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A cyto-taxonomic revision of the genus Rosa in the Pacific North-West Lewis, Walter Hepworth 1953

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A CYTO-TAXDNOMEC REVISION OF THE GENUS ROSA IN TEE. PACIFIC NORTH-WEST by WALTER HEFWORTH LEWIS A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of ARTS in the Department of Biology and Botany We accept this thesis as conforming to the standard required from candidates for the degree of MASTER OF .ASTg... Members of the Department of Biology and Botany THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1953 A CYTO-TAXONOMIC REVISION OF THE GENUS HOSA IN THE PACIFIC NORTH-WEST ABSTRACT The delimitation and taxonomic study of Rosa species in the Pacific North-west was approached by u t i l i z i n g several experimental methods. Randomly sampled mass collections analyzed s t a t i s t i c a l l y and grouped into climatic regions was the most important method and i t served as the basis for a l l conclusions. To coroborate these results, •ordinary' herbarium material, transplants, progeny testings, and cytological exam-ination of chromosome and c e l l sizes were examined for each species. From the results, the populations were divided into four species, four subspecies, one hybrid, and one form. They have been named: Rosa acicularis Lindl., R.. arkansana Porter, R. pisocarpa Gray, R. Woodsii Lindl., R. gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. gymnocarpa, R. gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. apiculata (Greene) Lewis ined., R. nutkana Presi. ssp. nutkana, R. nutkana ssp. Spaldingii (Crep.) Lewis ined., R. acicularis Lindl. X R. nutkana Presl, and R. nutkana Presi f. muriculata (Greene) Lewis ined. ACKNOMaEDGEMSNTS The author i s grateful to a l l members of the Master's Committee including Dr. K. Cole, Sr. 7. C. Brink, Dr. J. W. Neill,and particularly to the Chairman, Dr. T. M. C. Taylor for their guidance and encouragement during the study. Gratitude i s also extended to Dr. A . H. Hutchinson, Dr. 7. Krajina, Mr. R. W. Pillebury, and Mr. H. Sweet for their assistance, and to Dr. S. W. Nash, for his advice on atatisties. Special acknowledgement i s made to a l l who contributed specimens, particularly to Mr. R. D. Gilbert for his collections from Nootka Sound, and to Mr. B. F. Smith for his collections from the Great Plains. Further appreciation goes to the President's Committee on Research of the University of B. C , end to the National Research Council for grants which have made possible two sunmers of research on the revision of Rosa. TABLE OF CONTENTS page I Introduction 1-2 II Experimental Methods and Procedures A* Statistical i . Mass collection, criteria 3-4 i i . Criteria analyzed 4-6 B. Transplants 6 C. Progeny testing i . Embryo culture 6-8 i i . Seedling development 8 D. Cytology 9 E. Herbarium material 9 III Results A. Mass Collections, Transplants, Progeny testing i . Separation "gymnocarpous", "diploid**, & "polyploid" divisions 10-13 i i . "gymnocarpous" populations a. Mass collection analysis 13-16 b. Transplants 16 i i i . "diploid" populations a. Mass collection analysis 16-24 R. pisoearpa 21 R. Woodsii 23 b. Transplants 23, 25 c. Progeny testing 24-26 I l l Results (cont'd) page iv. "polyploid" populations a* Mass collection analysis 26-36 R. nutkana 29 R. nutkana f. muriculata 29 R. acicularis 31 R. acicularis X R. nutkana 35 b. Transplants 35-37 c. Progeny testing 36-39 B. Cytology i . Chromosome counts i i . Pollen analysis C. Herbarium Studies i . Anthesis i i . Leaflet shape 17 Taxonomy A. Genus Rosa 45-46 B. Analytical Key 46-47 C. Genus divided into Sections 4S-49 D. Species, hybrid, and form of genus i . B.'» gymnocarpa 49-54a i i . R. piaocarpa 55-57. i i i . R. Woodsii 57-63a iv. R. acicularis 64-69 v. R. arkansana 70-71 v i . R. nutkana 72-80 v i i . R. acicularis X R. nutkana 80-81 v i i i . Exotic species 82 39, 43 39-40, 42 41-42 41, 44 Pag0 7 Suumary 82 71 Appendix A* Appendix I; Mass collection localities 83-85 B. Appendix II; Mass collection data 86-98 C. Appendix III; Exotic species described 99-102 711 Literature Cited 103 SECTION I: INTRODUCTION The genus Rosa is among the most interesting in the North Amer-ican flora. Its continent-wide distribution and great range of ecological tolerance has promoted the development of many taza within the genus* The delimitation end taxonomic study of these taza in the Pacific North-west constitute this investigation. That there is no unanimity among taxonomists as to the signif-icance of morphological criteria customarily used in distinguishing species in Rosa is evident by the- contrasting the treatment of Greene (1912) and Bydberg (1918) with that of Brianson (1934)• Several of the specific criteria used by Bydberg (1. c.) were found by Sri an son (I.e.) on the same bush as well as among the offspring of similar parental species. From the writers populations studies, a group of individuals in one region often consist of from four to five species using Greene's criteria. These tax-onomists included just one morphological variant under one binomial. This gave rise to the naming of many, so-called, new species. In her studies, Erlanson (I.e.) concluded that the number of North American species in the genus is relatively small and intermediate forms should be classified under the species they most nearly resemble. The diversity of approach and conclusion of Bydberg and Greene, and Srlanson emphasize the need for reliable morphological criteria. 2 The application of experimental methods to taxonomy, or bio-systematy, has provided new approaches to this problem. By studying species as populations, i t seeks to define the composition and limits of the various taxa present. One of the most useful innovations has been the application of statistical methods to problems of taxonomy. By random sampling a number of individual plants from one locality, this 'mass col-lection* will serve as a record of the population as well as its individ-uals. Mass collection analysis by statistics will give the facts about variation. It will bring into the herbarium information which can now he obtained only in the field. In analyzing kinds of populations, the usual procedure of collecting only morphologically different specimens gives an erroneous picture of population deliminations. Such collections are too selective for varlates and, therefore, limit an understanding of variation and i t s frequency. A slight extension of the usual collecting technique will increase the accuracy of herbarium studies. Other approaches are to utilize the data of transplant and progeny tests. These give indications of the cause of variation. Envir-onmental variations will be detected by the use of the transplant tech-nique and those attributed to the genotype by progeny differences. S t i l l further helpful data are those provided by cytological examinations of chromosome and cell sizes. These methods have a l l been utilized in the present study. SECTION II: irt;<ya;>»flia^  PAL METHODS AND PROCEDURES Statistical; The significance given to analyzed criteria rests primarily upon the method used for collecting the specimens* If a high degree of objectivity in sampling is to be obtained, the individuals must be sel-ected at random* Only then will they represent dearly a part of the natural population and be capable of accurate presentation through statistics* From ten individual plants in an area of about one-half mile, three flowering branchlets and three turions formed the mass collections* To ensure that each plant was not part of the same clone, they were chosen only when a discontinuity separated them one from another <, In en attempt to standardize their position on the bush, branchlets were taken only from the uppermost portion* In this way, comparisons could be made of the same organ at the same stage of development. By standardizing the position of the branchlets and randomly selecting discontinuous plants, a high degree of objectivity was maintained in the field* In this manner, fifty-five collections were made throughout British Columbia in seven climatic regions. Their locations are indicated in appendix I. Data from twenty-four criteria were used to characterize each collection* All these criteria have bean used at one time or another in differentiating taza within the genus* Of these, twelve criteria were 4 quantitative, the remainder qualitative. Those analyzed quantitatively included: leaflet width, leaflet length, number of serrations per half leaflet, petiolule length, stipule length, inflorescence, stamen number, sepal width, sepal length, petal width, petal length, and pollen grain size. The qualitative criteria were: type of serration, glandularity of serrations, leaflet with glands below, leaflet pubescent below, petiole and petiolule with bristles, stipule glandular, sepal pubescent, sepal glandular, sepal bristled, peduncle pubescent, peduncle glandular, and armature type. All leaflet data were taken from the first mature leaf below the inflorescence. The examination of the apical leaflet and its petiol-ule was chosen, measurements were made in mm. of its maximum width, length, and petiolule length. Counts of the number of serrations per half leaflet and the measurement in am. of the stipules free portion constituted the vegetative quantitative characters.- In the flowering part of the plant, the number of flowers In each inflorescence, and the number of stamens in one flower were counted. Measurements of sepal width, at its base, the length of a mature sepal, and maximum petal width and length were all recorded. The qualitative criteria examined were classed into one of three categories: either the characteristic was not present (-), more or less present (*), or completely present (*). These three classes were \ used for all examinations except the leaflet serration type, armature • type, and bristly sepals. The :type of armature for branchlets, includ-ing the upper stem, divided into: bristles and prickles (a), scattered thorns (b), infrastipular thorns (c), and unarmed (d). The third 5 exception, bristly sepals, has two frequency classes, bristles are either absent (-), or present (*). In analyzing the quantitative data, i t was felt that the follow— ing statistics would be the most illuminating: arithmetic mean (x), standard deviation (s), standard error (s^ )» coefficient of variation (C), and in one ease, correlation coefficient (r). These were worked out for each population* The qualitative data, on the other hand, were sunmar~ ized by class frequencies expressed as percentages* The statistical an=» alysis of data is represented in plates I-XII, appendix II. The populations, divided into three major parts3", "diploid", "polyploid", and "gymnocarpous", were tested to determine significant differences between their criteria. Two tests of significance, t and Xg, compared the populations. Several species populations, however, could be hidden within these large divisions. It was found necessary to split them into more suitable categories* To group the populations in their climatic regions, from Chapman (1952) after W. Koppen, proved satisfactory. In the clim-atic regions, map 1, populations were found in the Cool Summer Mediterr-anean (Csb), Marine West Coast (Cfb), Humid Continental—'Cool Summer (Dfb), Humid Continental—Cool, Short Summer (Dfc), Humid Continental-Hot, Dry summer (Dsq), Humid Continental—Cool, Dry Sumner (Dab), and Middle Latitude Steppe (Bsk)• Because few populations were collected in the last three regions, they were often united with others depending upon their affiliation* 1* Details of this division will be given in Section III: RESULTS. MAP I CLIMATES Off BRITISH COLUMBIA Climatic Regions from Chapman (1952) after Koppen CLIMATES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AFTER W. KOPPEN Cfb Marine West Coast Csb Cool Summer Mediterranean Dfb Humid Continental—Cool Summer Dfc Humid Continental—Cool, Short Summer Dsq Humid Continental—Hot, Dry Summer Dsb Humid Continental—Cool, Dry Summer BSk Middle Latitude Steppe E Polar BS Semi-arid or steppe climate. C Warm Temperate Rainy Climates. Average temperature of coldest month less than 64.4° F., but more than 26.6° F.; average temperature of warmest month more than 50° F. f No distinct dry season—driest month of summer more than 1.2 inches, s Summer dry—driest month of summer less than 1.2 inches, b Cool summer—average temperature of warmest month less than 71.6° F. D Cold Snowy Forest Climates. Average temperature of coldest month less than 26.6° F.; average temperature of warmest month more than 50° F. f No distinct dry season—driest month of summer more than 1.2 inches, s Summer dry—driest month of summer less than 1.2 inches, a Hot summer—average temperature of warmest month more than 71.6° F. b Cool summer—average temperature of warmest month less than 71.6° F. c Cool short summer—less than four months with more than 50° F. E Polar Climates—average temperature of warmest month less than 50° F. Compiled by: J. D. Chapman Drawn by: M . L. Crerar R. H . Drinnan 58° 56° 6 For the quantitative data in each climatic grouping, four parameters, x, s, s-, and C were calculated. Tested parameter means 2 and their fiducial limits , together with*, qualitative Xg test results, afforded a basis for characterizing the populations* Transplants: Individuals from many parts of B. C. were planted in the University Botanical Garden. The plants have grown under standard climatic and edaphic conditions for two years, and changes in morphology noted. Two sets of herbarium specimens have been prepared in each case to show the morphological characters modified by the change in environ-ment. These have been deposited in the Herbarium of the University of B. C. In a l l , twelve such comparisons were made, the plants being ob-tained from Burns Lake, Dawson Creek, Femie, Hope, Nelson, Prince George, Revelstoke, Telkwa, Terrace, and Williams Lake. Progeny Testing: For this test, achenes from single hips were planted under similar conditions. A comparison of the resulting seedlings should provide evidence for either homozygosity or heterozygosity of the mother plant. This evidence could he inconclusive i f apamixis were found in the species. While Balckburn and Harrison (1921) reported apomixis to he general in European species, its occurrence in North American species has yet to be established. Erlanson (1929) has reported in two cases 2. Ninety-five percent of the population means are included in 1 fiducial limit from the parameter mean at p .05. 7 of Rosa blanda Ait. the formation of achenes following castration. Her experimental technique is open to question, however, and the results must he considered invalid. Achenes, from the previous summers growth, were stratified in sand and peat at 5°C. for six weeks before being placed outside in February* They germinated in late July and August. Those achenes plant-ed directly outside in the late fall also germinated late the next summer. In an attempt to obtain faster germination, an embryo-excision method of Asen and Larsen (1951) was adopted. By bathing the achene in concentrated sulfuric acid for 1.5-2.5 hours most of its pericarp was removed* After washing in water, the mechanical removal of the remain-ing pericarp and the testa exposed the embryo. It was immediately trans-ferred to an anticeptic, a 2% chlorine solution made by shaking 10 gm. of calcium hypochlorite in 140 cc. of water and filtering, and immersed in i t for ten minutes* The embryo was placed in a 1*2% agar solution consisting of 5 gm. of glucose, 12 gm. of agar, and 1.5 gm* of mineral salts- to one litre of water. The embryo, transferred aseptically to sterile cotton-plugged culture bottles, began germinating within one week at room temperature and normal daylight. After four weeks, the seedlings were removed to a mixture of 10% sand, 10% peat, and 80$ vermiculite in the greenhouse at 55°-60° F. The plants were watered by a nutrient 4 solution through a glass tube, which extended to the base of the culture 3* 1*5 gm* of mineral salts made up as follows: 0*70 gm. Ed, 0*17 gm* CaS04, 0*17 gm* MgS04, 0.17 gm. Ca3(P04)2» 0.17 gm. FePO^ , and 0.12 gm. KK03. 4* Solution was composed of: 2.6 gm. KNO3, 2*0 gm. MgSC-4, 1.1 gm. Ca(H2P04)2» 0.4 gm. {HH4)2SO4, and 4*9 gm. CaS04 in one gallon of water* 8 pans* After three weeks in this medium, the plants were transferred to soil pots and left outdoors for five months in the open sun. At the end of October, some seedlings were placed in beds outside, while others were transferred to greenhouse benches. The latter, pruned to the height of siz inches, soon began development of lateral branchlets. Growth was slow, however, in the cool greenhouse temperatures and the short days of the, winter months.. At the end of February, 300 w. incandescent bulbs giving 5500ft* candles at beneh level were installed. The bulbs were kept illuminated for four hours daily after sunset and with this in-creased unit of light and accompanying rise in temperature (55°-63° F.), plant growth was more rapid than previously. .At this time, the amount of watering was increased in order to offset the increased evaporation rate. Because of extensive vegetative growth during March and April, the use of artificial, light was no longer felt necessary and was as a result discontinued at the end of April. Lateral branchlets were pruned in May in an attempt to obtain flowering material from the sublateral branchlets, but by July, there, was s t i l l no indication of such material. It is difficult to correlate these results with the inferences made by Asen and Lax sen (1951) where they claimed two generations of Rosa could understandably be raised in one year using the embryo-excision method* After seventeen months, neither the plants grown in the greenhouse nor those grown in the Botanical Garden have any suggestion of flowering material. ., That the two investigations were conducted with different species, is the only obvious explanation for this discord* 9 Cytology: Anthers, for cytologieal examination* were removed from buds about two weeks before expected anthesis. After pre-fixing in 0,1% colchicine solution for several hours, they were fixed in Farmer's solution for twenty-four hours before squashing in 2% Brilliant Cresyl 5 Blue • This procedure gave some meiotic figures for chromosome counts* The viability of pollen grains was determined by squashing anthers in 0.5$ aceto-caxmlne solution, those that stained bright red were considered viable, while those that failed to do so or were shrunk-en were taken to be nonviable* The viability of the pollen of each spec-imen was based on an examination of approximately 100 grains, the results being expressed as a percentage* In determining the diameter of the pollen grains, five to ten from each sample, were measured in microns using a filar micrometer* The measurements were made from the (one) germinal furrow across the diameter of the pollen grain* They were expressed by the usual statistics for quantitative data, the arithmetic mean, standard deviation, standard error of t&e mean, and coefficient of variation* Herbarium Material: Several thousand herbarium specimens obtained from several 6 herbaria were also examined, in particular from those regions not cov-ered by mass collections* The study of taza not included in the mass collecting was made thereby possible* 5* 2$ solution of Brilliant Cresyl Blue in 45% solution of acetic acid. 10 SECTION III: RESULTS-An in i t i a l study of a l l mass collection data showed some basic differences between the populations. These populations could be grouped according to their greatest affinities of morphological end -cytological criteria. They were dlvisable into three parts named: "gymnoearpous", "diploid", and "polyploid". Populations analyzed in these groupings, showed that there were significant differences between the "gymnoearpous" ones and those of the "polyploid" in a l l quantitative tests. Reference to table 1 points out significantly smaller leaflet widths and lengths, petiolule lengths, stipule lengths, and pollen sizes, more serrations per leaflet, and fewer flowers in an inflorescence for the "gymnoearpous" populations then for the "polyploid" ones. In particular, the high tests of significance far leaflet width and length, stipule length, and pollen size emphasize their discontinuous parameter means. Similar characteristics tested for significant differences between the "diploid" and "gymnoearpous" divisions indicate that dis-continuity exists between their leaflet lengths, serration numbers, inflorescence, and stipule lengths. The "gymnoearpous" populations 6. Rosa species examined Included collections from: Herbarium, Univ-ersity of Alberta, Plant Pathology, Science, Service, Saskatoon, Sask., Botany Department, University of Sask., Herbarium, University of Man., Provincial Museum, Winnipeg, Man., national Herbarium, Ottawa, Provin-cial Museum, Victoria, B. C, Herbarium, University of Wash., Herbarium, State College of Wash., Herbarium, Univ. Oregon State College, Herbarium, Univ. of California. The thanks of the writer are due to the curators of these various herbaria for the courtesy of loaning specimens for study. 