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Federal-provincials relations within the Liberal Party of British Columbia Ward, Judith Barbara 1966

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•si-  FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL RELATIONS WITHIN THE LIBERAL PARTY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  "by JUDITH BARBARA WARD B.S., U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1964-  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OP ARTS  i n t h e Department of Political  Science  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g  to the  required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1966  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an  r e f e r e n c e and  in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of  advanced degree at the  Columbia, I agree that for  thesis  the  study.  Library  University  of  British  s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e  I f u r t h e r agree that  permission  e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  g r a n t e d by  Department o r  It  the  Head o f my  i s understood that  financial  Department o f  be  his  a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  P o l i t i c a l Science  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  by  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of  g a i n s h a l l not  A p r i l 30, 1966  Columbia  the  for be  representatives. this thesis written  for  permission  ABSTRACT  This t h e s i s explores political  the e f f e c t s o f the f e d e r a l  s y s t e m upon t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l  P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a by means o f a n e x a m i n a t i o n o f those m a n i f e s t a t i o n s  o f d i s u n i t y and c o n f l i c t which can  be r e l a t e d to. t h e c h a n g i n g b a l a n c e o f power between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l segments o f t h e p a r t y . both p a r t s of a Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t y recognize  the value  generally  o f a u n i f i e d and c l o s e l y i n t e g r a t e d  o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e i r separate frequently create  Although  i n t e r e s t s and r e q u i r e m e n t s  internal conflicts.  These s o u r c e s o f  s t r a i n between t h e f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s may w e l l r e v e a l t h o s e  dis-  t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s of Canadian p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n which are d e r i v e d from p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n a f e d e r a l system. W i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia the changing p a t t e r n of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s have been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e s t r e n g t h o f t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y .  electoral  Challenges  to  t h e l e a d e r s h i p and c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n have-generally  occurred  when, t h e b a l a n c e o f p o l i t i c a l  power was n o t a d e q u a t e l y r e p r e s e n t e d of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  i n the leadership  Since a combination of administra-  t i v e and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two g r o u p s ii  p r o v i d e d the main sources of f r i c t i o n ,  the changing  e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s o f t h e two w i n g s a l s o  affected  emergence and i n t e n s i t y o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  strains.  With the e x c e p t i o n of a f i v e year p e r i o d 1928  and 1 9 3 3 ,  between  the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y  power I n V i c t o r i a f r o m 1916  t o 1952  the  held  and t h e p r o v i n c i a l  leader maintained e f f e c t i v e control  of the L i b e r a l  o r g a n i z a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  A l t h o u g h the  party also federal  federal  h e l d power t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h i s p e r i o d , t h e  w i n g n e v e r demanded c o n t r o l  organization.  of the p r o v i n c i a l  C o n f r o n t a t i o n s between s t r o n g  p r e m i e r s and a L i b e r a l P r i m e M i n i s t e r  were  Liberal  frequently  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n t e r n a l p a r t y f r i c t i o n s i n c e the s e c t i o n a l p o l i c i e s p u r s u e d by L i b e r a l p r e m i e r s o f B r i t i s h Columbia o f t e n i n v o l v e d c h a l l e n g e s to f e d e r a l policy.  government  A l t h o u g h the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n w i t h the  P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s , between 19^1  and  1952,  e v e n t u a l l y I n i t i a t e d severe f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l the  campaign by f e d e r a l  t i o n L i b e r a l s was a l s o  strains,  l e a d e r s to d i s c r e d i t the c o a l i directed  at a specific  provincial  l e a d e r r a t h e r than a t the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o v i n c i a l control  of the  organization.  The e l e c t o r a l e c l i p s e w i n g a f t e r 1952  of the p a r t y ' s  f o r the f i r s t  provincial  time p l a c e d the  federal  wing i n a dominant p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . Although  the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n the p r o v i n c e sought no  o f f i c i a l change In the p a r t y ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n , they attempted to extend t h e i r I n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . The realignment  of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of  the p a r t y i n t u r n a f f e c t e d the sources and e x p r e s s i o n of federal-provincial strains.  Although  effective control  of the A s s o c i a t i o n has s h i f t e d from the p r o v i n c i a l to the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p s over the past decade, the L i b e r a l s In B r i t i s h Columbia have maintained organization.  a unified provincial  But w h i l e the p a r t y has always r e c o g n i -  zed the advantages of a u n i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n which serves the needs of both wings of the p a r t y , the f e d e r a l p o l i t i c a l system has, n e v e r t h e l e s s , p r o f o u n d l y the o r g a n i z a t i o n and f o r t u n e s of the p a r t y .  influenced The  c o n f l i c t i n g I n t e r e s t s c r e a t e d by the f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n of power not only a f f e c t the formal o r g a n i z a t i o n of the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y but a l s o determine the p a t t e r n of i n t r a party r e l a t i o n s .  iv  ti-  TABLE OE CONTENTS PAGE  CHAPTER ONE Introduction  CHAPTER TWO The Emergence o f the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1896 - 1916  CHAPTER THREE The Dominance of the P r o v i n c i a l Leader 1 9 1 6 - 19^1  25  CHAPTER POUR The Repercussions of P r o v i n c i a l Coalition 19^1 - 1952  6l  CHAPTER FIVE The E c l i p s e of the P r o v i n c i a l Wing 1952 - 1965  85  CHAPTER SIX 13/!  Conclusion  SOURCES 'CONSULTED  .  v  224  CHAPTEH  ONE  INTRODUCTION  The its  relationship  environment  federal since  countries  the  of  federal  of  the  their  the  parties,  are  able  The  to  and  well,  adjustments  the  as  the  original  structure  be  Within  1  complex  adoption  and  political  and  operation  parties  interests within  from  decentralization  political  circular.  operation  distinct  therefore, of  the  the  diverse  affect  actual  centralization s y s t e m may  of  party  is particularly  the  while  political  i f not  relationship  institutions affect  manipulation  tutions.  elusive,  cleavages which prompted  political  society  the  i s often  between a  most  of  the  within  a  clearly  parties  to  the  federal  formal  the  by  insti-  degree  federal  political  exhibited federal  of  in  division  2 of  power and  of  federal  degree  of  political party  intra-party a  responsibility.  relations  the  and  federal  federal  cal  of  parties  analysis  local  help  to  a  formal  organization  some i n d i c a t i o n  detailed  federal  parties  the  balance  of  consequently,  of  the  strains elucidate  of  frequency,  the  the  may  power  of  provide  of  impact  federal  of  the  source  disruptive  the  between  the  operation  within  of  examination  the  power upon t h e  Examinations  intra-party may  of  g r o u p s and,  d i v i s i o n of  party.  intensity  within  the  provides  decentralization,  more r e a l i s t i c  central  parties  While  and  politi-  effect  •A  2 of the f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power upon the p o l i t i c a l partyorganizations. The  e f f e c t s of the d i s t i n c t i v e a t t r i b u t e s o f the  Canadian f e d e r a l system upon the structure and operation of Canadian p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s have r e c e i v e d attention. described  only l i m i t e d  Although students o f Canadian p o l i t i c s have the formal d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f party  organization  on the p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l , the necessary emphasis upon the parliamentary system and the p r a c t i c e o f party d i s c i p l i n e on both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l l e v e l s o f government has often d i v e r t e d a t t e n t i o n from the d e c e n t r a l i z i n g  effects  of the f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n of power upon the major Canadian parties.  The occasional  but recurrent  leadership  between a p r o v i n c i a l premier and a f e d e r a l prime  quarrels minister  of the same party have been i d e n t i f i e d as manifestations o f i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s within  the f e d e r a l party  organization.  Even these examples of party d i s u n i t y , however, have often been i n t e r p r e t e d as e i t h e r p e r s o n a l i t y  clashes o f quarrels  which were as much the r e s u l t of " p e c u l i a r circumstances" as of any generic a t t r i b u t e o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . ^  Detailed  information on i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a t the l o c a l l e v e l s of party organization  has been scarce and, consequently,  the r o l e of f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups within v i n c i a l party organizations  the pro-  and the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f s t r a i n s  3 between  the  Indeed,  E.H. Black's  Party  of  British  review of only  two g r o u p s  of  related  of  to  assess.  the P r o g r e s s i v e  Conservative  Regenstrief's  brief  have been  the  i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s which have to  the  impact of  the  federal  been  division  power.-5  examinations  have i n d i c a t e d t h a t control  of  of  the  challenges  institutionalization the p r o v i n c e . institutions always  of  the the  i n which federal  Although both wings have g e n e r a l l y  ments o f  federal  of  i t has  actual  been  focus  is well  shown t h a t  resulted  of  the  of  separate  have  These  and p r o v i n c i a l wings  and  parties closely require-  strains within  sources of  the  conducted.  a u n i f i e d and  frequently-create  not pro-  determined  interests  in  formal  Canadian p o l i t i c a l  the value  in  the  power w i t h i n the  i n t h e p r o v i n c e was  the major  recognized  the  associations  of  established,  organization  and have r a r e l y  business  two g r o u p s  federal  federal  provincial party  the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . between  the p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y have o f t e n  a separate  organization,  tbe  organizations  to p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l and even  party organizations  integrated  provincial party  w h i l e the p r i n c i p l e of  Indeed,  reflected  vincial  of  the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a s s o c i a t i o n s  interests  informal  way  study  difficult  C o l u m b i a ^ a n d S.P.  examinations  These  the  still  provincial Liberal organizations  specifically of  is  of  strain  Canadian p o l i t i c a l  parties  may w e l l r e v e a l  Canadian party  those  organization which are  pation within a federal explore  the  effects  organization means o f  of  of  the  of  system. the  federal  an examination of  of  derived  This thesis  those  the  from p a r t i c i proposes  British  to  federal  to  the  C o l u m b i a by  manifestations  w h i c h c a n be r e l a t e d  power between  of  p o l i t i c a l system upon  the L i b e r a l Party of  u n i t y and c o n f l i c t balance  distinctive attributes  of  the  dis-  changing  and p r o v i n c i a l  segments  party.  Although the L i b e r a l P a r t y of h a s managed culties  to m a i n t a i n i t s  inherent  and i n t e r e s t  British  organizational unity,  i n a c c o m m o d a t i n g two l e v e l s  within a single  clashes  and readjustments  Many o f  these  of  the  between  the  two w i n g s  conflicts  over  Association are  generally  the p a r t y  party business  parties. changing  related  to  the  differences  of  This thesis electoral  of  to  periodic  the  party.  Indeed,  most  provincial between  the  concerning the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  i n the province or to d i f f e r e n c e s  the p u b l i c p o l i c i e s  activity  leadership  issues.  l e a d e r s h i p aad c o n t r o l o f  diffi-  personal  p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l  emerge f r o m f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d the  the  o r g a n i z a t i o n have l e d  and o f t e n  of  of  s t r a i n s amount t o more t h a n t h e  incompatibility  two w i n g s  Columbia  either  the  federal  or the p r o v i n c i a l  to  explore  the  proposes  positions  concerning  of  the  two w i n g s  effects of  the  of  the  party  5 upon b o t h the also  the  focus  source  and the  In order within  the  i n t e n s i t y of  t o document  L i b e r a l Party of  necessary party  o f power w i t h i n t h e  to  power  establish and o f  the  and examine  f a c i l i t a t e d an assessment o f party the  leader  federal  in  source  of  This procedure  the  p o s i t i o n of  of has  the  also  provincial  province  during various  designed  to  and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t o r a l  the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  and i n t e n s i t y  To e l u c i d a t e  the  of  the L i b e r a l P a r t y  of  of  British  case-study w i l l  intra-party Columbia,  this  chapter  under  current  F e d e r a l and P r o v i n c i a l Power;  possible  the  be p r e s e n t e d electoral  party  of  vance of federal  findings  systems w i l l  to  also  other be  Canadian p a r t i e s  explored  in relation  the the  strains. within find-  conluding  circumstances:  and F e d e r a l P o w e r - p r o v i n c i a l O p p o s i t i o n . these  changes  empirical  Concurrent  thesis  upon  relations  i n the  to  electoral  the  Con-  Federal  and P r o v i n c i a l O p p o s i t i o n ; P r o v i n c i a l P o w e r - F e d e r a l sition;  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n and upon  ings of  four  effects  positions  federal-provincial  structure  leader  organization of  i l l u m i n a t e the  been  provincial  wing w i t h i n the  The c h r o n o l o g i c a l  power  has  federal  federal  control  the p e r i o d s  of  both the  therefore, the  focus  Columbia i t  and  strains.  i n r e l a t i o n to  circumstances. is,  intra-party  changing  British  opposition.  Association  Oppo-  The  rele-  and  other  to  what  6 is known about the general impact of federalism upon the organization and operation of p o l i t i c a l parties.  FOOTNOTES  1 D a v i d B. Truman, " F e d e r a l i s m and the P a r t y System," i n A r t h u r R. MacMahon, e d . , F e d e r a l i s m ; M a t u r e a n d Emerg e n t , D o u b l e d a y a n d C o m p a n y , I n c . , G a r d e n C i t y , New Y o r k ,  1955.  2 W i l l i a m H. H i k e r , Federalism; O r i g i n , Operation, S i g n i f i c a n c e , L i t t l e , B r o w n a n d C o m p a n y , B o s t o n , 1964-,  p p . 125-136.  3 R . M a c G r e g o r Dawson, The Government o f C a n a d a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1957» P . 4-89. 4 E . R . B l a c k , The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; "Some A s p e c t s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n . M . A . T h e s i s , T ? h e U n i v e r s i t y B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i960 a n d E . R . B l a c k , "Federal S t r a i n s W i t h i n a Canadian P a r t y , " Dalhousie Review,  -+5. n o . 3, P P . 307-323.  5 S a m u e l P e t e r R e g e n s t r e i f , The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f C a n a d a ; A P o l i t i c a l Analysis, Ph.D. Dissertation, Cornell University, 1963. U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h .  7  CHAPTER TWO  THE  EMERGENCE OF THE LIBERAL PARTY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA -  1896  The  1916  f i r s t l o c a l L i b e r a l organizations were formed  i n the e i g h t i e s and a united p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n was created by the f i r s t P r o v i n c i a l Convention held i n 1 8 9 7 . This e a r l y L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n owed i t s c r e a t i o n and i t s e a r l y s u r v i v a l to the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  elected  from the province, who d e s i r e d to consolidate t h e i r own organizations and to encourage p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s e n t i ment.  Although s e v e r a l members of the p r o v i n c i a l  l e g i s l a t u r e belonged to t h i s e a r l y A s s o c i a t i o n , the a n t i pathy towards l o c a l party l i n e s was strong among many B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l s . p r i m a r i l y served  The e a r l y A s s o c i a t i o n ,  to u n i t e l i b e r a l l y - m i n d e d B r i t i s h Colum-  bians f o r the purposes of supporting  and understanding the 1  p o l i c i e s of the L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa.  With the  i n t r o d u c t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l party l i n e s and the e l e c t i o n of the f i r s t p a r t i s a n Conservative  p r o v i n c i a l government  In 1 9 0 3 the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n became a c t i v e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and henceforth 8  served both f e d e r a l  9 and p r o v i n c i a l needs. upon the  The o r g a n i z a t i o n w a s  c o n c u r r e n t membership  and p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g s and riding  leaderships  Association.  i n the  From i t s  Liberal  Party of  British  derived  strains.  These  sectional trative  politics  difficulties  two d i s t i n c t a r e a s party some  conflicts of  c a n be  the  British six four all  of  very  inception,  C o l u m b i a has strains  have r e f l e c t e d  encountered  Before  I 8 9 6 a n d 1908  exerted  i n the  seats.  from B r i t i s h  coordinating  but,  nevertheless,  federal-provincial  the  strain  federal  House o f  of  influence  representation  William  T e m p i e m a n was a n d i n 1906  was  i n 1904, of  greatly granted  appointed upon h i s  the  In 1896,  the  the  i n 1902.  a minister election  to  of  the  the  Columbia,  party  federal  enhanced  province  within  Commons f r o m B r i t i s h  The p r e s t i g e  C o l u m b i a was  wing of  p o l i t i c s w i t h i n the  a great deal  cabinet  portfolio  adminis-  identified.  were h e l d by L i b e r a l s a n d , seven  the  W o r l d War I m o s t  growing pains of  federally-  both  i n s e r v i n g and  interest.  the  the  experienced  Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,  seats  however,  Columbia and the  Party dominated f e d e r a l  and l i k e w i s e  federal  p o l i c y - m a k i n g committees  r e c u r r i n g sources  clearly  i n both  both  British  of  locals  based  j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  represented  Between Liberal  of  of  clearly  held  Liberals  when p r o v i n c i a l Senator without the  House  of  10 Commons b e c a m e M i n i s t e r o f Minister  of  was  well represented  of  also  D u r i n g the  their representation  the  British  role  the  i n Ottawa,  the  leadership  of  the  T e m p l e m a n was Convention of  189?  federal  exercised  province  of  Because  wing  a  of  dominant  which endured l o n g  provincial leader  L i b e r a l members  later  two L i b e r a l S e n a t o r s .  provincial party  when a n o f f i c i a l  number o f  by  and  same p e r i o d t h e  Columbia L i b e r a l Party  w i t h i n the  1903,  to  Mines.  I n l a n d Revenue  the  and a  legislature  after  substantial  contributed  party.  responsible  and f o r  for  several  calling  years  the  Liberal  thereafter  a 3  federal  representative  The f e d e r a l Liberal entire the  leader  that  province  strong l o c a l cial  the  party,  a Senator, between  an autonomous a i d the  Most f e d e r a l  cause  future  was  capable  success  dependent  of  the  upon the  of  of  the including  elected  development  "federal of  partisan  of  with-  of  a  provin-  victory.  leader"  of  parliament while  the main channel  Laurier,  L i b e r a l cause  provincial electoral  L i b e r a l members  provided  British  provincial  Liberals,  o r g a n i z a t i o n and an a c t i v e  by the  presidency.  and Prime M i n i s t e r S i r W i l f r i e d  T e m p l e m a n , who h a d b e e n province  Association  to b u i l d  Liberal Party.  federal  the  the  party which would also  believed in  w i n g hoped  held  the still  communication  Columbia and Ottawa and t h e r e b y  encouraged  11 provincial  Liberals  to r e s p e c t p a r t y u n i t y .  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r he ments w i t h i n the federal in  the  informed L a u r i e r of  able  of  develop-  the  term " f e d e r a l  ever  the  L i b e r a l s h e l d power  from  the  province The e a r l y  the  involvement  the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  1911  leader"  was  c o n t i n u e d to  serve  constitutions  b u t p r o v i n c i a l l y managed p a r t y .  minister  capacity. of  p r i n c i p l e of Indeed,  when-  cabinet  in this  constitution provided for  and an E x e c u t i v e  the  and p l a t f o r m s  the  After  abandoned b u t ,  i n Ottawa,  Association reflected  associations  political  to a v o i d any apparent  internal disputes  detailed party  a  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y  l e a d e r was  Liberal  As  the  a  the  united  first  united  Committee, which  district contained  k p a r t y members Although  the  management  active  Executive  of  C o m m i t t e e was  both federal  o r g a n i z a t i o n was took  i n both spheres  financial  the  responsibility for  between f e d e r a l hampered the  of  to  while  segments of  others  Laurier's  charged w i t h  organizational, elections.  the  joint  some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s r e f u s e d elections,  activity. the  i n d i v i d u a l candidates  and p r o v i n c i a l wings  efficiency  party  and p r o v i n c i a l campaigns,  so weak t h a t  the major burden of  of  openly  of  Policy  differences  the p a r t y  to p a r t i c i p a t e their  often  not  organization.  expressed  program.  if  the  in  also Indeed, federal  opposition  12  Throughout powers  or policies  this  period issues related  dominated  the party's  Even a f t e r  1907  when  a  role  i n the d i r e c t i o n  dominant  federal issue  government  i n British  provincial within were  the  Association  either  openly  matters  government Liberal  policy  sphere  t h e most  of interest.  not only  Indeed,  used  members  policies  b u t t h e y were r e l u c t a n t  publicly  i f they  agreed  Nevertheless,  with  these  government  as L i b e r a l  and the p a r t y  sectional  with  plat-  Liberal and  from the provincial  these  policies  Laurier's  own  with which the  compromised  of the Laurier  policies.  on  Columbia  o f S i r . R i c h a r d McBride interests  and  by t h e L i b e r a l  to endorse  the success  f o r the p o l i c i e s  identified  policy  of provincial  obviously conflicted  behalf of provincial  Liberals  concerning  i n the province  of parliament  privately  on  policy  the conventions  province  Conservative  resolutions  t o i n f o r m Ottawa o f i t s p o s i t i o n  Many L i b e r a l  program.  matters  the B r i t i s h  t o inform, t h e p u b l i c  but also  with  railroad  action  political by t h e  Many  of Laurier*s  federal  affairs,  passed  concerned  immigration,  i n Ottawa."'  had assumed  consuming  had n o t y e t been approved  Association  demands.  Liberals  The r e s o l u t i o n s  critical  o r endorsed  which  was  federal  conventions.  of Association  were u s u a l l y  Terms," o r i e n t a l  tariff,  forms  policy  Columbia.  the federal  "Better  the p r o v i n c i a l  to  Under  campaigned, a l l provincial  government these  were  circumstances  13 sectionally-derived  Issues  between L a u r i e r  British  Columbia  and  p r o v i n e i a l l y based  spheres  of  and  interest  were n a t u r a l l y  were r e s p o n s i b l e  the  more a n t a g o n i s t i c  for  Liberals  than were  conflicts  in  both  Liberals  the  federal  6  representatives. Despite early  Liberal  British  endorsement  Party,  Columbia  of  Laurier  should  provincial  insisted  support  the  rights  that  the  entire  by  the  party  program  in  of  the  7 Liberal  government  continued, t h e i r  Ottawa.  independent  leader  evidently  he  refuse  did  in  The  policy  a t t e m p t e d , no  provincial  provincial  and  d irect  requests  leaders  although  the  disciplinary  for  Eastern  federal action,  funds  to  8 start  a  Liberal  party  in  party  with  newspaper  Ottawa had  truments  jobs  the  Minister  provincial party  from  party  disputes  Liberals.9  the  Since  intercede the  and  personality  clashes,  federal  policy.  on  by  petty any  Intensified  behalf  federal Columbia  had  few  withdrawal  In  refused  British  torn  have  Laurier  the  the  British  general,  avoided, i n t e r f e r e n c e  continually  would  the  province.  was  leader  than  c o n c e r n and  to  Since  financial aid  d i s c i p l i n e other  patronage Prime  never provided  substantial  of  i n 1908.  in  however,  several  of  purely  provincial  provincial Liberal  Association  .arguments, r e g i o n a l interference provincial  small  i n matters  of  Columbia  of  ins-  by  the  quarrels federal  opposition  to  The  growing p o p u l a r i t y  Conservative  g o v e r n m e n t and. t h e s u c c e s s  Ottawa" p o l i c y Liberal  affected  ment p a s s e d  several  were e i t h e r  reserved  ment b e l i e v e d , t h a t  the  federal  anti-oriental  of its  "fight  of the B r i t i s h  immigration  or disallowed.  this  a diplomatic  right  both wings  of McBride's  Columbia  In 190? and 1908 Premier McBride's  Party.  required  and s t r e n g t h  particular  solution  to regulate  and p r o v i n c i a l  bills  The f e d e r a l immigration  was h e l d  governments,  which  govern-  problem  and consequently,  immigration  govern-  although  jointly  Ottawa  by the  objected, t o  10 British  Columbia's  Anti-oriental by  1907»  Liberals  independent a c t i o n  feeling  was s t r o n g  most groups w i t h i n h a d made  anti-oriental  their  policy  on the  in British  the province  positions  Columbia and,  including  clear.  the p r o v i n c i a l  issue.  the  In pursuing  Liberals  an  upheld the  11 right  of the province  This  policy  placed  with  the federal During  the  federal  major any  issue.  Liberals  campaign  stand  The p r o v i n c i a l  used  oriental  immigration."  i n direct  conflict  party.  government's  found, t h e m s e l v e s also  provincial  the federal  o f McBride's  Premier  to control  charges  on o r i e n t a l Liberals  on t h i s  ineffective h i s record  o f 1908 McBride  made  immigration  could  particular  i n the federal of negotiations  a  not challenge issue  and thus  campaign.  The  f o r "Better  15 Terms"  i n the  Liberals,  campaign and  f o r although  many p r i v a t e l y and  unfair  to  the  surprised party 1904. tion  five  settlement  stood  of  seven  had  seats  his  seat  was  the  and  result  not  h e s i t a t e to  for  the  policy's modification.  factions  i n New  use  this  Laurier s  defeat  1  explanation  W e s t m i n s t e r and  to  The and  since  to  cabinet,  maintained oriental  party  justify  elec-  the  party  several provincial  did  this  of  the  their  in this  returned  of  as  held  defeated  and  defeat policy  they  T e m p l e m a n was  1  "final  1908,  of  the  a  Terms}  L i b e r a l s were  federal election  that  by  "Better  Columbia  provincial  L i b e r a l s i n both wings  unimpressed  provincial  s o l u t i o n of  Provincial  immigration  for  for British  Few  soon regained,  their  the  i n the  Even W i l l i a m but  too  Laurier's  province.  when,  lost  they  regarded  unalterable"  embarrassed  leaders the  need  Prime M i n i s t e r charged, t h a t  was  rival  Vancouver hindered  the  12 campaign.  Laurier  suggested  that  Templeman's  defeat  emphasizes a f a c t however which i s o n l y too o b v i o u s , and t h i s f a c t i s t h a t the L i b e r a l P a r t y has l o s t g r o u n d s i m p l y f r o m want o f c o u r a g e to f i g h t the i s s u e s and g i v e b a t t l e t o t h e enemy u p o n t h e l i n e s l a i d down b y O t t a w a . 13  The to  recover  f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s *from i n the  province  British  f o r i n the  Columbia  following  failed,  election,  16 when they supported L a u r i e r ' s p o l i c y more c o n s i s t e n t l y , a l l t h e i r candidates  were defeated.  Indeed, the L i b e r a l  P a r t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia had no f e d e r a l p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a g a i n u n t i l 1921, when the L i b e r a l s gained three of the t h i r t e e n seats i n the p r o v i n c e .  The d e c l i n e  of the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia was i n p a r t the r e s u l t o f the c o n f l i c t between L a u r i e r ' s p o l i c i e s and the w i d e l y shared and p o l i t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t views of p r o v i n c i a l needs which were h e l d by most B r i t i s h Columbians.  The success of the s t r o n g , popular and  f e d e r a l l y a c t i v e Conservative  provincial administration  f u r t h e r contributed, to the d e c l i n e o f the f e d e r a l wing a f t e 1908.  The B r i t i s h Columbia f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s maintained  a semblance of u n i t y among themselves and attempted to l i m i t their c o n f l i c t s with Laurier,  While i t i s d o u b t f u l  whether a c t i o n as a more conventions.! d i s c i p l i n e d , p a r t y , which supported a l l f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y , would have aided t h e i r cause d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , they might have s u r vived, w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of a more united, p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y capable of p r o v i d i n g a more e f f i c i e n t common p a r t y organization. .Although the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was a l s o a f f e c t e d by the u n p o p u l a r i t y of the McBride government, p r o v i n c i a l and p e r s o n a l i t y cleavages were more damaging.  The  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was weakened as  17 much from these p r o v i n c i a l sources of f r i c t i o n than from any  of the f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d  and  personality  issues.  Internal  cleavages  c l a s h e s caused constant f r i c t i o n  the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y from i t s  within  inception.  Throughout the p e r i o d there was c o m p e t i t i o n and d i s t r u s t between mainland and I s l a n d L i b e r a l s .  The f r i c t i o n was  caused by the a l l e g e d l y unbalanced d i s t r i b u t i o n of f e d e r a l appointments between the two c e n t e r s of p o l i t i c a l and  compounded, b y competing L i b e r a l f a c t i o n s .  activity  A t times  even on the mainland, there were c l a s h e s between two p r o v i n c i a l cliques.  There was, moreover, l i t t l e  organizatio-  n a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r f r e q u e n t l y l o s t e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of h i s p a r t y .  Indeed, i t was not  u n t i l the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had l o s t a l l reasonable hope of e l e c t o r a l v i c t o r y that the i n t e r n a l q u a r r e l l i n g  subsided.  At the second p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l Convention i n 1902, the a d o p t i o n of p a r t y l i n e s i n p r o v i n c i a l was approved, and the f i r s t p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was  politics elected,  Joseph M a r t i n , a former member of the Manitoba l e g i s l a t u r e , had. entered B r i t i s h Columbia p o l i t i c s I n 1897 when he campaigned f o r the adoption of p a r t y l i n e s . was narrowly e l e c t e d  to the p r o v i n c i a l lead.ership but  many L i b e r a l s f e l t that h i s e x c i t a b l e table personality  In 1902 he  and o f t e n u n p r e d i c -  would s p l i t r a t h e r than u n i f y the p a r t y .  18 The assessment proved to he accurate  f o r i n the f i r s t  e l e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g h i s assumption of p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p , M a r t i n d i d not have the f u l l support of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the t h i r d L i b e r a l Convention h e l d before the e l c t i o n i n 1903 r e f u s e d to give him unanimous support.  Because the i n t r o d u c t i o n of p a r t y government  i n B r i t i s h Columbia was not c e r t a i n u n t i l a f t e r the e l e c t i o n of McBride and h i s subsequent c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h Lieutenant-Governor Henri J o l y de L o t b i n i e r e , M a r t i n operated, i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n .  Many  L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g a f u t u r e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r John O l i v e r * had. campaigned i n 1903 i n the b e l i e f t h a t another c o a l i t i o n would, be formed by McBride and t h a t they would be i n c l u d e d i n the g o v e r n m e n t . I n the e l e c t i o n of 1903 the L i b e r a l s thus campaigned w i t h o u t an e f f e c t i v e l e a d e r and without a u n i f i e d o r g a n i z a t i o n . In h i s correspondence vi.tb a c t i v e L i b e r a l s i n the p r o v i n c e , L a u r i e r commented, on the p r o v i n c i a l d i s u n i t y and suggested, t h a t the p a r t y had. no f u t u r e In the province unless i t would stand behind an acknowledged leader.^"^ S e v e r a l days l a t e r almost i n answer to h i s comment, the L i b e r a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e i n caucus e l e c t e d J . A. Macdonald from Ross land, as p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . Although Macdonald was the f i r s t acknowledged p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , he f a i l e d to prevent i n t e r n a l party q u a r r e l s of to  19 discipline lature. unable and  the L i b e r a l members o f the p r o v i n c i a l D u r i n g the e l e c t i o n  to r e s t r a i n  campaign o f 190?  legis-  he  was  the p u b l i c q u a r r e l between John  Joseph M a r t i n a f t e r  they had d i s a g r e e d o v e r  Oliver  the  16 Columbia  and Western Land g r a n t ,  embarrassed fall  by  of 1907,  the L i b e r a l  Macdonald was  also  convention's p l a t f o r m of  w h i c h s i d e d w i t h McBride  r a t h e r than  the with  17 L a u r i e r on the q u e s t i o n o f A s i a t i c loss  of f i v e  reflected in  immigration.  s e a t s i n the p r o v i n c i a l  the new  dimensions  election  The 1907  of  o f the i m m i g r a t i o n  issue  with-  the p r o v i n c e . In 1909  Macdonald was  the C o u r t o f A p p e a l succeeded  i n B r i t i s h Columbia  him as p r o v i n c i a l  o f f i c e was  a b r i e f and  leader.  unhappy one  campaign o f 1909  he was  other p r o v i n c i a l  Liberals.  H. C. B r e w s t e r  appointed Chief Justice and  John  Oliver's f o r i n the  of  Oliver  term  of  provincial  s o u n d l y d e f e a t e d a l o n g w i t h most Indeed,  o f A l b e r n i and  a f t e r 1909,  only  John J a r d i n e o f E s q u i m a l t  r e t a i n e d t h e i r s e a t s i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . became a C o n s e r v a t i v e and. B r e w s t e r  In 1911  as the s o l e  Jardine  provincial  L i b e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n the l e g i s l a t u r e became the 1 Q  provincial  Liberal leader.  'Oliver  f a c e d many problems  i n h i s campaign f o r the p a r t y f o u g h t w i t h o u t funds and l a c k e d s u p p o r t from the McBride  the p r e s s .  adequate  In c o n t r a s t ,  government spent $ 6 0 , 0 0 0 i n Vancouver a l o n e . ^  20 Oliver's  p l a t f o r m o f extended r a i l r o a d b u i l d i n g  was  e f f e c t i v e l y c r i t i c i z e d by McBride who p u b l i c i z e d r a t h e r non-commital s u p p o r t o f the p r o v i n c i a l  also  Laurier's  Liberal  20 leader's  policy. In 1911  provincial Laurier's  H. C. B r e w s t e r , J o h n O l i v e r  Liberals  and a few o t h e r  decided, t o campaign a c t i v e l y f o r  r e c i p r o c i t y program, a l t h o u g h many L i b e r a l  porters believed  that  Columbia f a r m e r .  sup-  r e c i p r o c i t y would, h u r t t h e B r i t i s h This p r o v i n c i a l  support o f the f e d e r a l  program may have been a s t r a t e g y t o r e c o v e r from t h e d e f e a t s o f 1908 and 1 9 0 9 which suggests that  s  but there i s a l s o  some e v i d e n c e  John O l i v e r was b e g i n n i n g t o h o l d 22  national of  as w e l l  as p u r e l y s e c t i o n a l  course p o s s i b l e  for this federal to p r o v i n c i a l  that  positions.  the p r o v i n c i a l  '  Liberals  worked  campaign because the i s s u e s were r e l e v a n t  politics  and the M c B r i d e m i n i s t r y  campaigning a c t i v e l y on b e h a l f o f the f e d e r a l During a period o f l i m i t e d p r o v i n c i a l  was  active  political  cation  as L i b e r a l s . Liberals  situation  representation  arena i n order to r e t a i n  their  pro-  i n the identifi-  T h e i r a c t i v i t y on b e h a l f o f t h e  d i d not materially  f o r i n the p r o v i n c i a l  were e l e c t e d  also  Conservatives.  v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p o l i t i c i a n s needed t o p a r t i c i p a t e  federal  It is  t o the p r o v i n c i a l  benefit  election  t h e i r own  o f 1912  legislature.  noLiberals  During the  21 y e a r s between 1912 and 1916 l o c a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was m a i n t a i n e d i n a p e r f u n c t o r y  manner and,  H. C. B r e w s t e r , t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , e x e r t e d l i m i t e d c o n t r o l o v e r t h e weak and d i f f u s e o r g a n i z a t i o n . T h i s emergent p e r i o d I n t h e g r o w t h o f t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was t h u s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p o l i t i c a l weakness and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l d i s u n i t y . L i b e r a l s i n the p r o v i n c e  The f e d e r a l  were i n power a t t h e  beginning  o f t h e p e r i o d , b u t t h e i r i n f l u e n c e upon p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s was weak and u n o r g a n i z e d .  A l t h o u g h t h e i r power i n O t t a w a  was s i m i l a r l y l i m i t e d t h e y were p r o v i d e d representation.  with  cabinet  C o n f l i c t s between t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e i r  l e a d e r W i l f r i e d L a u r i e r and t h o s e t h e i r B r i t i s h supporters  d e s i r e d d.iminished  Columbia  their provincial stature.  W h i l e t h e f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y c o u l d have e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t r o l l e d the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n from I t s i n c e p t i o n , they allowed  the p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d . L i b e r a l s  t o assume t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e p a r t y .  The p r i n c i p l e o f  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y autonomy was s t i l l r e c o g n i z e d  by C a n a d i a n  p a r t i e s o f t h e p e r i o d and p r o v e d t o be e x c e e d i n g l y  popular  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a where t h e r e l a t e d , p r i n c i p l e o f p r o v i n c i a l government autonomy was s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d b u t i t i s p o s s i b l e , however, t h a t t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e p a r t y defaulted  t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l group i n t h e a b s e n c e o f a  s t r o n g e r , more u n i t e d o r more d e t e r m i n e d f e d e r a l g r o u p .  22 F e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g t h i s period, lacked the l i n e s - which c l e a r l y d i v i d e d f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l groups a f t e r 1 9 1 6 .  Each wing of the p a r t y  was o f t e n divid.ed i n t e r n a l l y w h i l e o p p o s i t i o n to L a u r i e r and the E a s t e r n L i b e r a l s provided, o c c a s i o n a l sources of provincial unity.  Nevertheless,  the p o p u l a r i t y of  s e c t i o n a l i s s u e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia along w i t h the poorlj/ developed sense of p a r t y d . i s c i p l i n e and. p a r t i s a n commitment created, severe f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s throughout the period, before World. War I .  The severe d i s u n i t y  exhibited, by the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y was r e l a t e d to both broader s e c t i o n a l i s s u e s and. to p e r s o n a l i t y conf l i c t s or f a c t i o n a l j e a l o u s i e s .  The frequency of I n t r a -  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y q u a r r e l s was a unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the p e r i o d o f p a r t y emergence f o r once the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s held power, p a r t y d i s c i p l i n e and. the c o n t r o l exercised, by the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r were more r e a d i l y accepted by the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  The most  enduring  legacy of t h i s p e r i o d of emergence were f i r s t l y , the acceptance of a. u n i f i e d p a r t y under the formal d i r e c t i o n of a p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a a e d lead.ersh.ip and. second.ly the appearance of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s caused, by s e c t i o n a l l y - d e r i v e d . p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s w i t h the f e d e r a l government.  Such s t r a i n s were, of course, to become more  t h r e a t e n i n g to f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y u n i t y when the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was a l s o i n power.  FOOTNOTES  1 Melva Jean Dwyer,. L a u r i e r and the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y : A Study i n F e d e r a l - P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y R e l a t i o n s , M.A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 l , Op.22. 2 Edward Hepner, The B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y , Graduating Essay, The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1962, p.65. 3 Templeman served as p r e s i d e n t o f the A s s o c i a t i o n from 1897 to 1902 and B. R. Maxwell, a member of p a r l i a m e n t , served from 1902 to 1 9 0 7 . 4  Dwyer, Op. C i t . , p . l 4 .  5  I b i d . , p. 3 3 .  ' 6  I b i d . , p. 9 6 .  7 Samuel P e t e r R e g e n s t r e i f , The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f Canada, A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 196"3, U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , Mich., pp. 2 5 - 3 1 . 8  Dwyer, Op.. C i t . , p.  9 I b i d . , pp. 3 8 - 3 9 ; L a u r i e r to W. W. B. Mclnnes, February 2 1 , 1 9 0 2 , L a u r i e r Papers R e l a t i n g to B r i t i s h Columbia, R e e l 2 , p. 62628, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia m i c r o f i l m , and L a u r i e r t o M a r t i n , February 2 1 , 1 9 0 2 , I b i d . , Reel 2 , p. 62667. 10  The B r i t i s h North American" A c t , S e c t i o n 9 5 . 23  24 11  Dwyer, Op,. G i t . , p. 4-3.  12  I b i d . , p. 4 4 .  13 I b i d . , p . 55; L a u r i e r t o G. G. S. L i n d s a y , December 17, 1908, p_p_. C i t . , R e e l 5 , p. 14-7661. 14James M o r t o n , Honest J o h n O l i v e r , J . M. Dent a n d Sons L i m i t e d , T o r o n t o , 1933, P« 79. 15 Dwyer, Op. C i t . , p. 40; L a u r i e r t o C h a r l e s T u g r i n , O c t o b e r 13, 1903, Ojo. C i t . , R e e l 2, p p . 77539-  775-+1. 16  M o r t o n , Honest J o h n O l i v e r , p. 79.  17  Dwyer, Op_. C i t . , p. 4 3 .  18  I b i d . , p. 46 a n d M o r t o n , Op_. C i t . , p. 106.  19 Dwyer, Op.. C i t . , p. 45; Wade t o L a u r i e r , November 26, 1902, Op. C i t . , R e e l 5 , p. 169871. I b i d . , p . 45; L a u r i e r t o O l i v e r , O c t o b e r 2 2 , 1909, Op.. C i t . , R e e l 5 , p. 160974.  2  0  21  I b i d . , p. 46.  22 Roman Hromnysky, The W e s t e r n C a n a d i a n R e g i o n a l Governments a n d t h e F e d e r a l S y s t e m , M. A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1965, p p . 95-96, a n d M o r t o n , Op. C i t . , p. 109.  CHAPTER THREE THE  DOMINANCE OF THE 1916  A f t e r 19l6  PROVINCIAL LEADER  - 19*10.  the e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s o f  the  L i b e r a l P a r t y i m p r o v e d b o t h w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e and From 19l6  n a t i o n as a w h o l e .  t o 1921  the  i n the  Brewster-Oliver  p r o v i n c i a l government h e l d power w h i l e the U n i o n G o v e r n ment r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l i n Ottawa b u t from 1921 two  1928  to  s u c c e s s i v e L i b e r a l governments h e l d power i n b o t h  V i c t o r i a and  Ottawa.  A f t e r a p e r i o d of f i v e years  o p p o s i t i o n i n b o t h the f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l the L i b e r a l s r e g a i n e d Ottawa i n 1935  and  parliaments,  c o n t r o l i n V i c t o r i a i n 1933  f o r s i x years  and,  in  t h e r e a f t e r the L i b e r a l s  conducted the a f f a i r s of both the p r o v i n c e  and  Because t h e l e a d e r o f the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was p r e m i e r o f the p r o v i n c e  in  the n a t i o n . also  t h r o u g h o u t most o f t h i s p e r i o d ,  the  p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f the p a r t y assumed a d o m i n a n t p o s i t i o n . P r e m i e r O l i v e r , who B r e w s t e r from 1916  s u c c e e d e d the s h o r t m i n i s t r y o f t o 1918  and, was  f o l l o w e d by the  even  b r i e f e r m i n i s t r y of John D. MacLean, control].ed. a sound p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n w h i c h was T. D.  revitalized  P a t t u l l o a f t e r the defeat,, o f 1928  b a s i s of h i s e l e c t o r a l strength a f t e r  25  and 1933'  by  Premier  provided  the  26  As p r e m i e r s ,  b o t h O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o  engaged  i n confrontations with the f e d e r a l leader o f t h e i r when p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s were t h r e a t e n e d policies.  party  by f e d e r a l  A t f i r s t b o t h O l i v e r and. P a t t u l l o b e l i e v e d  t h a t as L i b e r a l s t h e i r demands would, r e c e i v e t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f P r i m e M i n i s t e r W. L. M a c k e n z i e King.  O l i v e r ' s program d i d n o t t h r e a t e n t h e c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l powers o f t h e f e d e r a l government b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , f a i l e d to r e c e i v e King's  full  support.  Premier  Pattullo's  campaign f o r p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s , however, was more and  vigorous  n o t o n l y s t r a i n e d , r e l a t i o n s w i t h Ottawa b u t a l s o l e d  t o a d i v i s i o n amongst t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t h e m s e l v e s .  BREWSTER:  1916  -  1918  A f t e r a l o n g period, i n o p p o s i t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o b t a i n e d a s u p r i s i n g l y l a r g e mandate i n 1 9 1 6 , i t won t h i r t y - s e v e n o f t h e f o r t y - s e v e n s e a t s provincial legislature.  Although  was f a c i l i t a t e d by t h e m i s t a k e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t h e d e p a r t u r e  when  i n the  this electoral  success  o f the Conservative of the popular  S i r Richard. M c B r i d e , t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s a l s o reaped, the r e w a r d s o f c o n t i n u e d  p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y and o r g a n i -  z a t i o n u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o f H. C. B r e w s t e r t h r o u g h o u t the l e a n y e a r s between 1 9 1 2  and 1 9 1 6 .  