban D i f f e r e n c c s There were a l a r g e number of v a l i d and s i g n i f i c a n t 4 t a b l e s (48 i n a l l ) t h a t were used i n the a n a l y s i s . The d i f f e r -ences between Chinese r e s i d e n t s i n Chinatown and t h e suburbs i n 1969 are t h e r e f o r e d i s c u s s e d under f o u r convenient sub-headings, namely, the c u l t u r a l , r e s i d e n t i a l , demographic and economic f a c t o r s , peraoqraphic . D i f f e r e n c e s , The d i f f e r e n c e s between th e Chinatown and suburban Chinese r e s i d e n t s are marked, not only i n terms of the p l a c e of b i r t h , but a l s o i n terms of the time of i m m i g r a t i o n of the house-h o l d e r or h i s grand-parents, and the year of b i r t h . The d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e p l a c e of b i r t h a r e shown i n Table 5,2 . T h i s t a b l e shows Table 5,2 Vancouver! B i r t h - p l a c e of Chinatown and Suburban Chinese r e s i d e n t s , 1969, Percentage Percentage B i r t h - p l a c e of China- of suburban town Chinese Chinese Vancouver 1,6 15.2 B r i t i s h Columbia 0,8 7,2 Canada 1.6 5,6 Hong Kong 0,8 6,4 Kwangtung (China) 14,4 10,4 Other China 11,2 " 22.4 Other ™ 2,4 TOTAL ...30.4 69,6 Chi-square = 115.20* D.F, = 5 . g o -t h a t i n t h e c a s e o f t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e p e r c e n t -age o f p e r s o n s were b o r n i n V a n c o u v e r and t h e r e s t o f Canada. The p e r c e n t a g e o f th° t o t a l b o r n i n Canada f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p i s 2 8 % and o n l y 4% f o r t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p . I n t e r m s o f t h o s e b o r n i n C h i n a and Hong Kong, t h e p e r c e n t a g e s a r e 2 6 % f o r t h e C h i n a t a r n g r o u p and 4 2 % f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p . A n o t h e r d e m o g r a p h i c d i f f e r e n c e l i e s i n t h e p e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e s e two g r o u p s o f p e o p l e . I t w o u l d be r e c a l l e d t h a t i m m i g r a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e commenced j u s t b e f o r e 1885, and c o n t i n u e s i n t o t h e p r e s e n t - d a y . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e , one c a n d i v i d e t h i s t i m e s p a n i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s , namely t h e p e r i o d o f t h e e a r l y i m m i g r a t i o n - . ( 1 8 8 5 - 1 9 0 0 ) , t h e p e r i o d o f t h e " d e p r e s s i o n * ( 1 9 0 1 -1940) and t h e p e r i o d o f r e c e n t i m m i g r a t i o n (1941-1969)., ( T a b l e 5,3) F o l l o w i n g t h e above r o u g h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , a b o u t 9,6% o f t h e s u b -u r b a n g r o u p were made up o f e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s , 28,8% ' d e p r e s s i o n * i m m i g r a n t s and 27,2% r e c e n t i m m i g r a n t s . On t h e o t h e r hand, amongst t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p , t h e r e were 1 2 . 8 % ' d e p r e s s i o n ' i m m i g r a n t s and 1 6 % e a r l y i m m i g r a n t s . The above two t a b l e s ( T a b l e s 5,2 and 5,3) have s e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . F i r s t l y , i n t e r m s o f t h e b i r t h - p l a c e o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e , a l t h o u g h p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y q u i t e a l a r g e number of t h e C h i n e s e were r e p o r t e d t o be b o r n e i t h e r i n Kwangtung o r o t h e r p a r t s o f C h i n a , t h e p r o p o r t i o n b o r n i n V a n c o u v e r w o u l d seem t o be i n c r e a s i n g , T h i s m i g h t a l s o a p p l y t o t h e C h i n a t o w n r e s i d e n t s , A t t h e t i m e o f t h e s u r v e y , i n mid-1969, o n l y 4% o f t h e C h i n e s e i n C h i n a t o w n were r e p o r t e d t o be b o r n i n Vancouver o r t h e - 9 1 -T a b l e 5.3 V a n c o u v e r ; P e r i o d o f i m m i g r a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1959. P e r i o d P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e o f o f C h i n a t o w n o f S u b u r b a n i m m i g r a t i o n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e P r e -1885 - 3,2 1885-1900 - 6,4 1901-1910 3,2 3,0 1911-1920 5,6 12,0 1921-1930 2,4 4,0 1931-1940 1.6 4.8 1941-1950 8,0 12,8 1951-1960 6,4 7,2 1961+ 1,6 7,2 D i d n o t answer 1,6 4,0 ~13hT^S'g^^ 9 r e s t of Canada, B u t . i t c a n be e x p e c t e d that f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n the C a n a d i a n - b o r n C h i n e s e w o u l d i m p i n g e on t h e v i a b i l i t y o f C h i n a -town w i t h r e g a r d t o i t s r e s i d e n t i a l f u n c t i o n and to i t s c a p a c i t y t o accomodate new a d d i t i o n s t o t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , The q u e s t i o n t h a t w i l l need to be answered i n t h e f u t u r e i s , w i l l C h i n a t o w n • be a b l e t o meet, new demands on i t s a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d c a p a c i t y i n t e r m s of t h e r e s i d e n t i a l s p a c e t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e -w i t h i n C h i n a t o w n ? S e c o n d l y , r e c e n t i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada and i n p a r t i c u l a r V a n c o u v e r has been shown to be i n c r e a s i n g , F u r t h e r i n c r e a s e s i n i m m i g r a t i o n f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e s the i m p o r t a n c e of C h i n a t o w n ' s f u n c t i o n as a h a l f - w a y house f o r some o f t h e now i m m i g r a n t s . B o t h t h e above f a c t o r s t h e r e f o r e would a l t e r t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n o f the C h i n e s e and i n so d o i n g w o u l d r e ~ e m p h a s i s e the r e l a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s of C h i n e s e , t h a t i s , C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e , - 9 2 -R e s i d e n t i a l D i f f e r e n c e s . Under t h i s c a t e g o r y t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s b e t ween t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e were t h e t y p e o f r e s i d e n c e o c c u p i e d , t h e l e n g t h o f o c c u p a n c y and t h e s u b s e q u e n t changes o f r e s i d e n c e . U n d o u b t e d l y , t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e r e s i d e n c e w o u l d be a m a j o r f a c t o r a l s o , b u t t h i s i s n o t examined h e r e . However, t h e above t h r e e v a r i a b l e s m e n t i o n e d do p r o v i d e a p a r t i a l v i e w o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r t o d a y , C o n c e r n i n g r e s i d e n t i a l t y p e s o f t h e two g r o u p s , t h e r e seems t o be, i n t h e s a m p l e as a w h o l e , a p r e p o n d e r e n c e o f h o u s e h o l d s t h a t l i v e i n t h e i r own h o u s e . T h i s hov/ever i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s o f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p . F o r t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p , p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s a r e f o u n d i n t h e * r o o m i n g h o u s e 3 c a t e g o r y , T h i s i s m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y and l o w r e n t s o f s u c h rooms i n p r o x i m i t y t o C h i n a t o w n i t s e l f . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s g r o u p a r e t h e c o - o p e r a t i v e l y - r u n r o o m i n g houses and t h o s e o r g a n i s e d by t h e C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s , t h a t i s C h i n a t o w n v i s - a - v i s s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e , a r e s i g n i f i c a n t , T a b l e 5,4 summarizes t h e d a t a on r e s i d e n t i a l t y p e s . T a b l e 5,4 V a n c o u v e r : R e s i d e n t i a l t y p e s o c c u p i e d by C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969. percentage Percentage R e s i d e n t i a l o f C h i n a t o w n o f suburban types ' Chinese Chinese Own house 14,4 53,6 / Rented house 6.4 8,0 / Rented apartment 1,6 4,3 dooming house 6,4 1.6 O t h e r 0 „ 8 1,6 c h i - s q u a r e » 102,04* D.F. = 4 -93 The n a t u r e o f t h e f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r home f o r t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e i s an i n v e r t e d s - c u r v e , H i g h e r f r e q u e n c i e s a r e o b s e r v e d f o r t h o s e r e s i d e n t s l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r h o u s e f o r t e n y e a r s and l e s s . E q u a l l y h i g h p r o p o r t i o n s a r e a l s o t o be o b s e r v e d i n t h o s e h o u s e h o l d s t h a t a r e v e r y s t a b l e , t h a t i s , w i t h a l e n g t h o f more t h a n 20 y e a r s i n r e s i d e n c e . Between t h e s e two, t h e f i r s t ( t e n y e a r s and l e s s ) a c c o u n t s f o r a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s i s t h a t C h i n a t o w n e r s a r e more p o l a r i s e d i n t o t h o s e who have been, t h e r e a s h o r t t i m e ( n i n e y e a r s and l e s s ) and a l o n g t i m e ( more t h a n 20 y e a r s ) w h i l e t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p c o n t a i n a l a r g e r m i d d l e s e c t o r . Thus one i m p l i c a t i o n t h a t c a n be d e r i v e d f r o m t h i s a r e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e s i z e o f f a m i l i e s , t he a t t a i n -ment o f h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and o t h e r r e l a t e d s o c i a l f a c t o r s f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p ( T a b l e 5 . 