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Cultural arts in group work agencies McCosham, Beverley Jane Jerome 1951

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CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP WORK AGENCIES by BEVERLEY JANE JEROME McCOSHAM Thesis Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of the Requirements f o r the Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the School of S o c i a l Work 1951 The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP WORK AGENCIES. This study investigates the s p e c i a l values of c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n leisu r e - t i m e agencies. F i r s t , the contribution that c u l t u r a l arts make to the broader f i e l d of recreation i s studied. Then there are more d e t a i l e d studies of the segments of c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. S o c i a l group workers should know some of the basic concepts of the administration of such a programme and i t s function i n the t o t a l agency structure. Special sections are included on s p e c i f i c c u l t u r a l a r t s as programme content: music, dancing, painting, drawing and design, drama and theatre, ceramics, other c u l t u r a l programmes. The values of c u l t u r a l arts to the members and how the leader uses the arts i n helping the member develop are important. The broader aims of c u l t u r a l arts and the way i n which a c u l t u r a l arts programme i s established are discussed. M a t e r i a l used i n t h i s t h e s i s was gathered from many group work agencies. Replies to a set of questions were received from twenty-six people who represented eleven recreation agencies i n Canada, and f i f t e e n agencies i n the United States. Y.M.C.A's, Y.W.C.A's, settlement houses, neighbourhood houses, and community centres are represented. The main material i s derived from interviews with s t a f f people from four Vancouver agencies: The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, The Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n Association, Gordon Neighbourhood House (both Senior and Junior houses), and Alexandra Neighbourhood House. Other information was received from correspondence. The study throws l i g h t on the contribution that c u l t u r a l arts programmes can make to group work agencies. C u l t u r a l a r t s help to develop the p e r s o n a l i t y of the members and provide an excellent medium through which leaders can work e f f e c t i v e l y . Arts present exceptional opportunities f o r improving the q u a l i t y and richness of programme content. C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes can be a part of the t o t a l philosophy and function of the agency. The evidence i s , that i n group work agencies, c u l t u r a l arts have not received the emphasis that should be placed on them. Examples reviewed i n t h i s study show that a r t and s o c i a l group work are compatible. There seems to be a tendency f o r c u l t u r a l a r t s to be more developed i n longer-established agencies. I t remains f o r the smaller and "younger" group work agencies to r e a l i z e the values inherent i n c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . The development of art a c t i v i t y i n group work agencies depends upon an understanding of i t s contribution to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. The t o t a l p i c t ure shows that the broad values of c u l t u r a l arts programmes i n group work agencies are recognized f a r more than they are put into p r a c t i c e . TABLE Of CONTENTS. > Chapter 1 . Contribution of Cultural Arts to Recreation. An introduction to recreation, leisure, and the focal point of the present study. Definition of culture, cultural arts, and group work agency. The influence of cultural arts on leisure-time agencies, and the national implications. Art as i t affects a l l groups of people. Chapter 2 . Administration of Cultural"Arts Programmes. Four Vancouver agencies compared. Some comparisons with agencies in Canada and the United States. Origins of such programmes. Means of determining members' interests. Finance. F a c i l i t i e s . Community Music Schools. Chapter 3. Content of Cultural Arts Programmes. The values of music, dancing, painting, drawing and design, drama and theatre, ceramics, other cultural arts programmes. Attendance and desirable group size. Mass programmes. A review of group work agencies in and outside Vancouver. Chapter J+. Participation i n Cultural Arts Programmes. A discussion of the membership i n terms of the emphasis that i s placed on personality and on s k i l l . The people who come to cultural arts programmes. Reasons why they come to cultural arts programmes. Trends of cultural arts i n group work agencies. Chapter 5. Leadership in Cultural Arts Programmes. The a r t i s t : training as i t exists: training that, i s desirable. The social group worker: necessary qualifications; how the group worker helps individuals and groups. Chapter 6. Conclusions. The aims of cultural art ac t i v i t i e s . Demonstration of the need. ' Establishing a cultural arts programme in relation to the members, the leader, the programme content, and the administrative structure. Challenge to group workers. Appendices: Sample of the letter. Sample of the questionnaire. Organizations represented in replies to questionnaires. Bibliography. A B C D CHARTS LN THE TEXT ' Photographs of Plans and Models of two Okanagan Community Centres (following page 25) Pr i n t e d with permission of the a r c h i t e c t s . CULTURAL ARTS IN GROUP • WORK .AGENCIES-- 1 -CHAPTER I CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL ARTS TO RECREATION. Introduction: Recreation. Recreation reveals the very essence of. our person. Children, adolescents, and adults have an opportunity, through recreation, to express t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and needs - those which can be s a t i s f i e d by the i n d i v i d u a l and those which a r e best f u l f i l l e d by the group. The re-creating aspect of recre a t i o n often embraces.the re-creation of the p h y s i c a l , or mental, or emotional part of an i n d i v i d u a l , and the re-creation of something s p e c i f i c a l l y apart from the person. In every case, recreation c u l t i v a t e s people and the world i n which they l i v e . The values of recreation are innumerable. "Adults need to f i n d i n t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s some of the same s a t i s f a c t i o n s that children" f i n d i n t h e i r play: mastery over s e l f and over materials, environment, and s i t u a t i o n s j w i s h - f u l f i l l m e n t ; some fantasy; some escape from r e a l i t y and the superego (conscience); fun and laughter; and the norms f o r es t a b l i s h i n g h e l p f u l s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . " More emphasis i s being placed on the values of l e i s u r e time i n the growth of the i n d i v i d u a l ; t h i s i s a r es u l t of the -trends i n our d a i l y l i v i n g which allow more "free " time. Increased mechanization i n industry necessitates a d d i t i o n a l time f o r l e i s u r e . . Employers f i n d that more work i s accomplished i n a shorter time now; but the p r o f i c i e n c y of employees decreases more r a p i d l y because of the r e p e t i t i o n involved i n mass production type of work. More l e i s u r e f o r employees pays! S i m i l a r factors are true i n the l i v e s o f our homemakers; s c i e n t i f i c gadgets are minimizing housework time. Unemployment increases because machine work i s ddisplacing man-labour, with the r e s u l t that l e i s u r e time i s even forced upon people. Leis u r e . George Lundberg describes l e i s u r e adequately; (1) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Cambridge, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 194-9, p 209. "Leisure i s popularly defined as the time we are f r e e from the moie obvious and formal duties, which a paid job or other obligatory occupation imposes upon us..-.. In a l i m i t e d sense, l e i s u r e i s p r i m a r i l y an a t t i t u d e , a state of mind, a process of pleasurable adjustment to one's s i t u a t i o n . Leisure i n t h i s subjective sense w i l l always depend.upon personality, temperament, education, and the a c t i v i t i e s that have preceded." Recreation i s the a c t i v i t y of our l e i s u r e time and i s i n no way an escape i n t o nothingness. Recreation helps to reveal and to develop the p e r s o n a l i t y of people. Focus. Because of the broad scope of such a subject, t h i s study w i l l focus on one aspect of recreation, s p e c i f i c a l l y , the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n leisure-time agencies. What are the values of c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n leisure - t i m e agencies and what are the advantages and disadvantages of organizing such programmes? Co-ordination and organization on the community l e v e l , i n t h i s instance, i s being omitted. This study is-concerned with the c u l t u r a l programmes within the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, the Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n , the settlement house, the neighbourhood house, and the community centre. I t i s an int e n s i v e and i n t e r n a l view of c u l t u r a l arts as programme media. -The more general implications of administration, programme content, membership, and leadership are discussed as they r e l a t e to c u l t u r a l arts programmes i n the recreational s e t t i n g . Interviews were made with s t a f f members from these Vancouver agencies: The Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, the Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Gordon Neighbourhood House (both Senior and Junior houses), and Alexandra Neighbourhood House. C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n four Vancouver agencies and i n agencies outside Vancouver are compared. A questionnaire was used to compile t h i s ( 2 ) Lundberg, George A., Leisure: a Suburban Study. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1934-- 3 -information; the interview schedule was also based on t h i s s e t of questions. Twenty-six r e p l i e s were received from people representing agencies other than the four Vancouver centres. Additional information was received from correspondence. In Canada, a t o t a l of eleven r e p l i e s came from people who represented nine c i t i e s . Two of these sets of questions were answered-by I.M.C.A. people; two other sets came from Y.W.C.A's. The majority of replies-came from centres i n Ontario. Ten c i t i e s were represented i n the f i f t e e n r e p l i e s that arrived from • the United States. Of these, f i v e answers represented Y.W.C.A. thinking. The (3) remainder were received from settlement houses. D e f i n i t i o n . For the purpose of t h i s study, " f i n e arts'", • or more i n c l u s i v e l y " c u l t u r a l a r t s " , have been given a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n - those a r t s i n which the mind and imagination are c h i e f l y concerned. Thus, c u l t u r a l a r t s include music, dancing, painting,.drawing and design, engraving, drama and theatre, architecture, sculpture and modelling, and decoration and ornament.- In i t s usual meaning, a r t presupposes that an element of s k i l l i s involved; a r t aims toward something b e a u t i f u l . The end r e s u l t of a r t i s a product u s u a l l y v i s i b l e and d i f f e r e n t from nature. However, s o c i a l group workers'are very interested i n the i n v i s i b l e products of a r t programmes, and t h e i r e f f e c t s on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The way i n which the a r t develops, the r e s u l t s of the a c t i v i t y , and the e f f e c t s of the f i n i s h e d product on the p a r t i c i p a n t , are of utmost importance.. S o c i a l group workers are p r i m a r i l y concerned with r e l a t i o n s h i p s - of'the i n d i v i d u a l s to one another, to- the leader, and to the programme i t s e l f . The a c t i v i t y i s a medium through which these r e l a t i o n s h i p s are expressed. D i f f e r e n t meanings may apply to the word "culture" - c i v i l i z a t i o n (3) For a complete l i s t of Organizations represented i n r e p l i e s to/questionnaires, See Appendix C. _ 4 -i n the sense of development; as applied to an i n d i v i d u a l , culture implies a so r t of i n t e l l e c t u a l refinement. Culture emphasizes development, or advancement, or improvement of the i n d i v i d u a l or the group, or on a broader plane, of the whole society. This study i s concerned with c u l t u r a l a r t programmes i n group work agencies, and p a r t i c u l a r l y , t h e i r efffects on the i n d i v i d u a l and on the group. However, the broader culture of the whole society i s involved. The i n d i v i d u a l , the group, and society are interdependent, but t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l focus on the i n d i v i d u a l and on the group and omit the broader implications. I f the philosophy of the worth of every i n d i v i d u a l and h i s r i g h t s as a human being i s accepted, i t follows that c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y must be at the disposal of everyone. "Leisure-time agencies" describes i n one phrase, a great v a r i e t y of r e c r e a t i o n a l establishments. Members spend t h e i r l e i s u r e hours p r o f i t a b l y i n these agencies. In a rec r e a t i o n a l context, s o c i a l group work comprises the methods of f a c i l i t a t i n g i n t e r - a c t i o n between members of a group so that they b e n e f i t by the best that recreation has to o f f e r . The worker p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h i s i n t e r a c t i n g process as an enabling person. S o c i a l group work i s the "how" of recreation, the means of improving q u a l i t y i n the group experience i n two areas: that of helping i n d i v i d u a l s develop emotionally, mentally and p h y s i c a l l y ; and that of helping 1 the group achieve d e s i r a b l e aims. The s o c i a l group work process i s democratic; i t i s educational; i t i s the desirable method f o r workers to use i n leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s with these things i n mind that the popular term "group work agency" (which implies use of the group work method i n the agency) w i l l hereafter be used interchangeably with the term "leisure-time agency". Set t i n g . The Young Men's and Young Women's Ch r i s t i a n Associations, the settlement house, the neighbourhood house, and the community centre are group work agencies i n which cultural- a r t s are made a v a i l a b l e to people. The Y i s both an - 5 -organization and a"movement, which fosters 'understanding, justice, and opportunity for people in countries throughout the world. Democracy and Christian f a i t h are coupled ih serving young people, and are symbolized by the triangular aim of achieving physical health, mental growth, and spiritual strength. I t i s necessary to introduce national and international implications whenever the Y.M.C.A. and Y.W.C.A. are being considered. Each organization i s autonomous, and i s indigenous to i t s own country. This independence fosters a variety of activity within a single purpose. . A national organization helps to bring individual organizations together and to develop a common philosophy. Because of their experience,. staff members of a national organization also provide services of a kind that no agency can give I t s e l f - such as advice' on programme and on building. National employees recruit, train, and place personnel, and have a relationship to men and women in the armed forces. Staff people of a national organization also provide a general service which i s principally related to programme; they supply materials on music, business, and art. Programme in a Y must be rooted in the purpose and function of the association. The purpose of the Y i s to meet the f e l t and growing needs of i t s membership and community, and to undertake to build a responsible membership which ultimately directs the organization, so that i t may be a beneficial social force. The next leisure-time agencies to develop hist o r i c a l l y were the settlement houses. Toynbee Hall, the f i r s t settlement house, was founded in England i n I884.. The settlement house movement also developed in North America. Individuals who had something worthwhile to offer to poverty stricken people, came to stay in these settlement houses and teach their s k i l l to the needy families l i v i n g there. - A missionary zeal was apparent i n settlement house workers. - 6 -A resume of the h i s t o r i c a l development of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n settlement houses on the continent, shows development i n the eastern United States from 1886 to 1896. There were l e c t u r e s i n concert h a l l s , amateur dramatics, p i c t u r e exhibitions, classes i n music, drawing, and modelling. In 1891, H u l l House i n Chicago had a g a l l e r y and studio, and other centres had choral s o c i e t i e s . Graphic-plastic a r t s were developed a f t e r t h i s and drama came to the fore, so that by 1915, intersettlement drama leagues had developed; the " l i t t l e theater" movement was to be developed l a t e r . At the same time, there were forty-three music schools and departments founded; settlements also p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the dance movement. A r t g a l l e r i e s were established. Since that time much progress has been made i n establishing c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n settlement houses, and the endeavour has proven worthwhile. Music c r i t i c O l i n Downes, enumerates the values of musical • a c t i v i t i e s i n settlement houses: "I do not know of any educational work i n music which I consider as a whole of such value to the population of New York C i t y 'as the work that the music settlement schools are conducting... they are f o s t e r i n g substantial musical accomplishment, the development of taste, the love of a r t and a dis c r i m i n a t i n g appreciation cof\ the part of a stratum of population which would not otherwise be reached at a l l . In Europe i t has been easier, i n the past, f o r the boy or g i r l born i n poverty to secure excellent musical t r a i n i n g than i t has been i n America, but i n s o f a r as the work of the musical settlement has spread t h i s condition has been remedied. Not only t h i s : the d i s t r i c t s a f f e c t e d by t h i s musical i n s t r u c t i o n are n u c l e i from which higher musical standards w i l l be c e r t a i n to spread and r a d i a t e a r t i s t i c benefit to increasing numbers of the population. I f democracy means anything at a l l i t means that a culture must have i t s roots down deep i n the human s o i l . " I t i s possible f o r people to receive comparable advantages from other a r t s i n s i m i l a r s e t t i n g s . The neighbourhood house i s a more recent development of the settlement house. Workers u s u a l l y do not l i v e i n the neighbourhood house. The agency (4) National Federation of Settlements, Settlements 60th Anniversary. New York, 194-6. - 7 -aims to serve a l l people who l i v e i n a defined area; i t i s these people's r i g h t to b e n e f i t by the neighbourhood house service. The next r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g which made c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a v a i l a b l e to people was the community centre. "A community centre has been described as a place within easy reach of home where i t i s possible to meet friends and neighbours ... a sort of community l i v i n g room, c r a f t shop, gym, workshop and concert h a l l r o l l e d into one. I t i s a place where you can enjoy the l e i s u r e - t i m e a c t i v i t i e s you have always wanted to take part i n . I t i s a club f o r the community, open to everyone i n the neighbourhood regardless of economic p o s i t i o n , creed, race or colour." This description might also apply to the modern concept of settlement and neighbourhood houses. Group work agencies should provide a c t i v i t y which w i l l complement a man's occupation. I f much of a person's working day i n industry i s concerned w i t h a s p e c i f i c task, then the r e c r e a t i o n centre should provide creative a c t i v i t y which w i l l bring relaxation f o r him and which w i l l a s s i s t i n re-creating h i s energy and outlook. Group work agencies should supplement services which e x i s t i n the neighbourhood. People p r e f e r to do something more creative than to dipend on commercial entertainment - leisure-time centres a r e able to s a t i s f y t h i s need. The home as the place to spend l e i s u r e time i s gradually weakening, p a r t l y because of l i m i t e d physical f a c i l i t i e s . The group work agency i s also being looked to as a place f o r s o c i a l l i f e . "In the expansion of true community centres (group work agencies), Canada may well f i n d h e r s e l f as a nation. The centres w i l l be schools of democratic l i v i n g and c i t i z e n s h i p . The r i c h e r and more varied s o c i a l l i f e of Canadians w i l l be manifest not only i n the neighbourhood but throughout the country as a whole. The broader outlook and wider i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l and of the l o c a l community w i l l create a new community of i n t e r e s t s on a n a t i o n a l scale. The community centre (leisure-time agency) movement w i l l provide a new o u t l e t f o r the work of musicians, painters, actors, sculptors and other a r t i s t s and so give a tremendous stimulus to the a r t s i n Canada... (5) Canadian Association f o r Adult Education, Proposals f o r Government Action To A s s i s t Community Centres and Leisure Time Programmes i n Canada, 1946, p i . - 8 -A community centre (group work agency) designed to meet the needs of the whole community, and whose programme i s broad enough to include the f a m i l y as the important u n i t i n the community can be of,great help i n preserving the unity, and hence the happiness, of the home." Group workers can help people use t h e i r l e i s u r e hours p r o f i t a b l y ? they can enable members to engage i n a c t i v i t i e s which w i