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Cultural arts in group work agencies McCosham, Beverley Jane Jerome 1951

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CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP WORK AGENCIES  by BEVERLEY JANE JEROME M COSHAM c  T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work  1951 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia  CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP WORK AGENCIES. T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e s p e c i a l v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s . F i r s t , t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t c u l t u r a l a r t s make t o the b r o a d e r f i e l d o f r e c r e a t i o n i s s t u d i e d . Then t h e r e a r e more d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f the segments o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. S o c i a l group workers s h o u l d know some o f the b a s i c concepts o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f such a programme and i t s f u n c t i o n i n the t o t a l agency s t r u c t u r e . Special s e c t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d on s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l a r t s as programme c o n t e n t : music, d a n c i n g , p a i n t i n g , drawing and d e s i g n , drama and t h e a t r e , ceramics, o t h e r c u l t u r a l programmes. The v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l a r t s t o t h e members and how the l e a d e r uses t h e a r t s i n h e l p i n g the member develop a r e i m p o r t a n t . The b r o a d e r aims o f c u l t u r a l a r t s and the way i n which a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s established are discussed. M a t e r i a l used i n t h i s t h e s i s was gathered from many group work a g e n c i e s . R e p l i e s t o a s e t o f q u e s t i o n s were r e c e i v e d from t w e n t y - s i x p e o p l e who r e p r e s e n t e d e l e v e n r e c r e a t i o n a g e n c i e s i n Canada, and f i f t e e n a g e n c i e s i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . Y.M.C.A's, Y.W.C.A's, s e t t l e m e n t houses, neighbourhood houses, and community c e n t r e s a r e r e p r e s e n t e d . The main m a t e r i a l i s d e r i v e d from i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s t a f f p e o p l e from f o u r Vancouver agencies: The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , The Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Gordon Neighbourhood House ( b o t h S e n i o r and J u n i o r h o u s e s ) , and A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House. Other i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from correspondence. The study throws l i g h t on t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes can make t o group work a g e n c i e s . C u l t u r a l a r t s help t o d e v e l o p the p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e members and p r o v i d e an e x c e l l e n t medium through which l e a d e r s can work e f f e c t i v e l y . A r t s p r e s e n t e x c e p t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y and r i c h n e s s o f programme c o n t e n t . Cultural arts programmes can be a p a r t o f t h e t o t a l p h i l o s o p h y and f u n c t i o n o f t h e agency. The e v i d e n c e i s , t h a t i n group work a g e n c i e s , c u l t u r a l a r t s have n o t r e c e i v e d the emphasis t h a t should be p l a c e d on them. Examples reviewed i n t h i s study show t h a t a r t and s o c i a l group work a r e c o m p a t i b l e . There seems t o be a tendency f o r c u l t u r a l a r t s t o be more developed i n l o n g e r e s t a b l i s h e d a g e n c i e s . I t remains f o r t h e s m a l l e r and "younger" group work agencies to r e a l i z e the values inherent i n c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The development o f a r t a c t i v i t y i n group work a g e n c i e s depends upon an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The t o t a l p i c t u r e shows t h a t the broad v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n group work a g e n c i e s a r e r e c o g n i z e d f a r more than they a r e p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e .  TABLE Of CONTENTS. Chapter 1 .  >  Contribution of Cultural Arts to Recreation.  An introduction to recreation, l e i s u r e , and the f o c a l point of the present study. D e f i n i t i o n of culture, c u l t u r a l a r t s , and group work agency. The influence of c u l t u r a l arts on leisure-time agencies, and the national implications. A r t as i t a f f e c t s a l l groups of people. Chapter 2 .  Administration  of Cultural"Arts Programmes.  Four Vancouver agencies compared. Some comparisons with agencies i n Canada and the United States. Origins of such programmes. Means of determining members' i n t e r e s t s . Finance. F a c i l i t i e s . Community Music Schools. Chapter 3.  Content of Cultural Arts Programmes.  The values of music, dancing, painting, drawing and design, drama and theatre, ceramics, other c u l t u r a l arts programmes. Attendance and desirable group s i z e . Mass programmes. A review of group work agencies i n and outside Vancouver. Chapter J+.  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Cultural Arts Programmes.  A discussion of the membership i n terms of the emphasis that i s placed on personality and on s k i l l . The people who come to c u l t u r a l arts programmes. Reasons why they come to c u l t u r a l arts programmes. Trends of c u l t u r a l arts i n group work agencies. Chapter 5.  Leadership i n Cultural Arts Programmes.  The a r t i s t : t r a i n i n g as i t e x i s t s : t r a i n i n g that, i s desirable. The s o c i a l group worker: necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s ; how the group worker helps i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Chapter 6.  Conclusions.  The aims of c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Demonstration of the need. ' Establishing a c u l t u r a l arts programme i n r e l a t i o n to the members, the leader, the programme content, and the administrative structure. Challenge to group workers. Appendices: A B C D  Sample of the l e t t e r . Sample of the questionnaire. Organizations represented i n r e p l i e s to questionnaires. Bibliography.  CHARTS LN THE TEXT '  Photographs o f P l a n s and Models o f two Okanagan Community (following  Centres  page 25)  P r i n t e d w i t h p e r m i s s i o n o f the a r c h i t e c t s .  CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP • WORK .AGENCIES-  - 1 CHAPTER I CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ARTS TO RECREATION. Introduction:  Recreation.  R e c r e a t i o n r e v e a l s t h e v e r y essence of. our p e r s o n .  Children,  a d o l e s c e n t s , and a d u l t s have an o p p o r t u n i t y , through r e c r e a t i o n , t o express t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and needs - those which can be s a t i s f i e d by t h e i n d i v i d u a l and those which a r e b e s t f u l f i l l e d by t h e group.  The r e - c r e a t i n g a s p e c t o f  r e c r e a t i o n o f t e n embraces.the r e - c r e a t i o n o f t h e p h y s i c a l , o r mental, o r e m o t i o n a l p a r t o f an i n d i v i d u a l , and t h e r e - c r e a t i o n o f something a p a r t from t h e p e r s o n .  specifically  I n e v e r y case, r e c r e a t i o n c u l t i v a t e s people and the  w o r l d i n which t h e y l i v e .  The v a l u e s o f r e c r e a t i o n a r e innumerable.  " A d u l t s need t o f i n d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s some o f t h e same s a t i s f a c t i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n " f i n d i n t h e i r p l a y : mastery over s e l f and over m a t e r i a l s , environment, and s i t u a t i o n s j wish-fulfillment; some f a n t a s y ; some escape from r e a l i t y and t h e superego (conscience); f u n and l a u g h t e r ; and the norms f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g h e l p f u l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " More emphasis i s b e i n g p l a c e d on the v a l u e s o f l e i s u r e time i n the growth o f the i n d i v i d u a l ;  t h i s i s a r e s u l t o f the -trends i n our d a i l y  which a l l o w more " f r e e " time.  Increased mechanization i n i n d u s t r y n e c e s s i t a t e s  a d d i t i o n a l time f o r l e i s u r e . . Employers i n a s h o r t e r time now; because  f i n d t h a t more work i s accomplished  b u t t h e p r o f i c i e n c y o f employees d e c r e a s e s more r a p i d l y  o f t h e r e p e t i t i o n i n v o l v e d i n mass p r o d u c t i o n type o f work.  l e i s u r e f o r employees pays! homemakers;  living  More  S i m i l a r f a c t o r s a r e t r u e i n the l i v e s o f our  s c i e n t i f i c gadgets a r e m i n i m i z i n g housework time.  Unemployment  i n c r e a s e s because machine work i s d d i s p l a c i n g man-labour, w i t h t h e r e s u l t leisure  time i s even f o r c e d upon p e o p l e .  Leisure. George Lundberg (1)  describes leisure  adequately;  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 194-9, p 2 0 9 .  Cambridge,  that  " L e i s u r e i s p o p u l a r l y d e f i n e d as the t i m e we are f r e e f r o m the moie o b v i o u s and f o r m a l d u t i e s , which a p a i d job o r o t h e r o b l i g a t o r y o c c u p a t i o n imposes upon us..-.. I n a l i m i t e d sense, l e i s u r e i s p r i m a r i l y an a t t i t u d e , a s t a t e o f mind, a p r o c e s s o f p l e a s u r a b l e adjustment t o one's s i t u a t i o n . L e i s u r e i n t h i s s u b j e c t i v e s e n s e w i l l always depend.upon p e r s o n a l i t y , temperament, e d u c a t i o n , and t h e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t have preceded." Recreation  i s t h e a c t i v i t y o f o u r l e i s u r e time and i s i n no way an escape  i n t o nothingness.  Recreation  h e l p s t o r e v e a l and t o develop the  personality  of people. Focus. Because o f the broad scope o f such a s u b j e c t , on one a s p e c t o f r e c r e a t i o n , s p e c i f i c a l l y , leisure-time agencies.  t h i s study w i l l  focus  the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n  What a r e t h e v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n  l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s and what a r e t h e advantages and d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f o r g a n i z i n g such programmes? t h i s instance,  Co-ordination  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  i s being omitted.  programmes w i t h i n  on t h e community l e v e l , i n  T h i s study i s - c o n c e r n e d  t h e Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n ,  w i t h the c u l t u r a l the Young Women's  C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e s e t t l e m e n t house, the neighbourhood house, and the community c e n t r e .  I t i s an i n t e n s i v e and i n t e r n a l view o f c u l t u r a l a r t s as  programme media. The more g e n e r a l membership, and l e a d e r s h i p  implications o f administration,  a r e discussed a s they r e l a t e t o c u l t u r a l a r t s  programmes i n t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g . from these Vancouver a g e n c i e s :  Interviews  were made w i t h s t a f f members  The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e  Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , and  programme content,  Gordon Neighbourhood House ( b o t h  Senior  J u n i o r houses), and A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House. C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n f o u r Vancouver a g e n c i e s and i n agencies  o u t s i d e Vancouver a r e compared. (2)  A questionnaire  Lundberg, George A., L e i s u r e : U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1934-  was used to compile t h i s  a Suburban Study. New York, Columbia  -  information;  3  -  the i n t e r v i e w schedule was  a l s o based on t h i s s e t o f q u e s t i o n s .  Twenty-six r e p l i e s were r e c e i v e d from people r e p r e s e n t i n g a g e n c i e s than the f o u r Vancouver c e n t r e s .  A d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n was  other  r e c e i v e d from  correspondence. I n Canada, a t o t a l o f eleven r e p l i e s came from people who nine c i t i e s . two  Two  represented  o f these s e t s o f q u e s t i o n s were answered-by I.M.C.A. people;  o t h e r s e t s came from Y.W.C.A's.  The m a j o r i t y o f r e p l i e s - c a m e  from c e n t r e s  i n Ontario. Ten  c i t i e s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the f i f t e e n r e p l i e s t h a t a r r i v e d from •  the U n i t e d S t a t e s .  Of these, f i v e answers r e p r e s e n t e d Y.W.C.A. t h i n k i n g .  The  (3) remainder were r e c e i v e d f r o m s e t t l e m e n t houses. Definition. F o r the purpose o f t h i s study,  " f i n e arts'", • o r more i n c l u s i v e l y  " c u l t u r a l a r t s " , have been g i v e n a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - those a r t s i n which the mind and i m a g i n a t i o n a r e c h i e f l y concerned. music, dancing, p a i n t i n g , . d r a w i n g architecture,  Thus, c u l t u r a l a r t s i n c l u d e  and d e s i g n , engraving, drama and t h e a t r e ,  s c u l p t u r e and m o d e l l i n g , and d e c o r a t i o n and ornament.-  u s u a l meaning, a r t presupposes t h a t an element o f s k i l l i s i n v o l v e d ; toward something b e a u t i f u l . and d i f f e r e n t from n a t u r e .  The  In i t s a r t aims  end r e s u l t o f a r t i s a p r o d u c t u s u a l l y v i s i b l e  However, s o c i a l group workers'are v e r y i n t e r e s t e d  i n the i n v i s i b l e p r o d u c t s o f a r t programmes, and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The way  i n which the a r t develops,  the r e s u l t s o f the a c t i v i t y , and the  o f the f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t on the p a r t i c i p a n t , a r e o f utmost importance.. group workers a r e p r i m a r i l y concerned t o one another,  to- the l e a d e r , and  (3)  Social  with r e l a t i o n s h i p s - of'the i n d i v i d u a l s  t o the programme i t s e l f .  medium through w h i c h these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are D i f f e r e n t meanings may  effects  The a c t i v i t y i s a  expressed.  a p p l y to the word " c u l t u r e " -  civilization  F o r a complete l i s t o f O r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d i n r e p l i e s to/questionnaires, See Appendix C.  _ 4 i n the sense o f development;  as a p p l i e d to an i n d i v i d u a l ,  s o r t o f i n t e l l e c t u a l refinement.  C u l t u r e emphasizes development, o r advancement,  o r improvement o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r the group, whole s o c i e t y .  culture implies a  o r on a b r o a d e r p l a n e , o f the  T h i s study i s concerned w i t h c u l t u r a l a r t programmes i n group  work a g e n c i e s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e i r e f f f e c t s on the i n d i v i d u a l and on the group.  However, the broader c u l t u r e o f the whole s o c i e t y i s i n v o l v e d .  i n d i v i d u a l , the group, will  and s o c i e t y are i n t e r d e p e n d e n t , b u t t h i s  The  investigation  f o c u s on the i n d i v i d u a l and on the group and omit the broader  implications.  I f the p h i l o s o p h y o f the worth o f every i n d i v i d u a l and h i s r i g h t s as a human b e i n g i s accepted, i t f o l l o w s t h a t c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y must be a t the d i s p o s a l of  everyone. " L e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s " d e s c r i b e s i n one phrase, a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f  r e c r e a t i o n a l establishments. these agencies.  Members spend t h e i r l e i s u r e hours p r o f i t a b l y i n  I n a r e c r e a t i o n a l c o n t e x t , s o c i a l group work comprises  methods o f f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r - a c t i o n between members o f a group so t h a t b e n e f i t by the b e s t t h a t r e c r e a t i o n has to o f f e r . i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i n g p r o c e s s a s an e n a b l i n g person. "how" two  the they  The worker p a r t i c i p a t e s S o c i a l group work i s the  o f r e c r e a t i o n , the means o f i m p r o v i n g q u a l i t y i n the group e x p e r i e n c e i n areas:  t h a t o f h e l p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s develop e m o t i o n a l l y , m e n t a l l y and  physically;  and t h a t o f h e l p i n g the group a c h i e v e d e s i r a b l e aims. 1  group work p r o c e s s i s d e m o c r a t i c ;  i t i s educational;  method f o r workers to use i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s . i n mind t h a t the p o p u l a r term  The  social  i t i s the d e s i r a b l e I t i s w i t h these t h i n g s  "group work agency" (which i m p l i e s use o f the  group work method i n the agency) w i l l h e r e a f t e r be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h the term  " l e i s u r e - t i m e agency".  Setting. The Young Men's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n s , the s e t t l e m e n t house, the neighbourhood  house, and the community c e n t r e are group work a g e n c i e s  i n which c u l t u r a l - a r t s are made a v a i l a b l e t o p e o p l e .  The Y i s both an  - 5 organization and a"movement, which fosters 'understanding, j u s t i c e , and opportunity  f o r people i n countries throughout the world.  Democracy and  Christian f a i t h are coupled i h serving young people, and are symbolized by the triangular aim of achieving physical health, mental growth, and s p i r i t u a l strength.  I t i s necessary to introduce national and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  implications whenever the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. are being considered. organization i s autonomous, and i s indigenous to i t s own  country.  Each  This  independence fosters a variety of a c t i v i t y within a single purpose. . A national organization helps to bring i n d i v i d u a l organizations together and to develop a common philosophy.  Because of t h e i r experience,.  s t a f f members of a national organization also provide services of a kind that no agency can give I t s e l f - such as advice' on programme and on building. National employees r e c r u i t , t r a i n , and place personnel, and have a r e l a t i o n s h i p to men  and women i n the armed forces.  Staff people of a national  organization  also provide a general service which i s p r i n c i p a l l y related to programme; they supply materials on music, business,  and a r t .  Programme i n a Y must be  rooted i n the purpose and function of the association.  The purpose of the Y  i s to meet the f e l t and growing needs of i t s membership and community, and to undertake to b u i l d a responsible membership which ultimately d i r e c t s the organization, so that i t may  be a b e n e f i c i a l s o c i a l force.  The next leisure-time agencies to develop h i s t o r i c a l l y were the settlement houses. England i n I884.. Individuals who  Toynbee H a l l , the f i r s t settlement house, was  founded i n  The settlement house movement also developed i n North America. had something worthwhile to o f f e r to poverty stricken people,  came to stay i n these settlement houses and teach t h e i r s k i l l to the needy families l i v i n g there. - A missionary zeal was workers.  apparent i n settlement house  - 6 A resume o f the h i s t o r i c a l development o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n s e t t l e m e n t houses on the c o n t i n e n t , shows development i n the e a s t e r n U n i t e d S t a t e s from 1886  to 1896.  There were l e c t u r e s i n c o n c e r t h a l l s ,  amateur  d r a m a t i c s , p i c t u r e e x h i b i t i o n s , c l a s s e s i n music, drawing, and m o d e l l i n g . 1891,  H u l l House i n Chicago  choral societies.  had a g a l l e r y and  s t u d i o , and o t h e r c e n t r e s  G r a p h i c - p l a s t i c a r t s were developed  came to the f o r e , so t h a t by 1915, the " l i t t l e theater" movement was  later.  were f o r t y - t h r e e music s c h o o l s and departments founded; p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the dance movement.  s e t t l e m e n t houses, and  the  developed;  A t the same t i m e ,  there  settlements also  A r t g a l l e r i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d .  t h a t time much p r o g r e s s has been made i n e s t a b l i s h i n g c u l t u r a l in  had  a f t e r t h i s and drama  i n t e r s e t t l e m e n t drama l e a g u e s had  to be developed  In  endeavour has proven worthwhile.  Since  activities Music  critic  O l i n Downes, enumerates the v a l u e s o f m u s i c a l • a c t i v i t i e s i n s e t t l e m e n t houses: " I do n o t know o f any e d u c a t i o n a l work i n music which I c o n s i d e r as a whole o f such v a l u e to the p o p u l a t i o n o f New York C i t y 'as the work t h a t the music s e t t l e m e n t s c h o o l s are c o n d u c t i n g . . . they a r e f o s t e r i n g s u b s t a n t i a l m u s i c a l accomplishment, the development o f t a s t e , the l o v e o f a r t and a d i s c r i m i n a t i n g a p p r e c i a t i o n cof\ t h e p a r t o f a stratum o f p o p u l a t i o n which would n o t o t h e r w i s e be reached a t a l l . In Europe i t has been e a s i e r , i n the p a s t , f o r the boy o r g i r l born i n p o v e r t y to secure e x c e l l e n t m u s i c a l t r a i n i n g than i t has been i n America, but i n s o f a r as the work o f the m u s i c a l s e t t l e m e n t has spread t h i s c o n d i t i o n has been remedied. Not o n l y t h i s : the d i s t r i c t s a f f e c t e d by t h i s m u s i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n a r e n u c l e i from which h i g h e r m u s i c a l standards w i l l be c e r t a i n to spread and r a d i a t e a r t i s t i c b e n e f i t to i n c r e a s i n g numbers o f the p o p u l a t i o n . I f democracy means a n y t h i n g a t a l l i t means t h a t a c u l t u r e must have i t s r o o t s down deep i n the human s o i l . " I t i s p o s s i b l e f o r p e o p l e t o r e c e i v e comparable advantages from other arts i n s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s . The neighbourhood house i s a more r e c e n t development o f the house.  (4)  Workers u s u a l l y do n o t l i v e i n the neighbourhood house.  N a t i o n a l Federation of Settlements, New York, 194-6.  Settlements  The  settlement agency  60th A n n i v e r s a r y .  aims to serve a l l people who  7  -  l i v e i n a d e f i n e d area;  i t i s these  people's  r i g h t to b e n e f i t by the neighbourhood house s e r v i c e . The n e x t r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g which made c u l t u r a l a v a i l a b l e t o p e o p l e was  activities  the community c e n t r e .  "A community c e n t r e has been d e s c r i b e d as a p l a c e w i t h i n easy r e a c h o f home where i t i s p o s s i b l e to meet f r i e n d s and neighbours ... a s o r t o f community l i v i n g room, c r a f t shop, gym, workshop and c o n c e r t h a l l r o l l e d i n t o one. I t i s a p l a c e where you can enjoy the l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s you have always wanted t o take p a r t i n . I t i s a c l u b f o r the community, open to everyone i n t h e neighbourhood r e g a r d l e s s o f economic p o s i t i o n , creed, r a c e or colour." T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n might a l s o a p p l y to the modern concept o f  settlement  and neighbourhood houses. Group work a g e n c i e s a man's o c c u p a t i o n .  should p r o v i d e a c t i v i t y which w i l l  I f much o f a person's  complement  working day i n i n d u s t r y i s  concerned w i t h a s p e c i f i c t a s k , then the r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e should p r o v i d e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y which w i l l b r i n g r e l a x a t i o n f o r him and which w i l l i n r e - c r e a t i n g h i s energy and o u t l o o k .  Group work a g e n c i e s s h o u l d  s e r v i c e s which e x i s t i n the neighbourhood.  P e o p l e p r e f e r to do  assist  supplement  something  more c r e a t i v e than to dipend on commercial e n t e r t a i n m e n t - l e i s u r e - t i m e c e n t r e s a r e a b l e to s a t i s f y t h i s need.  The home as the p l a c e to spend l e i s u r e  time i s g r a d u a l l y weakening, p a r t l y because o f l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . The g r o u p work agency i s a l s o b e i n g l o o k e d to as a p l a c e f o r s o c i a l  life.  "In the expansion o f t r u e community c e n t r e s (group work a g e n c i e s ) , Canada may w e l l f i n d h e r s e l f as a n a t i o n . The c e n t r e s w i l l be s c h o o l s o f democratic l i v i n g and c i t i z e n s h i p . The r i c h e r and more v a r i e d s o c i a l l i f e o f Canadians w i l l be m a n i f e s t n o t o n l y i n the neighbourhood but throughout the c o u n t r y as a whole. The broader outlook and wider i n t e r e s t s o f the i n d i v i d u a l and o f the l o c a l community w i l l c r e a t e a new community o f i n t e r e s t s on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e . The community c e n t r e ( l e i s u r e - t i m e agency) movement w i l l p r o v i d e a new o u t l e t f o r the work o f m u s i c i a n s , p a i n t e r s , a c t o r s , s c u l p t o r s and o t h e r a r t i s t s and so g i v e a tremendous s t i m u l u s to the a r t s i n Canada... (5)  Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , P r o p o s a l s f o r Government A c t i o n To A s s i s t Community C e n t r e s and L e i s u r e Time Programmes i n Canada, 1946, p i .  - 8 A community c e n t r e (group work agency) designed to meet the needs o f the whole community, and whose programme i s broad enough t o i n c l u d e the f a m i l y as the important u n i t i n the community can be o f , g r e a t h e l p i n p r e s e r v i n g the u n i t y , and hence the happiness, o f the home." Group workers can h e l p people use t h e i r l e i s u r e hours p r o f i t a b l y ? t h e y can enable members to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l c o u n t e r a c t  the  d e f i c i e n c i e s t h e y meet i n l i f e . National  Effect. The  r e c r e a t i o n movement i n Canada can a l s o be a workshop to t e a c h  tbe- democratic musicians,  l i v i n g and  to d i s t r i b u t e the work o f Canadian p a i n t e r s ,  a c t o r s and o t h e r a r t i s t s .  