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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Federal-provincials relations within the Liberal Party of British Columbia Ward, Judith Barbara 1966

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•si-FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL RELATIONS WITHIN THE LIBERAL PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA "by JUDITH BARBARA WARD B.S., U n i v e r s i t y of W i s c o n s i n , 1964-A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OP ARTS i n the Department of P o l i t i c a l S cience We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n Department o f P o l i t i c a l Science The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30, 1966 ABSTRACT This t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the e f f e c t s of the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l system upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia by means of an examination of those m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of d i s u n i t y and c o n f l i c t which can be r e l a t e d to. the changing balance of power between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l segments of the p a r t y . A l t h o u g h both p a r t s of a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e the v a l u e of a u n i f i e d and c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r separate i n t e r e s t s and requirements f r e q u e n t l y c r e a t e i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t s . These sources of s t r a i n between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may w e l l r e v e a l those d i s -t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of Canadian p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n which are d e r i v e d from p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a f e d e r a l system. W i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia the changing p a t t e r n of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s have been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e l a t i v e e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h of the two wings of the p a r t y . Challenges to the l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n h a v e - g e n e r a l l y o c c u r r e d when, the balance of p o l i t i c a l power was not adequately r e p r e s e n t e d i n the l e a d e r s h i p of the A s s o c i a t i o n . Since a combination of a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups i i p r o v i d e d the main sources of f r i c t i o n , the changing e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s of the two wings a l s o a f f e c t e d the emergence and i n t e n s i t y of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s . With the e x c e p t i o n of a f i v e year p e r i o d between 1928 and 1933, the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y h e l d power In V i c t o r i a from 1916 to 1952 and the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r m a i n t a i n e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Although the f e d e r a l p a r t y a l s o h e l d power throughout most of t h i s p e r i o d , the f e d e r a l wing never demanded c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . C o n f r o n t a t i o n s between s t r o n g L i b e r a l premiers and a L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r were f r e q u e n t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n a l p a r t y f r i c t i o n s i n c e the s e c -t i o n a l p o l i c i e s pursued by L i b e r a l premiers of B r i t i s h Columbia o f t e n i n v o l v e d c h a l l e n g e s to f e d e r a l government p o l i c y . A l t h ough the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n w i t h the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , between 19^1 and 1952, e v e n t u a l l y I n i t i a t e d severe f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s , the campaign by f e d e r a l l e a d e r s to d i s c r e d i t the c o a l i -t i o n L i b e r a l s was a l s o d i r e c t e d a t a s p e c i f i c p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r r a t h e r than a t the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . The e l e c t o r a l e c l i p s e of the p a r t y ' s p r o v i n c i a l wing a f t e r 1952 f o r the f i r s t time p l a c e d the f e d e r a l wing i n a dominant p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l party. Although the f e d e r a l leaders i n the province sought no o f f i c i a l change In the party's o r g a n i z a t i o n , they attemp-ted to extend t h e i r Influence w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . The realignment of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of the party i n turn a f f e c t e d the sources and expression of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s . Although e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n has s h i f t e d from the p r o v i n c i a l to the f e d e r a l leaderships over the past decade, the L i b e r a l s In B r i t i s h Columbia have maintained a u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l organization. But while the party has always recogni-zed the advantages of a u n i f i e d organization which serves the needs of both wings of the party, the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l system has, nevertheless, profoundly influenced the organization and fortunes of the party. The c o n f l i c t i n g Interests created by the f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n of power not only a f f e c t the formal organization of the p o l i t i c a l party but also determine the pattern of i n t r a -party r e l a t i o n s . i v ti-TABLE OE CONTENTS CHAPTER ONE Introduction CHAPTER TWO The Emergence of the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia 1896 - 1916 CHAPTER THREE CHAPTER POUR CHAPTER FIVE PAGE The Dominance of the P r o v i n c i a l Leader 1916 - 19^1 25 The Repercussions of P r o v i n c i a l C o a l i t i o n 19^1 - 1952 6 l The E c l i p s e of the P r o v i n c i a l Wing 85 1952 - 1965 CHAPTER SIX Conclusion 13/! SOURCES 'CONSULTED . 224 v CHAPTEH ONE INTRODUCTION The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y and i t s e nvironment i s o f t e n e l u s i v e , i f n o t c i r c u l a r . 1 W i t h i n f e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s p a r t i c u l a r l y complex s i n c e t h e c l e a v a g e s w h i c h prompted t h e o r i g i n a l a d o p t i o n o f f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a f f e c t t h e s t r u c t u r e and o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s , w h i l e th e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s by t h e i r m a n i p u l a t i o n o f t h e d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y a r e a b l e t o a f f e c t t h e o p e r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l i n s t i -t u t i o n s . The a c t u a l a s d i s t i n c t from t h e f o r m a l d e g r e e o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n a f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l system may w e l l , t h e r e f o r e , be most c l e a r l y e x h i b i t e d i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t s o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n 2 o f power and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . W h i l e t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s p r o v i d e s some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e degree o f p a r t y d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , a d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l p a r t i e s may p r o v i d e a more r e a l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e b a l a n c e o f power between c e n t r a l and l o c a l g roups and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , o f t h e impact o f t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power upon t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . E x a m i n a t i o n s o f t h e f r e q u e n c y , s o u r c e and i n t e n s i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l p o l i t i -c a l p a r t i e s may h e l p t o e l u c i d a t e the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t •A 2 of the federal d i v i s i o n of power upon the p o l i t i c a l party-organizations. The effects of the d i s t i n c t i v e attributes of the Canadian federal system upon the structure and operation of Canadian p o l i t i c a l parties have received only limited attention. Although students of Canadian p o l i t i c s have described the formal decentralization of party organization on the provincial l e v e l , the necessary emphasis upon the parliamentary system and the practice of party d i s c i p l i n e on both provincial and federal levels of government has often diverted attention from the decentralizing effects of the federal division of power upon the major Canadian parties. The occasional but recurrent leadership quarrels between a provincial premier and a federal prime minister of the same party have been i d e n t i f i e d as manifestations of intra-party strains within the federal party organization. Even these examples of party disunity, however, have often been interpreted as either personality clashes of quarrels which were as much the result of "peculiar circumstances" as of any generic attribute of federal p o l i t i c s . ^ Detailed information on intra-party relations at the l o c a l levels of party organization has been scarce and, consequently, the role of federal and provincial groups within the pro-v i n c i a l party organizations and the significance of strains 3 b e t w e e n t h e two g r o u p s i s s t i l l d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s . I n d e e d , E . H . B l a c k ' s s t u d y o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ^ a n d S.P. R e g e n s t r i e f ' s b r i e f r e v i e w o f p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e b e e n t h e o n l y e x a m i n a t i o n s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e i m p a c t o f t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power.-5 T h e s e e x a m i n a t i o n s o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s h a v e i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s i s w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y h a v e o f t e n r e s u l t e d i n i n f o r m a l c h a l l e n g e s t o p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l a n d e v e n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f a s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n d e e d , i t h a s b e e n shown t h a t t h e f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s h a v e n o t a l w a y s r e f l e c t e d t h e a c t u a l f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d h a v e r a r e l y d e t e r m i n e d t h e way i n w h i c h f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e was c o n d u c t e d . A l t h o u g h b o t h w i n g s o f t h e m a j o r C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h e v a l u e o f a u n i f i e d a n d c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e s e p a r a t e i n t e r e s t s a n d r e q u i r e -m e n t s o f t b e two g r o u p s f r e q u e n t l y - c r e a t e s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may w e l l r e v e a l t h o s e d i s t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f C a n a d i a n p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h a r e d e r i v e d f r o m p a r t i c i -p a t i o n w i t h i n a f e d e r a l s y s t e m . T h i s t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m u p o n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a b y means o f a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h o s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f d i s -u n i t y a n d c o n f l i c t w h i c h c a n b e r e l a t e d t o t h e c h a n g i n g b a l a n c e o f p o w e r b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l s e g m e n t s o f t h e p a r t y . A l t h o u g h t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s managed t o m a i n t a i n i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l u n i t y , t h e d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a c c o m m o d a t i n g two l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y a n d i n t e r e s t w i t h i n a s i n g l e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a v e l e d t o p e r i o d i c c l a s h e s a n d r e a d j u s t m e n t s b e t w e e n t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y . Many o f t h e s e s t r a i n s amount t o more t h a n t h e p e r s o n a l i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l a n d f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p a n d o f t e n emerge f r o m f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d i s s u e s . I n d e e d , m o s t c o n f l i c t s o v e r t h e l e a d e r s h i p aad c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n a r e g e n e r a l l y r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y c o n c e r n i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p a r t y b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o r t o d i f f e r e n c e s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c p o l i c i e s o f e i t h e r t h e f e d e r a l o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s . T h i s t h e s i s p r o p o s e s t o e x p l o r e t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e c h a n g i n g e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y 5 u p o n b o t h t h e f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a n d a l s o t h e s o u r c e a n d t h e i n t e n s i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s . I n o r d e r t o d o c u m e n t t h e c h a n g i n g f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i t h a s b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a n d e x a m i n e t h e p e r i o d s o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y p o w e r a n d o f o p p o s i t i o n . T h i s p r o c e d u r e h a s a l s o f a c i l i t a t e d a n a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r i n r e l a t i o n t o b o t h t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r a n d t o t h e f e d e r a l w i n g w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e d u r i n g v a r i o u s e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e t h e s i s i s , t h e r e f o r e , d e s i g n e d t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f c h a n g e s i n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n s u p o n t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d u p o n t h e s o u r c e a n d i n t e n s i t y o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s t r a i n s . To e l u c i d a t e t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d -i n g s o f t h i s c a s e - s t u d y w i l l b e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e c o n l u d i n g c h a p t e r u n d e r f o u r p o s s i b l e e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s : C o n -c u r r e n t F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l P o w e r ; C o n c u r r e n t F e d e r a l a n d P r o v i n c i a l O p p o s i t i o n ; P r o v i n c i a l P o w e r - F e d e r a l O p p o -s i t i o n ; a n d F e d e r a l P o w e r - p r o v i n c i a l O p p o s i t i o n . The r e l e -v a n c e o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s a n d o t h e r f e d e r a l s y s t e m s w i l l a l s o be e x p l o r e d i n r e l a t i o n t o w h a t is known about the general organization and operation 6 impact of federalism upon the of political parties. FOOTNOTES 1 D a v i d B . T r u m a n , " F e d e r a l i s m a n d t h e P a r t y S y s t e m , " i n A r t h u r R . M a c M a h o n , e d . , F e d e r a l i s m ; M a t u r e a n d E m e r -g e n t , D o u b l e d a y a n d Company, I n c . , G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k , 1955. 2 W i l l i a m H . H i k e r , F e d e r a l i s m ; O r i g i n , O p e r a t i o n , S i g n i f i c a n c e , L i t t l e , B r o w n a n d Company, B o s t o n , 1964-, p p . 125-136. 3 R . M a c G r e g o r D a w s o n , The G o v e r n m e n t o f C a n a d a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1957» P . 4-89. 4 E . R . B l a c k , T h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; "Some A s p e c t s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n . M . A . T h e s i s , T? he U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i960 a n d E . R . B l a c k , " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s W i t h i n a C a n a d i a n P a r t y , " D a l h o u s i e R e v i e w , -+5. n o . 3, P P . 307-323. 5 S a m u e l P e t e r R e g e n s t r e i f , The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f C a n a d a ; A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , P h . D . D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1963. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , A n n A r b o r , M i c h . 7 CHAPTER TWO THE EMERGENCE OF THE LIBERAL PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1 8 9 6 - 1 9 1 6 The f i r s t l o c a l Liberal organizations were formed in the eighties and a united provincial Association was created by the f i r s t Provincial Convention held i n 1 8 9 7 . This early Liberal Association owed i t s creation and i t s early survival to the federal representatives elected from the province, who desired to consolidate their own organizations and to encourage provincial Liberal se n t i -ment. Although several members of the provincial legislature belonged to this early Association, the a n t i -pathy towards l o c a l party lines was strong among many B r i t i s h Columbia Liberals. The early Association, primarily served to unite liberally-minded B r i t i s h Colum-bians for the purposes of supporting and understanding the 1 policies of the Liberal government in Ottawa. With the introduction of provincial party lines and the election of the f i r s t partisan Conservative provincial government In 1 9 0 3 the provincial Liberal Association became active in provincial p o l i t i c s and henceforth served both federal 8 9 a n d p r o v i n c i a l n e e d s . The o r g a n i z a t i o n was c l e a r l y b a s e d u p o n t h e c o n c u r r e n t m e m b e r s h i p o f l o c a l s i n b o t h f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g s a n d j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f b o t h r i d i n g l e a d e r s h i p s i n t h e p o l i c y - m a k i n g c o m m i t t e e s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . F r o m i t s v e r y i n c e p t i o n , h o w e v e r , t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a s e x p e r i e n c e d f e d e r a l l y -d e r i v e d s t r a i n s . T h e s e s t r a i n s h a v e r e f l e c t e d b o t h t h e s e c t i o n a l p o l i t i c s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n s e r v i n g a n d c o o r d i n a t i n g two d i s t i n c t a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t . B e f o r e W o r l d War I m o s t p a r t y c o n f l i c t s r e p r e s e n t e d g r o w i n g p a i n s b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , some o f t h e r e c u r r i n g s o u r c e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n c a n be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d . B e t w e e n I 8 9 6 a n d 1908 t h e f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y d o m i n a t e d f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e a n d l i k e w i s e e x e r t e d a g r e a t d e a l o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , I n 1 8 9 6 , o f t h e s i x s e a t s i n t h e House o f Commons f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o u r w e r e h e l d b y L i b e r a l s a n d , i n 1904, t h e p a r t y h e l d a l l s e v e n s e a t s . The p r e s t i g e o f t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s f r o m B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was g r e a t l y e n h a n c e d when p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n was g r a n t e d i n 1902. S e n a t o r W i l l i a m Tempieman was a p p o i n t e d a m i n i s t e r w i t h o u t p o r t f o l i o a n d i n 1906 u p o n h i s e l e c t i o n t o t h e House o f 10 Commons became M i n i s t e r o f I n l a n d R e v e n u e a n d l a t e r M i n i s t e r o f M i n e s . D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d t h e p r o v i n c e was a l s o w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d b y two L i b e r a l S e n a t o r s . B e c a u s e o f t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n O t t a w a , t h e f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l P a r t y e x e r c i s e d a d o m i n a n t r o l e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y w h i c h e n d u r e d l o n g a f t e r 1 9 0 3 , when a n o f f i c i a l p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r a n d a s u b s t a n t i a l n u m b e r o f L i b e r a l members o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y . Templeman was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c a l l i n g t h e L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n o f 1 8 9 ? a n d f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s t h e r e a f t e r a 3 f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e h e l d t h e A s s o c i a t i o n p r e s i d e n c y . The f e d e r a l w i n g h o p e d t o b u i l d a n a u t o n o m o u s p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y w h i c h w o u l d a l s o a i d t h e c a u s e o f t h e e n t i r e L i b e r a l P a r t y . M o s t f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r S i r W i l f r i e d L a u r i e r , b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e f u t u r e s u c c e s s o f t h e L i b e r a l c a u s e w i t h -i n t h e p r o v i n c e was d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t r o n g l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a n a c t i v e p a r t i s a n p r o v i n -c i a l p a r t y , c a p a b l e o f p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y . T e m p l e m a n , who h a d b e e n e l e c t e d " f e d e r a l l e a d e r " o f t h e p r o v i n c e b y t h e L i b e r a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t w h i l e s t i l l a S e n a t o r , p r o v i d e d t h e m a i n c h a n n e l o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e t w e e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d O t t a w a a n d t h e r e b y e n c o u r a g e d 11 p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t o r e s p e c t p a r t y u n i t y . A s a c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r he i n f o r m e d L a u r i e r o f p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p -m e n t s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r was a b l e t o a v o i d a n y a p p a r e n t i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e i n t e r n a l d i s p u t e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . A f t e r 1911 t h e t e r m " f e d e r a l l e a d e r " was a b a n d o n e d b u t , w h e n -e v e r t h e L i b e r a l s h e l d p o w e r i n O t t a w a , t h e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e c o n t i n u e d t o s e r v e i n t h i s c a p a c i t y . The e a r l y c o n s t i t u t i o n s a n d p l a t f o r m s o f t h e L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n r e f l e c t e d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f a u n i t e d b u t p r o v i n c i a l l y m a n a g e d p a r t y . I n d e e d , t h e f i r s t d e t a i l e d p a r t y c o n s t i t u t i o n p r o v i d e d f o r u n i t e d d i s t r i c t a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d a n E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e , w h i c h c o n t a i n e d k p a r t y members a c t i v e i n b o t h s p h e r e s o f p a r t y a c t i v i t y . A l t h o u g h t h e E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e was c h a r g e d w i t h t h e management o f b o t h f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l c a m p a i g n s , t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n was so weak t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c a n d i d a t e s o f t e n t o o k t h e m a j o r b u r d e n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l , i f n o t f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r e l e c t i o n s . P o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y a l s o h a m p e r e d t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e j o i n t o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n d e e d , some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s r e f u s e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s , w h i l e o t h e r s o p e n l y e x p r e s s e d t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n t o s e g m e n t s o f L a u r i e r ' s p r o g r a m . 1 2 Throughout t h i s p e r i o d i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o f e d e r a l powers o r p o l i c i e s d ominated the p a r t y ' s c o n v e n t i o n s . Even a f t e r 1 9 0 7 when the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had assumed a dominant r o l e i n the d i r e c t i o n o f A s s o c i a t i o n a f f a i r s , f e d e r a l government p o l i c y was the most consuming p o l i t i c a l i s s u e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The r e s o l u t i o n s p a s s e d by the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n were u s u a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h m a t t e r s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l s p h e r e o f i n t e r e s t . Many r e s o l u t i o n s were e i t h e r o p e n l y c r i t i c a l o f L a u r i e r * s p o l i c y c o n c e r n i n g " B e t t e r Terms," o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n , r a i l r o a d p o l i c y and the t a r i f f , o r e n d o r s e d f e d e r a l a c t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e on m a t t e r s w h i c h had n o t y e t been a p p r o v e d by the L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa."' Indeed, the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n u s e d t h e c o n v e n t i o n s and t h e p a r t y p l a t -forms n o t o n l y t o inform, the p u b l i c o f p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y b u t a l s o t o i n f o r m Ottawa o f i t s p o s i t i o n and demands. Many L i b e r a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t from the p r o v i n c e p r i v a t e l y a g r e e d w i t h t h e s e s e c t i o n a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s b u t t h e y were r e l u c t a n t t o e n d o r s e t h e s e p o l i c i e s p u b l i c l y i f t h e y o b v i o u s l y c o n f l i c t e d w i t h L a u r i e r ' s own program. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s u c c e s s w i t h which the C o n s e r v a t i v e government o f S i r . R i c h a r d McBride campaigned, on b e h a l f o f p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s compromised a l l p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s f o r the p o l i c i e s o f the L a u r i e r government were i d e n t i f i e d as L i b e r a l p o l i c i e s . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s 13 s e c t i o n a l l y - d e r i v e d I s s u e s were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n f l i c t s between L a u r i e r and B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l s i n b o t h s p h e r e s o f i n t e r e s t and the p r o v i n e i a l l y b a s e d L i b e r a l s were n a t u r a l l y more a n t a g o n i s t i c t h an were the f e d e r a l 6 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . D e s p i t e endorsement o f p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s by the e a r l y L i b e r a l P a r t y , L a u r i e r i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia s h o u l d s u p p o r t the e n t i r e program o f the 7 L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa. The p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s continued, t h e i r i n d e p e n d e n t p o l i c y and a l t h o u g h the f e d e r a l l e a d e r e v i d e n t l y attempted, no d i r e c t d i s c i p l i n a r y a c t i o n , he d i d r e f u s e p r o v i n c i a l r e q u e s t s f o r E a s t e r n f u n d s to 8 s t a r t a L i b e r a l newspaper i n 1 9 0 8 . S i n c e the f e d e r a l p a r t y i n Ottawa had n e v e r p r o v i d e d the B r i t i s h Columbia p a r t y w i t h s u b s t a n t i a l f i n a n c i a l a i d L a u r i e r had few i n s -truments o f d i s c i p l i n e o t h e r than the w i t h d r a w a l o f s m a l l p a t r o n a g e j o b s from the p r o v i n c e . I n g e n e r a l , however, the Prime M i n i s t e r avoided, i n t e r f e r e n c e i n m a t t e r s o f p u r e l y p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y c o n c e r n and r e f u s e d i n s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y d i s p u t e s to i n t e r c e d e on b e h a l f o f p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . 9 S i n c e the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was c o n t i n u a l l y t o r n by p e t t y .arguments, r e g i o n a l q u a r r e l s and p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s , any i n t e r f e r e n c e by the f e d e r a l l e a d e r would have I n t e n s i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l o p p o s i t i o n to f e d e r a l p o l i c y . The g r o w i n g p o p u l a r i t y and s t r e n g t h o f M c B r i d e ' s C o n s e r v a t i v e government and. the s u c c e s s o f i t s " f i g h t Ottawa" p o l i c y a f f e c t e d b o t h wings o f the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l P a r t y . In 1 9 0 ? and 1 9 0 8 P r e m i e r M c B r i d e ' s g o v e r n -ment p a s s e d s e v e r a l a n t i - o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n b i l l s w h i c h were e i t h e r r e s e r v e d o r d i s a l l o w e d . The f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment b e l i e v e d , t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i m m i g r a t i o n p r o b l e m r e q u i r e d a d i p l o m a t i c s o l u t i o n and c o n s e q u e n t l y , a l t h o u g h the r i g h t to r e g u l a t e i m m i g r a t i o n was h e l d j o i n t l y by the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments, Ottawa objected, t o 10 B r i t i s h Columbia's i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n on the i s s u e . A n t i - o r i e n t a l f e e l i n g was s t r o n g i n B r i t i s h C olumbia and, by 1907» most groups w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e i n c l u d i n g the L i b e r a l s had made t h e i r p o s i t i o n s c l e a r . I n p u r s u i n g an a n t i - o r i e n t a l p o l i c y the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s u p h e l d the 11 r i g h t o f the p r o v i n c e t o c o n t r o l o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n . " T h i s p o l i c y p l a c e d p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n d i r e c t c o n f l i c t w i t h the f e d e r a l p a r t y . D u r i n g t h e f e d e r a l campaign o f 1 9 0 8 M c B r i d e made the f e d e r a l government's s t a n d on o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n a major i s s u e . The p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s c o u l d n o t c h a l l e n g e any o f M c B r i d e ' s c h a r g e s on t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e and thus found, t h e m s e l v e s i n e f f e c t i v e i n the f e d e r a l campaign. The Pr e m i e r a l s o used h i s r e c o r d o f n e g o t i a t i o n s f o r " B e t t e r 15 Terms" i n t h e campaign and e m b a r rassed th e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , f o r a l t h o u g h t h e y too s t o o d f o r " B e t t e r Terms} 1 many p r i v a t e l y r e g a r d e d L a u r i e r ' s s o l u t i o n o f a " f i n a l and u n a l t e r a b l e " s e t t l e m e n t f o r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as u n f a i r t o t h e p r o v i n c e . Few p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s were s u r p r i s e d when, i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 0 8 , t h e i r p a r t y l o s t f i v e o f the s e v e n s e a t s t h e y had h e l d s i n c e 1 9 0 4 . Even W i l l i a m Templeman was d e f e a t e d i n t h i s e l e c -t i o n b ut soon regained, h i s s e a t and r e t u r n e d t o t h e c a b i n e t , P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n b o t h wings o f t h e p a r t y m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e i r d e f e a t was the r e s u l t o f L a u r i e r 1 s o r i e n t a l i m m i g r a t i o n p o l i c y and s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r s d i d n o t h e s i t a t e t o use t h i s d e f e a t t o j u s t i f y t h e need f o r the p o l i c y ' s m o d i f i c a t i o n . The Prime M i n i s t e r was u n i m p r e s s e d by t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n and charged, t h a t r i v a l f a c t i o n s i n New W e s t m i n s t e r and V a n c o u v e r h i n d e r e d the 12 campaign. L a u r i e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t Templeman's d e f e a t emphasizes a f a c t however which i s o n l y too o b v i o u s , and t h i s f a c t i s t h a t t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y has l o s t ground s i m p l y from want o f c o urage t o f i g h t the i s s u e s and g i v e b a t t l e to the enemy upon the l i n e s l a i d down by Ottawa. 13 The f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s *from B r i t i s h Columbia f a i l e d , t o r e c o v e r i n the p r o v i n c e f o r i n the f o l l o w i n g e l e c t i o n , 16 when they supported Laurier's p o l i c y more c o n s i s t e n t l y , a l l t h e i r candidates were defeated. Indeed, the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia had no fe d e r a l parliamentary representation again u n t i l 1921, when the L i b e r a l s gained three of the t h i r t e e n seats i n the province. The decline of the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n part the r e s u l t of the c o n f l i c t between Laurier's p o l i c i e s and the widely shared and p o l i t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t views of p r o v i n c i a l needs which were held by most B r i t i s h Columbians. The success of the strong, popular and f e d e r a l l y a c t i v e Conservative p r o v i n c i a l administration f u r t h e r contributed, to the decline of the f e d e r a l wing a f t e 1908. The B r i t i s h Columbia f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s maintained a semblance of uni t y among themselves and attempted to l i m i t t h e i r c o n f l i c t s with L a u r i e r , While i t i s doubtful whether a c t i o n as a more conventions.! d i s c i p l i n e d , party, which supported a l l f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y , would have aided t h e i r cause during t h i s period, they might have sur-vived, with the assistance of a more united, p r o v i n c i a l party capable of providing a more e f f i c i e n t common party organization. .Although the p r o v i n c i a l party was also a f f e c t e d by the unpopularity of the McBride government, p r o v i n c i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y cleavages were more damaging. The effectiveness of the party organization was weakened as 17 much from these p r o v i n c i a l sources of f r i c t i o n than from any of the f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d issues. I n t e r n a l cleavages and p e r s o n a l i t y clashes caused constant f r i c t i o n w i t h i n the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Party from i t s i n c e p t i o n . Throughout the period there was competition and d i s t r u s t between mainland and Island L i b e r a l s . The f r i c t i o n was caused by the a l l e g e d l y unbalanced d i s t r i b u t i o n of fed e r a l appointments between the two centers of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and compounded, by competing L i b e r a l f a c t i o n s . At times even on the mainland, there were clashes between two pro-v i n c i a l c l i q u e s . There was, moreover, l i t t l e o r g a n i z a t i o -n a l coordination and the p r o v i n c i a l leader frequently l o s t e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of his party. Indeed, i t was not u n t i l the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had l o s t a l l reasonable hope of e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y that the i n t e r n a l q u a r r e l l i n g subsided. At the second p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Convention i n 1902, the adoption of party l i n e s i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s was approved, and the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l leader was elected, Joseph Martin, a former member of the Manitoba l e g i s l a t u r e , had. entered B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s In 1897 when he campaigned f o r the adoption of party l i n e s . In 1902 he was narrowly elected to the p r o v i n c i a l lead.ership but many L i b e r a l s f e l t that his excitable and often unpredic-table p e r s o n a l i t y would s p l i t rather than un i f y the party. 18 The assessment proved to he accurate f o r i n the f i r s t e l e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g h i s assumption of p r o v i n c i a l leadership, Martin did not have the f u l l support of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l organization and the t h i r d L i b e r a l Convention held before the e l c t i o n i n 1903 refused to give him unanimous support. Because the in t r o d u c t i o n of party government i n B r i t i s h Columbia was not c e r t a i n u n t i l a f t e r the e l e c -t i o n of McBride and his subsequent c o n s u l t a t i o n with Lieutenant-Governor Henri J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e , Martin operated, i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n . Many L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g a future p r o v i n c i a l leader John O l i v e r * had. campaigned i n 1903 i n the b e l i e f that another c o a l i t i o n would, be formed by McBride and that they would be included i n the g o v e r n m e n t . I n the e l e c t i o n of 1903 the L i b e r a l s thus campaigned without an e f f e c t i v e leader and without a u n i f i e d organization. In h i s correspondence vi.tb a c t i v e L i b e r a l s i n the province, Laurier commented, on the p r o v i n c i a l d i s u n i t y and suggested, that the party had. no future In the province unless i t would stand behind an acknowledged leader.^"^ Several days l a t e r almost i n answer to his comment, the L i b e r a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e i n caucus elected J . A. Macdonald from Ross land, as p r o v i n c i a l leader. Although Macdonald was the f i r s t acknowledged p r o v i n c i a l leader, he f a i l e d to prevent i n t e r n a l party quarrels of to 19 d i s c i p l i n e the L i b e r a l members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s -l a t u r e . During the e l e c t i o n campaign of 190? he was unable to r e s t r a i n the p u b l i c q u a r r e l between John O l i v e r and Joseph Martin a f t e r they had disagreed over the 16 Columbia and Western Land grant, Macdonald was a l s o embarrassed by the L i b e r a l convention's platform of the f a l l of 1907, which sided with McBride r a t h e r than with 17 L a u r i e r on the question of A s i a t i c immigration. The l o s s of f i v e seats i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1907 r e f l e c t e d the new dimensions of the immigration issue with-i n the province. In 1909 Macdonald was appointed Chief J u s t i c e of the Court of Appeal i n B r i t i s h Columbia and John O l i v e r succeeded him as p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . O l i v e r ' s term of o f f i c e was a b r i e f and unhappy one f o r i n the p r o v i n c i a l campaign of 1909 he was soundly defeated along with most other p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . Indeed, a f t e r 1909, only H. C. Brewster of A l b e r n i and John Jardine of Esquimalt r e t a i n e d t h e i r seats i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . In 1911 Jardine became a Conservative and. Brewster as the sole p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the l e g i s l a t u r e became the 1 Q p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r . 'Oliver faced many problems i n h i s campaign f o r the party fought without adequate funds and lacked support from the press. In c o n t r a s t , the McBride government spent $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 i n Vancouver a l o n e . ^ 20 O l i v e r ' s platform of extended r a i l r o a d b u i l d i n g was a l s o e f f e c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d by McBride who p u b l i c i z e d L a u r i e r ' s r a t h e r non-commital support of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l 20 leader's p o l i c y . In 1911 H. C. Brewster,John O l i v e r and a few other p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s decided, to campaign a c t i v e l y f o r Lau r i e r ' s r e c i p r o c i t y program, although many L i b e r a l sup-porters b e l i e v e d that r e c i p r o c i t y would, hurt the B r i t i s h Columbia farmer. This p r o v i n c i a l support of the f e d e r a l program may have been a s t r a t e g y to recover from the defeats of 1908 and 1 9 0 9 s but there i s a l s o some evidence which suggests that John O l i v e r was beginning to hold 22 n a t i o n a l as w e l l as pu r e l y s e c t i o n a l p o s i t i o n s . ' I t i s of course p o s s i b l e that the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s worked f o r t h i s f e d e r a l campaign because the issues were r e l e v a n t to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and the McBride m i n i s t r y was a l s o campaigning a c t i v e l y on behalf of the f e d e r a l Conservatives. During a period of l i m i t e d p r o v i n c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n pro-v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s needed to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v e p o l i t i c a l arena i n order to r e t a i n t h e i r i d e n t i f i -c a t i o n as L i b e r a l s . Their a c t i v i t y on behalf of the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s d i d not m a t e r i a l l y b e n e f i t t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n f o r i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1912 n o L i b e r a l s were ele c t e d to the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . During the 21 years between 1912 and 1916 l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n was m a i n t a i n e d i n a p e r f u n c t o r y manner and, H. C. Brewster, the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , e x e r t e d l i m i t e d c o n t r o l over the weak and d i f f u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s emergent p e r i o d I n the growth of the L i b e r a l P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia was thus c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p o l i -t i c a l weakness and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i s u n i t y . The f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n the p r o v i n c e were i n power a t the b e g i n n i n g of the p e r i o d , but t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s was weak and unorganized. Although t h e i r power i n Ottawa was s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d they were p r o v i d e d w i t h c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . C o n f l i c t s between the p o l i c i e s o f t h e i r l e a d e r W i l f r i e d L a u r i e r and those t h e i r B r i t i s h Columbia su p p o r t e r s d e s i r e d d.iminished t h e i r p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u r e . While the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y c o u l d have e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n from I t s i n c e p t i o n , they a l l o w e d the p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d . L i b e r a l s to assume the d i r e c t i o n of the p a r t y . The p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y autonomy was s t i l l r e c o g n i z e d by Canadian p a r t i e s of the p e r i o d and proved to be e x c e e d i n g l y p o p u l a r i n B r i t i s h Columbia where the r e l a t e d , p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i n -c i a l government autonomy was s t r o n g l y supported but i t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t the l e a d e r s h i p of the p a r t y d e f a u l t e d to the p r o v i n c i a l group i n the absence of a s t r o n g e r , more united or more determined f e d e r a l group. 22 Fe d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s during t h i s period, lacked the lines- which c l e a r l y d i v i d e d f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l groups a f t e r 1 9 1 6 . Each wing of the party was often divid.ed i n t e r n a l l y while opposition to Laurier and the Eastern L i b e r a l s provided, occasional sources of p r o v i n c i a l u n i t y . Nevertheless, the p o p u l a r i t y of s e c t i o n a l issues i n B r i t i s h Columbia along with the poorlj/ developed sense of party d.iscipline and. p a r t i s a n commit-ment created, severe f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s throughout the period, before World. War I. The severe d i s u n i t y exhibited, by the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the party was r e l a t e d to both broader s e c t i o n a l issues and. to p e r s o n a l i t y con-f l i c t s or f a c t i o n a l j e a l o u s i e s . The frequency of I n t r a -p r o v i n c i a l party quarrels was a unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the period of party emergence f o r once the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s held power, party d i s c i p l i n e and. the con t r o l exercised, by the p r o v i n c i a l leader were more r e a d i l y accepted by the p r o v i n c i a l party. The most enduring legacy of t h i s period of emergence were f i r s t l y , the acceptance of a. u n i f i e d party under the formal d i r e c t i o n of a provincially-baaed lead.ersh.ip and. second.ly the appearance of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s caused, by sectionally-derived. p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s with the federal government. Such s t r a i n s were, of course, to become more threatening to f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l party unity when the p r o v i n c i a l party was also i n power. FOOTNOTES 1 Melva Jean Dwyer,. La u r i e r and the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Party: A Study i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l Party R e l a t i o n s , M.A. Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 l , Op.22. 2 Edward Hepner, The B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Party, Graduating Essay, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962, p.65. 3 Templeman served as president of the As s o c i a t i o n from 1897 to 1902 and B. R. Maxwell, a member of parliament, served from 1902 to 1907. 4 Dwyer, Op. C i t . , p . l 4 . 5 I b i d . , p. 3 3 . ' 6 I b i d . , p. 9 6 . 7 Samuel Peter Regenstreif, The L i b e r a l Party of Canada, A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 196"3, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann Arbor, Mich., pp. 2 5 - 3 1 . 8 Dwyer, Op.. C i t . , p. 9 I b i d . , pp. 3 8 - 3 9 ; L a u r i e r to W. W. B. Mclnnes, February 2 1 , 1902, Laurier Papers R e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h Columbia, Reel 2 , p. 62628, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia m i c r o f i l m , and Laurier to Martin, February 2 1 , 1902, I b i d . , Reel 2 , p. 62667. 10 The B r i t i s h North American" Act, Section 9 5 . 23 24 11 Dwyer, Op,. G i t . , p. 4-3. 12 I b i d . , p. 44. 13 I b i d . , p. 55; L a u r i e r to G. G. S. L i n d s a y , December 17, 1908, p_p_. C i t . , R e e l 5, p. 14-7661. 14- James Morton, Honest John O l i v e r , J . M. Dent and Sons L i m i t e d , Toronto, 1933, P« 79. 15 Dwyer, Op. C i t . , p. 40; L a u r i e r to C h a r l e s T u g r i n , October 13, 1903, Ojo. C i t . , R e e l 2, pp. 77539-775-+1. 16 Morton, Honest John O l i v e r , p. 79. 17 Dwyer, Op_. C i t . , p. 43. 18 I b i d . , p. 46 and Morton, Op_. C i t . , p. 106. 19 Dwyer, Op.. C i t . , p. 45; Wade to L a u r i e r , November 26, 1902, Op. C i t . , R e e l 5, p. 169871. 2 0 I b i d . , p. 45; L a u r i e r to O l i v e r , October 22, 1909, Op.. C i t . , R e e l 5, p. 160974. 21 I b i d . , p. 46. 22 Roman Hromnysky, The Western Canadian R e g i o n a l Governments and the F e d e r a l System, M. A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965, pp. 95-96, and Morton, Op. C i t . , p. 109. CHAPTER THREE THE DOMINANCE OF THE PROVINCIAL LEADER 1916 - 19*10. A f t e r 19l6 the e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s of the L i b e r a l P a r t y improved both w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e and i n the n a t i o n as a whole. From 19l6 to 1921 the B r e w s t e r - O l i v e r p r o v i n c i a l government h e l d power w h i l e the Union Govern-ment r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l i n Ottawa but from 1921 to 1928 two s u c c e s s i v e L i b e r a l governments h e l d power i n both V i c t o r i a and Ottawa. A f t e r a p e r i o d of f i v e years i n o p p o s i t i o n i n both the f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l p a r l i a m e n t s , the L i b e r a l s r e g a i n e d c o n t r o l i n V i c t o r i a i n 1933 and, i n Ottawa i n 1935 and f o r s i x years t h e r e a f t e r the L i b e r a l s conducted the a f f a i r s of both the p r o v i n c e and the n a t i o n . Because the l e a d e r of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was a l s o premier of the p r o v i n c e throughout most of t h i s p e r i o d , the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y assumed a dominant p o s i t i o n . Premier O l i v e r , who succeeded the s h o r t m i n i s t r y of Brewster from 1916 to 1918 and, was f o l l o w e d by the even b r i e f e r m i n i s t r y of John D. MacLean, control].ed. a sound p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n which was r e v i t a l i z e d by Premier T. D. P a t t u l l o a f t e r the defeat,, of 1928 and p r o v i d e d the b a s i s of h i s e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h a f t e r 1933' 25 2 6 As p r e m i e r s , both O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o engaged i n c o n f r o n t a t i o n s w i t h the f e d e r a l l e a d e r o f t h e i r p a r t y when p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s were threatened by f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s . A t f i r s t both O l i v e r and. P a t t u l l o b e l i e v e d t h a t as L i b e r a l s t h e i r demands would, r e c e i v e the under-s t a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Prime M i n i s t e r W. L. Mackenzie K i n g . O l i v e r ' s program d i d not t h r e a t e n the c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l powers of the f e d e r a l government b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , f a i l e d to r e c e i v e King's f u l l s upport. Premier P a t t u l l o ' s campaign f o r p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , however, was more v i g o r o u s and not o n l y s t r a i n e d , r e l a t i o n s w i t h Ottawa but a l s o l e d to a d i v i s i o n amongst the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s themselves. BREWSTER: 1 9 1 6 - 1 9 1 8 A f t e r a l o n g period, i n o p p o s i t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o b t a i n e d a s u p r i s i n g l y l a r g e mandate i n 1 9 1 6 , when i t won t h i r t y - s e v e n of the f o r t y - s e v e n seats i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . Although t h i s e l e c t o r a l success was f a c i l i t a t e d by the mistakes of the C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and the departure of the po p u l a r S i r Richard. McBride, the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s a l s o reaped, the rewards of continued p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and o r g a n i -z a t i o n under the d i r e c t i o n of H. C. Brewster throughout the l e a n years between 1 9 1 2 and 1 9 1 6 . By 1 9 1 5 i t was 27 c l e a r that scandals had damaged the p u b l i c image of the Conservative a d m i n i s t r a t i o n while, even under the new le a d e r s h i p of William Bowser the conservatives were f a i l i n g to o b t a i n the support of the growing reform elements i n the province. The L i b e r a l s , t h e r e f o r e , increased t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and p u b l i c i z e d t h e i r sympathy f o r the temperance and. f e m i n i s t causes. This p u b l i c i t y brought immediate r e s u l t s f o r , i n 1915, Brewster and. M. A. Macdonald were e l e c t e d i n a b y - e l e c t i o n h e l d to t e s t p u b l i c support f o r two new cabinet appoint-ments i n the Bowser government. From t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the l e g i s l a t u r e Brewster and Macdonald launched an e f f e c t i v e campaign against the p r o v i n c i a l government and provided, a focus f o r the d i s s a t i s f i e d elements wi t h i n the province. By the time of the next p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , the L i b e r a l s had the support of many prominent p r o v i n c i a l f i g u r e s , some of whom, l i k e S i r Charles Hibbert Tupper, had p r e v i o u s l y been a s s o c i a t e d with the C o n s e r v a t i v e s . 