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Acadia Camp -- a study of the Acadia Camp Residence at the University of British Columbia from September,… Thomasson, Augusta Margaret 1951

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ACADIA CAMP A study of the Acadia Camp Residence at the University of British Columbia from September, 1945 to May, 1949  by Augusta Margaret Thomasson  Thesis submitted i n Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK in the School of Social Work  1951 University of British Columbia  ABSTRACT  ACADIA  CAMP  A Study o f a Mixed Student-Residence  a t U n i v e r s i t y o f B.C.  In 1945 the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia set up a number o f temporary r e s i d e n t i a l areas f o r the students who f l o c k e d to the U n i v e r s i t y a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e war. A c a d i a , t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e , i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because i t housed b o t h men and women r e s i d e n t s , because i t a c q u i r e d some o f t h e elements o f a r e s i d e n t i a l community, and because i t v/as c l o s e t o t h e main campus. A c c o r d i n g l y , an" a n a l y t i c a l study h a s been made o f t h e f i r s t f o u r y e a r s o f i t s developments T h r e e main sources o f m a t e r i a l were u t i l i z e d : ( l ) P e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s w i t h t h e students l i v i n g a t A c a d i a i n v a r i o u s years,, ( 2 ) The minutes o f t h e Student C o u n c i l meetings, ( 3 ) Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s on t h e p r o s and cons o f r e s i d e n t i a l c o n d i t i o n s , student a c t i v i t i e s , e t c . , f i l l e d i n by 2^4 s t u d e n t s ( ? 0 p e r cent o f t h e t o t a l o f 2 9 2 men and 8 8 women r e s i d e n t i n 1948). The study d e s c r i b e s t h e p h y s i c a l f e a t u r e s and development c f t h e a r e a from t h e o r i g i n a l army "camp"; t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e student r e s i d e n t s ; student p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n campus a c t i v i t i e s ; t h e f u n c t i o n i r s g o f the A c a d i a C o u n c i l , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems o f a student r e s i d e n c e as e x e m p l i f i e d b y t h i s experiment. The i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t ( a ) t h e p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s were s e v e r e l y l i m i t e d , b u t a c c e p t e d c h e e r f u l l y b y most r e s i d ents; (b) a m a j o r i t y o f student welcomed and b e n e f i t t e d from t h e communi t y a s p e c t s o f A c a d i a ; ( c ) o n l y minimum s u p e r v i s i o n i s c a l l e d f o r , and a good d e a l o f self-government c a n be developed» b u t (d) i t i s important t h a t l i n e s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y be c l e a r l y drawn. The "cottage t y p e " o f student accommodation and non-segrega t i o n o f men and women s t u d e n t s , b o t h g a i n e d heavy v o t e s from t h e A c a d i a s t u d e n t s , among t h e p r e f e r e n c e s suggested to them f o r a f u t u r e permanent type o f r e s i d e n c e .  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  I wish to acknowledge great indebtedness to Dr. L.C. Marsh, of the School of Social Work who gave generously of his time and professional advice during the preparation of this study.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter 1, A New Residential Area The post-war problem of housing students at the University of British Columbia. The method employed by the university to solve the housing problem. The origin of a new residential area. Chapter 2.  Acadiat  The Physical Setting  The camp as i t was at the beginningj the changes brought about during the course of four years. The accommodation and services supplied at Acadia. Chapter 5« The Student Residents Students backgrounds} their activities and social l i f e . Chapter 4.  Administration and Student Government  The university administration of the camp and the students opinions regarding the administration.. Student organization: the work and lessons of the Acadia Camp Council. Chapter 5«  Student Viewpoints  Features favoured by the students; advantages and handicaps of living at Acadia. Chapter 6. Lessons for Student Residence The verdict of expressed preferencesj things to avoid i n future residences. Need for improved administration.  TABLES AND CHARTS IN THE TEXT (a) Tables  Page  Table 1.  Furnishings Found Lacking  11  Table 2.  Age and Service Background of Residents  21  Table 5.  Location of Homes  22  Table 4.  Place of Study  25  Table 5.  Social Life at. Acadia  24  Table 6.  Hours Employed  28  Page Types of Work  29  Amounts Spent i n Excess of Grants  50  Worst Features at Acadia  48  Table 10.,  Best Features at Acadia  49  Table 11.  Sources to Which Students Referred Their Complaints  51  Table 12,  Student Opinion Re Camp Conditions  52  Table 15.  Student Government  54  Table l 4 .  Residential Preferences  55  Table  7.  Table 8. Table  9.  (b) Charts Figure 1,  Suggested Administrative Set-up  6l  1.  CHAPTER I A NEW RESIDENTIAL AREA Few fieldsof activity have not been affected- by the war.  Full  employment and high wages broadened the experience of working men and women so that at the war's end there was what amountedto a mass movement into new jobs.  The individual now f e l t able to plan his future and  many civilians and men and women from the forces decided that what .they wanted was a higher education that would f i t them for better jobs; perhaps this decision was influenced by bitter experiences of "the depression that immediately preceded the war.  The Government - who  was.  in any case responsible for the re-establishment of veterans i n c i v i l l i f e - approvedof this wish for increased education and money grantswere accordingly made to suitably qualified applicants. So i t happened that the increased wage earnings i n c i v i l i a n l i f e and the grants to veterans caused a large and sudden increase i n the number-of students wishing to enter the Universities. Need for Housing As one would expect with the rise i n earnings and the increase in security, standards of living were raised.  Housing, plentiful during  the depression years, became very scarce as every family that could got i t s e l f a home of i t s own.  People flocked to large centres and the, problem  of finding housing accommodation for the increased number of students: became acute even i n the universities where there:were residences on the campus. At,U.B.C. i t had been the practice for a l l out-of-town students  2 to board i n homes but after the war, i n addition to the housing shortage, i t was found that householders often refused to take i n students as boarders because i t was more convenient for them to rent their extra rooms to people who wanted no services. Students were admitted to Canadian Universities i n such numbers that the universities could provide neither adequate-housing nor class-room f a c i l i t i e s for them. The entire higher education programme needed to be expanded i f i t was even to begin to cope with the problem. The d i f f i c u l t i e s were so great that the universities appealed to their, provincial governments for help and, when these could not do a l l that was needed, to the Dominion Government. _ At the University of British Columbia the problems of housing ; and of class-room space were acute.  The question of providing student  residences on the campus had been discussed for many years but, owing to lack of funds, had been allowed to drop so when i t became evident that accommodation i n approved homes was going to be entirely inadequate, there was no other housing accommodation to f a l l back on.  As the university  policy was to admit a l l qualified students who wished to enter and as large numbers of these men and women were veterans who, under the reestablishment schemes, were entitled to a month of education for each month spent i n the services, i t seemed logical to call on the Department of Veterans' Affairs for assistance. The President of the University appealed to the Provincial Government andproposed that army huts should be taken over for living quarters as well as for class-rooms and laboratories.  Premier Hart  announced,on July 21, 19^5* that the British Columbia Government would: back the university i n spending $50,000 on emergency quarters and f a c i l i t i e s for returned men and women attending the university.*  A  further appeal was made to the Dominion Government for help i n the housing project and this was received.under the Emergency Housing Regulations i n the form of a number of huts which had been used housing service personnel during war  years.  fori  Dr. Shrum, the Director.of  the Department of University Extension, supervised the moving of these huts to a site close to the university and at this point the residences for veteran students began. The Site and the Buildings Actually the nucleus of a residential area already existed on the campus within convenient walking distance of the university.  During  the depression the Dominion Government had erected nine huts on a site near Chancellor Boulevard and Acadia Road. These huts were cheaply constructed of wood, were covered with black t r-paper, had small windows a  and were originally intended to house men of the Non-Permanent Active: Militia.  This group of buildings became -known as "Acadia Camp". In 1957  when youth training was started as an unemployment measure under the Dominion-Provincial Youth Training Plan, the camp was used to housey unemployed youths who were studying forestry.  When war was declared:"the  hut8 reverted to use as an army training camp and continued i n this form during the war years... In 19^5t  •Vancouver Sun, July 21,  19^5  the great advantage of the accommodation  1  4., was that i t was immediately available.  Besides being suitably located,  i t had served for both civilian and army personnel i n the past. Here; was at least an adequate nucleus around which to expand further housing facilities. In September 19^5» the President of the University announced: that there were s t i l l hundreds of recently discharged veterans (whose.: homes were too distant to permit them to commute to and from thee university) who had been unable to find lodgings through the regular, channels. Acadia, equipped to house 250, would take care of some of them and applications which had already exceeded the accommodation available were handled on a priority basis. claim i n date order of application.  Veterans were given f i r s t :  Any space available after veterans  had been accommodated was given to non-veterans, also i n date order.  The  hut residences for women were f i l l e d within a day or two of the receipt of the f i r s t applications and Dean Mawdsley stated that at the beginning,; of the term she had 75 applications which could not be accepted lack of space.  fori  Although the work was not complete and there was l i t t l e  more than sleeping accommodation to be had, the f i r s t occupants moved into Acadia i n the middle of September. Although the housing i n the beginning was far from sufficient to meet the demand, i t was known that the demand was bound to increases s t i l l further with the progressive demobilization of the forces.  In an  effort to close the accommodation gap, further army huts were added. In November 19^5,  ten additional army huts were purchased by the university  from War Assets Corporation.  These were moved from New Westminster by  giant trucks and trailers.  The following month, 11 army huts from Lulu  Island were added to the university's emergency accommodation for exservice students.  Huts to be used for single students were to be ready  for occupation by January 1, 1946.  In addition, university o f f i c i a l s had  received furniture and equipment from the Army and the Air Force, to furnish the kitchen, dining-room and dormitories. The site lay-out of Acadia provided a central driveway with the huts, dining, sleeping and recreational, lined up on each side.  During  the f i r s t winter none of the walks or roads were paved and on wet days (which were frequent) the universal mud became an integral and undesirable part of the community.  But before the end of the university year the  roads and paths were a l l hard-surfaced and this added to the general comfort as well as to the appearance of the camp. Although the huts stood on cement foundations their wooden construction made them extremely inflammable and i t was an accepted fact that any of them could burn down in less than ten minutes.  Students were accordingly cautioned about the  use of cigarettes, matches and the care of heating f a c i l i t i e s . A well-planned student residence i s one that provides for the needs of the individual student i n his every day l i f e .  In laying out  accommodation i t i s easy to think of students as a homogeneous body and to forget that requirements will differ from one person to another. Buildings - which cost so much are very important - are only the basis of the l i f e of the group which depends on the services that go with the buildings and the extent to which individual needs are looked after. Analysis of backgrounds outside the university have shown that i t i s not  necessarily fine houses that provide a f u l l andhappy l i f e .  For this  reason the writer has given as much weight to the human and personal factors as to the physical layout of the community. First i t should be remembered that during theyears thati immediately followed the end of the war, the majority of the residents of Acadia were veterans from the forces.  They had been accustomed to  the discomfort of barrack l i f e and the ye rs of living i n groups, to take a  the rough with the smooth and adjustment to Acadia conditions probably came easier to them than to the usual run of university students straight from home. When we evaluate the early success of Acadia we must consider the contribution of the veteran residents of the f i r s t years. In order to obtain a picture of the operation of Acadia, i t i s proposed that this survey shall examine the physical conditions together: with the services that go with them. These will include room accommodation, laundry f a c i l i t i e s , telephone services, dining-room services, recreation and study f a c i l i t i e s , etc. In evaluating these i t should be remembered that amenities are very important to students working amongst strangers on an exacting university curriculum, even though those Bame students could, i n the forces, adjust to almost anything. A definite administrative policy and a clear line of authority are essential i n any organization.  