l l counteract the d e f i c i e n c i e s they meet i n l i f e . National E f f e c t . The recreation movement i n Canada can also be a workshop to teach tbe- democratic l i v i n g and to d i s t r i b u t e the work of Canadian painters, musicians, actors and other a r t i s t s . The extensive use of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g w i l l help to transcend class, p o l i t i c a l , economic and r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e s and w i l l a s s i s t i n bringing about a c u l t u r a l unity. C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s w i l l also v i t a l i z e and give n a t i o n a l meaning to r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes i n Canada. Such programmes w i l l r a i s e standards of l o c a l a c t i v i t y , and they w i l l contribute to mutual understanding of Canadians. C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n recreation can work f o r n a t i o n a l unity. They can help to develop happier people, and they can enable Canadians to achieve a unique p o s i t i o n i n the world. The creative a r t s stand i n an important p o s i t i o n i n the economy of the n a t i o n i Other basic contributions (besides Canadian unity) are possible through the use of c u l t u r a l a r t s i n group work agencies. These are s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . People i n r u r a l communities are u s u a l l y not fortunate i n having the opportunity <mf witnessing or p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n c u l t u r a l a r t s i n t h e i r recreation, so that they may become more discontented and f r u s t r a t e d . C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s can help to bring people together and to give them a f e e l i n g of worthwhileness and s o c i a b i l i t y and happiness. A r t can be u n i v e r s a l l y understood. (6) Corbett, E.A., "Why Community Centres?" Health. November-December 194.7, Toronto, Health League of Canada, p 6. - 9 -Why should i t not be used to help people appreciate and understand one another? By g i v i n g a l l people an opportunity to p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l a r t s , group workers are not presupposing that masterpieces w i l l be produced. Nor i s a nation of a r t i s t s the aim. The i n d i v i d u a l i s helped to develop a mature, well-rounded p e r s o n a l i t y by creating and appreciating the f i n e a r t s . A v a r i e t y of people tend to come to c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Group workers have an opportunity to i n t e r e s t these people i n other r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s ; these members i n turn w i l l a t t r a c t a wider representation of the neighbourhood that group work agencies sometimes lack. Those who have entered the a c t i v i t i e s on a s u p e r f i c i a l basis may become permanently i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t . A comparison of c u l t u r a l a r t s with sports. A comparison of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s with sports, and of the people who p a r t i c i p a t e i n both these a c t i v i t i e s , helps to exemplify the contribution of c u l t u r a l arts to recreation. Both c u l t u r a l arts and sports provide opportunities f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t to release energy - ph y s i c a l and emotional -and they provide pleasure and s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r him. A person may regard each a c t i v i t y on the fun l e v e l or he may become hig h l y s k i l l e d and pro f e s s i o n a l . P h y s i c a l and mental f a c u l t i e s are employed i n playing a s o f t b a l l game and i n dancing b a l l e t . C u l t u r a l a r t s and sports provide a means by which people express themselves. Sports.and a r t s a l s o bring people together so that they have an' opportunity to meet one another. These p a r t i c i p a n t s or spectators may wish to meet people with the same i n t e r e s t s . There i s a spectator element i n both watching a sport and i n admiring a c u l t u r a l a r t s p roject. People who p a r t i c i p a t e i n a sport are akin i n that they seek s a t i s f a c t i o n s which are s i m i l a r to those that other people f i n d i n the same a c t i v i t y . The same may be sa i d f o r c u l t u r a l a r t s p a r t i c i p a n t s . People who p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l arts and i n sports often concentrate - 10 -p h y s i c a l s k i l l i n a part of the body- i n the hands i n drawing, and i n the f e e t i n f i g u r e skating. I t takes a long period of time to develop s k i l l i n a sport, or i n a c u l t u r a l a r t . The a c t i v i t i e s are continuously creative ones i n that the same person can create the parts of a whole and eventually evolve the f i n i s h e d product. For example, the swimmer can accomplish excellent arm action as a step i n learning; he w i l l also l e a r n to k i c k and turn well and to control h i s breathing, so that these s k i l l s can be integrated i n t o a good swimming stroke. In a s i m i l a r way, the p i a n i s t perfects a t r i l l as a necessary part of learning a piece of music. The p a r t i c i p a n t requires varying amounts of time to complete a sport and a c u l t u r a l a r t . The completion of a game of basketball and the conclusion of a' dramatic play are the u n i t s . Both t o t a l u n i t s are subdivided -the game i n t o "quarters", "time-out" periods, and the dramatic play i n t o acts, scenes. The playing f i e l d f o r a sport i s often marked, perhaps f o r rugby. S i m i l a r l y , the p i a n i s t i s l i m i t e d to the piano keyboard. Often the participant's mind i s focused on a f a c t o r outside himself. In a badminton game, t h i s may be the shuttlecock. In a r t , the person may focus on the end r esult of the a c t i v i t y -a painting, a vase. A group or team of people may p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c u l t u r a l a r t (choir singing), and i n a sport (hockey game). In both a c t i v i t i e s r e l a t i o n s h i p s between group members are necessary. In c u l t u r a l a r t s and p h y s i c a l education programmes, the i n d i v i d u a l has an opportunity to form good r e l a t i o n s h i p s with others i f the a c t i v i t y i s taking place i n a group s e t t i n g . I t i s not always imperative f o r the person to form a person-to-person r e l a t i o n s h i p ! he may wish to l i m i t himself to a p e r s o n - t o - a c t i v i t y rapport - as the canvas i n a p a i n t i n g and the punching bag i n boxing. Character and sportsmanship and a t t i t u d e s are important i n arts - 1 1 -and i n sports, because each member may be a part of a group which works or plays co-operatively. There i s us u a l l y some sharing of equipment with the members, and t h i s increases the necessity f o r good group co-operation. People are l i k e l y to ve r b a l i z e appreciation when they are witnessing a b a l l e t and when they are watching a f o o t b a l l game. Peop l e f i n d that e i t h e r as spectators, or auditors, or p a r t i c i p a t o r s , that c u l t u r a l arts and sports" can be i n v i g o r a t i n g and i n s p i r i n g and. soothing. There a re some d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s between sports and c u l t u r a l a r t s . In the past, c u l t u r a l a r t s have catered to older people and sports have attracted the younger, more act i v e person. In the same way, the a r t s have become more common to people who are i n more fortunate economic p o s i t i o n s ; these people have had opportunities to l e a r n a r t as a leisure-time p u r s u i t . Sports seem to be common to a l l classes and types of people. Sports equipment i s p l e n t i f u l -a slab of wood w i l l s u f f i c e f o r a baseball bat. In c u l t u r a l a r t s , the p a r t i c i p a n t has an. opportunity to express h i s innermost thoughts and needs; and because of t h i s , s o - c a l l e d "odd" and "temperamental" people,'who desire self-expression, have engaged i n c u l t u r a l a r t s . Sports seem to attract'; the hearty, a c t i v e , more rugged type of i n d i v i d u a l . I t i s too general to say that i n t r o v e r t e d people are a t t r a c t e d to c u l t u r a l a r t s and extroverts have a tendency to gr a v i t a t e toward sports. Many c u l t u r a l arts are sedentary and most sports are a c t i v e ; part of t h i s r e s u l t s from the usual s e t t i n g i n which the two take place. The s e t t i n g i n which people p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a r t i s u s u a l l y quite f i x e d because i t i s often, a small space and indoors; t h i s i n i t s e l f creates a more contained, sometimes quiet and supposedly "refined" atmosphere than that in.which sports are played. Sports require an atmosphere that i s more conductive to carefree, boisterous a c t i v i t y , i n an out-of-doors s e t t i n g or i n a large indoor space. C u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s , are often imposed on a person - by parents who think that having t h e i r c h i l d p r o f i c i e n t i n one of the a r t s i s the " r i g h t " thing to do. Instead, parents should r e a l i z e and help the c h i l d know the inherent values i n the p u r s u i t . Almost everyone plays a sport - i t gives one a chance to express power, p r o f i c i e n c y and energy. A person should have a chance to express h i s imaginative and creative a b i l i t i e s i n a c u l t u r a l a r t ; too often he encounters a b a r r i e r known as " s k i l l " which l i m i t s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The s i m i l a r i t i e s between c u l t u r a l arts and sports f a r outweigh the d i s s i m i l a r elements. And yet people seldom consider that both a c t i v i t i e s make comparable contributions to r e c r e a t i o n . I f more group workers r e a l i z e d the values that c u l t u r a l a r t s make to the development of people, they would introduce more c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y i n t o group work agency programmes. E f f e c t on d a i l y l i v i n g . I f c u l t u r a l a r t s were o f f e r e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of r e c r e a t i o n a l programmes, there would be r a m i f i c a t i o n s i n the d a i l y l i v e s of people; t h e i r a e s t h e t i c values would be increased. Every-day a c t i v i t i e s such as decorating a house, arranging f u r n i t u r e and serving meals, would assume a r t i s t i c importance. C u l t u r a l a r t s would a f f e c t the manufacturing i n d u s t r i e s considerably; more than (7) they have done i n the past. "Balanced" P e r s o n a l i t y . C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s provide an opportunity f o r people to spend t h e i r l e i s u r e time c o n s t r u c t i v e l y . "Balance" i n choice of r e c r e a t i o n and lei s u r e - t i m e pursuits i s something toward which i n d i v i d u a l s should s t r i v e i f they want to develop healthy p e r s o n a l i t i e s . An increase of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n r e c r e a t i o n w i l l help to o f f s e t the dearth of creativeness i n the much-advertised commercial r e c r e a t i o n . In an a r t programme, a person has a good opportunity to d i r e c t h i s ambition toward ac t u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n an a c t i v i t y (7) Canada, Parliament, House of Commons, Special Committee on Reconstruction and Re-establishment. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence No 10., 1934-. - 1 3 -whlch may bring f o r t h h i s t a l e n t s . This element of p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l help to combat the monotony that i s found too frequently i n d a i l y l i v i n g ; people w i l l not f i n d i t necessary to seek the sensationalism and excitement that commercial entertainment provides. The a r t s f u r n i s h people with an opportunity f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and appreciation of that c r e a t i v i t y i n others. I f people are c o n s t r u c t i v e l y busy and have the f e e l i n g that they are contributing to a community, they w i l l not be so l i k e l y to turn to destructive a c t i v i t y . Contribution to s p e c i a l groups. Just as c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s make a marked contribution.to the r e c r e a t i o n of the majority groups of society, they a l s o play a part i n helping s p e c i a l groups of people. S o c i a l group workers a i d i n developing a sound, w e l l -adjusted, harmonious group, which implies that the i n d i v i d u a l s within t h i s group must have some of these e s s e n t i a l a t t r i b u t e s . For those who need therapy or s p e c i a l assistance i n adjusting to the environment, c u l t u r a l art a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies have a theraputic value. The i n d i v i d u a l i s able to grapple with h i s own undertaking and when he i s ready, gradually broaden out to the group members by sharing, a r t materials. Eventually he i s able to become f r i e n d s with other members. The aged who f e e l that they are not contributing to the world, may be helped to gain a f e e l i n g of s e l f -confidence and worjhhwhileness by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y . Fine a r t s help the unemployed to counteract f e e l i n g s of uselessness and despair, that so often come with idleness. - R a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s can appreciate b e a u t i f u l works of a r t and can be helped to f e e l an i n t e g r a l part of the country by a r t making t h e i r / c o n t r i b u t i o n . A l l classes of society are brought together i n a r t a c t i v i t y . Children, too, b e n e f i t from c u l t u r a l a r t s . The following paragraph shows how a r t work i n leisure-time agencies i s used i n the education - u -and development of the t o t a l c h i l d . "She club leaders i n settlements have found that i t i s possible to s t a r t with children's i n t e r e s t s and keep children earnestly and c r e a t i v e l y engaged i n such f i e l d s a s a r t , music, l i t e r a t u r e , etc., as w e l l as i n the more d i s t i n c t l y r e c r e a t i o n a l and a t h l e t i c types of a c t i v i t y . In t h i s respect the settlement house has been a p r a c t i c a l demonstration f o r the academically minded teacher, and teachers have been stimulated both to approach academic work as such i n a d i f f e r e n t manner and to sense the development of the c h i l d as a whole as a major obje c t i v e i n education." »8) Recapitulation. The development of the i n d i v i d u a l as a whole! Thi s i s the ultimate goal of s o c i a l group work, of recreation, and of l e i s u r e time pursuits. Plato said, "The mere athlete becomes too much of a savage, and the mere, musician i s melted and softened beyond what i s good f o r him...the two should therefore be blended i n r i g h t proportions." ^9; In the same way, the man at work and the man at play are one. I t i s l i k e l y that the work a man does w i l l influence how he spends h i s l e i s u r e time. I t i s important that people l e a r n to choose t h e i r leisure-time a c t i v i t i e s with a view to developing t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s and enriching t h e i r l i v e s . I t i s thought that a l l people.have rudimentary t a l e n t and a capacity f o r developing t h i s j therefore they should be given an opportunity i n c u l t u r a l recreation to discover t h e i r t a l e n t . Spare time would then be spent i n productive ways - i n creating b e a u t i f u l and u s e f u l a r t i c l e s , and i n re-creating the person. Experience i n self-expression, knowledge of colour and design, and s k i l l i n making decisions are some benefits' that i n d i v i d u a l s are able to obtain i f c u l t u r a l a r t s are included i n and made more accessible by r e c r e a t i o n . ^ ^ ) (8) Thayer, V.T., " E t h i c a l Culture Schools", Settlements 60th Anniversary. New York, National Federation of Settlements Inc., 194.6. (9) M i t c h e l l , E.D., and Mason, B.S., The Theory of Play. New York, A.S. Barnes and Company, 1934, p 19. (10) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Cambridge, Houghton M i f f l i n Co., 1949. People w i l l choose t h e i r leisure-time occupations more wisely i f they have an opportunity to experience the values of c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Further, a knowledge of the administration, the content,the p a r t i c i p a n t s , and the leader of a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s e s s e n t i a l f o r an understanding and appreciation of the contribution that c u l t u r a l a r t s can make to members of group work agencies. CHAPTER I I ADMINISTRATION OF CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. The administration of a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s the method by which the t o t a l business of the programme i s treated. This includes planning and organizing, d i r e c t i n g and co-ordinating the programme - purchasing maintaining, and perhaps s e l l i n g supplies and equipment, scheduling the use of f a c i l i t i e s and the time of s t a f f . lit includes personnel r e l a t i o n s and management - h i r i n g and dismissing s t a f f , co-ordinating teaching methods, holding informal conferences .and s t a f f meetings, produring, t r a i n i n g , and using volunteers. Administration may embrace reporting and pub l i c r e l a t i o n s -the keeping of f i l e s and records, sending notices, p r i n t i n g programmes, reporting to the community and awakening i n t e r e s t by public concerts or ex h i b i t s . L a s t l y , administration includes budgeting and financing. The executive d i r e c t o r of the agency or an advisory committee w i l l probably share these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s with the a r t specialist-group worker or with the department head. The way i n which an agency i s administered w i l l be influenced, among other things, by i t s s i z e . Of course, the administration of a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme cannot be separated from other aspects of agency programme. Administration i s the process by which the aims of the programme are determined and c a r r i e d out. Because of the d i v e r s i t y of the subject, only a few of the aspects of administration as they p e r t a i n to c u l t u r a l arts programmes i n four Vancouver agencies are discussed i n the present chapter. Vancouver agencies. , In Vancouver, the Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association has the l a r g e s t t o t a l agency membership (2400) of the four r e c r e a t i o n centres being studied. Of the seven hundred boys using the "YM", the majority are i n the nine-to-- 1 7 -fourteen year age group rather than i n the up-to-eighteen years range. S t a f f i n the four agencies thought that a t l e a s t a segment of c u l t u r a l a r t s activity/ty was included i n the i n i t i a l programme. Sixty-four years ago i n the Y.M.C.A. c u l t u r a l a r t s d i d not constitute a major part of the agency programme; there was a l i b r a r y . In 1949, approximately 85,750 persons used the Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association and of these, about 1400 were members. Since I896, when the women's agency began, a r t s have been a part of the programme. "Y" members come from a l l d i s t r i c t s i n Vancouver ."although both agencies are situated i n the downtown area of Vancouver. Neighbourhood houses and community centres, on the other hand, serve a "natural" grouping of people who l i v e i n a v i c i n i t y . Gordon Neighbour-hood House serves 1150 members who l i v e i n a peninsular d i s t r i c t , which Is sit u a t e d between E n g l i s h Bay and metropolitan Vancouver. Gordon House i s situated i n the centre of t h i s transient "West End" community which was formerly the more wealthy and established part of the c i t y . The large homes are now subdivided i n t o numerous tenements; t h i s has consequently raised problems f o r the inhabitants. Senior House serves the adults of the neighbourhood, whereas Junior Gordon House, a nearby separate b u i l d i n g and also part of a former g i r l s ' p r i v a t e school, has 34-6 younger members. Gordon House began a c r a f t s programme, as an agency development, i n 1941. Three years l a t e r Junior House introduced a r t s and c r a f t s . In 1947 and 194-8, a Senior House ceramics programme was begun by Miss Molly Carter, a ceramics s p e c i a l i s t , and by Miss Kathleen Gorrie, the executive d i r e c t o r . This was connected with the agency but i t was not an i n t e g r a l part of agency programme. The A r t Centre was established the following year and included i n s t r u c t i o n i n i n t e r i o r decorating, t e x t i l e painting a r t s , water colours f o r beginners" and more -advanced p a r t i c i p a n t s . This centre was housed i n Gordon House and sponsored by an - 18 -i n d i v i d u a l but Gordon House emerged as the f i n a l sponsoring body, because when the programme was found to be over-ambitious, the ggency financed the programme. In 1949 and 1950 the A r t Centre became an i n t e g r a l part of Gordon House programme. Alexandra Neighbourhood House has a t o t a l membership of about s i x hundred people. Business a r t e r i e s divide the area so that people l i v i n g beyond the concentration of stores do not come to the agency to a great extent. In the lower, i n d u s t r i a l , or "creek" area, the majority of the men are truck d r i v e r s who work i n other areas of the c i t y ; the East Indians work i n the sawmills. This area i s characterized by domestic i n s t a b i l i t y . Alexandra Neighbourhood House, o r i g i n a l l y an orphanage, serves a transient area of about f i f t e e n blocks; however, an increasing membership i s gradually coming from beyond the main s t r e e t s . C u l t u r a l a r t s were introduced i n 1939 when neighbourhood house services began. I n i t i a t i n g programme. The way i n which c u l t u r a l arts are i n i t i a t e d into an agency w i l l i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t