5 ) , T a b l e 5 , 5 V a n c o u v e r t L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e i n p r e s e n t home f o r C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969, "Length Percentage Percentage in of Chinatown of suburban y e a r s C h i n e s e Chine 1 year & l e s s 1.6 '1.6 1-4 years 10,4 17,6 5 - 9 " 8,0 17,6 10-14 " 2.4 13,6 15-19 " 0,3 5 . 6 20 y ears & over 7,2 13,6 Chi-square = 42,98* D.F*. * 5 / I To summarize, the d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of r e s i d e n c e are manifest i n the types and l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e . The Chinese -94-i n b o t h C h i n a t o w n and t h e s u b u r b s t e n d t o own t h e i r own h o u s e s , b u t t h i s i s more s o i n t h e s u b u r b s . S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e a l s o t e n d t o be more s t a b l e i n t e r m s o f t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n a p a r t i c u l a r h o u se. As m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r , i t was f e l t t h a t f a m i l y s t a t u s , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s and o t h e r r e l a t e d s o c i a l f a c t o r s w i l l be r e l a t e d t o t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , and more i m p o r t a n t t o t h e u n d e r -s t a n d i n g o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e , An ex a m i n -a t i o n o f t h e s e f o l l o w , E conomic D i f f e r e n c e s , Two m a j o r c r i t e r i a u s e d t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e between t h e two g r o u p s c o n c e r n t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n and income. The o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n u s e d h e r e i s c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t u s e d by t h e DBS, 5 . Census _ of^ -Canada.JL96_.l • T a b l e 5,6 e m p h a s i s e s t h e d i t f e r e n c e s i n terras o f o c c u p a t i o n , I n d e e d , s i n c e o c c u p a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t , one m i g h t a l s o e x p e c t t o f i n d d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r income. T a b l e 5,7 shows t h e income e a r n e d by t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e , B e c a u s e o f t h e i n t e r - r e l a t e d n a t u r e o f t h e s e two t a b l e s , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s a r e examined t o g e t h e r . The s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e a r e engaged i n most o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n s l i s t e d on t h e T a b l e e x c e p t p r i m a r y work. The C h i n a -town C h i n e s e , on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e engaged i n s e r v i c e s , p r i m a r y work and i n ( m i n o r ) m a n a g e r i a l c a p a c i t i e s , T h i s l a s t c a t e c o r y i s r somewhat m i s l e a d i n g , f o r one has t o be s u s p i c i o u s o f t h e n a t e i r o o f t h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y i n t h e c a s e of t h e C h i n e s e , F o r - 9 5 -T a b l e 5 . 5 V a n c o u v e r : O c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1 9 5 9 . O c c u p a t i o n a l P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e M a n a g e r i a l 5 . 6 6 , 4 P r o f e s s , & T e c h . 1 . 6 8 , 8 C l e r i c a l . - 7 . 2 S a l e s 0 . 8 7 . 2 C r a f t s m e n 2 . 4 4 , 0 P r i m a r y w o r k e r s * * 5 , 6 3 ® 2 T r a n s p o r t 0 , 8 4 , 8 S e r v i c e s 4 , 8 1 1 . 2 S t u d e n t s 0 , 8 2 , 4 R e t i r e d 6 , 4 4 , 0 D i d n o t answer 1 . 6 - 1 0 . 4 C h i - s q u a r e = 1 4 8 . 3 1 * D.F. = 10 •* i n c l u d e s b o t h l a b o r and f a r m w o r k e r s . T a b l e 5 , 7 V a n c o u v e r : Income o f C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969 . P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e Income o f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e $ 2 , 5 0 0 & l e s s 8 „ 0 1 7 , 6 2 , 5 0 0 - 5 , 0 0 0 1 2 , 8 1 6 , 0 5 , 0 0 0 - 1 0 , 0 0 0 7 , 2 20 o 8 1 0 , 0 0 0 & o v e r — *7 * 2 D i d n o t answer 4 . 0 Unemployed 2 , 4 4 , 0 C h i - s q u a r e - 6 0 , 2 3 D.F. 5 i t has been f o u n d more o f t e n t h a n n o t i n t h i s c a t e g o r y a r e engaged i n o p e r a t i n g r o o m i n g - h o u s e s , o r a s m a l l ' l a u n d r y o r a g r o c e r y s t o r e , T e c h n i c a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e y a r e i n a m a n a g e r i a l c a p a c i t y , b u t t h e income, c a p i t a l o u t l a y , -96-and p r o f i t s do n o t match t h o s e i n c o r p o r a t e b u s i n e s s e s and o t h e r s u c h e s t a b l i s h m e n t s . Thus t h i s t a b l e has t o be u s e d w i t h some c a u t i o n . The t a b l e on income r e f l e c t s t h e h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e who a r e employed i n t h e ' w h i t e c o l l a r ' j o b c a t e g o r y . The p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e i n t h e f i r s t two income b r a c k e t s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 30% w h i l e 28% e a r n $5,000 and more. F o r t h e C h i n a t o w n C h i n e s e , 1 2 , 8 % e a r n e d between $2,500 and $5,000, T h i s p r o b a b l y r e f l e c t s t h e i r employment i n s e r v i c e and s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s . I n sum., t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e a r e i n d e e d s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r m s o f t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n and income, Cu11u r a1 D i f f e r e n c e s . P r o b a b l y t h e most d i f f i c u l t and l e a s t t a n g i b l e d i f f e r e n c e t o d i s c e r n between t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e a r e t h e i r c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s , i f t h e y e x i s t , l i e p a r t l y i n t h e p h y s i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e ' c u l t u r e ' o f t h e two g r o u p s , To d i s c e r n t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s , an e x a m i n a t i o n i s made i n t e r m s of t h e i r (a) e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t and s p o k e n E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , (b) t h e s i z e o f t h e h o u s e h o l d ( t h a t i s t h e number o f c h i l d r e n , l o d g e r s ) and k i n s h i p i n employment, and ( c ) t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l l i f e , i n c l u d i n g membership and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e o r g a n i s e d a s s o c i a t i o n s and f e s t i v a l s and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s r e t u r n i n g t o C h i n a , - 9 7 -a . E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t . I t w i l l be s e e n f r o m T a b l e 5.8 t h a t a g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n C h i n a t o w n had t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n C h i n a , as o p p o s e d t o a h i g h e r number o f t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e c e i v i n g t h e i r s c h o o l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r o r e l s e w h e r e i n Canada, F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e p r o p o r t i o n a t e s h a r e s f o r t h o s e h a v i n g had t h e i r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g i n V a n c o u v e r amounts t o 2 5 , 5 % o f a l l r e s p o n d e n t s f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p as opposed t o 5.5% f o r t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p . The l a n g u a g e o f i n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l g r a d e was p r e d o m i n a n t l y C h i n e s e , On t h e o t h e r hand a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e had t h e i r e d u c a t i o n i n b o t h l a n g u a g e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n . I n terms o f t h e t o t a l amount o f s c h o o l i n g , p r o p o r t i o n -a t e l y more members o f t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p had f r o m 4 t o 6 y e a r s s c h o o l i n g , However t h e m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e t h a t s e p a r a t e s t h e two g r o u p s a r e t h e h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e s s c o r e d f o r t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p i n t h e t o t a l number o f y e a r s a t s c h o o l . T h i s p a t t e r n i s more o b v i o u s i n t h e number o f y e a r s a t t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t d i f f e r -e nces i n t e r m s o f e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t s t r e t c h e s t h r o u g h t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l , t h e p a t t e r n b e i n g a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e have r e c e i v e d s e c o n d a r y and u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n ( t h a t i s , 5 7 % and 24% r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . One o f t h e / d i r e c t r e s u l t s t h a t d e r i v e f r o m s u c h a t r e n d a r e the r e l a t i v e a b i l i t i e s o f t h e C h i n e s e t o speak E n g l i s h , T a b l e 5,9 shows Table 5,8 V a n c o u v e r : Some e d u c a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 19o9. o r school p e r c e n t a g e C h i n e s e P e r c e n t a g e I Number o f P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e o f S u b u r b a n y e a r s i n C h i n e s e f e l e m e n t a r y C h i n e s e s c h o o l >f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e 0 x 4 7 10 1 y e a r 3 y e a r s g " 12 " *4 ;'-J_ Si O 2.4 11.2 ^ S 5.6 2,4 2 ,4 3.2 u , o 24.0 15.2 0,8 c h i - s q u a r e = l o . l o - u . r . Language o f P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e i n s t r u c t i o n a t o f C h i n a t o w n o f S u b u r b a n e l e m e n t a r y C h i n e s e C h i n e s e s c h o o l " „ E n g l i s h o n l y 4*0 E n g l i s h & C h i n e s e 3.2 C h i n e s e o n l y 20.0 Cther-D i d n o t answer 2*4 c h i - s q u a r e = 131,33* D, 30.4 12,8 19,2 4.0 0 - 1 y e a r 1,6 JL • ~~ y c " d i . ^ & ^± 4 - 6 20.8 74- '* 3.2 D i d n o t answer 2„4 2.4 4.8 36.8 24.0 2,4 c h i - s q u a r e = 49.33* D. F. = 4 C i t y o f P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e e l e m e n t a r y o f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n s c h o o l i n g C h i n e s e C h i n e s e V a n c o u v e r 5.6 E. C./Canada Hong Kong 2.4 C h i n a 10,0 D i d n o t a n s . 