In Acadia they were particularly  important as - although there was self-government i n the community - i n the last analysis the university was responsible and there had to be definite channels by which suggestions, criticism and complaints, could be conveyed from students or employees to the authorities.  The success of Acadia should be reckoned by the.success and: happiness of the students who have lived there. Difficulties need not necessarily be considered shortcomings i f they were surmounted as time went on.  8 CHAPTER II ACADIAt  THE PHYSICAL SETTING  When i t was started, the Acadia "student quarter" consisted of nine army buildings lined up on either side of a central driveway.  These  were unattractive, temporary buildings of cheap wooden construction, the iii walls covered with black tar-paper; their windows were small and partitions divided each hut into several rooms. Although the buildings, stood i n a pleasant wooded setting, they offared.by no means ideal orr even comfortable accommodation for students with an exacting university curriculum to tackle, but at least they offered shelter and to veterans;; turned students - a much appreciated element.  They were screened from  the highway by a belt of trees and they were within walking distance of the main university campus. Units of various sizes were put to different purposes. Six huts at the north-east corner of the campsite were allocated to women; eleven huts at the south-east corner went to the men. From the f i r s t , the project had been planned to include both men and women, and this distribution of the huts:provided some segregation between their quarters.  living  The remaining buildings were converted for use as recreation  rooms, dining-room, office, canteen and washing and toilet  facilities.  Again the generally bleak picture of physical conditions at Acadia, i t i s f a i r to add that the university authorities were aware of the deficiencies.  Improvements which were carried out as time went on  added gradually to the comfort of the residents and to the improved:.  a. appearance of the settlement.  Roads and paths were hard-surfaced, and  new buildings added. There were delays, of course, and i t was noti necessarily the students who lived at Acadia during the trial-and-error period of i t s growth who reaped the benefit of the improvements. A willingness to put up with d i f f i c u l t i e s alone carried the "settlement" through this early period. The interiors of the huts, and even the individual rooms, were generally speaking, as drab as the outside. The huts were more or less standardized and the major variation between the rooms was t h a t l 6 2 2 of them contained one bed only while 108 had two.  With this exception  a detailed description of one hut holds good for a l l the others. The hut entrance led into a long narrow corridor with the doors to the individual rooms on either side and, at the far end, an emergency fire exit leading into the open.  Interior walls were painted,  a shade of green that i s usually acceptable to civilians but which veterans, because of past associations, found as unpleasant as the tarpaper on the exterior of the huts.. Each hut had a room equipped with laundry and bathroom f a c i l i t i e s .  The partitions between the rooms were  almost paper thin so that when many students were indoors - during long winter evenings or on Sundays - i t seemed that the only thing that could not be heard from the next door student was his thoughts.  In fact, whatt  privacy there was to be had i n these rooms amounted only to being out of sight; not out of earshot. There was some variation i n the sizes of the rooms, though i n general they were very small. Single rooms measured approximately 10 by  10. . 12 feet while double rooms were 10 by 14 feet.  The furniture supplied,  to each student consisted of a bed, a table and a chair.  A limitedcnumber  of wardrobes and chests of drawers were available, but these were generally seized.upon by the f i r s t arrivals i n each term, as there was no plan for their distribution.  To the observer i n these f i r s t post-war.  years, the similarities between student's rooms would have been more, obvious than the differences. and chairs.  The rooms were furnished with beds, tables,  From each ceiling there hung a central light, seldom with  a shade; additional light could be obtained from the two wall outlets which allowed the students to plug i n their own reading lamps and these were almost a necessity.. It was hard to avoid the stark and bare: appearance.  Some students managed by their ingenuity to create a sem-  blance of comfort, but generally once the students arrived at Acadia their thoughts were taken up with their studies.  A l l too frequently the  limited, income on which the veteran students lived would not stretch to provide any extras. In addition to his room, bed, mattress, table and chair, the, student upon entering the Camp was given three blankets, two sheets and: a pillow case.  The linen was laundered weekly and the students made  responsible for getting i t to the office i n the required way for laundering. Soap, towels and other necessities were not supplied to the students.. Because of the scanty furnishings, resident students were:asked by mean8 of questionnaires to give.their opinions on this aspect of.their housing.. The results of this inquiry were interesting because of the practical suggestions received:  11... TABLE I  FURNISHINGS FOUND LACKING Items Mentioned As Lacking  Students °men Number  Men Number  w  Drawer Space  25  52  66  59  Cupboard Space  11  15  44  |25.  Comfortable Chair  9  15  17  10  Mirror.  4  6  9  5:  Desk Lamp  5  4  6  4  Good mattress  1  1  5  5  Storage Space  o  0  2  1  Book Shelvea  o  0  29  17  Total  100  100  Among the men, one-third;of those who had experienced war  li  i.  service and lived i n army barracks, thought the furnishings were adequate; but this view was held by only one-sixth of the total number of nonveteran students, who were mostly younger, and looked at the furnishings: with "civilian" eyes.  The women, however, were more satisfied, perhaps.:  because they were given f i r s t choice of any new furniture to be d i s t r i buted.  With good reason,,both men and women students considered the  shortage of drawer and cupboard space to be the greatest inconvenience. At the beginning of the opening term, the Acadia dining-room was not completed so, for a short time i n the f a l l of 19^5» residents'; had their meals i n the university cafeteria.  The resultant over-crowding  caused great loss of time both for study and for relaxation; the fact of  42.  eating i n the larger university community also meant that the group entity that was later to play an important part i n Acadia social l i f e had no chance to develop.  While the dining-room huts were being set up,  the head of the Department of Home Economics was asked to assist i n obtaining the correct kind of management. The result was that a home economist, Miss. Mary Holder, (a dietetics graduate of Mt. Allison) arrived at Acadia i n September 19^5»  just a few days before the army  huts allotted to become a dining hall were moved, to their central location.  It was with great pleasure that the early students watched  these developments and recognized that although many re-adjustments would have to be made, the important i n i t i a l steps had been taken. Dining Room Dining and kitchen furniture and equipment at f i r s t consisted: of army stock. The kitchen had an impractical coal stove and the heater for the dining-room f i l l e d the air with billows of smoke. These inconveniences could not be.immediately remedied as at that time there was a shortage of the type of equipment needed. However, the kitchen did have the advantages of a refrigeration room and a vegetable storage room. There was a hatch between the kitchen and dining-room through which meals were served. In the early days there were no lunch checks as i t was presumed that the kitchen help would be able to recognise the students who, as residents, were entitled to meals.  Six tables and 46  chairs, a l l of the folding type, provided adequate though not comfortable, dining-room furnishings for immediate needs; though as more and more huts for housing students were moved to the camp i n the f i r s t year neither.  15. these furnishings nor the kitchen equipment were adequate.  Also i n these  early days Miss Holder had great difficulty i n getting and keeping an efficient staff; on many mornings the employed staff members would f a i l to appear and Miss Holder would be obliged to rouse students and call for volunteers to help prepare breakfast.  Because jobs were plentiful some  of the workers f e l t very independent and did not hesitate to make students feel uncomfortable i f they asked for more to eat, and Miss Holder was helpless to discipline this intransigence.  Perhaps more voluntary co-  operation from students during this period would havehelped to relieve, the  strains  the students, who did actually cooperate, f e l t themselves  rewarded by the new friends they made and by a sense of satisfaction i n having "lent a hand "in an emergency. B  During the f a l l of 19^6* many improvements were made which helped to lessen the discomfort of the previous year. A second diningroom was added ..increasing seating from 40 to. 128;  the folding type tables  and chairs were replaced by more substantial tables and more comfortable, chairs; and, through the efforts of Miss Holder the dining-rooms were made attractive with painted walls, curtains and pictures. too,  was equipped with more convenient additions:  The kitchen,  a baking room, steam-  tables, a dish washer, steam heat, and gas cook-stoves. With a l l this new equipment and the acquisition of a better staff, many dining-room problems were solved.  Miss Holder, with her perseverance and industry,  certainly deserves a great deal of credit for the well set-up dining-room which i s now a feature of Acadia. Today the dining-room has a dietician in charge, an assistant dietician,.three cooks, ten female and six male  14. general workers, making up a staff of 21 persons as compared with the. original nine workers.  Students are employed to help with dishwashing  and are paid 60 cents an hour, a sizeable increase (of 20 cents) over, the 40 cents per hour paid during the f i r s t year of operation. Cafeteria style of serving eliminated the need for waitresses, and this method i s s t i l l found very satisfactory.  Students line up for  meals and i t has been found that 40 can be served i n five minutes; accordingly, the maximum time spent by any one student waiting for meals, seldom exceeds 15 minutes a day.  Before being served each person passes  a porter or a commissionaire seated at a cash register.  Students whose  monthly boardhas been paid have meal passes, which they present; nonresidents pay separately, at the rate of 45 cents for breakfast, 50 cents for lunch, and 55 cents for dinner. The student pass system was set up in the third year to prevent non-residents from coming i n for free meals and i n this way reduced the loss that had been incurred through this abuse. But even the pass system i s not entirely satisfactory as i t i s s t i l l possible for dishonest students to lend their passes to others. If the pass cards had provided for a space to be punched at each meal, this misuse of passes and the resulting, financial loss, could have been eliminated. The present high standard of cleanliness i s one of the great assets of the dining-room.  Staff members are always dressed i n clean  white uniforms and the floors are always immaculate, offering a pleasant.. contrast to other eating places. Little things like tray covers and serviettes help to impress boarders and non-residents alike with the  15. quality of the dining-room.  The meals themselves addto this impression.  Certain eatables are placed on the tables before meals begin, giving a homelike appearance of plenty. Large pitchers of milk and bowls of salad, for example, are already at appropriate places when the individual bringshis tray to the table.  For breakfast there i s f r u i t or f r u i t juice, hot  or cold cereal, toast,eggs, and milk, tea, or coffee. It i s served from seven o'clock until 8»50, the latter being a lengthening of one-half hour oyer the f i r s t three years.  Lunch (served from 12 to one) consists of  soup, salad, main dish, dessert, and tea or coffee. Dinner (served from 5 to 6»50) i s made up of a main dish of meat, potatoes, vegetable, dessert, and tea, coffee or milk.  As each student i s allowed as many servings of  the main dish and dessert as he desires,, the dining-room presents a great attraction to outside students. The management deserves credit for i t s f l e x i b i l i t y i n this and in other ways. Students who require special diets for reasons of health can be. served here without cost. Also those who are unable, for legitimate reason, to be present at meal time can arrange with the dietician for a later serving. This privilege i s particularly helpful to men and women who do considerable laboratory work. A recent survey showed that the majority of residents were satisfied with meals and operation at the Acadia diningroom. The only complaint came from a minority group and concerned packed lunches, which they claimed to be dry and unappetizing.  Suitable operation  of a food unit i s one of the most important aspects of resident l i f e and, judging from student opinion,it i s a service which, overcoming i n i t i a l difficulties,has been particularly well handled at Acadia;  16. Study and Recreation Facilities The need for accommodation for recreation and study was recognised i n the original plan, and to this end three huts were set aside for these purposes.  Students sharing living quarters found the  study hut a great convenience because i t enabled them to continue working as late as they f e l t inclined.  