UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The philosophical implications of the poetic impulse in Western civilization Gidney, Eileen Lee 1948

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&3 P3 Co /o • / The P h i l o s o p h i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of-The P o e t i o Impulse i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n by EILEEN LEE GIDNEY A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 194-8 P r e c i s : ^ o r L i b r a r y ) T i t l e : "The P h i l o s o p h i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s of the P o e t i c Impulse i n Western C i v i l i z a t i o n " . Author: Lee Gidney. Theme : The main theme of my t h e s i s i s that S p e n g l e r i a n a n a l y s i s of western c i v i l i z a t i o n as d e c l i n i n g i s c o r -r e c t , i n that s p e c i f i c a l l y western c u l t u r e and c i v i l i -z a t i o n i s g i v i n g way ,more and more, to a world c u l t u r e -p a t t e r n ; but my t h e s i s d i s a g r e e s with h i s v e r s i o n of the decadence of a l l art-forms today as p a r t of a d e c l i n i n g c u l t u r e , p o s t u l a t i n g r a t h e r t h a t , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the a r t s of A r c h i t e c t u r e and f i l m , there i s enormous a c t i v i t y of a c r e a t i v e n a t u r e . My t h e s i s a l s o q u a r r e l s with Speng-l e r ' s a n a l y s i s of tne r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g between the ec-onomic-forms of s o c i e t y and the a r t - o b j e c t s produced by that s o c i e t y . He s t a t e that the economic forms are" the product of the s o u l of the c u l t u r e . I contend that the a r t - p r o d u c t s of the c u l t u r e m i r r o r the m o t i v a t i n g d r i v e s of the economic f o r c e s of the s o c i a l group while i n a s t a t e .of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h them. 1 have t r i e d to present my t h e s i s , w i t h both p o s i t i o n s c l e a r l y s t a t e d , quoting Spengler at some l e n g t h on the one hand, and Lewis Mumford at an equal l e n g t h on the other, and w i t h a s u p p o r t i n g c i t a t i o n from Kuth .benedict's book, "Patterns of C u l t u r e " on s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of a more p r i m i -t i v e n a t u r e . Arrangement : My t h e s i s i s d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r chapters, the f i r s t s e r v i n g as an i n t r o d u c t i o n to the p o i n t - o f - v i e w and thematic m a t e r i a l of the whole work; the second and t h i r d c o v e r i n g the recorded h i s t o r y of the m o t i v a t i n g d r i v e s of western h i s t o r i c a l periods,drawing from t h i s m a t e r i a l to support my c o n t e n t i o n of the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the mthods of p r o d u c t i o n i n a s o c i a l group and the a r t - o b j e c t s produced by that group. In the f i n a l chap-t e r , 1 have attempted to sum up the i n f e r e n c e s from the h i s t o r i c a l chapters and to p r e s e n t my t h e s i s and i t s main p o s i t i o n i n some d e t a i l . The P h i l o s o p h i c a l Imi9licati one of The Peetie Impulse  i n Western Civilizatien» Table of Contents. Chapter One : I n t r o d u c t o r y O u t l i n e page 1. Chapter Two : The P r e - p e r i o d of Western C u l t u r e . . p . 7. Chapter Three:Western C u l t u r e and C i v i l i z a t i o n , T w e l f t h Century to the Present p.42. Chapter -*bur :The Concept Of A r t i n R e l a t i o n to the Economic Basis: of L i v i n g Examined, and the P o s s i b i l i t y For Free C r e a t i v e Development under the two Economic Forms Current Current Today Assessed p.87. E p i l o g u e : from Edmund Burke ....p.104 Appendix A : B i b l i o g r a p h y p . i - i Appendix B : Chart showing Major Epochs i n Western A r t , from Sheldon Cheyney .....p. i . Chapter One : I n t r e d u c t a r y . - 1 -In t h i s i n t r e d u c t o r y chapter I wish t o d e f i n e , f i r s t , t h e terms and the l i m i t s of my i n v e s t i g a t i o n , and then t© show the p o i n t of view from which I am approaching the whole s u b j e c t of the p o e t i c impulse as i t has expressed i t s e l f i n the works ©f man's hands, and i n the movement of man's mind, i n ©ur western c i v i l i z a t i on. By p o e t i c impulse, I mean the tendency toward c r e a t i n g or making, which i s an e s s e n t i a l i n g r e d i e n t i n the makeup of every persen, v a r y i n g i n i t s degree of development from t h a t of the genius who c r e a t e s g r e a t a r t to th a t of the o t h e r - a r t i s t who re-makes the work ©f a r t by r e a l i z i n g i t . I t v a r i e s frem the degree of p o e t i c or c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y r e q u i r e d t o synthe-s i z e the elements ©f s c i e n t i f i c or a r t i s t i c knowledge and emerge w i t h a new s c i e n t i f i c theory or a new o b j e c t ©f a r t to that l e s s e r »ut s t i l l v i t a l degree of a b i l i t y t© make,and d e s i r e to make well,which i s observable i n any s k i l l e d workman,, I d© not accept i n my meaning of western c i v i l i z a t i e n the minute S p e n g l e r i a n d i s t i n c t i o n of c i v i l i z a t i o n from c u l -t u r e , »ut use r a t h e r a d u a l i t y , combining the twe. For Spengler c u l t u r e i s the g r e a t e t i o l o g i c a l d r i v e producing the a r t , r e l -igion,mathematics, s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y ©f any p e r i e d , the ex p r e s s i o n of the s o u l ©f the p e r i o d , whereas, f o r him, c i v i l -i z a t i o n i s the r e s i d u a l product o f t h i s a c t i v i t y , and e x i s t s only i n a p e r i a d of c u l t u r a l s t e r i l i t y and decadence. For the purposes of t h i s t h e s i s I mean c i v i l i z a t i o n as a combination of these two aspects : as »oth the s u r g i n g c u l t u r a l impulse d i s c e r n i b l e i n d i f f e r e n t stages of development, and the sta»le -2-products of these p e r i o d s as they remain to us • By the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of these p o e t i c ©r c r e -a t i v e a c t i v i t i e s I mean t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n man*s complete l i v i n g . I wish t o i n t e g r a t e them w i t h the knowledge a v a i l a b l e to us from a s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s of s o c i e t y i n terms of an ec-onomic,political, r e l i g i o u s , l i n g u i s t i c , and i n g e n e r a l , an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l study ©f c u l t u r e . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n should »e noted the semantic d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n a d i s c u s s i o n of a s s t r a c t i o n s such as these human v a l u e s . I want to show t h i s impulse to c r e a t i o n not only i n the v a r i o u s media of a r t - e x p r e s s i o n c u r r e n t i n each p e r i o d , out a l s o i n r e l a t i o n to the whole p h i l o s o p h i c a l ethos of the stage of c u l t u r a l development. Here I w i l l »e , to some extent f o l l o w i n g S p e n g l e r ^ view of a c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n as an e x c l u s i v e whole; so t h a t , though Greek and Roman, e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and Byzantine art-forms are c o n s i d e r e d , t h i s i s done l a r g e l y w i t h a view to showing t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the l a t e r emerging and t y p i c a l l y western c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n . From these comparative sources I i n t e n d a l s o to draw i n f e r e n c e s u p p o r t i n g my t h e s i s of a newly emerging and t y p i c a l l y world c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n . I understand western c i v i l i z a t i o n as Beginning w i t h the myths,»allads, and f o l k - a r t s and c r a f t s of the n o r t h e r n »ar-toarians of Europe, mixing w i t h the f i x e d l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e of the L a t i n language, and w i t h the h i g h l y developed system of Roman law, and changing g r a d u a l l y u n t i l i t 'appearB indeed* i n the Gothic c a t h e d r a l s and the more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a r t of -3-of the l a t e r middle ages, and then f l o w e r s most r i c h l y i n the p e r i o d of Baroque, p e t e r i n g out i n the more s o p h i s t i c a t e d d e c o r a t i v e statement ©f the f o l l o w i n g c e n t u r i e B . Spengler quotes Goethe 1s "Winckelmann" where he says ©f V e l l e i u s P a t e r c u l u s : "With h i s standpoint i t was not g i v e n him t© see a l l a r t as a l i v i n g t h i n g t h a t must have an inconspicuous "beginning, a slow growth, a torilliant moment of f u l -f i l m e n t , and a g r a d u a l d e c l i n e l i k e every other org-a n i c toeing, though i t i s presented i n a set ©f i n d i v -d u a l s " * 1 . Spengler then goes ©n to use t h i s q u o t a t i o n to develop h i s own theory of culture-development w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n to t h a t of the west : •This sentence c o n t a i n s the e n t i r e mophology of a r t -h i s t o r y . S t y l e s do net f o l l o w one another l i k e waves or p u l s e "beats. I t i s not the p e r s o n a l i t y or w i l l or b r a i n of the a r t i s t t h a t makes the s t y l e , tout the s t y l e t h a t makes the type of the a r t i s t . . . I t i s , a s nature i s , a n ever new e x p r e s s i o n of waking man, h i e a l t e r - e g o and mirror-image i n the world around. And t h e r e f o r e i n the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of a c u l t u r e there can toe tout ©ne s t y l e , the s t y l e of the c u l t u r e . . . . . Gothic and Bareque are simply the youth and age of one and the same v e s s e l of forms, the s t y l e of the west as r i p e n i n g and. ripened...The task b e f o r e a r t -h i s t o r y i s t© w r i t e the comparative b i o g r a p h i e s ©f the g r e a t s t y l e s , a l l of which, as organisms ©f the same genus, possess s t r u c t u r a l l y cognate l i f e h i s t o r -i e s . " 2. Prom t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y statement Spengler proceeds w i t h the stages of c u l t u r e - i e v e l o p m e n t i n the west, c h a r a c t e r i z i n g them i n t h i s way : " ( F i r s t ) the timid,dependent,naked e x p r e s s i o n of a newly awakened s o u l s t i l l s eeking the r e l a t i o n between i t s e l f and the world,presented as a l i e n and u n f r i e n d -l y ; examples toeing e a r l y C h r i s t i a n catacomb p a i n t i n g s ; (second; the February of the a r t s , a presentiment ef coming wealth of f©rms l i e s over the landscape...; ( t h i r d ) then f o l l o w s the joyous mounting int© the h i g h G o t h i c . Being i s understood-A sacred form-language has 1*2,' " been completely mastered and r a d i a t e s i t B g l o r y ; ( f o u r t h ) S p e n g l e r * " D e c l i n e of the West",pps. 2 0 5 - 6 , v o l . 