11 have smaller leaflet widths (X = 12.9 mm. as apposed to 14.7 mm.) and lengths (X s 21*2 mm. : 26.7 mm.), and stipule lengths (X= 2.8 mm. : 4.1 mm. fewer flowers in each inflorescence (X = 1.3 : 4.0), and a greater number of serrations (X= 20.5 : 14.3) than those "diploid" ones. In contrast, pollen size, petiolule length, and leaflet width have l i t t l e statistical significance. TAHT.TC 1 TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE: QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA Leaflet Width Leaflet Length Serration No. X X Gymnoearpous 12.92 diploid polypi. 14.66 19.15 Gymnoearpous 21.17 diploid polypi. 26.74 34.57 Gymnoearpous 20.49 diploid polypi. 14.26 17.03 t 1.914 6.663 3.548 7.746 4.581 2.601 Inflorescence Raehis Length Stipule Length X X gymnoearpous 1.260 diploid polypi. 3.908 1.558 gymnoearpous 8.32 diploid polypi. 7.26 10.25 gymnoearpous 2.75 diploid polypi. 4.09 5.24 t 5.757 2.980 1.563 2.881 Pollen Size 5.296 12.266 X X gymnoearpous 27.97 diploid polypi* 28.00 35.62 t •049 12,52 p = •05, t = 1.97 12 The "diploid 1 1 and "polyploid" populations are divisible by eleven quantitative criteria, the most striking of which is,pollen size (table 2)• If the large pollen size in "polyploids? is correlated with polyploidy, as Blakeelee (1941) consistently found in other genera, then other organ, particularly those with a determinate type of growth, might well be comparably 'gigas'• Examination of twelve criteria show that the "polyploids" do have larger parameter means for eleven of these criteria, the only exception being lnfloresoence• TABLE 2 TEST OF SIGNIFICANCE; QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA  Leaflet Width Leaflet Length Serration No* diploi d polypi• diploi d X 14.66 19.65 26.74 polypi. diploid polypi. 34.57 14.26 17.03 7.944 4.276 6.342 X t Inflorescence diploid 3.908 polypi. 1.558 5.108 Retiolule Length diploid 7.257 polypi. 10.25 6.696 Stipule Length diploid 4.09 polypi. 5.24 6.149 X t Sepal Length diploid polypi. 14.20 21.59 14.735 Sepal Width diploid 2.107 polypi. 3.356 11.564 Stamen Number diploid 83.5 polypi. 95.8 1.369 X t Petal Width diploid 13.49 polypi. 19.78 6.329 Petal Length diploid 16.5 polypi« 22.3 3.713 Pollen Size diploid 28.0 polypi. 25.6 16.933 p a .05, t * 1.97 13 The "polyploid11 populations were large than the "diploid" ones in: leaflet width and length, serration numberj petiolule and stipulelength, sepal width and length, petal width and length, stamen number, and pollen size. Even without the analysis of their chromosome numbers, this evid-ence suggests "polyploid" populations might well be composed of polyploid individuals, while the "diploid" populations are made up of diploid individuals. The heterogeneity of the "diploid" and "polyploid" divisions invalidates usual Zg testing of their qualitative data, or between them and.the "gymnoearpous" division. Plates IX-XII illustrates the general lack of leaflet glands in the "gymnoearpous" populations. This agrees with the "diploids", but not the "polyploids". The "gymnoearpous" populations are alone in their general absence of pubescence on the leaf-lets, a l l other populations having almost uniformly pubescent leaflets. Furthermore, -glandular peduncles occur in 94% of the "gymnoearpous" individuals, yet are rarely found in "diploids" or "polyploids". "Gymnoearpous" Populations: The "gymnoearpous" mass collections, because they were collected in the Marine West Coast (Cfb), and Cool summer Mediterranean (Csb) 7 climatic regions, were separated into two. Four mass collections are included in each climatic region. Reference to table 3 will show stat-istically different parameter means for leaflet width and length, number of serrations, and stipule length. The Csb populations have smaller 7. The grouping of populations into climatic regions is not necessarily an indication of discontinuity. 14 leaflets with more serrations, and shorter stipule lengths than those found in the Cfb populations. On the other hand, petiolule lengths, and inflorescence overlap in their fiducial limits and as such, they lack a statistical basis for representing discontinuity. TABLE 3 ROSA GYMNOCARPA: QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA TESTED Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb) : Marine West Coast (Cfb) X t *1 "2 Leaflet Width Cab * 11.3 Cfb 14.4 7.48 10.6 - 12.0 13.7 - 15.1 Leaflet Length Csb 18.8 Cfb 23.3 6.49 17.8 - 19.8 22.3 - 23.3 Serration No. Csb 21.7 Cfb 19.1 5.27 21.0-22.4 18.3-19.9 X t m„ Petiolule Length Csb 7.9 Cfb 8.7 1.36 6.8 - 9.0 8.1 - 9.3 Stipule Length Csb 2.2 Cfb 3.2 7.41 2.0 - 2.4 3.6 - 3.4 Inflorescence Csb 1.22 Cfb 1.29 *** 1.08 1.14 - 1.30 1.19 - 1.39 * The fiducial limits of Csb are mi, those of Cfb m2« ** One concludes from this test a lack of discontinuity} fiducial limits of their parameter means (Csb 6.8-9.0 and Cfb 8.1-9.3) verify this. *** A single line under the t test value indicates overlap of par-ameter means in fiducial limit. 15 Populations of the Marine West Coast with leaflets over 13 mm. wide and SI mm* long with more than 18 serrations, and stipules of 3 mm. or more in length approximate Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. gymnocarpa. Those populations of the Cool Summer Mediterranean with leaflets less than 13 mm. wide and 20 mm. long, with serrations more than 20, and stipule lengths less than 3 mm. agrees with Rosa aplculata Greene. In the writers view, i t is best regarded as a subspecies of R. gymnocarpa. As such, i t should be referred to as ssp. aplculata .(Greene) Lewis ined. These criteria used to differentiate the two subspecies are represented in table 4 and graph 1. CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING ROSA GYMNOCARPA SUBSPECIES Leaflet width J 13.0—15.0*mm. *10.5~12.5 mm. Leaflet length 21.0—23.0* mm. *17.0—20.0 mm. Stipule length 3.0—3.4* mm. *2.0—2.6 mm. Serration number *18.0~20.0 21.0—22.0* mm, ssp. gymnocarpa ssp. aplculata * Criterion most likely to vary in that direction. Transplant data, illustrated in table 5, were obtained from four plants in two climatic regions, Humid Continental (Dfc) and Marine West Coast (Cfb). Removal to the Botanical Garden reduced their leaflet and petiolule lengths in three instances. In these cases, the original GRAPH 1 CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING CLIMATIC GROUPING OF ROSA POPULATIONS ("GYMNOCAHPOUS") In each radius there i s represented a criterion for each of three populations. Six criteria for each population are given in the form of a polygon, Hutchinson (1940). The criteria on the six radii are respectively: I Petiolule length (no diagnostic value) II Stipule length III Inflorescence (no diagnostic value) IV Leaflet width V Leaflet length VI Serration number GRAPH 1 CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING CLIMATIC GROUPING OF  ROSA POPULATIONS (wGYMNOCARPQUSw) I 16 locality was "at the edge o f or "in the shelter of woods". The fourth plant (1313), not reduced in i t s new environment, was collected "on rock ledges." Since a l l the plants in the Botanical Garden lack protection and ahae, greater emphasize oan be place upon modification by ecological rather than climatic change. The number of serrations and the stipule length are not alter-ed by the canges. Since both criteria are used to differentiate the subspecies In two different climates, their usefulness is emphasized. TABLE 5 TRANSPLANTS; ROSA GYMNOCARPA Coll. Cllm •Leaf W. Leaf L. Serr No. Pet L. Stip L. InJ 1287 Dfb 12.0 23.0 18 8.0 3.0 1 B. G . * * 11.0 16.0 20: 4.0 3.0 1 1298 Dfb 15.0 19.0 25 6.5 2.5 1 B. Go 10.0 16.0 24 5.0 2.5 1 1313 Cfb 10.5 15.0 17 5.0 2.0 1 B. G. 10.0 15.0 16 5.0 2.0 1 1316 Cfb 12.0 20.5 19 8.0 2.5 1 B. G. 9.0 15.5 18 4.0 2.0 1 * Criteria include leaflet width end length, serration number, petal length, stipule length, and inflorescence. '* Plants moved to Botanical Garden. Diploid Populations; In a l l climatic regions except the Polar (E), "diploid mass 17 collections were made. Few collections made in the Humid Continentals (Dsb, Dsq) and the Middle Latitude Steppe (Bsk) climatic regions neces-sitated their grouping with the populations of the Humid Con t inert al (Dfc). The remaining collections were grouped into the Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb), and the Marine West Coast (Cfb) regions* Reference to table 6 will show statistically different means between Csb end Cfb populations in leaflet width and length, stamen num-ber, stipule length, and petal width .and length. Overlap in their means at - fidicual limit eliminate leaflet width and stipule length as useful criteria. In addition, serration number, inflorescence, petiolule length, and sepal width and length are not significant. In table 7, qualitative differences in type of leaflet serration, serration glands, leaflet end stipule glands* petiolule bristles, end armature type, ere shown. Sue to high intra-group variation, and often intra-population variation for any criterion, chi square tests show apparently significant-for criteria between groups. Examination of pop-ulations within eaoh group will caution conclusions from low (below 40.0) Xg values alone. In this case, the particularly consistent characteristics are: type of leaflet serrations-(double serrations.unknown in Csb), the petiole bristles (always found In Cfb, rarely in Csb), and the stipule glands (never commonly present on Csb stipules, always on those in Cfb)* The populations found in the Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb) are readily distinguished from those of the Marine West Coast (Cfb) by their smaller leaflet lengths (X s 23*3 ran. : 27.0 mm.), more stamens per flower (X* 105 : 65), smeller petal widths (X= 10.7 mm. : 15.4 mm.), and lengths (X= 12.3 mm. : 15.4 mm.). In addition, Csb populations have 18 TABLE 6 "DIPLOID" QUANTITATIVE DATA Cool;Summer Mediterranean (Csb): Marine West Coast (Cfb) And Humid Continentals (Dfc) X m Leaflet Width Csb 13.5 12.6 - 14.4 Leaflet Length Csb 23.2 22.2 - 24.2 Serration No. Csb 13.8 12.9 - 14.7 Cfb X 15.0 t 2.28 Dfc 14.9 3.19 m 14.0-16.0 14.5-15.3 Inflorescence X m Cfb X 3.67 t 1.90 Csb 5.02 4.1-5.9 Dfc 3.95 2.28 m 2.5 - 4.8 3.6 - 4.4 Sepal Width X m Cfb X 2.33 t 2.26 Csb 2.17 2.1 - 2.3 Dfc 2.06 1.55 Cfb 27.0 4.18 25.5-28.5 Dfc 27.3 6.60 26.6-28.0 Stamen No. Csb 105 92 - 118 Cfb 65 4.47 52 - 78 Dfc 72 4.89 68 - 76 Sepal Length Csb 13.7 12.8 - 14.6 m 2.2 - 2.4 2.0 - 2.2 Petal Width Cfb 13.4 0.41 12.3-14.5 Dfc 14.2 1.02 13.8-14.6 Cfb 14.7 1.57 14.1-15.3 Dfc 14.0 0.417 13.7-14.3 Petiolule Length Csb 6.9 6.4 - 7.4 Cfb 7.6 1.27 6.7 - 8.5 Dfc 7.6 1.84 7.5 - 7.7 Stipule Length Csb 3.3 2.8 - 3.8 Cfb 4.3 3.16 3.9-4.7 Dfc 4.3 3.94 4.2-4.4 X m X t m Csb 10.7 9.4 - 12.0 Petal Length Csb 12.3 11.0 - 13.7 Cfb 15.4 3.50 13. (T^n. 8 Dfc 15.1 5.75 Cfb 15.4 4.65 15.7 - 19.1 Dfc 17.4 -6.48 16.5 - 18.1 19 singly serrate, occasionally doubly serrate leaflets (rarely singly ser-rate in Cfb), and petiole bristles and stipule glands commonly absent in Csb (always present in Cfb). TABLE 7 "DIPLOID"; QUALITATIVE DATA TESTED Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb): Marine West Coast (Cfb) Leaf. Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaf. Glands s * d ' - * - * * Csb n 39 9 0 45 3 0 32 16 0 Cfb n 1 15 11 9 15 3 4 14 9 X2 47.22* 32.33 30.60 Leaf. Pubescence Petiole Bristles -ft Stipule Glands * - *-Csb n 0 0 48 45 1 2 Cfb n 0 0 27 0 0 27 X 8 0.0 69.93* 40 8 0 0 0 27 72.20* Sepal Glands s * Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles Csb n Cfb n S 0 45 23 4.49 0 0 0 0 0.0 48 27 48 0 27 0 0.0 Peduncle Pubesc. Peduncle Glands Armature * * - ft * a b c d Csb n 48 0 0 48 0 0 0 7 26 15 Cfb n 27 0 0 27 0 0 1 . 1 5 19 X2 0.0 0.0 15.16 p • .05, X 2 = 7.815 Criteria of significant consideration. 20 The Csb populations differ from those in the Dfc by five quant-itative end seven qualltiative criteria* Reference to table 6 shows Csb populations with significantly smaller leaflet widths (X * 13*5 mm* : 14*9 mm.), more stamens per flower (X= 105 : 72), smaller petal widths, (X-10.7 mm. : 15*1 mm.), and smaller petal lengths (X*12.3 mm* : 17.4 mm.) compared to those found in Dfc. They differ further, as shown in table 8, _ TABLE 8 "DIPLOID": QUALITATIVE DATA TESTED Cool Sumner Mediterranean (Csb): Humid Continentals (Dfc) Leaf. Serrations Leaf. Ser.~ Glands Leaf. Glands s * d * _ * * Csb n 39 9 0 45 .3 0 32 16 0 Dfc n 57 100 103 109 41 n o 48 71 139 X2 68.71* 44.58* 62.18* Leaf. Pubescence Petiolule Bristles Stipule Glands . 4 - * - * * Csb n 0 2 48 45 1 2 40 8 0 Dfc n 2 6 252 77 18 165 11 79 140 X2 2.00 70.21* 161.96* Sepal Glands Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles * * * * _ * Csb 2 1 45 0 0 48 48 0 Dfc 39 51 156 0 2 244 246 1 X2 16.33 0.0 0.0 Peduncle Pubesc. Peduncle Glands Armature * * * * a b e d Csb 48 0 0 48 0 0 0 7 26 15 DfC 109 37 98 171 28 38 82 36 50 91 X2 48.76* 11.04 34.94 P « .05, X 2 =7.815 21 in that Csb has 80% of its individuals with singly serrate, eglandular tipped leaflets (as apposed to 20% for those in Dfc), 100% leaflets glabrous or slightly glandular (50% glandular ones in Dfc), bristly petioles rare (common in Dfc), rarely glandular stipules (commonly gland-ular in Dfc). Another difference between these populations is in leaf-let shape (plate XV). The Csb individuals have* typically, ovate-cordate, subeordate based leaflets, while those in the Dfc group have generally obovate-elliptic, cuneate based ones. By these criteria, the populations of Csb are readily separated from the "diploids" found in both the Cfb and Dfc climatic regions. They approximate closely the taxon Rosa pisocarpa Gray In table 9, the quantitative means and tests for the Dfc and TABLE 9 "DIPLOID"; QUANTITATIVE DATA Marine West Coast.(Cfb)i Humid Continentals (Dfc) Leaflet Width Cfb Dfc X 15.0 14.9 t 0.186 m 14.0-16.0 14.5-15.3 Inflorescence Cfb Dfc X 3.67 3.95 t .290 m 2.5-4.8 3.5-4.4 Sepal Width Cfb Dfc X 2.33 2.06 t 2.40 m 2.2-2.4 2.0-2.2 Petal Width Cfb Dfc X 15.4 15.1 t 0.23 Leaflet Length Cfb Dfc 27.0 27.3 0.366 25.5-28.5 26.6-27.9 Stamen Number Cfb Dfc 65 .72 1.061 52r78 68-76 Sepal Length Cfb Dfc 13.4 14.2 1.28 12.2-14.6 13.8-14.6 Petal Length Cfb Dfc 12.3 17.4 0.11 Serration No. Cfb Dfc 14.7 14.0 1.72 14.1-15.3 13.7-14.3 Petiolule Length Cfb Dfc 7.6 7.6 0.0 Stipule Length Cfb " Dfc 4.3 4.3 0.0 22 Cfb populations show a parameter mean difference fair sepal length only, but even this i s not statistically significant. Similarly, the qualit-ative data, illustrated in table 10, indicates l i t t l e discontinuity for a l l the characteristics examined. No X 2 value was particularly high and i t is felt that the small variations are due primarily to intra- and TABLE 10 "DIPLOID" QUALITATIVE DATA Marine We at Coast (Cfb) : Humid Continentals (Dfc) Leaf. Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaf. Glands s * d * * * * Gfb n Dfc n X 2 1 15 57 100 5.10 11 103 9 15 3 109 41 110 29.56 4 14 9 48 71 139 7.17 Leaf. Pubescenoe Petiolule Bristles siipule Glands ft * ' .* * " - * * Gfb n Dfc n X 2 0 0 2 6 0.92 27 252 0 0 27 77 18 165 14.85 0 0 27 11 79 140 15.54 Sepal Glands Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles ft * i * * Cfb n 3 o n -0 4 39 .51 6.07 23 156 0 0 27 0 2 244 . 0.3L 27 0 246 1 0.11 Peduncle Pubesc. Peduncle Glands Armature ft * & * a b e d Gfb n Dfc n X 2 27 0 109 37 28.52 0 98 . 27 . 0 0 171 28 . - 38 6.07 1 1, 5 19 82 36 50 91 16.58 P .05, X 2 7.815 23 inter-population,, rather than inter-group, differences . Thus i t is evident that the populations in the Marine West Coast (Cfb) and Humid Continentals (Dfc) constitute a unit, end one that differs from Rosa pisocarpa (table 11, graph 8). Its character-istics agree with those of Rosa Woodaii Lindl. Plants of Rosa Woodaii, transferred to the Botanical Garden and greenhouse, are compared with their original clone in the field in table 12. Reduction in leaflet size and minor Indumentum variations characterize ttiose specimens now in the Botanical Garden. The others, transferred to the greenhouse i n general show some marked modifications, especially in increased petiolule length. One specimen collected at Burns Lake (1267) has increased its leaflet size, added petiole bristles, and modified its armature. This plant, originally found oh "dry exposed h i l l " has been growing under quite different conditions in the green-house. The great plasticity i t exhibits is apparent, so emphasizing a cautious use of such characters in diagnosis. 8. Consider, for example, the largest X 2 value in table 10, leaflet ser-ration glands. Its test value of 29.56 is 11.74 above the significant value of 7.815, p-.05 at d.f. 3. for three degrees of freedom at p a .001, the value is only 16.268, well below that of 29.56. Examination of plate IX, particularly the Dfc populations, elucidates their high degree of variation. That these populations were grouped i r -roneously has been considered. Populations #204 and #205, both from Marble Canyon, have alternately 80% and 23% of their samples free from gland-tipped serrations. To consider them distinct and in different groups when their indumentum emphasis varies, would hardly seam accurate. In, however, the populations were found in different habitatis at Marble Canyon, an explanation for this diversity might be possible. The field labels for #204 end #205 read "shaded and exposed slopes, and bases of canyon..." and "exposed limestone-iron rock ledge." That these individ-uals when partly shaded have less indumentum than those on exposed rock ledges is a plausible interpretation. It would seem that the populations, although exhibiting variation, are grouped according to their closes af-finities. Variation, however, between the individuals of each population and between populations in one group, modify the results of the X 2 test. A higher X 2 value than is normally significant aids in isolating examples of inter group discontinuity, only. GRAPH 2 CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING CLIMATIC GROUPING OF ROSA POPULATIONS ("DIPLOID") In each radius there is represented a criterion for each of three populations* Eigth criteria for each population are given in the form of a polygon, Hutchinson (1940)• The criteria on the eight radii are respectively: I Leaflet width II Leaflet length III Inflorescence IV Stamen number V Serration number 71 Petal width. VII Petal length T i l l Petiolule length GRAPH 2 Marine West Coast : R. Woodsii Humid Continental : R* Woodsii Cool Sumner Mediterranean : R. pisocarpa 24 TABLE 11 CRITERIA SEPARATING R. PISOCARPA & R. WOODSII R. pisocarpa R. Woodsii Leaflet width *12-14 mm. 14-16 ran.* Leaflet length *22-24 mm. 25-29* mm. Stamen number 85-120* *50-85 Petal width *9-12 ma. 13-16* mm. Leaflet shape ovate-cordate, sub-cordate based obovate-elliptie, cun-eate based Leaf. serr. type 80% single 20% single and double 40% double, 20% single 40% single and double Leaf. serr. glands 90% eglandular 10% more or less 40% eglandular, 45% glandular 15% more or less Leaflet glands 66% absent 34$ more or less 18% absent, 50% present 32% more or less Petiolule bristles 94% absent. 4% present 2% more or less 30% absent, 60^ present 10% more or less Stipule glands 85% absent 15% more or less 10% absent, 65% present 25% more or less Peduncle pubescence 100% absent 40% absent, 20% present 40 % more or less * The criterion may vary in this direction. The three progeny of Rosa Woodsii, Williams Lake parentage (1277), differ from one another in leaflet size, in gland-tipped serra-tions, and armature type (see table 13). Similarly, those from Pen-ticton differ in stipule glands and armature type. In this case, one of the progeny has glandular stipules and thorny branchlets, while the other 25 TABLE 12 TRANSPLANTS: ROSA WOODSII Coll dim LW LL Sr RL SL I sw SL LS LSG LG STG SG pp PG A .HP 1277 Dfb 14 26 15 5 3.5 > 3 2. 