By 1 9 1 5  i t was  27 c l e a r t h a t s c a n d a l s had  damaged the p u b l i c image o f  C o n s e r v a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w h i l e , even under the  the  new  l e a d e r s h i p o f W i l l i a m Bowser the c o n s e r v a t i v e s were failing  to o b t a i n the s u p p o r t  e l e m e n t s i n the p r o v i n c e . increased t h e i r p o l i t i c a l sympathy f o r the  o f the g r o w i n g  The  Liberals, therefore,  a c t i v i t y and  f o r two  ments i n the Bowser government. t h e l e g i s l a t u r e B r e w s t e r and  new  figures, had  cabinet  By  appoint-  From t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n  Macdonald l a u n c h e d  provided, a f o c u s f o r the d i s s a t i s f i e d  the L i b e r a l s had  This  1915,  for, in  campaign a g a i n s t the p r o v i n c i a l  the p r o v i n c e .  their  A. Macdonald were e l e c t e d i n a b y - e l e c t i o n  h e l d to t e s t p u b l i c s u p p o r t  effective  publicized  temperance and. f e m i n i s t c a u s e s .  p u b l i c i t y b r o u g h t immediate r e s u l t s B r e w s t e r and. M.  reform  an  government  elements w i t h i n  the time o f the n e x t p r o v i n c i a l  the s u p p o r t  o f many p r o m i n e n t  some o f whom, l i k e S i r C h a r l e s H i b b e r t  p r e v i o u s l y been a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  and  the  election,  provincial Tupper,  Conservatives.  1  CONTROL OF T H E PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: A f t e r a campaign based upon the I s s u e s o f economic d e p r e s s i o n , government r e f o r m Brewster f e l t There was,  indebted  and  r e l a t e d war  to the s o l d i e r and  issues,  reform  vote.  however, s u b s t a n t i a l o p p o s i t i o n w i t h i n h i s  28  patronage  starved  nevertheless, amount o f upset  by  he  party was  reform.  to  able His  public scandal  general  M . A.  sations  against  Macdonald  b a c k b e n c h e r and difficulty  the this  civil to  s e r v i c e reform,  proceed  with  a  limited,  g o v e r n m e n t was  almost  and  eventually  his  had.  to  resign.  The  in maintaining  reflected  unity within  immediately  attorney first  g o v e r n m e n t w e r e made b y misfortune  Put,  a  accu-  Liberal  Brewster's  the  provincial  wing  2 of  the  party.  continued  to  Nevertheless, c o n t r o l the  the  Liberal  or  even  with  of  provincial  attempt  on to  matters challenge  even  issue  support  for a  of  war.  of  duration  SOURCES OP  several loyal  to  Liberal  the  issue  initiate  of  a  government  only  the  the  of  was  no  split  over  the  government  for  the  STRAIN;  Union government  others  supported  Brewster not  party  disagreed  leader.  i n Ottawa  federal-provincialstrains  L a u r i e r and campaign,  there  party  federal coalition  l e a d . i n g members  for, a l -  minister  policy,  serious  FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL  The however,  survived  the  cabinet  h i s p o s i t i o n as  Brewster  leader  organization  though backbenchers him  his  provincial  the  provincial  continuance i n the  cabinet  of an  provincial  formation  of a  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the  for,  while remained  independent Liberal  Union  first  did,  government.  negotiations  29  f o r the c o a l i t i o n government b u t a l s o a c t i v e l y competed, f o r the U n i o n i s t  ( L i b e r a l ) nomination f o r V i c t o r i a  against f e l l o w L i b e r a l William Sloan.  A l t h o u g h he  with-  drew f r o m the V i c t o r i a c o n t e s t , B r e w s t e r c o n t i n u e d  to  be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the U n i o n c a u s e and. t h e r e were rumors o f a c a b i n e t appointment i n the event of v i c t o r y f o r  the  coalition.  friendly  While Brewster d e s i r e d to m a i n t a i n  a  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h L a u r i e r and. r e f r a i n e d f r o m d i r e c t p u b l i c a t t a c k s upon t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r , h i s open s u p p o r t o f the U n i o n i s t c a u s e c r e a t e d v i n c i a l party.  I t was  f r i c t i o n w i t h i n the  pro-  obvious that s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l  m i n i s t e r s believed that r e a l L i b e r a l s should  not  be  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o a l i t i o n w h i c h t h e i r l e a d e r  had  r e j e c t e d and. when L a u r i e r v i s i t e d . V a n c o u v e r i n December o f 1917  he was  greeted  by a l a r g e g r o u p o f p r o v i n c i a l  p o l i t i c i a n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e new deB.  F a r r i s , F.  attorney  C. Wade and. J . W.  general  Weart b u t ,  J.  W.  Premier  3  B r e w s t e r was  absent."  B r e w s t e r l o s t the s u p p o r t o f a s i g n i f i c a n t  part  o f the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , b e c a u s e o f h i s s u p p o r t the U n i o n i s t cause and  of  even the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l  A s s o c i a t i o n s u f f e r e d a d e c l i n e - i n membership i n s p i t e o f i t s continued program and  s u p p o r t o f the s t r a i g h t L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l  candidates.  The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e  reported  30  on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s t h a t t h e " g r e a t  bulk  o f the p a r t y ,  who a r e members o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , were d e f i n i t e i n t h e i r support of S i r W i l f r i e d L a u r i e r . " also indicated that the majority  The newspaper  o f t h e r a n k and f i l e  L i b e r a l s , who h a d s u p p o r t e d B r e w s t e r i n 1 9 1 6 , now a c t i v e l y supported the L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l candidates.  Those  L i b e r a l s who were c o m m i t t e d t o t h e U n i o n i s t  cause  separate f e d e r a l organizations  but evidently  joined  continued  t o s u p p o r t t h e L i b e r a l p r o v i n c i a l government f o r t h e y hoped t o a v o i d a c o a l i t i o n i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 5 While i t i s d i f f i c u l t  to assess the strength  o f t h e s e two  groups w i t h i n t h e L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , i t i s c l e a r this federally-derived issue s p l i t  the e n t i r e p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y and a t t i m e s made i t d i f f i c u l t L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. received  to i d e n t i f y f e d e r a l  Because t h e U n i o n i s t  overwhelming support i n B r i t i s h  p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c i a n s contained,  that  cause  Columbia,  their differences  i n order  t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r o n l y r e c e n t l y obtained, p o s i t i o n o f power w i t h i n the province.^ The L i b e r a l P a r t y avoided the repercussions p r o v i n c i a l leader with B r e w s t e r became i l l  of B r i t i s h Columbia accid.ently of the close a s s o c i a t i o n ofthe  t h e U n i o n i s t government when  w i t h pneumonia and d i e d  on t h e way  home from a c o n f e r e n c e i n Ottawa i n F e b r u a r y o f 1 9 1 8 .  The three major candidates i n the l e a d e r s h i p campaign which f o l l o w e d were a l l c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the L a u r i e r - L i h e r a l cause but t h i s common a t t r i b u t e had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e i r candida.cy o r upon the conduct of the campaign.  Although, i n Brewster's  absence,  John O l i v e r had been appointed a c t i n g Premier most newspaper commentators believed, t h a t the a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l , J . B. deB. F a r r i s o f Vancouver, and the m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c works, J . H. K i n g , of Kootenay, had. b e t t e r p r o s pects of v i c t o r y than the v e t e r a n L i b e r a l and farmer from Delta.  This judgment was, however, based, upon, the  assumed f e e l i n g s of a convention o r of the Executive Committee of the A s s o c i a t i o n f o r F a r r i s was popular w i t h the rank and f i l e and. King was considered t o be a safe 7  compromise f o r the Island, and. Mainland. L i b e r a l s .  But  the composition of the caucus which e l e c t e d the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r reduced. F a r r i s ' bases of power and support and the King f o r c e s were able to a s s i s t the O l i v e r supporters i n t h e i r defeat of F a r r i s .  After a fourth  b a l l o t John O l i v e r was confirmed as the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r 8  of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l p a r t y .  OLIVER 1918 - 1927: CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: Conservatives immediately accused, the newly e l e c t e d L i b e r a l Leader of o p p o s i t i o n to the Union government i n  32 Ottawa.  In h i s p u b l i c d e n i a l the Premier discounted  suggestions  t h a t there was  ment and Ottawa.  f r i c t i o n between h i s govern-  O l i v e r stressed, t h a t he would not  only work w i t h Ottawa f o r the b e n e f i t of the e n t i r e country but a l s o f o r the i n t e r e s t s of B r i t i s h Columbia as well.9  This statement i n d i c a t e d t h a t although  p r o v i n c i a l government was h i m s e l f was  the  L i b e r a l i n sentiment, O l i v e r  not a U n i o n i s t and c e r t a i n l y a f t e r the  war  he a c t i v e l y a i d e d the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l cause w i t h i n the province.  Notwithstanding  o c c a s i o n a l expressions  of  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n or r e v o l t from the back benches or from, h i s cabinet John O l i v e r maintained his party.  e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over  Although d u r i n g O l i v e r ' s l e a d e r s h i p the p a r t y  never repeated  the e l e c t o r a l success of 191.6  and o f t e n  had  d i f f i c u l t y i n s e c u r i n g a s m a l l m a j o r i t y , the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s proved to be the most r e s i l i e n t p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  They were f o r example able to withstand  p u b l i c a t t a c k s by members of t h e i r own back bench on Issue of a PGE  several the  scandal as w e l l as the d e f e c t i o n of a s m a l l  group of L i b e r a l s to the nascent S o l d i e r s ' P a r t y . The most s e r i o u s i n t r a - p r o v i n e i a l s t r a i n i n 1921,  occurred  when O l i v e r only had a m a j o r i t y of f o u r e x c l u d i n g  the speaker and developed p a r t l y because of the Premier's i n c r e a s i n g l y d i c t a t o r i a l a c t i o n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l caucus and p a r t l y because of p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h i n the c a b i n e t .  33 In  O c t o b e r , 1921  D a v i d W h i t e s i d e o f New  Westminster 1  announced t h a t he w o u l d n o t a t t e n d caucus  2  meetings  and s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r , H a r r y P e r r y o f F o r t George  sup-  p o r t e d W h i t e s i d e and i n f o r m e d O l i v e r o f h i s i m p a t i e n c e w i t h the Premier's d i c t a t o r i a l r u l e . - ^ 1  1921,  I n November o f  Mrs. Mary E l l e n S m i t h , t h e widow o f t h e  E a l p h S m i t h who  was  late  a l o n g - t i m e l a b o r l e a d e r and  Liberal  i n b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l s p h e r e s , r e s i g n e d h e r c a b i n e t p o s t l e s s t h a n one y e a r a f t e r h e r  appointment.  I n a p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t she e x p r e s s e d h e r d i s a p p o i n t m e n t a t n o t r e c e i v i n g a p o r t f o l i o and h e r c o n c e r n o v e r  several  u n s p e c i f i e d c a b i n e t d e c i s i o n s o v e r w h i c h she was consulted.  It is difficult  not  to assess the e x t e n t of  t h i s r e v o l t a g a i n s t O l i v e r b u t t h e newspapers r e p o r t e d a n "air ted  of mystery"  i n t h e government b u i l d i n g s and  indica-  t h a t t h e r e were many rumors o f open " r e b e l l i o n "  w i t h i n the l e a d e r s h i p r a n k s . however, s t r e s s e d t h a t *  Vancouver,  Vancouver P r o v i n c e ,  " t h e members u n d e r s u s p i c i o n  show no s i g n s o f h a v i n g jumped t h e r e v o l t was  The  the t r a c e s . " - ^  and  that  i n i t i a t e d by t h e p a r t y machine i n  w h i c h was  becoming " e m b a r r a s s i n g l y powerful."" "* 1  W h i l e s e v e r a l members o f t h e c a b i n e t and t h e back bench continued to c r i t i c i z e  elements  of O l i v e r ' s  financial  p o l i c y and l i q u o r p o l i c y , t h e " r e v o l t " d i d n o t materialize.  3^ The  1921  f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n i n e a r l y December o f  f o r t u n a t e l y d i s t r a c t e d many o f the d i s c o n t e n t e d w i t h i n the p a r t y . o f the p a r t y was  By mid and concentrated  elements  l a t e December the a t t e n t i o n upon the s e l e c t i o n o f a  B r i t i s h Columbia c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r .  Although  the  p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s had. p a r t i c i p a t e d a s  individuals  i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , none o f the t h r e e s u c c e s s f u l L i b e r a l s were o f c a b i n e t s t a t u r e and l e a d e r s h i p was  the e n t i r e  provincial  f o r c e d t o campaign t o demand c a b i n e t r e p r e -  s e n t a t i o n f o r B r i t i s h Columbia.  W i t h i n one  week J.H.  the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r o f p u b l i c w o r k s , M. A. t h e defeated, f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e  Macdonald.,  f o r Burrard., Mr.  C a m p b e l l , the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , J . W.  deB.  King  Charles Farris,  E. the  p r o v i n c i a l a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l , Mayor G a l e , a d e f e a t e d f e d e r a l candidate  f o r V a n c o u v e r C e n t r e and  f e d e r a l candidate look a f t e r both  W.  M.  Ivel, a  defeated  f o r V i c t o r i a a l l a r r i v e d i n Ottawa t o  t h e i r own  and  the p r o v i n c e ' s  interest in  ]7 the b u s i n e s s  of c a b i n e t making.  hoped t o c o n v i n c e deserved  two  Many p r o v i n c i a l  the f e d e r a l l e a d e r t h a t B r i t i s h  cabinet p o s i t i o n s .  c i r c u l a t e d which suggested  Liberal;  Columbia  I n mid-December rumors  t h a t F r e d S t o r k , the member-  e l e c t f o r P r i n c e Rupert, would r e l i n q u i s h h i s seat to O l i v e r  18 if  the p r o v i n c i a l P r e m i e r was  S t o r k soon d e n i e d  appointed  t o the ca.binet.  the r e p o r t and no f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s  a c a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t f o r O l i v e r was  heard.  In l a t e  of  35  December, however, F a r r i s r e s i g n e d and i t was t h a t he hoped to e n t e r f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s .  suggested,  Farris  had  informed O l i v e r of h i s p o s s i b l e r e s i g n a t i o n before he departed f o r Ottawa and made i t c l e a r that he found i t i m p o s s i b l e to enforce the p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r law or continue to be the focus of anti-government  attacks.^  A f t e r Senator Hewitt Eostock was appointed, to the c a b i n e t i n l a t e December the province abandoned i t s campaign f o r a second c a b i n e t post and by the t u r n of the year most p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s hoped to e s t a b l i s h c l o s e working r e l a t i o n s with t h e i r federal colleagues.  SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVING I Al, STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: R e l a t i o n s between Ottawa and V i c t o r i a , had. soa.rcely commenced when O l i v e r expressed, h i s annoyance a t Prime M i n i s t e r King's appointment of J . H. K i n g , the p r o v i n c i a l m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c works, to the f e d e r a l c a b i n e t .  Oliver  resented t h i s f e d e r a l " r a i d i n g " a t a time when h i s own m a j o r i t y was  s l e n d e r and h i s c a b i n e t depleted by other 20  recent departures.  Since he was p l a n n i n g to request  both b e t t e r terms f o r the province from Ottawa, and a reassessment of the s t a t u s and p o l i c y of the PGE, was r e l a t i v e l y r e s t r a i n e d i n h i s r e a c t i o n s to J.H.  Oliver King's  36 appointment,  When the Prime M i n i s t e r was  to h i s r e q u e s t s  O l i v e r considered  a renewal of McBride's  s u c c e s s f u l " f i g h t Ottawa" p r o g r a m . I n i t i a t e d an  open a t t a c k on  the  threatened, to a p p e a l d i r e c t l y if  h i s suggestions  unresponsive  I n d e e d , the  f e d e r a l Government  t o the  and  Imperial Parliament  were c o n t i n u a l l y i g n o r e d .  an a p p r a i s a l o f the  Premier  consequences o f t h i s  But  after  course of a c t i o n  O l i v e r w i s e l y d e c i d e d to r e d i r e c t h i s h o s t i l i t y by means o f an a t t a c k on  Eastern  f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s and  railroad  21 r a t e s . '~  P r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s rea.soned t h a t t h i s more  conservative  p o l i c y would s a t i s f y most p r o v i n c i a l i n t e r e s t s  and  y e t would n o t  The  program met  f o r the  d i r e c t l y challenge  w i t h s u c c e s s and. was  the  f e d e r a l government.  in part  responsible  i n c r e a s e d , p o p u l a r i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l  government. Indeed, t h i s  f o r m u l a proved, so e f f e c t i v e  that  O l i v e r r e p e a t e d the campaign, f o r l o w e r f r e i g h t r a t e s whene v e r h i s p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e w i t h i n the p a r t y proved, to be v u l n e r a b l e . 1924,  f o r example, O l i v e r f e l t  or even  In 1923  t h r e a t e n e d by  the wide  a p p e a l o f the P r o v i n c i a l P a r t y , which s t o o d f o r the o f p o l i t i c s and during  and  reform  the m o d i f i c a t i o n of the p a r t y s y s t e m , and.  the e l e c t i o n campaign, of 1924  the  Premier  skilfully  renewed, h i s campaign f o r lower f r e i g h t r a t e s .  But  p i c i o n s about i t s p r e c a r i o u s  the  p o s i t i o n prompted  sus-  •4  37  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y to c a p i t a l i z e on i t s p o l i t i c a l w i t h the King government. the L i b e r a l s which  The  connections  newspapers p r i n t e d ads  for  reported:  John O l i v e r , the head of the L i b e r a l Government i n B r i t i s h Columbia has the ear of the Hon, Mackenzie K i n g , the head of the L i b e r a l Government i n Ottawa; and i f the people of B r i t i s h Columbia demonstrate by t h e i r votes t h a t they are i n accord w i t h John O l i v e r ' s f i g h t , we i n B r i t i s h Columbia w i l l b e n e f i t to a f a r g r e a t e r extent than we would i f Mr. Bowser or General McRae were p l a c e d i n power, cc  Although the Prime M i n i s t e r could not p u b l i c l y endorse or dismiss  such a statement, O l i v e r worded, h i s c l a i m c a r e f u l l y .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s impromtu campaign s t r a t e g y i n d i c a t e d i n s e c u r i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  the  This assessment proved,  accurate f o r O l i v e r l o s t h i s seat and although he regained a seat i n a b y - e l e c t i o n , h i s L i b e r a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i t h only twenty-three of the f o r t y - e i g h t  governed  seats.  ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: In c o n t r a s t , the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n the province e x h i b i t e d a new e l e c t i o n of 1925-  v i t a l i t y and a. growing s t r e n g t h The  i n the  f e d e r a l ' m i n i s t e r of p u b l i c works,  J . H. K i n g , d i r e c t e d the p r o v i n c i a l campaign and. made e f f e c t i v e use of the growing number of Young L i b e r a l Associations  which i n c r e a s i n g l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h  federal  39 passed i n the l e g i s l a t u r e , the p a r t y u n i t e d more f o r c e f u l l y behind O l i v e r .  U n t i l j u s t before h i s death from  cancer i n 192? O l i v e r maintained, c o n t r o l of a f a i r l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d and u n i t e d p a r t y and i n s i s t e d t h a t the p a r t y s e l e c t h i s successor. were w e l l contained  Indeed, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s  throughout the O l i v e r p e r i o d .  d e r i v e d i s s u e s , which under some circumstances  Federally-  c o u l d have  c o n t r i b u t e d t o i n t e r n a l p a r t y d i v i s i o n s , were used i n s t e a d to u n i t e the p a r t y o r to i n c r e a s e popular support f o r the provincial administration.  Since the f r e i g h t r a t e s i s s u e  s a t i s f i e d p r o v i n c i a l needs, the more t h r e a t e n i n g s e c t i o n a l i s s u e s of the McBride m i n i s t r y were avoided.  Indeed, when  O l i v e r f e l t v u l n e r a b l e d u r i n g a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n he independently  traded upon h i s p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s w i t h King  and claimed a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ottawa.  While the  f e d e r a l p a r t y may have tolerated, such claims as p a r t of the p o l i t i c a l game, the r e l a t i v e harmony of the two wings w i t h i n the province may have been aided by the weakness of the f e d e r a l wing i n B r i t i s h Columbia and by t h e i r s m a l l numbers throughout the p e r i o d .  MACLEAN  1927  -  1929:  In the August of 1927 John D. MacLean was o f f i c i a l l y elected, the l e a d e r of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y .  38 p o l i t i c s r a t h e r than w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y a l s o assumed an a c t i v e r o l e i n t h i s campaign and Premier O l i v e r spoke a t s e v e r a l nominating meetings and announced, a t a time when Prime M i n i s t e r K i n g v i s i t e d , the province,, t h a t he would "take the stump" f o r 23 the L i b e r a l candidates  i n the f e d e r a l campaign.  J  The  L i b e r a l s were r e l a t i v e l y s u c c e s s f u l i n t h i s e l e c t i o n and the increased, p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was appreciated, but, i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n of 1926, the L i b e r a l  represen-  t a t i o n from B r i t i s h Columbia i n Ottawa was reduced from f o u r to one and O l i v e r ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the campaign was now r e s e n t e d .  Many prominent L i b e r a l s believed, t h a t  the uneven r e c o r d o f the p r o v i n c i a l government had a f f e c t e d the f o r t u n e s of the f e d e r a l p a r t y and t h a t i n the f u t u r e the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ' s " i n t e r v e n t i o n " i n f e d e r a l a f f a i r s 24 should be c u r t a i l e d . Although O l i v e r ' s lead.ership of the p a r t y was not c h a l l e n g e d , both the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l wings of the p a r t y expressed t h e i r d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the d i r e c t i o n 25 and management of p a r t y p o l i c y .  The a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered d u r i n g the preceding  federal  e l e c t i o n s were consequently only one source o f p a r t y s t r a i n . Many p r o v i n c i a l leaders feared that O l i v e r had l o s t touch w i t h the e l e c t o r a t e but a f t e r the new reform program was  4o MacLean had been a member o f the O l i v e r c a b i n e t 1917  and,  a l t h o u g h he was c o n s i d e r e d  since  to be more o f a n  a d m i n i s t r a t o r t h a n a p o l i t i c i a n , b o t h wings o f t h e partysupported h i s l e a d e r s h i p .  He encountered, some o p p o s i -  t i o n , however, when he i n s i s t e d , t h a t he l e a d the partyt h r o u g h one l e g i s l a t i v e  session before  c a l l i n g an e l e c t i o n  i n t h e summer o f 1 9 2 8 . '  Several p r o v i n c i a l leaders  b e l i e v e d t h a t the L i b e r a l s  should  while  renew t h e i r mandate  t h e memory o f "Honest ..John" O l i v e r was  still  alive.  In t h e minds o f many p a r t y members Maclean did. n o t p r e s e n t a new o r  dynamic  image t o a n e l e c t o r a t e , which had. n e v e r  g i v e n more than 5 0 p e r c e n t  o f the v o t e  and. had o n l y r e c e n t l y r e t u r n e d 32 p e r c e n t  to t h e L i b e r a l s  the p a r t y by d e f a u l t w i t h  of the popular v o t e .  The new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r  had. a l s o t o contend, w i t h d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h i n , h i s own party  just before  the e l e c t i o n .  A former L i b e r a l  member f o r V a n c o u v e r , C h a r l e s  Woodward., attacked, the  L i b e r a l pa.rty f o r i t s f a i l u r e  to g i v e t h e c i t y o f Vancouver  cabinet representation i n Victoria..  The charges were  ambiguous h u t Woodward and. s e v e r a l o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s approa.cb.ed. t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s  w i t h an o f f e r o f  s u p p o r t i n exchange f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t o f c a b i n e t t a t i o n f o r the c i t y .  While t h i s  a r e l a t i v e l y minor challenge  represen-  i n c i d e n t presented  only  to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r -  s h i p , i t exposed, t h e f r i c t i o n , between t h e Vancouver L i b e r a l s and. o t h e r p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s . 27 '•  In t h i s b r i e f m i n i s t r y f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s had- l i t t l e time to mature but i n a l a s t attempt to r e g a i n popular support, Premier MacLean d i d r e v i v e the i s s u e of the s a l e of the PGE.  He claimed t h a t h i s government a l o n e ,  w i t h i t s c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Ottawa and the Prime M i n i s t e r , could e f f e c t i v e l y n e g o t i a t e f o r B r i t i s h Columbia. MacLean, l i k e O l i v e r , claimed, a s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Ottawa but the Premier even suggested t h a t h i s Conservative opponent, S. F. Tolmie, would, experience great d i f f i c u l t y i n n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h King because he had served as a ?8  national conservative organizer."  This s t r a t e g y f a i l e d  and the L i b e r a l s were s e v e r e l y c r i t i c i z e d f o r u s i n g both an u n f a i r and. unconfirmed c l a i m . maintained confirmed ship."  Again the f e d e r a l p a r t y  a d.iscreet s i l e n c e i n p u b l i c and n e i t h e r or d i s c l a i m e d MacLean's i m p l i e d " s p e c i a l r e l a t i o n -  To u n i t e h i s p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and to g a i n the  support of the B r i t i s h Columbia e l e c t o r a t e MacLean. made demands on the f e d e r a l government.  L i k e O l i v e r , however,  MacLean chose r e l a t i v e l y safe demands and thereby indicated, h i s d e s i r e to m a i n t a i n reasonable federal party.  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the  The f e d e r a l p a r t y allowed MacLean to r e t i r e  g r a c e f u l l y a f t e r the p a r t y s u f f e r e d a ma.jor defeat i n the e l e c t i o n of 1 9 2 8 and. was reduced to an o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y of twelve r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  MacLean was promised a f e d e r a l  appointment I f he f a i l e d to win a seat i n parliament i n  42  ?9  the next f e d e r a l b y - e l e c t i o n . " '  Although some f e d e r a l  leaders suggested that Maclean campaigned, as though he wished to be d e f e a t e d , i n January of 1929 he was appointed to the F e d e r a l Farm Loan Commission.-^ and soon 0  a f t e r the s m a l l L i b e r a l caucus selected. T. D, P a t t u l l o as House l e a d e r f o r the coming l e g i s l a t i v e  PATTULLO CONTROL  1929 -  session.  19^1  OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION With the e l e c t i o n of P a t t u l l o the Executive  Committee of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d the r i g h t to s e l e c t the permanent p a r t y l e a d e r f o r the f i r s t 31 time  but from the very beginning of h i s term as p a r t y  l e a d e r P a t t u l l o h i m s e l f exercised, e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n . personal  To supplement h i s growing  p o p u l a r i t y , P a t t u l l o i n h e r i t e d and. made e f f e c t i v e  use of c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers and i n f o r m a l p r a c t i c e s developed d u r i n g Oliver's administration.  The L i b e r a l  Association, c o n s t i t u t i o n gave the Executive  Committee the  major source of power and. deprived the A s s o c i a t i o n of r e a l power.  the f u l l Convention of  Conventions were c a l l e d  only upon the request of the Executive  Committee every  three years and they were unable to debate "anjr r e s o l u t i o n a f f e c t i n g the general p o l i c y of the L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  until  H-3  i t had f i r s t been r e f e r r e d without debate thereon, to 32  the Committee on R e s o l u t i o n . .  Indeed, not even  matters of great importance, such as c o n s t i t u t i o n a l amendments, could be discussed, by the Convention u n t i l they had. been referred, to s p e c i a l committees appointed p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  by the  Throughout the p e r i o d the  p r e s i d e n t o f the A s s o c i a t i o n , as w e l l as other key A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s and. employees, were o f f i c i a l l y chosen by the Executive Committee but they were a l s o the persona.l appointees of the p a r t y l e a d e r . P a t t u l l o e s t a b l i s h e d a f i r m c o n t r o l over the m a j o r i t y of the Executive Committee f o r i t was composed, of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s , the p r e s i d e n t s of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l D i s t r i c t A s s o c i a t i o n s along w i t h  representa-  t i v e s f o r Vancouver and V i c t o r i a , L i b e r a l Senators,  Liberal  members of the House of Commons, L i b e r a l members of the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and a l l L i b e r a l candidates  defeated  34-  i n the most recent e l e c t i o n . A s s o c i a t i o n were appointed  Since the o f f i c e r s of the  by P a t t u l l o h i m s e l f and s i n c e  most o f the L i b e r a l members o f the l e g i s l a t u r e and. t h e i r defeated  colleagues were c l o s e to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ,  P a t t u l l o was g e n e r a l l y able t o . o v e r r i d e o p p o s i t i o n generated by f e d e r a l l e a d e r n .  In a d d i t i o n to P a t t u l l o * s a b i l i t y to  c o n t r o l the formal apparatus of p a r t y machinery, the  kk  t r a d i t i o n cond.uot of most of the p a r t y ' s "business w i t h i n a s m a l l c i r c l e of the l e a d e r ' s c o n f i d a n t f u r t h e r the power of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r . v i c t o r y i n 1933  enlarged  Before the  election  the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , Major J . S. Moodie  worked very c l o s e l y w i t h P a t t u l l o , w h i l e A, M. Manson, the former a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l who  was  he moved i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s was  c l o s e to P a t t u l l o before a c h a r t e r member of  powerful Finance Committee e s t a b l i s h e d  in  the  1931»  A f t e r P a t t u l l o became Premier the Vancouver Centre organization,  centered around, the F a r r i s b r o t h e r s ,  o n l y e x e r c i s e d a g r e a t deal of power w i t h i n  not  the p a r t y  a l s o created, the most e f f e c t i v e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  link  between the fed.eral and. p r o v i n c i a l wings of the  party.  While the F a r r i s group includ.ed. s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l who  l a t e r moved, i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , J . W.  deB.  Liberals Farris  continued to p a r t i c i p a t e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s a f t e r was  c a l l e d to the Senate i n 1937  as p a r t y t r e a s u r e r and  Finance Committee.  Although the F a r r i s b r o t h e r s were e s p e c i a l l y a c t i v e r e v o l t a g a i n s t the Premier i n 19^1,  in  throughout most of  the P a t t u l l o period, they coordinated the two  spheres of  Indeed, i n  1937,  Wendell F a r r i s restrained. P a t t u l l o when he threatened separate the two  he  and Wendell F a r r i s served  chairman, of the  p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and. f i n a n c e . - ^  but  to  wings of the p a r t y a f t e r the Premier had.  been harassed by s e v e r a l  federal-provincial  s t r a i n s which  45 emerged b o t h from, the 1935  e l e c t i o n , and  from h i s  own  36  difficulties  with  Within  Prime M i n i s t e r  the  s p h e r e of p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s  a fairly  maintained  Although P a t t u l l o  King.  tight  c o n t r o l o v e r h i s organization.  experienced,  s e v e r a l p u b l i c rebukes from  l e g i s l a t i v e members, he m a i n t a i n e d  a more d i s c i p l i n e d In 1934  p a r t y government than d i d P r e m i e r O l i v e r . however, he  Pattullo  f o u n d t h a t he was  u n a b l e to p r e v e n t  five  L i b e r a l s from v o t i n g a g a i n s t a government measure n i n g a p l a n to b u i l d , the F r a s e r R i v e r brid.ge. c u l t y occurred  because many L i b e r a l s had  9  concer-  This  assumed  diffi-  that  37  a f t e r .1933 the  the p a r t y would, end  caucus c o n t r o l . '  p r o m i s e i n the L i b e r a l p l a t f o r m  P r e m i e r found, t h a t he needled convinced after  this  of 1933» however,  caucus c o n t r o l and  the  evidently  most L i b e r a l s to v o i c e t h e i r c r i t i c i s m s  i n caucus  affair.  Until 1939  the  i s o l a t e d , c o n f l i c t s within, the  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y were p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t c l a s h e s o r i n j u r e d egos.  There was,  l o n g s t a n d i n g feud between P a t t u l l o and McGeer had  Despite  attacked  his  l e a d e r on  the  of p e r s o n a l i t y  f o r example, G. eve  G.  the  McGeer.  o f the s u c c e s s f u l  e l e c t i o n of 1933> p o s s i b l y because he a l r e a d y knew of h i s op  failure  to make a c a b i n e t p o s t . -  McGeer and. P a t t u l l o  46 a g a i n feuded when McGeer became mayor of Vancouver and. yet a g a i n when McGeer entered f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s .  Pattullo  a l s o had d i f f e r e n c e s w i t h Harry P e r r y , a. p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l stalwart,  who  also  was  excluded, from inner government 39  c i r c l e s on more than one  occasion.  SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: U n t i l f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s were i n 194l  shattered  P a t t u l l o maintained, e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l over the  p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and a s i n g l e and f a i r l y w e l l i n t e g r a t e d o r g a n i z a t i o n which served, the needs of both f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s .  Even before h i s e l e c t i o n  P a t t u l l o had. worked, on. behalf of f e d e r a l candidates  and  made h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n and resources a v a i l a b l e to the wing.  In 1930,  w h i l e King d i d not wish to be  associated,  w i t h the recentl3>- defeated, p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , he u t i l i z e d Pattullo*s organization. of 1935  federal  still  In the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n  P a t t u l l o placed, h i s e n t i r e p a r t y and  government  behind. King i n s p i t e of suggestions of f r i c t i o n between the two men.  Almost every major p r o v i n c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y ,  i n c l u d i n g most cabinet m i n i s t e r s , campaigned, f o r t h e i r f e l l o w L i b e r a l candidates w i t h the one  exception of  G. G. McGeer, who was snubbed hj the e n t i r e P a t t u l l o hO government. The c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n of the two wings  4? of the p a r t y was Bruce Hutchison  so complete and so s t r i k i n g that commented t h a t the P a t t u l l o government:  ". . . has now I d e n t i f i e d i t s e l f so i n t i m a t e l y w i t h the f a t e of L i b e r a l candidates t h a t a r e v e r s e f o r them c e r t a i n l y would be a grave blow to the P a t t u l l o government, j u s t as t h e i r success would, be a great h e l p , Mr. P a t t u l l o , a p p a r e n t l y w e l l aware of what he was doing, d e f i n i t e l y a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h the r e s u l t of the e l e c t i o n l a s t week and. a.s t h i s i s w r i t t e n i s a s s o c i a t i n g h i m s e l f w i t h Mr. K i n g — a touching r e c o n c i l i a t i o n a f t e r a l l t h a t has happened, between them. " 4 l Although  both wings of the L i b e r a l P a r t y a s s i s t e d  each other i n e l e c t i o n s , they a l s o Independently r e s e r v e d the r i g h t to suggest the form of p u b l i c a s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g each campaign.  Whenever a c l o s e a l l i a n c e between p r o v i n -  c i a l and f e d e r a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s or governments was  consi-  dered a l i a b i l i t y to that wing of the p a r t y faced w i t h a campaign, the p a r t y d.isguised the u t i l i z a t i o n of i t s j o i n t o r g a n i z a t i o n and r e l i e d on only i n d i v i d u a l members of the other wing f o r campaign, purposes. p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h i s k i n d was  Selective  l a r g e l y dependent upon the  extent of p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s amongst the p a r t y members. The pattern, of j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l and. p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s has, moreover, v a r i e d f o r w h i l e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r s and. even. L i b e r a l premiers  have campaigned  p e r s o n a l l y , as a group or as a government f o r f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s both w i t h i n and o u t s i d e the p r o v i n c e , the  48  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s was  r e s t r i c t e d to i n d i v i d u a l members and  rarely  42  i n v o l v e d the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r .  Although the ground, r u l e s f o r j o i n t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e l e c t i o n campaigns were r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r , between the two  friction  groups o f t e n emerged from d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  w i t h e i t h e r the form or the r e s u l t s of mutual v e n t u r e . Since each group b e l i e v e d t h a t i t s own campaign and  success both i n  i n p o l i t i c a l l i f e generally  dependent upon the c o n t r i b u t i o n p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n was campaign s i t u a t i o n s . had a n t i c i p a t e d  was  the  i n part  of the other wing, f e d e r a l -  p a r t i c u l a r l y prevelant during For example, i n 1935,  a substantial  many L i b e r a l s  i n c r e a s e i n the number of  members of p a r l i a m e n t elected, from the p r o v i n c e and. when the r e s u l t s f a i l e d to meet t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s , they sought an e x p l a n a t i o n i n the Inadequacy of the j o i n t campaign and. P a t t u l l o was  prompted to complain to K i n g t h a t "Some of  the sorehead.s are l o o k i n g  f o r a scapegoat and want to  43  take i t out on me."  Because of the dissatisfaction  w i t h the r e s u l t of t h i s e l e c t i o n and. the  subsequent  s t r a i n s between the p r o v i n c i a l and. f e d e r a l governments, P a t t u l l o suggested, a s e p a r a t i o n of the two 44  provincial organization. possible  organizational  wings of  the  _ ••  P a t t u l l o may  w e l l have r a i s e d  s e p a r a t i o n to improve h i s  49  b a r g a i n i n g p o s i t i o n w i t h King and the f e d e r a l p a r t y . C e r t a i n l y the p a r t y had always considered any  separation  of the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as p o l i t i c a l l y dangerous.  POLICY DIFFERENCES: A l t h o u g h the major source of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were d e r i v e d from c o n f l i c t s between the governments of B r i t i s h Columbia and Canada, the  r e s u l t a n t c o n f l i c t s had d i r e c t r e p e r c u s s i o n s upon  the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  Conservative Prime M i n i s t e r  R. B. Bennett had not responded, to P a t t u l l o ' s f o r f e d e r a l l o a n s , p u b l i c work schemes, PCS z a t i o n and  requests  nationali-  " B e t t e r Terms" and, t h e r e f o r e , P a t t u l l o 4<^  expected more from King's L i b e r a l government.  The  depression was p a r t i c u l a r l y severe i n the p r o v i n c e many unemployed, men  migrated  of the f a v o r a b l e c l i m a t e .  and  to B r i t i s h Columbia, because P a t t u l l o ha.d been e l e c t e d on.  a vague program of "Work and Wages," which, n e v e r t h e l e s s , o f f e r e d hopes of a s m a l l New and w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e .  Deal program of p u b l i c works  The resources of the province  were, however, i n s u f f i c i e n t to support the program and P a t t u l l o was badl3' i n need of f e d e r a l a i d to continue  and.  expand the s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l program which he had. initiated.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , P a t t u l l o found that King  was  50  as u n r e c e p t i v e as Bennett to most of h i s r e q u e s t s .  With  the c l o s e o f r e l i e f camps i n 1938 unemployed men demons t r a t e d i n Vancouver and occupied the A r t G a l l e r y , the H o t e l Georgia and. the Post O f f i c e but King only assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r unemployed t r a n s i e n t s and. the l a b o r demands of the War r a t h e r than p u b l i c p o l i c y 46 eased the p r o v i n c i a l unemployment c r i s i s .  finally  In 1938 P a t t u l l o renewed. B r i t i s h Columbia's claim, f o r "Better  Terms" and. submitted, a d e t a i l e d b r i e f to a  newly appointed fed.eral commission on D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l relationsThis  claim f o r " B e t t e r Terms" was not only  more comprehensive than any of i t s f o r e r u n n e r s but a l s o developed I t s argument around the p r i n c i p l e of p r o v i n c i a l autonomy.  Although p r o v i n c i a l autonomy had. been a  popular issue d u r i n g the e a r l y years of the province's h i s t o r y , World War I had d i l u t e d , s e c t i o n a l f e e l i n g and. made the p r o v i n c e more n a t i o n a l l y minded.  The Commission's  r e p o r t of 1940 expressed, and. supported the f e d e r a l government's d e s i r e  to achieve a permanent s o l u t i o n to the  r e c u r r e n t f i n a n c i a l problems r e l a t e d to the ambiguous d i v i s i o n of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power between the two l e v e l s of government.  These c o n s t i t u t i o n a l questions were aggrava-  ted by the wartime c o n d i t i o n s stressed  and to t h i s end. King  that a clea.rer d e f i n i t i o n of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  51  r e l a t i o n s would a.id the war e f f o r t and f a c i l i t a t e p o s t war readjustment. P a t t u l l o strongly and. f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l  opposed, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  changes  agreements which encouraged  c e n t r a l i z a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y when they were to be i n s t i t u ted. und.er the p r e s s u r e of war.  He was convinced t h a t  p r o v i n c i a l governments r e q u i r e d not o n l y a l l t h e i r e x i s t i n g f u n c t i o n s Tout a l s o , because of the  increasing-  need f o r w e l f a r e government, even wider c o n s t i t u t i o n a l powers and. even more benevolent f e d e r a l a i d . This view wa.s not shared, by a l l L i b e r a l s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and both the f e d e r a l wing and the Young L i b e r a l s had expressed, support f o r a c e n t r a l i s t p o s i t i o n by  194-1.^9  The d i v i s i o n s which t h i s i s s u e created, w i t h i n the p a r t y were, however, compounded by s e v e r a l  tactical  errors  committed by Pa.ttullo d u r i n g the course- of the Conference. The Premier's r e f u s a l to a l l o w the caucus or l e g i s l a t u r e to d i s u c s s the Commission's r e p o r t or h i s own f u t u r e p o l i c y was i n j u r i o u s t o h i s p o s i t i o n w i t h i n c i a l party.  the p r o v i n -  Although he i n s i s t e d the Conference w i t h  an open mind, i t was c l e a r t h a t P a t t u l l o would not agree to any permanent surrender of p r o v i n c i a l r i g h t s .  Since  the war i s s u e was r a i s e d a.s a reason f o r such constitutional modifications,  e d i t o r i a l o p i n i o n In. the  p r o v i n c e expressed  o p p o s i t i o n t o P a t t u l l o ' s stand and.  a l t h o u g h t the E x e c u t i v e Committee expressed  t h e i r confiden  In t h e i r l e a d e r and. h i s p o l i c y , there were some murmurings of d i s c o n t e n t w i t h i n L i b e r a l ranks.-5°  Even before the  Conference s e v e r a l L i b e r a l back benchers had complained t h a t L i b e r a l members of the l e g i s l a t u r e were not consulted. or even informed on proposed, government l e g i s l a t i o n o r  51 policy. Upon h i s r e t u r n from the Conference c r i t i c i s m , of P a t t u l l o became p a r t i c u l a r l y acute f o r he had. j o i n e d w i t h Premiers  Hepburn and Aberhart  i n open o p p o s i t i o n to King's  p o l i c y and a l s o l e f t the impression t h a t he was i n f l e x i b l e by h i s r e f u s a l t o d i s c u s s the r e p o r t i n committee. the p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t s t r o n g l y supported  While  Pattullo's  p o s i t i o n i n p u b l i c , there were rumors t h a t John Hart, the m i n i s t e r of f i n a n c e , was d i s p l e a s e d w i t h the Premier's conduct a t the Conference.  The only p u b l i c c r i t i c i s m  from w i t h i n the p a r t y a t the time was expressed by the f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r from the p r o v i n c e , Ian MaeKenzie and by the New Westminster member of p a r l i a m e n t , Thomas 53  Reid. ^  J . G. Turgeon, the member of p a r l i a m e n t f o r  Cariboo a l s o questioned P a t t u l l o ? s p o s i t i o n , f o r he c a l l e d for  "An immediate B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l Convention t o  d i s c u s s , d e f i n e and determine our l o y a l t i e s . I r o n i c a l l y , o n l y McGeer was h e s i t a n t to c r i t i c i z e  Pattullo  53 and warned- the p a r t y a g a i n s t unnecessary d i s s e n s i o n . " ~ " P a t t u l l o c a l l e d f o r a p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n f o r the f a l l of 194-1  and the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Conference became one of  the major campaign i s s u e s .  Although  Thomas Reid cam-  paigned, f o r P a t t u l l o , most other members of the f e d e r a l ^6 wing remained p o l i t e l y out of the p u b l i c eye."  The  L i b e r a l government l o s t 1 0 seats i n the e l e c t i o n and there were immediate suggestions i d e a was p o p u l a r l y presented  of a c o a l i t i o n .  The  i n the p r o v i n c i a l press and  gained support w i t h i n P a t t u l l o ' s c a b i n e t .  The Premier  n a t u r a l l y r e f u s e d to c o n s i d e r the p o s s i b i l i t y and. without a f u l l c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h h i s c a b i n e t departed i n order to d i s c u s s a t a x agreement w i t h K i n g .  f o r Ottawa Many  p r o v i n c i a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s were opposed to P a t t u l l o ' s journey and. c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r George Pearson indicated, t h a t without the support of h i s l e g i s l a t i v e p a r t y P a t t u l l o had no r i g h t to n e g o t i a t e f o r the province i n Ottawa."' Certainly P a t t u l l o s a r b i t r a r y action united 1  v a r i o u s elements of the p r o v i n c i a l l y and. f e d e r a l l y based p a r t y i n o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r over the i s s u e of c o a l i t i o n .  Although  John Hart had t r a v e l l e d to Ottawa  w i t h P a t t u l l o as the most l i k e l y successor to the Premier he became the focus of a l l o p p o s i t i o n to P a t t u l l o .  When.  