However, i n the spring of 19^7 the hut  was allocated to the married men living i n the trailer camp at Acadia, who had a much more pressing need for the space.  Single students at this  time were given the use of the dining-room after seven p.m. for study purposes. While recreation units are now established these perhaps took a considerable time to evolve into what they are today.  One of these  buildings became known as the "Women's Lounge" mainly for two reasons: f i r s t because i t was situated in the centre of the women's quarters; and second because i t contained the apartment of one of the women members of the faculty who resided there as Dean Mawdsley's representative at Acadia.  In the beginning, the hut was an unlovely place with two drab  chesterfields and folding type tables and chairs and while i t was like this i t was not very popular.  Ironically the installation of a telephone  later in the term made the building less popular.  One such instrument to  be shared by so many women gave no one proper service and i t s frequent ringing brought confusion and annoyance. However, the incentive to make the lounge moreinteresting and attractive came-to the women when the men decided to move pool tables into the moreor less discarded .hut... At least appreciating the potentialities of the space, the women went to work to  17. improve i t .  The chesterfields were brightened with cheerful slip covers;  dr pes of monk's cloth were hung at the windows, a large fibre mat was a  used to coverthe shabby floor; end tables were obtained and decorated: with rejuvenated service lamps; glass covered coffee tables were placed in front of the chesterfields; and a large beautifully polished table, which Dean Mawdsley secured for the room, was used for magazines. fortunately one outstanding problem remained:  Un-  how to keep the place clean.  The janitor insisted the responsibility was not his and the only arrangement made to take care of this work was to l l o t i t to the g i r l who was a  on telephone duty, but this proved to be thoroughly unsatisfactory. Although the lounge was used more extensively after the alteration, i t was always untidy and frequently dirty.  Apparently no one had authority  to get the cleaning done and the students themselves never bothered to cooperate to keep "their lounge" i n order. The other hut set aside for recreation was used from the beginning by both men and women, possibly because the original camp telephone was i n this building.  However, overcrowding made i t necessary  to turn the space into a men s dormitory for about the f i r s t half of the 1  1945-46 term.  The telephone s t i l l i n the same corner added to the condition  of " l i f e i n a goldfish bowl" for these men until other accommodation wasiprovided.  Recreational furniture was then moved into this hut and the:  place became exceedingly popular because of the two b i l l i a r d tables, the two ping-pong tables, and the piano.  Two le ther chesterfield suites and. a  a few occasional chairs completed the i n i t i a l furnishings.  In 19^7* the  students hung drapes and.the university bore the expense of covering the  18., damaged floor with inlaid linoleum. As the room was used for dances, students built a sound-room for records and loud-speaker.  This sound-  room became exceedingly popular and seemed to be always f i l l e d with students playing records. Staff Reference has already been made to the dining-room staff.  Also  employed were three janitors whose duties were to remove garbage; clean the bathrooms and hallways daily; and to scrub and wax rooms once a month.. Two other employees known as "commissionaires  11  acted as night watchmen.  They were required to punch clocks at certain intervals i n the night, watch for fires, to see that cars were not parked i n such a way as to obstruct f i r e engines, and to report any unseemly conduct.  During the  f i r s t year, these men also tried to discipline students but as discipline, was out of their jurisdiction several students complained until eventually the commissionaires were required to refrain.  The task of supervising.,  the general maintenance f e l l to an ex-sergeant employed as the representative at Acadia of the University Housing Administrator and was responsible to him.  His exact t i t l e was not clear although he was called;,  "porter" by the students.  He had multiple duties which included keeping  records (e.g. the signing i n and out of students), supervising thee janitors, stokers and night watchmen, supervising laundry and acting as intermediary i n despatching and receiving clothes to be dry cleaned, distributing registered mail, parcels and periodicals, and attending to the wants of the students i n connection with accommodation, checking meal tickets and receiving meal money from non-residents. Because so much of  19. the porter's work dealt; directly with the students, his office was open to them three hours a day, with an extra two hours one day a week for. laundry distribution.  Acadia, U.B.C.'s f i r s t student residence,  grew up between  1945 and 1948 from a bare barrack settlement to an established student community. When the camp opened, students had to put up with muddy roads, noisy rooms with no place for their clothes, a badly equipped! dining-room, and an administrative policy which was extemporaneous and not always clear.  Improvements were made and a l l these drawbacks (except  the noise i n the huts and some faulty aspects of administration) were removed. Additional buildings were provided for recreation and, as time went on their function was defined and their equipment improved. It takes more than buildings to create a community and i n this respect Acadia was definitely handicapped. manently satisfactory.  Army huts can never, really be per-  But, within these limits, the history of the  physical conditions has been one of steady improvement. The other aspects of the community development will be reviewed i n the succeeding chapters.  20 CHAPTER III THE STUDENT RESIDENTS Into Acadia Camp,, when i t opened, came a diversity of men and women students with a common objective of obtaining the university education necessary for the careers they had chosen.  As well as  Canadians from every province, there were American, English, Chinese, Central Europeans and South Americans.  Their courses covered almostL  every f i e l d offered..by the university; pre-medieal, agriculture, law, teaching, social service, engineering, nursing and general "Arts" or "Science . 11  Their ages at entry ranged from 18 to 45 and their back-  ground from poverty to riches.  The majority were single veterans of  many branches of war service, but there were also non-veterans and a number of married veterans who had been unable to find suitable accommodation for themselves and their families within reach of the university.  The following table gives a picture of the age and service  background of the residents.  21. TABLE 2  AGE AND SERVICE BACKGROUND OF RESIDENTS  Sex and Age-Group Non-Veteran Air Force  Veteran Army Navy  Other(a) Total Men 14 20 yrs. and under. 0 0 0 0 14 14 23 j 21 yrs. to 25 yrs. 57 15 5 95 26 yrs. to 5° yrs. 5 20 22 6 1 52 Orer 30 yrs. l 6 1 1 0 9 :. . 52 • .63 Total 4 51 20 170 Women 20 yrs. and under 4 0 0 0 0 4 21 yrs. to 25 yrs. 6 4 4 0 2 9 ? 24 26 yrs. to 30 yrs. 1 15. 5 . 0 5 J l yrs. to 35 yrs. 0 8 4 5 1 16 Over 35 yrs. 0 3 2 0 0 5 Total ....... .11 12 1 72 55 ' 15 (a) 4 men were frjlom the Merchant Marine; one of: the g i r l s had been . with the A . T . S .  Many different religious and p o l i t i c a l beliefs were represented but as these were never questioned except i n friendly discussions, an atmosphere of mutual tolerance was maintained.  It would seem that the  harmony at Acadia grew from the fact that the students had more i n common than would appear from their difference i n age and background. A l l were working for degrees, the majority were discharged service personnel (to whom group l i f e was an old experience), living on government grants supplemented by what they could earn and most of the students came from homes i n British Columbia outside Greater Vancouver.  22. TABLE 5  LOCATION OF HOMES Location of Home  Women Students  Vancouver City Greater Vancouver  1  . . Men - - Total Students 10  14  8  9  Other B.C.  141  Outside B.C.  24  Total  72  7 170  8  242  Activities (a) Study Acadia Camp was the home of these students and as most people, prefer to study i n the familiarity of their own homes and this was equally true of Acadia students. They valued the companionship and liked to study i n their own hut rooms where they could relax i n old clothes or lie down when they were tired. The students of each hut laid down their own rules for study and these differed from hut to hut. Some huts insisted upon certain times being kept quiet for study and some posted notices to this effect. In other huts there were no rules for quiet and a student who wished to study was expected to go elsewhere.  He had the choice of the study hut  (when i t became available), the University Library (which was f a i r l y close and offered quiet and reference books), the women's lounge (which was not quiet but where work could be discussed) and, i n the evening, the; Acadia dining-room (which, with i t s banging door, was not much better:  25.  than the living huts).  The following chart was made up from a recent  survey of residents* choice of study places. TABLE 4 PLACE OF STUDY (  Place of Study  Hut Library  Men.". Students 125  58  161  27  20  47  10  25  7  4  11  .170  72  Dining Room (evening) Elsewhere on Campus Total  Women . Total Students  242.  Study habits were much the same as those of students everywhere » some worked constantly even to the point of excluding social 1  l i f e , some worked when necessary and some very seldom.  It is true that  some of the students found the noise, the distractions of conversation and the accessibility of the canteens interfered with their study, but most of them agreed that their work benefited by their living at Acadia. This would seem to have been due to the spirit of helpfulness (rather, than competition) that existed among the students, and to the fact that the continuation of grants from the Department of Veteran's Affairs depended upon scholastic records.  However, they had definite objectives  and these were the main reasons why these men and women applied themselves wholeheartedly to their studies and that they did i n fact do so i s borne out by their recordsj examination.  nearly 75% of them never failed a final  24. (b) Social It would seem, with so much studying to be done, that the provision of organized social activities would have been welcomed as offering relaxation without too much time being spent on arrangements. At Acadia, however, this was not the case and students generally showed very l i t t l e interest i n organized recreation and club activities.  Many  f e l t they could not spare the time from their work and that living as they were i n a large mixed group there was no need to join clubs for companionship.  Itis possible too that service experience deterred many  fr,om taking active parts i n group activities!  i n the forces there had  been l i t t l e incentive to organize social activities and potential leaders at Acadia may have been held back by the spirit of subordination which they had learnt there.  Whatever the causes, the survey shows an attitude  of apathy towards organized B o c i a l activity. TABLE 5  SOCIAL LIFE AT ACADIA  1i Social Life Number belonging to clubs Number attending dances at Acadia Frequently Occasionally Never Number using Recreation Hut: Frequently Occasionally Never Number holding executive positions outside Acadia Number holding executive positions at Acadia Total  Women Men  Total  88  10 54 28  25 72 75  106 101  10 54 28  55 85 50  45 119 78  19 49 5  15  17  50  12  5  5 170  242  8  5 100  72  159  Percent  51  5  f  57  15 45  M  2  25. The Acadia Council Constitution provided for an entertainment committee, whose main activity seemed to be the arranging of the dances which were held every two weeks i n the recreation hut.  The chairman of  this committee was empowered to call upon student residents to serve on his committee to handle the actual work of the dances.  This work i n -  cluded arranging for the decorating of the hut, appointing a doorkeeper and someone to run the record player (bought from the money raised by admission charges), serving a lunch and washing the dishes. Because of lack of cooperation these duties always f e l l to the same few willing and efficient students who, i n consequence, lost much precious study time. To overcome this difficulty and to distribute the work of the dances more evenly various methods were employed.  A f a i r l y successful one was  to make a particular hut responsible for a particular dance, but regardless of a l l attempts to interest the students i n these dances, 43 percent of the residents never attended them. The Sports Committee, also under the Council, received l i t t l e support at f i r s t though during 1946-7, i t had a f a i r l y successful year, when i t s programme of tennis, ping-pong and b i l l i a r d tournaments drew an enthusiastic response.  During this same year an Acadia basket ball team  was organized and even travelled as far as Nanaimo for a game.  The  Badminton Club, which charged a $2.00 entrance fee (for buying equipment) and met every Sunday i n the university gymnasium was also very popular. Generally speaking, this committee succeeded i n providing real interests for the students.  26. Attempts to organize other group activities had negligible, success.  The attendance at the "Citizens' Forum" was so poor that the  meetings were discontinued and the "Tinkerers* Club" (handicraft) also failed to get enough members to become active.  Even the Protestant  Chaplain who resided at Acadia for one year and was well liked by the students, failed to get a better attendance at his church services than an average of ten. S t i l l many students considered Acadia to have social advantages, and certainly i t s dining-room was a place where a l l students had a chance to get to know each other. Although some students complained of the line-up i t offered openings for conversation for those who wanted to take advantage of i t and the limited seating space sometimes obliged students to s i t apart from their close friends and so enabled them to become acquainted with others. But the social possibilities of this crowding together i n the dining-room were limited by the feeling that students should rush through their meals i n order to give their seats to those who were waiting. Also the nearness of the dish-washing machine with i t s constant noise did not add to the ease of conversation. But the dining-room was only one part of Acadia and students also made social contacts i n the recreation room and among the inmates of their own particular hut.  