1 . - 4 -then f e r v e n t " y o u t h comes to an end, and con-t r a d i c t i o n s a r i s e : the Renaissance i n d i c a t e s a moment of r e s i s t a n c e ( i n i t s r e t u r n to Greek i n f l u e n c e ) ; ( f i f t h ) the manhood of the s t y l e -h i s t o r y : the c u l t u r e i s changing i n t o the i n -t e l l e c t u a l i t y of the g r e a t c i t i e s t h a t w i l l now dominate the c o u n t r y s i d e ; the s t y l e i s "becoming i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d also...The a r t i s t appears and pl a n s what f o r m e r l y grew out of the s o i l , as at the beginning of Baroque wi t h Michelangelo; ( s i x t h ) then comes the gleaming autumn of the s t y l e : once more the s o u l de-p i c t s i t s h a p p i n e s s , t h i s time conscious of s e l f - c o m p l e t i o n ; ( s e v e n t h ) then the s t y l e fades out: the form-language of the Dresden Zwinger,honey-combed w i t h i n t e l l e c t , f r a g i l e , i s f o l l o w e d by the s e n i l e c l a s s i c i s m of the Empire modes. The end i s a sunset r e f l e c t e d i n forms r e v i v e d f o r a moment »y pedant and e c l e c t i c : semi-earnestness and d o u b t f u l gen-uineness dominate the world of a r t . We today are i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n - p l a y i n g a t e d i o u s gome with dead forms, to keep up the i l l u s i o n of a l i v i n g a r t . " 3. While a c c e p t i n g the genuine i n s i g h t shown by Spengler i n h i s culture-comparisons, i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e to q u a r r e l w i t h h i s t h e s i s . I cannot accept the m y s t i c a l b a s i s of h i s thought and language, not h i s analogy of c u l t u r a l w i t h animal organisms. I do f i n d the e r u d i t e comparisons of culture-patterns very i l l u m i n a t i n g and suggestive of the more b a s i c a l l y e f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s which he n e g l e c t s . But on the b a s i s of these more f i -n a l l y a n a l y t i c a l f a c t o r s I cannot accept h i s t h e s i s of the present d e c l i n e of a r t . I t h i n k a good case can be presented d e s c r i b i n g the present as a p e r i o d of m e g a l o p o l i t a n decadence, but I t h i n k such a case would be l a r g e l y one sur v e y i n g the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of c u l t u r e , r a t h e r than i t B more fundamental c u l t u r a l v a l u e s . The a n a l y s i s of Marx and Engels shows the dependence of these 3.Spengler, o p . c i t . , pps. 206-7, v o l . 1 . -5-v a l u e s on the b a s i c economic aspect of s o c i e t y . I do not t h i n k that the acceptance of s u r f a c e v a l u e s w i l l h o l d i n the face of t h i s c l e a r l y r a t i o n a l , n on-mystical l i g h t . I wish to c h a l l e n g e Spengler's a n a l y s i s however, more on h i s own ground, as being f a l l a c i o u s h i s t o r i c a l l y . I am w i l l i n g to accept h i s s u r p r i s i n g l y acute i n t u i t i v e grasp of the slow be-g i n n i n g , g r a d u a l development, and slow d e c l i n e of a l l separate c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g that of the west, b u t l l see:''.--*: a t the same time through the course of. h i s t o r y a slow growth i n the r e s i d u a l a c c r e t i o n s of c i v i l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from these . I t seems to me;,too, that , w i t h the r i s e of i n d u s t r i a l i z e d l i v i n g , the v e r y changes i n method have produced -a p h i l o s o p h i -c a l change, and t h a t i n s t e a d of being at the d e c l i n i n g end of western c u l t u r e , we are a t the present going through the e a r l y mythic stages of a new world c u l t u r e , w i t h i t s a r t s t y p i c a l l y e x p r e s s i v e of folk-ways shown i n the cinema and the r a d i o , and w i t h the p e r i o d of beginnings, g r a d u a l l y being r e p l a c e d by more conscious i n d i v i d u a l e x p r e s s i o n w i t h i n a l l the art-forms of t h i s world c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n . The products of the t y p i c a l mass-production me t h od of t h i s new w o r l d - s o c i e t y can be so d i s t r i b u t e d to make p o s s i b l e f o r the f i r s t time i n the world's h i s t o r y a good l i f e f o r every member of the community, thus c r e a t i n g an enormous market f o r the a r t -products a l s o . The interdependence of trade and communications b r i n g a l l the p a r t s of that world s o c i e t y so c l o s e together, that along w i t h the t h r e a t of a war so d i s a s t r o u s as to a n n h i l -ate a l l human c u l t u r e , we can see the hope of a p e a c e f u l - 6 -arid c o o p e r a t i v e world c r o s s f e r t i l i z e d i n i t s a r t - f o r m s "by im-p u l s e s and knowledge from every p a r t of i t s l a r g e s o c i e t y , I wish to end my survey, i n i t s l a s t c h a p t e r , w i t h an ex-amination of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the f u l l development of t h i s world c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n , whose most unusual a r t - f o r m ( t y p i c a l of the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l changes i n ecoBomic prod u c t i o n ) w i l l l i e the e n r i c h e d l i f e of man. I would l i k e to attempt an assessment of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r t h i s f u l l development of the p o e t i c impulse i n man under the twer i d e o l o g i e s of world importance to-day : t h a t of C a p i t a l i s m , and t h a t of S o c i a l i s m ; or more accur-a t e l y , s o c i a l p a t t e r n s of a c o m p e t i t i v e type, and those of a c o o p e r a t i v e type, to see to what extent these provide a m a t r i x i n which the f u l l e s t p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of man's c r e a t i v e impulse may tee r e a l i z e d . Chapter Twe : The P r e - P e r i o d Of Western C u l t u r e . The e a r l y p r e - p e r i o d ©f western c u l t u r e begins w i t h the a r r i v a l of the Greeks from the n o r t h e r n p a r t s of Europe, t h e i r s e t t l i n g .along the Aegean Sea, and t h e i r a b s o r p t i o n of an a l r e a d y e x i s t e n t Cretan c u l t u r e . -Cretan,or M i n o a n , c i v i l i z a t i o n , as i t i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d , l a s t e d from 3400 B.C. to 1200 B.C. There are three general, d i v i s i o n s f o r t h i s long p e r i o d , based on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s : the e a l y Minoan ( 3400-2100 B.C.) which began w i t h the f i n d i n g of copper and ended wi t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n of bronze; the mid-d l e Minoan p e r i o d (2100-1600 B.C.) which was a p e r i o d ©f enor-mous a r t i s t i c p r o d u c t i o n witnessed to by the d i s c o v e r i e s among the r u i n s of Knossos - d e l i c a t e Kamares ware i n p o t t e r y , mod-ern seeming a r c h i t e c t u r e , a p i c t u r e - w r i t i n g of one hundred con-v e n t i o n a l i z e d s i g n s l e f t i n records of government and busi n e s s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ; the l a t e Minoan(l600-1200B.C.) which saw the hi g h e s t p o i n t of advance and saw a l s o i t s i n c i p i e n t stages of d e c l i n e , brought on p a r t l y i t i s thought by the unwarlike na-tur e of the people who were no match f o r the i n v a d i n g Greeks. However, bef o r e i t s d e c l i n e , the i n f l u e n c e of Cretan c i v -i l i z a t i o n had spread n o r t h i n t o Greece as f a r as Macedonia. The c i t i e s of Myceae and T i r y n s were s t i l l producing,as l a t e as 900 B. C . , a r t - o b j e c t s of Cretan i n s p i r a t i o n , and were f o r a lo n g time the centre of a g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n i n g Minoan-Mycenean c u l t u r e . The e a r l i e s t Greeks came down i n t o what i s now Greece as b a r b a r i a n conquerors, i n what i s accepted by many a u t h o r i t i e s as three d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e waves of a r r i v a l , f i r s t the Ionians, then t h e Aehaeans.and l a s t of a l l the D o r i a n s . The Ionians,though -9-conquerors of Crete seem to have adopted i t s c i v i l i z a t i o n , j u s t as the l a t e r conqueror of Greece, Rape, adopted t h a t of the Greeks. But the Ienians were i n t u r n d i s t u r b e d by the next wave of i n v a s i o n by the Achaeans, who are known, from H i t t i t e t a b l e s found at Boghaz-Keui, t o have had a l a r g e and c l o s e l y organized empire i n the f o u r t e e n t h century B.C. The l a s t a r r i v i n g wave, that of the Dorians, p r a c t i c a l l y wiped out the remnants of Myeen-ean c i v i l i z a t i o n , weakened^ as i t a l r e a d y e s s e n t i a l l y was by the wars between the Ionians and Achaeans. By 900 B.C. the e a r l y Greeks had a c q u i r e d the alphabet from the P h o e n i c i a n s w i t h whom they traded, and had reduced to w r i t i n g t h e i r own spoken language. Homer,(d.c.800B.C) wrote the "Odyssey" and the " I l i a d " i n t h i s language, t e l l i n g the legends remaining from the e a r l y Mycenean p e r i o d , which was a l r e a d y m i s t y f o r him. The s e i g e of Troy i s the s t o r y - c o r e of Homer's books, and Troy i s known to have been destroyed i n 1200 B.C. The e p i c p o e t r y contained i n these books was w r i t t e n f o r . a s t i l l f i g h t i n g a r i s t o c r a c y of Kings, c o u n c i l l o r s , and