George Pearson r e f u s e d to accept a. c a b i n e t p o s i t i o n upon  54  the Premier s r e t u r n from Ottawa, and when Hart was asked, 1  to r e s i g n , f o l l o w i n g h i s p u b l i c statement f a v o r i n g c o a l i t i o n , P a t t u l l o l o s t a l l hope of c o n t r o l l i n g the p a r t y . In a.ddition to h i s major c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s , the m a j o r i t y of the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were a l s o eager ^o see P a t t u l l o step down, even a t the cost of c o a l i t i o n . Indeed., even King probabljr favored, c o a l i t i o n a t t h i s time.5®  F i n a l l y o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n , l i k e p r e s i -  dent W. J . Knox, who were o r i g i n a l l y appointed, by P a t t u l l o , joined, the f o r c e s of o p p o s i t i o n .  Without con-  s u l t a t i o n w i t h the Premier, Knox c a l l e d a convention two days before the l e g i s l a t u r e was t o meet.-^  only  Pattullo  made l i t t l e e f f o r t to organize h i s s h r i n k i n g supporters and had a p p a r e n t l y accepted d e f e a t .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the  r e s o l u t i o n f o r c o a l i t i o n was c a r r i e d by a vote of only 4 ? ? to 3 1 2 which I n d i c a t e d the s u r v i v i n g depth of P a t t u l l o * s 60  support. The l e a d e r s of both wings of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l P a r t y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the r e v o l t a g a i n s t P a t t u l l o . While p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d . l e a d e r s d i r e c t e d the r e v o l t , the f e d e r a l wing was deeply involved, i n the proceedings.  The  u n u s u a l l y a c t i v e r o l e of f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s from the province i n t h i s challenge to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p had developed d u r i n g the D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Conference,  55 The  p r o v i n c i a l r e v o l t was., t h u s , i n p e r t  federally-derived unity  i s s u e which had a l r e a d y s t r a i n e d t h e  o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s .  Those  L i b e r a l s who opposed P a t t u l l o on t h i s convenient to a l l y  r e l a t e d to a  provincial  issue  found, i t  t h e m s e l v e s w i t h the f e d e r a l  w h i c h was a l r e a d y d i s t u r b e d , by the p r o v i n c i a l actions.  wing leader's  W h i l e t h e r e v o l t was d i r e c t e d , by t h e p r o v i n -  c i a l leadership to c o n t r o l  and w h i l e t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing c o n t i n u e d  the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,  the s u p p o r t f o r  c o a l i t i o n and more p a r t i c u l a r l y the r e v o l t a g a i n s t P a t t u l l o was c l e a r l y r e l a t e d , to t h e f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l , s t r a i n s which d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g the l a s t y e a r s o f the Pattullo  ad_ministration.  Throughout t h i s p e r i o d leader often  the p r o v i n c i a l  Liberal  dominated the a c t i v i t e s and. p o l i c i e s o f the  provincial party.  A l t h o u g h O l i v e r was l e s s  t h a n the younger P a t t u l l o i n t h e e x e r c i s e  successful  of h i s c o n t r o l  o v e r h i s p r o v i n c i a l a s s o c i a t e s , he n e v e r f a c e d c o m p e t i t i o n from the f e d . e r a l l wing which u n t i l 1935 remained s m a l l and r e l a t i v e l y weak. r a r e l y aroused, c o n f l i c t s issues  O l i v e r ' s r e l a t i o n s with King  f o r h i s p o s i t i o n on  federal  n e v e r c h a l l e n g e d , the p o s i t i o n o f the f e d e r a l  government.  P a t t u l l o ' s i d e a s on f e d . e r a l - p r o v i n . c i a l  r e l a t i o n s , o n the other hand, d i r e c t l y clashed with  thos  56  of not only K i n g but a l s o of many of the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from B r i t i s h Columbia.  World War I I and the  growing c e n t r a l i s t f e e l i n g s i n the province made P a t t u l l o ' autonomous sentiments  p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n i n g t o the  u n i t y of the p a r t y .  U n t i l 194-0, however, P a t t u l l o main-  t a i n e d v i r t u a l l y complete c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was used q u i t e d e f f e c t i v e l y i n both p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s .  Indeed, these  cordial  working arrangements w i t h the growing f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the province were only broken d u r i n g the l a s t year of ' his leadership.  FOOTNOTES 1 Margaret A. Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: M a c M i l l a n , Toronto, 1958, p. 392. 2  I b i d . , p. 395.  3  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , December 19,  4  I b i d . , November 8,  5  I b i d . , March 9, 1 9 1 8 .  A History,  1917*  1917-  6 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 7  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 2,  8  I b i d . , March 6, 1 9 1 8 .  9  I b i d . , March 19,  1918.  1918.  10 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 11  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , January 31,  12  Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia:  1919•  A H i s t o r y , p. 4 l 4 .  13 I b i d . , p. 414-; P e r r y to O l i v e r , O l i v e r Papers, November 10~, 1921. 14  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , November 21,  56  1921.  57 15  I b i d . , November 1?,  1921.  16  Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , p. 4 l 4 .  17 The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , December 12, 1921 to December 16, 1921. I b i d . , December 13, 1921 and December 16,  1 8  1921,  19 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 20  Ormsby, B r i t i s h Columbia: A H i s t o r y , p. 4 2 4 .  21  Ibid.  22  The Vancouver  23  I b i d . , May 21,  24  Ibid.,  5  Ibid.  2  p.  P r o v i n c e , October 4 ,  1925-  1924.  425.  26 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966. 27  The Vancouver  28  I b i d . , J u l y 5,  P r o v i n c e , J u l y 10,  1928.  1928.  29 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 19, 1966.  58 30 John N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o as P a r t y Leader, M. A. T h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i 9 6 0 , p. 10. 31 R. MacGregor Dawson, The Government of Canada, U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1958, p. 4 9 5 . 32  S u t h e r l a n d , Op. C i t . , p. 1 8 .  33 This was confirmed by s e v e r a l L i b e r a l s who a c t i v e d u r i n g the P a t t u l l o p e r i o d . 34  were  S u t h e r l a n d , QJD. C i t . , pp. 19-20.  35 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 36 S u t h e r l a n d , Op. C i t . , p. 8 4 ; Wendell F a r r i s to P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o Papers, September 2 4 , 193?• 37  The Vancouver Sun, November 3, 1933*  38  S u t h e r l a n d , Op. C i t . , p.  59•  39 I b i d . , p. 83 and The Vancouver Sun, December 1938. 40  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , October 8,  4l  I b i d . , September 28,  21,  1935-  1935-  42 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30, 1965. 43 S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o as P a r t y Leader, p. 8 4 ; P a t t u l l o to K i n g , P a t t u l l o Papers, September 2 4 , 1937*  59 44  See p. 45 and f o o t n o t e 36.  45  S u t h e r l a n d , p_p_. C i t . , p. 66.  46  I b i d . , p. 95;  King to P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o  Papers,  J u l y oT~1938. 4? B r i t i s h Columbia, B r i t i s h Columbia i n the Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n , V i c t o r i a , K i n g ' s P r i n t e r , 1938. 48 S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o a s P a r t y L e a d e r , p. 98; t o P a t t u l l o , P a t t u l l o P a p e r s , November 2, 1940. 49  The V a n c o u v e r  P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 22,  50  The V a n c o u v e r  Sun, November 25,  5  I b i d . , November 20,  1  King  1938. 1940.  1940.  52  I b i d . , January 2?,  194l.  53  I b i d . , January l 6 ,  1941.  54  I b i d . , J a n u a r y 21,  194l.  55  I b i d . , J a n u a r y 17,  1941  56  I b i d . , O c t o b e r 8,  194l.  57  I b i d . , J a n u a r y 17,  1941,  58  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James . S i n c l a i r , J a n u a r y 11,1965-  59  The Vancouver  60  I b i d . , December 3,  p.  125.  P r o v i n c e , November 1 8 , 194l.  1941.  CHAPTER POUR  THE  REPERCUSSIONS OP  PROVINCIAL COALITION  I 9 L 1 _ 1952 A l t h o u g h the  L i b e r a l s In Ottawa and  c o n t i n u e d to h o l d power c o n c u r r e n t l y 1952  between 194-1 and  p>,arty r e l a t i o n s was  the  pattern  of  c o a l i t i o n was  the  two  federal-provincial  s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d by  dominated by  the  c i a l leaders  Byron J o h n s o n , a l s o of  the  the  pro-  Conservatives.  L i b e r a l Party  L i b e r a l C o a l i t i o n i s t p r e m i e r s of  John H a r t and  1952,  until  v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n w i t h the P r o g r e s s i v e The  Victoria  the  s e r v e d as  and  period, the  L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h  provin-  Columbia.  The  Liberal Association  and  a t t e m p t e d to s e r v e b o t h f e d e r a l and. c o a l i t i o n n e e d s .  To  accommodate the  c o a l i t i o n , however, the  p a r t y was  forced  d u r e s and  d e v e l o p new  association  of the  guidelines  two  wings of  public  the p a r t y .  While  c o a l i t i o n and  claimed that  effectiveness  of  i t was  t h r e a t e n e d by destroying  Liberal Party.  60  these  to  i n t e r e s t , eventually  f e d e r a l wing f e l t  the  f o r the  proce-  provincial Association  In b o t h s p h e r e s of  members o f the  provincial  to m o d i f y some a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  a d j u s t m e n t s a l l o w e d the function  preserved i t s unified, structure  some the  the  Consequently,  61  a l t h o u g h the c o a l i t i o n i n i t i a l l y found wide support w i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y , the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  difficul-  t i e s posed by a p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n f o r a p a r t i s a n f e d e r a l p a r t y e v e n t u a l l y i n i t i a t e d and i n t e n s i f i e d s t r a i n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  HART  1941 - 1 9 4 7 :  CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION As premier o f the p r o v i n c e John Hart r e t a i n e d the c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  During the  Convention of 1 9 4 l the A s s o c i a t i o n had approved the p a r t y ' s e n t r y i n t o a c o a l i t i o n w i t h the P r o g r e s s i v e Conservatives.  Although P a t t u l l o r e t a i n e d some  support a t t h a t convention,  almost every major p r o v i n -  c i a l p e r s o n a l i t y favored c o a l i t i o n and stood f i r m l y behind the l e a d e r s h i p of John Hart.  Indeed, although  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were g e n e r a l l y s u s p i c i o u s o f c o a l i t i o n s and were r e s i s t i n g pressures  f o r a war-time c o a l i t i o n i n  Ottawa, the c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia r e c e i v e d the i n d i r e c t and u n o f f i c i a l support o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y , which was r e l i e v e d to see P a t t u l l o r e t i r e d .  Many  L i b e r a l s b e l i e v e d t h a t Prime M i n i s t e r K i n g a c t u a l l y favored the c o a l i t i o n d e s p i t e h i s i n s t r u c t i o n s to members of the f e d e r a l wing i n the province  to vote  as p r i v a t e L i b e r a l s and not as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the  62 f e d e r a l government.  1  C o n s e q u e n t l y , w h i l e many f e d e r a l  L i b e r a l s f o l l o w e d t h e l e a d o f t h e c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r from the p r o v i n c e , I a n MacKenzie, and r e f r a i n e d from t a k i n g s i d e s i n p u b l i c , w i t h i n t h e p a r t y i t was w e l l known t h a t a l m o s t e v e r y member o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g s u p p o r t and  t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p o f John I n exchange f o r t h e i r s u p p o r t ,  coalition^  Hart. however, t h e  f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y demanded t h a t a s e p a r a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n be m a i n t a i n e d coalition.  throughout t h e term o f t h e  Federal leaders a l s o requested  L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s should not support t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l o f government. accepted  Liberal L  that the  a c o a l i t i o n on  These terms were  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s a n d t h e c o n v e n t i o n ,  once i t had a p p r o v e d t h e c o a l i t i o n , p a s s e d two r e s o l u tions which contained  t h e f e d e r a l demands.-'  The f e d e r a l  l e a d e r s were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e s e a r r a n g e m e n t s a n d l e f t the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n e n t i r e l y under p r o v i n c i a l  control.  I t was u n d e r s t o o d , however, t h a t b e c a u s e t h e c o a l i t i o n w o u l d r e q u i r e a s e p a r a t i o n o f t h e two w i n g s i n p u b l i c , t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s w o u l d assume more d i r e c t c o n t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n d u r i n g f e d e r a l campaigns. although  Consequently,  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s had o r i g i n a l l y f e a r e d t h a t a  p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n with the Conservative e r o d e t h e i r own base o f s u p p o r t  P a r t y would  w i t h i n the province,  6  3  they e v e n t u a l l y p r e f e r r e d to r e t a i n t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e s t r o n g and s u c c e s s f u l p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f the p a r t y i f a t a l l p o s s i b l e .  I n d e e d , even when  admini-  s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s between t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y emerged b e c a u s e o f t h e c o a l i t i o n , t h e f e d e r a l w i n g made no a t t e m p t t o c h a l l e n g e organization.  the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the  W h i l e a f e w members o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y  hoped t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n w o u l d be t e r m i n a t e d retirement  i n 19^7,  with  Hart's  s e v e r a l i n f l u e n t i a l members o f t h e  f e d e r a l wing i n B r i t i s h Columbia s t i l l  supported L i b e r a l ,  c o a l i t i o n i s t s and a p p e a r e d r e l a t i v e l y s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . ^ A l t h o u g h H a r t e n c o u n t e r e d some d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h i n t h e c o a l i t i o n c a b i n e t , t h e r e was o n l y  occasional  o p p o s i t i o n t o him f r o m w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l r a n k s o f h i s own p a r t y .  The b r e a k s i n L i b e r a l u n i t y w h i c h o c c u r r e d ;  d u r i n g t h e p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n o f 19^5 L i b e r a l candidates Revelstoke  when i n d e p e n d e n t ;  r a n i n V a n c o u v e r , L i l l o o e t , and  d i dnot represent  a serious t h r e a t to Hart's  c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n or h i s l e a d e r s h i p of the coalition.-5  The c o a l i t i o n P r e m i e r m e r e l y r e f u s e d t o  endorse these candidates s u p p o r t e d them. the C o n s e r v a t i v e  and t h e L i b e r a l f a c t i o n s w h i c h  He t r e a t e d s i m i l a r c h a l l e n g e s  within  C o a l i t i o n r a n k s i n t h e same way a n d ,  64 t h e r e b y , d i s a s s o c i a t e d t h e r e b e l groups f r o m t h e p o p u l a r coalition administration.^  I n the e l e c t i o n a l l the  i n d e p e n d e n t c a n d i d a t e s were d e f e a t e d as a. w h o l e i n c r e a s e d  i t s majority  Although Hart often delegated lities  ;  and the c o a l i t i o n  i n the l e g i s l a t u r e .  organizational responsibi-  to h i sclose associates  I n the A s s o c i a t i o n because  o f h i s d e s i r e t o p r e s e r v e h i s image a s a c o a l i t i o n r a t h e r than a p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l Premier, h i s c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l P a r t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was n e v e r  effectively  challenged.  SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: R e l a t i o n s w i t h Ottawa a n d P r i m e M i n i s t e r  King  remained o u t w a r d l y c o r d i a l throughout John H a r t ' s leadership of the c o a l i t i o n . war,  Throughout t h e p e r i o d o f  t h e c o a l i t i o n P r e m i e r mad_e c o o p e r a t i o n  with  Ottawa  a m a j o r p o l i c y o f h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and even a f t e r 19^5 > he d i d n o t f u n d a m e n t a l l y change h i s p o l i c y w i t h  respect  t o t h e f e d e r a l government.  British  W h i l e he c o n t i n u e d  Columbia's t r a d i t i o n of r e q u e s t i n g  a d d i t i o n a l money and  a s s i s t a n c e f r o m O t t a w a , he d i d n o t oppose a n y o f t h e new f i n a n c i a l a r r a n g e m e n t s p r o p o s e d by Ottawa.'' i t appears that Hart valued  7  Indeed,  his personal r e l a t i o n s h i p  65 w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s and made a d e t e r m i n e d e f f o r t t o he  cooperative;  one f e d e r a l L i b e r a l r e c a l l e d  that the  c o a l i t i o n P r e m i e r seemed t o " c u l t i v a t e " f e d e r a l politicians.  But i n s p i t e of h i s strong  identification  w i t h t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y and h i s d e s i r e t o keep t h e p a r t y u n i t e d , Hart b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n r e q u i r e d him t o maintain  an independent i d e n t i t y w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  W h i l e t h e r e were no p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e two wings o f t h e p a r t y which caused any i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n , administrative-, d i f f i c u l t i e s circumstances  of p r o v i n c i a l  eral-provincial  party  c r e a t e d by t h e  c o a l i t i o n c a u s e d some f e d -  strains.  ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES:  /  Although the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n remained f o r m a l l y I n t a c t , the c o a l i t i o n i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d the grass roots o r g a n i z a t i o n of the party.  F o r example, )  L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h were d e s i g n a t e d support Conservative partisan activities.  to  c o a l i t i o n i s t s , r a r e l y met f o r I n d e e d , many L i b e r a l  riding  o r g a n i z a t i o n s f u n c t i o n e d as c o a l i t i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s much o f t h e t i m e and t h e r e were even, i n s t a n c e s when L i b e r a l and  Conservative  r i d i n g organizations held  joint  meetings f o r purposes other than the nomination o f c o a l i t i o n candidates.  The s e p a r a t e  i d e n t i t y of the  66 c o a l i t i o n p a r t n e r s was f u r t h e r weakened by t h e r e m o v a l from the L i s t o f Candidates o f  a l l partisan distinctions  Q  between c o a l i t i o n c a n d i d a t e s .  Federal L i b e r a l s objec-  t e d t o t h e s e p r a c t i c e s on t h e grounds t h a t t h e y weakened the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n b u t they a l s o unders t o o d t h a t t h e r e was l i t t l e  t h e y c o u l d do b e c a u s e d u r i n g  t h e c o a l i t i o n t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y had t o be k e p t distinct.  The n e c e s s i t y f o r t h e p u b l i c s e p a r a t i o n o f  f e d e r a l c o a l i t i o n b u s i n e s s made: t h e d e l i c a t e t a s k o f j o i n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and r e c i p r o c a l a i d w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n more d i f f i c u l t . I n 1944  The P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l  L i b e r a l s had s o u g h t p r o v i n c i a l s u p p o r t  in British  C o l u m b i a , b u t P r e m i e r H a r t had g i v e n l i t t l e  encourage-  ment b e c a u s e he f e l t t h a t h i s f i r s t d u t y was t o t h e  9 coalition.  I n d e e d , H a r t s t a y e d away f r o m K i n g ' s  25th ,  a n n i v e r s a r y p a r t y i n V a n c o u v e r i n ord.er t o d e m o n s t r a t e the n o n - p a r t i s a n  nature  of h i s administration.  however, send t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r a p e r s o n a l explain his a c t i o n .  1 0  The o c c u r r e n c e  ;  He d i d ,  telegram to  of the f e d e r a l  and p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n i n 19^5 made i t d i f f i c u l t non-partisan  f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leader to a l t e r h i s  p o l i c y and c o n s e q u e n t l y ,  were c o n d u c t e d s e p a r a t e l y .  t h e two campaigns  No f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s f r o m  B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a campaigned on b e h a l f o f p r o v i n c i a l candidates  and o n l y a few members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  c o a l i t i o n government a c t i v e l y campaigned f o r f e d e r a l  67 candidates.  During King's v i s i t  19^5, however, a l l l e a d i n g the p l a t f o r m  with  to the p r o v i n c e i n  c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l s shared  the Prime M i n i s t e r .  was r e p e a t e d i n t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s  This  1 1  practice  subsequent v i s i t s  to B r i t i s h Columbia s i n c e a complete s e p a r a t i o n two  /  of the  w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y was deemed u n n e c e s s a r y and  i m p r a c t i c a l l a r g e l y because c o n t a c t s between t h e i r respective  governments was u n a v o i d a b l e .  When t h e p a r t y  l o s t h a l f o f i t s 10 s e a t s i n t h e  fedearal e l e c t i o n o f 19^5, a f e w f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s b l a m e d y the  c o a l i t i o n a n d i t s e f f e c t upon t h e p a r t i s a n  organization.  Liberal  O t h e r members o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g , how-  e v e r , were n o t y e t r e a d y t o blame o r c h a l l e n g e t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the organization  and, consequently,  the f e d e r a l r e v e r s a l o f 19^5 d i d n o t i n i t i a t e disharmony w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n . s a t i s f a c t i o n with noticeable resign.  public  Federal d i s -  t h e c o a l i t i o n , however, became more  when J o h n H a r t announced h i s i n t e n t i o n t o I t was w e l l known and w i d e l y a d v e r t i s e d  that  H a r t hoped t o be a p p o i n t e d t o t h e S e n a t e upon h i s r e t i r e ment from p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and K i n g was u n d o u b t e d l y aware o f t h i s p r e f e r e n c e after„Hart's v i s i t t o Ottawa j u s t b e f o r e he announced h i s f o r t h c o m i n g r e s i g n a t i o n . 1 2 K i n g , however, c o u l d  not bring himself  p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n by g r a n t i n g  to endorse the  a reward  usually  68 r e s e r v e d f o r u n d i l u t e d p a r t i s a n commitment t o t h e Liberal Party. appointments  King o f f e r e d Hart s e v e r a l  b u t t h e c o a l i t i o n P r e m i e r r e f u s e d them  hoping t h a t the Senate 1S end.  J  alternative  s e a t m i g h t be g i v e n t o him i n t h e  When Thomas R e i d , t h e s t a l w a r t member o f p a r l i a -  ment f o r New  W e s t m i n s t e r , r e c e i v e d the S e n a t e p o s t  t h e rumor o f t h e f u t u r e L i e u t e n a n t - G o v e r n o r  appointment  f o r H a r t w o u l d n e v e r m a t e r i a l i z e , some p r o v i n c i a l e r a l s h i n t e d t h a t H a r t may  W h i l e H a r t may  Lib-  have been f a l s e l y e a s e d  r e t i r e m e n t by t h e l u r e o f a p o s s i b l e a p p o i n t m e n t 14 Senate.  and  into  to the  have t i m e d h i s announcement  a f t e r r e c e i v i n g h i n t s of a f e d e r a l appointment  from K i n g ,  i t was w e l l known t h a t H a r t had wanted t o r e t i r e f o r some t i m e .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , K i n g ' s a c t i o n c o n f i r m e d the  growing f e d e r a l d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  I n d e e d , t h e l e a d e r s h i p campaign  w h i c h f o l l o w e d H a r t ' s r e s i g n a t i o n exposed a n t i - c o a l i t i o n groups  f o r the f i r s t time.  the d e v e l o p i n g Although  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t H a r t ' s l e a d e r s h i p o f the L i b e r a l P a r t y , t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e requirements of c o a l i t i o n contained later s o u r c e s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s w h i c h were t o t h r e a t e n the u n i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l  Association.  69 JOHNSON 19 ?  -  k  CONTROL OF  THE  1952: PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION:  W i t h t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f H a r t , t h e campaign f o r a new  l e a d e r of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h  exposed the embryonic cleavages c i a l p a r t y and the p a r t y .  Columbia  both w i t h i n the p r o v i n -  between the f e d e r a l and  p r o v i n c i a l wings of  Gordon Wismer, t h e a t t o r n e y g e n e r a l  i n the  c o a l i t i o n goveimment, had g e n e r a l l y been e x p e c t e d t o assume t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and  had  the support  of  p r o m i n e n t p e r s o n a l i t i e s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ Wismer's p o s i t i o n as t h e " b o s s " o f t h e V a n c o u v e r C e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and  h i s p e r s o n a l e n f o r c e m e n t o f the  contro-  v e r s i a l p r o v i n c i a l l i q u o r l a w s had a r o u s e d g r e a t  concern  w i t h i n the f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y . L e a d i n g  federal  L i b e r a l s s o l i c i t e d f u n d s to f i n a n c e a campaign a g a i n s t the A t t o r n e y parliament  General  and  James S i n c l a i r , a member o f  f r o m N o r t h V a n c o u v e r , R o b e r t Mayhew, a member  of parliament  from V i c t o r i a , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s  w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n r i s k e d t h e i r  political  c a r e e r s by s u p p o r t i n g B y r o n J o h n s o n , a v i r t u a l l y unknown c o a l i t i o n back bencher.  Most o f J o h n s o n ' s  hoped t h a t he m i g h t p r o v i d e a s t r o n g and l e a d e r s h i p once t h e c o a l i t i o n was  supporters  progressive  terminated.  Sinclair  n o t o n l y campaigned f o r Johnson b u t a l s o v i g o r o u s l y a t t a c k e d the c o a l i t i o n a t the same t i m e .  He v o i c e d h i s  70 concern a t the convention and complained t h a t there was "no o r g a n i z a t i o n among B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l s " and 1 t h a t "no p o l i t i c a l p a r t y can s u r v i v e without o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a confused and tense convention Byron Johnson was e l e c t e d to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p by a s m a l l majority.  Many of Wismer s supporters 1  claimed  that  s e v e r a l delayed p r o x i e s from the North Shore would have brought v i c t o r y t o t h e i r candidate but they subsequently withdrew t h e i r support from the c o a l i t i o n and Wismer h i m s e l f immediately appealed f o r p a r t y u n i t y and o f f e r e d 19 the new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r h i s a s s i s t a n c e .  I n s p i t e of  h i s i n f o r m a l agreement w i t h the a n t i - o o a l i t i o n i s t s to exclude Wismer from the c a b i n e t , Johnson accepted Wismer' o f f e r and thereby a l i e n a t e d h i s a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s u p p o r t e r s , who r e a l i z e d t h e i r m i s c a l c u l a t i o n too l a t e and i r o n i c a l l y r e c a l l e d t h a t " t h e i r candidate" was the  i  very Father of C o a l i t i o n , the delegate who move the o r i 20 g i n a l r e s o l u t i o n back In 1941."  Johnson r e t a i n e d  Wismer as a key c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r and as a c l o s e  personal  a d v i s o r and demonstrated no i n c l i n a t i o n to abandon the coalition.  Indeed, i t was o f t e n observed that Wismer's  powers i n p a r t y matters were g r e a t e r than those of Johnson f o r the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r delegated  most; problems!  of p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n and patronage to Wismer, who l e d 21 the strong Vancouver Centre o r g a n i z a t i o n . q u e n t l y , Johnson's former supporters  Conse-  gained l i t t l e from  71  t h e i r c a m p a i g n f o r n o t o n l y d i d Wismer r e m a i n i n a p o s i t i o n o f g r e a t power h u t a l s o s u p p o r t was a s s t r o n g a s e v e r . were l e f t w i t h o u t  f o r the c o a l i t i o n  Although the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l e a d e r s h i p ranks  o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , t h e y were a b l e t o e l e c t one o f t h e i r s u p p o r t e r s , A r t h u r L a i n g , to the presidency provincial Association.  As t h e p r e s i d e n t o f t h e  A s s o c i a t i o n , L a i n g had l i t t l e before  power w i t h i n t h e p a r t y h u t  h i s entry into federal p o l i t i c s  v i d e d the main v o i c e of a n t i - c o a l i t i o n By 1 9 9 » k  i n 19 9  he  k  pro-  sentiment.  i t was c l e a r t h a t J o h n s o n c o u l d no  longer e f f e c t i v e l y c o n t a i n the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n w i t h i n the party.  of the  elements  The p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r w i t h t h e  a s s i s t a n c e o f Gordon Wismer managed  to r e t a i n c o n t r o l of  the p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n but the p r o v i n c i a l  leadership  c o u l d n o t r e s t r a i n t h e Young L i b e r a l l e a d e r s and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y i n t h e i r j efforts  t o d i s c r e d i t and d i s s o l v e t h e c o a l i t i o n  w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  from  The V a n c o u v e r B r a n c h  o f t h e Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a had organized  t h e a n t i - c o a l i t i o n movement a n d , by 1 9 9 » t h e k  group was r e l u c t a n t t o "accept., t h e m a j o r i t y d e c i s i o n " on t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e c o a l i t i o n . At the L i b e r a l Convention of 19 9» k  t h e Young L i b e r a l s  22  72  f o r m a l l y submitted  t h e i r arguments a g a i n s t c o a l i t i o n i n  a statement e n t i t l e d "An Appeal to Reason" which i n t e g r a t e d almost every major argument a g a i n s t c o a l i t i o n . The document d i d , however, p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s the 23  dangers t h a t c o a l i t i o n presented  to the f e d e r a l p a r t y .  The Young L i b e r a l a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s thereby  clearly  indicated t h e i r strong i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with federal, p o l i t i c s and t h e i r c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y .  During the  convention h e l d i n 1 9 5 2 , the f e d e r a l a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s p e r s o n a l l y entered the dialogue and the controversy r a p i d l y assumed the p r o p e r t i e s of a f e d e r a l - p o r v i n c i a l quarrel. During the previous year many f e d e r a l l e a d e r s from the p r o v i n c e had campaigned f o r Johnson's r e t i r e ment.  The members of parliament from B r i t i s h Columbia  had h e l d i n f o r m a l meetings i n Ottawa i n the s p r i n g o f 1951 and had agreed not only to urge Premier Johnson to r e t i r e but a l s o to demand the r a p i d t e r m i n a t i o n of the 24  c o a l i t i o n w i t h the Conservatives.  Many p r o v i n c i a l  L i b e r a l s found the Premier d i f f i c u l t to work w i t h e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r h i s i n j u r y i n an automobile a c c i d e n t i n 1950  but the f e d e r a l meetings d i d not encourage a  p r o v i n c i a l challenge to Johnson's l e a d e r s h i p .  The  73 president  o f the A s s o c i a t i o n , H a r r y P e r r y , a l o n e  w i t h t h e f e d e r a l w i n g and  sided  o p e n l y c a l l e d f o r Johnson's  25 resignation.  A l t h o u g h the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n  i n c r e a s i n g l y d i v i d e d over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of  coalition,  t h e L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s r e t a i n e d the c o n t r o l o f L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and h a s t e n the r e t i r e m e n t  was  the  r e s i s t e d f e d e r a l pressure  o f the P r e m i e r o r t o end  to  the  coalition.^6 I n 1952  the P r e m i e r d i s m i s s e d  the  Conservative  c o a l i t i o n l e a d e r and m i n i s t e r o f f i n a n c e , H e r b e r t Anscomb, and  officially  ended the c o a l i t i o n but  the former L i b e r a l  c o a l i t i o n i s t s r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l organization.  W i t h t h e end  Wismer d i s a g r e e d nevertheless,  of c o a l i t i o n , Johnson  o v e r the p a r t y ' s  i n 1952  best strategy  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s  w i t h the f u l l c o n t r o l o f the p a r t y ' s machinery.  The  and  campaigned  however,  the c l e a v a g e s w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n ,  by t h e p u b l i c c o n f l i c t s w i t h a c c o m p a n i e d the  campaign C o n v e n t i o n o f 1952.  The  t u r n r e b u k e d the C o n v e n t i o n . ' 2  7  pre-  Convention r e j e c t e d the •  P r e m i e r ' s m a j o r p o l i c y on c o - i n s u r a n c e and  t i o n and  but,  organizational  L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was,  s e r i o u s l y damaged by  and  Johnson i n  With a divided  organiza-  a d i v i d e d l e a d e r s h i p , the L i b e r a l s s u f f e r e d  e l e c t o r a l l o s s e s f r o m w h i c h t h e y have n e v e r W h i l e the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s '  campaign had  severe  recovered. challenged  74 t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and h i s c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e Young L i b e r a l s and t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s w i t h i n t h e f e d e r a l w i n g had n o t r e a l l y a t t a c k e d t h e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and u n t i l t h e i r d e f e a t  i n the e l e c t i o n of  1952,  t h e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e m a i n e d f i r m l y i n t h e hands o f the former L i b e r a l  coalitionists.  SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATIVE  STRAIN:  DIFFERENCES:  The l o n g e r t h e c o a l i t i o n was p r e s e r v e d t h e g r e a t e r were t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s w h i c h t h e c o a l i t i o n c r e a t e d f o r the f e d e r a l wing i n c r e a s e d .  As t h e  c o a l i t i o n l o s t support w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were l e s s t o l e r a n t o f t h e s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i n c o n veniences.  They a r g u e d t h a t t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e  c o a l i t i o n endangered the i d e n t i t y of the L i b e r a l and,  Party  a l t h o u g h t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were t h a n k f u l n o t t o be  too c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c o a l i t i o n i s t s o r c o a l i t i o n policy,they objected  to the removal of a l l r e f e r e n c e s to  the L i b e r a l P a r t y w i t h i n the sphere of p r o v i n c i a l  politics  The f e d e r a l l e a d e r s m a i n t a i n e d t h a t t h e c o a l i t i o n i s t s had u n d e r m i n d e d t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n upon w h i c h t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e e n t i r e p a r t y depended. s t a t e m e n t t o t h e C o n v e n t i o n o f 1949  The Young L i b e r a l s  blamed t h e c o a l i t i o n  75 f o r the p o o r L i b e r a l s h o w i n g i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 19 5: k  The r e s u l t f e d e r a l l y has been o b v i o u s . One o f t h e most competent and e t h i c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s t h a t any c o u n t r y has known has been a b l e t o s e c u r e o n l y o n e - q u a r t e r o f the s e a t s i n this province. I t can n o t be d e n i e d t h a t provincial C o a l i t i o n i s largely responsible for this. I t has n o t been p o s s i b l e to p r o c e e d w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n w i t h any e f f e c t i v e n e s s b e c a u s e of the C o a l i t i o n . In b e t t e r f a i t h than t h e i r p a r t n e r s the L i b e r a l s h a v e n ' t been a c t i v e i n t h e f i e l d , o f o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n c e the C o a l i t i o n was f o r m e d . T h r o u g h o u t Canada, the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n i s the p o l i t i c a l k e y . We c a n n o t a f f o r d t o d i s m a n t e l our o r g a n i z a t i o n as we have done and we can do n o t h i n g e l s e w h i c h we continue i n c o a l i t i o n . 2 8 A l t h o u g h t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s i n the  province 19 9,  more t h a n d o u b l e d t h e i r numbers i n the e l e c t i o n o f f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n to t h e c o a l i t i o n c o n t i n u e d . 1 9 5 ? t h e f e d e r a l and k  close together  and  two  k  As  in  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s were h e l d  t h i s c o n t r i b u t e d t o the s t r a i n s a l r e a d y  e x i s t i n g between the two only  xy  w i n g s of the p a r t y .  In June,  days a f t e r w i n n i n g the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n ,  w P r e m i e r J o h n s o n announced t h a t t h e members of the  coali-  t i o n c a b i n e t w o u l d n o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaign. 9 2  A l t h o u g h the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  performed  many o f i t s t r a d i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n s f o r the f e d e r a l w i n g during  the campaign, f e d e r a l l e a d e r s d i s c o v e r e d  the  e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e c o a l i t i o n had e r o d e d some L i b e r a l r i d i n g organizations. The L i b e r a l c a n d i d a t e i n Y a l e ,  76 f o r e x a m p l e , was d e n i e d t h e o f f i c i a l s u p p o r t o f t h e L i b e r a l r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n , which c a r r i e d over the c o a l i tion mentality Progressive defeat  i n t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s and s u p p o r t e d t h e  Conservative  candidate  of the s o c i a l i s t candidate  i n order  t o ensure the  by a combined n o n -  s o c i a l i s t vote.^° In s p i t e of these a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  difficulties  p o s e d by t h e c o a l i t i o n f e d e r a l l e a d e r s r e s i s t e d t h e temptation  t o w i t h d r a w from t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  A l t h o u g h by 1951 > mosit members o f p a r l i a m e n t Columbia favored  from  the d i s s o l u t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n ,  not only r e a l i z e d the value  of a grass roots  m a i n t a i n e d by t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y b u t a l s o  British they  organization appreciated  t h a t t h e d u p l i c a t i o n o f r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s was d i f f i c u l t and e x p e n s i v e .  Even i f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g d e v e l o p e d  i t s own o r g a n i z a t i o n , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t i t w o u l d o n l y compound t h e c o n f u s i o n a l r e a d y province  created w i t h i n the  by t h e c o a l i t i o n p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Most f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s hoped t o s a l v a g e  a united p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y as an e l e c t o r a l a s s e t f o r both wings of the p a r t y . O n l y when t h e y were c o n v i n c e d t h a t t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w o u l d be harmed by t h e d e c l i n i n g fortunes  of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s d i d the  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s , a s members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n , campaign f o r t h e end o f c o a l i t i o n .  They hoped t h a t t h e  77 f r i c t i o n and d i s u n i t y demonstrated by t h e i r p u b l i c o p p o s i t i o n to c o a l i t i o n would b e n e f i t the p a r t y as a whole f o r the c o a l i t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had l o s t i t s appeal i n the p r o v i n c e .  This s t r a t e g y was,  t h e r e f o r e , designed  p r o t e c t and i n c r e a s e t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the  to  provincial  party.  POLICY DIFFERENCES: With the c o n c l u s i o n of World. War  I I , the c o n t i n u a -  t i o n of the c o a l i t i o n was based upon the argument t h a t o n l y a combination  of n o n - s o c i a l i s t f o r c e s could r e s i s t  the I n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of the C.C.F. i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  F e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , as a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s , d i s -  missed t h i s reasoning and maintained  that the  Liberal  c o a l i t i o n i s t s had themselves compromised and p e r v e r t e d  the  p r o g r e s s i v e aspects of l i b e r a l i s m by t h e i r c o a l i t i o n w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e s .  Many a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s b e l i e v e d that  the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had i n f a c t a l i e n a t e d a l a r g e segment of the p r o v i n c i a l  e l e c t o r a t e which was  i n support  of s o c i a l reform and had., t h e r e f o r e , f o r c e d the younger generation to look to the C.C.F. f o r p r o g r e s s i v e measures. In 19^9  the Young L i b e r a l s complained t h a t the p a r t y had  a b d i c a t e d i t s p r o g r e s s i v e t r a d i t i o n and suggested that i t should "rearm" i t s e l f , "not only w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n but 31 w i t h our p r i n c i p l e s . " ^  Most of the f e d e r a l wing j o i n e d  the Young L i b e r a l s i n undermining the foundation of the  78  post-war c o a l i t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia f o r they t h a t t h e i r own e l e c t o r a l success  felt  i n the province  based upon the a t t r a c t i o n s of the " p r o g r e s s i v e " of f e d e r a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y .  was aspects  In a d d i t i o n to t h i s b a s i c  disagreement over the d e s i r a b i l i t y of c o a l i t i o n between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of the p a r t y , a f t e r 1 9 5 0 , most f e d e r a l l e a d e r s I n c r e a s i n g l y expressed  opposition  to s p e c i f i c p o l i c i e s of the c o a l i t i o n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . In 1 9 5 0 ,  Senator Thomas B e i d a t t a c k e d the  cond.nct of n e g o t i a t i o n s w i t h the Aluminium Company of Canada by the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and challenged Premier Johnson to debate the i s s u e ,  Johnson, i n t u r n , accused  the Senator of almost d r i v i n g the company out of the province.-^  2  S e v e r a l members of the f e d e r a l wing l a t e r .  clashed w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r over the new  forest ;  management p o l i c y introduced by the c o a l i t i o n s i n c e i t  y  a p p a r e n t l y threatened the t r u c k loggers of the province^ George Cruikshank,  the member of parliament f o r F r a s e r  V a l l e y , openly charged t h a t the c o a l i t i o n was c a t e r i n g to the b i g business w h i l e s e v e r a l other f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s , i n c l u d i n g James S i n c l a i r , questioned Johnson on the i s s u e because they had c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the 33 t r u c k l o g g i n g i n t e r e s t s i n the province.  It  appeared t h a t the new p o l i c y would give l a r g e companies an u n f a i r advantage i f not a monopoly on the  timber  79 r e s o u r c e s o f the p r o v i n c e .  Some a l t e r a t i o n s were made  to the o r i g i n a l p r o p o s a l s but Johnson suggested that the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s mind t h e i r own b u s i n e s s .  I n 1951  and a g a i n i n 1952 f e d e r a l l e a d e r s c r i t i c i z e d the c o a l i t i o n ' s h o s p i t a l insurance p l a n , which had a l r e a d y c r e a t e d concern w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n ranks as w e l l as the p r o v i n 35 c i a l Association.  F e d e r a l L i b e r a l s objected to the  method o f f e e c o l l e c t i o n p r e s c r i b e d  by the co-insurance  ^  p l a n and, d u r i n g the 1952 convention, they helped to organize the r e j e c t i o n of the Premier's major p o l i c y . Although the c o a l i t i o n i s t s were themselves d i v i d e d i n the Convention of 1952, they resented both the open c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r p o l i c i e s by f e d e r a l l e a d e r s and the severe d i s u n i t y which i t i n i t i a t e d w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l Association. A f t e r 1947 the growing f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n  to the  c o a l i t i o n combined w i t h the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the Young L i b e r a l a n t i c o a l i t i o n i s t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l  organi-  z a t i o n and. c r e a t e d severe s t r a i n s w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Association. opposition  Although there was s u b s t a n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l  to the c o a l i t i o n , the a c t i v e involvement of  s e v e r a l members of the f e d e r a l .wing gave the c o a l i t i o n controversy the q u a l i t i e s of a f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l quarrel.  S p e c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l problems are always  presented by a p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n when the f e d e r a l  80  p a r t y continues to operate on a s t r i c t l y p a r t i s a n b a s i s . These problems were, however, compounded when the f e d e r a l wing i n B r i t i s h Columbia f e l t that i t s own p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e was threatened by the c o n t i n u a t i o n tion.  of the c o a l i -  Consequently, while s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s  e x i s t e d between the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and the L i b e r a l c o a l i t i o n i s t s , the i n i t i a l sources of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n emerged from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems encount e r e d by the f e d e r a l wing and t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n interdependence w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  of e l e c t o r a l  Although these  sources of s t r a i n were e v i d e n t throughout the e n t i r e p e r i o d of c o a l i t i o n , d u r i n g the war most f e d e r a l  leaders  b e l i e v e d t h a t the c o a l i t i o n served the i n t e r e s t s of the p r o v i n c e and the p a r t y and were, consequently, l e s s w i t h a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems.  impatient  Powerful members of the  f e d e r a l p a r t y supported John Hart and s e r i o u s p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s were g e n e r a l l y avoided.  federalBy  19 9» k  however,  the f e d e r a l campaign a g i n s t the c o a l i t i o n was strengthened by the e l e c t i o n of s e v e r a l young members of p a r l i a m e n t , who were s t r o n g l y opposed to c o a l i t i o n and although they c h a l l e n g e d the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and the p r o v i n c i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , they d i d not d i r e c t l y q u e s t i o n the p r i n c i p l e of the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Despite the severe s t r a i n s and  81  and cleavages w i t h i n the p a r t y d u r i n g Johnson's l e a d e r s h i p of the p a r t y , the former L i b e r a l  coalitionists  r e t a i n e d c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n u n t i l t h e i r defeat as p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l s i n  1952.  