the progress, trends, and aims of the programme i n the s o c i a l s e t t i n g . Did the programme ori g i n a t e within the agency, or old i t come from without?. The I.M.C.A. and I.W.C.A. are influenced by na t i o n a l programme, Agency programmes are a f f e c t e d by the community, the agency, s t a f f , and ultimately the i n d i v i d u a l . The f a c t that the i n d i v i d u a l s and hence the group- want a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y w i l l undoubtedly -affect i t s success. The Y.W.C.A. begins programmes by using various devices. An interview and the a p p l i c a t i o n form serve to show i n which . a c t i v i t i e s the new member i s i n t e r e s t e d . She may ask for- a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t y and the interviewer w i l l then mention to the s t a f f person i n charge of that age group, that an i n d i v i d u a l wishes to take part i n a certain a c t i v i t y . The club group members - 1 9 - -also discuss what they prefer i n programme - ideas often a r i s e from programme experiences or from discussions of the club's programme committee. In Senior Gordon House, as has been previously i n d i c a t e d , the 1 9 4 1 c r a f t s programme was sponsored by the agency, whereas the 194-7-4-8 ceramics programme was begun by i n d i v i d u a l s . In s t a r t i n g a programme, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to get the f e e l i n g of p o t e n t i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s . When the A r t Centre was being formed, agency people checked with the night schools and the Community Arts Council of Vancouver; but because there were not enough people from whom to get r e l i a b l e samples of opinion, the r i s k i n formulating t h i s programme was exceedingly great. The older members were s c e p t i c a l of t r y i n g something new, so that i t had to be demonstrated to them that people t h e i r age p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s and enjoyed them. For. c h i l d r e n p a r t i c u l a r l y , c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes need to be changed frequently i n order to hold i n t e r e s t f o r the members - t h i s i s e s p e c i a l l y true i n an "exposure" type of programme. C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes are planned i n accordance w i t h membership requests. The a v a i l a b l e leadership also a f f e c t s the a c t i v i t y . Three years ago, i n Junior Gordon House a music s p e c i a l i s t was employed, with the r e s u l t that there was considerable i n t e r e s t i n choirs, music appreciation and rhythm bands. The next year an arts and' c r a f t s s p e c i a l i s t i n t e r e s t e d the members i n another f i e l d of c u l t u r a l a r t s . There was a great deal of emphasis on h i r i n g a r t s s p e c i a l i s t s to work at Junior Gordon House before t r a i n e d group workers were employed. Now the c u l t u r a l -arts programme i s dependent p r i m a r i l y on volunteer leadership - f o r example, there i s a Hungarian family i n the community with s k i l l i n puppetry, and Junior Gordon House members are b e n e f i t t i n g from t h i s a c t i v i t y . A service club, the Junior League, i n i t i a t e d part of the programme - b a l l e t - i n Alexandra Neighbourhood House, by providing fhe funds so that the a c t i v i t y could be made ava i l a b l e - 20 -to the membership. Reg i s t r a t i o n information i s one of the means of informing the agency of i t s members' i n t e r e s t s i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . Besides t h i s , i n d i v i d u a l s may request c e r t a i n programmes. I t may be that a group chooses an a c t i v i t y f o r reasons that the s t a f f has suggested - a v a i l a b i l i t y of s p e c i a l i s t s , supplies, and low cost. Financing. S o c i a l group work agencies i n v a r i a b l y t r y to minimize programme fees because low cost increases the number of people i n a community who can a f f o r d to receive d i r e c t stimulation from membership i n the programme. Most agencies help cover cost by charging each p a r t i c i p a n t a nominal fee; t h i s has the e f f e c t of helping the i n d i v i d u a l f e e l f r e e to make suggestions because he belongs to the group. The agency u s u a l l y supports the a c t i v i t y a t . l e a s t i n part. The I.M.C.A. i n Vancouver has obtained personnel from the U n i v e r s i t y Extension Department, so that the University continues to pay a salary and the agency contributes a subsidy. The Junior League a s s i s t s i n financing Alexandra House c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s . In Gordon and Alexandra Neighbourhood Houses the agency bears c h i e f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n regard to financing, along with help foam the p a r t i c i p a n t s . Increase of fees may have serious consequences by causing members to drop out and. depriving talented people of t h e opportunity of b e n e f i t t i n g from the c u l t u r a l programme; at the same time the agency i s deprived of t h e i r o r ganizational and other t a l e n t s . Equivalent service to these i n d i v i d u a l s and to the agency can only be obtained from outside sources at greater expense. C u l t u r a l a r t workers frequently are employed on a part-time basis, hence t h e i r hours are apt to be i r r e g u l a r . There i s also wide v a r i a t i o n i n payment which may be by the hour, day, week, month, term, or by the year, i n - 21 -a lump sum, or on a percentage basis. Payment may also depend on the s p e c i a l i s t ' s function within the agency or department. Remuneration may be a s p e c i f i c fee f o r doing a p a r t i c u l a r task such as producing a play, or i t ' may be a basic salary which i s increased according to the number of i n d i v i d u a l or group lessons given. P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . The p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s - room, equipment, supplies - are a necessary part of c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. The Y.M.C.A. provides the room and usually any needed to o l s , but the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay f o r materials, the l a t t e r being frequently secured through group purchase. l"n the Boys' Department, there i s a s p a r s i t y of c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s ; there are more f a c i l i t i e s , as f o r example the swimming pool, f o r p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t i e s . The Y.W.C.A. i n Vancouver makes sure that the room i s comfortable f o r the members i n regard to heat, l i g h t , chairs and tables. For children's a c t i v i t i e s the c r a f t materials are purchased by the agency and paid f o r by the c h i l d r e n . There i s no budget f o r a r t supplies, so that f o r the most.part the agency purchases materials and the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay f o r them. Gordon Neighbourhood House has considerable ceramics equipment, Including a potter's wheel and k i l n . This equipment was o r i g i n a l l y supplied by Miss. Molly Carter who intended to make the class self-supporting. Gordon House supplied the room. In the A r t Centre, Gordon House provides such equipment as easels, work tables, and cupboard space. I f Gordon House sponsors a programme, such as the Art Centre and "Art f o r Fun", the agency purchases materials and the p a r t i c i p a n t s pay f o r them. There i s another group, Membership C r a f t s , which i s financed by the agency. This p r o j e c t was started i n September 1950 to avoid the objection "I can't do t h i s because I can't a f f o r d i t " . Gordon Neighbourhood House i s noted f o r i t s programmes f o r older people, and i t was because the agency i s so anxious to i n t e r e s t these people, that t h i s type of programme was introduced. The agency f e e l s that imposing a programme i s not too sound an approach, but the programme.appears to be f u l f i l l i n g i t s purpose. Basketry a r t i c l e s are s o l d to cover the cost of reeds, and i f the membership becomes too large, the programme w i l l be subsidized by a bazaar, or supported i n some other way. Junior Gordon House supplies the chi l d r e n with a l i m i t e d amount of equipment. For such c r a f t s as basketry and beadwork, the members pay p a r t i a l cost. Mostly, a c t i v i t i e s which involve a l i m i t e d cost to the agency, are developed. There i s an a r t s and c r a f t s room, a woodwork room, and ess e n t i a l s f o r musical programmes. Much the same s i t u a t i o n applies i n Alexandra Neighbourhood House - chi l d r e n are provided with equipment, but older p a r t i c i p a n t s buy t h e i r own supplies. Agencies outside Vancouver. H u l l House i n Chicago has a l a r g e r membership - over .2300 - and has also been established longer than any of the other agencies from which information was received. The A r t Department i n H u l l House was started two years a f t e r i t s founding i n 1889 by Jane Addams and ELIen Gates Starr. There are no appreciable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the ways i n which c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes within and without Vancouver were i n i t i a t e d and financed. The member's r e g i s t r a t i o n information and requests were the most obvious means by which i n t e r e s t i n the c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes was determined. Cleveland Music School Settlement, i n addition to other methods, has had requests f o r programmes from the P u b l i c Schools. Community Music Schools. Community Music Schools are an outgrowth of the music settlement idea which had i t s o r i g i n i n the 1 8 9 0 's at H u l l House. These schools are u s u a l l y not a f f i l i a t e d with any settlement (although Cleveland Music School i s a settlement, house which was started i n 1912 by a number of s o c i a l workers as an experiment to help solve the many family problems among a large group of immigrants). The object of Community Music Schools i s to provide musical development f o r people regardless of colour, race, r e l i g i o n , or economic. status; by f i n a n c i a l support from membership and t u i t i o n fees, contributions, endowments and Community Chests. Community Music Schools function through a board of trustees (volunteer representatives of the community), an advisory council of musicians, an administrative s t a f f , musical d i r e c t o r and f a c u l t y . Each member school i s autonomous - it.works with other neighbourhood organizations, gives advice and guidance to both students and parents, p a r t i c i p a t e s i n n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l movements^ 1 1) Music students are charged rates which vary according to the income of the students or t h e i r f a m i l i e s . Some members are taken free, but the schools w i l l not accept students from f a m i l i e s whose income i s judged to be s u f f i c i e n t to a f f o r d the expense of p r i v a t e i n s t r u c t i o n . I n d i v i d u a l i n s t r u c t i o n averages seventy-five cents f o r a half-hour lesson. Class lessons cost f i f t e e n or twenty-five cents each. Most of the San Francisco Community Music Schoole teachers devote about three-fourths of t h e i r teaching time to the school; , they are paid f o r only one-fourth of t h i s time. Auditions f o r students are held at the time of r e g i s t r a t i o n , and report cards r e l a t e the students' progress. The Music Schools have studios and supply a large number of instruments. The schools often have a music, record, and book l i b r a r y , and music supplies'which can be purchased at cost. An auditorium f o r membership and p u b l i c concerts, as well as a reading room and kitchen, also contribute to the success and e f f i c i e n c y of the schools. (11) National Guild of Community Schools. 194-6. - 24. -There i s a great discrepancy i n group work agencies i n regard to p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s f o r c u l t u r a l a r t programmes. The older, more established agencies such as the Abraham L i n c o l n Center i n Chicago, the Educational A l l i a n c e i n Hew York, and the, Y.W.C.A. i n Rochester, appear to be exceptionally ^ w e l l equipped with rooms and supplies, u n i v e r s i t y Settlement i n Toronto i s a Canadian example of long standing and i s adequately equipped with p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . P h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . Too often group workers underestimate the important influence that p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s - the room, equipment, supplies - have on the programme and on the p a r t i c i p a n t s . The lack of equipment may not l i m i t the programme too greatly, but i t should be remembered t h a t the supplies and the appearance of the b u i l d i n g , as well as the leadership, a f f e c t the membership which w i l l be attracted to the agency. . ' The i n t e r i o r decorations - colour, f a b r i c , and f u r n i t u r e — a d d to the atmosphere. I f the i d e a l were being established i n a large s o c i a l group work agency, f a c i l i t i e s should include sound-proof p r a c t i c e studios f o r music, with a piano, two chairs, and a table i n each - also, p o s s i b l y a record player. There should be a concert h a l l with adjoining dressing rooms, A record l i b r a r y and l i s t e n i n g rooms are also d e s i r a b l e . A drama department would need a theatre, b u i l t so there i s a continuous surface l i n e from the back of the stage to the opposite end of the theatre - t h i s has the e f f e c t of keeping the audience as-close as p o s s i b l e , both p h y s i c a l l y and emotionally, to the actors. I f possible, a balcony should be eliminated because of the poor acoustics underneath i t . I t would be d e s i r a b l e to have a rehearsal room and costume storage space. The ceramics section of the b u i l d i n g requires a large storage area f o r clay and glazes. There would be a drying room and storage space, and a wet storage area - each capable of being locked. Probably there could be a large - 25 -and a small work-room with a common storage area. Space would be needed f o r potters* wheels., k i l n s , and glaz i n g equipment. Sinks are a necessity, and i n d i v i d u a l lockers are desirable. The lawns could be developed f o r outdoor dancing. The dancing studios should have about three bars of d i f f e r e n t height along a wa l l . There w i l l be a piano and perhaps a p u b l i G address system. . The modern dance f l o o r should have s l i g h t r e s i l i e n c e . , Good a r t i f i c i a l l i g h t f o r night classes - with the source i n the same d i r e c t i o n as the natural l i g h t source - i s essential". P r o v i s i o n f o r showing s l i d e s , a l a r g e c e n t r a l i z e d n o t i c e board, and a cork f i n i s h on one wall f o r pinning up p i c t u r e s , are des i r a b l e . Desks, chairs, and a f i l i n g cabinet, bookshelves, a common lounge room, and a kitchen should not be forgotten. In the plans f o r one centre, the a r c h i t e c t has arranged that people must pass through an a r t - g a l l e r y type of hallway i n order to reach the gymnasium. This way, there i s a chance that people i n t e r e s t e d s o l e l y i n a gymnasium programme w i l l become curious about a r t and perhaps i n t e r e s t e d ^ i n t r y i n g i t f o r themselves. Careful consideration of the physi c a l planning f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme can be used to enhance the programme i t s e l f and to secure benefits f o r the p a r t i c i p a n t s . o a a c o o c 0 CHAPTER I I I CONTENT OF CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. Music. In a recr e a t i o n s e t t i n g , c u l t u r a l a r t programmes af f o r d i n f i n i t e v a r i e t y and value to the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A single a r t can have many applications to group work; and no a r t shows these better than music. Music, as a language, cuts across a l l age l e v e l s . Children and adults enjoy music and f i n d that i t brings them together - p h y s i c a l l y , i n the sense that they come to l i s t e n to a concert, and emotionally, i n that they f i n d In music a means of communication, an a i d to mutual understanding. Music has power over the emotions; i t can help to soothe or exhilarate a person. This a r t i s used as a basis f o r c r e a t i v e play and as a t o o l f o r l e a r n i n g . For example, a song about a -Strain, by i t s rhythm and melody should help children to be the t r a i n -by. moving across the f l o o r and "chugging 1 1 to the rhythm of the music. The t r a i n a c t i v i t y song can help the c h i l d create other songs - about washing h i s hands, block b u i l d i n g and other routine a c t i v i t i e s . Music i s a part of everyday l i f e . Rhythms and melodies can be detected i n the rustle, of a f o r e s t and i n the churning of a r i v e r , i n the shunting of a t r a i n and i n the whir of an egg-beater. One of the ways i n vfhich people enjoy music i s by l i s t e n i n g , perhaps to records. People also have an opportunity to perform music by singing a song or by playing an instrument. Music can be termed "classical™' or "popular 1 1 and i t may vary between these two a r b i t r a r y divisions.'"'A s i n g l e person and a group of people are able to p a r t i c i p a t e i n musical a c t i v i t y . One person may study music i n t e n s e l y f o r a career, whereas another may regard music f o r sheer fun. What does music mean to people who come to leisure-time agencies? The community centre or 1 member might be a young working person with some degree of economic comfort and s o c i a l competence. To t h i s person, music i s . - 27 -a means of expression, an element of stimulation, and a medium through which l i f e becomes r i c h e r . Because of h i s poor economic conditions, the person i n a neighbourhood house may have few opportunities to benefit from the values of t h i s a r t . To him, music becomes a wonderful new realm of experience. Group work agencies should help to make the benefits of music a v a i l a b l e to . every.person^,. Playing instruments, singing, l i s t e n i n g to records and concerts, p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n rhythm bands and orchestras, composing words and melodies -a l l have a place i n the c u l t u r a l programmes i n a recreation centre. Vancouver agency programmes reveal considerable v a r i e t y i n musical a c t i v i t y . The Y.M.C.A. o f f e r s opportunities f o r i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g , music appreciation and concerts by the membership. Within the l a s t three years there has also been or c h e s t r a l work. Usually, t h e r e . i s j u s t one leader f o r a group, and the leadership from any of the adult groups, most often comes from the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves. The music appreciation course i s of eight weeks duration, and i s given i n the f a l l and i n the spring; the group attendance i s lar g e - about 1 5 0 people. In the adult programmes, an equal number of men and women p a r t i c i p a t e ; the age range i s from eighteen to f o r t y years. The older members of the Boys Department have had small music appreciation groups, but these have been discontinued. There are twenty-two club groups i n the Y.M.C.A. which plan t h e i r own programmes - c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s may he a part of the clUb programme, whenever the group desires. The Y.W.C.A. i n Vancouver o f f e r s musical a c t i v i t i e s which include lessons (given only at the Chinese "Y"), p r a c t i c i n g (by g i r l s i n residence at the Central Y.W.C.A.), music appreciation, concerts by membership and by v i s i t o r s , and occ a s i o n a l l y choral groups. The choral group has been discontinued within the l a s t few years because people who were exceptionally i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s a c t i v i t y have moved away. Choral work continues to be a part of the musical - 28 -a c t i v i t y o c c a s i o n a l l y . There i s u s u a l l y one leader f o r a musical programme, and those p a r t i c i p a t i n g are mostly g i r l s and women from the ages of twelve to about f o r t y - f i v e years, although t h i r t y - f i v e years i s the more usual .age l i m i t . From the immigrant groups, more men are entering musical a c t i v i t i e s with the r e s u l t that the proportion of men and women i n these programmes i s more even. The following excerpt shows the musical contribution "new" Canadians are making to group work agencies i n Vancouver. "Vancouver i s one of the four or f i v e musical centres of importance i n Canada to-day... I t should perhaps be pointed out e s p e c i a l l y that the Vancouver area includes a considerable number of new Canadians who have brought to t h i s country and to t h i s area some of the musical t r a i n i n g and t r a d i t i o n s of t h e i r native homelands. These groups have done much to enrich the musical l i f e of Vancouver and they, along with the.native born, merit the opportunity to make t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r contribution to our developing n a t i o n a l c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n " .