In fact as the classes at the university were so over-  crowded and as most people had not the time for club activities, Acadia i t s e l f - with the variety of background, academic interests and views of l i f e found among i t s students - became the framework within which many new friendships were made. One woman, for instance, who had had very l i t t l e  27 contact with men, was able to overcome her self-consciousness through the daily contacts of eating i n mixedcompany which made i t possible for her to become a more active member i n the community. On the other hand, another student claims that the lack of privacy, where every social activity was open to comment and discussion, made her withdraw from the rest of the group. There was also some strain i n the relationship between the men and women students.  Some of the women complained that the men were tun-  friendly but the men* s defense was that as the women were of marriageable age and as they, the men, were i n no financial position to consider marriage, i t was better to ignore the women as far as social contacts were concerned.  That this opinion was not universal among the men i s  shown by the fact that 19 marriages took place among the students between 1945 and 1948.  There i s definite promise too that the marriages - built  upon the common experiences of service l i f e , Acadia l i f e and university l i f e , w i l l be successful. But i n spite of the social advantages of Acadia and the Council's effort to provide recreation, some of the students were forced, for financial reasons, to use their recreational time to work for money. The f i r s t year at the Camp presented no great strain as most students had savings from service years and gratuities, with which to supplement the grant of $60.00 a month.  However, by the second year, i t was found that  summer earnings could not always provide for a l l student needs during the winter.  Therefore, 54 of the women students and 57 of the men worked;  part time.  A greater percentage of women worked during the term than men  28. possibly because they earned less during the summer months. The number of hours the students worked varied as shown i n the following chart, the women averaging eight hours of work per week and the men nine hours. TABLE 6 HOURS EMPLOYED /Number of Hours Employed per Week  Student Women Men  25  24  10 to 19  6  10  20 to 29  2  5  50 and over  1  0  Total Sample  54  57;  1 to 9  The variety of jobs these students took sho s, probably, that w  l i t t l e consideration for congeniality was given to the type of work. The following chart gives a picture of the different kinds of jobs these students took.  29. TABLE 7 TYPES OP WORK ,  Type8 of Work  !  Acadia Kitchen Helper Acadia Canteen Clerk Baby Sitter Casual Labourer. Coat Checker Draftsman Free Lance Writer Instructor J anitor Lab. Assistant Library Aid Mill Worker Nurse Night Watchman Office Worker Orchestra Player Pharmacist Pilot Reporter Store Clerk Selling Magazines Stenographer Taxi Driver Typing University Assistant Waiter Total Students Working  Number of. Students Women Men 2 6 0 7 2 0 0 9 0 2 1 Oi0 1 1 1 0 1 2 1 2 5 0 1 0 3 0 1 2 0 0 1 0 1 0 2 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 5 0 1 0 1 1 1 4 1 57 :  Most students definitely f e l t that having a l i t t l e extra money to draw upon made them feel easier and so more able to concentrate on their studies.  However, some of the spending seems a l i t t l e out of  proportion, as shown i n the following chart.  50. TABLE 8  AMOUNTS SPENT IN EXCESS OP GRANTS  j Amounts Spent  Number of Men Students  Percentage of Men  Number of Women Students  Percentage of Women Students  9  5  4  6  29  17  11  15  2  1  0  0  $100 or less  15  9  9  15  $101 to $200  40  24  52  44  $201 to $500  40  24  12  17  $501 to $400  16  9  5  4  $4oi to $500  15  8  l  1  $501 to $6oo  5  5  0  0  $601 to $700  1  0  0  Not Stated Not Applicable Within Allowance  170  Total  .5  72  The student residents of Acadia were probably the most heter-  .. • •  I  ogeous group that the university has ever known. The end of• the war caused unprecedented numbers of enrolments and the system of•• government grants of money enabled veterans of different ages and nationalities', to go to college. The standard of study at^Acadia was high. Noise i n the living huts was a disturbance but alternatives and regulations prevented i t from becoming serious.  There was a high percentage of success:in examinations  among Acadia students.  51  Organized social l i f e was not popular at Acadia though the various sports programmes were well supported.  There was some f r i c t i o n  between the masculine and feminine interests but as time went on men and women formed a satisfactory relationship.  Incomes were adequate during  the f i r s t year but later were supplemented by part time jobs. On the whole the variety i n age and experience of the f i r s t students at Acadia was a great asset i n the success of the community during the formative period and the students formed a peaceful, satisfactory community where cooperation and tolerance were practically universal.  52. , CHAPTER IV ADMINISTRATION AND STUDENT GOVERNMENT Living conditions are very important but the success or failure of any group housing scheme will also depend upon how i t i s run and upon the personality of those who run i t . Physical conditions at Acadia were d i f f i c u l t and judicious handling of the administration was needed to make things run smoothly. Students considered the administrative policy to be indefinite and petty and thought i t tended to aggravate situations which might, i n better hands, have been accepted with a good grace.  L i t t l e rules and regulations  irked the students and as there was no explanation for these they began to feel a resentment towards those whose job i t was to carry them out.  As  in the case of the lay-out, the administration had to learn by t r i a l and error which was the best way of running the Acadia student settlement. The f i r s t administrative set-up was very vague and caused much confusion.  Students did not know by what channels to make their needs  known to the authorities and members of the faculty who would have taken an interest i n the camp often heard nothing of the students' needs or recommendations.  It was only through experience and patient intelligent  action by the people concerned, that administrative policy and organization was developed to the point where i t could be beneficial.  Strangely  enough student administration developed before any administrative policy was formulated by the university.  Perhaps this was due to the absence of  any defined body to deal with Acadia problems which put the students into  55. it the position of facing up to them themselves. Student Organization In the f a l l of I9A5, Dr. Shrum, a member of the faculty with considerable experience, who was later to become chairman of the Acadia Housing Committee, called a general meeting of the residents.  He ex-  plained that because Acadia was s t i l l i n the process of establishment they would be faced with many inconveniences.  He suggested that the  students should form a council to act as a liaison between them and the university.  As a result of this meeting, Donald Stevens and Douglas  Wilson, two students who had sponsored the f i r s t dance at Acadia, and who were regarded as the natural leaders, took the initiative i n the formation of the Acadia Council. Subsequently, On November 11,  194-5, the  Acadia Council, consisting of one representative from each hut, held i t s f i r s t meeting. There was a gradual development i n the function of this Council. Apart from serving as a liaison between the students and the university authorities the Council, during i t s f i r s t year of l i f e only held informal monthly meetings, kept no minutes and confined i t s activities to arranging entertainments and making requests for additional furniture for the rooms and other physical necessities.  In order to increase contacts between the  students the Council sponsored dances which were held every other week i n the recreation h a l l .  An entrance charge was made to coyer expenses but  as these were low (lunch being kindly provided by the dining-room staff) the charge was small. Other factors that should have contributed to the success of the dances were that students attending them had no additional  5*. expenses as no car fare was involved and no time was lost i n transit. Students took turns to decorate the hall and to serve lunch and the dances were considered quite successful as they gave students an opportunity of getting to know one another and to enjoy themselves at a cost they could easily afford. The Council wrote several times to Dr. Shrum requesting shelves, wardrobes and chests of drawers for the rooms but as the carpenters were fully occupied repairing huts and dividing them up for more accommodation, i t was not-until the spring that any shelves were actually built.  By  this time the Council was handling recreational and housing needs on i t s own authority and only turned to the university for help where i t had not the power or financial means to do what was needed. Univer s ity Admini strati on Experience has taught that a group of human beings can only live together i n harmony i f there i s planning and conscientious administration but yet the university had l i t t l e to offer Acadia.  There were  no plans or suggestions.of how to weld the Acadia students together into a smooth-running, self-governing body or how to link them with the larger university group.  Acadia was like a young child l e f t without parentst  i t s physical needs were provided for but i t was without family attachments. The University Housing Committee, which was responsible for the physical needs of Acadia consisted of four members including Dr. Shrum, Director of the Extension Department and Miss Mawdsley, Dean of Women. The? secretary and administrator of this committee met each month to set rentals and board rates and the whole committee also met monthly to make  55. decisions on such matters as new equipment, furniture and the payment of board.  The housing committee was not concerned with anything beyond.  these purely business matters. One, channel was provided by the faculty through which contact! with the students could be made. Each year, Dean Mawdsley appointed a woman member of the faculty to reside at the Camp as her representative. This representative was to act as a consultant to the women residing i n the Camp and to deal with any problems specifically involving them. As i t was never clearly understood by the residents just which issues should be referred i n that f i r s t year to Dean Mawdsley's representative, Miss;: Clay, contacts with her were at a minimum. The result was that Dean Ma dsley had l i t t l e knowledge of the girls attitudes and problems during w  that time.  The men students, i n the meantime, were without a faculty  counsellor until the f a l l of 19^7» when a disagreement between men and women students as to whether b i l l i a r d tables should be allowed i n the women's lounge could not be settled the university administration decided that there should be a member of the faculty residing at Acadia to act as a counsellor for the male students. This faculty representative, on the whole, met the same lack of response from the students and no help was solicited from him or referrals made to him. The Housing Administrator for Acadia handled the registration of a l l students and was responsible for a l l routine matters connected with housing.  To facilitate the operation of the camp a porter (Mr. Armour,  mentioned above) was appointed and he was responsible to the Housing Administrator and, under the porter, were two commissionaires to act as  36.. watchmen. The duties of the porter (outlined i n Chapter II) were, as far as the students were concerned, never made clear and i n the f i r s t year of the project d i f f i c u l t i e s arose when Mr. Armour tried to assert his authority over the students.  Issues often concerned contacts between the  sexes and anyone experienced i n handling personnel problems might have been able to settle them quite easily. caused a lot of embarrassment.  As things were, small incidents,  For example, Mr. Armour made i t a rule  that no man should be allowed as near to the girls' huts as the doorsteps; h i 8 reason was that i t was unnecessary for escorts to see girls right up to the door. The g i r l s complained that Mr. Armour insulted their escorts i n enforcing this rule and there were also complaints that the commissionaires interfered with couples who were bidding each other good night. This attitude hung over most of the mixed activities and was regarded as entirely unnecessary.  The main complaint against Mr. Armour  was that he could not keep his temper and that when he lost i t he swore like the army sergeant that he had been.  This was unfortunate as the  self-government of university l i f e was one of the things most valued by men and women who had experience of service discipline.  They f e l t that  the pompous attitude that Mr. Armour took towards his responsibilities acting as though his guardianship was the only thing that could save the boys and girls from serious trouble - was an insult to them. Because of the lack of definition of the function and responsi b i l i t i e s of the Council and the university administration several c i r cumstances began to push the Council into accepting the position for  57 which i t was originally intended that of liaison between the students and the university.  The f i r s t circumstance to affect the activity of  the Council occurred i n the f i r s t year of i t s existence, and the way i n which i t was handled, started residents wondering what sort of administration they were to live under during the school year.  