The  e x t e n s i v e use o f c u l t u r a l  i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i l l h e l p to t r a n s c e n d c l a s s , p o l i t i c a l ,  activities economic  and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and w i l l a s s i s t i n b r i n g i n g about a c u l t u r a l u n i t y . C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l a l s o v i t a l i z e and g i v e n a t i o n a l meaning to r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n Canada. and they w i l l  Such programmes w i l l r a i s e standards o f l o c a l  c o n t r i b u t e to mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f Canadians.  a c t i v i t i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n can work f o r n a t i o n a l u n i t y .  activity,  Cultural  They can h e l p to  develop  happier people,  and they can enable Canadians to a c h i e v e a unique p o s i t i o n i n  the w o r l d .  c r e a t i v e a r t s stand i n an i m p o r t a n t p o s i t i o n i n the economy  The  o f the n a t i o n i O t h e r b a s i c c o n t r i b u t i o n s ( b e s i d e s Canadian u n i t y ) are p o s s i b l e through  the use o f c u l t u r a l a r t s i n group work a g e n c i e s .  benefits.  These are  social  P e o p l e i n r u r a l communities are u s u a l l y n o t f o r t u n a t e i n having  the o p p o r t u n i t y <mf w i t n e s s i n g o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c u l t u r a l a r t s i n t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n , so t h a t they may  become more d i s c o n t e n t e d and f r u s t r a t e d .  Cultural  a c t i v i t i e s can h e l p t o b r i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r and to g i v e them a f e e l i n g o f worthwhileness and  (6)  s o c i a b i l i t y and happiness.  A r t can be u n i v e r s a l l y  understood.  C o r b e t t , E.A., "Why Community C e n t r e s ? " H e a l t h . November-December T o r o n t o , H e a l t h League o f Canada, p 6.  194.7,  -  9  -  Why s h o u l d i t n o t be used t o h e l p p e o p l e a p p r e c i a t e and understand one another? By g i v i n g a l l p e o p l e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l group workers a r e n o t p r e s u p p o s i n g t h a t m a s t e r p i e c e s w i l l be produced. i s a n a t i o n o f a r t i s t s the aim.  arts, Nor  The i n d i v i d u a l i s h e l p e d t o develop a mature,  well-rounded p e r s o n a l i t y by c r e a t i n g and a p p r e c i a t i n g the f i n e a r t s . v a r i e t y o f p e o p l e tend t o come t o c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s .  A  Group workers have  an o p p o r t u n i t y t o i n t e r e s t t h e s e people i n o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s ; t h e s e members i n t u r n w i l l a t t r a c t a wider r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e neighbourhood t h a t group work a g e n c i e s sometimes l a c k .  Those who have e n t e r e d t h e a c t i v i t i e s  on a s u p e r f i c i a l b a s i s may become permanently A comparison  interested i n art.  o f c u l t u r a l a r t s with sports.  A comparison  o f c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h s p o r t s , and o f t h e people  who p a r t i c i p a t e i n b o t h these a c t i v i t i e s , h e l p s t o e x e m p l i f y t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f c u l t u r a l a r t s to r e c r e a t i o n .  Both c u l t u r a l a r t s and s p o r t s p r o v i d e  o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t to r e l e a s e energy - p h y s i c a l and emotional and  they p r o v i d e p l e a s u r e and s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r him.  A p e r s o n may r e g a r d each  a c t i v i t y on t h e f u n l e v e l o r he may become h i g h l y s k i l l e d and p r o f e s s i o n a l . P h y s i c a l and mental dancing b a l l e t . themselves.  f a c u l t i e s a r e employed i n p l a y i n g a s o f t b a l l game and i n  C u l t u r a l a r t s and s p o r t s p r o v i d e a means by which people express  S p o r t s . a n d a r t s a l s o b r i n g p e o p l e t o g e t h e r so t h a t t h e y have an'  o p p o r t u n i t y t o meet one another.  These p a r t i c i p a n t s o r s p e c t a t o r s may wish t o  meet people w i t h t h e same i n t e r e s t s .  There i s a s p e c t a t o r element i n both  watching a s p o r t and i n admiring a c u l t u r a l a r t s p r o j e c t .  P e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e  i n a s p o r t a r e a k i n i n t h a t t h e y seek s a t i s f a c t i o n s which a r e s i m i l a r t o those t h a t o t h e r p e o p l e f i n d i n t h e same a c t i v i t y .  The same may be s a i d f o r c u l t u r a l  arts participants. P e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l a r t s and i n s p o r t s o f t e n c o n c e n t r a t e  - 10 physical in  s k i l l i n a p a r t o f the body- i n the hands i n drawing, and  figure skating.  same p e r s o n can  f i n i s h e d product.  The  breathing,  For  o f music.  a s p o r t and conclusion  continuously  the p a r t s o f a whole and  example, the  swimmer can  The  participant requires  a cultural art.  The  o f a' d r a m a t i c p l a y are  the game i n t o " q u a r t e r s " ,  evolve  t u r n w e l l and  stroke.  learning  amounts o f time to  Both t o t a l u n i t s are and  control  i n t o a good swimming  completion o f a game o f b a s k e t b a l l  "time-out" p e r i o d s ,  action  to  as a n e c e s s a r y p a r t o f  varying  the u n i t s .  the  a c c o m p l i s h e x c e l l e n t arm  he w i l l a l s o l e a r n to k i c k and  the p i a n i s t p e r f e c t s a t r i l l  sport,  c r e a t i v e ones i n t h a t  eventually  so t h a t these s k i l l s can be i n t e g r a t e d  In a s i m i l a r way, a piece  a c t i v i t i e s are  create  as a step i n l e a r n i n g ; his  feet  I t takes a l o n g p e r i o d o f time to develop s k i l l i n a  or i n a c u l t u r a l a r t . the  i n the  complete  and  the  subdivided -  the d r a m a t i c p l a y i n t o  acts,  scenes. The  p l a y i n g f i e l d f o r a s p o r t i s o f t e n marked, perhaps f o r rugby.  S i m i l a r l y , the p i a n i s t i s l i m i t e d to the piano keyboard. mind i s f o c u s e d on a f a c t o r o u t s i d e the  shuttlecock.  a painting,  himself.  I n a r t , the p e r s o n may  O f t e n the  I n a badminton game, t h i s may  f o c u s on  s i n g i n g ) , and  i n a sport  the end r e s u l t o f the a c t i v i t y  participate i n a c u l t u r a l art (choir  (hockey game).  between group members are n e c e s s a r y . programmes, the i n d i v i d u a l has  In both a c t i v i t i e s  In c u l t u r a l a r t s and  relationships physical  I t i s not  i m p e r a t i v e f o r the person to form a p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n r e l a t i o n s h i p ! w i s h to l i m i t h i m s e l f  to a p e r s o n - t o - a c t i v i t y  the punching bag  C h a r a c t e r and  education  an o p p o r t u n i t y to form good r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h  o t h e r s i f the a c t i v i t y i s t a k i n g p l a c e i n a group s e t t i n g .  and  be  a vase.  A group o r team o f p e o p l e may  painting  participant's  he  always may  r a p p o r t - as the canvas i n a  i n boxing.  sportsmanship and  a t t i t u d e s a r e important i n a r t s  -  -  and  11  -  i n s p o r t s , because each member may be a p a r t o f a group which works o r  plays co-operatively.  There i s u s u a l l y some s h a r i n g o f equipment w i t h the  members, and t h i s i n c r e a s e s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r good group  co-operation.  P e o p l e a r e l i k e l y t o v e r b a l i z e a p p r e c i a t i o n when they a r e w i t n e s s i n g a b a l l e t and when they a r e watching a f o o t b a l l game. as  Peop l e f i n d t h a t e i t h e r  s p e c t a t o r s , o r a u d i t o r s , o r p a r t i c i p a t o r s , t h a t c u l t u r a l a r t s and s p o r t s "  can be i n v i g o r a t i n g and i n s p i r i n g and. s o o t h i n g . There a r e some d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between s p o r t s and c u l t u r a l a r t s . the p a s t ,  c u l t u r a l a r t s have c a t e r e d  the younger, more a c t i v e p e r s o n .  t o o l d e r p e o p l e and s p o r t s have a t t r a c t e d  I n t h e same way, t h e a r t s have become more  common t o people who a r e i n more f o r t u n a t e  economic p o s i t i o n s ;  have had o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o l e a r n a r t as a l e i s u r e - t i m e p u r s u i t . to be common t o a l l c l a s s e s and t y p e s o f p e o p l e . a s l a b o f wood w i l l has  an. o p p o r t u n i t y  this,  In  s u f f i c e f o r a b a s e b a l l bat.  Sports  these p e o p l e Sports  seem  equipment i s p l e n t i f u l -  In c u l t u r a l a r t s , the p a r t i c i p a n t  to express h i s innermost thoughts and needs;  and because o f  s o - c a l l e d "odd" and "temperamental" people,'who d e s i r e s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ,  have engaged i n c u l t u r a l a r t s .  Sports  more rugged type o f i n d i v i d u a l .  seem t o a t t r a c t ' ; the hearty,  I t i s too g e n e r a l  active,  t o say t h a t i n t r o v e r t e d  p e o p l e a r e a t t r a c t e d to c u l t u r a l a r t s and e x t r o v e r t s have a tendency to g r a v i t a t e toward  sports.  Many c u l t u r a l a r t s a r e s e d e n t a r y and most s p o r t s a r e a c t i v e ; o f t h i s r e s u l t s from the u s u a l  s e t t i n g i n which the two take p l a c e .  part  The  s e t t i n g i n which p e o p l e p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a r t i s u s u a l l y q u i t e f i x e d because i t i s often, a small  space and i n d o o r s ;  this i n i t s e l f  c r e a t e s a more  contained,  sometimes q u i e t and supposedly " r e f i n e d " atmosphere than t h a t i n . w h i c h are p l a y e d . boisterous  Sports  sports  r e q u i r e an atmosphere t h a t i s more c o n d u c t i v e t o c a r e f r e e ,  a c t i v i t y , i n an o u t - o f - d o o r s s e t t i n g o r i n a l a r g e i n d o o r  space.  C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , a r e o f t e n imposed on a p e r s o n - by who  t h i n k t h a t having t h e i r c h i l d p r o f i c i e n t i n one o f the a r t s i s the  t h i n g to do.  Almost everyone p l a y s a s p o r t - i t g i v e s  a chance to express power, p r o f i c i e n c y and energy.  a chance t o express h i s i m a g i n a t i v e and too o f t e n he encounters The  "right"  I n s t e a d , p a r e n t s should r e a l i z e and h e l p the c h i l d know the  i n h e r e n t v a l u e s i n the p u r s u i t . one  parents  a b a r r i e r known as " s k i l l " which l i m i t s  And y e t people  s h o u l d have  creative a b i l i t i e s i n a cultural art;  s i m i l a r i t i e s between c u l t u r a l a r t s and  d i s s i m i l a r elements.  A person  s p o r t s f a r outweigh the  seldom c o n s i d e r t h a t b o t h  make comparable c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o r e c r e a t i o n .  participation.  activities  I f more group workers r e a l i z e d  the v a l u e s t h a t c u l t u r a l a r t s make to the development o f p e o p l e ,  they would  i n t r o d u c e more c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y i n t o group work agency programmes. E f f e c t on d a i l y  living.  I f c u l t u r a l a r t s were o f f e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes, t h e r e would be r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n the d a i l y l i v e s o f people; a e s t h e t i c v a l u e s would be i n c r e a s e d .  their  Every-day a c t i v i t i e s such as d e c o r a t i n g a  house, a r r a n g i n g f u r n i t u r e and s e r v i n g meals, would assume a r t i s t i c C u l t u r a l a r t s would a f f e c t the m a n u f a c t u r i n g  importance.  i n d u s t r i e s considerably; more than  (7) they have done i n the p a s t . "Balanced" P e r s o n a l i t y . C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r people t h e i r l e i s u r e time c o n s t r u c t i v e l y .  to spend  "Balance" i n c h o i c e o f r e c r e a t i o n and  l e i s u r e - t i m e p u r s u i t s i s something toward which i n d i v i d u a l s should s t r i v e i f they want to develop h e a l t h y p e r s o n a l i t i e s .  An i n c r e a s e o f c u l t u r a l  activities  i n r e c r e a t i o n w i l l h e l p t o o f f s e t t h e d e a r t h o f c r e a t i v e n e s s i n the mucha d v e r t i s e d commercial r e c r e a t i o n .  In an a r t programme, a person has a good  o p p o r t u n i t y t o d i r e c t h i s ambition  toward a c t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an  (7)  activity  Canada, P a r l i a m e n t , House o f Commons, S p e c i a l Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Re-establishment. Minutes o f P r o c e e d i n g s and Evidence No 10., 1934-.  w h l c h may  bring forth his talents.  1  3-  T h i s element o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l  help  to combat the monotony t h a t i s found too f r e q u e n t l y i n d a i l y l i v i n g ; w i l l n o t f i n d i t n e c e s s a r y to seek the commercial e n t e r t a i n m e n t p r o v i d e s .  The  sensationalism  and  people  excitement t h a t  a r t s f u r n i s h people w i t h an  opportunity  f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h a t c r e a t i v i t y i n o t h e r s . are c o n s t r u c t i v e l y busy and have the f e e l i n g t h a t t h e y are  c o n t r i b u t i n g to a  community, t h e y w i l l n o t be so l i k e l y to t u r n to d e s t r u c t i v e C o n t r i b u t i o n to  I f people  activity.  s p e c i a l groups.  J u s t as c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s make a marked c o n t r i b u t i o n . t o  the  r e c r e a t i o n o f the m a j o r i t y  groups o f s o c i e t y , they a l s o p l a y a p a r t i n h e l p i n g  s p e c i a l groups o f p e o p l e .  S o c i a l group workers a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g  adjusted,  a sound, w e l l -  harmonious group, which i m p l i e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n  group must have some o f these e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s .  F o r those who  this  need  t h e r a p y o r s p e c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n a d j u s t i n g to the environment, c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n group work a g e n c i e s have a t h e r a p u t i c v a l u e . a b l e to g r a p p l e  w i t h h i s own  u n d e r t a k i n g and when he i s ready,  broaden out to the g r o u p members by sharing, a r t m a t e r i a l s . a b l e to become f r i e n d s w i t h o t h e r members. not  c o n t r i b u t i n g t o the w o r l d , may  confidence  and  The  The  aged who  individual i s gradually  E v e n t u a l l y he i s  f e e l t h a t they a r e  be h e l p e d to g a i n a f e e l i n g o f  self-  worjhhwhileness by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y .  a r t s h e l p the unemployed to c o u n t e r a c t  f e e l i n g s of uselessness  and  Fine  despair,  t h a t so o f t e n come w i t h i d l e n e s s . - R a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s can a p p r e c i a t e b e a u t i f u l works o f a r t and art  can be h e l p e d to f e e l an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the c o u n t r y  making t h e i r / c o n t r i b u t i o n . art activity.  A l l c l a s s e s o f s o c i e t y are brought t o g e t h e r  C h i l d r e n , too, b e n e f i t from c u l t u r a l a r t s .  p a r a g r a p h shows how  by  The  in  following  a r t work i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s i s used i n the  education  -u and  development o f the t o t a l  child.  "She c l u b l e a d e r s i n s e t t l e m e n t s have found t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e to s t a r t w i t h c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t s and keep c h i l d r e n e a r n e s t l y and c r e a t i v e l y engaged i n such f i e l d s a s a r t , music, l i t e r a t u r e , e t c . , as w e l l as i n the more d i s t i n c t l y r e c r e a t i o n a l and a t h l e t i c t y p e s o f a c t i v i t y . In t h i s r e s p e c t the s e t t l e m e n t house has been a p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n f o r the a c a d e m i c a l l y minded t e a c h e r , and t e a c h e r s have been s t i m u l a t e d both to approach academic work as such i n a d i f f e r e n t manner and t o sense the development o f the c h i l d as a whole as a major o b j e c t i v e i n e d u c a t i o n . " »8) Recapitulation. The  development o f the i n d i v i d u a l as a whole!  g o a l o f s o c i a l group work, o f r e c r e a t i o n , and  T h i s i s the  ultimate  o f l e i s u r e time p u r s u i t s .  Plato  said, "The mere a t h l e t e becomes too much o f a savage, and the mere, m u s i c i a n i s m e l t e d and s o f t e n e d beyond what i s good f o r him...the two should t h e r e f o r e be blended i n r i g h t p r o p o r t i o n s . " ^9; In the same way,  the man  I t i s l i k e l y t h a t the work a man time.  a t work and  the man  does w i l l i n f l u e n c e how  he  one.  spends h i s l e i s u r e  I t i s i m p o r t a n t t h a t p e o p l e l e a r n to choose t h e i r l e i s u r e - t i m e  w i t h a view to d e v e l o p i n g  t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and  t h e r e f o r e they should  discover t h e i r talent. c r e a t i n g b e a u t i f u l and  be given an o p p o r t u n i t y  Spare time would then be useful articles,  and  activities  enriching their l i v e s .  i s thought t h a t a l l people.have rudimentary t a l e n t and thisj  a t p l a y are  a capacity f o r  It  developing  i n c u l t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n to  spent i n p r o d u c t i v e  ways - i n  i n r e - c r e a t i n g the p e r s o n .  E x p e r i e n c e i n s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , knowledge o f c o l o u r and  d e s i g n , and  skill in  making d e c i s i o n s are some b e n e f i t s ' t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s are a b l e to o b t a i n i f c u l t u r a l a r t s are i n c l u d e d i n and made more a c c e s s i b l e by  (8)  Thayer, V.T., New  (9)  (10)  " E t h i c a l Culture  Schools",  York, N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n  recreation.^^)  S e t t l e m e n t s 60th  M i t c h e l l , E.D., and Mason, B.S., The Theory o f P l a y . New A.S. Barnes and Company, 1934, p 19. W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., Houghton M i f f l i n Co.,  Anniversary.  o f S e t t l e m e n t s I n c . , 194.6. York,  S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Cambridge, 1949.  People w i l l  choose t h e i r l e i s u r e - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n s more w i s e l y i f t h e y have  an o p p o r t u n i t y to e x p e r i e n c e the v a l u e s o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes.  Further,  a knowledge o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , t h e c o n t e n t , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , and t h e l e a d e r o f a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s e s s e n t i a l f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t c u l t u r a l a r t s can make to members o f group work a g e n c i e s .  CHAPTER I I ADMINISTRATION OF CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s t h e method by which t h e t o t a l b u s i n e s s planning  o f t h e programme i s t r e a t e d .  This includes  and o r g a n i z i n g , d i r e c t i n g and c o - o r d i n a t i n g t h e programme -  maintaining,  and perhaps s e l l i n g s u p p l i e s and equipment, s c h e d u l i n g  o f f a c i l i t i e s and the time o f s t a f f .  lit i n c l u d e s p e r s o n n e l  purchasing t h e use  r e l a t i o n s and  management - h i r i n g and d i s m i s s i n g s t a f f , c o - o r d i n a t i n g t e a c h i n g methods, h o l d i n g i n f o r m a l c o n f e r e n c e s .and s t a f f meetings, p r o d u r i n g , using volunteers.  t r a i n i n g , and  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n may embrace r e p o r t i n g and p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s -  the k e e p i n g o f f i l e s and r e c o r d s ,  sending n o t i c e s , p r i n t i n g programmes,  r e p o r t i n g t o t h e community and awakening i n t e r e s t by p u b l i c c o n c e r t s o r exhibits. executive  L a s t l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n c l u d e s b u d g e t i n g and f i n a n c i n g . d i r e c t o r o f t h e a g e n c y o r an a d v i s o r y committee w i l l  The  probably  share these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h the a r t s p e c i a l i s t - g r o u p worker o r w i t h the department head.  The way i n which an agency i s a d m i n i s t e r e d  w i l l be  i n f l u e n c e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , by i t s s i z e . Of course, be s e p a r a t e d process  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme cannot  from o t h e r a s p e c t s  o f agency programme.  Administration i s the  by which t h e aims o f the programme a r e determined and c a r r i e d o u t .  Because o f the d i v e r s i t y o f t h e s u b j e c t , o n l y a few o f the aspects o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n as they p e r t a i n t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n f o u r Vancouver agencies are discussed i n the present Vancouver a g e n c i e s .  chapter. ,  I n Vancouver, t h e Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n has t h e l a r g e s t t o t a l agency membership (2400) o f t h e f o u r r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e s b e i n g  studied.  Of t h e seven hundred boys u s i n g t h e "YM", t h e m a j o r i t y a r e i n the n i n e - t o -  - 1 7 f o u r t e e n y e a r age group r a t h e r than i n the u p - t o - e i g h t e e n y e a r s  range.  S t a f f i n t h e f o u r a g e n c i e s thought t h a t a t l e a s t a segment o f c u l t u r a l a r t s activity/ty  was i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n i t i a l programme.  S i x t y - f o u r years  ago i n  the Y.M.C.A. c u l t u r a l a r t s d i d n o t c o n s t i t u t e a major p a r t o f t h e agency programme;  t h e r e was a l i b r a r y .  I n 1949,  approximately  the Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n and o f these,  85,750 p e r s o n s used  about 1400 were members.  S i n c e I896, when the women's agency began, a r t s have been a p a r t o f t h e programme.  "Y" members come from a l l d i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver ."although b o t h  a g e n c i e s a r e s i t u a t e d i n t h e downtown a r e a o f Vancouver. Neighbourhood houses and community c e n t r e s , on t h e o t h e r hand, s e r v e a " n a t u r a l " g r o u p i n g o f p e o p l e who l i v e i n a v i c i n i t y .  Gordon Neighbour-  hood House s e r v e s 1150 members who l i v e i n a p e n i n s u l a r d i s t r i c t , which I s s i t u a t e d between E n g l i s h Bay and m e t r o p o l i t a n  Vancouver.  Gordon House i s  s i t u a t e d i n the c e n t r e o f t h i s t r a n s i e n t "West End"  community which was f o r m e r l y  the more wealthy and e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t o f the c i t y .  The l a r g e homes are now  subdivided  i n t o numerous tenements;  f o r the inhabitants.  t h i s has c o n s e q u e n t l y r a i s e d problems  S e n i o r House serves  t h e a d u l t s o f t h e neighbourhood,  whereas J u n i o r Gordon House, a nearby separate  b u i l d i n g and a l s o p a r t o f a  former g i r l s ' p r i v a t e s c h o o l , has 34-6 younger members. c r a f t s programme, as an agency development, i n 1941. House i n t r o d u c e d a r t s and c r a f t s .  In  Gordon House began a Three y e a r s l a t e r  Junior  1947 and 194-8, a S e n i o r House ceramics  programme was begun by M i s s M o l l y C a r t e r , a ceramics s p e c i a l i s t , and by M i s s Kathleen  Gorrie, the executive d i r e c t o r .  T h i s was connected with t h e agency  but i t was n o t an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f agency programme.  The A r t Centre was  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r and i n c l u d e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t e r i o r  decorating,  t e x t i l e p a i n t i n g a r t s , water c o l o u r s f o r beginners" and more -advanced participants.  T h i s c e n t r e was housed i n Gordon House and sponsored by an  - 18 i n d i v i d u a l but Gordon House emerged as the f i n a l s p o n s o r i n g when the programme was found t o be over-ambitious,  body, because  the ggency f i n a n c e d  the  I n 1949 and 1950 the A r t Centre became an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f Gordon  programme.  House programme. Alexandra hundred p e o p l e .  Neighbourhood House has a t o t a l membership o f about s i x  Business  a r t e r i e s d i v i d e t h e a r e a so t h a t people l i v i n g  beyond the c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f s t o r e s do n o t come t o the agency to a g r e a t I n the lower, i n d u s t r i a l , o r "creek" a r e a , the m a j o r i t y o f the men are d r i v e r s who work i n o t h e r areas o f the c i t y ; sawmills.  extent. truck  the E a s t I n d i a n s work i n the  T h i s a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by domestic i n s t a b i l i t y .  Alexandra  Neighbourhood House, o r i g i n a l l y an orphanage, serves a t r a n s i e n t a r e a o f about f i f t e e n blocks;  however, an i n c r e a s i n g membership i s g r a d u a l l y coming from  beyond the main s t r e e t s .  C u l t u r a l a r t s were i n t r o d u c e d i n 1939 when  neighbourhood house s e r v i c e s began. I n i t i a t i n g programme. The way i n which c u l t u r a l a r t s a r e i n i t i a t e d i n t o an agency w i l l i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t the p r o g r e s s , social setting. from without?.  t r e n d s , and aims o f the programme i n the  D i d the programme o r i g i n a t e w i t h i n the agency, o r old i t come The I.M.C.A. and I.W.C.A. a r e i n f l u e n c e d by n a t i o n a l programme,  Agency programmes are a f f e c t e d by the community, the agency, s t a f f , and u l t i m a t e l y the i n d i v i d u a l .  