1 CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: A f t e r a campaign based upon the Issues of economic depression, government reform and r e l a t e d war issues, Brewster f e l t indebted to the s o l d i e r and reform vote. There was, however, s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s 28 p a t r o n a g e s t a r v e d p a r t y to c i v i l s e r v i c e r e f o r m , P u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , he was a b l e to p r o c e e d w i t h a l i m i t e d , amount o f r e f o r m . H i s government was a l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y u p s e t by p u b l i c s c a n d a l and e v e n t u a l l y h i s a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l M . A. Macdonald had. t o r e s i g n . The f i r s t a c c u -s a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e government were made by a L i b e r a l b a c k b e n c h e r and t h i s m i s f o r t u n e r e f l e c t e d B r e w s t e r ' s d i f f i c u l t y i n m a i n t a i n i n g u n i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing 2 o f the p a r t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r c o n t i n u e d t o c o n t r o l the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r , a l -though b a c k b e n c h e r s o r even h i s c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r d i s a g r e e d w i t h him on m a t t e r s o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y , t h e r e was no a t t e m p t to c h a l l e n g e h i s p o s i t i o n as p a r t y l e a d e r . B r e w s t e r even s u r v i v e d the s e r i o u s p a r t y s p l i t o v e r the i s s u e o f s u p p o r t f o r a f e d e r a l c o a l i t i o n government f o r the d u r a t i o n o f t h e war. SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN; The i s s u e o f a Union government i n Ottawa d i d , however, i n i t i a t e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s f o r , w h i l e s e v e r a l lead.ing members of the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t remained l o y a l to L a u r i e r and the c o n t i n u a n c e o f an i n d e p e n d e n t L i b e r a l campaign, o t h e r s i n the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l government s u p p o r t e d the f o r m a t i o n o f a Union government. B r e w s t e r n o t o n l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the f i r s t n e g o t i a t i o n s 29 f o r the c o a l i t i o n government but a l s o a c t i v e l y competed, f o r the U n i o n i s t ( L i b e r a l ) nomination f o r V i c t o r i a a g a i n s t f e l l o w L i b e r a l W i l l i a m S l o a n . A l t hough he w i t h -drew from the V i c t o r i a c o n t e s t , Brewster c o n t i n u e d to be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Union cause and. there were rumors of a c a b i n e t appointment i n the event of v i c t o r y f o r the c o a l i t i o n . While Brewster d e s i r e d to m a i n t a i n a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L a u r i e r and. r e f r a i n e d from d i r e c t p u b l i c a t t a c k s upon the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , h i s open support of the U n i o n i s t cause c r e a t e d f r i c t i o n w i t h i n the p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y . I t was obvious t h a t s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t r e a l L i b e r a l s s h o u l d not be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o a l i t i o n which t h e i r l e a d e r had r e j e c t e d and. when L a u r i e r v i s i t e d . Vancouver i n December of 1917 he was g r e e t e d by a l a r g e group of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g the new a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l J . W. deB. F a r r i s , F. C. Wade and. J . W. Weart bu t , Premier 3 Brewster was absent." Brewster l o s t the support of a s i g n i f i c a n t p a r t o f the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , because of h i s support of the U n i o n i s t cause and even the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e - i n membership i n s p i t e of i t s c o ntinued support of the s t r a i g h t L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l program and c a n d i d a t e s . The Vancouver P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d 30 on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t the "gre a t b u l k of the p a r t y , who are members of the A s s o c i a t i o n , were d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r support of S i r W i l f r i e d L a u r i e r . " The newspaper a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s , who had supported Brewster i n 1 9 1 6, now a c t i v e l y supported the L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s . Those L i b e r a l s who were committed to the U n i o n i s t cause j o i n e d separate f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s but e v i d e n t l y c o n t i n u e d to support the L i b e r a l p r o v i n c i a l government f o r they hoped to a v o i d a c o a l i t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 5 While i t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the s t r e n g t h of these two groups w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r t h a t t h i s f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d i s s u e s p l i t the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and a t times made i t d i f f i c u l t to i d e n t i f y f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Because the U n i o n i s t cause r e c e i v e d overwhelming support i n B r i t i s h Columbia, p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s contained, t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s i n orde r to m a i n t a i n t h e i r o n l y r e c e n t l y obtained, p o s i t i o n of power w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . ^ The L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia accid.ently avoided the r e p e r c u s s i o n s of the c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r w i t h the U n i o n i s t government when Brewster became i l l w i t h pneumonia and d i e d on the way home from a conference i n Ottawa i n February of 1 9 1 8 . The three major candidates i n the leadership campaign which followed were a l l c l o s e l y associated with the L a u r i e r - L i h e r a l cause but t h i s common a t t r i b u t e had l i t t l e influence on t h e i r candida.cy or upon the conduct of the campaign. Although, i n Brewster's absence, John O l i v e r had been appointed acting Premier most news-paper commentators believed, that the attorney general, J . B. deB. F a r r i s of Vancouver, and the mi n i s t e r of pub l i c works, J . H. King, of Kootenay, had. better pros-pects of v i c t o r y than the veteran L i b e r a l and farmer from Delta. This judgment was, however, based, upon, the assumed f e e l i n g s of a convention or of the Executive Committee of the Associat i o n f o r F a r r i s was popular with the rank and f i l e and. King was considered to be a safe 7 compromise f o r the Island, and. Mainland. L i b e r a l s . But the composition of the caucus which elected the provin-c i a l leader reduced. F a r r i s ' bases of power and support and the King forces were able to a s s i s t the Ol i v e r supporters i n t h e i r defeat of F a r r i s . A f t e r a fourth b a l l o t John O l i v e r was confirmed as the p r o v i n c i a l leader 8 of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l party. OLIVER 1918 - 1927: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: Conservatives immediately accused, the newly elected L i b e r a l Leader of opposition to the Union government i n 32 Ottawa. In his p u b l i c d e n i a l the Premier discounted suggestions that there was f r i c t i o n between h i s govern-ment and Ottawa. O l i v e r stressed, that he would not only work with Ottawa f o r the benefit of the e n t i r e country but also f o r the i n t e r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia as well.9 This statement indicated that although the p r o v i n c i a l government was L i b e r a l i n sentiment, O l i v e r himself was not a Unionist and c e r t a i n l y a f t e r the war he a c t i v e l y aided the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l cause w i t h i n the province. Notwithstanding occasional expressions of d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or r e v o l t from the back benches or from, his cabinet John O l i v e r maintained e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over h i s party. Although during Oliver's leadership the party never repeated the e l e c t o r a l success of 191.6 and often had d i f f i c u l t y i n securing a small majority, the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s proved to be the most r e s i l i e n t party i n B r i t i s h Columbia. They were f o r example able to withstand several p u b l i c attacks by members of t h e i r own back bench on the Issue of a PGE scandal as w e l l as the defection of a small group of L i b e r a l s to the nascent S o l d i e r s ' Party. The most serious i n t r a - p r o v i n e i a l s t r a i n occurred i n 1921, when O l i v e r only had a majority of four excluding the speaker and developed p a r t l y because of the Premier's in c r e a s i n g l y d i c t a t o r i a l actions w i t h i n the L i b e r a l caucus and p a r t l y because of p o l i c y differences w i t h i n the cabinet. 33 In October, 1921 David Whiteside of New Westminster 1 2 announced t h a t he would not a t t e n d caucus meetings and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , Harry P e r r y of F o r t George sup-p o r t e d W h i t e s i d e and informed O l i v e r of h i s impatience w i t h the Premier's d i c t a t o r i a l r u l e . 1 - ^ In November of 1921 , Mrs. Mary E l l e n Smith, the widow of the l a t e E a l p h Smith who was a long-time l a b o r l e a d e r and L i b e r a l i n both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l spheres, r e s i g n e d her c a b i n e t post l e s s than one year a f t e r her appointment. In a p u b l i c statement she expressed her disappointment a t not r e c e i v i n g a p o r t f o l i o and her concern over s e v e r a l u n s p e c i f i e d c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n s over which she was not c o n s u l t e d . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to assess the e x t e n t of t h i s r e v o l t a g a i n s t O l i v e r but the newspapers r e p o r t e d an " a i r of mystery" i n the government b u i l d i n g s and i n d i c a -te d t h a t there were many rumors of open " r e b e l l i o n " w i t h i n the l e a d e r s h i p r a n k s . The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , however, s t r e s s e d t h a t * "the members under s u s p i c i o n show no s i g n s of having jumped the t r a c e s . " - ^ and t h a t the r e v o l t was i n i t i a t e d by the p a r t y machine i n Vancouver, which was becoming "embarrassingly powerful."" 1"* While s e v e r a l members of the c a b i n e t and the back bench cont i n u e d to c r i t i c i z e elements of O l i v e r ' s f i n a n c i a l p o l i c y and l i q u o r p o l i c y , the " r e v o l t " d i d not m a t e r i a l i z e . 3^ The f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i n e a r l y December of 1921 f o r t u n a t e l y d i s t r a c t e d many of the d i s c o n t e n t e d elements w i t h i n the p a r t y . By mid and l a t e December the a t t e n t i o n of the p a r t y was c o n c e n t r a t e d upon the s e l e c t i o n of a B r i t i s h Columbia c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r . Although the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s had. p a r t i c i p a t e d as i n d i v i d u a l s i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , none of the three s u c c e s s f u l L i b e r a l s were of c a b i n e t s t a t u r e and the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p was f o r c e d to campaign to demand c a b i n e t r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. W i t h i n one week J.H. King the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c works, M. A. Macdonald., the defeated, f e d e r a l candidate f o r Burrard., Mr. C h a r l e s E. Campbell, the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , J . W. deB. F a r r i s , the p r o v i n c i a l a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l , Mayor Gale, a d e f e a t e d f e d e r a l candidate f o r Vancouver Centre and W. M. I v e l , a d e f e a t e d f e d e r a l c andidate f o r V i c t o r i a a l l a r r i v e d i n Ottawa to l o o k a f t e r both t h e i r own and the p r o v i n c e ' s i n t e r e s t i n ] 7 the b u s i n e s s of c a b i n e t making. Many p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l ; hoped to convince the f e d e r a l l e a d e r t h a t B r i t i s h Columbia deserved two c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n s . In mid-December rumors c i r c u l a t e d which suggested t h a t Fred S t o r k , the member-e l e c t f o r P r i n c e Rupert, would r e l i n q u i s h h i s seat to O l i v e r 18 i f the p r o v i n c i a l Premier was appointed to the ca.binet. S t o r k soon denied the r e p o r t and no f u r t h e r suggestions of a c a b i n e t appointment f o r O l i v e r was heard. In l a t e 35 December, however, F a r r i s resigned and i t was suggested, that he hoped to enter federa l p o l i t i c s . F a r r i s had informed O l i v e r of h i s possible resignation before he departed f o r Ottawa and made i t c l e a r that he found i t impossible to enforce the p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r law or continue to be the focus of anti-government a t t a c k s . ^ A f t e r Senator Hewitt Eostock was appointed, to the cabinet i n l a t e December the province abandoned i t s campaign f o r a second cabinet post and by the turn of the year most p r o v i n c i a l leaders hoped to e s t a b l i s h close working r e l a t i o n s with t h e i r f e d e r a l colleagues. SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVING I Al, STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: Relations between Ottawa and Vict o r i a , had. soa.rcely commenced when O l i v e r expressed, his annoyance at Prime M i n i s t e r King's appointment of J. H. King, the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c works, to the federal cabinet. O l i v e r resented t h i s f e d e r a l " r a i d i n g " at a time when his own majority was slender and his cabinet depleted by other 20 recent departures. Since he was planning to request both better terms f o r the province from Ottawa, and a reassessment of the status and p o l i c y of the PGE, Oliver was r e l a t i v e l y restrained i n his reactions to J.H. King's 36 appointment, When the Prime M i n i s t e r was unresponsive to h i s requests O l i v e r considered a renewal of McBride's s u c c e s s f u l " f i g h t Ottawa" program. Indeed, the Premier I n i t i a t e d an open attack on the f e d e r a l Government and threatened, to appeal d i r e c t l y to the Imperial Parliament i f h i s suggestions were c o n t i n u a l l y ignored. But a f t e r an a p p r a i s a l of the consequences of t h i s course of a c t i o n O l i v e r wisely decided to r e d i r e c t h i s h o s t i l i t y by means of an a t t a c k on Eastern f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s and r a i l r o a d 21 r a t e s . '~ P r o v i n c i a l leaders rea.soned that t h i s more conservative p o l i c y would s a t i s f y most p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s and yet would not d i r e c t l y challenge the f e d e r a l government. The program met with success and. was i n part responsible f o r the increased, p o p u l a r i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l government. Indeed, t h i s formula proved, so e f f e c t i v e that O l i v e r repeated the campaign, f o r lower f r e i g h t rates when-ever h i s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n within the province or even wi t h i n the party proved, to be v u l n e r a b l e . In 1923 and 1924, f o r example, O l i v e r f e l t threatened by the wide appeal of the P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y , which stood f o r the reform of p o l i t i c s and the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the party system, and. during the e l e c t i o n campaign, of 1924 the Premier s k i l f u l l y renewed, his campaign f o r lower f r e i g h t r a t e s . But sus-p i c i o n s about i t s precarious p o s i t i o n prompted the •4 37 p r o v i n c i a l party to c a p i t a l i z e on i t s p o l i t i c a l connections with the King government. The newspapers p r i n t e d ads f o r the L i b e r a l s which reported: John O l i v e r , the head of the L i b e r a l Govern-ment i n B r i t i s h Columbia has the ear of the Hon, Mackenzie King, the head of the L i b e r a l Government i n Ottawa; and i f the people of B r i t i s h Columbia demonstrate by t h e i r votes that they are i n accord with John O l i v e r ' s f i g h t , we i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l b enefit to a f a r greater extent than we would i f Mr. Bowser or General McRae were placed i n power, c c Although the Prime M i n i s t e r could not p u b l i c l y endorse or dismiss such a statement, O l i v e r worded, his claim c a r e f u l l y . Nevertheless, t h i s impromtu campaign strategy indicated the i n s e c u r i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l party. This assessment proved, accurate f o r O l i v e r l o s t his seat and although he regained a seat i n a b y - e l e c t i o n , his L i b e r a l administration governed with only twenty-three of the f o r t y - e i g h t seats. ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: In contrast, the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n the province exhibited a new v i t a l i t y and a. growing strength i n the e l e c t i o n of 1925- The federal'minister of p u b l i c works, J. H. King, directed the p r o v i n c i a l campaign and. made e f f e c t i v e use of the growing number of Young L i b e r a l Associations which inc r e a s i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d with federal 39 passed i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , the party united more force-f u l l y behind O l i v e r . U n t i l j u s t before h i s death from cancer i n 192? O l i v e r maintained, c o n t r o l of a f a i r l y w e l l integrated and united party and i n s i s t e d that the party s e l e c t h i s successor. Indeed, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were w e l l contained throughout the Ol i v e r period. F e d e r a l l y -derived issues, which under some circumstances could have contributed to i n t e r n a l party d i v i s i o n s , were used instead to unite the party or to increase popular support f o r the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Since the f r e i g h t rates issue s a t i s f i e d p r o v i n c i a l needs, the more threatening s e c t i o n a l -issues of the McBride m i n i s t r y were avoided. Indeed, when Ol i v e r f e l t vulnerable during a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n he independently traded upon his peaceful r e l a t i o n s with King and claimed a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Ottawa. While the fede r a l party may have tolerated, such claims as part of the p o l i t i c a l game, the r e l a t i v e harmony of the two wings w i t h i n the province may have been aided by the weakness of the f e d e r a l wing in B r i t i s h Columbia and by t h e i r small numbers throughout the period. MACLEAN 1927 - 1929: In the August of 1927 John D. MacLean was o f f i c i a l l y elected, the leader of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l party. 38 p o l i t i c s rather than with the p r o v i n c i a l administration. The p r o v i n c i a l party also assumed an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s campaign and Premier O l i v e r spoke at several nominating meetings and announced, at a time when Prime M i n i s t e r King v i s i t e d , the province,, that he would "take the stump" f o r 2 3 the L i b e r a l candidates i n the federal campaign. J The L i b e r a l s were r e l a t i v e l y successful i n t h i s e l e c t i o n and the increased, p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was appreciated, but, i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1926, the L i b e r a l represen-t a t i o n from B r i t i s h Columbia i n Ottawa was reduced from four to one and Oliver ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the campaign was now resented. Many prominent L i b e r a l s believed, that the uneven record of the p r o v i n c i a l government had affected the fortunes of the fe d e r a l party and that i n the future the p r o v i n c i a l leader's " i n t e r v e n t i o n " i n federal a f f a i r s 24 should be c u r t a i l e d . Although Oliver's lead.ership of the party was not challenged, both the p r o v i n c i a l and fe d e r a l wings of the party expressed t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the d i r e c t i o n 2 5 and management of party p o l i c y . The administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered during the preceding federal e l e c t i o n s were consequently only one source ofparty s t r a i n . Many p r o v i n c i a l leaders feared that O l i v e r had l o s t touch with the electorate but a f t e r the new reform program was 4o MacLean had been a member of the O l i v e r cabinet since 1917 and, although he was considered to be more of an admini s t r a t o r than a p o l i t i c i a n , both wings of the party-supported h i s l e a d e r s h i p . He encountered, some opposi-t i o n , however, when he insisted, that he lead the party-through one l e g i s l a t i v e session before c a l l i n g an e l e c t i o n i n the summer of 1 9 2 8 . ' Several p r o v i n c i a l leaders b e l i e v e d that the L i b e r a l s should renew t h e i r mandate while the memory of "Honest ..John" O l i v e r was s t i l l a l i v e . In the minds of many party members Maclean did. not present a new or dynamic image to an e l e c t o r a t e , which had. never given more than 50 percent of the vote to the L i b e r a l s and. had only r e c e n t l y returned the party by d e f a u l t with 32 percent of the popular v o t e . The new p r o v i n c i a l leader had. a l s o to contend, with d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n within, h i s own party j u s t before the e l e c t i o n . A former L i b e r a l member f o r Vancouver, Charles Woodward., attacked, the L i b e r a l pa.rty f o r i t s f a i l u r e to give the c i t y of Vancouver cabinet r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n Vic t o r i a . . The charges were ambiguous hut Woodward and. several other p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s approa.cb.ed. the Conservatives with an o f f e r of support i n exchange f o r t h e i r support of cabinet represen-t a t i o n f o r the c i t y . While t h i s i n c i d e n t presented only a r e l a t i v e l y minor challenge to the p r o v i n c i a l leader-s h i p , i t exposed, the f r i c t i o n , between the Vancouver 27 L i b e r a l s and. other p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . '• In t h i s b r i e f m i n i s t r y f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s had- l i t t l e time to mature but i n a l a s t attempt to regain popular support, Premier MacLean d i d revive the issue of the sale of the PGE. He claimed that his government alone, with i t s close a s s o c i a t i o n with Ottawa and the Prime M i n i s t e r , could e f f e c t i v e l y negotiate f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. MacLean, l i k e O l i v e r , claimed, a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Ottawa but the Premier even suggested that h i s Conservative opponent, S. F. Tolmie, would, experience great d i f f i c u l t y i n negotiations with King because he had served as a ?8 n a t i o n a l conservative organizer." This strategy f a i l e d and the L i b e r a l s were severely c r i t i c i z e d f o r using both an u n f a i r and. unconfirmed claim. Again the federal party maintained a d.iscreet s i l e n c e i n public and neither confirmed or disclaimed MacLean's implied " s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n -ship." To unite h i s p r o v i n c i a l party and to gain the support of the B r i t i s h Columbia electorate MacLean. made demands on the f e d e r a l government. Like O l i v e r , however, MacLean chose r e l a t i v e l y safe demands and thereby indicated, his desire to maintain reasonable r e l a t i o n s with the federal party. The federal party allowed MacLean to r e t i r e g r a c e f u l l y a f t e r the party suffered a ma.jor defeat i n the e l e c t i o n of 1 9 2 8 and. was reduced to an opposition party of twelve representatives. MacLean was promised a federal appointment I f he f a i l e d to win a seat i n parliament i n 4 2 ?9 the next federal by-election."' Although some federal leaders suggested that Maclean campaigned, as though he wished to be defeated, i n January of 1929 he was appointed to the Federal Farm Loan Commission.-^0 and soon a f t e r the small L i b e r a l caucus selected. T. D, P a t t u l l o as House leader f o r the coming l e g i s l a t i v e session. PATTULLO 1929 - 19^1 CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION With the e l e c t i o n of P a t t u l l o the Executive Committee of the L i b e r a l Association established the r i g h t to se l e c t the permanent party leader f o r the f i r s t 31 time but from the very beginning of h i s term as party leader P a t t u l l o himself exercised, e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . To supplement his growing personal p o p u l a r i t y , P a t t u l l o i n h e r i t e d and. made e f f e c t i v e use of c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers and informal practices developed d u r i n g Oliver's administration. The L i b e r a l Association, c o n s t i t u t i o n gave the Executive Committee the major source of power and. deprived the f u l l Convention of the Association of r e a l power. Conventions were c a l l e d only upon the request of the Executive Committee every three years and they were unable to debate "anjr r e s o l u t i o n a f f e c t i n g the general p o l i c y of the L i b e r a l Party, u n t i l H-3 i t had f i r s t been r e f e r r e d without debate thereon, to 3 2 the Committee on Resolution. . Indeed, not even matters of great importance, such as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amend-ments, could be discussed, by the Convention u n t i l they had. been referred, to s p e c i a l committees appointed by the president of the As s o c i a t i o n . Throughout the period the president of the A s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l as other key Associa-t i o n o f f i c e r s and. employees, were o f f i c i a l l y chosen by the Executive Committee but they were also the persona.l appointees of the party leader. P a t t u l l o established a fi r m c o n t r o l over the majority of the Executive Committee f o r i t was composed, of the Association o f f i c e r s , the presidents of the federal and p r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t Associations along with representa-t i v e s f o r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , L i b e r a l Senators, L i b e r a l members of the House of Commons, L i b e r a l members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and a l l L i b e r a l candidates defeated 34-i n the most recent e l e c t i o n . Since the o f f i c e r s of the Association were appointed by P a t t u l l o himself and since most of the L i b e r a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e and. t h e i r defeated colleagues were close to the p r o v i n c i a l leader, P a t t u l l o was g e n e r a l l y able to.override opposition generated by federal leadern. In addition to P a t t u l l o * s a b i l i t y to control the formal apparatus of party machinery, the kk t r a d i t i o n cond.uot of most of the party's "business w i t h i n a small c i r c l e of the leader's confidant further enlarged the power of the p r o v i n c i a l leader. Before the e l e c t i o n v i c t o r y i n 1933 the p r o v i n c i a l organizer, Major J . S. Moodie worked very c l o s e l y with P a t t u l l o , while A, M. Manson, the former attorney general who was close to P a t t u l l o before he moved into f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s was a charter member of the powerful Finance Committee established i n 1931» A f t e r P a t t u l l o became Premier the Vancouver Centre organization, centered around, the F a r r i s brothers, not only exercised a great deal of power w i t h i n the party but also created, the most e f f e c t i v e organizational l i n k between the fed.eral and. p r o v i n c i a l wings of the party. While the F a r r i s group includ.ed. several p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s who l a t e r moved, into fed e r a l p o l i t i c s , J . W. deB. F a r r i s continued to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s a f t e r he was c a l l e d to the Senate i n 1937 and Wendell F a r r i s served as party treasurer and chairman, of the Finance Committee. Although the F a r r i s brothers were e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e i n r e v o l t against the Premier i n 19^1, throughout most of the P a t t u l l o period, they coordinated the two spheres of party organization and. finance.-^ Indeed, i n 1937, Wendell F a r r i s restrained. P a t t u l l o when he threatened to separate the two wings of the party a f t e r the Premier had. been harassed by several f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s which 45 emerged both from, the 1935 election, and from h i s own 36 d i f f i c u l t i e s with Prime M i n i s t e r King. Within the sphere of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s P a t t u l l o maintained a f a i r l y t i g h t c o n t r o l over h i s organization. Although P a t t u l l o experienced, s e v e r a l p u b l i c rebukes from l e g i s l a t i v e members, he maintained a more d i s c i p l i n e d party government than d i d Premier O l i v e r . In 1934 9 however, he found that he was unable to prevent f i v e L i b e r a l s from v o t i n g against a government measure concer-ning a plan to build, the Fraser River brid.ge. This d i f f i -c u l t y occurred because many L i b e r a l s had assumed that 37 a f t e r .1933 the party would, end caucus c o n t r o l . ' Despite the promise i n the L i b e r a l platform of 1933» however, the Premier found, that he needled caucus c o n t r o l and e v i d e n t l y convinced most L i b e r a l s to voice t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s i n caucus a f t e r t h i s a f f a i r . Until 1939 the isolated, c o n f l i c t s within, the p r o v i n c i a l party were p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of p e r s o n a l i t y clashes or injured egos. There was, f o r example, the long standing feud between P a t t u l l o and G. G. McGeer. McGeer had attacked his leader on the eve of the s u c c e s s f u l e l e c t i o n of 1933> p o s s i b l y because he already knew of h i s o p f a i l u r e to make a cabinet post.- McGeer and. P a t t u l l o 46 again feuded when McGeer became mayor of Vancouver and. yet again when McGeer entered federal p o l i t i c s . P a t t u l l o also had differences with Harry Perry, a. p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t a l w a r t , who a l s o was excluded, from inner government 3 9 c i r c l e s on more than one occasion. SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: U n t i l f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s were shattered i n 194l P a t t u l l o maintained, e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and a s i n g l e and f a i r l y w e l l i n t e -grated organization which served, the needs of both f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s . Even before his e l e c t i o n P a t t u l l o had. worked, on. behalf of federal candidates and made his organization and resources a v a i l a b l e to the f e d e r a l wing. In 1930, while King d i d not wish to be associated, with the recentl3>- defeated, p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , he s t i l l u t i l i z e d P a t t u l l o * s organization. In the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1935 P a t t u l l o placed, his e n t i r e party and government behind. King i n s p i t e of suggestions of f r i c t i o n between the two men. Almost every major p r o v i n c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y , i n c l u d i n g most cabinet m i n i s t e r s , campaigned, f o r t h e i r f e l l o w L i b e r a l candidates with the one exception of G. G. McGeer, who was snubbed hj the entire P a t t u l l o hO government. The close a s s o c i a t i o n of the two wings 4? of the party was so complete and so s t r i k i n g that Bruce Hutchison commented that the P a t t u l l o government: ". . . has now I d e n t i f i e d i t s e l f so i n t i m a t e l y with the fate of L i b e r a l candidates that a reverse f o r them c e r t a i n l y would be a grave blow to the P a t t u l l o government, j u s t as t h e i r success would, be a great help, Mr. P a t t u l l o , apparently w e l l aware of what he was doing, d e f i n i t e l y associated himself with the r e s u l t of the e l e c t i o n l a s t week and. a.s t h i s i s w r i t t e n i s a s s o c i a t i n g himself with Mr. King — a touching r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a f t e r a l l that has happened, between them. " 4 l Although both wings of the L i b e r a l Party a s s i s t e d each other i n e l e c t i o n s , they also Independently reserved the r i g h t to suggest the form of public a s s o c i a t i o n during each campaign. Whenever a close a l l i a n c e between provin-c i a l and f e d e r a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s or governments was c o n s i -dered a l i a b i l i t y to that wing of the party faced with a campaign, the party d.isguised the u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s j o i n t organization and r e l i e d on only i n d i v i d u a l members of the other wing f o r campaign, purposes. S e l e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s kind was l a r g e l y dependent upon the extent of personal obligations amongst the party members. The pattern, of j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l and. provin-c i a l e l e ctions has, moreover, varied f o r while p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leaders and. even. L i b e r a l premiers have campaigned personally, as a group or as a government f o r federal L i b e r a l s both w i t h i n and outside the province, the 48 p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f e d e r a l representatives i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s was r e s t r i c t e d to i n d i v i d u a l members and rarely 42 involved the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l leader. Although the ground, rules f o r j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e l e c t i o n campaigns were r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r , f r i c t i o n between the two groups often emerged from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with e i t h e r the form or the r e s u l t s of mutual venture. Since each group believed that i t s own success both i n the campaign and i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e generally was i n part dependent upon the c o n t r i b u t i o n of the other wing, f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n was p a r t i c u l a r l y prevelant during campaign s i t u a t i o n s . For example, i n 1935, many L i b e r a l s had a n t i c i p a t e d a s u b s t a n t i a l increase i n the number of members of parliament elected, from the province and. when the r e s u l t s f a i l e d to meet t h e i r expectations, they sought an explanation i n the Inadequacy of the j o i n t campaign and. P a t t u l l o was prompted to complain to King that "Some of the sorehead.s are looking f o r a scapegoat and want to 4 3 take i t out on me." Because of the dissatisfaction with the r e s u l t of t h i s e l e c t i o n and. the subsequent s t r a i n s between the p r o v i n c i a l and. federal governments, P a t t u l l o suggested, a separation of the two wings of the 44 _ •  p r o v i n c i a l organization. P a t t u l l o may w e l l have raised possible organizational separation to improve his 49 bargaining p o s i t i o n with King and the f e d e r a l party. C e r t a i n l y the party had always considered any separation of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l organizations as p o l i t i c a l l y dangerous. POLICY DIFFERENCES: A l t h o u g h the major source of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s period were derived from c o n f l i c t s between the governments of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, the r e s u l t a n t c o n f l i c t s had d i r e c t repercussions upon the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . Conservative Prime Min i s t e r R. B. Bennett had not responded, to P a t t u l l o ' s requests f o r f e d e r a l loans, p u b l i c work schemes, PCS n a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n and "Better Terms" and, therefore, P a t t u l l o 4<^  expected more from King's L i b e r a l government. The depression was p a r t i c u l a r l y severe i n the p r o v i n c e and many unemployed, men migrated to B r i t i s h Columbia, because of the favorable climate. P a t t u l l o ha.d been elected on. a vague program of "Work and Wages," which, nevertheless, offered hopes of a small New Deal program of public works and welfare a s s i s t a n c e . The resources of the province were, however, i n s u f f i c i e n t to support the program and P a t t u l l o was badl3' i n need of federal a i d to continue and. expand the small p r o v i n c i a l program which he had. i n i t i a t e d . Unfortunately, P a t t u l l o found that King was 50 as unreceptive as Bennett to most of his requests. With the close of r e l i e f camps i n 1938 unemployed men demon-stra t e d i n Vancouver and occupied the Art Ga l l e r y , the Hotel Georgia and. the Post Of f i c e but King only assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r unemployed transients and. the labor demands of the War rather than pu b l i c p o l i c y f i n a l l y 46 eased the p r o v i n c i a l unemployment c r i s i s . In 1938 P a t t u l l o renewed. B r i t i s h Columbia's claim, f o r "Better Terms" and. submitted, a d e t a i l e d b r i e f to a newly appointed fed.eral commission on Dominion-Provincial r e l a t i o n s T h i s claim f o r "Better Terms" was not only more comprehensive than any of i t s forerunners but also developed I t s argument around the p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i n c i a l autonomy. Although p r o v i n c i a l autonomy had. been a popular issue during the early years of the province's h i s t o r y , World War I had diluted, s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g and. made the province more n a t i o n a l l y minded. The Commission's report of 1940 expressed, and. supported the federal government's desire to achieve a permanent s o l u t i o n to the recurrent f i n a n c i a l problems r e l a t e d to the ambiguous d i v i s i o n of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power between the two l e v e l s of government. These c o n s t i t u t i o n a l questions were aggrava-ted by the wartime conditions and to t h i s end. King stressed that a clea.rer d e f i n i t i o n of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l 51 r e l a t i o n s would a.id the war e f f o r t and f a c i l i t a t e post-war readjustment. P a t t u l l o strongly opposed, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes and. f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l agreements which encouraged c e n t r a l i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when they were to be i n s t i t u -ted. und.er the pressure of war. He was convinced that p r o v i n c i a l governments required not only a l l t h e i r e x i s t i n g functions Tout a l s o , because of the increasing-need f o r welfare government, even wider c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers and. even more benevolent federal a i d . This view wa.s not shared, by a l l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and both the fe d e r a l wing and the Young L i b e r a l s had expressed, support f o r a c e n t r a l i s t p o s i t i o n by 1 9 4 - 1 . ^ 9 The d i v i s i o n s which t h i s issue created, w i t h i n the party were, however, compounded by several t a c t i c a l errors committed by Pa.ttullo during the course- of the Conference. The Premier's r e f u s a l to allow the caucus or l e g i s l a t u r e to disucss the Commission's report or h i s own future p o l i c y was i n j u r i o u s to his p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the provin-c i a l party. Although he i n s i s t e d the Conference with an open mind, i t was c l e a r that P a t t u l l o would not agree to any permanent surrender of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s . Since the war issue was r a i s e d a.s a reason f o r such c o n s t i t u t i o n a l modifications, e d i t o r i a l opinion In. the province expressed opposition to P a t t u l l o ' s stand and. althought the Executive Committee expressed t h e i r confiden In t h e i r leader and. h i s p o l i c y , there were some murmurings of discontent w i t h i n L i b e r a l ranks.-5° Even before the Conference several L i b e r a l back benchers had complained that L i b e r a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e were not consulted. or even informed on proposed, government l e g i s l a t i o n or 51 p o l i c y . Upon his return from the Conference c r i t i c i s m , of P a t t u l l o became p a r t i c u l a r l y acute f o r he had. joined with Premiers Hepburn and Aberhart i n open opposition to King's p o l i c y and also l e f t the impression that he was i n f l e x i b l e by his r e f u s a l to discuss the report i n committee. While the p r o v i n c i a l cabinet strongly supported P a t t u l l o ' s p o s i t i o n i n p u b l i c , there were rumors that John Hart, the mini s t e r of finance, was displeased with the Premier's conduct at the Conference. The only p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m from w i t h i n the party at the time was expressed by the fed e r a l cabinet m i n i s t e r from the province, Ian MaeKenzie and by the New Westminster member of parliament, Thomas 53 Reid. ^ J . G. Turgeon, the member of parliament f o r Cariboo also questioned Pat t u l l o ? s position, f o r he c a l l e d f o r "An immediate B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Convention to discuss, define and determine our l o y a l t i e s . I r o n i c a l l y , only McGeer was hesitant to c r i t i c i z e P a t t u l l o 53 and warned- the party against unnecessary dissension."~" P a t t u l l o c a l l e d f o r a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n f o r the f a l l of 194-1 and the Dominion-Provincial Conference became one of the major campaign issues. Although Thomas Reid cam-paigned, f o r P a t t u l l o , most other members of the f e d e r a l 6^ wing remained p o l i t e l y out of the pub l i c eye." The L i b e r a l government l o s t 10 seats i n the e l e c t i o n and there were immediate suggestions of a c o a l i t i o n . The idea was popularly presented i n the p r o v i n c i a l press and gained support w i t h i n P a t t u l l o ' s cabinet. The Premier n a t u r a l l y refused to consider the p o s s i b i l i t y and. without a f u l l c o n s ultation with his cabinet departed f o r Ottawa i n order to discuss a tax agreement with King. Many p r o v i n c i a l cabinet ministers were opposed to P a t t u l l o ' s journey and. cabinet m i n i s t e r George Pearson indicated, that without the support of h i s l e g i s l a t i v e party P a t t u l l o had no r i g h t to negotiate f o r the province i n Ottawa."' C e r t a i n l y P a t t u l l o 1 s a r b i t r a r y a c t i o n united various elements of the p r o v i n c i a l l y and. f e d e r a l l y based party i n opposition to the p r o v i n c i a l leader over the issue of c o a l i t i o n . Although John Hart had t r a v e l l e d to Ottawa with P a t t u l l o as the most l i k e l y successor to the Premier he became the focus of a l l opposition to P a t t u l l o . When. George Pearson refused to accept a. cabinet p o s i t i o n upon 54 the Premier 1 s retu r n from Ottawa, and when Hart was asked, to r e s i g n , f o l l o w i n g h i s pu b l i c statement favoring c o a l i t i o n , P a t t u l l o l o s t a l l hope of c o n t r o l l i n g the party. In a.ddition to h i s major cabinet m i n i s t e r s , the majority of the f e d e r a l representatives were also eager ^o see P a t t u l l o step down, even at the cost of c o a l i t i o n . Indeed., even King probabljr favored, c o a l i t i o n at t h i s time.5® F i n a l l y o f f i c e r s of the Association, l i k e p r e s i -dent W. J . Knox, who were o r i g i n a l l y appointed, by P a t t u l l o , joined, the forces of opposition. Without con-s u l t a t i o n with the Premier, Knox c a l l e d a convention only two days before the l e g i s l a t u r e was to meet.-^ P a t t u l l o made l i t t l e e f f o r t to organize h i s shrinking supporters and had apparently accepted defeat. Nevertheless, the r e s o l u t i o n f o r c o a l i t i o n was c a r r i e d by a vote of only 4 ? ? to 3 1 2 which Indicated the s u r v i v i n g depth of P a t t u l l o * s 6 0 support. The leaders of both wings of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Party p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e v o l t against P a t t u l l o . While provincially-based. leaders directed the r e v o l t , the federal wing was deeply involved, i n the proceedings. The unusually a c t i v e r o l e of federal L i b e r a l s from the province i n t h i s challenge to the p r o v i n c i a l leadership had developed during the Dominion-Provincial Conference, 55 The p r o v i n c i a l r e v o l t was., thus, i n p e r t r e l a t e d to a f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d issue which had already s t r a i n e d the un i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . Those p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s who opposed P a t t u l l o on t h i s issue found, i t convenient to a l l y themselves with the f e d e r a l wing which was already disturbed, by the p r o v i n c i a l leader's a c t i o n s . While the r e v o l t was directed, by the prov i n -c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and while the p r o v i n c i a l wing continued to c o n t r o l the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , the support f o r c o a l i t i o n and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e v o l t against P a t t u l l o was c l e a r l y related, to the f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l , s t r a i n s which developed during the l a s t years of the P a t t u l l o ad_ministration. Throughout t h i s period the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader often dominated the a c t i v i t e s and. p o l i c i e s of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . Although O l i v e r was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than the younger P a t t u l l o i n the exercise of h i s c o n t r o l over h i s p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t e s , he never faced competi-t i o n from the fed.erall wing which u n t i l 1935 remained small and r e l a t i v e l y weak. O l i v e r ' s r e l a t i o n s with King r a r e l y aroused, c o n f l i c t s f o r his p o s i t i o n on f e d e r a l issues never challenged, the p o s i t i o n of the f e d e r a l government. P a t t u l l o ' s ideas on fed.eral-provin.cial r e l a t i o n s , on the other hand, d i r e c t l y clashed with thos 56 of not only King but also of many of the f e d e r a l represen-t a t i v e s from B r i t i s h Columbia. World War I I and the growing c e n t r a l i s t f e e l i n g s i n the province made P a t t u l l o ' autonomous sentiments p a r t i c u l a r l y threatening to the uni t y of the party. U n t i l 194-0, however, P a t t u l l o main-tained v i r t u a l l y complete co n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l party and his organization was used quited e f f e c t i v e l y i n both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s . Indeed, these c o r d i a l working arrangements with the growing f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the province were only broken during the l a s t year of ' hi s leadership. FOOTNOTES 1 Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , MacMillan, Toronto, 1958, p. 392. 2 I b i d . , p. 395. 3 The Vancouver Province, December 19, 1917* 4 I b i d . , November 8, 1917-5 I b i d . , March 9 , 1 9 1 8 . 6 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 7 The Vancouver Province, March 2, 1918. 8 I b i d . , March 6, 1 9 1 8 . 9 I b i d . , March 19, 1918. 10 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 11 The Vancouver Province, January 31, 1919• 12 Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A History, p. 4 l 4 . 13 I b i d . , p. 414-; Perry to O l i v e r , O l i v e r Papers, November 10~, 1921. 14 The Vancouver Province, November 21, 1921. 56 57 15 I b i d . , November 1?, 1921. 16 Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A Histo r y , p. 4 l 4 . 17 The Vancouver Province, December 12, 1921 to December 16, 1921. 1 8 I b i d . , December 13, 1921 and December 16, 1921, 19 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 20 Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A History, p. 424. 21 I b i d . 22 The Vancouver Province, October 4 , 1925-23 I b i d . , May 21, 1924. 24 I b i d . , p. 425. 2 5 I b i d . 26 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 27 The Vancouver Province, J u l y 10, 1928. 28 I b i d . , J u l y 5, 1928. 29 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 58 30 John N e i l Sutherland, P a t t u l l o as Party Leader, M. A. Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i 9 6 0 , p. 10. 31 R. MacGregor Dawson, The Government of Canada, Un i v e r s i t y of Toronto Press, 1958, p. 4 9 5 . 32 Sutherland, Op. C i t . , p. 1 8 . 33 This was confirmed by several L i b e r a l s who were a c t i v e during the P a t t u l l o period. 34 Sutherland, QJD. C i t . , pp. 19-20. 35 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 36 Sutherland, Op. C i t . , p. 8 4 ; Wendell F a r r i s to P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o Papers, September 2 4 , 193?• 37 The Vancouver Sun, November 3, 1933* 38 Sutherland, Op. C i t . , p. 59• 39 I b i d . , p. 83 and The Vancouver Sun, December 21, 1938. 40 The Vancouver Province, October 8, 1935-4 l I b i d . , September 28, 1935-4 2 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 43 Sutherland, P a t t u l l o as Party Leader, p. 8 4 ; P a t t u l l o to King, P a t t u l l o Papers, September 2 4 , 1937* 59 44 See p. 45 and f o o t n o t e 36. 45 S u t h e r l a n d , p_p_. C i t . , p. 66. 4 6 I b i d . , p. 95; K i n g to P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o Papers, J u l y oT~1938. 4? B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia i n the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , King's P r i n t e r , 1938. 4 8 S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o as P a r t y Leader, p. 98; K i n g to P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o Papers, November 2, 1940. 49 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 22, 1938. 50 The Vancouver Sun, November 25, 1940. 5 1 I b i d . , November 20, 1940. 52 I b i d . , January 2? , 1 9 4 l . 53 I b i d . , January l 6 , 1 9 4 1 . 54 I b i d . , January 21, 1 9 4 l . 55 I b i d . , January 17, 1941 56 I b i d . , October 8, 1 9 4 l . 57 I b i d . , January 17, 1941, p. 125. 58 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James . S i n c l a i r , January 11,1965-59 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , November 18, 1941. 