2,4 c h i - s q u a r e 164,88* 25.6 12.0 13.6 14.4 2.4 a t e n d e n c y f o r t h e C h i n e s e i n C h i n a t o w n t o p r e d o m i n a t e a t t h e l o w e r end o f t h e s c a l e , C o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l b a c k g r o u n d and t h e p a t t e r n o f i m m i g r a t i o n , one m i g h t s a y t h a t t h i s i s an e x p e c t e d p a t t e r n . T a b l e 5.9 V a n c o u v e r ; Spoken E n g l i s h a b i l i t y , as r e p o r t e d by C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969, ~ P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e A b i l i t y o f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e F l u e n t l y 4,8 39,2 W e l l 5,6 16 4Q Q u i t e W e l l 10.4 10,4 P o o r l y 9,6 4,0 C h i - s q u a r e - 166.97* D.F. " 3 b. C o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e H o u s e h o l d , R e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g t h e r e were no d i f f e r e n c e i n t e r m s o f t h e a v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e f a m i l y b e t ween t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e , The a v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r h o u s e h o l d f o r t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e was 3,58 and 3,73 r e s p e c t -i v e l y . F i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e d i d n o t have any c h i l d r e n as compared t o a l o w e r p e r c e n t a g e o f 4,8% f o r t h e C h i n a -town C h i n e s e , Of t h e w h o l e s a m p l e p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e were a b o u t 1 7 % o f t h e h o u s e h o l d s t h a t r e p o r t e d h a v i n g l o d g e r s o r b o a r d e r s l i v i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y . Of t h i s s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e , o n l y a b o u t 3% wore r e l a t e d t o t h e h o u s e h o l d . From t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e o f 2,36, t h e / d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two g r o u p s o f p e o p l e i n t e r m s o f t h e .number of r e l a t e d b o a r d e r s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0,01 l e v e l . -100-T a b l e 5,10 g i v e s t h e a v e r a g e number o f c h i l d r e n p e r h o u s e h o l d , t h e number o f b o a r d e r s i n t h e h o u s e h o l d s s a m p l e d and a s s o c i a t e d c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s . The f r e q u e n c y d i s t r i b u t i o n ( f ) shows a h i g h e r f r e q u e n c y o f b o a r d e r s . f o r t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p as compared w i t h t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p . From the- above, one p o s s i b l e i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t k i n s h i p t i e s a r e p r e v a l e n t among b o t h g r o u p s i n more o r l e s s s i m i l a r d e g r e e s , T a b l e 5,10 V a n c o u v e r ! Number o f c h i l d r e n and b o a r d e r s o f t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969 . Number o f C h i n a t o w n S u b u r b a n c h i l d r e n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e f f Number o f C h i n a t o w n S u b u r b a n b o a r d e r s C h i n e s e C h i n e s e f f 0 1 2 3 4 A v e r a g e o 1 5 3 5 5 8 3,58 1 ''J 0 29 77 4 1 4 2 13 2 0 1 14 3 1 2 13 4 1 1 13 5 0 1 11 6 + 3 3 3,45 3,67 C h i - s q u a r e = 51,57* D,F -~ 6 C h i - s q u a r e ~ 39,19* D,F,= 4 f = f r e q u e n c y o f r e s p o n s e s . K i n s h i p t i e s a r e p o s s i b l y i m p o r t a n t a l s o so f a r as o c c u p a t i o n and employment a r e c o n c e r n e d . However T a b l e 5,11 p r o v i d e s a breakdown w h i c h i n f a c t .re-emphasises t h e s m a l l d e g r e e o f k i n s h i p t i e s i n t h e employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e C h i n e s e , From t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d , i t does n o t seem t h a t t h e k i n s h i p f a c t o r i s l a r g e , o r p r e v a l e n t on a w i d e r s c a l e , n e i t h e r i n t e r m s o f employment n o r i n t e r m s o f b o a r d e r s s t a y i n g w i t h t h e house-h o l d . I n s h o r t t h i s a s p e c t o f C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e among t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e i s p r e v a l e n t o n l y t o a l i m i t e d d e g r e e . -101-T a b l e 5.11 V a n c o u v e r : K i n s h i p i n employment among t h e C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1959. P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e I t e m o f C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e R e l a t e d 3.2 2.4 Mot r e l a t e d 23,2 56,8 Don't know 4,0 10,4 C h i - s q u a r e * 15.10* D.F. = 2 c. P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e C u l t u r a l L i f e , I f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s and C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s i s a n i n d i c a t o r o f t h e r e t e n t i o n o f C h i n e s e t r a i t s and t r a d i t i o n s , t h e C h i n e s e i n C h i n a t o w n t e n d t o e x h i b i t more o f s u c h t r a i t s and t r a d i t i o n s . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s d i d e x i s t i n t e r m s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s as T a b l e 5.12 a t t e s t s . On a p r o p o r t i o n a l b a s i s , C h i n a t o w n e r s t e n d t o p a r t i c i p a t e more a c t i v e l y i n t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f p r o x i m i t y t o t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and p a r t l y b e c a u s e o f i n t e r e s t and o c c u p a t i o n , The ' p r o x i m i t y f a c t o r ' i s q u i t e i m p o r t a n t when one c o n s i d e r s t h e l a r g e number o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t h a t a r e l o c a t e d i n t h e C h i n a t o w n a r e a o f V a n c o u v e r , T a b l e 5.12 V a n c o u v e r ? P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s s o c i a t i o n s by C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e r e s i d e n t s , 1969, Type of P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t a g e a s s o c i a t i o n o f C h i n a t o w n o f S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e C h i n e s e C h i nes e S3 en e v o l en t 6 , 4 - 7,2 C l a n a s s o c i a t i o n s 2,4 4.0 D i a l e c t 2,4 2,4 V i l l a g e and ' o t h e r ' 0.3 3,2 Nona ' 18,4 52.8 C h i - s q u a r e = 36,34* D.F, - 5. -102-I n terras o f t h e t y p e s o f f e s t i v a l s o b s e r v e d by t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e however, t h e r e were no ' s i g n i f i c a n t ' d i f f e r -e n c e s b e tween t h e two g r o u p s , I n o t h e r words, i n l e s s f o r m a l t e r m s , t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p m a i n t a i n s a c u l t u r e s i m i l a r w i t h t h e C h i n a t o w n g r o u p . I n T a b l e 5,13 t h e s u b u r b a n g r o u p has been f u r t h e r b r o k e n down, i n t o d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n a l a r e a s o f V a n c o u v e r , From t h i s t a b l e , t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e a r e o b s e r v e d t o be n e a r l y e q u a l l y d i v i d e d b e t ween t h o s e who o b s e r v e C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s and t h o s e who do n o t , .Moreover, t h e t a b l e a l s o shows t h a t t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e t e n d t o o b s e r v e o n l y C h i n e s e Nev/ Y e a r i n most c a s e s , r a t h e r t h a n t h e o t h e r f e s t i v a l s t h a t o c c u r t h r o u g h o u t t h e y e a r , The C h i n a t o w n C h i n e s e on t h e o t h e r hand, a r e l i k e l y t o o b s e r v e s e v e r a l f e s t i v a l s a y e a r , T a b l e 5,13 V a n c o u v e r P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C h i n e s e f e s t i v a l s by t h e C h i n e s e , 1969, F u n c t i o n a l a r e a s f e s t i v l i s . ** C h i n a t o w n 16 »8 F a s t H a s t i n g s 4 ,8' K i t s i l a n o 0 ,8 Dunbar 3 , 2 O a k r i d g e - 3 o K e r r i s d a l e 3 " 27 Shaughnessey ~ F r a s e r v i e w /i ,8 Coaar C o t t a g e 4 ,0 M n r p o l e o .4 TOTai 44 ,0 C h i - s q u a r e £3.51 D, F 3) P e r c e n t a g e P e r c e n t ag e P e r c e r i t a g e p a r t i c i p a t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i n g t h a t do n o t i n most i n C h i n e s e p a r t i c i p a t e New Y e a r o n l y 10,4 3,2 0,8 2,4 1,6 0,0 >17.6 4,0 2,4 2,4 "23.0 8,8 3,2' 0,8 0.8 n 9 O 9 • 0,8 0.8 3,2 2,4 O O 27.2 T 18,4 u0 Mot s i g n i t .leant, a t t h e 0,05 l e v e l , **~ i n c l u d e s C h i n e s e Mew Y e a r and o t h e r m a j o r Chines* f e s t i v a l s . 