fighting-men, as l a t e r , i n an e q u i v a l e n t p e r i o d of development England pro-duced "Beowulf", Prance the "Chanson de Roland", and Germany the "Nietoelungenlied". With Hesiod's p o e t r y (d.c.750-700 B.C.) a l r e a d y a change has taken p l a c e . H i s work, comprising the "Works and Days" and a "Theogony" t e l l s - r a t h e r of the o r d i n a r y l i f e of t o i l and r e l i g -i o u s d e v o t i o n , of the peasant farmers of an a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y . In these e a r l y s t o r i e s of Greek mythology can be p e r c e i v e d the e s s e n t i a l a t t i t u d e toward l i f e of the Greek c i t i z e n of t h i s c o l l --10-e c t i o n of c i t y - s t a t e s , and of Greek c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l . Even thus e a r l y , they were a l r e a d y a c c e p t i n g t h e i r gods as s i m i l a r t o men, not a l i e n b e i ngs, only s t r o n g e r and f a i r e r and b r a v e r than men, embodying thus i n the honour they p a i d them what has come to be accepted as the t y p i c a l a t t i t u d e of t h e i r c i v i l i z a ti. on. The t r i b a l community whese b a t t l e s were recorded i n Ho-mer's w r i t i n g s was f o l l o w e d by three f u r t h e r stages i n the dev-elopment of the e i t y - s t a t e : a p e r i o d of ascendancy by the noblest or o l i g a r c h y .wherin the kings were d e p r i v e d of t h e i r power; an-other p e r i o d of s t r u g g l e between c i t i z e n s and nobles d u r i n g which t y r a n t s rose as champions of the c i t i z e n s ' r i g h t s ; and a f i n a l stage marked by the emergence of a democratic government i n c l u d i n g a l l c i t i z e n s . Sparta and Athens are the two most fam-ous examples of t h i s process of development, and c e r t a i n c u r i o u s comparisons can be made between the a r t - p r o d u c t s of the two i n terms of the d i f f e r e n c e s known to have e x i s t e d i n t h e i r s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . The word "Spartan* remaining to us today proper-l y d e s c r i b e s the atmosphere of r i g o r o u s d i s c i p l i n e , which made t h e i r s almost an armed-camp or p o l i c e - s t a t e i n form and atmos-phere, and l e f t them non-productive i n an a r t i s t i c or p h i l o -sophic sense. By 500 B.C. the Athenian c i t y - s t a t e had been r e - o r g a n i z e d by the s u c c e s s i v e reforms of Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes, i n t o one i n which every c i t i z e n had a stake, t a k i n g an a c t i v e i n t e r -est i n a l l aspects of p u b l i c l i f e , p o l i t i c s , r e l i g i o n , i n d u s t r y and commerce, s c i e n c e and a r t . These shared i n t e r e s t s gave them -11-an i n t e n s e l o c a l p a t r i o t i s m , shown i n Aeschylus* p l a y "The Per-s i a n s " where the greeks e x u l t over the d e f e a t of the huge Per-s i a n f l e e t at Salamis, 480 B.C. , which was made p o s s i b l e by the e n t h u s i a s t i c support g i v e n by the members of the c i t y - s t a t e s . P i v e of these c i t y - s t a t e s were members of the D e l i a n Con-fe d e r a c y along w i t h some i s l a n d s and Athens i t s e l f . Por these member s t a t e s , A t t i c a , B e o t i a , Thessaly, A r g o l i s , and Achaia, the g e n e r a l charge of f o r e i g n or e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s was borne by Athens, which a l s o gave a f r e s h impetus t o every branch of t h e i r community l i v i n g ; the freedom and p e r s o n a l stake i n the p o l i s or c i t y - s t a t e generated a gr e a t Athenian f l o w e r i n g i n poetry,educ-a t i o n , d r a m a , h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , o r a t o r y , the p l a s t i c a r t s , s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y . Succeeding the e p i c genius of Homer and the homely s t o r -i e s of E e s i o d came a new l y r i c poetry, r e c i t e d i n the homes of the now a f f l u e n t c i t i e s to the accompaniment of the s e v e n r s t r i n g ed l y r e , and t a k i n g on many d i f f e r e n t forms as i t was used f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes : the elegy or lament, the p e r s o n a l l y r i c of Sappho of Lesbos, the c h o r a l l y r i c of the Dorians, the d r i n k i n g songs made famous by Anacreon of Teos.... "When.I d r i n k wine A god doth s t r a i g h t b e g i n To warm my s o u l w i t h i n . . . " and P i n d a r ' s odes of v i c t o r y c e l e b r a t i n g the Olympic games and other c o n t e s t s . Greek education expressed a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a t t i t u d e i n aiming at the p r o d u c t i o n of i n t e l l i g e n t human beings r a t h e r than at g i v i n g mere v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e a r n i n g a l i v i n g . -12-T h i s i s evidenced by the c a r e f u l guidance and p l a n n i n g f o r the education of the c i t i z e n s i n P l a t o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s i d e a l " R epublic". The s i x t h century B.C. a l s o saw the beginnings of Greek drama, w i t h the peasants' songs and p r o c e s s i o n s of l e a d e r and chorus, i n honour of the god of v e g e t a t i o n and l i f e , D i o n y s i u s . These f e s t i v a l s were i n t r o d u c e d i n t o Athens under Cleisthenes,and there were given a more formal sequence, g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g in-to the t r a g i c drama of Aeschylus, the f i r s t of the g r e a t t r a g i c poets, who- i n t r o d u c e d a second a c t o r i n a d d i t i o n to the l e a d e r and the chorus. The Greek b e l i e f i n law and order and the i d e a of j u s t i c e permeates h i s p l a y s . With Sophocles (d.406 B.C.) the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a t h i r d a c t o r t o support the burden of the p l a y takes p l a c e , and he, though s t i l l b e l i e v i n g i n d i v i n e order, be-g i n s to r e j e c t the i d e a of i n e x o r a b l e f a t e . H i s "Oedipus Rex" (or "Tyrannus") i s u s u a l l y accepted as the most p e r f e c t of Greek t r a g e d i e s . E u r i p i d e s used a l e s s e p i c s t y l e than Aeschylus or Sophocles, and t r e a t e d h i s c h a r a c t e r s as human beings i n the c h a o t i c t a n g l e s of human emotions, though s t i l l u s i n g mytholog-i c a l t a l e s as p l o t or substance. "Medea", "Iphegenia", ate s t i l l p layed today, and s t i l l meaningful as s t o r i e s of human emotion, and E u r i p i d e s ' i n f l u e n c e through the d e r i v a t i v e Roman d r a m a t i s t , Seneca, reached the E l i z a b e t h a n t h e a t r e . Comedy developed from the l e s s formal and l e s s i n h i b i t e d aspect of the D i o n y s i a n f e s t i v a l s . Aristophanes(d.ca.385 B.C.) shows h i s comic v e i n and s c e p t i c a l s p i r i t i n h i s s a t i r i c p l a y s , "Clouds", "Frogs","Birds","Wasps", and i n h i s treatment of the -13-wars between the d i f f e r e n t Greek c i t y - s t a t e s i n such p l a y s as "The Acharnians" and " L y s i s t r a t a " . The h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s of Herodotus (d.424-5 B.C.) are r a t h e r the r e c o r d of what happened to i n t e r e s t orP b r i g h t man than the s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s i s of c u r r e n t h i s t o r y w r i t t e n by the l a t e r T hucjdides (d.ca.400 B.C.) i n h i s book "The Peloponnesian War". His account was continued to 362 B.C. by Zenophon i n h i s " H e l l e n -i c a " . Zenophon (d.355 B.C.) a l s o wrote the " A n a b a s i s " , t e l l i n g the s t o r y of the march of. the 10,000 Greeks who went i n 400 B.c w i t h Cyrus the Younger to h e l p him take the P e r s i a n throne from h i s b r o t h e r ; and a l s o the"Memorabilia", i n which are contained h i s r e f l e c t i o n s and h i s memories of S o c r a t e s . The i n c l u s i o n of the whole body of c i t i z e n s i n govern-ment made ne c e s s a r y an a r t of a d d r e s s i n g and persuading them on important i s s u e s , as e x h i b i t e d by such famous o r a t o r s as Per-i c l e s , T hemistocles, Demosthenes. Demosthenes(d.322 B.C.) was ah e s p e c i a l l y powerful emotional speaker from whose speeches a g a i n s t P h i l i p of Maeedon -the-word ' p h i l i p p i c ' has-come down to us* The c i v i c nature of Greek a r t i s admirably demonstrated by t h e i r a r c h i t e c t u r e and s c u l p t u r e which reach t h e i r h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n i n the temples, which were the c i v i c as w e l l as r e l -i g i o u s core of the c i t y l i f e . By a process of c r e a t i v e t r i a l and e r r o r they a r r i v e d at such i d e a l l y harmonious p r o p o r t i o n s that western a r c h i t e c t u r e i s s t i l l copying them today i n s t e a d of a t -^tempting t h e i r brave l a b o u r and producing our own e q u i v a l e n t l y b e a u t i f u l and harmonious e x p r e s s i o n . -14-The core of the s t r u c t u r e of the Greek temple was the c e l l a , a small f o u r - w a l l e d room f o r the statue of the l o c a l god, (Artemis f o r Ephesus, Athena f o r Athens) and entered from the pronaos or v e s t i b u l e . •'. The l a r g e r temples had columns to support the low-pitched gable roof, and the c e l l a became an i n -ner room hidden by t h e i r t r u n k s . Some of the temples had c o l -umns only a c r o s s the f r o n t (the p r o s t y l e ) , some ac r o s s the f r o n t and back(the a m p h i p r o s t y l e ) , and some on a l l f o u r s i d e s (the p e r i s t y l a r ) . I t was the e n t a b l a t u r e of the temple however which gave the g r e a t e s t chance f o r v a r i e t y i n the manner of treatment. T h i s was the temple facade composed of the a r c h i t r a v e or heavy c r o s s -beams, the d e c o r a t i v e band c a l l e d the f r i e z e , and the moulded c o r n i c e s . The gable ends of the roof formed a t r i a n g l e which was c a l l e d the pediment, and which was used by the g r e a t a r t i s t s of s c u l p t u r e f o r enriched d e c o r a t i o n . There are t h r e e u s u a l l y accepted d i v i s i o n s or s t y l e s of c l a s s i f y i n g these temples, the D o r i c , I o n i c , and C o r i n t h i a