FOOTNOTES  1 John N e i l S u t h e r l a n d , P a t t u l l o as P a r t y Leader, M.A. T h e s i s , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I 9 6 0 , p. 128.  2  The V a n c o u v e r  3  Ibid.,  Province,  December  3,  November  1941.  4 A group l e d by S e n a t o r s F a r r i s s t i l l favored the c o a l i t i o n a t t h i s  5  The V a n c o u v e r  6  Ibid.,  21, 1941.  Province,  October 22,  a n d a n d S. S. time.  O c t o b e r 1,  McKeen  1945.  1945.  7 E d w a r d M. H e p n e r , T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l P a r t y , G r a d u a t i n g E s s a y , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  19627 p p . 4 1 - 4 2 . 8  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. H a r r y D e n n i s o n ,  9  The V a n c o u v e r  10  Ibid.  11  Ibid.,  May  17,  Province,  August  19,  January  20,  1965.  1944.  1945-  12 J . K. N e s b i t t , " W h a t i s t h e C r y s t a l B a l l F o r e c a s t f o r B.C.'s P r e m i e r J o h n H a r t ? " Saturday N i g h t , V o l . 63, September 13, 194?, p . 24. 13  The V a n c o u v e r  Province,  1947. 82  May  8, 1947;  September  16,  83 14-  Hepner, p_p_. C i t . , p.  42.  15 The group a r o u n d S e n a t o r F a r r i s were s t r o n g s u p p o r t e r s o f Gordon Wismer. Interview with Senator J . W. deB. F a r r i s , January 1 9 , 1966. 16  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  James S i n c l a i r ,  September  30,  1965. 17 B l a i r F r a s e r , " B r i t i s h Columbia C o a l i t i o n S u i c i d e , " MacLeans, V o l . 6 5 , F e b r u a r y 1 5 , 1952, 18  The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , December 1 0 ,  19 Interview with Senator January 19, 1966.  J . W.  deB.  194-7.  Farris,  20 B l a i r F r a s e r , " B r i t i s h Columbia C o a l i t i o n S u i c i d e , " p. 6 0 . 21  Ibid.  22  The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , A p r i l  8,  Commits p.60.  Commits  1949.  23 The Vancouver Branch o f the Young L i b e r a l s A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, To The L i b e r a l s of B r i t i s h Columbia: An A p p e a l to Reason, mimeographed,  194-9, P o l 24  The  25  Ibid.  26  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr.  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 28,  James S i n c l a i r ,  1951.  September  1965. 27  The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , A p r i l  26,  1952.  30,  28 The Vancouver Branch of The Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia, An Appeal to Reason, p. 1. 29  'The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , June 17, 1 9 9 «  30  I b i d . , June 2 5 ,  k  19 9. k  31 The Vancouver Branch of The Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n of B r i t s h Columbia, l o o , c i t . 32  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , May 2 3 ,  1950.  33 I b i d . , January 9 , 1952 and I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 3 0 , 1965. 34  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September  35  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , March 2 8 ,  1951.  30,1965,  CHAPTER FIVE  THE ECLIPSE OF THE PROVINCIAL WING 1952 - 1965 In the p o s t - c o a l i t i o n p e r i o d the f e d e r a l wing of the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h Columbia e s t a b l i s h e d a dominant p o s i t i o n i n the a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c i a l Association.  I n the years which f o l l o w e d the defeat  of the c o a l i t i o n government the L i b e r a l P a r t y f a i l e d to r e t a i n s u f f i c i e n t e l e c t o r a l support to become even the o f f i c i a l opposition party i n V i c t o r i a . the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s continued  In c o n t r a s t ,  to hold power i n Ottawa  u n t i l 1957 and a f t e r f i v e years of o p p o s i t i o n ,  regained  power once more and commanded more a t t e n t i o n , r e s p e c t and f i n a n c i a l support than d i d the p r o v i n c i a l wing. Under these circumstances,  the p r o v i n c i a l leaders were  unable to r e t a i n the same k i n d of c o n t r o l over the party o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t the L i b e r a l premiers had maintained throughout the preceding  decades.  Even between 1957 and  1963, when the f e d e r a l party was i n o p p o s i t i o n and when the f e d e r a l wing i n the province was almost  destroyed,  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r never recovered complete c o n t r o l over the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Since 1963,  with  the f e d e r a l party's r e t u r n to power i n Ottawa and the  85  86 election  o f a new c o n t i n g e n t o f L i b e r a l MP's f r o m t h e  p r o v i n c e , t h e dominance o f t h e f e d e r a l Association  has been f u r t h e r  wing w i t h i n t h e  emphasized.  While the  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y have p r e s e r v e d t h e i r r i g h t t o i n d e p e n d e n t a c t i o n  i n many  areas of p r o v i n c i a l concern, the expanding dialogue between t h e f e d e r a l  and p r o v i n c i a l governments  to l i m i t the i n f l u e n c e Association  of the p r o v i n c i a l wing w i t h i n the  because o f t h e i r l i m i t e d e x p e c t a t i o n s o f  power i n t h e p r o v i n c i a l  legislature.  U n t i l 1959» most f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c r e a t e d by t h e i n c r e a s i n g within  has t e n d e d  strains  power o f t h e f e d e r a l  the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n  were  wing  a n d by t h e e m b a r r a s s i n g l y  low e l e c t o r a l fortunes of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  After  1 9 5 9 , however, w i t h t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g , t h e two l e v e l s o f t h e p a r t y have a c h i e v e d a n a d j u s t ment w h i c h more r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n t e r e s t s and i n f l u e n c e the of  within  their respective  the province.  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r had c e a s e d t o d o m i n a t e the A s s o c i a t i o n ,  l e a d e r and f e d e r a l  public  Although the a f f a i r s  c l a s h e s between t h e p r o v i n c i a l  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s were r e l a t i v e l y  f r e q u e n t u n t i l 1959.  A l t h o u g h open q u a r r e l s between t h e  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and t h e f e d e r a l membership c e a s e d  after  1 9 5 9 , s t r a i n s between t h e two w i n g s have f o c u s e d upon grass roots resistance  to f e d e r a l  demands t o improve t h e  87 q u a l i t y of the o f f i c e r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n .  Neverthe-  l e s s , both wings of the p a r t y have valued the u n i f i e d s t r u c t u r e of the p a r t y and have attempted t o p u b l i c i z e t h e i r mutual I n t e r e s t s and p o l i c i e s . The deep d i v i s i o n s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y were openly e x h i b i t e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1 9 5 2 . The  feud between Premier Johnson and Gordon Wismer was  continued i n t o the campaign w h i l e Johnson a t t a c k e d the L i b e r a l Convention f o r t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of h i s coinsurance p l a n .  A f t e r t h i s d i s p l a y of d i s u n i t y the  f e d e r a l leaders were not s u r p r i s e d a t the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l party.  Many f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were p r i v a t e l y  pleased a t the defeat of many former c o a l i t i o n i s t s but most a l s o r e a l i z e d that the problem of r e b u i l d i n g a u n i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n was now p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l s i n c e the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  was weak.  Both the prospect of p e r s i s t e n t c o n f l i c t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l ranks and the p r o b a b i l i t y of weak L i b e r a l r e presentation  i n V i c t o r i a prompted some f e d e r a l  leaders  to d i s c u s s the f e a s i b i l i t y of a separate f e d e r a l organization.-'-  While there was j u s t i f i a b l e concern  over the p o s s i b l e damage that might be i n f l i c t e d upon the f e d e r a l p o s i t i o n by the d i s s e n s i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing, s e p a r a t i o n was considered measure."  to be a " l a s t - d i t c h  An independent f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , i t was  88 felt,  "would d e p r i v e  provincially."  t h e f e d e r a l p e o p l e o f any  By 1952,  u n n e c e s s a r y f o r i t was  t h i s extreme  influence  a l t e r n a t i v e was  apparent t h a t the e l e c t o r a l  defeat  o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had c r e a t e d a l e a d e r s h i p vacuum and t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were a b l e t o move i n t o p o s i t i o n s o f g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e and  LAING 1953  -  control.  1959:  CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: With the p r o s p e c t  of a l o n g p e r i o d of o p p o s i t i o n  and o n l y l i m i t e d e l e c t o r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , the p a r t y faced f o r the f i r s t  was  t i m e i n i t s h i s t o r y w i t h t h e need t o  r e c r u i t a provincial leader.  I n an a t t e m p t t o r e u n i t e  t h e p a r t y , t h e m a j o r f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l powers c o n f e r r e d j o i n t l y on t h e c h o i c e o f p o s s i b l e for  candidates  t h e d i f f i c u l t and p o s s i b l e u n r e w a r d i n g p o s i t i o n o f  provincial leader.  The f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s ,  R a l p h Campney and James S i n c l a i r , t o o k t h e  initiative  and a s k e d S i d n e y S m i t h t o c o n t i n u e h i s work as o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n and t o head an u n o f f i c i a l formed  t o seek a new  provincial leader.  committee  Smith,  had been a d i s c r e e t a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t and had some c o n t a c t s w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s b e f o r e 1952, u n o f f i c i a l l y on b e h a l f o f t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s the p e r i o d . ^  president  who  developed acted throughout  A l t h o u g h he had p r e v i o u s l y been a c t i v e i n  89  p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s and continued to m a i n t a i n h i s c o n t a c t s w i t h s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l groups Smith, f i r s t as p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n and l a t e r as a Senator, became more i n v o l v e d w i t h the f e d e r a l wing and f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t s * During the months i n which the p a r t y had no p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , Smith a s s i s t e d Campney and S i n c l a i r i n "running the p a r t y . "-^  With the prospect of both f e d e r a l and  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n the near f u t u r e , each m i n i s t e r a d m i n i s t e r e d a p a r t of the province and appointed a p r o v i n c i a l party organizer.^ A f t e r i t became c l e a r t h a t James S i n c l a i r would not enter p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , Smith approached Gordon Sloan and Dr. Norman MacKenzie.  Some L i b e r a l s had hoped  t h a t a prominent p u b l i c f i g u r e would ensure a quick r e v e r s a l i n the p a r t y ' s e l e c t o r a l f o r t u n e s . name was a l s o c i r c u l a t e d  Arthur  Laing's  and when both Sloan and MacKenzie  d e c l i n e d the l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n , he r e c e i v e d the approval of both wings of the p a r t y .  A f t e r some h e s i t a t i o n L a i n g  r e s i g n e d h i s f e d e r a l seat and was e l e c t e d p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r by acclamation d u r i n g the L i b e r a l Convention of 1953'  Laing's e l e c t i o n was regarded  i n a favorable  l i g h t by some of the younger elements i n the p a r t y f o r they f e l t that h i s views c o i n c i d e d w i t h those of the p r o g r e s s i v e wing of the p a r t y .  Although many f e d e r a l  l e a d e r s p r a i s e d L a i n g f o r h i s s a c r i f i c e of a promising f e d e r a l c a r e e r , i n f l u e n t i a l p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l groups  90 within  the p a r t y  The 1 9 5 3  opposed  some o f  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n was  became p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r organize vincial the  his  a campaign or  party  still  called  establish  held, p o s i t i o n s  of  A s s o c i a t i o n and r e f u s e d  to give  of  opponents  federal also  leaders  assisted  had s e v e r a l  soon a f t e r  the  disagreements  of  never  had a c l o s e  strong, caucus  legislature. of  to  least  the  party,  of  within  the  pro-  the to  one  coalition.  The  e l e c t i o n but  they  provincial  leader  representation  his  express h i s  i n the to  consolidate success  however,  interest  of  had been  he was After  from  particularly  i n the  his  leader  Although Laing  own o p i n i o n s  province.  from p o s i t i o n s The  in Victoria  s i t t i n g members  will  As p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r  A s s o c i a t i o n a n d h a d some  Association.  the  f o u r a n d L a i n g became t h e  to e x e r t  he was a b l e  coalitionists  to  cooperation  w i t h the  c o a l i t i o n sentiment  Liberal policy  election  their  l i a i s o n w i t h the  he was a b l e or at  influence  a n d weak p r o v i n c i a l r u m p .  V i c t o r i a where  time  Laing  campaign.  from s i x  a defeated  after  coalitionists within  Laing i n this  The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y ' s was r e d u c e d  just  c o n t r o l over  Many f o r m e r  t h e more b e l l i g e r e n t  decisions.  a n d he h a d l i t t l e  to  organization.  early  Liberal in  the  the major the  voice  1 9 5 3  support w i t h i n  in retiring importance  in  the  former the  in provincial politics within  was d e c l i n i n g a n d L a i n g a n d  his  91 supporters  found membership dropping and f i n a n c i a l  support d i s a p p e a r i n g .  The major focus and i n t e r e s t of  the A s s o c i a t i o n was f e d e r a l .  Many f i n a n c i a l  supporters  of the p a r t y withdrew t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s from the p r o v i n c i a l wing and even requested  t h a t the f e d e r a l  L i b e r a l s a v o i d r e d i r e c t i n g t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n s back i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l sphere.  P r o v i n c i a l dependence on the  f e d e r a l wing f o r money i n c r e a s e d each year and by the e l e c t i o n of 1956 t h i s dependence was almost t o t a l . ?  In  t h i s p o s i t i o n L a i n g o f t e n had to r e s p e c t the d e s i r e s of f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n matters of o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a tion.  Despite  the attempt of f e d e r a l l e a d e r s to a d v i s e  L a i n g on matters of p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y p o l i c y and s t r a t e g y , the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r f r e q u e n t l y expressed h i s independent o p i n i o n s .  For example, he continued h i s a t t a c k s on  the S o c i a l C r e d i t government l o n g a f t e r the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s had urged him to take a more p o s i t i v e stand i n the i n t e r e s t s of the p a r t y . F r u s t r a t i o n a t Laing's a c t i o n s l e d to a campaign f o r h i s r e t i r e m e n t from the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p .  In  the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n of 1956 L a i n g had l o s t h i s own seat and the p a r t y had r e t a i n e d only two seats i n the legislature.  F e d e r a l leaders wanted L a i n g to r e s i g n i n  f a v o r of one of the sitting-members and when Laing  92  r e f u s e d they attempted to f i n d a new l e a d e r and an o p p o r t u n i t y to depose L a i n g .  T h e i r e f f o r t s were hampered  by the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s defeat i n 1957 and the r e d u c t i o n of the e l e c t e d f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s from the p r o v i n c e to two members o f p a r l i a m e n t .  I n the f a l l o f 1957 a  young L i b e r a l announced h i s i n t e n t i o n o f opposing L a i n g a t the next p r o v i n c i a l convention but the Young L i b e r a l s gave L a i n g a vote o f confidence and the c h a l l e n g e soon Q  disappeared.  Indeed, D i l l o n O'Leary r e p o r t e d t h a t  L a i n g had a " f i r m g r i p " on the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and had prevented a convention from being c a l l e d .  Without a  convention i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o e l e c t a new l e a d e r and, consequently,  L a i n g f r u s t r a t e d the designs of the p a r t y ' s  " o l d guard" i d e n t i f i e d as Senator Sydney Smith and exf i s h e r i e s m i n i s t e r James S i n c l a i r w h i l e i t was a l s o c l e a r t h a t Campney and Senator F a r r i s d e s i r e d Laing's  retirement.  When L a i n g l o s t a b y - e l e c t i o n i n Burnaby i n 1957> the campaign f o r h i s removal was I n t e n s i f i e d .  Many  p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s from V i c t o r i a were now openly opposed to Laing's continued l e a d e r s h i p o f the p a r t y and they s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e d t h a t a sitting-member from V i c t o r i a should assume the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p of the p a r t y .  Laing,  however, not only r e t a i n e d h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1959 but a l s o chose the time of h i s own r e s i g n a t i o n .  While he d i d  93  r e c e i v e some support w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , h i s continued a b i l i t y to withstand  the attempt to depose  him was f a c i l i t a t e d by the demise of the f e d e r a l p a r t y i n 1958 and the defeat of the l a s t two L i b e r a l members of p a r l i a m e n t from B r i t i s h Columbia.  The shock of d e f e a t ,  the vacuum l e f t by the d e f e a t of prominent f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s and the withdrawal of some f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s from p a r t y p o l i t i c s allowed  Laing to m a i n t a i n h i s r a t h e r un-  s t a b l e p o s i t i o n i n the p a r t y .  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of the  p a r t y was weak and the f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n of both wings of the p a r t y poor and t h e r e f o r e , c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n was of l i t t l e immediate  consequence.  Although, between 1956 and 1959, perienced  a p e r i o d of confusion  the p a r t y ex-  i n which n e i t h e r wing was  s t r o n g enough nor a c t i v e enough to overcome the devastat i o n which e l e c t o r a l defeat had wrought, c e r t a i n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l changes were introduced which a f f e c t e d the f u t u r e c o n t r o l of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  In 1956  the con-  s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e Of the p a r t y was s u b s t a n t i a l l y a l t e r e d to give the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n more l a t i t u d e i n the d i r e c t i o n of day-to-day o r g a n i z a t i o n a l matters.  Although the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h  Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n had always been a vague document and had r a r e l y determined the focus of power w i t h i n the p a r t y , the changes i n i t i a t e d i n 1956 and r e f i n e d i n  94 s u b s e q u e n t c o n s t i t u t i o n s d i d a l l o w the o f f i c e r s o f Association  t o assume a more a c t i v e r o l e once the  s i o n a l wing of the p a r t y  had  t u t i o n a l r e f o r m s o f 1956  were i n i t i a l l y d e s i g n e d  been d e f e a t e d .  r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and the l o c a l and  the l e a d e r s  profes-  The  constito  improve the a r t i c u l a t i o n between the o f f i c e r s o f  provide  the  the  o f the p a r t y and  r i d i n g associations with a uniform  framework o f o r g a n i z a t i o n  so t h a t some o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  c o n t i n u i t y c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d i n s p i t e o f the r a p i d t u r n o v e r i n membership." " 1  The  0  however, a l s o a l t e r e d the s i z e and  1956  changes w h i c h e v e n t u a l l y  party's  constitution,  functions  p o l i c y - m a k i n g b o d i e s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n .  of the  I t was  expanded, the f u n c t i o n o f  the  p a r t i c u l a r l y that of  president  Between 1956  o f the A s s o c i a t i o n .  l i t t l e noticeable  was, him  from h i s o f f i c e .  The  the  1959  and  e f f e c t because Senator  S m i t h w i e l d e d s u b s t a n t i a l power w i t h i n the p a r t y apart  major  these  o f f i c e r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n and  t h e s e r e f o r m s had  to  effectiveness  quite  of the  president  m o r e o v e r , a l w a y s dependent upon the s u p p o r t g i v e n by  given  the p a r t y ' s  professional leaders.  to the o f f i c e o f p r e s i d e n t  federal leaders t o the new The  a f t e r 1959  The  o f the A s s o c i a t i o n  i n 1956  was  by  testified  post." "" " 1  1  most s t r i k i n g change made i n the  of the A s s o c i a t i o n  attention  > however, i n d i r e c t l y  i m p o r t a n c e of the  to  structure  the c r e a t i o n o f a  new  95 policy-making  a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e body composed o f t h e  o f f i c e r s of the Association, representative Liberal Association, theB r i t i s h  o f t h e Young  C o l u m b i a Woman's L i b e r a l  12 A s s o c i a t i o n a n d a number o f a r e a d i r e c t o r s . exception  With the  o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and t h e l e a d e r o f t h e  f e d e r a l p a r t y , who were h o n o r a r y members, t h e c o m p o s i t i o n o f t h e Committee o f O f f i c e r s was e s s e n t i a l l y a m a t e u r . the p a s t  In  the o f f i c e r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n and the represen-  t a t i v e s from t h e d i s t r i c t s a n d t h e a f f i l i a t e L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were i n c l u d e d i n l a r g e r b o d i e s d o m i n a t e d o r a t l e a s t d i r e c t e d by p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s o f t h e p a r t y . They had n e v e r c o n s t i t u t e d a f o r m a l c o m m i t t e e on t h e i r own. W h i l e t h e d u t i e s a n d power o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s have n e v e r been s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n and  i n practice arequite f l e x i b l e ,  i t i s probable that the  Committee o f O f f i c e r s assumed many f u n c t i o n s f u l f i l l e d by the Advisory was  Council before  1956.^  This l a t t e r  a sub-committee o f the l a r g e and p o w e r f u l  body  Executive  Committee and. was composed o f t h e o f f i o e r s o f t h e A s s o c i a t i o n , the senior Senator of the province, Member o f P a r l i a m e n t ,  representatives  L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s , the Federal  the senior  of the a f f i l i a t e d  Treasurer,  and r e p r e -  s e n t a t i v e s from each f e d e r a l e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t s . Advisory  C o u n c i l h a n d l e d some o f t h e d a y - t o - d a y  The  organi-  z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s o f t h e p a r t y b u t i t was dependent upon  96  the E x e c u t i v e Committee and was d i r e c t e d not to "usurp any of the d u t i e s r e s e r v e d to the E x e c u t i v e Committee."  15  In 1956 a body named the E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l , which i n composition was patterned, on the A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l , assumed the f u n c t i o n s of the o l d E x e c u t i v e Committee. Since the o l d E x e c u t i v e Committee, which had c o n s i s t e d of 189 members, was dominated by p r o f e s s i o n a l L i b e r a l s and p a r t i c u l a r l y the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , the reforms  instituted  i n 1956 r e f l e c t e d not o n l y the i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and independence of the amateur l e a d e r s but the weakening of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  A f t e r the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s d i d not want the p r o v i n c i a l wing to determine  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  p o l i c i e s of the p a r t y w i t h i t s l a r g e group of defeated candidates i n the Executive Committee. ^ 1  An Annual  Convention, which was a l s o i n s t i t u t e d i n 1 9 5 6 , allowed the defeated candidates to p a r t i c i p a t e i n some body other than the General Convention but, a t the same time, provided amateur L i b e r a l s w i t h e x t e n s i v e access to t h i s body. This compromise allowed f o r more frequent meeting of the amateur l e a d e r s and thereby gave many amateur L i b e r a l s an added sense of p a r t i c i p a t i o n but i t a l s o l i m i t e d the power of the defeated candidates and, i n e f f e c t , the power of the p r o v i n c i a l wing.  reduced  97 Between 1952 a n d 1959 t h e f e d e r a l w i n g e n l a r g e d its  influence  i n the a f f a i r s of the p r o v i n c i a l  and  was a h l e t o s p e c i f y t h e u s e o f i t s money w i t h i n t h e  provincial organization. wing r e l i n q u i s h e d  Association  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e f e d e r a l  some a r e a s o f c o n t r o l w h i c h i t had t a k e n  over immediately a f t e r the p r o v i n c i a l d e f e a t o f 1952. Although federal leaders  were i n s t r u m e n t a l  o f a new p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ,  i n the s e l e c t i o n  t h e y were u n a b l e t o c o n t r o l  the o f f i c e and. f a i l e d i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l e f f o r t s t o r e t i r e Laing.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e f e d e r a l wing h e l d a dominant  p o s i t i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l party majority  l a r g e l y because t h e  o f r a n k a n d f i l e L i b e r a l s were i n v o l v e d  f e d e r a l a f f a i r s w h i l e most o f t h e p a r t y ' s  r e s o u r c e s came  f r o m and were d e v o t e d t o f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s . leaders  Federal  had a b s o l u t e c o n t r o l o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  the s p h e r e o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s .  with  within  They o r g a n i z e d t h e i r own  campaigns a n d m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r own c o n t a c t s w i t h i n t h e organization. exercised  Because t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r  no l o n g e r  t h e same k i n d o f c o n t r o l o v e r t h e p a r t y  organi-  z a t i o n , t h e f e d e r a l w i n g was no l o n g e r dependent upon t h e organizational  favors  v i n c i a l leadership  o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r .  The p r o -  never challenged f e d e r a l c o n t r o l of  f e d e r a l areas but f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e  i n provincial  m a t t e r s and t h e weak f e d e r a l s u p p o r t o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g were r e s e n t e d by many members o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  I n d e e d , t h e a l t e r a t i o n i n t h e b a l a n c e o f power w i t h i n t h e p a r t y , w h i c h r e s u l t e d f r o m the d e f e a t  and  decline  o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , i n i t i a t e d many f e d e r a l provincial strains.  SOURCES 0? FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL STRAIN: Throughout the p e r i o d f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s d e v e l o p e d f r o m f r i c t i o n between the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and  t h e members o f the f e d e r a l w i n g i n the  province.  A l t h o u g h c o n f l i c t s between the f e d e r a l l e a d e r and  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r may  i n Ottawa  w e l l have o c c u r r e d ,  they  were l e s s a p p a r e n t b e c a u s e the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r weak and  i n opposition.  The  was  s t r a i n s which r e s u l t e d  from d i f f e r e n c e s i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o l i c y u s u a l l y i n volved  the f e d e r a l w i n g i n the p r o v i n c e  while  strains  which r e s u l t e d from d i f f e r e n c e s i n governmental p o l i c y a t e i t h e r the f e d e r a l or p r o v i n c i a l l e v e l i n v o l v e d federal leaders p a r t y was  i n Ottawa b u t ,  s i n c e the p r o v i n c i a l  i n o p p o s i t i o n , t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s were  t l y h a n d l e d by  the  t h e f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s i n the  frequen-  province.  ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: F r i c t i o n o v e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s the s e l e c t i o n o f p r i o r i t i e s i s r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t  and within  99 most p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h a r e i n v o l v e d i n b o t h f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a r e a s .  In the L i b e r a l Party o f  B r i t i s h Columbia ground r u l e s d e s i g n e d t o p r e v e n t and t o contain i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n during the f u l f i l l m e n t of e l e c t o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s were d e v e l o p e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r s when t h e p a r t y h e l d power c o n c u r r e n t l y i n Ottawa and Victoria.  W h i l e some o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s p r o v e d  satis-  f a c t o r y d u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n and p o s t - c o a l i t i o n y e a r s , o t h e r s became u n r e a l i s t i c a f t e r 1952 b e c a u s e o f t h e r e l a t i v e weakness o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g .  The s u c c e s s o f t h e  j o i n t p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n had p r e v i o u s l y r e s t e d upon t h e c o n t r o l e x e r c i s e d by e a c h w i n g o v e r i t s own campaigns but, during  the years f o l l o w i n g the c o a l i t i o n , the l a c k  of f i n a n c i a l support f o r the p r o v i n c i a l wing  destroyed  t h i s p r i n c i p l e o f autonomy. D u r i n g t h e 1953 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n many l a r g e f i n a n c i a l supporters  of the f e d e r a l p a r t y withdrew  support from the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  A f t e r 1953, an  i n c r e a s i n g number o f b u s i n e s s m e n i n t h e p r o v i n c e to p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s  their  confided  t h a t t h e y now s u p p o r t e d t h e S o c i a l  C r e d i t government and t h a t t h e y were c o n c e r n e d a b o u t s h a r e o f p r o v i n c i a l government b u s i n e s s  their  i f t h e i r names  were c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l  Party.  Many e s t a b l i s h e d L i b e r a l s f a i l e d t o see any a d v a n t a g e i n t h e s u p p o r t o f a weak p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y w h i c h had few  100 prospects  o f becoming even t h e o p p o s i t i o n p a r t y .  Becaus  o f t h e i r f e a r o f t h e g r o w i n g s u p p o r t f o r t h e C.C.P., o t h e r b u s i n e s s m e n , who c o n t i n u e d  to support the party  f e d e r a l l y , f e l t obliged to support S o c i a l Credit p r o v i n c i a l l y u n t i l a r e a l n o n - s o c i a l i s t a l t e r n a t i v e emerged. Under t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s ,  the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e -  r a l s became f i n a n c i a l l y d e p e n d e n t upon t h e f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y and b e c a u s e t h e p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n was so s e r i o u s , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were a t f i r s t o b l i g e d t o p r o v i d e support.  When f e d e r a l l e a d e r r e c r u i t e d L a i n g f o r t h e  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s r e a s o n e d t h a t t h e f e d e r a l w i n g w o u l d a c t i v e l y and g e n e r o u s l y support the party p r o v i n c i a l l y .  Indeed a few a c t i v e  L i b e r a l s have e x p r e s s e d t h e o p i n i o n t h a t L a i n g may have r e c e i v e d s u b s t a n t i a l promises o f support before ned  to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . 1 7  A f t e r t h e 1953  he r e t u r election,  however, f e d e r a l s u p p o r t was s l o w l y w i t h d r a w n and one p r o m i n e n t L i b e r a l has s u g g e s t e d t h a t w i t h t h e p a r t y ' s defeat  i n t h e 1953  p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n , the f e d e r a l party  r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y had no hopes o f e l e c t o r a l success i n the near f u t u r e .  Moreover, support  f r o m t h e f e d e r a l w i n g w o u l d o n l y s l i g h t l y improve t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y and m i g h t a l s o have p a v e d t h e way f o r a C.C.F. v i c t o r y .  The f e d e r a l  L i b e r a l s were, t h e r e f o r e , c a r e f u l t o p r o v i d e t h e  101 provincial  party with just  survive.  While several  with of  this  reasoning,  federal  they  by the  party  L i b e r a l s have  suggest  that  based  the  agreed  withdrawal  on s p e c i f i c  between  the  to  difficulties  elections  of  1953  , 18 1956.  and  Administrative concerned w i t h the These the  strains  strains  source,  emerged most  were most  elections  greater  p o r t i o n of  the  1953  when t h e  frequently  amount and a l l o c a t i o n o f  funds.  clearly  for  d u r i n g campaigns  s m a l l p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p was a b l e  between  the  active  s u p p o r t was a l s o  encountered  In  enough f i n a n c i a l b a c k i n g  federal  to m a i n t a i n party  the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s  p r o v i n c i a l campaign  the  p r o v i n c i a l wing considerable  itself  assumed  operating federal  support  the  expenses.  party  even  gave  though  a  19 federal  e l e c t i o n was  t o be c a l l e d  James S i n c l a i r l o a n e d h i s and a s s i s t e d p a r t y was funds  While  still  federal  the  leaders  to  collect  supporters  money was  disappointing, with  able  also  in retrospect,  limited  assistant  the p r o v i n c i a l c a u s e w h i l e  from s t r o n g  Federal  executive  shortly.  of  some o f the  the its  campaign party.  provincial wing.  a few L i b e r a l s c o m p l a i n e d o f  assistance  when, t h e  election  were a l s o  j o i n t performance relatively  and the  satisfied  with  the  proved  m o s t p a r t y members w e r e f a i r l y  party's  Laing  provincial  federal  u t i l i z e d by the  to  satisfied  federal the  102  o r g a n i z a t i o n of the campaign. A f t e r the f e d e r a l wing l o s t three of i t s eleven seats i n the p r o v i n c e  i n the e l e c t i o n of 1953? some  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s suspected t h a t the low p r o v i n c i a l f o r tunes of the p a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia might e v e n t u a l l y undermine t h e i r own p o s i t i o n s .  Once the f e d e r a l p a r t y  found t h a t some of i t s own f i n a n c i a l hackers i n the province r e f u s e d the f e d e r a l p a r t y money because of " c o n t r o v e r s i a l " stands the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r took on key i s s u e s i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the t h r e a t posed by the e c l i p s e of the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p a r t y to the p o s i t i o n of 20  the f e d e r a l wing was c l e a r l y apparent.  When L a i n g  r e f u s e d to a l t e r some of these stands,  the f e d e r a l p a r t y  was r e l u c t a n t to grant a s s i s t a n c e to the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y . They wished to r e s e r v e  the r i g h t to determine the uses  to which t h e i r money could be put f o r i n a d d i t i o n to t h e i r disagreements w i t h L a i n g on p o l i c y m a t t e r s , they a l s o b e l i e v e d that the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y had been mismanaged. F e d e r a l l e a d e r s were p a r t i c u l a r l y perturbed  over Laing*s  demand f o r a b y - e l e c t i o n i n Vancouver Centre a t a time when the L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was t o t a l l y inadequate. In 1955, a f t e r the death of a -Social C r e d i t MLA, the S o c i a l C r e d i t government f a i l e d t o c a l l a b y - e l e c t i o n and L a i n g f o r c e d an e l e c t i o n by h i s announcement of the  103 v a c a n c y i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . o r g a n i z a t i o n was  I r o n i c a l l y , the L i b e r a l  so d i s o r g a n i z e d  f i e l d a candidate.  Federal  t h a t the p a r t y f a i l e d  leaders  e v i d e n t l y used  d i s a s t e r to support t h e i r c l a i m f o r g r e a t e r t h e 1956  to  this  c o n t r o l over  p r o v i n c i a l campaign. G r a n t Deachman, the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r  1956,  in  a d m i t t e d t h a t some s e r i o u s q u a r r e l s t o o k p l a c e  between  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and  the  the f e d e r a l w i n g d u r i n g  o f the p r o v i n c i a l campaign. agreements t o o k p l a c e the g e n e r a l  He  indicated that  course  dis-  o v e r the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f u n d s  competency o f l e a d e r s .  In general  he  and  felt  t h a t the i r r i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d from normal day-to-day contact He  i n a j o i n t o f f i c e where f u n d s had  to be  i n f e r r e d t h a t p r o v i n c i a l p e o p l e were j e a l o u s  f e d e r a l resources  and  power and  split. of  often believed that  the  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were i n t e r f e r i n g i n t h e i r  affairs.  W h i l e Deachman s u g g e s t e d t h a t most o f the  difficulties  during  the campaign were o f a p u r e l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  nature,  he a g r e e d t h a t t h e y were r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s between the  two  g r o u p s w h i c h had  developed before  the  campaign.  21  POLICY DIFFERENCES: A l t h o u g h the s t r a i n s e m e r g i n g f r o m the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of e l e c t i o n s c o n t r i b u t e d of misunderstanding which occurred  to the  during  joint feelings  the p r o v i n c i a l  104 campaign o f 195&,  specific policy differences  between  L a i n g and s e v e r a l p r o m i n e n t members o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g were a l s o a s o u r c e o f i n t e r n a l f r i c t i o n .  These p o l i c y  d i f f e r e n c e s h a d , i n f a c t , c r e a t e d many o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e problems because t h e f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f the p a r t y was  r e l a t e d t o the stands which Laing  provincial issues.  took i n key  Indeed, f e d e r a l o p p o s i t i o n  to Laing's  c o n t i n u e d l e a d e r s h i p was t h e r e s u l t o f t h e a c c u m u l a t i o n o f s u c h p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s combined w i t h L a i n g ' s d e f e a t i n 1956'  One m a j o r s o u r c e o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n was  the p r o v i n c i a l f o r e s t p o l i c y .  D u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n a new  p o l i c y was i n i t i a t e d w h i c h , t o many L i b e r a l s , f a v o r e d t h e large forest interests.  This p o l i c y granted long-term  t e n u r e s t o companies w i l l i n g t o d e v e l o p e x t e n s i v e tions i n the province.  The t r u c k l o g g e r s  the p o l i c y d i s c r i m i n a t e d a g a i n s t the p o l i c y from the b e g i n n i n g . had  also objected  believed  The a n t i - c o a l i t i o n i s t s  t o t h e p o l i c y and had a t t e m p t e d t o They b e l i e v e d  that the  terms o f t h e t e n u r e s were t o o b r o a d a n d t h a t they  Laing  r e s o u r c e s w i t h o u t adequate p u b l i c  strenuously  that  them a n d t h e y opposed  c o n v i n c e Johnson o f i t s dangers.  ated valuable  opera-  opposed t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n  of a  alien-  protection. modified  v e r s i o n o f t h e c o a l i t i o n f o r e s t p o l i c y by t h e S o c i a l government.  Credit  W h i l e many o f t h e y o u n g e r f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n -  t a t i v e s had opposed t h e c o a l i t i o n ' s f o r e s t p o l i c y , by 1 9 5 2 , many f e d e r a l members r e v e r s e d  their positions.  105 S i n c l a i r ' s support of Bennett's f o r e s t management p o l i c y was the most s t r i k i n g r e v e r s a l w i t h i n f e d e r a l L i b e r a l ranks f o r he had l e d the o p p o s i t i o n to Johnson's f o r e s t p o l i c y d u r i n g the c o a l i t i o n .  S i n c l a i r now h e l d  t h a t the l i c e n c e s provided adequate p r o t e c t i o n f o r the s m a l l t r u c k loggers and a t the same time gave the government g r e a t e r c o n t r o l over the l a r g e developers.  He f e l t  t h a t some concessions to the l a r g e r companies were r e q u i r e d i n order to b u i l d - u p the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y i n the 22  province.  L a i n g a l s o encountered s t r o n g  opposition  from Senator S. S. McKeen on t h i s issue and e v e n t u a l l y the p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n , Sidney Smith, broke w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r over the f o r e s t management policy.  Smith found t h a t the f i n a n c i a l support of the  f e d e r a l p a r t y i n the province was now being  threatened  by Laing's u n y i e l d i n g p o s i t i o n f o r many business i n t e r e s t s o u t s i d e the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y b e l i e v e d that extensive  forest  development would improve the economic p o s i t i o n of the province as a whole. The  f e d e r a l party was a l s o concerned about the  r o l e of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y i n the Sommers-Sturdy case. Gordon Gibson, a L i b e r a l MLA and a l e a d i n g member of the t r u c k logger i n t e r e s t s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , attacked the S o c i a l C r e d i t f o r e s t management p o l i c i e s and i n t i m a t e d  106  t h a t i n g r a n t i n g of l i c e n c e s , the Lands and F o r e s t s M i n i s t e r , R.. E. Sommers, had accepted b r i b e s .  Specific  charges were made i n 1955 "by a Vancouver lawyer, David S t u r d y , and when the case f i n a l l y concluded Sommers was sentenced to f i v e years i n p r i s o n .  During the course of  the t r i a l L a i n g and the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y attempted to make use of the numerous charges of c o r r u p t i o n p r o v i n c i a l government.  a g a i n s t the  Gibson r e s i g n e d h i s seat over the  matter but was defeated by a S o c i a l C r e d i t candidate i n h i s f i r s t attempt a t r e - e l e c t i o n .  L a i n g made the case a  major issue i n the 1956 p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n and when he l o s t h i s s e a t , the f e d e r a l wing was c r i t i c a l of h i s strategy  on the matter. -^ 2  The f e d e r a l wing f e l t  entire  that  the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s had not aided t h e i r own p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t s by c o n s t a n t l y ment over the i s s u e .  and b i t t e r l y a t t a c k i n g  the govern-  When i t appeared t h a t i n s p i t e of  the scandal the e l e c t o r a t e was s t i l l w i l l i n g to support the government and when i t was c l e a r that Sommers alone was involved,  the f e d e r a l wing f e l t t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  should have avoided p e r s o n a l a t t a c k s on the other members of the S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  The f e d e r a l wing was  p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the p o l i t i c a l or e l e c t o r a l side e f f e c t s of the case but i t was a l s o suggested that  forest  i n t e r e s t s which supported the f e d e r a l p a r t y were d i s t u r bed a t the continued p u b l i c i t y aroused by the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s i n the Sommers-Sturdy case. ^  The f e d e r a l l e a -  107 ders may w e l l have been requested to q u i e t L a i n g on the issue. The f e d e r a l wing thus opposed p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y stands when they b e l i e v e d t h a t the e l e c t o r a l or f i n a n c i a l i n t e r e s t s of the p a r t y were threatened.  Laing's pledge  to take over B.C. E l e c t r i c i f h i s p a r t y were e l e c t e d a l s o aroused f e d e r a l h o s t i l i t y because i t threatened the p a r t y ' s f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n but many L i b e r a l s , who were p a r t i c u l a r l y upset w i t h L a i n g on t h i s i s s u e , were a l s o opposed on p r i n c i p l e to government c o n t r o l . -5 2  While  many L i b e r a l s i n the f e d e r a l p a r t y were not i d e o l o g i c a l l y opposed on p u b l i c ownership of u t i l i t i e s ,  Premier  W. A. C. Bennett was a b l e to g a i n e l e c t o r a l and f i n a n c i a l support by a c c u s i n g L a i n g of going s o c i a l i s t and many f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s were i r r i t a t e d a t Laing's s t r a t e g y i n r a i s i n g the matter a t such an inopportune time.  By the  time of the the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n i n 1956 the f e d e r a l wing opposed Laing's g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y w i t h regard to the S o c i a l C r e d i t government.  They b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r o -  v i n c i a l L i b e r a l l e a d e r was too b i t t e r and too constant I n his attacks.  The e l e c t o r a t e , they argued, was not  w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to i n t e n s e and unbroken a t t a c k s .  It  was suggested t h a t L a i n g had not v a r i e d h i s approach  26 enough and t h a t he had i n a sense " c r i e d w o l f " too o f t e n .  108 The f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were cautious about g i v i n g L a i n g e x t e n s i v e f i n a n c i a l support, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they c o u l d not s p e c i f y i t s use f o r t h e i r own support was threatened by the p r o v i n c i a l s i t u a t i o n . expressed  While they o f t e n  sympathy f o r the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ' s d i f f i c u l t  predicament and a p p r e c i a t e d h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o give up a promising f e d e r a l c a r e e r to r e t u r n to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were r e l i e v e d when L a i n g l o s t h i s seat f o r they b e l i e v e d t h a t he would r e s i g n .  When L a i n g  r e f u s e d to f o r e f i t the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and i n s i s t e d upon t r y i n g to r e g a i n a seat i n a forthcoming b y - e l e c t i o n , f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t i t was necessary Laing's r e t i r e m e n t .  t o campaign f o r  In 1957» L a i n g f a i l e d to win the by-  e l e c t i o n In Burnaby, and thereby i n t e n s i f i e d the f e d e r a l campaign to r e p l a c e him.  Senators F a r r i s and Smith and  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s Campney and S i n c l a i r were a c t i v e i n t h i s campaign, which continued even a f t e r the f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s were defeated i n the 1957 f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . F e d e r a l a g i t a t i o n f o r Laing's r e t i r e m e n t began i n i t i a l l y because of the p r o v i n c i a l leader's i n a b i l i t y to r e t a i n a seat i n the l e g i s l a t u r e .  I t was apparent,  however, t h a t the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were unhappy w i t h Laing's general p o l i t i c a l s t r a t e g y and were convinced  t h a t he  could not a i d the p a r t y on e i t h e r l e v e l by h i s continued  109  activity  in provincial politics.  Laing's  electoral  defeat along w i t h the f r i c t i o n which developed between L a i n g and the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n both a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y areas e v e n t u a l l y f o r c e d f e d e r a l l e a d e r s i n t o open o p p o s i t i o n to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r .  