103-F i n a l l y , one o f t h e q u e s t i o n s i n t h e I n t e r v i e w S c h e d u l e i n c l u d e d a q u e s t i o n r e l a t i n g t o a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s r e t u r -n i n g t o C h i n a . From d a t a c o l l e c t e d , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t a l t h o u g h s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d between t h e two g r o u p s , most i f n o t a l l , w i s h e d o n l y t o ' v i s i t ' C h i n a , I n r e l a t i o n t o t h o s e who s a i d t h a t t h e y wanted t o v i s i t C h i n a , many q u a l i f i e d t h e i r answer by s a y i n g t h a t i t depended on t h e ' p o l i t i c a l ' s i t u a t i o n t h e r e , T h e r e were a l s o some who wanted t o r e t u r n t o C h i n a t o l i v e and work and o t h e r s t o r e t i r e . The l a t t e r r e p l i e s were more o f t e n f r o m t h e o l d e r i m m i g r a n t s and t h e r e t i r e d , The q u e s t i o n however was n o t w e l l worded, as C h i n a c o u l d mean b o t h M a i n l a n d C h i n a and T a i w a n , a l t h o u g h i m p l i c i t l y i t meant M a i n l a n d C h i n a , The a nswers s o u g h t were f o r M a i n l a n d C h i n a and a r e s o r e c o r d e d i n T a b l e 5,14, T a b l e 5,14 V a n c o u v e r ; A t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s r e t u r n i n g t o C h i n a , f o r C h i n a t o w n and S u b u r b a n C h i n e s e Res i d e n t s , 1969, I t e m To l i v e & work To r e t i r e F o r a v i s i t M o t a t a l l D i d n o t answer or r c e n t a g e p e r c e n t a g e C h i n a t o w n o f s u b u r b a n i i n es e C h i n o s e 1.6 1,6 19.2 8.0 2,4 51.2 12,8 0,8 C h i - s q u a r e » 12.47 D.F. = 4 Not s i g -n i f i c a n t a t t h e 0,01 l e v e l , -104-I n c o n c l u s i o n i t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t t h e h y p o t h e s i s p o s t u l a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s c a n be a c c e p t e d f o r most o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n t e r m s o f w h i c h t h e g r o u p s have been examined. These a r e l i s t e d u n d e r d e m o g r a p h i c , r e s i d e n t i a l , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , These f a c t o r s have i n f a c t d e m o n s t r a t e d some o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e C h i n a t o w n and s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e , as t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t s have shown, The China' town C h i n e s e have been shown t o be d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e s u b u r b a n C h i n e s e i n most r e s p e c t s e x c e p t i n g t h o s e v a r i a b l e s m e n t i o n e d e a r l i e r . The C h i n e s e i n t h e s u b u r b s a r e d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y , t h o u g h t h e y have i n g e n e r a l , r e t a i n e d some a s p e c t s o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l l i f e . K i n s h i p t i e s a r e s t i l l s t r o n g among t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , so t o o a r e r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e f a m i l i e s , I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s , t h e s e s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s a r e t h e i m p o r t a n t c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s e x i s t i n g among t h e C h i n e s e community i n t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , - 1 0 5 -F o o t n o t e s , 1 The f o r m u l a f o r t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t i s i n t h e f o r m ; -= «sSEa ( n i = l where 0, i s t h e o b s e r v e d number o f c a s e s i n t h e i t h c e l l 1 i s t h e and, i s t h e e x p e c t e d number o f c a s e s i n t h e i t h c e l l n number o f c e l l s i n t h e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e 2 U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , t h e c o n t i n g e n c y t a b l e s u s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r have been c o n s t r u c t e d f r o m r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l s o known as t h e Sample S u r v e y , 1069 ( 3 3 C C V , 1 9 6 9 j . 3 S i e g e l , S., ( 1 9 5 6 ) , Non-par aiaet r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l Book Co,, i n c . 4 F o r e a s e o f c o m p a r i s o n among t h e r e s p o n s e s f o u n d i n t h e s e t a b l e s , r e s p o n s e s a r e e x p r e s s e d as p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e t o t a l s a m p l e ( 1 2 5 ) , T h i s f a c i l i t a t e s c o m p a r i s o n between d i f f e r e n t t a b l e s . I n t h e c a l c u l a t i o n o f t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e s , however, f r e q u e n c i e s were u s e d t o s a t i s f y t h e a s s u m p t i o n s o f t h e t e s t . T o t a l p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e C h i n a t o w n r e s i d e n t s a c c o u n t s f o r 30,4% and t h e s u b u r b a n r e s i d e n t s a c c o u n t e d f o r 6 9 . 6 % o f t h e t o t a l . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s t a t e d , an a s t e r i k (*) f o l l o w i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e i n d i c a t e s t h e l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e t e s t b e i n g a t cC-0,001, and t h a t t h e c h i - s q u a r e v a l u e i s ' s i g n i f i c a n t , ' 5 DBS, Census o f Canada, 1961, ' P o p u l a t i o n and H o u s i n g C h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , by c e n s u s t r a c t s , V a n c o u v e r , ' C a t a l o g u e Number: 95-537, CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS AND RECAPITULATION, The s t u d y began by o u t l i n i n g t h e importance o f ' e t h n i c s t u d i e s ' i n urban a r e a s , I n p a r t i c u l a r , the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f the Chinese i n t h e c i t y of Vancouver were made t h e f o c u s . The r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f the Chinese were examined w i t h a view t o d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g two groups o f Chinese, t h a t i s , the c e n t r a l - c i t y d w e l l e r s of Chinatown and t h e suburban Chinese, Much of the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n s t r u c t i s d e r i v e d from e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s which have generated both 'general* and ' s p e c i f i c * t h e o r i e s . As v a r i o u s approaches have been employed i n s t u d i e s of t h i s n a t u r e , f o r our purposes an. e c o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h was c h o s e n as b e i n g t h e most r e l e v a n t and rewarding. The growth of Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o Canada was t r a c e d . The reasons f o r m i g r a t i o n and the g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s -t i c s of Chinese i m m i g r a t i o n were d i s c u s s e d , The growth and d e c l i n e of t h e Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i m m i g r a t i o n l e g i s l a t i o n s passed i n t h e Dominion House of Commons and i n t h e P r o v i n c i a l L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly of B r i t i s h Columbia. These help t o e x p l a i n sudden d e c l i n e s and r a p i d growth i n the Chinese p o p u l a t i o n i n Canada, Moet Chinese m i g r a t i n g t o Canada entered B r i t i s h Columbia, The reasons f o r t h i s were t r a c e d t o B r i t i s h ' C o l u m b i a 8 s g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n v . l a - v i s the O r i e n t and economic o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n the went .