^ - 2 ; The i d e a l membership f o r any music group, depends upon the a c t i v i t y -f o r a choral group, f o r t y or f i f t y people can p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y , whereas f o r a p a r t i c u l a r lesson type of a c t i v i t y , ten members may be s u f f i c i e n t . Gordon Neighbourhood House has a Gay Nineties Orchestra, and an old-time dance orchestra, each of which has f i v e members. There are concerts by the members and by v i s i t o r s , at which anywhere from f i f t y to seventy people, the majority of whom are women, attend. A music appreciation group has twenty-five members, with an average attendance of about seventeen people. There i s also i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g i n the agency. The -age group which attends musical a c t i v i t y i n Gordon House centres i n the f i f t y - t o - s e v e n t y years span. Junior Gordon House emphasizes music appreciation and membership concerts. Within the l a s t three years there has also been i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g , ensemble work and a glee club f o r the younger members. In Alexandra Neighbourhood House musical a c t i v i t y centres around choir work. There i s a nine-year-old g i r l s (12) Community Art s Council of Vancouver, B r i e f Presented to Royal Commission  on National Development In the Ar t s . L e t t e r s and Science, p.3. group and an a f f i l i a t e d adult choir group meets i n the agency. There i s some i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g , but music lessons were discontinued because of lack of space i n the agency; l e t t i n g one person use a room when so many more needed i t d i d not seem v a l i d . I t seems that the members of group work agencies i n Vancouver are b e n e f i t t i n g to some extent from musical a c t i v i t i e s . Discussion of a development i n the United States, the Community Music School, reveals a d d i t i o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r music i n a leisu r e - t i m e s e t t i n g . Community Music Schools. As i t s name implies, the Community Music School focuses on one c u l t u r a l a r t . The Music School d i f f e r s from schools, music conservatories, and leisure-time agencies. A report on a study of eight neighbourhood centres and Community Music Schools, made by John McDowell of the National Federation of Settlements i n 194-9 c l e a r l y shows these d i f f e r e n c e s . "The Community Music School d i f f e r s from ordinary neighbourhood centres i n that i t s geographical area of service i s the c i t y as a whole, and i n that i t s program i s l i m i t e d to one s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t . I t s focus on improving inter-personal and inter-group r e l a t i o n s through music.and on increasing the opportunity f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n music i s quite i n keeping with the general objectives of neighbourhood centres, though s t r i c t l y l i m i t e d i n means chosen to achieve these objectives. Though the c i t y as a whole i s p o t e n t i a l l y the baliwick (sic) of the Community Music School, i n p r a c t i c e i t s constituency .comes mainly from areas where the poorer economic h a l f of the population l i v e s . "The Community Music School d i f f e r s from a conservatory because r e a l i n t e r e s t i n music on the part of the student i s required, while a b i l i t y to pay f o r i n s t r u c t i o n i s not. Further, the objectives of the School i s to help the student to develop i n t o a happier, well adjusted person with no p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the development of a pro f e s s i o n a l musician. -The School's primary focus i s the person rather than the music, but music and music teachers of high q u a l i t y are used throughout. •The Community Music School d i f f e r s from the music department of a p u b l i c school i n that much of the i n s t r u c t i o n i s i n d i v i d u a l and i n that teachers are selected for s p e c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y to the s o c i a l and emotional needs of students which can be met through music." # For an intr o d u c t i o n to Community Music Schools, see Chapter I I , Administration of C u l t u r a l Arts Programmes; Agencies outside Vancouver, Community Music Schools. (13) L e t t e r from Jensen, Margaret J . , Executive and Musical Director, Community Music School, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a , January 3, 1951. - 30 -The Music School, l i k e the group work agency, emphasizes the development of the i n d i v i d u a l ; the a c t i v i t y i s used as a t o o l i n accomplishing t h i s end. The great extent to which music can be used as a c u l t u r a l a r t i s shown i n the courses offered by Community Music Schools. I n d i v i d u a l lessons are o f f e r e d i n voice, piano, v i o l i n , v i o l a , v i o l o n c e l l o , double bass, wind instruments and percussions. Group i n s t r u c t i o n i s o f f e r e d i n rhythmics, pre-instrumental subjects, sight reading, theory of music and musicianship, harmony and counterpoint, composition and analysis, chorus, ensemble and orchestra, teacher t r a i n i n g classes and l e c t u r e courses i n h i s t o r y of music. There are opportunities f o r orchestras, chamber music groups, choruses and r e c i t a l s by f a c u l t y and students. Much of t h i s curriculum would be beyond p o s s i b i l i t y i n the recreation centre but i t does divulge a v a r i e t y of musical a c t i v i t i e s , some of which could be u t i l i z e d to advantage i n group work agencies. The San Francisco Community Music School has four hundred and f i f t y students. T h i r t y - f i v e per cent of these members are under twelve years o l d -the youngest i s four and one-half years of age; f o r t y - f i v e per cent are at the formative l e v e l of development - twelve-to-eighteen years. Twenty per cent of the members are adults - the oldest of whom i s seventy-four years. Most of the other centres outside Vancouver have musical a c t i v i t y comparable with the four agencies which were i n t e n s e l y studied. In Quebec, the Arvida A t h l e t i c and Recreation Association, which i s connected with the Aluminum Company of Canada, i n addition l i s t e d a musical band. Bands were also l i s t e d by Cleveland Musical School, Hudson Neighborhood Guild i n New York, and H u l l House i n Chicago. Music lessons, music appreciation, and concerts by v i s i t o r s , are the musical a c t i v i t i e s most frequently found i n centres outside Vancouver. Ensemble and orch e s t r a l work and i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g are also numerous. In a s o c i a l group work agency, musical a c t i v i t y provides many opportunities and choices f o r the i n d i v i d u a l . There are many kinds of instruments - the cymbol, the c l a r i n e t , and d i f f e r e n t musical forms - the prelude, the sonata. The emphasis on music can be on s k i l l or on funj music can be enjoyed by one person or by a group of people. The person may perform or l i s t e n ; he i s an adult or a c h i l d . Each i n d i v i d u a l i s able to f i n d some musical a c t i v i t y which p a r t i c u l a r l y appeals to him. Music i s j u s t one of the c u l t u r a l arts which contributes to the development of the i n d i v i d u a l i n a recreation settingi, Dancing.-Dancing also affords r e c r e a t i v e and creative experiences. I t i s pleasurable and s o c i a l i z i n g - there i s great freedom of movement and opportunity f o r self-expression. Dancing has p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r motivating groups to a v a r i e t y of a d d i t i o n a l programme?, experiences. I t i s not merely a s e r i e s of mechanical motions;- each has s i g n i f i c a n c e and meaning which has grown out of l i v i n g experience. "Our heritage of f o l k dances from nations a l l over the world i s composed of more than a progression of steps set to music; i t includes the wealth of t r a d i t i o n and s o c i a l experience that people have expressed i n t h e i r dances. I t i s t h i s c u l t u r a l exchange that enriches the enjoyment we f e e l to-day and that bring us c l o s e r to the people i n whose l i v e s the dances are rooted... .In p r a c t i c a l l y every a c t i v i t y i n the Center, f o l k dancing has a le g i t i m a t e place. In the p h y s i c a l education program,, dancing teaches many Body-building s k i l l s . At club meetings and mass events,, group dancing i s entertainment and good s o c i a l . fun. But dancing provides, i n addition to t h i s sharing of cultures and s o c i a l fun, excellent opportunity f o r c r e a t i v i t y and self-expression. Modern dance, p a r t i c u l a r l y , lends i t s e l f to i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of personal experience and ideas. , I t i s a language of movement, and i t s appeal i s to a l l ages and both sexes." ^ The Vancouver agencies o f f e r several d i f f e r e n t dance a c t i v i t i e s . The Y.I.C.A. includes square, f o l k and nation a l dancing i n i t s c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s p e r t a i n i n g to the dance. The Boys Department gives i n s t r u c t i o n to about twenty boys and g i r l s i n ballroom dancing. The Y.W.C.A. provides opportunity f o r b a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e , tap, square, f o l k and n a t i o n a l , as well as ballroom or (14) National Jewish Welfare Board, Jewish Center Program Aids. "The Dance -Creative and Recreative", New York, 1949. - 3 2 -s o c i a l dancing. In each group there are about twenty g i r l s ranging i n ages from twelve to twenty-five years. There are two square dance groups at Gordon House. One group i s made up of sixteen young adults - mostly women from about eighteen to t h i r t y -f i v e years o l d . The other group has a membership of f o r t y people from f i f t y to seventy years of age. Women predominate i n t h i s group, too. There i s a p a r t i c i p a n t who acts as leader, and whose purpose i t i s to teach the s k i l l of square dancing and to help the people have fun. Three squares are a l l that are cdesirable f o r a group of t h i s type, the agency s t a f f f e e l s . One group of t h i r t y - s i x women, a l l between f i f t y and seventy years o l d , meet to f o l k dance. Gordon House also provides f o r ballroom and old-time dancing. The l a t t e r i s considered mostly a mass a c t i v i t y programme f o r older people; there are about s i x t y - f i v e members i n t h i s group. B a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e , tap, square and, u n t i l r e c e n t l y , also f o l k and acrobatic dancing have been c a r r i e d on i n Junior Gordon House.. Alexandra Neighbourhood House o f f e r s b a l l e t , tap, a c r o b a t i c , square, and ballroom dancing. Occ a s i o n a l l y there i s f o l k dancing i n the agency, but more often t h i s a r i s e s from a group programme. Dancing appears to be one of the most popular c u l t u r a l arts i n recre a t i o n centres. Square and f o l k dancing are found most frequently i n the agencies throughout Canada and the United States. These a c t i v i t i e s a r e followed i n pop u l a r i t y by b a l l e t , i n t e r p r e t i v e or modern, and tap dancing. The Y.W.C.A. i n Rochester, New York, o f f e r s more v a r i e t y i n dance a c t i v i t y than any other agency from which a report was received. U n i v e r s i t y Settlement i n Toronto, Ontario, also o f f e r s good opportunity f o r choice i n dance groups. P a i n t i n g , Drawing and Design. Paint i n g i s the a r t of i n t e r p r e t i n g forms, colours, shapes, and tstures - 33 -of the many and va r i e d aspects of environment, character, p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n the world of appearance and i n the realm of fancy and imagination. There are no f i x e d techniques, no exact ways of doing anything. To the a r t i s t who can l e a r n to control h i s brushes, use the paper to advantage, and acquire a working knowledge of the pigments, there comes a d e l i g h t f u l f e e l i n g of power-and a response that nothing else i n the l i s t of a r t i s t i c p r a c t i c e s can (15) o f f e r . The Y.M.C.A. has groups that p a i n t i n o i l s , water colours, f i n g e r p a i n t i n g , and do dresden c r a f t p a inting. There i s also an a r t e x h i b i t . The Y.W.C.A. has one cl a s s i n o i l p ainting which i s taught by a paid i n s t r u c t o r . About twenty-five women attend t h i s c l a s s . Both the Y's have sketching, drawing, and designing to some extent. Gordon neighbourhood House has three groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s a r t . The "Art f o r Fun" group does pa i n t i n g , sketching,linocuts, t e x t i l e p r i n t i n g . F i f t e e n would be an i d e a l group number but about twenty members were needed to pay f o r the programme. The p a r t i c i p a n t s , mostly women, are from twenty-five to s i x t y years of age. There i s another A r t f o r Fun group, under the same paid s p e c i a l i s t , which does the same a c t i v i t i e s as the other group. Fourteen women belong. Another group i s the Members Craft programme -a group of fourteen members from twenty-one to seventy years of age. In t h i s group, there are three leaders who o f f e r d i f f e r e n t a c t i v i t i e s such as basketry and woodwork, at the same time. Junior Gordon House confines painting a c t i v i t y to water colours and f i n g e r painting. There i s considerable drawing a c t i v i t y . Alexandra Neighbourhood House o f f e r s drawing and painting i n o i l s , water colours and fing e r p a i n t i n g . The Alexandra House Hobby Shop group i s (15) Lismar, Arthur. Water Colour Pain t i n g f o r Pleasure. Canadian War Services and Canadian Legion Educational Services, Y.M.C.A. - 34 -s i m i l a r to. the A r t f o r Fun programme i n Gordon House. Members come together and proceed i n d i v i d u a l l y on t h e i r chosen a c t i v i t y with help from a paid a r t s p e c i a l i s t . In the agencies outside Vancouver, there appears to be more work done with water colours than with any other medium of painting. Use of a r t ex h i b i t s was the next most popular a r t a c t i v i t y . O i l s and fin g e r painting were almost of equal frequency. Hudson Guild Neighborhood House i n New York has a lending service f o r paintings - a l l types of painting and drawing a c t i v i t y are a part of the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme there. Friends Neighbourhood Guild i n P h i l a d e l p h i a l i s t e d s i l k screen pa i n t i n g along with the usual forms of painting. Drawing and p a i n t i n g are not mysterious ways of using a p e n c i l or a brush; they are almost ways of ldarning to see. They are means of learning to d i s t i n g u i s h between important f a c t s and those that are of l e s s importance. I f only the important f a c t s are noted on a piece of paper, the r e s u l t s of the drawing or p a i n t i n g prove i n t e r e s t i n g . Most children l i k e to use crayons; adults are not unaffected by the pleasure, f o r they s c r i b b l e on memo pads or anything that i s a v a i l a b l e . The simple l i n e drawing was the e a r l i e s t form of graphic expression among p r i m i t i v e people - the Egyptians made wall paintings and drawings i n caves during the stone age. A r t i s t s to-day use l i n e s - drawn or imagined,to define the boundaries between d i f f e r e n t parts or areas of t h e i r drawings. The importance and values of drawing and painting i n our l i v e s are not r e a l i z e d by enough people. Drama arid Theatre. Drama and theatre i s another area i n c u l t u r a l a r t s which i s valuable programme i n group work agencies. Discussions often centre around the - 35 -choice of plays and the people v/ho are to play the r o l e s , how they are to be acted' and the s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n s presented. Members reveal t h e i r own problems as they r e l a t e various f a c t o r s i n the play to t h e i r own l i v e s . Attitudes toward other people are also discussed. The members lea r n that t h e i r problems and f e e l i n g s are not unusual. Decision-making enters i n the choice of the play and actors, arrangement f o r date, sale of t i c k e t s , p u b l i c i t y and f a c i l i t i e s . There i s value i n presenting a play with s o c i a l content and s o c i a l problems. Often the group i s aroused to s o c i a l action. Group un i t y i s frequently achieved a f t e r the g roup has had a creative experience such as producing a play. 116) The Y.M.C.A. appears to have a good portion of a c t i v i t y i n t h i s area - acting, play writing, play reading, d i r e c t i n g and producing, l i g h t i n g , scenery, and costume and makeup. The Y.W.C.A. p a r t i c i p a t e s i n s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s , excepting play w r i t i n g . In addition, there i s a speech group of high school g i r l s . Most of the drama centres around a p a r t i c u l a r project, such as a Christmas event. I t should be added that the L i t t l e Theatre group uses the Y.W.C.A. f a c i l i t i e s . There i s no drama i n Gordon Neighbourhood House at the present time. There was an outside " s e l f - h e l p " drama group which a f f i l i a t e d with the agency. As the name implies, the p a r t i c i p a n t s themselves were leaders. This group var i e d i n s i z e - u s u a l l y there were ten members (eight of whom were women), but when the group was p r a c t i s i n g f o r a play there would be t h i r t y members. There was a wide age range' here, too. Alexandra Neighbourhood House had a s i m i l a r " s e l f - h e l p " group at about the same time. To-day, Alexandra House's drama centres around s p e c i f i c occasions and make-believe acting. An outside (16) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Massachussets, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. - 3 6 -drama group uses the agency f a c i l i t i e s . Throughout the various agencies, acting i s the most popular of any drama a c t i v i t i e s . Henry Street Settlement i n New York has a Play House; Hudson Guild Neighborhood House i n New York, and the c i t i e s of Edmonton and Regina were the only places that mentioned considerable v a r i e t y and scope i n theatre work. I t appears that group work agencies are not u t i l i z i n g the values dramatic work has to o f f e r to the development of the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups. Ceramics. Pottery work helps people to develop a sense of form, texture, colour and design. Clay i s a very p l i a b l e material and the potter can mould clay of the correct consistency into almost any form. Clay i s a v e r y smooth material to touch and the saisory f e e l i n g one has i n f i r s t working i t i s important. Clay i s a very f l e x i b l e material but i t also has l i m i t a t i o n s ; a l l a i r must be removed to prevent breakage i n f i r i n g ; a r t i c l e s which are too t h i n w i l l crack i n -the crying or f i r i n g process; i t i s necessary to have each piece f i r m l y attached to the main body; the a r t i c l e s cannot be handled roughly even a f t e r they are f i r e d . Gordon House has two ceramics classes, each with one leader. There are beginners and advanced workers among the f i f t e e n women who .attend each group. Another pottery group f o r agency members over seventy years of age has j u s t been started. This i s a group of seven members who need a great deal of s t a f f support to help them move i n t o new areas. The programme i s an attempt to give creative a c t i v i t y to e l d e r l y people who come to the agency to' play cards. These people had refused to t r y anything because they f e l t they were too o l d . This dilemma was solved by bringing i n an e l d e r l y i n s t r u c t o r f o r basketry - with h i s example, the others were able to move into new areas (17) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f i n Company, 194-9. - 37 -o f enjoyment. The "exposure" method, a d i s p l a y cabinet, was used to i n t e r e s t these people i n ceramics. The s t a f f member personally met the people i n the agency and in t e r e s t e d them i n the a c t i v i t y . Now i t i s e s s e n t i a l that they have great support i n the work. The most successful method of i n i t i a t i n g these people i n an a c t i v i t y was i n a f u n c t i o n a l way, so that they were able to begin work on some p a r t i c u l a r project. The Y's o f f e r clay modelling, . e s p e c i a l l y i n a camp s e t t i n g . In group work agencies beyond the l o c a l scene, ceramics was offered as frequently as acting, o i l painting, and o r c h e s t r a l work. Other C u l t u r a l A r t Programmes.. There are many c u l t u r a l arts which are being used to advantage i n the recreation s e t t i n g . Vancouver i s i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n because i t i s influenced by a wealth of Indian h i s t o r y and c r a f t s . Other groups of people have also contributed a richness to c u l t u r a l a r t s . "The P a c i f i c Coast has t r a d i t i o n a l l y supported a v a r i e d programme of c r a f t a c t i v i t i e s of a very high order, f i r s t on the part of the coast Indians and more recently on the part of an ever increasing number of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups of many ethnic o r i g i n s . The range of a c t i v i t i e s now includes weaving of many kinds, carving, pottery, cabinet making, leather work, metal work, p r i n t e d t e x t i l e s . The stimulus which might be given to Canadian c r a f t s by frequent ex h i b i t i o n s of what i s being done by craftsmen i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the country, with materials found i n various regions of the country, and by adapting o l d vrorld and developing new world designs, i s second only to the importance of developing markets f o r the best of the work being done". Group work agencies have a part to play i n b e n e f i t t i n g by a l l these a c t i v i t i e s which are so procurable i n the Vancouver area. The Y.M.C.A. o f f e r s a v a r i e t y of other c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s - copper (18) Community Arts Council of Vancouver, B r i e f Presented to Royal Commission  on National Development i n the Arts. L e t t e r s and Sciences, p.8. - 3 8 -and l e a t h e r c r a f t , i n t e r i o r decorating, clay modelling and jewellery work. The Y.W.C.A. members come together to do leatherwork and s h e l l c r a f t . Members also make g i f t s , and l e a r n about i n t e r i o r decorating and how to' serve food a t t r a c t i v e l y . Often g i r l s wish to make t h e i r l i v i n g surroundings a t t r a c t i v e because they may l i v e ' and entertain i n one room, or they may wish to decorate t h e i r own room at home. Some g i r l s , who are a n t i c i p a t i n g marriage, come f o r home management ideas. This type of programme i s done i n a group of f r i e n d s of twenty g i r l s a l l between the ages of twenty and t h i r t y years. Gordon Neighbourhood House members also work with