The f a c t t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l s and hence the group- want a  p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y w i l l undoubtedly - a f f e c t i t s success. The Y.W.C.A. begins programmes by u s i n g v a r i o u s d e v i c e s . and  An i n t e r v i e w  the a p p l i c a t i o n form serve t o show i n which . a c t i v i t i e s the new member i s  interested.  She may ask for- a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and the i n t e r v i e w e r w i l l  then mention t o t h e s t a f f p e r s o n i n charge o f t h a t age group, t h a t an i n d i v i d u a l wishes to take p a r t i n a c e r t a i n a c t i v i t y .  The c l u b group members  -  19  -  -  a l s o d i s c u s s what they p r e f e r i n programme - i d e a s o f t e n a r i s e from programme experiences  o r from d i s c u s s i o n s o f the c l u b ' s programme committee. 1941  I n S e n i o r Gordon House, as has been p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the sponsored by the agency, whereas the 194-7-4-8  c r a f t s programme was programme was  begun by i n d i v i d u a l s .  ceramics  In s t a r t i n g a programme, i t i s d i f f i c u l t  t o get the f e e l i n g o f p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s .  When the A r t Centre was  being  formed, agency p e o p l e checked w i t h the n i g h t s c h o o l s and the Community A r t s C o u n c i l o f Vancouver; but because t h e r e were n o t  enough p e o p l e from whom to  get r e l i a b l e samples o f o p i n i o n , the r i s k i n f o r m u l a t i n g t h i s programme exceedingly  great.  so t h a t i t had  The  was  o l d e r members were s c e p t i c a l o f t r y i n g something  new,  t o be demonstrated t o them t h a t p e o p l e t h e i r age p a r t i c i p a t e d  i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and  enjoyed them.  For. c h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y , c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes need to be  changed  f r e q u e n t l y i n o r d e r to h o l d i n t e r e s t f o r the members - t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y t r u e in  an "exposure" type o f programme.  accordance w i t h membership r e q u e s t s . the a c t i v i t y .  Three y e a r s  ago,  C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes a r e planned i n The a v a i l a b l e l e a d e r s h i p a l s o a f f e c t s  i n J u n i o r Gordon House a music s p e c i a l i s t  employed, w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t t h e r e was a p p r e c i a t i o n and  rhythm bands.  was  c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t i n c h o i r s , music  The n e x t y e a r an a r t s and' c r a f t s  i n t e r e s t e d the members i n a n o t h e r f i e l d o f c u l t u r a l a r t s .  specialist  There was  a  great  d e a l o f emphasis on h i r i n g a r t s s p e c i a l i s t s to work a t J u n i o r Gordon House b e f o r e t r a i n e d group workers were employed.  Now  the c u l t u r a l -arts programme  i s dependent p r i m a r i l y on v o l u n t e e r l e a d e r s h i p - f o r example, t h e r e i s a Hungarian f a m i l y i n the community w i t h s k i l l  i n puppetry, and J u n i o r Gordon  House members are b e n e f i t t i n g from t h i s a c t i v i t y .  A s e r v i c e c l u b , the  Junior  League, i n i t i a t e d p a r t o f the programme - b a l l e t - i n A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House, by p r o v i d i n g fhe funds so t h a t the a c t i v i t y c o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e  - 20 t o the membership. R e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n i s one o f t h e means o f i n f o r m i n g the agency o f i t s members' i n t e r e s t s i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . may  r e q u e s t c e r t a i n programmes.  f o r reasons  t h a t the s t a f f has  I t may suggested  Besides t h i s ,  be t h a t a group chooses an - a v a i l a b i l i t y of  individuals activity  specialists,  s u p p l i e s , and low c o s t . Financing. S o c i a l group work a g e n c i e s i n v a r i a b l y t r y to minimize programme f e e s because low c o s t i n c r e a s e s the number o f people i n a community who  can  a f f o r d t o r e c e i v e d i r e c t s t i m u l a t i o n from membership i n the programme.  Most  a g e n c i e s h e l p cover c o s t by c h a r g i n g each p a r t i c i p a n t a nominal f e e ; has  the e f f e c t o f h e l p i n g the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l f r e e to make s u g g e s t i o n s  he belongs i n part.  to the group.  The  agency u s u a l l y supports the a c t i v i t y  this because  at.least  The I.M.C.A. i n Vancouver has o b t a i n e d p e r s o n n e l from the U n i v e r s i t y  E x t e n s i o n Department, so t h a t the U n i v e r s i t y c o n t i n u e s to pay a s a l a r y and agency c o n t r i b u t e s a s u b s i d y .  the  The J u n i o r League a s s i s t s i n f i n a n c i n g  A l e x a n d r a House c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s .  I n Gordon and A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood  Houses the agency bears c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r e g a r d to f i n a n c i n g , along w i t h h e l p foam the p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n c r e a s e o f f e e s may  have s e r i o u s consequences by c a u s i n g members to  drop out and. d e p r i v i n g t a l e n t e d people o f t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f b e n e f i t t i n g from the c u l t u r a l programme;  a t the same time the agency i s d e p r i v e d o f t h e i r  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and o t h e r t a l e n t s .  E q u i v a l e n t s e r v i c e to t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s  and  t o t h e agency can o n l y be o b t a i n e d from o u t s i d e sources a t g r e a t e r expense. C u l t u r a l a r t workers f r e q u e n t l y a r e employed on a p a r t - t i m e b a s i s , hence t h e i r hours are a p t to be i r r e g u l a r . payment which may  There i s a l s o wide v a r i a t i o n i n  be by the hour, day, week, month, term, o r by the y e a r , i n  - 21 a lump sum,  o r on a p e r c e n t a g e b a s i s .  Payment may  f u n c t i o n w i t h i n the agency o r department.  a l s o depend on the  Remuneration may  be a  specific  f e e f o r d o i n g a p a r t i c u l a r task such a s p r o d u c i n g a p l a y , o r i t ' may s a l a r y which i s i n c r e a s e d  according  specialist's  be a b a s i c  to the number o f i n d i v i d u a l o r group  lessons  given. Physical  facilities. The  p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s - room, equipment, s u p p l i e s - are a n e c e s s a r y  p a r t o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes.  The  Y.M.C.A. p r o v i d e s  any needed t o o l s , but the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay  f o r m a t e r i a l s , the l a t t e r  f r e q u e n t l y secured through group p u r c h a s e . a s p a r s i t y of c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s ;  the room and  usually being  l"n the Boys' Department, t h e r e i s  t h e r e are more f a c i l i t i e s , a s  example the swimming p o o l , f o r p h y s i c a l education  activities.  for  The Y.W.C.A.  i n Vancouver makes s u r e t h a t the room i s comfortable f o r the members i n  regard  t o heat, l i g h t ,  materials  c h a i r s and  tables.  are purchased by the agency and for  For  c h i l d r e n ' s a c t i v i t i e s the c r a f t  p a i d f o r by the c h i l d r e n .  There i s no  budget  a r t s u p p l i e s , so t h a t f o r the m o s t . p a r t the agency purchases m a t e r i a l s  the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay  f o r them.  Gordon Neighbourhood House has I n c l u d i n g a p o t t e r ' s wheel and k i l n . Miss. M o l l y C a r t e r who s u p p l i e d the room.  intended  considerable  ceramics equipment,  T h i s equipment was  o r i g i n a l l y supplied  to make the c l a s s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g .  I n the A r t Centre, Gordon House p r o v i d e s  as e a s e l s , work t a b l e s , and such as the A r t Centre and the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay  and  cupboard space. " A r t f o r Fun",  f o r them.  i s f i n a n c e d by the agency. the o b j e c t i o n " I can't do  by  Gordon House  such equipment  I f Gordon House sponsors a programme,  the agency purchases m a t e r i a l s  and  There i s another group, Membership C r a f t s , which  T h i s p r o j e c t was  s t a r t e d i n September 1950  t h i s because I can't a f f o r d i t " .  House i s n o t e d f o r i t s programmes f o r o l d e r p e o p l e , and  to  avoid  Gordon Neighbourhood  i t was  because  the  agency i s so anxious t o i n t e r e s t these p e o p l e , t h a t t h i s type o f programme was i n t r o d u c e d . an approach,  The agency f e e l s t h a t imposing  a programme i s n o t too sound  b u t t h e programme.appears t o be f u l f i l l i n g i t s purpose.  Basketry  a r t i c l e s a r e s o l d t o c o v e r t h e c o s t o f r e e d s , and i f t h e membership becomes too l a r g e , t h e programme w i l l be s u b s i d i z e d by a bazaar, o r supported i n some o t h e r way.  J u n i o r Gordon House s u p p l i e s t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h a l i m i t e d amount o f  equipment. cost.  F o r such c r a f t s a s b a s k e t r y and beadwork, t h e members pay p a r t i a l  M o s t l y , a c t i v i t i e s which i n v o l v e a l i m i t e d c o s t to the agency, a r e  developed.  There i s an a r t s and c r a f t s room, a woodwork room, and e s s e n t i a l s  f o r m u s i c a l programmes.  Much t h e same s i t u a t i o n a p p l i e s i n Alexandra  Neighbourhood House - c h i l d r e n a r e p r o v i d e d w i t h equipment, b u t o l d e r p a r t i c i p a n t s buy t h e i r own s u p p l i e s . Agencies o u t s i d e Vancouver. H u l l House i n Chicago has a l a r g e r membership - over .2300 - and has a l s o been e s t a b l i s h e d l o n g e r than any o f t h e o t h e r agencies from which i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d .  The A r t Department i n H u l l House was s t a r t e d two  y e a r s a f t e r i t s founding i n 1889 by Jane Addams and ELIen Gates S t a r r .  There  a r e no a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways i n which c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes w i t h i n and w i t h o u t Vancouver were i n i t i a t e d and f i n a n c e d .  The member's  r e g i s t r a t i o n i n f o r m a t i o n and r e q u e s t s were t h e most obvious means by which i n t e r e s t i n t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes was determined.  C l e v e l a n d Music  S e t t l e m e n t , i n a d d i t i o n t o o t h e r methods, has had r e q u e s t s f o r programmes  School from  the P u b l i c S c h o o l s . Community Music  Schools.  Community Music Schools a r e an outgrowth o f t h e music s e t t l e m e n t i d e a which had i t s o r i g i n i n the 1 8 9 0 ' s a t H u l l House.  These s c h o o l s a r e u s u a l l y  n o t a f f i l i a t e d w i t h any s e t t l e m e n t ( a l t h o u g h C l e v e l a n d Music School i s a  settlement, house which was  s t a r t e d i n 1912  by a number o f s o c i a l workers as  an experiment t o h e l p s o l v e t h e many f a m i l y problems among a l a r g e group o f immigrants).  The o b j e c t o f Community Music S c h o o l s i s to p r o v i d e m u s i c a l  development f o r p e o p l e r e g a r d l e s s o f c o l o u r , r a c e , r e l i g i o n , o r economic. status;  by f i n a n c i a l support from membership and  endowments and Community C h e s t s .  t u i t i o n fees, contributions,  Community Music S c h o o l s f u n c t i o n through  a  board o f t r u s t e e s ( v o l u n t e e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the community), an a d v i s o r y council of musicians,  an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , m u s i c a l d i r e c t o r and  faculty.  Each member s c h o o l i s autonomous - i t . w o r k s w i t h o t h e r neighbourhood o r g a n i z a t i o n s , g i v e s a d v i c e and guidance  to b o t h  students and  parents,  p a r t i c i p a t e s i n n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l movements^ ) 11  Music s t u d e n t s are charged o f the students o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  r a t e s which v a r y a c c o r d i n g to the income Some members a r e taken f r e e , b u t the  w i l l n o t a c c e p t s t u d e n t s from f a m i l i e s whose income i s judged t o a f f o r d the expense o f p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . seventy-five cents f o r a half-hour l e s s o n . t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t s each.  to be  schools  sufficient  I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n averages  Class lessons cost f i f t e e n  Most o f the San F r a n c i s c o Community Music  or  Schoole  t e a c h e r s devote about t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f t h e i r t e a c h i n g time to the s c h o o l ; , they a r e p a i d f o r o n l y o n e - f o u r t h o f t h i s time.  A u d i t i o n s f o r students are held  a t the time o f r e g i s t r a t i o n , and r e p o r t c a r d s r e l a t e t h e s t u d e n t s '  progress.  The Music Schools have s t u d i o s and s u p p l y a l a r g e number o f instruments.  The  s c h o o l s o f t e n have a music, r e c o r d , and book l i b r a r y ,  music s u p p l i e s ' w h i c h can be purchased  at cost.  and  An a u d i t o r i u m f o r membership  and p u b l i c c o n c e r t s , a s w e l l as a r e a d i n g room and k i t c h e n , a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the success and (11)  e f f i c i e n c y o f the schools.  N a t i o n a l G u i l d o f Community S c h o o l s . 194-6.  - 24. There i s a g r e a t d i s c r e p a n c y i n group work a g e n c i e s i n r e g a r d p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l a r t programmes. a g e n c i e s such as A l l i a n c e i n Hew  The  o l d e r , more e s t a b l i s h e d  the Abraham L i n c o l n C e n t e r i n Chicago, the York, and  Educational  the, Y.W.C.A. i n Rochester, appear to be  w e l l equipped w i t h rooms and a Canadian example o f l o n g  supplies,  standing  and  to  exceptionally  ^  u n i v e r s i t y S e t t l e m e n t i n Toronto i s i s a d e q u a t e l y equipped w i t h p h y s i c a l  facilities. Physical  facilities. Too  o f t e n group workers u n d e r e s t i m a t e the i m p o r t a n t i n f l u e n c e  that  p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s - the room, equipment, s u p p l i e s - have on the programme and  on the p a r t i c i p a n t s .  The  l a c k o f equipment may  n o t l i m i t the programme  too g r e a t l y , but i t s h o u l d be remembered t h a t the s u p p l i e s and o f the b u i l d i n g , as w e l l as the l e a d e r s h i p ,  w i t h a p i a n o , two There should be  - colour, f a b r i c ,  and  '  furniture — a d d  to  I f the i d e a l were b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d i n a l a r g e s o c i a l group  work agency, f a c i l i t i e s  and  .  i n t e r i o r decorations  the atmosphere.  appearance  a f f e c t the membership which w i l l  be a t t r a c t e d to the agency. The  the  s h o u l d i n c l u d e sound-proof p r a c t i c e s t u d i o s f o r music,  c h a i r s , and  a concert  a t a b l e i n each - a l s o , p o s s i b l y a r e c o r d  h a l l w i t h a d j o i n i n g d r e s s i n g rooms,  l i s t e n i n g rooms are a l s o d e s i r a b l e .  A record  player. library  A drama department would need a  b u i l t so t h e r e i s a continuous s u r f a c e l i n e from the back o f the stage to opposite  end  o f the  t h e a t r e - t h i s has  c l o s e as p o s s i b l e , b o t h p h y s i c a l l y and a b a l c o n y s h o u l d be  eliminated  I t would be d e s i r a b l e to have a The for  c l a y and  theatre, the  the e f f e c t o f k e e p i n g the audience asemotionally,  to the a c t o r s .  I f possible,  because o f the poor a c o u s t i c s underneath i t .  rehearsal room and costume s t o r a g e space.  ceramics s e c t i o n o f the b u i l d i n g r e q u i r e s a l a r g e s t o r a g e a r e a glazes.  There would be a d r y i n g room and  s t o r a g e a r e a - each capable o f b e i n g l o c k e d .  storage space, and  Probably there  a  wet  c o u l d be a l a r g e  -  25  -  and a s m a l l work-room w i t h a common s t o r a g e a r e a . p o t t e r s * wheels., k i l n s , and g l a z i n g equipment.  Space would be needed f o r  S i n k s a r e a n e c e s s i t y , and  i n d i v i d u a l lockers are desirable. The lawns c o u l d be developed f o r outdoor d a n c i n g .  The d a n c i n g  s t u d i o s s h o u l d have about t h r e e b a r s o f d i f f e r e n t h e i g h t a l o n g a w a l l .  There  w i l l be a p i a n o and perhaps a p u b l i G address system. . The modern dance f l o o r s h o u l d have s l i g h t r e s i l i e n c e .  ,  Good a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t f o r n i g h t c l a s s e s - w i t h t h e source i n the same d i r e c t i o n as t h e n a t u r a l l i g h t source - i s e s s e n t i a l " .  P r o v i s i o n f o r showing  s l i d e s , a l a r g e c e n t r a l i z e d n o t i c e board, and a cork f i n i s h on one w a l l f o r p i n n i n g up p i c t u r e s , a r e d e s i r a b l e .  Desks, c h a i r s , and a f i l i n g c a b i n e t ,  b o o k s h e l v e s , a common lounge room, and a k i t c h e n s h o u l d n o t be f o r g o t t e n . In  t h e p l a n s f o r one c e n t r e , t h e a r c h i t e c t has a r r a n g e d t h a t people  must pass through an a r t - g a l l e r y type o f h a l l w a y i n o r d e r t o r e a c h t h e gymnasium.  T h i s way, t h e r e i s a chance t h a t p e o p l e i n t e r e s t e d s o l e l y i n a  gymnasium programme w i l l become c u r i o u s about a r t and perhaps t r y i n g i t f o r themselves.  interested^in  Careful consideration o f the p h y s i c a l planning f o r  a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme can be used t o enhance t h e programme i t s e l f secure b e n e f i t s f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s .  and t o  o  a  a c o o c 0  CHAPTER I I I CONTENT OF CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. Music. I n a r e c r e a t i o n s e t t i n g , c u l t u r a l a r t programmes a f f o r d v a r i e t y and v a l u e t o t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . to group work; language,  A s i n g l e a r t can have many a p p l i c a t i o n s  and no a r t shows these b e t t e r than music.  c u t s a c r o s s a l l age l e v e l s .  infinite  Music, as a  C h i l d r e n and a d u l t s enjoy music and  f i n d t h a t i t b r i n g s them t o g e t h e r - p h y s i c a l l y , i n t h e sense t h a t they come to l i s t e n t o a c o n c e r t , and e m o t i o n a l l y , i n t h a t t h e y f i n d I n music o f communication, emotions;  an a i d t o mutual u n d e r s t a n d i n g .  a means  Music has power over t h e  i t c a n h e l p t o soothe o r e x h i l a r a t e a p e r s o n .  a b a s i s f o r c r e a t i v e p l a y and as a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g .  T h i s a r t i s used a s  F o r example, a song  about a -Strain, b y i t s rhythm and melody s h o u l d h e l p c h i l d r e n t o be t h e t r a i n by. moving a c r o s s t h e f l o o r and "chugging  11  t o t h e rhythm o f the music.  The  t r a i n a c t i v i t y song can h e l p t h e c h i l d c r e a t e o t h e r songs - about washing h i s hands, b l o c k b u i l d i n g and o t h e r r o u t i n e  activities.  Music i s a p a r t o f everyday l i f e .  Rhythms and m e l o d i e s can be  detected i n the rustle, o f a f o r e s t and i n the churning o f a r i v e r , i n the s h u n t i n g o f a t r a i n and i n t h e whir o f an egg-beater.  One o f the ways i n vfhich  p e o p l e enjoy music i s by l i s t e n i n g , perhaps t o r e c o r d s .  People a l s o have an  o p p o r t u n i t y t o perform music by s i n g i n g a song o r by p l a y i n g an i n s t r u m e n t . Music  can be termed  "classical™' o r " p o p u l a r  11  and i t may v a r y between these  two a r b i t r a r y d i v i s i o n s . ' " ' A s i n g l e person and a group o f people a r e a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n musical a c t i v i t y .  One person may study music i n t e n s e l y f o r a  c a r e e r , whereas another may r e g a r d music  f o r sheer fun.  What does music mean t o p e o p l e who come t o l e i s u r e - t i m e agencies? The community c e n t r e o r 1 member might be a young working person w i t h some degree o f economic comfort and s o c i a l competence.  To t h i s person, music i s  . a means o f e x p r e s s i o n , l i f e becomes r i c h e r .  - 27 -  an element o f s t i m u l a t i o n , and a medium through which Because o f h i s poor economic c o n d i t i o n s , t h e p e r s o n i n a  neighbourhood house may have few o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o b e n e f i t from t h e v a l u e s o f this art.  To him, music becomes a wonderful new realm o f e x p e r i e n c e .  work a g e n c i e s s h o u l d every.person^,.  h e l p t o make t h e b e n e f i t s o f music a v a i l a b l e t o .  P l a y i n g instruments, singing, l i s t e n i n g to records  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rhythm bands and o r c h e s t r a s , all  and c o n c e r t s ,  composing words and m e l o d i e s -  have a p l a c e i n t h e c u l t u r a l programmes i n a r e c r e a t i o n Vancouver agency programmes r e v e a l c o n s i d e r a b l e  activity.  Group  centre.  variety in  musical  The Y.M.C.A. o f f e r s o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g ,  music a p p r e c i a t i o n and c o n c e r t s  by the membership.  t h e r e has a l s o been o r c h e s t r a l work.  Within  t h e l a s t three y e a r s  U s u a l l y , t h e r e . i s j u s t one l e a d e r f o r a  group, and t h e l e a d e r s h i p from any o f the a d u l t groups, most o f t e n comes from the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves. duration,  The music a p p r e c i a t i o n course i s o f e i g h t weeks  and i s g i v e n i n t h e f a l l  l a r g e - about 1 5 0 p e o p l e . women p a r t i c i p a t e ;  and i n t h e s p r i n g ;  t h e group attendance i s  I n t h e a d u l t programmes, an equal number o f men and  t h e age range i s from e i g h t e e n  to f o r t y years.  The o l d e r  members o f t h e Boys Department have had s m a l l music a p p r e c i a t i o n groups, b u t t h e s e have been d i s c o n t i n u e d .  There a r e twenty-two c l u b groups i n t h e Y.M.C.A.  which p l a n t h e i r own programmes - c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s may he a p a r t o f t h e clUb programme, whenever the group d e s i r e s . The lessons  Y.W.C.A. i n Vancouver o f f e r s m u s i c a l  a c t i v i t i e s which i n c l u d e  ( g i v e n o n l y a t t h e Chinese "Y"), p r a c t i c i n g (by g i r l s i n r e s i d e n c e a t  the C e n t r a l Y.W.C.A.), music a p p r e c i a t i o n , c o n c e r t s v i s i t o r s , and o c c a s i o n a l l y c h o r a l groups.  by membership and by  The c h o r a l group has been  discontinued  w i t h i n t h e l a s t few y e a r s because p e o p l e who were e x c e p t i o n a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y have moved away.  C h o r a l work c o n t i n u e s  t o be a p a r t o f the  musical  - 28 activity occasionally.  There i s u s u a l l y one l e a d e r f o r a m u s i c a l programme,  and those p a r t i c i p a t i n g are m o s t l y  g i r l s and women from t h e ages o f twelve to  about f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s , a l t h o u g h t h i r t y - f i v e y e a r s i s the more u s u a l .age  limit.  From t h e immigrant groups, more men are e n t e r i n g m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h t h e r e s u l t t h a t t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f men and women i n t h e s e programmes i s more even. The to  f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t shows t h e m u s i c a l c o n t r i b u t i o n "new" Canadians a r e making group work a g e n c i e s i n Vancouver.  "Vancouver i s one o f the f o u r o r f i v e m u s i c a l c e n t r e s o f importance i n Canada to-day... I t should perhaps be p o i n t e d o u t e s p e c i a l l y t h a t t h e Vancouver a r e a i n c l u d e s a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f new Canadians who have brought to t h i s c o u n t r y and t o t h i s a r e a some o f the m u s i c a l t r a i n i n g and t r a d i t i o n s o f t h e i r n a t i v e homelands. These groups have done much t o e n r i c h the m u s i c a l l i f e o f Vancouver and they, a l o n g w i t h t h e . n a t i v e born, m e r i t the o p p o r t u n i t y t o make t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o o u r d e v e l o p i n g national cultural pattern".^-2; The i d e a l membership f o r any music group, depends upon t h e a c t i v i t y for  a c h o r a l group, f o r t y o r f i f t y people  can p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , whereas  for  a p a r t i c u l a r l e s s o n type o f a c t i v i t y , t e n members may be s u f f i c i e n t . Gordon Neighbourhood House has a Gay N i n e t i e s O r c h e s t r a , and an  o l d - t i m e dance o r c h e s t r a , each o f which has f i v e members.  There a r e c o n c e r t s  by t h e members and by v i s i t o r s , a t which anywhere from f i f t y t o seventy people,  the m a j o r i t y o f whom a r e women, a t t e n d .  A music a p p r e c i a t i o n group  has t w e n t y - f i v e members, w i t h an average attendance There i s a l s o i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g i n the agency.  o f about seventeen  people.  The -age group which attends  m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y i n Gordon House c e n t r e s i n t h e f i f t y - t o - s e v e n t y y e a r s  span.  J u n i o r Gordon House emphasizes music a p p r e c i a t i o n and membership c o n c e r t s . W i t h i n t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s t h e r e has a l s o been i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g , work and a g l e e c l u b f o r the younger members. m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y c e n t r e s around c h o i r work. (12)  ensemble  I n A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House There i s a n i n e - y e a r - o l d g i r l s  Community A r t s C o u n c i l o f Vancouver, B r i e f P r e s e n t e d t o R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development I n t h e A r t s . L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e , p.3.  