Three women  residents were reported to the Dean of Women for staying i n the recreation hall with men students until three or four o'clock i n the morning. This was considered undesirable behaviour and the Dean requested these g i r l s to leave Acadia at Christmas time.  The Council had not been consulted!  and because some of the members f e l t that some referral should have been made before any definite action was taken, there was much discussion as to what powers the Council should have and the episode helped to bring attention to the whole question of self-government.  But the fact was  not brought out that this was a personnel problem and that a trained counsellor might have been able to avoid such a drastic step i n disciplining these three residents or, i f the step had been considered necessary, could have helped them to make plans and obtain accommodation i n an environment to which they would be more suited. Student Council By the summer of 1946 most residents s t i l l did not show much, interestin participating i n student government. There was so much apathy that i n the summer term the president of the Council was chosen by tossing a coin.  Personalities, too, affected the administration of Acadia. Mr.  Armour, who was often asked to act as intermediary between the students and the university apparently thought i t was part of his ill-defined  58. duties to get the Student Council well established.  For this reason (and  in order to kep i n touch with student opinion) he attended a l l Council meetings and insisted on calling the r o l l .  This was an error i n judgment  that will be readily understood by anyone who has heard the opinions of students on the subject of taking attendance at classes.  That this should  be done at Council meetings was very much resented. At the beginning of the f a l l term of that same year the question of forming a new Council was raised. Mr. Armour was anxious for the president in office to stand for re-election but he refused.  The general  apathy meant that few students wanted to take on the position of hut representative on the Council, and so the job was generally foisted onto some unsuspecting newcomer. This is what happened i n the case of Bob Currie.  He was a new resident and had approached the Council president  with many complaints about Acadia conditions.  The president's reply was  to suggest that he should take a seat on the Council i n order to be i n a better position to petition for improved conditions.  As things stood  this was easily done, Mr. Currie was elected hut representative for his hut and at the f i r s t meeting of hut representatives that f a l l was elected president of the Council. secretary.  Betty Brown, also aenewcomer, was elected  Mr. Currie, in spite of being a new resident, appeared to  have definite ideas regarding the Council's function and i t was due to his energy and determination that a constitution was drawn up stating once and for a l l the powers of the Acadia Council.  He had been concerned  about Mr. Armour's position at the Camp and-felt that a reduction of his authority (real or assumed) was necessary to make things run smoothly.  59. The powers of the Council were defined i n the Constitution as followst "The Acadia Council shall be the only o f f i c i a l authority (six) between the Acadia Student Residents, the Alma Mater Society and the University; and the Council shall beo the only authority to administer discipline to etudent residents i n Acadia residence.  11  The Constitution was placed before the students at a general meeting and there was no l i t t l e opposition to i t .  Some students failed  to see the need for a Constitution when Acadia hadbeen running quite smoothly without one; others, believing that a system giving a student body power to discipline i t s fellows would not lead to harmonious living, maintained that the adoption of the Constitution would lead to regimentation which would inevitably result i n i l l will among the students.  The  remainder, who supported the Constitution, claimed that i f the residents as a group could not enforce discipline at Acadia Camp, the Alma Mater Society could step i n and enforce i t s code, which was considered a strict one especially with reference to alcohol.  This group also claimed that  i t was a democratic procedure to give a l l the power to elected representatives.  Soo after lengthy discussion, the Constitution was adopted by the  residents- with but one amendment, the effect of which was to place certain limitations on the powers of the president.  The framing and passing of  this Constitution was the high spot of the Council's work during this f i r s t year of the project. The second year of operation showed progress i n the government, though the university s t i l l showed l i t t l e active interest.  Fortunately,  40 for the women students at least, Miss Thomas, an experienced group— worker was appointed Dean Mawdsley's representative and i t was decided.: to hold monthly meetings of the g i r l s to deal with any issues of importance to the women residents*  The f i r s t meeting of this group was held  at the beginning of the f a l l term and was attended by Dean Mawdsley who explained to the g i r l s that she was directly concerned with their welfare and that she was interested i n helping them i n any way she could. But she also said she was not happy about the practice of the girls staying out late at night without anyone knowing where they were or when they were expected to return to their huts.  She suggested that late passes be  signed by those who expected to stay out later than midnight.  A few of  the g i r l s took exception to this being made a rule because they f e l t that i t was sufficient that their immediate friends always knew their plans for the evening.  Lengthy discussion disclosed a substantial opposition but  a vote was taken showing a majority i n favour of Dean Mawdsley's proposal that the signing of late passes should be required and the institution of this rule was accepted.  The strength of the opposition eventually made  i t s e l f f e l t as, i n practice, many students ignored the rule altogether and eventually, as there was no machinery for enforcing i t , i t was dropped by everyone. It i s possible that the late pass rule aroused the same sort of resentment as the calling of attendance at meetings but i n any case i t seems clear that for such a rule to be respected and adhered to, i t should have been initiated by the student body even though i t might have been inspired by the university authorities.  The whole incident served to  41.. demonstrate the value of a good faculty-student relationship.  The  university appeared indifferent to the happiness and personal affairs of the students and l e f t them to face problems of this kind with l i t t l e outside help and i t i s hardly surprising that a rule brought i n by the university affecting what was considered a purely personal matter should have been only half-heartedly observed. From this time on students tackled their own problems and got over them as best they could. The Council assumed definite responsibility for discipline and this was a step forward i n defining policy and allocating responsibility.  The majority of students were just as indifferent as ever  about taking an active part i n the Council and when they did not approve of the Council's actions or thought Council officers were abusing their authority, the students outside the Council looked for a higher authority to appeal to. The Council when i t failed to carry out the wishes of the student body became more and more unpopular and lost s t i l l more support. But i n spite of a l l these things as far as physical requirements were, concerned - the f i e l d i n which there was a good relationship with the university - the Council worked fairly well.  Attendance at General  Assembly meetings increased as problems of general interest were brought up for discussion.  Improvements were requested and, by degrees, obtained -  particularly f a c i l i t i e s for recreation - and i n these directions the action taken by the Council produced a feeling of achievement and satisfaction. At the General Assembly meetings student participation was i increased by the bringing forward of many problems of common interest.  42. Improvements to the Camp were requested and obtained gradually. for recreation were obtained.  Facilities  Action was taken by the Council i n many  fields and gradually there was a feeling of satisfaction i n the Camp. At the same time other things happened i n which the Council was found to be inadequate.  The incident which put the Council executive i n  bad odour with*, the rest of the students, happened i n the summer of the fourth year and emphasized the need for a higher authority to whom the Council would be responsible.and to whom the residents could turn.  Before  the general meeting of that year, a few of the students heard a rumour that the former Council president had, under the authority of a power of attorney, spent $300.00 of the Council's funds during the summer holidays. At the meeting a student asked to have the treasurer's report read but the newly elected president stated that i t was not available.  One of the  Council members argued that the report did not have to be given except at the close of the spring session and as the president supported this view the matter was dropped. The students did not press for details because at that time most of them did not know that the whole fund had been spent during the summer when the majority of them were absent from Acadia. Council funds were raised by a levy of a dollar fee from each student but when, after this meeting, the time came to collect fees for thee current year, many refused to pay on the grounds that the previous Council had no right to permit the president to spend $30°.°0 without consulting the other members of the Council.  It was contrary to the  Constitution, which i n Article VI, Section 4 , Sub-section (d) statedt "The President i s empowered to spend a sum of money not to exceed |25.00  (Twenty-five dollars) i n case of emergency, subject to ratification at the next Council meeting."  It seemed strange to them that the man,  who  had worked so hard to draft a Constitution and have i t adopted should himself bypass the rules laid down in this same Constitution.  Up to the  time of writing,receipts have not been produced to show how the money was spent, as i t i s s t i l l argued that a report i s not necessary until next spring. The president i n question moved from Acadia shortly after the election of the new Council, with the assurance that when he located the needed receipts he would forward them to the Council.  The action  reduced the confidence of the students in the Council and made the work of the Council much more d i f f i c u l t and less pleasant.  In view of the-,  poor cooperation i n the payment of the dollar fees the Council returned the fees that had been paid because the feeling was that i t was not f a i r to expect only a portion of the students to pay for projects intended to benefit a l l . Two issues affecting the women at Acadia were beyond the scope of the Council.  They were thrashed out and, with the help of thee  university authorities, solved.  These issues brought to light certain  difficulties i n connection with the position of the women who  (although  in a:minority that could always be outvoted i n student government) had particular interests that had to be upheld against the majority vote, and particular fields where they had to make decisions for themselves. The building known as the "womens lounge" was (as mentioned 1  above) used very l i t t l e at f i r s t .  The men,  thinking to take advantage of  the space, suggested moving a b i l l i a r d table into this room but some of  .44. the women objected.  A private ballot was taken and i t was found that the  majority of the women objectedto having their lounge made into a b i l l i a r d room. The men pressed their point on the grounds that the room would be better employed for more popular recreations and the matter was settled by President McKenzie who said that the university administration had allotted this building to the women for their use and i t was not within the power of the students' Council to usurp the building for any other purpose. Winning their point was the incentive the women needed to get together and make their lounge a more attractive place.  Dean Mawdsley  canvassed the Women's University Club for funds, the women residents sponsored a bridge drive and the Council contributed a small sum towards the improvement. As a result the lounge blossomed into an attractive:, room which became a source of pride and was extensively used. The second issue was more important as i t turned on the code: of behaviour to be laid down i n Acadia.  The question of allowing opposite  sex to v i s i t in the huts was brought up at a general meeting and in spite of the fact that the majority of women were opposed to i t , a motion was. passed allowing men to v i s i t i n the women's rooms until ten o'clock on Sunday evenings.  The motion was then referred to a meeting of the Faculty  Council where i t was passed regardless of the strong opposition of the Dean of Women. Their opposition to the ruling stimulated the women to action and amid intense excitement a meeting was called.  The argument i n favour  of accepting the ruling was that not to do so was to show a lack of confidence i n Acadia's representative body and also that to say that men  45. .  should not be allowed to v i s i t i n women's rooms suggested lack of confidence in students' a b i l i t y to conduct themselves properly.  The  argument against the ruling was that i t would do harm to the reputation of Acadia.  The result of the women s vote taken by secret ballott was 1  that 80 percent of the women rejected the motion of having male visitors, with the exception of close relatives, i n their rooms. As a result of this negative vote the university reconsidered i t s f i r s t decision and the ruling permitting men visitors in the women's rooms was withdrawn.  The Camp Council again questioned the legality of  the minority group i n this instance, as the motion had been passed by the two authorities but the matter was dropped. This was the second limiting of the jurisdiction of the Camp Council and the issue because of its importance, did help to start a control of the Council's authority. Another result was the clarification of Dean Mawdsley's position i n regard to the women residents. The issue brought to the attention of the university the fact that i n the university constitution no mention had been made of the responsibilities of the Dean of Women to the women living in a university residence.  