leather. The group has about twenty members; twelve women attend r e g u l a r l y . The Gordon House Christmas a c t i v i t i e s developed from the Members C r a f t group. These members were i n charge of the painting of Christmas cards and the decorations f o r the house. This was one step i n helping these people move to other agency a c t i v i t i e s . I n t e r i o r decorating, which has been part of the Art Centre, i s now combined with A r t f o r Fun c r a f t s . There was an attempt f o r f a r too high a standard i n i n t e r i o r decoration, so that t h i s error has been r e c t i f i e d by moving the a c t i v i t y i n t o the Art f o r Fun group. Junior Gordon House provides f o r basketry, beadcraft, and wood work. Alexandra House has l e a t h e r c r a f t and block p r i n t i n g , papier mache projects, and l i n o c u t work. Sculpture work appears to be one of the l e s s common c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies; 1 ( i t i s not done i n Vancouver agencies). Three prominent exceptions to t h i s are found i n the United States: H u l l House i n Chicago, Hudson Guild Neighborhood House i n New York, and Educational A l l i a n c e , also i n New York, have sculpture work. Woodcarving i s an adventure - each block of wood i s f u l l of unknown problems. There are treasures of colour, graining, texture and i n t e r e s t i n g obstacles - knots, flaws, cracks. A woodcarver depends on h i s own ingenuity - 39 -to master these unexpected problems, for there i s l i t t l e technical information he can be taught. Carving can teach how to carve. There i s great satisfaction i n expressing oneself, i n creating something with one's own hands out of his imagination. Wonderful things f i n a l l y emerge from pieces of wood. Any good cultural arts programme w i l l encourage free imaginative expression; i t w i l l teach people the s k i l l needed to produce practical and beautiful objects; i t w i l l present the participant with knowledge of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s and limitations of the media in which he works; i t w i l l certainly refine aesthetic standards of appreciation. Cultural arts activities do make a valuable contribution to programme in group work agencies. Mass programmes. It has been pointed out that the size of cultural art groups varies considerably. Most cultural art ac t i v i t i e s are carried on in small groups of ten to twenty-five people. Mass programmes, i f they are thoughtfully planned, have a place in cultural programmes. Mass programmes present an opportunity to introduce new s k i l l s , new interests, and new personalities. Films, music and dramatic' plays help to stimulate members to new activities and to provide a stimulus to the performers as well as to the audience. In order to sustain interest, mass programmes should be brief and well planned ' so that the participants are completely absorbed in the activity. The sequence of events should be arranged so that at the end of a certain activity people are placed ready to participate again - perhaps in ,a folk dance. Good timing i s essential. The age range within the group should be limited so that the activity can be planned to appeal to a f a i r l y homogeneous group. Audience members should participate so that they, too, w i l l have a feeling of satisfaction. Mass activity programmes have a greater value than the worth inherent i n the activity i t s e l f . It i s often possible to "follow through" on the new i n t e r e s t s which are stimulated, so that a group may evolve which concerns i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y with that a c t i v i t y and achieves much benefit from i t . A mass a c t i v i t y programme affords an excellent opportunity f o r leaders and members to meet an a r t i s t or s p e c i a l i s t and l e a r n his views and s k i l l s p e r t a i n i n g to a c u l t u r a l a r t . F r o m t h i s discussion i t i s manifest, that, whatever the content of c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y , i t cannot be divorced from the human p e r s o n a l i t i e s involved. (19) National Jewish Welfare Board, Jewish Center Program Aids. "Feature the A r t i s t " , New York, 1947. CHAPTER IV. PARTICIPATION IH CULTURAL ARTS PROGRAMMES. The e f f e c t that the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme has on the membership of the leisure-time agency i s important. A group work agency i s p r i m a r i l y concerned with groups of pebple - large groups, small groups, groups which are formed around friendships, groups that are formed around i n t e r e s t s , c l o s e l y and l o o s e l y k n i t groups, childr e n s ' and a d u l t groups, those to which g i r l s and women belong and those to which men and boys belong, and so on. A group of f r i e n d s often p a r t i c i p a t e i n c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s during t h e i r club meeting. The c u l t u r a l a r t programme i s also used as a r e c r u i t i n g ground f o r new groups and for new members of established groups. S o c i a l group work i s p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n the i n d i v i d u a l s who make up groups. Group a c t i v i t y helps to make bett e r integrated i n d i v i d u a l s . The " a r t - f o r -art's-sake" philosophy i s not prevalent i n group work thinking on c u l t u r a l a r t s . I t i s rather the e f f e c t that the a r t has on the i n d i v i d u a l s and on the group that i s important. Emphasis - p e r s o n a l i t y and s k i l l . This r a i s e s the question of emphasis i n c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y . Should the greater emphasis be on developing the pe r s o n a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t or on developing s k i l l ? Without a doubt, group work agencies are more concerned with developing the i n d i v i d u a l personality, although the developing of the s k i l l i s an i n t e g r a l part of t h i s ! I l l four Vancouver agencies st r e s s the importance of the i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n a c u l t u r a l arts programme. The emphasis on developing the personality' of each member also serves to enrich and widen the person's i n t e r e s t s and to provide a stimulus, through the programme, to develop s k i l l s . The degree of emphasis on these two facets of a c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y w i l l , of course, vary. Some people do come to an agency to l e a r n a s k i l l and not to f u l f i l l other needs - f o r example, the members of the Gordon House Art Centre Group. Developing the s k i l l i s the emphasis these people want. However, both pe r s o n a l i t y development and s k i l l are compatible, i n that the l e a r n i n g of a s k i l l i s often a step or t o o l i n the development of p e r s o n a l i t y . The person who comes to l e a r n a s k i l l i s working with other members of an a r t group and with the leader, and i s influenced by these people. I t i s important, that, i f there i s considerable emphasis on s k i l l , there should not be unduly great demands made on the p a r t i c i p a n t , so that he i s not capable of achieving r e s u l t s s a t i s f a c t o r y to himself and to the s p e c i a l i s t . Such an experience would s t i f l e the member's i n t e r e s t i n the a c t i v i t y and have unfortunate implications on h i s development. Too great acceptance of s k i l l performance w i l l r e s u l t i n the agency o f f e r i n g l i t t l e more than a school t r a i n i n g . The extra benefits which the agency has to o f f e r would be overlooked. When greater emphasis i s attached to the development of the member, i t w i l l be found that the person w i l l increase h i s s k i l l as h i s development as an i n d i v i d u a l demands i t . This i s a r eason why membership i n an art group should be f l e x i b l e . I t i s bet t e r to d i v i d e members into groups on the basis of developmental rather than chronological age. S k i l l development w i l l be slower when the i n d i v i d u a l growth i s emphasized, but i f the member i s given the r i g h t kind of leadership and s u f f i c i e n t time, there w i l l undoubtedly be a much firmer development of both hi s p e r s o n a l i t y and s k i l l . . S k i l l w i l l not develop in a vacuum - competence for'an a r t depends on the person who i s creating i t . The c u l t u r a l arts programme i s an instrument of s o c i a l group work, but t h i s does not imply that the q u a l i t y of a r t i s negated. Membership w i l l probably f i n d that the q u a l i t y of work, and i t s implications on pe r s o n a l i t y - 13 -development, are important. I f one i s a competent a r t i s t and a q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l group worker, both s k i l l and p e r s o n a l i t y development are inseparable. But f o r membership - o n whatever l e v e l i t i s - self-expression i s important. For some i n d i v i d u a l s self-expression means p r o f i c i e n c y i n a s k i l l ; f o r others t h i s i s not a f a c t o r . S k i l l or craftmanship has a place on the t e c h n i c a l side of a r t but i t should be secondary to the imaginative q u a l i t y i n any work. 1 dual emphasis on developing the p e r s o n a l i t y of the p a r t i c i p a n t and the use of the s k i l l as an end to t h i s aim, i s possible and e s s e n t i a l i n c u l t u r a l a r t s within a group work agency. People who come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Are the people who come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n leisure-time agencies d i f f e r e n t from those who attend other a c t i v i t i e s ? E s s e n t i a l l y , people who come to a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme are not i n t r i n s i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t from the kind of people who attend other agency a c t i v i t i e s . Art p a r t i c i p a n t s do not vary from other programme members i n age, sex, period of development, or i n t e l l i g e n c e . A r t seekers d i f f e r i n i n t e r e s t - they wish a r t p a r t i c u l a r l y . The Y.M.C.A. f i n d s that i t i s possible to have co-educational groups i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s to a greater extent than they rare p o s s i b l e i n other phases of YM programme. I t i s found that members who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p h y s i c a l education programme do not go to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Most l i k e l y t h i s i s because these people need the active programme that p h y s i c a l education o f f e r s ; time often necessitates a choice. In the Boys Department of the YM i t i s found that some of the boys, who are not capable of looking a f t e r themselves i n the p h y s i c a l education a c t i v i t y , come f o r c u l t u r a l programmes. Others come because they are f a m i l i a r with the a c t i v i t y . Some of the boys are timid - they have been brought up c h i e f l y among adults; these boys are the - a-ones who often request the c u l t u r a l programme. Some boys have been "pushed" away from home f o r various reasons. I t i s also t h i s kind of boy who asks f o r the f a m i l i a r - he has often t r i e d arts and c r a f t s at home. No d i f f i c u l t y i s found i n bringing boys i n t o a c u l t u r a l a r t group. In the Vancouver Y.M.C.A., i t has been found that i f a leader approaches a 1 1 gym" class and asks who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n an a r t programme, two-thirds of the membership comes to-an art a c t i v i t y and continues to come. People from a l l backgrounds - c u l t u r a l , economic, s o c i a l , r e l i g i o u s -enjoy the a r t s . At the Educational A l l i a n c e i n New York, membership includes every kind of person, from the dishwasher to the professor i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l law. Hudson Guild Neighborhood House serves a neighbourhood comprised of f i f t e e n n a t i o n a l i t i e s , and there i s economic discrepancy among these people. A representative group of people enjoys the a r t programmes. The Community Music School at San Francisco also serves a cross-section of n a t i o n a l i t i e s . Some of these people are Italian,- Mexican, Japanese, Chinese, Portugese, German, Dutch, Danish, Negro, East Indian, Russian, Nicaraguan, Greek, I r i s h . The members are the c h i l d r e n of j a n i t o r s , ministers, widows-on-pension, salesmen, small store owners, waiters, e l e c t r i c i a n s , s o l d i e r s , c l e r k s , firemen, painters, aeroplane mechanics, college students, telephone operators and mechanics, carpenters, postmen, r a i l r o a d workers, hat makers, truck d r i v e r s , longshoremen, h o s p i t a l attendants, stenographers, real-estate operators, and milkmen! -V^O^ Junior Gordon House i n Vancouver finds that a d e f i n i t e proportion of the membership j o i n s a r t groups. About one-quarter of the younger age group comes to the agency s o l e l y f o r c u l t u r a l programmes - puppetry, b a l l e t , the glee club and i n t e r p r e t i v e dancing. Almost h a l f of the membership j o i n s (20) The Community Music. School, A Key to Better L i v i n g . San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a . - -45 -the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as other programmes. The other quarter of the membership i s not i n t e r e s t e d i n c u l t u r a l a r t s , as such - these members spend t h e i r time i n club groups, ping-pong games, and dancing. In Senior Gordon House, housewives who are i n t e r e s t e d i n a hobby-come to the Art Centre. In the Members Group the people seem to be those who are more adventurous and who are also int e r e s t e d i n other agency a c t i v i t y , such as the discussion club. There i s a c e r t a i n group of t h i s kind i n the agency - people who are intere s t e d and more developed i n a l l a c t i v i t y . A r t programmes serve a fur t h e r purpose; they s a t i s f y those people who think that t h e i r standards are too high f o r them to p a r t i c i p a t e e f f e c t i v e l y i n other agency programmes. There i s an Austrian woman who has a c u l t u r a l background, and although she has been i n Vancouver a year, has made no f r i e n d s . She had an a t t i t u d e of s u p e r i o r i t y that barred her from close associations with other people. The pottery cl a s s appeared to o f f e r what t h i s woman was searching to f i n d . Now t h i s superior attitu d e - which may have been a veneer to help compensate f o r her lacks i n other areas - i s g i v i n g way to one of f r i e n d l i n e s s . The r e s u l t i s a happier woman who i s making f r i e n d s . In a group, the attention i s n e c e s s a r i l y drawn to the most disturbed i n d i v i d u a l s - extensive records are made and case work - group work conferences are held. A r t i s a good medium f o r people who do not get along i n groups — these people are able to avoid a group experience by concentrating on the a r t . Gradually, as t h e i r competence develops, they are able to move i n t o group a c t i v i t y . The cr e a t i v e , more advanced i n d i v i d u a l In the a r t group, should also receive attention. I f the programme does not a f f o r d intensive enough - 4-6 -t r a i n i n g f o r such a person, he should be helped to move on to places where t h i s t a l e n t can be fu r t h e r developed. The type of a r t a c t i v i t y offered, determines to some extent the kind of people who are attracted to i t . These people are distinguishable i n that they are ready f o r that a r t experience and can ben e f i t from the le a r n i n g which c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s a f f o r d . I t may be that people who have great need to l e t o f f energy go to the gymnasium to do so i n a more voluble manner. Those who are i n search of vigorous a c t i v i t y are direc t e d to physical education programmes. For some people, a r t a c t i v i t y affords a pro t e c t i v e environment. C u l t u r a l a r t s can o f f e r a cohesiveness to groups whose bonds of frie n d s h i p are not p a r t i c u l a r l y strong. The a c t i v i t y can be used as a medium through which the members a r e given group and i n d i v i d u a l help. Art can also be a goal and a stimulant. The c r e a t i v i t y and i n i t i a t i v e are not dependent on the group; they come from the i n d i v i d u a l s . Other p o s i t i v e f a c t o r s can grow around t h i s core of c r e a t i v i t y . The c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y may even be a medium i n which a group of f r i e n d s develops from a group of i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s i n t e r e s t e d i n a r t a c t i v i t i e s . C u l t u r a l arts programmes also s a t i s f y members who are looking f o r inner resources which can be taken home, and when acquired give to them a s a t i s f y i n g independence i n contrast to di s t u r b i n g things around them. The members look f o r and f i n d pleasure within themselves. Most people f e e l the need to express t h e i r ideas c r e a t i v e l y , but i t takes courage to break away from the established habits and conventions of one's group. This may be one of the reasons why a r t groups appear to be " d i f f e r e n t " . People are expressing themselves c r e a t i v e l y . , - 47 -Members come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n group work agencies because they are in t e r e s t e d i n the a c t i v i t y . More often people w i l l seek out the f a m i l i a r so that i t i s important to a f f o r d a l l people - children and adults - opportunities to expose themselves to some aspects of a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme. There are many benefits which c u l t u r a l a r t s can o f f e r to a l l people. People need to be made aware, of a r t a c t i v i t i e s ! Reasons people come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. Members come to c u l t u r a l arts programmes f o r many reasons. One of the f a c t o r s may be that they wish to accompany t h e i r f r i e n d s . I t may be that someone has a free night and has nothing to occupy h i s timej an a r t a c t i v i t y w i l l keep him busy. Other people may be convinced that i n t h i s day, and i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r neighbourhood, a r t i s the thing to doj i t gives prestige. Then there Is the person who, of necessity, or of habit, t r i e s to manage as cheaply as possible - she stamps materials f o r a l l the curtains i n her house, or. makes g i f t s f o r her f r i e n d s . Some people come to c u l t u r a l art programmes to accomplish something tangible - a painting, a vase - or to l e a r n and develop some s p e c i f i c s k i l l . In other instances, the members come because • they wish to use the equipment of the agency or procure a d d i t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n tfxi'i*- hobbjts. A member may be in t e r e s t e d i n commercializing a hobby, f p r instance, ceramics, by using l o c a l clays to produce a native a r t . Other people come to c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes because consciously or unconsciously they f i n d a need f o r release, f o r an opportunity to express themselves, and to create something by themselves. "Man, as we are now coming to understand him, i s by nature and i n essence a creative being. Creation, i n one or other of i t s endless forms, i s the e s s e n t i a l function of man. I t i s the keynote of toman n a t u r e " . ' (21) Jacks, L.P., Education through Recreation. London, U n i v e r s i t y of London Press, 1935, p 38. - IS - . This c r e a t i v i t y i s concerned with the p a r t i c i p a n t s ' growth as well as with the development of the a r t object. People re l a x and are also provided with a medium to "act out, paint out, and sing out" t h e i r f e e l i n g s . Older people may come because c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f f e r them a new experience - the a c t i v i t y agency i s a challenge to them. In some cases,/people put -agonoy -pressure oh the i n d i v i d u a l because they f e e l the person i s i n need of the a c t i v i t y . Such members are often older and need strong support which they get from a s t a f f person. They would never j o i n a group on t h e i r own, but they l e a r n to p a r t i c i p a t e i n and enjoy a c u l t u r a l a r t i n a desire to please a s t a f f person. Parents may attend a programme so that they w i l l be capable of helping t h e i r c h i l d r e n with the a r t . A younger age group may be conforming to parents' wishes by coming to the programme. Some members w i l l want adult recognition and are able to achieve t h i s by producing something they can take home. Other people may j o i n an a r t group because they want to be with an "accepting" person. These p a r t i c i p a n t s may be the ones who are seeking a pro t e c t i v e environment and avoiding d i r e c t group p a r t i c i p a t i o n . An a r t group may increase t h e i r sense of belonging. Some people w i l l become members of an a r t programme .because i t i s an established part of the agency; because they accept the agency, they p a r t i c i p a t e i n the programme; On the other hand, some people may come to the c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t i e s because they don't l i k e the r e s t of the agency programme. Through a c u l t u r a l arts programme people seek enjoyment - they have fun! They a l s o come f o r a group experience. Some members come f o r a s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t . The a r t may be a ve h i c l e by which p a r t i c i p a n t s enter a s o c i a l group -e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of young adults. .'Art f u l f i l l s a s o c i a l purpose -frie n d s h i p s evolve from i n t e r e s t s . Furthermore, the whole family can p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a r t . The r e c r e a t i o n a l movement i s r e a l i z i n g that l e i s u r e time pursuits - 49 -can play a great part i n helping people develop the aesthetic and i n t e l l e c t u a l aspects of re c r e a t i o n . The emphasis on play has been too completely on the p h y s i c a l side, with the r e s u l t that c u l t