group and an a f f i l i a t e d a d u l t c h o i r group meets i n t h e agency.  There i s some  i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g , b u t music l e s s o n s were d i s c o n t i n u e d because o f l a c k o f space i n t h e agency;  l e t t i n g one person use a room when so many more  needed i t d i d n o t seem v a l i d . I t seems t h a t t h e members o f group work a g e n c i e s i n Vancouver a r e b e n e f i t t i n g t o some e x t e n t from m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s . development  Discussion of a  i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e Community Music S c h o o l , r e v e a l s a d d i t i o n a l  p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r music i n a l e i s u r e - t i m e  setting.  Community Music S c h o o l s . As i t s name i m p l i e s , t h e Community M u s i c S c h o o l f o c u s e s on one cultural art.  The Music S c h o o l d i f f e r s from s c h o o l s , music  and l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s .  conservatories,  A r e p o r t on a study o f e i g h t neighbourhood  c e n t r e s and Community Music S c h o o l s , made by John McDowell o f t h e N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s i n 194-9 c l e a r l y shows t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . "The Community Music S c h o o l d i f f e r s from o r d i n a r y neighbourhood c e n t r e s i n t h a t i t s g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a o f s e r v i c e i s t h e c i t y as a whole, and i n t h a t i t s program i s l i m i t e d t o one s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t . I t s f o c u s on i m p r o v i n g i n t e r - p e r s o n a l and i n t e r - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s through music.and on i n c r e a s i n g t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n music i s q u i t e i n k e e p i n g w i t h t h e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f neighbourhood c e n t r e s , though s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i n means chosen t o a c h i e v e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s . Though t h e c i t y as a whole i s p o t e n t i a l l y t h e b a l i w i c k ( s i c ) o f t h e Community Music S c h o o l , i n p r a c t i c e i t s c o n s t i t u e n c y .comes m a i n l y from a r e a s where t h e p o o r e r economic h a l f o f the population l i v e s . "The Community Music S c h o o l d i f f e r s from a c o n s e r v a t o r y because r e a l i n t e r e s t i n music on t h e p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t i s r e q u i r e d , w h i l e a b i l i t y t o pay f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i s n o t . F u r t h e r , t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e S c h o o l i s t o h e l p the s t u d e n t t o d e v e l o p i n t o a h a p p i e r , w e l l a d j u s t e d p e r s o n w i t h no p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the development o f a p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s i c i a n . -The S c h o o l ' s p r i m a r y f o c u s i s t h e p e r s o n r a t h e r than the music, but music and music t e a c h e r s o f h i g h q u a l i t y a r e used throughout. •The Community Music S c h o o l d i f f e r s from the music department o f a p u b l i c s c h o o l i n t h a t much o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l and i n t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e s e l e c t e d f o r s p e c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y to the s o c i a l and e m o t i o n a l needs o f s t u d e n t s w h i c h can be met through music." #  F o r an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Community Music S c h o o l s , see Chapter I I , A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f C u l t u r a l A r t s Programmes; Agencies o u t s i d e Vancouver, Community Music S c h o o l s . (13) L e t t e r from Jensen, Margaret J . , E x e c u t i v e and M u s i c a l D i r e c t o r , Community Music S c h o o l , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , J a n u a r y 3, 1951.  - 30 The Music S c h o o l , l i k e the group work agency, emphasizes the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l ;  the a c t i v i t y i s used as a t o o l i n a c c o m p l i s h i n g  this  end.  The g r e a t e x t e n t to which music can be used as a c u l t u r a l a r t i s shown i n the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d by Community Music S c h o o l s .  Individual lessons  a r e o f f e r e d i n v o i c e , p i a n o , v i o l i n , v i o l a , v i o l o n c e l l o , double bass, wind instruments  and p e r c u s s i o n s .  Group i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n r h y t h m i c s ,  p r e - i n s t r u m e n t a l s u b j e c t s , s i g h t r e a d i n g , t h e o r y o f music and harmony and  c o u n t e r p o i n t , composition  and a n a l y s i s , chorus,  musicianship,  ensemble  and  o r c h e s t r a , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g c l a s s e s and l e c t u r e courses i n h i s t o r y o f music. There a r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o r c h e s t r a s , chamber music groups, choruses r e c i t a l s by f a c u l t y and  students.  and  Much o f t h i s c u r r i c u l u m would be beyond  p o s s i b i l i t y i n the r e c r e a t i o n c e n t r e but i t does d i v u l g e a v a r i e t y o f m u s i c a l activities,  some o f which c o u l d be u t i l i z e d to advantage i n group work a g e n c i e s .  The San F r a n c i s c o Community Music S c h o o l has f o u r hundred and students.  fifty  T h i r t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f these members are under twelve y e a r s o l d -  the youngest i s f o u r and o n e - h a l f y e a r s o f age;  f o r t y - f i v e per cent are a t  the f o r m a t i v e l e v e l o f development - t w e l v e - t o - e i g h t e e n y e a r s .  Twenty p e r  c e n t o f the members a r e a d u l t s - the o l d e s t o f whom i s s e v e n t y - f o u r y e a r s . Most o f the o t h e r c e n t r e s o u t s i d e Vancouver have m u s i c a l comparable w i t h the f o u r agencies which were i n t e n s e l y s t u d i e d .  In Quebec,  the A r v i d a A t h l e t i c and R e c r e a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , which i s connected Aluminum Company o f Canada, i n a d d i t i o n l i s t e d a m u s i c a l band.  activity  w i t h the  Bands were  a l s o l i s t e d by C l e v e l a n d M u s i c a l S c h o o l , Hudson Neighborhood G u i l d i n New and H u l l House i n Chicago.  M u s i c l e s s o n s , music a p p r e c i a t i o n , and  concerts  by v i s i t o r s , a r e the m u s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s most f r e q u e n t l y found i n c e n t r e s o u t s i d e Vancouver. a r e a l s o numerous.  York,  Ensemble and o r c h e s t r a l work and i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g  I n a s o c i a l group work agency, m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y p r o v i d e s many o p p o r t u n i t i e s and c h o i c e s f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . i n s t r u m e n t s - the cymbol, p r e l u d e , the s o n a t a . music  There are many k i n d s o f  the c l a r i n e t , and d i f f e r e n t m u s i c a l forms - the  The emphasis on music can be on s k i l l o r on  can be enjoyed by one p e r s o n o r by a group o f p e o p l e .  perform o r l i s t e n ;  he i s an a d u l t o r a c h i l d .  funj  The person  may  Each i n d i v i d u a l i s a b l e to  f i n d some m u s i c a l a c t i v i t y which p a r t i c u l a r l y appeals t o him.  Music i s j u s t  one o f the c u l t u r a l a r t s which c o n t r i b u t e s to the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l i n a recreation  settingi,  Dancing.Dancing a l s o a f f o r d s r e c r e a t i v e and c r e a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s . p l e a s u r a b l e and s o c i a l i z i n g - t h e r e i s g r e a t freedom for self-expression.  o f movement and o p p o r t u n i t y  Dancing has p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m o t i v a t i n g groups to a  v a r i e t y o f a d d i t i o n a l programme?, e x p e r i e n c e s . m e c h a n i c a l motions;-  It is  I t i s n o t merely a s e r i e s o f  each has s i g n i f i c a n c e and meaning which has grown out o f  l i v i n g experience. "Our h e r i t a g e o f f o l k dances from n a t i o n s a l l o v e r the world i s composed o f more than a p r o g r e s s i o n o f s t e p s s e t to music; i t i n c l u d e s the wealth o f t r a d i t i o n and s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e t h a t people have expressed i n t h e i r dances. I t i s t h i s c u l t u r a l exchange t h a t e n r i c h e s the enjoyment we f e e l to-day and t h a t b r i n g us c l o s e r t o the p e o p l e i n whose l i v e s the dances a r e r o o t e d . . . .In p r a c t i c a l l y every a c t i v i t y i n the Center, f o l k d a n c i n g has a l e g i t i m a t e p l a c e . I n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program,, dancing teaches many B o d y - b u i l d i n g s k i l l s . A t c l u b meetings and mass events,, group dancing i s e n t e r t a i n m e n t and good s o c i a l . f u n . But dancing p r o v i d e s , i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s s h a r i n g o f c u l t u r e s and s o c i a l f u n , e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c r e a t i v i t y and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Modern dance, p a r t i c u l a r l y , l e n d s i t s e l f to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e and i d e a s . , I t i s a language o f movement, and i t s a p p e a l i s t o a l l ages and b o t h sexes." ^ The Vancouver a g e n c i e s o f f e r s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t dance a c t i v i t i e s . The Y.I.C.A. i n c l u d e s square, f o l k and n a t i o n a l d a n c i n g i n i t s c u l t u r a l p e r t a i n i n g to the dance.  The Boys Department g i v e s i n s t r u c t i o n to about  boys and g i r l s i n b a l l r o o m d a n c i n g .  activities twenty  The Y.W.C.A. p r o v i d e s o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  b a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e , t a p , square, f o l k and n a t i o n a l , a s w e l l as b a l l r o o m o r (14)  N a t i o n a l J e w i s h W e l f a r e Board, J e w i s h Center Program A i d s . "The Dance C r e a t i v e and R e c r e a t i v e " , New York, 1949.  -  s o c i a l dancing.  I n each group  32 -  t h e r e a r e about twenty g i r l s r a n g i n g i n ages  from twelve t o t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s . There a r e two square dance groups a t Gordon House.  One group i s  made up o f s i x t e e n young a d u l t s - m o s t l y women from about e i g h t e e n t o t h i r t y f i v e years o l d . to  The o t h e r group has a membership o f f o r t y people from  s e v e n t y y e a r s o f age.  Women predominate  i n t h i s group,  too.  fifty  There i s a  p a r t i c i p a n t who a c t s as l e a d e r , and whose purpose i t i s t o t e a c h t h e s k i l l of  square d a n c i n g and t o h e l p the people have f u n .  Three squares a r e a l l t h a t  are c d e s i r a b l e f o r a group o f t h i s t y p e , t h e agency s t a f f f e e l s . t h i r t y - s i x women, a l l between f i f t y  One group o f  and seventy y e a r s o l d , meet t o f o l k dance.  Gordon House a l s o p r o v i d e s f o r b a l l r o o m and o l d - t i m e d a n c i n g .  The l a t t e r i s  c o n s i d e r e d m o s t l y a mass a c t i v i t y programme f o r o l d e r p e o p l e ;  t h e r e a r e about  s i x t y - f i v e members i n t h i s group.  B a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e , t a p , square and,  until  r e c e n t l y , a l s o f o l k and a c r o b a t i c d a n c i n g have been c a r r i e d on i n J u n i o r Gordon House.. A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House o f f e r s b a l l e t , square, and b a l l r o o m d a n c i n g .  Occ a s i o n a l l y t h e r e i s f o l k dancing i n t h e  agency, b u t more o f t e n t h i s a r i s e s from a group Dancing appears recreation  centres.  tap, a c r o b a t i c ,  programme.  t o be one o f the most p o p u l a r c u l t u r a l a r t s i n  Square and f o l k d a n c i n g a r e found most f r e q u e n t l y i n the  a g e n c i e s throughout Canada and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .  These a c t i v i t i e s a r e  f o l l o w e d i n p o p u l a r i t y by b a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e o r modern, and t a p d a n c i n g . The Y.W.C.A. i n R o c h e s t e r , New York, o f f e r s more v a r i e t y i n dance a c t i v i t y than any o t h e r agency from which a r e p o r t was r e c e i v e d .  U n i v e r s i t y Settlement i n  Toronto, O n t a r i o , a l s o o f f e r s good o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c h o i c e i n dance groups. P a i n t i n g , Drawing and D e s i g n . P a i n t i n g i s t h e a r t o f i n t e r p r e t i n g forms,  c o l o u r s , shapes,  and t s t u r e s  - 33 o f t h e many and v a r i e d a s p e c t s o f environment, c h a r a c t e r , p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n the w o r l d o f appearance and i n t h e r e a l m o f f a n c y and i m a g i n a t i o n . a r e no f i x e d t e c h n i q u e s , no e x a c t ways o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g .  There  To t h e a r t i s t  who can l e a r n t o c o n t r o l h i s brushes, use t h e paper t o advantage, and a c q u i r e a working knowledge o f t h e pigments, t h e r e comes a d e l i g h t f u l f e e l i n g o f power-and a r e s p o n s e t h a t n o t h i n g e l s e i n t h e l i s t o f a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e s can (15) offer. The Y.M.C.A. has groups t h a t p a i n t i n o i l s , water c o l o u r s , p a i n t i n g , and do dresden c r a f t p a i n t i n g .  finger  There i s a l s o an a r t e x h i b i t .  Y.W.C.A. has one c l a s s i n o i l p a i n t i n g which i s t a u g h t by a p a i d About t w e n t y - f i v e women a t t e n d t h i s c l a s s .  The  instructor.  B o t h t h e Y's have s k e t c h i n g ,  drawing, and d e s i g n i n g t o some e x t e n t . Gordon neighbourhood House has t h r e e groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s art.  The " A r t f o r Fun" group does p a i n t i n g , s k e t c h i n g , l i n o c u t s ,  printing. were needed  textile  F i f t e e n would be an i d e a l group number b u t about twenty members to pay f o r t h e programme.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s , m o s t l y women, a r e  from t w e n t y - f i v e t o s i x t y y e a r s o f age.  There i s a n o t h e r A r t f o r Fun group,  under t h e same p a i d s p e c i a l i s t , which does t h e same a c t i v i t i e s as t h e o t h e r group.  F o u r t e e n women b e l o n g .  Another group i s the Members C r a f t programme -  a group o f f o u r t e e n members from twenty-one  t o s e v e n t y y e a r s o f age.  In this  group, t h e r e a r e t h r e e l e a d e r s who o f f e r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s such as b a s k e t r y and woodwork, a t t h e same time.  J u n i o r Gordon House c o n f i n e s p a i n t i n g  a c t i v i t y t o water c o l o u r s and f i n g e r p a i n t i n g . activity.  A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House o f f e r s drawing and p a i n t i n g i n o i l s ,  water c o l o u r s and f i n g e r p a i n t i n g . (15)  There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e drawing  The A l e x a n d r a House Hobby Shop group i s  L i s m a r , A r t h u r . Water C o l o u r P a i n t i n g f o r P l e a s u r e . Canadian War S e r v i c e s and Canadian L e g i o n E d u c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e s , Y.M.C.A.  - 34 s i m i l a r to. t h e A r t f o r Fun programme i n Gordon House.  Members come t o g e t h e r  and proceed i n d i v i d u a l l y on t h e i r chosen a c t i v i t y w i t h h e l p from a p a i d a r t specialist. I n t h e agencies o u t s i d e Vancouver,  t h e r e appears t o be more work  done w i t h water c o l o u r s than w i t h any o t h e r medium o f p a i n t i n g . e x h i b i t s was t h e n e x t most p o p u l a r a r t a c t i v i t y . were almost o f e q u a l f r e q u e n c y .  Use o f a r t  O i l s and f i n g e r p a i n t i n g  Hudson G u i l d Neighborhood  House i n New  York  has a l e n d i n g s e r v i c e f o r p a i n t i n g s - a l l t y p e s o f p a i n t i n g and drawing a c t i v i t y a r e a p a r t o f t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s programme t h e r e . Guild i n Philadelphia l i s t e d  silk  Friends  Neighbourhood  s c r e e n p a i n t i n g a l o n g w i t h the u s u a l forms  of painting. Drawing and p a i n t i n g a r e n o t m y s t e r i o u s ways o f u s i n g a p e n c i l o r a brush;  they  a r e almost ways o f l d a r n i n g t o see.  They a r e means o f l e a r n i n g  to d i s t i n g u i s h between i m p o r t a n t f a c t s and those t h a t a r e o f l e s s I f o n l y t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t s a r e n o t e d on a p i e c e o f paper, drawing o r p a i n t i n g prove i n t e r e s t i n g .  importance.  the r e s u l t s o f the  Most c h i l d r e n l i k e t o use crayons;  a d u l t s a r e n o t u n a f f e c t e d by t h e p l e a s u r e , f o r they s c r i b b l e on memo pads o r anything t h a t i s a v a i l a b l e .  The simple l i n e drawing was t h e e a r l i e s t form o f  g r a p h i c e x p r e s s i o n among p r i m i t i v e people - t h e E g y p t i a n s made w a l l p a i n t i n g s and drawings  i n caves d u r i n g t h e stone age.  A r t i s t s to-day use l i n e s - drawn  o r imagined,to d e f i n e t h e b o u n d a r i e s between d i f f e r e n t p a r t s or a r e a s o f t h e i r drawings.  The importance and v a l u e s o f drawing  and p a i n t i n g i n our l i v e s are  n o t r e a l i z e d by enough p e o p l e . Drama arid T h e a t r e . Drama and t h e a t r e i s another a r e a i n c u l t u r a l a r t s which i s v a l u a b l e programme i n group work a g e n c i e s .  D i s c u s s i o n s o f t e n c e n t r e around t h e  - 35 c h o i c e o f p l a y s and the p e o p l e v/ho a r e t o p l a y t h e r o l e s , how t h e y a r e t o be acted' and t h e s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d .  Members r e v e a l t h e i r own problems  as t h e y r e l a t e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s i n t h e p l a y t o t h e i r own l i v e s . toward o t h e r p e o p l e  are also discussed.  and f e e l i n g s a r e n o t u n u s u a l .  Attitudes  The members l e a r n t h a t t h e i r problems  Decision-making  enters i n the choice o f the  p l a y and a c t o r s , arrangement f o r date, s a l e o f t i c k e t s , p u b l i c i t y and f a c i l i t i e s . There i s v a l u e i n p r e s e n t i n g a p l a y w i t h s o c i a l content and s o c i a l problems. O f t e n t h e group i s aroused achieved a f t e r  to social action.  Group u n i t y i s f r e q u e n t l y  the g roup has had a c r e a t i v e e x p e r i e n c e such a s p r o d u c i n g a  p l a y . 116) The Y.M.C.A. appears t o have a good p o r t i o n o f a c t i v i t y i n t h i s a r e a - a c t i n g , p l a y w r i t i n g , p l a y r e a d i n g , d i r e c t i n g and p r o d u c i n g , scenery,  and costume and makeup.  activities,  The Y.W.C.A. p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s i m i l a r  excepting play w r i t i n g .  of high school g i r l s . such as a Christmas  lighting,  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e r e i s a speech group  Most o f t h e drama c e n t r e s around a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t ,  event.  I t s h o u l d be added t h a t the L i t t l e Theatre  group  u s e s t h e Y.W.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s . There i s no drama i n Gordon Neighbourhood House a t the p r e s e n t  time.  There was an o u t s i d e " s e l f - h e l p " drama group which a f f i l i a t e d w i t h the agency. As t h e name i m p l i e s , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves were l e a d e r s .  T h i s group  v a r i e d i n s i z e - u s u a l l y t h e r e were t e n members ( e i g h t o f whom were women), but when t h e g r o u p was p r a c t i s i n g f o r a p l a y t h e r e would be t h i r t y members. There was a wide age range' here, t o o . A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House had a s i m i l a r " s e l f - h e l p " group a t about the same time.  To-day, Alexandra  drama c e n t r e s around s p e c i f i c o c c a s i o n s and make-believe a c t i n g . (16)  House's  An o u t s i d e  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Massachussets, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949.  drama group u s e s the agency  36  -  facilities.  Throughout the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s , a c t i n g i s the most p o p u l a r o f any drama a c t i v i t i e s .  Henry S t r e e t S e t t l e m e n t i n New  Hudson G u i l d Neighborhood House i n New  York has a P l a y House;  York, and the c i t i e s o f Edmonton and  Regina were the o n l y p l a c e s t h a t mentioned c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i e t y and scope i n t h e a t r e work.  I t appears  t h a t group work a g e n c i e s a r e n o t u t i l i z i n g the v a l u e s  d r a m a t i c work has t o o f f e r to the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l s and  groups.  Ceramics. P o t t e r y work h e l p s people t o develop a sense o f form, t e x t u r e , c o l o u r and d e s i g n .  C l a y i s a v e r y p l i a b l e m a t e r i a l and the p o t t e r can mould c l a y o f  the c o r r e c t c o n s i s t e n c y i n t o almost any form.  C l a y i s a v e r y smooth m a t e r i a l  t o touch and the saisory f e e l i n g one has i n f i r s t working i t i s i m p o r t a n t . C l a y i s a v e r y f l e x i b l e m a t e r i a l but i t a l s o has l i m i t a t i o n s ; be removed t o p r e v e n t breakage i n f i r i n g ; crack i n -the c r y i n g o r f i r i n g p r o c e s s ; f i r m l y a t t a c h e d t o the main body; a f t e r they a r e  a l l a i r must  a r t i c l e s which are too t h i n  will  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o have each p i e c e  the a r t i c l e s cannot be handled r o u g h l y even  fired.  Gordon House has two  ceramics  c l a s s e s , each w i t h one l e a d e r .  There  a r e b e g i n n e r s and advanced workers among the f i f t e e n women who .attend each group.  Another p o t t e r y group f o r agency members over seventy y e a r s o f  has j u s t been s t a r t e d .  T h i s i s a group o f seven members who  d e a l o f s t a f f support to h e l p them move i n t o new attempt  areas.  t o g i v e c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y to e l d e r l y people who  p l a y cards.  need a g r e a t  The programme i s an come to the agency t o '  These p e o p l e had r e f u s e d t o t r y a n y t h i n g because they f e l t  were too o l d .  T h i s dilemma was  s o l v e d by b r i n g i n g i n an e l d e r l y  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Houghton M i f f i n Company, 194-9.  they  instructor  f o r b a s k e t r y - w i t h h i s example, the o t h e r s were a b l e to move i n t o new (17)  age  areas  Massachusetts,  -  o f enjoyment.  37 -  The "exposure" method, a d i s p l a y c a b i n e t , was used to i n t e r e s t  these p e o p l e i n ceramics.  The s t a f f member p e r s o n a l l y met t h e people i n the  agency and i n t e r e s t e d them i n t h e a c t i v i t y . have g r e a t s u p p o r t i n the work.  Now i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t they  The most s u c c e s s f u l method o f i n i t i a t i n g  these people i n an a c t i v i t y was i n a f u n c t i o n a l way, so t h a t they were a b l e t o b e g i n work on some p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t .  The Y's o f f e r c l a y m o d e l l i n g , .  e s p e c i a l l y i n a camp s e t t i n g . I n group work a g e n c i e s beyond t h e l o c a l scene,  ceramics was o f f e r e d  as f r e q u e n t l y as a c t i n g , o i l p a i n t i n g , and o r c h e s t r a l work. Other C u l t u r a l A r t Programmes.. There a r e many c u l t u r a l a r t s which a r e b e i n g used t o advantage i n the r e c r e a t i o n s e t t i n g .  Vancouver i s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n  because i t i s i n f l u e n c e d by a w e a l t h o f I n d i a n h i s t o r y and c r a f t s .  Other  groups o f people have a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d a r i c h n e s s t o c u l t u r a l a r t s . "The P a c i f i c Coast has t r a d i t i o n a l l y supported a v a r i e d programme o f c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s o f a v e r y h i g h o r d e r , f i r s t on t h e p a r t o f the c o a s t I n d i a n s and more r e c e n t l y on the p a r t o f an ever i n c r e a s i n g number o f i n d i v i d u a l s and groups o f many e t h n i c o r i g i n s . The range o f a c t i v i t i e s now i n c l u d e s weaving o f many k i n d s , c a r v i n g , p o t t e r y , c a b i n e t making, l e a t h e r work, metal work, p r i n t e d t e x t i l e s . The s t i m u l u s which might be g i v e n to Canadian c r a f t s by f r e q u e n t e x h i b i t i o n s o f what i s b e i n g done by craftsmen i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y , w i t h m a t e r i a l s found i n v a r i o u s r e g i o n s o f t h e country, and by a d a p t i n g o l d vrorld and d e v e l o p i n g new world d e s i g n s , i s second o n l y t o the importance o f d e v e l o p i n g markets f o r t h e b e s t o f t h e work b e i n g done". Group work a g e n c i e s have a p a r t t o p l a y i n b e n e f i t t i n g by a l l these a c t i v i t i e s which a r e so p r o c u r a b l e i n the Vancouver a r e a . The Y.M.C.A. o f f e r s a v a r i e t y o f o t h e r c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s - copper (18)  Community A r t s C o u n c i l o f Vancouver, B r i e f P r e s e n t e d to Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n t h e A r t s . L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , p.8.  -38and l e a t h e r c r a f t , i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g , c l a y m o d e l l i n g The Y.W.C.A. members come t o g e t h e r to do leatherwork Members a l s o make g i f t s , serve f o o d a t t r a c t i v e l y .  t h e i r own  and  j e w e l l e r y work.  shell  craft.  