5 12 8 _ ft . ft c -BoG. 12 23 14 6 2 2 2 16 S 1230 Dfb 18 29 12 8 5.5 2 3 14 8 ft ft a- -B.G. 16 29 15 9 4 3 2 11 8 — * > * - - a- -502 Dfc 15 27 17 7 5 2 2 16 ft V- * mm a/d */-G.H. 15 25 16 10 3 — ft ft * ft a * 1267 Dfc 16 27 14 6 3 2 2 12 ft _ ft MB c -G.H. 20 34 13 11 2.5 — - f t ft - ft a * TABLE 13  PROGENY TESTS: ROSA WOODSII9 1. Parent from Williams Lake. W. H. Lewis 1282. Progeny three• LW LL SR RL StL LS LSG LG HP STG A Parent: 14 25 12 8 4.5 s mm - mm ft a/b Progeny 1: 22 36 17 10 3 ft ft mm * * c 2: 18 31 18 12 3 ft - - * * a 3: 16 32 15 15 3.5 ft * * a 2. Parent from Pent lot on, W. H . Lewis 1309. Progeny two. Parent: 11 21 9 5 2.5 s - £ c Progeny 1: 12 23 12 9 2 s - - * * b 2: 12 22 12 9 2 s - - * * a 9. Criteria used include: leaflet width (LW) and length (LL), serration number (Sr), petiolule length (RL), stipule length (SL, StL), inflorescence (I), sepal width (SW) and length (SL), type leaflet serration (LS), ser-rations gland-tipped (LSG), leaflet glands (LG), petiole bristles (HP), stipule glands (STG), sepal glands (SG), peduncle glands )PG) or pubescence (PP), and armature type (A). 26 has stipules more or less glandular and bristly branohlets. Since theBe two progeny have been grown under the same conditions, the differences are attributable to heterozygosity in the parents. These results offer an explanation for the diversity found in thepopulations of R. Woodsii. Polyploid Populations: The polyploid populations were arbitrarily grouped on the basis of four climatic areas: the Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb), the Marine West Coast (Cfb), the Humid Continental and Middle Latitude Steppe (Dfb), and the Humid Continentals (Dfc). Tests of nine quantitative criteria, comparing the populations of Csb and Cfb, table 14, gave a significantly high t value for one only, the sepal width. Their parameter means differ by 0.2 mm., but as their fiducial limits gave a continuous range from 3.6-4.0 mm., this cannot be considered significant. It is apparent therefore that these populations are not discontinuous for any quantitative criteria tested. Their criteria illustrated in graph 3, however, do seem to suggest that the Csb populations are the extreme cases of those found in the Cfb. Their leaflet and petal widths are smaller, and their sepal widths, stamen numbers, and inflorescences are characterized by somewhat greater means than those found in the Cfb region. The qualitative data, in table 15, comparing the two groups, Csb and Cfb, resulted in eight criteria having above table X 2 values. Of these j type of leaflet serration, leaflet serration glands, leaflet glands, and.sepal glands have significantly high X 2 values. The populations of 27 TABLE 14 HEXAPLOID QUANTITATIVE DATA; MARINE WEST COAST (Cfb): COOL SUMMER MEDITERRANEAN (Csb) AND HUMID . CONTINANTAL. (Dfb & Bsk) . . X m Leaflet Width Cfb 17.5 16.9 - 18.1 Leaflet Length Cfb 30.7 29.7 - 31.7 Serration No. Cfb 16.3 15.8 - 16.8 Csb X 15.9 t 3.40 m 15.1-16.7 Dfc 21.3 20.5 - 22.1 Csb 27.8 3.72 26.6-29.0 Dfc Csb Dfc 38.2 17.2 17.1 9 .04 2.14 2.05 36.9-39.5 16.5-17.9 16.5-17.7 X m X t m X m Inflorescence Cfb 1.55 1.5 - 1.7 Csb 1.71 2.26 1.6-1.8 Dfc 1.24 1.16-1.32 Sepal Width Cfb 3.7 3.6-3.8 Stamen Number Cfb 109 103 - 115 Csb 129 1.94 109-149 Sepal Length Cfb 21.5 20.9-22.1 Dfc 79 72-86 Petiolule Length Cfb 10.1 9.7 - 10.5 Csb 9.5 1.47 8.8-10.2 Dfc 10.2 0.30 9.7-10.7 Stipule Length Cfb 5.2 5.1-5.3 X t m Csb 3.9 3.8-4.0 Dfc 3.0 12.5 2.9-3.1 Csb 20.8 0.74 19.7-22.5 Dfc 21.5 0.00 Csb 5.3 0.052 20.7-22.3 4.9-5.7 Dfc 5.2 0.00 5.0-5.4 Cfb 21.4 20.5-22.3 Petal Width Petal Length Cfb 23.1 22.2-24.0 Csb Dfc Csb Dfc X t m 17.8 3.21 15.7-19.9 19.0 18.3-19.7 20.0 1.78 16.6-23.4 22.2 0.85 21.2-23.2 GRAPH 3 CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING CLIMATIC GROUPING OF ROSA POPULATIONS ("POLYPLOID") In each radius there is represented a criterion for each of three populations. Eight criteria for each population are given in the form of a polygon, Hutchinson (1940)» The criteria on the eight radii are respectively: I Leaflet width II Leaflet length III Inflorescence IV Stamen number V Sepal width VI Petal width VII Armature type VIII Sepal length (no diagnostic value) Humid Continental—Cool, Short (Dfc) & Dry (Dsb) Sunm Humid Continental—Cool Summer (Dfb) Marine West Coast (Cfb) Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb) GRAPH III CRITERIA DIFFERENTIATING CLIMATIC GROUP IMG OP  ROSA POPULATIONS ("POLYPLOID'*) V 28 Csb have over nine-tenths of their individuals with double serrate leaf-lets, all with gland-tipped leaflet serrations, glandular leaflets, and glandular sepals* Although the Cfb populations have many of their ind-ividuals with similar class characteristics, they have, in addition, the indumentum more or less present or more rarely, absent. These then afford TABLE 15 "POLYPLOID1* QUALITATIVE CRITERIA Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb): Marine West Coast (Cfb) Csb n Cfb n~ X2 Csb n Cfb n X2 Csb n n Leaf* Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaf* Pubescence 0 12 108 8 75 187 19.86 Sepal Glands 4 " * 0 1 113 20 61 181 42.45* Peduncle Pubesc. Petiole Bristles ft * 0 23 0 120 18 232 19.25 Sepal Pubescence ft * 0 0 0 105 2 360 0.90 Peduncle Glands Leaflet Glands s ft d - ft * * ft 0 1 119 0 6 105 0 1 119 41 99 132 51 100 127 " 33 98 141 94.13* 63.72* 85.00* X2 22.53 p -.05, X2 * 7.815 ^ " — 10.26 Stipule Glands ft * 0 0 120 0 9 263 4.10 Sepal Bristles * 111 3 242 21 3.43 Armature - ft * - ft * a b c d Csb n 98 3 - 19 94 10 16 0 0 48 72 Cfb n 252 10 5 238 6 23 0 4 80 188 5*48 29 some basis for distinguishing the two population groups. Since they are tendencies, however, and not discontinuities, the two are best regarded as formae • The populations often found in the Cool Summer Mediterranean (Csb) with leaflets glandular below, 16 mm. or less wide, double serrate, always with gland-tipped teeth, sepals always glandular, often wider than 3.9 mm. at its base, stamens approximately 129 per flower, usually more than one flower in each inflorescence agrees closely with Rosa muriculata Greene. Populations, which may be found in the Csb as well as the Cfb regions, with less indumentum on leaflets and sepals, larger leaflet and petal widths, smaller sepal widths and inflorescences, and fewer stamens than those described above, are best regarded as Rosa nutkana Presi. . In the writers view, R. muriculata is an extreme form of R. nutkana, re-ferred to as Rosa nutkana Preal f. muriculata (Greene) Lewis iden. Mean differences in leaflet width and lengthjT inflorescence, stamen number, sepal width, and petal width separate the populations in the Dfc and Cfb climatic regions. Their fiducial limits Indicate that these criteria are discontinuous (table 14). High X 2 values (table 16), emphasize significant differences between the groups' bristly petioles, and armature type. On the other hand, type of leaflet serration, leaf-let serration glands, leaflet glands and pubescence, stipule glands and pubescence, sepal pubescence and glands and bristles, and peduncle glands and pubescence have l i t t l e significance. By six quantitative and two qualitative criteria, the popul-ations found in the Dfc and Cfb climatic regions can be differentiated (see table 17, graph 3). The Dfc populations, in contrast to those in 30 in the Cfb region, have larger leaflet widths (X- 21*3 mm. : 17*3 mm.) and lengths (X-38.2 urn. x 30.7 mm.), smaller width of petals (X=19.0 mm.: 21.4 mm.) and sepals at base (X-3.0 mm. : 3.6 mm.), fewer stamens in each flower (X 3 79 : 109), and rarely more than one flower in an inflor-escence (X= 1.24 : 1.55) • In addition, bristly petioles are particularly TABLE 16 "POLYPLOID* * QUALITATIVE CRITERIA Marine West Coast (Cfb) : Humid Continentals (Dfc) Leaf. Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaflet Glands s * d ft * " * * Cfb n 41 99 132 51 100 127 33 98 141 Dfc n 25 62 90 16 66 93 2 47 126 X 2 0.45 7.61 27.38 Leaf « Pubescence Petiolule Bristles Stipule Glands - ft * • ft * . f t * Cfb n 8 75 187 23 18 232 0 9 263 Dfc n 0 14 161 36 45 94 0 1 174 X 2 27.73 52,59* 3.83 Sepal Glands Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles ft. * «. ft «, " ' " * Cfb n 20 61 181 0 2 260 242 21 Dfc n 8 61 102 0 1 175 111 3 X 2 8.27 0.55 3.98 Peduncle Pubesc. Peduncle Glands Armature mm ft * ft * a b c d Cfb n 252 10 5 238 6 23 0 4 80 188 Dfc n 143 15 14 157 7 8 163 0 0 12 X2 • 15.67 3.50 217.60* p = .05, X 2 = 7.815 :3'6a TABLE 17 CRITERIA SEPARATING THE "POLYPLOIDS" R. acicularis R. nutkana ssp. R. nutkana f. nutkana muriculata Leaflet width 20-22* mm. X •16-19 nan. -Leaflet length 35-40* mm. X *29-34 ma. = Inflorescence 1.16-1.32 X rarely more than 1 1.45-1.55 s conmonly more than 1 Stamen number •70-95 X 100-115* s Sepal width 2.9-3.1 mm. X 3.5-3.8* mm. a Petal width *18-20 mm. X 20-22* mm. -Petiole bristles 25% absent X 25% more or less 50% present 15% absent = 10% more or less 75% present Armature type 93% bristly X 7% unarmed 30% thorny = 70% unarmed Leaf. Ser. type — 15% single X 35% single/double 50% double 0% single 1% sing./doub. 99% double Leaf* Ser. glands — 20% absent X 37% more/less 43% present 0% absent 5% more/less 95% present Leaflet glands = 10% absent X 40% more/less 50% present 0% absent 1% more/less 99% present Sepal glands 7% absent X 23% more/less 70% present 0% absent 1% more/less 99% present 31 common in Cfb populations, rarer in those of Dfc. The predominant ab-sence of armature in Cfb populations constrasts with the 93% armed ind-ividuals in Dfc. When armed, Cfb populations have thorns, the other group, bristles end prickles. The discontinuity between these two population groups is ev-ident (see table ^ 7, graph 3). Those of the Humid Continental (Dfc) region are identified with Rosa acieularls Lindl, the others in the Marine West Coast (Cfb), have been considered above and were named R. nutkana. The populations of the Humid Continental (Dfb) climatic region differ from those of the Marine West Coast (Cfb) by six quantitative and four qualitative criteria. In addition, they differ from the populations in the Humid Continentals (Dfc) by one quantitative and two qualitative criteria* Reference to table 18 shows significantly different means between Dfb and Cfb for leaflet width and length, stamen and serration number, and sepal and petal widths. Their fiducial limits are a l l dis-continuous. Larger leaflet widths (X 17.5 mm.".: 2L.4 mm.) and lengths (X 27.8 mm. : 37.5 mm*) with more serrations (X 16.3 ;r 17.3), narrower petals (X 19.7 mm. : 21*4 mm*) and sepals at base (X 3*2 mm. : 3*7 mm.), and fewer stamens per flower (X 89 : 109) differentiate the Dfb popul-ations from those of the Cfb. On the other hadd, there is no statistical difference between inflorescence, stamen number, and petiolule, sepal, stipule and petal lengths. Type of leaflet serration, leaflet glands and pubescence, and armature type show high X2 tests between Dfb and Cfb climatic regions. 32 TABLE 18 "POLYPLOID" QUANTITATIVE DATA HUMID CONTINENTAL. (Dfc &.Dab): MARINE WEST COAST (Cfb) & HUMID CONTINENTAL (Dfb & Bak) X m Leaflet Width Dfb 21.4 20.6-22.2 Leaflet Length Dfb 37.5 36.6-38.4 Serration No. Dfb 17.3 16.9 - 17.7 Cfb X 17.5 m 16.9-18.1 Dfc 21.3 0.18 20.5-22.1 Cfb 30.7 9.7^  29.7-31.7 Dfc 38.2 0.89 36.9-39.5 Cfb 16.3 3.91 1578-16. 8 Dfc 17.1 0.55 16.5-17.7 m Inflorescence Dfb 1.67 1.59-1.75 Stamen No. Dfb 89 84 - 94 Petiolule Length Dfb 30.7 10.3 - 11.1 X t m Cfb 1.55 2.16 1.45-1.65 Dfc 1.24 7.61 1.16-1.32 Cfb 109 Su2S. 103-115 Dfc 79 71-87 Cfb 10.1 1.97 9.7-10.5 Dfc 10.2 1.47 9.7-10.7 X m X t m Sepal Width Dfb 3.2 3.2-3.3 Cfb 3.7 7 . 8 9 3.6-3.8 Dfc 3.0 4.Q4 2.9-3.1 Petal Width Dfb Sepal Length Dfb 22.0 21.5 - 22.5 Cfb Dfc 21.5 21.5 1.23 1.11 19.9-22.1 Stipule Length Dfb 5.2 5.1 - 5.3 Cfb 5.2 0.0 21.1-21.9 5.1-5.3 Petal Length Dfb Dfc 5.2 0.0 5.0 - 5.4 X m 19.7 19.2-20.2 22.7 22.2 - 23.2 X t m Cfb 21.4 3.46 20.5-22.3 Dfc 19.0 1.58 18.3-19.7 Cfb 23.1 0.78 22.2 - 24.0 Dfc 22.2 0.94 21.2 - 23.2 33 These are illustrated in table 19* There is no distinct gap, however, between the four criteria, the populations of the Dfb possessing more indumentum with more doubly serrate leaflets than those in the Cfb. An extremely high test value for armature type appears to emphasize a complete discontinuity* Unarmed branchlets in both climatic groups, however, are high, Dfb with 47% and Cfb with 70%, illustrating a wide overlap for this armature class* TABLE 19 "POLYPLOID" QUALITATIVE CRITEHA Humid Continental (Dfb) : Marine West Coast (Cfb) Leaf* Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaflet Glands s * d ft . * ft * Dfb n 7 64 284 42 72 261 7 65 303 Cfb n 41 99 132 51 100 127 33 98 141 X 2 75.98* 37.87 66.85* Leaf* Pubescence Petiole Bristles Stipule Glands ft * ft ..* . ' ft * Dfb n 7 27 341 60 73 241 0 1 324 Cfb n 8 75 187 23 18 232 0 9 268 X 2 - 40.19* 34.04 6*45 - Sepal Glands Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles - ft - * ft * Dfb n 16 93 264 0 3 371 355 15 Cfb n 20 61 181 0 2 260 242 21 X s 3*39 0.01 4.40 Peduncle Pubesc* Peduncle Glands v Armature ft * ft .* a b c d Dfb n 301 18 34 310 16 27 162 17 21 178 Cfb n 252 10 5 238 6 23 0 4 80 188 X 2 20.47 1.89 194.64* .05, X 2 * 7.815 34 Reference to table 18 Illustrates the discontinuous Dfb and : Dfc population means for inflorescence, stamen number, sepal width, and petal width. Of these, however, on the sepal width is significantly different. The Dfb individuals have larger sepal means at base (X 3.2 mm.) than those of the Dfc (X 3.0 mm.). From the.Xs tests (table 20) the qualitative criteria leaflet TABLE 20 "POLYPLOID" QUALITATIVE CRITERIA Humid Continental (Dfb) : Humid?Continental (Dfc) Leaf. Serrations Leaf. Ser. Glands Leaflet Glands s * d • 4 * - 4 * Dfb n 7 64 284 42 72 261 7 65 303 Dfc n 23 62 90 16 66 93 2 47 126 X 2 74.8* 23.7 6.60 Leaf. Pubescence Petiole Bristles Stipule Glands 4- * - * * -4 ' * Dfb n 7 27 341 60 73 241 0 1 324 Dfc n 0 14 161 36 45 94 0 1 174 X 2 2.92 5.41 0.77 Sepal Glands Sepal Pubescence Sepal Bristles 4 * 4 * • 4 • Dfb n 16 93 264 0 3 371 355 15 Dfc n 8 61 102 0 1 175 156 15 X 2 7.28 0.34 4.53 Peduncle Pubese. Peduncle Glands Armature 4 * - * * a b c d Dfb n 301 18 34 310 16 27 162 17 21 178 Dfc n 143 15 14 157 7 8 163 0 0 12 X2 2.60 1.49 128.05* P = .05, X 2 = 7.815 35 serration type* and armature type snow large differences* Sampling in the Dfb region resulted in 80% of the individuals showing double serrate leaflets* (Those sampled in the Dfc region had but half as many* Dfc populations have bristly and prickly armature except for 7% unarmed . branchlets as contrasted to. the Dfb populations that have approximately half their populations unarmed, 10% thorny, and the remainder bristly and prickly. Those criteria lacking any statistical difference include type of leaflet serration, leaflet glands and pubescence, petiole bristles, stipule glands, sepal pubescence, glands, bristles, and peduncle pub-escence and glands. The summary of distinguishing data between Dfb populations, and Cfb and Dfc populations is given in table 21 and graph 3. For sepal length the fiducial limits of the Dfb populations l i e between those of the other two groups. In the other major difference, the three groups Cfb, Dfb and Dfc are armed as follows: (a) bristles and prickles, 0%, 44%. 93%; -(b) thorns, 30%, 10%,- 0%; (c) no armature, 70%, 46%. 7%. In each case, the Dfb populations are Intermediate between those of R. nutkana and R. acioularls. It appears very likely therefore that these intermediate populations represent the hybrid R. acicularis Lindl. X R* nutkana Presl* Transplant material from Fernie, Hope, Nelson, Prince George, and Terrace to the Botanical Garden was modified particularly in leaflet size, type of leaflet serration, and petiolule length. Decrease in leaflet size and the inconsistent modification of other characteristics emphasize, the role of environment, and possibly, selection. These 36 TABES 21 CRITERIA DlggERENTIATIKfG "POLYPLOIDS" R. nutkana ssp. R. acicularis X R. acicularis nutkana R. nutkana Leaflet width *16-19 mm. X 20-22* mm. B Leaflet length *29-34 mm. X 35-39* mm. s Serration no* *15-17 X 17-19* Stamen No* 100-115* X 70-95* -Sepal width 3*5-3*8* mm. X 3.2-3.4 mm* X 2*9—3*1 mm. Petal width 20-22* urn. X *19-20 mm. s Leaf. Sex. 15% single X 2% single c X 13% single Leaf. Glands 13% absent X 2% absent -Leaf, pubescence 68% present X 90% present a Armature 0% bristly X 44% bristly X 93% bristly - 30% thorns X 10% thorns X 0% thorns 70% unarmed X 46% unarmed X 7% unarmed transplat results -are recorded in table 22. The results of three progeny tests representing material from Banff* Alta., Central Saanich. 7. I., and Vancouver (Point Grey) are shown In tables 23, 24, and 25. It can bee seen that leaflet size, number of serrations, petiolule length, and glandular leaflets vary somewhat in the progeny. On the other hand, and of perhaps greater significance, the consistence of stipule lengths, type of leaflet serrations, gland-tipped leaflet serrations, petiole bristles, stipule glands, and armature type, will be noted. This consistency emphasizes the value of these criteria 37 In the "polyploid" and "diploid" populations. TABLE 22 TRANSPLANTS: "POLYPLOIDS" Coll Clim LW LL Sr RL SL I SW SL LS LSG LG BP StG SG A** 1307 Dfb, Nelson: R. nutkenavssp. nutkana -Dfb • 19 35 27 17 4 — — * ft * ft * d *B.G. 16 28 19 12 4 1 2.5 23 s f * c 1318 Dfb, Hope: R. nutkana ssp. nutkana -• Dfb 20 32 14 13 5 1 4 20 * • ft _ _ c-B.G. 20 32 18 12 6 3 4 25 * •* ft * ft — c 1261 Cfb, Terrace: R. nutkana ssp. nutkana Cfb 31 45 21 13 6 1 4.5 15 d * * * * ft d *G.H. 20 36 33 13 3.5 — d * *• — * d 1273 Dfb, Prince George: R. acicularis X R. nutkana Dfb 19 41 11 12 3 1 3 23 * mm ft * „ d B.G. 15 27 18 12 4 1 3 23-d ft ft — * • — d 1301 Dfb, Fernie: R. acicularis X R. nutkana ;Dfb 26 6425 16 6— — — * _ ft * a/b B.G. 15 302011 3 1 3 18 * •* ft — ft ft d •Those planted in Botanical Garden (B.G.), others in greenhouse(G.H.) ••Abbreviations for criteria, page 25, footnote 9. 38 TABLE 23 PROGENY TEST: ROSA ACICULARIS* **LW LL Sr RL STL LS LSG LO HP STG A Parent: Banff, Alt a. , W. H. Lewis 127 14 26 13 6 5 ft ft ft - * a Progeny: 1 ZL 38 25 12 3 d * ft * * a 2 19 36 21 14 2.5 d * ft ft a 3 18 30 23 17 3 d ft - * * a 4 14 25 17 8 - 2 - d * • * a - • 5 16 27 23 12 2 d * * * a Parent and progeny apical leaflets and petiolulea are illustrated in plate XV, number 4. Criteria include: leaflet width (LW) and length (LL), serration number (Sr), petiolule and stipule lengths (RL and STL), type of leaflet serration (LS), serration glands (LSG), leaflet glands (LO), petiole bristles (HP), stipule glands (STG), and armature type (A). These' characters have been used to define the indiv-iduals in tables 24 and 25. TABLE 24 PROGENY TEST: ROSA NUTKANA sap • NUTKANA LW LL Sr RL STL LS LSG LG HP STG A* Parent: .Central Saanich » v. I. , Florence Lewis 1325 15 25 26 6 5 d * * * * c Progeny: 1 17 33 26 11 2.5 d ft ft * * c 2 13 20 18 8 2 d ft * * c 3 16 33 30 14 2 d * _ * * e 4 16 30 29 14 2 d * * c 5 13 31 23 12 3 d * * . * c 6 22 35 28 19 2 d - * * c *Abbreviations for criteria, table 23. 39 TABLE 25 PROGENY TEST: ROSA NUTKANA f. MURICULATA LW LL RL STL LS LSG LG HP STG A* Parent: Vancouver (Point Grey), W. H . Lewis 1560 13 20 30 6 4 d * * * * c Progeny: 1 18 30 32 11 3.5 d * * *- * c 2 12 19 27 7 3.5 d ft * * c 3 14 22 23 12 5 d * * * * c 4 17 24 33 11 4 d * *< * * e 5 11 17 18 7 3 d * *- * * c 6 11 18 18 4 2.5 d * * • * c 7 14 22 30 -.11 3 d * * * c 8 10 18 22 6 3 d * * * e 9 11 16 25 6 2 d * * * c 10 10 15 19 7 4 d * * * c 11 14 18 24 7 3 d ** * * 0 12 11 17 25 6 2 d * * ' * c-13 14 23 29 8 2 d * * c •Abbreviations for criteria. table 23 , page 38. Chromosome count's were made for each divisional group from meiotic figures. The chromosome number of 2n - 14, plate XIV, is ap-parent' for Rosa gymnocarpa ssp. aplculata and Rosa plsooarpa. On the other hand, Rosa nutkana ssp. nutkana has 2n 42 chromosomes. 9 a The diploid species, R. pisocarpa and R. Woodsii examined diameters for pollen grain size, were found to have meanr^of 27.6 u. and 23.0 u., respectively. R. gymnocarpa ssp. aplculata, with a mean of 27.97 u., together with the other diploids, demonstrate a correlation between pollen size and a diploid number of chromosomes (2a-14). This is 9a. These results supplement those of Brianson (1934), and flory (1950). 40 further borne out by noting that the hexaplolds have pollen grains of mean diameter 35*62 u* From these results, i t would be expected that an unknown species with pollen grains 28.0 - 1*5 u. in diameter would be diploid in chromosome number* while one with pollen grains 36*0 - 2*5 u* in diameter would be hexaploid. Further, tetraploid species might be thought to hare mean pollen sizes between those of the diploids and hexaplolds* Although no chromosome counts were made establishing tet-raploidy in B* C. species, specimens of Rosa californica G* & S*, found to be tetraploid by Erlanson (1934), occurring in central California, have been examined for pollen size* Their mean diameter of 30*8 u., range 28*6 u. - 32*4 u., illustrates an intermediate pollen size between 10 a those found in the diploid and hexaploid species* All pollen studied above was taken from dried material, some of which was collected and placed in herbaria during the last century.10 Since an estimate of ploidy can be made from these flowering specimens, the use of the pollen criterion, when chromosome counting is impossible, is necessary for a complete understanding of the material* Pollen was examined for indications of viability and sterility. The results, in percentages of viable and aborted pollen, are given in plate 711. It will be seen that viability is high for R. acicularis, R. nutkana, and R. gymnocarpa sap. apiculata, intermediate for the hybrid R. acicularis X B« nutkana, and R» Woodsii, and low for R. pisocarpa. 