u r a l recreation has been neglected. Trend i n c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. The trends of c u l t u r a l arts programmes over a period of years i s shown by an increase or decrease i n a r t i n t e r e s t i n p a r t i c u l a r agencies. In Vancouver, the Y.M.C.A. found no notable change during the l a s t year, but over the l a s t ten-year period there has been considerable gain i n i n t e r e s t i n t h i s f i e l d - p a r t i c u l a r l y i n music. The Y.W.C.A. had noticed no appreciable change i n a r t programmes. The whole a r t programme focus in.Gordon House has changed. The programme started as an imposed one, but l a s t year the programme changed, so that now i t begins at the House Council l e v e l . The House Council checks, rep a i r s and makes equipment. More members are j o i n i n g the a r t programme because i t i s becoming an i n t e g r a l part of the agency. The Art f o r fun members are also f i t t i n g i n t o the house a c t i v i t y . The Art Centre programme i s city-wide now, but i t i s gradually becoming^ a Gordon House programme. This i s the trend toward which a l l the c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n the agency are aiming. Alexandra Neighbourhood House has found that, i n addition, i n t e r e s t i n c u l t u r a l a r t s depends upon the administration. The programme Is set up because the i n d i v i d u a l requests i t . But seasonal i n t e r e s t s also a f f e c t the programme - volunteers are more a v a i l a b l e i n winter than i n summer. The emphasis on the c u l t u r a l a r t programme i n the summer w i l l depend upon whether or not there i s a good camping programme. Outdoor a c t i v i t y i s f r e e r e r and more informal - people tend to sing d i f f e r e n t songs i n an oui>-of-doors setting. The importance the community places on an a r t a c t i v i t y w i l l also have i t s e f f e c t . - 50 -A s t a f f person, from one of the group work -agencies outside Vancouver, remarked that schools and churches are competing f o r the time of the c h i l d r e n ; they have l i t t l e time l e f t f o r s a t i s i f y i n g accomplishment i n anything else, unless there i s a very great urge f o r a r t a c t i v i t y within the i n d i v i d u a l or at home. Most of the agency people have found that i f a change i n c u l t u r a l arts programmes has been noticeable, i t i s an increase i n a r t a c t i v i t y . This may r e s u l t from c u l t u r a l programmes and t h e i r values becoming bet t e r known and appreciated.' To a large extent, increasing the trend of i n t e r e s t i n a c u l t u r a l a r t programme i n a group work agency i s dependent upon the members and the leaders. - 51 -CHAPTER V LEADERSHIP IN CULTDEAL ARTS PROGRAMMES.ff The leadership of a cultural arts programme can neither be separated from the membership nor the activity. The three are inextricable. The quality and success of an art programme i s contingent upon proficient leadership. The importance of good leadership i s reinforced by the following excerpt. , !For some reason or other, the professional training i n group work has relegated the fine arts to a most secondary place and have given over craft to the group workers who have reduced i t often to a sort of "busy work". While I am thoroughly in sympathy with training in group work, and also the use of group work technique for integration, I feel that the arts must f i r s t of a l l be taught by people who are artist s , and qualified in their own specialties. Some of these have been and are the best group workers that I know, and there i s no reason why the tro •cannot be joined happily." -*2) Artist. F i r s t of a l l , the leader of an a r t programme must be a qualified a r t i s t . The Vancouver Y.M.C.A. calls upon city specialists to lead cultural art classes. The boys worker stated that he would rather not give an art programme than have one with inadequate leadership, because a poor beginning in art a c t i v i t i e s may discourage a member from interest in the art for the remainder of his l i f e . The Y.W.C.A. also attempts to get leaders who have the best possible training. Gordon House a r t workers are professionally trained, for the most part. Two leaders are Vancouver Art School graduates; one has had additional training i n university of B r i t i s h Columbia art courses and the other leader has studied i n California. The full-time worker i s a Winnipeg Art School graduate with experience in the Winnipeg Y.W.C.A. Another person has been trained at # For further discussion of Leadership see Chapter VI, Developing & Cultural Arts Programme, Specific Programme - The Social Group Worker as a Cultural Arts Leader. {22) Letter from Peck, L i l l i e M., Secretary, National Federation of Settlements, Inc., New York, December 5, 1950. - 52 -the Gordon House A r t Centre and i n the u n i v e r s i t y a r t courses. Another leader was trained at the North West Academy of Arts and Central Technical School i n Toronto. The leader who "teaches" basketry has learned t h i s s k i l l by h e r s e l f . Alexandra Neighbourhood House has a trai n e d leader i n a r t and one in dancing. Group work agencies i n Vancouver have not developed s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t h e i r thinking on a r t to r e a l i z e the absolute necessity of having p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s l ead c u l t u r a l a r t groups. But r e a l i z i n g i t or not, the f a c t s t i l l remains that these a r t i s t s must be made a v a i l a b l e to the agencies. Vancouver needs a co-ordinating job done by a city-wide organization which i s intere s t e d i n t h i s . The Community Arts Council of Vancouver can help search out w e l l -q u a l i f i e d a r t i s t s i n Vancouver and make them av a i l a b l e to our recreation centres. The Community Arts Council of Vancouver co-ordinates the work done by e x i s t i n g organizations i n the community. The Vancouver Musical and S o c i a l Club, the Vancouver L i t t l e Theatre, and the Canadian Author's Association are some of the member groups. Representatives of the a r t groups have an opportunity to meet together to exchange knowledge and to help each other solve problems. The purpose of these meetings i s to improve, by means of j o i n t planning, the services these groups o f f e r to Vancouver. Another way i n which the Community Arts Council i s a s s i s t i n g a r t groups i n Vancouver i s by a r e f e r r a l service. These groups are r e f e r r e d to f a c i l i t i e s and to leadership which are a v a i l a b l e i n the community. The a r t groups express desir e f o r help i n two major areas: they wish assistance i n organizing t h e i r own a r t group and they want to have a good group experience. And l a s t l y , work with leisure-time agencies i s also developing. Drama groups are being mobilized to produce children's plays which w i l l be made av a i l a b l e to the members i n group work agencies. There w i l l also be creative p a i n t i n g classes, musical concerts, dance groups, and - 53 -puppet classes. The people of the Community Arts Council of Vancouver believe that the r e a l v a l i d i t y of a r t comes i n helping people have r i c h e r l i v e s . The Community Arts Council i s a community service within the f i e l d of art which can contribute quantitatively and q u a l i t a t i v e l y (by supplying leadership and programme material) to cul t u r a l a r t programmes i n leisure-time agencies. Group work agency people i n Canada and the United States stress the necessity of having a r t i s t s lead c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes. The Educational Alliance i n New York demands a leader with a good and thorough, t r a i n i n g ; a l l leaders i n t h i s agency are n a t i o n a l l y known a r t i s t s . The Friends Neighbourhood Guild i n Philadelphia has a.music leader who i s a graduate of the Paris Conservatory and of the J u l l i a r d School i n New York. Cleveland Music School Settlement has bachelors, masters and doctorate degree people on the s t a f f . Generally, the Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations appear not to- have stressed professional tra i n i n g i n the a r t s to the extent that other agencies have done. An exception to t h i s i s the dance programme i n the Y.W.C.A. at Houston, Texas. The leader i n t h i s a c t i v i t y has a master's degree i n dance, one year study i n Germany and eight years of teaching experience. The Y.W.C.A. i n Winnipeg seems to have the most extensive a r t programme of Canadian Y.W.C.A's. The University Settlement i n Toronto also has highly trained art workers. The specialist-leaders i n c u l t u r a l art programmes w i l l welcome the opportunity to meet other a r t i s t s and sp e c i a l i s t s and to hear t h e i r views on s k i l l s and programme materials. The s p e c i a l i s t w i l l constantly seek to bring to his work new ideas and ins p i r a t i o n s . For t h i s reason, a r t leaders should have an opportunity to associate v/ith other a r t i s t s at l o c a l and national conferences. The a r t leader w i l l want the opportunity-to observe the work of - 54 -others a t p r o f e s s i o n a l and amateur performances - dance r e c i t a l s , music concerts, dramatic performances, e x h i b i t s . Subscriptions to technical and p r o f e s s i o n a l p u b l i c a t i o n s are likewise stimulating. Continued study i n schools, and b u l l e t i n s from museums, a r t g a l l e r i e s and u n i v e r s i t y extension departments, also contribute to the s p e c i a l i s t ' s continuing t r a i n i n g . S o c i a l Group Worker. S p e c i a l i z a t i o n and p r o f i c i e n c y i n the a r t , formulate one of the two necessary q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r people who lead c u l t u r a l a r t programmes i n s o c i a l group work agencies. The other necessity i s the personality of the leader, or h i s a b i l i t y to work with people, or h i s s o c i a l group work • s k i l l s ; c a l l i t what you may, i t i s the conscious use of the leader and h i s a r t i n helping others to b e n e f i t personally and a r t i s t i c a l l y from the a r t a c t i v i t y . The a r t leader influences the group members simply because he comes i n contact with them. How the s p e c i a l i s t works i s important. The four Vancouver agencies stress the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of 'cultural leaders i n the area of personal a t t r i b u t e s . I t i s necessary f o r the leader to make the a r t i n t e r e s t i n g and not too t h e o r e t i c a l , i f people are to enjoy and b e n e f i t from the a r t . This implies an understanding of various age and developmental l e v e l s of the members. The leader's p e r s o n a l i t y and h i s approach to the a c t i v i t y i s more important than hi s age. The a b i l i t y of a leader to encourage the members' c r e a t i v i t y rather than t h e i r copying-other ideas, i s most worthwhile. This necessitates that the a r t s s p e c i a l i s t have an a b i l i t y to work with people - he i s able to s t a r t where the members are and to help them advance from there. For instance, a teen-ager i s not given a symphony as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to music. Each person - 55 -w i l l be helped to move from h i s o r i g i n a l standard, which w i l l be d i f f e r e n t from the l e v e l at which other members are. A leader does not lower standards by s t a r t i n g where the members are. Under no circumstances does the leader make the standard of performance more important than the i n d i v i d u a l . For example, i n some instances great harm can be done to a person i f h i s productions or a r t , say h i s pottery bowls, are thrown i n t o the waste basket. A c u l t u r a l arts programme may need more act i v e leadership because people are u s u a l l y not as ready to embark on a r t work as they are to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a s o c i a l group. Art can be a challenging a c t i v i t y . The leader must be aware that some people are not as apt to p a r t i c i p a t e i n an a r t programme as they are to take part i n other programmes, because to them the demands made on the p a r t i c i p a n t seem to be greater i n a r t . The leader aims to help the members develop creative a b i l i t y and s k i l l . The c u l t u r a l arts leader should accept, understand, and appreciate people, and have a democratic approach i n dealing with them. The group enjoyment must also be kept i n mind. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to improve the statements that Wilson and Ryland ^ 2 3) make i n des c r i b i n g the q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r a ' good leader. A c u l t u r a l arts leader should help i n d i v i d u a l s and groups through: "His respect f o r Mman beings and t h e i r s o c i a l organizations and h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i r r i g h t to manage t h e i r own l i v e s . " The a r t s p e c i a l i s t w i l l abide b y the member's decision in' a choice of colours f o r a painting, even although i t may v i o l a t e the a r t i s t ' s sense of colour. The leader w i l l work with that i n d i v i d u a l i n the framework of the group structure, as t h e members decide i t . An a r t group may or may not be highly organized.. (23) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work Pr a c t i c e , Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949, p 22. "His acceptance of each i n d i v i d u a l and group as unique, and of the r i g h t of each to be d i f f e r e n t from every other." No s p e c i a l i s t can expect i d e n t i c a l r e s u l t s of two i n d i v i d u a l instrumentalists or of two orchestras, even although they are playing the same piece. "His a b i l i t y to f e e l with i n d i v i d u a l s and groups without f e e l i n g l i k e them." An a r t i s t must understand how the members f e e l when they cannot achieve s a t i s f a c t o r y r e s u l t s i n a dramatic play. I f the leader f e l t l i k e them, he could not help them, to perform more adequately. "His a b i l i t y to accept the h o s t i l i t y and agression as well as the love and a f f e c t i o n of i n d i v i d u a l s and groups with whom he works as normal reactions of human, beings toward one another." The ceramics leader could become very upset i f he d i d not r e a l i z e that a member was blaming him only as ajr-esult of true f e e l i n g s toward other people, perhaps the member's family. The p a r t i c i p a n t may have been so upset that h i s s k i l l i n modelling was. impaired. "His a b i l i t y to understand the language of behavior and t o use hi s own behavior to the best i n t e r e s t s of the i n d i v i d u a l s and groups with whom he i s working." A s p e c i a l i s t who notices a youngster pa i n t i n g i n a red colour with short, disturbed strokes w i l l help' that c h i l d release her fe e l i n g s through the medium of pain t i n g , rather than on group members. "His a b i l i t y to accept the concept that a l l behavior i s purposive, and that the a c t i v i t y of individuals" and groups i s s i g n i f i c a n t to the people involved even i f i t seems meaningless to the observer." The f a c t that a whole group chooses to p a r t i c i p a t e i n ajuare dancing rather than i n f o l k dancing should r e v e a l something to the leader. For a group of g i r l s , i t may mean that boys l i k e to square dance and that there i s an opportunity presenting i t s e l f at school f o r a square dance. Perhaps one of the group members has such a strong influence on the others that they are persuaded to follow her choice. - 5 7 -"His. a b i l i t y to accept i n d i v i d u a l s and groups even i f he must disapprove of t h e i r behavior." . A l e a t h e r c r a f t i n s t r u c t o r may d i s l i k e the members attacking one another with . t o o l i n g instruments and inform them so, but the leader gives no i n d i c a t i o n that he d i s l i k e s the members themselves. "His a b i l i t y to accept the r o l e of authority with those i n d i v i d u a l s and groups who need the s e c u r i t y of l i m i t a t i o n s and narrowed horizons." A music s p e c i a l i s t helps members s e l e c t songs which they are capable of singing s u c c e s s f u l l y . "His a b i l i t y to use authority without passing judgment." A water f i g h t between "budding" ceramics enthusiasts may demand use of authority. "His a b i l i t y to be permissive and to widen horizons where i n d i v i d u a l s and groups need to be supported i n assuming greater personal and c o l l e c t i v e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I1 In a drama group, the worker recognizes the in s t a n t i n group development when i n d i v i d u a l s need to assume more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i r e c t i n g and producing a play. ' "His a b i l i t y to support i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n factoring out the issues i n problems facing them, yet to r e f r a i n from i n d i c a t i n g the solutions." A s p e c i a l i s t i n drawing and design w i l l help the members r e a l i z e the wide range of choices i n design, but w i l l l e t them f e r r e t out the l i n e s to s u i t t h e i r own pattern. "His a b i l i t y to support i n d i v i d u a l s and groups i n mailing and carrying out t h e i r own decisions." The leader w i l l help the group members carry through t h e i r own project to a successful conclusion. • "His a b i l i t y to use h i s understanding of the s t r u c t u r e of the-p a r t i c u l a r group with which he i s working and to i n t e r p r e t the l i m i t a t i o n s of the functions provided by the s t r u c t u r e on the members of the group." The leader w i l l help members of a weaving group realize' that i f t h e i r group i s not organized s u f f i c i e n t l y to send a delegate to a members' co-ordinating committee, the group cannot expect to be drawn i n on plans that a l l other agency groups are i n i t i a t i n g . "His a b i l i t y to understand and accept the purpose and function of the agency from which he receives the authority to give service to i n d i v i d u a l s and groups." The a r t s p e c i a l i s t should f e e l that h i s groups are an i n t e g r a l part of the t o t a l agency plan. What members learn i n a b a l l e t group must not run counter to agency p o l i c y . -"His a b i l i t y to accept the limi'tations of agency functions and to encourage the c l i e n t s or members to use the serv i c e s of other agencies i n the community f o r help with needs which h i s agency i s not equipped to serve." The leader who finds an i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c u l a r l y talented i n sculpture work, w i l l help that member acquire more advanced i n s t r u c t i o n outside the group or outside the agency. '"His a b i l i t y to represent h i s agency e f f e c t i v e l y i n co-operative e f f o r t s of the community." The a r t leader w i l l be an agency delegate to a r t conferences, exhibits and concerts, and he w i l l helpothe agency benefit by h i s experiences i n these community events. "His a b i l i t y to see the relationship-', between the i n t e r e s t s and needs o f the p a r t i c u l a r c l i e n t s or members with whom he i s working and those of society-as-a-whole and to take r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n s o c i a l action about the unmet needs as an employee of the agency, as a member of the profession of s o c i a l work, and as a responsible c i t i z e n . " The a r t leader understands that democracy i s p r a c t i c e d among members i n the a r t group. This same attitude of dealing vd.th' one another i s c a r r i e d beyond the c u l t u r a l a r t group to the c i t y , the province or state, the nation, and the world. The c u l t u r a l arts worker w i l l extend h i s outlook and assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y beyond h i s immediate profession to that of the community and the world. T h i s s o c i a l consciousness plus a general c u l t u r a l background, an - 5 9 -academic background, and an i n t r i n s i c i n t e r e s t i n people and i n a r t are necessary. The following paragraph reveals.the q u a l i t y of understanding that the a r t s p e c i a l i s t can have with the group members. I t also t e l l s how the worker uses her knowledge and s k i l l s to enable many i n d i v i d u a l s to benefit by the a r t - i n t h i s case, drama. "The s p e c i a l i s t who pursues his vocation i n a s o c i a l agency u s u a l l y f i n d s himself drawn in t o personal and s o c i a l as well as professional r e l a t i o n s h i p s with h i s c l i e n t e l e . He comes upon the member i n a relaxed and " o f f guard" frame of mind, engaged upon an agreeable project of h i s own choice. Their association - frequently that of fellow craftsmen, master and apprentice, f e l l o w sportsmen - i s conducive to confidences. As the s p e c i a l i s t gradually becomes aware of the i n d i v i d u a l emerging from the group as a personality, human problems and ambitions reveal themselves and challenge him to s o c i a l service as well as craftsmanship... The dramatics worker, whose prof e s s i o n a l standards may demand that she cast her ablest players f o r public productions, may f i n d , t h a t her s o c i a l understanding leads her to devise opportunities f o r developing also the l e s s talented of the group. She may experiment with the use of understudies, plan a r e p e t i t i o n of the performance with a second set of players i n the cast, arrange informal productions.for which she can draw upon newer and l e s s promising material, and i n which she can award a part to a player who needs to overcome a personal problem such as self-consciousness, f a u l t y d i c t i o n , a warped view of l i f e . She may concern h e r s e l f with preventing e x p l o i t a t i o n of the g i f t e d c h i l d , or t r y i n g to control a tendency of a talented group to become "high brww" or exclusive." ^ 4 ) The a r t leader i s constantly aware of the e f f e c t of the a r t on the members. The leader himself has a profound e f f e c t on the participants.