and l e a r n about i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g and how O f t e n g i r l s w i s h to make t h e i r l i v i n g  a t t r a c t i v e because they may to d e c o r a t e  and  l i v e ' and e n t e r t a i n i n one  room a t home.  come f o r home management i d e a s .  Some g i r l s , who  to'  surroundings  room, o r they may are a n t i c i p a t i n g  marriage,  T h i s type o f programme i s done i n a group  o f f r i e n d s o f twenty g i r l s a l l between the ages o f twenty and t h i r t y  years.  Gordon Neighbourhood House members a l s o work w i t h l e a t h e r . group has  about twenty members;  House Christmas  twelve women a t t e n d r e g u l a r l y .  a c t i v i t i e s developed  activities. now  T h i s was  The  from the Members C r a f t group.  members were i n charge o f the p a i n t i n g o f Christmas f o r the house.  wish  c a r d s and  the  The Gordon These  decorations  one s t e p i n h e l p i n g these people move to o t h e r agency  I n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i n g , which has been p a r t o f the A r t Centre, i s  combined w i t h A r t f o r Fun  crafts.  There was  an a t t e m p t f o r f a r too  high  a standard i n i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n , so t h a t t h i s e r r o r has been r e c t i f i e d moving the a c t i v i t y i n t o the A r t f o r Fun  group.  f o r b a s k e t r y , b e a d c r a f t , and  Alexandra  wood work.  by  J u n i o r Gordon House p r o v i d e s House has  leathercraft  and b l o c k p r i n t i n g , p a p i e r mache p r o j e c t s , and l i n o c u t work. S c u l p t u r e work appears to be one  o f the l e s s common c u l t u r a l  a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies; ( i t i s n o t done i n Vancouver a g e n c i e s ) . 1  Three prominent e x c e p t i o n s to t h i s are found House i n Chicago,  i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s :  Hudson G u i l d Neighborhood House i n New  A l l i a n c e , a l s o i n New  York, and  Hull Educational  York, have s c u l p t u r e work.  Woodcarving i s an adventure - each b l o c k o f wood i s f u l l o f unknown problems.  There are t r e a s u r e s o f c o l o u r , g r a i n i n g , t e x t u r e and  obstacles - knots, flaws, cracks.  interesting  A woodcarver depends on h i s own  ingenuity  - 39 to master these unexpected problems, f o r there i s l i t t l e technical information he can be taught.  Carving can teach how to carve.  There i s great s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n expressing oneself, i n creating something with one's own imagination.  hands out of his  Wonderful things f i n a l l y emerge from pieces of wood.  Any good c u l t u r a l arts programme w i l l encourage free imaginative expression;  i t w i l l teach people the s k i l l needed to produce p r a c t i c a l  and b e a u t i f u l objects;  i t w i l l present the participant with knowledge of  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and l i m i t a t i o n s of the media i n which he works; c e r t a i n l y r e f i n e aesthetic standards of appreciation.  i t will  Cultural a r t s a c t i v i t i e s  do make a valuable contribution to programme i n group work agencies. Mass programmes. I t has been pointed out that the size of c u l t u r a l a r t groups varies considerably.  Most c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s are carried on i n small  groups of ten to twenty-five people.  Mass programmes, i f they are thoughtfully  planned, have a place i n c u l t u r a l programmes. opportunity to introduce new  Mass programmes present an  s k i l l s , new i n t e r e s t s , and new  personalities.  Films, music and dramatic' plays help to stimulate members to new and to provide a stimulus to the performers  activities  as well as to the audience.  In  order to sustain i n t e r e s t , mass programmes should be b r i e f and well planned so that the p a r t i c i p a n t s are completely absorbed i n the a c t i v i t y .  '  The  sequence of events should be arranged so that at the end of a certain a c t i v i t y people are placed ready to p a r t i c i p a t e again - perhaps i n ,a folk dance. Good timing i s e s s e n t i a l .  The age range within the group should be l i m i t e d  so that the a c t i v i t y can be planned to appeal to a f a i r l y homogeneous group. Audience members should p a r t i c i p a t e so that they, too, w i l l have a f e e l i n g of satisfaction.  Mass a c t i v i t y programmes have a greater value than the worth  inherent i n the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f .  I t i s often possible to "follow through"  on  the new i n t e r e s t s which a r e s t i m u l a t e d ,  so t h a t a group may  evolve  which concerns i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h a t a c t i v i t y and a c h i e v e s much b e n e f i t from i t .  A mass a c t i v i t y programme a f f o r d s a n e x c e l l e n t o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  l e a d e r s and members t o meet an a r t i s t o r s p e c i a l i s t and l e a r n h i s views and  s k i l l s pertaining to a c u l t u r a l a r t . F r o m  this discussion i ti s  m a n i f e s t , t h a t , whatever t h e c o n t e n t o f c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y , i t cannot be d i v o r c e d from t h e human p e r s o n a l i t i e s i n v o l v e d .  (19)  N a t i o n a l J e w i s h W e l f a r e Board, J e w i s h C e n t e r Program A i d s . the A r t i s t " , New York, 1947.  "Feature  CHAPTER IV. PARTICIPATION IH CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. The e f f e c t t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s programme has on the membership of the l e i s u r e - t i m e  agency i s i m p o r t a n t .  A group work agency i s p r i m a r i l y  concerned w i t h groups o f pebple - l a r g e groups, s m a l l groups, groups which are  formed around f r i e n d s h i p s ,  groups t h a t a r e formed around i n t e r e s t s ,  c l o s e l y and l o o s e l y k n i t groups, c h i l d r e n s ' and a d u l t g r o u p s , t h o s e t o which girls  and women b e l o n g and t h o s e t o which men and boys belong, and so on.  A group o f f r i e n d s o f t e n p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s d u r i n g t h e i r c l u b meeting.  The c u l t u r a l a r t programme i s a l s o used a s a r e c r u i t i n g  ground f o r new groups and f o r new members o f e s t a b l i s h e d  groups.  Social  group work i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l s who make up groups. Group a c t i v i t y h e l p s t o make b e t t e r  integrated  individuals.  The " a r t - f o r -  a r t ' s - s a k e " p h i l o s o p h y i s n o t p r e v a l e n t i n group work t h i n k i n g on c u l t u r a l arts.  I t i s rather  t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e a r t has on t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and on  the group t h a t i s i m p o r t a n t . Emphasis - p e r s o n a l i t y  and s k i l l .  T h i s r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n o f emphasis i n c u l t u r a l a r t s Should the g r e a t e r emphasis be on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y o r on d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l ?  activity.  of the p a r t i c i p a n t  Without a doubt, group work a g e n c i e s a r e more concerned  with developing the i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t y , s k i l l i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s !  although the developing o f the  I l l f o u r Vancouver a g e n c i e s s t r e s s t h e  importance o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme.  The  emphasis on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y ' o f each member a l s o s e r v e s t o e n r i c h and widen t h e p e r s o n ' s i n t e r e s t s and t o p r o v i d e a s t i m u l u s , t h r o u g h t h e programme, t o d e v e l o p s k i l l s . The degree o f emphasis on t h e s e two f a c e t s o f a c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y w i l l , o f course, vary.  Some p e o p l e do come t o an agency t o l e a r n a  skill  and n o t to f u l f i l l  o t h e r needs - f o r example, the members o f the  Gordon House A r t Centre Group. p e o p l e want.  D e v e l o p i n g the s k i l l i s the emphasis t h e s e  However, b o t h p e r s o n a l i t y development and s k i l l a r e c o m p a t i b l e ,  i n t h a t t h e l e a r n i n g o f a s k i l l i s o f t e n a s t e p o r t o o l i n t h e development of p e r s o n a l i t y .  The p e r s o n who  comes to l e a r n a s k i l l i s working w i t h o t h e r  members o f an a r t group and w i t h the l e a d e r , and i s i n f l u e n c e d by t h e s e p e o p l e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t , t h a t , i f t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e emphasis on s k i l l , not  t h e r e should  be u n d u l y g r e a t demands made on the p a r t i c i p a n t , so t h a t he i s n o t  c a p a b l e o f a c h i e v i n g r e s u l t s s a t i s f a c t o r y to h i m s e l f and t o the s p e c i a l i s t . Such an e x p e r i e n c e would s t i f l e the member's i n t e r e s t i n t h e a c t i v i t y and have u n f o r t u n a t e i m p l i c a t i o n s on h i s development.  Too g r e a t acceptance o f  s k i l l performance w i l l r e s u l t i n t h e agency o f f e r i n g l i t t l e more than a school t r a i n i n g . overlooked.  The e x t r a b e n e f i t s which the agency has t o o f f e r would be  When g r e a t e r emphasis i s a t t a c h e d t o the development o f the  member, i t w i l l be found t h a t the p e r s o n w i l l i n c r e a s e h i s s k i l l as h i s development as an i n d i v i d u a l demands i t . an a r t group s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e .  T h i s i s a r eason why membership i n  I t i s b e t t e r to d i v i d e members i n t o groups  on the b a s i s o f developmental r a t h e r than c h r o n o l o g i c a l  age.  S k i l l development w i l l be slower when the i n d i v i d u a l growth i s emphasized, b u t i f the member i s g i v e n t h e r i g h t k i n d o f l e a d e r s h i p and s u f f i c i e n t time, t h e r e w i l l undoubtedly be a much f i r m e r development o f b o t h his  p e r s o n a l i t y and s k i l l . . S k i l l w i l l n o t d e v e l o p in a vacuum -  f o r ' a n a r t depends on the p e r s o n who  competence  i s creating i t .  The c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s an i n s t r u m e n t o f s o c i a l group work, but  t h i s does n o t i m p l y t h a t the q u a l i t y o f a r t i s n e g a t e d .  Membership  will  p r o b a b l y f i n d t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f work, and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s on p e r s o n a l i t y  - 13 development, are i m p o r t a n t .  I f one i s a competent a r t i s t and a q u a l i f i e d  s o c i a l group worker, b o t h s k i l l But f o r membership - o n For  and p e r s o n a l i t y development are i n s e p a r a b l e .  whatever l e v e l i t i s - s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n i s i m p o r t a n t .  some i n d i v i d u a l s s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n means p r o f i c i e n c y i n a s k i l l ;  t h i s i s not a f a c t o r .  f o r others  S k i l l o r c r a f t m a n s h i p has a p l a c e on the t e c h n i c a l  s i d e o f a r t b u t i t s h o u l d be secondary to the i m a g i n a t i v e q u a l i t y i n any work. 1 of  d u a l emphasis on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the p a r t i c i p a n t and the use the s k i l l  as an end to t h i s aim, i s p o s s i b l e and e s s e n t i a l i n c u l t u r a l a r t s  w i t h i n a group work agency. P e o p l e who  come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Are the p e o p l e who  come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n l e i s u r e - t i m e  a g e n c i e s d i f f e r e n t from those who p e o p l e who  attend other a c t i v i t i e s ?  Essentially,  come t o a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme a r e n o t i n t r i n s i c a l l y  from the k i n d o f p e o p l e who  a t t e n d o t h e r agency a c t i v i t i e s .  different  Art participants  do n o t v a r y from o t h e r programme members i n age, sex, p e r i o d o f development, or  intelligence.  A r t s e e k e r s d i f f e r i n i n t e r e s t - they wish a r t p a r t i c u l a r l y .  The Y.M.C.A. f i n d s t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o have c o - e d u c a t i o n a l groups in  a r t a c t i v i t i e s t o a g r e a t e r e x t e n t than they rare p o s s i b l e i n o t h e r phases  of  YM programme.  I t i s found t h a t members who  p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n programme do n o t go t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. i s because offers; it  Most l i k e l y  this  these p e o p l e need the a c t i v e programme t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n  time o f t e n n e c e s s i t a t e s a c h o i c e .  i s found t h a t some o f the boys, who  I n the Boys Department o f the YM  a r e n o t capable o f l o o k i n g  themselves i n the p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t y , Others come because  after  come f o r c u l t u r a l programmes.  t h e y a r e f a m i l i a r w i t h the a c t i v i t y .  t i m i d - they have been brought up c h i e f l y among a d u l t s ;  Some o f the boys are t h e s e boys a r e the  - aones who  o f t e n r e q u e s t the c u l t u r a l programme.  away from home f o r v a r i o u s reasons.  Some boys have been "pushed"  I t i s a l s o t h i s k i n d o f boy who  f o r the f a m i l i a r - he has o f t e n t r i e d  a r t s and c r a f t s a t home.  No  asks difficulty  i s found i n b r i n g i n g boys i n t o a c u l t u r a l a r t group.  In the Vancouver Y.M.C.A.,  it  c l a s s and asks who  has been found t h a t i f a l e a d e r approaches  a  11  gym"  is  i n t e r e s t e d i n an a r t programme, t w o - t h i r d s o f the membership comes to-an a r t a c t i v i t y and c o n t i n u e s t o come. P e o p l e from a l l backgrounds - c u l t u r a l , economic, s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s enjoy the a r t s .  A t the E d u c a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e i n New  e v e r y k i n d o f p e r s o n , from the dishwasher law.  Hudson G u i l d Neighborhood  -  York, membership i n c l u d e s  t o the p r o f e s s o r i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l  House s e r v e s a neighbourhood  comprised  of  f i f t e e n n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and t h e r e i s economic d i s c r e p a n c y among these p e o p l e . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e group o f people enjoys the a r t programmes.  The  Community  Music S c h o o l a t San F r a n c i s c o a l s o s e r v e s a c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Some o f these p e o p l e are I t a l i a n , - Mexican,  Japanese,  Chinese, P o r t u g e s e , German,  Dutch, Danish, Negro, E a s t I n d i a n , R u s s i a n , Nicaraguan,  Greek, I r i s h .  members a r e the c h i l d r e n o f j a n i t o r s , m i n i s t e r s , widows-on-pension, s m a l l s t o r e owners, w a i t e r s , e l e c t r i c i a n s , a e r o p l a n e mechanics,  salesmen,  s o l d i e r s , c l e r k s , firemen, p a i n t e r s ,  c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s , t e l e p h o n e o p e r a t o r s and  c a r p e n t e r s , postmen, r a i l r o a d workers,  The  mechanics,  h a t makers, t r u c k d r i v e r s , longshoremen,  h o s p i t a l a t t e n d a n t s , stenographers, r e a l - e s t a t e o p e r a t o r s , and milkmen!  -V^O^  J u n i o r Gordon House i n Vancouver f i n d s t h a t a d e f i n i t e p r o p o r t i o n o f the membership j o i n s a r t groups. group  About o n e - q u a r t e r o f the younger  comes to the agency s o l e l y f o r c u l t u r a l programmes - puppetry,  the g l e e c l u b and i n t e r p r e t i v e d a n c i n g . (20)  age ballet,  Almost h a l f o f the membership j o i n s  The Community Music. S c h o o l , A Key t o B e t t e r L i v i n g . San F r a n c i s c o , California.  - -45 the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as o t h e r programmes.  The o t h e r q u a r t e r  o f the membership i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t u r a l a r t s , as such - these members spend t h e i r time i n c l u b groups, ping-pong  games, and  I n S e n i o r Gordon House, housewives who  dancing.  a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n a hobby-  come t o the A r t C e n t r e .  In the Members Group the p e o p l e seem t o be  who  and who  a r e more adventurous  such as the d i s c u s s i o n c l u b . agency - p e o p l e who  those  a r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r agency a c t i v i t y ,  There i s a c e r t a i n group o f t h i s k i n d i n the  are i n t e r e s t e d and more developed i n a l l a c t i v i t y .  A r t programmes s e r v e a f u r t h e r purpose;  they s a t i s f y those people who  think  t h a t t h e i r standards are too h i g h f o r them t o p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n o t h e r agency programmes.  There i s an A u s t r i a n woman who  has a  cultural  background, and a l t h o u g h she has been i n Vancouver a y e a r , has made no  friends.  She had an a t t i t u d e o f s u p e r i o r i t y t h a t b a r r e d her from c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s with other people.  The p o t t e r y c l a s s appeared  searching to f i n d .  Now  to o f f e r what t h i s woman was  t h i s s u p e r i o r a t t i t u d e - which may  have been a veneer  to h e l p compensate f o r h e r l a c k s i n o t h e r areas - i s g i v i n g way friendliness.  The r e s u l t i s a h a p p i e r woman who  I n a group,  to one  of  i s making f r i e n d s .  the a t t e n t i o n i s n e c e s s a r i l y drawn to the most  d i s t u r b e d i n d i v i d u a l s - e x t e n s i v e r e c o r d s are made and case work - group work c o n f e r e n c e s are h e l d .  A r t i s a good medium f o r p e o p l e who  do n o t g e t a l o n g  i n groups — these p e o p l e a r e a b l e t o a v o i d a group e x p e r i e n c e by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the a r t . i n t o group  G r a d u a l l y , a s t h e i r competence d e v e l o p s , they are a b l e t o move activity.  The c r e a t i v e , more advanced i n d i v i d u a l I n the a r t group, also receive attention.  should  I f the programme does n o t a f f o r d i n t e n s i v e enough  -  4-6  -  t r a i n i n g f o r such a p e r s o n , he s h o u l d be h e l p e d t o move on t o p l a c e s where t h i s t a l e n t can be f u r t h e r d e v e l o p e d . The type o f a r t a c t i v i t y o f f e r e d , determines t o some e x t e n t the k i n d o f p e o p l e who a r e a t t r a c t e d t o i t .  These p e o p l e a r e d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e  i n t h a t t h e y a r e r e a d y f o r t h a t a r t e x p e r i e n c e and can b e n e f i t from t h e l e a r n i n g which c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a f f o r d .  I t may be t h a t p e o p l e who have  g r e a t need to l e t o f f energy go t o t h e gymnasium t o do so i n a more v o l u b l e manner.  Those who a r e i n s e a r c h o f v i g o r o u s a c t i v i t y a r e d i r e c t e d t o p h y s i c a l  e d u c a t i o n programmes.  F o r some p e o p l e , a r t a c t i v i t y a f f o r d s a p r o t e c t i v e  environment. Cultural arts  can o f f e r a c o h e s i v e n e s s t o groups whose bonds o f  f r i e n d s h i p are not p a r t i c u l a r l y strong.  The a c t i v i t y can be used as a medium  t h r o u g h which t h e members a r e g i v e n group and i n d i v i d u a l h e l p . be a g o a l and a s t i m u l a n t . on t h e group;  A r t can a l s o  The c r e a t i v i t y and i n i t i a t i v e a r e n o t dependent  they come from t h e i n d i v i d u a l s .  grow around t h i s core o f c r e a t i v i t y .  O t h e r p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s can  The c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y may even be  a medium i n which a group o f f r i e n d s d e v e l o p s from a group o f i s o l a t e d  individuals  interested i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes a l s o s a t i s f y members who a r e l o o k i n g f o r i n n e r r e s o u r c e s which can be taken home, and when a c q u i r e d g i v e to them a s a t i s f y i n g independence  i n c o n t r a s t t o d i s t u r b i n g t h i n g s around them.  members l o o k f o r and f i n d p l e a s u r e w i t h i n themselves.  The  Most people f e e l the  need t o e x p r e s s t h e i r i d e a s c r e a t i v e l y , b u t i t t a k e s courage to break away from t h e e s t a b l i s h e d h a b i t s and c o n v e n t i o n s o f one's group. o f t h e reasons why a r t groups appear t o be " d i f f e r e n t " . themselves  creatively.  T h i s may be one  People are expressing  ,  - 47 -  Members come t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n group work a g e n c i e s because  t h e y are i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t y .  More o f t e n people w i l l  seek  out t h e f a m i l i a r so t h a t i t i s important t o a f f o r d a l l p e o p l e - c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s - o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o expose themselves a r t s programme. people.  t o some a s p e c t s o f a c u l t u r a l  There a r e many b e n e f i t s which c u l t u r a l a r t s can o f f e r t o a l l  P e o p l e need t o be made aware, o f a r t a c t i v i t i e s !  Reasons p e o p l e come t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Members come t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes f o r many reasons.  One o f  the f a c t o r s may be t h a t t h e y w i s h t o accompany t h e i r f r i e n d s .  I t may be t h a t  someone has a f r e e n i g h t and has n o t h i n g t o occupy h i s t i m e j  an a r t a c t i v i t y  w i l l keep him busy.  Other p e o p l e may be c o n v i n c e d t h a t i n t h i s day, and i n  t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood,  a r t i s the thing to doj  i t gives prestige.  Then t h e r e I s t h e person who, o f n e c e s s i t y , o r o f h a b i t , t r i e s t o manage as c h e a p l y as p o s s i b l e - she stamps m a t e r i a l s f o r a l l the c u r t a i n s i n h e r house, or. makes g i f t s f o r h e r f r i e n d s . to a c c o m p l i s h something  Some p e o p l e come t o c u l t u r a l art programmes  t a n g i b l e - a p a i n t i n g , a vase - o r t o l e a r n and  develop some s p e c i f i c s k i l l .  I n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s , the members come because •  they w i s h t o use the equipment o f the agency o r p r o c u r e a d d i t i o n a l  instruction  i n tfxi'i*- hobbjts. A member may be i n t e r e s t e d i n c o m m e r c i a l i z i n g a hobby, f p r i n s t a n c e , c e r a m i c s , by u s i n g l o c a l c l a y s t o produce a n a t i v e a r t . O t h e r people come t o c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes because c o n s c i o u s l y o r u n c o n s c i o u s l y they f i n d a need f o r r e l e a s e , f o r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o express themselves, and t o c r e a t e something by themselves. "Man, as we a r e now coming t o understand him, i s by n a t u r e and i n essence a c r e a t i v e b e i n g . C r e a t i o n , i n one o r o t h e r o f i t s e n d l e s s forms, i s the e s s e n t i a l f u n c t i o n o f man. I t i s t h e keynote o f toman n a t u r e " . ' (21)  J a c k s , L.P., E d u c a t i o n through R e c r e a t i o n . London, U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , 1935, p 38.  - IS -  .  T h i s c r e a t i v i t y i s concerned w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' growth as w e l l a s w i t h the development o f t h e a r t o b j e c t .  P e o p l e r e l a x and a r e a l s o p r o v i d e d w i t h  a medium to " a c t o u t , p a i n t out, and s i n g o u t " t h e i r f e e l i n g s .  O l d e r people  may come because c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r them a new experience - t h e a c t i v i t y agency i s a c h a l l e n g e t o them.  I n some cases,/people p u t -agonoy -pressure oh the  i n d i v i d u a l because they f e e l the person i s i n need o f t h e a c t i v i t y .  Such  members a r e o f t e n o l d e r and need s t r o n g support which t h e y g e t from a s t a f f person.  They would never j o i n a group on t h e i r own, b u t they l e a r n to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n and e n j o y a c u l t u r a l a r t i n a d e s i r e t o p l e a s e a s t a f f  person.  P a r e n t s may a t t e n d a programme so t h a t they w i l l be capable o f h e l p i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n with the a r t .  A younger age group may be conforming  to p a r e n t s ' wishes by coming t o t h e programme.  Some members w i l l want a d u l t  r e c o g n i t i o n and a r e a b l e t o a c h i e v e t h i s by p r o d u c i n g something home.  t h e y can take  Other p e o p l e may j o i n an a r t group because they want t o be w i t h an  "accepting" person.  These p a r t i c i p a n t s may be t h e ones who a r e s e e k i n g a  p r o t e c t i v e environment  and a v o i d i n g d i r e c t group p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  group may i n c r e a s e t h e i r sense o f b e l o n g i n g .  An a r t  Some p e o p l e w i l l become members  o f an a r t programme .because i t i s an e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t o f the agency; they a c c e p t the agency, they p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e programme;  because  On t h e o t h e r hand,  some people may come to t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t i e s because they don't  like  the r e s t o f the agency programme. Through a c u l t u r a l fun!  a r t s programme people seek enjoyment - they have  They a l s o come f o r a group e x p e r i e n c e .  interest.  The a r t may be a v e h i c l e by which p a r t i c i p a n t s e n t e r a s o c i a l group -  e s p e c i a l l y i n the case o f young a d u l t s . f r i e n d s h i p s e v o l v e from i n t e r e s t s . i n an a r t .  Some members come f o r a s p e c i f i c  .'Art f u l f i l l s a s o c i a l purpose  Furthermore,  -  t h e whole f a m i l y can p a r t i c i p a t e  The r e c r e a t i o n a l movement i s r e a l i z i n g t h a t l e i s u r e time p u r s u i t s  - 49 can p l a y a g r e a t p a r t i n h e l p i n g p e o p l e develop t h e a e s t h e t i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects  of recreation.  