n , from t h e i r p l a c e s of o r i g i n . In the e a r l y D o r i c which i s the s i m p l e s t the columns are p l a i n heavy s h a f t s r i s i n g from the temple base d i r e c t l y , and surmounted by a c a p i t a l of a rounded band and a square b l o c k c a l l e d the abacus; the o r i g i n a l wooden roof cone r s t r u c t i o n was perpetuated i n stone; that i s , stone r a f t e r ends c a l l e d t r i g l y p h s were added, and these arid the spaces between c a l l e d the metopes were c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d in''• treatment, the whole e f f e c t b e i n g r e s t r a i n e d and severe. "By the c l o s e of the 5th century B.C. the more g r a c e f u l I o n i c was D e c e r n i n g the pre-v a i l i n g s t y l e . I o n i c columns are u s u a l l y t a l l e r , f l u t e d , and s l e n d e r e r , and the c a p i t a l s more e l a b o r a t e . The c a p i t a l was com-posed of a p i l l o w b l o c k carved i n a double v o l u t e , a p a r t i c u -l a r l y g r a c e f u l form. The e n t a b l a t u r e above iB o f t e n broken by h o r i z o n t a l l i n e s ; the f r i e z e becomes a f l a t s u r f a c e devoted to the low r e l i e f s of the s c u l p t o r . The Cor i n t h i a n i s an e l a b o r a t -i o n of the I o n i c . The columns are s t i l l t a l l e r , and more f l u t e d the m o d i f i e d I o n i c c a p i t a l i s more o r n a t e l y decorated. The p r i n -c i p l e of e n t a s i s was used i n a l l of these forms to curve s u b t l y the v e r t i c a l l i n e s of the columns and the l o n g s t r a i g h t l i n e s of the bases of the temples, wherever the eye might imagine a sag. The s t i f f l y a r c h a i c s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s were very g r a d u a l l y b e g i n n i n g to change. By the 5th century B.C. there ap-peared the f i r s t of the g r e a t s c u l p t o r s , Myron of Athens, the c r e a t o r of the bronze " D i s c o b o l u s " ; among h i s s u c c e s s o r s were P o l y c l e t u s of Argos (the bronze "Doryphorus* or s p e a r b e a r e r ) , a n d P h i d i a s , the g r e a t e s t of them a l l . They are represented to-day c h i e f l y by poor contemporary c o p i e s of t h e i r best work, but s t i l l a v a i l a b l e are some important fragments. Among these i s the work of P h i d i a s on the pediments of the Parthenon ( r e p r e s e n t i n g on the east end the b i r t h of the goddess Athena, a n d on the west end the s t r u g g l e of Athena w i t h Poseidon f o r the p o s s e s s i o n of A t t i c a ) and h i s enormous f r i e z e around the c e l l a , 522. f e e t long, showing the Panathenaic f e s t i v a l and. i n c l u d i n g over 300 f i g u r e s , some of which were d o u b t l e s s executed under h i s super-v i s i o n . -16-A f t e r P h i d i a s , P r a x i t e l e s i s the accepted model of Greek e x c e l l e n c e i n s c u l p t u r e . H i s *Hermes w unearthed at Olympia i n 1877 i s m u t i l a t e d hut the head, trunk, and t h i g h s are i n t a c t and show h i s m a s t e r l y a b i l i t y . Greek p a i n t i n g has s u f f e r e d even more than Greek s c u l p -ture from the passage of time, and i s known today c h i e f l y through the vase p a i n t i n g s , which were presumably done r a t h e r by c r a f t s -men than the great a r t i s t s of the medium such as Polygnotus, A p o l l o n i u s of Athens, Zeuxis, and P a r r h e s i u s . The P e r i c l e a n age brought enormous developments i n tech-n i c a l a b i l i t y and v i r t u o s i t y of e x p r e s s i o n i n a l l branches of a r t i s t i c - c i v i l a c t i v i t y . The b u i l d i n g of the Parthenon, a p e r i s -t y l a r D o r i c temple 101 f t . by 228 f t . b u i l t by I c t i n i u s and G a l -l i c r a t e s , the adornment of the whole A c r o p o l i s w i t h the s c u l p t u r e of such a r t i s t s as P h i d i a s , the drama of Sophocles and E u r i p i d e s , the h i s t o r i c a l a n a l y s es of Thucydides, a l l express the g r e a t per-i o d of Athenian economic and p o l i t i c a l development. In P h i l o s o p h y the Greeks began by a n a l y s i n g r e a l i t y and the nature of r e a l i t y without recourse to r e v e l a t i o n as explan-a t i o n , t h e i r f i r s t major que s t i o n being about the substance of the world, i n which they p o s i t e d d i f f e r e n t t h e o r i e s : Thales s t a t i n g the prime substance to be water; H e r a c l e i t O B s t r e s s i n g the f l u x - l i k e nature of r e a l i t y ; while t h e i r second major ques-t i o n was that of order, or c a u s a l i t y , f i r s t s t a t e d by Anaximan-d e r . Of t h i s i d e a R u s s e l l says : "There i s a k i n d of n e c e s s i t y or n a t u r a l law which per-p e t u a l l y r e d r e s s e s the balance; where there has been f i r e f o r example, there are ashes, which are e a r t h . T h i s con--17-c e p t i o n of j u s t i c e - of not overstepping e t e r n a l l y f i x e d bounds - was one of the most profound of Greek b e l i e f s . The gods were s u b j e c t to j u s t i c e j u s t , as much as men were, but t h i s supreme power was not i t s e l f p e r s o n a l , and was not a supreme god." 4. The r i c h f l o w e r i n g of the P e r i c l e a n p e r i o d saw, i n P h i l -osophy, the q u e s t i o n i n g s p i r i t of Socrates, whose d i s c i p l e was P l a t o . But the Athenians e a g e r l y r e c e i v e d a l s o teachers from outside t h e i r c i t y ; indeed i n P l a t o ' s d i a l o g u e , "Protagoras*, Socrates w i t t i l y s a t i r i z e s the eagerness of the young d i s c i p l e s l i s t e n i n g so a r d e n t l y to the v i s i t i n g Sophist teacher. ' P e r i -c l e s i n v i t e d as a v i s i t o r to Athens the p h i l o s o p h e r Anaxagoras from whom Socrates, i n the P l a t o n i c d i a l o g u e s , says that he f i r s t l e a r n e d of the pre-eminent importance of mind,(nous), i n c r e a -t i o n . In the work o,f P l a t o , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s "Republic", Book Ten, the p l a c e of a r t i n r e l a t i o n , to the s t a t e was s t a t e d i n one of i t s s t i l l e x i s t i n g forms - the u s e f u l n e s s of a r t as pro-paganda f o r a c e r t a i n type.of s o c i a l order, and f o r the educ-a t i o n and guidance of the d e s i r e d type of c i t i z e n . Whereas Ar-i s t o t l e , i n h i s " P o e t i c s " , concentrated r a t h e r on the c r a f t as-pect of 'making' i n a r t . He uses as h i s fundamental premis that a l l a r t i s i m i t a t i v e i n c h a r a c t e r , the i m i t a t i o n b e i n g based i n p h y s i o l o g i c rythms, and on what he thought of as an ' i n s t i n c t ' f o r i m i t a t i o n i n man. R u s s e l l sums up Greek achievement of genius i n these words : "What they achieved i n a r t and l i t e r a t u r e i s f a m i l i a r to everybody, but what they d i d i n the p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t -u a l realms i s even more e x c e p t i o n a l . They invented math-ematics, and science,and philosophy; they f i r s t wrote h i s -t o r y as opposed to mere annals; they s p e c u l a t e d f r e e l y about the nature of the world and the ends of l i f e , with-4 . R u s s e l l , B e r t r a n d : "A H i s t o r y of Western Philosophy",New York, Simon & Schuster,1945;pps. 24,27. -18-out b e i n g bound i n the f e t t e r s of any orthodoxy... A r i t h m e t i c and some Geometry e x i s t e d among the E-g y p t i a n s and Babylonians, but mainly i n the form of r u l e s of thumb. Deductive reasoning from g e n e r a l premisses was a Greek invention...They has a maxim, •nothing too much', but they were i n f a c t e x c e s s i v e i n e v e r y t h i n g - i n pure thought, i n poetry, i n r e l -i g i o n , and i n s i n . I t was the combination of p a s s i o n and i n t e l l e c t t h a t made them g r e a t . N e i t h e r alone would have transformed the world f o r a l l f u t u r e time as they transformed i t . T h e i r prototype i n mythol-ogy i s not Olympian Zeus, but Prometheus, who brought f i r e from heaven and was rewarded w i t h et-e r n a l torment. If taken of the Greeks as a whole, however, what has j u s t been s a i d would be as one-sided as the view that the Greeks were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by 'ser-e n i t y * . There were i n f a c t two tendencies i n Greece, one p a s s i o n a t e , r e l i g i o u s , m y s t i c a l , o t h e r -w o r l d l y ; the other c h e e r f u l , e m p i r i c a l , r a t i o n a l -i s t i c , and i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g knowledge of a d i v e r s i t y of f a c t s . * 5. H e l l e n i s t i c c i v i l i z a t i o n begins when the g r e a t p e r i o d of Greek p h i l o s o p h y and a r t had begun to p e t e r out, when the Greek p l a s t i c a r t s had s l o w l y developed i n t o the r i c h n e s s of P h i d i a s and then begun to d e t e r i o r a t e i n t o the o v e r - d e c o r a t i v e , exem-p l i f i e d i n t h i s new p e r i o d by the s c u l p t u r e group, * ,Laoco0n M. H e l l e n i s t i c a r t and c i v i l i z a t i o n i n g e n e r a l r e a l l y be-gin s w i t h the conquests of Alexander of Macedon, who s u b j e c t e d the s t a t e s n e i g h b o r i n g , and i t extends to the time when these t e r r i t o r i e s and a l l his,empire were absorbed by the Roman Empire, 146, B.C. The f r e e democratic l i f e of the c i t y - s t a t e was over, even d u r i n g the time when P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e were a n a l y s i n g i t s s t r u c t u r e and v a l u e . Replaced by the empire of Alexander the emphasis of v a l u e s s h i f t e d from the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l i f e of the p o l i s , to the more i n d i v i d u a l value of the S t o i c 5 . R u s s e l l , op. c i t . , p p S . 