60 I b i d . , December 3, 1 9 4 l . CHAPTER POUR THE REPERCUSSIONS OP PROVINCIAL COALITION I 9 L 1 _ 1952 Although the L i b e r a l s In Ottawa and V i c t o r i a continued to hold power concurrently u n t i l 1952, between 194-1 and 1952 the pattern of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p>,arty r e l a t i o n s was s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d by the pro-v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n with the Progressive Conservatives. The c o a l i t i o n was dominated by the L i b e r a l Party and the two L i b e r a l C o a l i t i o n i s t premiers of the p e r i o d , John Hart and Byron Johnson, a l s o served as the p r o v i n -c i a l leaders of the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia. The L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n preserved i t s u n i f i e d , s t r u c t u r e and attempted to serve both f e d e r a l and. c o a l i t i o n needs. To accommodate the c o a l i t i o n , however, the p r o v i n c i a l party was forced to modify some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e proce-dures and develop new g u i d e l i n e s f o r the p u b l i c a s s o c i a t i o n of the two wings of the p a r t y . While these adjustments allowed the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n to f u n c t i o n In both spheres of i n t e r e s t , eventually some members of the f e d e r a l wing f e l t threatened by the c o a l i t i o n and claimed that i t was destroying the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the L i b e r a l Party. Consequently, 60 61 although the c o a l i t i o n i n i t i a l l y found wide support w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Party, the administrative d i f f i c u l -t i e s posed by a p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n f o r a p a r t i s a n f e d e r a l party eventually i n i t i a t e d and i n t e n s i f i e d s t r a i n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . HART 1941 - 1947: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION As premier of the province John Hart retained the c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . During the Convention of 1 9 4 l the Ass o c i a t i o n had approved the party's entry i n t o a c o a l i t i o n with the Progressive Conservatives. Although P a t t u l l o retained some support at that convention, almost every major provin-c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y favored c o a l i t i o n and stood f i r m l y behind the leadership of John Hart. Indeed, although f e d e r a l leaders were generally suspicious of c o a l i t i o n s and were r e s i s t i n g pressures f o r a war-time c o a l i t i o n i n Ottawa, the c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia received the i n d i r e c t and u n o f f i c i a l support of the fe d e r a l party, which was r e l i e v e d to see P a t t u l l o r e t i r e d . Many L i b e r a l s believed that Prime M i n i s t e r King a c t u a l l y favored the c o a l i t i o n despite h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s to members of the fed e r a l wing i n the province to vote as p r i v a t e L i b e r a l s and not as representatives of the 62 f e d e r a l government. 1 Consequently, w h i l e many f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s f o l l o w e d the l e a d of the c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r from the p r o v i n c e , Ian MacKenzie, and r e f r a i n e d from t a k i n g s i d e s i n p u b l i c , w i t h i n the p a r t y i t was w e l l known t h a t almost every member of the f e d e r a l wing support c o a l i t i o n ^ and the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p of John Har t . I n exchange f o r t h e i r support, however, the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y demanded t h a t a separate L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n be ma i n t a i n e d throughout the term of the L c o a l i t i o n . F e d e r a l l e a d e r s a l s o requested t h a t the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s should not support a c o a l i t i o n on the f e d e r a l l e v e l of government. These terms were accepted by the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and the co n v e n t i o n , once i t had approved the c o a l i t i o n , passed two r e s o l u -t i o n s which c o n t a i n e d the f e d e r a l demands.-' The f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h these arrangements and l e f t the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n e n t i r e l y under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . I t was understood, however, t h a t because the c o a l i t i o n would r e q u i r e a s e p a r a t i o n of the two wings i n p u b l i c , the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s would assume more d i r e c t c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g f e d e r a l campaigns. Consequently, a l t h o u g h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s had o r i g i n a l l y f e a r e d t h a t a p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y would erode t h e i r own base of support w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , 6 3 they e v e n t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d to r e t a i n t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a -t i o n w i t h the s t r o n g and s u c c e s s f u l p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e . Indeed, even when a d m i n i -s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s between the two wings o f the p a r t y emerged because of the c o a l i t i o n , the f e d e r a l wing made no attempt to c h a l l e n g e the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n . While a few members of the f e d e r a l p a r t y hoped t h a t the c o a l i t i o n would be t e r m i n a t e d w i t h H a r t ' s r e t i r e m e n t i n 19^7, s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l members of the f e d e r a l wing i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l supported L i b e r a l , c o a l i t i o n i s t s and appeared r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . ^ A l t h o u g h Hart encountered some d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n c a b i n e t , there was o n l y o c c a s i o n a l o p p o s i t i o n to him from w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l ranks of h i s own p a r t y . The breaks i n L i b e r a l u n i t y which o c c u r r e d ; d u r i n g the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 19^ 5 when independent; L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e s r a n i n Vancouver, L i l l o o e t , and Rev e l s t o k e d i d not r e p r e s e n t a s e r i o u s t h r e a t to Hart's c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n or h i s l e a d e r s h i p of the coali t i o n . - 5 The c o a l i t i o n Premier merely r e f u s e d to endorse these ca n d i d a t e s and the L i b e r a l f a c t i o n s which supported them. He t r e a t e d s i m i l a r c h a l l e n g e s w i t h i n the C o n s e r v a t i v e C o a l i t i o n ranks i n the same way and, 64 thereby, d i s a s s o c i a t e d the r e b e l groups from the po p u l a r ; c o a l i t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . ^ I n the e l e c t i o n a l l the independent c a n d i d a t e s were d e f e a t e d and the c o a l i t i o n as a. whole i n c r e a s e d i t s m a j o r i t y i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . A l t h o ugh Hart o f t e n d e l e g a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i -l i t i e s to h i s c l o s e a s s o c i a t e s I n the A s s o c i a t i o n because of h i s d e s i r e to p r e s e r v e h i s image as a c o a l i t i o n r a t h e r than a p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l Premier, h i s c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia was never e f f e c t i v e l y c h a l l e n g e d . SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: R e l a t i o n s w i t h Ottawa and Prime M i n i s t e r K i n g remained outwardly c o r d i a l throughout John Hart's l e a d e r s h i p of the c o a l i t i o n . Throughout the p e r i o d of war, the c o a l i t i o n Premier mad_e c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h Ottawa a major p o l i c y of h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and even a f t e r 19^5 > he d i d not fundamentally change h i s p o l i c y w i t h r e s p e c t to the f e d e r a l government. While he continued B r i t i s h Columbia's t r a d i t i o n of r e q u e s t i n g a d d i t i o n a l money and a s s i s t a n c e from Ottawa, he d i d not oppose any of the new f i n a n c i a l arrangements proposed by Ottawa.''7 Indeed, i t appears t h a t Hart v a l u e d h i s p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p 65 w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s and made a determined e f f o r t to he c o o p e r a t i v e ; one f e d e r a l L i b e r a l r e c a l l e d t h a t the c o a l i t i o n Premier seemed to " c u l t i v a t e " f e d e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s . But i n s p i t e of h i s s t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the L i b e r a l P a r t y and h i s d e s i r e to keep the p a r t y u n i t e d , Hart b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o a l i t i o n r e q u i r e d him to m a i n t a i n an independent i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . While t h e r e were no p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two wings of the p a r t y which caused any i n t e r n a l p a r t y f r i c t i o n , administrative-, d i f f i c u l t i e s c r e a t e d by the circumstances of p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n caused some f e d -e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s . ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: / Although the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n remained f o r m a l l y I n t a c t , the c o a l i t i o n i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the grass r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p a r t y . For example, ) L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s which were de s i g n a t e d to support C o n s e r v a t i v e c o a l i t i o n i s t s , r a r e l y met f o r p a r t i s a n a c t i v i t i e s . Indeed, many L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n e d as c o a l i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s much of the time and there were even, i n s t a n c e s when L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s h e l d j o i n t meetings f o r purposes ot h e r than the nomination of c o a l i t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . The separate i d e n t i t y of the 66 c o a l i t i o n p a r t n e r s was f u r t h e r weakened by the removal from the L i s t of Candidates of a l l p a r t i s a n d i s t i n c t i o n s Q between c o a l i t i o n c a n d i d a t e s . F e d e r a l L i b e r a l s o b j e c -t e d to these p r a c t i c e s on the grounds t h a t they weakened the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but they a l s o under-stood t h a t there was l i t t l e they c o u l d do because d u r i n g the c o a l i t i o n the two wings of the p a r t y had to be kept d i s t i n c t . The n e c e s s i t y f o r the p u b l i c s e p a r a t i o n of f e d e r a l c o a l i t i o n b u s i n e s s made: the d e l i c a t e task of j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l a i d w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t . I n 1944 The P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d t h a t the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s had sought p r o v i n c i a l support i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but Premier Hart had g i v e n l i t t l e encourage-ment because he f e l t t h a t h i s f i r s t duty was to the 9 c o a l i t i o n . Indeed, Hart stayed away from King's 25th , a n n i v e r s a r y p a r t y i n Vancouver i n ord.er to demonstrate ; the n o n - p a r t i s a n nature of h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . He d i d , however, send the Prime M i n i s t e r a p e r s o n a l telegram to e x p l a i n h i s a c t i o n . 1 0 The occurrence of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n i n 19^5 made i t d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r to a l t e r h i s n o n - p a r t i s a n p o l i c y and consequently, the two campaigns were conducted s e p a r a t e l y . No f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s from B r i t i s h Columbia campaigned on b e h a l f of p r o v i n c i a l candidates and o n l y a few members of the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n government a c t i v e l y campaigned f o r f e d e r a l 67 c a n d i d a t e s . During King's v i s i t to the p r o v i n c e i n 19^5, however, a l l l e a d i n g c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l s shared / the p l a t f o r m w i t h the Prime M i n i s t e r . 1 1 This p r a c t i c e was r e p e a t e d i n the Prime M i n i s t e r ' s subsequent v i s i t s t o B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e a complete s e p a r a t i o n of the two wings of the p a r t y was deemed unnecessary and i m p r a c t i c a l l a r g e l y because c o n t a c t s between t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e governments was u n a v o i d a b l e . When the p a r t y l o s t h a l f of i t s 10 seats i n the fedearal e l e c t i o n o f 19^5, a few f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s blamedy the c o a l i t i o n and i t s e f f e c t upon the p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Other members of the f e d e r a l wing, how-ever, were not y e t ready to blame or c h a l l e n g e the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n and, consequently, the f e d e r a l r e v e r s a l of 19^5 d i d not i n i t i a t e p u b l i c disharmony w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . F e d e r a l d i s -s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o a l i t i o n , however, became more n o t i c e a b l e when John Hart announced h i s i n t e n t i o n to r e s i g n . I t was w e l l known and w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d t h a t Hart hoped to be appoi n t e d to the Senate upon h i s r e t i r e -ment from p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and K i n g was undoubtedly aware of t h i s p r e f e r e n c e after„Hart's v i s i t to Ottawa j u s t b e f o r e he announced h i s forthcoming r e s i g n a t i o n . 1 2 K i n g , however, c o u l d not b r i n g h i m s e l f to endorse the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n by g r a n t i n g a reward u s u a l l y 68 r e s e r v e d f o r u n d i l u t e d p a r t i s a n commitment to the L i b e r a l P a r t y . K i n g o f f e r e d Hart s e v e r a l a l t e r n a t i v e appointments but the c o a l i t i o n Premier r e f u s e d them hoping t h a t the Senate seat might be g i v e n to him i n the 1S end. J When Thomas R e i d , the s t a l w a r t member of p a r l i a -ment f o r New Westminster, r e c e i v e d the Senate post and the rumor of the f u t u r e Lieutenant-Governor appointment f o r Hart would never m a t e r i a l i z e , some p r o v i n c i a l L i b -e r a l s h i n t e d t h a t Hart may have been f a l s e l y eased i n t o r e t i r e m e n t by the l u r e of a p o s s i b l e appointment to the 14 Senate. While Hart may have timed h i s announcement a f t e r r e c e i v i n g h i n t s of a f e d e r a l appointment from K i n g , i t was w e l l known t h a t Hart had wanted to r e t i r e f o r some time. N e v e r t h e l e s s , King's a c t i o n confirmed the growing f e d e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Indeed, the l e a d e r s h i p campaign which f o l l o w e d Hart's r e s i g n a t i o n exposed the d e v e l o p i n g a n t i - c o a l i t i o n groups f o r the f i r s t time. Although f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t a i n e d throughout Hart's l e a d e r s h i p of the L i b e r a l P a r t y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements of c o a l i t i o n c o n t a i n e d l a t e r sources of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s which were to t h r e a t e n the u n i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . 69 JOHNSON 19 k? - 1952: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: With the r e t i r e m e n t of H a r t , the campaign f o r a new l e a d e r of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia exposed the embryonic cleavages both w i t h i n the p r o v i n -c i a l p a r t y and between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of the p a r t y . Gordon Wismer, the a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l i n the c o a l i t i o n goveimment, had g e n e r a l l y been expected to assume the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and had the support of prominent p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ Wismer's p o s i t i o n as the "boss" of the Vancouver Centre o r g a n i z a t i o n and h i s p e r s o n a l enforcement of the c o n t r o -v e r s i a l p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r laws had aroused g r e a t concern w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y . L e a d i n g f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s s o l i c i t e d funds to f i n a n c e a campaign a g a i n s t the A t t o r n e y General and James S i n c l a i r , a member of p a r l i a m e n t from North Vancouver, Robert Mayhew, a member of p a r l i a m e n t from V i c t o r i a , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n r i s k e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s by s u p p o r t i n g Byron Johnson, a v i r t u a l l y unknown c o a l i t i o n back bencher. Most of Johnson's supp o r t e r s hoped t h a t he might p r o v i d e a s t r o n g and p r o g r e s s i v e l e a d e r s h i p once the c o a l i t i o n was t e r m i n a t e d . S i n c l a i r not o n l y campaigned f o r Johnson but a l s o v i g o r o u s l y a t t a c k e d the c o a l i t i o n a t the same time. He v o i c e d h i s 70 concern at the convention and complained that there was "no organization among B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l s " and 1 that "no p o l i t i c a l party can survive without organization. In a confused and tense convention Byron Johnson was elected to the p r o v i n c i a l leadership by a small majority. Many of Wismer 1s supporters claimed that several delayed proxies from the North Shore would have brought v i c t o r y to t h e i r candidate but they subsequently withdrew t h e i r support from the c o a l i t i o n and Wismer himself immediately appealed f o r party u n i t y and offered 19 the new p r o v i n c i a l leader h i s assistance. In s p i t e of hi s informal agreement with the a n t i - o o a l i t i o n i s t s to exclude Wismer from the cabinet, Johnson accepted Wismer' o f f e r and thereby a l i e n a t e d h i s a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t supporters, who r e a l i z e d t h e i r m i s c a l c u l a t i o n too l a t e and i r o n i c a l l y r e c a l l e d that " t h e i r candidate" was the i very Father of C o a l i t i o n , the delegate who move the o r i -20 g i n a l r e s o l u t i o n back In 1941." Johnson retained Wismer as a key cabinet minister and as a close personal advisor and demonstrated no i n c l i n a t i o n to abandon the c o a l i t i o n . Indeed, i t was often observed that Wismer's powers i n party matters were greater than those of Johnson f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leader delegated most; problems! of party organization and patronage to Wismer, who l e d 21 the strong Vancouver Centre organization. Conse-quently, Johnson's former supporters gained l i t t l e from 71 t h e i r campaign f o r not o n l y d i d Wismer remain i n a p o s i t i o n of g r e a t power hut a l s o support f o r the c o a l i t i o n was as s t r o n g as ever. Although the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s were l e f t w i t h o u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l e a d e r s h i p ranks of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , they were a b l e to e l e c t one of t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , A r t h u r L a i n g , to the p r e s i d e n c y of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . As the p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n , L a i n g had l i t t l e power w i t h i n the p a r t y hut be f o r e h i s e n t r y i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s i n 1 9 k 9 he p r o -v i d e d the main v o i c e of a n t i - c o a l i t i o n sentiment. By 1 9 k 9» i t was c l e a r t h a t Johnson c o u l d no l o n g e r e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t a i n the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n elements w i t h i n the p a r t y . The p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Gordon Wismer managed to r e t a i n c o n t r o l of the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n but the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p c o u l d not r e s t r a i n the Young L i b e r a l l e a d e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y i n t h e i r j e f f o r t s to d i s c r e d i t and d i s s o l v e the c o a l i t i o n from w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . The Vancouver Branch of the Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia had o r g a n i z e d the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n movement and, by 1 9 k 9 » the group was r e l u c t a n t to "accept., the m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n " 22 on the q u e s t i o n of the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n . At the L i b e r a l Convention of 1 9 k 9» the Young L i b e r a l s 72 formally submitted t h e i r arguments against c o a l i t i o n i n a statement e n t i t l e d "An Appeal to Reason" which i n t e -grated almost every major argument against c o a l i t i o n . The document d i d , however, p a r t i c u l a r l y stress the 2 3 dangers that c o a l i t i o n presented to the fe d e r a l party. The Young L i b e r a l a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s thereby c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h e i r strong i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with federal, p o l i t i c s and t h e i r close a s s o c i a t i o n with a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing of the party. During the convention held i n 1952, the f e d e r a l a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s personally entered the dialogue and the controversy r a p i d l y assumed the properties of a f e d e r a l - p o r v i n c i a l q u a r r e l . During the previous year many federal leaders from the province had campaigned f o r Johnson's r e t i r e -ment. The members of parliament from B r i t i s h Columbia had held informal meetings i n Ottawa i n the spring of 1951 and had agreed not only to urge Premier Johnson to r e t i r e but also to demand the rapid termination of the 24 c o a l i t i o n with the Conservatives. Many p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s found the Premier d i f f i c u l t to work with e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r h i s i n j u r y i n an automobile accident in 1950 but the fe d e r a l meetings d i d not encourage a p r o v i n c i a l challenge to Johnson's leadership. The 73 p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n , Harry P e r r y , alone s i d e d w i t h the f e d e r a l wing and openly c a l l e d f o r Johnson's 25 r e s i g n a t i o n . A l t hough the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n was i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v i d e d over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c o a l i t i o n , the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s r e t a i n e d the c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e s i s t e d f e d e r a l p r e s s u r e to hasten the r e t i r e m e n t of the Premier or to end the c o a l i t i o n . ^ 6 In 1952 the Premier d i s m i s s e d the C o n s e r v a t i v e c o a l i t i o n l e a d e r and m i n i s t e r of f i n a n c e , Herbert Anscomb, and o f f i c i a l l y ended the c o a l i t i o n but the former L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . With the end of c o a l i t i o n , Johnson and Wismer d i s a g r e e d over the p a r t y ' s best s t r a t e g y but, n e v e r t h e l e s s , i n 1952 the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s campaigned w i t h the f u l l c o n t r o l of the p a r t y ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n a l machinery. The L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was, however, s e r i o u s l y damaged by the cleavages w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n , and by the p u b l i c c o n f l i c t s w i t h accompanied the p r e -campaign Convention of 1952. The Convention r e j e c t e d the • Premier's major p o l i c y on co-insurance and Johnson i n t u r n rebuked the Convention. 2' 7 With a d i v i d e d o r g a n i z a -t i o n and a d i v i d e d l e a d e r s h i p , the L i b e r a l s s u f f e r e d severe e l e c t o r a l l o s s e s from which they have never rec o v e r e d . While the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s ' campaign had c h a l l e n g e d 74 the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and h i s c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a -t i o n , the Young L i b e r a l s and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing had not r e a l l y a t t a c k e d the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and u n t i l t h e i r d e f e a t i n the e l e c t i o n of 1952, the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n remained f i r m l y i n the hands of the former L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s . SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: The l o n g e r the c o a l i t i o n was p r e s e r v e d the g r e a t e r were the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems which the c o a l i -t i o n c r e a t e d f o r the f e d e r a l wing i n c r e a s e d . As the c o a l i t i o n l o s t support w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were l e s s t o l e r a n t of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n c o n -v e n i e n c e s . They argued t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n endangered the i d e n t i t y of the L i b e r a l P a r t y and, a l t h o u g h the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were t h a n k f u l not to be too c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o a l i t i o n i s t s or c o a l i t i o n p o l i c y , t h e y o b j e c t e d to the removal of a l l r e f e r e n c e s to the L i b e r a l P a r t y w i t h i n the sphere of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s The f e d e r a l l e a d e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t the c o a l i t i o n i s t s had underminded the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n upon which the w e l f a r e of the e n t i r e p a r t y depended. The Young L i b e r a l s statement to the Convention of 1949 blamed the c o a l i t i o n 75 f o r the poor L i b e r a l showing i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1 9 k 5 : The r e s u l t f e d e r a l l y has been obvious. One o f the most competent and e t h i c a l a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n s t h a t any country has known has been a b l e to secure o n l y one-quarter of the s e a t s i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . I t can not be denied that p r o v i n c i a l C o a l i t i o n i s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s . I t has not been p o s s i b l e to proceed w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h any e f f e c t i v e n e s s because x y of the C o a l i t i o n . I n b e t t e r f a i t h than t h e i r p a r t n e r s the L i b e r a l s haven't been a c t i v e i n the f i e l d , of o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e the C o a l i t i o n was formed. Throughout Canada, the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the p o l i t i c a l key. We cannot a f f o r d to d i s m a n t e l our o r g a n i z a t i o n as we have done and we can do n o t h i n g e l s e which we c o n t i n u e i n c o a l i t i o n . 2 8 A l t h ough the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n the p r o v i n c e more than doubled t h e i r numbers i n the e l e c t i o n of 1 9 k 9 , f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n to the c o a l i t i o n c o n t i n u e d . As i n 1 9 k 5? the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s were h e l d c l o s e t o g e t h e r and t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d to the s t r a i n s a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g between the two wings of the p a r t y . In June, o n l y two days a f t e r winning the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , w Premier Johnson announced t h a t the members of the c o a l i -t i o n c a b i n e t would not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign. 2 9 Although the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n performed many of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s f o r the f e d e r a l wing d u r i n g the campaign, f e d e r a l l e a d e r s d i s c o v e r e d the e x t e n t to which the c o a l i t i o n had eroded some L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The L i b e r a l candidate i n Y a l e , 76 f o r example, was denied the o f f i c i a l support of the L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , which c a r r i e d over the c o a l i -t i o n m e n t a l i t y i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s and supported the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e candidate i n order to ensure the d e f e a t of the s o c i a l i s t candidate by a combined non-s o c i a l i s t vote.^° I n s p i t e of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s posed by the c o a l i t i o n f e d e r a l l e a d e r s r e s i s t e d the tem p t a t i o n to withdraw from the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . A lthough by 1951 > mosit members of p a r l i a m e n t from B r i t i s h Columbia f a v o r e d the d i s s o l u t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n , they not o n l y r e a l i z e d the val u e of a grass r o o t s o r g a n i z a t i o n m a i n t a i n e d by the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y but a l s o a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t the d u p l i c a t i o n of r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s was d i f f i -c u l t and expensive. Even i f the f e d e r a l wing developed i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t i t would o n l y compound the c o n f u s i o n a l r e a d y c r e a t e d w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e by the c o a l i t i o n p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Most f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s hoped to salvage a u n i t e d p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y as an e l e c t o r a l a s s e t f o r both wings of the p a r t y . Only when they were convinced t h a t t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e i n B r i t i s h Columbia would be harmed by the d e c l i n i n g f o r t u n e s of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s d i d the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s , as members of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , campaign f o r the end of c o a l i t i o n . They hoped t h a t the 77 f r i c t i o n and d i s u n i t y demonstrated by t h e i r p u b l i c opposition to c o a l i t i o n would benefit the party as a whole f o r the c o a l i t i o n administration had l o s t i t s appeal i n the province. This strategy was, therefore, designed to protect and increase t h e i r influence w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l party. POLICY DIFFERENCES: With the conclusion of World. War I I , the continua-t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n was based upon the argument that only a combination of n o n - s o c i a l i s t forces could r e s i s t the Increasing p o p u l a r i t y of the C.C.F. i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Federal L i b e r a l s , as a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s , d i s -missed t h i s reasoning and maintained that the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s had themselves compromised and perverted the progressive aspects of l i b e r a l i s m by t h e i r c o a l i t i o n with the Conservatives. Many a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s believed that the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had i n f a c t a l ienated a large segment of the p r o v i n c i a l electorate which was i n support of s o c i a l reform and had., therefore, forced the younger generation to look to the C.C.F. f o r progressive measures. In 19^9 the Young L i b e r a l s complained that the party had abdicated i t s progressive t r a d i t i o n and suggested that i t should "rearm" i t s e l f , "not only with organization but 31 with our p r i n c i p l e s . " ^ Most of the federal wing joined the Young L i b e r a l s i n undermining the foundation of the 78 post-war c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r they f e l t that t h e i r own e l e c t o r a l success i n the province was based upon the a t t r a c t i o n s of the "progressive" aspects of f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y . In a d d i t i o n to t h i s basic disagreement over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c o a l i t i o n between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of the p a r t y , a f t e r 1 9 5 0 , most f e d e r a l leaders Increasingly expressed opposition to s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s of the c o a l i t i o n a d ministration. In 1 9 5 0 , Senator Thomas Beid attacked the cond.nct of negotiations with the Aluminium Company of Canada by the p r o v i n c i a l leader and challenged Premier Johnson to debate the i s s u e , Johnson, i n turn, accused the Senator of almost d r i v i n g the company out of the province.-^ 2 Several members of the f e d e r a l wing l a t e r . clashed with the p r o v i n c i a l leader over the new f o r e s t ; management p o l i c y introduced by the c o a l i t i o n since i t y apparently threatened the truck loggers of the province^ George Cruikshank, the member of parliament f o r Fraser V a l l e y , openly charged that the c o a l i t i o n was catering to the b i g business while several other f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g James S i n c l a i r , questioned Johnson on the issue because they had close associations with the 33 truck logging i n t e r e s t s i n the province. I t appeared that the new p o l i c y would give large companies an u n f a i r advantage i f not a monopoly on the timber 79 resources of the province. Some a l t e r a t i o n s were made to the o r i g i n a l proposals but Johnson suggested that the fede r a l L i b e r a l s mind t h e i r own business. In 1951 and again i n 1952 federal leaders c r i t i c i z e d the c o a l i -t i o n's h o s p i t a l insurance plan, which had already created concern w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n ranks as w e l l as the provi n -35 c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Federal L i b e r a l s objected to the method of fee c o l l e c t i o n prescribed by the co-insurance ^ plan and, during the 1952 convention, they helped to organize the r e j e c t i o n of the Premier's major p o l i c y . Although the c o a l i t i o n i s t s were themselves divided i n the Convention of 1952, they resented both the open c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r p o l i c i e s by federal leaders and the severe d i s u n i t y which i t i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r 1947 the growing federal opposition to the c o a l i t i o n combined with the determination of the Young L i b e r a l a n t i c o a l i t i o n i s t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l organi-z a t i o n and. created severe s t r a i n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . Although there was su b s t a n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l opposition to the c o a l i t i o n , the ac t i v e involvement of several members of the federal .wing gave the c o a l i t i o n controversy the q u a l i t i e s of a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l q u a r r e l . Special organizational problems are always presented by a p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n when the federal 80 party continues to operate on a s t r i c t l y p a r t i s a n b a s i s . These problems were, however, compounded when the federal wing i n B r i t i s h Columbia f e l t that i t s own p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the province was threatened by the continuation of the c o a l i -t i o n . Consequently, while s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c y differences existed between the fe d e r a l L i b e r a l s and the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s , the i n i t i a l sources of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n emerged from the administrative problems encoun-tered by the f e d e r a l wing and t h e i r perception of e l e c t o r a l interdependence w i t h i n the province. Although these sources of s t r a i n were evident throughout the en t i r e period of c o a l i t i o n , during the war most fe d e r a l leaders believed that the c o a l i t i o n served the i n t e r e s t s of the province and the party and were, consequently, l e s s impatient with administrative problems. Powerful members of the fed e r a l party supported John Hart and serious f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were generally avoided. By 1 9 k 9 » however, the f e d e r a l campaign aginst the c o a l i t i o n was strengthened by the e l e c t i o n of several young members of parliament, who were strongly opposed to c o a l i t i o n and although they challenged the p r o v i n c i a l leadership and the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they d i d not d i r e c t l y question the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o v i n c i a l control of the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia. Despite the severe s t r a i n s and 81 and cleavages w i t h i n the party during Johnson's leader-ship of the party, the former L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s retained c o n t r o l of the organization u n t i l t h e i r defeat as p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l s i n 1952. FOOTNOTES 1 John N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o as P a r t y L e a d e r , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I960, p. 128. 2 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , November 21, 1941. 3 I b i d . , December 3 , 1941. 4 A group l e d by S e n a t o r s F a r r i s and and S. S. McKeen s t i l l f a v o r e d the c o a l i t i o n a t t h i s t i m e . 5 The Vanco u v e r P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 1, 1945. 6 I b i d . , O c t o b e r 2 2 , 1945. 7 Edward M. Hepner, The B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y , G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 19627 pp. 41-42. 8 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. H a r r y Dennison, J a n u a r y 2 0 , 1965. 9 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , August 19 , 1944. 10 I b i d . 11 I b i d . , May 17 , 1945-12 J . K. N e s b i t t , " W h a t i s the C r y s t a l B a l l F o r e c a s t f o r B.C.'s P r e m i e r John H a r t ? " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , V o l . 6 3 , September 1 3 , 194? , p. 24. 13 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , May 8, 1947; September 16, 1947. 82 83 14- Hepner, p_p_. C i t . , p. 42. 15 The group around Senator F a r r i s were strong supporters of Gordon Wismer. Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 1 9 , 1966. 16 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 3 0 , 1965. 17 B l a i r F raser, " B r i t i s h Columbia C o a l i t i o n Commits S u i c i d e , " MacLeans, V o l . 6 5 , February 1 5 , 1952, p . 6 0 . 18 The Vancouver Province, December 1 0 , 194-7. 19 Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 1 9 , 1966. 20 B l a i r F raser, " B r i t i s h Columbia C o a l i t i o n Commits S u i c i d e , " p. 6 0 . 21 I b i d . 22 The Vancouver Province, A p r i l 8, 1949. 23 The Vancouver Branch of the Young L i b e r a l s A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, To The L i b e r a l s of B r i t i s h Columbia: An Appeal to Reason, mimeographed, 194-9, P o l 24 The Vancouver Province, March 28, 1951. 25 I b i d . 26 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 27 The Vancouver Province, A p r i l 26 , 1952. 28 The Vancouver Branch of The Young L i b e r a l Associa-t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, An Appeal to Reason, p. 1. 29 'The Vancouver Province, June 17, 1 9 k 9 « 30 I b i d . , June 2 5 , 1 9 k 9 . 31 The Vancouver Branch of The Young L i b e r a l Associa-t i o n of B r i t s h Columbia, l o o , c i t . 32 The Vancouver Province, May 2 3 , 1950. 33 I b i d . , January 9 , 1952 and Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 3 0 , 1965. 34 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30,1965, 35 The Vancouver Province, March 2 8 , 1951 . CHAPTER FIVE THE ECLIPSE OF THE PROVINCIAL WING 1952 - 1965 In the p o s t - c o a l i t i o n period the federal wing of the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia established a dominant p o s i t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . In the years which followed the defeat of the c o a l i t i o n government the L i b e r a l Party f a i l e d to r e t a i n s u f f i c i e n t e l e c t o r a l support to become even the o f f i c i a l opposition party i n V i c t o r i a . In contrast, the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s continued to hold power i n Ottawa u n t i l 1957 and a f t e r f i v e years of opposition, regained power once more and commanded more a t t e n t i o n , respect and f i n a n c i a l support than d i d the p r o v i n c i a l wing. Under these circumstances, the p r o v i n c i a l leaders were unable to r e t a i n the same kind of control over the party organization that the L i b e r a l premiers had maintained throughout the preceding decades. Even between 1957 and 1963, when the fe d e r a l party was i n opposition and when the federal wing i n the province was almost destroyed, the p r o v i n c i a l leader never recovered complete control over the p r o v i n c i a l organization. Since 1963, with the federal party's return to power i n Ottawa and the 85 86 e l e c t i o n of a new c o n t i n g e n t of L i b e r a l MP's from the p r o v i n c e , the dominance of the f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n has been f u r t h e r emphasized. While the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y have p r e s e r v e d t h e i r r i g h t to independent a c t i o n i n many areas of p r o v i n c i a l concern, the expanding d i a l o g u e between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l governments has tended to l i m i t the i n f l u e n c e of the p r o v i n c i a l wing w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n because of t h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f power i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e . U n t i l 1959» most f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were c r e a t e d by the i n c r e a s i n g power of the f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and by the em b a r r a s s i n g l y low e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . A f t e r 1959, however, w i t h the r e o r g a n i z a t i o n of the f e d e r a l wing, the two l e v e l s of the p a r t y have achieved an a d j u s t -ment which more r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e f l e c t e d t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e i n t e r e s t s and i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e . Although the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r had ceased to dominate the a f f a i r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n , p u b l i c c l a s h e s between the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were r e l a t i v e l y f r e q uent u n t i l 1959. Although open q u a r r e l s between the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and the f e d e r a l membership ceased a f t e r 1959, s t r a i n s between the two wings have focused upon grass r o o t s r e s i s t a n c e to f e d e r a l demands to improve the 87 q u a l i t y of the o f f i c e r s of the Ass o c i a t i o n . Neverthe-l e s s , both wings of the party have valued the u n i f i e d structure of the party and have attempted to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r mutual Interests and p o l i c i e s . The deep d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l party were openly exhibited i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1 9 5 2 . The feud between Premier Johnson and Gordon Wismer was continued into the campaign while Johnson attacked the L i b e r a l Convention f o r t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of h i s co-insurance plan. A f t e r t h i s d i s p l a y of d i s u n i t y the fed e r a l leaders were not surprised at the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l party. Many f e d e r a l leaders were p r i v a t e l y pleased at the defeat of many former c o a l i t i o n i s t s but most also r e a l i z e d that the problem of r e b u i l d i n g a u n i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t party organization was now p a r t i c u -l a r l y c r i t i c a l since the p r o v i n c i a l party was weak. Both the prospect of p e r s i s t e n t c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l ranks and the p r o b a b i l i t y of weak L i b e r a l r e -presentation i n V i c t o r i a prompted some fe d e r a l leaders to discuss the f e a s i b i l i t y of a separate federa l organization.-'- While there was j u s t i f i a b l e concern over the possible damage that might be i n f l i c t e d upon the federal p o s i t i o n by the dissension w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing, separation was considered to be a " l a s t - d i t c h measure." An independent federal organization, i t was 88 f e l t , "would d e p r i v e the f e d e r a l people of any i n f l u e n c e p r o v i n c i a l l y . " By 1952, t h i s extreme a l t e r n a t i v e was unnecessary f o r i t was apparent t h a t the e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had c r e a t e d a l e a d e r s h i p vacuum and the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were a b l e to move i n t o p o s i t i o n s of g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and c o n t r o l . LAING 1953 - 1959: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: With the p r o s p e c t of a l o n g p e r i o d of o p p o s i t i o n and only l i m i t e d e l e c t o r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the p a r t y was f a c e d f o r the f i r s t time i n i t s h i s t o r y w i t h the need to r e c r u i t a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . In an attempt to r e u n i t e the p a r t y , the major f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l powers c o n f e r r e d j o i n t l y on the ch o i c e of p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e s f o r the d i f f i c u l t and p o s s i b l e unrewarding p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . The f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , Ralph Campney and James S i n c l a i r , took the i n i t i a t i v e and asked Sidney Smith to co n t i n u e h i s work as p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n and to head an u n o f f i c i a l committee formed to seek a new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . Smith, who had been a d i s c r e e t a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t and had developed some c o n t a c t s w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s before 1952, a c t e d u n o f f i c i a l l y on b e h a l f of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s throughout the p e r i o d . ^ Although he had p r e v i o u s l y been a c t i v e i n 8 9 p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and continued to maintain h i s contacts with several p r o v i n c i a l groups Smith, f i r s t as president of the Ass o c i a t i o n and l a t e r as a Senator, became more involved with the f e d e r a l wing and f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t s * During the months i n which the party had no p r o v i n c i a l leader, Smith a s s i s t e d Campney and S i n c l a i r i n "running the party. "-^  With the prospect of both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n the near future, each mi n i s t e r administered a part of the province and appointed a p r o v i n c i a l party organizer.