-107-c o a s t a r e a s o f Canada, p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e C a n a d i a n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y . The g r o w t h o f t h e C h i n e s e community i n t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was examined i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e demands o f l a b o r a t t h a t t i m e . The g r o w t h o f C h i n e s e p o p u l a t -i o n s i n t h e s m a l l towns o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o s t e r e d t h e g r o w t h o f C h i n a t o w n s . The e v o l u t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n was d e a l t w i t h a t l e n g t h . The s t r u g g l e o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n f o r e x i s t -ence a f f e c t e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e i n t h e w h o l e o f t h e c i t y . To d e s c r i b e t h e uneven d i s t r i b u t i o n and p a t t e r n i n g o f C h i n e s e s e t t l e m e n t i n V a n c o u v e r , b o t h t h e p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d 1961 c e n s u s m a t e r i a l were a n a l y s e d . The a n a l y s i s showed t h a t i n 1961, t h e s p a t i a l p a t t e r n i n g o f t h e C h i n e s e was n o d a l find s e c t o r a l i n n a t u r e , and t h a t t h i s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e n a t u r e o f t h e i r p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n s , The demographic f e a t u r e s p o r t r a y e d by t h e C h i n e s e were t y p i c a l o f s u c h i m m i g r a n t g r o u p s , Imbalances i n t h e s e x - r a t i o had a f f e c t e d t h e r e s i d e n t i a l d i s p e r s i o n and r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n o f t h e C h i n e s e , Sample S u r v e y d a t a o f 1969 f u r t h e r e m p h a s i z e d t h e s e a s p e c t s o f r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s . One o f t h e e l e m e n t s i n t h e p a t t e r n s o f r e s i d e n c e s o f t h e C h i n e s e was t r a c e d t o t h e i r i m m i g r a n t n a t u r e . I t was a l s o f o u n d t h a t i m m i g r a n t C h i n e s e i n g e n e r a l r e s i d e d i n o l d e r b u i l d i n g s , t h a t i s , t h o s e b u i l d i n g s t h a t were b u i l t p r i o r t o 1921, w h i l e t h e r e was a t e n d e n c y f o r C a n a d i a n - b o r n C h i n e s e t o r e s i d e i n b u i l d i n g s t h a t were b u i l t s i n c e 1945. T h i s t r e n d i n r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n i n g was t r a c e d t o t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d o f t h e two g r o u p s o f -108-C h i n e s e , S e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s were examined t o s u p p o r t t h i s n o t i o n , among t h e s e were d e m o g r a p h i c , e d u c a t i o n a l and o c c u p a t i o n a l f a c t o r s . I t was h y p o t h e s i s e d t h a t t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s b etween t h o s e C h i n e s e l i v i n g i n C h i n a t o w n and t h o s e l i v i n g i n t h e s u b u r b s , From t h e a n a l y s e s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y t a b l e s , and u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t , i t was f o u n d t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s d i d i n d e e d e x i s t i n t e r m s o f s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s , c l a s s e d a s ; t h e d e m o g r a p h i c , r e s i d e n t i a l , e c o n o m i c and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s , The a r e a s o f s i m i l a r i t y b e t w een t h e two g r o u p s o f C h i n e s e , as was d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r V, c o u l d be subsumed u n d e r t h e g e n e r a l c a t e g o r y o f d e m o g r a p h i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and o p i n i o n s a b o u t t h i s s t u d y . The h y p o t h e s i s was however, g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d as a t e n a b l e p r o p o s i t i o n . The r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s o f t h e C h i n e s e examined i n t h i s t h e s i s w i l l have profound, i m p l i c a t i o n s as t o t h e v i a b i l i t y o f V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n , T h i s i s b e c a u s e f o r a 'Chinatown* t o e x i s t ' f u n c t i o n a l l y ' i t s h o u l d have a s u f f i c i e n t l y l a r g e e t h n i c p o p u l a t i o n b a s e t o s u p p o r t i t ; w i t h o u t t h i s , i t s u n i q u e n e s s , and i n d e e d much o f i t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s w i l l be l o s t i n t h e m a i n s t r e a m o f c i t y g r o w t h and r e n e w a l . What i s needed as a f o l l o w p t o t h i s s t u d y i s p r o b a b l y an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e c h a n g i n g s t a t u s f C h i n a t o w n , i n t e r m s o f i t s c h a n g i n g economic f u n c t i o n and i t s ( d i m i n i s h i n g ) s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s , . The s t u d y has f o c u s s e d on one a s p e c t o f an e t h n i c g r o u p , namely i t s p e c u l i a r i t i e s i n r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , t h o u g h U ' ( o:i 109-f a c t o r s o f a c u l t u r a l n a t u r e have been c o n s i d e r e d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y however o n l y p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o one p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c g r o u p . They may o r may n o t be t h e c a s e i n t e r m s o f o t h e r e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t h e c i t y . A c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d y o f r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n o f e t h n i c g r o u p s i n t h e c i t y i s n eeded, T h e r e i s i n f a c t a need f o r g e o g r a p h e r s t o work i n t h e f i e l d o f t h e r e s i d e n -t i a l s t r u c t u r e o f c i t i e s , and i t s c o n c o m i t a n t p o p u l a t i o n ' c o l o r , ' s i n c e most r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n models have been e c o n o m i c i n n a t u r e , and have o f t e n d i s r e g a r d e d t h i s f a c t o r , No one s t u d y i s c o m p l e t e i n i t s e l f . I t s s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e i s d e p e n d e n t on t h e t r a d i t i o n o f s t u d i e s on w h i c h i t has b e en b u i l t . T h i s work has d e r i v e d much f r o m o t h e r s t u d i e s , and i i s hoped t h a t w i t h i n v e s t i g a t i o n s o f t h i s n a t u r e , t h e e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n o f N o r t h .American c i t i e s , and i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e c i t y o f V a n c o u v e r , wi11 be b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d . APPENDIX I. Canadai C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n , 1881-1951, by p r o v i n c e s . P r o v m c s 881 1891 1901 1911 1921' 1931 " 1941 1951 1961 P r i n c e Edward i s l a n d Ti Nova S c o t i a n New B r u n s w i c k n Quebec 7 O n t a r i o 22 M a n i t o b a 4 Sa s k a t c h e w a n n A l b e r t a n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 4,' 350 Yukon n N o r t h w e s t T e r r i t o r i e s n CANADA 4 * 383 i n c r e a s e / 1 4 6 14 -J 106 134 315 8 59 93 135 36 1,037 1,578 2,335 97 722 2,765 5,525 31 205 885 1,331 n 41 957 1,567 n 235 1,787 3,587 ,910 14,885 19 ,568 23,533 n 7 ' 1 41 ,129 17,312 27*831 39,581 3.06 39.89 60.76 42.21 31 45 35 43 340 322 516 637 -231 134 146 274 2,750 2,140 1,904 4 ,749 6,919 5,4 97 .6,997 15 , J — ' -J 1,732 1,147 1,175 1 ,936 3,501 1,392 2,144 3 ,660 3,875 2,817 3,451 6 ,937 27,319 16,220 15,933 24 ,227 1 3 37 100 186 186 445 46,519 34,627 32,528 58 ,197 17.52 -25.56 -6.06 78.91 n » ro i n f o r r . a t i e r , a v a i l a b l e . , , ^ . . , . S o u r c e ; These s t a t i s t i c s h ave b e e n c o m p i l e d f r o m t h e D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S t a t i s t i c * ; Census of Canada, 1881-1961. - 1 1 1 -APPENDIX I I . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ! C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n c i t i e s and t o w n s , 1885 - 1 9 6 1 , 1 8 8 5 , V i c t o r i a New Westmins • W e l l i n g t o n M,Quesnel C a r i b o o Manaimo 1 , 7 6 7 1 , 6 8 0 506 506 321 168 B u r r a r d I n l e t C a s s i a r Kamloops Savona F e r r y H a r r i s o n R i v e r 114 105 62 55 35 S o u r c e : Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, R e ^ o r ^ o f j b h e a a y a j ^ e o t m n i s s i o n on C h i n e s e i m m i g r a t i o n , 1 8 8 5 , A p p e n d i x C, pp . 3 6 3 - 3 6 6 . 1 9 0 1 , S o u r c e : Y a l e and C a r i b o o 3 , 5 9 6 V i c t o r i a 2 , 7 7 0 B u r r a r d 2 , 7 4 4 V a n c o u v e r I s l d . 2 , 5 4 7 New W e s t m i n s t e r 2,544 o r i ? ° £ 1 , V o l . 1, ' P o p u l a t i o n , ' v1 C *'.DO1 o , J £ , ' N a t i o n a l i t i e s , 3 p.406. 1 9 1 1 , V a n c o u v e r 3,871 R e v e l s t o k e V i c t o r i a 3 , 4 5 8 R o s s l a n d Richmond 730 F e r n i e New W e s t m i n s t r o 609 C h i l l i w a c l a Nanairno 591 P r i n e e R u p e r t C r a n a r o o k 228 G r a n d F o r k s N e l s o n 178 T r a i l L a d y s t n i t h 177 Enderby V e r n o n 162 Greenwood Kamloops 109 K a s l o N o r t h Van, 107 M e r r i t t 104 78 76 68 57 39 28 25 24 17 9 S o u r c e ] 1 9 2 1 , F i f t h Census , o f j : a n a d a 1 _ J 1 ? l l , V o l , 1 , ' P o p u l a t i o n ' Ottawa" Dawson,' T a b l e " V I I , 3 O r i g i n s o f P e o p l e by s u b - d i s t r i c t s , 8 p, J8. V a n c o u v e r 6 , 4 8 4 V i c t o r i a 3 , 6 6 6 Cumberland 1 , 2 5 3 New Wes trai n s t r , 1 , 1 7 1 N o r t h V:-vn.D,H, 669 Manaimo 453 P r i n c e R u p e r t 162 West Van. 190 N,V an. c i t y 184 V e r n o n P o r t C o q u i t l a m Duncan M e r r i t t P o r t A l b e r n i Enderbey A r m s t r o n g F e r n i e Kossland 1 0 7 8 3 73 70 68 68 43 -112-APPENDIX I I , c o n t ' d . Kamioops 173 C h i l l i w a c k 46 N e l s o n 170 T r a i l 44 C r a n b r o o k 150 C o u r t e n a y 31 P r i n c e G e orge 145 K a s l o 25 K e l o w n a 114 Grand F o r k s 23 R e v e l s t o k e 109 Salmon Arm 20 L a d y s m i t h 16 Source: S i x t h Census of Canada, 1921, Vol.. I ' P o p u l a t i o n by A r e a s , 9 Table 27, ' O r i g i n s of People," p.538, Vancouver J L 3 j O i l R e v e l s t o k e 106 V i c t o r i a 3 $ 70 2 T r a i l 102 Cumberland 769 P r i n c e George 77 New Westrainstr, , 599 C h i l l i w a c k 68 Nanaimo 420 M e r r i t t 48 P r i n c e Rupert 390 Quesnel 39 Duncan 337 N , V a n . c i t y 39 Kamioops 329 Salmon Arm 33 Kelowna 3^ fli^ Rossland 33 H i a a i o n O A ^ ~X O Kar^lo 