While s e v e r a l mem-  bers of the f e d e r a l p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t many of  Laing's  d i f f i c u l t i e s were beyond h i s c o n t r o l , they f e l t t h a t the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s d e f e a t made the need f o r a new image and o r g a n i z a t i o n even more urgent. p a r t y b e l i e v e d t h a t Laing's departure encourage the r e t u r n of important  leader,  The f e d e r a l  a t l e a s t might  f i n a n c i a l backing which  would a i d i n the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s r e o r g a n i z a t i o n . Senator Smith's statement to the Executive C o u n c i l a t the time of Mr. Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n i n d i c a t e d the importance of the p a r t y ' s f i n a n c i a l predicament i n the p a t t e r n of f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s d u r i n g the Laing p e r i o d . Being out of power has caused hard times w i t h i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y . A f t e r our bad defeat i n the 1 9 5 6 / p r o v i n c i a l / e l e c t i o n and w i t h our l e a d e r not s i t t i n g In the House, as w e l l as the general c o l l a p s e of the p a r t y , f i r m s are not donating funds to us. The p a r t y has l i t t l e money now and to c a r r y on i t must have donations from b u s i n e s s . Most p r o v i n c i a l spending i s from funds intended f o r the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . . . ^7 The r e c i p r o c a l nature of p a r t y fortunes combined w i t h the comparative s t r e n g t h of the f e d e r a l wing to encourage i n c r e a s e d f e d e r a l a c t i v i t y  and domination.  While  110  another p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r might not have fought f o r h i s autonomy as s t r e n u o u s l y as d i d Mr. L a i n g , i t i s d o u b t f u l "whether the s t r a i n s of the p e r i o d can be f a i r l y buted to the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r .  attri-  The sources of f e d e r a l -  p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n were contained w i t h i n the s i t u a t i o n wherein the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h e l d unusual power i n an o r g a n i z a t i o n which was  designed  autonomy and had operated control.  to a l l o w p r o v i n c i a l  i n the past under p r o v i n c i a l  W i t h i n the p a r t y the clashes of the p e r i o d have  been blamed on the unfortunate circumstances  of p r o v i n c i a l  p o l i t i c s w h i l e the a c t i o n s of the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r have been e x p l a i n e d by the immense f r u s t r a t i o n s of h i s p o s i t i o n . Many f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s may  w e l l have h e l d these  opinions  a t the time of Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n and c e r t a i n l y the f e d e r a l wing has not h e l d a p e r s o n a l grudge a g a i n s t the former p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s f o r h i s s u c c e s s f u l r e t u r n to f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s suggests t h a t the f e d e r a l p a r t y understood Laing's predicament and were, i n the l a s t a n a l y s i s , a p p r e c i a t i v e of h i s o r i g i n a l s a c r i f i c e .  PEBEAULT  1959  -  1965:  CONTROL OF THE PROVINCIAL ORGANIZATION: While Laing was  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , f e d e r a l  c o n t r o l w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n had g r e a t l y  Ill i n c r e a s e d but the f e d e r a l wing was a l s o aware of the resentment c r e a t e d by t h e i r p o s i t i o n of dominance. time of Laing's r e s i g n a t i o n ,  At the  Senator Smith expressed t h i s  predicament when he suggested t h a t i t would be wrong " f o r the Committee of O f f i c e r s to name a candidate they support f o r the l e a d e r s h i p because some would say the 28  b i g boys a r e s u p p o r t i n g t h i s c a n d i d a t e . "  Discontent  i n the p r o v i n c i a l wing p a r t l y r e f l e c t e d the f r u s t r a t i o n s of defeat but there was a l s o a genuine f e e l i n g amongst rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s that t h e i r p a r t y was i n d i f f e r e n t to them.  The r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s  o f t e n complained t h a t  they were unaware of l e a d e r s h i p d e c i s i o n s . had  Some e f f o r t s  been made to remedy t h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the c o n s t i t u -  t i o n a l changes of 1956 when the a r t i c u l a t i o n between the r i d i n g associations  and the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n  had  The subsequent defeat of the p a r t y ,  been improved.  however, delayed the a p p l i c a t i o n of the reforms to the day-to-day o p e r a t i o n s of the p a r t y .  To many young  amateur L i b e r a l s , the l e a d e r s h i p Convention of 1959 r e f l e c t e d the -growing power of the rank and f i l e f o r a p p a r e n t l y the i n f l u e n c e  of the remnant " o l d guard" had  been kept to a minimum i n the s e l e c t i o n of Ray P e r r a u l t , the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r , and George Gregory, a MLA from V i c t o r i a , as the two candidates f o r the p r o v i n c i a l leadership.  The convention l e a d e r s h i p campaign was  s u r p r i s i n g l y " s p i r i t e d , " i n view of the c o n d i t i o n  of the  112 p a r t y and when P e r r a u l t won by a wide m a r g i n , some o f t h e p a r t y ' s young members i d e a l i z e d t h e s e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s a s one  of grass roots democracy. ^  i n s p i t e o f t h e open  2  form o f the e l e c t i o n , the L i b e r a l Senators and former cabinet ministers attended  t h e C o n v e n t i o n and s e r v e d  imposing backdrop f o r the l e a d e r s h i p candidates. p a r t y members even b e l i e v e d t h a t S e n a t o r S m i t h  a s an Some  favored  P e r r a u l t and t h a t t h e f e d e r a l w i n g had g e n e r a l l y b a c k e d t h i s r e l a t i v e newcomer t o p a r t y  politics.  Whatever t h e s p e c i f i c r o l e o f t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r s during t h i s convention,  i t was c l e a r t h a t t h e f e d e r a l w i n g  of the party maintained  i t s i n f l u e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of  the A s s o c i a t i o n . represent  The C o n v e n t i o n o f 1959 d i d , however,  a turning point i n the pattern of party  A f t e r 1959 t h e s c a r c i t y o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s  ship.  a l l o w e d new amateur L i b e r a l s t o assume a more r o l e i n the l e a d e r s h i p of the party. federal leaders still  leader-  i n semi-retirement  important  W i t h many o f t h e  and t h e p r o v i n c i a l w i n g  i n a s t a t e of c o l l a p s e , the f e d e r a l wing encouraged  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f a s t r o n g e r and more s e l f amateur o r g a n i z a t i o n .  sufficient  The new amateur L i b e r a l s were thus  c l o s e l y a l l i e d w i t h t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y and t h e y were a t f i r s t resented leaders.  by some o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d r a n k and f i l e  Indeed, a f t e r 1959,  the major  of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l f r i c t i o n occurred  manifestations i n p a r t because o f  113 the  competition  between two  groups of amateur L i b e r a l s  f o r the p o s i t i o n s o f L e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the A f t e r 1959  two  factors contributed  i m p o r t a n c e o f the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s . new  p o s i t i o n was  aided  by  Association. to the  Firstly,  growing their  the r e l a t i v e absence of domi-  n a n t p r o f e s s i o n a l L i b e r a l s i n the A s s o c i a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y 1959.  when S e n a t o r S m i t h r e t i r e d f r o m the p r e s i d e n c y i n S e c o n d l y , t h e new  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r was  the o f f i c e r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n P a t t u l l o or Hart. attempted to c o n f i n e p r o v i n c i a l concern.  The  new  unable to  i n the manner o f O l i v e r ,  p r o v i n c i a l leader  o f the A s s o c i a t i o n .  now  h i s a t t e n t i o n e n t i r e l y to m a t t e r s W i t h the e x c e p t i o n  of the  z a t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l campaigns, P e r r a u l t a l s o most of the g e n e r a l  select  organiabdicated  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s to the o f f i c e r s S i n c e the s m a l l L i b e r a l  i n the l e g i s l a t u r e c o n s i s t e d  of s e v e r a l  contingent  influential  L i b e r a l s , P e r r a u l t ' s p o s i t i o n as p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  leader  d i d n o t g r e a t l y enhance h i s p o s i t i o n o f power w i t h i n p a r t y and,  c o n s e q u e n t l y , i n o r d e r to s t a b i l i z e  relations with  the f e d e r a l w i n g of the p a r t y , he  emerged between the o f f i c e r s o f . t h e A s s o c i a t i o n . w i t h d r a w a l from c e r t a i n a s p e c t s o f A s s o c i a t i o n the o f f i c e r s o f the p a r t y  active role.  the  his tried  t o r e m a i n as n e u t r a l as p o s s i b l e i n the d i f f i c u l t i e s  allowed  of  which  His  business  t o assume a much more  114  During t h i s p e r i o d , the i n f l u e n c e of the f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n was i n p a r t preserved by the a c t i v i t y of s e v e r a l p r o v i n c i a l businessmen who had supported the f e d e r a l p a r t y .  S e v e r a l of these  business-  men a c t i v e l y entered the p a r t y as a r e s u l t of the Conservative v i c t o r i e s In the f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s of 1957 and 1 9 5 8 .  T h e i r contact w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s  was  maintained by a L i b e r a l businessmen's c l u b which r a i s e d funds and r e c r u i t e d a d d i t i o n a l amateur l e a d e r s f o r f u t u r e f e d e r a l campaigns.  These amateur l e a d e r s  played  an a c t i v e p a r t i n the a f f a i r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n and helped to r e - b u i l d the o r g a n i z a t i o n , d u r i n g the p e r i o d i n which the f e d e r a l wing had no p r o v i n c i a l l y - b a s e d federal professionals.  S e v e r a l newcomers, who  formally  entered the p a r t y a t t h i s time, campaigned f o r the p o s i t i o n s of l e a d e r s h i p i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . The i n f l u e n c e of the amateur leaders  was,  however, dependent upon t h e i r a b i l i t y to o b t a i n i n t o the l e a d e r s h i p ranks of the A s s o c i a t i o n  entry  itself.  The e l e c t i o n f o r P r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1961 provided  an o p p o r t u n i t y  their'amateur patrons.  f o r the f e d e r a l wing to support In t h i s h i g h l y  competitive  campaign many of the former and a s p i r i n g f e d e r a l  leaders  i n the province.openly backed Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , a l e a d i n g p r o v i n c i a l businessman and. r e l a t i v e newcomer to party  115 politics.3°  These f e d e r a l l e a d e r s hoped t h a t M a r t i n  w o u l d g i v e t h e p a r t y a new image i n t h e p r o v i n c e and p r o v i d e t h e p a r t y w i t h more competent a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e a d e r ship.  Furthermore, h i s a b i l i t y to a t t r a c t  important  f i n a n c i a l c a p i t a l t o t h e p a r t y ' s campaign f u n d was p a r t i c u l a r l y c r i t i c a l a t t h i s time.  I n c o n t r a s t , the f e d e r a l  w i n g was s c e p t i c a l a b o u t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a b i l i t y o f a n o t h e r s t r o n g c a n d i d a t e , Mr. W i l l i a m G i l m o u r .  Although  G i l m o u r had worked f o r t h e p a r t y many y e a r s many f e d e r a l l e a d e r s f e l t t h a t his; p e r s o n a l i t y would a l i e n a t e from important  quarters.  support  With a f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n  Imminent, t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y hoped t o have a p r e s i d e n t who w o u l d work c l o s e l y w i t h them i n t h e c a m p a i g n .  A third  c a n d i d a t e , Mr. J o h n D. T a g g a r t , was e n c o u r a g e d t o s e e k t h e presidency  by s e v e r a l I m p o r t a n t f i g u r e s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n -  c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and a p p a r e n t l y o f S e n a t o r s S m i t h and F a r r i s .  he a l s o had t h e s u p p o r t Many r a n k and f i l e  Liberal  w o r k e r s b e l i e v e d t h a t b o t h T a g g a r t a n d M a r t i n were " o u t s i d e r s " a n d pawns o f t h e " o l d g u a r d " o r t h e " b i g b o y s . The  s u s p i c i o n s o f t h e r a n k and f i l e  the supporters candidates  regarding  o f M a r t i n and T a g g a r t were c o r r e c t f o r b o t h  openly sought the support  f i g u r e s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  of the prominent G i l m o u r , on t h e  o t h e r hand, worked among t h e r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s and  116  campaigned w i t h p a r t i c u l a r z e a l i n the n o r t h and i n the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e where he presented h i m s e l f as the candidate o f the rank and f i l e .  At the e l e c t i o n  many p a r t y supporters from Vancouver and the urban areas of the lower mainland voted f o r Gilmour not only because they r e s p e c t e d h i s d e d i c a t i o n to the p a r t y but a l s o because they o b j e c t e d to the manner i n which the p a r t y l e a d e r s expected to s e l e c t the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s o f f i c e r s . Many amateur L i b e r a l s p a r t i c u l a r l y resented M a r t i n ' s candidacy because they f e l t t h a t the presidency was being " o f f e r e d " to a newcomer t o p r o v i d e a convenient base from which t o o r g a n i z e the forthcoming f e d e r a l campaign. Gilmour was e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of t h i s rank and f i l e sentiment and although the defeated candidates were o f f e r e d p o s i t i o n s as v i c e - p r e s i d e n t s to c r e a t e an image o f p a r t y u n i t y , the three never r e a l l y cooperated on any j o i n t ventures. 32  <p  ne  e f f o r t to d i s p l a c e Gilmour by the f e d e r a l  wing of the p a r t y was resumed i n the f a l l o f 1 9 6 2 , when Mr. George Van Eoggen, who had been p r e s i d e n t of the Coast Capilano L i b e r a l R i d i n g A s s o c i a t i o n and had c l o s e a l l i a n c e s w i t h the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s , r a n a g a i n s t Gilmour f o r the presidency of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  Disharmony w i t h i n the  p a r t y became an i s s u e d i s c u s s e d by the candidates d u r i n g the campaign but when Gilmour won r e - e l e c t i o n once a g a i n 33  he denied t h a t such disharmony e x i s t e d .  117 Although representatives of  the  federal  were u n a b l e  l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the  close  ties  w i t h the  and amateur their  leaders  effectiveness  activity  of  wing and t h e i r to  the p a r t y  and a l t h o u g h  they  later  leaders  p r o v i d e d the  who e m e r g e d  their  after  interest  became more  an extended  placated  those  Since  1963  the  was  sections their  time,  of  the  initial  federal  the  recovered still  conducted to  party  its  of  the  of  has  the  into  of  several  interests its  party.  active  in  the  L i b e r a l members  and, of  the  province  of has  consequently, Association.  own o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d  e x c l u s i o n and i r r i t a t i o n  the  have  province,  i n the  throughout  While s t r a i n s  activity  organization  the  from the  strength  directed  to  rank and f i l e  organization  former  1962 a n d 1 9 6 3 ,  the  federal,  party  seemed  entry  have  own c a m p a i g n s  personalities. tions  its  tends t o d o m i n a t e  The f e d e r a l  often  The f e d e r a l  much o f  for  election  originally  they  ministers  A s s o c i a t i o n as  parliament.  The  support  A r t h u r L a i n g a n d J a c k N i c h o l s o n , h a v e become provincial  insured  involved with provincial p o l i t i c s .  p e r i o d of  who h a d r e s e n t e d  professional  i n E a s t e r n Canada  By t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n b o t h s p h e r e s for  and  their  w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  leaders,  1963  positions  provincial Association,  t h e new a m a t e u r s  new f e d e r a l  obtain o f f i c i a l  former f e d e r a l of  amateur  emerged  two w i n g s  the of  period  but  some p r o v i n c i a l  d u r i n g the presented  eleca much  118  more u n i f i e d f r o n t i n the most recent e l e c t i o n i n  1965-  Since the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s r e t u r n to power i n 196-3, there has been a genuine attempt by both wings of the p a r t y to r e c t i f y the imbalances which were r e s p o n s i b l e for  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the past.  f i n a n c i a l imbalances s t i l l e x i s t and continue  Although  to create  f r i c t i o n , a r e c e n t l y i n s t i t u t e d membership fee helps  the 34  p r o v i n c i a l wing to c o n t r i b u t e to A s s o c i a t i o n expenses. Many of the f e d e r a l p a r t y ' s f i n a n c i a l supporters  still  r e f u s e to support the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y but s i n c e t h i s c o n d i t i o n i s no l o n g e r r e l a t e d to s p e c i f i c p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s , i t threatens n e i t h e r f e d e r a l sources of income nor the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two wings of the p a r t y . The p r o v i n c i a l wing has not openly expressed d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and f i n a n c i a l arrangements t h a t now  e x i s t and w h i l e some p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s have  s t r e s s e d t h a t no s h a r i n g of funds i s p e r m i t t e d , the r e l a t i ^ s t r e n g t h of the f e d e r a l wing suggests t h a t they pay  a  l a r g e r share of j o i n t p a r t y expenses. The absence of s i g n i f i c a n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s suggests t h a t some f i n a n c i a l agreement has been reached between the two wings or a l t e r n a t i v e l y , t h a t the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y i s now  w i l l i n g to finance i t s own  campaigns.  The  p r o v i n c i a l leaders seem s a t i s f i e d to d i r e c t p o l i c y w i t h i n  119  the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d and to l e a v e many aspects of g e n e r a l organization  to the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  While  t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f e d e r a l campaigns and a f f a i r s depends upon i n v i t a t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l wing has o c c a s i o n a l l y lacked information  on f e d e r a l p o l i c y concerning the  p r o v i n c e and has a t times s u f f e r e d embarrassment but these breakdowns of communication have not caused p u b l i c d i s harmony and the f e d e r a l p a r t y has t r i e d to keep the p r o v i n c i a l leaders  f a i r l y w e l l informed.  C e r t a i n l y the  r e l a t i v e harmony s i n c e 1963 suggests t h a t some a d j u s t ments have been made, to accommodate and maximize f e d e r a l dominance w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  SOURCES OF FEDERAL - PROVINCIAL FRICTION: Since 1959 there have been a few d i r e c t c o n f l i c t s between the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r and the members of the f e d e r a l wing i n the p r o v i n c e .  Although P e r r a u l t p r i v a -  t e l y may have supported some members of the p r o v i n c i a l wing who had r e s i s t e d the growing power of those amateurs s u p p o r t i n g the f e d e r a l p a r t y , i n p u b l i c he attempted to remain n e u t r a l .  Since many s i t u a t i o n s which  federal-provincial friction  created  i n v o l v e d questions of p e r s o n a l  competence and c o m p a t a b i l i t y ,  P e r r a u l t ' s n e u t r a l i t y was  s k i l l f u l and d i s c r e e t and c e r t a i n l y h i s p o s i t i o n  as p a r t y  120 leader  has r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s t a b l e .  occasional the  rumors w i t h i n t h e p a r t y w h i c h s u g g e s t  " o l d g u a r d " may i n t e n d  caution  There have been  to replace  P e r r a u l t and h i s  i n f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d c o n f l i c t s may w e l l  f e e l i n g s o f i n s e c u r i t y as w e l l a s a d e s i r e unified p r o v i n c i a l party.  that  reflect  to maintain a  Despite Perrault's  careful  n e u t r a l i t y f r i c t i o n w h i c h has d e v e l o p e d i n t o c l e a r f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l c o n f l i c t s , has o c c u r r e d between  well-defined  segments o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l and t h e f e d e r a l w i n g s .  ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: During t h i s period, differences campaigns  administrative  developed over the o r g a n i z a t i o n  o f 1962 a n d 1963-  t h e 1961  during  the major  o f the f e d e r a l  These s t r a i n s f i r s t  campaign for t h e p r e s i d e n t  appeared  of the A s s o c i a -  t i o n when t h e f e d e r a l w i n g o f t h e p a r t y  hoped  a president  to f e d e r a l  who w o u l d be more r e c e p t i v e  and more a t t r a c t i v e t o f i n a n c i a l p a t r o n s . e f f o r t f a i l e d and Gilmour r e t a i n e d Association,  When t h i s  the Presidency of the  repercussions during  the f e d e r a l  The a p p o i n t m e n t o f a s e p a r a t e f e d e r a l  committee was u n d o u b t e d l y t h e p r e r o g a t i v e leader  needs  t h e d i v i d e d c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y had  administrative of 1 9 6 2 .  to i n s t a l l  but Martin  campaign campaign  o f the f e d e r a l  was named c h a i r m a n o f t h e f e d e r a l  campaign committee and G i l m o u r b e l i e v e d  t h a t he had been  121  u n f a i r l y excluded from the proceedings.  Differences  w i t h the f e d e r a l wing were aggravated, even f u r t h e r when the f e d e r a l campaign committee h i r e d Mr. Ronald F a i r c l o u g h whom Gilmour had f i r e d from a p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z e r because of h i s support f o r M a r t i n i n the p r e s i d e n t i a l c a m p a i g n . T h e h o s t i l i t y between the f e d e r a l campaign committee and Gilmour's p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e became p a r t i c u l a r l y intense d u r i n g the campaign and a t times f e d e r a l workers were denied access to c r u c i a l m a i l i n g l i s t s and other i n f o r m a t i o n housed i n the perma37 nent p a r t y o f f i c e .  At the end of the campaign the  f e d e r a l o r g a n i z e r s maintained t h e i r separate o f f i c e and some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s assumed that the f e d e r a l wing intended  to separate t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n but i t was r a t h e r  the prospect of another f e d e r a l campaign t h a t prompted t h i s a c t i o n on the p a r t of the f e d e r a l wing.  Certainly  they q u i c k l y c l o s e d t h e i r o f f i c e once o b j e c t i o n s were r a i s e d w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e s between Gilmour and the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s continued  i n t o the next f e d e r a l campaign.  Mr. Van Roggen, who had u n s u c c e s s f u l l y opposed Gilmour f o r the presidency  of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1 9 6 2 , was  appointed co-chairman of the f e d e r a l campaign w i t h Mr. L. C. J o l i v e t , a Vancouver businessman and Gilmour and h i s a s s o c i a t e s i n the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o f f i c e once  122 more r e f u s e d to g i v e the campaign committee f u l l coopera-. tion.  The  s t r a i n s were so s e r i o u s t h a t Mr. Walter Gordon,  the n a t i o n a l campaign chairman, attempted to b r i n g the two groups together when he v i s i t e d the c i t y .  The  provin-  c i a l l e a d e r w i t h o u t appearing to take s i d e s , a l s o t r i e d to b r i n g Gilmour and the f e d e r a l campaign committee t o gether but these overtures were not very s u c c e s s f u l . While the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y e x e r c i s e d i t s own  d i s c r e t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n of the campaign committee  and was not pressured  i n t o any d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g  the  conduct of the campaign, the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the made i t s s t r o n g f e e l i n g of autonomy c l e a r to the sional federal leadership.  The  party  profes-  s t r o n g support which  Gilmour r e c e i v e d i n s p i t e of h i s i n d i s c r e t i o n s t e s t i f i e d to the s t r o n g f e e l i n g s amongst p r o v i n c i a l rank and L i b e r a l s over t h e i r r i g h t to choose t h e i r own  file  leaders.  Although many of the rank and f i l e never objected  to the  p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s of e i t h e r wing supporting or even i n t r o d u c i n g the candidates,  they objected to the f e d e r a l  wing's support of a man  had never p r e v i o u s l y been  a c t i v e i n the p a r t y .  who  They a l s o objected to the manner i n  which the newly e l e c t e d p r e s i d e n t of the A s s o c i a t i o n ignored by the f e d e r a l leaders once t h e i r own had been defeated.  Although many of those who  was  candidates supported  Gilmour s t r o n g l y b e l i e v e d t h a t the p r i n c i p l e of autonomy  123 needed to be p r e s e r v e d , they a l s o r e a l i z e d that the c h o i c e of Gilmour as the symbol o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e was unfortunate.  N e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t r a i n s caused by t h i s  c o n f l i c t made the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s aware o f the s e n s i t i v i t y of the p r o v i n c i a l rank and f i l e . The r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s a l s o v a l u e d t h e i r autonomy and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e i r r i g h t to s e l e c t p a r t y candidates.  I n 19&3,  the f e d e r a l p a r t y encountered  resentment i n the V i c t o r i a r i d i n g when they attempted t o ensure the proper e x e c u t i o n of a nomination e l e c t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y had s t a r t e d i n 1962 when Mr. F o s t e r Isherwood won the Oak Bay L i b e r a l nomination over General F o u l k e s , a candidate favored by s e v e r a l prominent leaders.  federal  During the course of the campaign Mr. Isherwood  i r r i t a t e d the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s and they proceeded to o b s t r u c t h i s nomination f o r the next e l e c t i o n .  I n the  f o l l o w i n g y e a r , the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s s t r o n g l y supported Mr. David Groos f o r the nomination and d i s p a t c h e d a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e to the nomination meeting when rumors of i l l e g a l p r a c t i c e s c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n the p a r t y .  Groos  was nominated by a c l o s e vote and the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e prevented a second vote d e s p i t e a c c u s a t i o n s of i r r e g u l a r i t i e s by Isherwood's  supporters.  Isherwood  b e l i e v e d that t h i s d e c i s i o n was based upon the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p ' s support of Groos r a t h e r than upon the  124 evidence presented a t the meeting.  He charged t h a t  this  c o n s t i t u t e d f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e i n the a f f a i r s of a riding association.  Isherwood subsequently d e f i e d the  p a r t y and r a n as an independent and was e x p e l l e d from the Greater V i c t o r i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n along w i t h many of his supporters.  The matter caused a d d i t i o n a l embarrass-  ment to the p a r t y when two of Isherwood's s u p p o r t e r s , who had a l s o been o f f i c e r s of the r i d i n g a s s o c i a t i o n , announced t h e i r support f o r S o c i a l C r e d i t on the eve of the f o l l o w i n g p r o v i n c i a l election.3$  Because o f the  dominance of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the p a r t y a t t h i s time, the r i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s  were p a r t i c u l a r l y  s e n s i t i v e t o a l l e g e d " f e d e r a l i n t e r f e r e n c e " and, c e r t a i n l y , the i n c i d e n t causedmore concern w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n than i t would have i n the past.  Since  Isherwood's l a t e r d e f i a n c e of the p a r t y was c a l c u l a t e d to embarrass the p a r t y , many rank and f i l e L i b e r a l s were w i l l i n g to accept the judgment of the f e d e r a l wing i n the controversy. The  e l e c t i o n of L. C. J o l i v e t to the presidency  of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n January of 1964 was w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d as a symbol of party unity.39  A f t e r a p e r i o d of c o n s i -  derable s u s p i c i o n and misunderstanding of the motives of the f e d e r a l l e a d e r s h i p  of the p a r t y , t h i s image of u n i t y  was achieved because J o l i v e t had served on both the  125 t h e f e d e r a l and  p r o v i n c i a l campaign c o m m i t t e e s and  f i r m s u p p o r t f r o m b o t h f e d e r a l and H i s c a n d i d a c y was and  had  p r o v i n c i a l quarters.  a l s o s u p p o r t e d by r a n k and  file  leaders  s i n c e h i s e l e c t i o n , J o l i v e t has worked c l o s e l y w i t h  b o t h w i n g s o f the p a r t y . p a r t y a r e e x t e n s i v e and  H i s c o n t a c t s w i t h the f e d e r a l he a l s o r e p r e s e n t s  the  C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n on n a t i o n a l p a r t y  British committees  i n Ottawa.  A l t h o u g h J o l i v e t was  o r i g i n a l l y brought i n t o  t h e p a r t y by  the L i b e r a l b u s i n e s s m e n ' s group because of  h i s i n t e r e s t i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s , he has  since  involved  h i m s e l f w i t h p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n as a w h o l e . Recently  J o l i v e t has  proposed a p l a n f o r a s e l e c t i v e modi-  f i c a t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , w h i c h w o u l d remove the d i s t i n c t i o n between f e d e r a l and organizations  provincial riding  i n some p a r t s o f t h e p r o v i n c e .  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l i n c o n v e n i e n c e s  Because o f  of l a r g e , r u r a l  i s o l a t e d r i d i n g s , J o l i v e t hoped to r e c o n s t r u c t the  or provin-  c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n on the b a s i s o f p o p u l a t i o n c o n t i g u i t y and  c o n c e n t r a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n upon l e g a l r i d i n g  The  plan creates  population  boundaries.  s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t party organizations  centers  "bounded b u t n o t i n t e r s e c t e d by e i t h e r  f e d e r a l o r p r o v i n c i a l r i d i n g b o u n d a r i e s , " so t h a t can be u t i l i z e d i n b o t h f e d e r a l and These new i n order  in  they  p r o v i n c i a l campaigns.  o r g a n i z a t i o n s would p a r t i c i p a t e i n conventions to n o m i n a t e the v a r i o u s r i d i n g c a n d i d a t e s  and  t h u s the m a i n l e g a l f u n c t i o n of the r i d i n g s u b - d i v i s i o n  126 could be performed without d i s t u r b i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n of 40 the p a r t y i t s e l f . The p l a n was presented as a symbol o f the p a r t y ' s concern f o r a u n i f i e d and e f f i c i e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n .  It will  be used s e l e c t i v e l y i n the areas where e i t h e r the q u a l i t y of the campaign o r g a n i z a t i o n needs to be improved or the c o n t i n u i t y of the p a r t y ' s o r g a n i z a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d .  The  i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p l a n demonstrated by a l l segments of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n may r e f l e c t genuine concern f o r the development of a more u n i f i e d p a r t y organization.  The d i s r u p t i v e experiences  of recent  f e d e r a l campaigns have c e r t a i n l y made the p a r t y w e l l aware of the damaging e f f e c t s of i n t e r n a l p a r t y c o n f l i c t s . Many p a r t y l e a d e r s continue t o m a i n t a i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f i c u l t i e s which accompanied the f e d e r a l campaigns and the p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n s were n o t h i n g more than p e r s o n a l i t y c l a s h e s b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the s t r a i n s which they created have prompted p a r t y l e a d e r s to reassess many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s which i n v o l v e f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l party  cooperation,  127  POLICY DIFFERENCES: Since 1959  there have been no major d i f f e r e n c e s  over p u b l i c p o l i c y between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l wings of the p a r t y .  On a few i s s u e s the p r o v i n c i a l  p o s i t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t to the f e d e r a l p o l i c y has been ambiguous but even w i t h i n the f e d e r a l wing these i s s u e s provoked a d i a l o g u e .  For example, i n 1963,  Perrault  was not kept informed on the n e g o t i a t i o n s on the Columbia R i v e r Treaty between Premier W. A. C. Bennett and the L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa.  The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y thus  d i d not know whether the f e d e r a l p a r t y had maintained i t s o r i g i n a l p o l i c y of s e e k i n g to r e n e g o t i a t e the t r e a t y or whether they had made some compromise w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l Premier.  When Bennett i n d i c a t e d that he had concluded  a s u c c e s s f u l arrangement w i t h Ottawa on the c o n t r o v e r s i a l matter, the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s , a c c o r d i n g to one newspaper r e p o r t , were " s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u n w i l l i n g or unable to c o n t r a d i c t Bennett.  I n q u i r i e s a t L i b e r a l o f f i c e r s here  y i e l d only the impression they are both confused and. angry over the Ottawa deal." ^k  The p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y was e v e n t u a l l y informed of the arrangements  and were a b l e to u t i l i z e some of t h e i r  i n f o r m a t i o n i n the next campaign.  Indeed, the pro-  v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s t r i e d to use the success of the f e d e r a l  128  p a r t y to t h e i r advantage and claimed t h a t the province r e c e i v e d more b e n e f i t s from the r e v i s e d t r e a t y because the L i b e r a l s had i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l safeguards which Bennett 43 had not requested.  J  The f r i c t i o n generated between  s e v e r a l members of the f e d e r a l wing over s u b s t a n t i a l p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s was g r e a t e r than t h a t which  occurred  between the p r o v i n c i a l wing and the f e d e r a l p a r t y because of f a u l t y communications.  Throughout the years d u r i n g  which the t r e a t y was an i s s u e i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s , the p r o v i n c i a l wing of the p a r t y attempted to f o l l o w the general l i n e s of f e d e r a l p o l i c y .  At times i t appeared  t h a t the p a r t y was a c t i v e l y t r y i n g to coordinate f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y on the matter.  This type of co-  o r d i n a t i o n was more d i f f i c u l t to achieve when the f e d e r a l p a r t y was i n power because they had c e r t a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to the p r o v i n c i a l government and could not always openly c o n s u l t w i t h the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y .  While f r i c t i o n  could w e l l have emerged between the two wings of the p a r t y i f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s had objected to Ottawa's p o l i c y toward the p r o v i n c i a l government, i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r i s s u e no major c o n f l i c t s developed. A f t e r 1 9 5 9 the f e d e r a l leaders ceased to wage general a t t a c k s on p r o v i n c i a l s t r a t e g y and p o l i c y . Since P e r r a u l t became p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , the tone of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y has changed and, i n g e n e r a l , f e d e r a l  129 l e a d e r s have been s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s approach.  Because  of the p e c u l i a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l administrative  d i f f i c u l t i e s and the more n e u t r a l r o l e of  the present p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r ,  p o l i c y and  administrative  problems have been l e s s c l o s e l y r e l a t e d than they were d u r i n g Laing's l e a d e r s h i p  of the p a r t y .  Owing to the  l e s s frequent m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s , the new r o l e of the amateur A s s o c i a t i o n emergence of a new group of p r o f e s s i o n a l  l e a d e r s and the federal leaders  s i n c e 1963, f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y r e l a t i o n s appear to be more s t a b l e today than they have been a t any time s i n c e the end of c o a l i t i o n .  This adjustment seems to be  based upon a more r e a l i s t i c acceptance of f e d e r a l dominance w i t h i n the a f f a i r s o f the A s s o c i a t i o n  and perhaps a more  s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s dominance w i t h i n p a r t y c i r c l e s .  FOOTNOTES i o ^ 1966.  I  n  t  e  r  V  l  e  W  W  l  t  h  M r  *  F  r  a  n  k  G  *  P  '  L e w l s  > January  2?,  2  Ibid.  3  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Senator Sidney Smith, A p r i l 1 9 , 1 9 6 5 .  4  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. James S i n c l a i r , September 30,  1965.  5 Interviews w i t h Mr. Ralph Campney, January 1 8 , 1965, Mr. James S i n c l a i r , January 11, 1965 and Senator Sidney Smith, A p r i l 19, 1965. 6  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Ralph Campney, January 18,  1965'  7 There was some disagreement about the degree of p r o v i n c i a l dependence on the f e d e r a l wing of the p a r t y , although most L i b e r a l s b e l i e v e d that i t c o n s t i t u t e d dependence by 1956. 8  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , October 28,  1957.  9 D i l l o n O'Leary, "Laing's Grip Firm as L i b e r a l Leader," The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , November 4, 1957. 10 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Don L a n s k a i l , February 1 4 , 1966. Mr. L a n s k a i l headed the committee which r e - d r a f t e d the c o n s t i t u t i o n i n 1956. 11 This t o p i c w i l l be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r i n a l a t e r s e c t i o n of t h i s chapter. 12 The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1956, mimeographed, a r t i c l e 6, p. 4 and The C o n s t i t u t i o n of the B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , mimeographed, a r t i c l e 6, p. 10. 130  131 13 The c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n u s u a l l y d e f i n e the r o l e of the p o l i c y making c o m m i t t e e s n e g a t i v e l y b y s t a t i n g t h a t t h e y may t r a n s a c t a l l b u s i n e s s e x c e p t what i s r e s e r v e d to the Convention.  14 The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n , l 7 > m i m e o g r a p h e d , a r t i c l e 8, p . 4. ~ Q k  15  Ibid.  16 The E x e c u t i v e C o m m i t t e e c o n t a i n e d a l l d e f e a t e d p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l c a n d i d a t e s and, c o n s e q u e n t l y , c o u l d d o m i n a t e d by the p r o v i n c i a l w i n g o f the p a r t y .  1? None o f t h e L i b e r a l s i n t e r v i e w e d p r e s e n t e d e v i d e n c e f o r such an agreement.  be  concrete  18 I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , J a n u a r y 3-1» 1966. Mr. M a r t i n was n o t a c t i v e i n t h e p a r t y a t t h i s t i m e b u t he h a d some c o n t a c t w i t h f e d e r a l l e a d e r s . Other a c t i v e L i b e r a l s agreed w i t h the substance of t h i s s u g g e s t i o n , a l t h o u g h many q u e s t i o n e d w h e t h e r f e d e r a l a c t i o n was q u i t e so s e l f - c o n s c i o u s .  19  Interview with  20 This topic this chapter.  Mr.  will  be  Frank  G.  P.  Lewis,  discussed i n another  21  Interview with  Mr.  Grant  22  Interview with  Mr.  James S i n c l a i r ,  23  The  24  Several Liberals  Vancouver  February  Province,  section  Deachman, J a n u a r y  18,  September  November 4,  interviewed hinted at  30,  14,1966. of  1965.  1966.  1957'  such  pressure.  132 25 I n t e r v i e w w i t h S e n a t o r J . W. d e B . F a r r i s , 1966. S e n a t o r F a r r i s o p p o s e d t h i s p o l i c y on a n d was u p s e t w i t h L a i n g ' s g e n e r a l s t r a t e g y .  January 19, principle  26 T h i s o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d b y a l m o s t a l l L i b e r a l s i n t e r v i e w e d who w e r e a c t i v e i n t h e p a r t y b e t w e e n 1952  and  1959. 27  Edward  28  Ibid.  29  Ibid.,  30  Interview with  31 Mr.  I n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , J a n u a r y J a c k T a g g a r t , F e b r u a r y 3, 1966.  Hepner,  p.  56-57.  0p_.  C i t . , pp.  Mr.  James S i n c l a i r ,  80.  32 Some o f G i l m o u r ' s s u p p o r t e r s b e l i e v e d was a n i n d i r e c t way o f g e t t i n g M a r t i n a n d Committee o f O f f i c e r s .  33  The  Vancouver  Sun,  October  29,  11,  January  31,  1965.  1966  and  that t h i s motion T a g g a r t on t h e  1962.  3 A l t h o u g h most p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s c l a i m t h a t the membership f e e h e l p s the A s s o c i a t i o n m a i n t a i n an independent p o s i t i o n , o t h e r s w i t h i n the p a r t y i n f e r t h a t t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n i s a l m o s t m e a n i n g l e s s i n terms o f the p r e s e n t c o s t of the A s s o c i a t i o n ' s f a c i l i t i e s . k  35  Interview with  Mr.  Grant  Deachman, J a n u a r y  36 I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t G i l m o u r employee of the p a r t y s h o u l d not politics.  37 and  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. R i c h a r d Mr. J a c k T a g g a r t , F e b r u a r y  18,  1965.  believed that a paid enter internal party  Sonley, January 3, 1966.  27,  1966  133  38  The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , J u l y 5 ,  39  Paddy Sherman, The Vancouver P r o v i n c e , January 2 9 ,  40  I n t e r v i e w w i t h Mr. L. G. J o l i v e t , February 1, 1966.  4-1  The F i n a n c i a l P o s t , Toronto, January 2 9 ,  42  The Vancouver Sun, September 12,  43  I b i d . , January 2 2 ,  1964.  1964.  1963.  1963.  1963.  CHAPTER S I X  CONCLUSION This  thesis  f e d e r a l i s m upon the British  proposed  and those  manifestations  and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s  vant  the  case-study  federal  of  the  and to  of  party the  needs of wider  It  party  effect  organization  federal  control of that  leaders  the party  In p a r t i c u l a r source,  the  the  electoral  was a l s o  the  federal  believed  o f power w i t h i n the p a r t y ,  of  established  often  diverse  organization.^  leadership  of  only  of  reflected  was  interests  and  not  seek  assumed,  and the  indicate  the  formal it  I t was  to  the  stabilfocus  clarify  organization.  changing only  the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n but  134  as a  them t o  the r e a l i t y  an a n a l y s i s as  fortunes  provincial control  wing w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l  that  of  of  power w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n b u t would h e l p of  and  structure  had encouraged  an examination of  this  frequency  i n the L i b e r a l P a r t y ,  o f p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l would not  role  rele-  and p r o v i n c i a l wings  Although the  i n some p r o v i n c e s  the  therefore,  the  what  federal  of  between  directly  may h a v e h a d u p o n t h e b r o a d  relations.  of  known t h a t  of  between  of  intra-party  disunity  the  p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was w e l l  principle  ity  of  of  w h i c h seemed  determine  explore  two g r o u p s  intra-party the  strains  to  impaet  the L i b e r a l P a r t y  d i v i s i o n o f power.  attempted  Intensity  of  the  o f an examination  federal to  examine  organization  C o l u m b i a by means  relations  to  in  i n the  focus  the relative  135 political related  strength of  to  the  source and  Despite organization, and  the  two g r o u p s intensity  the maintenance  the p r o v i n c i a l  control of  to  individual  ges to  occurred within tion.  The  serious cial  all  party  strain,  vided  the most  organization,  of  even  challenges  indirect  the u n i f i e d  the  party  or  other  and  to  at  both  exchanges.  each i n d i v i d u a l  to  While party  to party  have dominated  the development  In  the  almost  adminis-  conflicting policies In  these general  threats  to  the  s p i t e of  the  sources of  times administrative differences  serious  less  provin-  been r e l a t e d  either  and p r o v i n c i a l groups.  organiza-  indeed,  federal  have g e n e r a l l y  organization  challen-  the A s s o c i a t i o n have  s t r a i n between  times p o l i c y differences cial  party  these c h a l l e n g e s and,  existence of  fric-  firmly  s t r a i n s were r e l a t e d  the party  federal  continual  internal  f e d e r a l business w i t h i n the province.  cases these  the  activity  the A s s o c i a t i o n has been  framework  the party  provincial  While  control of  source of  wings of  t r a t i o n of of  the  examples o f  conduct of  source of  he  strains.  two l e v e l s o f  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s and  the p r o v i n c i a l  might  B r i t i s h Columbia.  established as a p r i n c i p l e of  of  federal  a unified  the accommodation o f  t i o n w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Party  of  of  i n t e r e s t has been a c o n t i n u a l  of leaders,  unity all  almost  intra-  have  and a t  pro-  other  federal-provin-  and the  c o n f l i c t has undoubtedly  importance been  by p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s and the p e r s o n a l i t i e s  of  affected  and  136 abilities  of  intra-party  the leaders  electoral  wings  the p a r t y .  within  the  as  the  two w i n g s  the  will  the  federal  of  pattern  of  the  conclusions  form of  four possible  the p a r t y of  tentative  relations  more  study are  electoral  case-study w i l l  summar-  positions  i n Ottawa and V i c t o r i a .  this  the  relations  be  The  conclusions  o f what has been w r i t t e n on Canadian provinces  of  offered  p r o p o s i t i o n s and t h e s e  i n other  with  C o l u m b i a emerges this  of  and p r o v i n c i a l  intra-party  empirical findings of  be examined i n l i g h t  party  of  The p a t t e r n  i n r e l a t i o n to  empirical in  fortunes  the L i b e r a l P a r t y of B r i t i s h  clearly ized  the general  r e l a t i o n s has been d i r e c t l y a s s o c i a t e d  changing of  involved,  intra-  and o t h e r  federal  systems.  CONCURRENT FEDERAL AND P R O V I N C I A L POWER: With the 1928  a n d 1933.  exception of a five  the p r o v i n c i a l wing of  i n V i c t o r i a f r o m 1916 also  h e l d power  cial  leaders  organization was wing did  t o 1952  maintained effective  s t r o n g i n Canada as i n t h e p r o v i n c e was  control of  Columbia. a whole,  Even a f t e r  1940,  While the until  extremely  however,  the  this period,  1930  power  federal  party  the p r o v i n -  the L i b e r a l federal the  party  federal  weak a n d n o t u n t i l  the L i b e r a l s hold the majority of  vince.  the p a r t y h e l d  and a l t h o u g h  t h r o u g h o u t most o f  in British  year p e r i o d between  seats from the  the p r o v i n c i a l  1940 pro-  leader  137 as  premier of  individual terms more  the province  w i t h i n the p a r t y  of both f i n a n c i a l extensive  tion,  federal  of  largest  the  the  p a r t y and c o u l d ,  making bodies  group  of  c o n t r o l was  the  federal  control of  of  as  elected  therefore,  the A s s o c i a t i o n .  