The emphasis on p l a y has been too completely  p h y s i c a l s i d e , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t c u l t u r a l r e c r e a t i o n has been Trend i n c u l t u r a l a r t s The t r e n d s  on the  neglected.  programmes.  o f c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes over a p e r i o d o f y e a r s i s  shown by an i n c r e a s e o r decrease i n a r t i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c i e s . In Vancouver, the Y.M.C.A. found no n o t a b l e o v e r the l a s t t e n - y e a r  p e r i o d t h e r e has been c o n s i d e r a b l e  i n t h i s f i e l d - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n music. change i n a r t programmes. changed.  change d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r , but gain i n i n t e r e s t  The Y.W.C.A. had n o t i c e d no  The whole a r t programme f o c u s in.Gordon House has  The programme s t a r t e d a s an imposed one, b u t l a s t y e a r the programme  changed, so t h a t now i t begins a t t h e House C o u n c i l l e v e l . checks, r e p a i r s and makes equipment.  The House  Council  More members a r e j o i n i n g the a r t programme  because i t i s becoming an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the agency. are a l s o f i t t i n g i n t o the house a c t i v i t y . now,  appreciable  The A r t f o r f u n members  The A r t C e n t r e programme i s c i t y - w i d e  b u t i t i s g r a d u a l l y becoming^ a Gordon House programme.  This i s the trend  toward which a l l the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n the agency are a i m i n g . A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House has found t h a t , i n a d d i t i o n , i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l a r t s depends upon t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . because the i n d i v i d u a l r e q u e s t s programme - v o l u n t e e r s  it.  B u t seasonal  The programme I s s e t up i n t e r e s t s a l s o a f f e c t the  a r e more a v a i l a b l e i n w i n t e r  than i n summer.  The  emphasis on the c u l t u r a l a r t programme i n the summer w i l l depend upon whether o r n o t t h e r e i s a good camping programme.  Outdoor a c t i v i t y i s f r e e r e r and  more i n f o r m a l - p e o p l e tend to s i n g d i f f e r e n t songs i n an oui>-of-doors s e t t i n g . The importance the community p l a c e s on an a r t a c t i v i t y w i l l a l s o have i t s effect.  A s t a f f p e r s o n , from one Vancouver, remarked t h a t s c h o o l s o f the c h i l d r e n ; i n anything  -  o f the group work -agencies o u t s i d e  and  they have l i t t l e  50  churches are competing f o r the  time l e f t  for satisifying  time  accomplishment  e l s e , u n l e s s t h e r e i s a v e r y g r e a t urge f o r a r t a c t i v i t y w i t h i n  the i n d i v i d u a l o r at home.  Most o f the agency p e o p l e have found t h a t i f a  change i n c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes has been n o t i c e a b l e , i t i s an in art activity.  T h i s may  becoming b e t t e r known and  r e s u l t from c u l t u r a l programmes and appreciated.'  To a l a r g e e x t e n t ,  increase  their  values  i n c r e a s i n g the  t r e n d o f i n t e r e s t i n a c u l t u r a l a r t programme i n a group work agency i s dependent upon the members and  the  leaders.  - 51 CHAPTER V LEADERSHIP IN CULTDEAL ARTS PROGRAMMES.  ff  The leadership o f a c u l t u r a l arts programme can neither be separated  from the membership nor the a c t i v i t y .  The three are i n e x t r i c a b l e .  The q u a l i t y and success o f an a r t programme i s contingent upon p r o f i c i e n t leadership.  The importance o f good leadership i s reinforced by the following  excerpt. For some reason or other, the professional t r a i n i n g i n group work has relegated the f i n e arts to a most secondary place and have given over c r a f t to the group workers who have reduced i t often to a sort o f "busy work". While I am thoroughly i n sympathy with t r a i n i n g i n group work, and also the use of group work technique f o r integration, I f e e l that the a r t s must f i r s t of a l l be taught by people who are a r t i s t s , and q u a l i f i e d i n t h e i r own s p e c i a l t i e s . Some o f these have been and are the best group workers that I know, and there i s no reason why the tro •cannot be joined happily." -*2) ,!  Artist. F i r s t of a l l , the leader of an a r t programme must be a q u a l i f i e d artist.  The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. c a l l s upon c i t y s p e c i a l i s t s to lead c u l t u r a l  art classes.  The boys worker stated that he would rather not give an a r t  programme than have one with inadequate leadership, because a poor beginning i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s may discourage a member from i n t e r e s t i n the a r t f o r the remainder o f his l i f e .  The Y.W.C.A. also attempts to get leaders who have the  best possible t r a i n i n g . Gordon House a r t workers are p r o f e s s i o n a l l y trained, f o r the most part. Two leaders are Vancouver Art School graduates;  one has had additional  t r a i n i n g i n university of B r i t i s h Columbia a r t courses and the other leader has studied i n C a l i f o r n i a .  The f u l l - t i m e worker i s a Winnipeg Art School graduate  with experience i n the Winnipeg Y.W.C.A. Another person has been trained a t #  For further discussion of Leadership see Chapter VI, Developing & Cultural Arts Programme, S p e c i f i c Programme - The Social Group Worker as a C u l t u r a l Arts Leader.  {22)  L e t t e r from Peck, L i l l i e M., Secretary, National Federation of Settlements, Inc., New York, December 5, 1950.  - 52 the Gordon House A r t C e n t r e and i n the u n i v e r s i t y a r t c o u r s e s . was  Another l e a d e r  t r a i n e d a t the N o r t h West Academy o f A r t s and C e n t r a l T e c h n i c a l S c h o o l i n  Toronto.  The l e a d e r who  "teaches"  basketry  has l e a r n e d t h i s s k i l l by h e r s e l f .  A l e x a n d r a Neighbourhood House has a t r a i n e d l e a d e r i n a r t and one in d a n c i n g . Group work a g e n c i e s i n Vancouver have n o t d e v e l o p e d s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e i r t h i n k i n g on a r t t o r e a l i z e the a b s o l u t e n e c e s s i t y o f having p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s l e a d c u l t u r a l a r t groups.  But r e a l i z i n g i t o r n o t , the f a c t  remains t h a t t h e s e a r t i s t s must be made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e a g e n c i e s .  still Vancouver  needs a c o - o r d i n a t i n g j o b done by a c i t y - w i d e o r g a n i z a t i o n which i s i n t e r e s t e d in this.  The Community A r t s C o u n c i l o f Vancouver can h e l p  s e a r c h out w e l l -  q u a l i f i e d a r t i s t s i n Vancouver and make them a v a i l a b l e t o our r e c r e a t i o n centres. The Community A r t s C o u n c i l o f Vancouver c o - o r d i n a t e s by e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n the community. Club,  the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre,  some o f the member groups. to meet t o g e t h e r  the work done  The Vancouver M u s i c a l and S o c i a l  and t h e Canadian Author's A s s o c i a t i o n are  Representatives  to exchange knowledge  o f the a r t groups have an  opportunity  and t o h e l p each o t h e r s o l v e problems.  The purpose o f these meetings i s t o improve, by means o f j o i n t p l a n n i n g , s e r v i c e s t h e s e groups o f f e r t o Vancouver.  the  Another way i n which the Community  A r t s C o u n c i l i s a s s i s t i n g a r t groups i n Vancouver i s by a r e f e r r a l s e r v i c e . These groups a r e r e f e r r e d t o f a c i l i t i e s and to l e a d e r s h i p which a r e a v a i l a b l e i n the community.  The a r t groups express d e s i r e f o r h e l p i n two major  they w i s h a s s i s t a n c e i n o r g a n i z i n g t h e i r own a good group e x p e r i e n c e . developing.  areas:  a r t group and they want to have  And l a s t l y , work w i t h l e i s u r e - t i m e agencies i s a l s o  Drama groups a r e being m o b i l i z e d  t o produce c h i l d r e n ' s p l a y s  which w i l l be made a v a i l a b l e to the members i n group work a g e n c i e s . w i l l a l s o be c r e a t i v e p a i n t i n g c l a s s e s , m u s i c a l  There  c o n c e r t s , dance groups, and  -  puppet c l a s s e s .  53 -  The people o f the Community A r t s Council o f Vancouver  b e l i e v e that the r e a l v a l i d i t y of a r t comes i n helping people have r i c h e r lives.  The Community Arts Council i s a community s e r v i c e within the f i e l d  of a r t which can contribute q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and q u a l i t a t i v e l y (by supplying leadership and programme material) to c u l t u r a l a r t programmes i n l e i s u r e - t i m e agencies. Group work agency people i n Canada and the United States s t r e s s the n e c e s s i t y o f having a r t i s t s l e a d c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes.  The Educational  A l l i a n c e i n New York demands a leader w i t h a good and thorough, t r a i n i n g ; a l l leaders i n t h i s agency are n a t i o n a l l y known a r t i s t s .  The Friends Neighbourhood  G u i l d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a has a.music leader who i s a graduate o f the P a r i s Conservatory and o f the J u l l i a r d School i n New York.  Cleveland Music School  Settlement has bachelors, masters and doctorate degree people on the s t a f f . Generally, the Young Men's and Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Associations appear not to- have s t r e s s e d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n the a r t s to the extent that other agencies have done.  An exception to t h i s i s the dance programme i n  the Y.W.C.A. a t Houston, Texas.  The leader i n t h i s a c t i v i t y has a master's  degree i n dance, one year study i n Germany and eight years o f teaching experience.  The Y.W.C.A. i n Winnipeg seems t o have the most extensive a r t  programme o f Canadian Y.W.C.A's.  The U n i v e r s i t y Settlement i n Toronto also  has h i g h l y t r a i n e d a r t workers. The s p e c i a l i s t - l e a d e r s i n c u l t u r a l a r t programmes w i l l welcome the opportunity to meet other a r t i s t s and s p e c i a l i s t s and to hear t h e i r views on s k i l l s and programme m a t e r i a l s .  The s p e c i a l i s t w i l l c o n s t a n t l y seek to bring  to h i s work new ideas and i n s p i r a t i o n s .  For t h i s reason, a r t leaders should  have an opportunity to a s s o c i a t e v/ith other a r t i s t s a t l o c a l and n a t i o n a l conferences.  The a r t leader w i l l want the opportunity-to observe the work o f  - 54 o t h e r s a t p r o f e s s i o n a l and  amateur performances - dance r e c i t a l s , music  c o n c e r t s , d r a m a t i c performances, e x h i b i t s .  S u b s c r i p t i o n s to t e c h n i c a l and  p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s are l i k e w i s e s t i m u l a t i n g . schools,  Continued study i n  and b u l l e t i n s from museums, a r t g a l l e r i e s and u n i v e r s i t y e x t e n s i o n  departments, a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the  s p e c i a l i s t ' s continuing  training.  S o c i a l Group Worker. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the a r t , formulate two in  n e c e s s a r y q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r p e o p l e who s o c i a l group work a g e n c i e s .  The  one  of  the  l e a d c u l t u r a l a r t programmes  o t h e r n e c e s s i t y i s the p e r s o n a l i t y o f  the l e a d e r , o r h i s a b i l i t y to work w i t h p e o p l e , o r h i s s o c i a l group work • skills;  c a l l i t what you may,  h i s a r t i n helping others  i t i s the c o n s c i o u s  to b e n e f i t p e r s o n a l l y and  use o f the l e a d e r  and  a r t i s t i c a l l y from  the  art activity. The a r t l e a d e r i n f l u e n c e s the group members s i m p l y because he comes i n c o n t a c t w i t h them.  How  the s p e c i a l i s t works i s i m p o r t a n t .  The  four  Vancouver a g e n c i e s s t r e s s the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o f ' c u l t u r a l l e a d e r s i n the of personal a t t r i b u t e s . i n t e r e s t i n g and n o t the a r t .  I t i s n e c e s s a r y f o r the l e a d e r to make the a r t  too t h e o r e t i c a l , i f people a r e to enjoy and b e n e f i t from  T h i s i m p l i e s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f v a r i o u s age  o f the members.  The  and  developmental l e v e l s  l e a d e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s approach to the  i s more i m p o r t a n t than h i s The  area  activity  age.  a b i l i t y o f a l e a d e r to encourage the members' c r e a t i v i t y  than t h e i r c o p y i n g - o t h e r  i d e a s , i s most worthwhile.  This necessitates  the a r t s s p e c i a l i s t have an a b i l i t y t o work w i t h p e o p l e - he i s a b l e s t a r t where the members are and a teen-ager i s n o t g i v e n  rather  t o help them advance from t h e r e .  a symphony as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to music.  For  that  to instance,  Each person  55  -  -  w i l l be h e l p e d t o move from h i s o r i g i n a l s t a n d a r d , which w i l l be from the l e v e l a t which o t h e r members a r e . by s t a r t i n g where the members a r e . make the s t a n d a r d o f performance  different  A l e a d e r does n o t lower  standards  Under no c i r c u m s t a n c e s does the l e a d e r  more i m p o r t a n t than the i n d i v i d u a l .  For  example, i n some i n s t a n c e s g r e a t harm can be done t o a person i f h i s p r o d u c t i o n s o r a r t , say h i s p o t t e r y bowls,  a r e thrown i n t o the waste basket.  A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme may  need more a c t i v e l e a d e r s h i p  because  p e o p l e a r e u s u a l l y n o t as ready t o embark on a r t work as they a r e to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l group.  A r t can be a c h a l l e n g i n g a c t i v i t y .  The l e a d e r must be  aware t h a t some p e o p l e a r e n o t as a p t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a r t programme as t h e y a r e t o take p a r t i n o t h e r programmes, because on the p a r t i c i p a n t seem t o be g r e a t e r i n a r t . members develop c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y and  t o them the demands made  The l e a d e r aims t o h e l p the  skill.  The c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r s h o u l d a c c e p t , understand, and a p p r e c i a t e p e o p l e , and have a democratic approach i n d e a l i n g w i t h them. enjoyment must a l s o be k e p t i n mind. t h a t W i l s o n and Ryland ' good l e a d e r .  ^ 3) 2  The  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to improve  group the  statements  make i n d e s c r i b i n g the q u a l i t i e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a  A c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r s h o u l d h e l p i n d i v i d u a l s and  groups  through: " H i s r e s p e c t f o r Mman b e i n g s and t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i r r i g h t to manage t h e i r own l i v e s . " The a r t s p e c i a l i s t w i l l abide b y the member's d e c i s i o n in' a c h o i c e o f c o l o u r s f o r a p a i n t i n g , even a l t h o u g h i t may  v i o l a t e the a r t i s t ' s  sense o f c o l o u r .  The l e a d e r w i l l work w i t h t h a t i n d i v i d u a l i n the framework o f the group as t h e members d e c i d e i t . (23)  An a r t group may  o r may  structure,  n o t be h i g h l y organized..  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949, p 22.  Massachusetts,  "His acceptance o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l and group r i g h t o f each t o be d i f f e r e n t from e v e r y o t h e r . " No  as unique, and o f the  s p e c i a l i s t can expect i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s o f two i n d i v i d u a l  instrumentalists  o r o f two o r c h e s t r a s , even a l t h o u g h they are p l a y i n g t h e same p i e c e . "His a b i l i t y t o f e e l w i t h i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h o u t l i k e them."  feeling  An a r t i s t must understand how the members f e e l when t h e y cannot a c h i e v e s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n a dramatic p l a y .  I f the l e a d e r f e l t l i k e them, he  c o u l d n o t h e l p them, to perform more a d e q u a t e l y . " H i s a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t t h e h o s t i l i t y and a g r e s s i o n as w e l l as t h e l o v e and a f f e c t i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s w i t h whom he works as normal r e a c t i o n s o f human, b e i n g s toward one a n o t h e r . " The  ceramics l e a d e r c o u l d become v e r y u p s e t i f he d i d n o t r e a l i z e t h a t a  member was blaming him o n l y as ajr-esult o f t r u e f e e l i n g s toward o t h e r p e o p l e , perhaps t h e member's f a m i l y .  The p a r t i c i p a n t may have been so upset t h a t h i s  s k i l l i n m o d e l l i n g was. i m p a i r e d . "His a b i l i t y t o understand t h e language o f b e h a v i o r and t o use h i s own b e h a v i o r t o the b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s and groups w i t h whom he i s working." A s p e c i a l i s t who n o t i c e s a y o u n g s t e r p a i n t i n g i n a r e d c o l o u r w i t h s h o r t , d i s t u r b e d s t r o k e s w i l l help' t h a t c h i l d r e l e a s e h e r f e e l i n g s through t h e medium o f p a i n t i n g , r a t h e r than on group members. "His a b i l i t y to a c c e p t t h e concept t h a t a l l b e h a v i o r i s p u r p o s i v e , and t h a t the a c t i v i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s " and g r o u p s i s s i g n i f i c a n t t o the people i n v o l v e d even i f i t seems meaningless t o the o b s e r v e r . " The  f a c t t h a t a whole group  chooses  i n f o l k dancing should r e v e a l  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n ajuare dancing r a t h e r than  something  to the l e a d e r .  F o r a group  of girls,  i t may mean t h a t boys l i k e t o square dance and t h a t t h e r e i s an o p p o r t u n i t y p r e s e n t i n g i t s e l f a t s c h o o l f o r a square dance.  Perhaps  one o f the  group  members has such a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on the o t h e r s t h a t they are persuaded to f o l l o w her c h o i c e .  -  57  -  "His. a b i l i t y t o accept i n d i v i d u a l s and groups even i f he must disapprove o f t h e i r behavior." . A l e a t h e r c r a f t i n s t r u c t o r may d i s l i k e t h e members a t t a c k i n g  one another w i t h .  t o o l i n g i n s t r u m e n t s and i n f o r m them so, b u t t h e l e a d e r g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t he d i s l i k e s the members themselves. "His a b i l i t y t o a c c e p t t h e r o l e o f a u t h o r i t y w i t h those i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who need t h e s e c u r i t y o f l i m i t a t i o n s and narrowed h o r i z o n s . " A music s p e c i a l i s t h e l p s members s e l e c t songs which t h e y a r e capable o f s i n g i n g successfully. "His  a b i l i t y t o use a u t h o r i t y  without passing  judgment."  A water f i g h t between "budding" ceramics e n t h u s i a s t s may demand use o f a u t h o r i t y . "His a b i l i t y t o be p e r m i s s i v e and to widen h o r i z o n s where i n d i v i d u a l s and groups need t o be supported i n assuming g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l and c o l l e c t i v e responsibility. I 1  In a drama group, the worker r e c o g n i z e s t h e i n s t a n t i n group development when i n d i v i d u a l s need to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g and p r o d u c i n g a play.  '  the i s s u e s  "His a b i l i t y to support i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s i n f a c t o r i n g o u t i n problems f a c i n g them, y e t to r e f r a i n f r o m i n d i c a t i n g the s o l u t i o n s . "  A s p e c i a l i s t i n drawing and d e s i g n w i l l h e l p the members r e a l i z e the wide range o f c h o i c e s i n d e s i g n , b u t w i l l l e t them f e r r e t o u t t h e l i n e s t o s u i t t h e i r own  carrying  pattern. "His a b i l i t y t o s u p p o r t i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n mailing and o u t t h e i r own d e c i s i o n s . "  The l e a d e r w i l l h e l p t h e group members c a r r y through t h e i r own p r o j e c t t o a successful  conclusion.  •  "His a b i l i t y t o use h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e o f thep a r t i c u l a r group w i t h which he i s working and t o i n t e r p r e t the l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e f u n c t i o n s p r o v i d e d by the s t r u c t u r e on t h e members o f the group." The l e a d e r w i l l h e l p members o f a weaving group r e a l i z e ' t h a t i f t h e i r group i s n o t o r g a n i z e d s u f f i c i e n t l y t o send a d e l e g a t e t o a members'  co-ordinating  committee, the group cannot expect to be drawn i n on p l a n s t h a t a l l  other  agency groups a r e i n i t i a t i n g . "His a b i l i t y t o u n d e r s t a n d and a c c e p t the purpose and f u n c t i o n o f the agency from which he r e c e i v e s the a u t h o r i t y to g i v e s e r v i c e to i n d i v i d u a l s and g r o u p s . " The a r t s p e c i a l i s t s h o u l d f e e l t h a t h i s groups are an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the t o t a l agency p l a n .  What members l e a r n i n a b a l l e t group must n o t run c o u n t e r  to agency p o l i c y .  -  " H i s a b i l i t y to a c c e p t the l i m i ' t a t i o n s o f agency f u n c t i o n s and to encourage t h e c l i e n t s o r members t o use the s e r v i c e s o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s i n the community f o r h e l p w i t h needs which h i s agency i s n o t equipped to s e r v e . " The l e a d e r who  f i n d s an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c u l a r l y t a l e n t e d i n s c u l p t u r e work,  w i l l h e l p t h a t member a c q u i r e more advanced i n s t r u c t i o n o u t s i d e the group o r o u t s i d e the agency. '"His a b i l i t y to r e p r e s e n t h i s agency e f f e c t i v e l y i n c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t s o f t h e community." The a r t l e a d e r w i l l be an agency d e l e g a t e to a r t c o n f e r e n c e s , e x h i b i t s and c o n c e r t s , and he w i l l h e l p o t h e agency b e n e f i t by h i s e x p e r i e n c e s i n these community e v e n t s . " H i s a b i l i t y to see the relationship-', between the i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t s o r members w i t h whom he i s working and those o f s o c i e t y - a s - a - w h o l e and to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l a c t i o n about the unmet needs as an employee o f the agency, as a member o f the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work, and as a r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n . " The a r t l e a d e r u n d e r s t a n d s t h a t democracy i s p r a c t i c e d among members i n the a r t group.  T h i s same a t t i t u d e o f d e a l i n g vd.th' one another i s c a r r i e d  the c u l t u r a l a r t group to the c i t y , the w o r l d .  beyond  the p r o v i n c e o r s t a t e , the n a t i o n ,  and  The c u l t u r a l a r t s worker w i l l extend h i s o u t l o o k and assume  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y beyond h i s immediate p r o f e s s i o n to t h a t o f the community and the w o r l d . Thi  s  s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s p l u s a g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l background, an  -59  academic background, and necessary.  The  -  an i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t i n p e o p l e and  f o l l o w i n g paragraph r e v e a l s . t h e q u a l i t y o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g  t h a t the a r t s p e c i a l i s t can have w i t h the group members. how  i n a r t are  the worker uses her knowledge and  t o b e n e f i t by the a r t - i n t h i s case,  I t also  tells  s k i l l s to enable many i n d i v i d u a l s drama.  "The s p e c i a l i s t who p u r s u e s h i s v o c a t i o n i n a s o c i a l agency u s u a l l y f i n d s h i m s e l f drawn i n t o p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s c l i e n t e l e . He comes upon the member i n a r e l a x e d and " o f f guard" frame o f mind, engaged upon an a g r e e a b l e p r o j e c t o f h i s own choice. T h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n - f r e q u e n t l y t h a t o f f e l l o w craftsmen, master and a p p r e n t i c e , f e l l o w sportsmen - i s conducive to c o n f i d e n c e s . As the s p e c i a l i s t g r a d u a l l y becomes aware o f the i n d i v i d u a l emerging from the group as a p e r s o n a l i t y , human problems and ambitions r e v e a l themselves and c h a l l e n g e him to s o c i a l s e r v i c e as w e l l as c r a f t s m a n s h i p . . . The d r a m a t i c s worker, whose p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s may demand t h a t she c a s t her a b l e s t p l a y e r s f o r p u b l i c p r o d u c t i o n s , may f i n d , t h a t her s o c i a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g l e a d s her to d e v i s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r d e v e l o p i n g a l s o the l e s s t a l e n t e d o f the group. She may experiment w i t h the use o f u n d e r s t u d i e s , p l a n a r e p e t i t i o n o f the performance w i t h a second s e t o f p l a y e r s i n the c a s t , arrange i n f o r m a l p r o d u c t i o n s . f o r which she can draw upon newer and l e s s p r o m i s i n g m a t e r i a l , and i n which she can award a p a r t to a p l a y e r who needs to overcome a p e r s o n a l problem such as s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , f a u l t y d i c t i o n , a warped view o f l i f e . She may concern h e r s e l f w i t h p r e v e n t i n g e x p l o i t a t i o n of the g i f t e d c h i l d , or t r y i n g to c o n t r o l a tendency o f a t a l e n t e d group to become " h i g h brww" o r e x c l u s i v e . " ^4) The  a r t l e a d e r i s c o n s t a n t l y aware o f the e f f e c t o f the a r t on the members. The  l e a d e r h i m s e l f has  must be g e n u i n e l y friendly. differing  He  i n t e r e s t e d i n p e o p l e - be c o n s i d e r a t e , t a c t f u l , warm and  A l e a d e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d i f f e r i n g v a l u e s and norms o f p e o p l e o f c u l t u r e s and  t h a t they can personal  a profound e f f e c t on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . -  backgrounds, w i l l h e l p him  draw i n group members so  c o n t r i b u t e t o the a c t i v i t y and d e r i v e s a t i s f a c t i o n from i t .  