- He must be genuinely i n t e r e s t e d i n people - be considerate, t a c t f u l , warm and f r i e n d l y . A leader's appreciation of d i f f e r i n g values and norms of people of d i f f e r i n g cultures and backgrounds, w i l l help him draw i n group members so that they can contribute to the a c t i v i t y and derive s a t i s f a c t i o n from i t . A personal philosophy i s a necessity i f a s p e c i a l i s t i s to support people who are d i f f e r e n t from himself and help them achieve s a t i s f a c t i o n s , rather than enjoy them himself. The worker i s a bearer of values - h i s own, the agency's, and those of the community. I f he i s to function i n a group work se t t i n g , the s p e c i a l i s t must be convinced of the value of autonomous group experience i n the personal and s o c i a l growth of i n d i v i d u a l s . L a s t l y , the c u l t u r a l a r t s ( 2 4 ) . Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New York, Harper and Brothers, p 164 . . leader must be able and w i l l i n g to make b r i e f records of happenings to i n d i v i d u a l s and to the group-as-a-whole, and to accept and use the help of the agency supervisor i n giving the highest q u a l i t y of service of which he i s capable.^5) The sum t o t a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s d e s i r a b l e f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s leader are t r a i n i n g i n a r t and i n s o c i a l group work. P r o f i c i e n c y i n these two areas w i l l include a l l the personal and pro f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s necessary f o r a c u l t u r a l arts leader i n a group work agency. Vancouver agencies have adequately emphasized the s o c i a l work background. Now i t i s necessary to develop the standard of service so that the importance of q u a l i f i e d a r t i s t s w i l l be stressed. Only when the a b i l i t i e s of the a r t i s t and the or i e n t a t i o n of the s o c i a l group worker are welded into one person, are group work agencies procuring the best which leadership f o r a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme affords. Good leadership w i l l help guarantee to the member benefits which the a r t a c t i v i t y and the agency philosophy can and should a f f o r d . (25) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. - 61 -CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS. Aims of C u l t u r a l Arts Programmes. I t i s e s s e n t i a l to have an adequate understanding of the segments of a c u l t u r a l arts programme - the membership, the leadership, the programme f content, and the agency structure within which the programme operates. But what are the i n c l u s i v e aims, values, purposes of c u l t u r a l a r t s i n a group work setting? What should one look f o r i n es t a b l i s h i n g a good a r t programme? C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s have purposes which prove themselves to be more than worthy of the place group workers should give them i n l e i s u r e -time agency programmes. F i r s t of a l l , - c u l t u r a l a r t s are t o o l s which can be used to develop the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . One of the highest aims of human endeavour i s to provide the means of enriching i n d i v i d u a l experience and development. This, of course, necessitates helping the personnel and the programme meet the changing needs of the members; i t also means helping the p a r t i c i p a n t s be i n s p i r e d to something beyond what they might expect of themselves. Art i n recreation contributes obvious, more tangible advantages to p a r t i c i p a n t s , by exposing them to the influences of a r t which they might not have encountered i n t h e i r own homes or places of work. An appreciation well worth having i n l a t e r l i f e i s developed, and s k i l l s which provide a b e n e f i c i a l l e a r n i n g experience are acquired. S a t i s f a c t i o n i s gained both i n lea r n i n g a s k i l l and i n l e a r n i n g more about the a r t s . These c u l t u r a l arts create new i n t e r e s t s which lead to further study on an i n d i v i d u a l or group bas i s . New i n t e r e s t s often lend new enthusiasm to l i f e . The q u a l i t y of a r t w i l l i n c i d e n t a l l y be r a i s e d i f more people aire helped to appreciate a r t through - 62 -the art g a l l e r i e s and loan services and a re helped to acquire knowledge of the a r t forms by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the a r t themselves. Through an a r t group, members l e a r n to promote culture; they put higher values on the craftsmanship of everyday.articles and they enjoy more p o s i t i v e values i n ' l i f e . C u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n leisure-time agencies also aim to give important i n t a n g i b l e s a t i s f a c t i o n s to people. The opportunity f o r people to t r y a r t is valuable. There i s a wide gamut of a c t i v i t i e s from which the i n d i v i d u a l may choose a desired one. C u l t u r a l a r t s are performed • many i n / s e t t i n g s , so that each i n d i v i d u a l w i l l most probably f i n d at l e a s t one to h i s l i k i n g . The a c t i v i t y s a t i s f i e s the desires within a person to be creative, to release emotional energy through expression, and to relax. Besides, i t ' s fun! Art i s a r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y which meets the needs of the whole family - a r t encourages and f o s t e r s a s e n s i t i i v i t y to form, colour, texture, pattern. The p a r t i c i p a n t s ' appreciation of the arts and of the properties of nature are also enhanced. Through enjoyment of an a c t i v i t y there w i l l be a greater personal enjoyment of oneself and of others. The purpose of a l l c u l t u r a l programmes i n group work agencies is i n agreement with what Miss Gertrude F i e l d , former Director of the San Francisco Music School, says: "We've had no geniuses or people,of world-wide reputation as performers. We have had a number of young people who are doing outstanding work. "However, we f e e l that the greatest value of our work l i e s not n e c e s s a r i l y i n developing these enthusiastic and capable young people who are making a l i f e work of music; but rather i n the l a s t i n g i n t e r e s t of the great body of our students (parents and children) who have come to have an abiding d e l i g h t i n playing and hearing f i n e music. "We see music at work here upon men and women, but e s p e c i a l l y -63-upon children - at work upon character and conduct, ambition and conceit, upon uncooperative natures; i n f a m i l i e s where p e r s o n a l i t i e s are not i n harmony. I t s power i s often akin to magic, i t s language universal; i t seldom f a i l s . " The next l e v e l to which c u l t u r a l arts i n a r e c r e a t i o n a l s e t t i n g contribute worthily i s to the group. C u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t y provides a good medium f o r group expression; an e x h i l e r a t i n g f e e l i n g comes from being part of a group which i s working together and producing a wholeness, such as a choir i s able, to do. Group process develops as the i n d i v i d u a l s within the group develop. Opportunity i s provided i n c u l t u r a l arts programmes for the group to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r t projects which aare a part of the t o t a l agency a c t i v i t y - t h i s w i l l encourage movement from the i n d i v i d u a l l y - c e n t r e d i n t e r e s t to more general i n t e r e s t i n the group, the agency, and the community. C u l t u r a l arts programmes .provide the p a r t i c i p a n t with opportunities of meeting new people. The aims of the c u l t u r a l arts programmes should be the same as the t o t a l agency programme aims. Cu l t u r a l a r t s also a f f e c t the community. They aim to present the f i n e s t c u l t u r a l programmes a v a i l a b l e to people and help them appreciate these programmes.. Art a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies aim to serve tie neighbourhood by encouraging r e a l i n t e r e s t and p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Art i s also one of the means of counteracting some of the e f f e c t s of a super-industralized society. These are some of the aims of c u l t u r a l a r t programmes. These aims have also shown r e s u l t s , which have been demonstrated by ar.t a c t i v i t y i n group work agencies. The purposes of the a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r r e s u l t s prove the value of a r t to recreation. The. f a c t that agencies throughout Canada and the United States are e s t a b l i s h i n g and developing c u l t u r a l art programmes and departments, and enlarging on already e x i s t i n g ones, validates the place of c u l t u r a l a r t a c t i v i t i e s i n group work agencies. The next step i s t o develop a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme within an ^ency. Programme - a plan of future procedure. Programme planning i s a process - a continuous process. In developing a c u l t u r a l arts programme there are three elements involved: the members, the s o c i a l group worker ( a r t i s t , leader, or s p e c i a l i s t ) and the programme content. Programme planning i s both s p e c i f i c and general. The s p e c i f i c plan& are those made by members of groups to be c a r r i e d out within those groups; the general plans are those which are re l a t e d to the agency as a whole. ^6) S p e c i f i c Programme - members. • A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s determined by the needs of the members and i t must be an expression of t h e i r genuine i n t e r e s t . Programme must be f l e x i b l e to meet these changing needs. A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s a t o o l which provides f o r the ph y s i c a l , i n t e l l e c t u a l and emotional development of the i n d i v i d u a l . Through the a c t i v i t y the members reveal t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y patterns; they express f r i e n d l i n e s s and anger; they learn to make decisions, accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and they f e e l free to express themselves. Members should be i n t e r e s t e d i n a c u l t u r a l programme and f i n d that i t s a t i s f i e s them - otherwise they w i l l not continue to come. The member of an interest' or s p e c i a l a c t i v i t y group i s commonly transient - h i s attendance i s voluntary and h i s i n t e r e s t i s often sporadic. He u s u a l l y has no obvious incentives, such as parental influence, school c r e d i t s or marks, to make him work. In most cases, the a r t fee i n a group work agency i s low enough so that a member has no compunction about withdrawing because of expense. The member of a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme w i l l continue to come only i f he i s genuinely in t e r e s t e d . \ (26) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 194-9. - 65 -The same approach i s used i n s o c i a l group work i n developing any programme; there are the same purposes and the same democratic procedures. An a r t s k i l l i s one of the t o o l s used to develop the i n d i v i d u a l . A b i l i t y to do something w e l l , such as p a i n t or play an instrument, means a great deal to a person; t h i s s k i l l can be a step which helps develop the member, so.that he can achieve something and a t t a i n s a t i s f a c t i o n . Developing a s k i l l to extremes, because a member's interpersonal r e l a t i o n s h i p s are poor, i s not . the aim of s o c i a l group work. I f too high standards a r e stressed the beginner's e f f o r t s are not recognized. The means - what happens to a person i n the creation of an object - are compatible with the production of a r t . Sensational s t o r i e s are t o l d of the deprived l i v e s which so many a r t i s t s .have l i v e d . Helping masses of people to l i v e a f u l l e r , happier, more worth-while l i f e w i l l not s t i f l e genius but i t w i l l r a i s e standards; more people w i l l be capable of appreciating masterpieces and perhaps more people w i l l f i n d an expression f o r t h e i r genius by becoming aware of these media of creativeness. The members of the Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s recognize that a r t i s t s must be a part of the world i n which they l i v e . A r t i s t i c t a l e n t ocannot t h r i v e i n i s o l a t i o n ; i t must be nourished and enriched by many people and various experiences. "The Federation's c o n s i i t n t i o n recognizes that a r t i s t s , no matter how varied t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s may be, can n e i t h e r develop nor e x i s t e f f e c t i v e l y i n i s o l a t i o n . They are a part of a l a r g e r society, and they are a f u l l y v i t a l and productive part only when they and the other elements of that society are able to achieve a s p i r i t u a l communication, and i n t e g r a t i o n and a mutual responsiveness that, up to the present, have been p a i n f u l l y l a c k i n g . "With the i n t e n t i o n of remedying these d d f i c i e n c i e s , the Federation recognizes on equal terms, and encourages, four categories of membership: ( l ) p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s and art c r i t i c s , ( 2 ) amateur a r t i s t s , (3) laymen or associates, and ( 4 ) students. By bringing together i n i t s own membership these elements that too often work i n i s o l a t i o n , i t attempts to create an amalgam that w i l l have the p r a c t i c a l directness of the p r o f e s s i o n a l craftsman-a r t i s t and the imaginative v i s i o n of a r i c h e r and more s a t i s f y i n g existence that i s described - though i n d i f f e r e n t tongues - by a l l creative a r t i s t s and - 66 -by a l l laymen who are. responsive to a r t i s t i c and c u l t u r a l values." ^7) The u n i v e r s a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a r t Jas a meeting ground f o r a l l people are becoming more evident. The s o c i a l group worker as a c u l t u r a l a r t leader. The s o c i a l group worker-art s p e c i a l i s t helps the members plan programme. The group member's a b i l i t y i n t h i s respect w i l l depend on age range, previous experience i n making decisions, c u l t u r a l and educational background, r e l i g i o n , l i v i n g and working conditions, and other economic ' d i f f e r e n c e s . The programme planning w i l l be a f f e c t e d by the r e l a t i o n s of the members to one another and to the worker. The worker acts as a resource person, an adviser, i n helping the group develop programmes which w i l l arouse i n t e r e s t , meet needs, and broaden outlook. The c u l t u r a l a r t s leader or s o c i a l group worker, i n order to help the group evolve programme, must have an intimate knowledge of i n d i v i d u a l members. The worker must also be capable of recognizing the needs of the members - an achievement and r e s u l t of t r a i n i n g . I f the a r t leader or s o c i a l group worker i s imposing a programme on the membership, he must make an estimate as to the needs and i n t e r e s t of the p o t e n t i a l members. These needs may be revealed by a questionnaire, which w i l l be more successful i f the person i s asked to write down i n the spaces the a c t i v i t i e s i n which he i s i n t e r e s t e d . Check l i s t s are leading devices which often put ideas i n t o people's minds, so that on a suggestion of an a c t i v i t y they think they are in t e r e s t e d . This supposed enthusiasm too often wanes. Limitations of these methods^, such as that of the members wishing the a c t i v i t i e s which t h e i r leader desires, must be kept constantly i n mind. When a person i s imposing a programme, he i s wise to. s t a r t with a c t i v i t i e s which have been successful (27) Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s To: The Royal Commission on National Development In the Arts, L e t t e r s and Sciences, Ottawa, J u l y 1949, - 6 7 -i n the community and which are u n i v e r s a l l y successful. Regardless of whether a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s being developed on a r e l a t i v e l y l i m i t e d basis • or whether i t i s being developed i n an intensive way - the process must be dynamic. The specialist'who leads a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme helps to arouse i n t e r e s t , i f the way i n which he presents the a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g and challenging: t h i s i s one way of r e t a i n i n g the group's attention. The a c t i v i t y must be of such a c a l i b r e that i t can s u c c e s s f u l l y compete with commercial entertainment. The c u l t u r a l a r t s s p e c i a l i s t may f u r t h e r increase the value of the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme by r e l a t i n g the a c t i v i t y to everyday l i f e , so that members can put what they l e a r n i n t o p r a c t i c e . Above a l l , the approach to a c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i s s o c i a l - i t i s i n terms, of the members. Because attendance i s l i k e l y to be i r r e g u l a r , frequent r e p e t i t i o n i s necessary and progress i s retarded. The c u l t u r a l arts leader r e a l i z e s that many members come to benefit s o c i a l l y , rather than to gain great p r o f i c i e n c y i n the a c t i v i t y ; f o r t h i s reason, he t r i e s to e s t a b l i s h an atmosphere conducive to these aims. Because of h i s s p e c i a l s k i l l s , the c u l t u r a l a r t s leader can contribute considerably to programme planning. His background or technical knowledge provides him with valuable ideas and he.is aware of p r a c t i c a l considerations of time; leadership, equipment. By experience, the s p e c i a l i s t w i l l be able to judge whether an a c t i v i t y i s best suited to i n d i v i d u a l or group endeavor; he w i l l t r y to include both. He w i l l help the nrombers include proj ects which stimulate the imagination and allow f o r development of new i n t e r e s t s . He w i l l encourage creativeness. Stressing the s o c i a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a c u l t u r a l a r t does not c u r t a i l the a r t i s t i c values. The following i s an extract from a b r i e f from the Canadian - 68 -Arts Council published a few years ago. This i s a point .of view that recreation leaders need to take into account: "The theatre i n Canada has suffered from the rmi-splaced enthusiasm of amateurs who have used i t purely f o r i t s r e c r e a t i o n a l values. This i s undoubtedly one of the main reasons f o r the decline i n the number of play-goers i n Canada. Thousands have seen naive' productions and have turned t h e i r backs on the l i v i n g theatre... The Canadian Arts Council d i s t r u s t s the short term community and volunteer courses being o f f e r e d by recreation a u t h o r i t i e s aimed at giving a smattering of technique i n various f i e l d s plus a knowledge of group work... There i s a tendency on the part of recreation leaders to believe that t r a i n i n g i n group i s the important consideration and. with t h i s basic technique plus a s u p e r f i c i a l knowledge-of t h e a r t s , proper leadership i n the a r t s i s secured. This a dangerous philosophy. A leader i n the a r t s must be thoroughly steeped i n t h i s f i e l d . . . " (28) C u l t u r a l a r t s s p e c i a l i s t s should be p r o f i c i e n t i n the a r t s and they should have group work t r a i n i n g . Only with a combination of these two s k i l l s i s i t possible to look forward to b u i l d i n g both the a r t i s t and the a r t ; the degree of emphasis may be determined by the s p e c i a l i s t and the group to s u i t each p a r t i c u l a r i n d i v i d u a l or s i t u a t i o n . The Programme. The worker'helps the members plan the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme by l i s t e n i n g and observing; h i s actions are influenced'by what he learns about the group. The worker must be aware of what the group wants and needs, he must help the group to be aware of i t s needs, and then he must help the group p a r t i c i p a t e i n a c t i v i t y which w i l l help s a t i s f y these needs. The s p e c i a l i s t working i n a c u l t u r a l a r t s a c t i v i t y must be aware of ways of discovering and arousing i n t e r e s t . I t has been proven that c e r t a i n kinds of programmes s a t i s f y c e r t a i n types of groups. These "assumed" i n t e r e s t s must be adapted to the p a r t i c u l a r needs of the group and must not i n t e r f e r e with the decision-making process within the group. The "expressed" i n t e r e s t s are found through check l i s t s and questionnaires. I t i s the (.28) "Letter from McEwan, E.R., Secretary, Recreation D i v i s i o n , Canadian Welfare Council, Ottawa, January 3, 1951. - 69 -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the g roup leader to recognize the needs that l i e beyond the expressed i n t e r e s t s , and to help the members f i n d s o c i a l l y acceptable ways of expressing t h e i r needs - i n a c t i v i t y . "Implied" i n t e r e s t s are determined by the members' voice i n f l e c t i o n s , a t t i t u d e s , actions, and they give the worker knowledge i n the l i g h t of ever-changing human behavior.'