If  of Association business,  d i v i d e d the  individual  federal  assumed a l m o s t  cial  paid party  the  considerable organizers  Association.  province,  within  formal  a challenge  policy-  to  could easily  p r o v i n c i a l w i n g was  w i n g had l i t t l e hope or of  assuming  p r o v i n c i a l wing of  A s s o c i a t i o n and,  exercised  the  provin-  the  discipline  dissolve  itself  of  strong  serious-  r e t i r i n g an  the  control  of  organization.  When t h e it  the  provincial leader  the p r o v i n c i a l  the  In a d d i -  who m a i n t a i n e d p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  unless  serious  organiza-  i n i t i a t e d through formal channels  on m a t t e r s  ly  minister  representatives  leader,  Indeed,  cabinet  i n Ottawa.  dominate  in  w e r e much  the premier of  provincial  them.  His resources  the p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y h e l d power  the p r o v i n c i a l leader,  led  cial  organization.  powerful  who w o u l d o r d i n a r i l y b e h i s m o s t  competition for  t i o n when t h e  the most  support and patronage  than those  from the p r o v i n c e , federal  remained  Indeed,  t i o n were u s u a l l y  entire  the p a r t y  f i n a n c i a l burden of  consequently, influence  officers  carefully  in  the  the p r o v i n c i a l  i n the  choice  and the rank and f i l e the  was  of  of  power provin-  leader the  leaders  the p r o v i n c i a l  chosen by the p r o v i n c i a l  of  the  Associaleader  138  and o n l y d u r i n g a s u c c e s s f u l r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r would the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s a c t without the p r o 3 v i n c i a l l e a d e r ' s consent.  Under these circumstances t h e  f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r from the p r o v i n c e , who u s u a l l y l e d the f e d e r a l wing o f t h e p a r t y , attempted t o g a i n some c o n t r o l over the a d m i n s t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n campaigns w h i l e u t i l i z i n g the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s t o t h e maximum.  Although t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r p e r m i t t e d t h e  c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r o r f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o supervise the campaign a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s developed by the two l e a d e r s , these procedures tended t o be i n f o r m a l and u n s t a b l e .  Indeed,  f r i c t i o n between t h e two groups was so o f t e n i n i t i a t e d  during  f e d e r a l campaigns t h a t i n f o r m a l n e g o t i a t i o n s between t h e two wings were u s u a l l y r e q u i r e d before each f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n . But d e s p i t e t h e d i f f i c u l t y presented  by the j o i n t  adminis-  t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l campaigns, the f e d e r a l wing was g i v e n enough autonomy to i n s u r e t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e i r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s and they were, t h e r e f o r e , h e s i t a n t t o challenge the s t a t u s quo. In a s s e s s i n g t h e r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n o f t h e two wings of the p a r t y , however, i t must be r e c a l l e d t h a t when the L i b e r a l s h e l d power i n Ottawa the f e d e r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s and senators from the p r o v i n c e had enough resources,  parti-  c u l a r l y i n the form o f patronage and f e d e r a l appointments, to m a i n t a i n a c o n s i d e r a b l e f o l l o w i n g w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  139 Many o f t h e r a n k and f i l e  leaders o f the f e d e r a l c o n s t i t u -  ency o r g a n i z a t i o n s l o o k e d  a s much t o t h e f e d e r a l  for  advice  ship.  and s u p p o r t  Since  a s they d i d t o t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r -  t h e l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s had t h e l e g a l power t o  nominate t h e candidates support  f o rpublic office,  the informal  w h i c h t h e f e d e r a l wing c o u l d m a i n t a i n  constituency ability  within the  o r g a n i z a t i o n s was o f t e n a s i m p o r t a n t t o t h e i r  to c o n t r o l f e d e r a l business  was t h e c o o p e r a t i o n  within the province  o f the p r o v i n c i a l leader.  f e d e r a l wing r e t a i n e d c o n s i d e r a b l e business  leaders  w i t h i n the province  as  Thus, t h e  c o n t r o l over f e d e r a l  d e s p i t e t h e i r fundamental  dependence on t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and t h e good  will  of the p r o v i n c i a l leader.  The c o n t r o l o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n r e m a i n e d firmly  i n p r o v i n c i a l hands r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e n u m e r i c a l  political bia.  s t r e n g t h o f t h e f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n B r i t i s h  or Colum-  D u r i n g t h e c o a l i t i o n p e r i o d t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y power and t h e a b i l i t y A s s o c i a t i o n was most  striking.  Despite  w i t h i n t h e p a r t y and f i n a l l y w i t h i n  to c o n t r o l the L i b e r a l deep  cleavages  t h e p r o v i n c i a l wing  itself,  which l i m i t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  leader,  t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n remained i n  p r o v i n c i a l hands. tics  While the circumstances o f c o a l i t i o n  forced the p r o v i n c i a l leaders  to grant  poli-  t h e f e d e r a l wing  more autonomy i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f f e d e r a l b u s i n e s s ,  federal  140 strength within the A s s o c i a t i o n was not great enough to defeat the c o a l i t i o n .  Federal l e a d e r s w i t h i n the province  f e l t strong enough to openly oppose the continuation o f the c o a l i t i o n but they d i d not f e e l strong enough to separate themselves from an e s t a b l i s h e d p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . Although the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n sentiment within the A s s o c i a t i o n increased f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the organization, as long as the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l s were i n power they maintained t h e i r hold on the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  SOURCES OF FEDERAL-PROVINGIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: When L i b e r a l governments have been i n power i n both Ottawa and V i c t o r i a the p o l i t i c s o f f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l r e l a t i o n s have o f t e n brought L i b e r a l leaders i n t o p u b l i c c o n f l i c t . Such p u b l i c confrontations between strong L i b e r a l premiers and a L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r were frequently but not always responsible f o r i n i t i a t i n g s t r a i n s within the p r o v i n c a i l organization.  Under some circumstances s e c t i o n a l p o l i c i e s  were expected and w e l l t o l e r a t e d by the f e d e r a l leader and were strongly supported by f e d e r a l leaders within the province, whereas, i n other s i t u a t i o n s p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c i e s and demands e i t h e r c o n f l i c t e d with those of the f e d e r a l party or they appeared to threaten the f e d e r a l government's power.  In  these cases intransigence on the p a r t of e i t h e r government  141 might  i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c q u a r r e l between  leaders  which threatened  ciation.  Thus, the  the  while policy  wings  of  party  s t r a i n when b o t h w i n g s  impact of tion  on the  within  issue  differences  substance  of  example,  government  King.  federal  party  the  policy,  its  and,  course,  of  by a t t a c k i n g  therefore, able party  t h e power o f  federal  government  Liberals  p o l i c y p u r s u e d by  The P r e m i e r ' s  Associa-  the a  its  compromise  the p o l i t i c a l temperment  feelings  Eastern  than the  feder-  cordial  and w i t h Prime M i n i s t e r  the  intentionally  federal  government  since an e a r l i e r  had threatened  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had l o s t  intra-  the  as  the  to maintain  to d i v i d e  some p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s b e l i e v e d Ottawa"  of  signifi-  and r e c e i v e d  and i n i t i a t e a p u b l i c q u a r r e l w i t h the  Indeed, "fight  of  source  on the p r o v i n c i a l  T h i s p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p o l i c y was  the p o l i c i e s  two  province.  province  federal  to avoid challenging  the  h e l d power,  and r a i l r b a d r a t e s r a t h e r  and was,  r e l a t i o n s w i t h the  dominant  Asso-  John O l i v e r f u l f i l l e d s e c t i o n a l  and the  interests  between  party  relations  w i t h i n the  the p a r t y  financial  I.  the  i n w h i c h t h e p o l i c y was p r e s e n t e d  For  the  of  the  two L i b e r a l  the p r o v i n c i a l  differences t o be  federal-provincial  political  al  appeared  these p o l i c y  depended  cance to way  party  unity of  the  p o l i t i c a l appeal  the  or on  provincial  federal  that  the previous  attack  designed  leader.  t h e more  extreme  Conservative after  c a m p a i g n was d e s i g n e d  o f b o t h the p a r t y and the  W o r l d War to  satisfy  province.  14-2 Therefore, party  while  Oliver's  indicated that  governments  earliest  policy  differences  were p o t e n t i a l l y  relations,  serious  alteration  of  strains  provincial  In c o n t r a s t , negotiations  dealings  w i t h the  between the  threatening  to  were s u c c e s s f u l l y  on t h e the  under P a t t u l l o * s  party  strains.  for  federal  terms he  alienated  demanded.  federal  contributed Although mental  to  the to  undoubtedly policy  of  policy  were n o t  province  Premier's  encouraged  by  but  federalism,  behavior  at  the  relations  King,  eventually  was  the  support  in British  this  were  for  h e l d power  a  Columbia.  significant  had n o t b o t h  fundaparty's  issue  would have had such  w i t h i n the L i b e r a l Party  and p r o v i n c i a l wings  not  conference  public  cooperation  i s d o u b t f u l whether  federal-provincial  repurcussions  strong  the  at  cabinet.  clashed  Canadian  federal-provincial it  leaders  met  and a c t i o n s  o f 194-1, h o w e v e r ,  w i t h i n the  the  Pattullo's  with Prime M i n i s t e r  upon which the  substance of the  Nevertheless,  federal  between  when  depression  Pattullo*s  quarrel  leaders  issue  the  severe  to a d i v i s i o n w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l  the  reactions  of  a i d during the  initiated a public  by  administration,  Minor s t r a i n s  D o m i n i o n - P r o v i n c i a l Conference  only  avoided  policy.  P r e m i e r and the Prime M i n i s t e r were evident requests  two  intra-party  between Ottawa and V i c t o r i a c r e a t e d  federal-provincial  federal  serious the  concurrently.  143 During the years o f the p r o v i n c i a l c o a l i t i o n government i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s assumed d i f f e r e n t forms.  Although  the L i b e r a l P a r t y was i n power i n both Ottawa and V i c t o r i a , p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two governments d i d not dominate i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s and a c t u a l l y contributed  very l i t t l e  to the f r i c t i o n which e x i s t e d between the two wings o f the party.  Consequently, p u b l i c contacts between the c o a l i t i o n  Premiers and the L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r no longer provided a focus f o r i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n .  The p o l i c y  differences  between the two wings of the party which were associated  with  i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s , were prompted by f e d e r a l attacks on c o a l i t i o n p o l i c i e s i n i t i a t e d by members o f the f e d e r a l wing within the province.  Because these a t t a c k s occurred a f t e r the a n t i -  c o a l i t i o n campaign was w e l l organized, these p o l i c y d i f f e r ences were as much a r e f l e c t i o n as a source o f s t r a i n between the two groups.  The  absence o f leadership  quarrels  i n v o l v i n g the  c o a l i t i o n Premiers and the L i b e r a l Prime M i n i s t e r may have been r e l a t e d to the c o a l i t i o n ' s w i l l i n g n e s s  to negotiate with the  f e d e r a l government on many important aspects of  inter-govern-  mental r e l a t i o n s and the c o a l i t i o n ' s p o p u l a r i t y within Columbia u n t i l some years a f t e r the war. leader was known to object  British  While the f e d e r a l  to the c o a l i t i o n f o r p a r t i s a n  reasons a f t e r the war, as Prime M i n i s t e r he had to maintain the support o f a cooperative p r o v i n c i a l government.  The  144 members of parliament  from B r i t i s h Columbia, however, f e l t  d i r e c t l y threatened by the continuation of the c o a l i t i o n and as members of the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n could oppose the c o a l i t i o n more openly.  Therefore, p o l i c y s t r a i n s during  the c o a l i t i o n had l i t t l e d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the L i b e r a l government i n Ottawa except i n so f a r as f e d e r a l leaders w i t h i n B r i t i s h Columbia were p r i v a t e l y encouraged and ted by f e d e r a l leaders i n Ottawa.  In comparing the  suppor-  signifi-  cance of p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the two wings of the party to the development of i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n during  the  c o a l i t i o n and the preceding L i b e r a l administrations i n V i c t o r i a i t appeared that while the existence of a c o a l i t i o n i n i t s e l f had no d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to the l a c k of f e d e r a l p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y s t r a i n s , the absence of such s t r a i n s d i d not r e f l e c t the u n i t y of the party.  ADMINISTBATIVE DIFFERENCES: A d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l leaders within the p r o v i n c i a l organization have been exceedingly d i f f i c u l t to document because of the d e s i r e on the part of party leaders to maintain a united image. Indeed, only those d i f f e r e n c e s which i n i t i a t e d p u b l i c f r i c t i o n have been recorded memories of party l e a d e r s .  considerable  i n the press or i n the  Despite these  difficulties,  however, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s emerge as the most  enduring  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f I n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s w i t h i n the B.C. L i b e r a l  145 Party.  The i n t e n s i t y o f these s t r a i n s and t h e i r importance  to i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s a t a given time have, varied considerably.  During p e r i o d s o f concurrent f e d e r a l  and p r o v i n c i a l power a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  strains usually  the j o i n t conduct o f f e d e r a l campaigns. the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s  nevertheless,  involved  In g e n e r a l ,  during  o f O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o these s t r a i n s  were w e l l contained.  S t r a i n s u s u a l l y emerged a f t e r a f e d e r a l  e l e c t i o n when e i t h e r unexpected o r d i s a p p o i n t i n g  election  r e s u l t s i n i t i a t e d r e t r o s p e c t i v e assessments o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n ' s e f f i c i e n c y which i n t u r n i n i t i a t e d f r i c t i o n between the two wings o f the p a r t y .  Even d u r i n g the campaigns,  however, s t r a i n s between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s could be discerned  as p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s refused  openly f o r f e d e r a l candidates o r f e d e r a l l e a d e r s  to campaign requested  t h a t p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s remain out o f s i g h t during the campaign.  During the l e a d e r s h i p s  o f O l i v e r and P a t t u l l o  the l o c a l strength o f the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  the s t a b i l -  i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l o f the o r g a n i z a t i o n , the degree o f autonomy granted t o the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and the dependence o f the f e d e r a l p a r t y on the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l organization  combined to minimize the d i s r u p t i v e e f f e c t s o f  administrative  differences.  During the c o a l i t i o n years, however, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups were the major source o f intra-party strain.  Although f e d e r a l l e a d e r s were a b l e to  assume more complete d i r e c t i o n o f f e d e r a l a f f a i r s they expressed considerable  d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the s t a t e o f the  146 provincial organization.  The  coalition,  they b e l i e v e d ,  d i s s o l v i n g p a r t i s a n L i b e r a l commitment w i t h i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n as w e l l as w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e was  threatening  the very  foundation  Federal leaders clashed with r e l a t i n g to the general  and,  party consequently,  o f the L i b e r a l  c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l s on  leaders during b a c k e d one f o r the  and  e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n  assumed the p r o p o r t i o n s  These c o n f r o n t a t i o n s of a federal challenge  v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p and  indirectly  leadership As  i n order  sentiment.  strength,  f e d e r a l s t r a i n s became i n t e n s e and two  sions.  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  after  to the  pro-  government  influence within  public  anti-  gained conflict  groups assumed a l m o s t u n c o n t r o l l a b l e dimenpolitical  requirements of  p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s were p e r c e i v e d  the war  eventually  the a n t i - c o a l i t i o n campaign  between the  f e d e r a l and  supporting  to encourage the  coalition  The  when t h e y  campaigned  to the c o a l i t i o n  f e d e r a l l e a d e r s a t t e m p t e d t o expand t h e i r file  organiza-  business  a p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p convention,  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p candidate  t h e r a n k and  decisions  They a l s o c l a s h e d w i t h p r o v i n c i a l  t h e a n t i - c o a l i t i o n group.  as  Party.  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the p a r t y  t i o n a s w e l l as on t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f f e d e r a l w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e .  was  t h a t the  formal  v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was  CONCURRENT FEDERAL AND  so  differently  s u r v i v a l o f the u n i f i e d  an a c h i e v e m e n t i n  itself.  PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION:  the  pro-  l 7 k  The L i b e r a l Party of B r i t i s h Columbia and the L i b e r a l Party of Canada were both i n o p p o s i t i o n from 1911 from 1930  to 1933  and from 1957  to 1963.  periods the p a r t y ' s circumstances  to  1916,  During these  three  d i f f e r e d considerably as d i d  the balance of power between f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups w i t h i n the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  In the  f i r s t period both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t i e s were extremely weak but i n the absence of a f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n the the c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n was v i n c i a l l e a d e r , who  was  province  i n the hands of the pro-  able to a t t r a c t a l a r g e f o l l o w i n g  once the prospect of p o l i t i c a l power became apparent. 1930  and 1933  a new  p r o v i n c i a l leader was  v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n under h i s own i s no evidence  r e b u i l d i n g a pro-  personal c o n t r o l .  to suggest that the new  Between  There  p r o v i n c i a l leader  attempted to assume more c o n t r o l over f e d e r a l business when the f e d e r a l p a r t y was  defeated i n 1 9 3 0 .  members of parliament  from B r i t i s h Columbia were probably  to maintain the status quo  The  five Liberal able  i n terms of t h e i r influence and  p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  Between 1957 entirely different.  and 1963,  however, the s i t u a t i o n  was  The p r o v i n c i a l wing of the party had  been extremely weak f o r f i v e years before the f e d e r a l party's defeat i n 1957  and the p r o v i n c i a l leader's c o n t r o l of the  A s s o c i a t i o n had been threatened constantly since 1953 a strong and a c t i v e f e d e r a l wing.  by  While the p r o v i n c i a l leader  148 maintained  enough c o n t r o l o v e r  the A s s o c i a t i o n to  federal  leaders  able  improve h i s p o s i t i o n once  to  from f o r c i n g h i s r e t i r e m e n t ,  t h e p r o v i n c e was d e f e a t e d . leader to  resigned  consolidate  their  federal the  leaders, federal  control this their  financial  not  wing w i t h i n  the  provincial  i m m e d i a t e l y moved  w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  While the  to  the  restrict  federal  of  the p r e s i d e n t  w i t h the  resources  of  control of  The  support of the  leaders  the  influence and  their  w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n were n o t a b l e  t h e i r complete  influence  after  leaders  made n o a t t e m p t  the o f f i c e  period,  federal  he was  federal  who h a d r e c e i v e d  party.  representatives  Indeed,  influence  provincial leader,  new  of  i n 1959  the  prevent  to  the A s s o c i a t i o n d u r i n g federal  provincial leader  business,  and t h e i r  made t h e m t h e d o m i n a n t f o r c e  superior  within  the  party.  The c i r c u m s t a n c e Ottawa and V i c t o r i a has distribution Nevertheless, strength,  of  concurrent party opposition  given l i t t l e  Indication of  during these periods  f i n a n c i a l resources  the party.  the r e l a t i v e  appeared  two g r o u p s  to  the p e r i o d of  influence  i n defeat.  the  focus  of  i n the  concurrent  the r e l a t i v e  Indeed,  electoral  and p o l i t i c a l f u t u r e s  The d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power  immediately preceding also  the  o f power w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n .  two g r o u p s w i t h i n t h e p r o v i n c e a f f e c t e d within  in  of  the  power years  opposition  positions of  the  w i t h i n the B.C. L i b e r a l Party  149  the balance o f power i n the period preceding  concurrent  defeat has tended to survive by the power o f i n e r t i a  alone.  SOURCES OP FEDERAL-PRO VIJNCIAL STRAIN: POLICY DIFFERENCES: There was no evidence o f p u b l i c p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s i n i t i a t i n g s t r a i n s between the f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings of the L i b e r a l Party o f B r i t i s h Columbia during periods o f concurrent  opposition.  While o p p o s i t i o n status often  allowed  each wing o f the party to remain vague or uncommitted on issues a f f e c t i n g both Ottawa and B r i t i s h Columbia, i t a l s o enabled the party to keep p o l i c y s t r a i n s out o f the p u b l i c eye. P o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the p r o v i n c i a l and f e d e r a l leaders e x i s t e d between 1930 and 1933 and between 1957 and 1963 but i n t r a - p a r t y f r i c t i o n d i d not seem r e l a t e d to these i s s u e s . These p o l i c i e s had no immediate p o l i t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e since the p a r t i e s were both out o f power and, therefore, as long as the party made no attempt to coordinate  their policies  the d i f f e r e n c e s between the two wings could be ignored.  ADMINISTRATIVE DIFFERENCES: Although administrative d i f f e r e n c e s d i d not appear to i n i t i a t e f r i c t i o n between the two wings of the party between 1911 and 1916 and between 1930 and 1 9 3 3 . a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r a i n s were evident between 1957 and 1 9 6 3 .  During the  150 f e d e r a l campaigns o f  I962 and 1 9 6 3 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s  o f the  f e d e r a l wing, who had been a p p o i n t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l  campaign  committee, c l a s h e d w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t h e L i b e r a l tion.  The P r e s i d e n t c l a i m e d t h a t  disregarded the Association the  federal  and  o f f i c e r s i n the organization  t o p r e v i o u s campaigns f o r t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  At that  time f e d e r a l l e a d e r s  i n federal politics.  c a n d i d a t e was d e f e a t e d , direct  s u p p o r t e d a new  offered l i t t l e  the  p r o v i n c i a l leader  leaders,  the f e d e r a l  leader  a p p o i n t e d him t o  The P r e s i d e n t o f t h e  opposed t h e expanding i n f l u e n c e  and  quarrel  While the f e d e r a l wing's  t h e f e d e r a l campaign committee.  Association  assistance  the administrative  Although  P r e s i d e n t and f e d e r a l  s t r a i n s which o c c u r r e d i n  t i o n and t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t h e f e d e r a l  o f the A s s o c i a -  campaign r e f l e c t e d b o t h  challenge to the p r o v i n c i a l control  i z a t i o n and t h e i n c r e a s i n g federal  leaders  d i d not openly p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  between t h e A s s o c i a t i o n  federal  of federal  to the f e d e r a l party.  connection with the e l e c t i o n o f the p r e s i d e n t  the  of  p r o m i n e n t member o f t h e p a r t y , who was p a r t i c u l a r l y  interested  the  had  campaign b u t t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s s t r a i n was  directly related presidency.  federal leaders  Associa-  o f t h e organ-  but as y e t u n s t a b l e i n f l u e n c e o f  wing.  PROVINCIAL POWER - FEDERAL OPPOSITION From 1 9 1 6 t o 1 9 2 1 and from 1 9 3 3 t o 1 9 3 5 t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l s formed t h e government i n V i c t o r i a w h i l e t h e  151 federal  Liberals  provincial maintain 1916  the  party  i n power  Association  since  member o f p a r l i a m e n t But  more p o w e r f u l , control not  was  the previous  federal  party  probably wing  Liberal  victory  periods  also  1933  wing  within  dependent and  SOURCES O F  upon  their  1935.  and  over  and  administrations  i n power.  and  This and  provincial  the prospect election.  Indeed,  the p r o v i n c i a l  the size  immediate  defeat  of the federal political  FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL  had  was federal  federal the r o l e  organization  power b u t f e d e r a l  they  when t h e  o f the  of a  did  business.  stability  size  of  during  a r e most  pro-  wing w i t h i n  the  prospects.  STRAIN:  DIFFERENCES:  Although  opposition  remain uncommitted  status  on m a j o r  often  issues  of  1917.  much  leader  federal  of  Liberal  o f 1911  the p r o v i n c i a l  the influence  a t the next  of provincial  province  been  a  g r o u p s r e m a i n e d much a s  provincial  the province  federal  POLICY  had  t h e two  e n c o u r a g e d by  within  bably  between  compe-  more numerous a n d  were between  Nevertheless,  no  f o r the c o n t r o l  elections  g r o u p was  easily  Between  d i d not return  i n the federal  the  could  had v i r t u a l l y  attempt to extend h i s influence  during  to  the province  they  firm.  Arrangements  the  as  leader  wing o f the p a r t y  e v e n when t h e f e d e r a l  With  of the Association.  the p r o v i n c i a l  from the f e d e r a l  i n Ottawa.  the p r o v i n c i a l leader  effective control  a n d 1921  tition  were i n o p p o s i t i o n  allowed  a  party  federal-provincial  152 relations, in  1917  the formation  was o n e i s s u e  of a federal coalition  that  could  vincial  Liberal parties.  between  the p r o v i n c i a l leader  Union  ministers  well  issue  caused  ship,  the strong  and  some s t r a i n  federal  open p a r t y  wing  provincial  who  supported the  of the p r o v i n c i a l who  leader  this  issue  either  the party.  o f the Union  While the  cause  i n the  since  to contain  organization  each c o n s t i t u t e n c y  align Itself  with  indicated  could  divide  t h e way  province  o f an  established of the  intra-party  was d e e p l y organization  friction.  a f f e c t e d by had t o  the L a u r i e r - L i b e r a l cause o r form  organization.  versy  federal  The absence  leader-  administration  and t h e sudden d e a t h  helped  were  the p r o v i n c i a l party  strife.  the party  Liberal-Union  The Union  Government  contro-  In which a f e d e r a l l y - d e r i v e d  a p r o v i n c i a l party  that  had no f i r m l y  issue  established  wing.  Between differences  1933  a n d 1935  d i dnot noticeably  Prom h i s p r i v a t e leader  also  cabinet  supported Laurier,  within  within  i n the province  Nevertheless,  that  support  differences  t h e t e n u o u s p o s i t i o n o f t h e new p r o v i n c i a l  discouraged  a  contained  Columbia  and Premier,  and back benchers,  exceptionally  n o t he a v o i d e d by t h e p r o -  In B r i t i s h  cause and the m a j o r i t y  government  federal-provincial policy disturb  correspondence with  the L i b e r a l Premier o f B r i t i s h  the federal party  conflicts  with  supported  the Conservative  intra-party relations.  the f e d e r a l L i b e r a l Columbia had assumed  h i m i n many  of h i s various  Prime M i n i s t e r  o f Canada.  153 When t h e the  federal L i b e r a l s returned  P r e m i e r was  often  of  federal Liberal  of  the  period  potential issues while  had  the  policy.  of  party  was  could  conveniently  the  the  ADMINISTRATIVE  While  cial a  of  leaders  the  showing  administrative  and  to  the  these  p r o v i n c i a l party Likewise,  the  government  federal leader,  complications within  who in  Liberal  were n o t  During  the  a minor a d m i n i s t r a t i v e federal election of  federal leader  active  the  complained  Columbia.  support  of  The the  campaign had  not  he  p r i v a t e l y to party  accompanied Party  of  strain  by  the  leaders  period developed  1935» when  the  relatively  felt  federal party  been a p p r e c i a t e d  provin-  themselves  second  the  Premier  in  that during  the  poor  his  federal party that  the  of  d i f f e r e n c e s between  federal candidates  a f t e r the  suggested  p o s i t i o n s on  provincial organization  administrative  in British  unusually  the  and  DIFFERENCES:  consideration  successful  real  provincial Liberal  intra-party strain.  Immediately  of  i n Ottawa.  by  reversal  federal election.  Columbia,  source of  under  the  Government c o n t r o v e r s y  British  concern  however,  correspondents  areas  federal party  ignored  cooperation  forthcoming  Union  of  apparent  political  in opposition  actions  i n 1935.  power  the  several  immediate  and  desired  While  recognized  policies be  s u r p r i s e d by  policy conflict,  were n o t  to  the and  federal  wing  154 might  prefer  to separate  Association. province that  Both  insisted  differences Liberal ded  short  Party.  period  between  t o mature,  party  appeared  the  criticism.  of strain  Government  f o r the p r o v i n c i a l  the p r o v i n c i a l  to lessen  gave  of policy  the earlier  the  federal party.  he  would  in  O t t a w a may  Clearly, stances  e v e n t u a l l y have  i f the federal party relative  and  with  administrative had been  to the p r o v i n c i a l  to  support  period  the desire  party  colleagues  a s t h e government friction.  in different  party  be  i n the province  leaders  favor with  to negotiate  have m i n i m i z e d  leader  p e r i o d may  t h e more r e c e n t  to gain  quarrel  f o r the containment o f  t h e w i l l i n g n e s s o f many p r o v i n c i a l  leader  little  d i f f e r e n c e s between  and  During  and  intra-party strains  i n t h e weakness o f t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y  the provincial  and t h e  o f 1933  and t h e p r o v i n c i a l  during  provi-  s t a t u s o f one w i n g o f t h e  An e x p l a n a t i o n  of  debate  party  election  policy f o r the  the chances o f a p u b l i c  the repurcussions  strains  n o t be p u r s u e d a n d  had been p r i m a r i l y  sources  the Union  o f 1935  within the  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  minor  the f e d e r a l leader  administrative  should  the p r o v i n c i a l  leaders  and n o t o f  the opposition  two g r o u p s .  found  only  problem  time  minimize  issue  periods  Although  federal election  between  this  on t h e e l e c t i o n  these  created  an unusual  the  that  o f disappointment  In b o t h  from  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  f e d e r a l comments  expressions  i t s organization  in either  circumperiods,  155 a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i f f e r e n c e s might have provided  more serious  or more obvious i n t r a - p a r t y s t r a i n s .  FEDERAL POWER - PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION: The  f e d e r a l party held power i n Ottawa d u r i n g  periods o f p r o v i n c i a l o p p o s i t i o n from I 8 9 6 to 1 9 1 1 , 1928  to 1930,  from 1952  to 1957  and  from  f i n a l l y from 1963  t-0  1965.  During most of these periods the influence of the f e d e r a l wing of the party w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n considerable,  was  although the i n f l u e n c e only approximated an  e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n i n the e a r l i e s t the most recent years under consideration. 1 9 0 3 the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n was  and  From I 8 9 6 to about  in r e a l i t y a federal  o r g a n i z a t i o n because party l i n e s had not been f i r m l y established i n p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s .  But f e d e r a l leaders  continued to dominate the organization u n t i l 1 9 0 8 , when t h e i r numbers were s u b s t a n t i a l l y diminished.  Throughout  the period, however, the f e d e r a l cabinet m i n i s t e r from B r i t i s h Columbia encouraged the development of a p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and  strong  supported the p r i n c i p l e of the  p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Although the  p r o v i n c i a l leader could never maintain unity within  the  p r o v i n c i a l wing, a f t e r 1 9 0 8 the leadership of the party d e f a u l t e d to the d i s u n i f i e d p r o v i n c i a l wing of the party i n the absence of a stronger or more determined f e d e r a l group.  156 While the r o l e of the small f e d e r a l wing of  the  party within the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n between 1928 1930  was  not c l e a r , f e d e r a l leaders evidently encouraged  the defeated  p r o v i n c i a l leader to r e s i g n by o f f e r i n g him  a f e d e r a l appointment. umbia was,  The  f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n B r i t i s h C o l -  however, too weak to attempt to c o n t r o l the  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  i t appeared that f e d e r a l i n t e r e s t s were  s a t i s f i e d to see a new ganization. defeat  and  i n 1952  leader r e b u i l d a strong L i b e r a l or-  In contrast, a f t e r the p r o v i n c i a l party's f e d e r a l leaders were not only  i n the s e l e c t i o n of a new  instrumental  p r o v i n c i a l leader, who  was  recrui-  ted from the f e d e r a l wing, but were determined to maintain t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n i n view of the promising e l e c t o r a l future of the p r o v i n c i a l party. i t was  not long before  unIndeed,  the f e d e r a l wing, with i t s major f i n -  a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n , attempted to supervise a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and p o l i c y d e c i s i o n s p e r t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y to p r o v i n c i a l p o l i t i c s . Although the p r o v i n c i a l leader had no objections to the f e d e r a l wing of the party c o n t r o l l i n g f e d e r a l business, he ignored those f e d e r a l d i r e c t i v e s which he b e l i e v e d croached upon the p r o v i n c i a l sphere of i n f l u e n c e .  en-  The  f e d e r a l leaders and t h e i r associates extended t h e i r c o n t r o l of the organization through t h e i r c o n t r o l of f e d e r a l t h e i r maintainence of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e and  business,  their  157 i n f l u e n c e with the o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n . l e s s , the p r o v i n c i a l leader continued  Neverthe-  to pursue h i s  own  strategy i n the p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t u r e and refused to r e s i g n from the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s h i p even a f t e r he l o s t h i s seat i n the l e g i s l a t u r e . with rank and unseat him,  had  He had enough support  f i l e L i b e r a l s to survive f e d e r a l pressures to  although  d i s t r a c t e d the party and weakened the campaign against When the f e d e r a l party returned to power i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n of dominance was much more secure. f e d e r a l l e a d e r s now  1957  the defeat of the f e d e r a l party i n  made an attempt to avoid  him. 1963  Although  internal  f r i c t i o n by c o n s u l t i n g with the p r o v i n c i a l leader on many aspects of party p o l i c y , the p r o v i n c i a l leader avoided c i e s which might have a l i e n a t e d f e d e r a l l e a d e r s . i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n was of o f f i c e r s of the A s s o c i a t i o n who a l wing.  A f t e r 1963  poli-  Federal  aided by the e l e c t i o n  were c l o s e to the feder-  the president and the o f f i c e r s o f the  A s s o c i a t i o n c o n t r o l l e d the day-to-day operation of the organization.  Although the p r o v i n c i a l leader had some l a t i -  tude i n chosing h i s own  strategy i n the l e g i s l a t u r e and  p r o v i n c i a l campaigns, he had l i t t l e  during  c o n t r o l over the small  group of L i b e r a l MLAs, l i t t l e c o n t r o l of the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l apparatus of the party, l i t t l e c o n t r o l over the s e l e c t i o n of the A s s o c i a t i o n o f f i c e r s , few sources of independent f i n a n c i a l resources and,  consequently,  few bases from which  158 to recapture  an e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r had  The  strong support among the rank and  f i l e L i b e r a l s but t h i s support c o u l d a t b e s t only m a i n t a i n him i n an o f f i c e which depended upon independent p o l i t i c a l and  f i n a n c i a l r e s o u r c e s f o r i t s power.  Prom 1963  to  1965,  t h e r e f o r e , f e d e r a l i n f l u e n c e approximated the e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l of the The bia a f t e r 195  Association  e c l i p s e of the L i b e r a l P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Colum2  made i t extremely d i f f i c u l t f o r the p r o v i n c i a l  l e a d e r to r e t a i n h i s c o n t r o l of the A s s o c i a t i o n .  A  deter-  mined p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r , however, was a b l e to m a i n t a i n hims e l f i n o f f i c e w i t h l i t t l e more than rank and f i l e support. Indeed, between 1953  and 1957  f e d e r a l "advice" and was  the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r  ignored  a b l e to prevent the f e d e r a l wing  from s t a b i l i z i n g t h e i r i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l organization.  This suggested t h a t the extent of f e d e r a l  i n f l u e n c e w i t h i n the p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n most r e c e n t l y  may  be l e s s a t t r i b u t a b l e to the s u p e r i o r f e d e r a l resources than to the w i t h d r a w a l o f the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r to a p o s i t i o n approximating h i s p e r s o n a l and p o l i t i c a l resources w i t h i n the A s s o c i a t i o n .  Thus, w h i l e the defeat of the p r o v i n c i a l  p a r t y may  provide a f e d e r a l wing w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y  increased  influence with a p r o v i n c i a l party  for  organization,  the immediate p o l i t i c a l prospects of the p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y , i t s resources,  the q u a l i t y of i t s l e a d e r s h i p , the  personal  159 determination ization in  the  and,  of  the  of  course,  province  influence  may  provincial the  determine  approach  strength  the  an  leader  extent  to  control  of  the  to  which  effective control  the  federal  of  organ-  wing  federal the  provincial  Association.  SOURCES OP POLICY  FEDERAL-PROVINCIAL  DIFFERENCES:  The varied  s o u r c e and  however,  circumstances  in and  of  the  of  the  detailed short  the  British  federal  period  relations considered  weak. and  provincial  here  intense  status  opportunity  explosive  to  issues,  environment  of  the  1930,  when t h e example,  positions  evidence Prime  the  while  relations 1928  of wing  Minister  in  in  of  the  other  policy  situations that  over  both  federal-provincial  In  uncommitted  demanded  the  c o n f l i c t s between  the  they  periods  strains some s i t u a t i o r  p r o v i n c i a l wing of  in other  province  federal  Minister.  remain vague or  to  election  on  but  the  unique  intra-party  provincial  1911,  the  Many o f  emergence and  L i b e r a l Prime  no  afforded  to  the  before  strain  periods.  concerning  party  the  intra-party  four  party  For  the  t h e r e was  which d i r e c t l y involved opposition  of  of  of  attributed  period  election  Liberals  were  be  between  C o l u m b i a was  and  may  these  information  federal  provincial  the  intensity  s i g n i f i c a n t l y during  differences,  lack  STRAIN:  on  the  party  potentially  political take  precise  160 positions  on such  quarrel  with  vincial  party  within the  believed  the province  believed  improved  i fi t initiated  by t h e i r  they  by a t t a c k i n g  that  i t often  their  close  between  1911  Before  appeared  Their  a n d 1957  differences with  severe  s t r a i n s and f i n a l l y  prompted  the p r o v i n c i a l leader.  leaders  had o f t e n  felt  pertained only  specifically  other  example  the  last  the  federal party  ship. as  part  they  years  While  federal  While  them  i n these  created  o f the  i f they Indeed, t h e  o f such p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s occurred  challenging  p o l i c y differences during  government,  a n d 1957  period  severe administrative  the coalition  actually initiated  when  developed  policy  differ-  strains  and t h e f e d e r a l wing,  p o l i c y s t r a i n s were dominated clashes.  during  the p r o v i n c i a l leader-  o f t h e f e d e r a l a n t I - c o a l i t i o n campaign,  the l a t t e r  leaders  federal  by t h e p o l i c i e s  to the p r o v i n c i a l f i e l d .  between t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r in  nature d i d  by t h e p r o v i n c i a l  have r a r e l y a t t a c k e d  was a l s o  was  Ottawa.  of the p r o v i n c i a l coalition  e n c e s b e t w e e n 1953  the p r o v i n c i a l  the f e d e r a l wing to  to r e t i r e  party  while i n  o f the party  attempt  provincial  position  the p r o v i n c i a l leader  areas and i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  pro-  the province  when  policy  threatened  their  different  s e v e r a l o f t h e programs proposed  leader.  that  a s s o c i a t i o n with  2  t h e weak  federal policies,  position within  195  a public  strengthened  s t r a i n s o f an e n t i r e l y  however,  opposed  that  period  Policy occur,  even  the federal party.  most r e c e n t  party  issues  although b y more  161  ADMINISTRATIVE  DIFFERENCES:  Although generally nation tence  associated  between of  administrative with  f e d e r a l and  disunity within  itself,  administrative  periods  under  activity  intensity  of  from  w i n g and In  the  their  of  a  differences  the  expanded  influence  Between 1952  leader  encouraged  federal leaders  the  leader  conduct  of  alientated ences  during  tribution the 1963  the  of  r o l e of the  of  two  the wings  these years money, the  within  to  the  1957  the  of  advice  further. occurred conduct  federal  of  party recent  the  the  focus  and  most  strain  were  of  federal  the  Association.  s t r a i n s were  dependence  f o r campaign and  the  the  of  the  funds  provincial  federal party which  in  Administrative i n connection  differ-  with  affairs.  influence minimized  with-  turn  the  p r o v i n c i a l campaigns  in Association  the  criticism  When t h e  p r o v i n c i a l leader,  federal party  stability  the  o f f e r advice  this  exis-  p r o v i n c i a l control of  f e d e r a l wing  ignored  of  resources  p r o v i n c i a l campaigns.  r e j e c t e d or  drew i t s s u p p o r t  the  and  the  i n these  sources  the  the  most  While  administrative to  coordi-  r e l a t e d to  strains varied  therefore,  on  two  were d i r e c t l y  financial  provincial  on  i n the  f e d e r a l wing.  superior  were  organizational  p r o v i n c i a l wing o f  federal challenge  organization.  of  a l l administrative  both periods,  basis  the  administrative  periods,  derived  of  lack  1911  p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s and  consideration  increased  recent  the  strains before  the  disand  After strains  162 initiated  "by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  differences of  associated  the Association  with  close  trol  o f the organization  well  contained.  differences. t h e 1963  T h e r e were  minor  campaign b u t a f t e r  t o t h e f e d e r a l wing assumed administrative  officers  the con-  d i f f e r e n c e s have  T H E STRUCTURE O F INTRA-PARTY R E L A T I O N S IN THE B.C.  LIBERAL  PARTY:  The  following  which has been the  structure  Party  found  chart  between  summarizes  the relationship  e l e c t o r a l circumstances and  of intra-party relations within  of British  Columbia.  been  the L i b e r a l  THE STRUCTURE  ELECTORAL  VARIABLE  OP INTRA-PARTY  RELATIONS  I N T H E B.C. L I B E R A L  PARTY  CONTROL O F ORGANIZATION*  SOURCES O F STRAIN**  INTENSITY OF STRAIN  Prov./strong Prov./strong Prov./moderate Fed. c h a l l e n g e  POLICY/admin. POLICY/admin. ADMIN./policy  moderate great great  ADMIN./  great/moderate  Prov./strong Prov./strong  POLICY/admin. /admin.  moderate weak  Federal-1903  POLICY/admin.  great  /admin. ADMIN./policy  weak great  ADMIN./  moderate/weak  CONCURRENT POWER  1921 - 1928 1935 - 1941 1941 - 1952  CONCURRENT OPPOSITION  1911 - 1916 1930 - 1933 1957 - 1 9 6 3 * * *  Prov./moderate Prov./strong Prov./weak Fed. c h a l l e n g e  P R O V I N C I A L POWER FEDERAL OPPOSITION  1916 - 1921 1933 - 1935 FEDERAL POWER PROVINCIAL OPPOSITION  I896 - 1911 1928 - 1930 1952 - 1957 1963 - 1965  Prov./weak Prov./moderate Prov./weak Fed. c h a l l e n g e Federal/moderate  CHART  *  (Cont.-)  The e f f e c t i v e n e s s has  been  The  existence  of  **  classified  The source  o f major I f minor  lower  case.  After  i960  as  as strong,  been  intra-party strains also  control  of the provincial  challenge  has also  the control  weak F e d e r a l  challenge.  generally  of a federal  the organization  letters.  ***  o f the control  moderate  organization o r weak.  to the p r o v i n c i a l  indicated  here.  s t r a i n s appears existed  they  of the organization with a p r o v i n c i a l  leadership  first  i n capital  are indicated  could  also  (rank and  be  file)  i n the  classified  165 The  s t r u c t u r e o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n the  L i b e r a l Party o f B r i t i s h Columbia has suggested the f o l l o w i n g p r o p o s i t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s : (1)  Whenever the p r o v i n c i a l wing o f the party  formed the p r o v i n c i a l government i n V i c t o r i a the p r o v i n c i a l leader's c o n t r o l o f the u n i f i e d party organization has been relatively  secure.  (2)  When the p r o v i n c i a l group was i n o p p o s i t i o n  e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was more d i f f i c u l t to maintain.  The r e t e n t i o n of c o n t r o l o f the organi-  z a t i o n by p r o v i n c i a l leaders depended not only upon the f e d e r a l party's p o s i t i o n i n Ottawa and the strength o f the f e d e r a l leaders i n B r i t i s h Columbia but the length and the extent o f the p r o v i n c i a l party's defeat. (3)  When both f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups  have  been i n o p p o s i t i o n the p r o v i n c i a l leader's a b i l i t y to c o n t r o l the L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n was contingent upon the balance of power e x i s t i n g within the party i n the p e r i o d immediately preceding that o f concurrent opposition.  