10. Pollen from several species are illustrated in plate XUI, pg. 42. 10a* Similar results were obtained by Erlanson (1929) working with Rosa microsporocytes at diakinesia. 41 Toe herbarium material has provided interesting data on enthesis (graph 4). The data for each taxon represent thirty randomly sampled herbarium specimens providing their distribution was below 51°N. Since R. acicularis is predominantly a northern species, its individuals were chosen completely at random. Although there has been no opportunity for climatic standardization, i t can be seen that such a factor is not always Important in an thesis studies. For example, R. nutkana ssp. nutkana, which is usually, found growing with R. pisocarpa in the; south-ern coast regions, has 95% of its blooming during May and June, while R. pisocarpa blooms 80% of the time during July. Of interest is an enthesis. difference between the subspecies of R. nutkana Preal. The subspecies Spaldlngii (Crap.) Lewis ined. (R. Spaldingii Crep.) has com-pleted 80% of i t s blooming by 15 June, yet in ssp. nutkana, 33% of its blooming occurs in the following two weeks. The length of their bloom-ing periods differ, as well, the subspecies Spaldlngii blooming the longer. The typically northern distribution of R. acicularis may explain the late enthesis of its individuals. There is l i t t l e blooming before 1 June, but similar to R. nutkana ssp. nutkana, 66% of enthesis takes place in June.r Differences in the shape of leaflets are difficult to express verbally,- and yet are of considerable taxohomic importance. Plate XV, page 44, has been prepared for assistance in this connection. It con-sists of photographs of herbarium, specimens of leaves of a number of our species. Attention is drawn particularly to the obovate-elllptic, cun-eate based leaflets of R. Woodsii, which are in contrast to the ovate-cordate, subcordate based ones of R. pisocarpa. This difference can be very helpful in differentiating these two species. GRAPH 4 ROSA SEASONAL ANTHESIS f : frequency range: seasonal 41a GRAPH 4 f 1 Rpaa sp. May 1=15 116-31 June 1-15|16-30 July 1-15 116-31 Aug. Range 1-15 | 15' 1 1 1 1 ROSA ANTHBSIS 10 is" 10 5 R. Woodaii 15 10 5 R. acicularis X R. nutkana 15 10 5 15 10 5 R* nutkana ssp. Spaldlngii 15 25 May-3 Aug. 16 May-28 July 10 June-6 Aug. 29 May-17 July 11 May-9 July 12 May-17 July 13 May-5 July PLATE XIII ROSA POLLEN GRAIN SIZE 1* R. gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. gymnocarpa (26*8 u.), three viable grains} Campbell River, B. Pepin* 2. R» Woodsii Lindl. (27.4 u.), two viable grains; T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 206, Lillooet. 3. R. pisoearpa Gray (29.5 u.)j two viable grains; Duncan, T. M. C. Taylor k W. H. Lewis 523. 4. R. nutkana Presi ssp. nutkana (46.3 u.), one germinating grain; Yale, T. M« C. Taylor & W« H. Lewis 101. 5. R. acicularis Lindl. (41*0 u.), one viable and one aborted grain; Hay River, W. H. Lewis 1204. 6. R. acicularis Lindl. X R. nutkana Presi (36.0 u.); Hazel ton, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 508. 42 PLATS XIII ROSA PULLLN U;<AJJ* J:<;„ 20 rus*. xiv ROOA aiaoKOoOiE C O U N T S : P O L L M N L K I O S I S x3C00 1. R . nutkana 3 s p . nutkana, C e n t r a l Saanich Florence Lewis 1531 Composite drawing, f i r s t d i v i s i o n prophase, showing approximately 42 chromosome p a i r s . x70CC 2. R . p i s o c a r p a Gray, Cent r a l Saanich T . li.-C. Taylor k '.V. H . Lewis 549 Composite drawing, f i r s t d i v i s i o n prophase (po l a r view), showing approximately 14 chromosome p a i r s . x7000 3a . R . gymnocarpa ssp. a p i c u l a t a • Vancouver, T. LI. C. T a y l o r k ;v. \i.  Lewin 734 Composite drawing, f i r s t d i v i s i o n prophase, showing 14 chromosome p a i r s PLATE XV ROSA LEAFLETS AND PETIOLULES 1* R. aeicnlaris, Coal River, W» H. Lewis 1258 2* R* arkanaana. Fort Saskatchewan, Alta., G. H.  Turner. 3* R* nutkana ssp* nutkana, Central Saanich, V* I*, Florence Lewis 1525; progeny test: parent and 6 progeny* 4* R. acicularis, Banff, Alta., W. H. Lewis 127; progeny test: parent and 5 progeny* 5* R* gymnocarpa ssp* gymnocarpa, Revelstoke, W* H» Lewis 1287* 6* R» piBOcarpa, Duncan, T. U. C. Taylor & W« H»  Lewi8 525. 7. R. Woodsii, Penticton, W, H. Lewis 1509; progeny test: parent, 2 progeny. 8. R. woodsii, Williams Lake, W. H. Lewis 1282; progeny test: parent, 3 progeny. 44 ROSA LiiAArJTS Mli PgT13.UI.Kj 3. R. nutlcapa Freal up . nutkana 4. B. a c i cu l a r i s L i n d l . 3. R. gynocarpa Butt. asp. gymnocarpa 6. R. plaocarpa Gray t ft 7. R. goodall Lindl. P. R. Woo a^U H a l l 45 SECTION 17: TAXONOMY Few taxoncmists hare ever suggested that Rosa is other than a 'natural* group. A* P. de Candolle (1818) was the f i r s t to attempt an intra-generic classification. He divided the genus into IX sections, only one of which CINNAMOMEAS, has species native to the Pacific North-west. Bydberg (1918) added en additional section. GYMNOCARPAB, its ind-ividuals found in this regional study. Rosa L., Sp. PI. 491, 1753 Rb.odopb.ora Neck,, Hem. 2: 91, 1790 Shrubs or vines,usually with prickly stems; leaves alternate, pinnate, with stipules chiefly actuate to the petiole, leaflets usually serrate; flowers perfect, solitary or corymbose; sepals 5, rarely 4; petals 5, rarely 4, usually obcordate; stamen numerous, inserted on the thickened margin of the hypanthium; styles long-ezserted or only reach-ing the mouth of the hypanthium, sometimes united into a column; stigmas thickened; hypanthium urceolate, globose, ellipsoid, or turbinate, con-tracted at the mouth, enclosing the bony achenes, becoming fleshy in fruit. ' Type species: Rosa clnnamoTnea L., Sp. PI. 1: 703, 1764 ("habitat in Europa austrelis"). 46 Distribution: Temperate and subalpine regions of the northern hemisphere, southern limits in North Africa, Abyssinia, east side of the Indian peninsula, and Mexicoo Below is the analytical key to the species, subspecies, hybrid, and form found in the Pacific North-west. Because there are no popul-ation data for B. arkansana Porter, R. nutkana ssp. Spaldlngii, and the exotic species, R. oanlna L..R. multiflora Thunb., R. rubiginosa L. t and R. rugosa Thunb., they have been omitted from the key.. a. Sepals deciduous; fruit solitary, 3-5 mm. wide; leaflets glabrous, 18 or more serrations on one sloe; peduncles usually glandular. .Section GYMNOCARPAE b. Leaflet 13-15* mm. wide, 21-23* mm. long, 20 or fewer serrations on one side; stipules 3.0-3.4* mm. long; Marine West Coast and Humid Continental climatic regions. »R. gymnocarpa ssp. gymnocarpa bb. Leaflets 12.5 mm. or less wide, 20 mm. or less long, 21-23* serrations on one side; stipules 2.6 mm. or less long; Cool Summer Mediterranean climatic region. »R. gymnocarpa ssp. aplculata an. Sepals persistent; fruit 7-15 mm. wide, i f smaller, numerous; leaflets usually pubescent, rarely more than 20 serrations on one side; peduncles occasionally glandular. .Section CINNAMOMSAE b. Leaflets rarely over 17 mm. wide; inflorescence many-, occasion-ally, few- flowered; petals about 13 ma. wide sepals 2.0-3.0 mm. wide at base, 10-17 mm. long; pollen grains about 28 u. in diameter. 11* Asterisk beside - fiducial limit of population means indicates var-iation in a particular direction. 47 c. Leaflets *12-14 mm. wide, *22-24 mm. long, ovate-cordate, sub-cordate based, singly serrate, usually eglandular below; petiole rarely bristly; stipules rarely glandular; petals *9-12 mm. wide, *10-14 mm. long; stamens 85-120* per flower; peduncles glabrous. j • .R. pisocarpa cc. Leaflets 14-17* mm. wide, 25-29* mm. long, obovate-elliptic, cuneate based, singly or doubly serrate, usually glandular below; petiole usually bristly; stipules eglandular; pet-als 15-16* mm. wide, 15-20* mm. long; stamens *50-85 per flower; peduncles often puberulent. ..........R. Woodsii ' bb. Leaflets 18 mm. or more wide; inflorescence solitary,' three-, or occasionally, many-flowered; petals about 19 mm. wide; sepals 3.0-5.0 mm. wide at base, 18-24 mm. long; pollen grains about 36 u. in diameter. c. Stems with bristles and prickles, rarely thorns, or armless; leaflets "20-22* mm. wide, 35-40* mm. long; petiole often bristly; inflorescence solitary, rarely more; petals*18-20 mm. wide; sepals *2.9-3.4 mm. wide at base. d. Stems with bristles and prickles, very rarely unarmed; leaflets occasionally singly serrate; sepals *2.9-3.1 mm. wide at base. ..........R. acicularis dd. Stems with bristles and prickles^ thorns, or often un-armed; leaflets very rarely singly serrate; sepals 3.2-3.4 mm. wide at base. ..........R. acicularis X R. nutkana cc. Stems with scattered or infrastipular thorns, commonly un-armed at apex; leaflets *16-19 mm. wide, *29-34 mm. long; petiole almost always bristly; inflorescence solitary to three-flowered; petals 20-22* mm. wide; sepals 3.5-3.8* mm. wide at base. d. Leaflets.usually glandular, often more or less glandular, or rarely eglandular, doubly, occasionally singly, serrate sepals glandular, occasionally eglandular. •••••••••.R. nutkana dd. Leaflets glandular, doubly serrate., sepals glandular. ..........R. nutkana f. muriculata 48 Section CIHHAMOMBAE DC. Upright species with new shoots usually more or less bristly, old stems and branches either unarmed or bristly, or armed with infrast-ipular prickles which sometimes are paired; stipules adnata, the upper usually dilated; leaflets 5-U; sepals usually entire or some with a few lobes, erect and persistent after enthesis; hypanthium glabrous or rarely bristly; achenes inserted on the inner walls of the hypanthium as well as on the bottom; styles rarely asserted from the mouth of the hypanthium* In the Pacific North-west, the following are found: Diploid, Rosa pisocarpa Gray Rosa Woodaii Lindl. Polyploid, Rosa acicularis Lindl* Rosa acicularis Lindl* X R. nutkana Preal Rosa arkansana Porter Rosa nutkana Presi Section GYMSOCARPAE Rydb., , , Slender shrubs more or less bristly, with infrastipular spines scarcely stronger than the bristles; stipules adnata, the upper ones dilated; leaflets 5-7, usually doubly serrate; flowers solitary or few; sepals short, deciduous together with the upper part of the hypanthium and the styles; achenes very few; styles scarcely exserted. 49 In the Pacific North-west, only a single species is present: Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. ROSA GYMNOCARPA NOTT. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. ex Torrey & Gray, F l . N. Am. 460, 1840 R. gymnocarpa Nutt. var. pubescens Wats., Bot. Calif Jut 187, 1876 R. Bridgesii Crep., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 1£: 54, 1876 R. spithamea Wats. var. subinermis Englem., Bot. Gaz. 6: 236, 1881 R. smplifolia Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 258, 1912 ^ R. Bolanderi Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2? 261, 1912 R. calvaria Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 257, 1912 R. Covillei Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 262, 1912 R. crenulata Greene, Bot. Leaf."2: 262, 1912 R. dasypoda Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2? 260, 1912 R. glaucodermis Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 259, 1912 R. Helleri Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 259, 1912 R. leucopsis Greene, Bot. Leaf? 2: 258, 1912 R. piscatonia Greene, Bot. Leaf.~2: 256, 1912 R. ollgooarpa Rydb., N. Am. £1. 22: 532, 1918 R. abletorum Greene apud Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. CI. 48: 170, 1921 Stems 0.5-3.0 m. t a l l , slender, teret, with scattered, slender, terete, often deciduous, bristles and prickles; leaflets 5-9, 10-15*mm.l2 (X = 12.9 mm.) wide, 17-25* (X= 21.2 mm.) long, ovate to cordate, thin, rarely pubescent or glandular below, doubly serrate, with *18-23 (X= 20.5) gland tipped teeth; stipules largely adnata, free portion 1.5-4.0 (X = 2.75) mm., glabrous on back, glandular-serrulate on margin; rachis and petioles generally glandular-hispid; inflorescence one-, rarely few-flowered; petals 10-15 mm. long obcordate; sepals 5-12 mm. long, acum-inate, rarely caudate, glabrous an back, tomentose within and on margin, deciduous; stamens 45-75 per flower, pollen grains about 28.0 u. in diameter; peduncles 10-30 mm. long, slender, glabrous, generally glandular; 12. This range represents - fiducial limit from the parameter mean. 50 hypanthium ellipsoid, glabrous, in fruit 3-5 mm. wide, often pendent, containing 1-7 large achenes; 2n= 14 (plate XIV). Type: "Oregon, in shady woods, common, Nut tallI Douglas1H Habitat: A very shade tolerant species, which, i f grown in the open, may be stunted and sterile through premature dropping of hips. General Distribution: Central B. C, to Calif., east to western Mont., and Wyo. Pacific North-west Distribution: Pacific coast, including Vancouver Island, from as far as 52° N. in B. C, scattered throughout the interior of B. C, Wash., and Ore., east to the B. C. - Alta. bound-ary, Ida., western Mont, and Wyo., map 2. Greene (1912) described twelve new species in the section GYMNOCAHPAE Rydb. Rydberg (1917) did not agree with Greene's segregations from R. gymnocarpa and accepted none-of hia new species. He did, however, recognize R. prionata Greene, R. leucppsls Greene, and R. desypoda Greene as varieties of R. gymnocarpa. The study of populations has,shown great variation (both intra and inter) in many morphological characters and that i t is easy to pick out individuals that look very unlike one another. Results have emphasized, however, the true nature of these variants. They can be considered at the most biotypes and not worthy of formal designation. As such the species of Greene, which vary from R. gymnocarpa by one or two minor morphological characters, are considered as synonyms of that species. The analysis of the morphological criteria from the mass col-lections of R. gymnocarpa has shown, however, that there does exist two 51 different groups of populations. On the basis of these criteria, the taxon has been divided into two subspecies. Leaflet 13-15* mm. wide, 2L-23* mm. long, 20 or fewer serrations on one side; stipules 3.0-3.4* mm. long; Marine West Coast and Humid Continental climatic regions. ..........ssp. gymnocarpa Leaflets 12.5 or less wide, 20 mm. or less long, 21-23* serrations on one side; stipules 2.6 mm. or less long; Cool Summer Medit-erranean climatic region. ssp. aplculata Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. gymnocarpa Selected Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA13: Cranbrook D.: Yahk, 28 July 1952, S. Brown-John; Fernie D.: Fernie, "w. H. Lewis 1298; Kaalo D.: Ainsworth, T. T. McCabe 6548 (as R. Macounii Greene); Kam-loops D.: Shuswap Lake, 18 June 1889, John Macoun; Lillooet D.: Lillooet, 9 June 1916, E. M. Anderson, Pemberton, J. W. Eastham 14964; Nelson D.: Creston, Goat Mt., J. W. Eastham 15321, Deer Park, Lower Arrow Lake, 25 July 1890, John Macoun, Nelson, W. H. Lewis 1504, Ross Spur and Fruit vale, J. W. Eastham 15245, Trail, 28 May 1902, J. M. Macoun, Imlr, 19 Aug 1916, W. C. Sander cook; New Westminster D.: Chilliwack Lake, 22 July 1901, J. M. Macoun (as R. dasypoda Greene), Hope, W. H.  Lewis 1316, Mission, W. H. Lewis: 1554, Skagit River, Lake House, 25 June 1905, J. M. Macoun, Tale, 17 May 1889, J. M. Macoun; Osooyos D.: Armstrong, 11 June 1904, E. Wilson, Lumby, e. of, J. W. Eastham 7519; 13. B. C. has been divided into Land Recording Districts, illustrated map 3. MAP 3 LAND RECORDING DISTRICTS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA MAP X 1. Alberni 9. Kaslo 17. Qnesnel 2. AtllSJ 10. Llllooet 18. Revelstoke 3. Cranbrook 12. Nanaimo 19. Similkameen 4. Fernie Nelson 20. Smithere 5. Fort Fraaer 13. New Westminster 21. Telegraph Creek 6. Fort George 14. Osoyoos 22. Vancouvar 7. Golden 15. Peace fliver 23. Victoria e. Kamloops 16. Prince Rupert 52 Bevel stoke D.: Mt. Revel stoke, 19 July 1957, Mrs. I. MoT. Cowan (as R. Woodsii Lindl.); Slmilkameen D.: Hope-Princeton Highway, mi. 15, 16 July 1949, G. A. Hardy (as R. pisocarpa Gray); Vancouver D.t Bella Coola, H. M. Laing 566 (as R. T acicularis Lindl.); IDAHO: Idaho Co.: Selway Falls, Nez Perce National Forest, L. Constance & R. C. Boll ins 1648j Latah Co.: Moscow Mt., G. N. Jones 662; Lemhi Co., Panther Creek, 5 mi. north of Cabin Creek, C. L. Hitchcock & C. V. Muhlick 14252; Washington Co.: Weiser River, 4 July 1923, T. Lommasson; MONTANA: Lincoln Co.: Kootenai River, 60 mi. w. of Kali spell, C. L. Hitchcock 17675, Kootenai Falls, 6 June 1946, W. B. & 7. G. Cooke 17529; Missoula Co.: Missoula, F. H. Rose 194, Mount. Stuart, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7.  Muhlick 14562; OREGON; Clackamas Co.: Oregon City, W. H. Lewis 1510; Clatsop Co.: Saddle Mt., G. B. & R. P. Rossbaoh 364; Coos Co.: Iron Mountain, W. H. Baker 4240; Curry Co.: Serpentine Ridges, Siskiyou Mts., J. W. Thompson 12876; Hood River Co.: Mt. Hood National Forest, 29 June 1927, Goodding & Evinger; Jackson Co.: Table Rock, nr. Medford, J. W.  Thompson 10312; Jefferson Co.: Lake Suttle, J. S. Martin 4893; Jos-ephine Co.: Elder Cr. Trail, Siskiyou Forest, D. C. Ingram 1062, Grey-back Mt., 11 July 1928, F. P. Sipe; Linn Co.: Peoria Road, 10 Oct 1928, H. M. Gilkey; Multnomah Co.: East Portland, J. W. Thompson 854; Wasco Co.: Eigth Mile Creek, Mt. Hood National Forest, G. N. Jones 4086; WASHINGTON: Asotin Co.: Blue Mountains, G. N. Jones 985; Chelan Co.: Bridge Creek, G. H. Ward 650, nr. Merritt, G. N. Jones 4761, Peshastln Creek Canyon, nr. Leavenworth, C. L. Hitchcock & J. S. Martin 4743; Cowlitz Co.: Kelso, W. H. Lewis 1506; Columbia Co.: Weneha Forest Res-erve, H. T. Darlington 218, Wildcat Spring, H. St. John & C. P. Smith 53 8314; Ferry Co.: Republic, 20 mi. east of, C. L. Hitchcock 17571; Kittitas Co.: Cle Blum, C. L. Hitchcock 8045, Hyas Lake, C. L. Hitch- cock 75658, Kachees Lake, G. N. Jones 1415, Paddy-Go-Easy Pas3, J. W.  Thompson 10680; Lewis Co.: Toledo, W. H. Lewis 1505; Mason Co.: Dayton, P. B. Freer 201; Stevens Co.: Cedonia, M. E. Dennis, 6 Aug 1946; Thurs-ton Co.: Bucoda, W. H. Lewisl502. . As can be seen from the above, the typical subspecies is found in two main regions, the coast area and the interior wet belt. It ap-pears to be confined to these areas because of its ecological require-ments of moisture and shade. From its general distribution, one can con-clude that this taxon has entered B. C. from the south following the routes e> determining its ecological prefernces. Rosa gymnocarpa Nutt. ssp. aplculata (Greene( comb. nov. R. aplculata Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 256, 1912 Type: "Whidbey Island, in Puget Sound, near Coupeville, July 1899, by De Alton Saunders." Selected Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA: Nanaimo D.: Comox, T. M. C. Taylor and W. H. Lewis 534, Green Lake, 29 Aug 1937, K. Racey, First Nanaimo Lake, V. Krajina and R. H. Spilsbury 6158, Nanaimo, 24 July 1908, John Macoun (as R. leucopsis Rydb.), nr Parksville, V. Krajina and  R. H. Spilsbury 4256, Qualicum, 15 Aug 1928, W. Redfern, Wellington, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 528; Vancouver D.: Vancouver (Kerrisdale), 13 Sept 1913, J. Davidson, Vancouver (Point Grey), T. M. C. Taylor and 54 W« H. Lewis 734, South Vancouver, T. R. Ashlee 3670; Victoria D.: Coldstream, 27 Jims 1899, J. R. Anderson, Koksilah River, 1 Sept 1895, J. R» Anderson, Lost Lake, 25 May 1924, G. A. Hardy, Mayne Island, 4 June 1914, J. M. Macoun, Mill Bay, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 520, Shawnigan, 5 Sept 1899, J. R. Anderson, Victoria, 24 April 1885, Fletcher: WASHINGTON: Clellum Co.: Mount Angeles, 22 July 1929, G. B. Rigg; Island Co.: Langley, J. M. Grant 2065, Oak Harbor, 22 Sept 1955, C. H.  Harrison, Widbey Island, H. W. Smith 1725; King Co.: Seattle, C. V.  