^ A f t e r i t became c l e a r that James S i n c l a i r would not enter p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , Smith approached Gordon Sloan and Dr. Norman MacKenzie. Some L i b e r a l s had hoped that a prominent p u b l i c f i g u r e would ensure a quick r e v e r s a l i n the party's e l e c t o r a l fortunes. Arthur Laing's name was also c i r c u l a t e d and when both Sloan and MacKenzie declined the leadership p o s i t i o n , he received the approval of both wings of the party. A f t e r some h e s i t a t i o n Laing resigned his fe d e r a l seat and was elected p r o v i n c i a l leader by acclamation during the L i b e r a l Convention of 1 9 5 3 ' Laing's e l e c t i o n was regarded i n a favorable l i g h t by some of the younger elements i n the party for they f e l t that h i s views coincided with those of the progressive wing of the party. Although many fe d e r a l leaders praised Laing f o r his s a c r i f i c e of a promising federal career, i n f l u e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l and federal groups 9 0 w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o p p o s e d some o f h i s e a r l y d e c i s i o n s . The 1 9 5 3 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was c a l l e d j u s t a f t e r L a i n g became p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r a n d he h a d l i t t l e t i m e t o o r g a n i z e a c a m p a i g n o r t o e s t a b l i s h c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o -v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Many f o r m e r c o a l i t i o n i s t s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y s t i l l h e l d , p o s i t i o n s o f i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a n d r e f u s e d t o g i v e t h e i r c o o p e r a t i o n t o one o f t h e more b e l l i g e r e n t o p p o n e n t s o f t h e c o a l i t i o n . The f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a s s i s t e d L a i n g i n t h i s e l e c t i o n b u t t h e y a l s o h a d s e v e r a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s o o n a f t e r t h e c a m p a i g n . The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n V i c t o r i a was r e d u c e d f r o m s i x t o f o u r a n d L a i n g became t h e l e a d e r o f a d e f e a t e d a n d weak p r o v i n c i a l r u m p . A l t h o u g h L a i n g n e v e r h a d a c l o s e l i a i s o n w i t h t h e s i t t i n g members f r o m V i c t o r i a w h e r e c o a l i t i o n s e n t i m e n t h a d b e e n p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r o n g , he was a b l e t o e x e r t h i s w i l l i n t h e L i b e r a l c a u c u s o r a t l e a s t e x p r e s s h i s own o p i n i o n s i n t h e l e g i s l a t u r e . A s p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r he was t h e m a j o r v o i c e o f L i b e r a l p o l i c y i n t h e p r o v i n c e . A f t e r t h e 1 9 5 3 e l e c t i o n he was a b l e t o c o n s o l i d a t e h i s s u p p o r t w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a n d h a d some s u c c e s s i n r e t i r i n g f o r m e r c o a l i t i o n i s t s f r o m p o s i t i o n s o f i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . The i n t e r e s t i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , h o w e v e r , was d e c l i n i n g a n d L a i n g a n d h i s 91 supporters found membership dropping and f i n a n c i a l support disappearing. The major focus and i n t e r e s t of the Assoc i a t i o n was f e d e r a l . Many f i n a n c i a l supporters of the party withdrew t h e i r contributions from the p r o v i n c i a l wing and even requested that the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s avoid r e d i r e c t i n g t h e i r contributions back into the p r o v i n c i a l sphere. P r o v i n c i a l dependence on the fede r a l wing f o r money increased each year and by the e l e c t i o n of 1956 t h i s dependence was almost t o t a l . ? In t h i s p o s i t i o n Laing often had to respect the desires of fe d e r a l leaders i n matters of organization and administra-t i o n . Despite the attempt of fe d e r a l leaders to advise Laing on matters of p r o v i n c i a l party p o l i c y and strategy, the p r o v i n c i a l leader frequently expressed his indepen-dent opinions. For example, he continued h i s attacks on the S o c i a l Credit government long a f t e r the federal leaders had urged him to take a more p o s i t i v e stand i n the i n t e r e s t s of the party. F r u s t r a t i o n at Laing's actions l e d to a campaign f o r h i s retirement from the p r o v i n c i a l leadership. In the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1956 Laing had l o s t h i s own seat and the party had retained only two seats i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . Federal leaders wanted Laing to resign i n favor of one of the sitting-members and when Laing 92 refused they attempted to f i n d a new leader and an opportunity to depose Laing. Their e f f o r t s were hampered by the fe d e r a l party's defeat i n 1957 and the reduction of the elected f e d e r a l representatives from the province to two members of parliament. In the f a l l of 1957 a young L i b e r a l announced his i n t e n t i o n of opposing Laing at the next p r o v i n c i a l convention but the Young L i b e r a l s gave Laing a vote of confidence and the challenge soon Q disappeared. Indeed, D i l l o n O'Leary reported that Laing had a "f i r m g r i p " on the p r o v i n c i a l leadership and had prevented a convention from being c a l l e d . Without a convention i t was impossible to e l e c t a new leader and, consequently, Laing f r u s t r a t e d the designs of the party's "old guard" i d e n t i f i e d as Senator Sydney Smith and ex-f i s h e r i e s m i n i s t e r James S i n c l a i r while i t was also c l e a r that Campney and Senator F a r r i s desired Laing's retirement. When Laing l o s t a by-election i n Burnaby i n 1957> the campaign f o r h i s removal was I n t e n s i f i e d . Many p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s from V i c t o r i a were now openly opposed to Laing's continued leadership of the party and they strongly believed that a sitting-member from V i c t o r i a should assume the p r o v i n c i a l leadership of the party. Laing, however, not only retained h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1959 but also chose the time of his own re s i g n a t i o n . While he d i d 93 receive some support w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l organization, his continued a b i l i t y to withstand the attempt to depose him was f a c i l i t a t e d by the demise of the f e d e r a l party i n 1958 and the defeat of the l a s t two L i b e r a l members of parliament from B r i t i s h Columbia. The shock of defeat, the vacuum l e f t by the defeat of prominent f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and the withdrawal of some fed e r a l L i b e r a l s from party p o l i t i c s allowed Laing to maintain h i s rather un-stable p o s i t i o n i n the party. The organization of the party was weak and the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of both wings of the party poor and therefore, c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n was of l i t t l e immediate consequence. Although, between 1956 and 1959, the party ex-perienced a period of confusion i n which neither wing was strong enough nor a c t i v e enough to overcome the devasta-t i o n which e l e c t o r a l defeat had wrought, c e r t a i n c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l changes were introduced which af f e c t e d the future c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . In 1956 the con-s t i t u t i o n a l structure Of the party was s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d to give the o f f i c e r s of the Association more l a t i t u d e i n the d i r e c t i o n of day-to-day organizational matters. Although the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association had always been a vague docu-ment and had r a r e l y determined the focus of power with i n the party, the changes i n i t i a t e d i n 1956 and r e f i n e d i n 94 subsequent c o n s t i t u t i o n s d i d a l l o w the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n to assume a more a c t i v e r o l e once the p r o f e s -s i o n a l wing of the p a r t y had been d e f e a t e d . The c o n s t i -t u t i o n a l reforms of 1956 were i n i t i a l l y designed to improve the a r t i c u l a t i o n between the o f f i c e r s of the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and the l e a d e r s of the p a r t y and to p r o v i d e the l o c a l and r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h a u n i f o r m framework of o r g a n i z a t i o n so t h a t some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o n t i n u i t y c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d i n s p i t e of the p a r t y ' s r a p i d t u r n o v e r i n membership."1"0 The 1956 c o n s t i t u t i o n , however, a l s o a l t e r e d the s i z e and f u n c t i o n s of the major p o l i c y - m a k i n g bodies of the A s s o c i a t i o n . I t was these changes which e v e n t u a l l y expanded, the f u n c t i o n of the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t of the p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n . Between 1956 and 1959 these reforms had l i t t l e n o t i c e a b l e e f f e c t because Senator Smith w i e l d e d s u b s t a n t i a l power w i t h i n the p a r t y q u i t e a p a r t from h i s o f f i c e . The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r e s i d e n t was, moreover, always dependent upon the support g i v e n to him by the p a r t y ' s p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s . The a t t e n t i o n g i v e n to the o f f i c e of p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n by f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a f t e r 1959 > however, i n d i r e c t l y t e s t i f i e d to the new importance of the post."1""1" The most s t r i k i n g change made i n the s t r u c t u r e of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1956 was the c r e a t i o n of a new 95 p o l i c y - m a k i n g and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body composed of the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , the B r i t i s h Columbia Woman's L i b e r a l 12 A s s o c i a t i o n and a number of ar e a d i r e c t o r s . With the ex c e p t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and the l e a d e r of the f e d e r a l p a r t y , who were honorary members, the co m p o s i t i o n of the Committee of O f f i c e r s was e s s e n t i a l l y amateur. In the past the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and the r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s from the d i s t r i c t s and the a f f i l i a t e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n l a r g e r bodies dominated o r a t l e a s t d i r e c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s of the p a r t y . They had never c o n s t i t u t e d a f o r m a l committee on t h e i r own. While the d u t i e s and power of these committees have never been s p e c i f i e d i n the c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n and i n p r a c t i c e a r e q u i t e f l e x i b l e , i t i s probable t h a t the Committee of O f f i c e r s assumed many f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d by the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l before 1 9 5 6 .^ This l a t t e r body was a sub-committee of the l a r g e and powerful E x e c u t i v e Committee and. was composed of the o f f i o e r s of the A s s o c i a -t i o n , the s e n i o r Senator of the p r o v i n c e , the s e n i o r Member of P a r l i a m e n t , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the a f f i l i a t e d L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the F e d e r a l T r e a s u r e r , and r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e s from each f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s . The Ad v i s o r y C o u n c i l handled some of the day-to-day o r g a n i -z a t i o n a l matters of the p a r t y but i t was dependent upon 96 the Executive Committee and was d i r e c t e d not to "usurp 15 any of the duties reserved to the Executive Committee." In 1956 a body named the Executive Council, which i n composition was patterned, on the Advisory Council, assumed the functions of the o l d Executive Committee. Since the o l d Executive Committee, which had consisted of 189 members, was dominated by p r o f e s s i o n a l L i b e r a l s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r o v i n c i a l party, the reforms i n s t i t u t e d i n 1956 r e f l e c t e d not only the increased p a r t i c i p a t i o n and independence of the amateur leaders but the weakening of the p r o v i n c i a l party. A f t e r the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l party i t i s possible that the f e d e r a l leaders d i d not want the p r o v i n c i a l wing to determine the organizational p o l i c i e s of the party with i t s large group of defeated candidates i n the Executive Committee. 1^ An Annual Convention, which was also i n s t i t u t e d i n 1956, allowed the defeated candidates to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some body other than the General Convention but, at the same time, provided amateur L i b e r a l s with extensive access to t h i s body. This compromise allowed f o r more frequent meeting of the amateur leaders and thereby gave many amateur L i b e r a l s an added sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n but i t also l i m i t e d the power of the defeated candidates and, i n e f f e c t , reduced the power of the p r o v i n c i a l wing. 97 Between 1952 and 1959 the f e d e r a l wing e n l a r g e d i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and was a h l e to s p e c i f y the use of i t s money w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . On the o t h e r hand, the f e d e r a l wing r e l i n q u i s h e d some areas of c o n t r o l which i t had taken over immediately a f t e r the p r o v i n c i a l d e f e a t of 1952. Although f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the s e l e c t i o n of a new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , they were unable to c o n t r o l the o f f i c e and. f a i l e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l e f f o r t s to r e t i r e L a i n g . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f e d e r a l wing h e l d a dominant p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l a r g e l y because the m a j o r i t y of rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s were i n v o l v e d w i t h f e d e r a l a f f a i r s w h i l e most of the p a r t y ' s r e s o u r c e s came from and were devoted to f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . F e d e r a l l e a d e r s had a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h i n the sphere of f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . They or g a n i z e d t h e i r own campaigns and m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r own c o n t a c t s w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Because the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r no lo n g e r e x e r c i s e d the same k i n d of c o n t r o l over the p a r t y o r g a n i -z a t i o n , the f e d e r a l wing was no l o n g e r dependent upon the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f a v o r s of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . The p r o -v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p never c h a l l e n g e d f e d e r a l c o n t r o l of f e d e r a l areas but f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n p r o v i n c i a l matters and the weak f e d e r a l support of the p r o v i n c i a l wing were r e s e n t e d by many members of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . Indeed, the a l t e r a t i o n i n the balance of power w i t h i n the p a r t y , which r e s u l t e d from the d e f e a t and d e c l i n e of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , i n i t i a t e d many f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s . SOURCES 0? FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: Throughout the p e r i o d f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s developed from f r i c t i o n between the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and the members of the f e d e r a l wing i n the p r o v i n c e . A lthough c o n f l i c t s between the f e d e r a l l e a d e r i n Ottawa and the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r may w e l l have o c c u r r e d , they were l e s s apparent because the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was weak and i n o p p o s i t i o n . The s t r a i n s which r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y u s u a l l y i n -v o l v e d the f e d e r a l wing i n the p r o v i n c e w h i l e s t r a i n s which r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n c e s i n governmental p o l i c y a t e i t h e r the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n v o l v e d the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n Ottawa bu t , s i n c e the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was i n o p p o s i t i o n , these d i f f e r e n c e s were fr e q u e n -t l y handled by the f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s i n the p r o v i n c e . ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: F r i c t i o n over the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s o u r c e s and the s e l e c t i o n of p r i o r i t i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t w i t h i n 99 most p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s which are i n v o l v e d i n both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a r e a s . I n the L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia ground r u l e s designed to prevent and to c o n t a i n i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n d u r i n g the f u l f i l l m e n t of e l e c t o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were developed d u r i n g the years when the p a r t y h e l d power c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Ottawa and V i c t o r i a . While some of these p r a c t i c e s proved s a t i s -f a c t o r y d u r i n g the c o a l i t i o n and p o s t - c o a l i t i o n y e a r s , o t h e r s became u n r e a l i s t i c a f t e r 1952 because of the r e l a -t i v e weakness of the p r o v i n c i a l wing. The success o f the j o i n t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n had p r e v i o u s l y r e s t e d upon the c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by each wing over i t s own campaigns but , d u r i n g the years f o l l o w i n g the c o a l i t i o n , the l a c k of f i n a n c i a l support f o r the p r o v i n c i a l wing d e s t r o y e d t h i s p r i n c i p l e of autonomy. During the 1953 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n many l a r g e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t e r s of the f e d e r a l p a r t y withdrew t h e i r support from the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . A f t e r 1953, an i n c r e a s i n g number of businessmen i n the p r o v i n c e c o n f i d e d to p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s t h a t they now supported the S o c i a l C r e d i t government and t h a t they were concerned about t h e i r share of p r o v i n c i a l government business i f t h e i r names were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l P a r t y . Many e s t a b l i s h e d L i b e r a l s f a i l e d to see any advantage i n the support of a weak p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y which had few 100 p r o s p e c t s of becoming even the o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y . Becaus of t h e i r f e a r of the growing support f o r the C.C.P., ot h e r businessmen, who co n t i n u e d to support the p a r t y f e d e r a l l y , f e l t o b l i g e d to support S o c i a l C r e d i t p r o -v i n c i a l l y u n t i l a r e a l n o n - s o c i a l i s t a l t e r n a t i v e emerged. Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e -r a l s became f i n a n c i a l l y dependent upon the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y and because the p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n was so s e r i o u s , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were a t f i r s t o b l i g e d to p r o v i d e support. When f e d e r a l l e a d e r r e c r u i t e d L a i n g f o r the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s reasoned t h a t the f e d e r a l wing would a c t i v e l y and genero u s l y support the p a r t y p r o v i n c i a l l y . Indeed a few a c t i v e L i b e r a l s have expressed the o p i n i o n t h a t L a i n g may have r e c e i v e d s u b s t a n t i a l promises of support b e f o r e he r e t u r -ned to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 1 7 A f t e r the 1953 e l e c t i o n , however, f e d e r a l support was s l o w l y withdrawn and one prominent L i b e r a l has suggested t h a t w i t h the p a r t y ' s d e f e a t i n the 1953 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , the f e d e r a l p a r t y r e a l i z e d t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y had no hopes of e l e c t o r a l success i n the near f u t u r e . Moreover, support from the f e d e r a l wing would o n l y s l i g h t l y improve the p o s i t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and might a l s o have paved the way f o r a C.C.F. v i c t o r y . The f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were, t h e r e f o r e , c a r e f u l to p r o v i d e the 101 p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y w i t h j u s t e n o u g h f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g t o s u r v i v e . W h i l e s e v e r a l a c t i v e L i b e r a l s h a v e a g r e e d w i t h t h i s r e a s o n i n g , t h e y s u g g e s t t h a t t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f f e d e r a l s u p p o r t was a l s o b a s e d o n s p e c i f i c d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d b y t h e p a r t y b e t w e e n t h e e l e c t i o n s o f 1953 , 18 a n d 1956. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s w e r e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o u r c e , a m o u n t a n d a l l o c a t i o n o f f u n d s . T h e s e s t r a i n s e m e r g e d m o s t c l e a r l y d u r i n g c a m p a i g n s f o r t h e s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n i t s e l f b e t w e e n e l e c t i o n s when t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y a s s u m e d t h e g r e a t e r p o r t i o n o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o p e r a t i n g e x p e n s e s . I n t h e 1953 p r o v i n c i a l c a m p a i g n t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y g a v e t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g c o n s i d e r a b l e s u p p o r t e v e n t h o u g h a 19 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n was t o be c a l l e d s h o r t l y . James S i n c l a i r l o a n e d h i s e x e c u t i v e a s s i s t a n t t o L a i n g a n d a s s i s t e d the p r o v i n c i a l c a u s e w h i l e t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was s t i l l a b l e t o c o l l e c t some o f i t s c a m p a i g n f u n d s f r o m s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r s o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . F e d e r a l money was a l s o u t i l i z e d b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g . W h i l e i n r e t r o s p e c t , a f e w L i b e r a l s c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e l i m i t e d f e d e r a l a s s i s t a n c e when, t h e e l e c t i o n p r o v e d d i s a p p o i n t i n g , m o s t p a r t y members w e r e f a i r l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p a r t y ' s j o i n t p e r f o r m a n c e a n d t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s w e r e a l s o r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e 102 organization of the campaign. A f t e r the f e d e r a l wing l o s t three of i t s eleven seats i n the province i n the e l e c t i o n of 1953? some fed e r a l leaders suspected that the low p r o v i n c i a l f o r -tunes of the party i n B r i t i s h Columbia might eventually undermine t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s . Once the f e d e r a l party found that some of i t s own f i n a n c i a l hackers i n the province refused the fe d e r a l party money because of " c o n t r o v e r s i a l " stands the p r o v i n c i a l leader took on key issues i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the threat posed by the ec l i p s e of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l party to the p o s i t i o n of 20 the f e d e r a l wing was c l e a r l y apparent. When Laing refused to a l t e r some of these stands, the fe d e r a l party was r e l u c t a n t to grant assistance to the p r o v i n c i a l party. They wished to reserve the r i g h t to determine the uses to which t h e i r money could be put for i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r disagreements with Laing on p o l i c y matters, they also believed that the p r o v i n c i a l party had been mismanaged. Federal leaders were p a r t i c u l a r l y perturbed over Laing*s demand f o r a by-election i n Vancouver Centre at a time when the L i b e r a l organization was t o t a l l y inadequate. In 1955, a f t e r the death of a -Social Credit MLA, the S o c i a l Credit government f a i l e d to c a l l a by-election and Laing forced an e l e c t i o n by his announcement of the 103 vacancy i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . I r o n i c a l l y , the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was so d i s o r g a n i z e d t h a t the p a r t y f a i l e d to f i e l d a c a n d i d a t e . F e d e r a l l e a d e r s e v i d e n t l y used t h i s d i s a s t e r to support t h e i r c l a i m f o r g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over the 1956 p r o v i n c i a l campaign. Grant Deachman, the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r i n 1956, a d m i t t e d t h a t some s e r i o u s q u a r r e l s took p l a c e between p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and the f e d e r a l wing d u r i n g the course of the p r o v i n c i a l campaign. He i n d i c a t e d t h a t d i s -agreements took p l a c e over the d i s t r i b u t i o n of funds and the g e n e r a l competency of l e a d e r s . I n g e n e r a l he f e l t t h a t the i r r i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d from normal day-to-day c o n t a c t i n a j o i n t o f f i c e where funds had to be s p l i t . He i n f e r r e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l people were j e a l o u s of f e d e r a l r e s o u r c e s and power and o f t e n b e l i e v e d t h a t the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i r a f f a i r s . While Deachman suggested t h a t most of the d i f f i c u l t i e s d u r i n g the campaign were of a p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n a t u r e , he agreed t h a t they were r e l a t e d to d i f f e r e n c e s between 21 the two groups which had developed before the campaign. POLICY DIFFERENCES: Although the s t r a i n s emerging from the j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e l e c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d to the f e e l i n g s of misunderstanding which o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the p r o v i n c i a l 104 campaign of 195&, s p e c i f i c p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between L a i n g and s e v e r a l prominent members of the f e d e r a l wing were a l s o a source of i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n . These p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s had, i n f a c t , c r e a t e d many of the a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e problems because the f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n of the p a r t y was r e l a t e d t o the stands which L a i n g took i n key p r o v i n c i a l i s s u e s . Indeed, f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n to Laing ' s c o n t i n u e d l e a d e r s h i p was the r e s u l t o f the accum u l a t i o n of such p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s combined w i t h Laing's d e f e a t i n 1956' One major source of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n was the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t p o l i c y . D uring the c o a l i t i o n a new p o l i c y was i n i t i a t e d which, to many L i b e r a l s , f a v o r e d the l a r g e f o r e s t i n t e r e s t s . T h i s p o l i c y granted long-term tenures to companies w i l l i n g to develop e x t e n s i v e opera-t i o n s i n the p r o v i n c e . The t r u c k l o g g e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t the p o l i c y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t them and they opposed the p o l i c y from the b e g i n n i n g . The a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s had a l s o o b j e c t e d to the p o l i c y and had attempted to convince Johnson of i t s dangers. They b e l i e v e d t h a t the terms of the tenures were too broad and t h a t they a l i e n -a t e d v a l u a b l e r e s o u r c e s w i t h o u t adequate p u b l i c p r o t e c t i o n . L a i n g s t r e n u o u s l y opposed the c o n t i n u a t i o n of a m o d i f i e d v e r s i o n of the c o a l i t i o n f o r e s t p o l i c y by the S o c i a l C r e d i t government. While many of the younger f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s had opposed the c o a l i t i o n ' s f o r e s t p o l i c y , by 1952, many f e d e r a l members r e v e r s e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s . 105 S i n c l a i r ' s support of Bennett's f o r e s t management p o l i c y was the most s t r i k i n g r e v e r s a l w i t h i n f e d e r a l L i b e r a l ranks f o r he had l e d the opposition to Johnson's f o r e s t p o l i c y during the c o a l i t i o n . S i n c l a i r now held that the lic e n c e s provided adequate pr o t e c t i o n f o r the small truck loggers and at the same time gave the govern-ment greater c o n t r o l over the large developers. He f e l t that some concessions to the l a r g e r companies were required i n order to build-up the f o r e s t industry i n the 22 province. Laing also encountered strong opposition from Senator S. S. McKeen on t h i s issue and eventually the president of the As s o c i a t i o n , Sidney Smith, broke with the p r o v i n c i a l leader over the f o r e s t management p o l i c y . Smith found that the f i n a n c i a l support of the fed e r a l party i n the province was now being threatened by Laing's unyielding p o s i t i o n f o r many business i n t e r e s t s outside the f o r e s t industry believed that extensive f o r e s t development would improve the economic p o s i t i o n of the province as a whole. The f e d e r a l party was also concerned about the r o l e of the p r o v i n c i a l party i n the Sommers-Sturdy case. Gordon Gibson, a L i b e r a l MLA and a leading member of the truck logger i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the province, attacked the S o c i a l Credit f o r e s t management p o l i c i e s and intimated 106 that i n granting of l i c e n c e s , the Lands and Forests M i n i s t e r , R.. E. Sommers, had accepted bribes. S p e c i f i c charges were made i n 1955 "by a Vancouver lawyer, David Sturdy, and when the case f i n a l l y concluded Sommers was sentenced to f i v e years i n pri s o n . During the course of the t r i a l Laing and the p r o v i n c i a l party attempted to make use of the numerous charges of corruption against the p r o v i n c i a l government. Gibson resigned his seat over the matter but was defeated by a S o c i a l Credit candidate i n his f i r s t attempt at r e - e l e c t i o n . Laing made the case a major issue i n the 1956 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and when he l o s t his seat, the f e d e r a l wing was c r i t i c a l of his e n t i r e strategy on the matter. 2-^ The fed e r a l wing f e l t that the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had not aided t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s by constantly and b i t t e r l y a t t a c k i n g the govern-ment over the issue. When i t appeared that i n s p i t e of the scandal the electorate was s t i l l w i l l i n g to support the government and when i t was c l e a r that Sommers alone was involved, the fed e r a l wing f e l t that the p r o v i n c i a l party should have avoided personal attacks on the other members of the S o c i a l Credit government. The federal wing was p r i m a r i l y concerned with the p o l i t i c a l or e l e c t o r a l side e f f e c t s of the case but i t was also suggested that f o r e s t i n t e r e s t s which supported the federal party were d i s t u r -bed at the continued p u b l i c i t y aroused by the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n the Sommers-Sturdy case. ^ The federal l e a -107 ders may w e l l have been requested to quiet Laing on the issue. The f e d e r a l wing thus opposed p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y stands when they believed that the e l e c t o r a l or f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the party were threatened. Laing's pledge to take over B.C. E l e c t r i c i f h i s party were elected also aroused f e d e r a l h o s t i l i t y because i t threatened the party's f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n but many L i b e r a l s , who were p a r t i c u l a r l y upset with Laing on t h i s issue, were also opposed on p r i n c i p l e to government c o n t r o l . 2-5 While many L i b e r a l s i n the fe d e r a l party were not i d e o l o g i c a l l y opposed on pu b l i c ownership of u t i l i t i e s , Premier W. A. C. Bennett was able to gain e l e c t o r a l and f i n a n c i a l support by accusing Laing of going s o c i a l i s t and many fed e r a l L i b e r a l s were i r r i t a t e d at Laing's strategy i n r a i s i n g the matter at such an inopportune time. By the time of the the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n 1956 the fed e r a l wing opposed Laing's general strategy with regard to the S o c i a l Credit government. They believed that the pro-v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader was too b i t t e r and too constant In his attacks. The el e c t o r a t e , they argued, was not w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to intense and unbroken attacks. I t was suggested that Laing had not varied his approach 2 6 enough and that he had i n a sense " c r i e d wolf" too often. 108 The fe d e r a l leaders were cautious about g i v i n g Laing extensive f i n a n c i a l support, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they could not s p e c i f y i t s use f o r t h e i r own support was threatened by the p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . While they often expressed sympathy f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leader's d i f f i c u l t predicament and appreciated h i s w i l l i n g n e s s to give up a promising f e d e r a l career to return to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the f e d e r a l leaders were r e l i e v e d when Laing l o s t h i s seat f o r they believed that he would r e s i g n . When Laing refused to f o r e f i t the p r o v i n c i a l leadership and i n s i s t e d upon t r y i n g to regain a seat i n a forthcoming b y - e l e c t i o n , f e d e r a l leaders f e l t i t was necessary to campaign f o r Laing's retirement. In 1957» Laing f a i l e d to win the by-e l e c t i o n In Burnaby, and thereby i n t e n s i f i e d the federal campaign to replace him. Senators F a r r i s and Smith and cabinet m i n i s t e r s Campney and S i n c l a i r were a c t i v e i n t h i s campaign, which continued even a f t e r the fe d e r a l ministers were defeated i n the 1957 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . Federal a g i t a t i o n f o r Laing's retirement began i n i t i a l l y because of the p r o v i n c i a l leader's i n a b i l i t y to r e t a i n a seat i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . I t was apparent, however, that the fe d e r a l leaders were unhappy with Laing's general p o l i t i c a l strategy and were convinced that he could not a i d the party on e i t h e r l e v e l by his continued 109 a c t i v i t y i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . Laing's e l e c t o r a l defeat along with the f r i c t i o n which developed between Laing and the f e d e r a l leaders i n both administrative and p o l i c y areas eventually forced f e d e r a l leaders into open opposition to the p r o v i n c i a l leader. While several mem-bers of the f e d e r a l party believed that many of Laing's d i f f i c u l t i e s were beyond h i s c o n t r o l , they f e l t that the f e d e r a l party's defeat made the need f o r a new leader, image and organization even more urgent. The f e d e r a l party believed that Laing's departure at l e a s t might encourage the r e t u r n of important f i n a n c i a l backing which would a i d i n the f e d e r a l party's reorganization. Senator Smith's statement to the Executive Council at the time of Mr. Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n i n d i c a t e d the importance of the party's f i n a n c i a l predicament i n the pattern of f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s during the Laing period. Being out of power has caused hard times w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Party. A f t e r our bad defeat i n the 1956/provincial/ e l e c t i o n and with our leader not s i t t i n g In the House, as w e l l as the general collapse of the party, firms are not donating funds to us. The party has l i t t l e money now and to carry on i t must have donations from business. Most p r o v i n c i a l spending i s from funds intended for the f e d e r a l organization. . . ^ 7 The r e c i p r o c a l nature of party fortunes combined with the comparative strength of the federal wing to encou-rage increased federal a c t i v i t y and domination. While 110 another p r o v i n c i a l leader might not have fought f o r his autonomy as strenuously as d i d Mr. Laing, i t i s doubtful "whether the s t r a i n s of the period can be f a i r l y a t t r i -buted to the p r o v i n c i a l leader. The sources of f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n were contained w i t h i n the s i t u a t i o n wherein the f e d e r a l leaders held unusual power i n an organization which was designed to allow p r o v i n c i a l autonomy and had operated i n the past under p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l . Within the party the clashes of the period have been blamed on the unfortunate circumstances of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s while the actions of the p r o v i n c i a l leader have been explained by the immense f r u s t r a t i o n s of h i s p o s i t i o n . Many f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s may w e l l have held these opinions at the time of Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n and c e r t a i n l y the f e d e r a l wing has not held a personal grudge against the former p r o v i n c i a l leaders f o r h i s successful return to f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s suggests that the f e d e r a l party under-stood Laing's predicament and were, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , appreciative of his o r i g i n a l s a c r i f i c e . PEBEAULT 1959 - 1965: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: While Laing was the p r o v i n c i a l leader, f e d e r a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l organization had greatly I l l increased but the fed e r a l wing was also aware of the resentment created by t h e i r p o s i t i o n of dominance. At the time of Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n , Senator Smith expressed t h i s predicament when he suggested that i t would be wrong "f o r the Committee of O f f i c e r s to name a candidate they support f o r the leadership because some would say the 28 b i g boys are supporting t h i s candidate." Discontent i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing p a r t l y r e f l e c t e d the f r u s t r a t i o n s of defeat but there was also a genuine f e e l i n g amongst rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s that t h e i r party was i n d i f f e r e n t to them. The r i d i n g associations often complained that they were unaware of leadership decisions. Some e f f o r t s had been made to remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the c o n s t i t u -t i o n a l changes of 1956 when the a r t i c u l a t i o n between the r i d i n g associations and the o f f i c e r s of the Association had been improved. The subsequent defeat of the party, however, delayed the a p p l i c a t i o n of the reforms to the day-to-day operations of the party. To many young amateur L i b e r a l s , the leadership Convention of 1959 r e f l e c t e d the -growing power of the rank and f i l e f o r apparently the influence of the remnant "old guard" had been kept to a minimum i n the s e l e c t i o n of Ray P e r r a u l t , the p r o v i n c i a l organizer, and George Gregory, a MLA from V i c t o r i a , as the two candidates f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leadership. The convention leadership campaign was s u r p r i s i n g l y " s p i r i t e d , " i n view of the condition of the 112 p a r t y and when P e r r a u l t won by a wide margin, some of the p a r t y ' s young members i d e a l i z e d the s e l e c t i o n process as one of grass r o o t s democracy. 2^ i n s p i t e of the open form of the e l e c t i o n , the L i b e r a l Senators and former c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s attended the Convention and served as an imposing backdrop f o r the l e a d e r s h i p c a n d i d a t e s . Some p a r t y members even b e l i e v e d t h a t Senator Smith f a v o r e d P e r r a u l t and t h a t the f e d e r a l wing had g e n e r a l l y backed t h i s r e l a t i v e newcomer to p a r t y p o l i t i c s . Whatever the s p e c i f i c r o l e of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s d u r i n g t h i s c o n v e n t i o n , i t was c l e a r t h a t the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y m a i n t a i n e d i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n . The Convention of 1959 d i d , however, r e p r e s e n t a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n the p a t t e r n of p a r t y l e a d e r -s h i p . A f t e r 1959 the s c a r c i t y of p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s a l l o w e d new amateur L i b e r a l s to assume a more important r o l e i n the l e a d e r s h i p of the p a r t y . With many of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n se m i - r e t i r e m e n t and the p r o v i n c i a l wing s t i l l i n a s t a t e of c o l l a p s e , the f e d e r a l wing encouraged the development of a s t r o n g e r and more s e l f s u f f i c i e n t amateur o r g a n i z a t i o n . The new amateur L i b e r a l s were thus c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h the f e d e r a l p a r t y and they were a t f i r s t r e s e n t e d by some of the e s t a b l i s h e d rank and f i l e l e a d e r s . Indeed, a f t e r 1959, the major m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n o ccurred i n p a r t because of 113 the c o m p e t i t i o n between two groups of amateur L i b e r a l s f o r the p o s i t i o n s of L e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . A f t e r 1959 two f a c t o r s c o n t r i b u t e d to the growing importance of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s . F i r s t l y , t h e i r new p o s i t i o n was a i d e d by the r e l a t i v e absence of domi-nant p r o f e s s i o n a l L i b e r a l s i n the A s s o c i a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when Senator Smith r e t i r e d from the p r e s i d e n c y i n 1959. Secondly, the new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was unable to s e l e c t the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n the manner of O l i v e r , P a t t u l l o or H a r t . The new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r now attempted to c o n f i n e h i s a t t e n t i o n e n t i r e l y to matters of p r o v i n c i a l concern. With the e x c e p t i o n of the o r g a n i -z a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l campaigns, P e r r a u l t a l s o a b d i c a t e d most of the g e n e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters to the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n . S ince the s m a l l L i b e r a l c o n t i n g e n t i n the l e g i s l a t u r e c o n s i s t e d of s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l L i b e r a l s , P e r r a u l t ' s p o s i t i o n as p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r d i d not g r e a t l y enhance h i s p o s i t i o n of power w i t h i n the p a r t y and, consequently, i n o r d e r to s t a b i l i z e h i s r e l a t i o n s w i t h the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y , he t r i e d to remain as n e u t r a l as p o s s i b l e i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s which emerged between the o f f i c e r s o f . t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . His w i t h d r a w a l from c e r t a i n aspects of A s s o c i a t i o n b u s iness a l l o w e d the o f f i c e r s of the p a r t y to assume a much more a c t i v e r o l e . 114 During t h i s period, the influence of the f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the Associa t i o n was i n part preserved by the a c t i v i t y of several p r o v i n c i a l businessmen who had supported the f e d e r a l party. Several of these business-men a c t i v e l y entered the party as a r e s u l t of the Conservative v i c t o r i e s In the federal e l e c t i o n s of 1957 and 1 9 5 8 . Their contact with f e d e r a l leaders was maintained by a L i b e r a l businessmen's club which r a i s e d funds and r e c r u i t e d a d d i t i o n a l amateur leaders f o r future f e d e r a l campaigns. These amateur leaders played an ac t i v e part i n the a f f a i r s of the Association and helped to r e - b u i l d the organization, during the period i n which the f e d e r a l wing had no p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d f e d e r a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Several newcomers, who formally entered the party at t h i s time, campaigned f o r the po s i t i o n s of leadership i n the Asso c i a t i o n . The influence of the amateur leaders was, however, dependent upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to obtain entry into the leadership ranks of the Association i t s e l f . The e l e c t i o n f o r President of the Association i n 1961 provided an opportunity f o r the federal wing to support their'amateur patrons. In t h i s highly competitive campaign many of the former and a s p i r i n g federal leaders i n the province.openly backed Mr. Hugh Martin, a leading p r o v i n c i a l businessman and. r e l a t i v e newcomer to party 115 p o l i t i c s . 3 ° These f e d e r a l l e a d e r s hoped t h a t M a r t i n would g i v e the p a r t y a new image i n the p r o v i n c e and pr o -v i d e the p a r t y w i t h more competent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r -s h i p . Furthermore, h i s a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t important f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l to the p a r t y ' s campaign fund was p a r t i -c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l a t t h i s time. I n c o n t r a s t , the f e d e r a l wing was s c e p t i c a l about the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y of another s t r o n g c a n d i d a t e , Mr. W i l l i a m Gilmour. Although Gilmour had worked f o r the p a r t y many years many f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t h i s ; p e r s o n a l i t y would a l i e n a t e support from important q u a r t e r s . With a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n Imminent, the f e d e r a l p a r t y hoped to have a p r e s i d e n t who would work c l o s e l y w i t h them i n the campaign. A t h i r d c a n d i d a t e , Mr. John D. Taggart, was encouraged to seek the pr e s i d e n c y by s e v e r a l Important f i g u r e s w i t h i n the p r o v i n -c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a p p a r e n t l y he a l s o had the support of Senators Smith and F a r r i s . Many rank and f i l e L i b e r a l workers b e l i e v e d t h a t both Taggart and M a r t i n were " o u t s i d e r s " and pawns of the " o l d guard" o r the " b i g boys. The s u s p i c i o n s of the rank and f i l e r e g a r d i n g the s u p p o r t e r s o f M a r t i n and Taggart were c o r r e c t f o r both candidates openly sought the support of the prominent f i g u r e s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . Gilmour, on the ot h e r hand, worked among the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and 116 campaigned with p a r t i c u l a r z e a l i n the north and i n the i n t e r i o r of the province where he presented himself as the candidate of the rank and f i l e . At the e l e c t i o n many party supporters from Vancouver and the urban areas of the lower mainland voted f o r Gilmour not only because they respected his dedication to the party but also because they objected to the manner i n which the party leaders expected to s e l e c t the Association's o f f i c e r s . Many amateur L i b e r a l s p a r t i c u l a r l y resented Martin's candidacy because they f e l t that the presidency was being "offered" to a newcomer to provide a convenient base from which to organize the forthcoming f e d e r a l campaign. Gilmour was elected on the basis of t h i s rank and f i l e sentiment and although the defeated candidates were offered p o s i t i o n s as vice-presidents to create an image of party u n i t y , the three never r e a l l y cooperated on any j o i n t ventures. 32 <pne e f f o r t to displace Gilmour by the federal wing of the party was resumed i n the f a l l of 1 9 6 2 , when Mr. George Van Eoggen, who had been president of the Coast Capilano L i b e r a l Riding Association and had close a l l i a n c e s with the fe d e r a l leaders, ran against Gilmour f o r the presidency of the Association. Disharmony w i t h i n the party became an issue discussed by the candidates during the campaign but when Gilmour won r e - e l e c t i o n once again 33 he denied that such disharmony existed. 117 A l t h o u g h t h e f e d e r a l w i n g a n d t h e i r a m a t e u r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w e r e u n a b l e t o o b t a i n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , t h e i r c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e f o r m e r f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d a m a t e u r l e a d e r s o f t h e p a r t y i n E a s t e r n C a n a d a i n s u r e d t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . The a c t i v i t y o f t h e new a m a t e u r s p r o v i d e d t h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e new f e d e r a l l e a d e r s , who e m e r g e d a f t e r t h e e l e c t i o n o f 1 9 6 3 a n d a l t h o u g h t h e i r i n t e r e s t was o r i g i n a l l y f e d e r a l , t h e y l a t e r became more i n v o l v e d w i t h p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . By t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b o t h s p h e r e s o f p a r t y a c t i v i t y f o r a n e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f t i m e , t h e y seemed t o h a v e p l a c a t e d t h o s e s e c t i o n s o f t h e r a n k a n d f i l e o r g a n i z a t i o n who h a d r e s e n t e d t h e i r i n i t i a l e n t r y i n t o t h e p a r t y . S i n c e 1 9 6 3 t h e f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e , A r t h u r L a i n g a n d J a c k N i c h o l s o n , h a v e become a c t i v e i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n a s h a v e s e v e r a l L i b e r a l members o f p a r l i a m e n t . The f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e h a s r e c o v e r e d much o f i t s f o r m e r s t r e n g t h a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , s t i l l tends t o d o m i n a t e t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . The f e d e r a l p a r t y h a s d i r e c t e d i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d c o n d u c t e d i t s own c a m p a i g n s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d b u t o f t e n t o t h e e x c l u s i o n a n d i r r i t a t i o n o f some p r o v i n c i a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s . W h i l e s t r a i n s emerged d u r i n g t h e e l e c -t i o n s o f 1 9 6 2 a n d 1 9 6 3 , t h e two w i n g s p r e s e n t e d a much 118 more u n i f i e d f r o nt i n the most recent e l e c t i o n i n 1965-Since the f e d e r a l party's return to power i n 196-3, there has been a genuine attempt by both wings of the party to r e c t i f y the imbalances which were responsible fo r f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the past. Although f i n a n c i a l imbalances s t i l l e x i s t and continue to create f r i c t i o n , a r e c e n t l y i n s t i t u t e d membership fee helps the 34 p r o v i n c i a l wing to contribute to A s s o c i a t i o n expenses. Many of the f e d e r a l party's f i n a n c i a l supporters s t i l l refuse to support the p r o v i n c i a l party but since t h i s c ondition i s no longer r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , i t threatens neither f e d e r a l sources of income nor the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two wings of the party. The p r o v i n c i a l wing has not openly expressed d i s s a t i s -f a c t i o n with o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l arrangements that now e x i s t and while some p r o v i n c i a l leaders have stressed that no sharing of funds i s permitted, the r e l a t i ^ strength of the f e d e r a l wing suggests that they pay a l a r g e r share of j o i n t party expenses. The absence of s i g n i f i c a n t administrative s t r a i n s suggests that some f i n a n c i a l agreement has been reached between the two wings or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , that the p r o v i n c i a l party i s now w i l l i n g to finance i t s own campaigns. The p r o v i n c i a l leaders seem s a t i s f i e d to d i r e c t p o l i c y w i t h i n 119 the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d and to leave many aspects of general organization to the o f f i c e r s of the As s o c i a t i o n . While t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l campaigns and a f f a i r s depends upon i n v i t a t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l wing has occasion-a l l y lacked information on f e d e r a l p o l i c y concerning the province and has at times suffered embarrassment but these breakdowns of communication have not caused p u b l i c d i s -harmony and the fe d e r a l party has t r i e d to keep the p r o v i n c i a l leaders f a i r l y w e l l informed. C e r t a i n l y the r e l a t i v e harmony since 1963 suggests that some adjust-ments have been made, to accommodate and maximize fe d e r a l dominance w i t h i n the Assoc i a t i o n . SOURCES OF FEDERAL - PROVINCIAL FRICTION: Since 1959 there have been a few d i r e c t c o n f l i c t s between the p r o v i n c i a l leader and the members of the fed e r a l wing i n the province. Although P e r r a u l t p r i v a -t e l y may have supported some members of the p r o v i n c i a l wing who had r e s i s t e d the growing power of those amateurs supporting the fe d e r a l party, i n pu b l i c he attempted to remain n e u t r a l . Since many s i t u a t i o n s which created f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n involved questions of personal competence and compatability, Perrault's n e u t r a l i t y was s k i l l f u l and di s c r e e t and c e r t a i n l y his p o s i t i o n as party 120 l e a d e r has remained r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e . There have been o c c a s i o n a l rumors w i t h i n the p a r t y which suggest t h a t the " o l d guard" may i n t e n d to r e p l a c e P e r r a u l t and h i s c a u t i o n i n f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d c o n f l i c t s may w e l l r e f l e c t f e e l i n g s of i n s e c u r i t y as w e l l as a d e s i r e to m a i n t a i n a u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . D espite P e r r a u l t ' s c a r e f u l n e u t r a l i t y f r i c t i o n which has developed i n t o c l e a r f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l c o n f l i c t s , has o c c u r r e d between w e l l - d e f i n e d segments of the p r o v i n c i a l and the f e d e r a l wings. ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: Du r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s developed over the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f e d e r a l campaigns of 1962 and 1963- These s t r a i n s f i r s t appeared d u r i n g the 1961 campaign for the p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a -t i o n when the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y hoped to i n s t a l l a p r e s i d e n t who would be more r e c e p t i v e to f e d e r a l needs and more a t t r a c t i v e to f i n a n c i a l p a t r o n s . When t h i s e f f o r t f a i l e d and Gilmour r e t a i n e d the P r e s i d e n c y of the A s s o c i a t i o n , the d i v i d e d c o n t r o l of the p a r t y had a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e p e r c u s s i o n s d u r i n g the f e d e r a l campaign of 1962. The appointment of a separate f e d e r a l campaign committee was undoubtedly the p r e r o g a t i v e of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r but M a r t i n was named chairman of the f e d e r a l campaign committee and Gilmour b e l i e v e d t h a t he had been 1 2 1 u n f a i r l y excluded from the proceedings. Differences with the f e d e r a l wing were aggravated, even fu r t h e r when the feder a l campaign committee hired Mr. Ronald Fairclough whom Gilmour had f i r e d from a p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l organizer because of his support f o r Martin i n the p r e s i -d e n t i a l c a m p a i g n . T h e h o s t i l i t y between the fe d e r a l campaign committee and Gilmour's p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e became p a r t i c u l a r l y intense during the campaign and at times f e d e r a l workers were denied access to c r u c i a l m a i l i n g l i s t s and other information housed i n the perma-37 nent party o f f i c e . At the end of the campaign the fe d e r a l organizers maintained t h e i r separate o f f i c e and some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s assumed that the f e d e r a l wing intended to separate t h e i r organization but i t was rather the prospect of another f e d e r a l campaign that prompted t h i s a c t i o n on the part of the federal wing. C e r t a i n l y they qui c k l y closed t h e i r o f f i c e once objections were ra i s e d w i t h i n the As s o c i a t i o n . The differences between Gilmour and the federal leaders continued into the next f e d e r a l campaign. Mr. Van Roggen, who had unsuccessfully opposed Gilmour f o r the presidency of the Association i n 1 9 6 2 , was appointed co-chairman of the f e d e r a l campaign with Mr. L. C. J o l i v e t , a Vancouver businessman and Gilmour and his associates i n the p r o v i n c i a l party o f f i c e once 122 more refused to give the campaign committee f u l l coopera-. t i o n . The s t r a i n s were so serious that Mr. Walter Gordon, the n a t i o n a l campaign chairman, attempted to b r i n g the two groups together when he v i s i t e d the c i t y . The provin-c i a l leader without appearing to take sides, also t r i e d to bring Gilmour and the f e d e r a l campaign committee to-gether but these overtures were not very successful. While the f e d e r a l wing of the party exercised i t s own d i s c r e t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n of the campaign committee and was not pressured into any decisions regarding the conduct of the campaign, the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the party made i t s strong f e e l i n g of autonomy c l e a r to the profes-s i o n a l f e d e r a l leadership. The strong support which Gilmour received i n s p i t e of h i s i n d i s c r e t i o n s t e s t i f i e d to the strong f e e l i n g s amongst p r o v i n c i a l rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s over t h e i r r i g h t to choose t h e i r own leaders. Although many of the rank and f i l e never objected to the p r o f e s s i o n a l leaders of e i t h e r wing supporting or even introducing the candidates, they objected to the federal wing's support of a man who had never previously been ac t i v e i n the party. They also objected to the manner i n which the newly elected president of the Association was ignored by the f e d e r a l leaders once t h e i r own candidates had been defeated. Although many of those who supported Gilmour strongly believed that the p r i n c i p l e of autonomy 123 needed to be preserved, they also r e a l i z e d that the choice of Gilmour as the symbol of t h i s p r i n c i p l e was unfortunate. Nevertheless, the s t r a i n s caused by t h i s c o n f l i c t made the fe d e r a l leaders aware of the s e n s i t i -v i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l rank and f i l e . The r i d i n g organizations also valued t h e i r autonomy and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r r i g h t to s e l e c t party candidates. In 19&3, the fed e r a l party encountered resentment i n the V i c t o r i a r i d i n g when they attempted to ensure the proper execution of a nomination e l e c t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y had s t a r t e d i n 1962 when Mr. Foster Isherwood won the Oak Bay L i b e r a l nomination over General Foulkes, a candidate favored by several prominent f e d e r a l leaders. During the course of the campaign Mr. Isherwood i r r i t a t e d the fe d e r a l leaders and they proceeded to obstruct h i s nomination f o r the next e l e c t i o n . In the fol l o w i n g year, the federal L i b e r a l s strongly supported Mr. David Groos f o r the nomination and dispatched a r e -presentative to the nomination meeting when rumors of i l l e g a l p r a c t ices c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n the party. Groos was nominated by a close vote and the federal representa-t i v e prevented a second vote despite accusations of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s by Isherwood's supporters. Isherwood believed that t h i s decision was based upon the federal leadership's support of Groos rather than upon the 124 evidence presented at the meeting. He charged that t h i s c onstituted f e d e r a l interference i n the a f f a i r s of a r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n . Isherwood subsequently defied the party and ran as an independent and was expelled from the Greater V i c t o r i a L i b e r a l Association along with many of his supporters. The matter caused a d d i t i o n a l embarrass-ment to the party when two of Isherwood's supporters, who had also been o f f i c e r s of the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , announced t h e i r support for S o c i a l Credit on the eve of the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i n c i a l election.3$ Because of the dominance of the fe d e r a l leadership w i t h i n the party at t h i s time, the r i d i n g organizations were p a r t i c u l a r l y s e n s i t i v e to alleged "federal interference" and, c e r t a i n l y , the incident causedmore concern w i t h i n the Associati o n than i t would have i n the past. Since Isherwood's l a t e r defiance of the party was calcula t e d to embarrass the party, many rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s were w i l l i n g to accept the judgment of the federal wing i n the controversy. The e l e c t i o n of L. C. J o l i v e t to the presidency of the Association i n January of 1964 was widely recognized as a symbol of party unity.39 A f t e r a period of consi-derable suspicion and misunderstanding of the motives of the feder a l leadership of the party, t h i s image of unity was achieved because J o l i v e t had served on both the 125 the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l campaign committees and had f i r m support from both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l q u a r t e r s . His candidacy was a l s o supported by rank and f i l e l e a d e r s and s i n c e h i s e l e c t i o n , J o l i v e t has worked c l o s e l y w i t h both wings of the p a r t y . His c o n t a c t s w i t h the f e d e r a l p a r t y are e x t e n s i v e and he a l s o r e p r e s e n t s the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n on n a t i o n a l p a r t y committees i n Ottawa. Although J o l i v e t was o r i g i n a l l y brought i n t o the p a r t y by the L i b e r a l businessmen's group because of h i s i n t e r e s t i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , he has s i n c e i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f w i t h p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as a whole. R e c e n t l y J o l i v e t has proposed a p l a n f o r a s e l e c t i v e modi-f i c a t i o n of the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , which would remove the d i s t i n c t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n some p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e . Because of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l inconveniences of l a r g e , r u r a l or i s o l a t e d r i d i n g s , J o l i v e t hoped to r e c o n s t r u c t the p r o v i n -c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on the b a s i s of p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i g u i t y and c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a t h e r than upon l e g a l r i d i n g boundaries. The p l a n c r e a t e s s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n p o p u l a t i o n c e n t e r s "bounded but not i n t e r s e c t e d by e i t h e r f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g boundaries," so t h a t they can be u t i l i z e d i n both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l campaigns. These new o r g a n i z a t i o n s would p a r t i c i p a t e i n conventions i n order to nominate the v a r i o u s r i d i n g candidates and thus the main l e g a l f u n c t i o n of the r i d i n g s u b - d i v i s i o n 126 could be performed without d i s t u r b i n g the organization of 40 the party i t s e l f . The plan was presented as a symbol of the party's concern f o r a u n i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t organization. I t w i l l be used s e l e c t i v e l y i n the areas where e i t h e r the q u a l i t y of the campaign organization needs to be improved or the co n t i n u i t y of the party's organization established. The i n t e r e s t i n t h i s plan demonstrated by a l l segments of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association may r e f l e c t genuine concern f o r the development of a more u n i f i e d party organization. The d i s r u p t i v e experiences of recent federa l campaigns have c e r t a i n l y made the party w e l l aware of the damaging e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a l party c o n f l i c t s . Many party leaders continue to maintain the administra-t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s which accompanied the federal campaigns and the p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n s were nothing more than per s o n a l i t y clashes but, nevertheless, the s t r a i n s which they created have prompted party leaders to reassess many administrative practices which involve f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l party cooperation, 127 POLICY DIFFERENCES: Since 1959 there have been no major differences over p u b l i c p o l i c y between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l wings of the party. On a few issues the p r o v i n c i a l p o s i t i o n with respect to the f e d e r a l p o l i c y has been ambiguous but even w i t h i n the federal wing these issues provoked a dialogue. For example, i n 1963, P e r r a u l t was not kept informed on the negotiations on the Columbia River Treaty between Premier W. A. C. Bennett and the L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa. The p r o v i n c i a l party thus di d not know whether the federal party had maintained i t s o r i g i n a l p o l i c y of seeking to renegotiate the treaty or whether they had made some compromise with the p r o v i n c i a l Premier. When Bennett indicated that he had concluded a successful arrangement with Ottawa on the c o n t r o v e r s i a l matter, the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , according to one news-paper report, were "simultaneously u n w i l l i n g or unable to contradict Bennett. I n q u i r i e s at L i b e r a l o f f i c e r s here y i e l d only the impression they are both confused and. angry over the Ottawa deal." k^-The p r o v i n c i a l party was eventually informed of the arrangements and were able to u t i l i z e some of t h e i r information i n the next campaign. Indeed, the pro-v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t r i e d to use the success of the federal 128 party to t h e i r advantage and claimed that the province received more benefits from the revised treaty because the L i b e r a l s had included several safeguards which Bennett 43 had not requested. J The f r i c t i o n generated between several members of the federal wing over s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c y d i fferences was greater than that which occurred between the p r o v i n c i a l wing and the f e d e r a l party because of f a u l t y communications. Throughout the years during which the treaty was an issue i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the party attempted to f o l l o w the general l i n e s of fe d e r a l p o l i c y . At times i t appeared that the party was a c t i v e l y t r y i n g to coordinate f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on the matter. This type of co-ordination was more d i f f i c u l t to achieve when the federal party was i n power because they had c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i -l i t i e s to the p r o v i n c i a l government and could not always openly consult with the p r o v i n c i a l party. While f r i c t i o n could w e l l have emerged between the two wings of the party i f the p r o v i n c i a l leaders had objected to Ottawa's p o l i c y toward the p r o v i n c i a l government, i n t h i s p a r t i c u -l a r issue no major c o n f l i c t s developed. Af t e r 1 9 5 9 the fe d e r a l leaders ceased to wage general attacks on p r o v i n c i a l strategy and p o l i c y . Since Perrault became p r o v i n c i a l leader, the tone of the p r o v i n c i a l party has changed and, i n general, federal 129 leaders have been s a t i s f i e d with his approach. Because of the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l administrative d i f f i c u l t i e s and the more neutral r o l e of the present p r o v i n c i a l leader, p o l i c y and administrative problems have been less c l o s e l y r e l a t e d than they were during Laing's leadership of the party. Owing to the l e s s frequent manifestations of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s , the new r o l e of the amateur Association leaders and the emergence of a new group of pro f e s s i o n a l f e d e r a l leaders since 1963, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l party r e l a t i o n s appear to be more stable today than they have been at any time since the end of c o a l i t i o n . This adjustment seems to be based upon a more r e a l i s t i c acceptance of federal dominance wi t h i n the a f f a i r s of the Association and perhaps a more s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s dominance w i t h i n party c i r c l e s . FOOTNOTES i o ^ I n t e r V l e W W l t h M r * F r a n k G* P ' L e w l s > January 2?, 1966. 2 I b i d . 3 Interview with Senator Sidney Smith, A p r i l 1 9, 1965. 4 Interview with Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 5 Interviews with Mr. Ralph Campney, January 18, 1965, Mr. James S i n c l a i r , January 11, 1965 and Senator Sidney Smith, A p r i l 19, 1965. 6 Interview with Mr. Ralph Campney, January 18, 1965' 7 There was some disagreement about the degree of p r o v i n c i a l dependence on the f e d e r a l wing of the party, although most L i b e r a l s believed that i t constituted depen-dence by 1956. 8 The Vancouver Province, October 28, 1957. 9 D i l l o n O'Leary, "Laing's Grip Firm as L i b e r a l Leader," The Vancouver Province, November 4, 1957. 10 Interview with Mr. Don L a n s k a i l , February 14, 1966. Mr. Lanskail headed the committee which re-drafted the c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1956. 11 This topic w i l l be discussed further i n a l a t e r section of t h i s chapter. 12 The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, mimeographed, a r t i c l e 6, p. 4 and The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A ssociation, mimeographed, a r t i c l e 6, p. 10. 130 131 13 The c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n u s u a l l y d e f i n e the r o l e o f the p o l i c y making committees n e g a t i v e l y by s t a t i n g t h a t they may t r a n s a c t a l l b u s i n e s s e x c e p t what i s r e s e r v e d to the C o n v e n t i o n . 14 The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , l Q k 7 > mimeographed, a r t i c l e 8, p. 4. ~ 15 I b i d . 16 The E x e c u t i v e Committee c o n t a i n e d a l l d e f e a t e d p r o -v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , c o u l d be d ominated by the p r o v i n c i a l wing o f the p a r t y . 1? None o f the L i b e r a l s i n t e r v i e w e d p r e s e n t e d c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e f o r s u c h an agreement. 18 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , J a n u a r y 3-1» 1966. Mr. M a r t i n was n o t a c t i v e i n the p a r t y a t t h i s time but he had some c o n t a c t w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s . Other a c t i v e L i b e r a l s a g r e e d w i t h the s u b s t a n c e of t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , a l t h o u g h many q u e s t i o n e d whether f e d e r a l a c t i o n was q u i t e so s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . 19 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Frank G. P. L e w i s , F e b r u a r y 14 , 1966. 20 T h i s t o p i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n a n o t h e r s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . 21 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Grant Deachman, J a n u a r y 18, 1965. 22 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1966. 23 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , November 4 , 1957' 24 S e v e r a l L i b e r a l s i n t e r v i e w e d h i n t e d a t such p r e s s u r e . 132 25 I n t e r v i e w w i t h S e n a t o r J . W. deB. F a r r i s , J a n u a r y 19, 1966. S e n a t o r F a r r i s opposed t h i s p o l i c y on p r i n c i p l e and was u p s e t w i t h L a i n g ' s g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y . 26 T h i s o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d by a l m o s t a l l L i b e r a l s i n t e r v i e w e d who were a c t i v e i n the p a r t y between 1952 and 1959. 27 Edward Hepner, 0p_. C i t . , pp. 56-57. 28 I b i d . 29 I b i d . , p. 80. 30 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , J a n u a r y 11, 1965. 31 I n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , J a n u a r y 31, 1966 and Mr. J a c k T a g g a r t , F e b r u a r y 3, 1966. 32 Some of G i l m o u r ' s s u p p o r t e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s m o t i o n was an i n d i r e c t way o f g e t t i n g M a r t i n and T a g g a r t on the Committee o f O f f i c e r s . 33 The Vancouver Sun, O c t o b e r 29, 1962. 3 k A l t h o u g h most p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s c l a i m t h a t the membership f e e h e l p s the A s s o c i a t i o n m a i n t a i n an i n d e p e n -dent p o s i t i o n , o t h e r s w i t h i n the p a r t y i n f e r t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a l m o s t m e a n i n g l e s s i n terms o f the p r e s e n t c o s t of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s f a c i l i t i e s . 35 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Grant Deachman, Jan u a r y 18, 1965. 36 I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t Gilmour b e l i e v e d t h a t a p a i d employee o f the p a r t y s h o u l d n o t e n t e r i n t e r n a l p a r t y p o l i t i c s . 37 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. R i c h a r d S o n l e y , January 27, 1966 and Mr. J a c k T a g g a r t , F e b r u a r y 3, 1966. 133 38 The Vancouver Province, July 5 , 1963. 39 Paddy Sherman, The Vancouver Province, January 2 9 , 1964. 40 Interview with Mr. L. G. J o l i v e t , February 1, 1966. 4-1 The F i n a n c i a l Post, Toronto, January 2 9 , 1963. 42 The Vancouver Sun, September 12 , 1963. 43 I b i d . , January 2 2 , 1964. CHAPTER S I X CONCLUSION T h i s t h e s i s p r o p o s e d t o e x a m i n e t h e i m p a e t o f f e d e r a l i s m u p o n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by means o f a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a n d t h o s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f d i s u n i t y b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s w h i c h seemed d i r e c t l y r e l e -v a n t t o t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f p o w e r . I n p a r t i c u l a r t h i s c a s e - s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s o u r c e , f r e q u e n c y a n d I n t e n s i t y o f s t r a i n s b e t w e e n f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y a n d t o e x p l o r e w h a t e f f e c t t h e e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s o f t h e two g r o u p s may h a v e h a d u p o n t h e b r o a d s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a s a f o r m a l p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , i t was k n o w n t h a t i n some p r o v i n c e s t h e o f t e n d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s a n d n e e d s o f t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h a d e n c o u r a g e d t h e m t o s e e k w i d e r c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ I t was a s s u m e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e a l i t y a n d t h e s t a b i l -i t y o f p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l w o u l d n o t o n l y i n d i c a t e t h e f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n b u t w o u l d h e l p t o c l a r i f y t h e r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I t was a l s o b e l i e v e d t h a t a n a n a l y s i s o f t h e c h a n g i n g f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , a s r e f l e c t e d n o t o n l y i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t i n t h e r e l a t i v e 134 135 p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h o f t h e two g r o u p s o f l e a d e r s , m i g h t he r e l a t e d t o t h e s o u r c e a n d i n t e n s i t y o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s . D e s p i t e t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f a u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e a c c o m m o d a t i o n o f two l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y a n d i n t e r e s t h a s b e e n a c o n t i n u a l s o u r c e o f i n t e r n a l f r i c -t i o n w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h i l e t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n h a s b e e n f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d a s a p r i n c i p l e o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , c h a l l e n g e s t o i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s a n d e v e n i n d i r e c t c h a l l e n -g e s t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n h a v e o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e f r a m e w o r k o f t h e u n i f i e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a -t i o n . The s o u r c e o f t h e s e c h a l l e n g e s a n d , i n d e e d , o t h e r l e s s s e r i o u s e x a m p l e s o f s t r a i n b e t w e e n t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n -c i a l w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y h a v e g e n e r a l l y b e e n r e l a t e d t o t h e c o n d u c t o f f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n a l m o s t a l l c a s e s t h e s e s t r a i n s w e r e r e l a t e d e i t h e r t o t h e a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n o r t o c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i c i e s o f t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s . I n s p i t e o f t h e a l m o s t c o n t i n u a l e x i s t e n c e o f b o t h t h e s e g e n e r a l s o u r c e s o f i n t r a -p a r t y s t r a i n , a t t i m e s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e p r o -v i d e d t h e m o s t s e r i o u s t h r e a t s t o p a r t y u n i t y a n d a t o t h e r t i m e s p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s h a v e d o m i n a t e d a l l f e d e r a l - p r o v i n -c i a l e x c h a n g e s . W h i l e t h e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f e a c h i n d i v i d u a l p a r t y c o n f l i c t h a s u n d o u b t e d l y b e e n a f f e c t e d b y p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s a n d t h e p e r s o n a l i t i e s a n d 136 a b i l i t i e s o f t h e l e a d e r s i n v o l v e d , t h e g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s h a s b e e n d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h a n g i n g e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s o f t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y . T h e p a t t e r n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e m e r g e s m o r e c l e a r l y a s t h e e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y a r e summar-i z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e f o u r p o s s i b l e e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y i n O t t a w a a n d V i c t o r i a . The e m p i r i c a l c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s c a s e - s t u d y w i l l b e o f f e r e d i n t h e f o r m o f t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d t h e s e c o n c l u s i o n s w i l l b e e x a m i n e d i n l i g h t o f w h a t h a s b e e n w r i t t e n o n i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n o t h e r C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s a n d o t h e r f e d e r a l s y s t e m s . CONCURRENT FEDERAL AND P R O V I N C I A L POWER: W i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f a f i v e y e a r p e r i o d b e t w e e n 1928 a n d 1933. t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y h e l d p o w e r i n V i c t o r i a f r o m 1916 t o 1952 a n d a l t h o u g h t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y a l s o h e l d p o w e r t h r o u g h o u t m o s t o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e p r o v i n -c i a l l e a d e r s m a i n t a i n e d e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y was s t r o n g i n C a n a d a a s a w h o l e , u n t i l 1930 t h e f e d e r a l w i n g i n t h e p r o v i n c e was e x t r e m e l y weak a n d n o t u n t i l 1940 d i d t h e L i b e r a l s h o l d t h e m a j o r i t y o f s e a t s f r o m t h e p r o -v i n c e . E v e n a f t e r 1940, h o w e v e r , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r 137 a s p r e m i e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e r e m a i n e d t h e m o s t p o w e r f u l i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . H i s r e s o u r c e s i n t e r m s o f b o t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t a n d p a t r o n a g e w e r e much m o r e e x t e n s i v e t h a n t h o s e o f t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r f r o m t h e p r o v i n c e , who w o u l d o r d i n a r i l y be h i s m o s t s e r i o u s f e d e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n when t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y h e l d p o w e r i n O t t a w a . I n a d d i -t i o n , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , a s t h e p r e m i e r o f t h e p r o v i n c e , l e d t h e l a r g e s t g r o u p o f e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y a n d c o u l d , t h e r e f o r e , d o m i n a t e t h e f o r m a l p o l i c y -m a k i n g b o d i e s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . I f a c h a l l e n g e t o p r o v i n -c i a l c o n t r o l was i n i t i a t e d t h r o u g h f o r m a l c h a n n e l s t h e s t r o n g p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , who m a i n t a i n e d p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e o n m a t t e r s o f A s s o c i a t i o n b u s i n e s s , c o u l d e a s i l y d i s s o l v e t h e m . I n d e e d , u n l e s s t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g w a s i t s e l f s e r i o u s -l y d i v i d e d t h e f e d e r a l w i n g h a d l i t t l e h o p e o f r e t i r i n g a n i n d i v i d u a l p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o r o f a s s u m i n g t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . When t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y was i n p o w e r i t a s s u m e d a l m o s t t h e e n t i r e f i n a n c i a l b u r d e n o f t h e p r o v i n -c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n a n d , c o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r e x e r c i s e d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e c h o i c e o f t h e p a i d p a r t y o r g a n i z e r s a n d t h e r a n k a n d f i l e l e a d e r s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . I n d e e d , t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a -t i o n w e r e u s u a l l y c a r e f u l l y c h o s e n b y t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r 138 and only during a successful r e v o l t against the p r o v i n c i a l leader would the As s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s act without the pro-3 v i n c i a l leader's consent. Under these circumstances the fe d e r a l cabinet m i n i s t e r from the province, who u s u a l l y l e d the f e d e r a l wing of the party, attempted to gain some c o n t r o l over the adminstration of fe d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaigns while u t i l i z i n g the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l resources to the maximum. Although the p r o v i n c i a l leader permitted the cabinet m i n i s t e r or fe d e r a l representative to supervise the campaign according to r u l e s developed by the two leaders, these procedures tended to be informal and unstable. Indeed, f r i c t i o n between the two groups was so often i n i t i a t e d during f e d e r a l campaigns that informal negotiations between the two wings were u s u a l l y required before each f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . But despite the d i f f i c u l t y presented by the j o i n t adminis-t r a t i o n of fe d e r a l campaigns, the federal wing was given enough autonomy to insure the pro t e c t i o n of t h e i r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s and they were, therefore, hesitant to challenge the status quo. In assessing the r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n of the two wings of the party, however, i t must be r e c a l l e d that when the L i b e r a l s held power i n Ottawa the federal representatives and senators from the province had enough resources, p a r t i -c u l a r l y i n the form of patronage and federal appointments, to maintain a considerable f o l l o w i n g w i t h i n the Association. 1 3 9 Many of the rank and f i l e leaders of the f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u -ency or g a n i z a t i o n s looked as much to the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f o r advice and support as they d i d to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r -ship. Since the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had the l e g a l power to nominate the candidates f o r p u b l i c o f f i c e , the informal support which the f e d e r a l wing could maintain w i t h i n the constituency o r g a n i z a t i o n s was of t e n as important to t h e i r a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l f e d e r a l business w i t h i n the province as was the cooperation of the p r o v i n c i a l leader. Thus, the f e d e r a l wing r e t a i n e d considerable c o n t r o l over f e d e r a l business w i t h i n the province despite t h e i r fundamental dependence on the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the good w i l l of the p r o v i n c i a l leader. The c o n t r o l o f the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n remained f i r m l y i n p r o v i n c i a l hands re g a r d l e s s of the numerical or p o l i t i c a l strength of the f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a . During the c o a l i t i o n p e r i o d the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o v i n c i a l party power and the a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was most s t r i k i n g . Despite deep cleavages w i t h i n the party and f i n a l l y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing i t s e l f , which l i m i t e d the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p r o v i n c i a l leader, the c o n t r o l of the party o r g a n i z a t i o n remained i n p r o v i n c i a l hands. While the circumstances of c o a l i t i o n p o l i -t i c s forced the p r o v i n c i a l leaders to grant the f e d e r a l wing more autonomy i n the d i r e c t i o n of f e d e r a l business, f e d e r a l 140 strength within the Association was not great enough to defeat the co a l i t i o n . Federal leaders within the province f e l t strong enough to openly oppose the continuation of the coa l i t i o n but they did not fe e l strong enough to separate themselves from an established provincial organization. Although the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n sentiment within the Association increased federal influence within the organization, as long as the provincial c o a l i t i o n Liberals were in power they maintained their hold on the Liberal Association. SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINGIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: When Liberal governments have been in power in both Ottawa and V i c t o r i a the p o l i t i c s of federal-provincial r e l a -tions have often brought Liberal leaders into public c o n f l i c t . Such public confrontations between strong Liberal premiers and a Liberal Prime Minister were frequently but not always responsible for i n i t i a t i n g strains within the provincail organization. Under some circumstances sectional p o l i c i e s were expected and well tolerated by the federal leader and were strongly supported by federal leaders within the province, whereas, in other situations provincial p o l i c i e s and demands either conflicted with those of the federal party or they appeared to threaten the federal government's power. In these cases intransigence on the part of either government 141 m i g h t i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e two L i b e r a l l e a d e r s w h i c h t h r e a t e n e d t h e u n i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o -c i a t i o n . T h u s , w h i l e p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y a p p e a r e d t o b e t h e d o m i n a n t s o u r c e o f i n t r a -p a r t y s t r a i n when b o t h w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y h e l d p o w e r , t h e i m p a c t o f t h e s e p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a -t i o n d e p e n d e d o n t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e p o l i c y , i t s s i g n i f i -c a n c e t o f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s a n d , o f c o u r s e , t h e way i n w h i c h t h e p o l i c y w a s p r e s e n t e d a n d r e c e i v e d a s a p o l i t i c a l i s s u e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , J o h n O l i v e r f u l f i l l e d s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g s w i t h i n t h e p a r t y a n d t h e p r o v i n c e b y a t t a c k i n g t h e E a s t e r n f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s a n d r a i l r b a d r a t e s r a t h e r t h a n t h e f e d e r -a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d w a s , t h e r e f o r e , a b l e t o m a i n t a i n c o r d i a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y a n d w i t h P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g . T h i s p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y was i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e s i g n e d t o a v o i d c h a l l e n g i n g t h e p o w e r o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t o r t h e p o l i c i e s o f f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s s i n c e a n e a r l i e r a t t a c k o n t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t h a d t h r e a t e n e d t o d i v i d e t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a n d i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c q u a r r e l w i t h t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r . I n d e e d , some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e more e x t r e m e " f i g h t O t t a w a " p o l i c y p u r s u e d b y t h e p r e v i o u s C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h a d l o s t i t s p o l i t i c a l a p p e a l a f t e r W o r l d War I . The P r e m i e r ' s c o m p r o m i s e c a m p a i g n was d e s i g n e d t o s a t i s f y t h e p o l i t i c a l t e m p e r m e n t o f b o t h t h e p a r t y a n d t h e p r o v i n c e . 14-2 T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e O l i v e r ' s e a r l i e s t d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y i n d i c a t e d t h a t p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e two g o v e r n m e n t s w e r e p o t e n t i a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s , s e r i o u s s t r a i n s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y a v o i d e d b y t h e a l t e r a t i o n o f p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y . I n c o n t r a s t , u n d e r P a t t u l l o * s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , n e g o t i a t i o n s b e t w e e n O t t a w a a n d V i c t o r i a c r e a t e d s e v e r e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s t r a i n s . M i n o r s t r a i n s b e t w e e n t h e P r e m i e r a n d t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r w e r e e v i d e n t when P a t t u l l o ' s r e q u e s t s f o r f e d e r a l a i d d u r i n g t h e d e p r e s s i o n w e r e n o t m e t o n t h e t e r m s h e d e m a n d e d . P a t t u l l o * s p o l i c y a n d a c t i o n s a t t h e D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l C o n f e r e n c e o f 194-1, h o w e v e r , n o t o n l y i n i t i a t e d a p u b l i c q u a r r e l w i t h P r i m e M i n i s t e r K i n g , a l i e n a t e d f e d e r a l l e a d e r s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e b u t e v e n t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o a d i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t . A l t h o u g h t h e i s s u e u p o n w h i c h t h e l e a d e r s c l a s h e d was f u n d a -m e n t a l t o t h e s u b s t a n c e o f C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m , t h e p a r t y ' s r e a c t i o n s t o t h e P r e m i e r ' s b e h a v i o r a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e w e r e u n d o u b t e d l y e n c o u r a g e d b y t h e s t r o n g p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r a p o l i c y o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s d o u b t f u l w h e t h e r t h i s s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s w o u l d h a v e h a d s u c h s e r i o u s r e p u r c u s s i o n s w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y h a d n o t b o t h t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s h e l d p o w e r c o n c u r r e n t l y . 143 During the years of the provincial c o a l i t i o n govern-ment intra-party strains assumed different forms. Although the Liberal Party was in power in both Ottawa and Victoria, policy differences between the two governments did not domin-ate intra-party relations and actually contributed very l i t t l e to the f r i c t i o n which existed between the two wings of the party. Consequently, public contacts between the co a l i t i o n Premiers and the Liberal Prime Minister no longer provided a focus for intra-party f r i c t i o n . The policy differences between the two wings of the party which were associated with intra-party strains, were prompted by federal attacks on c o a l i -tion p o l i c i e s i n i t i a t e d by members of the federal wing within the province. Because these attacks occurred after the anti-c o a l i t i o n campaign was well organized, these policy d i f f e r -ences were as much a r e f l e c t i o n as a source of strain between the two groups. The absence of leadership quarrels involving the coal i t i o n Premiers and the Liberal Prime Minister may have been related to the coalition's willingness to negotiate with the federal government on many important aspects of inter-govern-mental relations and the coalition's popularity within B r i t i s h Columbia u n t i l some years after the war. While the federal leader was known to object to the coalition for partisan reasons after the war, as Prime Minister he had to maintain the support of a cooperative provincial government. The 144 members of parliament from B r i t i s h Columbia, however, f e l t d i r e c t l y threatened by the continuation of the c o a l i t i o n and as members of the provincial Association could oppose the c o a l i t i o n more openly. Therefore, policy strains during the coalition had l i t t l e direct relationship to the Liberal government in Ottawa except in so far as federal leaders within B r i t i s h Columbia were privately encouraged and suppor-ted by federal leaders i n Ottawa. In comparing the s i g n i f i -cance of policy differences between the two wings of the party to the development of intra-party strain during the c o a l i t i o n and the preceding Liberal administrations i n V i c t o r i a i t appeared that while the existence of a c o a l i t i o n in i t s e l f had no direct relationship to the lack of federal-provincial policy strains, the absence of such strains did not r e f l e c t the unity of the party. ADMINISTBATIVE DIFFERENCES: Administrative differences between federal and provincial leaders within the provincial organization have been exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to document because of the desire on the part of party leaders to maintain a united image. Indeed, only those differences which i n i t i a t e d considerable public f r i c t i o n have been recorded in the press or in the memories of party leaders. Despite these d i f f i c u l t i e s , however, administrative strains emerge as the most enduring c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Intra-party r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the B.C. L i b e r a l 145 Party. The i n t e n s i t y of these s t r a i n s and t h e i r importance to i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s at a given time have, nevertheless, v a r i e d considerably. During periods of concurrent federal and p r o v i n c i a l power administrative s t r a i n s u s u a l l y involved the j o i n t conduct of federal campaigns. In general, during the administrations of O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o these s t r a i n s were w e l l contained. S t r a i n s usually emerged a f t e r a federal e l e c t i o n when e i t h e r unexpected or disappointing e l e c t i o n r e s u l t s i n i t i a t e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e assessments of the organi-zation's e f f i c i e n c y which i n turn i n i t i a t e d f r i c t i o n between the two wings of the party. Even during the campaigns, however, s t r a i n s between federal and p r o v i n c i a l leaders could be discerned as p r o v i n c i a l leaders refused to campaign openly f o r federal candidates or federal leaders requested that p r o v i n c i a l leaders remain out of sight during the campaign. During the leaderships of O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o the l o c a l strength of the p r o v i n c i a l organization, the s t a b i l -i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l control of the organization, the degree of autonomy granted to the federal organization and the dependence of the federal party on the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l organization combined to minimize the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s of administrative differences. During the c o a l i t i o n years, however, administrative differences between the two groups were the major source of intr a - p a r t y s t r a i n . Although federal leaders were able to assume more complete d i r e c t i o n of federal a f f a i r s they expressed considerable d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with the state of the 146 p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c o a l i t i o n , they b e l i e v e d , was d i s s o l v i n g p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l commitment w i t h i n the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as w i t h i n the province and, consequently, was threatening the very foundation o f the L i b e r a l Party. Federal l e a d e r s clashed with c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l s on d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g to the general a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the party organiza-t i o n as w e l l as on the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of f e d e r a l business w i t h i n the province. They a l s o clashed with p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s during a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p convention, when they backed one p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p candidate and campaigned f o r the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n supporting the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n group. These conf r o n t a t i o n s eventually assumed the p r o p o r t i o n s of a f e d e r a l challenge to the pro-v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and i n d i r e c t l y to the c o a l i t i o n government as f e d e r a l l e a d e r s attempted to expand t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the rank and f i l e l e a d e r s h i p i n order to encourage the a n t i -c o a l i t i o n sentiment. As the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n campaign gained strength, f e d e r a l s t r a i n s became intense and p u b l i c c o n f l i c t between the two groups assumed almost u n c o n t r o l l a b l e dimen-sions. The o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l requirements of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups were perceived so d i f f e r e n t l y a f t e r the war that the formal s u r v i v a l of the u n i f i e d pro-v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was an achievement i n i t s e l f . CONCURRENT FEDERAL AND PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION: l k 7 The Liberal Party of B r i t i s h Columbia and the Liberal Party of Canada were both in opposition from 1911 to 1916, from 1930 to 1933 and from 1957 to 1963. During these three periods the party's circumstances differed considerably as did the balance of power between federal and provincial groups within the Liberal Association in B r i t i s h Columbia. In the f i r s t period both federal and provincial parties were extremely weak but in the absence of a federal wing within the province the control of the Association was i n the hands of the pro-v i n c i a l leader, who was able to attract a large following once the prospect of p o l i t i c a l power became apparent. Between 1930 and 1933 a new provincial leader was rebuilding a pro-v i n c i a l organization under his own personal control. There i s no evidence to suggest that the new provincial leader attempted to assume more control over federal business when the federal party was defeated in 1930. The fiv e Liberal members of parliament from B r i t i s h Columbia were probably able to maintain the status quo in terms of their influence and participation within the Association. Between 1957 and 1963, however, the situation was entirely different. The provincial wing of the party had been extremely weak for five years before the federal party's defeat i n 1957 and the provincial leader's control of the Association had been threatened constantly since 1953 by a strong and active federal wing. While the provincial leader 148 m a i n t a i n e d e n o u g h c o n t r o l o v e r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n t o p r e v e n t f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f r o m f o r c i n g h i s r e t i r e m e n t , h e was n o t a b l e t o i m p r o v e h i s p o s i t i o n o n c e t h e f e d e r a l w i n g w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e w a s d e f e a t e d . I n d e e d , a f t e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r r e s i g n e d i n 1959 f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i m m e d i a t e l y m o v e d t o c o n s o l i d a t e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . The new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , who h a d r e c e i v e d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s , made n o a t t e m p t t o r e s t r i c t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a n d t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n w e r e n o t a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e o f f i c e o f t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e i r c o m p l e t e c o n t r o l o f f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s , t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r a n d t h e i r s u p e r i o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s made t h e m t h e d o m i n a n t f o r c e w i t h i n t h e p a r t y . The c i r c u m s t a n c e o f c o n c u r r e n t p a r t y o p p o s i t i o n i n O t t a w a a n d V i c t o r i a h a s g i v e n l i t t l e I n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d u r i n g t h e s e p e r i o d s t h e r e l a t i v e e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h , f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s a n d p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e s o f t h e two g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e a f f e c t e d t h e f o c u s o f p o w e r w i t h i n t h e p a r t y . The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f p o w e r i n t h e y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d i n g t h e p e r i o d o f c o n c u r r e n t o p p o s i t i o n a l s o a p p e a r e d t o i n f l u e n c e t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n s o f t h e two g r o u p s i n d e f e a t . I n d e e d , w i t h i n t h e B . C . L i b e r a l P a r t y 1 4 9 the balance of power in the period preceding concurrent defeat has tended to survive by the power of i n e r t i a alone. SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PRO VIJNCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: There was no evidence of public policy differences i n i t i a t i n g strains between the federal and provincial wings of the Liberal Party of B r i t i s h Columbia during periods of concurrent opposition. While opposition status often allowed each wing of the party to remain vague or uncommitted on issues affecting both Ottawa and B r i t i s h Columbia, i t also enabled the party to keep policy strains out of the public eye. Policy differences between the provincial and federal leaders existed between 1930 and 1933 and between 1957 and 1963 but intra-party f r i c t i o n did not seem related to these issues. These po l i c i e s had no immediate p o l i t i c a l significance since the parties were both out of power and, therefore, as long as the party made no attempt to coordinate their p o l i c i e s the differences between the two wings could be ignored. ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: Although administrative differences did not appear to i n i t i a t e f r i c t i o n between the two wings of the party between 1911 and 1916 and between 1930 and 1933. administrative strains were evident between 1957 and 1963. During the 150 f e d e r a l campaigns of I962 and 1 9 6 3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the f e d e r a l wing, who had been appointed to the f e d e r a l campaign committee, clashed with the Presi d e n t of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a -t i o n . The President claimed that f e d e r a l l e a d e r s had disregarded the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f e d e r a l campaign but the o r i g i n o f t h i s s t r a i n was d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to previous campaigns f o r the A s s o c i a t i o n presidency. At that time f e d e r a l l e a d e r s supported a new and prominent member of the party, who was p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t e d i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . While the f e d e r a l wing's candidate was defeated, the f e d e r a l leader appointed him to d i r e c t the f e d e r a l campaign committee. The Presi d e n t o f the A s s o c i a t i o n opposed the expanding i n f l u e n c e o f f e d e r a l leaders and o f f e r e d l i t t l e a s s i s t a n c e to the f e d e r a l party. Although the p r o v i n c i a l leader d i d not openly p a r t i c i p a t e i n the q u a r r e l between the A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s i d e n t and f e d e r a l leaders, the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s which occurred i n connection with the e l e c t i o n o f the president of the Asso c i a -t i o n and the d i r e c t i o n of the f e d e r a l campaign r e f l e c t e d both the f e d e r a l challenge to the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the organ-i z a t i o n and the i n c r e a s i n g but as yet unstable i n f l u e n c e of the f e d e r a l wing. PROVINCIAL POWER - FEDERAL OPPOSITION From 1916 to 1 9 2 1 and from 1 9 3 3 to 1 9 3 5 the pro v i n -c i a l L i b e r a l s formed the government i n V i c t o r i a while the 151 f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were i n o p p o s i t i o n i n Ottawa. W i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y i n power t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r c o u l d e a s i l y m a i n t a i n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . Between 1916 and 1921 t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r had v i r t u a l l y no compe-t i t i o n from t h e f e d e r a l wing o f t h e p a r t y f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s i n c e t h e p r o v i n c e d i d n o t r e t u r n a L i b e r a l member o f p a r l i a m e n t i n t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s o f 1911 and 1917. But even when t h e f e d e r a l group was more numerous and much more p o w e r f u l , as t h e y were between 1933 and 1935. p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l was f i r m . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r d i d n o t a t t e m p t t o e x t e n d h i s i n f l u e n c e o v e r f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s . Arrangements between t h e two g r o u p s remained much as t h e y had d u r i n g t h e p r e v i o u s p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s when t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y had a l s o been i n power. T h i s s t a b i l i t y was p r o b a b l y e n c o u r a g e d by t h e i n f l u e n c e and s i z e o f t h e f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e p r o s p e c t o f a f e d e r a l L i b e r a l v i c t o r y a t t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n . Indeed, the r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p r o v i n c i a l power but f e d e r a l d e f e a t a r e most p r o -b a b l y dependent upon t h e s i z e o f t h e f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e i r immediate p o l i t i c a l p r o s p e c t s . SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: A l t h o u g h o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s o f t e n a l l o w e d a p a r t y to r e m a i n uncommitted on major i s s u e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l 152 r e l a t i o n s , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a f e d e r a l c o a l i t i o n government i n 1917 was one i s s u e t h a t c o u l d n o t he a v o i d e d by t h e p r o -v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t i e s . In B r i t i s h Columbia d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and P r e m i e r , who s u p p o r t e d t h e U n i o n cause and t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and b a c k b e n c h e r s , who s u p p o r t e d L a u r i e r , were e x c e p t i o n a l l y w e l l c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e p a r t y . W h i l e t h e i s s u e c a u s e d some s t r a i n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r -s h i p , t h e s t r o n g s u p p o r t o f t h e U n i o n c a u s e i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e tenuous p o s i t i o n o f t h e new p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d i s c o u r a g e d open p a r t y s t r i f e . The absence o f an e s t a b l i s h e d f e d e r a l wing i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e sudden d e a t h o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r a l s o h e l p e d t o c o n t a i n i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was d e e p l y a f f e c t e d by t h i s i s s u e s i n c e each c o n s t i t u t e n c y o r g a n i z a t i o n had t o e i t h e r a l i g n I t s e l f w i t h t h e L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l cause o r form a L i b e r a l - U n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n . The Union Government c o n t r o -v e r s y i n d i c a t e d t h e way In which a f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d i s s u e c o u l d d i v i d e a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y t h a t had no f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d f e d e r a l wing. Between 1933 and 1935 f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s d i d n o t n o t i c e a b l y d i s t u r b i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s . Prom h i s p r i v a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r t h e L i b e r a l P r e m i e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia had assumed t h a t t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y s u p p o r t e d him i n many o f h i s v a r i o u s c o n f l i c t s w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P r i m e M i n i s t e r o f Canada. 153 When t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s r e t u r n e d t o power i n 1935. however, t h e P r e m i e r was o f t e n s u r p r i s e d by t h e a p p a r e n t r e v e r s a l o f f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y . W h i l e p o l i t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t s o f t h e p e r i o d had r e c o g n i z e d s e v e r a l a r e a s o f r e a l and p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y c o n f l i c t , f e d e r a l p a r t y p o s i t i o n s on t h e s e i s s u e s were n o t o f immediate c o n c e r n to t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y w h i l e t h e p a r t y was i n o p p o s i t i o n i n Ottawa. L i k e w i s e , t h e p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l government c o u l d be c o n v e n i e n t l y i g n o r e d by t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r , who d e s i r e d t h e c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e f o r t h c o m i n g f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: W h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p l i c a t i o n s accompanied the U n i o n Government c o n t r o v e r s y w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between p r o v i n -c i a l l e a d e r s and f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e s were n o t i n t h e m s e l v e s a s o u r c e o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n . D u r i n g t h e second p e r i o d u n der c o n s i d e r a t i o n a m i n o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n d e v e l o p e d Immediately a f t e r the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1935» when t h e s u c c e s s f u l f e d e r a l l e a d e r c o m p l a i n e d o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y p o o r showing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The P r e m i e r f e l t t h a t h i s u n u s u a l l y a c t i v e s u p p o r t o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y d u r i n g the campaign had n o t been a p p r e c i a t e d by t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y and he s u g g e s t e d p r i v a t e l y t o p a r t y l e a d e r s t h a t the f e d e r a l wing 154 m i g h t p r e f e r t o s e p a r a t e i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n from the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . B o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e i n s i s t e d t h a t t h i s i s s u e s h o u l d n o t be p u r s u e d and t h a t f e d e r a l comments on t h e e l e c t i o n had been p r i m a r i l y e x p r e s s i o n s o f d i s a p p o i n t m e n t and n o t o f c r i t i c i s m . In b o t h t h e s e p e r i o d s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s c r e a t e d o n l y m i n o r s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n f o r t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y . A l t h o u g h t h e U n i o n Government debate p r o v i -ded an u n u s u a l p r o b l e m f o r t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and t h e s h o r t p e r i o d between t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1933 and t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1935 gave i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s l i t t l e t i m e t o mature, t h e o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s o f one wing o f t h e p a r t y a p p e a r e d t o l e s s e n t h e chances o f a p u b l i c q u a r r e l between t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and m i n i m i z e t h e r e p u r c u s s i o n s o f p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s . An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e c o n t a i n m e n t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s d u r i n g t h e e a r l i e r p e r i o d may be found i n t h e weakness o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e and t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f many p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s to s u p p o r t t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . D u r i n g t h e more r e c e n t p e r i o d t h e d e s i r e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r t o g a i n f a v o r w i t h p a r t y c o l l e a g u e s he would e v e n t u a l l y have t o n e g o t i a t e w i t h a s t h e government i n Ottawa may have m i n i m i z e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f r i c t i o n . C l e a r l y , i f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y had been i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c u m -s t a n c e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y i n e i t h e r p e r i o d s , 155 administrative differences might have provided more serious or more obvious intra-party strains. FEDERAL POWER - PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION: The federal party held power in Ottawa d u r i n g periods of provincial opposition from I 8 9 6 to 1 9 1 1 , from 1928 to 1930, from 1952 to 1957 and f i n a l l y from 1963 t-0 1965. During most of these periods the influence of the federal wing of the party within the provincial organization was considerable, although the influence only approximated an effective control of the Association in the earliest and the most recent years under consideration. From I 8 9 6 to about 1 9 0 3 the provincial Association was in r e a l i t y a federal organization because party lines had not been firmly established in provincial p o l i t i c s . But federal leaders continued to dominate the organization u n t i l 1 9 0 8 , when their numbers were substantially diminished. Throughout the period, however, the federal cabinet minister from B r i t i s h Columbia encouraged the development of a strong provincial organization and supported the principle of the provincial control of the organization. Although the provincial leader could never maintain unity within the provincial wing, after 1 9 0 8 the leadership of the party defaulted to the disunified provincial wing of the party in the absence of a stronger or more determined federal group. 156 While the role of the small federal wing of the party within the provincial Association between 1928 and 1930 was not clear, federal leaders evidently encouraged the defeated provincial leader to resign by offering him a federal appointment. The federal wing within B r i t i s h Col-umbia was, however, too weak to attempt to control the organization and i t appeared that federal interests were s a t i s f i e d to see a new leader rebuild a strong Liberal or-ganization. In contrast, after the provincial party's defeat in 1952 federal leaders were not only instrumental in the selection of a new provincial leader, who was r e c r u i -ted from the federal wing, but were determined to maintain their influence within the Association in view of the un-promising electoral future of the provincial party. Indeed, i t was not long before the federal wing, with i t s major f i n -ancial r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s within the Association, attempted to supervise administrative and policy decisions pertaining s p e c i f i c a l l y to provincial p o l i t i c s . Although the provincial leader had no objections to the federal wing of the party controlling federal business, he ignored those federal directives which he believed en-croached upon the provincial sphere of influence. The federal leaders and their associates extended their control of the organization through their control of federal business, their maintainence of the Association o f f i c e and their 157 influence with the o f f i c e r s of the Association. Neverthe-less, the provincial leader continued to pursue his own strategy in the provincial legislature and refused to resign from the provincial leadership even after he had l o s t his seat in the legislature. He had enough support with rank and f i l e Liberals to survive federal pressures to unseat him, although the defeat of the federal party in 1957 distracted the party and weakened the campaign against him. When the federal party returned to power in 1963 their position of dominance was much more secure. Although federal leaders now made an attempt to avoid internal f r i c t i o n by consulting with the provincial leader on many aspects of party policy, the provincial leader avoided p o l i -cies which might have alienated federal leaders. Federal influence within the Association was aided by the election of o f f i c e r s of the Association who were close to the feder-a l wing. After 1963 the president and the o f f i c e r s of the Association controlled the day-to-day operation of the organization. Although the provincial leader had some l a t i -tude in chosing his own strategy in the legislature and during provincial campaigns, he had l i t t l e control over the small group of L i b e r a l MLAs, l i t t l e control of the organizational apparatus of the party, l i t t l e control over the selection of the Association o f f i c e r s , few sources of independent fin a n c i a l resources and, consequently, few bases from which 158 to recapture an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l leader had strong support among the rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s but t h i s support could at best only maintain him i n an o f f i c e which depended upon independent p o l i t i c a l and f i n a n c i a l resources f o r i t s power. Prom 1963 to 1965, therefore, f e d e r a l influence approximated the e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n The e c l i p s e of the L i b e r a l Party i n B r i t i s h Colum-b i a a f t e r 195 2 made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leader to r e t a i n h i s c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n . A deter-mined p r o v i n c i a l leader, however, was able to maintain him-s e l f i n o f f i c e with l i t t l e more than rank and f i l e support. Indeed, between 1953 and 1957 the p r o v i n c i a l leader ignored f e d e r a l "advice" and was able to prevent the f e d e r a l wing from s t a b i l i z i n g t h e i r influence w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l organization. This suggested that the extent of f e d e r a l influence w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l Association most recently may be l e s s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the superior federal resources than to the withdrawal of the p r o v i n c i a l leader to a p o s i t i o n approximating h i s personal and p o l i t i c a l resources w i t h i n the Association. Thus, while the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l party may provide a f e d e r a l wing with an opportunity f o r increased influence with a p r o v i n c i a l party organization, the immediate p o l i t i c a l prospects of the p r o v i n c i a l party, i t s resources, the q u a l i t y of i t s leadership, the personal 159 d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r t o c o n t r o l t h e o r g a n -i z a t i o n and, o f c o u r s e , the s t r e n g t h o f t h e f e d e r a l wing i n t h e p r o v i n c e d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t t o w h i c h f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e may a p p r o a c h an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: The s o u r c e and i n t e n s i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n v a r i e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y d u r i n g t h e s e f o u r p e r i o d s . Many o f the d i f f e r e n c e s , however, may be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e u n i q u e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e p e r i o d o f p a r t y emergence and t o t h e l a c k o f d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n t h e s h o r t p e r i o d between the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 1928 and t h e f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1930, when the f e d e r a l wing i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was weak. F o r example, c o n f l i c t s between p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s and t h e L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r o v e r b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y p o s i t i o n s on f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s were i n t e n s e b e f o r e 1911, but i n t h e o t h e r p e r i o d s c o n s i d e r e d h e r e t h e r e was no e v i d e n c e o f p o l i c y s t r a i n s w h i c h d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d t h e Prime M i n i s t e r . In some s i t u a t i o r o p p o s i t i o n s t a t u s a f f o r d e d the p r o v i n c i a l wing o f the p a r t y t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e m a i n vague o r uncommitted on p o t e n t i a l l y e x p l o s i v e i s s u e s , w h i l e i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s t h e p o l i t i c a l e nvironment o f t h e p r o v i n c e demanded t h a t they take p r e c i s e 160 p o s i t i o n s on such i s s u e s even i f i t i n i t i a t e d a p u b l i c q u a r r e l w i t h t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . B e f o r e 1911 t h e weak p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e y s t r e n g t h e n e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e by a t t a c k i n g f e d e r a l p o l i c i e s , w h i l e i n t h e most r e c e n t p e r i o d i t o f t e n a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e was improved by t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Ottawa. P o l i c y s t r a i n s o f an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t n a t u r e d i d o c c u r , however, between 1952 and 1957 when f e d e r a l l e a d e r s opposed s e v e r a l o f t h e programs p r o p o s e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . T h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r i n t h e s e p o l i c y a r e a s and i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y c r e a t e d s e v e r e s t r a i n s and f i n a l l y prompted t h e f e d e r a l wing t o a t t e m p t t o r e t i r e t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . W h i l e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s had o f t e n f e l t t h r e a t e n e d by the p o l i c i e s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y t h e y have r a r e l y a t t a c k e d them i f th e y p e r t a i n e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d . Indeed, t h e o n l y o t h e r example o f such p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n government, when t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y was a l s o c h a l l e n g i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r -s h i p . W h i l e p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s d u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n d e v e l o p e d as p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l a n t I - c o a l i t i o n campaign, p o l i c y d i f f e r -ences between 1953 and 1957 a c t u a l l y i n i t i a t e d s t r a i n s between t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and t h e f e d e r a l wing, a l t h o u g h i n t h e l a t t e r p e r i o d p o l i c y s t r a i n s were dominated by more s e v e r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c l a s h e s . 161 ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: A l t h o u g h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s b e f o r e 1 9 1 1 were g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e l a c k o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l c o o r d i -n a t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s and t h e e x i s -t e n c e o f d i s u n i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing o f t h e p a r t y i t s e l f , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the two most r e c e n t p e r i o d s u nder c o n s i d e r a t i o n were d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the i n c r e a s e d a c t i v i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l wing. W h i l e t h e f o c u s and i n t e n s i t y o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s v a r i e d i n t h e s e most r e c e n t p e r i o d s , a l l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n were d e r i v e d from t h e s u p e r i o r f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s o f t h e f e d e r a l w ing and t h e i r expanded i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . I n b o t h p e r i o d s , t h e r e f o r e , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s were the b a s i s o f a f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n . Between 1952 and 1 9 5 7 the dependence o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r on t h e f e d e r a l wing f o r campaign fu n d s encouraged f e d e r a l l e a d e r s to o f f e r a d v i c e and c r i t i c i s m on t h e c o n d u c t o f p r o v i n c i a l campaigns. When the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r r e j e c t e d o r i g n o r e d t h i s a d v i c e t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y w i t h -drew i t s s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , which i n t u r n a l i e n t a t e d t h e two wings f u r t h e r . A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r -ences d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s o c c u r r e d i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h the d i s -t r i b u t i o n o f money, the conduct o f p r o v i n c i a l campaigns and t h e r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y i n A s s o c i a t i o n a f f a i r s . A f t e r 1 9 6 3 t h e s t a b i l i t y o f f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e m i n i m i z e d th e s t r a i n s 162 i n i t i a t e d "by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s . T h e r e were minor d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e 1963 campaign b u t a f t e r o f f i c e r s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n c l o s e t o t h e f e d e r a l wing assumed t h e con-t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s have been w e l l c o n t a i n e d . THE STRUCTURE OF INTRA-PARTY RELATIONS IN THE B.C. LIBERAL PARTY: The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t summarizes t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h has been found between e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s and th e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia. THE STRUCTURE OP INTRA-PARTY RELATIONS IN THE B.C. LIBERAL PARTY ELECTORAL VARIABLE CONTROL OF ORGANIZATION* SOURCES OF STRAIN** INTENSITY OF STRAIN CONCURRENT POWER 1921 - 1928 1935 - 1941 1941 - 1952 P r o v . / s t r o n g P r o v . / s t r o n g Prov./moderate Fed. c h a l l e n g e POLICY/admin. POLICY/admin. ADMIN./policy moderate g r e a t g r e a t CONCURRENT OPPOSITION 1911 - 1916 1930 - 1933 1957 - 1963*** Prov./moderate P r o v . / s t r o n g Prov./weak Fed. c h a l l e n g e ADMIN./ g r e a t / m o d e r a t e PROVINCIAL POWER FEDERAL OPPOSITION 1916 - 1921 1933 - 1935 P r o v . / s t r o n g P r o v . / s t r o n g POLICY/admin. /admin. moderate weak FEDERAL POWER PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION I896 - 1911 1928 - 1930 1952 - 1957 1963 - 1965 F e d e r a l - 1 9 0 3 Prov./weak Prov./moderate Prov./weak Fed. c h a l l e n g e F e d e r a l / m o d e r a t e POLICY/admin. /admin. ADMIN./policy ADMIN./ g r e a t weak g r e a t moderate/weak CHART (Cont.-) * The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has been c l a s s i f i e d g e n e r a l l y a s s t r o n g , moderate o r weak. The e x i s t e n c e o f a f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n has a l s o been i n d i c a t e d h e r e . ** The s o u r c e o f major i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s a p p e a r s f i r s t i n c a p i t a l l e t t e r s . I f minor s t r a i n s a l s o e x i s t e d t h e y a r e i n d i c a t e d i n t h e lo w e r c a s e . *** A f t e r i 9 6 0 t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d a l s o be c l a s s i f i e d as weak F e d e r a l c o n t r o l w i t h a p r o v i n c i a l ( r a n k and f i l e ) c h a l l e n g e . 165 The structure of intra-party relations in the Liberal Party of B r i t i s h Columbia has suggested the following propositions and relationships: (1) Whenever the provincial wing of the party formed the provincial government in Victoria the provincial leader's control of the unified party organization has been r e l a t i v e l y secure. (2) When the provincial group was in opposition effective control of the Liberal Association was more d i f f i -c u l t to maintain. The retention of control of the organi-zation by provincial leaders depended not only upon the federal party's position in Ottawa and the strength of the federal leaders in B r i t i s h Columbia but the length and the extent of the provincial party's defeat. (3) When both federal and provincial groups have been in opposition the provincial leader's a b i l i t y to control the Liberal Association was contingent upon the balance of power existing within the party in the period immediately preceding that of concurrent opposition. Even i f the pro-v i n c i a l wing had been out of power longer than the federal wing, the defeat of the federal party often strengthened the position of the provincial leader. (4) While federal Influence within the unified party organization has assumed significant dimensions when 166 t h e f e d e r a l wing was i n power d u r i n g an e x t e n d e d p e r i o d o f p r o v i n c i a l o p p o s i t i o n , t h i s i n f l u e n c e o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e d an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e i n d i r e c t a p p r o v a l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . (5) The g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n v o l v e d d i f f e r e n c e s between c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s . Many o f t h e s t r a i n s w h i c h d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n e i t h e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r f e d e r a l wings were a l s o o f t e n r e l a t e d t o f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d i s s u e s . (6) Whenever b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings o f t h e p a r t y were i n power i n Ottawa and V i c t o r i a p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e c o n d u c t o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s o f t e n i n i t i a t e d s t r a i n s between t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y . These s t r a i n s tended to dominate f e d e r a l - p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s s i n c e t h e y o f t e n i n v o l v e d p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between t h e L i b e r a l P r e m i e r and t h e L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r . (7) When e i t h e r o r b o t h o f the two wings o f the p a r t y were i n o p p o s i t i o n p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t a s t h r e a t e n i n g t o the u n i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . P u b l i c f r i c t i o n between t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and t h e f e d -e r a l l e a d e r was a l s o l e s s l i k e l y to o c c u r under t h e s e c i r -cumstances. 167 (8) The a b s e n c e o f p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between the f e d e r a l l e a d e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was n o t an a c c u r a t e measure o f t h e u n i t y o f t h e p a r t y s i n c e t h e most c o n t i n u -i n g - s o u r c e o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y f r i c t i o n has been d e r i v e d f r o m t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g a j o i n t o r -g a n i z a t i o n u nder the f o r m a l and o f t e n e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . ( 9 ) When t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing o f t h e p a r t y was i n o p p o s i t i o n , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s between f e d e r a l and p r o -v i n c i a l g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e were a l m o s t always e v i -d e n t and were o f t e n i n t e n s e . S e r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n c r e a s e d f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y and i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , w hich was t h r e a t e n i n g t o a l t e r t h e e s t a b l i s h e d b a l a n c e o f power w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . (10) The i n t e n s i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s a p p e a r e d t o have no r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y . The d i v e r s e i n t e r e s t s and the o f t e n c o n f l i c t i n g p o l i t i c a l needs o f the two groups, which e i t h e r i n i t i a t e d o r encouraged most i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s , were n e i t h e r r e s t r i c t e d n o r r e s o l v e d by t h e c h a n g i n g e l e c -t o r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r t y . 168 THE IMPACT OP FEDERALISM ON INTRA-PARTY RELATIONS -SOME COMPARISONS: The p r o p o s i t i o n s s t a t e d above have r e f e r r e d to t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f o n l y one l o c a l p a r t y i n one f e d e r a l c o u n t r y . W h i l e t h e f i n d i n g s o f t h i s . c a s e - s t u d y a r e most d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t t o C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m , more g e n e r a l s t a t e m e n t s on t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s r e q u i r e c omparisons w i t h p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n o t h e r f e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s . W h i l e t h e l i t e r a t u r e on f e d e r a l i s m i s r i c h and expanding r a p i d l y , u n f o r t u n a t e l y t h e s t u d y o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s , i n d e e d , even t h e s t u d y o f t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m upon t h e s t r u c -t u r e and o p e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s h as r e c e i v e d o n l y l i m i t e d a t t e n t i o n i n most f e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s . T h i s has been t r u e on b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and e m p i r i c a l l e v e l s o f a n a l y s i s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , d e t a i l e d c o m p a r i s o n s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make even w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s . In t u r n , w i t h o u t d e t a i l e d comparisons, g e n e r a l i -z a t i o n s on t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on I n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a r e e x t r e m e l y h a z a r d o u s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i f t h e p a t t e r n s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y w i t h i n the same f e d e r a l p a r t y and between the p a r t i e s i n a f e d e r a l system, the v a r i a b l e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s which appear t o c l a r i f y one l o c a l p a r t y s i t u a t i o n may n o t be u s e f u l i n a n o t h e r l o c a l p a r t y o r f o r t h a t m a t t e r w i t h i n a p a r t y system a s a whole. 169 A l t h o u g h i n t e r e s t i n C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s has been I n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y , A l e x a n d e r B r a d y ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e on f e d e r a l i s m and C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s i n 1963 i s s t i l l a c c u r a t e when he r e p o r t s t h a t : The r e l a t i o n o f the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o t h e o p e r a t i o n and s u c c e s s o f t h e f e d e r a t i o n i s a l a r g e and i m p o r t a n t theme which u n f o r t u n a t e l y has n e v e r been f u l l y e x p l o r e d i n a major and s i n g l e t r e a t i s e . . . . I t i s d e a l t w i t h b r i e f l y i n books on n a t i o n a l government, i n b i o g r a p h i e s and i n a few s p e c i a l s t u d i e s on t h e p a r t i e s . . . . E a c h o f t h e two c h i e f n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s s t i l l a w a i t s a d e t a i l e d h i s t o r y . . . . T h e w r i t e r s o f books have d e v o t e d more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e minor-i t y and r e g i o n a l t h a n t o t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e i r s t u d i e s r e f l e c t something k o f t h e s t r a i n s and s t r e s s e s o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . The i d e n t i c a l p r o b l e m w i t h i n o t h e r f e d e r a l systems has a l s o been r e c o g n i z e d . W i t h i n t h e A u s t r i a l i a n f e d e r a l i s m , f o r example, S.R. D a v i s and C A . Hughes have o b s e r v e d , "As i n f l u e n c e s , one might e x p e c t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , p o l i c y and s t r a t a g e m s t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e f o r c e o f f e d e r a l i s m i n A u s t r a l i a . B u t even h e r e t h e w r i t i n g i s s c a n t and t h e c o n c e r n i s w i t h o t h e r t h i n g s . A f t e r a b r i e f r e v i e w and c r i t i q u e o f t h o s e few examples o f g e n e r a l t r e a t m e n t s on the t o p i c t h e a u t h o r s s u g g e s t s e v e r a l u n p u b l i s h e d and g e n e r a l l y u n a v a i l a b l e l o c a l s t u d i e s have g i v e n a new s l a n t to t h e n a t u r e o f f e d e r a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n A u s t r a l i a and they remark t h a t : ^ I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s t endency t o w r i t e down the e f f e c t s o f a s t a t e - b a s e d n a t i o n a l p a r t y system 170 i s about t o end and t h a t a much more u s e f u l i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y system w i l l come from the i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n p a i d t o s t a t e , r e g i o n a l and c i t y d i f f e r e n c e s . 7 T h i s i s , o f c o u r s e , t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s on the l o c a l l e v e l f o r such examina-t i o n s n o t o n l y p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i -z a t i o n and t h e s t r a i n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h e l o c a l p a r t y but on t h e c o m p a r a t i v e l e v e l w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a s i n g l e f e d e r a l system p r o v i d e a dynamic v i e w o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y system and t h e d i v e r s i t i e s which i t embraces. CMADIAN PASTIES: GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE IMPACT OP FEDERALISM: A l t h o u g h few s t u d e n t s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s have i g n o r e d t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on the g e n e r a l s t r u c t u r e o f the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y systems, s y s t e m a t i c docu-m e n t a t i o n o f t h e impact o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n the two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s h as been r a r e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , many o f t h e g e n e r a l r e v i e w s o f Ca n a d i a n p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n have o f f e r e d o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f some a s p e c t s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s . R. MacGregor Dawson,8 H.McD. C l o k i e , ^ C o r r y and H o d g e t t s , 1 0 and A l e x a n d e r B r a d y 1 1 have d e s c r i b e d t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s . A l l o f t h e s e 171 w r i t e r s have remarked on t h e s t r e n g t h o f p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and on t h e t e n d e n c y f o r o c c a s i o n a l d i s a g r e e m e n t s t o b r e a k o u t between t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f t h e same p a r t y . Pew o f t h e s e a u t h o r s , however, have e x p l o r e d t h e c o m p e t i t i o n between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e f o r i n -f l u e n c e o r c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e u n i f i e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . Dawson has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e " a c q u i e s c e n c e by t h e Dominion i n t e r e s t s i n p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p may be g i v e n more r e a d i l y i n t h a t t h e l a r g e r p a r t o f p e t t y p a t r o n a g e i s now t h e g i f t o f t h e p r o v i n c e . "-*"2 He does n o t , however, t h e o r i z e on t h e s t a b i l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y c o n t r o l o f the u n i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s once t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s a r e c u t o f f from p a t r o n a g e r e s o u r c e s . A l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e w r i t e r s have d i s c u s s e d t h e e x t e n t t o which t h e f e d e r a l wing may dominate a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , C o r r y and H o d g e t t s have s u g g e s t e d t h a t f e d e r a l p a r t i e s have been l e s s dependent on p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s f o r campaign f u n d s s i n c e t h e warl3 and Dawson has s t r e s s e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n p a t r o n a g e on b o t h l e v e l s o f government and t h e f e d e r a l c o n t r o l o f t h e b e s t j o b s has o f f s e t p r o v i n c i a l c l a i m s f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l o rganization.-*-^ But w h i l e t h e c o n d i t i o n s and e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l c o m p e t i t i o n f o r the c o n t r o l o f t h e l o c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s o b s c u r e , s e v e r a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have been 172 o f f e r e d w i t h i n t h e s e g e n e r a l works on t h e n a t u r e and development o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s t r a i n s . A l m o s t w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n t h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have r e f e r r e d o n l y t o p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between a p r e m i e r and a prime m i n i s t e r o f t h e same p a r t y . The impact o f t h e s e q u a r r e l s on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e , how-e v e r , was r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d . The development o f i n d e p e n d e n t q u a r r e l s between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e was n o t examined i n d e p e n d e n t l y , a l t h o u g h t h e e x i s t e n c e o f such s t r a i n s was i n d i r e c t l y r e c o g n i z e d . Never-t h e l e s s , some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s and p r o p o s i t i o n s have been p r o v i d e d by g e n e r a l a s s e s s m e n t s o f f e d e r a l p a r t y p o l i -t i c s i n Canada. C l o k i e , f o r example, remarked t h a t t h e l o c a l f o c u s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e n d i s t r a c t s t h e a l l e g i a n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , j u s t a s " r e g i o n a l o r r a c i a l j e a l o u s i e s " may encourage a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r t o c o n f r o n t t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r o f t h e same p a r t y . w h i l e C l o k i e b e l i e v e d t h a t such q u a r r e l s c o u l d d e v e l o p a t any time, he s u g g e s t e d t h a t such c l e a v a g e s were more f r e q u e n t when f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings were i n power i n t h e i r p r o s p e c t i v e c a p i t a l s a t t h e same time."1"? In a s i m i l a r a n a l y s i s Gwendolen C a r t e r has s u g g e s t e d t h a t such l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s between a p r e m i e r and a prime m i n i s t e r o f t h e same p a r t y a r e encouraged by the c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f power w i t h i n b o t h t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings o f t h e p a r t y on one hand, and t h e " l o o s e n e s s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n between 173 - i o t h e two l e v e l s o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n " on t h e o t h e r hand. I t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t most examples o f p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between l e a d e r s o f t h e same p a r t y have been r e l a t e d t o t h e con d u c t o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . N e i t h e r o f th e major p a r t i e s have m a i n t a i n e d a g e n e r a l p o l i c y on f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s , i n d e e d , i t has o f t e n been n o t i c e d t h a t " v a r i o u s l e a d e r s n a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l w i l l a d o p t d i f f e r e n t a t t i t u d e s a c c o r d i n g t o whether t h e y a r e i n o r o u t o f o f f i c e . " " 1 ^ W i l l i a m H. R i k e r has o b s e r v e d t h a t i n Canada t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p r e m i e r s have l o o k e d t o " L i b e r a l l e a d e r s i n Ottawa n o t f o r l e a d e r s h i p , b u t f o r b a r g a i n i n g c o n c e s s i o n , " b ecause w i t h i n C a n a d i a n f e d e r a l i s m " t h e r e i s something to b a r g a i n a b o u t . " ^ N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e l a c k o f commitment t o c o n s i s t e n t p o l i c i e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o -v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s and t h e p e r i o d i c p o p u l a r i t y and d e c l i n e o f She s e c t i o n a l i s s u e s p u r s u e d by p r o v i n c i a l wings o f t h e two major p a r t i e s have l e d some s t u d e n t s o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s t o b e l i e v e t h a t most d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o -v i n c i a l wings o f t h e major p a r t i e s a r e d e r i v e d from a p r a g -m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f p o l i t i c a l l y r e w a r d i n g i s s u e s r a t h e r t h a n from any i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s . D e n i s Smith has c y n i c a l l y remarked t h a t "A p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y l e a d e r w i l l deny h i s f e d e r a l l o y a l t i e s when t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y i s u n p o p u l a r and parade them when i t i s p o p u l a r . The r e l a t i o n s h i p i s one o f prudence r e s t i n g on a b a s i s o f common 174-s e n t i m e n t and n o t o f p r i n c i p l e . 1 , 2 1 Indeed, E.B. B l a c k has s u g g e s t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia t h a t r e a l p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y have been so r a r e i n c o m p a r i s o n t h e c o n f l i c t i n g a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e c l a i m s o f t h e two grou p s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t t h e " b r o k e r a g e t h e o r y " o f f e d e r a l p a r t y p o l i t i c s , w h i c h v i e w s t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y a s " b r o k e r o r m i d d l e -man between t h e p r o v i n c e s which have d i v e r s e and o f t e n con-t r a d i c t o r y p o l i c y c l a i m s , " may n o t a d e q u a t e l y a c c o u n t f o r t h e '22 m a j o r i t y o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s . To examine t h i s t h e s i s , however, much more must be known about i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s when the two wings o f t h e p a r t y a r e n o t b o t h i n power. Indeed, an assessment o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e v a r i o u s s o u r c e s o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n C a nadian p a r t i e s can o n l y be d e r i v e d from d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h a few s t u d i e s on C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s have p r o v i d e d i n s i g h t s on some a s p e c t s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t i e s , E.R. B l a c k ' s s t u d y o f t h e P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia i s t h e o n l y d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on t h e pr o b l e m o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s . 2 - ^ j± v e r y g e n e r a l o u t l i n e o f i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s 175 o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y has been p r o v i d e d by S. P e t e r Begen-s t r i e f i n an u n p u b l i s h e d PhD. d i s s e r t a t i o n . 2 ^ These s t u -d i e s , however, a r e t h e o n l y ones which d e a l w i t h i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n any s y s t e m a t i c way. Most o f t h e s t u d i e s w h i c h have been p u b l i s h e d on p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s have been more c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e r i s e o f t h e m i n o r i t y and r e g i o n a l p a r t i e s o r t h e g e n e r a l p o l i t i c a l exchanges between t h e p a r t i e s i n a p r o v i n c e t h a n w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s w i t h i n a p a r t y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , n e i t h e r 3* - Murray B e c k ' s d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f The Government o f Nova S c o t i a n o r Hugh G. T h o r b u r n 1 s book, P o l i t i c s i n New B r u nswick g i v e s a v e r y c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n e i t h e r o f t h e two major p a r t i e s . 2 - 5 S i m i l a r l y t h e s t u d y o f A l b e r t a ' s L i b e r a l P a r t y by L.G. Thomas con-c e n t r a t e s on t h e h i s t o r y and p o l i c i e s o f t h e L i b e r a l p a r t y i n A l b e r t a b u t does n o t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y d e a l w i t h t h e r o l e o f t h e p r o v i n c e ' s s m a l l f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n -i z a t i o n o r o f t h e impact o f s t r a i n s between f e d e r a l and p r o -v i n c i a l l e a d e r s on t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . 2 6 S t u d i e s l i k e S.M. L i p s e t ' s A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , 2 ? OR John A. I r v i n g ' s The S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement i n A l b e r t a , W.L. Morton's The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n Canada, 29 a n ( i c.B. M a c p h e r s o n 1 s Democracy i n A l b e r t a : The Theory and P r a c t i c e o f a Q u a s i - P a r t y System30 have c o n c e r n e d t h e m s e l v e s w i t h t h e c o n d i t i o n s which gave r i s e t o t h e s e v a r i o u s p a r t i e s and 176 and t h e impact o f s e c t i o n a l i s m on t h e p r o v i n c i a l party-systems. They have p a i d v e r y l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l members o f t h e s e p a r t i e s o r even between t h e v a r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l u n i t s o f t h e same p a r t y . I t i s c l e a r , however, t h a t i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s have assumed somewhat d i f f e r e n t forms i n t h e s e p a r t i e s because o f t h e weakness o f t h e i r f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e i r s t r e n g t h i n o n l y one o r two p r o -v i n c e s . I t has been o b s e r v e d i n a g e n e r a l way t h a t the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g p u l l o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s has a f f e c t e d the i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C.C.F. - N.D.P. even though t h e p a r t y has o f t e n e x p r e s s e d a commitment t o a f a i r l y c e n t r a l i z e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . S y s t e m a t i c s t u d i e s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l members o f t h e p a r t y i n p r o v i n c e s where b o t h wings o f t h e p a r t y have had s u p p o r t , however, have n o t been p u b l i s h e d and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , d a t a which would be comparable t o i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n t h e major p a r t i e s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e . SOME COMPARISONS ON THE STRUCTURE OF INTRA-PARTX RELATIONS IN CANADA: A s p e c t s o f t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s have been d i s c u s s e d i n d e t a i l i n t h r e e u n p u b l i s h e d Ph.D. d i s s e r t a t i o n s b u t i n a l l c a s e s t h e f o c u s has been on t h e n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r e a t m e n t o f the 1 7 7 p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and t h e r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n them has been weak.