philosophy  i s a n e c e s s i t y i f a s p e c i a l i s t i s to support  are d i f f e r e n t from h i m s e l f and enjoy them h i m s e l f .  The  h e l p them a c h i e v e  worker i s a b e a r e r  people  A who  s a t i s f a c t i o n s , r a t h e r than  o f v a l u e s - h i s own,  the agency's,  and those o f the community.  I f he i s to f u n c t i o n i n a group work s e t t i n g , the  s p e c i a l i s t must be convinced  o f the v a l u e o f autonomous group experience  the p e r s o n a l (24).  and  s o c i a l growth o f i n d i v i d u a l s .  L a s t l y , the c u l t u r a l a r t s  Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New Harper and B r o t h e r s , p 1 6 4 . .  York,  in  l e a d e r must be a b l e and w i l l i n g t o make b r i e f r e c o r d s o f happenings t o i n d i v i d u a l s and t o the group-as-a-whole, and t o accept and use the h e l p o f the agency s u p e r v i s o r i n g i v i n g the h i g h e s t q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e o f which he i s c a p a b l e . ^ 5 ) The sum t o t a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s d e s i r a b l e f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r a r e t r a i n i n g i n a r t and i n s o c i a l group work.  P r o f i c i e n c y i n these two areas  w i l l i n c l u d e a l l the p e r s o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r i n a group work agency. emphasized t h e s o c i a l work background.  Vancouver a g e n c i e s have a d e q u a t e l y  Now i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o develop the  s t a n d a r d o f s e r v i c e so t h a t the importance o f q u a l i f i e d a r t i s t s w i l l be stressed.  O n l y when the a b i l i t i e s o f the a r t i s t and the o r i e n t a t i o n o f the  s o c i a l group worker a r e welded i n t o one person, a r e group w o r k a g e n c i e s p r o c u r i n g the b e s t which l e a d e r s h i p f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme  affords.  Good l e a d e r s h i p w i l l h e l p guarantee to the member b e n e f i t s which the a r t a c t i v i t y and the agency p h i l o s o p h y can and s h o u l d a f f o r d .  (25)  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949.  -  61  -  CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS. Aims o f C u l t u r a l A r t s Programmes. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to have an adequate u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the segments of  a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme - the membership, the l e a d e r s h i p , the programme f  content, and t h e agency s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n which the programme o p e r a t e s .  But  what are t h e i n c l u s i v e aims, v a l u e s , purposes o f c u l t u r a l a r t s i n a group work s e t t i n g ?  What should one l o o k f o r i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a good a r t programme?  Cultural a r t activities  have purposes which prove themselves to  be more than worthy o f the p l a c e g r o u p workers should g i v e them i n l e i s u r e time agency programmes.  F i r s t o f a l l , - c u l t u r a l a r t s a r e t o o l s which can be  used t o d e v e l o p the p e r s o n a l i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l . of  human endeavour i s t o p r o v i d e the means o f e n r i c h i n g i n d i v i d u a l  and development.  experience  T h i s , o f course, n e c e s s i t a t e s h e l p i n g the p e r s o n n e l and the  programme meet t h e changing needs o f the members; the  One o f the h i g h e s t aims  i t a l s o means h e l p i n g  p a r t i c i p a n t s be i n s p i r e d to something beyond what t h e y might expect o f  themselves. Art  i n r e c r e a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s o b v i o u s , more t a n g i b l e advantages to  p a r t i c i p a n t s , by e x p o s i n g them to the i n f l u e n c e s o f a r t which they might n o t have encountered i n t h e i r own  homes o r p l a c e s o f work.  An a p p r e c i a t i o n  well  worth having i n l a t e r l i f e i s developed, and s k i l l s which p r o v i d e a b e n e f i c i a l l e a r n i n g experience are acquired. a skill  S a t i s f a c t i o n i s g a i n e d both i n l e a r n i n g  and i n l e a r n i n g more about the a r t s .  These c u l t u r a l a r t s c r e a t e  i n t e r e s t s which l e a d to f u r t h e r s t u d y on an i n d i v i d u a l o r group b a s i s . i n t e r e s t s o f t e n l e n d new  enthusiasm to l i f e .  new New  The q u a l i t y o f a r t w i l l  i n c i d e n t a l l y be r a i s e d i f more p e o p l e aire helped t o a p p r e c i a t e a r t t h r o u g h  - 62 the a r t g a l l e r i e s and l o a n s e r v i c e s and a r e helped t o a c q u i r e knowledge of  the a r t forms by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a r t themselves.  group, members l e a r n t o promote c u l t u r e ;  Through an a r t  they put h i g h e r v a l u e s on the  c r a f t s m a n s h i p o f e v e r y d a y . a r t i c l e s and they enjoy more p o s i t i v e v a l u e s i n ' life. C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n l e i s u r e - t i m e a g e n c i e s a l s o aim g i v e important i n t a n g i b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n s t o p e o p l e . p e o p l e to t r y a r t  is valuable.  which t h e i n d i v i d u a l may • many  The o p p o r t u n i t y f o r  There i s a wide gamut o f a c t i v i t i e s from  choose a d e s i r e d one.  C u l t u r a l a r t s are  performed  i n / s e t t i n g s , so t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l most p r o b a b l y f i n d at l e a s t to  his liking.  to  one  The a c t i v i t y s a t i s f i e s the d e s i r e s w i t h i n a person to be  c r e a t i v e , to r e l e a s e emotional energy through e x p r e s s i o n , and to r e l a x . Besides, i t ' s fun! of  A r t i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which meets the needs  the whole f a m i l y - a r t encourages  colour, texture, p a t t e r n . of  and f o s t e r s a s e n s i t i i v i t y to  The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the  the p r o p e r t i e s o f n a t u r e are a l s o enhanced.  form,  arts and  Through enjoyment o f an  a c t i v i t y t h e r e w i l l be a g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l enjoyment o f o n e s e l f and o f o t h e r s . The purpose  o f a l l c u l t u r a l programmes i n group work a g e n c i e s i s  i n agreement w i t h what M i s s Gertrude F i e l d , former D i r e c t o r o f the San F r a n c i s c o Music  S c h o o l , says:  "We've had no g e n i u s e s o r p e o p l e , o f world-wide r e p u t a t i o n as p e r f o r m e r s . We have had a number o f young people who a r e doing o u t s t a n d i n g work. "However, we f e e l t h a t the g r e a t e s t v a l u e o f our work l i e s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y i n d e v e l o p i n g these e n t h u s i a s t i c and c a p a b l e young people who a r e making a l i f e work o f music; b u t r a t h e r i n the l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t o f the g r e a t body o f our s t u d e n t s ( p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n ) who have come to have an a b i d i n g d e l i g h t i n p l a y i n g and h e a r i n g f i n e music. "We  see music a t work here upon men  and women, b u t e s p e c i a l l y  -63upon c h i l d r e n - a t work upon c h a r a c t e r and conduct, a m b i t i o n and c o n c e i t , upon u n c o o p e r a t i v e n a t u r e s ; i n f a m i l i e s where p e r s o n a l i t i e s are n o t i n harmony. I t s power i s o f t e n a k i n to magic, i t s language u n i v e r s a l ; i t seldom f a i l s . " The contribute  n e x t l e v e l to which c u l t u r a l a r t s i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l  worthily  i s to the group.  good medium f o r group e x p r e s s i o n ;  C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y provides a  an e x h i l e r a t i n g f e e l i n g comes from b e i n g  p a r t o f a group which i s working t o g e t h e r and as a c h o i r i s able, t o do. the g r o u p d e v e l o p .  p r o d u c i n g a wholeness,  which aare a p a r t o f the t o t a l agency  encourage movement from the  individually-centred  group, the agency, and  the  The  aims o f the  interest  community.  C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes .provide the p a r t i c i p a n t w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s people.  within  O p p o r t u n i t y i s p r o v i d e d i n c u l t u r a l arts programmes f o r  to more g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n the  meeting new  such  Group p r o c e s s d e v e l o p s as the i n d i v i d u a l s  the group to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t p r o j e c t s activity - this will  setting  of  c u l t u r a l arts programmes should be  the  same as the t o t a l agency programme aims. Cultural a r t s also  a f f e c t the community.  f i n e s t c u l t u r a l programmes a v a i l a b l e to p e o p l e and  They aim  encouraging r e a l i n t e r e s t and  participation.  to s e r v e tie neighbourhood  A r t i s a l s o one  o f c o u n t e r a c t i n g some o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a s u p e r - i n d u s t r a l i z e d  o f the means  society.  These are some o f the aims o f c u l t u r a l a r t programmes. have a l s o  the  h e l p them a p p r e c i a t e these  programmes.. A r t a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies aim by  to p r e s e n t  These aims  shown r e s u l t s , which have been demonstrated by ar.t a c t i v i t y i n group  work a g e n c i e s .  The  purposes o f the a c t i v i t i e s and  value of a r t to recreation.  enlarging  the  The. f a c t t h a t agencies throughout Canada and  U n i t e d S t a t e s are e s t a b l i s h i n g and departments, and  t h e i r r e s u l t s prove  d e v e l o p i n g c u l t u r a l art programmes  the  and  on a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g ones, v a l i d a t e s the p l a c e o f  c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n group work a g e n c i e s .  The  n e x t step i s t o  develop  a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme w i t h i n an ^ e n c y . Programme - a p l a n o f f u t u r e p r o c e d u r e . Programme p l a n n i n g i s a p r o c e s s - a continuous p r o c e s s . d e v e l o p i n g a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme t h e r e a r e t h r e e elements  In  involved:  the members, t h e s o c i a l group worker ( a r t i s t , l e a d e r , o r s p e c i a l i s t ) and t h e programme c o n t e n t .  Programme p l a n n i n g i s b o t h s p e c i f i c and g e n e r a l .  The s p e c i f i c plan& a r e those made by members o f groups t o be c a r r i e d o u t w i t h i n those groups; the agency as a whole.  the g e n e r a l p l a n s a r e those which a r e r e l a t e d t o ^6)  S p e c i f i c Programme - members. • A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s determined by t h e needs o f t h e members and i t must be an e x p r e s s i o n o f t h e i r genuine i n t e r e s t . f l e x i b l e to meet these changing needs.  Programme must be  A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s a t o o l  which p r o v i d e s f o r t h e p h y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development o f the i n d i v i d u a l . patterns;  Through the a c t i v i t y the members r e v e a l t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y  they express f r i e n d l i n e s s and anger;  a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t h e y f e e l  they l e a r n t o make d e c i s i o n s ,  f r e e to express themselves.  Members  s h o u l d be i n t e r e s t e d i n a c u l t u r a l programme and f i n d t h a t i t s a t i s f i e s them - o t h e r w i s e they w i l l n o t c o n t i n u e t o come.  The member o f an i n t e r e s t '  o r s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y group i s commonly t r a n s i e n t - h i s attendance i s v o l u n t a r y and h i s i n t e r e s t i s o f t e n s p o r a d i c .  He u s u a l l y has no obvious i n c e n t i v e s ,  such as p a r e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , s c h o o l c r e d i t s o r marks, t o make him work.  In  most c a s e s , t h e a r t f e e i n a group work agency i s low enough so t h a t a member has no compunction  about withdrawing because  o f expense.  The member  o f a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme w i l l c o n t i n u e t o come o n l y i f he i s g e n u i n e l y interested. (26)  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 194-9.  \  - 65 The  same approach i s used i n s o c i a l group work i n d e v e l o p i n g  any programme;  t h e r e are the same purposes and  An a r t s k i l l i s one o f the t o o l s used to develop to  do something w e l l ,  d e a l t o a person;  the same d e m o c r a t i c the i n d i v i d u a l .  this s k i l l  can be a step which h e l p s develop  the member,  Developing  a  skill  extremes, because a member's i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s are poor, i s not  . the aim o f s o c i a l group work. beginner's in  Ability  such as p a i n t o r p l a y an i n s t r u m e n t , means a g r e a t  s o . t h a t he can a c h i e v e something and a t t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n . to  procedures.  I f too h i g h standards a r e s t r e s s e d the  e f f o r t s are not recognized.  The means - what happens to a  the c r e a t i o n o f an o b j e c t - are compatible  person  w i t h the p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t .  S e n s a t i o n a l s t o r i e s a r e t o l d o f the d e p r i v e d l i v e s which so many a r t i s t s .have l i v e d .  H e l p i n g masses o f p e o p l e  to l i v e a f u l l e r , h a p p i e r , more worth-  w h i l e l i f e w i l l n o t s t i f l e genius b u t i t w i l l r a i s e s t a n d a r d s ; w i l l be capable o f a p p r e c i a t i n g m a s t e r p i e c e s  more people  and perhaps more people  will  f i n d an e x p r e s s i o n f o r t h e i r genius by becoming aware o f these media o f creativeness. The members o f the F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian A r t i s t s r e c o g n i z e t h a t a r t i s t s must be a p a r t o f the world i n which t h e y l i v e . ocannot t h r i v e i n i s o l a t i o n ; and v a r i o u s  Artistic  talent  i t must be n o u r i s h e d and e n r i c h e d by many people  experiences.  "The F e d e r a t i o n ' s c o n s i i t n t i o n r e c o g n i z e s t h a t a r t i s t s , no matter how v a r i e d t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s may be, can n e i t h e r develop n o r exist effectively i n isolation. They a r e a p a r t o f a l a r g e r s o c i e t y , and they a r e a f u l l y v i t a l and p r o d u c t i v e p a r t o n l y when t h e y and the o t h e r elements o f t h a t s o c i e t y are a b l e t o a c h i e v e a s p i r i t u a l communication, and i n t e g r a t i o n and a mutual r e s p o n s i v e n e s s t h a t , up to the p r e s e n t , have been painfully lacking. "With the i n t e n t i o n o f remedying these d d f i c i e n c i e s , the F e d e r a t i o n r e c o g n i z e s on equal terms, and encourages, f o u r c a t e g o r i e s o f membership: (l) p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s and art c r i t i c s , (2) amateur a r t i s t s , (3) laymen o r a s s o c i a t e s , and ( 4 ) s t u d e n t s . By b r i n g i n g t o g e t h e r i n i t s own membership these elements t h a t too o f t e n work i n i s o l a t i o n , i t attempts to c r e a t e an amalgam t h a t w i l l have the p r a c t i c a l d i r e c t n e s s o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l c r a f t s m a n a r t i s t and the i m a g i n a t i v e v i s i o n o f a r i c h e r and more s a t i s f y i n g e x i s t e n c e t h a t i s d e s c r i b e d - though i n d i f f e r e n t tongues - by a l l c r e a t i v e a r t i s t s and  - 66 by a l l laymen who  are. r e s p o n s i v e to a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . "  The u n i v e r s a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f a r t Jas  ^7)  a meeting ground f o r a l l p e o p l e a r e  becoming more e v i d e n t . The s o c i a l group worker as a c u l t u r a l a r t l e a d e r . The s o c i a l group w o r k e r - a r t s p e c i a l i s t h e l p s t h e members p l a n programme.  The group member's a b i l i t y i n t h i s r e s p e c t w i l l depend on age  range, p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n making d e c i s i o n s , c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l background, r e l i g i o n , l i v i n g and working c o n d i t i o n s , and o t h e r economic ' differences.  The programme p l a n n i n g w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the r e l a t i o n s o f  the members t o one another and t o the worker.  The worker a c t s as a r e s o u r c e  p e r s o n , an a d v i s e r , i n h e l p i n g the group develop programmes which w i l l arouse i n t e r e s t , meet needs, and broaden o u t l o o k . The c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r o r s o c i a l group worker, i n o r d e r t o h e l p the group e v o l v e programme, must have an i n t i m a t e knowledge members.  of individual  The worker must a l s o be capable o f r e c o g n i z i n g the needs o f the  members - an achievement and r e s u l t o f t r a i n i n g .  I f the a r t leader or  s o c i a l group worker i s imposing a programme on the membership, he must make an e s t i m a t e as t o the needs and i n t e r e s t o f the p o t e n t i a l members.  These  needs may be r e v e a l e d by a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , which w i l l be more s u c c e s s f u l i f the p e r s o n i s asked t o w r i t e down i n the spaces the a c t i v i t i e s i n which he i s interested.  Check l i s t s a r e l e a d i n g d e v i c e s which o f t e n p u t i d e a s i n t o  p e o p l e ' s minds, so t h a t on a s u g g e s t i o n o f an a c t i v i t y t h e y t h i n k t h e y are interested.  T h i s supposed enthusiasm too o f t e n wanes.  L i m i t a t i o n s o f these  methods^, such a s t h a t o f the members w i s h i n g the a c t i v i t i e s which t h e i r l e a d e r d e s i r e s , must be k e p t c o n s t a n t l y i n mind.  When a person i s imposing  a programme, he i s w i s e to. s t a r t w i t h a c t i v i t i e s which have been  (27)  successful  F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian A r t i s t s To: The R o y a l Commission on N a t i o n a l Development I n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Ottawa, J u l y 1949,  -  67  -  i n the community and which are u n i v e r s a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s b e i n g o r whether i t i s b e i n g  R e g a r d l e s s o f whether  developed on a r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d b a s i s  developed i n an i n t e n s i v e way  - the p r o c e s s  •  must be  dynamic. The  s p e c i a l i s t ' w h o l e a d s a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme h e l p s to arouse  i n t e r e s t , i f the way t h i s i s one  way  i n which he p r e s e n t s  the a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and  o f r e t a i n i n g the g r o u p ' s a t t e n t i o n .  The  such a c a l i b r e t h a t i t can s u c c e s s f u l l y compete w i t h The  c u l t u r a l a r t s s p e c i a l i s t may  further increase  a c t i v i t y must be  Above a l l ,  the v a l u e o f the  retarded.  The  cultural  so t h a t members  the approach to a  a r t s programme i s s o c i a l - i t i s i n terms, o f the members. i s l i k e l y to be i r r e g u l a r , f r e q u e n t  of  commercial e n t e r t a i n m e n t .  a r t s programme by r e l a t i n g the a c t i v i t y to everyday l i f e , can p u t what they l e a r n i n t o p r a c t i c e .  challenging:  cultural  Because attendance  r e p e t i t i o n i s n e c e s s a r y and p r o g r e s s  is  c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r r e a l i z e s t h a t many members come to b e n e f i t  s o c i a l l y , r a t h e r than t o g a i n g r e a t p r o f i c i e n c y i n the a c t i v i t y ;  for this  r e a s o n , he t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h an atmosphere conducive to these aims. Because o f h i s s p e c i a l s k i l l s ,  the c u l t u r a l a r t s l e a d e r can  contribute  c o n s i d e r a b l y to programme p l a n n i n g .  H i s background o r t e c h n i c a l knowledge  provides  h e . i s aware o f p r a c t i c a l  him w i t h v a l u a b l e i d e a s and  o f time; l e a d e r s h i p , equipment.  By  to judge whether an a c t i v i t y i s b e s t  experience,  considerations  the s p e c i a l i s t w i l l be  able  s u i t e d to i n d i v i d u a l o r group endeavor;  he w i l l t r y to i n c l u d e b o t h .  He w i l l h e l p the nrombers i n c l u d e p r o j e c t s which  s t i m u l a t e the i m a g i n a t i o n  a l l o w f o r development o f new  encourage  and  interests.  He  will  creativeness. S t r e s s i n g the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f a c u l t u r a l a r t does n o t  the a r t i s t i c v a l u e s .  The  f o l l o w i n g i s an e x t r a c t from a b r i e f from the  curtail Canadian  -  68  A r t s C o u n c i l p u b l i s h e d a few y e a r s ago. r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s need t o take i n t o  T h i s i s a p o i n t .of view t h a t  account:  "The t h e a t r e i n Canada has s u f f e r e d from the rmi-splaced enthusiasm o f amateurs who have used i t p u r e l y f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l v a l u e s . T h i s i s undoubtedly one o f t h e main r e a s o n s f o r the d e c l i n e i n the number o f p l a y goers i n Canada. Thousands have seen naive' p r o d u c t i o n s and have t u r n e d t h e i r backs on the l i v i n g t h e a t r e . . . The Canadian A r t s C o u n c i l d i s t r u s t s the s h o r t term community and v o l u n t e e r courses b e i n g o f f e r e d by r e c r e a t i o n a u t h o r i t i e s aimed a t g i v i n g a s m a t t e r i n g o f t e c h n i q u e i n v a r i o u s f i e l d s p l u s a knowledge o f group work... There i s a tendency on the p a r t o f r e c r e a t i o n l e a d e r s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t r a i n i n g i n group i s the important c o n s i d e r a t i o n and. w i t h t h i s b a s i c technique p l u s a s u p e r f i c i a l knowledgeo f t h e a r t s , p r o p e r l e a d e r s h i p i n the a r t s i s s e c u r e d . T h i s a dangerous philosophy. A l e a d e r i n the a r t s must be t h o r o u g h l y steeped i n t h i s f i e l d . . . " (28) C u l t u r a l a r t s s p e c i a l i s t s should be p r o f i c i e n t i n the a r t s and s h o u l d have group work t r a i n i n g . i s i t p o s s i b l e to l o o k forward the d e g r e e o f emphasis may  o f these two  skills  to b u i l d i n g b o t h the a r t i s t and the a r t ;  be d e t e r m i n e d  s u i t each p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l o r The  Only w i t h a combination  they  by the s p e c i a l i s t and the group to  situation.  Programme. The  worker'helps the members p l a n the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme by  l i s t e n i n g and o b s e r v i n g ; the g r o u p .  h i s a c t i o n s are i n f l u e n c e d ' b y what he l e a r n s about  The worker must be aware o f what the group wants and needs, he  must h e l p the group to be aware o f i t s needs, and then he must h e l p the group p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t y which w i l l h e l p s a t i s f y these needs. The  s p e c i a l i s t working i n a c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y must be aware  o f ways o f d i s c o v e r i n g and a r o u s i n g i n t e r e s t .  I t has been proven t h a t c e r t a i n  k i n d s o f programmes s a t i s f y c e r t a i n types o f g r o u p s .  These "assumed"  i n t e r e s t s must be adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r needs o f the group and must n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h the decision-making i n t e r e s t s a r e found (.28)  through  p r o c e s s w i t h i n the group.  check l i s t s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e s .  The  "expressed"  I t i s the  " L e t t e r from McEwan, E.R., S e c r e t a r y , R e c r e a t i o n D i v i s i o n , Welfare C o u n c i l , Ottawa, January 3, 1951.  Canadian  - 69 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e g roup l e a d e r t o r e c o g n i z e t h e needs t h a t l i e beyond the expressed i n t e r e s t s , and t o h e l p the members f i n d s o c i a l l y a c c e p t a b l e ways o f e x p r e s s i n g t h e i r needs - i n a c t i v i t y .  "Implied" i n t e r e s t s are  determined by t h e members' v o i c e i n f l e c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , a c t i o n s , and t h e y g i v e t h e worker knowledge i n t h e l i g h t o f ever-changing human behavior.'(29) I n o r d e r t h a t t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s p e c i a l i s t be equipped  to h e l p the group  membersfeshion a programme which answers t h e i r deep d e s i r e s , he must be t r a i n e d f o r awareness o f these a s p e c t s i n a r t groups. The c u l t u r a l a r t s worker w i l l c u l t i v a t e d i s c u s s i o n s i n h i s group and encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n d e c i s i o n s on p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g o u t a c t i v i t y . I n a ceramics group,  t h e i n d i v i d u a l members should be encouraged  t o make t h e i r  own d e c i s i o n s f o r t h e i r a r t i c l e i n r e g a r d t o shape, c o l o u r , glaze;, the d r a m a t i c s group may i t s e l f make t h e f i n a l c h o i c e o f a p l a y , j u s t as the music member suggests which composition he would l i k e t o l e a r n ; o u t e f f e c t i v e . l r h y t h m s by themselves. ;one t h a t has proven i t s e l f  dancers have worked  T h i s i s t h e d e m o c r a t i c approach - and  worthwhile.  