The subsequent referral to the Senate  and the execution of necessary amendments to the Constitution proved a source of satisfaction to a l l concerned and laid down a more definite line of procedure. Dissension and confusion appeared a l l through the development of the government of Acadia.  The Council, working i n an atmosphere of  apathy did, i n fact take on responsibilities that were beyond i t but this was due to the absence of any positive plans for the running of Acadia and  because there was no other body willing to step i n and show a definite interest i n the settlement. The Council did much to improve living conditions and i t also provided a channel through which students could voice their opinion. The Council gave the students an opportunity to practise a form of self-government and i t aided the students to form relationships with one another and i t helped to make Acadia a more closely knit community.  47.  CHAPTER V STUDENT VIEWPOINTS The social and economic problems of residence planning and organization are far reaching and diverse. Some of the many factors to be considered and weighed i n relation to each other are available sites, the type and size of buildings and existing structures.  Once the physical  aspects of a residence are settled the success of the residence i s largely dependent on the way i t i s administered.  As the purpose of a residence  is to give service to the students inhabiting i t the best method to guage i t s success i s through the students' opinion of the residence.  The writer  has attempted to evaluate the Acadia Camp as a residence onthe basis of students' reaction to the more important factors of the camp. The Physical Site The residents at Acadia Camp were students, so possibly the suitability of the residence for study should be given the f i r s t consideration.  The nearness to the university was an advantage as i t saved  much time and energy being spent i n commuting.  It also made i t possible  for those who wished to come back to their huts for study periods during their daily lecture free time.  This was helpful as the crowded conditions  at the university often meant no available place for study on the campus. The short distance also made i t possible for the students to return to the campus at night and use the university library and laboratories. The students a l l agreed that the closeness of Acadia to the university was a decided advantage so that as far as site i s concerned Acadia can be said to  48. be well placed. Students complained about noise and the lack of soundproofing in the huts made i t almost impossible to control the noise factor, irrespective of how cooperative the students were. Thirty-nine percent of the students regarded the thin walls and noise as the worst feature of Acadia Camp. This i s shown i n the following table. TABLE 9 WORST FEATURES AT ACADIA /  Item  Number  Percentage  Thin walls and noise  95  39  Lack of furniture  24  10  Admini stration  20  9  Lack of Privacy  15  6  Telephone Service  1*  6  Miscellaneous*  30  12  Unanswered  44  18  242  100  Total  ^Miscellaneous complaints refer to complaints mentioned by only one or two students.  The high percentage of the students shown to be inconvenienced by the noise i n the huts makes i t reasonable to assume that the noise hindered their studying. As the students preferred to study i n their own rooms, a definite attempt should be made to control the noise i n the huts. There are two ways to do this, one to have rigid control over the students activities i n the huts and the second to soundproof the rooms.  49. If the students are expected to be quiet i n their huts the need for suitable recreational f a c i l i t i e s arises.  The following table shows  that the students valued companionship above everything else at Acadia so ample provision should be made for places where students can get together without disturbing others who are studying. TABLE 10 BEST FEATURES OF ACADIA Item Companionship  Number  Percentage  .104  4  5  Freedom from Restriction  54  14  Heat and Hot Water Supply  52  15  Miscellaneous*  42  18  Unanswered  50  12  242  100  Total Sample Group  'Miscellaneous refers to items mentioned by only one or two students.  It has been mentioned i n another chapter that Acadia provided two huts for recreational purposes and these served well for activities such as dancing, card playing, billiards and ping-pong.  However, there:  was no provision for students who wished to entertain their friends i n a more private way or for those who wished to get to know each other through conversation.  Students tended to use their hut rooms for this and so  caused much of the noise which disturbed the others who were studying. The answer might be to have one room soundproofed i n each hut, have i t fitted:! as a lounge and confine the recreational activities within the hut to that  50., particular room. Administration of Acadia What has been mentioned so far has hinged, more or less completely, on the physical lay-out. The atmosphere of the settlement, the smoothness with which i t i s run and the morale of the residents depends upon the efficiency of the administration.  Lack of understanding  and irritation on the part of the administrators and staff i s transferred to a l l members of the group.  The administration of Acadia evolved more  or less, out of experience derived from meeting d i f f i c u l t i e s as they came along.  This was an advantage i n many respects as i t meant that Acadia  was not over administered; i n other words red tape was kept at a minimum. However, there was some confusion i n many people's minds as to who was responsible for what, and the statement "Acadia Oamp works but no one seems to know why or how" was often heard expressed by residents. For instance the Acadia Camp Council was confused as to their duties and authority and so found i t necessary to bring up issues to test the extent of their control.  These issues, which were discussed i n a  previous chapter, tended to divide and cause f r i c t i o n amongst the residents. The sub-group, Girls' Council, was not clear as to what part i t had i n the picture.  Residents did not know what duties had been delegated to the  porter and at times he seemed perplexed as to what his specific duties were. A l l these factors, on which there was confusion, led to unnecessary duplication, misunderstanding and hostility. Some of the confusion i s shown by the following table.  51. TABLE 11  SOURCES TO WHICH STUDENTS REFERRED THEIR COMPLAINTS pomplaints Referred To  Students Total Men Women  Percentage  Hut Representative  44  54  78  52  No One  58  16  74  51  Porter  55  15  68  28  Various People or the Person Applicable  15  2  !5  6  0  7  7  170  72  242  Girls' Counsellor Total Sample Group  5; 100  The students ere either unaware of any definite procedure w  existing for the handlingof complaints or were not in agreement with the existing procedure.  The fact that 51 percent of the .studentsjreferred  their complaints to no one suggests that they were well satisfied with conditions at Acadia but then again i t might mean that they did not feel there was any person or authority to which they could usefully turn. It seems logical that a definite channel for complaints would be an asset as i t would avoid needless duplication. The effectiveness of the administration of the camp can also be guaged by the student opinion regarding the operation of the camp. The following chart shows that the students were f a i r l y satisfied with the heating, maintenance and repair but a number of the students expressed discontent over the cleaning and their relationship with the porter.  52. TABLE 12 STUDENT OPINION BE OAMP CONDITIONS ., . . Items 1  Men Students rotal Percent Number Satisfied Satisfied  Heating  l4l  8?  Maintenance and Repair  158  81  1  1  Women Students Number PercentSatisfied Satisfied 61  85  65  90  Total.  170  72  Relatione with Porter  154  79  40  55  Cleaning  152  78  5*  47  -  The cleanliness of the huts depended on the janitors and on the hut members but on entering some huts one sometimes met an amazing display of diBorderliness.  The washrooms were untidy, the walls of the hall were  dirty and some of the students' rooms showed l i t t l e evidenceof ever having been thoroughly cleaned.  Some of this untidiness could have been prevented  i f the students upon admission had been given to understand that they were expected to keep their rooms clean for sanitary reasons as well as for f i r e protection.  Apparently the janitors needed closer supervision as  there was often obvious evidence that some of them were lax i n carrying out their duties.  Periodic inspection of the huts by the university  administration might have inspired the students and the janitors to keep the huts i n a better condition. There were several reasons for the discontent expressed by 21 percent of the men and 45 percent of the women with reference to the porter.  When he came to Acadia he was overworked and tired and, on  55. occasions, irritable.  His many years as a Sergeant Major i n the Canadian  Army made him inclined to adopt a dictatorial attitude towards the students which antagonized them. It i s to the porter's credit that he was aware of his tendency to lose his temper and he tried valiantly to control i t .  The following will serve as an example:  one student would  come into theoffice and complain vehemently about some minor issue.  The  porter would treat him with great respect and manage to placate him but i f another student followed with some quite reasonable complaint, the porter would f l y at him as he could no longer control the rage which he had stifled during his interview with the f i r s t student. Naturally the second student would feel rather amazed and that he was receiving unfair treatment.  So i t may be said that the porter although conscientious,  dependable and honest, was hampered i n his work by his personality difficulties, which made i t d i f f i c u l t for him to set up a good relationship with the students. However, these undesirable episodes became fewer as the camp became better established and as the porter's duties were reduced and their precise nature better understood by the students and himself. Some students stated that their unfavourable reaction toward the porter started the day. they entered the camp. After they had been assigned to a certain room at the camp by the Housing Administrator, they entered the camp office, feeling somewhat lost and bewildered.  The  porter would hand out the blankets and request the student to sign for them and then turn to some other duty.  The student then stood holding  his blankets and finally asked diffidently, "Where i s the room?"  The  54. porter would give a nonchalant wave in a certain direction and answer, "Over there, find i t . " The porter's tone and manner often l e f t the student i n a state of uncertainty about the warmth of his welcome and the sincerity of the camp's concern for his welfare.  A more sympathetic  and comradely reception would have helped the students to adjust to a new situation. The residents at Acadia were fortunate in that they had the opportunity of participating i n the government of the camp through their council.  The council served to give the students some responsibility i n  the administration and i t also gave them experience i n presenting their wants, differences, and opinions i n a democratic way.  The students, as  shown in the following chart, strongly favoured a form of self-government as 63 percent approved of f u l l self-government and 24 percent  favoured:  partial self-government. TABLE 13 STUDENT GOVERNMENT , Type of Self-Government  Men  Full  102  51  155  65  Partial  39  19  58  24  Not Necessary  26  2  28  12  3  0  5  1  Not Stated  Students Women Total  Percent  That the Council f u l f i l l e d i t s function and that the university was well advised i n supporting i t , i s borne out by the returns shown in the above chart.  55. The university administration can be commended on the success of their f i r s t experience with residences for students as the students preferences, on the whole, show their general satisfaction with the arrangement at Acadia Camp. The following chart shows that the majority of the students definitely favoured many of the features existing at Acadia Camp such as a group of small buildings, a common dining-room and lounges, and that the buildings for menand women should be near to one another. TABLE 14 RESIDENTIAL PREFERENCES /  Items  ten Women Total  Single large building 58 Group of smaller buildings 152 Lounges used by both sexes 159 Buildings restricted to one sex 11 Separate Buildings for each sex not adjacent 15 Separate buildings for each sex adjacent 155 80 Shared rooms Single rooms 90 Dormitory 0 Separate dining-rooms for each sex 5 Common dining-rooms (both sexes) 155 Provision for both types of dining-room 14 Family units within residential area 78 Separate section for married students 92  12 60 67 5 5 67 29 45 0  0  62 10  24 48  50 192 226 16 20 222 109 155 0 5 215  24  102 140  Percent  21 79 95 7  8  92 45 55 0 l  90 9 42  48  The surveys show that student opinion supported the existence of Acadia as a residence and was i n favour of most aspects of i t s administration.  Students valued the nearness of Acadia to the university and -  although there were complaints about the noise i n the huts - found the companionship a help i n their studios. They were on the whole satisfied with the lay-out and arrangements for heating and maintenance and they  56. appreciated the dining-room and the lounges common to both sexes.  As far  as administration i s concerned, the status and actions of the porter gave rise to the most emphatic complaints and student government - though l i t t l e supported i n practice - was^ approvedJof i n theory.  57 CHAPTER VI LESSONS FOR STUDENT RESIDENCES In any evaluation of Acadia aa a student residence i t must necessarily be borne i n mind that i t originated to meet an emergency situation.  The university administration was faced with the problem of  accommodating an unprecedented number of students predominantly ex-service personnel, of both sexes.  