32 Vernon 218 P o r t C o q u i t i a r a 32 P o r t A l b e r n i 217 Courtenay 26 Nelson 175 F e r n i e 25 P o r t Moody 155 Ladysmith 18 Cranbrook 147 E n d e r b y 8 Armstrong 107 * E x c e p t i n g V a n c o u v e r , V i c t o r i a , and New W e s t m i n s t e r , t h i s t a b l e shows both Chinese and Japanese p o p u l a t i o n s , as t h e r e were no s e p a r a t e t a b u l a t i o n s f o r Chinese a l o n e , ource: Dominion Bureau of s t a t i s t i c s , Seventh Census.of f„JI-ff.lA» V o l 9 I I ' P o p u l a t i o n by Areas,* 1 Ottawa" sPatenaude, 1933. Table 33, 5 P o p u l a t i o n C l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p a l o r i g i n ,,»* p p a 4 8 2 -492. Vancouver 7,174 Quesnel 48 V i c t o r i a 3,037 M i s s i o n 41 Richmond 449 N.Van 0 D,M, 40 New ties trains t i r, 400 R o s s i and 37 Nanaimo 298 Vh, Van, 37 Kamioops 281 P r i n c e George 35 Duncan 165 C h i l l i w a c k 30 P r i n c e Rupert 150 Revels coke 23 Port A l b e r n i 137 K a s l o 22 Vernon 112 r> e r r i t t 22 - 1 1 3 -APPENDIX I I , c o n t ' d , S o u r c e : 103 C o u r t e n a y 19 87 F e r n i e 12 71 P o r t C o q u i t l a m 11 66 C u m b e r l a n d 10 64 L a d y s m i t h 9 62 Enderby 7 N e l s o n T r a i l K e l o wna C r a n b r o o k A r m s t r o n g P o r t Moody D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada, 1941, V o l , I , ' P o p u l a t i o n C r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , ' O t t a w a , T a b l e 3 2 , p. 498, P o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p a l o r i g i n , ' 1 951. S o u r c e M.B. Vancouver ' New westminstr. T r a i l P e n t i c t o n N.Van, c i t y :,729 2 3 5 9 5 3 3 18 Dominion B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census..of Canada, 1 9 51, V o l , I , 8 P o p u l a t i o n c r o s s - c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , * O t t a w a , T able 3 5 , ' P o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p a l o r i g i n There were no s e p a r a t e t a b u l a t i o n s a v a i i a b j and towns w i t h l e s s t h a n 10,000 p o p u l a t i o n Columbia, 1 9 5 1 , e f o r c i t i e s i n B r i t i s h Vancouver 15, 2 2 3 D e l t a 1 1 1 V i c t o r i a 2, 1 3 7 Vi , V a n o D, M o 1 0 0 Burnaby 7 6 5 Quesnel 0 5 * S ci a n x c h 4 9 1 A s h c r o f t 8 0 * R i ehraond 2 9 8 M,van.D.M. 6 9 P o r t A l b e r x i i 2 8 6 T r a i l 6 9 S u if r ey 2 7 3 Dawson Creek 6 5 P r i n c e Rupert 2 5 4 Mapls R i d g e 6 2 New W e s t m i n s t r . 2 4 7 Kelowna 4 3 Nanairao 2 4 0 M.Van, c i t y 3 9 Nelson 2 3 0 * Peace R i v e r 27 Duncan 2 0 0 * P e n t i c t o n 24 P r i n c e George 1 9 6 C h i l l i w a c k 20 Kamloops 1 9 1 Esquimalt 20 Vernon 1 4 5 Langley Port Coqui11am 1 3 3 Oak Bay 1 1 5 Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Census of C3.nada.jl£ 6 J l , S e r i e s 1 , 2 - 5 , ' P o p u l a t i o n - E t h n i c Groups' Table 35, D , 38,1 Es t i m a t e s by W i l l m o t t , (1969) , p,28„ TI m m > o o > 8 c is f 7 o c ft) Ul o m o 70 o < > D C o z > m m D X) o > z z m a x m > m > - — laygi o c a. t t» /•••• •.' y..W... > 1  > r- |x,,o:. x k - » . m m TI m cn — i m m TJ m z o m cn —i m m Chinese Newspa. X Chinese Newspa. r -> > > > O x > > m in-.-;: > > > > i — > > :«/>. jV'-: r- cn > 1- | x COLUMBIA </>•:'•. r ~ •m: > r -mm W;:¥: > O > f>:V > > t > C5r'.:>:::: > > |> > 1 r -$m > <n > c c City Market Public Library > CO z o cn cn —i m m MAIN STREET ri*> Sal fsS|w*A:r:HJ> M&iM -115-APPENDIX I V . THE SAMPLE AMD QUESTIONNAIRE; RATIONALE, METHODS AND FIELD INVESTIGATION. The Sample. S i n c e p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d c e n s u s m a t e r i a l do n o t c o n t a i n d a t a r e q u i r e d f o r t h i s t y p e o f s t u d y , i t 'was f e l t t h a t t h e most e f f e c t i v e means o f a c h i e v i n g t h i s end was t h r o u g h a s a m p l e s u r v e y w i t h a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , The quest i o n n a i r e i s one o f t h e more u b i q u i t u o u s f e a t u r e s o f e m p i r i c a l s o c i a l s c i e n c e r e s e a r c h and r e m a i n s one o f t h e b e t t e r t e c h n i q u e s i n c u r r e n t u s e . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e u s e d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y i s i n c l u d e d as A p p e n d i x V b e l o w . R a t i o n a l e . I n o r d e r t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n V a n c o u v e r , i t would have b e e n i d e a l i f one c o u l d examine e v e r y e l e m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n . , T h i s however i s q u i t e i m p r a c t i c a l . F i r s t l y , i t i s l i t e r a l l y i m p o s s i b l e t o examine e v e r y e l e m e n t o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e way i n w h i c h t h e y a r e d i s t r i b u t e d i n t i m e and s p a c e . N u m e r i c a l l y t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n t o t a l some 15,223 p e r s o n s i n V a n c o u v e r i n 1961, T h i s ' i s too l a r g e a p o p u l a t i o n t o work w i t h . S e c o n d l y , i f 'and when a l l t h e e l e m e n t s o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n a r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s b l a n k e t c o v e r a g e , t h e d a t a s o c o l l e c t e d would be t o o numerous t h a t t h e t i m e and e x p e nse i n v o l v e d , i n t a b u l a t i n g and a n a l y s i n g t h e d a t a would n o t j u s t i f y t h e end r e s u l t s . To c i r c u m v e n t s u c h p r o b l e m s , t h e u s e o f a sample- o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s u s u a l l y s u g g e s t e d , The main c r i t e r i a o f t h e s a m p l e i s t h a t i t s h o u l d a c c u r a t e l y p o r t r a y t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s -116-o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , and a t t h e same t i m e be s m a l l enough t o be e a s i l y h a n d l e d . K i n g o b s e r v e s t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e s i z e o f a s a m p l e i n g e o g r a p h i c a l l i t e r a t u r e i s non-existent-*-• F o r t h e most p a r t , K i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t o n l y r o u g h * r u l e s - o f - t h u m b 4 be u s e d f o r example 10 o r 2 0 % o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n t o be s t u d i e d . U s i n g t h i s •••rule-of-thumb* method t h e s e p e r c e n t a g e s when t r a n s l -a t e d f o r t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n w o u l d amount t o 1,522 and 3,044 p e r s o n s r e s p e c t i v e l y . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s i z e and i n v i e w o f p r a c t -i c a l i t y a l o n e , t h e s a m p l e s i z e o f t h e C h i n e s e t o be s t u d i e d , a c c o r d i n g to this a r b i t r a r y r u l e of thumb, i s u n t e n a b l e . Thus t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f the s i z e o f s a m p l e i s very i m p o r t a n t . Too s m a l l a s a m p l e does n o t c o n t r i b u t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y to g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a b o u t t h e p o p u l a t i o n s a m p l e d . On t h e o t h e r hand, t o o l a r g e a s a m p l e w o u l d r e s u l t i n an o v e r - a b u n d a n c e of d a t a t h a n i s w a r r a n t e d by i t s l i k e l y u s e s . The aim t h e r e f o r e i s f i r s t l y to o b t a i n an ' u n b i a s e d ' s a m p l e i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e a v e r a g e o r e s t i m a t e d v a l u e o f an e l e m e n t i s n e a r l y e q u a l to t h e same c l e m e n t o f the p o p u l a t i o n . S e c o n d l y , to o b t a i n a s a m p l e w h i c h i s " p r e c i s e 8 and * a c c u r a t e , * I n a s t a t i s t i c a l s e n s e , t o be ' p r e c i s e ' i s t o have s a m p l e s w i t h l o w s t a n d a r d e r r o r s , w h i l e ' a c c u r a t e ' s a m ples p e r t a i n t o l o w t o t a l e r r o r s , i n c l u d i n g u n l i k e l b i a s e s , n o n - s a a i p l x n g e r r o r s and s a m p l i n g v a r i a b i l i t y " . F i n a l l y , •to o b t a i n a s m a l l s a m p l e t h a t c a n be. e a s i l y h a n d l e d , y e t hod. ' The d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e f o r t h i s s t u d y f o l l o w e d t h e f o l l o w i n g e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d f o r m u l a s--117-d where N i s t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e t o be o b t a i n e d ( t ) 2 i s t h e d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y t h a t i s d e s i r e d cT i s t h e v a r i a n c e a r o u n d t h e mean, and d^ i s t h e p r e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d . The d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y ( t ) i s s e t a t a s p e c i f i e d l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e , i n t h i s c a s e t h e 95% l e v e l f r o m a t w o - t a i l e d t - - t e s t , f o r g i v e n d e g r e e s o f f r e e d o m {n-l)» The p r e c i s i o n r e q u i r e d ch" i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y + 10% v a r i a b i l i t y a r o u n d t h e mean. The p a r a -m e t e r s o r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n h a v e been e s t i m a t e d f r o m a p i l o t s t u d y , c a r r i e d o u t by the, w r i t e r . I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y t h e s i z e o f t h e random s a m p l e , drawn f r o m a p o p u l a t i o n o f C h i n e s e s t u d e n t s was n » 3 5 . T h i s p i l o t s t u d y i n e f f e c t was u s e d t o t e s t a p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h a t was l a t e r m o d i f i e d . and u s e d i n t h i s s t u d y . The v a l u e o f t h e mean (x) o f t h e l e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e s a m p l e was f o u n d t o be 8,7 y e a r s . The s a m p l e s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n ' ( c r ) was 5 . 