3 , 2 1 . -19-and Epicurean philosophy, r e t i r i n g . a s they were from the hur-l y - b u r l y of c i v i c l i f e to t h e " i v o r y tower" a t t i t u a e n o t i c e a b l e at other s i m i l a r p e r i o d s i n the development of other c u l t u r e s . However, d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , one p o s i t i v e r e s u l t was that of the spread of the a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g Greek c u l t u r e f a r beyond the few c i t y - s t a t e s of the Greek p e n i n s u l a as f a r as A s i a Minor, the T i g r i s - E u p h r a t e s v a l l e y , Egypt, and f i n a l l y to the new s t a t e of Rome then r i s i n g i n the west. T h i s spread forms a l i n k between the c l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e of Greece and Rome. Thi s was a p e r i o d of development i n mathematics and mech-a n i c s r a t h e r than i n 1 a r t ' , producing as i t d i d E u c l i d ' s t h i r -teen books of "Elements", A p o l l o n i u s of Perga's work on c o n i c s e c t i o n s , and the work of Archimedes of Syracuse who demonstra-ted the laws governing the a c t i o n of the l e v e r and d i s c o v e r e d , what came to be known,in h y d r o s t a t i c s , as the "Archimedean p r i n c i p l e " , t h a t a s o l i d body immersed i n a f l u i d becomes l i g h t -er i n p r o p o r t i o n to the weight i t d i s p l a c e s i n the water. The a r t s i n the H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d had very d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of emphasis to that of the e a r l i e r and r i c h e r p e r i o d of Greek a r t . They were more exaggeratedly d e c o r a t i v e i n concep-t i o n and execution, as i s shown i n the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned "La-ocoon" group, as i n tne Colossus of Rhodes, the Nike of Samo-thrace", the Venus of M i l o , and i n the Pergamese groups, "Dy-i n g Gaul" and "Gaul S l a y i n g Wife and S e l f " , commemorating the i n v a s i o n of Thrace and A s i a Minor by the Gauls, 279-8 B.C., when tney were defeated by K i n g A t a l u s of Pergamum. . i s Other Pergamene art'shown i n the remains of the temple at -20-Pergamum, excavated i n 1878 & 86 and now i n the B e r l i n Museum, and i n t h e i r o v e r - l i f e - s i z e d f i g u r e s which i n f l u e n c e d the s c u l p -t o r s of Rhodes. H e l l e n i s t i c a r c h i t e c t s used the true a r c h ( with key-stone) and spread abroad over the then known world the charming Greek p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s which they copied, u s i n g th&r c e n t r a l court open to the sky surrounded by a colonnaded porch from which rooms opened. The new c i t i e s of the time were adorned with c o s t l y temples, baths,and l i b r a r i e s l i k e the one a t A l e x a n d r i a , and t h e a t r e s i n which were performed the comedies of Menander, a w r i t e r who i n f l u e n c e d the l a t e r Romans, Terrence and P l a u t u s . Menander lov e d , and wrote about, the l i f e of the H e l l e n i s t i c c i t y f o r i t s s o p h i s t i c a t e d i n h a b i t a n t s , w h i l e T h e o c r i t u s wrote, f o r those who were bored w i t h t h i s , a new p a s t o r a l poetry, and the h i s t o r i a n Polybius of M e g a l o p o l i s wrote the " H i s t o r i e s 1 ' , t r a c -i n g the s t o r y of the Roman conquest from the C a r t h a g i n i a n war to the f a l l of C o r i n t h i n 146 B.C. As we tu r n to the f i n a l phase of c l a s s i c a l c u l t u r e , wi t h t h e p e r i o d of Roman dominance, we can bear i n mind what has been s a i d of i t by Jose Ortega y Gasset..."The Romans are the only people whose e n t i r e s c r o l l of l i f e can be u n r o l l e d before our eyes. With others the p i c t u r e i s fragmentary. E i t h e r we cannot see them born, or we have not seen them d i e . . . " I t i s true of Roman c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t we know i t s r o o t s i n Greece, and i n H e l l e n i s t i c t r a n s i t i o n a l c u l t u r e , t hat we have f u l l r e c o r d s i n f a m i l i a r L a t i n of t h e i r a c t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o law and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and language, and that we have records of -21-the processes accompanying t h e i r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . From t h i s doc-umented h i s t o r y of t h e i r decadence we can t h e r e f o r e make c e r t a i n deductions about our own somewhat s i m i l a r p e r i o d , w i t h a dying and a begin n i n g c u l t u r e i n e x t r i c a b l y j o i n e d ; and c e r t a i n con-c l u s i o n s s u p p o r t i n g my t h e s i s w i l l be made as we go on. How Rome su b j e c t e d the v a r i o u s peoples s e t t l e d i n the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a - I t a l i a n s , C a r t h a g i n i a n s , E t r u s c a n s , Greeks, C e l t s - and a p p r o p r i a t e d t h e i r c i v i l i z a t i o n , i n t e n s i f y i n g and extending i t , becoming the centre of a wide c u l t u r a l d i f f u s i o n the i n f l u e n c e of which has' l e f t t r a c e s t o t h i s day, i s one of the great s t o r i e s of h i s t o r y . Having a p p r o p r i a t e d the I t a l i a n p e n i n s u l a , destroyed Carthage i n the C a r t h a g i n i a n wars, and turned to the east, Rome proceeded to slowly absorb i t w i t h i n the boundaries of a mighty empire : C o r i n t h (146 B.C.), Greece i t s e l f , Macedonia, Pergamum, S y r i a , and f i n a l l y Egypt (30 B.C.). In the n o r t h Gaul was con-quered by J u l i u s Caesar (58-49 B.C.), g a i n i n g as f a r n o r t h as B r i t a i n (56-55 B.C.). Roman l i t e r a t u r e , l i k e Roman c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y , began w i t h borrowings from the Greek, but had produced by the time of Pl a u t u s (d.184 B.C.) and Terence (d.159 B.C.) comedies of n a t i v e , a b i l i t y which c e n t u r i e s l a t e r i n f l u e n c e d Shakespeare, M o l i e r e , and the commedia d e l l ' a r t e , the popular comedy of the I t a l i a n Renaissance, though even before t h i s the Saxon nun, Roswitha, (10th century A.D.) had i m i t a t e d . Terence i n pious p l a y s omit-t i n g anything of h i s s t y l e c o n s i d e r e d improper f o r h e r purpose which was d i d a c t i c . -22-A f t e r the Punic wars , the "basic small-farmer s o c i e t y of Rome was r a d i c a l l y changed. The markets were drugged with cheap s l a v e l a b o u r , c a p t i v e s of the many Roman v i c t o r i e s , and unemployment of the poorer c l a s s e s of c i t i z e n s l e d to grea t s o c i a l d i s t u r b a n c e s i n the c i t y of Rome where they f l o c k e d to see the " c i r c u s e s " and to get the dole of g r a i n which the s t a t e was f o r c e d to g i v e them to prevent r e v o l u t i o n . Some of the p l e b i a n s became wealthy from the e f f e c t s of i n c r e a s i n g pop-u l a t i o n and commerce and they r e s e n t e d the e x c l u s i v e n e s s of the r u l i n g p a t r i c i a n s , and o f t e n p r o v i d e d l e a d e r s h i p f o r t h e i r f e l . -low p l e b s . The Senators of Rome g r a d u a l l y y i e l d e d power to them i n the form of t r i b u n e s who were e l e c t e d to re p r e s e n t the i n t -e r e s t of the p l e b s . The senators c o u l d not then o v e r r u l e these t r i b u n e s who had the power to vet© the a c t i o n of the co n s u l s , and even to k i l l a m a g i s t r a t e who r e f u s e d to take n o t i c e of t h e i r v e t o . The Roman f e d e r a t i o n of c i t y - s t a t e s f u n c t i o n e d peace-f u l l y on a p r i n c i p l e of u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y , w i t h the a l l i e d s t a t e s r e t a i n i n g t h e i r l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n t r o l and Rome assuming r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r matters of m i l i t a r y p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g $he whole. But the conquest of e x t r a t e r r i t o r y i n war poured p l u n -der i n t o Rome which under mined the moral f i b r e of the govern-i n g c l a s s , while the i n f l u x of gangs of s l a v e s to work the gr e a t p l a n t a t i o n s , c a l l e d l a t i f u n d i a , as has been noted ru i n e d the f r e e farmers on small h o l d i n g s who could not compete a g a i n s t such m o n o p o l i s t i c concerns. -23* The conflict between the "unemployed" who drifted in-to the city, and the senators who profited from these abuses, re-sulted in c i v i l war. Marius and Sulla, Pompey and Caesar, were popular figures who, backed by the mob, demanded reforms. For the last hundred years B.C. there was continual strife between these r i v a l opportunists whose ruthless ambitions ruined the welfare of the republic, while in themselves they expressed the change in valies pf the society which produced them. The new Roman Empire established by the last of these, Augustus, by 27 B.C. had set up conditions of s t a b i l i t y and peace which became known as the "pax Romana", lasting for two centuries and leading to enormous industrial and commercial activity, which in.turn extended knowledge of the inhabited world. The major philosophical positions of the Romans were those of the last Greek schools, Epicureanism and Stoicism. The f i r s t appealed to the sophisticated younger Romans, who accepted the freedom from fixed values which i t gave them, based i t was on the Atomism of Democritus which considered l i f e but an acciden-t a l combination of atoms, permitting no permanent values of the Good as taught by; the Platonic theory of eternally existing Ideas. Lucretius expressed this point of view in his "On the Nature of Things". Opposed to this and accepted by the more serious typ: i c a l s p i r i t of Rome was Stoicism, whose essential idea of the equality of man is shown by the varying exponents who accepted i t and taught i t s doctrines, Epiotetus, a slave at one time, and Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome. -24-Seneca stated i t s fundamentally moderate p o s i t i o n i n h i s "On the B r e v i t y of L i f e " , "On Anger", and "On Clemency", and i n h i s p l a y s , such as h i s "Medea", one of nine t r a g e d i e s • w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of E u r i p i d e s , whose l a t e r i n f l u e n c e on the plays of the I t a l i a n Renaissance, and e s p e c i a l l y on the French C l a s s i c i s m of the time of L o u i s XIV, was important. However the p h i l o s o p h i c a l idea f o r which t h i s l a t e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d i s most famous i s that o f Neoplatonism, expressed most f u l l