-^2 Indeed, one study-c o n t e n d e d t h a t the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n u n i t i n g t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings o f t h e p a r t y showed "a r e l a t i o n s h i p , b u t t h e r e a l o p e r a t i o n o f the p a r t y d e m o n s t r a t e d a l a c k o f c o h e s i o n and an absence o f any o r g a n i c c o n n e c t i o n . " - ^ The i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a s a f o c u s f o r f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y i n t e r a c t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d i n a g e n e r a l way by many o b s e r v e r s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s , a l t h o u g h t h e i n f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t h e major p a r t i e s has rem a i n e d o b s c u r e . The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n some o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s may c l a r i f y some o f the more complex and e l u s i v e i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s which e x i s t w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and, i n a d d i t i o n , may p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r e v a l u a t i n g t h e a p p r o a c h and c o n c l u s i o n s o f t h i s c a s e - s t u d y o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. THE LIBERAL PARTY: A l m o s t a l l t h e I n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l P a r t i e s may be fo u n d i n a s i n g l e c h a p t e r o f S. P e t e r R e g e n s t r i e f ' s s t u d y o f The L i b e r a l P a r t y of-Canada: A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s . A l t h o u g h R e g e n s t r i e f was m a i n l y i n t e r e s t e d i n whether the p r o v i n c i a l 178 and f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n each p r o v i n c e were u n i t e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and whether t h e p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y had been d i v i d e d by any s e r i o u s and p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s , he a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e which group a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and i n d o i n g so has g i v e n some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l c o n t r o l i n t h e v a r i o u s L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He d i d n o t , however, g i v e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n t o t h o s e p r o v i n c e s w hich have n o t had s e r i o u s l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s o r s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n -i z a t i o n s . Indeed, i f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c o i n c i d e d and t h e r e were no p u b l i c q u a r r e l s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s R e g e n s t r i e f i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f complete f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n . R e g e n s t r i e f r e p o r t e d t h a t o n l y t h e L i b e r a l P a r t i e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, A l b e r t a , O n t a r i o and Quebec have been p l a g u e d by " a c t u a l o r p o t e n t i a l d i s c o r d between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s . " - ^ In Nova S c o t i a and Saskatchewan t h e r e had been a l o n g t r a d i t i o n o f "unbroken f e d e r a l -p r o v i n c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n , " and i n New Brunswick, P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d and Newfoundland, f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l organ-i z a t i o n s had g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e d . J The p r e d i c a m e n t o f the M a n i t o b a o r g a n i z a t i o n a p p e a r e d d i f f i c u l t t o c l a s s i f y b u t R e g e n s t r i e f i n d i c a t e d t h a t d e s p i t e a g r e a t d e a l o f organ-i z a t i o n a l o v e r l a p o f p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l - P r o g r e s s i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n 179 had p o s s i b l y c o m p l i c a t e d the j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f p a r t y b u s i n e s s d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 Ts and 1 9 3 0 's. W h i l e i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s r e m a i n e d o b s c u r e d u r i n g most o f t h i s p e r i o d , s t r a i n s were e v i d e n t a f t e r 1935 when James H. G a r d i n e r , a M i n i s t e r o f A g r i c u l t u r e and u n o f f i c i a l l e a d e r o f t h e Saskatchewan o r g a n i z a t i o n , a t t e m p t e d u n s u c c e s s f u l l y t o "impose h i s own o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e p r o v i n c e . "36" The p r e c i s e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t h e f o c u s o f c o n t r o l o f t h e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n Nova S c o t i a and Saskatchewan p r o v i d e d R e g e n s t r i e f w i t h some d i f f i c u l t i e s a l s o , as t h e r e were i n s t a n c e s i n b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n s when t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r moved i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s b ut r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p e r s o n a l l y o r l e f t i t u nder t h e c o n t r o l o f a h a n d - p i c k e d successor.-^? W h i l e R e g e n s t r i e f b e l i e v e d t h a t under t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s t h e r e was complete c o o p e r a t i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s i n b o t h p r o v i n c e s w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e U n i o n Government p e r i o d , i t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e whether the assumed f e d e r a l c a r e e r s o f W.S. F i e l d i n g and Angus L. Macdonald o f Nova S c o t i a and James G. G a r d i n e r o f Saskatchewan i n i t i a t e d any changes i n the p r i o r i t i e s o f t h e u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and whether any segment o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l group r e s e n t e d t h e c o n t i n u e d i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s e men w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n once t h e y e n t e r e d t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t . A more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e two o r g a n i z a t i o n s might i n d i c a t e 180 i f i n t r a - p a r t y c o o p e r a t i o n was ba s e d on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s d e v e l o p e d by t h e p a r t y , t h e " p e r s o n a l l i a i s o n o f t h e l e a d e r s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e , " o r p o s s i b l y on t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n t o keep i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n o u t o f t h e p u b l i c eye.3 ^ S i n c e b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings h e l d power c o n c u r r e n t l y f o r e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s i n t h e s e two p r o v i n c e s , however, i t i s d o u b t f u l whether t h e p a r t y o r g a n -i z a t i o n s c o u l d have a v o i d e d i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s e n t i r e l y . S i n c e t h e L i b e r a l s have r e t u r n e d t o power i n S a s k a t c h e -wan f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s have been o b s e r v e d w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . F r i c t i o n between t h e L i b e r a l P r e m i e r R o s s T h a t c h e r and t h e L i b e r a l P r i m e M i n i s t e r L e s t e r P e a r s o n has been n o t e d a s w e l l . W h i l e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e s t r a i n s were n o t a l t o g e t h e r c l e a r , i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y t o o k t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l campaign ou t o f p r o v i n c i a l hands a f t e r o n l y one L i b e r a l member o f p a r l i a m e n t was e l e c t e d from t h e p r o v i n c e i n 1962. I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r found t h e r i g h t wing o r i e n t a -t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y u n a c c e p t a b l e and had r e q u e s t e d t h a t a new and s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n be c r e a t e d i n t h e p r o -v i n c e f o r f e d e r a l purposes.3 9 The p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was n o t c o n s u l t e d on t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and when the p r o v i n c i a l group was e x c l u d e d from the 1963 campaign o r g a n -i z a t i o n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o f f e r e d no a s s i s t a n c e t o f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e s . In commenting on t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s i n t r a -p a r t y c o n f l i c t E.R. B l a c k has su g g e s t e d : 1 8 1 Here t h e problem would appear t o have i s s u e d i n i d e o l o g i c a l terms p r i m a r i l y because o f a t a c t i c a l s i t u a t i o n . In s e e k i n g to o v e r t h r o w Saskatchewan's C . G . P . government, t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , Ross T h a t c h e r , c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d a s t r o n g r i g h t wing l o o k f o r h i s group, an a t t i t u d e i n n o t a b l e c o n t r a s t w i t h t h a t o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y . 3 ° W h i l e R e g e n s t r i e f d e s c r i b e d I n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e f o u r p r o v i n c e s o f A l b e r t a , B r i t i s h Columbia, O n t a r i o and Quebec, he d i d n o t att e m p t t o c l a s s i f y t h e s e s t r a i n s o r t o g e n e r a l i z e on the l o n g - t e r m e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e s e f o u r L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . A s y s t e m a t i c c l a s s i f i -c a t i o n o f t h e s e s t r a i n s , however, was i m p o s s i b l e i n some c a s e s because o f t h e uneven q u a l i t y o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . In A l b e r t a many a s p e c t s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s have remained o b s c u r e d because o f the weakness o f the p a r t y and t h e r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n t h e e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o v e r l a p and c o o p e r a t i o n . In t h e 1920*s t h e r e was n o t an e f f e c t i v e p a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t o r b u t i n t h e 1930's w h i l e t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s -t r a t i o n o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n improved, r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s c o n t i n u e d so t h a t w h i l e i n one p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e t h e r e was no f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n a n o t h e r p a r t f e d e r a l i n t e r -e s t s were o p e n l y c o n f l i c t i n g w i t h p r o v i n c i a l groups f o r the c o n t r o l o f t h e r e g i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . R e g e n s t r i e f i n f e r r e d t h a t the i n t e n s i t y o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s i n c r e a s e d a f t e r 1935 when t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s r e t u r n e d t o power. S i n c e t h e p r o v i n c e had no c a b i n e t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , James H. G a r d i n e r a t t e m p t e d t o c o n t r o l f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s w i t h i n t h e 182 p r o v i n c e and was f o u g h t by p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s. A f t e r 1950 A l b e r t a ' s new c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r c l a s h e d w i t h p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s and i n 1955. R e g e n s t r i e f r e p o r t e d , he opened a s e p a r a t e h o o f f i c e f o r t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y i n Edmonton. ^ Prom Regen-s t r i e f 's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i t would a p p e a r t h a t t h e major s o u r c e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n have been a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and have c e n t e r e d on t h e c o n t r o l o f f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The weakness o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e , however, had made i t more d i f f i c u l t f o r f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e t o assume c o n t r o l o f the l e g a l p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In Quebec t h e r e was a s e p a r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l b u s i n e s s from a b o u t 1911 t o i 9 6 0 . W h i l e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s from Quebec o c c a s i o n a l l y r e c e i v e d h e l p from p r o -v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s on an i n f o r m a l b a s i s , a f t e r t h e v i c -t o r y o f t h e U n i o n N a t i o n a l e f e d e r a l M.P.s from Quebec became i n c r e a s i n g l y a l i e n a t e d from L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s , who o f t e n d i s c o v e r e d t h e i r f e d e r a l c o l l e a g u e s making " n o n - a g r e s s i o n p a c t s " w i t h t h e U n i o n N a t i o n a l e . ^ When the p r o v i n c i a l o r -g a n i z a t i o n was r e b u i l t i n t h e 1950's and 1960's, p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s renewed c o n t a c t s w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n Ottawa. A f t e r t h e L i b e r a l s g a i n e d power i n the p r o v i n c e the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were f o r m a l l y r e u n i t e d b u t t h e " o l d - g u a r d " f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e were v i r -t u a l l y e x c l u d e d from the n e g o t i a t i o n s . ^ U n t i l t h e o l d e r group o f f e d e r a l p e r s o n n e l a r e c o m p l e t e l y r e t i r e d , the u n i -f i c a t i o n o f the two wings o f the p a r t y w i l l be i n c o m p l e t e 183 and t h e arrangements f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f j o i n t f a c i l i t i e s w i l l p r o b a b l y r e m a i n u n s t a b l e . I n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Colum-b i a have e x h i b i t e d s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t i e s . A l t h o u g h Regen-s t r i e f s r e v i e w d f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was most f r a g m e n t a r y and d e a l t m a i n l y w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s t r a i n s o f t h e c o a l i t i o n p e r i o d , h i s more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e O n t a r i o L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n has p r o v i d e d many p a r a l l e l s w i t h the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y on t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. The L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n O n t a r i o has remained f o r m a l l y u n i t e d t h r o u g h o u t i t s h i s t o r y d e s p i t e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f a s e p a r a t e and quasi-autonomous f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g t h e 1 9 3 0 's. O n t a r i o L i b e r a l s were d i v i d e d more s e r i o u s l y t h a n were B r i t i s h C olumbia L i b e r a l s on t h e i s s u e o f U n i o n Govern-ment i n 1917 and a s a r e s u l t t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n had t o be r e b u i l t d u r i n g t h e 1920's.^-5 W h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n on i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s p e r i o d , a f t e r M i t c h e l l Hepburn became t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r i n 1930 f e d e r -a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y s t r a i n s became q u i t e p u b l i c . D i f f e r e n c e s between Hepburn and K i n g began, R e g e n s t r i e f r e p o r t e d , a t t h e time o f Hepburn's e l e c t i o n when the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s t a y e d away from the p a r t y n o m i n a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n s u p p o s e d l y to a v o i d any c o n f u s i o n between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . A f t e r Hepburn became P r e m i e r o f O n t a r i o he c o n s u l t e d K i n g on the s e l e c t i o n o f the c a b i n e t and t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r , who was s t i l l i n o p p o s i t i o n , r e f u s e d to c o o p e r a t e . I t i s c l e a r t h a t i n r e f u s i n g t o i n t e r f e r e i n the 1 8 4 p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t - m a k i n g p r o c e s s , K i n g w i s h e d t o f o r e s t a l l s i m i l a r a t t e m p t s by Hepburn t o impose any c o n d i t i o n s he might have upon K i n g s h o u l d t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y s u c c e e d i n w i n n i n g the f o r t h c o m i n g f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , w h i c h by t h a t time i t seemed c e r t a i n t o do.46 Indeed, a f t e r t h e s u c c e s s f u l f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n Hepburn, w i t h o u t c o n s u l t i n g K i n g , announced t h e name o f t h e " f o r t h -coming f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r o f j u s t i c e i n an attempt t o p r e s s u r e h i s f e d e r a l c o l l e a g u e i n t o naming h i s c h o i c e f o r t h e p o s t . K i n g i g n o r e d Hepburn's a c t i o n s and w i s h e s and d i d n o t c o n s u l t w i t h t h e O n t a r i o P r e m i e r on t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e c a b i n e t . Hepburn i n t e r p r e t e d t h i s as "tantamount t o u r g i n g t h a t s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s be s e t up."^7 By 1 9 3 6 t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n -c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s were q u i t e d i s t i n c t and by 1 9 3 8 t h e p u b l i c f e u d between the two l e a d e r s was becoming infamous. The o r i g i n s o f t h i s f e u d were complex and w h i l e t h e y a p p e a r e d t o be r e l a -t e d to Hepburn's d e s i r e f o r i n f l u e n c e i n Ottawa, l a t e r c l a s h e s between t h e two l e a d e r s were ba s e d on i s s u e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o -v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s . Hepburn, f o r example, u n i t e d w i t h D u p l e -s s i s t o b l o c k what t h e P r e m i e r s c o n s i d e r e d " f e d e r a l government encroachments on p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , " i n i t i a t e d d i r e c t n e g o t i a -t i o n s w i t h Washington on the p o s s i b i l i t y o f e x p o r t i n g h y d r o -e l e c t r i c power and f i n a l l y j o i n e d w i t h O n t a r i o C o n s e r v a t i v e s 48 i n p a s s i n g a m o t i o n o f c e n s u r e on the f e d e r a l government. As i n t h e c a s e o f P a t t u l l o ' s c l a s h w i t h K i n g , members o f t h e O n t a r i o p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y s i d e d w i t h the f e d e r a l l e a d e r and, t h e r e b y , i n i t i a t e d d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing o f t h e p a r t y i t s e l f . 185 These i n t r a - p a r t y c l e a v a g e s were c l e a r l y v i s a b l e , R e g e n s t r i e f r e p o r t e d , when Hepburn r e t i r e d i n 1942 and attemp-t e d t o name h i s own s u c c e s s o r . F e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l f a c t i o n s opposed t o Hepburn baeked a n o t h e r c a n d i d a t e , who became the new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r w i t h t h e open s u p p o r t o f t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and K i n g h i m s e l f . When the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was d e f e a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g y e a r the f e d e r a l wing took advantage o f p r o v i n c i a l d i s u n i t y and t h e i r s t r e n g t h e n e d p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . R e g e n s t r i e f , r e f l e c t i n g on t h e e f f e c t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y ' s e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n , commented: A c c o r d i n g l y , any o b j e c t i o n s t h e ' p r o v i n c i a l s ' m i g h t have had t o f e d e r a l c a b i n e t d o m i n a t i o n c o u l d n o t have the impact comparable t o t h a t w h i c h such o b j e c t i o n s would have emanated from a p a r t y i n power. In f a c t , t h e s e a r e grounds f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t the b a l a n c e had s h i f t e d i n t h e o t h e r d i r e c t i o n and t h a t f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s and f e d e r a l M.P.s p l a y e d an overwhelming r o l e i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . ° The f e d e r a l c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was so complete t h a t f e d e r a l l e a d e r s c o m p r i s e d o n e - h a l f o f t h e membership o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p l a t f o r m committee and used t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing i n t h e O n t a r i o l e g i s l a t u r e a s a " d e v i c e f o r e m b a r r a s s i n g t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e p r o v i n c i a l government."^ 0 In b o t h O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia, t h e r e f o r e , the extended p e r i o d o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y e c l i p s e has been accompanied by t h e i n c r e a s e d i n f l u e n c e o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y . Indeed, i n b o t h c a s e s t h i s i n f l u e n c e a p peared t o c o n s t i t u t e the c o n t r o l o f the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In b o t h c a s e s 186 t h e i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l wing was a i d e d by a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y c o n f l i c t w hich f i n a l l y d i v i d e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l group i t s e l f . Comparisons on the s t a b i l i t y and r e p u r c u s s i o n s o f f e d e r a l d o m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r -g a n i z a t i o n s i n O n t a r i o and B r i t i s h Columbia, however, a r e d i f f i c u l t t o make on t h e b a s i s o f R e g e n s t r i e f 1 s i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e contemporary O n t a r i o s i t u a t i o n . THE PROGRESSIVE-CONSERVATIVE PARTY: A l t h o u g h John R. W i l l i a m s has s t u d i e d t h e C o n s e r v a -t i v e P a r t y between the y e a r s o f 1920 and 194-9, ^  t he o n l y d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n the p a r t y has been p r o v i d e d by E.R. B l a c k . W h i l e t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ' s f o r m a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n d i f f e r s i n a few key a r e a s from t h a t o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y ' s , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s and t h e s o u r c e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n w i t h i n t h e two p a r t i e s would appear t o be q u i t e s i m i l a r on the b a s i s o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n B r i t i s h C olumbia. Indeed, t h e t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s s u g g e s t e d by B l a c k ' s s t u d y o f t h e B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e s and p u b l i s h e d i n an a r t i c l e f o r t h e D a l h o u s i e Review have n o t o n l y p r o v e d i n v a l u a b l e i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h i s c a s e - s t u d y b u t have been c o n f i r m e d i n many c a s e s by the f i n d i n g s o f R e g e n s t r i e f * s s t u d y a s w e l l . The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e p r o p o s i t i o n s and t h o s e o f t h i s c a s e - s t u d y , however, w i l l be a i d e d by a b r i e f 18? r e v i e w o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia. The p r o v i n c i a l C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia were i n power between 1902 and 1916, 1928 and 1933, and i n c o a l i t i o n between 1 9 4 l and. 1952. I n t h e f i r s t p e r i o d a s t r o n g p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , as P r e m i e r , h e l p e d t o b u i l d t h e f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a f t e r t h e f e d e r a l wing assumed power i n Ottawa i n 1911 t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y c o n t i n u e d t o r e l y upon the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Between 1928 and 1933 t h e f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e was f a i r l y s t r o n g even b e f o r e t h e p a r t y assumed power i n Ottawa i n 1930, but t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e s t e d w i t h the p r o -v i n c i a l group. S e v e r e f e d e r a l s t r a i n s d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n t h e p a r t y d u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n p e r i o d , a l t h o u g h t h e most open and s e v e r e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y c o n f l i c t emerged a f t e r t h e c o a l i t i o n was d e f e a t e d . "While t h e d i s p u t e a p p e a r e d t o i n v o l v e n o t h i n g more t h a n t h e s t a t u s o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , " B l a c k c o n c l u d e d , " t h e q u e s t i o n embraced b o t h t h e shape and c o n t r o l o f a l l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the p r o v i n c e as w e l l as the s e l e c t i o n and f i n a l a p p r o v a l o f c a n d i d a t e s f o r b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l c o n t e s t s . J C* A l t h o u g h t h e p r o v i n c i a l group was e x t r e m e l y weak a f t e r the c o a l i t i o n ' s d e f e a t , B l a c k s t r e s s e d t h a t they were a b l e t o c o n t r o l t h e o n l y l e g a l C o n s e r v a t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s p i t e o f r e p e a t e d f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l 188 l e a d e r s h i p . In 1 9 5 ^ "the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n v o t e d a mo t i o n o f no c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r and openly-a t t a c k e d t h e a c t i v i t y o f t h e f e d e r a l wing f o r c r e a t i n g a s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i n t h e p r o v i n c e . The two groups c o n t i n u e d t o c l a s h u n t i l i 9 6 0 , when t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l group was weakened by c o n t i n u e d e l e c t o r a l d e f e a t , r e t i r e m e n t and d e a t h . But B l a c k s t r e s s e d t h a t "not u n t i l one o f t h e two f a c t i o n s was a b l e t o a t t a i n p u b l i c o f f i c e were i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a b l e t o a s s i m i l a t e the o t h e r g r o u p s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h i l e B l a c k f o u n d t h a t s e v e r e f e d e r a l s t r a i n s d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n and when b o t h p a r t i e s were i n o p p o s i t i o n , t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l group b a l a n c e d t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f t h e f e d -e r a l group u n t i l t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y assumed power i n Ottawa. S e v e r a l o f B l a c k ' s t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s on t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on Ca n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s a r e o f p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n r e l a t i n g t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o the d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e s o f the p r o -v i n c i a l L i b e r a l P a r t i e s examined above. J u s t a s t h e v i r t u a l independence o f a p r o v i n c i a l government's p o l i c y - m a k i n g depends t o c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t on i t s p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , so t h e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n by t h e l o c a l o f f i c e r s depends upon the l o c a l u n i t ' s p o l i t i c a l r e s o u r c e s i n comparison w i t h t h o s e o f t h e c e n t r a l p a r t y ; such r e s o u r c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i z e and commitment o f membership, f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , q u a l i t y and a p p e a l o f l e a d e r s h i p , and, o f c o u r s e , e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s . 189 The i n t e r e s t s and e n e r g i e s o f t h e p a r t y m a c h i n e r y w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e cannot he c o n v e r t e d r e a d i l y and w i t h e q u a l e f f i c i e n c y t o b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . A t t e m p t s t o t r e a t t h e p a r t y as i f i t were r e a d i l y c o n v e r t i b l e impose a l m o s t i n t o l e r a b l e s t r e s s e s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t r e s s e s w h i c h we may e x p e c t t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f i c u l t i e s between t h e p a r t y l e a d e r s . Even where a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t u a l p e r s o n s , i f t h e y a r e d e t e r m i n e d i n t h e i r l e a d e r s h i p , r e -p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e c e n t r a l p a r t y can u n d e r t a k e • c o r r e c t i v e 1 a c t i o n o n l y a t c o n s i d e r a b l e r i s k . The p a t t e r n o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y groups w i l l depend upon whether p u b l i c o f f i c e i s h e l d by one, n e i t h e r , o r b o t h t h e two g r o u p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f any r e h a b i l i t a -t i v e p r o c e s s t h r o u g h which an o u t - o f - o f f i c e p a r t y f a c t i o n may be g o i n g and by t h e degree o f i d e o l o -g i c a l and p o l i c y s o l i d a r i t y between the c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l u n i t s . ^ B l a c k has s u g g e s t e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e l o c a l c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been e f f e c t i v e and t h a t f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e s t o t h i s c o n t r o l may o f t e n be d e f e a t e d by r e l a t i v e l y weak p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s . D e s p i t e t h e r i s k o f f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e s t o t h e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p , however, t h e c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s o f t h e two g r o u p s and t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g a u n i f i e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n have encouraged the development o f inrfcense l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s which have o f t e n assumed t h e d i m e n s i o n s o f a f e d e r a l c h a l l e n g e t o t h e l o c a l l e a d e r s h i p o f the p a r t y . B l a c k suggested, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the d i f f e r e n t 190 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l n e e d s f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s w i t h i n a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e g e n e r a l c o m p e t i t i o n between the g r o u p s f o r t h e same r e s o u r c e s was a major s o u r c e o f s t r a i n w i t h i n a p r o v i n c i a l C a n a d i a n p a r t y and i t was o f t e n r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s w hich have o c c u r r e d from t i m e t o t i m e i n t h e major p a r t i e s . Indeed, i n h i s s t u d y o f t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia he f o u n d few i s s u e s o f p o l i c y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t r a i n s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s . W h i l e B l a c k i d e n t i f i e d s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t e d t h e b a l a n c e o f power w i t h i n t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , he s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y was p r o b a b l y a major f a c t o r i n d e t e r -m i n i n g t h e " p a t t e r n o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y groups."55 T h i s t h e s i s a t t e m p t e d t o d e t e r m i n e t o what e x t e n t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. In p a r t i c u l a r , the f o c u s o f c o n t r o l w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and t h e s o u r c e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n were examined i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e e l e c t o r a l v a r i a b l e . A l t h o u g h Black- had found no e v i d e n c e o f p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s between t h e two groups i n t h e B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y , b o t h p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n were i d e n t i f i e d i n t h i s c a s e - s t u d y o f t h e B.C. 1 9 1 L i b e r a l P a r t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , B l a c k ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s were the b a s i s o f many o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s w i t h i n C a n adian p a r t i e s was c o n f i r m e d by t h i s e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia and R e g e n s t r i e f ' s b r i e f o u t l i n e o f o t h e r L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s a l s o r e f l e c t e d t h e d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s o f t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power on t h e o p e r a t i o n o f a u n i f i e d " p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . The more s p e c i f i c p r o p o s i t i o n s on t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n t h e B.C. L i b e r a l P a r t y , w h i c h have been enumerated above, a l s o a p p e a r t o have w i d e r r e l e v a n c e w i t h i n t h e major Canadian p a r t i e s . In a l m o s t a l l c a s e s examined i n t h i s r e v i e w , when a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y has been i n power t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o r a p r o v i n c i a l group seemed t o be i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l e g a l p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ The e x t e n t o f f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , however, v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p r o v i n c i a l power. In some p a r t y o r g a n i z a -t i o n s f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a p p e a r e d t o have e x t e n s i v e power o v e r f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s i n s p i t e o f t h e dominant p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l group. When f e d e r a l p a r t i e s were a l s o i n power the t r a d i t i o n o f a l l o w i n g t h e f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r o r f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o make the.major a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e was f a i r l y w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n many L i b e r a l P a r t i e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f f e d e r a l l e a d e r s u t i l i z e d a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y ' s 1 9 2 f a c i l i t i e s the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was o f t e n a b l e t o i n f l u e n c e t h e form o f f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y . In o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a -t i o n s , however, even when f e d e r a l groups have been s t r o n g , p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s have o c c a s i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e i r power ext e n d e d o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s i n t h e p r o v i n c e . I n t h e B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y t h i s b e l i e f was r e t a i n e d by a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r even a f t e r the p a r t y was d e f e a t e d . A l t h o u g h t h i s p r e c i s e s i t u a t i o n has n o t been documented w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y , s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s have been s u g g e s t e d by f e d e r a l p a r t y a c t i o n s i n one province.5 7 N e v e r t h e l e s s , when a f e d e r a l L i b e r a l group has s e p a r a t e d i t s o r g a n i z a t i o n i n f o r m a l l y from t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n between campaigns i t o c c a s i o n a l l y has been a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s r e s p o n s e t o p r o v i n c i a l d e s i r e s t o c o n t r o l f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s more c l o s e l y . W h i l e the r o l e o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s w i t h i n a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n has o f t e n been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e e l e c t o r a l s t r e n g t h , t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n has been most d i r e c t l y b a s e d on e l e c t o r a l power. F e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n has v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g s i m i l a r e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s w i t h i n t h e p a r t i e s examined above. N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n a l l i n s t a n c e s o f f e d e r a l domina-t i o n o f a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , f e d e r a l I n f l u e n c e was o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g a p e r i o d o f p r o v i n c i a l e c l i p s e and f e d e r a l p a r t y power. Indeed, w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the L i b e r a l P a r t y o f O n t a r i o , 193 f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e was o n l y e s t a b l i s h e d w i t h i n d i r e c t a p p r o v a l o f weakened and d i v i d e d p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s . The e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e f o c u s o f power w i t h i n a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , has h e l p e d t o i d e n t i f y t h e s t r a i n s and c o n f l i c t s o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . The c o m p e t i t i o n between grou p s t o e x t e n d t h e i r power o r m a i n t a i n t h e i r autonomy w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s has r e f l e c t e d t h e p r e s s u r e s e x e r t e d by two d i s t i n c t a r e n a s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and p o l i t i c a l power a s c l e a r l y a s p u b l i c p o l i c y q u a r r e l s between l e a d e r s o f t h e same p a r t y o r f o r m a l s e p a r a t i o n s o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . I n t r a - p a r t y c o m p e t i t i o n a l s o has i n d i c a t e d how c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d t h e s o u r c e s o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n a p a r t y a r e once t h e y d e v e l o p i n t o c o n f l i c t s between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s . W h i l e b o t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s c o u l d be i d e n t i f i e d a s s e p a r a t e s o u r c e s o f i n t r a -p a r t y s t r a i n , a f t e r i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n d e v e l o p e d o f t e n b o t h p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i s s u e s were i n t e r t w i n e d . The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e i t h e r p o l i c y o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n t o the e l e c t o r a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e L i b e r a l o r C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s has been d i f f i c u l t to c o n f i r m from t h e i n f o r m a t i o n now a v a i l a b l e . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s as a major s o u r c e o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n i n the two major p a r t i e s has been most d i f f i c u l t t o a s s e s s s i n c e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f i n t r a -19 k p a r t y r e l a t i o n s was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r most L i b e r a l and Con-s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s ( d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p a r t y d e f e a t ) . W h i l e s e r i o u s p o l i c y q u a r r e l s were o n l y r e c o g n i z e d i n B r i t i s h C olumbia and O n t a r i o d u r i n g p e r i o d s c o n c u r r e n t p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l L i b e r a l governments, t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e Quebec, M a n i t o b a , Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a L i b e r a l P a r t i e s must be examined i n more d e t a i l b e f o r e t h e development o f p o l i c y s t r a i n s can be c l e a r l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l power and t h e c o n d u c t o f i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s . I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d , however, t h a t t h e c o n n e c t i o n between p o l i c y q u a r r e l s i n t h e two major p a r t i e s and p o l i t i c a l power does n o t i n any way s u g g e s t t h a t s e c t i o n a l i s s u e s have n o t been an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n w i t h i n t h e two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s . The v e r y dominance o f t h i r d p a r t i e s i n t h e c a p i t a l s o f so many p r o v i n c e s where s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g has been s t r o n g has i n d i r e c t l y b u t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d t h e p a t t e r n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s and t h e development o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e two major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s . The weakness o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t i e s i n t h e s e p r o -v i n c e s has o f t e n i n t e n s i f i e d f e d e r a l p r e s s u r e s t o c o n t r o l the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n more c o m p l e t e l y and has encouraged the development o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s . W h i l e p o l i c y q u a r r e l s have n o t been documented i n t h e s e p a r t i e s , a c l o s e r exam-i n a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s i n t h e pra. . p r o v i n c e s may i n d i c a t e the way i n which i n c r e a s e d 195 f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n some o f t h e s e p r o v i n c e s has m o d i f i e d o r c o n t a i n e d p o t e n t i a l p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two gr o u p s . I n Saskatchewan t h e p o l i c y s t r a i n s between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s most r e c e n t l y have i n d i c a t e d t h e f o r c e t h a t m i n o r p a r t y dominance can e x e r t upon the p o l i c y o r i e n t a t i o n s o f t h e major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s . The e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s r e v i e w e d above has s u g g e s t e d , however, t h a t even i n t h e absence o f p u b l i c l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s may o f t e n e x i s t w i t h i n a u n i f i e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . These s t r a i n s u s u a l l y i n v o l v e d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s i n t h e p r o v i n c e and were o c c a s i o n a l l y w e l l c o n t a i n e d o r were w e l l k e p t p a r t y s e c r e t s . More s e v e r e and p u b l i c a d m i n i s -t r a t i v e s t r a i n s , however, u s u a l l y d e v e l o p e d i n t o p u b l i c l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s when t h e b a l a n c e o f power w i t h i n t h e A s s o c i a t i o n s was b e i n g d i r e c t l y c h a l l e n g e d . In B r i t i s h C olumbia, i n b o t h t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s , t h e most s e v e r e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y e c l i p s e and i n O n t a r i o , A l b e r t a and p o s s i b l y M a n i t o b a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s seem t o have o c c u r r e d i n t h e L i b e r a l P a r t i e s . In s e v e r a l c a s e s i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n has f o r c e d f e d e r a l l e a d e r s t o f o r m a l l y o r i n f o r m a l l y s e p a r a t e t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n s from t h e l e g a l p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . 1 9 6 W h i l e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s o u r c e s o f s t r a i n seem t o have been p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e n s e d u r i n g p e r i o d s o f p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y d e f e a t , t h e s e v e r i t y o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s d i d n o t seem t o have any d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a p a r t i c u l a r e l e c t o r a l s i t u a t i o n . Some p o l i c y s t r a i n s , which o c c u r r e d when a p r o -v i n c i a l p a r t y was s t r o n g , a p p e a r e d j u s t a s t h r e a t e n i n g t o th e o p e r a t i o n o f a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a s t h o s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s d e r i v e d from c h a l l e n g e s t o the e s t a b l i s h e d l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s . Indeed, I t i s p r o b a b l y t h a t t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s to a p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s dependent upon the f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e m a c h i n e r y a p a r t y d e v e l o p s f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f j o i n t p a r t y b u s i n e s s and upon t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e j o i n t o r g a n i -z a t i o n i n t h e p a s t . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e s u r v i v a l o f j o i n t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may a l s o be a f f e c t e d by t h e b a l a n c e o f power between t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y . In t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia t h e c l e a r dominance o f one group w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n a t a time seemed t o encourage t h e weaker group t o a c c e p t r e a d j u s t m e n t s o f t h e b a l a n c e o f power w i t h i n t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n . A t t h e p r e s e n t time, however, t h e s o u r c e s o f p a r t y u n i t y a r e a l m o s t as o b s c u r e a s the s o u r c e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n . In b o t h c a s e s t h e p e r c e i v e d i n t e r e s t s , p o l i t i c a l needs and p o l i t i c a l i n t e r d e p e n d e n c i e s o f the two groups p r o b a b l y c o n d i t i o n t h e manner i n which t h e y view t h e "mutual s e l f - i n t e r e s t " t h a t 197 may h e l p t o keep t h e f e d e r a l p a r t i e s u n i f i e d . - 5 9 F e d e r a l i s m has a f f e c t e d n o t o n l y t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e p a r t y system and t h e f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e major f e d e r a l p a r t i e s h u t a l s o t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a -t i o n s . Indeed, t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s has r e f l e c t e d t h e b a l a n c e o f power between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , has r e f l e c t e d t h e a c t u a l d e g r e e o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n w i t h i n t h e major C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s . In s t u d y i n g i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s and t h e f o r c e o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s as an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m upon t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and o p e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i t has become a p p a r e n t t h a t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s must d e a l n o t o n l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l , r a c i a l o r r e g i o n a l c l e a v a g e s w hich n e c e s s i t a t e d t h e a d o p t i o n o f f e d e r a l forms b u t must a l s o f u n c t i o n w i t h th e a d d i t i o n a l d i s r u p t i o n s encouraged by t h e e x i s t e n c e o f two competing and r e l a t i v e l y autonomous c e n t e r s o f p o l i t i c a l power. The degree t o which t h e s e f e d e r a l f o r c e s d e c e n t r a l i z e and d i s r u p t p a r t y p o l i t i c s i s s e e m i n g l y dependent upon a complex o f f o r c e s which seem t o i n c l u d e t h e f o r m a l i n s t i t u t i o n s o f government, the e l e c t o r a l d e v i c e s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n t h e p o l i t i c a l system, t h e p o l i t i c a l s t r e n g t h o f r e g i o n a l i d e n t i t i e s and most p r o b a b l y th e u n i f y i n g cap-a b i l i t i e s o f the p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t h e p a s t . ^ 0 The r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s o c i a l and i n s t i t u -t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f f e d e r a l i s m and t h e p a r t y system, i n d e e d , 198 has been termed a c i r c u l a r o n e , ^ T h i s may e x p l a i n why t h e p a t t e r n o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s In f e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s , on one hand, has been s a i d t o r e f l e c t t h e impact o f f e d e r -a l i s m on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and, on t h e o t h e r hand, has been s a i d t o d e t e r m i n e t h e a c t u a l s u b s t a n c e o f a p a r t i c u l a r f e d e r a l system i n so f a r a s i t d e t e r m i n e s t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h power on b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a l and n on-governmental l e v e l s i s d e c e n t r a l i z e d . These two v i e w p o i n t s a r e n o t m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e and a r e n o t m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y opposed s i n c e b o t h r e c o g n i z e the f o r c e o f s o c i a l and i n s t i t u t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f p o l i t i c a l systems as w e l l as t h e f o r c e o f t r a d i t i o n and l o c a l i s m i n t h e dynamic p r o c e s s o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . N e i t h e r a p p r o a c h , f u r t h e r m o r e , a c t u a l l y a t t e m p t s t o e s t a b l i s h s i m p l e and d i r e c t c a u s e - a n d - e f f e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ^ Indeed, b o t h a r e a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e i n t e r - c o n n e c t i o n s o f p o l i t i c a l , i n s t i t u t i o n a l and s o c i a l f o r c e s i n t h e c r e a t i o n o f a p a r t y system i n a f e d e r a l c o u n t r y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , on a t h e o r e t i c a l l e v e l t h e s e two a p p r o a c h e s a r e q u i t e s i m i l a r and t h e y seem t o c o n f l i c t o n l y i n t h a t one a p p r o a c h i s c e n t e r e d on t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y and one on t h e s t u d y o f f e d e r a l i s m . The c i r c u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and t h e i r e n v i r o n m e n t s , however, s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i l l v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y i n d i f f e r e n t f e d e r a l systems. W h i l e some g e n e r a l f e a t u r e s o f f e d e r a l p a r t y p o l i t i c s have been p r o p o s e d and o t h e r s w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y 199 emerge a s p a r t i e s i n d i f f e r e n t f e d e r a l systems a r e more s y s t e m a t i c a l l y s t u d i e d a nd compared, such c o m p a r i s o n s o f f e d e r a l p a r t i e s w i l l a l s o i l l u s t r a t e t h e g r e a t d i v e r s i t y o f p o l i t i c a l forms and e x p e r i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h f e d e r a l i s m and t h e d i v e r s i t i e s embraced by t h e term f e d e r a l i s m i t s e l f . A l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a r e r a r e , a few d i s c u s s i o n s o f t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t y systems i n o t h e r f e d e r a l c o u n t r i e s have g i v e n some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e p a r t i e s a r e c e n t r a l i z e d o r d e c e n t r a l i z e d and the d e g r e e t o wh i c h t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power has en-co u r a g e d i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s . I t i s on t h i s l e v e l a l o n e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a nd t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may be compared on an e m p i r i c a l l e v e l i n d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l systems a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . SOME COMMENTS ON INTRA-PARTY RELATIONS IN OTHER FEDERAL COUNTRIES: THE UNITED STATES: I t has been o b s e r v e d t h a t w h i l e t h e tone o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s i s more d e c e n t r a l i z e d t h a n p o l i t i c s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e more d e c e n t r a l i z e d t h an t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n C a n a d a . ^ Indeed, the p a r t i e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s have been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y d e s c r i b e d as " c o n f e d e r a l " r a t h e r t h a n f e d e r a l s i n c e the inde p e n d e n t n a t i o n a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s r e a l l y l a c k i n g .