2 and t h e v a r i a n c e (o~ 2) 2 5 . 7 . U s i n g t h e s e p a r a m e t e r s t h e s i z e o f t h e s a m p l e d e t e r -3 mxnod f o r t h i s s t u d y was N«130 households'- * I n o t h e r w ords, some 130 h o u s e h o l d s had t o be i n t e r v i e w e d b e f o r e any ' v a l i d * g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s c o u l d be made o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n * V a l i d -i t y h e r e c o n n o t e s t h e c l o s e a p p r o x i n a t i o n o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n ' s cha r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n t e r v i e w s and Q u e s f c i o n n a i r e . Some 251 h o u s e h o l d s were s e l e c t e d by a random s y s t e m -a t i c sample f r o m t h e V a n c o u v e r Chir'ose c ifcy D i r e c t o r y , 1966, T h i s D i r e c t o r y p r o v i d e d a l i s t i n g o f a l l C h i n e s e p e r s o n s o v e r - 1 1 8 -t h e age o f 21 (namely heads o f h o u s e h o l d s ) l i v i n g i n t h e M e t r o -p o l i t a n Area o f V a n c o u v e r . From p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s and c h e c k s , i t can be s a i d t h a t t h i s D i r e c t o r y g i v e s a r e a s o n a b l e and a c c u r a t e c o v e r a g e o f t h e C h i n e s e i n V a n c o u v e r , The D i r e c t o r y i n a d d i t i o n , p r o v i d e d i n f o r m a t i o n p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e h o u s e a d d r e s s , o c c u p a t i o n and phone number ( i f any) o f t h e p e r s o n s l i s t e d . S i n c e t h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the c i t y of V a n c o u v e r , p e r s o n s l i v i n g i n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Area of V a n c o u v e r were e x c l u d e d , T h i s s a m p l e r e p r e s e n t e d about 1*67% o f t h e C h i n e s e p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c i t y . The l a r g e number s e l e c t e d was t o i n s u l a t e a g a i n s t non-r e p l i e s and r e f u s a l s . F i e l d work was c a r r i e d o u t between t h e months o f J u n e and S eptember, 1969, The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e s u mmarizes t h e r e p l i e s o f t h e Sample S u r v e y , 1969 , Sample s i z e = 254 P e r s on a 1. i n t e r v i ews c o mp 1 e t e d - 114 M a i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c o m p l e t e d ~ 35 S p o i l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s N o n - r e s p o n s e s and non-c o n t a c t s 105, s 26 U s e a b l e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s 125 Footnotes„ 1 K i ng, L,J«, (1°69), wood.. C l i f see? K i s h , L,, (1965) o r i s , , I n c , pp* 25-26, l o u g h w o r k i n g o f t h e f o r m u l a t - N » ( t ) c r 2 - 1.95 , 5 . 1 * = 130, -119-APPENDIX V, The I n t e r v i e w Schedule ( Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) , TUDY OF VANCOUVER'S CHINESE COMMUNITY, The Chinese community i s an important p a r t of Vancou-v e r ' s c u l t u r e . In o r d e r t o know more about the Chinese here, I am c a r r y i n g out a study of aspects of t h e i r way of l i f e , I am a s k i n g your help i n c a r r y i n g out t h i s study by f i l l i n g i n t h i s Q u e s t i on-n a i r e , Your name has been s e l e c t e d randomnly from the Vancouver Chinese C i t y D i r e c t o r y , However your name does not. appear on the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and so a l l responses are anonymous, 0-; course a l l the i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d by me w i l l be t r e a t e d i n s t r i c t c o n f i d -ence and w i l l be used f o r no oth e r purpose than my own r e s e a r c h , I am a Graduate student i n the Department of Geography at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, George Clio Chin Huat T e l t 228-2663 A. Language, 1, What Chinese d i a l e c t ( s ) (Cantonese, Fukien e t c . ) do you speak? ( L i s t ) J Row w e l l do you speak 3, How w e l l do you speak Mandarin? ( T i c k one) E n g l i s h ? ( T i c k one) » o a « !? 3 9 9 •D $ 9 ft) « £ 3 i* F l u e n t l y ,,,, F l u e n t l y '. /i)x X © * « © y-jsll Q u i te Wail ,,,, Quite Well ¥ourly «•., P o o r l y Wot a t a i l • , ,, 4, Do you read and w r i t e any Mandarin? YES / NO 5, In which language ware you taught at School? a, E n g l i s h o n l y , b, E n g l i s h £< Chinese, c, Chinese o n l y , d. Otherj 6, Number of years i n schools y e a r s . Elementary years C i t y . Language "'"of Secondary _____ " " i n s t r u c -t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y " " - 1 2 0 -7. Do you want your c h i l d r e n t o speak a Chinese d i a l e c t : YES / NO read Mandarin : YES / NO h. C u i t u r a l F a c t o r s . 1. Do you s t i l l observe Chinese f e s t i v a l s ? YES / N O Which ones? 2, Do you belong t o and support any 'Benevolent' S o c i e t i e s ' 3 . Do you cook and eat Chinese food? ( T i c k one) 8, • * ft • * > » • » » 9 V 4 S 3 s> * e Always Often Sometimes Very r a r e l y Never b. Do you v i s i t Vancouver's Chinatown? ( T i c k one) Once a week & more ..». Once or t w i c e a month, ., , . Once every 2-3 months,,,,, Less than the above ,,,, 4, Do you use c h o p s t i c k s f o r your meals at home? YES / NO 7, What i s your r e l i g i o u s a f f etc?) 6. Do you v i s i t Chinatown t o (T i ck f a c t o rs) Buy G r o c e r i e s »,,, Buy Chinese herbs .,,, V i s i t f r i e n d s & r e l a t i v e s , , .. Consu.11 prof e s s i o n a 1 s (Doctors, lawyers) ,»,, Consult *s.inseh's* (Chinese doctor) ,,,, Ot tlGJET* ! J J » 9 it .3 * « fl 3 # 9 » » ) » • i l l a t i o n ? ( C h r i s t i a n , Bhuddist » 9 * ^ # * < » a ****** Do you t h i n k t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n of V a n c o u v e r ' s C h i n a t o w n i s important f o r ? t h e Chinese community ; YES / NO the C i t y ; YES / NO 0, Co you read l o c a l Chinese Newspapers? YES / NO Do you read o v e r s e a s Chinese Newspapers? YES / NO j 1 10, Would you l i k e to r e t u r n to China s (a) to l i v e and work, (b) to r e t i r e , (c) f o r a v i s i t , and (d) not at a l l ? -121 C. R e s i d e n t i a l H i s t o r y : 1. I s your p r e s e n t home: a . Own house . . . . b , Rented h o u s e , , 'c. r e n t e d apartment ... d, rooming house ... , e , Other , , , 2. How l o n g have you l i v e d i n y o u r p r e s e n t home? . , , y r s . . . m o 3 . P l e a s e w r i t e down y o u r l a s t two home a d d r e s s e s and t h e l e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e t h e r e , a . L a s t a d d r e s s ; , , . . b l o c k & s t r e e t . . . . . . . . c i L e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n y e a r s b . L a s t - b u t - o n e a d d r e s s ; b l o c k & s t r e e t , c i t y , L e n g t h o f r e s i d e n c e i n y e a r s 4. Why d i d you d e c i d e t o move t o your p r e s e n t home? a . Near work e. Wanted b e t t e r a r e a b . Low r e n t , , . . f . Wanted more space . . • . c . Tool? over f rom g . Other ( s p e c i f y ) d . C h i n e s e o r i e n t a t i o n o f the a r e a , , , . D. P e r s o n a l and F a m i l y H i s t o r y ' t . 1 , Where were you b o r n : »...,,,.,.., ( p l a c e ) and dates 2, I f b o r n o u t s i d e Canada when d i d you m i g r a t e t o Canada? (year) . . . . « 9 a » 9 I f b o r n i n Canada when d i d your a n c e s t o r s m i g r a t e t o N o r t h America? (year) Are you m a r r i e d ? YES / NO I f so i s your spouse a l s o Chinese? YES / NO I f m a r r i e d , how many c h i l d r e n do you have': •» * <> -i * * * 0 5, Any b o a r d e r s o r t e n a n t s l i v i n g w i t h t h e f a m i l y ? YES / NO I f yes g i v e number 6 . A r e any of t h e b o a r d e r s r e l a t e d t o you? YES / NO Work and S o c i a l F a c t o r s : 1 , A r e you: Employer , , , , S t u d e n t Employee . . . . Unemployed Cwn Account (no Ret ired employees) , , , , 4 9 4 4 -122-2. What i s y o u r t y p e o f o c c u p a t i o n ? ............ . 3. Where i s y o u r p l a c e o f work? ( b l o c k ) ( s t r e e t ) ( c i t y ) 4. A r e y o u r e l a t e d t o y o u r E m p l o y e r / E m p l o y e e s ? YES / NO 5. Have you changed y o u r o c c u p a t i o n i n t h e l a s t two y e a r s ? P r e v i o u s o c c u p a t i o n ; Type , . , . . L o c a t i o n ,....». .....,.>>.