y by P l o t i n u s i n h i s "Enneads" or "Nine P a r t s " which was published by Porphyry(d.304)• This accepted the dichotomy i m p l i c i t i n P l a t o ' s "Theory of Ideas , and suggested two p o l e s , one rep-presaating the "one" or G-od, and the other r e p r e s e n t i n g that of Matter, and l y i n g between these extremes a l l things i n c l u d i n g man, whose s o u l partakes of the immaterial q u a l i t y of God but whose, body i s m a t e r i a l and gross. Their s o l u t i o n of t h i s dualism was an e t h i c a l one, that man should t u r n h i s back on the mater-i a l p a r t of h i m s e l f , s u b j e c t i n g and denying i t , and t u r n towards the immaterial or God. This was the most developed mysticism yet appear-in g i n the west, and has had an i n c a l c u l a b l e e f f e c t on most sub-sequent r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g . I t was the medium from which sprang the medieval doctrine of the s a l v a t i o n of the soul through the m o r t i f i c a t i o n of the body. From i t a l s o came ideas cu r r e n t i n the Middle Ages of the mystic v i s i o n , or ladder of p e r f e c t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e of Rome i s an e c l e c t i c one, d e r i v -i n g not only i t s matter from Greece but a l s o many of i t s s t y l i s -t i c d e v i c e s . Cicero i s the most t y p i c a l o f t h e i r e a r l y w r i t e r s , -25-d i s p l a y s the' eloquence of o r a t o r y which was considered by them as by the Greeks one of the c i v i c n e c e s s i t i e s . H i s most famous works are "Orations Against C a t i l i n e " , "On the Orator where he discusses e d u c a t i o n a l theory;"On the S t a t e " and "On the Laws" i n which he s t a t e s h i s p o l i t i c a l philosophy; "On Old Age" and "On the Nature of the Gods" which contains h i s conception of S t o i c ideas; and h i s " L e t t e r s " which t r e a t of the a f f a i r s of an i n t e l -l i g e n t well-educated Roman of the l a s t century B.C. The most famous Roman poet i s V i r g i l , whose e x q u i s i t e mas-te r y of h i s own language can conceal h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l indebted-ness to the Greeks more r e a d i l y than more ob v i o u s l y d e r i v a t i v e w r i t e r s . His best known work, "The Aeneid", which t e l l s of the descent of Rome from the Trojan hero Aeneas, i s f a m i l i a r through-out European education i n which i t has long been used to i n c u l -cate the p a t r i o t i c i d e a l s of l o y a l t y and courage. His "Eclogues" or p a s t o r a l poems are i n s p i r e d by the p a s t o r a l poetry of Theo-c r i t u s , and the "Georgics" t e l l i n p o e t i c v e i n of the r e a l i t i e s of farm l i f e . Ovid(d. A.D. 17), though w r i t i n g at about the same time as V i r g i l ( d . 19 B.C.) shows i n h i s work r a t h e r a p i c t u r e of the l a x m o r a l i t y and l a c k o f purpose of s o p h i s t i c a t e d urban Roman s o c i e t y , than the v i r t u e s of a landed a r i s t o c r a c y l i v i n g i n sep-arate small communities, and possessing a compact f a m i l y l i f e r u l e d over by the " p a t e r f a m i l i a s " . Ovid"s "Ars Amatoris" and "Metamorphoses" have exerted an enormous i n f l u e n c e on the l i t e r a t u r e of Europe. The "Art of Love" though w r i t t e n i n a c y n i c a l s p i r i t to s a t i r i z e the subject by g i v i n g i t a p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c treatment, was used s e r i o u s l y by -26-the w r i t e r s o f the medieval c o u r t l y romances, and h i s "Me-tamor-* phoses", t e l l i n g the s t o r i e s of the c l a s s i c a l mythology, has been a source f o r Dante, Chaucer, Shakespeare, and many other a r t i s t s and h i s mastery o f s t y l e continues to p l e a s e . The h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s of the Romans has been u s e f u l i n b r i d g i n g the gap between the l a t e H e l l e n i s t i c p e r i o d and t h e i r own. P l i n y the E l d e r , i n h i s "N a t u r a l H i s t o r i e s " covers most of the f i e l d of extant knowledge;- P l i n y the Younger(d.114) , a w r i -t e r o f c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s i n t e l l e c t u a l content and extent, t e l l s amusingly about the happenings of h i s day, one o f the most i n t e r -e s t i n g to us being h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of the e r u p t i o n o f Vesuvius i n A.D.79 which destroyed Pompeii; P l u t a r c h (d.120) i n h i s " P a r a l l e l L i v e s " r e l a t e s the major b i o g r a p h i c a l events o f 23 Greek and 23 -Roman nobles and n o t a b l e s , and t h i s has served s i n c e as a source f o r dramatic p r e s e n t a t i o n s of those c h a r a c t e r s by such w r i t e r s as Shakespeare i n h i s " C o r i o l a n u s " , " J u l i u s Caesar" and "Antony and C l e o p a t r a " ; J u l i u s Caesar h i m s e l f wrote an h i s t o r i c a l account of h i s " G a l l i c Wars" i n or d e r to j u s t i f y h i m s e l f and h i s a c t i o n s i n h i s campaigns; L i v y g l o r i f i e d Rome i n h i s " H i s t o r y o f Rome from the Founding of the C i t y " , whereas T a c i t u s i n h i s "Annals"(which . begin w i t h the p r i n c i p a t e o f Augustus) and h i s " H i s t o r i e s " (which begin w i t h A.D.68) shows the c o r r u p t i o n o f Roman s o c i e t y , and i n h i s "Germania" d e s c r i b e s the t r i b e s o f Germany, and i n h i s " A g r i c o l a c o l a " recounts the e x p l o i t s of h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w who conquered B r i t a i n ; t h i s emphasis on morals was not as s t e r n l y f o l l o w e d by Suetonius i n h i s " L i v e s o f the Twelve Caesars" (from J u l i u s Cae-sar to Domitian), who found a l a t e r i m i t a t o r i n the monk E g i n h a r d of the 9th century, w r i t i n g a " L i f e o f Charlemagne". -27-More i n t e r e s t e d i n s a t i r i z i n g the f o l l i e s of Roman s o c i e t y than i n r e c o r d i n g t h e i r e x p l o i t s were : Juvenal(d.135), exceptionally b i t t e r i n h i s r u t h l e s s d e l i n e a t i o n s o f the l u x u r -ious l i v i n g of the upper c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y so i n h i s s a t i r e on women; and M a r t i a l (d,104) whose w r i t i n g s may have i n s p i r e d the lampoons o f the l a l i a n Renaissance; and L u c i a n of Samosate, whose "Dialogue o f the Dead" and "Alexander the F a l s e Prophet" i n s p i r e d or at l e a s t e x e r t e d some i n f l u e n c e on the work o f E r a s -mus, V o l t a i r e and S w i f t The i d e a l o f Roman, edu c a t i o n has g i v e n us a word d e s c r i b -i n g our own i d e a l of "humanism", s i n c e they attempted to make c i v i l i z e d men out o f t h e i r young men, i n d i c a t i n g t h i s change by the name "humanus" giv e n to the a d u l t , and by the name "humanitas" g i v e n to the type o f e d u c a t i o n . However, the t y p i c a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n of Roman genius was . .. r a t h e r that o f e n g i n e e r i n g and l e g a l c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h e i r a r c h -i t e c t u r a l p r e f e r e n c e s were f o r an ornate v e r s i o n of the l a t e Cor-i n t h i a n s t y l e , which i s shown i n the F l a v i a n Amphitheatre, c a l l -ed the Colosseum, b u i l t to h o l d 50,000 s p e c t a t o r s , and i n the Pantheon, b u i l t i n the f i r s t century A.D. so w£l t h a t i n the 1800 years folia/wing i t has r e q u i r e d very few r e p a i r s . The a r c h o f triumph b u i l t t o honour some r e t u r n i n g hero i s another very Ro-man form, f o r example, the Arch o f C o n s t a n t i n e . T h e i r s c u l p t u r e c o n s i s t e d i n making copies o f Greek mas-t e r p i e c e s , and i t was these l a t e r d i s c o v e r e d c o p i e s which i n f l u -enced the s c u l p t o r s of the Renaissance. The Romans l e f t a l s o a f i n e c o l l e c t i o n o f p o r t r a i t b u s t s , from which some i d e a of the v i r t u e s they p r i z e d can be understood, as they were c h i e f l y i n -s p i r e d by reverence f o r t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s . -28-Almost the only remaining examples of Roman p a i n t i n g are those d i s c o v e r e d on the w a l l s of Pompeii, which are s i m i l a r i n technique to the f r e s c o e s of the Renaissance p a i n t e r s of f r e s c o e s but there are many examples of the mosaic p a t t e r n s w i t h which they adorned t h e i r w a l l s and f l o o r s . T h e i r e n g i n e e r i n g a b i l i t i e s took a more o r i g i n a l form, which i s shown i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , and i n b r i d g e s l i k e the one s t i l l s t a n d i n g over the Tagus r i v e r at A l c a n t a r a i n Spain, 150 fjeet high? i n the aqueducts l i k e t h a t a t Nimes i n southern Prance where there are three arcades to c a r r y a c u r r e n t of water at a h e i g h t of 160 f e e t ; and i n the b u i l d i n g of t h e i r roads, examp-l e s s t i l l reamining i n the Appian Way and the Sacred Way i n t o Rome. TheBe roads are made of s e v e r a l l a y e r s of stone and con-c r e t e , and s u r f a c e d w i t h stones which are so w e l l s e t , so w e l l hewn and f i t t e d t o gether that wagons r o l l i n g over them h a r d l y r a t t l e . In l e g a l s t r u c t u r e the Romans b u i l t as e n d u r i n g l y f o r p o s t e r i t y a£ i n t h e i r roads. Theodosius 11, i n 438, c o d i f i e d the laws of the p r e v i o u s C h r i s t i a n emperors, and J u s t i n i a n 1 , the Byzantine Emperoro from 427-565, s e t down i n l o g i c a l form the whole body of Roman l e g a l p r i n c i p l e . In s a n i t a t i o n and h o s p i t a l care f o r t h e i r g r e a t armies Rome a l s o made important c o n t r i b u t i o n s to human knowledge. The houses of Rome were p r o v i d e d w i t h water from a c e n t r a l d i s t r i b -u t i n g c e n t r e , and of their sewage systems the most famous i s the Cloaca Maxima. Celsus wrote h i s *0n Medic&ne*, and Galen (d.199) was v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l . He continued the i d e a taken from the Greeks - 2 9 -of the f o u r humours, a s s i g n i n g to