Piper 82; Kitsap Co.: Charleston, 14 Dec. 1907, G. A. Rigg; San Juan Co.: Friday Harbor, B. D. Bl an chard 100; Skagit Co.: Anacortes, 5 mi. s., C. L. Hitchcock 5479, Bowman H i l l , Fldalgo Island, H. W. Smith 1489, Mount Brie, L. E. McBlvain 137; Snohomish Co.: MarysviUe, May 1930, J. M. Grant; Whatcom Co.: Belllngham,Lyman Benson 1510. As demonstrated above (pg. 15), populations of this subspecies from Mill Bay, Nanaimo, and Wellington on V. I., and Vancouver (Point Grey) differed from the other populations by four criteria. These pop-ulations, and many herbarium specimens also collected at different loc-alities within the limits of the Cool Summer Mediterranean area appear to constitute a distinct taxon within the species. In the writers view their characters agree with those of Rosa apiculata Greene. The subspeciesyfound in the coastal trench, south-east V. I. and mainland, south in the Puget Sound, distribution is illustrated in map 2. MAP 2 ROSA GYMNOCARPA NUTT. PACIFIC NORTH-WEST DISTRIBUTION R. gymnocarpa ssp* gymnocarpa R. gymhmcarpa ssp. aplculata 55 ROSA PISOCAHPA GRAY Rosa plsocarpa Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 8: 382, 1872 R. nutkana Pre si var. microcarpa dep., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 15: 45, 1876 ~* R. blanda Wats., Bot. King's Expl. 91: 1871, non Alt. 1789 R. rivalis Eastwood, Bull. Torrey Bot. CI. §2: 198, 1905 R. anacantha Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 264, 1912 R. Copelandii Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 264, 1912 R. Pringlei Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. CI. 44: 79, 1917 R. rotun data Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. CI.*44: 76, 1917 R. Eastwoodiae Rydb., N. Am. Flora 22: 427^ 1918 Stems 1.0-2.5 m. t a l l , subcemuous, slender, maybe unarmed, or with scattered or infrastipular thorns; leaflets 5-9, *12-15 (X*13.5) mm. wide, *22-25 (X= 23.2) mm. long, ovate to cordate, puberulent below, rarely glandular, singly serrate; stipules largely adnate, free portion •2.8-4.0 (x-3.3) mm., rarely glandular; rachis and petiole-pubescent, occasionally bristly, rarely glandular; inflorescence-corymbose, few-to many-flowered, conspicuously leaf-bracted; petals obcordate, *9-13 (X^10.7) mm. wide, *10-15 (X=12.3) mm. long; sepals 2.0-2.5 (X= 2.17) mm. wide at base, 10-17 (X=13.7) mm. long, glandular or rarely egland-ular, pubescent; stamens 80-130* (X = 105) per flower, pollen grains about 28.0 u. in diameter; peduncles glabrous, rarely glandular; hyp-anthium glabrous, globose, sometimes short necked, in fruit to 10 mm. wide, 5-15 achenes; 2n= 14 (plate XIV). Type: Multnomah County, "oregon: co l l . ELihu Hall, ann. 1871." Habitat: Species commonly found along exposed roadsides, cJften associated with R. nutkana ssp. nutkana. 56 General Distribution: From southern B. C. to northern Calif., west of Coast, Cascade, and Sierra Nevada Mom tain Ranges. Pacific North-west Distribution: From 50° N. in B. C, west of the Coast, end Cascade Mountain Ranges, map 3. , Selected Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Nanaimo D.: Nanaimo, 11 July 1887, John Macoun (as R.,pisocarpa Gray); New Westminster D.: Elgin, s.w. of Cloverdale, 8 Sept 1917, John Davidson, Fraser Valley, I. MoT. Cowan 20x, Huntingdon, T. T. McCabe 3716; Victoria D.: Central Saanich, T. M. C Taylor & W. H. Lewis 549, Brentwood, W. H. Lewis 1559, Duncan, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 525, North Saanich,, W. A. New-- combe, 8759, Oak Bay, 18 Oct 1917, J. R. Anderson (aslR. californica), Sidney, John Macoun 198; OREGON — Clackamas Co., s. of Portland, W. H. Lewis 1509; Curry Co., Rogue River Canyon, Agness, W. H. Baker ; 4740 (as R. canina L.); Douglas Co., Camas Valley, W. E. Lawrence 2085; Linn Co., Peterson Butte, Oak Creek,- 4 July 1938, Louis Whitaker; Marion Co., Scotts Vills,, W. B. Lawrence 1958; Multnomah Co., Portland, L. F.  Henderson 280; WASHINGTON —. Pierce Co.:. Fitch, D. S. Galbreath 259, (as R. gymnocarpa Nutt.), s.w. of Game Refuge, D. S. Galbreath 285, Voss, D. S. Galbreath 248 (as R. gymnocarpa Nutt.); Thurston Co., nr. Tenino, 21 June 1946, Daisy Overlander, Olympia, 27 June 1946, Daisy  Overlander and H. M. Gilkey; Snohomish Co., Marysvills, May (?) 1927, J. M. Grant (as R. nutkana Preal). From these specimens, i t can be seen that the species occurs in the Cool summer Mediterranean as well as the Marine West Coast dim-MAP 5A ROSA PISOCARPA GRAY PACIFIC NORTH-WEST DISTRIBUTION R. pisocarpa Gray 57 atic regions. Mass collections were made from one region only* the Cool Summer Mediterranean* at two localities both on Vancouver Island, at Central Saanich, and Duncan. From such limited data, i t is not pos-sible to delimit the species accurately. Its southern boundary in Calif-ornia is unknown, but in that state, i t appears to be placed gradually by a morphologically similar species, R. californica C. & S. This species i s , however, a tetraploid, while R. plsocarpa is diploid* ROSA WOODSII LINDL. Rosa Woodsii Lindl., Bos. Monogr. 21, 1820 R. Maxim i l l ana Nees., in Max. Raise N. An. £: 434, 1841 R. foliolosa Nutt. var. leiocarpa Torrey ex* Frem., Rep. 85, 1843 R. Fendleri Crip., Bull* Soc* Bot. Belg. 15: 91, 1876 R. californica C. & S. var. glabrata Parian, Erythea 6: 88, 1898 R. Woodsii Lindl. var* Fendleri (Crop.) Rydb., Fl . Nebr. 21: 22, 1895* . ~ R. Macounii Greene, Pittonia 4: 10, 1899 R. grossesserrata Nels., Bot.^Gaz. 30: 119, 1900 R. mohavensis Parish, Bull* S. Calif. Acad. 1: 87, 1902 R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller, Muhlenbergia^: 107, 1904 R. neomexlcana Ckll., Entom. News 12: 41, 1901 R. praetincta Ckll., Proc. Acad. Phila. 56: 110, 1904 R. aciculata Rydb., F l . Colo. 191, 1906 R. Maximilian! Rydb., Fl. Colo. 191, 1906 R. fimbriatula Greene, Bot. Leaf. jJ: 135, 1911 R. Sandbergii Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2j 136, 1911 R. deserta Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 2: 156, 1912 R. subunda Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. J2; 153, 1912 R. adenosepala Woot. & St., Contr.^U. S. Nat. Herb. 16: 131, 1913 R. hypoleuca,Woot. & St., Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 167" 131, 1913 R. naiadum Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 3: 159, 1913 R. poetica Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 3: 139, 1913 R. chrysocarpa Rydb., Bull. Torrey^Bot. CI. 44: 74, 1917 R. puberulenta Rydb., F l . Rocky Mt. 443, 1917" R. pyrifera Rydb., F l . Rocky Mt. 445, 1917 R. sallctorum Rydb., Bull* Torrey Bot. CI. 44: 77, 1917 R. arizonica Rydb., N. Am. Fl* 22: 516, 1918* 58 R. granulifera Rydb., N. Am. F l . 22: 517, 1918 R. lapwaiensis St. John, Fl. S. E. Wash., 208, 1937 R. Woodaii Lindl. var ultramontana (Wats.) Jeps., F l . Calif. > 210, 1936 R. pisocarpa Gray var.-ultramontana (Wats.) Peck., PI. Ore., 404, 1941 Stems 0.5-2.0 m. t a l l , with bristles and prickles, more rarely with thorns, or unarmed; leaflets 5-7, 14-17* (X=15) mm. wide, 25-29 * (X- 27.1) mm. long, obovate-elliptic, typically cuneate based; singly or doubly serrate, often gland-tipped, occasionally glabrous below, gland-ular or eglandular below; rachis and petioles usually glabrous, gland-ular and bristly; stipules largely adhate, free portion 4-5* (X-4.3) mm., usually glabrous and glandular; inflorescence rarely one-, commonly many-flowered; petals 13-18* (X=15.2) mm. wide, 16-19* (X-17.3) mm. long; sepals 1.5-3.0 (X= 2;10) ma. wide at base, 9-20 (14.1= X) mm. long, pubescent, glandular or eglandular; stamens *68-76 (X-72) per flower, pollen grains about 28.0 u. in diameter; peduncles 10-20 mm.long, glab- •-rous or pubescent, eglandular, rarely glandular; hypanthium globose, rarely ellipsoid, glabrous, in fruit 8-10 mm. wide, achenes 5-12; 2n = 14 (Flory 1950). Type: "juxta flumen Missouri Americas septentrionalis (v.v.c. hort. Sab-ine .)"j along river Missouri in North America. General Distribution: Yukon and North-west Territories, to Oregon, Utah, and Kansas. ~ Pacific North-west Distribution: Yukon and N. W. T., south in Sask., Altai:, and B. C., east of Coast and Cascade Mountain Ranges, to Ore., and Wyo., map 4. ! 59 Selected Specimens Examined: ALBERTA -= Banff, W. C. McCalla 2092 (as R. Macounii Greene), Banff, 10 Aug 1898, Anderson & Fletcher (as R. acicularis Lindl.), nr. Bassano, E. E. Moss 5226 (as R. Macounii Greene), Battle River, nr. Notikewin, E. H. Moss 2260 (as R. blanda Ait. var. hispida Farwell), Belly River, 15 July 1881, Dawson (as R. Fend-l e r i Grep.), Bobs Creek Valley, Crowsnest Forest Reserve, 22 July 1920, W. D. Cram (as R. Macounii Greene), Calgary, 28 Aug 1897, Dawson (as R. Fendleri Crep.), Canmore, 29 June 1885, Macoun (as R. Macounii Greene-), Caribou Mountains, Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2679, Fort Assiniboine, E. H. Moss 1897 (as R. Macounii Greene), Fort Saskatchewan, G. H. Turn- er 1521, Fort Vermilion, E. H. Moss 8774, Edmonton, E. H. Moss 6424 . . . . . , ^ (as R. Macounii Greene), Jasper, W. H. Lewis 1254, Kenanaskis, 26 June 1885, Macoun, (as R. arksnsana Porter), Keg River Settlement, B. H.  Moss 8955, Lethbridge, 5 June 1894, Macoun (as R. arkansana Porter), Maligna River, 5 July 1898, W. Spreadborough, Mamawi Lake, Woods Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2680, Medicine Hat, 1 June 1894, Macoun (as R. arkan-sana Porter), Orion, E. H. Moss 7010, Peace Point, Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2678, Pincher Creek, S. S. Survey 191, Waterton, S. S. Sur- vey 615; BRITISH COLUMBIA — Cranbrook D.: Cranbrook, Aug 1917, John  Davidson; Fernie D.: Fernie, W. H. Lewis 1502, Fort Steele', W. B.  Anderson"2074 (as R. pisocarpa Gray), Sand Creek, 4 Sept 1885, Dawson (as R. Fendleri Crep.); Fort Eraser D.: Ootsa Lake, T. M. C. Taylor & -W. H. Lewis 241", Rose:.- Lake, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 246; Fort George D.: Cluculz Lake, T.^ M? G> Taylor fe'W.'H. Lewis 256, w. Eraser Lake, T. M'. C.'Taylor and W. H. Lewis 241; Golden D.: Canoe River, 2' Aug 1898, W. Spreadborough (as R. nutkana Pre s i ) , Golden, 60 W. H. Lewis 1294, Lake Windermere, T. T. McCabe 5060 (as R. Macounii Greene), Fairmont, J. W. Eastham 15889 (as R. pisocarpa Gray)} Kamloops De: Canford, Nicola Valley, 22 May 1952, C. C. BrayBhaw, Cache Greek, 6 June 1952, T. G. Atkinson, Chase, 15 June 1921, W» B, Anderson (as R. pyrlfera Rydb,), Dead Man's Creek,> W. A. Weber 2540 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Lytton, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 202, Kamloops, W. H. Lewis 1285, Tranquille, July 1936, V. 6. Brink (as R. pisocarpa Gray, var. ultramontana (Wats.)Peck; Kaslo D.: Crawford Bay, 1912, H. Murray (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller, Mirrow Lake, J. W. Eastham 5686 (as R. pisocarpa Gray var. ultramontana (Wats.) Peck; Lillooet D«: Chasm, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 222, Lac l a Eache, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H.  Lewis 224, Lillooet, T. M. C. Taylor fc W. H. Lewis 211, nr. Rezmount, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis.216, Shalalth Mountain, T. M. C. Taylor &  W. H. Lewis 220; Nelson D,: Deer Park, Lower Arrow Lake, 8 June 1890, Macoun (as R. pisocarpa Gray), Shhep Creek,,20.July 1920, J. R. Ander- son; Osoyoos D.: Kelowna, E. Wilson 1048 (as R. pisocarpa Gray), Ok-anagan Landing, 21 Dec 1898, J. R. Anderson (as R. nutkana Pre s i ) , Vernon, 2 June 1900, J. R. Anderson (as R. nutkana Presl); Peace River D.: Dawson Creek, W. H. Lewis 1254, nr. Hudson Hope, H. M. Raup & E. C. Abbe 3664; Quesnel D.: Macalister, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 225, Similkameen D.: Okanagan Falls, W. H. Lewis 1548, Oliver, W. H. Lewie 1545, Pentiotion, W. H. Lewis 1310; Smithers D.: Hazelton, T. M. C.  Taylor & W. H. LewiB 509, Telkwa, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 502; Telegraph Creek D.: Telegraph Creek, 15 June 1943, W. H. Matthews; IDAHO — Adams- D.:. New Meadows, C. L. Hitchcock & C. V. Muhlick 15892 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Blaine Co.: Hailey, C. L. Hitchcock & C. V» 61 Muhlick 10434 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Boise Co.: Sweet. J. F. MacBride 1620 (as R. grosseserrata Nels.)} Bonneville Co.: R. J.  Davis 253 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Canyon Co.: Ramp a, A.  Mel son & J. F. MacBride 1800 (as R. pisocarpa Gray); Custer Co., Clayton, J. H. Christ 11578 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Elmore Co., King H i l l , A. Nelson & J. F. MacBride 1112 (as R. Macounii Greene); .Idaho Co.: Squaw Creek, Snake River Canyon, St. John & L. A. Mullen 8415; Kootenai Co., nr. Coeur d'Alene, W. H. Lewis 1555; Latah Co., Moscow, W..H. Lewis 1531; Lemhi Co., n.w. of Indianola Ranger Station, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 14329 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Nez Perce Co.: nr. Lewis ton, W. H. Lewis 1528; Owyhee Co.: Twilight Gulch, F. Macbrlde  471; Twin Falls Co.: Shoshone Falla,R. J. Davis, 11 May 1936, (as R» ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); MONTANA — Beaverhead Co., nr. Dillon, C. L. Hitchcock 15802 (as R. Macounii Greene); Broadwater Co.: Brown's Lake, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 13164; Gallatin Co.: nr..Bozeman, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 12467 (as R. acicularis Lindl.); Flat-head Co., Flathead Lake, H. T. Rogers 848 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Hel-ler) ; Glacier Co., Babb, R. F. Daubenmire 48566 (as R. acicularis Lindl.); Granite Co., Rock Creek Canyon,C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 14407 (as R. pisocarpa Gray); Lake Co., Poison, C. L. Hitchcock 17756 (as R. Macounii Greene); Lewis and Clark Co.: nr. Silver City, C. L. Hitchcock  17915 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Meagher Co., nr. White Sulphur Springs, C. L. Hitchcock 16263 (as R. Macounii Greene); Missoula Co., Missoula, E. D. & F. A. Berkley 1666 (as R. Fendleri Crep.); Mineral Co., Lolo Hot Springs, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 14619 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller; Park Co.: nr. Wilsall, W. N. Suksdorf 331; Ravalli Co., nr. 62 Skaikaho Road Summit, C. L. Hitchcoek & C. V. Muhllck 14510° (as R. plso-carpa Gray); Sanders Co*: D« R* Hudson 154 (as R* arkansana Porter); Wheatland Co.: nr. Harlowton, C. L* Hithcock & C. 7. Muhllck 12059 (as R. Macounii Greene); OREGON— Crook Co.: 42 mi. from Prineville, W. E. Lawrence, 27 July 1922; Gilliam Co., nr. Blaloek, W. H. Lewis 1524; Grant Co.: Blue Mountains, W. E. Lawrence 952A (as R. plsocarpa Gray); Harney Co., Steen Mts., 23 June 1947, R. M. Yancey; Hood River Co.: Hood River, May 1889, Drake & Dickson (as R. Fendleri Crep.); Jefferson Co.: Warm Springs, E. V. A. Mirphey & H. M. Gilkey 85 (as R. plsocarpa Gray); Lake Co., nr. Paisley, J. S. Elder 162; Malheur Co., Sucker Canyon Creek, Reeder & Merkle 267; Morrow Co., 13 mi. e. of Heppner, W.  E. Lawrence 575 (as R. plsocarpa Gray); Wallowa Co.: nr. Deep Creek, Snake River Canyon, D. Hedriok, W. R. Moore & B. Harmon 62 (as R. ultra-montane (Wats.) Heller); Wasco Co.: nr. The Dalles, W. H. Lewis 1515; Umatilla Co.: Pendleton, W. H. Lewis 1524» NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES — Lower Hay River, W. H. Lewis 1202; Mackenzie River, Wrigley, 7. C. Wynne- Edward 8602 (as R. blanda Ait.); SASKATCHEWAN — Cypress Hills, 25 June 1894, Macoun (as R. Macounii Greene); Webb, A. J. Breitung 5840 (as R. terrens Lunell); Cypress Hills, A. J. Breitung 5440 (as R. ter-rens Lunell); WASHINGTON — Adams Co.: nr. Macall, 7 June 1946, R. G. Jeffrey (as R. ultramontane (Wats.) Heller); Asotin Co*c: nr. Asotin, C. L» Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhllck 8568 (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Benton Co.: Prosser, L. F. Henderson 555 (as R. plsocarpa Gray); Chelan Co., Wenatchee, K. Whited 1125 (as R. plsocarpa Gray); - Columbia Co., nr. Dayton, W. H. Lewis 1526; Douglas Co*: Grand Coulee, W* H.  Lewis 1542; Kittitas Co., Whiskry Dick Coulee, H. W. Smith 1255 (as r. 63 ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Klickitat Co.: Bingen, W. H. Suksdorf 12071 (as H. pisocarpa Gray); Lincoln Co., Bear dan, W. H. Lewis 1559; Okanogan Co.: Okanogan, W. H. Lewis 1544; Spokane Co.: nr. Green Acres, W. H. Lewis 1556; Stevens Co.: Kettle Falls, L. Boner & 7. Weldert 170 (R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); Walla Walla Co.: College Place, 22 May 1942, Ernest Booth (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Whitman Co.: Colfax, C. S.  Parker 591 (as R. pisocarpa Gray); Yakima Co.: Tieton River, nr. mouth, G. N. Jones 9642 (R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller); WYOMING — Yellow-stems National Park, Firepole River, G. N. Jones 5269 (as R. acicularis Lindl.); YUKON — Whitehorse, A. E. Por slid & A. J. Breitung 10676. As shown earlier, R. Woodsii is an highly heterogeneous species in central British Columbia. At the same locality the species is often distinctly modified in several criteria. This has been emphasized above, page 23, by the collections made at Marble Canyon. In one test from a single hip culture (#12211) of R. Macounii Greene, Erlanson (1934) was able to identify: 2 R. Macounii Greene, 2 R. puberulenta Rydb., 1 R. Fendleri Crep., 1 R. granulifera Rydb., 1 R. salicetorum Rydb., and 1 R. Woodsii Lindl. Other progeny tests supported her conclusion that a l l these so-called species were only biotypes of one species. MAP 4 ROSA WOODSII LINDL. PACIFIC NORTH-WEST DISTRIBUTION R» Woodsii Lindl. 64 ROSA ACICULARIS LINDL. Rosa acicularis Lindl.. Ros. Monog. 44. 1820 R. Gmelini Bunge, in Ladebour F l . Alt. 2: 228, 1829 R. majalis Borrer, in HOOK. F l . Bor. Am. 1: 200, 1832 R. Sayi Schw., in Keating Narr. Exp. Long~*2: 388, 1842 R. strieta Macoun & Gibson, Trans. Bot. Soc. Edihb. 12: 324, 1842 R. carelica Fries, Suuraa Veg. Scand. 1: 171, 1846 R. acicularis Lindl. var. Gmelini Meyer, Mem. Sci. Nat. Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. ser. 6 (Sci. Nat.), (j^Bot.: 17, 1849 R. acicularis Lindl. var Bourgeauiana Crep., Bull. Soc Bot. Belg. 15: 30, 1876 R. Engelmanni Wats., Garden & Forest 2: 376, 1889 R. acicularis Lindl. var. carelican Mafcsson, in Neuman Sverig. F l . 372, 1901 R. acicularis Lindl. var. Engelmanni Crep., in Bailey Cycl. Am. Hort. 1555, 1902 R. acicularis Lindl. var Sayi (Schw.) Render, in Bailey Cycl. Am. Hort. 1555, 1902 R. fLauriei Leveille, in Report. Sp. Nov. Reg. Veg. 7j 199, 1909 R. Taquetii Leveille, in Repert. Sp. Nov. Reg. Veg. Jj 199, 1909 R. Korsakoviensis Leveille, in Repert. Sp. Nov. Reg. Veg. 10: 378, 1912 R. acicularis Lindl. var. Taquetii Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 30: 241, 1916 R. collaris Rydb., F l . Rocky Mts. 441, 1917 R. Bourgeauiana (Crep.), Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. i4: 9, 1875, pro hypon., Rydb., F l . Rocky Mts. 442, 1917** R. Butleri Rydb., N. Am. F l . 22: 506, 1918 R. acicularis Lindl. var.rotunda Erl., Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters 5: 84, 1925 R. acicularis Lindl. var. Sayiana Erl., Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters 5: 85, 1925 R. acicularis Lindl. var. laoorum E r l . , Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts & Letters _5: 86, 1925 R. acicularis Lindl. var cucurbiformis Raup, Sargentia 6: 203, 1947 Stens 0.3-2.0 m. t a l l , densely covered to apex with bristles and prickles, rarely unarmed; leaflets 5-9, 19-23* (X-21.3) mm. wide, 35-40* (Xs- 33.2) mm. long, ovate to sublanceolate, pubescent below, gland-ular, rarely eglandular below, doubly, sometimes singly, serrate, often 65 gland-tipped; raohis and petiole often pubescent, glandular, and bristly; stipules largely adnate, free portion 4-6 (X-5.2) mm., glandular; i n f l -orescence one-,rarely three-flowered; petals o borate, 18-20 (X = 19) mm. wide 15-32 (X- 22.2) mm. long; sepals 2.9-3.1 (2.99 - X) mm. wide, 16-27 (X-21.5) mm. long, pubescent, glandular, rarely eglandular, caudate-ac-uminate; stamens 50-100 (X-79) per flower, pollen grains about 36 u. in diameter;. peduncles 20-40 mm. long, rarely glandular-hispid; hypanthium typically glabrous, obovate-elliptio to pyriform, in fruit 10-15 nan. wide, 15-25 mm. long, with neck, achenes 6-15; 2n-42, Erlenson (1934)l4. Type: "in Siberia, Bell. 1 1 . Habitat: The species is common at the edge of woods and along roadsides* General Distribution: Alaska to Colorado, east to Hudson's Bay, New Tork, and Maine. Pacific North-west Distribution: Yukon, and N. W. T., south in central B. C, and Alta, to Mont., Wyo., rare in Ida., map 5. Selected Specimens Examined: ALBERTA — Athabasca River, 11 July 1937, E. M. Kindle, Banff, 26 June 1891, John Macoun (as R. acicularis Lindl. var Bourgeauiana Crep.); Calgary, 5 June 1897, Macoun (as R. Bourgeauiana Crep.), Carcajou Settlement, along Peace River, H. M. Raup  & B. 0. Abbe 4381, Caribou Mts., Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2662, Edmonton, B. H. Moss 1805, Fort McMurray, H. M. Raup 7113, Fort Sask-atchewan, G. H. Turner 11 (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. rotunda Erl.), Gibbons, B. H. Moss 1791 (as R. acicularis Lindl. var lacorum Erl.), Granite H i l l , nr. Lake Mamari, H. M. Raup 2658 (as R. acicularis Lindl. 