Even i f the pro-  v i n c i a l wing had been out of power longer than the f e d e r a l wing, the defeat o f the f e d e r a l party  often strengthened the  p o s i t i o n o f the p r o v i n c i a l leader. (4)  While f e d e r a l Influence w i t h i n the u n i f i e d  party organization has assumed s i g n i f i c a n t dimensions when  166 the  federal  w i n g was  provincial effective  opposition, control  approval  of  the  (5) within  the  the  related  differences relations the  British  Many o f  the  the  relations  an  indirect  intra-party Columbia  federal  strains  involved  conduct  since  developed also  issues.  and  provincial  i n O t t a w a and  tended  and  w i n g s were  of  to  federal-provincial the  dominate  they often  L i b e r a l P r e m i e r and  wings  Victoria policy  s t r a i n s between  strains  the  with  of  approximated  s t r a i n s which  federal  the  initiated  between  of  federally-derived  These  party  quarrels  of  were i n power  often  only  clearly identifiable federal  r e l a t i n g to  party.  vincial  majority  Whenever b o t h  party  extended p e r i o d  leader.  p r o v i n c i a l or  to  an  influence  Association  great  groups.  either  the  the  provincial  between  (6) of  this  L i b e r a l Party  provincial  often  of  The  differences  within  i n power d u r i n g  two  wings  of  federal-pro-  involved  public  the  Liberal  Prime  two  wings of  the  Minister.  (7) party  were  threatening Public eral  When e i t h e r  in opposition to  friction  leader  cumstances.  was  the  unity  between also  or  of  the  policy  differences  of  provincial  the  less  both  the  were n o t  Association.  provincial leader  likely  to  as  and  occur under  the  fed-  these  cir-  167  (8) federal  The  leader  measure o f  the  ing- source  of  derived  from  ganization the  and  the  (9)  dent  strains  the  the  formal  since  were o f t e n usually  to  of  and  between  was the  not  administering often  an  most  friction  accurate  continuhas  a  the  been  joint  or-  effective control  of  leader.  When t h e  p r o v i n c i a l wing o f  the  s t r a i n s between province  intense.  alter  party  Serious  in pro-  always  evi-  administrative  federal activity  provincial Association,  which  the  of  established  was  f e d e r a l and  were a l m o s t  r e f l e c t e d increased the  the  balance  and was  power  within  organization.  (10) to  party  difficulties  influence within  the  the  administrative  threatening  quarrels  provincial leader  of  groups within  and  of public  federal-provincial party  under  opposition,  the  unity  provincial  vincial  absence  h a v e no two  often either  i n t e n s i t y of  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  wings  of  conflicting initiated  were n e i t h e r toral  The  the  party.  political or  the  nor  party.  strains  appeared  e l e c t o r a l circumstances  The needs  diverse of  encouraged most  restricted  p o s i t i o n of  the  intra-party  resolved  the  i n t e r e s t s and two  groups,  of the  which  intra-party strains, by  the  changing  elec-  168 THE  IMPACT OP F E D E R A L I S M  ON INTRA-PARTY R E L A T I O N S -  SOME COMPARISONS:  The experience While  o f only  federalism  the  on i n t r a - p a r t y parties  literature  federal  i sr i c h  and operation attention  parties  federal  Consequently,  detailed  are  t o make e v e n w i t h i n  politics. zations are  In turn,  comparisons  intra-party federal  relations vary  party  the  variables  one  local  party  and between  party  h a s been  relations  generalirelations  i f t h epatterns  considerably  matter within  only  o f Canadian  on I n t r a - p a r t y  within  appear  a party  of  t h e same  i na federal  s i t u a t i o n may n o t b e u s e f u l  o r f o r that  This  comparisons,  which  indeed,  levels of analysis.  Furthermore,  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  rapidly,  has received  thecontext  theparties  While  upon t h e s t r u c -  of intra-party  o f federalism  extremely hazardous.  countries.  countries.  without detailed  on t h e impact  comparisons  relations,  t h e o r e t i c a l and empirical  difficult  and Canadian  o f federalism  of political i n most  country.  directly  and expanding  t h e study o f i n t r a - p a r t y  ture  on b o t h  parties  i n other  t h e study o f t h e impact  true  a r e most  relations require  even  limited  i n one f e d e r a l  to the  statements on t h e impact o f  on f e d e r a l i s m  unfortunately  party  political  more g e n e r a l  political  above have r e f e r r e d  o f this.case-study  t o Canadian  federalism,  stated  one l o c a l  thefindings  relevant  with  propositions  system,  to clarify i nanother  local  system a s a whole.  169 Although has  been  of  Increasing  the l i t e r a t u r e  1963  i n t e r e s t i n Canadian p o l i t i c a l  i s still  steadily, Alexander  on f e d e r a l i s m  accurate  Brady's  parties analysis  and Canadian p a r t i e s i n  when h e r e p o r t s  that:  The r e l a t i o n o f t h e p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s t o t h e operation and success o f the f e d e r a t i o n i s a l a r g e a n d i m p o r t a n t theme w h i c h u n f o r t u n a t e l y has n e v e r been f u l l y e x p l o r e d i n a major and single treatise.... It i s dealt with b r i e f l y i n b o o k s on n a t i o n a l government, i n b i o g r a p h i e s and i n a few s p e c i a l s t u d i e s on t h e p a r t i e s . . . . E a c h o f t h e two c h i e f n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s s t i l l awaits a d e t a i l e d history....The writers of b o o k s h a v e d e v o t e d more a t t e n t i o n t o t h e m i n o r i t y and r e g i o n a l than to the n a t i o n a l p a r t i e s , a l t h o u g h a l l t h e i r s t u d i e s r e f l e c t something of the s t r a i n s and s t r e s s e s o f f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s .  The  identical  problem  been recognized. example,  S.R.  influences, and  concern  the  one might  other  o f those  party  the w r i t i n g  t h i n g s . A f t e r  suggest  generally  unavailable  local  and  they  studies  of federal party  remark  several  "As  policy  of federalism i n i s scant a brief  few examples o f g e n e r a l  the authors  the nature  organization,  the force  topic  to  systems has a l s o  Hughes have o b s e r v e d ,  expect  B u t even h e r e  federal  the A u s t r i a l i a n federalism, f o r  to illustrate  i s with  critique  Within  other  Davis and C A .  stratagems  Australia.  within  k  and the review and  treatments  unpublished  have g i v e n  organization  on  and  a new  slant  in Australia  that:^  I t i s v e r y l i k e l y t h a t t h i s t e n d e n c y t o w r i t e down the e f f e c t s o f a state-based n a t i o n a l p a r t y system  170 i s a b o u t t o e n d a n d t h a t a much m o r e u s e f u l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e p a r t y s y s t e m w i l l come f r o m t h e i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n paid t o state, r e g i o n a l and city differences.7  This  i s , o f course,  intra-party tions  on  relations  not only  zation  the usefulness on t h e l o c a l  provide  federal  level  within  f o r such  on t h e i n f o r m a l  the context  of a  which  of  examinaorganiparty but  single  a dynamic view o f t h e f e d e r a l  system and t h e d i v e r s i t i e s  PASTIES:  studies  characteristic of the l o c a l  system p r o v i d e  CMADIAN  level  information  and t h e s t r a i n s  the comparative  of detailed  party  i t embraces.  GENERAL OBSERVATIONS ON  THE IMPACT  OP  FEDERALISM:  Although ignored the  t h e impact  federal  mentation major of  few s t u d e n t s o f C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c s o f federalism  and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  o f t h e impact  federal  parties  the general  have o f f e r e d  reviews  systems,  of federal  strains  has been r a r e .  systematic within  Liberal  and Conservative P a r t i e s .  H.McD. C l o k i e , ^ have d e s c r i b e d  Corry  party  the formal  organization  o f t h e two m a j o r  federal  many  o f some  R. M a c G r e g o r 1 0  docu-  t h e two  relations within  and H o d g e t t s ,  of  organization  o b s e r v a t i o n s and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s  of federal-provincial  structure  Nevertheless,  o f Canadian party  aspects  organizations  on t h e g e n e r a l  have  the  Dawson,8  and Alexander  Brady  1 1  o f the p r o v i n c i a l parties.  A l l o f these  171 writers of  have remarked on t h e s t r e n g t h  the l o c a l  organization  disagreements the  however,  have  explored  and p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s  fluence  or control within  interests  suggested  that  the l a r g e r part  of  t h e p r o v i n c e . "-*"  2  stability  of petty  resources.  discussed  the extent  has  levels jobs local  patronage  control  f o r campaign that  more r e a d i l y  i s now  the  theorize  and  gift  on t h e  o f the u n i f i e d a r e c u t o f f from  and H o d g e t t s have  have  dominate suggested  l e s s d e p e n d e n t on p r o v i n c i a l  funds  the general  o f government  the Dominion  t o w h i c h t h e f e d e r a l w i n g may Corry  the  forin-  A l t h o u g h none o f t h e s e w r i t e r s  f e d e r a l p a r t i e s have been  stressed  be g i v e n  does n o t , however,  provincial organization,  organizations  between  organization.  the " a c q u i e s c e n c e by may  and  these  the province  once t h e p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s  patronage  that  within  o f the p r o v i n c i a l party  organizations  a  He  of  the competition  i n provincial leadership  in  Pew  the u n i f i e d party  that  for occasional  the f e d e r a l leader  o f t h e same p a r t y .  federal  Dawson h a s  the tendency  t o b r e a k out between  provincial leader  authors,  and on  of provincial control  since  decline  the  warl3 a n d D a w s o n  i n patronage  the f e d e r a l c o n t r o l  has o f f s e t p r o v i n c i a l claims  on  of the  both  best  f o r the control o f the  organization.-*-^  But provincial  while  the conditions  competition  organization  and  extent  of federal-  f o r the c o n t r o l o f the l o c a l  i s obscure,  several  party  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have  been  172 offered  within  development without  these  these  to  public  of  t h e same p a r t y .  ever,  works on t h e n a t u r e a n d  o f federal-provincial party  exception quarrels  operation  general  strains.  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s have  Almost  referred  between a p r e m i e r and a prime The impact  of the party  o f these  organization  was r a r e l y d i s c u s s e d .  minister  quarrels  on t h e  i n the province,  The development  only  how-  o f independent  quarrels  between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings w i t h i n t h e  province  was n o t e x a m i n e d  existence theless,  o f such  focus  by g e n e r a l  i n Canada.  leader  develop  i n their  party  remarked  both  on one hand,  often  that  that  have  poli-  the local  d i s t r a c t s the  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , encourage  o f t h e same  such q u a r r e l s  that  such  a  could  cleavages  were  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings were i n  quarrels  power w i t h i n  believed  prospective  t h e same p a r t y  Never-  and p r o p o s i t i o n s  the federal leader  he s u g g e s t e d  similar analysis  leadership of  when  recognized.  j e a l o u s i e s " may  to confront  a t any time,  more f r e q u e n t  a  f o r example,  or racial  Clokie  although the  assessments o f f e d e r a l party  of the provincial leader  p a r t y . w h i l e  In  Clokie,  as "regional  provincial  power  indirectly  of the p r o v i n c i a l organization  allegiance just  s t r a i n s was  some i n t e r e s t i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s  been provided tics  independently,  c a p i t a l s a t t h e same time." "?  Gwendolen  1  Carter  has suggested  between a p r e m i e r and a prime  a r e encouraged  that  such  minister  by t h e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f  t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l wings o f t h e and the "looseness  of organization  between  173 -i  the  two l e v e l s o f p a r t y It  quarrels to  has been  the  suggested  between l e a d e r s  t h e conduct  organization" that  adopt  examples  a general  r e l a t i o n s , indeed,  "various  leaders  in  Canada t h e p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l p r e m i e r s  "Liberal  leaders  bargaining "there lack  She  H. R i k e r  concession,"  o f commitment  to bargain  major p a r t i e s have  policies  of  l e d some s t u d e n t s  wings o f the major p a r t i e s a r e d e r i v e d  most d i f f e r e n c e s between  of politically  party  federal-pro-  relationship  that  deny h i s f e d e r a l l o y a l t i e s  i s unpopular and parade  issues  between  Smith has c y n i c a l l y remarked will  and d e c l i n e o f  the f e d e r a l and pro-  rewarding  from any i d e o l o g i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s  leader  the  of federal p o l i t i c s to  vincial  Denis  federalism  p u r s u e d b y p r o v i n c i a l w i n g s o f t h e two  that  analysis  to  Nevertheless,  believe  matic  that  butf o r  r e l a t i o n s and t h e p e r i o d i c p o p u l a r i t y  sectional issues  will  are i n  have looked  Canadian  about."^  to consistent  been  has observed  because w i t h i n  of  p o l i c y on  i n Ottawa n o t f o r l e a d e r s h i p ,  i s something  vincial  William  Neither  t o whether they  out o f office."" ^ 1  related  and p r o v i n c i a l  or  o  of public  i t has often  national  d i f f e r e n t attitudes according  hand.  have been  of federal-provincial relations.  federal-provincial that  most  o f t h e same p a r t y  major p a r t i e s have m a i n t a i n e d  noticed  on t h e o t h e r  from a  prag-  rather  than  t h e two  groups.  "A p r o v i n c i a l when  party  the federal  t h e m when i t i s p o p u l a r .  i s one o f p r u d e n c e r e s t i n g on a b a s i s  The  o f common  174sentiment has  and not o f p r i n c i p l e .  suggested  on t h e b a s i s  Conservative  real  d i f f e r e n c e s between  have been trative  so r a r e  claims  Association politics, man  the "brokerage  policy  Black  of the  Columbia  t h e two w i n g s  that  of the party  the conflicting  adminis-  the provincial  theory"  the federal party  the provinces  tradictory  of British  i n comparison  which views  between  Party  o f t h e two g r o u p s w i t h i n  that  E.B.  o f a d e t a i l e d study  Progressive policy  Indeed,  1 , 2 1  of federal  party  as "broker  or middle-  which have d i v e r s e and o f t e n  claims,"  may n o t a d e q u a t e l y  con-  account  f o r the  '22 majority To  of federal strains  examine t h i s  intra-party both  Canadian p a r t i e s .  h o w e v e r , much m o r e m u s t b e known  s t r a i n s when  t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y  sources  within  an assessment  of federal strains  derived  from  o f the strength  within  detailed studies  the provincial  party  organizations.  aspects  of intra-party relations within  vincial  p a r t i e s , E.R. B l a c k ' s  Conservative  Party  of British  of a provincial  problem  party  relations within  2  provided  study  a few  i n s i g h t s on  some  pro-  of the Progressive  Columbia  j± v e r y  the various  Although  the various  i s the only  specifically  of federal strains. -^  of the various  of intra-party relations  on C a n a d i a n p a r t i e s have  party  arenot  Canadian p a r t i e s can only  studies  study  about  i n power. Indeed,  be  thesis,  within  focused  general  provincial  detailed  on t h e  outline of  intra-  organizations  175 of  the  Liberal  strief  i n an  Party  has  been p r o v i d e d  unpublished  dies,  however, a r e  the  party  r e l a t i o n s i n any  PhD.  only  more c o n c e r n e d w i t h parties  or  parties  in a  and  the  the  general  province  provincial  ones which d e a l  on  rise  gives  a very  political  clear picture of  the  of Alberta's on  either of  the  in  A l b e r t a but  of  the  of  Liberal  does n o t  ization  or  vincial  leaders  small  the  Studies  the  like  the  party.  regional the  o f The  federal  Consequently,  neither  Government  Nova  of  i n New  Brunswick  structure of intra-party  two  major parties. -5  Similarly  2  Party  by  policies  L.G.  of  the  Thomas  con-  Liberal  f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n  the  party  the  role  party  organ-  s t r a i n s between f e d e r a l and  party  S.M.  been  r e l a t i o n s between  with  of  studies  have  and  systematically deal  impact  on  the  the  the  h i s t o r y and  province's  minority  stu-  intra-  exchanges between  than with a  with  politics  1  within  centrates  the  Begen-  These  Most o f  T h o r b u r n s book, P o l i t i c s  relations study  way.  provincial of  groups w i t h i n  H u g h G.  Peter  2  3*- Murray B e c k ' s d e t a i l e d s t u d y S c o t i a nor  S.  dissertation. ^  systematic  which have been p u b l i s h e d  by  pro-  organization. 6 2  Lipset's Agrarian  Socialism, ? 2  OR  J o h n A. W.L.  I r v i n g ' s The  M o r t o n ' s The  S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement  Progressive  M a c p h e r s o n s Democracy 1  of the  a Quasi-Party  Party  in Alberta:  System30  i n Canada, 9 2  The  have concerned  c o n d i t i o n s which gave r i s e  to  in Alberta,  these  a  n  (  T h e o r y and themselves various  i  c.B.  Practice with  parties  and  176 and  the impact  systems.  of sectionalism  They have p a i d  very  on t h e p r o v i n c i a l partylittle  of  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  of  t h e s e p a r t i e s o r even between  attention  p r o v i n c i a l and  o f t h e same p a r t y .  party  r e l a t i o n s have assumed  these  p a r t i e s because o f the weakness  organizations vinces.  and t h e i r  informal the  has  centralized relationship  often  party  however,  major p a r t i e s  one  i n a general  o r two  way  pro-  that  the  has a f f e c t e d  a commitment  to a  Systematic  the  though  fairly  studies  of the  f e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l members o f t h e both wings o f the party  have n o t been p u b l i s h e d  and,  have  had  consequently,  comparable t o i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n  i s not available.  SOME COMPARISONS ON IN  intra-  federal  o f t h e C . C . F . - N.D.P. e v e n  where  d a t a w h i c h w o u l d be the  of their  i n only  organization.  i n provinces  support,  strength  expressed  between  that  somewhat d i f f e r e n t f o r m s i n  of federal politics  organization  party  party  pull  members  provincial  I t i s c l e a r , however,  I t has been observed  decentralizing  federal  the various  units  to the nature  THE  STRUCTURE OF  INTRA-PARTX R E L A T I O N S  CANADA:  Aspects federal  o f the formal  organization  p a r t i e s have been d i s c u s s e d  unpublished  Ph.D.  h a s been on  the n a t i o n a l  o f t h e two  in detail  in  d i s s e r t a t i o n s but i n a l l cases organization  and  major  three the  treatment  focus o f the  177  provincial  organizations  personnel  within  contended  that  and  provincial  but  the real  cohesion The  the formal wings  general  although within  party  obscure.  organizations  major  f e d e r a l p a r t i e s may  and  elusive interdependencies  LIBERAL  a  of British  Party  Regenstrief  o f the  some o f t h e m o r e  exist  within  complex  the party  a basis f o r  of this  case-study  Columbia.  a l l the Information  within provincial  single chapter  Liberal  organizations  clarify which  of intra-party  PARTY:  Almost relations  o f t h e major p a r t i e s has  the approach and c o n c l u s i o n s Party  in  politics,  a n d , i n a d d i t i o n , may p r o v i d e  the Liberal  THE  has been r e c o g n i z e d  The f o l l o w i n g r e v i e w  two  of  connection."-^  structure of intra-party relations  i n some o f t h e p r o v i n c i a l  evaluating  "a r e l a t i o n s h i p ,  o f Canadian  relations  organizations  study-  organization as a focus f o r  interaction  way b y many o b s e r v e r s  the provincial  remained  one  demonstrated a l a c k o f  o f any o r g a n i c  of the provincial  the informal  showed  o f the party  and an absence  Indeed,  2  organization uniting the federal  of the party  operation  importance  of the federal  t h e m h a s b e e n weak.-^  federal-provincial a  and the r o l e  o f S. P e t e r  of-Canada:  was m a i n l y  Liberal  a v a i l a b l e on i n t r a - p a r t y P a r t i e s may b e f o u n d i n  Regenstrief's  A Political  study  Analysis.  i n t e r e s t e d i n whether  o f The Although  the p r o v i n c i a l  178 and  federal organizations  within  a  single Liberal Association  vincial  party  quarrels  had  been  between  attempted  to  determine  organization  indication  of  the  to  quarrels  izations.  Indeed, and  or  provincial leaders  indication  of  Regenstrief in  British  plagued  by  provincial there  had  "actual  and  had  Manitoba  organization  but  izational the  existence  of  i n New  appeared  of a  J  coalition  serious  as  Quebec have  "unbroken  an  federal  and  federalPrince  p r o v i n c i a l organ-  predicament to  despite  great  federal  been  Saskatchewan  Brunswick,  a  federal  Liberal Parties  difficult  p r o v i n c i a l and  close  this  between  The  various  cooperation.  f e d e r a l and  coincided.  indicated that  overlap  of  some  between  the  and  the  organizations  In Nova S c o t i a and  tradition  generally  Regenstrief  only  potential discord  and  also  p r o v i n c i a l organ-  interpreted  Ontario  Newfoundland,  izations  had  quarrels  Alberta,  cooperation,"  Island  public  that  long  he  give  provincial  reported  or  pro-  public  i n the  however,  federal-provincial  interests."-^ been a  provincial Edward  Columbia,  and  given  f e d e r a l and  Regenstrief  complete  has  which have n o t  separate  were no  serious  control  d i d not,  i f f e d e r a l and  there  whether the  so  federal  those provinces  leadership  coincided  i n doing  of He  any  united  group a c t u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d  and  extent  by  and  were  provincial leaders,  which  organizations.  attention  and  divided  f e d e r a l and  provincial  Liberal  i n each province  of  the  classify deal  of  organ-  organizations,  Liberal-Progressive  administration  179 had  possibly  business  during  relations strains a  complicated  were  Minister  were  Liberal  the  of  believed  into  a  provinces  federal Nova  the  S c o t i a and changes  and  resented  continued  the  Association detailed  once  they  analysis of  the  but  the  F i e l d i n g and Gardiner of  influence  these  of the  segment  entered two  to  "36"  focus  of  control  Saskatchewan  also,  retained or  left  While  as  there  there  control i t under  Union  the  of  over the  Regenstrief  was  complete  Government  determine whether  w h e t h e r any  the  provincial interests in  of  priorities  organization  of  when t h e p r o v i n c i a l  personally  exception  James G.  leader  i n Nova S c o t i a and  f e d e r a l and  o f W.S.  i n the  of  conditions  i n t e r e s t i n g to  period, Gardiner,  province.  successor.-^?  these  between  careers  the  federal politics  under  with  w o u l d be  on  party  unsuccessfully  organizations  hand-picked  that  cooperation  any  i n both  this  some d i f f i c u l t i e s  provincial organization  control  it  attempted  organizations with  of  of  intra-party  when James H.  classification  Regenstrief  moved  most  While  unofficial  organization  precise  instances  leader  a f t e r 1935  organization,  The  provided  during  o f A g r i c u l t u r e and  " i m p o s e h i s own  the  obscure  administration  1930's.  T  evident  Saskatchewan  of  joint  1 9 2 0 s and  the  remained  the  the  Angus L.  both  period,  assumed  Macdonald  Saskatchewan  of  initiated  unified provincial of  the  p r o v i n c i a l group  t h e s e men  within  federal cabinet.  organizations  might  the A  more  indicate  180 if  intra-party cooperation  practices the of  developed by the p a r t y ,  leaders  within  eye.3^  held  Since  both  power c o n c u r r e n t l y  provinces, izations  wan  t o keep  however,  intra-party friction  Ross  f o r extended periods  i t i s doubtful  whether  have avoided  Since  t h e L i b e r a l s have r e t u r n e d  Thatcher  has been n o t e d  federal  party  took  of provincial  parliament reported  of the provincial  that  a new a n d s e p a r a t e  vince  clear,  after  party  i n Saskatche-  Premier Pearson  and extent  of the  that the  of the federal  one L i b e r a l  member o f  i n 1962.  the right  unacceptable  I t was wing  and had  o r g a n i z a t i o n be c r e a t e d The p r o v i n c i a l  campaign  orienta-  requested  i n the pro-  leader  was n o t  o n t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d when t h e  provincial ization  organ-  observed w i t h i n the  i tappeared  found  two  entirely.  the L i b e r a l  the province  f o r f e d e r a l purposes.39  consulted  only  the federal leader  tion  the party  t o power  the nature  the administration hands  i n these  Prime M i n i s t e r L e s t e r  While  was e l e c t e d f r o m  that  between  and the L i b e r a l  s t r a i n s were n o t a l t o g e t h e r  wings  intra-party strains  Friction  as well.  out of the  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  could  organization.  liaison of  o r p o s s i b l y on t h e a b i l i t y  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l s t r a i n s have been  party  out  on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  the "personal  the province,"  the organization  public  was b a s e d  g r o u p was e x c l u d e d  the provincial  party  candidates.  I n commenting  party  E.R. B l a c k  conflict  from  t h e 1963  campaign  o f f e r e d no a s s i s t a n c e on t h e o r i g i n  has suggested:  of this  organ-  to federal intra-  181 Here t h e problem would appear t o have i s s u e d i n i d e o l o g i c a l terms p r i m a r i l y because o f a tactical situation. In seeking to overthrow Saskatchewan's C . G . P . government, t h e P r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l leader, Ross Thatcher, c a r e f u l l y c u l t i v a t e d a strong r i g h t wing look f o r h i s group, an a t t i t u d e i n n o t a b l e c o n t r a s t with that o f the f e d e r a l party.3°  While Regenstrief within  the four  provinces  Ontario  and Quebec,  strains  or to generalize  these  four  cation  described of Alberta,  British  he d i d n o t a t t e m p t  strains,  A  strains  Columbia,  to classify  on the l o n g - t e r m  Liberal organizations.  o f these  Intra-party  these  experiences  systematic  of  classifi-  h o w e v e r , was i m p o s s i b l e  i n some  cases because o f t h e uneven q u a l i t y o f h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . I n A l b e r t a many a s p e c t s have remained and  1920*s  organizational overlap  there  was n o t a n e f f e c t i v e  t h e 1930's w h i l e  tration  so t h a t  o f f e d e r a l and  and cooperation. party  administrator but  while  improved,  i n one p a r t  regional variations  o f the province  was n o f e d e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  i n another part  e s t s were o p e n l y  with  the  conflicting  that  1935  Since  the province  Gardiner  federal  when t h e f e d e r a l L i b e r a l s r e t u r n e d  attempted  h a d no c a b i n e t  inter-  Regenstrief  the i n t e n s i t y o f intra-party s t r a i n s  after  there  p r o v i n c i a l groups f o r  control of the regional organizations.  inferred  In t h e  the q u a l i t y o f the p r o v i n c i a l adminis-  o f the organization  continued  relations  because o f t h e weakness o f t h e p a r t y  the r e g i o n a l v a r i a t i o n s i n the extent  provincial  in  obscured  of federal-provincial party  t o power.  representative,  to c o n t r o l federal business  increased  James H.  within the  182 province  a n d was f o u g h t  Alberta's  new c a b i n e t  i n 1955.  and  by p r o v i n c i a l groups.  minister  Regenstrief  clashed  reported,  with  1950  After  p r o v i n c i a l groups  he opened a  separate  ho office  f o rthe federal party  i n Edmonton. ^  Prom R e g e n -  s t r i e f 's d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e A l b e r t a L i b e r a l would  appear  that  t h e major  have been a d m i n i s t r a t i v e of  federal business  Liberal  Party  difficult to  i n the province.  provincial  there  business  leaders  from Quebec  vincial  Liberal  leaders  increasingly discovered with  ganization leaders After  alienated  their  group  excluded  from  with  help  basis,  federal  from  pro-  a f t e r the v i c -  politicians, making  who  became often  "non-agression  When t h e p r o v i n c i a l o r -  federal leaders  were  formally  the federal  reunited  the province  the n e g o t i a t i o n s . ^  o f t h e two w i n g s  i n Ottawa.  power i n t h e p r o v i n c e  interests within  o f federal personnel  fication  While  i n t h e 1950's a n d 1 9 6 0 ' s , p r o v i n c i a l  provincial organizations  tually  o f f e d e r a l and  f e d e r a l M.P.s f r o m Q u e b e c  from L i b e r a l  contacts  federal  the province  to i960.  on an i n f o r m a l  the L i b e r a l s gained  "old-guard"  1911  the Union N a t i o n a l e . ^  renewed  within  provincial organization.  federal colleagues  was r e b u i l t  on t h e c o n t r o l  h a d made i t m o r e  occasionally received  o f the Union Nationale  pacts"  however,  was a s e p a r a t i o n  from about  strain  The weakness o f t h e  f o rfederal representatives  assume c o n t r o l o f t h e l e g a l  tory  of intra-party  a n d have c e n t e r e d  i n the province,  In Quebec  and  sources  organization i t  a r e completely of the party  Until  be  were  vir-  the older  retired,  will  butthe  the u n i -  incomplete  183 and  the arrangements  will  probably  remain  Intra-party bia  have  f o r the organization  exhibited  of joint  facilities  unstable. r e l a t i o n s i n Ontario  striking  and B r i t i s h  similarities.  Although  Regen-  s t r i e f s review df intra-party r e l a t i o n s i n B r i t i s h was m o s t strains of  fragmentary  of the c o a l i t i o n  the Ontario  with  formally a  united  separate  to  i n 1917  study  throughout  with  the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  has provided  i n Ontario  t h e 1920's.^-5  during  party  While  during  seriously  period,  nominating  between  of Ontario  reported,  refused  King  and t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r ,  feder-  who  a t the  to  avoid After  on t h e was  to cooperate.  i s clear that  in refusing  intra-  stayed  supposedly  he c o n s u l t e d  on  Differences  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s .  o f the cabinet  opposition,  convention  had  after  i n 1930  public.  than  Govern-  information  e l e c t i o n when t h e f e d e r a l l e a d e r  the party  confusion  It  existence  o f Union  the p r o v i n c i a l leader  s t r a i n s became q u i t e  H e p b u r n became P r e m i e r  in  of British  and as a r e s u l t the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  time o f Hepburn's  selection  parallels  federal organization  between Hepburn and K i n g began, R e g e n s t r i e f  any  the  L i b e r a l s were d i v i d e d more  Hepburn became  from  many  has remained  i t s history despite  C o l u m b i a L i b e r a l s on t h e i s s u e  al-provincial  away  description  on t h e L i b e r a l P a r t y  r e l a t i o n s was n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r t h i s  Mitchell  Columbia  h i s more d e t a i l e d  and quasi-autonomous  be r e b u i l t  party  of this  Ontario  were B r i t i s h ment  period,  The L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  1930's.  the  mainly  Liberal organization  the f i n d i n g s  Columbia.  of  and d e a l t  Colum-  to i n t e r f e r e i n the  still  184 p r o v i n c i a l cabinet-making process, King wished t o f o r e s t a l l s i m i l a r a t t e m p t s by Hepburn t o impose any c o n d i t i o n s he m i g h t h a v e u p o n K i n g s h o u l d t h e f e d e r a l p a r t y succeed i n winning the forthcoming f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n , w h i c h by t h a t t i m e i t seemed c e r t a i n t o do.46 Indeed, without coming his  after  the  c o n s u l t i n g King, federal  federal  successful federal announced  m i n i s t e r of  colleague  into  with  the  interpreted  organizations cial  this  ted  on  the  as  "tantamount  s e t up."^7  composition  By  1936  the  two  l e a d e r s was  f e u d were complex and  the  they  by  the  vincial ssis  two  l e a d e r s were b a s e d  relations.  t o b l o c k what  e n c r o a c h m e n t s on tions with electric  Hepburn,  Washington  power and  on  the  finally  the  public  The  t o be later  "federal  initiated  possibility  joined  provin-  united with  considered  rights,"  and  separate  origins rela-  clashes  issues of federal-pro-  f o r example,  the Premiers  provincial  on  that  infamous. appeared  consult  cabinet.  1938  to Hepburn's d e s i r e f o r i n f l u e n c e i n Ottawa,  between the  post.  d i d not  federal  and  pressure  f o r the  of  Hepburn,  "forth-  to  to u r g i n g  becoming  while  the  attempt  w i s h e s and  o r g a n i z a t i o n s were q u i t e d i s t i n c t  feud between of  be  this  i n an  naming h i s c h o i c e  i g n o r e d Hepburn's a c t i o n s and  Hepburn  t h e name o f  justice  King  Ontario Premier  election  with  of  government  direct  exporting  Ontario  Duple-  negotiahydro-  Conservatives 48  in  passing a motion  As  i n the  case  of  of Pattullo's  the  Ontario  provincial  the  federal  l e a d e r and,  the p r o v i n c i a l  censure  wing  on  the  federal  clash with  King,  government. members  organization eventually sided thereby,  of the  party  initiated itself.  divisions  of with within  185  These Regenstrief ted  reported,  t o name h i s own  opposed new  i n t r a - p a r t y cleavages  to  cabinet party  and  defeated  took advantage position  of  within  reflecting position,  successor.  leader  ministers  was  when H e p b u r n r e t i r e d  Hepburn baeked  provincial  on  the  open  King  himself.  of  who of  When t h e the  factions  became the  the  federal  f e d e r a l wing  their  provincial  attemp-  provincial  organization.  the  and  provincial  support  d i s u n i t y and  provincial  effect  and  following year  visable,  i n 1942  candidate,  with  provincial  the  Federal  another  i n the  the  were c l e a r l y  strengthened  Regenstrief,  party's  electoral  commented:  A c c o r d i n g l y , any o b j e c t i o n s the ' p r o v i n c i a l s ' m i g h t have had to f e d e r a l c a b i n e t d o m i n a t i o n c o u l d n o t have the impact comparable to t h a t which such o b j e c t i o n s would have emanated from a p a r t y i n power. In f a c t , these a r e grounds f o r c l a i m i n g t h a t the b a l a n c e had s h i f t e d i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n a n d t h a t f e d e r a l m i n i s t e r s a n d f e d e r a l M.P.s played an o v e r w h e l m i n g r o l e i n p r o v i n c i a l a f f a i r s . °  The  federal control of  complete  that  membership  the  federal leaders  of  the  the  provincial  for  embarrassing  provincial  wing  i n the  the  extended  accompanied Indeed, the  period by  i n both  control of  the  increased this  one-half  committee  legislature provincial  British  of p r o v i n c i a l  cases the  platform  Ontario  and  o r g a n i z a t i o n was  comprised  Conservative  In b o t h O n t a r i o the  provincial  a  influence of  the  organization.  the used "device  government."^  0  therefore,  e c l i p s e has  i n f l u e n c e appeared  provincial  and as  Columbia,  party  of  so  been  federal to In  party.  constitute both  cases  186  the  initial  position  federal-provincial provincial  group  repurcussions ganizations difficult of  o f t h e f e d e r a l w i n g was a i d e d  party  itself.  conflict  Comparisons  o f f e d e r a l domination  i n Ontario  and B r i t i s h  Although  has  Party  Ontario  from  the of  formal  Indeed,  study  article  invaluable  of  has s t u d i e d  1920  and  While  Party's,  and the sources  the experience  been  however, a r e information  PARTY:  Black.  two p a r t i e s w o u l d a p p e a r  Black's  Columbia,  as well.  those  of this  i n the party  Conservative  i n a few key  t o be q u i t e  similar  Party  areas  intra-  of intra-party strain  within  on t h e b a s i s  in British  the t e n t a t i v e p r o p o s i t i o n s suggested  o f t h e B.C. C o n s e r v a t i v e s  i n many c a s e s  case-study  proved b u t have  by t h e f i n d i n g s o f R e g e n s t r i e f * s  The d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e case-study,  by  and p u b l i s h e d i n  Review have n o t o n l y  i n the organization of this  study  the only  the structure of  o f the Conservative  f o r the Dalhousie  confirmed  the Conserva-  194-9, ^  the  organization differs  o f the L i b e r a l  and  o f the p r o v i n c i a l or-  of intra-party relations  b y E.R.  party  relations  Columbia.  an  the years  examination  that  party  on t h e s t a b i l i t y  situation.  J o h n R. W i l l i a m s  between  been p r o v i d e d  Party's  divided the  1  THE P R O G R E S S I V E - C O N S E R V A T I V E  detailed  finally  t o make o n t h e b a s i s o f R e g e n s t r i e f s  the contemporary  tive  which  by a  however, w i l l  p r o p o s i t i o n s and be a i d e d  by a  brief  18?  review Party  of of  intra-party relations within British  The  strong  provincial  federal power upon  provincial  the  party  of  vincial  group.  party  the  during  severe  the  coalition  involve Black  federal  and  Although after able  the to  spite  organization  period,  final  the  coalition's  c o n t r o l the of repeated  the  status  contests.  provincial defeat,  only  legal  to  assumed  but  the  of  even the  the  pro-  within most  the  open  emerged  dispute  rely  1933  i n 1930,  conflict  of  to  strong  developed  the  the  and  the  in  a  build  rested with  i n the  JC  period  fairly  after  appeared  provincial  embraced b o t h  approval  and  continued  although  "While  question  provincial  was  i n Ottawa  organization  s e l e c t i o n and  helped  federal strains  more t h a n  of a l l party  first  B e t w e e n 1928  province  defeated.  "the  the  Columbia  1933,  f e d e r a l wing  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a lparty was  and  federal party  the  coalition  concluded,  the  the  organization.  Severe  1928  Premier,  after  provincial  nothing  control  In  assumed power  the  and  as  the  f e d e r a l wing w i t h i n  control  in  leader,  in British  1916,  and  and. 1952.  i n 1911  i n Ottawa  before  as  Conservatives  o r g a n i z a t i o n and  the  the  provincial  between 194l  coalition  Conservative  Columbia.  i n p o w e r b e t w e e n 1902  were  the  the  province  candidates  leader,"  shape as  to  and  well  for  both  *  g r o u p was  Black  extremely  stressed  Conservative  federal challenges  to  that  weak  they  were  organization the  provincial  188 In 195^  leadership. motion  o f no c o n f i d e n c e  attacked  the a c t i v i t y  separate  federal  groups of  continued  defeat,  other  of the federal  to clash  p a r t i e s were provincial  group balanced  Several  o f Black's  significance  while  Black  found  the c o a l i t i o n  tentative  Liberal  examined  severe both  of the  strength of the fedi n Ottawa.  p r o p o s i t i o n s on t h e parties  are of  the experience  of the  to the diverse experiences  Parties  that  a n d when  p a r t y assumed power  in relating  public  to a s s i m i l a t e the  the r e l a t i v e  the federal  Conservatives  vincial  during  electoral  to attain  o f f e d e r a l i s m on C a n a d i a n p o l i t i c a l  particular  T h e two  stressed that "not  i n opposition, the determination  group u n t i l  impact  developed  a  when t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  But Black  groups.Consequently, strains  f o r creating  g r o u p was w e a k e n e d b y c o n t i n u e d  i t s representatives able  a  l e a d e r a n d openly-  wing  i960,  until  retirement and death.  were  federal  B.C.  i n the federal  o n e o f t h e two f a c t i o n s was a b l e  office  eral  A s s o c i a t i o n voted  organization i n the province.  the provincial  until  "the p r o v i n c i a l  o f the pro-  above.  Just as the v i r t u a l independence o f a p r o v i n c i a l government's p o l i c y - m a k i n g depends t o c o n s i d e r a b l e e x t e n t o n i t s p r o v i n c i a l r e s o u r c e s , so t h e e f f e c t i v e c o n t r o l o f p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n by t h e l o c a l o f f i c e r s depends upon t h e l o c a l u n i t ' s p o l i t i c a l resources i n comparison with those o f the c e n t r a l p a r t y ; such r e s o u r c e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be s i z e and commitment o f membership, f i n a n c i a l c a p a b i l i t i e s , q u a l i t y and appeal o f l e a d e r s h i p , and, o f course, e l e c t o r a l success.  189 The i n t e r e s t s a n d e n e r g i e s o f t h e p a r t y m a c h i n e r y w i t h i n one p r o v i n c e c a n n o t he c o n v e r t e d r e a d i l y and w i t h e q u a l e f f i c i e n c y to b o t h f e d e r a l and provincial objectives. Attempts to t r e a t the p a r t y as i f i t were r e a d i l y c o n v e r t i b l e impose a l m o s t i n t o l e r a b l e s t r e s s e s on t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n , s t r e s s e s w h i c h we may e x p e c t t o be m a n i f e s t e d i n d i f f i c u l t i e s between the p a r t y l e a d e r s .  Even where a p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y o r g a n i z a t i o n i s c o n t r o l l e d by r e l a t i v e l y i n e f f e c t u a l p e r s o n s , i f they are determined i n t h e i r leadership, rep r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the c e n t r a l p a r t y can u n d e r t a k e •corrective action only at considerable risk. 1  The p a t t e r n o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y groups w i l l depend u p o n w h e t h e r p u b l i c o f f i c e i s h e l d by one, neither, o r b o t h t h e two g r o u p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i l l a l s o b e a f f e c t e d by t h e n a t u r e o f a n y rehabilitat i v e p r o c e s s through which an o u t - o f - o f f i c e p a r t y f a c t i o n may b e g o i n g a n d b y t h e d e g r e e o f i d e o l o g i c a l and p o l i c y s o l i d a r i t y between the c e n t r a l and p r o v i n c i a l u n i t s . ^  Black the  has  suggested,  provincial party  that  therefore,  organizations  federal challenges  to  this  defeated  by  relatively  the  of  federal challenges  risk  however, the  the  organization leadership of  a  Black  have  involved  local  been  control  effective  c o n t r o l may  to  the  often  to  local the  in administering the  the  therefore,  local  that  the  of and  be Despite  leadership,  two  groups  a unified  development  which have o f t e n  federal challenge suggested,  has  interests of  encouraged  quarrels  the  weak p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r s .  conflicting  difficulties  that  assumed  of  different  party  inrfcense  the  leadership  and  of  dimensions the  party.  190 o r g a n i z a t i o n a l needs  f e d e r a l and  a party  and  the  organization  groups  strain  f o r the  within  responsible from  time  study  of  a  the  time  leadership  i n the  and  p r o v i n c i a l groups.  mining  party of  that  the  party  "pattern  was  of B r i t i s h within  to  what  variable.  the  extent with  party  occurred  in  his found  federal  which  organization, of  the  factor in  This  the  the  two  deter-  structure of  the  identified  the  two  in this  the  administrative of  the  evidence  i n the  case-study  of  sources  to  f o u n d no  groups  position  focus  in relation  A l t h o u g h Black- h a d  intra-  the L i b e r a l  p r o v i n c i a l A s s o c i a t i o n and were examined  thesis  electoral  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  b o t h p o l i c y and  were  often  s t r a i n s between  a major  Conservative strain  i t was  C o l u m b i a he  circumstances  between  of  of  several variables  of p o l i c y c o n f l i c t s Party,  source  Indeed,  p r o v i n c i a l groups w i t h i n  Columbia.  the  between  which have  groups."55  associated  intra-party strain  electoral  probably  within  o f a u t h o r i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  to determine  f e d e r a l and  control  electoral  p r o v i n c i a l party  r e l a t i o n s was  the  Party  of  o f power w i t h i n  and  attempted  with  the  balance  and  of B r i t i s h  identified  the  a major  quarrels  While Black  the  central  Party  of p o l i c y associated  suggested  wings o f  was  major p a r t i e s .  Conservative  issues  he  competition  p r o v i n c i a l Canadian party  few  affected  general  same r e s o u r c e s  f o r the  to  the  p r o v i n c i a l groups  the  B.C. sources B.C.  191 Liberal  Party.  Nevertheless,  administrative leadership by  this  and  s t r a i n s were  quarrels  examination  Regenstrief's  tions  also  division  structure  Canadian  The more  specific  which have been relevance  In a l m o s t  within  has been  a  p r o v i n c i a l group  seemed  provincial  organiza-  propositions  on t h e  the organizations,  during  periods  business  provincial  was f a i r l y  When  pertaining  Nevertheless,  of federal  when or  influence  considerably  I n some p a r t y  t o have  extensive  organiza-  power  f e d e r a l p a r t i e s were a l s o  of allowing  well  review,  the provincial leader  however, v a r i e d  appeared  representative  decisions  parties.  over  i n s p i t e o f t h e dominant p o s i t i o n o f t h e  group.  tradition  i n this  The e x t e n t  o f p r o v i n c i a l power.  federal leaders  appear to  Canadian  examined i n power  also  t o be i n c o n t r o l o f t h e l e g a l  organization.^  within  federal  Liberal  Columbia  of a unified" party  the major  a l l cases  p r o v i n c i a l party  the  in British  effects of the federal  enumerated above,  a  federal  confirmed  o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s i n t h e B.C. L i b e r a l  have wider  tions  p a r t i e s was  o u t l i n e o f other  on t h e o p e r a t i o n  that  o f many o f t h e  of the L i b e r a l Party  brief  o f power  suggestion  the basis  r e f l e c t e d the disruptive  organization.  Party,  within  Black's  the federal  cabinet  t o make t h e . m a j o r  to federal a c t i v i t y  established  within  i f federal leaders  i n power  minister  or  administrative within  the  province  many L i b e r a l P a r t i e s .  utilized  a provincial  party's  1 9 2 facilities the  form  tions,  the  of  provincial leader  federal activity.  however,  provincial  was  often  In o t h e r  able  to  influence  provincial  organiza-  e v e n when f e d e r a l g r o u p s h a v e b e e n  leaders  have o c c a s i o n a l l y b e l i e v e d  strong,  that  their  power e x t e n d e d o v e r a l l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l m a t t e r s  i n the  In  retained  a  the  B.C.  Conservative  provincial leader  Although within  this  the  suggested  the  a  the  not  been  documented  a  party  organization  electoral  above.  Nevertheless,  of a  party  established  been a r e f l e c t i o n  power. of  Indeed,  electoral  British  varied  i n a l l instances  within  the  role of  party  Columbia and  electoral  Federal  considerably  of  parties  has  influence  during examined  federal  L i b e r a l and the  control  organization  power.  the  of  has  domina-  was  p r o v i n c i a l e c l i p s e and  the  its  federal  respective  federal Influence  of  to  organization  their  circumstances within  a period  separated  provincial organization  with  organization,  during  province.57  i n one  party  has  by  been  to p r o v i n c i a l desires  within  b a s e d on  similar  Parties  defeated.  p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l of a  b e e n most d i r e c t l y  party  from  been c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  within  was  b u s i n e s s more c l o s e l y . W h i l e  strength,  tion  actions  response  provincial leaders  often  party  i t o c c a s i o n a l l y has  federal party's  was  f e d e r a l L i b e r a l group has  informally  campaigns  federal and  when a  belief  s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s have  federal party  organization  the  s i t u a t i o n has  L i b e r a l Party, by  this  even a f t e r the  precise  Nevertheless,  between  Party  province.  only federal  Conservative  L i b e r a l Party  of  Ontario,  193 federal  influence  o f weakened  was  only  and d i v i d e d  The  established  o f the focus  organization,  therefore,  and  of federal politics.  has helped  groups  to extend  within  the p r o v i n c i a l party  pressures and  exerted  political  of federal  develop  into conflicts  groups.  While  differences party  strain,  strains within  be  identified  autonomy  of p o l i t i c a l policy  o r formal  quarrels  separations  strain  or  Conservative  the  a party  a r e once  differences  as separate  issues  they  and p o l i c y  sources  developed  were  to the e l e c t o r a l circumstances  information  of  The source most  intra-  often  intertwined. sources  of the L i b e r a l  P a r t i e s has been d i f f i c u l t now  of  Intra-party  relationship of either policy or administrative  of  activity  closely interrelated the  after intra-party friction  both p o l i c y and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e The  between  between t h e f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l  both administrative  could  arenas  party  has r e f l e c t e d the  organizations.  