^ - 5 200 S e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f t h e A m e r i c a n p a r t y system have d e s c r i b e d t h e extreme f a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . ^ 6 Most s t u d e n t s o f American p o l i t i c s have con-tended t h a t c o h e s i o n o f t h e f o r m a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s n o t o n l y weak between t h e s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e v e l s b u t i s a l m o s t n o n - e x i s t e n t on each i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l . W h i l e th e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power has e ncouraged t h i s d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n some ways, the m a j o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the l o o s e n e s s o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l has been a t t r i b u t e d t o the p r e s i d e n t i a l system, th e s e p a r a t i o n o f powers and t h e n o m i n a t i o n system f o r p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e s . ^ 7 The d i f f i c u l t i e s o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a n a t i o n a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e w e l l known. The p r o s p e c t i v e p a r t y l e a d e r a s a p r e s i d e n t i a l h o p e f u l must f i r s t compete f o r t h e s u p p o r t o f p a r t y l e a d e r s t h r o u g h o u t th e c o u n t r y . Then, as a p r e s i -d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e he must u n i t e t h e p a r t y and c o n s o l i d a t e h i s s u p p o r t by n e g o t i a t i n g n o t o n l y w i t h the s t a t e o r g a n i z a -t i o n s b u t a l s o w i t h h i s c o n g r e s s i o n a l c o l l e a g u e s , who o f t e n m a i n t a i n t h e i r own s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . These o r g a n i z a t i o n s u s u a l l y demand wide d i s c r e t i o n i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f e d e r -a l p a t r o n a g e . V.O. Key has o b s e r v e d t h a t i n the q u e s t i o n o f p a t r o n a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n " S e n a t o r s and R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s have an i m p o r t a n t v o i c e and they a r e n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n b u i l d i n g an o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h power c e n t e r e d i n t h e hands o f the n a t i o n a l l e a d e r . I n s t e a d , they w i s h t o s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r own o r g a n i z a -t i o n s o r t h o s e s t a t e and d i s t r i c t o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h which 2 0 1 /TO they a r e a f f i l i a t e d . " C o n s e q u e n t l y , C o n g r e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e o f t e n as i n d e p e n d e n t o f n a t i o n a l c o n t r o l as a r e t h e s t a t e and l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . Whatever u n i t y e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e n a t i o n a l campaign o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e and the f o r c e o f the b a r g a i n s he has made w i t h t h e many components o f t h e p a r t y . When t h e campaign i s o v e r t h i s ad hoc o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t e n f a d e s and i f t h e p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e has been de-f e a t e d i t a l m o s t n e v e r s u r v i v e s t o t h e n e x t e l e c t i o n . The n a t i o n a l committees s e t up by t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s have a t t e m p t e d t o c o o r d i n a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n between campaigns b u t on the whole t h e y have n o t been s u c c e s s f u l . ^ Thus, C l i n t o n R o s s i t e r has d e s c r i b e d A merican n a t i o n a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n as f e u d a l b u t he s t r e s s e d t h a t " i t i s f e u d a l i s m w i t h few e n f o r c e a b l e p l e d g e s o f f a i t h , f e u d a l i s m i n which t h e bonds o f mutual s u p p o r t a r e so l o o s e t h a t i t o f t e n seems t o b o r d e r on a n a r c h y , f e u d a l i s m i n which one p a r t y does n o t even have a king."^° On the s t a t e and l o c a l l e v e l s the c o h e s i o n o f p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n may a l s o be weak, a l t h o u g h e f f i c i e n t p o l i t i c a l machines may o p e r a t e on t h e l o c a l l e v e l s . The most p e r t i n e n t a n a l y s i s o f the s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s has been p r o v i d e d by V.O. Key i n s t u d y e n t i t l e d American S t a t e P o l i t i c s . Key a r g u e s t h a t a l t h o u g h the f o u n d a t i o n o f the n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s r e s t s on i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e s e o r g a n i z a t i o n s 202 a r e n o t o n l y d e c e n t r a l i z e d b u t a r e c o n s t a n t l y d i v i d e d and i n f l u e n c e d by t h e p r e s s u r e s o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e p a r a t e e l e c t i o n s o f t h e g o v e r n o r and t h e l e g i s -l a t u r e and t h e v a r i o u s e l e c t o r a l d e v i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s which have encouraged the e l e c t i o n o f an e x e c u t i v e and a t l e a s t one house o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e o f d i f f e r e n t p a r t i e s combined w i t h t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f powers on t h e s t a t e l e v e l have p u t "a wonderous damper on p a r t y government." But d e s p i t e o f t h i s l o o s e n e s s o f f o r m a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n be-tween and w i t h i n t h e l e v e l s o f government Key b e l i e v e s t h a t an autonomous s t a t e p a r t y system i s i m p o s s i b l e . Indeed, he s u g g e s t s t h a t s t a t e p a r t i e s and l e a d e r s have been i n t i m a t e l y t i e d t o t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s because t h e A m e r i c a n v o t e r has t e n d e d to v o t e as a n a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n a f e d e r a l c i t i z e n . Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e f o r c e o f n a t i o n a l i s s u e s i s so s t r o n g t h a t minor, r e g i o n a l l y - b a s e d p a r t i e s have n o t been a b l e t o g a i n power and s t a t e l e a d e r s have o f t e n f ound t h e i r p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e s i n t h e hands o f t h e i r p a r t y ' s 7 1 p r e s i d e n t i a l c a n d i d a t e . These i n f o r m a l p o l i t i c a l c o n n e c t i o n s between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l groups had i n d i c a t e d t h a t w h i l e i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e p r o b a b l y as f r e q u e n t w i t h i n s t a t e and n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s as between them because o f t h e n a t u r e o f t h e n o m i n a t i o n and p r i m a r y systems and t h e s e p a r a -t i o n o f e x e c u t i v e and l e g i s l a t i v e power, the f o r c e o f 203 f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n A m e r i c a n p a r t i e s may he viewed t h r o u g h t h e impact o f n a t i o n a l " i s s u e s , c l e a v a g e s and l o y a l t i e s " upon t h e s t a t e p a r t y s y s t e m s . ? 2 Some o f t h e s e f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d s t r a i n s may be o b s e r v e d i n the r e l a t i o n s between a p r e s i d e n t i a l and a g u b e r n a t o r i a l c a n d i d a t e , when the s t a t e l e a d e r f e a r s t h e e f f e c t o f t h e n a t i o n a l p a r t y ' s image upon h i s own e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s and "succumbs t o t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o wage an ind e p e n d e n t campaign.""^ o t h e r s may be seen i n t h e way t h a t n a t i o n a l p a r t y i s s u e s o f t e n d e t e r m i n e t h e i s s u e s o f s t a t e p r i m a r y campaigns and the v i c t o r y o f one s t a t e f a c t i o n o v e r a n o t h e r . The examples o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s a r e n o t d i f f i c u l t t o c i t e b u t v e r y l i t t l e i s known about t h e f r e q u e n c y o r f o r c e o f t h e s e i n t r a - p a r t y c o n f l i c t s i n t h e many s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , a s s e s s m e n t s o f t h o s e v a r i a b l e s w hich encourage t h e development o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s o r d e t e r m i n e t h e s o u r c e and i n t e n s i t y o f such p a r t y f r i c t i o n have been d i f f i c u l t t o make. Key has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e l o n g - t e r m e l e c t o r a l p o s i t i o n o f a p a r t y i n b o t h n a t i o n a l and s t a t e p a r t y systems and t h e f o r c e o f r e g i o n a l c l e v a g e s p r o b a b l y i n f l u e n c e the form o f t h e s e s t r a i n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , he has s t r e s s e d t h a t even i n s t a t e s which appear to be immune from n a t i o n a l e l e c t i o n t i d e s " a r e n o t so immune t o n a t i o n a l movements o f s e n t i m e n t as might appear. W i t h i n t h e i n t r a - p a r t y a f f a i r s o f such s t a t e s d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f i n d i v i -d u a l s p r o b a b l y t e n d t o r i s e t o p o s i t i o n s o f l e a d e r s h i p , 204 d e p e n d i n g on t h e t e n o r o f t h e predominant n a t i o n a l s e n t i -74 ments.' Prom t h i s v i e w p o i n t i t would seem t h a t f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n t h e s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s a r e d e r i v e d p r i m a r i l y from t h e impact o f n a t i o n a l i s s u e s and n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s upon i n t r a - s t a t e p a r t y c o m p e t i t i o n . The s t r a i n s f o u n d i n Canada between c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i a b l e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f a u n i f i e d p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n do n o t seem t o o c c u r a s f r e q u e n t l y w i t h i n t h e Ame r i c a n p a r t i e s , a l t h o u g h t h e c o m p e t i -t i o n between a c o n g r e s s i o n a l l e a d e r and a s t a t e l e a d e r f o r t h e c o n t r o l o f a s t a t e o r l o c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s some-what s i m i l a r w i t h i n t h e c o n t e x t o f American p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c o n f l i c t s between C a n a d i a n prime m i n i s t e r s and p r o v i n -c i a l p r e m i e r s o f t h e same p a r t y a p p e a r t o have some p a r a l l e l s w i t h i n American p o l i t i c s t o the c o n f l i c t s between a p r e s i -dent and a g o v e r n o r o f t h e same p a r t y , a l t h o u g h i t i s d o u b t f u l whether such c o n f r o n t a t i o n s have been as s e v e r e i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o r have had such s i g n i f i c a n t r e p u r e u s s i o n s on t h e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e l o c a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s . In an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d " D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n a F e d e r a l System," A r t h u r Weidner has a r g u e d t h a t : . . . i n t h e f e d e r a l system i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few d i r e c t c l a s h e s o r compro-mises between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l governments on l a r g e i s s u e s o f n a t i o n a l d o m e s t i c p o l i c y . The 205 d i s a g r e e m e n t s and c o n f l i c t s t h a t do a r i s e and t h a t may be encouraged by f e d e r a l i s m ' s s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s a r e n o t b a s i c a l l y c l a s h e s between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l governments. I n -s t e a d , t h e y a r e c l a s h e s between much s m a l l e r g r o u p s o f p e o p l e and t h e o p p o s i n g g r o u p s a r e l o -c a t e d w i t h i n a s i n g l e g o v e r n m e n t a l l e v e l a s o f t e n a s not.75 In s u p p o r t o f t h i s t h e s i s Weidner examined t h e v a l u e s o f s t a t e g o v e r n o r s on i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s a s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e tendency o f s t a t e o f f i c i a l s t o s u p p o r t p o l i c i e s which p r o t e c t s t a t e autonomy o f power c o n s i s t e n t l y and t h e n compared t h e s e f i n d i n g s w i t h the c o n c e p t s o f i n t e r -g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s h e l d by s t a t e l e g i s l a t o r s and a d m i n i s -76 t r a t o r s i n M i n n e s o t a . ' Weidner c o n c l u d e d t h a t w h i l e i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o f i n d a s t a t e o r a n a t i o n a l a t t i t u d e on i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s from e i t h e r t h e v a l u e s o r a c t i o n s o f s t a t e g o v e r -n o r s o r l e g i s l a t o r s , e l e c t i v e o f f i c i a l s had "more i n t e n s e e x p e d i e n c y v a l u e s r e l a t i v e t o s t a t e government as a whole" t h a n o t h e r g r o u p s o f s t a t e o f f i c i a l s o r employees b ut t h a t t h e s e v a l u e s o f t e n had t o compete w i t h more p r e s s i n g issues.?'' 7 I f t h i s t h e s i s i s a c c u r a t e , t h e i n c i d e n c e o f c o n f l i c t s between g o v e r n o r s and p r e s i d e n t s o f t h e same p a r t y may n o t o n l y be l e s s f r e q u e n t t h a n c o n f l i c t s between Canadian prime m i n i s t e r s and p r e m i e r s o f t h e same p a r t y but may be l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g to p a r t y u n i t y s i n c e t h e y do n o t o f t e n i n v o l v e 206 i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o t h e s u b s t a n c e o f t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power. The more c e n t r a l i z e d tone o f A merican f e d e r a l i s m , t h e weaker p o s i t i o n o f s t a t e g o v e r n o r s , t h e dominance o f n a t i o n a l p a r t y i s s u e s w i t h i n American p o l i t i c s , t h e absence o f an autonomous s t a t e p a r t y system and t h e s t r o n g n a t i o n a l a m b i t i o n s o f many g o v e r n o r s may be r e l a t e d t o t h e f o r c e i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s has had on t h e development o f l e a d e r s h i p q u a r r e l s between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . W h i l e the impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on i n t r a -p a r t y r e l a t i o n s has n o t been a n a l y s e d i n d e t a i l w i t h i n t h e many s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h e w e a l t h o f i n f o r m a t i o n on A merican n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s and some p r o v o k i n g i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e dynamics o f s t a t e p o l i t i c s has i n d i c a t e d some o f t h e c o m p l e x i t i e s and s t r a i n s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s on t h e l o c a l l e v e l which a r e e i t h e r d e r i v e d fbom o r e ncouraged by t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power. In the U n i t e d S t a t e s t h e f a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l and s t a t e groups and t h e m o b i l i t y o f s t a t e and n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c i a n s o f t e n d i s t r a c t s a t t e n t i o n from c o n f l i c t s between n a t i o n a l and s t a t e l e a d e r s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i f Key's s u g g e s t i o n t h a t t h e Impact o f n a t i o n a l p o l i t i c s d e t e r m i n e s the s t r u c t u r e o f s t a t e p o l i t i c s and s t a t e p a r t y p o l i t i c s i s c o r r e c t , t h e n a more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n the s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s may more f u l l y e x p l a i n t h e r e a s o n why t h e tone o f American f e d e r a l i s m i s o f t e n much more 207 c e n t r a l i z e d than t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a l party-system, seems t o i n d i c a t e . EUROPEAN FEDERALISM: THE CASE OF WEST GERMANY: The f o r m a l s t r u c t u r e o f European f e d e r a l i s m has d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y from f e d e r a l i s m i n e i t h e r t h e 7 8 U n i t e d S t a t e s o r Canada.' F e d e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h e p o l i t i -c a l systems o f many European f e d e r a t i o n s have o f t e n been o v e r l o o k e d b ecause o f t h e s t r e n g t h o f the c e n t r a l governments and p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . W h i l e the p a r t y systems o f t h e European f e d e r a t i o n s have b o r e l i t t l e f o r m a l r e semblance t o p a r t y systems i n e i t h e r the U n i t e d S t a t e s o r Canada, i n t r a -p a r t y s t r a i n s which can be c o n n e c t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l d i v i -s i o n o f power have been r e c o g n i z e d r e c e n t l y i n West Germany. A l t h o u g h t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l f e a t u r e s o f West German f e d e r -a l i s m and t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p a r t y p o l i t i c s have been c i t e d a s f o r c e s o f c e n t r a l i z a t i o n , 7 9 a study by A r n o l d J . Heiden-heimer has arg u e d t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l and l a n d p o l i t i c s by the West German v o t e r has s t r e n g t h e n e d minor p a r t i e s on the Land l e v e l and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , has a l l o w e d l o c a l u n i t s o f even t h e C h r i s t i a n D e m o c r a t i c Union t o remain 80 r e l a t i v e l y i ndependent o f f e d e r a l p a r t y d i r e c t i v e s . Heidenheimer r e p o r t e d t h a t Land p o l i t i c i a n s base t h e i r p o l i c i e s and s t r a t e g i e s on " l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s , r a t h e r t h an on t h e d e s i r e s o f the p a r t y l e a d e r s on the f e d e r a l l e v e l . " 208 Many o f t h e Land l e a d e r s have made a l l i a n c e s and formed c o a l i t i o n s on the b a s i s o f l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n s p i t e o f th e w i s h e s o f p a r t y l e a d e r s on t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l . P a r t l y because o f the dominance o f t h e CDU and Konrad Adenauer on th e f e d e r a l l e v e l , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (SPD) has been on t h e Land l e v e l s . T h e i r p o s i t i o n on t h e l o c a l l e v e l has encouraged t h e SPD to become " s t r o n g Qp champions o f Land r i g h t s . , , 0 , c F e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n the CDU have been p a r t i c u l a r -l y s t r o n g . Adenauer c l a s h e d w i t h Land p o l i t i c i a n s on i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o p a r t y a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a -t i o n s and t h e n a t u r e o f t h e Land p o l i c i e s and m i n i s t r i e s . H eidenheimer has o b s e r v e d : I f Adenauer has n o t dominated Land p o l i t i c s i t i s n o t because he has n o t t r i e d to do so. When he f i r s t assumed power i n Bonn he f o u g h t h a r d t o f o r c e t h e more in d e p e n d e n t CDU Land m i n i s t e r s t o t o e the l i n e by f o l l o w i n g Land p o l i c i e s p a r a l l e l t o h i s , e s p e c i a l l y by b r e a k i n g p r e v i o u s l y e x i s t i n g c o a l i t i o n s w i t h t h e S o c i a l i s t s . He g o t many o f t h e weaker CDU Land l e a d e r s t o f i g h t Land e l e c t i o n s (which a r e h e l d two a t a time, a t odd d a t e s between f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s ) on f e d e r a l i s s u e s , and sought t o f o r c e the c r e a t i o n o f Land m i n i s -t r i e s t h a t were a l m o s t e x a c t r e p l i c a s o f the Bonn c a b i n e t as f a r a s p a r t y make-up and p o l i c i e s were c o n c e r n e d . F o r a w h i l e i t ap p e a r e d t h a t t h e L a e n d e r would become c o o r d i n a t e d t o the p o i n t where German f e d e r a l -ism would become a dead l e t t e r . 83 The r e v e r s a l o f t h i s t r e n d was a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l e v e n t s 2 0 9 "but i n g e n e r a l t h e b e h a v i o r o f t h e West German v o t e r i n s u r e d t h e autonomy o f Land p o l i t i c s by showing "a c u r i o u s immunity t o the C h a n c e l l o r ' s charm when v o t i n g f o r d e p u t i e s to the L a n d t a g e . " 8 k S i n c e c e r t a i n p r e c e d e n t s f o r Land autonomy have been e s t a b l i s h e d i n p a r t y a f f a i r s , H eiden-heimer has s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e f o r m a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e L a n d governments have encouraged the Land p o l i t i c i a n s t o b a r g a i n p r i v a t e l y w i t h f e d e r a l o f f i c i a l s c o n c e r n i n g major p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e the p o l i t i c a l n a t u r e o f the d i s p u t e s . T h e r e f o r e , w h i l e t h e f o r c e o f i n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s on p a r t y a f f a i r s may be e x c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e because o f t h e p r i v a t e n a t u r e o f t h e s e c o n f l i c t s , i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e m a i n l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e Land g o v e r n -ments have a f f e c t e d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a l s o c l e a r t h a t t h e d i v i s i o n o f f e d e r a l power w i t h i n the West German C o n s t i t u t i o n l e f t t h e degree o f Land autonomy q u i t e f l e x i b l e . Heidenhelmer has s u g g e s t e d t h a t autonomy o f t h e Land governments has depended " m a i n l y on t h e i r a b i l i t y t o g u a r d t h e i r tax r e v e n u e s and t o m a i n t a i n a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n . " ^ C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e f e d e r a l s t r a i n s w i t h i n West German p a r t i e s have r e f l e c t e d t h e e s t a -b l i s h m e n t and the maintenance o f the i n f o r m a l d i v i s i o n o f f e d e r a l power. 210 COMMONWEALTH FEDERALISM: THE CASE OF AUSTRALIA: The f e d e r a t i o n s o f t h e Commonwealth c o u n t r i e s a r e o f t e n grouped t o g e t h e r because o f t h e i r use o f t h e p a r l i a -mentary system and t h e i r common B r i t i s h h e r i t a g e . D e s p i t e t h e m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f Commonwealth f e d e r a t i o n s i n t h e l a s t decade, Canada and A u s t r a l i a , w i t h t h e most mature p o l i t i -c a l systems and t h e most e s t a b l i s h e d p a r t y systems among the Commonwealth f e d e r a t i o n s , i n v i t e t h e most u s e f u l c o m p a r i s o n s i n a r e v i e w o f t h i s k i n d . I t s h o u l d be mentioned, however, t h a t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have been s t u d i e d i n s e v e r a l o f t h e newer Commonwealth f e d e r a t i o n s and w h i l e t h e r e c e n t f a i l u r e s o f s e v e r a l o f t h e s e f e d e r a t i o n s has d a t e d t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c r e v i e w s i n F e d e r a l i s m In the Commonwealth, e d i t e d by W i l l i a m R. L i v i n g s t o n , an i d e a o f t h e k i n d s o f s t u d i e s a v a i l a b l e on p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s and the s p e c i a l problems o f f e d e r a l p a r t i e s i n t h e s e newly emergent n a t i o n s can be d e r i v e d from many o f t h e essays.^6 A l t h o u g h o n l y a few s t u d i e s o f A u s t r a l i a n p o l i t i c s and p a r t i e s have c o n s i d e r e d t h e impact o f f e d e r a l i s m i n a d e t a i l e d way, the e x i s t e n c e o f f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d p a r t y s t r a i n s have been n o t e d and d e s c r i b e d i n a g e n e r a l way. Of the t h r e e A u s t r a l i a n p a r t i e s , the A u s t r a l i a n Labour P a r t y has see m i n g l y e x h i b i t e d the most f r e q u e n t and i n t e n s e i n t r a - p a r t y c o n f l i c t s because " i t s q u a r r e l s a r e c a r r i e d out i n the open w h i l e t h o s e o f t h e o t h e r p a r t i e s a r e o f t e n 2 1 1 c o n d u c t e d b e h i n d c l o s e d d o o r s . . , . " 8 8 p a r t o f t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e i n t e n s i t y o f s t r a i n s i n the ALP may be d e r i v e d from t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h each s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n i s b o t h autonomous and p o w e r f u l , i n t h a t they c o n t r o l t h e e n d o r s e -ment o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a n d i d a t e s , t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y has a t t e m p t e d t o e n f o r c e some c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l s t h r o u g h a f e d e r a l p a r t y c o n f e r e n c e . While u n i f i e d s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s have been a b l e t o i g n o r e t h e f e d e r a l c o n f e r e n c e , t h i s c o n f e r e n c e may o f f i c i a l l y e x p e l l the s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s from t h e p a r t y . 8 9 i n t h e 1 9 3 0 ' s t h e l e a d e r o f the s t a t e o r g a n i -z a t i o n i n New South Wales, however, r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n even a f t e r he had been f o r m a l l y e x p e l l e d from the p a r t y . 9 ° W h i l e many o f the s t r a i n s r e c o g n i z e d w i t h i n t h e ALP a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o m p e t i t i o n between f e d e r a l and s t a t e groups, o t h e r s t r a i n s have been r e l a t e d to p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between f e d e r a l and s t a t e l e a d e r s and f e d e r a l and s t a t e governments. A l t h o u g h d e t a i l e d i n f o r -m a t i o n on the f r e q u e n c y and i n t e n s i t y o f such s t r a i n s i s n o t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e A u s t r a l i a n s t a t e s t h e r e i s a p p a r e n t l y g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f s t r a i n s i n t h e s t a t e L abour p a r t i e s . W i l l i a m S. R i k e r has commented, t h a t w h i l e the New South Wales Labour P a r t y has "opposed the f e d e r a l Labour P a r t y more o f t e n than i t s u p p o r t e d i t , " o t h e r s t a t e Labour p a r t i e s , as f o r example the Tasmanian Labour P a r t y , 212 have been " I d e o l o g i c a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y c o o p e r a t i v e w i t h t h e f e d e r a l L a b o u r P a r t y . I s s u e s w h i c h hare d i v i d e d the ALP have c o n c e r n e d b o t h the p a r t y ' s i d e o l o g i c a l p o s i t i o n on economic p o l i c y and v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t a l i s s u e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h wartime c o n s c r i p t i o n and amendments t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n . L o u i s e O v e r a c k e r has s u g g e s t e d i n h e r s t u d y o f A u s t r a l i a n p a r t i e s t h a t p r o p o s e d amendments t o t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n have been s o u r c e s o f d i f f e r e n c e between s t a t e and f e d e r a l L abour governments and p a r t i e s because " p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s i n t h e s t a t e , j e a l o u s o f the p r e s t i g e o f t h e p a r t y i n t h e n a t i o n a l a r e n a , sometimes r e f u s e t o s u p p o r t t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n t a k e s i n a r e f e r e n d u m campaign."9 2 These r e f e r e n d u m campaigns, however, have o f t e n i n v o l v e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i n c r e a s e d wartime and postwar powers o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -ment. C o n f l i c t s between the s t a t e and f e d e r a l p a r t i e s on t h e s e i s s u e s have h e l p e d t o d e f e a t the g r e a t p r o p o r t i o n o f 93 t h e s e amendments. N e v e r t h e l e s s , the f e d e r a l government has c o n f i r m e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p "by t h e p r o c e s s e s o f j u d i c i a l r e v i e w and f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l . " 9 k I n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s have been r e p o r t e d t o be l e s s f r e q u e n t i n the L i b e r a l and C o u n t r y P a r t i e s even though t h e two p a r t i e s have formed c o a l i t i o n s i n some s t a t e s and on t h e n a t i o n a l l e v e l w h i l e the p a r t i e s i n o t h e r s t a t e s have been s t r o n g l y opposed t o each o t h e r . Because p a r t y c o n f l i c t s a r e 213 k e p t o u t o f t h e p u b l i c v i e w l i t t l e i s known ab o u t t h e a c t u a l f r e q u e n c y o r s i g n i f i c a n c e o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s i n t h e s e p a r t i e s . Indeed, t h e r e has been l i t t l e I n f o r m a t i o n p r o v i d e d on the k i n d s o f i s s u e s w hich may d i v i d e t h e members o f t h e s e two p a r t i e s . W i l l i a m H. R i k e r has i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e extreme d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e two p a r t i e s and t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f f e d e r a l p a r t y l e a d e r s h i p " t o accomodate I t s e l f t o t h e s t a t e l e a d e r s h i p " has p r e v e n t e d th e n e c e s s i t y f o r f e d e r a l - s t a t e p a r t y q u a r r e l s . 9 5 N e v e r t h e l e s s , much more must be known ab o u t the i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s o f t h e two p a r t i e s b e f o r e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s i n the c o o r d i n a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s d i s c o u n t e d . L i b e r a l P a r t i e s have h e l d power c o n c u r r e n t l y i n the n a t i o n and t h e s t a t e s and u n t i l a s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e e f f e c t o f i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s on t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s known, v e r y l i t t l e c an be s a i d a b o u t the impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on the A u s t r a l i a n P a r t i e s . W h i l e A u s t r a l i a i s u s u a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as h a v i n g m a i n l y econo-mic c l e a v a g e s and Canada i s o f t e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s h a v i n g b o t h r a c i a l and r e g i o n a l c l e a v a g e s , t h e r e seems t o be some s i m i l a r i t i e s between the e x t e n t o f p a r t y d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n and the n a t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s i n the two c o u n t r i e s . The p a r l i a m e n t a r y system combined w i t h th e autonomy o f the s t a t e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s has s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n A u s t r a l i a , as w e l l as i n Canada, f e d e r a l and s t a t e groups w i t h i n t h e 214 s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f t e n c l a s h on a d m i n 1 s t r a t i v e m a t t e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y when s t a t e l e a d e r s s u b j e c t f e d e r a l M.P.'s to " u n u s u a l p r e s s u r e . " ^ 6 I n t e r - g o v e r n m e n t a l i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o t h e s u b s t a n c e o f f e d e r a l i s m have a l s o been i s s u e s o f d i s p u t e between the wings o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n p a r t i e s d e s p i t e t h e weakness o f s e c t i o n a l i s m . When a c r e i s known about f e d e r a l s t r a i n s and i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n b o t h A u s t r a l i a and Canada i t may be p o s s i b l e t o a s s e s s the e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s i n s t i t u t i o n a l forms and s o c i a l c l e a v a g e s upon the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . A l t h o u g h p a r a l l e l c omparisons between i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n Canada, the U n i t e d S t a t e s , West Germany and A u s t r a l i a have n o t always been p o s s i b l e because o f t h e l a c k o f d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , i t would appear t h a t even In c o u n t r i e s where t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a l system i s f a i r l y c e n t r a l i z e d by e i t h e r f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l means and even i n c o u n t r i e s where r e g i o n a l l o y a l i t i e s appear t o be weak, the e x i s t e n c e o f two d i s t i n c t c e n t e r s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and p o l i t i c a l power seem to encourage n o t o n l y e x t e n s i v e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n but a l s o s t r a i n s between the f e d e r a l and l o c a l l e a d e r s . A l t h o u g h t h e degree o f p a r t y d e c e n t r a l -i z a t i o n and t h e f r e q u e n c y and form o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s has v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , an assessment' o f t h e v a r i a b l e s which have encouraged t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s has been i m p o s s i b l e w i t h 215 t h e i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s . I f the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s o f t h i s l o c a l c a s e - s t u d y have any d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o f e d e r a l p a r t i e s o u t s i d e Canada, i t i s i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e s y s t e m a t i c and d e t a i l e d s t u d y o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s p r o v i d e s n o t o n l y a dynamic v i e w o f t h e f o c u s o f power w i t h i n the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s and, t h e r e f o r e , an a s sessment o f t h e a c t u a l d e g r e e o f d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i n t h e p a r t i e s but a l s o p r o v i d e s a b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f f e d e r a l s t r a i n s i n t h e p a r t y system. A s t u d y o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i s o n l y one a s p e c t o f an a n a l y s i s o f the impact o f f e d e r a l i s m on a p o l i t i c a l system, y e t i t would seem to be an i m p o r t a n t one s i n c e t h e d i v e r -s i t i e s and c l e a v a g e s which a r e b o t h r e f l e c t e d and encouraged by t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power aie o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t as t h e y emerge a s p a r t o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s and as t h e y a r e u t i l i z e d by d i f f e r e n t groups and i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n t h e s o c i e t y . The dynamics o f t h i s p r o c e s s i n t i m a t e l y i n v o l v e s t h o s e p o l i -t i c a l p a r t i e s w hich o p e r a t e on b o t h f e d e r a l and l o c a l l e v e l s o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y . W h i l e i t i s u n d o u b t e d l y t r u e t h a t t h e s t r u c t u r e o f b o t h f e d e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and p a r t y systems a r e based upon the same c l e a v a g e s and d i v e r s i t i e s which prompted t h e o r i g i n a l f e d e r a l bargain,9? i t would be hoped t h a t e v e n t u a l l y t h e e m p i r i c a l d a t a on I n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i l l e n a b l e more p r e c i s e t h e o r e t i c a l a s sessments o f the e x t e n t t o which t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s u t i l i z e and encourage 216 t h e p o t e n t i a l l y d i s r u p t i v e e lements o f f e d e r a l i s m , and how t h e y a r e i n t u r n r e s t r i c t e d by them. A more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s and t h e p a r t i e s w i t h i n i n d i v i d u a l f e d e r a l systems must p r e c e d e such complex t h e o r e t i c a l t a s k s and i t i s f o r t h i s r e a s o n t h a t t h i s l o c a l c a s e - s t u d y on i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s has endeavored m a i n l y t o i n c r e a s e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . FOOTNOTES 1 Edwin Ro B l a c k , The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: Some A s p e c t s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 0 ; and Samuel P e t e r R e g e n s t r e i f , .The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Canada: A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 3 , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . 2 D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d f e d e r a l s t r e n g t h w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e was m a i n l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i z e o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y wing. The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e s i z e o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y group d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a -t i o n s . Y e a r P a r t y i n Power i n Ottawa T o t a l S e a t s i n B.C. L i b e r a l M.P.s i n B.C. 1921 L i b e r a l 13 3 1925 L i b e r a l 14 ' 3 1926 L i b e r a l "  1 4 1 1930 C o n s e r v a t i v e 1 4 5 1935 L i b e r a l 16 6 1940 L i b e r a l 16 10 1945 L i b e r a l 16 5 1949 L i b e r a l 18 11 3 A l t h o u g h o f f i c e r s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n a r e f o r m a l l y e l e c t e d by the r a n k and f i l e membership, t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s o f t h e p a r t y u s u a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e outcome o f t h e e l e c t i o n s by t h e i r n o m i n a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f c e r t a i n c a n d i -d a t e s . 4 A l e x a n d e r Brady, " F e d e r a l i s m i n Canada," i n M i l l l a m S. L i v i n g s t o n , ed., F e d e r a l i s m i n t h e Commonwealth: A B i b l i o -g r a p h i c a l Commentary, C a s s e l l and Company L t d . , London, 1 9 6 3 , P. 2 0 . 5 S.R. D a v i s and C A . Hughes, " F e d e r a l i s m i n A u s t r a l i a , " i n W i l l i a m S. L i v i n g s t o n , e d . , 0p_. C i t . , p. 4 0 . 6 The most p r o m i s i n g u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on A u s t r a l i a n p a r t i e s i n c l u d e : D.W. Rawson, " F e d e r a l i s m and P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , " a paper f o r the H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s s e c t i o n o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n and New Z e a l a n d A s s o c i a t i o n f o r the Advancement o f 217 218 S c i e n c e , 1954 and T.C. Truman, The P r e s s u r e Groups,-. P a r t i e s and P o l i t i c s o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n L a b o r Movement, M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f Queensland, 1954. 7 S.H. D a v i s and C.A. Hughes, 0p_. C i t . , p . 41. 8 H. MacGregor Dawson, The Government o f Canada, U n i v e r -s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1957. 9 H. McD. C l o k i e , C a n a d i a n Government and P o l i t i c s , Longmans, Green and Company, T o r o n t o , 1944. ~ 10 James A l e x a n d e r G o r r y and J.E. H o d g e t t s , D e m o c r a t i c Government and P o l i t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1962. 11 A l e x a n d e r Brady, Democracy i n the Dominions, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1962. 12 Dawson, O p . C i t . , p . 4 8 9 . 13 C o r r y and H o d g e t t s , Op. C i t . , p . 2 6 . 14 Dawson, 0p_. C i t . , p . 4 8 9 . 15 C l o k i e , 0j>. C i t . , p . 9 5 . 16 I b i d . , p . 2 0 0 . 17 I b i d . , p . 200. 18 Gwendolen M. C a r t e r , "The Commonwealth O v e r s e a s : V a r i a t i o n s on a B r i t i s h Theme," i n Sigmund Newmann, ed., Moderan P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : Approaches t o Comparative P o l i t i c s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1956, ppT 72-73 . 19 Brady, Oo. C i t . , p p . 109-110. 20 W i l l i a m H. R i k e r , F e d e r a l i s m : O r i g i n - O p e r a t i o n - S i g n i -f i c a n c e , L i t t l e , Brown and Company, Boston, 1964, p . 118. 21 D e n i s Smith, " P r a i r i e R e v o l t , F e d e r a l i s m and t h e P a r t y System," i n Hugh G. Th o r b u r n , ed., P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , T o r o n t o , 1963. P. 132. 22 Edwin R. B l a c k , " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s W i t h i n a Canadian P a r t y , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 4 5 , no. 3 . 1965. P. 320. 23 B l a c k , The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and B l a c k , D a l h o u s i e Review. 219 2 4 R e g e n s t r e l f , Op. C i t . 25 J . Murray Beck, The Government o f Nova S c o t i a , U n i v e r -s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1957 and Hugh G. Thorb u r n , P o l i t i c s i n NswBrunswick, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1961. 26 L.G. Thomas, The L i b e r a l P a r t y i n A l b e r t a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1959. 27 S.M. U p s e t , A g r a r i a n S o c i a l i s m , U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , 1950. 2 8 John A. I r v i n g , The S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement In A l b e r t a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1959. 29 W.L. Morton, The P r o g r e s s i v e P a r t y i n Canada, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1950. 30 C.B. Macpherson, Democracy i n A l b e r t a : The Th e o r y and P r a c t i c e o f a Q u a s i - P a r t y System, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1953. ~~ 31 C o r r y and H o d g e t t s , Op. C i t . , p. 2 6 3 . 32 John W. L e d e r l e , The N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s i n Canada, Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n L i b r a r y , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , 1942; P a u l H a r r y Heppe, The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Canada, Ph.D. D i s s e r -t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1957» U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n and E r n e s t Eugene H a r r i l l , The S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n and Power i n Canadian P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A Study i n P a r t y F i n a n c i n g , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 19587 U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . 33 H a r r i l l , Og. C i t . , pp. 6--7. 3k R e g e n s t r i e f , Op. C i t . p. 244. 35 I b i d . , pp. 2 4 1 - 2 4 2 . 36 I b i d . , p. 2 4 3 . 37 I b i d . , p. 2 4 3 . 38 I b i d . , p. 2 4 3 . 39 B l a c k , D a l h o u s l e Review, p. 319. 220 ^° I b i d . , p. 322; See a l s o "Saskatchewan L i b e r a l s i n s t r a n g e f a m i l y s q u a b b l e , " The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , January 28, 1963 and "Saskatchewan i n 1964: Which T h a t c h e r Won the E l e c t i o n ? " C a n a d i a n Forum, June 1964, p. 56 . 41 I b i d . , P. 319. 42 R e g e n s t r i e f , p_p_. C i t . , pp. 2 4 5 - 2 4 6 . 43 I b i d . , p. 2 5 2 . 44 I b i d . , pp. 257-258. 45 I b i d . , p. 246. 46 I b i d . , P. 247. 47 I b i d . , p. 248. 48 I b i d . , pp. 248-250. 49 I b i d . , pp. 2 5 0 - 2 5 1 . 50. I b i d . , P. 2 5 1 . 51 John R. 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R o s s i t e r , C l i n t o n , P a r t i e s and P o l i t i c s i n Ame r i c a , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I t h a c a , New York, I 9 6 0 . S c h a t t s c h n e i d e r , E.E., P a r t y Government, R i n e h a r d t Company, New York, 1942. S c h l e s i n g e r , R u d o l f , F e d e r a l i s m In C e n t r a l and E a s t e r n Europe, Kegan P a u l , F r e n c h , T r u h n e r and Company, l t d , , London, 1945. S o r a u f , Prank J . , P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s i n t h e American System, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, Boston, 1 9 6 4 . " Thomas L.G., The L i b e r a l P a r t y In A l b e r t a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1959. T h o r b u r n , Hugh G., ed., P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, P r e n t i c e -H a l l , T o r o n t o , 1963. T h o r b u r n , Hugh G., P o l i t i c s i n New Brunswick, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1 9 6 1 . U n d e r h i l l , P., In S e a r c h o f Canadian L i b e r a l i s m , M a c M i l l a n , T o r o n t o , i 9 6 0 . Wheare, K.C., F e d e r a l Government, O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1953. 22? W i l l i a m s , John R., The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f Canada, 1920-19^-9» Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1935. ARTICLES B l a c k , Edwin R., " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s w i t h i n a C a n a d i a n P a r t y , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 4-5, no. 3 , PP. 307-323. C a r t e r , Gwendolen M., "The Commonwealth O v e r s e a s : V a r i a t i o n s on a B r i t i s h Theme," i n Sigmund Neumann, ed., Modern P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , T9W. ~~~ D o b i e , E d i t h , " P a r t y H i s t o r y i n B r i t i s h Columbia," P a c i f i c N o r t h w e s t Q u a r t e r l y , 27 A p r i l , 1936, pp. 153-166. F r a s e r , B l a i r , "B.C. C o a l i t i o n Commits S u i c i d e , " MacLean's, F e b r u a r y 15 , 1952, p. 5 , 60. G o l d e r , L . L . L . , "The F o r — and A g a i n s t K i n g Men," S a t u r d a y N i g h t , F e b r u a r y 10 , 194-0, p. 5 . Heidenheimer, A r n o l d J . , " F e d e r a l i s m and t h e P a r t y System: The Case o f West Germany," American P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e Review, 52, 1958, PP. 809-82B; ~" Holcombe, A r t h u r N., "The C o e r c i o n o f S t a t e s i n a F e d e r a l System," i n A r t h u r M. MacMahon, ed., F e d e r a l i s m : Mature and Emergent, Doubleday and Company, Inc.', Garden C i t y , New York, 1955, H u t c h i s o n , B r u c e , " R e v o l t Beyond the R o c k i e s , " MacLean's, J u l y 15 , 1934, p. 16. L i p s o n , L e s l i e , " P a r t y Systems i n t h e U n i t e d Kingdom and t h e O l d e r Commonwealth: Causes, Resemblances and V a r i a t i o n s , " P o l i t i c a l S t u d i e s , 7, 1959, pp. 1 2 - 3 1 . McDougall, Glenn, "B.C.'s P o l i t i c a l M a r r i a g e i s H o l d i n g But S h a k i l y , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , December 25 , 1948, p. 24 . P a t t u l l o , T.D., " P r o v i n c e s Must Keep T h e i r Income Tax F i e l d s , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , January 1, 1944, p. 5 . R e i d , E s c o t t M., "The Saskatchewan L i b e r a l Machine B e f o r e 1 9 2 9 , " i n Hugh G. T h o r b u m , ed., P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n 228 Canada, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , T o r o n t o , 1963. R e y n o l d s , M., "How S o c i a l C r e d i t Took B.C.," MacLean's September 1, 1952, p. 7; Sage, W. N., " F e d e r a l P a r t i e s and P r o v i n c i a l Groups i n B.C., 1871-1903," B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 12, no. 2, pp. 151-169. Shaw, C.L., "B.C. 1s S u c c e s s i o n T a l k , " Maclean's, November 15, 1936, p. 25. ' Shaw, C.L., "Why B.C.'s C o a l i t i o n S p l i t , " S a t u r d a y N i g h t , F e b r u a r y 16, 1952, p. 11, 19. S m i l e y , D.V., "The Two-party System and One-Party Dominance i n t h e L i b e r a l D e m o c r a t i c S t a t e , " The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e ! 24, 1958, pp. 312-Smith, D e n i s , " P r a i r i e R e v o l t , F e d e r a l i s m and t h e P a r t y System," i n Hugh G. T h o r b u r n , ed., P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n Canada, P r e n t i c e - H a l l T o r o n t o , 1963. Soward, F.W., "B.C. Goes L i b e r a l , " C a n adian Forum, 14, 1933, pp. 86-88. Truman, D a v i d B., " F e d e r a l i s m and the P a r t y System," i n A r t h u r M. MacMahon, ed., F e d e r a l i s m : Mature and Emergent, Doubleday and Company, Inc., Garden C i t y , New York, 1955. Weidener, Edward W., " D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g i n a F e d e r a l System," i n J o s e p h R. Fiszman, ed., The American P o l i t i c a l A r ena, L i t t l e , Brown and Company, Boston, 1962. THESES B l a c k , Edwin R., The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia: Some A s p e c t s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i960. Dwyer, M e l v a Jean, L a u r i e r and t h e ' B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y : A Study i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y R e l a t i o n s , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1961. H a r r i l l , E r n e s t Eugene, The S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n and Power i n C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A Study In P a r t y F i n a n c i n g , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1958, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . 229 Hepner, Edward M., The B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y , G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962. Heppe, P a u l H a r r y , The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Canada, Ph.D. D i s s e r -t a t i o n , The U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1957, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . Hromnysky, Roman, The Western Canadian R e g i o n a l Governments and t h e F e d e r a l System, M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. L e d e r l e , John W., The N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s i n Canada, Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n L i b r a r y , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , 1942. R e g e n s t r e i f , Samuel P e t e r , The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Canada; A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1963, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . S u t h e r l a n d , John N e i l , P a t t u l l o As P a r t y L e a d e r , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, i 9 6 0 . NEWSPAPERS The Vancouver P r o v i n c e ( d a i l y newspaper) The Vancouver Sun ( d a i l y newspaper) PARTY LITERATURE C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed, December 1 0 , 1947. C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed, A p r i l " , 2~4~7 1952. C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed, A p r i l 7, 1956"! ~ ~ C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed, January~ T b r , 196~4. The Vancouver B r a n c h o f the Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B.C., To t h e L i b e r a l s o f B r i t i s h Columbia: An A p p e a l t o Reason, mimeographed! 1949. Young L i b e r a l C o n v e n t i o n , R e s o l u t i o n s , H a r r i s o n Hot S p r i n g s , mimeographed, 1949. 2 30 INTERVIEWS Mr. W. J . A s s e l t i n e , member of P a t t u l l o ' s cabinet January 25, 1965. Mr. Ralph Campney, former f e d e r a l cabinet m i n i s t e r January 18, 1965. Miss H. M. Copp, former president, Vancouver i u r r a r d A s s o c i a t i o n January 18, 1965. Mr. Grant Deachman, M.P., Vancouver Quadra January 18, Mr. Harry Dennison, c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l organizer January 20, 1§65. Senator John Wallace DeBeque F a r r i s , member of O l i v e r ' s cabinet January 19, 1966. Mr. Tom Goode, former M.P. January 6, 1965. Mr. David Johnston, president, Point Grey L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n January 9, I.965. Mr. L. C. J o l i v e t , president, B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n February 1, 1966. Mr. Leon Ladner, former Conservative M.P. January 25, 1966. Mr. Frank G. P. Lewis, former president, B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n January 27, 1966. Mr. Don L a n s k a i l chairman, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l committee, 1956 February 14, 1966. Mr. Hugh Martin, former v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and f e d e r a l campaign chairman January 31, 1966. Dr. P a t r i c k McGeer, M.L.A., Point Grey January 7, 1965. Mr. Ray P e r r a u l t , p r o v i n c i a l party leader January 15, 1965. Mr. James S i n c l a i r , former f e d e r a l cabinet m i n i s t e r January 11, 1965 and September 30, 1965. Senator Sidney Smith, former president, B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association A p r i l 1 0 , 1965. Mr. Richard Sonley, president, Point Grey Young L i b e r a l Association January 2 7 , 1966. Mr. Jack Taggart, former -vice-president, B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Association and federal campaign co-chairman February 3 , 1966. Miss S y b i l White, secretary to Arthur Laing January 2 5 , 1965. 

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