them these q u a l i t i e s and e l -ements, •• Q u a l i t i e s Elements Humours Hot and wet A i r Yellow B i l e Hot and dry E i r e Blood Cold and d r y E a r t h B l a c k B i l e Cold and wet Water Phlegm which d i v i s i o n s l a t e r r e c u r i n medieval medicine and l e t t e r s . M e d i c a l knowledge from t h i s time on began to s h r i n k i n i t s a t t e n t i o n to a c t u a l anatomical s t u d i e s and to expand i t s non-s c i e n t i f i c a s pects i n a t t e n t i o n to a n t r o l o g y and alchemy, wi t h men d a b b l i n g i n ideas of magic r a t h e r than i n those of p r e c i s e knowledge. The study of the Zodiac was supposed to r e v e a l the s t a r s ' i n f l u e n c e on human d e s t i n y , and the s i g n s of tne Zodiac were taken as e x e r t i n g i n f l u e n c e over d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the human body... A r i e s on the head, Taurus on the neck, Gemini on the shoulders and arms, Cancer on the b r e a s t , Leo on the f l a n k s , V i r g o on the bla d d e r , L i b r a on the b u t t o c k s , S c o r p i o on the g e n i t a l s , S a g i t t a r i u s on the th i g h s Aquar/ius on the limbs, and P i s c e s on the f e e t . which a l s o l a t e r i n f l u e n c e d , medieval.thought. Rome's c h i e f p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n then to r e s i d u a l c i v -i l i z a t i o n was i n her e n g i n e e r i n g triumphs, i n her c o d i f i e d law, bequeatned i n ner u n i v e r s a l l y used l a n g u a g e , L a t i n , and i n her spreading abroad the c u l t u r e of Greece. With the f i r s t c entury A.D. of the C h r i s t i a n era, pop-u l a t i o n f i g u r e s in I t a l y began to d e c l i n e , and the s t r i c t home l i f e and genius of the f a m i l y of the e a r l y Romans d i s i n t e g r a t e d . Ovidian s a t i r e g r a p h i c a l l y shows t h i s at the b e g i n n i n g of the century i n hie p i c t u r e of the l a x i t y of the t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s . In p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e a l s o there were changes. And e c o n o m i c a l l y -30-there appeared a form of monopoly l a n d l o r d i s m , and c o n t r o l be-came more and more concentrated i n the hands of fewer and fewer l a r g e landowners, which ms coupled w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g l y crush-i n g system of t a x a t i o n which drove out the small landlord.The Pax Romana d i s s o l v e d and the c i v i l wars (235-285) proved d i s a s -t r o u s , imposing as they d i d 26 emperors i n 50 y e a r s . T h i s confu-s i o n was aggravated by the plague, coming from Asia i n 252 and decimating the p o p u l a t i o n of the empire i n the f o l l o w i n g f i f t e e n y e a r s . The D i o c l e t a i n reforms (284-305) staved o f f the complete d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n of the empire f o r a while , but h i s i d e a of sep-a r a t i n g i t i n two, w i t h two complete s e t s of o f f i c i a l s , proved r u i n o u s l y expensive. By 400 the State attempted to impress a permanent mold on i t s s o c i e t y i n the hope of r e t a i n i n g s t a b i l i t y by means of keeping a l l p o s i t i o n s h e r e d i t a r y : colons were bound to the s o i l ; c u r i a l s , the m u n i c i p a l a r i s t o c r a c y , were f o r b i d d e n to s h i r k t h e i r d u t i e s ; and c r a f t s were kept as h e r e d i t a r y occu-p a t i o n s , no craftsman b e i n g p e r m i t t e d to l e a v e h i s j o b ; t h i s f i n a l attempt at r i g i d i f y i n g s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e i n the face of immi-nent s o c i a l change i s r e m i n i s c e n t of the f a s c i s t experiments we have been w i t n e s s i n g i n Europe i n the l a s t 25 y e a r s . But the government was unable to c r e a t e the p r o s p e r i t y which alone would have ensured some measure of success to t h i s i d e a , and i t g r a d u a l l y disappeared everywhere - c u r i a l s d i d r e f u s e t h e i r appointed d u t i e s , colons d i d run away, and the s t a t e was not able to stop them. C i v i c l i f e became p a r a l y s e d , and the b a r b a r i a n i n v a s i o n s met l i t t l e r e s i s t a n c e from the once mighty but now decadent Rome. -31-E a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r t which p a r t l y o v e r l a p s t h i s p e r i o d of Roman d e c l i n e was used t o express a s t r i c t l y m o n o t h e i s t i c r e l -i g i o n , denying the many gods and l i b e r a l l a t t i t u d e s of the c l a s s -i c a l c u l t u r e of Greece and ROme, C h r i s t i a n i t y took over some aspects of N e o p l a t o n i s t the-ory and renounced the th i n g s of t h i s l i f e as v a l u e l e s s i n terms of e t e r n i t y , and i n s p i t e of p e r s e c u t i o n t h e i r numbers grew, si n c e they regarded martyrdom as the supreme honour p r o v i n g t h e i r f a i t h , an a t t i t u d e f a m i l i a r to us today i n the many mar-t y r s t o s o c i a l theory who s a c r i f i c e d t h e i r l i v e s i n the face of as severe p e r s e c u t i o n . With the l e g a l i z i n g of C h r i s t i a n i t y by C o n s t a n t i n e 1 s E d i c t of M i l a n i n 313 begins what can be c a l l e d t y p i c a l e a r l y C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e . During the p e r i o d of p e r s e c u t i o n d i s t i n c -t i v e C h r i s t i a n a r t was known however. The catacombs of Rome are important s u r v i v a l s of t h i s phase of development, c o n t a i n i n g a l l e g o r i c a l drawings from the o l d testament as w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s , and of 'orantes* or 'pr a y - e r s * . The e a r l i e s t form of above-ground C h r i s t i a n a r c h i t e c t u r e was based on that of the Roman law-courts and the c h r i s t i a n churches b u i l t at t h i s p e r i o d are c a l l e d 'ba-s i l i c a s ' . They had r e c t a n g u l a r f l o o r p l a n s d i v i d e d i n t o three a i s l e s each separated by a row of columns; at the end of the cen-t r a l a i s l e ( c a l l e d the 'nave' ) was a s e m i - c i r c u l a r 'apse'. The roof over the nave was h i g h e r than t h a t over the side a i s l e s , and i n f r o n t of the church was an 'atrium', open i n the centre and surrounded by a roofed colonnade. Churches of t h i s type b u i l t i n the 4th, 5th and 6th c e n t u r i e s are s t i l l s t a n d i n g near -32-Rome, examples b e i n g those of S t . P a u l , Santa M a r i a Maggiere, St.Lawrence-outside-the-Walls, and San Clemente. The Romanesque churches appearing soon i n the e a r l y Mid-dl e Ages are very l i k e these b a s i l i c a s , and the l a t e r appearing Gothic ( a f t e r 1200) are m o d i f i c a t i o n s of i t s t y p i c a l s t y l e , an-other p o i n t i n my complaint a g a i n s t Spengler's t h e s i s of the e x c l u s i v e n e s s of d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r e s , and f o r my t h e s i s t h a t a r t r e s i d u e s from one p e r i o d a f f e c t a r t i s t s of other p e r i o d s . In 325 Constantine convoked the C o u n c i l of Nicaea to p u r i f y the o f f i c i a l d o c t r i n e s of the Church, f o r there had appear-ed a form c a l l e d A r i s n i s m , which threatened the s u p e r n a t u r a l b a s i s of C h r i s t a i n i t y by a s s e r t i n g that Jesus was l e s s than God though more than man, whereas the o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n was that Je-sus was c o e t e r n a l w i t h God and at the same time true man. The Nicene Creed was formulated and the C o u n c i l upheld the orthodox view. The C h r i s t i a n i d e a l l e d to c e r t a i n f a n a t i c r i g o u r s of as-c e t i c i s m i n the l i v e s of such h e r m i t B as St.Anthony of Egypt(d. 356) d i f f e r i n g from those l a t e r monks who l i k e St.Pachomius(d. 346) had organized a common r u l e whereby each hermit r e t a i n e d a separate c e l l but j o i n e d i n common work, dev o t i o n s , and read-i n g of the gospel S t . B a s i l ' s Rule (d.379) l a t e r brought togeth-er i n t h i s community l i f e men of s i m i l a r r e l i g i o u s tendencies, wherein they worshipped, contemplated, read, and laboured i n a p r e s c r i b e d manner. T h i s was a f o r t u n a t e development of the more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c tendency of the hermit, s i n c e the new monaster-i e s where the r e l i g i o u s communities l i v e d became c e n t r e s of l e a r n -i n g and exeabted an important c o n s e r v i n g e f f e c t on medieval c u l -t u r e . -33-The e a r l y church w r i t i n g s , known as ' p a t r i s t i c ' from the a p p e l l a t i o n s g i v e n t h e i r authors, the ' a p o s t o l i c f a t h e r s ' and the 'church f a t h e r s ' , a l s o e x e r t e d a d i r e c t i v e i n f l u e n c e on medieval, and through them,on modern ways of t h i n k i n g . Bishop Eusebius (d.339) gave the h i s t o r i c a l bases of the Church from i t s beginnings i n the time of Jesus to h i s own day. Ambrose (d.297), an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l e x e c u t i v e , a l s o i n t r o d u c e d the l i t u r g i c a l hymn i n t o the western church. Jerome(d.420) t r a n s -l a t e d the Old and New Testaments from the o r i g i n a l Hebrew i n t o the L a t i n of the 4 t h century known as the V u l g a t e , and h i s v e r -s i o n was t h a t used throughout the Middle Ages. St.Augustine of Hippo (d430) was a v e r y i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r . In h i s "Confessione" he wrote one of the f i r s t important a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s , t e l l i n g des-c r i p t i v e i n c i d e n t s from h i s e a r l y l i f e of d i s s o l u t e b e h a v i o r and d i s b e l i e f i n candid c o n f e s s i o n . H i s a n a l y s i s of s e c u l a r and s p i r -i t u a l matters i n h i s • C i v i t a t e D e i * was important i n s e t t i n g the o f f i c i a l church o p i n i o n on such m a t t e r s . The works of a l l these church f a t h e r s was l a t e r used by Thomas Aquinas i n h i s v a s t r e l -i g i o u s s y n t h e s i s . With the appearance of the b a r b a r i a n t r i b e s as important elements