h a s i n d i c a t e d how  sources  their  a  the strains  The c o m p e t i t i o n  as public  o f t h e same p a r t y  also  to identify  organizations  b y two d i s t i n c t  and p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  competition  approval  o f power w i t h i n  power o r m a i n t a i n  power a s c l e a r l y  between l e a d e r s federal  their  indirect  p r o v i n c i a l groups.  examination  conflicts  with  to confirm  from  available.  s i g n i f i c a n c e of p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s as a major  of federal  difficult  strain  to assess  i n t h e two m a j o r p a r t i e s h a s b e e n since  a detailed analysis  of  intra-  19 party  relations  servative serious  was  Parties  policy  not available  (during  quarrels  Columbia and O n t a r i o and  federal  k  Liberal  periods  were o n l y  during  governments,  Manitoba, Saskatchewan  must be  examined  strains  c a n be  in way  t h e two suggest  source  has  that  The  sectional  very  i n d i r e c t l y but  within  Liberal  vinces  often  has  the  party  the  development  ination  political  and  between  policy  of third  parties  i n the  i n any  federal capitals  f e e l i n g has been  parties.  of federal  The weakness  and has  of the pro-  control  encouraged  While p o l i c y  i n these p a r t i e s ,  t h e way  to  of strains  i n these  pressures  strains.  strong  the pattern  parties  a closer  i n which  be  important  major  more c o m p l e t e l y  indicate  an  policy  quarrels  power d o e s n o t  t h e two  of intra-party  may  power  I t should  o f t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s  . provinces  Parties  within  intensified federal  documented  o f the  of  the development  federal  While  provincial  have n o t been  sectional  Con-  British  Liberal  relations.  and C o n s e r v a t i v e  organization  have n o t been  and  and  the development  significantly affected  major  provincial  issues  dominance  relations  t h e two  with  political  friction  so many p r o v i n c e s w h e r e  intra-party  pra.  and  in  concurrent  the connection  parties  of intra-party  parties. of  major  recognized  before  clearly associated  that  defeat).  and A l b e r t a  i n more d e t a i l  however,  of party  the experience  conduct o f inter-governmental  stressed,  Liberal  periods  Quebec,  the  f o r most  quarrels  exam-  i n the increased  195 federal or  influence  contained  groups. federal the  potential  that  The  exist  in  quarrels  a u n i f i e d party  involved  the province  were w e l l  kept  party  quarrels  most  in has  their  organizations  associations.  s t r a i n s may These  well  often  strains  business  contained or  developed  into  public  o f power w i t h i n  d i r e c t l y challenged.  adminis-  the  In B r i t i s h  t h e L i b e r a l and C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s , t h e  Manitoba  federal  between  severe and p u b l i c  when t h e b a l a n c e  sources eclipse  similar  the Liberal Parties. forced  reviewed  i n the absence o f  of federal  More  usually  o f p r o v i n c i a l party  possibly  indicated  upon t h e  parties  organization.  secrets.  severe administrative  periods and  i n both  have  parties.  intra-party  a n d were o c c a s i o n a l l y  A s s o c i a t i o n s was b e i n g Columbia,  even  the administration  s t r a i n s , however,  leadership  federal  that  t h e two  and p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s  and p r o v i n c i a l groups  within  trative  between  can exert  of the p o l i t i c a l  however,  has modified  s t r a i n s between t h e  dominance  o f the major  experience  leadership  usually  differences  the policy  minor party  above has suggested,  federal  policy  a n d p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s most r e c e n t l y  orientations  public  some o f t h e s e p r o v i n c e s  In Saskatchewan  force  policy  within  from  and i n Ontario,  situations  In s e v e r a l  leaders  o f s t r a i n developed  cases  to formally  during  Alberta  seem t o h a v e  occurred  intra-party  friction  or informally  the legal provincial  party  separate  196  While  administrative  have been p a r t i c u l a r l y party to  defeat,  vincial the  operation  strains,  strong,  strains  leadership that  to  a party  of  the machinery a party  party  Party  the real  organization  organizations  develops  Columbia  perceived  i n which  Indeed, strains  the f l e x i b i l i t y  f o r the conduct o f the joint the survival  of  joint  organiof  joint  to accept  o f party  seemed t o  readjustments  political  of the  At the present  u n i t y a r e almost as  of intra-party strain.  view  of  In the L i b e r a l  needs and  o f t h e two g r o u p s p r o b a b l y they  those  t h e c l e a r dominance o f one group  the sources  interdependencies manner  upon  the organization.  interests,  pro-  to the  associations.  A s s o c i a t i o n a t a time  o f power w i t h i n  however,  when a  may a l s o b e a f f e c t e d b y t h e b a l a n c e  obscure as the sources the  challenges  the success  encourage t h e weaker group  time,  electoral  significance of federal  Nevertheless,  the provincial  balance  d i d n o t seem  as threatening to  t h e two w i n g s o f t h e p a r t y .  of British  within  from  i s dependent  and upon  i n the past.  power between  of provincial  organization as  of the party  i s probably  business  just  party  derived  It  zation  periods  which occurred  appeared  of a provincial  administrative  party  during  seem t o  relationship to a particular  Some p o l i c y  p a r t y was  established  intense  of strain  the severity of federal strains  have any d i r e c t  situation.  sources  t h e "mutual  In both  cases  political condition the  self-interest"  that  197 may  help  to  keep  the  Federalism the  party  federal  has  system and  affected  the  formal  federal  parties  hut  also  tions.  Indeed,  the  structure  Canadian federal the  parties and  actual  has  of  of  federalism  parties deal  of  the  an  adoption of  also  the  additional  with  existence  forces  of  of  two  political  decentralize  dependent upon a the  formal  utilized of  within  of  The tional  and  the  of of  and  political  and  of  to  of  political  parties  must  cleavages  forms but  must  which  is  seem t o  the the  most p r o b a b l y  social party  devices strength  unifying  past.^  federal  include  electoral  the  by  seemingly  political  i n the  the  which these  politics  the  impact  autonomous  system,  and  the  relatively  government,  federalism  r e l a t i o n s and  encouraged  r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  aspects  reflected  disruptions  party  parties  in  major  regional  federal  rela-  between  has  the  political or  major  power  operation  degree  forces  political  identities the  The  disrupt  complex  institutions  regional  abilities  power.  and  the  of  relations  of  within  racial  competing  of  consequently,  that  the  centers  balance  organization  which n e c e s s i t a t e d  structure  intra-party  i n d i c a t i o n of  social,  function  of  intra-party  become a p p a r e n t with  the  intra-party  the  the  only  studying  s t r a i n s as  upon  i t has  not  structure  decentralization  In  federal  only  organization  r e f l e c t e d the  of  Canadian p a r t i e s . force  the  not  p r o v i n c i a l g r o u p s and, degree  unified.-59  parties  cap-  0  and  system,  instituindeed,  198 has  been  the  pattern  on  one  alism said  termed a of  intra-party  hand, has on  to  circular one,^  been  political  the  system  so  federal p o w e r on  in  and  are  recognize  the  force  political  systems as  localism  i n the  approach,  are  appreciative  in a these  conflict  of  their  and  two  politics  viewpoints  s o c i a l and  well  as  the  process  on  environments, relations  systems. have been  While  not  of  federal  attempts  i n the  quite  approach  the  study  however,  to  which is  both  to  Indeed,  on  of a  a  both  party  theoretical  s i m i l a r and  they  i s centered  on  seem the  federalism.  between p o l i t i c a l  features  others w i l l  parties  the  structure  in  different  considerably  some g e n e r a l  simple  political,  creation  of  Neither  establish  of  of  and  politics.  suggests that  vary  p r o p o s e d and  since  tradition  Consequently,  are  will  been  mutually  opposed  inter-connections  country.  one  degree  relationships.^  one  has  particular  the  are  force of  actually  the  a  hand,  feder-  i n s t i t u t i o n a l aspects  circular relationship  intra-party  federal  of  i n that and  of  methodologically  approaches  only  other  of  non-governmental l e v e l s  social forces  federal  party  The  of  the  why  countries,  impact  i t determines  cause-and-effect  institutional  political  not  on  explain  federal  the  substance  f a r as  furthermore,  direct  and  and,  may  In  reflect  actual  dynamic  and  to  to  T h e s e two  exclusive  level  said  b o t h g o v e r n m e n t a l and  decentralized.  system  relations  parties  determine  This  of  federal  undoubtedly  party  199 emerge a s p a r t i e s systematically federal  to  detailed  countries  which  the  that of  such comparisons o f the great  embraced b y t h e t e r m  studies  have g i v e n  t o which  federalism  empirical  federalism  federalism  itself.  o f party  systems  i n other  some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e  t h e f e d e r a l d i v i s i o n o f power h a s e n strains.  I t i s on t h i s l e v e l  alone  o f i n t r a - p a r t y r e l a t i o n s and t h e impact  on p o l i t i c a l  level  with  are c e n t r a l i z e d o r decentralized and  intra-party  the structure  diversity of  o f intra-party relations are rare,  of the structure  the parties  degree  couraged  illustrate  s y s t e m s a r e more  forms a n d e x p e r i e n c e a s s o c i a t e d  few d i s c u s s i o n s  federal  a n d compared,  also  the diversities  Although a  studied  parties will  political and  i n different federal  p a r t i e s may b e c o m p a r e d o n a n  i n different political  systems a t t h e p r e s e n t  time.  SOME COMMENTS ON INTRA-PARTY R E L A T I O N S IN OTHER COUNTRIES:  THE UNITED  It politics States,  i s more d e c e n t r a l i z e d  decentralized the  STATES:  has been observed  the p o l i t i c a l  parties  described  than  FEDERAL  parties  that  while  t h e tone o f Canadian  than p o l i t i c s i n the United  t h e i r counterparts  i n the United States  i n Canada.^  a r e more Indeed,  i n the United  States  have been c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  as "confederal"  rather  than  independent n a t i o n a l  party  federal  organization  since the  i sreally  lacking.^-5  200  Several the  studies of  the  extreme f a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n  parties.^6  Most  tended  cohesion  only  that  students  division  party  on  each  the  system  The  dential  tions  maintain usually al  on  the  of  he  must  The first the  but  the  is  not  i s almost  federal  decentralization in  f o r the  looseness  has  of  been a t t r i b u t e d  o f powers and  own  prospective compete  the  country.  Then, as  a  the  and  party with  his congressional  Key  and  has  i n the  observed  " S e n a t o r s and  they  are not  power c e n t e r e d  leader.  Instead,  they  tions  those  wish  s t a t e and  to  leader support  the  state  organizaoften  organizations  distribution i n the  of  feder-  question  Representatives  have  interested in building i n the  hands o f  strengthen  district  consolidate  These  that  as  presi-  c o l l e a g u e s , who  state organizations.  V.O.  party  party  f o r the  only  organization with  or  While  separation  must u n i t e  patronage d i s t r i b u t i o n voice  this  con-  constructing a national  demand w i d e d i s c r e t i o n  important  level.  the  known.  throughout  also with  patronage.  have  organization  national level  by n e g o t i a t i n g n o t  their  political  politics  party  described  f o r p r e s i d e n t i a l candidates.^7  candidate  but  national  national levels  encouraged  well  leaders  support  formal  individual  p r e s i d e n t i a l hopeful  his  the  difficulties  organization are  of party  the  system have  of American  p r e s i d e n t i a l system,  nomination  of  major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  organization  the  party  s t a t e and  o f power has  some w a y s ,  a  of  weak b e t w e e n t h e  non-existent  to  American  their  organizations  the own with  of an  an  national organizawhich  201 /TO  they  are a f f i l i a t e d . "  organizations are  Consequently,  are often  the s t a t e and l o c a l  within  the n a t i o n a l  as  independent  Congressional of national  organizations.  campaign  Whatever  organizations  the strength  of the p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate  of  the bargains  h e h a s made w i t h  party.  When t h e c a m p a i g n  often  fades and  feated  national  committees  attempted but  on  Clinton  Rossiter  organization with  few  bonds  as  feudal  on anarchy,  have a  king."^°  m a c h i n e s may  operate  b y V.O. argues rests  also  o f the s t a t e  has been  election.  deThe  organization  between  campaigns  pledges  successful.^  stressed of faith,  a r e so l o o s e  that  that  on t h e l o c a l  i t often  that  although  the foundation  has been  these  party  pertinent provided  Politics.  o f the n a t i o n a l  organizations,  of  even  political  The most  American State  the  seems t o  does n o t  efficient  organizations  feudalism  i n which  the cohesion  levels.  entitled  state  " i t is  i n w h i c h one p a r t y  levels  party  feudalism  be weak, a l t h o u g h  party  Thus,  American n a t i o n a l  i n study  independent  organization  party  Key  on  of the  have  the s t a t e and l o c a l may  analysis  to the next  force  parties  feudalism  organization  the  the n a t i o n a l  b u t he  support  and  ad hoc  exists  by  has d e s c r i b e d  border  On  this  they have n o t been  enforceable  o f mutual  survives  s e t up  to coordinate  the whole  i s over  as  reflection  t h e many c o m p o n e n t s  i f the p r e s i d e n t i a l candidate  i t almost never  unity  is a  of  control  Key  parties  organizations  202 are  not  only  influenced that  the  lature  by  the  and  the  one  but  pressures  separate  which have least  decentralized  are  of national  elections of  various  encouraged house o f  the  the  the  "a w o n d e r o u s damper on  tween and an  this  suggests tied has  to  the  tended  issues  to  vote  strong  been a b l e  their  national  state nature tion  of  of  rather  futures  intimately voter  of  national parties  state leaders hands o f  have  their  party's  g r o u p s had  indicated  that  States  p a r t i e s as  nomination  executive  and  often  71  c o n n e c t i o n s between  United  he  federal  regionally-based  i n the  that  Indeed,  American  force  be-  believes  than a  the  But  organization  have been  the  power and  at  level  political  national the  minor,  gain  state  informal  i n the  and  leaders  circumstances  candidate.  These  strains  to  the  i s impossible.  a national  that  political  presidential  and  as  and  government."  party  p a r t i e s because  legis-  procedures  government Key  system  the  suggests  different parties  party  formal  and  He  executive  p o w e r s on  s t a t e p a r t i e s and  national  i s so  of  levels of  Under t h e s e  have not found  the  of  state party  that  citizen.  looseness  within  autonomous  separation  and  an  l e g i s l a t u r e of  have put  of  g o v e r n o r and  election of  with  divided  politics.  e l e c t o r a l devices  combined  despite  the  constantly  and  are  probably  between primary  legislative  while as  intra-party frequent  them b e c a u s e systems and  power,  the  state  of  the  force  of  within the separa-  203 federal  strains within  through  t h e impact  loyalties"  upon  American  of national  the state  federally-derived  p a r t i e s may h e "issues,  party  cleavages and  systems.?  Some o f t h e s e  2  s t r a i n s may b e o b s e r v e d  i n the r e l a t i o n s  between a p r e s i d e n t i a l and a g u b e r n a t o r i a l the  state  leader  fears  i m a g e u p o n h i s own temptation be  seen  the  state are  many  of state  national  primary  to c i t e  determine  issues  intra-party  t o make.  party  he  has s t r e s s e d  immune  from  national  systems and t h e f o r c e  that  national  even  o f these  i n states  election tides  movements o f s e n t i m e n t  intra-party  affairs  duals probably  tend  strains  o f those strains friction  that the  i n both  national  of regional strains.  the  i nthe  of federal  Key has suggested  and  t h e form  determine  assessments  t h e development  e l e c t o r a l position of a party  influence  may  i s known a b o u t  conflicts  Consequently,  long-term  probably  often  t h e source and i n t e n s i t y o f such p a r t y  have been d i f f i c u l t  state  others  The examples o f f e d e r a l  o f these  encourage  party  but very l i t t l e  organizations. which  campaign.""^  to the  campaigns and t h e v i c t o r y o f one  another.  or force  state  variables or  that  f a c t i o n over  frequency  party's  e l e c t o r a l s u c c e s s a n d "succumbs  i n t h e way  not d i f f i c u l t  c a n d i d a t e , when  the effect of the national  t o wage a n i n d e p e n d e n t  issues  viewed  clevages  Nevertheless,  which appear  t o be  " a r e n o t s o immune t o  as might  o f such  states  to r i s e  to positions  appear.  Within the  d i f f e r e n t types o f of  indivi-  leadership,  204 depending  on t h e t e n o r  o f the predominant n a t i o n a l  senti-  74  ments.'  Prom t h i s strains  within  viewpoint  i t would  the state party  organizations  States  are derived  issues  and n a t i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s upon  competition.  seem t h a t  p r i m a r i l y from  The s t r a i n s found  t h e impact  of  party  frequently within tion the what The cial  between a c o n g r e s s i o n a l control of a  conflicts  American  politics  and a governor  States  entitled Weidner  of the local  party  t o have  organization.  some  between a  although  repureussions  organizations.  i n a Federal  i s some-  and p r o v i n -  have been a s s e v e r e  party  "Decision-Making has argued  appear  significant  the competi-  organization  o f American  o f t h e same p a r t y ,  o r have had such  efficiency  party  to the c o n f l i c t s  such c o n f r o n t a t i o n s  as  and a s t a t e l e a d e r f o r  between Canadian prime m i n i s t e r s  p r e m i e r s o f t h e same p a r t y  whether  do n o t seem t o o c c u r  leader  the context  clearly  f o r the control  parties, although  state or l o c a l  similar within  within dent  the American  of national  i n Canada between  f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l groups organization  i n the United  intra-state party  identifiable a unified  federal  presi-  i t i s doubtful i n the United on t h e  In an  System,"  parallels  article  Arthur  that:  . . . i n t h e f e d e r a l system i n the United States t h e r e a r e r e l a t i v e l y few d i r e c t c l a s h e s o r comprom i s e s between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l governments on l a r g e issues o f n a t i o n a l domestic p o l i c y . The  205 d i s a g r e e m e n t s a n d c o n f l i c t s t h a t do a r i s e a n d t h a t may b e e n c o u r a g e d b y f e d e r a l i s m ' s structural features are not b a s i c a l l y clashes between s t a t e and n a t i o n a l governments. Ins t e a d , t h e y a r e c l a s h e s b e t w e e n much s m a l l e r groups o f people and t h e opposing groups a r e l o cated w i t h i n a s i n g l e governmental l e v e l a s o f t e n a s not.75  In  support  of this  of  s t a t e governors on inter-governmental  indication  t h e s i s Weidner  o f the tendency  policies  which p r o t e c t  and  compared  then  o f state  state  these  find  a  state from  concluded  legislators  often  thesis  governors  ministers  relative  of inter-  and adminis-  or actions  officials  of state  h a d "more  to party  intense  as a whole"  since  they  be  prime  b u t may  be l e s s  do n o t o f t e n  7  between  may n o t o n l y  between Canadian  o f t h e same p a r t y  issues.?''  of conflicts  o f t h e same p a r t y  unity  gover-  o r employees b u t t h a t  the incidence  conflicts  and premiers  threatening  inter-governmental  t o s t a t e government  i s accurate,  than  i t was n o t p o s s i b l e  h a d t o compete w i t h more p r e s s i n g  and p r e s i d e n t s  frequent  while  elective officials  groups o f state  these values  less  consistently  the concepts  a t t i t u d e on  either the values  expediency values than other  that  or a national  nors o r l e g i s l a t o r s ,  this  t o support  76  relations  If  r e l a t i o n s as an  autonomy o f power  by s t a t e  values  i n Minnesota.' Weidner  to  the  officials  findings with  governmental r e l a t i o n s held trators  examined  involve  206 issues  related  power.  The  to  the  of  an  party  state  issues  autonomous  ambitions  party many on  the  States.  the  party  dynamics  on  distracts state  state  the  of  state  why  party  the  the  the  state  federalism  from  and  state of  American  within  the  insights  has  national  indicated  some  e i t h e r d e r i v e d fbom power.  In  the  and  state  politicians  often  suggestion the  politics  more  federalism  of  intra-party  between n a t i o n a l  i f Key's  the  intra-  structure  is correct,  fully  explain  i s often  the  groups  and  that  intra-party relations in may  in  some p r o v o k i n g  determines  party  on  of  information  conflicts  politics  force  leaders  in detail  d i v i s i o n of  and  national  development  national  which are  federal  absence  wealth of  politics  level  organizations  tone o f  of  the  the  strains c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  more d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s state  and  been a n a l y s e d  Nevertheless,  of national politics  on  to  the  of  strong  f a c t i o n a l i z a t i o n of national  attention  leaders.  Impact  of  the  mobility  impact  the  of  federalism,  politics,  related  had  state  p a r t i e s and  local  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  the  not  and  the  States  be  division  dominance  system and  organizations,  complexities  United and  While  r e l a t i o n s has  relations or  between  American n a t i o n a l  into  party  r e l a t i o n s has  quarrels  state  federal  the  American  o f many g o v e r n o r s may  leadership  the  governors,  within  state  inter-governmental  United  of  more c e n t r a l i z e d t o n e o f A m e r i c a n  weaker p o s i t i o n o f national  substance  the  of then  a  the reason  much more  207 centralized  than t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e formal  party-  system, s e e m s t o i n d i c a t e .  EUROPEAN  FEDERALISM:  The differed  formal  THE C A S E OF WEST  GERMANY:  s t r u c t u r e o f European  significantly  from f e d e r a l i s m  federalism has  i n either the  78  United cal  States  o r Canada.'  s y s t e m s o f many E u r o p e a n  looked and  because  political  European  parties.  systems  party  s t r a i n s which  sion  alism  parties  that  recognized  relatively  policies  resemblance t o  o r Canada,  federcited  J . Heiden-  o f f e d e r a l and l a n d  has strengthened minor  and, consequently, has allowed  the C h r i s t i a n Democratic Union  reported  Germany.  been  study by A r n o l d  a  the separation  level  have  intradivi-  o f W e s t German  independent o f f e d e r a l party  Heidenheimer  o f the  r e c e n t l y i n West  politics  b y t h e W e s t German v o t e r  u n i t s o f even  formal  over  governments  c a n be c o n n e c t e d t o t h e f e d e r a l been  on t h e Land  o f t e n been  systems  States  the constitutional features  has argued  politics  on  bore l i t t l e  forces o f centralization,79  local  the party  and the structure o f party  heimer  of the p o l i t i -  o f the central  i n either the United  o f power have  Although  While  f e d e r a t i o n s have  aspects  f e d e r a t i o n s have  o f the strength  party  as  Federal  that Land  the desires o f the party  directives.  politicians  and s t r a t e g i e s on " l o c a l  t o remain 80  base  their  conditions, rather  leaders  on t h e f e d e r a l  than  level."  208 Many o f t h e L a n d  leaders  coalitions  on t h e b a s i s  the  of party  wishes  because the  on  leaders  level  conditions  i n spite of  on t h e f e d e r a l l e v e l .  o f t h e CDU a n d K o n r a d  the strength  (SPD) h a s b e e n  the l o c a l  made a l l i a n c e s a n d f o r m e d  of local  o f t h e dominance  federal level,  Party  have  Partly  Adenauer  on  o f the S o c i a l Democratic  on t h e L a n d  levels.  has encouraged  Their  position  t h e SPD t o b e c o m e  "strong  Qp  champions  o f Land r i g h t s .  Federal ly  strong.  relating tions  strains within  Adenauer  to party  , , 0 , c  clashed  w i t h Land  administration,  and t h e n a t u r e o f the Land  Heidenheimer  t h e CDU h a v e  been p a r t i c u l a r -  politicians  on  issues  inter-governmental relapolicies  and m i n i s t r i e s .  has observed:  I f Adenauer has n o t dominated Land p o l i t i c s i t i s n o t b e c a u s e h e h a s n o t t r i e d t o do s o . When h e f i r s t a s s u m e d p o w e r i n B o n n h e f o u g h t h a r d t o f o r c e t h e m o r e i n d e p e n d e n t CDU L a n d m i n i s t e r s t o t o e t h e l i n e by f o l l o w i n g Land p o l i c i e s p a r a l l e l t o h i s , e s p e c i a l l y by breaking previously existing c o a l i t i o n s with the S o c i a l i s t s . He g o t many o f t h e w e a k e r CDU L a n d l e a d e r s t o f i g h t L a n d e l e c t i o n s ( w h i c h a r e h e l d two a t a t i m e , a t o d d d a t e s b e t w e e n f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n s ) on f e d e r a l i s s u e s , a n d sought t o f o r c e the c r e a t i o n o f Land m i n i s t r i e s t h a t were a l m o s t exact r e p l i c a s o f t h e B o n n c a b i n e t a s f a r a s p a r t y make-up a n d p o l i c i e s were c o n c e r n e d . For a while i t a p p e a r e d t h a t t h e L a e n d e r w o u l d become c o o r d i n a t e d t o t h e p o i n t w h e r e German f e d e r a l i s m w o u l d become a d e a d l e t t e r . 83  The  reversal of this  trend  was a t t r i b u t e d t o s e v e r a l  events  209 "but  in general  insured  the  immunity to  the  the  behavior  autonomy  to  the  of  the  to  bargain  Since  8 k  autonomy have been  West  that  by  governments have  in party formal  the  minimize  the  disputes.  the  affairs of  the  that  force  may  be  of  inter-governmental  exceedingly  private nature  the  mainly  power w i t h i n of  Land  that on a  the  autonomy o f ability  strong  strains  federal  quite the to  within and  power.  guard  of  c l e a r that  to  party because  evident  the  Land  govern-  intra-party relations. the  division left  of  the  Heidenhelmer has  tax  depended  r e v e n u e s and  Consequently,  to  the  federal degree suggested "mainly maintain federal  W e s t German p a r t i e s h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e the  maintenance of  the  to  Therefore,  i t is of  governments has  position." ^  i n order  determine  Constitution  their  politicians  r e l a t i o n s on  functions  flexible.  Land  groups  conflicts,  structure  W e s t German  political  blishment  the  i t i s also  autonomy  their  these  administrative  ments have a f f e c t e d Nevertheless,  of  difficult  functions  concerning  two  while  Land Heiden-  Land  federal officials  of  deputies  administrative  encouraged  nature  curious  for  affairs,  the  political  "a  for  major p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between the  voter  showing  c e r t a i n precedents  the  p r i v a t e l y with  German  c h a r m when v o t i n g  established  suggested  Land  the  of Land p o l i t i c s  Chancellor's  Landtage."  heimer has  of  informal  division  estaof  210 COMMONWEALTH F E D E R A L I S M :  The often  the  federations  grouped  mentary  T H E CASE O F A U S T R A L I A :  together  o f t h e Commonwealth  because o f t h e i r  system and t h e i r  decade,  use o f the p a r l i a -  common B r i t i s h  m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f Commonwealth Canada a n d A u s t r a l i a , w i t h  countries are  heritage.  federations  systems a n d t h e most e s t a b l i s h e d  party  the  Commonwealth  t h e most  comparisons however, of  that  political  o f several  bibliographic edited  by William  studies  i n Federalism  R. L i v i n g s t o n ,  a v a i l a b l e on p o l i t i c a l  problems o f f e d e r a l p a r t i e s can  be d e r i v e d  strains Of  have been n o t e d  i n several  the recent  has dated the  an idea  o f the kinds o f  p a r t i e s and the s p e c i a l  i n these newly  emergent  of Australian  t h e impact  nations  of federally-derived  and d e s c r i b e d  exhibited  conflicts  t h e open w h i l e  because  " i t s quarrels  i na  party  i n a general  t h e most f r e q u e n t  those o f the other  politics  o f federalism  Australian parties, theAustralian  has seemingly  intra-party  studied  I n t h e Commonwealth,  a few s t u d i e s  way, t h e e x i s t e n c e  the three  Party  in  only  p a r t i e s have c o n s i d e r e d  detailed  be mentioned,  f r o m many o f t h e e s s a y s . ^ 6  Although and  among  useful  and while  federations  politi-  systems  I t should  federations  o f these  reviews  kind.  p a r t i e s have been  t h e n e w e r Commonwealth  failures  invite  i n a review o f this  i n the last  t h e most mature  cal  federations,  Despite  way.  Labour and intense  are c a r r i e d out  parties are often  211 conducted for  the  the  fact  behind  intensity of  ment o f  s t r a i n s i n the  that although  autonomous and  federal  to  enforce  party  each  powerful,  parliamentary  attempted  doors..,."88  closed  officially  party from  ignore  e x p e l l the the  associated and  with  the  not  on  the  state  the  a  organizations this  state  organi-  control of  been f o r m a l l y  the  expelled  other  Labour p a r t i e s .  f e d e r a l and  S.  South Wales Labour P a r t y  Labour P a r t y  more o f t e n  Labour p a r t i e s , as  than  of  Riker  there  has has  the  leaders infor-  strains is is  apparently  s t r a i n s i n the commented, "opposed  i t supported  f o r example  state  such  ALP  related  Although d e t a i l e d  i n t e n s i t y of  frequency  the  between  s t r a i n s have been  Australian states  William  within  competition  governments.  v a r i a t i o n i n the  t h e New  of  strains recognized  f r e q u e n c y and  a v a i l a b l e i n the  great  has  through  state  retained  had  administrative  s t a t e groups,  f e d e r a l and  mation  endorse-  s t a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s from  leader  e v e n a f t e r he  from  i s both  f e d e r a l conference,  to p o l i c y d i f f e r e n c e s between and  derived  party.9°  the  federal  be  reason  federal party  unified  South Wales, however,  W h i l e many o f are  the  1 9 3 0 ' s  i n the  organization  may  the  c o n t r o l the  the  While  c o n f e r e n c e may  i n New  of  some c e n t r a l i z e d c o n t r o l s  to  zation  ALP  they  candidates,  conference.  party.89  a  state organization  in that  have been a b l e  the  p rt  it,"  the  state  that  while  federal  other  Tasmanian Labour  state Party,  212  have been  " I d e o l o g i c a l l y and p e r s o n a l l y  the  federal  ALP  have  Labour Party.  concerned both  to  the party's  study the  of Australian  constitution  state  and  have been  federal  "political party  the  position  i n the state, arena,  of the federal  have  involved  these  i n her  p r o p o s e d amendments t o  because  campaign."9  ment.  suggested  Labour governments and p a r t i e s  referendum  increased  that  amendments  between  i n the n a t i o n a l  often  and  2  on  particularly  sources of difference  leaders  the  conscription  L o u i s e O v e r a c k e r has parties  the  ideological position  governmental issues,  w i t h wartime  the c o n s t i t u t i o n .  with  I s s u e s w h i c h hare d i v i d e d  economic p o l i c y and v a r i o u s those associated  cooperative  jealous  o f the p r e s t i g e  sometimes  party  refuse  organization  to  takes  These referendum campaigns,  constitutional recognition  of  support in a however,  o f the  wartime and postwar powers o f t h e f e d e r a l g o v e r n -  C o n f l i c t s between issues  have h e l p e d  the s t a t e  and  federal  to defeat  the great  parties  on  proportion  of  93 t h e s e amendments. confirmed judicial  Nevertheless,  their position review and Intra-party  frequent two  the f e d e r a l  of leadership  financial  "by t h e p r o c e s s e s  control."9  s t r a i n s have been  have  reported  t o be  even  f o r m e d c o a l i t i o n s i n some s t a t e s  national  level  while  the p a r t i e s  strongly  opposed t o each o t h e r .  i n other  has of  k  i n the L i b e r a l and C o u n t r y P a r t i e s  parties  government  states  Because party  less  though the a n d on have  the  been  conflicts  are  213  kept  out  actual these  of  parties. on  members o f  the  the  or  i s known a b o u t  s i g n i f i c a n c e of  Indeed,  the  kinds  these  two  there  of  has  issues  parties.  intra-party  been l i t t l e  w h i c h may William  extreme d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f  willingness  Itself for  p u b l i c view l i t t l e  frequency  provided  that  the  to  the  of  federal party  state  leadership"  federal-state party  m u s t be  known a b o u t  parties  before  the  the  federal  of  discounted.  L i b e r a l P a r t i e s have h e l d  the  nation  of  the  e f f e c t of  organization impact  and  the  state party  states  and  federalism  on  Australia  is usually  characterized  c l e a v a g e s and  both r a c i a l  and  similarities  regional  and  the  The  parliamentary  state as  party  well  as  of  the  cleavages, extent  intra-party system  organizations i n Canada,  of  as  the  two  characterized there party  state  is  concurrently analysis  the  party the  While  having mainly  suggested  the  s a i d about  as  econohaving  seems t o be  some  decentralization  s t r a i n s i n the  f e d e r a l and  much m o r e  systematic  be  combined w i t h has  necessity  organizations  a  can  and  accomodate  the  Australian Parties.  Canada i s o f t e n  between  nature  the  little  inferred  strains in  power  until  of  mic  "to  i n t e r g o v e r n m e n t a l r e l a t i o n s on  i s known, v e r y  has  Nevertheless,  coordination  in  various  of  the  parties  i n t e r n a l r e l a t i o n s of  importance  the  two  prevented  quarrels.95  Information  Riker  leadership has  strains in  divide  H.  the  the  the  two  countries.  autonomy  that  of  the  in Australia,  groups w i t h i n  the  214  state  organizations  particularly to  issues parties is  to  of  state  clash  leaders  pressure."^6  "unusual  relating  when  often  the  despite  known a b o u t  between  the  subject  federal  federalism  the  wings of  weakness o f  federal  admin1strative  Inter-governmental  substance of  dispute  on  have a l s o the  C a n a d a i t may  be  effects  institutional  forms and  upon  the  various  activities  of  these  Although p a r a l l e l relations  i n Canada,  Australia  have not  of  detailed  where  the  either  the  United  informal  loyalities  appear  distinct  centers  political  power of  seem t o  the  and  local  ization varied have  party  encourage not organization  leaders.  and  to  the  encouraged  but  f r e q u e n c y and  these  an  assess  intra-party  that  the  even  activity  and  political  form o f  assessment' o f  differences  has  by  of  party  federal the been  where of  two  decentralization  s t r a i n s between  degree  countries  in countries existence  the  lack  In  the  also  and  centralized  extensive  the  parties.  because of  even  in  cleavages  weak,  only  Although  considerably,  be  to  West Germany  is fairly  means a n d  regional  of  States,  i t would appear system  relations  political  always been p o s s i b l e  constitutional  When a c r e  social  comparisons between  information,  formal or  possible  federal  been  Australian  intra-party  b o t h A u s t r a l i a and of  M.P.'s  issues  sectionalism.  s t r a i n s and  matters,  the  federal  decentral-  strains  variables  has  which  impossible  with  215 the If  information  presently  available  the  empirical  findings  direct  relevance  to  in  suggesting  intra-party focus an  of  that  of  analysis  of  but  significance  yet  of  by  federal  The  of  by  of  the  structure  are  based  t h i s process  of  both  the  While federal  that  eventually  will  e n a b l e more p r e c i s e to  the  which the  one  process  empirical  a  aspect  intimately both  of  the  and  as  system,  encouraged  they  involves and  i t i s undoubtedly i n s t i t u t i o n s and  they  are  the  society.  those local true  party  polilevels  that systems  d i v e r s i t i e s which  bargain,9?  parties  an  diver-  i t would  Intra-party  be  utilize  and  hoped  relations  t h e o r e t i c a l assessments of  political  A  s i g n i f i c a n t as  federal  d a t a on  in  the  political since  the  therefore,  system.  interests within  same c l e a v a g e s a n d  original federal  and,  b o t h r e f l e c t e d and  political  activity.  one  power aie o n l y  w h i c h o p e r a t e on  upon the  the  of  dynamic v i e w o f  party  on  important  d i f f e r e n t groups and  political  extent  an  d i v i s i o n of  part  parties  prompted  be  i n the  federalism  study  for assessing  i s only  cleavages which are  dynamics of  tical  relations  to  a  any  i t is  decentralization  basis  strains  of  detailed  only  have  Canada,  organizations  a  relations.  case-study  outside  degree of  provides  impact  seem  party  actual  federal  the  and  utilized  the  intra-party  sities  emerge a s  parties  s y s t e m a t i c and  the  also  of  i t would  the  the  power w i t h i n  parties  study  federal  intra-party  this local  r e l a t i o n s provides not  assessment  the  of  on  the  encourage  216 the they  potentially  disruptive  a r e i n t u r n r e s t r i c t e d by  understanding  of the federal  parties  within individual  complex  theoretical  this  elements  local  mainly  them.  A more  political  federal  process  tasks and i t i s f o r t h i s  case-study  on i n t r a - p a r t y  how  complete and the  s y s t e m s must p r e c e d e  to increase the understanding  parties.  o f f e d e r a l i s m , and  reason  relations  has  o f Canadian  such  that endeavored  political  FOOTNOTES 1 E d w i n Ro B l a c k , T h e P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative Party of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : Some A s p e c t s o f O r g a n i z a t i o n , M.A. Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 0 ; and Samuel P e t e r R e g e n s t r e i f , .The L i b e r a l P a r t y o f C a n a d a : A P o l i t i c a l A n a l y s i s , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 6 3 , U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n . 2 During t h i s period f e d e r a l strength within the province was m a i n l y r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s i z e o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y w i n g . The f o l l o w i n g t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h e s i z e o f t h e p a r l i a m e n t a r y group d u r i n g the y e a r s o f the p r o v i n c i a l L i b e r a l administrations. Year  P a r t y i n Power i n Ottawa  1921 1925 1926 1930 1935  Liberal Liberal Liberal Conservative Liberal Liberal Liberal Liberal  1940  1945 1949  Total Seats i n B.C.  13  14  "" 1 4 14  16 16 16 18  '  Liberal i n B.C.  M.P.s  3 3 1 5 6 10 5 11  3 Although o f f i c e r s of the Association are formally e l e c t e d by t h e r a n k and f i l e membership, t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e a d e r s o f t h e p a r t y u s u a l l y i n f l u e n c e t h e outcome o f t h e e l e c t i o n s by t h e i r n o m i n a t i o n and support o f c e r t a i n c a n d i dates. 4 Alexander Brady, "Federalism i n C a n a d a , " i n M i l l l a m S. L i v i n g s t o n , ed., F e d e r a l i s m i n t h e Commonwealth: A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l C o m m e n t a r y , C a s s e l l a n d Company L t d . , L o n d o n , 1 9 6 3 , P. 2 0 . 5 in  S.R. William  Davis and C A . S. L i v i n g s t o n ,  Hughes, " F e d e r a l i s m in Australia," e d . , 0p_. C i t . , p . 4 0 .  6 The most p r o m i s i n g u n p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l on A u s t r a l i a n p a r t i e s i n c l u d e : D.W. Rawson, " F e d e r a l i s m a n d P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , " a paper f o r t h e H i s t o r y and P o l i t i c s s e c t i o n o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n a n d New Z e a l a n d A s s o c i a t i o n f o r t h e A d v a n c e m e n t o f  217  218  S c i e n c e , 1954 a n d T.C. T r u m a n , T h e P r e s s u r e Groups,-. P a r t i e s a n d P o l i t i c s o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n L a b o r Movement, M.A. Thesis, The U n i v e r s i t y o f Q u e e n s l a n d , 1954. 7  S.H.  8 sity  Davis  and  C.A.  H u g h e s , 0p_.  C i t . , p.  H. M a c G r e g o r Dawson, T h e G o v e r n m e n t of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1957.  o f Canada,  9 H. McD. C l o k i e , C a n a d i a n Government and L o n g m a n s , G r e e n a n d Company, T o r o n t o , 1 9 4 4 . 10 James A l e x a n d e r G o r r y a n d J . E . H o d g e t t s , Government and P o l i t i c s , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Toronto, 1962. 11 of  41.  Politics, ~ Democratic Press,  A l e x a n d e r Brady, Democracy i n the Dominions, Toronto Press, Toronto, 1962.  12  Dawson, O p . C i t . ,  13  C o r r y and  14  Dawson, 0p_.  15  Clokie,  16  Ibid.,  p.  200.  17  Ibid.,  p.  200.  p.  0j>.  University  489.  Hodgetts, Cit.,  Univer-  C i t . , p.  Op. p.  C i t . , p.  26.  489. 95.  18 G w e n d o l e n M. C a r t e r , "The C o m m o n w e a l t h O v e r s e a s : V a r i a t i o n s on a B r i t i s h Theme," i n S i g m u n d Newmann, e d . , Moderan P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A p p r o a c h e s t o Comparative Politics, T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , C h i c a g o , 1956, ppT 7 2 - 7 3 .  19  B r a d y , Oo. C i t . , p p .  20 W i l l i a m H. ficance, L i t t l e ,  109-110.  Riker, Federalism: Origin -Operation - SigniB r o w n a n d Company, B o s t o n , 1964, p . 118.  21 D e n i s Smith, " P r a i r i e R e v o l t , F e d e r a l i s m and the P a r t y S y s t e m , " i n Hugh G. T h o r b u r n , e d . , P a r t y P o l i t i c s i n C a n a d a , P r e n t i c e - H a l l , T o r o n t o , 1963. P. 132. 22 E d w i n R. B l a c k , " F e d e r a l S t r a i n s W i t h i n a C a n a d i a n P a r t y , " D a l h o u s i e Review, 45, n o . 3 . 1965. P. 320. 23 B l a c k , The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f Columbia, and B l a c k , D a l h o u s i e Review.  British  219 24  Regenstrelf,  Op. C i t .  25 J . Murray Beck, The Government o f Nova S c o t i a , U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1957 a n d Hugh G. T h o r b u r n , P o l i t i c s i n NswBrunswick, U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o Press, Toronto, 1961. 26 L . G . Thomas, T h e L i b e r a l P a r t y of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1959. 27 S.M. U p s e t , A g r a r i a n P r e s s , B e r k e l e y , 1950. 28 J o h n A. I r v i n g , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto  i n Alberta, University  Socialism, University of California  T h e S o c i a l C r e d i t Movement Press, Toronto, 1959.  29 W.L. M o r t o n , T h e P r o g r e s s i v e of Toronto Press, Toronto, 1950.  Party  In Alberta,  i n Canada,  University  30 C.B. M a c p h e r s o n , D e m o c r a c y i n A l b e r t a : T h e T h e o r y a n d P r a c t i c e o f a Q u a s i - P a r t y System, U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , T o r o n t o , 1953. ~~ 31  Corry  and Hodgetts,  Op. C i t . , p . 2 6 3 .  32 J o h n W. L e d e r l e , T h e N a t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e L i b e r a l a n d C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t i e s i n C a n a d a , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M i c h i g a n L i b r a r y , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n , 1942; P a u l H a r r y H e p p e , T h e L i b e r a l P a r t y o f C a n a d a , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n , 1957» U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , M i c h i g a n a n d E r n e s t Eugene H a r r i l l , The S t r u c t u r e o f O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d Power i n C a n a d i a n P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s : A S t u d y i n P a r t y F i n a n c i n g , Ph.D. D i s s e r t a t i o n , T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 19587 U n i v e r s i t y M i c r o f i l m s , Ann A r b o r , Michigan.  33  Harrill,  Og. C i t . , p p . 6--7.  3k  Regenstrief,  35  Ibid.,  pp. 241-242.  36  Ibid.,  p. 243.  37  Ibid.,  p. 243.  38  Ibid.,  p.  39  Black,  Dalhousle  Op. C i t . p . 2 4 4 .  243. R e v i e w , p. 319.  220 ^° I b i d . , p . 322; See a l s o " S a s k a t c h e w a n L i b e r a l s i n s t r a n g e f a m i l y s q u a b b l e , " The V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , J a n u a r y 28, 1963 a n d " S a s k a t c h e w a n i n 1964: W h i c h T h a t c h e r Won the E l e c t i o n ? " C a n a d i a n Forum, J u n e 1964, p. 56.  41  Ibid.,  42  R e g e n s t r i e f , p_p_.  43  Ibid.,  p.  44  Ibid.,  p p . 257-258.  45  Ibid.,  p.  246.  46  Ibid.,  P.  247.  47  Ibid.,  p.  248.  48  Ibid.,  pp. 248-250.  49  Ibid.,  pp. 2 5 0 - 2 5 1 .  50.  Ibid.,  P.  51 1949,  J o h n R. W i l l i a m s , The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y o f C a n a d a , 1920< D u k e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , Durham, N o r t h C a r o l i n a , 1956.  52  Black,  D a l h o u s i e Review,  53  Ibid.,  P.  54  Ibid.,  pp. 321-322.  55  Ibid.,  pp. 321-322.  P.  319. 245-246.  C i t . , pp.  252.  251.  318-319.  pp.  319.  56 R e g e n s t r i e f s r e v i e w o f e a r l y Nova S c o t i a and Saskatchewan L i b e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a s t s the o n l y d o u b t on the r e l a t i o n between p r o v i n c i a l c o n t r o l and p r o v i n c i a l power. 1  57 58 PP.  59 60 in  See  Re g e n s t r i e f * s  review of  See  Re g e n s t r i e f ' s  analysis  246-248.  Lederle,  0p_.  C i t . , p.  D a v i d B. T r u m a n , A r t h u r W. MacMahon,  Alberta, of  Ontario  pp. in  245-246. the  1930  's,  172.  " F e d e r a l i s m and the P a r t y System," F e d e r a l i s m M a t u r e and Emergent, D o u b l e d a y  221 and Company, I n c . , New York, 1955; Seymour M a r t i n L i p s e t , The F i r s t New N a t i o n , B a s i c Books, New Y o r k , 1963 and M a u r i c e Duverger, P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s , John W i l e y and Sons, I n c . , New York, Second E d i t i o n , 1962. 61  Truman, 0j>. C i t . , p.  62  R i k e r , Or?. Cit.,  63  Truman, 0p_. C i t . , p.  64  I b i d . , P. 126  pp.  125. 125-136. 115.  and R i k e r , Op.  C i t . , P.  112.  65 V.O. Key J r . , P o l i t i c s , P a r t i e s and P r e s s u r e Groups, Thomas Y. 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Copp, f o r m e r p r e s i d e n t , Vancouver i u r r a r d Association J a n u a r y 18, 1965. Mr. G r a n t Deachman, M.P., Vancouver Quadra Mr. H a r r y D e n n i s o n , c o a l i t i o n L i b e r a l January 20, 1§65.  J a n u a r y 18,  organizer  S e n a t o r John W a l l a c e DeBeque F a r r i s , member o f Oliver's cabinet J a n u a r y 19, 1966. Mr. Tom Goode, former M.P.  J a n u a r y 6,  Mr. D a v i d J o h n s t o n , p r e s i d e n t , P o i n t Association J a n u a r y 9, I.965. Mr. L. C. J o l i v e t , p r e s i d e n t , Association F e b r u a r y 1,  1965.  Grey L i b e r a l  B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l 1966.  Mr. Leon L a d n e r , former C o n s e r v a t i v e M.P.  1966.  January 2 5 ,  Mr. Frank G. P. L e w i s , former p r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n January 27, 1966. Mr. Don L a n s k a i l chairman, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l committee, 1956 F e b r u a r y 14, 1966. Mr. Hugh M a r t i n , former v i c e - p r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and f e d e r a l campaign chairman J a n u a r y 31, 1966. Dr. P a t r i c k McGeer, M.L.A., P o i n t Mr. Ray P e r r a u l t , p r o v i n c i a l p a r t y  1965.  Grey  January 7,  leader  January  Mr. James S i n c l a i r , f o r m e r f e d e r a l c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r January 11, 1965 and September 30, 1965.  1965. 15,  Senator Sidney Smith, former p r e s i d e n t , B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n A p r i l 1 0 , 1965. Mr. R i c h a r d Sonley, p r e s i d e n t , P o i n t Grey Young L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n January 2 7 , 1966. Mr. Jack Taggart, former -vice-president, B r i t i s h Columbia L i b e r a l A s s o c i a t i o n and f e d e r a l campaign co-chairman February 3 , 1966. Miss S y b i l White, s e c r e t a r y to A r t h u r L a i n g 1965.  January 2 5 ,  

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