Hundreds of students had to be sheltered yet  there was a decided lack of dormitories at the university.  Acadia was  intended to meet the need for a temporary period and to provide the time necessary to plan and construct permanent f a c i l i t i e s . It i s commendable that the university authorities desired to bring the resident students into this planning of encouraging a study of the camp situation to be made i n which the students themselves could participate.  Many of the students responded well to the opportunity  afforded them and were keen to voice their opinions. Recognizing that the primary purpose of permanent dormitories would be to provide happy and wholesome accommodation for students, and that the student body i n future years would be from a younger and less experienced age-group than when Acadia Camp was f i r s t established, some suggestions can be drawn from this experience to aid i n a constructive manner the planning of futures residences-.  It i s important i n so doing to bear i n mind that the f i r s t  students at Acadia Camp adjusted without noticeable difficulty to primitive and crowded conditions, confused and uncertain administration, and l i t t l e real supervision because they had experienced similar limitations during  58. . their war service experience.  Future "crops" of students cannot perhaps  be expected to adapt so readily i n the same manner, and modifications would be required, among them certainly better physical construction and a more clearly executed administration, and probably carefully considered forms of supervision. The Verdict of Expressed Preferences The f i r s t preference to be considered i s the almost unanimous support given by students to the non-segregated cottage type of residence. The University of British Columbia has since itsincorporation served as a co-educational institution.  It naturally follows then, that planning  for housing students, both sexes, must be considered.  In the majority  of universities i n Canada the trend i n housing the students has been to segregate the sexes, which possibly indicates that public opinion considers i t inadvisable to include both men and women i n the same unit.  However,  perhaps as a direct result of the wartime experiences when both Bexes were housed i n the same camp or perhaps because of, a general change i n attitude the public now seems ready to accept the fact that bringing young people of both sexes together i s not disastrous; and indeed can be constructive training for future l i f e i n adult society.  Eventually these  young people will marry and establish homes i n which the next generation will be raised, and a worthwhile step i n the development of understanding and appreciation of the opposite sex - qualities extremely necessary for mature living - w i l l have been taken in this formative period.  Students  at Acadia Camp found this mode of living their preference with few problems experienced.  59. The students also preferred the cottage type of residence, possibly because i t i s easier to identify with small groups as i t approximates the family group.  Smaller groups afford individuals greater  opportunity to get to know a few people well.  Also, a cottage type of  residence can be more attractively arranged than a large impersonal building.  Finally, safety precautions i n the event of f i r e are com-  paratively simple to execute i n small one storey buildings. Basically a l l students favoured the location of Acadia Camp, which points to the fact that university students like to have a residence within walking distance of the university.  After a l l , they cover the  route from a residence to the university oftener than any other route so they naturally prefer having their living quarters close to the university. Some of the other aspects of the camp receiving commendation were the high quality of the meals, the abundant supply of hot water, and satisfactory heating i n the units, a l l of which are essentials i n any residence and so often found lacking i n private boarding houses.  It i s  assumed that these factors would be included i n a permanent residence. Valuable Features The students regarded the social experience gained by living in a student residence as the most valuable aspect of the camp. In general, opportunity for meeting other students of both sexes was facilitated and encouraged by the physical arrangements. Thecommon dining-room and recreation rooms afforded students ample opportunities to meet and mix with others, andyet i t was not impossible to remain a part and to have occasional privacy should the student so prefer.  It was  60.,  maintained by many that the presence of the other sex at meals stimulated students to take greater care i n their personal appearance particularly the men. Social activities of an extra-curricular nature were simple to arrange and at l i t t l e financial cost to students who traditionally operate on limited budget.  Dances and parties arranged and conducted by the  students were found to be popular and satisfying to those attending. Impromptu discussions, which were likely to range over the whole of l i f e ' s problems as well as current affairs and campus events, were the natural outcome of many student get-togethers. It was noticeable that the initiative and planning of social activities was the work of a relatively small group of students. Many students failed to take a responsible part i n these preparatory activities although willing to enjoy the completed functions.  S t i l l others tended  to withdraw from any participation i n these social events, while no one took the initiative i n trying to encourage their interest.  This condition  is not inconsistent with the workings of other groups i n our society and therefore cannot be termed unique with reference to the Acadia Camp residence group. More comment regarding this point will come i n the next section on administration. Administration The uncertain and haphazard administration of Acadia, more than anything else, indicates the need for a definite administrative organization.  At Acadia there was considerable confusion on several occasions:  regarding the respective powers of the student council and the university  i  61 administration,  the confusion created considerable dissension within the  camp, for instance the pool table incident, which involved students arbitrarily trying to take over the women's lounge, which was within the jurisdiction of the Dean of Women. The need here was for the students, in the f i r s t instance, to be given specific information that they were moving beyond their authority as a student organization.  This was not  done, therefore, the matter was f i r s t hahd discussion within the camp for several weeks and bad feelings were generated. Possibly the chief lack i n the administration of Acadia Camp was that there was no one person responsible for the area as a whole. The evidence i s that there should be a senior administrator responsible to the Faculty Council of the university.  Under this senior administrator  the dietitian, maintenance staff and the Student Council would function independently of each other within their respective environments. Thus, the following chart i s a suggested administrative set-up for Acadia Camp. FIGURE 1  1 Home Economics Dept. |  | Senate"! 1 Faculty Council I  I Board of Governors ( { Housing Committee I  | Camp Administrator I I Food Service |  Acadia Camp Council Standing Committees  I Maintenance t  62, The senior administrator, preferably a member of university faculty, should be a resident with a business office within the area. Provided that he or she were properly qualified, such a person could also serve as counsellor.  They, would act as coordinator and consultant, and  would act as a focal point for the varied aspects of student and staff problems. The administrator's duties would include attending a l l meetings dealing with Acadia, counselling, advising and directing, as well as channelling suggestions and complaints.  Obviously, i f the functions are  to be combined i n one person, such a person will not be too easily found. Preferably, he or she should have a degree in Social Group Work as well as adequate experience i n working with groups. The administrator, with specialized training as a group worker, would have knowledge of individual and group behaviour and on the basis of this knowledge he could contribute to the resident group a s k i l l i n leadership which would enable the members to use their capacities to the f u l l and to create socially constructive group activities.  He would  assist the students to get from the group experience the satisfactions, the enjoyment and personal growth available through the social relations:, and the opportunity to participate as a responsible citizen.  Also, i f  the administrator i s effective i n his or her work within the student group, individual students at a time when they need personal counselling and advice will voluntarily seek out the administrator.  The administrator  in this function, could be assisted by a graduate student, who was taking a post-graduate course i n Social Group Work. One particular note regarding maintenance - in the past the  65 porter has been responsible for the supervision of the maintenance staff and has carried out his duties conscientiously. This position would, necessarily be maintained i n future planning.  Because of the location  of his living quarters within the camp, he has often assumed or was requested to 8Burae duties which did not come within his jurisdiction. a  With a senior administrator i n the camp set-up, this situation would no longer, hold. Things to Avoid The most important thing to avoid i n future students' r e s i dences is the utilization of makeshift buildings. The units at Acadia were devoid of beauty and comfort and supplied only the basic needs of housing.  The forbidding and uninspiring drabness of the camp were to be  expected as a consequence of using old army buildings, and serve to point out the desirability ©f planning for lasting attractiveness i n future' constructions.  Students spend the greater part of their timein their  residences and there would seem to be no reason why the accommodation should not be comfortable and attractive; austerity i s no longer considered a necessary atmosphere for productive study. Moreover, the problem i s becoming increasingly urgent, and, as the camp buildings are rapidly deteriorating, i t would seem that priority should be given to the construction of residences.  The study of the Acadia Camp experiment as a student residence leads to the conclusion that a worthwhile step has been taken towards f i l l i n g student needs. Many advantages have been disclosed and these  6h, could be readily incorporated into a carefully planned residence i n the future.  The absence of student responsibility for domestic operation,  the participation by students i n administrative functioning and the.: natural companionship provided were particularly appreciated.  Moreover,  some of the disadvantages revealed were found to be inherent i n Acadia Gamp i t s e l f , and are not too d i f f i c u l t to eliminate.  It i s to be hopedd  that future planning at the University of British Columbia for permanent residences, will include factors, which were regarded advantageous by the vast majority of the students, who based their opinions from their experience at Acadia Camp.  APPENDICES  65, APPENDIX A PRIORITY RATING FOR WOMEN STUDENTS AT ACADIA CAMP  Name  Points  Address. Veteran. . . . . . (10) Non-veteran. . . . . . ... (0) Year of Graduation*  '43. . . (5) '49. . . (2)  !50. . . (1) . Age:  ...  JO or over. . . (2) 25, under 50. . . ( l )  Residence at Acadia:  ....  Place number of months residence i n space. Maximum shown i n parenthesis.  Regular Session 1945-46  (7)  Special Winter Session 1946  (4)  Special Spring Session 1946  (1 1^2)  Summer Session 1946  ( 1 1/2)  Regular Session  1946-47  (7)  Room Preference: Do you want a single room:  Unconditionally . . . . .  i f you cannot have designated room mate . . . . . Which room would you prefer  Hut. . . .Room. . . . Hut. . . .Room. . . . Hut. . . .Room. . . .  Name of student with whom you would like to share a room  Room number you now occupy REMARKS:  . ..  66 APPENDIX B  PART I ACADIA RESIDENCE INTERNAL GOVERNMENT  ARTICLE I NAME Section 1  This organization shall be named the Acadia Residence Students Council, hereafter known as Acadia Council, situated on the University Enddwrnent lands, at Acadia Road Residence. ARTICLE II PURPOSE  Section 1  To co-ordinate and encourage a l l students' activities at Acadia Residence, subject to the rules and regulations of the University Senate.  Section 2  To co-operate with the University through Acadia Council liaison i n such a manner as to further benefit the Acadia residents.  Section 3  To otherwise concern i t s e l f with the housing, messing, and general welfare of a l l Acadia Student residents.  Section 4  To further by every means at i t s disposal a l l cultural, educational and social organizations at this Residence. ARTICLE III POWERS  Section 1  The Acadia Council shall be the only o f f i c i a l authority between the Acadia Student Residents, the Alma Mater Society and the University.  Section 2 .  The Acadia Student Council shall have control of a l l subsidiary organizations formed at the Residence, each of which shall be represented on the Council through designated elected representatives, as provided i n Article V, Section 2, sub-sections ( i ) , ( i i ) , and ( i i i ) . D  Section 3  The Acadia Council shall take steps necessary for the:: improvement of housing, messing and general welfare for a l l Acadia Student Residents.  67. ARTICLE III Section 4  The Acadia Council shall have the authority to approach and petition the Alma Mater Society for advice or assistance on any matters pertaining to student organization, administration and finance.  Section 5  The Acadia Council shall have power from time to time to raise, spend or allocate monies i n such manner as i t may warrant.  Section 6  The Acadia Council shall be the only authority to administer discipline to student residents i n Acadia Residence, ARTICLE IV AMENDMENTS Powers of the aforementioned Acadia Student Residents to amend the Constitution:  Section 1  A special general assembly will be called by the Acadia Council for the purpose of amending the Constitution, upon presentation to the said Council of a formal petition signed by ten or more bona fide student residents, the proposed amendment to be posted on the public notice boards at least one week before the general assembly.  