W i l l i a m s o n suggests' t h r e e . t y p e s o f programme b u i l d i n g . arranged programme i s f o r m u l a t e d a t n a t i o n a l , s t a t e , o r l o c a l  The p r e -  headquarters,  w i t h some p r o v i s i o n f o r a d a p t a t i o n t o t h e group - f o r example, t h e f o u r - f o l d type o f programme:  s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , mental,  spiritual.  Another k i n d o f  programme i s t h a t which i s e v o l v e d j o i n t l y by the l e a d e r and the g r o u p . t h i r d type o f programme, t h e p r o j e c t approach,  The  i s one i n which t h e l e a d e r  g u i d e s the group from some immediate p r e o c c u p a t i o n t o wider channels o f i n t e r e s t - i n t e r e s t i n m a r i o n e t t e s may encourage woodcarving,  l i b r a r y research,  d r a m a t i c s , stage c r a f t and b u s i n e s s management. (30)  (29)  W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949.  (30)  Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1929.  Massachusetts,  York,  L i m i t a t i o n s - i n m a t e r i a l s and r e s o u r c e s , s e r v i c e s - and p h i l o s o p h y  f i n a n c e s , time,  o f t h e agency, and s i t u a t i o n s , i n f l u e n c e t h e  development o f t h e c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i n a group work agency. conrtrol*and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s  Self-  can be developed i n overcoming these l i m i t a t i o n s .  There are l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l members.  The a r t l e a d e r  should  keep these t h i n g s i n mind and make sure t h a t the a r t a c t i v i t y i s s p e c i f i c and known t o be w i t h i n t h e c a p a c i t y o f the i n d i v i d u a l o r group.  T h i s i s one  way'of g i v i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n and a sense o f accomplishment t o the members. The  c u l t u r a l a r t s worker w i l l d e v e l o p o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r u t i l i z i n g r e s i d u a l  m a t e r i a l s and i d e a s .  The r e s o u r c e s a s w e l l as the needs a r e i n t e g r a l  c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f programme p l a n n i n g .  O n l y w i t h a knowledge o f b o t h these  a r e a s i s i t p o s s i b l e to enforce recommendations and improvements which w i l l e l i m i n a t e programme gaps. The  f a c i l i t i e s end e v e n t s o f t h e agency and the community,  i n f l u e n c e a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme.  There should be o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o observe  f i n e work i n a r t t h a t has been developed by o u t s t a n d i n g  a r t i s t s i n the  community and elsewhere. . There may be t r i p s t o g a l l e r i e s , e x h i b i t s and museums, d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i c k e t s t o t h e a t r e p r o d u c t i o n s , and  dance and b a l l e t performances.  they choose t o c o n t r i b u t e a c o n c e r t , a major p r o d u c t i o n  music r e c i t a l s ,  C u l t u r a l a r t s groups w i l l be a f f e c t e d i f an o p e r e t t a , a p l a y , o r an e x h i b i t t o  o f t h e agency o r t h e community.  Joint projects of this  t y p e serve to i n c r e a s e awareness o f t h e a r t s i n t h e community. G e n e r a l Programme. G e n e r a l programme p l a n s r e l a t e t o t h e a g e n c y as a whole - i t i s impossible  t o i s o l a t e any programme whatsoever.  The agency-wide programme  committee should be composed o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  - 71 programme - a l l membership groups, interclub councils, special committees, continuing committees on boards, and community consultants on special areas.  A cultural arts programme must be related to.the total programme  of the agency. The executive director. The executive director also has responsibility i n connection with the cultural arts programme. I t i s the duty of the executive director to see that the a r t programme i s integrated, that i t i s s a t i s f a c t o r i l y administered, and 'that i t evolves from personal to social or community concern i n scope. The executive director must know about the total programme i t s intent, values, direction and the place of each programme In the whole agency programme. He must see that the cultural programmes are also determined with the community and agency objectives i n mind. He brings programme together i n written form - a method of keeping informed.  He must see that  social analyses such as research,' facts, trends, are used i n programme building.  The executive director i s the mediating function between parts of  programme. He must give programme a central place i n administration, by knowing what goes on and seeing that f l e x i b i l i t y permits change i f i t i s needed, and also by assigning programme responsibility.  The programme should be  constantly evaluated. ^31) The director or department head. The basic principles of programme planning similarly apply with regard to the director or department head and his place i n developing a cultural arts programme. He confers with the executive director and i s conditioned by equipment, staff, and budget. (31)  The art director i s responsible  Clark, M.L., and Teall, B., The Executive Director on the Job i n a Membership Organization - Y.W.C.A. New York, The Woman's Press, 194-7.  f o r c a r r y i n g out d e t a i l s o f p o l i c y agreed upon i n conference o r w i t h the e x e c u t i v e .  The  d i r e c t o r e s t i m a t e s , purchases  w i t h a committee  s u p p l i e s and  equipment, and a s s i g n s rooms. ' He i s a i d e d i n s e l e c t i o n o f s t a f f by means of i n t e r v i e w s , a p p l i c a t i o n b l a n k s , and r e f e r e n c e l e t t e r s . the d i r e c t o r has  In h i r i n g  some s u p e r v i s i o n by the e x e c u t i v e o r committees.  staff, The  d i r e c t o r i s i n charge o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s t a f f , the, a n a l y s i s o f the j o b and the e x p l a n a t i o n o f d u t i e s . person  He m a i n t a i n s  f o r s u g g e s t i o n s , methods, m a t e r i a l s .  standards. He  He i s a r e s o u r c e  s u p e r v i s e s s t a f f programme.  I n o r d e r t o p l a n o r r e - p l a n a c u l t u r a l arts programme, e v a l u a t i o n is  c o n t i n u a l l y necessary.  The I n d u s t r i a l Department o f the Young Women's .  C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n suggests o f programme.  c r i t e r i a f o r j u d g i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l v a l u e s  A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i n a group work agency should meet  these requirements.  The  a r t programme must be based o n . a c t u a l , f e l t needs  and i n t e r e s t s o f the whole g r o u p .  1  I t s h o u l d be f l e x i b l e , l e a d to an i n c r e a s i n g  number o f a c t i v e i n t e r e s t s , and p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r c o n s c i o u s and  the consequences o f these c h o i c e s .  choices  A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme should  p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e members to p r a c t i s e democracy by making p l a n s , a b i d i n g by group d e c i s i o n s , s h a r i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . o p e r a t i o n w i t h wider s o c i a l groups.  There should be  co-  Above a l l t h e r e must be genuine  (32) satisfaction. The  C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes can meet a l l these  requirements.  c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f c u l t u r a l . a r t s to r e c r e a t i o n must be made known. No  is  J  c u l t u r a l a r t s programme can be d eveloped u n l e s s a l l the f o r e g o i n g  c o n s i d e r e d and u t i l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n t l y .  T h i s method o f development  p r o v i d e s a s o l i d base from which to expand and v a r y a c t i v i t y , so t h a t the agency may (32)  be a s s u r e d t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e time, e f f o r t , money a r e b e i n g expended  Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1929.  York,  - 73 worthwhilely.  The v a l u e to the group members must be a s s u r e d , and o n l y by  c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the f a c e t s o f d e v e l o p i n g a programme - from a l l the l e v e l s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n - can a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme be a s t a b l e , y e t f l e x i b l e , segment o f the t o t a l agency programme. Challenge. C u l t u r a l A r t programmes are i m p o r t a n t i n r e c r e a t i o n a l  settings.  M i s s Jean Maxwell o f t h e N a t i o n a l F e d e r a t i o n o f S e t t l e m e n t s and Neighbourhood C e n t e r s s a i d , " R e l a t i o n s h i p s are important b u t we have n e g l e c t e d o t h e r phases o f our work. To-day the swing o f the pendulum i s back t o a c t i v i t i e s i n program... Some o f t h e p o o r e s t a r t programs I have seen have been done by group workers...A j o b d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a s p e c i a l i s t and a s p e c i a l i s t s u p e r v i s o r has r e c e n t l y been i n c l u d e d i n the p e r s o n n e l code.of the F e d e r a t i o n . We get so i n t e r e s t e d i n jjuman r e l a t i o n s we n e g l e c t the a c t i v i t y . We f o r g e t the c a r has t o have wheels as w e l l as a d r i v e r ! " *33) Group workers who  a r e l e a d i n g c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n l e i s u r e -  time a g e n c i e s must aim a t and achieve a b a l a n c e between a r t and group work skills.  There i s no r e a s o n why  the two  cannot be compatible and workable so  t h a t t h e b e s t o f b o t h s p e c i a l t i e s can be i n t e g r a t e d and o f f e r e d t o p e o p l e i n group work a g e n c i e s . "The c u l t i v a t i o n o f the a r t s i s n o t a l u x u r y b u t an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e t o the development o f a s t a b l e n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ; and f o r t h i s r e a s o n j u s t i f i e s the e x p e n d i t u r e s o f v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f o r t and money. J u s t as language i s n e c e s s a r y to the development o f r e a s o n , so i s the more fundamental language o f the a r t s e s s e n t i a l t o the development o f the b a s i c e m o t i o n a l and i m a g i n a t i v e n a t u r e t h a t u n d e r l i e s reason and dominates a c t i o n . Without an adequate development o f t h i s "submerged s e v e n - e i g h t s " o f man's n a t u r e any s o c i e t y t h a t he c r e a t e s must l a c k i n n e r i n t e g r i t y , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , c o h e s i o n , and awareness o f i t s e l f as an e n t i t y ; . . . "The a r t s must n o t be dominated, regimented o r e x p l o i t e d to serve s p e c i a l o r narrow ends. Indeed, they cannot be so t r e a t e d and s t i l l perform t h e i r n a t u r a l and p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n s i n s o c i e t y . By d e f i n i t i o n s they are an u n f o l d i n g and e v o l v i n g e x p r e s s i o n o f the i n n e r c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f the i n d i v i d u a l or society. To i n t e r f e r e w i t h t h i s p r o c e s s by the i m p o s i t i o n o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s w i l l d e f e a t the v e r y ends t h a t t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n i s i n t e n d e d to a c h i e v e . The i n d i v i d u a l , the s o c i e t y , and the g o v e r n i n g body which imposes i t s e l f w i l l a l l i n e v i t a b l y be f r u s t r a t e d r a t h e r than f u l f i l l e d . The a r t s can (33)  Student c o n f e r e n c e w i t h M i s s Jean Maxwell, Second .Annual North-west S e t t l e m e n t s and Neighbourhood C e n t e r s Conference, S e a t t l e , Washington, March 4 , 1951.  be s t i m u l a t e d , encouraged, f o s t e r e d , a s s i s t e d , and t h e y may have new h o r i z o n s opened to them, w i t h n o t h i n g but advantage. But i f t h e i r n a t u r a l development i s i n t e r f e r e d with, no matter what the immediate r e s u l t may be, the f i n a l consequences w i l l be d e s t r u c t i v e both to the a r t s and to the power t h a t has undertaken t o d i c t a t e t o them. F o r t h i s reason i n f l e x i b l e moulds, c e n t r a l i z e d a u t h o r i t y and " j u r i s d i c t i o n .from above" are a l l t h i n g s ' t o be a v o i d e d . " T h i s s e r v e s to p o i n t out the n e c e s s i t y f o r the d e m o c r a t i c  approach  to the a r t s on the n a t i o n a l , community, and group work agency l e v e l . when the a r t i s t u n d e r s t a n d s the b a s i c concepts  Only  o f s o c i a l group work i s he  able  to h e l p the members o f the a r t groups d e r i v e the b e n e f i t s . w h i c h c u l t u r a l a r t s afford.  Such an approach does n o t i m p l y  creator.  c o d d l i n g the a r t a c t i v i t y o r i t s  When o b s t a c l e s are removed, the impetus o f u s i n g one's c r e a t i v e  a b i l i t y i s s t i f l e d - the c h a l l e n g e i s removed and hence the i n t e r e s t R i c h experiences  can be gained from the l e s s o n s which a r t can t e a c h .  arts are stimulating! a r t s to express with balance  h i s i n n e r - s e l f - c o n f u s i o n and vagueness w i l l a l i g n U n r e a l i z e d emotions a f e g i v e n an  f o r e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h the r e s u l t t h a t people understand  c r e a t e and  Cultural  Each i n d i v i d u a l i s g i v e n an o p p o r t u n i t y through  as beauty u n f o l d s .  more adequately.  dwindles.  cultural  themselves  opportunity  themselves and  others  They f a c e everyday l i v i n g w i t h renewed enthusiasm.  C u l t u r e has two a s p e c t s - "the a c q u i r i n g o f s k i l l s w i t h which to the d e v e l o p i n g o f t a s t e with, which t o d e s c r i m i n a t e " . ^35) This  i s the development o f a r t on the immediate l e v e l .  But i f t h i s concept i s  carried f u r t h e r , i t i s evident that: " . . . a r t i s t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f a l l t h a t g r e a t p a r t o f our n a t u r e t h a t i s , o r can be c r e a t i v e and expansive and e x p r e s s i v e ; and t h a t can r e g a r d , judge and d e l i g h t i n t h i n g s i n themselves; and t h a t i s n o t p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h the demands o f p r a c t i c a l expediency. And c u l t u r a l development, then, c o n s i s t s , f i r s t , i n r e l e a s i n g t h i s g r e a t , but o f t e n pent-up and i g n o r e d , p a r t o f our n a t u r e s so t h a t we a r e aware o f i t and so t h a t i t can become i n f l u e n t i a l and o p e r a t i v e i n our l i v e s ; and, second, i n malting i t o p e r a t i v e by u s i n g i t as a k i n d o f s o l v e n t i n which the p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f p o l i t i c s , economics, (34-)  F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian A r t i s t s . To: Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development , i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Ottawa, J u l y 1949, p 7-8.  (35)  L e i b e r , Edna M., Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ' f r o m M i s s o u r i , February 1951.  Community Music School, S t . L o u i s ,  - 75 s c i e n c e and so on, w i t h o u t being l o s t , a r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e i r t r u e l i g h t and p e r s p e c t i v e , as t h i n g s which e x i s t n o t as separate e n t i t i e s b u t as p a r t s whose n a t u r e s a r e determined by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one another and t o the a l l - i m p o r t a n t whole.* ^36) C u l t u r a l a r t s have an i n v a l u a b l e c o n t r i b u t i o n to make t o l i f e . ' Group work a g e n c i e s must be more aware o f t h e v a l u e s o f such a r t a c t i v i t i e s to the members i n the agency, i n t h e i r homes, i n the community world.'  A g r e a t e r emphasis on c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n group work  agencies i s imperative!  (36)  and i n the  .  -  F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian A r t i s t s To; The Royal Commission on N a t i o n a l Development i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Ottawa, J u l y 1949, P 34.  Sample, o f the L e t t e r .  Vancouver, B.  C.  Dear S i r : I am making a study of the s p e c i a l r o l e s o f f i n e a r t s and c u l t u r a l programmes i n community c e n t r e s and s e t t l e m e n t houses f o r my M a s t e r ' s degree i n S o c i a l Work a t t h e S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s p e c i a l purpose o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s t o t r y t o determine more .exactly the v a l u e of f i n e arts- i n . community c e n t r e programmes and a l s o t o get i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e pros and cons o f o r g a n i z i n g such a programme. In o r d e r t o o b t a i n a comprehensive p i c t u r e of c u l t u r a l programmes i n community c e n t r e s , I have g i v e n f i n e a r t s , i n t h i s i n s t a n c e , a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — those a r t s i n which the mind and i m a g i n a t i o n are c h i e f l y concerned, I am h o p e f u l t h a t t h i s s t u d y may be of some b e n e f i t t o a g e n c i e s p l a n n i n g to e s t a b l i s h or improve f i n e a r t s programmes, and i t i s c e r t a i n l y a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t Vancouver a g e n c i e s w i l l make use o f t h e study. I am anxious to make t h i s study as.comprehensive as p o s s i b l e and t h e r e f o r e seek your c o - o p e r a t i o n i n answeri n g the enclosed q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r t o o b t a i n an understandi n g o f the f i n e a r t s programme i n your agency. Thank you f o r h e l p i n g  me.  Yours  sincerely.  ( M i s s ) B e v e r l e y McCosham  .APPENDIX B  Sample of the, Questionnaire. FINE ARTS IN THE COMMUNITY CENTRE Name o f Agency. A 1.  2. 3.  U.  B  2.  3.  5.  Administration  • of Fine Arts  . . T o t a l Agency Membership.  Programme:  In what y e a r d i d a f i n e a r t s programme b e g i n i n t h e agency? Who i n i t i a t e d t h e f i n e a r t s ' program^? Individual Agency community s e r v i c e club university.... .fine arts organization government other ( p l e a s e g i v e d e t a i l s ) How i s t h e member's i n t e r e s t i n t h e f i n e a r t s programme determined? r e g i s t r a t i o n i n formation r e q u e s t s by i n d i v i d u a l s r e q u e s t s from o u t s i d e t h e agency (other agencies, service clubs) Others •. Who f i n a n c e s t h e f i n e a r t s programme? i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s agency..... s e r v i c e club community e x t e n s i o n programme o f a u n i v e r s i t y f i n e arts organization government p r o j e c t others Content o f F i n e A r t s Programme: Check programmes g i v e n i n t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s . I f the programme has been d i s c o n t i n u e d , p l e a s e c i r c l e t h e check and g i v e r e a s o n s on back. MUSIC,: l e s s o n s . .. . i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g . . ... .ensemble. . . . o r c h e s t r a . . . .bands c o n c e r t s by membership.... c o n c e r t s by visitors....music appreciation. others  number o f l e a d e r s p e r group age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s average group attendance M i d e a l group membership  to, F.,  DANCING: b a l l e t . . . . i n t e r p r e t a t i v e . . tap. , a c r o b a t i c . . . . square.... f o l k . national o t h e r s.  number o f l e a d e r s per group... age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s average group attendance. .. ,M i d e a l group membership  to. F.  PAINTING: o i l s finger painting others  number o f l e a d e r s p e r group...; age range*, o f p a r t i c i p a n t s average group attendance M i d e a l group membership  water c o l o u r s . art exhibits..  DRAMA AND THEATRE: a c t i n g playw r i t i n g . ....play reading directing or p r o d u c i n g lighting scenery.. costume and makeup others  number o f l e a d e r s p e r group age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s average group attendance M. i d e a l group membership  DRAWING AND tivities)  number o f l e a d e r s per group age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s average group attendance M i d e a l group membership  DESIGN: ( d e s c r i p t i o n o f a c -  to, F. . ......  to. F.  -.to, F. .  number o f l e a d e r s p e r group age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s to, average group attendance M. ......F. . i d e a l group membership  7#  #  number o f l e a d e r s per group... age range o f p a r t i c i p a n t s . . . . . . . t o . average group attendance M F.. i d e a l group membership  I.e.  .Please e n t e r s e p a r a t e l y o t h e r f i n e o pi-o^ammes t h a t a p p l y t o your agency, e n g r a v i n g , avob.itecfcuvt?, se>v"l.p'fcnving and m o d e l l i n g , d e c o r a t i o n and ornament.  1' -2~ C  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n F i n e A r t s Programmes:  1  How f r e q u e n t l y should a f i n e a r t s group meet? a session?  What i s the most d e s i r a b l e l e n g t h f o r  2.  What f a c i l i t i e s (Room, Equipment, S u p p l i e s ) does your agency p r o v i d e f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s o f a f i n e a r t s programme? . ....  3.  What t r a i n i n g has t h e l e a d e r of the f i n e a r t s programme?  4.  What t r a i n i n g i s n e c e s s a r y f o r a l e a d e r of a f i n e a r t s programme i n o r d e r t o produce a good exposure or a p p r e c i a t i o n programme? In o r d e r t o r a i s e the standard o f p e r f o r mance or s h o r t e n the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l ? . . . . . . . . . . . ."  5.  What q u a l i f i c a t i o n s o t h e r than t r a i n i n g are d e s i r a b l e f o r a f i n e a r t s leader?.....'...  6.  How much emphasis i s on d e v e l o p i n g s k i l l and how much emphasis i s on d e v e l o p i n g the p e r s o n a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t ? To what e x t e n t are t h e s e two aims compatible?  7.  What k i n d of people come t o the f i n e a r t s programme? ( i . e . , t h o s e who come t o o t h e r programmes?)  8.  For what reasons do people  9.  Did i n t e r e s t i n a f i n e a r t s programme change d u r i n g the y e a r ? years? I f so, i n which programmes and i n what way?....  10.  What do you c o n s i d e r as t h e aims of a f i n e a r t s programme i n a community c e n t r e (neighbourhood house, s e t t l e m e n t house)?.....,.... • -  REMARKS:  Answered  .••••  are t h e y d i f f e r e n t  from  come t o t h e f i n e a r t s programme  During the l a s t  ( p l e a s e c o n t i n u e on back o f page i f n e c e s s a r y . )  by: specialist  .... Executive d i r e c t o r volunteer s p e c i a l i s t  fine a r t s  10  APPENDIX C Organizations  represented  i n r e p l i e s to questionnaires.  Canada. Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Edmonton, A l b e r t a . C e n t r a l Young Men's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Toronto, O n t a r i o . Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , Winnipeg, Manitoba. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , K i t c h e n e r , O n t a r i o . R e c r e a t i o n Commission, Edmonton, A l b e r t a . Vancouver A r t School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. D i r e c t o r o f Recreation, Brantford, Ontario. U n i v e r s i t y S e t t l e m e n t , Toronto, O n t a r i o . Woodgreen Community C e n t r e , Toronto, O n t a r i o . R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r , Aluminum Company o f Canada, A r v i d a , R e c r e a t i o n D i r e c t o r , Regina, Saskatchewan. The U n i t e d  Quebec.  States.  Young Women's Young Women's Young Women's Young'Women's • Young Women's  Christian Christian Christian Christian Christian  Association, Association, Association, Association, Association,  San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a . A t l a n t a , Georgia. R o c h e s t e r , New York. Syracuse, New York. Houston, Texas.  Community Music S c h o o l , San F r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a . Abraham L i n c o l n Center, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . H u l l House, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Community Music S c h o o l , S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i . E d u c a t i o n a l A l l i a n c e , New York, New York. Henry S t r e e t S e t t l e m e n t , New York 2 , New York. Hudson G u i l d Neighborhood House, New York, New York. C l e v e l a n d Music S c h o o l Settlement , C l e v e l a n d 6 , Ohio. Karamu House, C l e v e l a n d 6 , Ohio. F r i e n d s Neighborhood- G u i l d , P h i l a d e p h i a 2 3 , P e n n s y l v a n i a . -  $0  APPENDIX D. Bibliography. General  References; C l a r k , M.L., and T e a l l , B., The E x e c u t i v e D i r e c t o r on the J o b i n a Membership O r g a n i z a t i o n - t h e Y.W.C.A., New York, The  Woman's P r e s s , 194-7. J a c k s , L.P., E d u c a t i o n Through R e c r e a t i o n , London, U n i v e r s i t y o f London P r e s s , L i m i t e d , 1935. Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work, New York, Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1929. W i l s o n , G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. Specific  Cambridge,  References: Canada, P a r l i a m e n t House o f Commons, S p e c i a l Committee on R e c o n s t r u c t i o n and Re-establlshment, Minutes o f P r o c e e d i n g s and E v i d e n c e No.- 10, 1944F e d e r a t i o n o f Canadian A r t i s t s To: The Royal Commission N a t i o n a l Development'in t h e A r t s , L e t t e r s and S c i e n c e s , Ottawa, L a u r e n t i a n B u i l d i n g , 1949. N a t i o n a l Federation o f Settlements, Incorporated, 60th Anniversary,' New York, 194°.  Settlements  N a t i o n a l J e w i s h W e l f a r e Board, Jewish Center Program A i d s "The Dance - C r e a t i v e and R e c r e a t i v e " , New York 1949. "Feature t h e A r t i s t " , New York, 1947. Other i n f o r m a t i o n was r e c e i v e d from  correspondence.  

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