<> 6. P l e a s e c_ircle c a t e g o r y o f Incomes a. L e s s t h a n $2,500 p . a . b, $2,500 - $5,000 p,a. c, $5,000 - $10,000 p . a . d. $10,000 and o v e r p . a , Would you l i k e t o make any o t h e r comments on t h i s Q u e s t i o n n a i r e o r on t h i s p r o b l e m ? SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY I . UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL. ( i ) O f f i c i a l ; Canada, D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , U n p u b l i s h e d 1961 Census i l ^ ^ i S i ' ( C e nsus T r a c t Series')', ( p e r s o n a l communTc-a t i o n ) . A l s o known as DBSUCM, 1961. ( i i ) u b h e r : A n d r a c k i , 3 , , ( 1 9 5 8 ) , "The I m m i g r a t i o n o f O r i e n t a l s i n t o Canada, w i t h s p e c i a l r e f e r e n c e t o t h e C h i n e s e , * u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. t h e s i s , M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y , M o n t r e a l , Canada. S h a p i r o , H.S,, ( 1 9 6 9 ) , 'The Impact o f t h e G e o g r a p h i c D i s p e r s a l o f D i s p l a c e d H o u s e h o l d s i n U r b a n Renewal Programs t V a n c o u v e r , a Case Study,* U n p u b l i s h e d M.A, t h e s i s , S c h o o l o f Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, h'alhouse, F., ( 1 9 6 1 ) , ' M i n o r i t y E t h n i c Groups i n V a n c o u v e r , ' U n p u b l i s h e d H,A, t h e s i s , D epartment o f Geography, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Canada, I I . PUBLISHED MATERIAL. L'l ). . . O f f i c i a l p u b l i c a t i o n s ; C ••••"'•xda, D o m i n i o n Bureau- o f S t a t i s t i c s , The Canada Yeayboo3t, 1901-1961. "~ ' ' "~ ' " """"" ' ' D o m i n i o n B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s , Census o f Canada^ 1881-1961. — ~ , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, O f f i c i a l ^ R e p o r t s o f D e b a t e s , 1878 - 1947, Ot t a w a , ~* — . f p a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l s , n 1 8 7 8 - 1 9 4 7 , Ottawa, — , P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1885-1947, Ottawa, — , Government, R e p o r t _of_ the _Roy a 1.. Commi s s i o n _on jChinesye .1 r S :^,grat 'u:-nf 1885 , 0f tawa. " " — — » Co re r ' e r e n t , j j ~ j > i r t o: t h o • R o y u l (,-Q™':^.flf^'i?r' °,n ^ C h i n o s e and uaeaneae A e s i i g r ation» 1901, Ottawa, -124-Canada, Government, R e p o r t o f t h e R o y a l Commission A p p o i n t e d to I n v e s t i g a t e t h e Method by w h i c h O r i e n t a l Laborers ^§jY^-^.!eJS^.?.lI^S^B£§§- J.5.^g?^££S§^A?.„,jr^0§» O t t a w a . — , Government, S p e c i a l Committee on O r i e n t a l s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; R e p o r t and Recommendations,. 1940, O t t a w a , 9 Government, S e n a t e s O f f i c i a 1 R e p o r t o f Debates A 1 8 8 5 -1957, O t t a w a . ' ' . , Government, S e n a t e s O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l s , 1885-1957, Ottawa* Government, Statutes of Canada, 1885 - 1957, O t t a w a , B r i t i s h Columbia, Government, L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , O f f i c i a l J o u r n a l s , 1885-1961, V i c t o r i a , .„..— , Government, L e g i s l a t i v e A s s e m b l y , S e s s i o n a l P a p e r s , 1885-1961, V i c t o r i a , — „ — — , Government,statutes of B r i t i s h Columbia, 3.875-1961, V i c t o r i a . ( i i ) Boo?iSy p e r i o d i c a l s , and a r t i c l e s . B e l l s , L, I , , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , M s t r o p o l i t a n _ V a n c o u v e r % &<},S"l^Pf S o c i a l P l a n n e r s , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i Co'asmunity Chest. t o s h e r , J.M., (1962)', U r l > a n _ S o c i a l _ 3 t r u c t u r e , New Y o r k , The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , i n c . Boggs, T.U., ( 1 9 2 6 ) , " O r i e n t a l P e n e t r a t i o n and B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l iFpruwn K o v i e y , V o l . l , No, 3 , pp. 9-11. C o s k o f f , A., ( 1 9 6 2 ) , The Sociology o f Urba n R e g i o n s , New Y o r k ; Appleton-Cenfcury-crof t s , Chang, s-D., ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 'The D i s t r i b u t i o n and O c c u p a t i o n s of O v e r s e a s Chinese, ' G e o g r a p h i c a l a o v i w , v o l . 58 No. 1, pp.89-107, Cheng, T.,J'\, ( 1 9 3 1 ) , C j e j ^ i i 1 I K _ . U A — i pp. Lw _Canada, -Shanghai, Chinas The C O M < c x a l ij>-e. i .„u ,, Co r b e t I;, D.C., ( 1 9 5 7 ) , Canada* s_ l m m % r a t i o n P o l i c y ? A c r i t i q u e T o r o n t o , Canada; The U n i v e r s i t y ore T o r o n t o P r e s s , C o u g h l i n , S . J . , (1955), 'The C h i n e s e i n Bangkok j A C o m m e r c i a l . O r i e n t e d M i n o r i t y . * Amer.i can S o - c i o i o g i c a l J_^_yiow, V o l , 20, pp. 311-316. ' " ~ '"'*"" * -125-C r o x t o n , F . E , , ( 1 9 5 9 ) , Elementary S t a t i s t i c s with Applications in_Medical and B i o l o g i c a l Sciences, New Y o r k } Dover P i r o l I c a T t i o n s , I n c . Freedman, M•, ( 1 9 5 7 ) , C h i n e s e F a m i l y and Marriage, in;_Sing_a^c_re, London i H.1US, 0, Gibbon, J.M., ( 1 9 3 8 ) , Canadi a n_Mgsaic i The Making o f a N o r t h e r n N a t i o n , T o r o n t o ; MacLelian and S t e w a r t L t d , Glazer, N. and M o n y i h a n , D.P,, ( 1 9 6 7 ) , Beyond the M e l t i n g Pot, C a m b r i d g e , M a s s a c h u s e t t e s j The M.I.T, P r e s s , Kaye, B,, ( i 9 6 0 ) . Upper Hankin Street» A S o c i o l o g i c a l S t u d y of C h i a e s e H o u s e h o l d s ' L i v i n g i n a D e n s e l y p o p u l a t e d A r e a , Singapore.- The U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a Press, Kung, S,W., (1962) ,• C h i n e s e in American L i f e , Seattle, Washing-ton! The U n i v e r s i t y o f W a s h i n g t o n P r e s s , L e e , R.H., ( 1 9 5 1 ) , 'The D e c l i n e o f C h i n a t o w n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , * i n Rose, A.M. (ed,) Race P r e j u d i c e and ItLCtlO -*-? Y o r K j A l f r e d A 4 F.nopfT'pp. l^S'-ieO, — , ( 1 9 5 0 ) , The C h i n e s e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , Hong Ko n g i The U n i v e r s i t y of Hong Kong P r e s s , Lieberson, S., ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 9 Impact o f R e s i d e n t i a l S e g r e g a t i o n on - E t h n i c A s s i m i l a t i o n , 9 S o c i a l F o r c e s , V o l . 4 0 , pp,52-57, MacDonald, D., ( 1 9 6 9 ) , * C h i n a t o w n , ' V a n c o u v e r L i f e , V o l . 4 N o . l V pp,24-29. M a c l n n t - 3 , T., ( 1 9 2 7 ) , O r i e n t a l Occupation o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i Sun P u b l i c a t i o n s C o , L t d . M c E - i t i r e , D., ( 1 9 6 0 ) , Race and R e s i d e n c e , B e r k e l e y , C a l i f o r n i a ! The U n i v e r s i t y * o f C a l i f o r n i a " P r e s s . M c N a i r , H.F., ( 1 9 2 4 ) , The C h i n e s e A b r o a d t T h e i r P o s i t i o n and P r o t o p t i o n . A S t u d y i n I n t e r n a t i . o n a l Jtaw__ a r\6_ j a o i a t -h e n g h a i , C h i n a « The C o m m e r c i a l . P r e s s , L t d , Horoney, M».J., (1958) F a c t s f r o m F i g u r e s , P e l i c a n B o o k s , London,' Wm,Clowes and S o n s , M o r r i l l , U.L., ( 1 9 6 5 ) , 'The Negro G h e t t o : P r o b l e m s and A l t e r n a t -i v e s , ' G e o g r a p h i c a l Rev f ow, V o l ,55, pp, 3 39-361, Murohey, P., (1951) , * B O G t o n ' s C h i n a t o w n , * t'wgnore c Geography, V o l . 20, pp, 244-255, " -126-P o r t e r , J . , ( 1 9 6 5 ) , The V e r t i c a l _ I-los a i c, T o r o n t o ! The U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s . Quan L i n , ( 1 9 5 8 ) , ' E a r l y C h i n e s e S e t t l e r s , 8 C h i n a t o w n News, V o l , 5 v Nos. 17-23, V a n c o u v e r . Sandhu, K.S., ( 1 9 6 1 ) , ' C h i n e s e C o l o n i z a t i o n o f M a l a c c a ; A S t u d y i n ' P o p u l a t i o n Change; 1500 - 1957 A,D.,' J o u r n a l o f T r o p i c a l Geography, V o l . 15 ( J u n e ) , pp. 1-26. S i eg e l , S,, ( 1 9 5 6 ) , N o n - p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s f o r t h e B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s , New Y o r k , McGraw H i l l Book Co. I n c . Simmons, J.W., ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 9 C h a n g i n g R e s i d e n c e i n t h e C i t y : A R e v i e w o f I n t r a u r b a n M o b i l i t y , ' G e o g r a p h i c a l Review, V o l , 58 pp, 622-551. S k i n n e r , W.G., ( 1 9 5 8 ) , 'The C h i n e s e i n J a v a , 1 i n F r i e d , M», (ed,) C o l l o q u i u m on O v e r s e a s C h i n e s e , New Y o r k , I n s t i t u t e of" P a c i f i c " R e f l a t i o n s , pp, I - 10. S p e a r i n g , D.N., ( 1 9 6 9 ) , • C h i n a t o w n - V a n c o u v e r • s H e r i t a g e , ' Plytwood ^ W o r l d , V o l , 9 No. 1, pp.4-7. Sung, B.L,, ( 1 9 6 7 ) , K o u n t a i n .pf G o l d ; The S t o r y o f t h e C h i n e s e i n A m e r i c a , New Y o r k , M a c M i l l a n and Co. Th e o r d o s e n , G.A., (ed) ( 1 9 6 1 ) , S t u d i e s i n Human E c o l o g y , S v a n s t o n I l l i n o i s , Row, P e t e r s o n and Co, T i e n J,K., ( 1 9 5 3 ) , The C h i n e s e i n Sarawak, A Study., o f . S o c i a l S t t r u c t u r o * London; L,S,E, Monographs on S o c i a l A n t h r o -p o l o g y , No, 12, Va n c o u v e r C h i n e s e C i t y D i r e c t o r y ; , 1965, V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , The" C h i n e s e P u b l i c i t y B u r e a u L t d 9 V o l . 37, W i l l m o t t , W,E,, ( 1 9 6 4 ) , ' C h i n e s e C l a n A s s o c i a t i o n s i n V a n c o u v e r , Han, V o l . LI-CIV, No, 49 ( M a r c h - A p r i l ) pp. 33-37. ... j ( 1 9 6 8 ) , 'Some A s p e c t s o f C h i n e s e Communities i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a t o w n s , 9 }hS~j^^J±2S,> N o ' 1 ( W i n t e r ) pp, 27 - 36. Y i p , Q, , ( 1 9 3 6 ) , Vancouver..Chinatown, A s p e c i a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r Vancouv e r Ms G o l d e n J u b i l e e , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h Colum-b i a , P a c i f i c P r i n t e r s L t d , , 43 pp. i l l u s . 

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