Section 2  There must be a quorum of one third or more of the bona fide student residents comprising the general assembly before the amendment may be considered.  Section 5  There must be a two—thirds supporting vote of the abovementioned quorum before any alteration to this constitution may be valid. ARTICLE V MEMBERSHIP  Section 1  AH members of the general assembly to be eligible for the franchise and offices of the Council must meet the requirements as laid down by Section 1, Sub-sections a, b and c of the Alma Mater Society E l i g i b i l i t y Rules, as amended April, 1945.  Section 2  Representatives on the Acadia Council must be bona fide student residents, elected as follows: (i) one from each dormitory, ( i i ) one from each trailer camp, ( i i i ) one from the student householders;  68 Section 2 (cont'd.) elections to take place within two weeks of the commencement of the f a l l term. Representatives shall hold office throughout the academic year, unless voted out of office by those who elect them. Section 3  A l l bona fide students residents of Acadia Residence may attend regular meetings of the Acadia Council and on such occasions are at liberty to inspect a l l books of account.  Section 4  The General Assembly shall meet at least once each term at a time and place decided upon by the Acadia Council, unless as otherwise provided for by Article IV, Section 1.  Section 5  The budget for the academic year shall be presented at the f i r s t general assembly by the treasurer of Acadia Council.  Section 6  An audited financial statement shall be presented to the last general assembly of the academic year by the treasurer, This statement shall be published on Acadia notice boards. ARTICLE VI EXECUTIVE  Section 1  Holders of Executive offices must be elected from the elected representatives forming the Acadia Council and will hold office throughout the academic year, subj ect to recall as laid down in Article IV, Sections 1, 2 and 2.  Section 2  Election of Executive officers will be held during the second meeting of the f a l l term of the Acadia Council.  Section 5  The officers comprising the Executive shall be as follows: (i) Honorary President - The President of the University. (ii) Honorary Vice-Presidents - Honorary Counsellors of Acadia Residence ( i i i ) President (iv) Vice-President (v) Secretary (vi) Treasurer. (vii) Liaison officer with the University ( v i i i ) Liaison officer with the Acadia Porter.  Section 4  Powers: (i)  President (a) Shall preside at a l l meetings of the Acadia Council and General Assembly.  69 Section 4  Powers*  (cont'd.) (b) Shall be ex-officio member of a l l committees . of the Acadia Council (c) A l l cheques must be signed by both the President and the Treasurer. (d) The President i s empowered to spend a sum of - money not to exceed $25.00 (Twenty-fiveedollars) in caBe of emergency, subject to ratification at the next council meeting. (e) Shall carry out a l l such other duties as may from time to time arise, subject to the approval of the Executive.  ( i i ) Vice-President» (a) Shall assume and carry out a l l duties of the President during his absence. ( i i i ) Secretaryt (a) Shall prepare and keep a l l Minutes of the Acadia Council and General Assembly meetings. (b) Shall perform such other duties as may from time to time be delegated by the Acadia Council. (iv) Treasurers (a) The Treasurer shall take charge of and be responsible for the funds of the Acadia Council. (b) The Treasurer's cheques shall be signed by the Treasurer and countersigned by the President of the Acadia Council. (c) The Treasurer shall keep a careful account of and be responsible for a l l moneys received, and disbursed by the Acadia Council, and shall keep on f i l e a l l b i l l s , receipts and vouchers. (d) The Treasurer shall render a statement of the finances of the Acadia Council each month and at any other time on the written request signed by at least three members of the Residence. (e) The Treasurer shall take charge of and be responsible for a l l funds of any and a l l organizations set up under Article VII, Section 5, of this constitution. (f) Shall perform such further duties as may from time to time be delegated by the Acadia Council. (v) Liaison Officers* (a) Shall act as intermediaries on a l l matters of Council business so far as they concern the University and the Acadia Council.  70 ARTICLE VII COMMITTEES Section 1  Chairmen of the various committees shall be appointed from the Acadia Council and shall be empowered to c a l l upon students of Acadia Residence outside the Council to serve on the Committees.  Section 2  The following standing Committees shall be set up during the f i r s t two meetings of the f a l l term of the Acadia Council: (i) Entertainment, ( t i ) Sports, ( i i i ) Messing, (iv) Liaison committee with non-student householders.  Section 3  Other committees to improve cultural, educational and social activities may be set up from time to time by the Acadia Council.  71.  APPENDIX C  DEPARTMENT  OF  SOCIAL  WORK  SURVEY OF U.B.C. RESIDENCES: A c a d i a N.B.  - P l e a s e read t h i s  first.  T h i s study i s b e i n g made s o l e l y i n o r d e r t o get a f a i r p i c t u r e of the p r o s and cons of student r e s i d e n c e s . R e s u l t s w i l l be combined t o g e t h e r s t a t i s t i c a l l y , and no p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be d i s c l o s e d , or used i n any way to a f f e c t your academic r e c o r d . Your name need not appear on i t ; but you are asked t o . t a k e the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e r i o u s l y , and answer the q u e s t i o n s c a r e f u l l y , so t h a t the study w i l l be r e a l l y h e l p f u l and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . A.  General Sex  Age  M a r r i e d (M) or S i n g l e (S)  1. I s your home ( f a m i l y ) r e s i d e n c e (a) i n Vancouver C i t y Vancouver..... (c) Other B.C (d) O u t s i d e B,C  (t>) G r e a t e r  I f you had war s e r v i c e b e f o r e coming t o U.B.C, p l e a s e s t a t e number of y e a r s and b r a n c h ( a i r , army, navy, merchant m a r i n e , n u r s i n g , etc.) 2 . I f you have l i v e d elsewhere d u r i n g your u n i v e r s i t y y e a r s , s t a t e type of accommodation and approximate months of r e s i d e n c e : (a) l i v i n g w i t h own  family  (b) room w i t h b o a r d  (st«te d i s t r i c t )  (c) room w i t h o u t board  (state d i s t r i c t ) . . . , , , . . . . . . . ,  (d) U n i v e r s i t y r e s i d e n c e o t h e r than A c a d i a  (specify)  (e) o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 3. D i d you t r y to get o t h e r accommodation b e f o r e you came t o A c a d i a ? . . . k. L e n g t h of r e s i d e n c e a t A c a d i a : number of r e g u l a r terms..... of summer s e s s i o n s ( i f any) T o t a l s t a y , i n months  number months.  B. Accommodation 1.  Do you share a room w i t h one  o t h e r person  two o t h e r s . . . . ,  2 . D i d you choose your room m a t e ( s ) 3. Are your f u r n i s h i n g s adequate?  I f n o t , what i s most l a c k i n g  or u n s a t i s f a c t o r y ? k. I s your r e n t (room and b o a r d ) l e s s than you would pay f o r the a l t e r n a t i v e s s p e c i f i e d a b o v e ? ( A ) . Yef.... No.... Don't know 5. Do you r e g a r d the c l o s e n e s s of A c a d i a t o the U n i v e r s i t y as advantage?  I f so, l i s t  reasons  an  -  2  72*  -  6. Do y o u c o n s i d e r y o u r m e a l s a t A c a d i a wholesome a n d s a t i s f a c t o r y ?  7. Do you. r e g a r d t h e d i n i n g room a s a " s o c i a b l e " a s s e t , i . e . , d o y o u l i k e g e t t i n g t o g e t h e r f o r t h e mid-day e v e n i n g , . . . , meals? 8. A p a r t f r o m  t h e above  ( 5 , 6) l i s t w h a t y o u c o n s i d e r :  (a) t h e b e s t f e a t u r e s o f ) your accommodation (b) t h e w o r s t  ,  )  •  ......  features of)...,  your accommodation  '..  ).  ..  C .. B u d g e t 1. What do y o u t h i n k , a t p r e s e n t p r i c e s , rent $  monthly  board $  i s reasonable  f o r monthly  .. .at A c a d i a ?  2. A r e y o u a b l e t o k e e p y o u r b u d g e t w i t h i n D.V.A. a l l o w a n c e s ? last .3.  (take  t e r m as a n e x a m p l e ) ........  Do y o u w o r k p a r t - t i m e ? . . . . . . . . I f s o , what k i n d o f w o r k ?  How many h o u r s  a week? ( a p p r o x . )  How much do y o u s p e n d p e r y e a r a t U n i v e r s i t y D.V.A. a l l o w a n c e ? 5. Do y o u p r e f e r  $ (a) paying  a t t h e e n d o f t h e month rate  o v e r a n d above  your  ' i n a d v a n c e p e r month Would y o u p r e f e r  (b) p a y i n g t o pay a s e p a r a t e  f o r meals?  6 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y how much do y o u s p e n d on f o o d p e r week, a d d i t i o n a l to r e g u l a r meals. ( E x c l u d e ' t o b a c c o , ha.rd l i q u o r . Include candy, snacks, beer, s o f t d r i n k s , e t c . ) *  - 3 PART I I D.  Participation in University Activities  Study 1, Where do y o u do most o f y o u r s t u d y i n g ? ( a ) L i b r a r y . . . . ( t o ) e l s e w h e r e on c a m p u s . . . . ( c ) A c a d i a d i n i n g room ( e v e n i n g ) . . . . ( d ) h u t 2.  Does l i v i n g  ....  3.  i n A c a d i a h e l p you  Reasons  to study....hinder  you  in  ,  Have y o u p a s s e d  a l l y o u r f i n a l exams t o d a t e ?  .  Y e s . . . . A l l except  ...  Social  Activities  k,  How  many c l u b s and  5.  What s p o r t s do y o u  8. L i s t  participate  to?  (number).  in? (Specify)  the r e c r e a t i o n h a l l at o t h e r not at a l l . . . . . .  societies,  (Specify).  s o c i e t i e s do y o u b e l o n g  6. Do y o u a t t e n d t h e F r i d a y n i g h t s o c i a l s occasionally not at a l l 7. Do y o u use occasionally  studying?  at A c a d i a :  regularly.....  times: f r e q u e n t l y . , . . .  s p o r t s , c o m m i t t e e s , e t c . , on w h i c h y o u  e x e c u t i v e member  ...  9. Do y o u h a v e many r e g u l a r f r i e n d s : o p p o s i t e sex.... b o t h sexes  among y o u r own  are  an .'«..,  sex o n l y . . . .  the  1 0 ( a ) . Do y o u a p p r o v e o f h a v i n g a m i x e d g r o u p o f r e s i d e n c e s ( i . e . f o r b o t h men and'women) i n t h e same a r e a , as a t p r e s e n t . . . . (b) Or do y o u t h i n k . s e p a r a t e r e s i d e n c e s o r r e s i d e n t i a l g r o u p s w o u l d be b e t t e r ? 11. ( F o r s t u d e n t s whose homes a r e i n G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r o n l y ) . W o u l d you p r e f e r t o l i v e i n a s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e ( e i t h e r 10a o r 10b type) r a t h e r t h a n l i v i n g a t home and c o m m u t i n g d a i l y ? Yes No Health 12. How many d a y s o f l e c t u r e s h a v e y o u m i s s e d on a c c o u n t o f i l l h e a l t h e t c . ? (Take l a s t t e r m as e x a m p l e ) days. .. 13.  How  o f t e n d u r i n g 19^8  or were i n h o s p i t a l ? ,  d i d you  need d o c t o r ' s  care  -  74.  Ur -  E. S e l f - G o v e r n m e n t and G e n e r a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 1.  Do y o u a p p r o v e o f s t u d e n t  partial.  self-government  f o r Acadia:  full  not necessary  2. Do y o u t h i n k a n e l e c t e d S t u d e n t  C o u n c i l i s t h e b e s t method?  3. A r e y o u s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f A c a d i a : c l e a n i n g maintenance and r e p a i r heating r e l a t i o n s w i t h the Porter.. . . ... other  (specify).  .,  k-. I f y o u have c o m p l a i n t s i n r e f e r e n c e t o A c a d i a , u s u a l l y go?  ,  ..  5. Have y o u a,ny s e t r u l e s i n r e g a r d t o b e h a v i o u r and p o s t e d up ( b ) a.s a v e r b a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g generally  t o whom do y o u , i n your hut ( a ) w r i t t e n only Are they  observed?...,...  6. Have y o u any specia.1 o b j e c t i o n s o r c o m p l a i n t s of o t h e r r e s i d e n t s ? 7.  , .  Do y o u l i k e  about the behaviour  ...  t h e idea, o f r e s i d e n t F a c u l t y members a s c o n s u l t a n t s  on w e l f a r e and r e l a t e d p r o b l e m s ? . . . , . F. R e s i d e n t i a l  Preferences  1. I f a new r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e were p l a n n e d , w h i c h w o u l d be y o u r p r e f e r e n c e s on s u c h p o i n t s a s t h e f o l l o w i n g : ( T i c k o n l y one f o r e a c h letter-group): A . ( l ) S i n g l e l a r g e b u i l d i n g . . . . . . ( 2 ) Group o f s m a l l e r b u i l d i n g s . . . . . . B. ( l ) L o u n g e s i n e a c h m a i n b u i l d i n g where men a n d women s t u d e n t s c a n meet s o c i a l l y ( 2 ) B u i l d i n g s r e s t r i c t e d t o one s e x o n l y . . . . . . . C. I f s e p a r a t e b u i l d i n g s f o r women a n d men,., b u t w i t h s o c i a l l o u n g e s , s h o u l d t h e s e b u i l d i n g s be ( l ) on d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e campus...... (2) a d j a c e n t t o a g e n e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e ' D. I n e a c h r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t :  ( l ) shared  rooms  ( 2 ) s i n g l e rooms ...... (3) d o r m i t o r y E. M e a l s : ( l ) s e p a r a t e d i n i n g rooms sexes)  (3)  (two persons).......  ( 2 ) common d i n i n g rooms  (both  same p r o v i s i o n f o r b o t h  F. M a r r i e d s t u d e n t s : ( l ) p r o v i s i o n f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s ( f a m i l y u n i t s , o r -apartments) w i t h i n t h e f a c i l i t i e s o f a g e n e r a l r e s i d e n t i a l c e n t r e (2) s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n f o r m a r r i e d s t u d e n t s . . . . . . . .  75. F-2.  5 ~  Any comments o r s u g g e s t i o n s on s t u d e n t r e s i d e n c e s - t h e k i n d y o u t h i n k w o u l d be most p r e f e r a b l e , t h e i r a d v a n t a g e s o r disadvantages, e t c .  


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