14* Erlenson also reported an octOpioid specimen (2n =. 56) of what she believes to be this species from Fairbanks, Alaska. 66 var. lacorum E r i c ?), Jasper, W. H. Lewi a 1256, Kan anas kis, 25 June 1885. John Macoun (asB. Sayi Schw.j, SPirit River, n.w. at Ksltuan River, E. H. Moss 8569, Looma, E> H. Moss 1009 (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. Sayiana Erl.), Mamawi Lake, Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup &. E. C. Abbe o 4415, Ma-Me-O Beach, G. H. Turner 6463, Minnewanka Lake, E. H. Moss  2925, Old Man River, 8 Aug. 1883, Dawson (as R. californica C. & S.), Peace Point, Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2675, Peace River, H. H._ Raup  2666, Peace River Landing, 13 June 1908, J. M. Macoun (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. Sayiana Erl.), Red Deer, 15 July 1895, H. H. Gaetz, Shelter Point, n. shore Lake Athabaska, H. M. Raup & E. C. Abbe 4446, Slave River, Wood Buffalo Park, H. M. Raup 2674, Sweet Grass Hills, 15 July 1895, H. Gaetz (as R. arkansana Gr.), Waterton Lakes National Park, J. Button & S. Melbourn 26°2, Watino, E. H. Moss 7681, Whitecourt, E. H. Moss 1347, (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. Sayiana Erl.), Winterburn, E. H. Moss 1925 (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. Sayiana Erl.); BRITISH COLUMBIA Atlin p.: Bennett, 8 July 1929, A. A. Heller; Cranbrook D.s Cranbrook, 29 May 1915, C. B. Garrett (as R. Sayi Schw.); Fernie D.: Sand Creek, Kootanie Valley, 4 Sept. 1883, Dawson; Fort Fraser D.: Burns Lake, W. H.  Lewis 1266, Fort St. James, T. T. McCabe 7458, Vanderhoof, J. W. East- ham 11761; Fort George D.: Germ an sen Landing, Omineca River, T. T.  McCabe 7665 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Ingenika River, 23 June 1914, C. V.  Copley (as R. Woodsii Lindl.), McBride, J. W. Eastham 14677, Wicked River, H. M. Raup St E. C. Abbe 4254; Golden D.: Devil's Lake, Macoun  8092, Fairmont Hotsprings, 25 July 1959, J. W. Eastham (as R. Sayi Schw.), Golden, W. H. Lewis 1295, Kicking Horse Lake, Macoun 8092, Windermere, Sheep Creek, W. B. Anderson 6022 (as R. acicularis Lindl. var. rotunda Erl.); 67 Kamloops D.: Spence's Bridge, Maooun 8139 (as E. plsocarpa Gray); Lillooet D.: Chilco Lake, 27 July; 1944, J. W. Eastham (as B. nutkana Presl), Lac l a Hache, 27 June 1942, G. A. Eafdy, Watch Lake, 22 June 1944, J* W. Eastham (as R. nutkana Presl); Peace River D.: Bear-Flat, Peace River, 7 June 1935, Mildred Tauae (as R. ultramontana (Wats.) Heller), Carbon River, H. M. Raup & E. C. Abbe 4310, Dawson Creek, W. H. Lewis  1252, Fort Nelson, W. E. Lewis 1244, Fort St. John, 1931, M. Birley (as R. Sayi Schw.J^ Hudson Hope, H. M. Raup & E. C. Abbe 5717, Muskwa River, W. H. Lewis 1250, Pouce Coupe and Peace River Junction,- 20 June-10 July 1945, C. H. Crlckmay (as R. Sayi Schw.); Quesnel D.: Williams Lake, W. H. Lewis 1257; Smithers D.: Takla Landing, T. T. McCabe 7829; Telegraph Creek D.: Alaska Highway, Hot Springs nr. Liard River crossing, A. E. Porsild 9085, Coal and Liard River junction, W. H. Lewis 1259. Telegraph Greek, T. T. McCabe 9040; IDAHO — Idaho National Forest, Don Robins; MONTANA — Beaverhead Co., Brown's Lake, C. L. Hitchcock &  C. 7. Muhllck.15157 (as R. Woodsii Lindl.); Fergus Co., Half Moon Canyon, C. L. Hitchcock & C. 7. Muhlick 12014 (as R. Macounii Greene); Glacier Co.: D. Lynch 6177; Lewis end Clark Co.: Augusta, 25 mi. n.w#, C. L. Hitchcock 18051; Lincoln Co., nr. Kootenai Falls, W. B. & C. G. Cooke  17550; Meagher Co.: White Sulphur Springs, 35 mi. n.w., C. L. Hitchcock  16165; Missoula Co., Missoula,F. H. Rose 195; Park Co.: Suksdor's Gulch, nr. Wilsall, W. N. Suksdorf 250 (as R. pyrifera Rydb.); POndera Co.: nr. Glacier-Park, C. L. Hitchcock 18150; NORTH-WEST TERRITORIES — Aklavik, I. McT. Cowan 9, Alexandra Falls, Hay River, W. H. Lewis 1205, Brabant Island, Great Slave Lake at MacKenzie River, W. H. Lewis 1220, Fort Smith, W. J. Cody & C. C. Loan 3916, Long Island, Great Slave Lake, 68 W* H. Lewis 1814, Lower Hay River, W. H. Lewis 1201, Wilson Island, Great Slave Lake, J. P. Kelsall 20; WYOMING — Sublette Co.: Pinedaie, E. B. Payson & L. B. Payson 291S; Yellowstone National Park, Mt. Everts, Aven Nelson & Ellas Mel son 5702; YUKON TERRITORY — Bear Creek, nr. Lake Desert D'Asche, 6 Aug. 1920, A. Muller. Canol Rd., Lower Lapie River Crossing, A. E. Porsild Sc A* J. Breitung 9548, Carcross, Lake Bennet, A. E. Porsild 18502, Dawson, Alice Eastwood 277, Fort Selkird, M. w.  Gorman 1070, Haines Rd., nr. mi 85, C. H. D. Clarke 494, Klondike River, W. E. Cockfield 55, KLuane Lake, Burwash Landing, C. H . D. Clarke 166 (as R. Woodsii Lindl.), Lewis River, 26 Aug 1887, Dawson (as . R. Sayi Schw.), Liard River, upper, 27 June 1887, Dawson (as R. Sayi Wats.), McQuesten River, mt. to n., R. L. Christie 57, Mayo, J. P. Anderson 9689, Pelly River, 7 Aug 1887, Dawson (as R. Sayi Wats.), Whitehorse, A. E. Porsild & A. J. Breitung 10675, White River and Alaska Highway, J. P. Anderson  9528, White River, Snag Air Station, G. A. Noel 51. Erlanson (1925) attempted to segregate R. acicularis by using a combination of three sets of characters, including: hip, round, pyr-ifozm or elliptic; leaflets, pubescent, glabrous; leaflets, gland-compound teeth, eglandular teeth. From these criteria, eight combinations are possible. The descriptions of two varieties, var. Bourgeauiana Crep. and var. Engelmanni (Wats.) Crep. typified three of the combinations. It was found necessary, however, to create three new varieties to name the remaining combinations. From her further research, Erlanson (1935) (1954) abondened the splitting of species into innumerable varieties, since hybridizing proved that such criteria had l i t t l e tazonamic significance. 69 Feniald (1950) regarded R. Bourgeauiana (Crep*) Rydb. as a variety of R. acicularis Lindl. distinguishable by the shape of the hip alone. Brianson (1925), attempting to differentiate between R. acicularis and R. Bourgeauiana found both pyriform and subglobose hips on the same plant. From this alone, one must doubt the significance of the variety. Supporting his creation of R. Bngelmanni, Watson (1889) wrote:; the species "is distinguished from R. acicularis most prominently by the frequent occurrence of a pair of slender spines below the stipules, by the resinous puberulance often found upon the leaves, wit the accompanying glandular serrulation of the teeth, by the naked peduncles...J* Examination of his type for 'infrastipular spines' has shown them to be large prickles, often infrastipular, but also scattered over the entire stem. These are commonly found in R. acicularia populations as are a l l the other diag-nostic criteria. The type's infrastipular prickles, and scattered prickles and bristles do not in any way resemble the armature found in R. nutkana Presl, contrary to Erlenson (1934). In this species, the stems are armed with large, dilated, infrastipular, or rarely scattered, thorns, or they lack armature. An relationship to R. nutkana using this criterion is unlikely. Population studies have shown of R. acicularis have shown a wide diversity in several criteria including: the type of leaflet ser-ration and their indumentum, indumentum of the petiole and sepal, and to some degree, inmost quantitative characters. From these results, i t would seem that Erlenson (1954) was justified in discontinuing the splitting of the species into smaller categories. Until distinctive criteria are found, forms given specific and variatal status have been combined under the one taxoni MAP 5 PACIFIC NORTH-lttEST DISTRIBUTION Off R. acicularis • R. acicularis X R. nutkana O 70 ROSA ARKANSANA POSTER Rosa orkansaiBPorter, ex Porter &, Coult. Syn Fl* Colo. 38, 1874 R. blanda Ait. var. arkansana (Porter) Best, Bull. Torrey Bot. CI. 17: 145, 1890. R. virginiana Mill* var. arkansana (Porter) MacM., Metosp. Minn. Valley 304, 1892 R. prat in cola Greene, Pittonia 4: 13, 1899 non A. Br. 1888 R. suffulta Greene, Pittonia 4:^12, 1899 R. arkansana Porter var. suffulta (Greene) Cockll., Bull* Torrey Bot. Cl. 27: 88,1900 R. aleea GreenePBot. Leaf. Zi 63, 1910 R* heliophila Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 132, 1911 R. Lunellii Greene, Bot. Leaf. ,§:""'132, 1911 R. pratincole Greene var. augustiarum Cockll. in Daniels Univ. Miss. Stud. Sci. 2: 143, 1911 R. prat in cola Greene var. setulosa Cockll. in Daniels Univ. Miss. Stud. Sci. 2: 148, 1911 R. Rydbergii Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 155, 1911 R. heliophila Greene var. foliosissima Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 2: 157, 1912 R. dulciasima Lunell, Am. Midi. Nat. 2: 287, 1912 R. arkansanoides Schneid., Handb. Laubh. 2: 971, 1912 R. angustiarum Cockll., Torreya 18; 180, 1918 R. subglauca Rydb., N. Am. Flora"|2: 503, 1918 Stems 2-4 dm. t a l l , erect, bristly; leaflets 5-11, pubescent below, coursely and sharply serrate, obovate-obcordate; stipules glandular-toothed and ciliate, often glandular-granuliferous on back; rachis and petiole glabrous or sparingly pilose, often glandular; inflorescence rarely solitary, commonly many-flowered; petals obcordate, 20-25 mm. long, sepals caudate-acuminate, 10-15 mm. long, somewhat glandular; peduncles 10-30 mm. long, glabrous; hypanthium subglobose, glabrous, without neck, in fruit 12-15 mm. wide; 2n?.28, Erl an son (1934). Type: "Banks of the Arkansas near Canon City, Colorado." General Distribution: Central Manitoba, and B. C, south to New Mexico, 71 western Texas, and Illinois. Pacific North-west Distribution: North-east B. C, central ALta., and Sask., south to Mont., and Wyo., map 6. ALBERTA — Selected Specimens Examined: nr. Alix, E. H. Moss 1987 (as R. suffulta Greene), Alix, E» H. Moss 5414 (as R. alcea Greene), Bulwark, E. H.  Moss 1858 (as R. alcea Greene), Calgary, 21 July 1897, Macoun (as R. pratincole Greene), Calgary, C. L. Hitchcock & J. S. Martin 7848 (as R. acicularis Lindl.), Cardston, H. P. Hansen & J. Merkle 57, Crow's Nest Forest Reserve, 10-24 Aug 1915, M. 0. Malta (as R. alcea Greene), Drum-heller, E. H. Moss 7097, Dunvegan, B. H. Moss 7551,-; Edmonton, E. H. Moss  4022, Fort Saskatchewan, G. H. Turner 15 (as R. alcea Greene), Fort Saskatchewan, G. H. Turner 1358 (as R, Woodsii Lindl.), Grande Prairie, E. H. Moss 8098 (as R. ?foodsii Lindl), Pincher Creek, S. S. Survey 82, Sexsmith, E. H. Moss 8466 (as R. Woodsii Lindl), Spirit River, E. H. Moss  8634, Veteran, Nose H i l l , E. H. Moss 1497a; BRITISH COLUMBIA — Dawson Creek, A. J. Brietung 1808; MONTANA — Carbon Co.: nr. Luther, C. L. Hitchcock 16617 (as R. acicularis Lindl.); McCone Co.: Vida, F. H. Rose  426 (as R. acicularis Lindl.). No mass collections were made of this species. It has been found at one locality only in British Columbia at Dawson Creek, but prob-ably is more widely distributed in the province east of the Rocky Mountains. MAP 6 ROSA ARKANSANA PORTER PACIFIC NORTH-WEST DISTRIBUTION R» arkansana Porter 72 ROSA NUTKANA PRESL Rosa nutkana Presl, Epim. Bot. 203, 1849 R. fraxinifolia Hook., F l . Bor. An* 1: 199, 1832 non Borkh. 1790 R. aleutensis Crep., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 14: 41, 1875 R. caryocarpa Dougl., in Crep. Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 15: 39, 1876, pro synon. R. blanda Durand, Rep. Superint. U. S. Coast Surv. 332, 1876, pro synon. R. Lyalliana Crep., Bull. Soc. Bot. Belg. 15: 39, 1876, pro synon. R. V/oodsii Re gel., Acta Hort. Petrap. 5: 299, 1877, non Lindl 1820 R. Brownii Rydb., Bull. Torrey Bot. ClT 44: 70, 1917 R. nutkana Presl var. pallida Suksd., Wercfendal: 23, 1927 Stems 0.5-3.0 m. t a l l , stout, erect, with scattered, or more connonly, infrastipular thorns, or unarmed; leaflets 5-7, rarely 9, *16-19 (X=17.5) mm. wide, *28-35 (X-5L) mm. long, ovate-elliptic to cordate, doubly, or more rarely, singly serrate, usually gland-tipped, pubescent, rarely puberulent or glabrous below, glandular, rarely egland-ular below; rachiB and petioles glandular, often pubescent and bristly; stipules largely adnate, free portion 4-7 (X-5.2) mm., glandular; inflorescence one- to three-flowered; petals 20-23* (X= 21*4) mm. wide, 16-35 (X s 23.1) mm. long; sepals 3.5-4.0* (X s 3.7) mm. wide at base, 15-30 (X- 22) mm. long, caudate-acuminate, often with foliaceous appendage at apex, pubescent, glandular, rarely eglandular; stamens 100-120* (X-109) per flower, pollen grains about 36 u. in diameter; peduncles 20-30 mm. long, rarely glandular or pubescent; hypanthium typically glabrous, glob-ose, in fruit 15-20 mm. wide, without neck, achenes 10-40; 2n= 42 (plate XIV) • Type: "in Nootka-Sound, Haenke" 73 Habitat: Found in most cleared areas, rarer at the edge of woods. General Distribution: Alaska to California Pacific North-west Distribution: Coastal Alaska, south in B. C, Wash, and Ore., map 7. Individuals of R. nutkana have been studied throughout the Pacifio North-west using data from both mass collections and herbarium specimens* They were found to be sufficiently alike in stature, armature, and anthesis to constitute a single species* Throughout parts of the Cool Summer Mediterranean region, however, the species is modified. Its densely glandular-muriculate leaflets, stipules, and petioles, occur sporadically, chiefly whenever the plant is growing under exposed cond-itions. Modifications in indumentum alone, only justifies i ts recognition in the rank of a form. In view of the great morphological similarity between R. nutkana and R. Spaldlngii as shown previously and their illustrated interfertillty, Ertanson (1934), i t would appear that Erlanaon was Justified in combining them in a single species. On the other hand, there do seem to be different populations in the more arid regions east of the Cascade Mountains. Exam-ination of the herbarium specimens illustrate a decrease in indumentum the more easterly they occur. Other criteria modified include: type of leaflet serration, commonly singly serrate; inflorescence, predominantly solitary flowered; sepal width, large at base. Until a mass collection analysis of these populations can be made, the limits and composition of the populations cannot be accurately described. They are, however, closely related to R.  nutkana and are best considered as a subspecies of i t . 74 Individuals of R. nutkana, divided into two subspecies and one form, are separated as follows: a. Leaflets usually eglandular, singly serrate, rarely double ser-rate; sepals usually eglandular; inflorescence one-, rarely, three-flowered. ....••*... ssp. Spaldingii aa. Leaflets usually glandular, doubly serrate, rarely singly ser-rate, sepals usually glandular, inflorescence one- or three-flowered. b. Leaflets usually glandular, often more or less glandular, or rarely eglendular, doubly, occasionally singly, serrate; sepals glandular, occasionally eglandular. •.••••••••••...ssp. nutkana bb. Leaflets glandular, doubly serrate, sepals glandular. ...f. muriculata • Rosa nutkana Presl ssp. nutkana Selected Specimens Examined; BRITISH COLUMBIA — Alberni D.: Stamp Falls, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 530; Kaslo D.: Mirror Lake, 10 June 1938, J. W. Eastham; Lillooet D.: Rexmount, T. M. C. Taylor 8c W. H. Lewis; Nanaimo D.: Elk Falls, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 559, Nanaimo Lake, nr. second, V. Krajina, R. H. Sgilsbury, & A. Szczawinski 4471, QjUalicum, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 555 (in part), Roberts 557 Lake, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis; Nelson D«: Nelson, W. H. Lewis 1508; New Westminster D.: Hope, W. H. Lewis 1319, Sumas Mt., T. M. C. Taylor 75 & W. H. Lewis 51; Osooyos D.: Armstrong, B. Wilson 552 (as R. acicularis); Revel stoke D.: Revel stoke, W. H. Lewis 1289; Vancouver D.: Namu, 24 June 1913, C. F. New combe; Victoria D.: Honeymoon Bay, T. M. C. Taylor  & W. H. Lewis 518, Mill Bay, T» M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 519 (in part); OREGON -;- Jackson Co.: Rogue River, D. C. Ingram 1210; Linn Co.: Coryellis, W. E. Lawrence 1582; WASHINGTON — Clallam Co.: Clallam Bay, G. N. Jones 5845, Neah Bay, G. B. & R. P. Rossbach 497; Jefferson Co.: Hoh River, I. C. Otis 1287, O'Neil Creek Shelter, G. B. & R. P.  Rossbach 438; King Co.: . Seattle, E. S. Me any 1898; Kitsap Co.: Charleston, G. B. Rigg, 14 Dec. 1907; Mason Co.: Hoodsport, G. N. Jones  8698, Skokamish River, L. F. Henderson 1895; Okanogan Co.: Big Coyote Creek, C. B. Fiker 1914; Pierce Co.: Tacoma, G. N. Jones 4655; Skagit Co.: Anacortes, C. L. Hitchcock 5489, . Deception Pass Park, Fidalgo Island, H. W. Smith 1699; Snohomish Co.: Mukilteo, G. N. Jones 4851, Snohomish, Lyman Benson 1465. The subspecies nutkana is found throughout the Marine West Coast climatic region. It varies considerably from individual to ind-ividual in indumentum characteristics, but they are sufficiently alike in other respects, e. g. stature, armature, and anthesis, to constitute a single species. The Skeena, Eraser, and Columbia River Valleys provide effective migration routes through the Coast and Cascade Mountains, enabling the subspecies to migrate eastward. That this migration has taken place is shown by the presence of individuals of the subspecies found particularly in the enterior plateau of B. C. Their frequency decreases slowly to the 76 eastward, where they are replaced by populations characteristic of ssp. Spaldingii. Rosa nutkana Preal f. muriculata (Greene) comb, no v. R. muriculata Greene, Bot. Leaf. 2: 263, 1912 R. nutkana Preal var. hispida Henry, F l . S. B. C. 175, 1915, non , , Fern. 1894 R. nutkana Preal var. muriculata (Greene) Jones, Madrona 3: 128, 1935 R. nutkana Preal var. setosa Jones, Madrona 3: 129, 1935 Leaflets *16-19 mm. wide, *28-35 mm. long, doubly serrate, gland-tipped, glandular; rachis and petiole bristly; sepals 3.5-5.0 mm. wide at base, glandular; stamens 100-145* per flower; peduncles often glandulari Type: "near Woodland, Cowlitz County, Washington, F. V. Goville, 15 July 1898." Habitat: The form is particularly abundant in exposed areas near the sea. General Distribution: Parts of coastal trench of Wash., southern B. C. to central Ore. Selected Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Nanaimo D.: Extension to Petroglyph Park, T.. M. C. Taylor. & W. H. Lewis 545 (in : part),- Court-enay, T. M. C, Taylor & W. H. Lewis 543 (in part), Qualicum, T. M. C.  Taylor & W. H. Lewis 535 (in part); Victoria D.: Mill Bay, T. M. C.  Taylor & W. H. Lewis 519; WASHINGTON — Island Co.: Oak Harbor, 22 Sept 1935, C. H. Harrison; Whidbey. Island, G. N. Jones 6142 (as R. nutkana 77 Presl var* muriculata (Greene) Jones); San Juan Co.: Friday Harbor, B. D. Bl an chard 99 (as R* pisocarpa Gray), Friday Harbor, A* S. Pope, 27 July 1904 (as R. Durandii Crep*, sensu Erl.) '• Rosa nutkana Presl ssp. Spaldlngll (Crep.) comb. nov. R. macrocarpa Raf., Med. Fl* 2j 258, 1830 non Me rat, 1812 R. cinnamomea Borrer; Hook., F l . Bor. Am. 1: 200, 1833, non L. 1753 *" R. megacarpa Nutt., T. & G. F l . N. Am. 1: 460, 1840, pro synon. R. Spaldingii Crep., Bull* Soc Bot. BeTg. 15: 42, 1876 R. nutkana Presl var. hispida Fern., Bot. Gaz. 19 : 335, 1894 R. MacDougali Eolz., Bot. Gaz. 21: 36, 1896 B. nutkana Presl var. MacDougali (Holz.) Piper, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 11: 335, 1906 . R. columbiana Rydb., N. Am. F l . 22: 514, 1918 R. nutkana Presl var. alt a Suksd., Werdenda 1.: 23, 1927 R. megalantha Jones, Proc. Biol* Soc Wash. 41: 194, 1928 R. Spaldingii Crep. var. alt a (Suksd.) Jones, Madrona 3: 132, 1935 R. Spaldingii Crep. var. chelanensis Jones, Madrona 3:"* 133, 1935 R. Spaldingii Crep. var. hispida (Fern.) Jones, Madrona 3: 130, 1935 R. anatonensis St. John, B. S. E. Wash. 206, 1937 R. Jonesii St. John, F l . S. E. Wash. 207, 1937 R. caeruleomontana St. John, Fl. S. B. wash. 207, 1937 R. Spaldingii Crep. var. Parker! St. John, F l . S. E. Wash. 210, 1937 Type: "Clear Water, Oregon (Idaho), Rev. Mr. Spalding." General Distribution: B. C, to Wyo., Utah, and Ore. Pacific North-west Distribution: East of the Cascade Mountain Range, southern B. C, to Ore., east to Mont., and Wyo., map 7. Habitat: At the edge of woods and along napdsides. Selected Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Kamloops D.: Kamloops, June, 1937, E. W. Tisdale (as R. nutkana); Nelson D*: New Denver, T. T.  