(29) In order that the c u l t u r a l a r t s p e c i a l i s t be equipped to help the group membersfeshion a programme which answers t h e i r deep desires, he must be traine d f o r awareness of these aspects i n a r t groups. The c u l t u r a l a r t s worker w i l l c u l t i v a t e discussions i n h i s group and encourage p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decisions on planning and carrying out a c t i v i t y . In a ceramics group, the i n d i v i d u a l members should be encouraged to make t h e i r own decisions f o r t h e i r a r t i c l e i n regard to shape, colour, glaze;, the dramatics group may i t s e l f make the f i n a l choice of a play, j u s t as the music member suggests which composition he would l i k e to le a r n ; dancers have worked out effective.lrhythms by themselves. This i s the democratic approach - and ;one that has proven i t s e l f worthwhile. Williamson suggests' three.types of programme b u i l d i n g . The pre-arranged programme i s formulated a t n a t i o n a l , state, or l o c a l headquarters, with some pr o v i s i o n f o r adaptation to the group - f o r example, the f o u r - f o l d type of programme: s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , mental, s p i r i t u a l . Another kind of programme i s that which i s evolved j o i n t l y by the leader and the group. The t h i r d type of programme, the pro j e c t approach, i s one i n which the leader guides the group from some immediate preoccupation to wider channels of i n t e r e s t - i n t e r e s t i n marionettes may encourage woodcarving, l i b r a r y research, dramatics, stage c r a f t and business management. (30) (29) Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., S o c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e . Massachusetts, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. (30) Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1929. L i m i t a t i o n s - i n materials and resources, finances, time, services - and philosophy of the agency, and s i t u a t i o n s , influence the development of the c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i n a group work agency. S e l f -conrtrol*and resourcefulness can be developed i n overcoming these l i m i t a t i o n s . There are l i m i t a t i o n s within the i n d i v i d u a l members. The a r t leader should keep these things i n mind and make sure that the a r t a c t i v i t y i s s p e c i f i c and known to be within the capacity of the i n d i v i d u a l or group. This i s one way'of giving s a t i s f a c t i o n and a sense of accomplishment to the members. The c u l t u r a l a r t s worker w i l l develop opportunities f o r u t i l i z i n g r e s i d u a l materials and ideas. The resources a s well as the needs are i n t e g r a l considerations of programme planning. Only with a knowledge of both these areas i s i t p o s s i b l e to enforce recommendations and improvements which w i l l eliminate programme gaps. The f a c i l i t i e s end events of the agency and the community, influence a c u l t u r a l arts programme. There should be opportunities to observe f i n e work i n a r t that has been developed by outstanding a r t i s t s i n the community and elsewhere. . There may be t r i p s to g a l l e r i e s , e x hibits and museums, d i s t r i b u t i o n of t i c k e t s to theatre productions, music r e c i t a l s , and dance and b a l l e t performances. C u l t u r a l a r t s groups w i l l be aff e c t e d i f they choose to contribute a concert, an operetta, a play, or an e x h i b i t to a major production of the agency or the community. J o i n t projects of t h i s type serve to increase awareness of the a r t s i n the community. General Programme. General programme plans r e l a t e to the agency as a whole - i t i s impossible to i s o l a t e any programme whatsoever. The agency-wide programme committee should be composed of representatives of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the - 71 -programme - a l l membership groups, interclub councils, special committees, continuing committees on boards, and community consultants on special areas. A cultural arts programme must be related to.the total programme of the agency. The executive director. The executive director also has responsibility in connection with the cultural arts programme. I t i s the duty of the executive director to see that the art programme i s integrated, that i t i s satisfactorily administered, and 'that i t evolves from personal to social or community concern i n scope. The executive director must know about the total programme -i t s intent, values, direction and the place of each programme In the whole agency programme. He must see that the cultural programmes are also determined with the community and agency objectives i n mind. He brings programme together in written form - a method of keeping informed. He must see that social analyses such as research,' facts, trends, are used i n programme building. The executive director i s the mediating function between parts of programme. He must give programme a central place in administration, by knowing what goes on and seeing that f l e x i b i l i t y permits change i f i t i s needed, and also by assigning programme responsibility. The programme should be constantly evaluated. ^31) The director or department head. The basic principles of programme planning similarly apply with regard to the director or department head and his place i n developing a cultural arts programme. He confers with the executive director and i s conditioned by equipment, staff, and budget. The art director i s responsible (31) Clark, M.L., and Teall, B., The Executive Director on the Job in a Membership Organization - Y.W.C.A. New York, The Woman's Press, 194-7. f o r carrying out d e t a i l s of p o l i c y agreed upon i n conference with a committee or with the executive. The d i r e c t o r estimates, purchases supplies and equipment, and assigns rooms. ' He i s aided i n s e l e c t i o n of s t a f f by means of interviews, a p p l i c a t i o n blanks, and reference l e t t e r s . In h i r i n g s t a f f , the d i r e c t o r has some supervision by the executive or committees. The d i r e c t o r i s i n charge of the organization of s t a f f , the, analysis of the job and the explanation of d u t i e s . He maintains standards. He i s a resource person f o r suggestions, methods, materials. He supervises s t a f f programme. In order to plan or re-plan a c u l t u r a l arts programme, evaluation i s c o n t i n u a l l y necessary. The I n d u s t r i a l Department of the Young Women's . C h r i s t i a n Association suggests c r i t e r i a f o r judging the educational values of programme. A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme i n a group work agency should meet these requirements. The a r t programme must be based on.actual, f e l t needs and i n t e r e s t s of the whole group. 1 I t should be f l e x i b l e , l ead to an increasing number of a c t i v e i n t e r e s t s , and provide opportunity f o r conscious choices and the consequences of these choices. A c u l t u r a l a r t s programme should provide an opportunity f o r the members to p r a c t i s e democracy by making plans, abiding by group decisions, sharing r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . There should be co-operation with wider s o c i a l groups. Above a l l there must be genuine (32) s a t i s f a c t i o n . J C u l t u r a l arts programmes can meet a l l these requirements. The contributions of c u l t u r a l . a r t s to recreation must be made known. No c u l t u r a l a r t s programme can be d eveloped unless a l l the foregoing i s considered and u t i l i z e d i n t e l l i g e n t l y . This method of development provides a s o l i d base from which to expand and vary a c t i v i t y , so that the agency may be assured that considerable time, e f f o r t , money are being expended (32) Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work. New York, Harper and Brothers, 1929. - 73 -worthwhilely. The value to the group members must be assured, and only by considering a l l the facets of developing a programme - from a l l the levels-of administration - can a c u l t u r a l arts programme be a stable, yet f l e x i b l e , segment of the t o t a l agency programme. Challenge. C u l t u r a l Art programmes are important i n r e c r e a t i o n a l settings. Miss Jean Maxwell of the National Federation of Settlements and Neighbourhood Centers sai d , "Relationships are important but we have neglected other phases of our work. To-day the swing of the pendulum i s back to a c t i v i t i e s i n program... Some of the poorest a r t programs I have seen have been done by group workers...A job d e s c r i p t i o n f o r a s p e c i a l i s t and a s p e c i a l i s t supervisor has r e c e n t l y been included i n the personnel code.of the Federation. We get so i n t e r e s t e d i n jjuman r e l a t i o n s we neglect the a c t i v i t y . We forget the car has to have wheels as well as a d r i v e r ! " *33) Group workers who are leading c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n l e i s u r e -time agencies must aim at and achieve a balance between a r t and group work s k i l l s . There i s no reason why the two cannot be compatible and workable so that the best of both s p e c i a l t i e s can be integrated and offered to people i n group work agencies. "The c u l t i v a t i o n of the arts i s not a luxury but an e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e to the development of a s t a b l e national culture; and f o r t h i s reason j u s t i f i e s the expenditures of very considerable e f f o r t and money. Just as language i s necessary to the development of reason, so i s the more fundamental language of the a r t s e s s e n t i a l to the development of the basic emotional and imaginative nature that underlies reason and dominates act i o n . Without an adequate development of t h i s "submerged seven-eights" of man's nature any society that he creates must lack inner i n t e g r i t y , s e l f - r e l i a n c e , cohesion, and awareness of i t s e l f as an e n t i t y ; . . . "The a r t s must not be dominated, regimented or exploited to serve s p e c i a l or narrow ends. Indeed, they cannot be so treated and s t i l l perform t h e i r n a t u r a l and p o t e n t i a l functions i n society. By d e f i n i t i o n s they are an unfolding and evolving expression of the inner consciousness of the i n d i v i d u a l or society. To i n t e r f e r e with t h i s process by the imposition of external controls w i l l defeat the very ends that t h e i r c u l t i v a t i o n i s intended to achieve. The i n d i v i d u a l , the society, and the governing body which imposes i t s e l f w i l l a l l i n e v i t a b l y be f r u s t r a t e d rather than f u l f i l l e d . The a r t s can (33) Student conference with Miss Jean Maxwell, Second .Annual North-west Settlements and Neighbourhood Centers Conference, Seattle, Washington, March 4 , 1951. be stimulated, encouraged, fostered, assisted, and they may have new horizons opened to them, with nothing but advantage. But i f t h e i r natural development i s i n t e r f e r e d with, no matter what the immediate r e s u l t may be, the f i n a l consequences w i l l be destructive both to the arts and to the power that has undertaken to d i c t a t e to them. For t h i s reason i n f l e x i b l e moulds, ce n t r a l i z e d a uthority and " j u r i s d i c t i o n .from above" are a l l things'to be avoided." This serves to point out the necessity f o r the democratic approach to the a r t s on the n a t i o n a l , community, and group work agency l e v e l . Only when the a r t i s t understands the basic concepts of s o c i a l group work i s he able to help the members of the a r t groups derive the benefits.which c u l t u r a l arts a f f o r d . Such an approach does not imply coddling the a r t a c t i v i t y or i t s creator. When obstacles are removed, the impetus of using one's creative a b i l i t y i s s t i f l e d - the challenge i s removed and hence the i n t e r e s t dwindles. Rich experiences can be gained from the lessons which a r t can teach. C u l t u r a l a r t s are stimulating! Each i n d i v i d u a l i s given an opportunity through c u l t u r a l a r t s to express h i s i n n e r - s e l f - confusion and vagueness w i l l a l i g n themselves with balance as beauty unfolds. Unrealized emotions afe given an opportunity f o r expression, with the r e s u l t that people understand themselves and others more adequately. They face everyday l i v i n g with renewed enthusiasm. Culture has two aspects - "the acquiring of s k i l l s with which to create and the developing of taste with, which to descriminate". 3^5) This i s the development of a r t on the immediate l e v e l . But i f t h i s concept i s c a r r i e d f u r t h e r , i t i s evident that: " . . . a r t i s the manifestation of a l l that great part of our nature that i s , or can be c r e a t i v e and expansive and expressive; and that can regard, judge and d e l i g h t i n things i n themselves; and that i s not preoccupied with the demands of p r a c t i c a l expediency. And c u l t u r a l development, then, consists, f i r s t , i n r e l e a s i n g t h i s great, but often pent-up and ignored, part of our natures so that we are aware of i t and so that i t can become i n f l u e n t i a l and operative i n our l i v e s ; and, second, i n malting i t operative by using i t as a kind of solvent i n which the p r a c t i c a l considerations of p o l i t i c s , economics, (34-) Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s . To: Royal Commission on National Development , i n the A r t s , L e t t e r s and Sciences, Ottawa, J u l y 1949, p 7-8. (35) Leiber, Edna M., Questionnaire'from Community Music School, St. Louis, Missouri, February 1951. - 75 -science and so on, without being l o s t , are presented i n t h e i r true l i g h t and perspective, as things which e x i s t not as separate e n t i t i e s but as parts whose natures are determined by t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s to one another and to the all-important whole.* 3^6) C u l t u r a l a r t s have an invaluable contribution to make to l i f e . ' Group work agencies must be more aware of the values of such a r t a c t i v i t i e s to the members i n the agency, i n t h e i r homes, i n the community and i n the world.' A greater emphasis on c u l t u r a l a r t s programmes i n group work agencies i s imperative! . -(36) Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s To; The Royal Commission on National Development i n the Arts, L e t t e r s and Sciences, Ottawa, J u l y 1949, P 34. Sample, of the L e t t e r . Vancouver, B. C. Dear S i r : I am making a study of the s p e c i a l r o l e s of f i n e a r t s and c u l t u r a l programmes i n community centres and settlement houses f o r my Master's degree i n S o c i a l Work at the School of S o c i a l Work, University of B r i t i s h Columbia. The s p e c i a l purpose of t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s to t r y to determine more .exactly the value of f i n e arts- i n . community centre programmes and also to get information on the pros and cons of organizing such a programme. In order to obtain a comprehensive picture of c u l t u r a l programmes i n community centres, I have given f i n e a r t s , i n t h i s instance, a broad i n t e r p r e t a t i o n — those a r t s i n which the mind and imagination are c h i e f l y concerned, I am hopeful that t h i s study may be of some benefit to agencies planning to estab-l i s h or improve f i n e arts programmes, and i t i s c e r t a i n l y a n t i c i p a t e d that Vancouver agencies w i l l make use of the study. I am anxious to make t h i s study as.comprehensive as possible and therefore seek your co-operation i n answer-i n g the enclosed questions i n order to obtain an understand-i n g of the f i n e a r t s programme i n your agency. Thank you f o r helping me. Yours si n c e r e l y . (Miss) Beverley McCosham .APPENDIX B Sample of the, Questionnaire. FINE ARTS IN THE COMMUNITY CENTRE Name of Agency. • ..Total Agency Membership. A Administration of Fine Arts Programme: 1. 2. 3. U. In what year d i d a f i n e a r t s programme begin i n the agency? Who i n i t i a t e d the f i n e arts' program^? In d i v i d u a l Agency community service club u n i v e r s i t y . . . . .fine a r t s organization govern-ment other (please give d e t a i l s ) How i s the member's i n t e r e s t i n the f i n e a r t s programme determined? r e g i s t r a t i o n i n -formation requests by i n d i v i d u a l s requests from outside the agency (other agencies, service clubs) Others •. Who finances the f i n e a r t s programme? i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a n t s agency..... service club community extension programme of a u n i v e r s i t y f i n e arts organiza-t i o n government project others B Content of Fine Arts Programme: Check programmes given i n the l a s t three years. I f the programme has been discontinued, please c i r c l e the check and give reasons on back. MUSIC,: lessons. .. . i n d i v i d u a l p r a c t i c i n g . . ... .ensemble. . . .orchestra... .bands concerts by membership.... concerts by visi t o r s . . . . m u s i c appreciation. others number of leaders per group age range of p a r t i c i p a n t s to, average group attendance M F., i d e a l group membership 2. DANCING: b a l l e t . . . . i n t e r p r e t a t i v e . . ,acrobatic.... square.... f o l k . tap. n a t i o n a l other s. number of leaders per group... age range of p a r t i c i p a n t s to. average group attendance. .. ,M F. i d e a l group membership 3. PAINTING: o i l s water colours. f i n g e r painting art e x h i b i t s . . others number of leaders per group...; age range*, of p a r t i c i p a n t s to, average group attendance M F. . i d e a l group membership ...... 7# DRAMA AND THEATRE: a c t i n g play-w r i t i n g . ....play reading d i r e c t i n g or producing l i g h t i n g scenery.. costume and makeup others 5. DRAWING AND DESIGN: (d e s c r i p t i o n of ac-t i v i t i e s ) number of leaders per group age range of p a r t i c i p a n t s to. average group attendance M. F. i d e a l group membership number of leaders per group age range of p a r t i c i p a n t s -.to, average group attendance M F. . i d e a l group membership number of leaders per group age range of pa r t i c i p a n t s to, average group attendance M. ......F. . i d e a l group membership number of leaders per group... age range of p a r t i c i p a n t s . . . . . . . t o . average group attendance M F.. i d e a l group membership # .Please enter separately other f i n e o pi-o^ammes that apply to your agency, I.e. engraving, avob.itecfcuvt?, se>v"l.p'fcnving and modelling, decoration and ornament. 1' -2~ C P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Fine Arts Programmes: 1 How frequently should a fin e arts group meet? What i s the most desirable length f o r a session? 2. What f a c i l i t i e s (Room, Equipment, Supplies) does your agency provide f o r p a r t i c i p a n t s of a f i n e arts programme? . .... 3. What t r a i n i n g has the leader of the f i n e a r t s programme? .•••• 4. What t r a i n i n g i s necessary for a leader of a f i n e arts programme i n order to produce a good exposure or appreciation programme? In order to r a i s e the standard of perfor-mance or shorten the p a r t i c i p a n t ' s c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l ? . . . . . . . . . . . ." 5. What q u a l i f i c a t i o n s other than t r a i n i n g are d e s i r a b l e f o r a f i n e a r t s leader?.....'... 6. How much emphasis i s on developing s k i l l and how much emphasis i s on developing the personality of the p a r t i c i p a n t ? To what extent are these two aims compatible? 7. What kind of people come to the f i n e a r t s programme? ( i . e . , are they d i f f e r e n t from those who come to other programmes?) 8. For what reasons do people come to the f i n e a r t s programme 9. Did i n t e r e s t i n a f i n e a r t s programme change during the year? During the l a s t 10 years? I f so, i n which programmes and i n what way?.... 10. What do you consider as the aims of a f i n e arts programme i n a community centre -(neighbourhood house, settlement house)?.....,.... • -REMARKS: (please continue on back of page i f necessary.) Answered by: s p e c i a l i s t .... Executive d i r e c t o r volunteer s p e c i a l i s t fine arts APPENDIX C Organizations represented i n r e p l i e s to questionnaires. Canada. Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, Edmonton, Alberta. Central Young Men's C h r i s t i a n Association, Toronto, Ontario. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Winnipeg, Manitoba. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Kitchener, Ontario. Recreation Commission, Edmonton, Alberta. Vancouver Art School, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Di r e c t o r of Recreation, Brantford, Ontario. U n i v e r s i t y Settlement, Toronto, Ontario. Woodgreen Community Centre, Toronto, Ontario. Recreation Director, Aluminum Company of Canada, Arvida, Quebec. Recreation Director, Regina, Saskatchewan. The United States. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a . Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Atlanta, Georgia. Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Rochester, New York. Young'Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Syracuse, New York. • Young Women's C h r i s t i a n Association, Houston, Texas. Community Music School, San Francisco, C a l i f o r n i a . Abraham L i n c o l n Center, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . H u l l House, Chicago, I l l i n o i s . Community Music School, St. Louis, Missouri. Educational A l l i a n c e , New York, New York. Henry Street Settlement, New York 2 , New York. Hudson Guild Neighborhood House, New York, New York. Cleveland Music School Settlement -, Cleveland 6 , Ohio. Karamu House, Cleveland 6 , Ohio. Friends Neighborhood- Guild, Philadephia 2 3 , Pennsylvania. $0 APPENDIX D. Bibliography. General References; Clark, M.L., and T e a l l , B., The Executive Director on the Job i n a Membership Organization - the Y.W.C.A., New York, The Woman's Press, 194-7. Jacks, L.P., Education Through Recreation, London, University of London Press, Limited, 1935. Williamson, Margaretta, The S o c i a l Worker i n Group Work, New York, Harper and Brothers, 1929. Wilson, G., and Ryland, G., So c i a l Group Work P r a c t i c e , Cambridge, Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1949. S p e c i f i c References: Canada, Parliament House of Commons, Special Committee on  Reconstruction and Re-establlshment, Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence No.- 10, 1944-Federation of Canadian A r t i s t s To: The Royal Commission National Development'in the Arts, L e t t e r s and Sciences, Ottawa, Laurentian Building, 1949. National Federation of Settlements, Incorporated, Settlements  60th Anniversary,' New York, 194°. National Jewish Welfare Board, Jewish Center Program Aids "The Dance - Creative and Recreative", New York 1949. "Feature the A r t i s t " , New York, 1947. Other information was received from correspondence. 

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