McCabe 6602 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Trail, 19 June 1902, J. M* Macoun, 78 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); IDAHO — Benewah Co.: Moose Creek Mts., H. St. John 9076 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Bonneville Co.: Pine Creek, R. J. Davis 331 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Clearwater Co.: nr. Weippe, 28 July 1929, N. M. Cook (as R. MacDougali Holz.); Idaho Co.: Lowell, L. ConBtance & R. C. Rollins 1615 (as R. Spaldingii Crep. var. hispida (Fern.) Jones), Nez Perce National Forest, L. Contance & R. C. Rollins  1676 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), nr. Powell* C. L. Hitchcock & C. V. Muh- lick 14694 (as R. acicularis ? Lindl.), Sheep Creek Canyon, Fred Meyer  1609 (as R. nutkana Preal ?), Snake River, Verne Comstoek 118 (as R.J Spaldingii Crep.); Latah Co.: Cedar Mountain; G. N. Jones 661 (as R. Jonesii St. John), Moscow; G. N. Jones 664, Moscow Mountain, 'H. 'St. ' John & G. N. Jones 9621 (as R. Jonesii St. John), Viola Hills, Harold  St. John 5874 (as R. MacDougali Holz.); Nez Perce Co.: nr. Culdesac, F. A. Warren, 1550 (as R. Spaldingii Crep. var. hispida (Fern.) Jones), Lake Waha, A. A. & E. G. Heller 5525 (as R. nutkana Presl); Shoshone Co.: St. Maries River, nr. Clarkia, C. B. Wilson 403 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); MONTANA — Lake Co.: St. Mary's Lake, G. N. Jones 5605 (as R. acicularis Lindl.); Lincoln Co.: 60 mi. w. Kali spell, C. L. Hitchcock 17687 (as R. Macounii Greene); Missoula Co.: Missoula, F. H» Rose 195 (as R. acic-ularis Lindl.); OREGON — Baker Co.: Fish Lake Road, Whitman Nat'l. For., 5 June 1938, T. Gustafson; Jefferson Co.: Lake Suttle, C. L.  Hitchcock & J. S. Martin 4895 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.).; Umatilla Co.: Pendleton and La Grande, J. W. Thompson 4741 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Wallowa Co.: Lostine,14 June 1938, H* M. Gilkey; WASHINGTON — Asotin Co.: Anatone, H. St. John & R* Palmer 9555 (as R. anatonensis St. John), Grand Bonds River, H. St. John 9756 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Chelan Co.: 79 Blewatt Pass, G. N. Jones 4819 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Chiwaukum, G. N. Jones 4787 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Bntiat Valley, G. E. Morrill  275, (as R. Spaldingii Crep. var. alta (Suksd.) Jones)} Columbia Co.: Blue Mountains, L. Constance & H. F. Clements 1773 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Tallow Flat, weneha Forest Reserve, H. T. Darlington 220 (as R. nutkana Preal); Douglas Co.: Badger Mt., J. ¥. Thompson 14656 (as R. ultramont-ana (Wats.) Heller); Garfield Co.: Blue Mountains, L. Constance, J. F.  G. Clarke, W. Staats, & G. Van Fleet 1246 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.); Kittitas Co.: Cle Elum, G. N. Jones 4824 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.), Ellensburg, G. N. Jones 1399; Klickitat Co.: Carp Lake, G. N. Jones 1417; Okanogan Co.:. Methow River, H. St. John, W. D. Courtney, C. S. Parker  5526 (as.R. Spaldingii Crep.); Pierce Co.: Mount Rainier, F. A. Warren  1610 (as R. Pringlei Rydb.), Mount Rainier, F. A. Warren 1549 (as R. nutkana Preal); Spokane Co.: Spokane, G. N. Jones 614 (as R. megalantha Jones); Stevens Co.: Cedonia, 11 Aug 1946, M. B. Dennis; Walla Walla Co.: Blue Mountains, H. St. John 8306; Whitman Co.: Palouse, G. N. Jones 650, Pullman, C. V. Piper 1540 (as R. nutkana Preal var. hispida Fern.) j Pullman, C. V. Piper 1559 (as R. nutkana Preal) • No mass collections were made of the many forms occurring east of the Coast and particularly the Cascade Mountain Ranges. Many have been given specific rank, especially by St. John (1957), but an examination of his types and herbarium specimens has shown them to be markedly similar to ssp. Spaldingii. Until discontinuities between the forms can be est-ablished, they are best considered a B synonyms of the subspecies. One of the most striking is an hispid hypanthium form, var. hispida (Fern.) Jones. It is clearly related to ssp. Spaldingii and has been included as a 80 synonym until further study determines its status* ROSA ACICULARIS LINDL. X ROSA NUTKANA PRESL Stems erect, 10-3.0 m* t a l l , with bristles and prickles, in-frastipular or scattered, dilated, thorns, or often unarmed; leaflets 5-9, 80-23 (X=21.4) mm. wide, 35T40 (X-37.4) mm. long, pubescent below, rarely glabrous, glandular below, rarely eglandular, doubly, rarely singly serrate, often gland-tipped; rachis and petiole often glandular, pubescent, and rpickly; stipules largely adnata, free portion 4-7 (X=5.2) mm., glandular; inflorescence one-, rarely, three-flowered; petals 18-20 (X-19.07) nm. wide, 15-32 (X= 22.7) mm. long; sepals 3.2-3.4 (X= 3.22) mm. wide at base, 15-30 (X s 22) mm. long, pubescent, glandular or rarely eglandular; stamens 70-95* (X=89) per flower, pollen grains about 35 u. in diameter; hypanthium globose or obovate, with or without neck, achenes 10-20. Habitat: In similar localities, as its parents. General Distribution: Alaska to Wyo., to be expected wherever the two parental species occur together. Pacific North-west Distribution: Central B. C, s.e. to Mont., map 5. Selected Specimens Examined: Fernie D.: Fernie, W. H. Lewis 1297, Rock Creek, nr. Galloway, J. Ewan 18522; Fort Eraser D.: Burns Lake, W* H. Lewis 1269, .Stuart Lake, Aug. 1939, E. A. Cooke (as R. Woodsii Lindl.); Fort George D.: Eaglet Lake, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 233, 81 Clueulz Lake, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 235 (in part), Prince George, T» M. 0. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 254 (in part); Lillopet D.: Lac l a Hache, T. M. C. Taylor,& W. H. Lewis 225 (in part); Lake Bootahnie, Marble Mts., J. W. & B. M. Thompson 151; Osooyos D.: Armstrong, 27 July 1915, John  Davidson; Quesnel D.: Cinema, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 250., (in part), nr. Macalister, W. H. Lewis & T. M. C. Taylor 226, Hixon, T. M.  C. Taylor & W. B. Lewis 251; Revelstoke D.: Kinbasket Lake, 18 July 1955, V. Krajina; Smithers D.: Beaument, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis  506 (in part), Hazelton, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lenaris 5JD7 ( in part); MONTANA — Flathead Co.: Columbia Falls, H. T. Rogers & J. M. Rogers  961; Missoula Co.: Rattlesnake, Frank Rose 295; WASHINGTON — Stevens Co.: nr. Cedonia, 6 Aug 1946, M. E. Dennis, nr. Northport, C. W. Shar- smith 4040 (as R. Spaldingii Crep.). The intermediate condition of several morphological characters is taken to indicate a hybrid, between R. acicularis and R. nutkana. •i The hybrid populations appear to be intermediate for sepal length and armature type. In most of these populations studied, individuals are present which can be described as typically R. acicularis and R. nutkana, being cited above as populations with samples 'in part' hybrid. Since both species occur in central B. C, have anthesis in June, have the same ecological requirements, and have demontrated interfertility, Erlanson (1954), there i s apparently no factor present in the field to prevent such hybridization. MAP 7 ROSA NUTKANA PHESL PACIFIC NORTH-WEST DISTRIBUTION R. nutkana asp. nutkana • R. nutkana ssp. Spaldingii Q 82 Four exotic species, Rosa canlna L., R. multlflora Thunb., R. rubiginosa L., and R. rugosa Thunb., are occasionally found throughout the Pacific North-west. As garden escapes, they readily naturalize in the mild climatic regions along the coast and more rarely in the interior areas. Since there is no mass collection data and only a limited number of herbarium specimens representing the species, their accurrate delim-itation i s impossible. They have been omitted, consequently, from the main part of this work, but rare briefly described in Appendix III. SECTION 7: SUMMARY The morphological and cytological study of the Rosa species native to the Pacific North-west constituted this investigation. This made possible a revised classification of the species. A new method of approach included the random sampling of ind-ividuals, mass collections, representing populations of each species. Data collected from these individuals, after statistical analysis, served as the basis for a l l results. From these data, i t was possible to dif-ferentiate populations from one another. When this discontinuity was great, the distinct populations were named according to their closest taxonomic affiliation. Utilization of the information from transplants, progeny testing, cytology, and herbarium specimens completed the definition of each species population*. From the results of this work, four species, four subspecies, one hybrid, and one form have been described. Although population analysis has ex-83 posed many characteristics which may he used together with reasonable accurracy to differentiate these taxa, their high heterogeneity often makes determinations difficult. It would seem impracticle to recognize more forms until discontinuous criteria are found. The application of statistics to the differentiation of species populations has proved to be a valuable asset in the study of taxonomy. The suggestion is made that the discipline be applied to other genera where a greater understanding of species variation is required. 71: APPENDIX I The localities of the mass collections according to Land Recording Dist-ricts are as follows: "DIPLOID" ~ 102 Yale, New Westminster D. 200a Anderson River, New Westminster D. 523 Duncan, Victoria D.: 549 Central Saanich, Victoria D. 222 ' Chasm, Lillooet D. 228 Macalister, Quesnel D. 204 Marble Canyon, Lillooet D. £05 Marble Canyon, Lillooet D. 241 Eraser Lake, Fort. Fraser D. 502 Telkwa, Smithers D. 509 Hazel ton, Smithers D. 84 1202 Hay River, N. W. T. 202 Lytton, Kamloops D. 206 nr. Lillooet, Lillooet D. 211 Lillooet, Lillooet D. "POLYPLOID" — 51 Sumas Mt., New Westminster D» 101 Yale, New Westminster D. 104 Alexandra Bridge, New.Westminster D. 104a Alexandra Bridge, New Westminster D. 200 Anderson River, New Westminster D. 515 Terrace, Prince Rupert D. 518 Honeymoon Bay, Victoria D. 530 Stamp Falls, Alberni D. 537 Roberts Lake, Nanaimo D. 539 Elk Falls, Nanaimo D. 519 Mill Bay, Victoria D. 533 Quelicum, Nanaimo D. 545 Extension, Nanaimo D. 548 Courtenay, Nanaimo D. 223 Lac l a Hache, Lillooet D. 227 Macalister, Quesnel D.. 230 Cinema, Quesnel D. 232 Aleza Lake, Fort George D. 234 Prince George, Fort George D. 235 Cluculz Lake, Fort George D*. 504, Lake Kathlyn, Smithers D. 85 506 507 510 511 212 205 240 243 1201 214 "GYMNOCARPOUS" 103 529 556 538 520 528 544 734 Beaument, Smithers D. Hazelton, Smithers D. Seeley Lake, Smithers D. Seeley Lake, Smithers D. Lillooet, Lillooet D. Marble Canyon, Lillooet D. Fort Fraser, Fort Fraser D. Perow, Smithers D» Hay River, N. W. T« Tyaughton Lake, Lillooet D. Alexandra Bridge, New Westminster D. Stamp Falls, Alberni D. Roberts Lake, Nanaimo D. Elk Falls, Nanaimo D* Mill Bay, Victoria D. Wellington, Nanaimo D. Nanaimo, Nanaimo D* Vancouver, Vancouver D. APPENDIX II PLATE I-XII QUANTITATIVE CRITERIA & QUALITATIVE CRITERIA Pages 86 to 98 Clim : Climatic region Coll : Collection number n/no. : Frequency x : Arithmetic mean s : Standard deviation : standard error of the mean C : Coefficient of variation r : correlation coefficient Pa/pa : Parameter - : Absent * : Absent/Present (more or less) * : Present 87 LEAFLET WIDTH LEAFLET LENGTH Cllm C o l l n X S *X c • n X 8 S X C r Csb 523 30 14.3 3.27 .60 22.9 30 22.9 4.01 -.73 17.5 549 18 12.3 1.93 .46 15 .7 18 • 23 .7 2.88 .68 12.2 .623 • Pa 13.5 2.99 .43 22.1 23.2 3.61 .52 15.6 D I Cfb 102 14 15.4 2.60 .69 16.9 14 25.9 3.18 .85 12.3 'P 200a 13 14.5 2.69 .75 18.6 13 28.2 4.34 1.21 15.4 . L 0 I Pa 15.0 2.61 .50 17.4 27.0 3.91 .75 14.5 D Dfb 222 30 13.7 3.0 .55 21.9 30 23.5 6.31 1.15 26.9 228 30 16.9 3.36 .61 19.9 30 31.0 5.12 .94 ,16.5 Dfc 204 30 15.5 3.18 .58 20.5 30 31.5 4.59 .84 14.6 .799 205 30 13.1 2.98 .54 22.8 30 25.9 4.01 .73 15.5 241 15 15.3- 2.51 .65 16.4 15 23.9 -3.33 .86 13.9 502 21 14.9 1.9 7 .43 13.2 • 21 27.0 4.67 1.02 17.3' 1202 14 16.2 2.42 .65. 14.9 14 26.9 4.01 1.07 14.9 Dsq 202 "30 • 14.6 3.24 .59 22-. 2 30 29.7 6.65 1.21 22.4 fisk 206 30 14.3 3.94 .72 27.6 30 25.1 4.88 .89 19.4 211 30 14.3 2.59 .47 18.1 30 29.2 4.39 .80 15.1 .379 Pa 14.9 3.18 .20 21.3 27.3 5.24 .33 19.2 : Csb . 519 • 30 17.2 5.43 .99 31.6 30 29^9 7.27 1.33 24.3 .823 533 30 16.9 3:95 .72 23.4 30 30.4 2.14 .39 7.0 545 30 * 14.2 3.49 .67 24.6 30 . 25.2 6.39 1.17 25.4 (• -548 30 15.2 2.70 .49 17.8 30 25.7 3.96 .72 15.4 *a 15.9 4.14 .38 26.0 27.8 6.59 .60 23.7 Cfb 51 30 17.5 3.78 .69 21.8 30 30.5 7.04 1.28 23.1 .933 101 30 19.5 4.39 .80 22.5 30 31.7 6.60 1.20 20.8 104 16 84.1 6.44 i.er 26.7 16 42.9 11.91 2.98 27.8 104a 16 20.6 3.73 .93 13.1 16 34.0 4.47 1.12 13.2 200 16 17.5 3.39 .85 19.4 16 29.3 5.56 1.39 19.0 515 30 20.2 6.80 1.24 33.7 30 36.7 10.11 1.84 ,27.6 518 24 15.0 4.47 .91 29.2 24 26.0 4.20 .86 16.2 537 30 16.4 2.98 .54 18.2 30 27.1 4.39 .80 16.2 S39 30 16.1 4.42 .81 27.5 30 29.9 7.03 1.28 23.5 530 50 14.1 3.65 .52 25.9 50 27.2 7.12 1.01 26.2 r -0 L Pe 17.5 5.04 .31 28.8 30.7 8.53 .52 27.8' Y P Dfb 223 30 20.0 4.87 .89 24.4 • 30 31.9 6.85 1.20 21.5 .889 L 327 50 21.6 5.09 .72 23.6 50 37.4 8.24 1.17 22.0 ,0 230 25 20 .7 6.68 1.34 30.1 25 36.8 10.90 2.18 29.6 I 232 30 21.2 5.89 1.07 27.8 30 35.8 8.67 1.58 24.2 ' D 234 • 30. 20.3 4.72 .86 23.3 30 33.1 7.45 1.36 22.5 235 30 19.4 5.28 .96 27.2 30 34.2 6.71 1.22 19.6 504 . 30 ' 19.2 5.38 .98 .28.0 ' 30 31.9 7.99 1.49 25.0 506 30 22.9 5.42 .99 '23.7' 30' 40.6 9.07 1.66 22.3-507 30 21.0 4.98 .91 23 .7 30 38.5 5.38 .98 13.9 510 • 30 25.9 3.62 .66 13.9 30 45.3 10.10 1.89 22.3 511 30 21.7 2.77 .51 '12.8 30 40.5 1.98 >36 4.9 Bsk 212 30 22.6 4.81 .88 21.2 30 ' 43.9 6.89 1.26 15.7 Pa 21.4 7.52 .39 35.1 37.5 9.01 .47 24.0 Dfo 203 30 £1 .4 :'..88 1 .07 2 7.5 30 39.2 8.30 1.51 21.1 24r0 30 24. 7 3.3b .60. 17.4 30 41.0 7.50 1.37 18.3 243 30 19.3 4.34 . 79. 2" . 5 30 33.3 7.39 .79 22.5 • 248 30 17.5 4.54 .83 ;r:..9 30 29.4 7.43 1.36 25.3 1201 25 32.6 4.77 .95 2I> 43.0 6. 73 1.35 15.7 .856 214 30 22.4 5.70 i .90 30 44.0 ?.v6 .72 9.0 Pa 21.3 5.33 .41- 35.0 38.« 8.47 .64 22.2 88 PLATS II NUMBER OF SERRATIONS INFLORESCENCE Clin Coll no. X 8 a; C I 8 "i C Cfb 102 14 14.7 1.33 .76 9.0 1.86 1.07 .29 57.2 200a 13 14.7 1.94 .r>4 13.2 5.60 2.43 .68 43.4 pa 14.7 1.64 .3? 11.2 3.67 3.03 .58 82.5 D Csb 523 30 14.0 3.69 .67 26.4 5. S3 3.52 .64 60.4 I 549 18 13.6 1.97 .47 14.5 3.67 1.94 .46 52.9 P pa 13.8 3.14 .45' 22.7 5.02 2.S8 .42 57.3 L Dfb 222 39 13.3 2.22 .41 16.7 1.27 .30 .05 23.6 0 228 30 13.6 1.77 .38 13.0 4. 76 2.38 .43 50.0 Df o , 204 30 14.3 2.54 1.18 17.8 3.30 1.63 .30 49.4 I • i 205 30 14.5 3.04 .55 20.9 3.03 2.25 .41 74.2 £41 15 17.6 2.03 .53 11.5 6.00 2.48 .64 41.3 D 602 21 16.6 2.68 .59 16.1 2.30 1.00 .33 43.5 ' 1202 14 12.8 1.52 .41 11.9 1.92 1.07 .29 55.7 Daq 202 30 12.6 1.92 .35 15.2 6.56 3.89 .71 59.3 Dak 206 30 13.6 2.49 ' .45 18.3 ' 4.10 2.60 .47 63.4 2X1 30 13.7 ,1.54 .28 11.2 .4.51 3.66 .67 81.1 pa 14.0 2.67 .17 19.0 3.95 3.17 .21 80.2 Cfb 51 30 17.5 3.84 .70 21.9 2.07 .92 .17 44.4 101 30 16.1, 2.07 .38 12.9 1.40 .64 .12 45.7 104 16 17.4 3.50 .88 20.1 1.19 .37 .09 s i . i 104a 16 17.9 2.63 .66 14.7 2.13 .89 .13 41.7 200 16 15.5 2.37 .39 15.3 1.60 .82 .21 50.0 518 24 15.6 3.92 .80 25.1 2.12 .91 .15 42.9 530 50 14.6 3.19 .46 21.8 1.46 .68 .12 43.9 837 30 15.8 3.76 .69 23.8 1.33 .81 .15 60.9 539 30 16.1 3.36 .61 20.9 1.20 .48 .09 40.0 515 30 18.4 2.93 .54 15.9 1.43 .82 .15 57.3 pa 16.3 3.49 .21 21.4 1.55 .82 .05 52.9 Cab 519 30 17.4 3.01 .55 17.3 1.90 1.16 .21 50.0 533" 30 17.7 3.12 .57 17.6 1.78 .88 .16 51.8 P 545 30 16.2 2.55 .47 15.7 1.43 .62 .11 .43.4 n 548 30 17.4 2.56 .47 14.7 1.80 .99 .18 55.0 V L pa 17.2 2.85 .36 18.6 1.71 .49 .05 28.7 T Dfb 223 30 15.3 2.14 .39 13.9 1.43 .62 .11 43.4 227 50 15.9 2.94 .42 18.5 2.20 1.35 .19 61.3 P 230 25 18.6 5.69 1.14 30.6 1.72 .35 .07 20.3 232 30 16.8 4.37 .80 28.0 1.43 .39 .07 27.2 L 234 30 15.6 1.15 -.21 7.4 1.53 .88 .16 57.2 235 30 19.2 3.84 .70 20.0 1.80 1.21 .22 67.2 0 504 30 16.6 3.44 .83 20.7 1.83 .81 .15 49.6 506 30 17.7 3.44 .63 19.4 1.60 .62 .11 38.7 I 507 30 17.5 3.29 .60 18.8 1.56 .08 .01 5.1 510 30 18.7 4.59 .84 24.5 1.86 .82 .15 44.0 D 511 30 20.0 1.24 .23 6.2 1.73 .74 .13 42.8 Bak 212 30 16.9 2.88 .52 17.0 1.17 .37 .06 31.6 pa 17.3 3.77 .19 21.8. 1.67 .83 .04 49.7 Dfo 203 30 18.6 3.20 .58 17.2 1.07 .26 .05 24.2 240 50 17.0 4.28 .78 25.2 1.46 .15 .05 10.3 243 30 18.6 2.76 .50 14.8 1.13 .35 .06 31.2 248 30 14.7 2.95 .54 20.1 1.36 .62 .11 45.6 1201 25 16.5 3.04 .61 18.4 1.12 .35 .07 31.2 Dab 214 30 17.0 4.16 .76 9.0 1.27 .28 .05 22.0 pa 17.1 3.68 .28 21.5 1.55 .51 .04 32.9 89 PETIOLULE LENGTH STIPULE LENGTH Cllm Coll no. X s 8 i C X 8 C Cfb 102 14 9.2 2.07 .55 22.7 3.6 1.04 .ze 27.4 200a 13 5.8 1.20 .36 22.2 4.8 .71 .20 14.7 pa 7.6 2.46 .47 32.4 4.3 1.04 .20 24.2 Csb 523 30 6.9 2.13 .39 30.8 3.2 1.13 .21 35.3 549 16 6.9 1.55 .37 22.4 3.3 .59 .14 17.9 D PS 6.9 1.90 .27 27.5 3.3 1.64 .24 50.4 I Dfb 22S 30 8.2 1.52 .28 18.5 3.7 1.16 2.12 31.2 228 30 9.3 2.43 .45 26.1 4.2 .81 .15 19.1 P Dfo 204 30 7.1 1.27 .23 17.8 5.4 .37 .07 6.9 205 30 6.6 1.34 .23 18.7 4.2. .96 .17 22.9 L 241 15 7.1 1.17 .30 16.5 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 502 21 6.7 1.24 .27 18.5 4.8 1.86 .41 38.8 0 1202 14 7.6 1.82 .49 33.9 3.6 1.94 .52 54.3 Dsq 202 30 4.8 3.41 .62 71.0 4.1 1.34 .24 32.7 I Bsk 206 30 8.1 2.00 .37 - 24.6 3.8 .31 .56 8.0 211 30 7.3 1.90 .35 26.0 4.6 .24 .04 5.0 0 pa 7.6 2.08 .13 27.3 4.3 1.03 ' .06 24.1 Cfb 51 30 101 30 104 16 104a 16 200 16 516 30 518 24 537 BO 530 50 539 30 pa Cab 519 30 533 30 P 545 30 548 30 0 pa L Y Dfb 223 30 227 50 P 230 25 232 ' 30 L 234 30 235 30 0 504 30 50 6 30 1 507 30 510 30 D S l l 30 Bsk 212 30 pa • • Dfo 203 30 240 30 243 30 248 30 1201 25 Dab 214 30 pa 9.5 3.22 • 59. 40.4 12.6 2.75 .50 21.e 13.8 4.35 1.09 31.5 10.1 3.51 .88 34.8 9.4 2.03 .51 21.6 10.5 1.11 .20 10.6 9.1 4.01 .82 44.0 7.1 2.08 .38 29.3 9.9 3.03 .43 30.6 10.2 2.68 .49 26.3 10.1 3.48 .21 34.5 11.1 3.39 .62 30.5 10.0 4.22 .77 42.2 8.0 3.59 .66 44.9 8.8 3.58 .65 40.7 9.5 3.85 .35 40.5 10.8 3.39 .62 31.4 12.5 4.94 .70 39.5 10.8 3.19 .64 29.6 8.5 3.10 .57 36.5 9.3 2.68 .49 28.8 8.6 2.17 .40 25.2 7.9 2 .44 .45 30.9 10.2 4.46 .81 43.7 9.4 2.51 .46 10.9 13.6 3.44 .63 25.3 11.1 2.06 .38 18.6 14.0 2.89 .53 20.6 10.7 4.24 .22 39.6 10.5 3.82 ..70 36.4 11.5 4.57 .83 39.7 8.8 1.41 .26 16.0 7.9 3.37 .62 42.7 10.9 2.83 .57 25.9 11.6 3.25 .39 28.0 10.2 3.50 .26 34.3 5.3 .55 .10 10.4 5.3 .89 .16 16.8 5.1 .55 .14 10.8 6.1 1.36 .36 22.2 5.9 1.61 .40 27.3 5.3 2.12 .39 40.0 5.6 2.15 .44 38.3 4.S .98 .18 20.0 4.9 .85 .12 16.9 4.9 .67 .12 13.7 5.2 1.17 .07 22.3 4.6 1.20 .22 26.1 6.1 1.29 .24 21.1 5.3 .74 .14 13.9 5.0 1.01 .18 20.2 5.3 1.97 .18 37.0 4.9 2.34 .43 47.8 5.2 1.45 .21 27.9 4.9 1.80 .36 36.7 4.5 1.47 .27 32.7 4.4 .93 .17 21.1 5.2 .87 .16 16.7 5.2 .83 .15 15.9 5.8 2.03 .38 36.2 5.0 1.67 .31 33.2 5.9 1.20 .22 20.3 5.3 .93 1.69 17.6 5.7 1.41 .26 24.7 5.2 1.39 .07 26.7 5.3 1.28 .23 24.1 5.5 1.20 .22 21.8 5.3 1.51 .28 28.7 4.5 1.98 .36 44.0 5.2 1.29 .26 24.8 5.5 1.45 .26 26.4 5.2 1.50 .11 28.7 90 PLATE IV SEPAL WIDTH 3EFAL LENGTH Cllm doll no. X a S J C a ax C Cfb , 102 14 2.33 .28 .08 12.3 12.0 2.25 .60 IS.8 200 13 2.38 .241 .08 12.2 14.9 3.12 .90 20.8 pa 2.33 .28 .05 12.0 13.4 3.04 • .59 22.7 D Csb 323 30 2.23 .62 .11 27.8 13.9 3.27 .60 23.5 I 549 18 2.06 .42 .10 20.4 13.3 2.91 .69 21.9 P pa 2.17 .32 .05 14.7 13.7 3.13 .45 22.8 L Dfb 222 26 1.63 .40 .08 24.5 11.5 2.32 .46 20.2 0 228 18 . 2.03 .52 .12 25.6 15.5 2.21 .40 14,3 Dfp 204 20 1.90 .32 .07 17.1 14.9 2.40 .54 16.1 I 205 ' 27 l . f i l .60 .12 33.1 14.7 2.69 .52 18.3 841 12 1.75 .52 .15 29.8 16.4 1.45 .42 8.8 D 502 9 2.20 .50 .17 22.7 16.2 3.94 1.31 24.3 1202 14 2.85 .12 .03 4.2 14.4 3.53 .94 24.5 Dsq 202 30 2.10 .56 .10 26.7 13.7 2.85 .52 20.8 Bak 206 I 30 2.07 .53 .10 25.6 13.8 2.57 .47 18.6 211 28 2.21 .79 .15 35.7 13.6 3.13 .59 23.0 pa 2.06 .77 .05 37.? 14.2 2.81 .19 19.8 Cfb . 81 30 3.52 .35 .07 9.9 22.1 5.22 1.04 23.6 • 101 38 ' 3.70 .39 .0? 10.5 21.4 5.17 .99 24.2 104 . 16 3.37 .63 .16 18.7 24.1 6.25 1.56 23.9 104a 16 3;23 .58 .15 17.8 19.0 3.33 .83 17.5 200 16 3.40 .24 .06 7.1 19.1 3.67 .95 19.2 • v 515 30 3.46 .33 .06 9.5 26.6 3.36 .63 12.6 518 24 3.50 .30 .06 e.4' 19.5 4.54 .93 23.3 530 50 4.12 .20 .03 4.8 21.8 5.45 .78 25.0 537 30 3.53 .26 .05 7.4 20.2 3.18 .58 15.7 539 30 3.93 .26 .06 6.6 19.1 4.25 .77 22.3 pa 3.67 .65 .04 17.7 21.5 5.02 .31 23.3 Csb 519 30 3.83 .42 .08 10.9 19.5 6.01 1.10 30.8 533 30 4.10 .20 .03 4.8 21.9 3.45 .65 13.8 P 345 30 • 3.72 .03 .01 0.8 21.4 1.65 .30 7.7 348 30 3.92 .42 .09 10.7 21.0 4.19 .86 19.9 V L pa 3.89 .53 .05 13.6 20.8 8.93 .85 42.9 Y Dfb 223 30 3.33 .19 .03 5.6 22.5 4.19 .76 18.6 227 50 3.50 .35 .05 10.0 20.0 3.79 .54 18.9 P 230 25 3.40 .93 .19 27.4 24.0 5.34 1.07 22.3 232 30 2.80 .48 .09 16.4 21.8 4.19 .78 19.2 L 234 30 3.00 1.36. .25 45.3 20.5 2.80 .51 13.7 235 30 2.80 1.24 .23 44.3 21.7 4.78 .87 22.0 0 504 30 3.00 .74 .14 24.7 19.3 4.59 .84 23.8 "v06 30 3.56 .15 .03 4.1 23.8 2.50 .46 10.5 I 507 30 3.40 .37 .07 10.9 22.6 4.49 • .82 19.9 510 30 3.00 .95 .17 31.6 24.0 5.85 1'.07 24.4 D- 511 30 3.30 .46 .08 13.8 24.2 1.63 .30 6.7 pa 3.22 .70 .04 21.7 22.0 4.57 .24 20.8 Dfo 203 30 3.23 .81 .15 25.0 22.2 4.44 .81 20.0 240 30 3.30 .37 .07 11.2 21.6 3.92 .72 18.1 243 30 2.52 0 0 0 19.7 2.92 .81 14.8 248 30 2.86 .53 .10 18.4 19.3 3.52 .64 18.2 1201 25 3.12 .35 .07 11.2 23.4 4.78 .96 20.4 Bsk 212 30 3.07 0 0 0 21.0 4.57 .88 21.8 Dsb 214 30 ' 2.85 .39 .08 13.7 22.6 4.23 .81 18.7 pa 2.99 .50 .04 16.7 21.5 3.89 .38 18.1 91 PLATE V PETAL WIDTH PETAL LENGTH cilm C o l l no. X a s £ C X a 8* C c r t 102 4 9.3 1.29 .65 13.8 13.5 1.00 .50 7.4 D 200a 10 17.9 2.37 .75 13.2 18.9 2.43 .77 12.9 I pa 15.4 4.54 1.21 29.5 17.4 3.27 .87 18.8 P 1 Csb 523 23 10.7 3.07 .64 28.7 12.3 3.16 .66 25.7 0 Dfb •- 228 18 18.1 3.66 .86 20.0 19.2 4.67 1.10 24.3 Dfc 205 4 12.6 1.00 .50 8.0 15.3 1.73 .87 11.3 I 1202 8 14.8 3.92 1.39 26.3 17.2 4.59 1.62 26i6 . D»q 202 19 13.5 2.32 .53 17.2 16.9 .26 .06 1.5 D Beit 211 13 15.3 2.39 .66 15.6 17.4 3.18 • .68 18.3 206 10 13.6 2.26 .72 16.6 15.7 2.39 .76 15.2 pa 15.1 3.58 .42 23.7 17.3 3.36 .40 19.4 Cfb 51 15 20.6 3.16 .79 15.2 20.8 2.24 .56 10 .8 104 3 22.7 7.00 4.05 30.8 23.7 10.00 5.78 42.2 104a 7 18.7 2.92 1.10 15.6 20.4 2.88 1.09 14.1 200 2 19.0 3.47 2.48 18.3 19.0 3.00 2.14 15 .8 515 24 24.5 2.93 .60 11.9 27.2 3.39 .69 12.5 518 24 18.2 4.22 1.22 23.2 19.8 3.39 .98 17.1 P pa 21.4 3.86 .42 18.0 23.1 4.21 .46 13.2 0 L Csb 519 4 17.8 2.07 1.04 11.6 20.0 2.70 1.68 13.5 Y Dfb 223 25 21.4 3.33 .75 15.6 22.9 2.82 .63 12.3 227 25 19.1 3.81 .71 19.1 20.1 3.54 .76 17.6 P 230 22 22.0 3.43 .73 15.6 25.3 3.21 .68 12.7 232 10 19.4 2.49 .79 12.8 22.3 3.89 1.28 17.4 L 234 23 18.4 3.19 .66 17.3 21.0 2.43 .51 11.6 235 20 19.3 5.04 1.13 26.1 25.7 7.22 1.62 28.1 0 504 26 17.1 2.21 .43 12.9 20.5 3.73 .73 18.2 506 26 20.5 5.07 .99 24.7 25.3 3.49 .68 13 .8 I 507 25 18.4 4.50 .90 24.5 21.7 3.70 .74 17.1 510 23 20.9 4.47 .93 21.4 22.5 6.40 1.33 28.3 D 511 21 20.7 3.67 .80 17.7 22.6 3.45 .75 15.3 pa 19.7 3.98 .26 20.2 22.7 3.57 .23 15.7 Dfo 203 12 19.8 3.33 .93 16.8 23.2 9.15 2.54 39.4 240 27 20.2 1.00 .19 4.9 23.5 3.46 .67 14.7 248 17 16.4 3.92 .95 23.9 19.6 3.88 .94 19.8 1201 12 18.8 3.04 .88 16.2 22.0 4.69 1.36 21.3 pa 19.0 3.02 .36 15.8 22.2 3.97 .48 17.9 .92. VI STAMEN NUMBER Clim Coll no. X s 3X C Cfb 102 4 56 7.0 3.46 12.5 200a 3 77 19e3 12J30 25.1 Pa 65 16.6 6.29 25.5 0 I Csb 523 6 119 9.7 3.90 8.1 549 4 83 14o6 7.41 17.6 p pa 105 21 .4 6.42 20.4 L 0 Dfb 228 7 67 - 13.6. 5.60 20.4 Dfc 205 5 70 11.2 5.00 15.9 I 1202 4 71 4.3 1.45 6.1 Dsq 202 6 140 8 0 3 3.40 5.9 D Bsk 206 5 78 14.8 6.60 18,9 211 5 74 10.2 4o60 13.8 pa 72 l l o 7 2.07 16.3 Cfb 51 6 l i s 21.5 6.50 16.7 10* 4 97 7.2 3.60 7.5 104a 4 115 5.8 2.90 5.1 200 2 108 3.5 2.50 3,2 515 7 115 13.7 5.20 11.9 518 5 116 18.1 8.10 15.6 P 530 11 122 22.5 7.10 18.4 537 6 89 12.2 5.00 13.7 0 539 7 93 22e 2 8.40 23.8 L Pa 109 20.6 2.86 18.9 Y Csb 519 7 129 26.4 9.90 20.5 P Dfb 223 7 81 13.7 5.10 16.9 227 11 91 15.2 4.60 16.7 L 230 5 88 14.6 5.80 16.5 234 7 82 20.2 7.60 24.7 0 235 5 76 23.2 12.60 37.2 504 5 61 14.8 6.60 24.3 I 506 7 100 12.1 4.60 12.1 507 7 92 21.3 8.00 23.1 * D 510 6 113 11.6 4.70 1003 511 7 103 7.0 2.60 11.9 pa 89 20.3 2o37 22.9 Dfc 203 6 96 18.3 7.50 19.1 240 6 78 20.5 7.70 26.3 248 7 66 19.0 7.20 28.5 1201 6 79 35c 2 7.10 44.5 Bsk 212 6 77 22.3 9.10 29.1 pa $29 20.3 3cS6 18.9 93 D I P L 0 I L Cfb Csb Dfb Ssq 8sk Osb PLATS VII POLLEN SIZE POLLEN VIABILITY Coll no. z 3 s x C no. '_""V a . 102 • 10 - 28.2 2.35 1.04 8.3 189 24 76 200a 5 27.7 1.50 .67 5.4 55 , .45 523 5 26.5 .87 .39 3.3 93 27 73 549 5 28.6 .87 .39 3.0 100 12 87 224 5 28.8 2.65 1.18 9.2 148 50 50 202 5 27.3 .22 .10 0.8 97 70 30 206 6 29.1 1.40 .63 4.8 143 66 34 216 S 26.7 1.80 .80 6.7 115 89 • 11 p 0 L Y P X 0 X D Cfb 51 101 200 Cab. 1331J Dfb Dfc Dsb 225. 226 233 506 508 507 511 1204 1208 215 5 37,8 2.18 .98 5.8 104 78 22 5 36.7 1.00 .45 3.8 103 81 19 5 33.8 1.00 .45 3.0 100 77 23 5 35.1 1.40 .63 4.8 - - -5 31.4 2.35 1.05 7.5 96 : 76 24 10 • 32.6 2.60 .82 8.0 147 59 41 5 35.8 1.12 .50 3.1 95 91 9 5 36.9 1.50 .67 4.1 80 55 45 5 34.8 3.08. 1.37 8.9 120 58 42 5 34.9 2.06 .92 5.9 90 57 43 10 40 ;0 .5.12 1.62 12.8 99 51 49 5 6 5 37.4 38.2 35.4 1.12 2.12 1.58 .50 .87 .71 3.0 80 79 21 5.5 92 77 23 4.5 96 86 14 3.8 117 85 15 5.9 104 82 18 10.0 109 • 88 12 G Y M N 0. Csb 525 546 C.R. 5 5 •5'v 27.9 29.2 26.9 1.07 1.72 2.70 .48 .76 1.21 1. Central Saanich, V. I . . Florence Lewis 1531 94 PLATE LEA?LET WIDTH dim Coll no. X s at Cfb 103 30. 17.6 3.53 .66 529 30 13.0 4.14 .76 535 30 13.4 2.71 .50 538 30 13.4. 3.38 .02 pa 14.4 3.90 .36 Csb 520 13 8.9 1.56 .43 528 30 8.8 2.27 .41 544 30 . 11.3 1.95 .36 734 30 14.6 .3.16 .38 PB 11.2 3.47 .34 V I I I LEAFLET LENGTH C X s ° i C 20.0 31 .8 20 .2 25.2 27.7 20.5 20.5 24.2 4.19 5.23 4.21 4.87 .77 .95 .77 .89 15.1 25.5 20.5 20.1 27.1 23.3 5.47 .50 23.5 17.3 25.7 17.3 21.6 14.0 14.9 20.5 22.9 1.87 2.08 3.51 4.15 .52 .88 .64 .78 13.4 13.9 17.1 18.1 30.9 16.8 4.83 .46 25.7 PETIOLULE WIDTH -STIPULE LENOTB G Cfb 103 529 536 538 30 30 30 30 8.E 9.1 7.8 9.5 1.35 3.70 3.50 1.85 .25 .12 .37 .34 16.4 40.7 44.9 19.4 3.2 2.8 : 3.5 3.2 .88 1.14 1.82 .98 .16 .21 .22 .18 26.6 40.2 34.8 30.6 T H • P? 8.7 3.31 .30 38.0 3.2 •1.08 .10 33.7 -H 0 /. Csb 520 528 544 734 13 30 30 30 5.1 5.4 8.0 . U . 7 1.44 1.78 2.76 6.44 .40 .33 .50 1.18 28.4 32.9 34.5 88.0 2.2 2.0 2.5 2.2 .71 .29 .87 .68 .20 .53 1.60 .16 32.9 14.4 34.6 38.1 \* •JL . pa 7.9 5.49 .54 69.5 2.2 .92 .09 41.6 a NUMBER OF SERRATIONS IKFLORSSCKWCE p 0 V Cfb' •. 103 529 536 538 30 30 30 30 24.9 19.5 20.9 21.4 7.08 .27 3.09 3.84 1.28 .05 .56 .70 28.2 1.4 14.7 18.0 1 .27 1.30 1.50 1.10 .52 .64 .62 .42 .09 .12 .11 .08 40.9 49.e 41.3 33.1 3 pa 21.7 S.66 .33 16.9 1.29 .57 . .05 44.2 Csb 520 528 844 . 734 13 30 30 30 17.0 18.0 21.1 19.1 2.69 2.85 2.81 6.06 .80 .46 .51 1.11-17.0 14.7 13.8 19.4 1.10 1.33 1.10 1.26 .41 .62 .32 .53 .04 .08 ;os. : .05 37.2 48.6 29.0 42.1 pa 19.1 4.11 .40 21.8 1.22 .44 .04 36.0 STAMEN NUMBER Cfb 529 5 46 1.10 .48 2.2 Csb 528 4 54 1S.1 7.60 26.1 POLLEN SIZ2 -Csb 525 546 i C B . pa 5 5 5 27.9 29.8 26.9 26.0 1.07 1.72 2.70 2.09 .48 .7$-1.21 • 54 3.8 5.9 10.0 7.5 1. Caapbell River, V. I., June, 1952, B. Pepin 95 CI la. Coll PLATE 17. TYPE OF LEAFLET LEAFLET PUEEiCEMCE LEAFLET SERRATION SERRATION CLAUDS Cfb 102 14 0 86 14 O 86 14 0 0 100 200a 13 ' 8 23 69 8 23 69 0 0- 100 Csb 523 30 93 7 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 .D I 549 18 61 39 0 84 . 16 .0 0 0 100 P L Dfb 222 30 3 7 90 3 3 94 0 7 93 0 228 30 23 54 23 3 17 80 0 0 • 100 I Dfo 204 30 10 77 13 80 10 10 0 0 100 D 205 30 . 20 30 30 2?j 20 47 0 7 93 241 15 0 0 100 0 27 73 0 0 100 502 21 19 53 28 95 5 0 0 0 100 1202 14 93 7 0 100 0 0 14 0 86 Dsq 202 30 40 7 0 54 33 13 0 0 100 Dsk 206 30 23 33 44 30 23 47 0 3 97 211 30 13 40 47 57 3 . 40 0 3 97 Cfb 51 101 104 ' 104a 200 518 530 . 537 539 515 CSb 519 533 P 545 0 548 L T P Dfb 223 1 227 0 230 1 232 D 234 . 235 504 506 507 510 511 Bsk 212 Dfc 203 . 240 , 243 248 1201 Dsb. £14 30 30 16 16 16 24 50 30 30 30 30 30 30 . 30 30 50 25 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 25 30 3 27 38 0 31 13 47 0 3 0 37 32 10 17 70 38 63 63 29 17 3 54 7 33 0 27 20 53 33 20 36 50 80 3 24 37 6 58 36 43 60 73 100 100 97 100 17 60 23 0 10 90 0 0 100 0 13 87 3 23 74 0 10 90 0 20 BO 3 17 80 0 3 97 0 20 80 0 0 100 0 40 60 80 44 67 43 32 40 3 20 77 0 0 100 33 60 7 0 3 97 50 • 38 12 0 0 100 13 50 37 0 0 100 19 44 37. 0 0 IOC 8 17 75 4 33 63 37 23 40 4 86 10 7 53 40 0 13 87 7 60 33 23 37 40 3 33 64 0 ' 27 73 0 17 83 0 23 77 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 3 97 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 17 83 80 17 3 10 37 53 26 2 72 0 0 100 0 8 92 o • 0 100 0 7 93 0 0 100 3 33 64 13 33 54 7 10 83 0 20 80 0 43 57 0 0 100 7 33 60 0 0 100 0 3 97 0 0 100 0 40 60 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 3 33 64 0 27 73 0 20 80 0 0 100 7 40 53 0 0 100 0 43 57 0 33 67 10 43 47 0 7 93 32 20 48 0 e 92 10 57 33 0 0 100 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 • 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 0 100 100 • • 0 . 0 G T Cfb II •H 0. ' 103 329 536 538 C . A F Csb 520 P 528 0' ' 544 •"H . 734 30 30 30 30 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 13 0 0 100 30 0 0 100 30 0 0 100 30 0 0 100 96 PLATE X ARMATURE SEPAL GLANDS SEPAL BRISTLES Clim Coll DO . a b 0 d g - > -cro 102 14 6 _ 94 0 0 100 100 0 200a 13 8 46 46 0 31 69 100 0 Csb 523 30 17 67 13 7 3 90 100 0 D 549 13 6 33 61 0 0 100 100 0 I P Dfb £22 30 86 _ 7 7 3 0 97 100 0 L 228 30 69 - 4 7 76 0 3 97 100 0 0 Dfo 204 30 6 13 67 17 50 27 23 100 0 I 205 30 34 28 10 28 10 27 13 60 100 0 C 241 15 - - - 100 0 0 100 100 0 502 21 52 - - 48 44 22 34 89 11 1202 14 - - - 100 0 0 100 100 0 Dsq 202 30 3 13 67 17 3 57 40 100 0 U8k 206 30 - 40 37 20 13 30 57 100 0 211 30 21 17 59 6 21 34 45 100 0 Cfb 51 30 16 84 0 12 88 60 40 101 30 - - 33 67 17 53 20 100 0 104 16 - - - 100 44 56 0 100 0 104a 16 - - 31 69 0 44 . 56 100 0 200 16 - - - • 100 0 37 63 100 0 515 30 - 3 31 67 0 13 87 97 3 518 24 - - 52 48 0 17 83 71 29 530 50 - 4 56 40 12 10 78 96 4 537 30 - 3 13 84 3 23 74 100 0 539 30 - 20 80 3 30 67 97 3 Csb 519 30 _ _ 52 48 36 0 0 100 100 0 533 30 - 4 56 40 0 "0 100 90 10 P 545 30 - - 52 48 23 0 3 97 100 0 0 548 30 - - 19 81 10 0 0 100 100 0 , L Y . P. Dfb 223 30 100 - - - 36 6 47 47 93 7 L 227 50 56 4 16 24 6 8 18 74 88 12 0 230 25 17 4 8 71 3 0 4 96 100 0 I . 232 30 48 8 - ,44 40 0 13 87 100 0 D 234 30 69 4 - 27 35 0 40 60 100 0 235 30 97 - - 3 43 . 0 40 60 100 0 504 30 59 - - 41 3 10 13 77 100 0 506 30 - 7 - 93 6 0 33 67 90 10 507 ' 30 3 10 ' - 87 7 43 50 93 7 510 30 17 3 13 67 6 27 67 90 10 511 30 - 17 14 21 10 13 77 93. 7 Bsk 212 30 34 16 50 0 50 50 100 0 Dfo 203 30 100 _ 73 0 0 100 100 0 240 30 94 - 3 3 33 3 54 43 97 3 243 30 97 - - 3 16 7 41 52 90 10 248 30 97 - - 3 33 0 37 63 97 3 1201 25 100 - - - 12 20 68 60 40 Dsb 214 50 72 6 7 42 51- 100 0 G "Y Cfb 103 30 96 4 II 529 30 70 4 26 - 7 N 536 30 83 - 4 13 0 538 30 83 17 c A Csb 520 13 100 - - -H 528 30 77 13 10 -P 544 30 90 - - 10 4 . 0 734 30 100 -0 3 97 PLATE a LEAFLET CLAMPS PETIOLE BRISTLES STIPULE GLANDS Clim - Coll no. s a d - a • - a Cfb 102 14 29 64 7 0 0 100 0 0 100 200a 13 0 38 62 0 0 100 0 0 100 csb 523 30 53 47 0 97 3 0 80 20 0 D I 549 18 100 0 0 90 10 0 90 10 0 P L Dfb 222 30 0 40 60 23 0 77 2 9 89 0 228 30 6 17 77 20 3 77 0 10 90 I Dfc 204 30 7 23 70 23 10 67 3 43 54 D 205 V30 10 40 50 17 6 77 13 13 74 241 15 7 7 86 0 0 100 0 0 100 502 21 100 0 0 67 0 33 4 48 48 1202 14 100 0 0 85 0 15 0 72 28 Dsq 202 30 3 43 54 60 20 20 3 60 37 Dale 205 30 10 27 63 20 13 67 10 27 63 211 30 3 43 54 7 7 86 3 43 54 Cfb SI 30 10 3 87 0 7 93 0 0 100 101 30 20 47 33 . 27 20 33 0 17 83 104 16 19 75 e 69 0 31 0 19 81 104a 1« 12 50 3a 12 13 75 0 0 100 200 16 0 37 63 0 13 87 0 0 100 515 30 0 7 93 0 7 93 0 0 100 518 24 0 27 73 0 3 97 0 0 100 530 50 12 28 60 0 0 100 0 0 100 537 30 3 • 77 20 0 7 93 0 3 97 539 30 40 33 27 5 3 94 0 0 100 Csb 319 30 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 533 30 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 P 545 30 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 L 948 30 0 3 97 0 0 100 0 0 100 T P Dfb 223 SO 23 54 23 37 40 23 0 3 97 L 227 s o 0 0 100 30 6 64 0 0 100 0 £30 25 0 16 84 12 40 46 0 0 100 I 232 30 0 17 83 0 10 90 0 0 100 D 234 30 0 40 60 13 33 54 0 0 100 235 30 9 40 60 0 27 73 0 0 100 504 30 0 0 100 37 20 43 0 0 100 306 30 0 3 97 14 23 63 0 0 100 507 30 0 0 100 10 23 67 0 0 100 510 30 0 17 83 27 6 67 0 0 100 511 30 0 0 100 0 3 97 0 0 100 Bak 212 30 0 33 67 3 13 84 0 0 100 Dfo 203 30 7 23- 70 0 0.' 100 0 0 100 240 30 0 23 77 17 90 33 0 0 100 243 ' 30 0 20 80 17 13 70 / 0 0 100 248 30 0 27 73 4 47 47 0 0 100 1201 25 6 44 52 20 16 64 0 0 100 Dob 214 30 3 47 50 57 0 43 0 3 97 0 t Cfb 103 30 100 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 M 529 30 90 10 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 H 536 30 100 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 C 536 30 93 7 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 A H Csb 520 13 69 31 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 P 528 30 93 7 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 544 30 100 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 t J 734 30 93 7 0 0 0 100 0 0 100 98 PLATS XII PEDUNCLE GLANDS PEDUNCLE PUBESCENCE SEPAL PUBESCENCE 01 In Coll no. - t m - • m - • * Cfb 102 14 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 200a 13 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 Cob 528 30 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 D I 549 18 95 0 5 100 0 0 0 0 100 P 1 Dfb 222 30 76 10 14 38 3 59 0 0 100 0 228 30 23 37 40 30 20 50 0 0 100 I Dfo 204 30 100 0 0 10 27 63 0 7 93 D 205 30 97 0 3 40 30 30 0 0 100 241 15 100 0 0 0 20 80 0 0 100 302 21 100 0 0 11 0 89 0 0 100 1202 14 100 0 0 50 7 43 0 0 100 Dsq 202 30 100 0 0 40 23 37 0 0 100 Dak 206 30 67 20 13 74 13 13 0 0 100 211 30 100 0 0 24 21 55 0 0 100 Cfb 51 30 53 0 37 100 0 0 0 0 100 101 30 100 0 0 83 10 7 0 0 100 104 16 - 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 1048 IS 100 0 0 88 e 6 0 0 100 200 16 81 13 6 94 6 0 0 0 100 515 30 80 10 10 100 0 0 0 0 £00 513 24 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 8 92 • 530 50 92 0 8 94 6 0 0 0 100 537 30 30 3 17 86 7 7 0 0 100 539 30 100 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 Cab 519 30 37 3 60 93 7 0 0 0 100 533 30 74 3 23 100 0 0 0 0 100 P 545 30 67 13 20 94 3 3 0 0 100 0 L 548 30 80 20 0 97 3 0 0 0 100 • T P Dfb 223 30 100 0 0 93 0 7 0 0 100 I. 227 30 43 20 37 70 7 23 0 0 100 0 230 25 84 0 16 60 0 40 0 0 100 I 232 30 83 7 10 93 4 4 0 0 100 0 234 30 97 0 3 90 10 0 0 0 100 235 30 100 0 0 79 4 27 0 7 93 504 30 90 3 7 83 7 10 0 0 100 506 30 97 0 3 87 10 3 0 0 100 507 30 90 3 7 100 0 0 0 0 100 510 SO 90 0 .10 70 13 17 0 0 100 511 30 80 20 0 100 0 0 0 0 100 Bsk 212 30 100 0 0 93 7 0 0 0 100 Dfc 203 30 100 0 0 73 20 7 0 0 100 240 30 90 7 3 77 6 17 0 0 100 243 30 93 0 7 90 7 3 0 3 97 248 30 a ' 1? 73 10 17 0 0 100 1201 25 84 0 16 100 0 0 0 0 100 Deb 214 30 93 4 4 39 7 4 0 0 100 G T Cfb 103 30 3 0 97 100 0 0 H 529 30 0 0 100 100 0 0 S 536 30 27 16 57 100 0 0 o o 53P 30 0 3 97 100 0 0 A R Csb 520 13 0 0 130 100 0 0 P • 528 30 0 0 100 100 0 0 0 544 30 3 3 94 100 0 0 0 734 30 0 0 100 100 0 0 5 99 APPENDIX III 1 5 Rosa canlna L., Sp. PI. 491, 1753 B. dolosa Godet, F. Jura Supp. 72, 1869, non Waltz 1811 R. flexuosa Raf., Prec. Dec. 35, 1814 R. Rafinesquiena Tratt., Ros. Monog. gi 234, 1823 Stems branched, upright, 2-3 m, high, armsd with stoat, curved, flattened thorns; leaflets 3-7, 10-40 mm. long, oval or ovate, glabrous, rarely glandular below, sharply serrate, occasionally doubly serrate; rachis and petiole often glandular-hispid; stipules adnate, commonly glabrous, glandular;, inflorescence 1-3 flowered; petals about 20 mm. long, obcor date, pink; sepals 15-20 mm. long, pubescent; hypanthium ellipsoid, glabrous, in fruit 10-15 mm. wide, 15-20 mm. long. Type: Europe General Distribution: Native to Europe; naturalized in parts of North America. Pacific North-west Distribution: Washington and Oregon. Specimens Examined: OREGON — Umatilla Co.: Pendleton, W. H. Lewis  1525; WASHINGTON — Clallam Co.: Sol Due Hot Springs, G. N. Jones  8532; Mason Co.: nr. Kennedy Creek, G. N. Jones 5498. 15. Most of the descriptions of species taken from Rydberg (1918) 100 Rosa multiflore Thunb., EI. Jap. 214, 1784 R. polyantha Sieb. Zucc, Abh. Akad. Munch 4^ : 128, 1845 Stems 1-2 m. high, climbing, armed with mostly paired infrast-ipular prickles; leaflets 5-9, obovate or ell i p t i c , obtuse or acute, sharply serrate, pubescent, 2-3.5 cm. long; stipules adnata, glandular-ciliate; inflorescence pyramidal, often many flowered; petals mostly white, 10-15 mm. long; sepals ovate-lanceolate, 12-15 mm. long, pubescent; hypanthium globose to ellipsoid, pubescent, 5-6 mm. in diameter. Type: near Nagasaki, Japan General Distribution: Native of Japan end China; occasionally escaped from cultivation in North America. Pacific North-west Distribution: B. C. to Ore. Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Sumas Mountain, T. M. C. Taylor  & W. H. Lewis 58. Rosa rubiglnosa L. t Mant 564, 1771 R. suaveolens Pursh, f l . Am. Sept. 346, 1814 R. Walpoleana Greene, Bot. Leaf. 12: 264, 1912 Stems branched, often 2 m. high, armed with strong, curved, thorns or rarely somewhat bristly; leaflets 5-7, 10-30 mm. long, sub-orbicular or broadly oval, doubly serrate, glanduloso-serratus, pubescent on both sides, glsndular-pruinose below; rachis and petiole pubescent, glandular-hispid, bristly; stipules adnata, glandular-puberulent; inflor-101 esconce 1-4 flowered, subtended by foliaceous bracts; petals rose. 15-20 mm. long; sepals 15-18 mm. long, glandular-hispid; hypanthium broadly ellipsoid or pyriform, abruptly contracted above, often with few bristles, in fruit 10-12 mnu wide, 12-15 mm. long. Type: Southern Europe. General Distribution: Native to Europe; escaped from cultivation and naturalized in many parts of North America. Pacific North-west Distribution: B. G. to Ore. Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Nanaimo D«: Extension, T. M.  C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 547, Nanaimo, 18 June 1947, F. Foster, Welling-ton, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 526; New Westminster D.: nr. Boston Bar, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 201, Hope, W. H. Lewis 1521, Tale, T. M. C. Taylor & W. H. Lewis 60; Victoria D.: Esquimalt, 23 July 1908, John Macoun, North Saanich, 6 Oct 1929, W. A. Newcombe,: Victoria, Aug 1893, J. Macoun;' OREGON — Josephine Co.: Oregon Caves Junction, C. L. Hitchcock &, J. S. Martin 5195 (as R. Spaldingii Crep. var. hispida (Fern.) Jones); Lane Co.: Eugene, G. N. Jones 5822; WASHINGTON — Cowlitz Co.: Kalama, G. N. Jones 6068, Island Co.: Coupeville, G. N.  Jones 4845; Mason Co.: Skokomiah River, J. Schwartz 52; Pierce Co.: Roy, 14 May 1933, G* Jones. Rosa rugosa Thunb., F l . Jap. 213, 1784 R. ferox Lawrence, Coll. Roses 42, 1799 R. Regellana Linden & Andre, 111. Hort 18: 11, 1871 102 Stems 1.5-2.5 m. t a l l , stout, pubescent, armed with dense bristles or thorns; leaflets 5-9, 20-55 mm. long, singly serrate, pubescent below, usually eglandular; rachis and petiole pubescent, bristly, rarely gland-ular; stipules adnate, pubescent; inflorescence typically one flowered; petals pink or white; sepals glandular-hispid; peduncles short, bristly-glandular; hypanthium oval, rarely with bristles, in fruit about 15 mm. wide • Type: Japan General Distribution: Northern China, Korea, Japan; naturalized in Atlantic and Pacific Coast regions of North America. Pacific North-west Distribution: B. C.,and Wash. Specimens Examined: BRITISH COLUMBIA — Terrace, W. H. Lewis 1264; WASHINGTON — Island Co.: Useless Bay, Whidbey Island, G. N. Jones 6153. 103 LITERATURE CITED: VII Asen, S. & R. E. Larson, "Artificial culturing of rose embryos", Pa. State  Coll., Prog. Rpt. 40, 1951 Blackburn, K. B., & J. W. H. Harrison, "The status of the British rose forms as determined by their cytologieal behaviour," Ann. Bot. 35: 159-188, 1921 , Blakealee, A. F., "Effect of induced polyploidy in plants," BioL, Symp. 4: 183-201, 1941 *>• . . . Chapman, J. D., "The climate of British Columbia," Trans. Fifth B. C.  Nat. Res. Conf. 8-53, 1952 i ' ''' Da Candolle, A. P., 1818, in Crepin, F., "Sketch of a new classification of roses," Journ. Roy. Hort. Soc. 11: 217-228, 1889 Erlanson, E. W., "The wild roses of the Mackinac region of Michigan," Papers Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters 5: 77-94, 1925 _, "Cytologieal conditions and evidences for hybridity in North American wild roses," Bot. Gaz. 87: 443-506, 1929 j "Chromosome pairing, structural hybridity and fragments in Rosa,? Bot. Gaz. 94: 551-566, 1935 , "Experimental data for the revision of the North Amer-ican wild roses," Bot. Gaz. 96: 197-259, 1954 Fernald, M. L., Gray1 s Manual of Botany, American Book Co., N. Y., 1950 Flory, W* S. Jr., "Pollen conditions in some species and hybrids of Rosa with a consideration of associated phylogenetic factors," 7a. Jour. Sc. JL: 11-59, 1950 Greene, E. L., "Some western roses." Bot. Leaf. 2: 254-266, 1910-1912 Rydberg, P. A., "Notes on Rosaceae XI, roses of California and Nevada," Torr. Bot. CI. Bull. 44: 65-84, 1917 , "Monograph on Rosa," N. Am. F l . 22 : 485-555, 1918 St. John, H., F l . of S. E. Wash, and adjacent Ida., Student Book Corp., Pullman, Wash., 1937 Watson, S., "New or l i t t l e known plants: Rosa EngeimnTmj,» Garden & Forest 2: 376, 1889 Hutchinson, A. H., "Polygonal Graphing of Eoologbal Data," Ecology 21: 475-437, 1940 ~ 

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