of European h i s t o r y we are h e a r i n g the emergence of western c u l t u r e p r oper. In the second century A.D. the Goths, and east German t r i b e , moved southward to the p l a i n s of f e r t i l e southern R u s s i a where they l e a r n t to read and w r i t e , borrowing the alphabet from the Greek and Roman sett l e m e n t s along the shores of the Black Sea, and p a s s i n g i t on g r a d u a l l y to the other Germanic t r i b e s , -34-even as f a r as Scandinavia, employing i n s c r i p t i o n s of the type known as ' r u n i c ' which date hack to the 5th and 6th c e n t u r i e s B.C. The Goths were a l s o converted to the A r i a n form of C h r i s t -i a n i t y by Bishop U l f i l a s (d.38l) who had been educated i n Con-s t a n t i n o p l e . The B i b l e was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o G o t hic, the e a r l i e s t e xtant monument of l i t e r a t u r e i n any Germanic language, and Ar-i a n i s m spread to the other German t r i b e s l i v i n g along the Danube f r o n t i e r of the Roman Empire; the V i s i g o t h s , Ostrogoths,Burgund-i a n s . Vandals, Suevians, Allamanni, and Lombards, so that many of these were A r i a n C h r i s t i a n s before moving i n t o the Roman Emp-i r e . T h i s move w i t h i n the borders of the Empire was at f i r s t a g r a d u a l one, many i n d i v i d u a l s from the border t r i b e s h a v ing been to Rome as hostages, v i s i t o r s , or t r a d e r s , and r e t u r n i n g t o l d of i t i n such a t t r a c t i v e terms that i t i s f e l t by some h i s -t o r i a n s that these t a l e s were a c o n v i n c i n g m f a c t o r i n the move w i t h i n the b o r d e r s . The Germanic t r i b e s moved south i t i s be-l i e v e d p a r t l y because of the pressure of the nomadic Huns from the r e a r , p a r t l y because of the famine and f l o o d c o n d i t i o n s -and p a r t l y because of t h i s a t t r a c t i o n toward the r i c h e r l i f e of C l a s s i c c u l t u r e . I n e v i t a b l y i n t h e i r encroaching movement the b a r b a r i a n s destroyed much t h a t was v a l u a b l e i n t h i s l i f e t h a t had a t t r a c t e d them, but i t should be remembered t h a t they a l s o absorbed much, i n the elements of law, and -language. However i n the 'dark ages' f o l l o w i n g these d i s r u p t i v e moves, i n the p e r i o d o f medieval h i s t o r y preceeding the 11th century, the c i t y of Byzantium was to p l a y the p a r t f o r m e r l y performed by Athens and Rome. -35-Byzantine l i t e r a t u r e was more i n f l u e n c e d by that of Greece than by t h a t of Rome; indeed so f a r i n f l u e n c e d that a poet, Constan-t i n e c r i t i c i z i n g h i s master, Leo the P h i l o s o p h e r , Archbishop of Th e s s a l o n i c a , wrote of the pagan gods of the Greeks as • s o u l -devouring beasts* and condemning Greek l i t e r a t u r e because of t h i s i n f l u e n c e . . . "Foul f a r e they, who the gods adore Worshipped by Gr e c i a n f o l k of yore -Amorous gods to p a s s i o n s prone, Gods as a d u l t e r e r s well-known, Gods who were lame, and gods who f e l t The wound th a t some mean m o r t a l d e a l t ; And goddesses, a crowd obscene, Among them many a h a r l o t queen; Some wedded clownish herds, I trow, Some squint e d h i d e o u s l y enow...." 6. In medicine the Byzantine d o c t o r s though o c c a s i o n a l l y us-in g charms, c a r r i e d on to some extent i n the s p i r i t of Galen, w i t h Alexander of T r a l l e s (525-605) making o r i g i n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s on the d i s e a s e s of d y s e n t e r y , g o u t , b i l i o u s n e s s and insanity,and Paul of Aegina (625-690) i n h i s "Epitome" reviewing m e d i c a l knowledge of h i s day, i n p e d i a t r i c s and o b s t e t r i c s , i n removing i n f e c t e d t o n s i l s and breasts,and i n opewtions f o r stone. A l s o the p u b l i c h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of towns was helped by the knowledge achieved by the Byzantine d o c t o r s i n q u a r a n t i n i n g and and c o n t r o l l i n g contagious d i s e a s e s l i k e smallpox and d i p h t h e r i a . In a r c h i t e c t u r e the Byzantine form i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of tha cruciform, b a s i l i c a s of the western church, u s i n g the Greek c r o s s , w i t h g i g a n t i c domes surmounting them. T h i s form spread from them to the Russian churches, and to the Arab mosques. The d e s i r e f o r ornate magnificence d i s c e r n i b l e i n the most t y p i c a l of the b u i l d i n g s of Rome i s everywhere v i s i b l e a l s o i n the By-6. Bury, J.B. " H i s t o r y of the E a s t e r n E m p i r e " M a c m i l l a n s , L o n d o n . 1912, pps. 440-441. -36-zantesque a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . "Everywhere i n i t we f i n d t h a t love of stupendous l u x u r y and of p r o d i g i o u s splendour which Byzantium d i s p l a y e d at every p e r i o d of her h i s t o r y . In the d e c o r a t i o n of the churches and the p a l a c e s i t i s always the same s t o r y -p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s , g l i t t e r i n g mosaics, m a g n i f i c e n t work i n g o l d and s i l v e r , e n d wonderful hangings, a l l intended to enhance the beauty of the r i t e s of r e l i g i o n , and the majesty of t h e i m p e r -i a l person; i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e n o t h i n g but sumptuous t i s s u e s shot w i t h purple and g o l d , f i n e carved i v o r i e s , b r o n g e s i n l a i d w i t h s i l v e r , r i c h l y i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts,enamels, c l i s o n n e i n resplendent c o l o u r s , g o l d and silver p l a t e , a n d cost l y j e w e l s . Whefcer, by d e c o r a t i n g the w a l l s of churches w i t h the pageant of sacred h i s t o r y s k i l l f u l l y d isposed, t h i s a r t was i n t e n t on g l o r i f y i n g god,on e x p r e s s i n g an a r t i c l e of f a i t h on i n t e r p r e t i n g the l i t u r g i c a l r i t e s , or whether, to g l o r i f y the majesty of the s o v e r e i g n , and to g i v e p l e a s u r e to the c o u r t and the g r a n d e e s , i t was d e p i c t i n g i n a more profane s p i r i t s u b j e c t s borrowed from c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y or mythology, p i c t u r e s q u e scenes dear to H e l l e n i s t i c a r t , as w e l l as h i s -t o r i c a l p a i n t i n g s , r e p r e s e n t i n g the i m p e r i a l v i c t o r i e s , and p o r t r a i t s of the p r i n c e s i n t h e i r g l o r y , everywhere we f i n d t h a t l o v e of magnificence which even today makes us v i s u a l -i z e Byzantium i n a j e w e l l e d i r i d e s c e n c e , i n a shimmer of g o l d . 7. Thi s a r t i s t i c a c t i v i t y of Byzantium i s a h y b r i d one, w i t h elements from Greece,Rome and the Mohammedan Eas t ; i t s c u l -ture i s an urban one, a l i v e w i t h c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and admin-i s t r a t i v e a c t i v i t y , and w i t h the a r t s used as the embroidery ap-p r o p r i a t e to i m p e r i a l m a g n i f i c e n c e . M e d i e v a l c i v i l i z a t i o n draws on t h i s Byzantesque aasevoir as i t does on Greek,Roman, and Arab sources, which are more or l e s s e n f e o f f e d and become p a r t of the l i f e of the C e l t i c , G e r m a n i c , S l a v i c and other nomadic p o p u l a t i o n s of Europe. The predominant c i v i l i z i n g i d e a of the church, which en-couraged a s p e c i a l a t t i t u d e toward l i f e was everywhere i n Europe i n f u s e d w i t h the_remnants of pagan p r a c t i c e s , evidence of which i s found i n the o r d e a l s by f i r e and water l e f t from the days of King A t h e l s t a n i n England f o r a t t e s t i n g innocence of the accused. 7 . D i e h l , C h a r l e s : "YThe Cambridge Medieval H i s t o r y - . M a c m i l l a n s , •N.Y., vol.4,p.767. ' -37-A more i n t e l l e c t u a l acceptance of the i d e a l s of C h r i s t -i a n i t y i s shown i n t h i s account , from B e d e ' 6 " E c c l e s i a s t i c a l H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h Nation", of the c o n v e r s i o n of K i n g Edwin of Northumbria i n 627... "The present l i f e of man,0 King, seems to me , i n comparison w i t h that time which i s unknown to us, l i k e to the s w i f t f l i g h t of the sparrow through the room wher-ei n you s i t a t supper i n w i n t e r w i t h your commanders and min-i s t e r s , and a good f i r e i n the midst, w h i l s t the storm of r a i n and snow p r e v a i l abroad : the sparrow , I say, f l y i n g i n at one door, and immediately out a n o t h e r , w h i l s t he i s w i t h i n , i s safe from the w i n t r y storm; but a f t e r a s h o r t space of f a i r weather, he immediately vanishes from your s i g h t , i n t o the dark wi n t e r from which he had emerged. So t h i s l i f e of man appears to me,, but f o r a s h o r t space, but what went b e f o r e , or of what i s t o f o l l o w , we are u t t e r l y i g n o r a n t . I f there-f o r e , t h i s new d o c t r i n e c o n t a i n s something more c e r t a i n , i t seems j u s t l y to deserve to be f o l l o w e d . " l 8. C h r i s t i a n i t y spread r a p i d l y t h r o u g h o u t the kingdoms of Europe.Russia on the east being almost completely C h r i s t i a n by 1000, l e a v i n g only the Einn and L i t h u a n i a n groups i n an untouched pagan s t a t e . One of the agencies of t h i s t r a n s f o r m i n g process was that of the monastic orders whose o r i g i n s were d e s c r i b e d b e f o r e . The I r i s h C h r i s t i a n s were organized i n t o monastic orders which sent t e a c h e r s to Iona o f f the coast of S c o t l a n d to convert the S c o t t i s h and the n o r t h e r n E n g l i s h , and then, i n the e a r l y 7th century, to convert the s t i l l pagan t r i b e s of Germans i n the Rhine v a l l e y . St.Benedict e s t a b l i s i e d h i s f i r s t monastery at Mon-t e c a s s i n o i n 528, h i s Rule s t r e s s i n g the order of l i v i n g , h i s ob-j e c t b e i n g to h e l p monks who wished to l i v e a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sim-p l e l i f e , i n r e l i g i o u s c i r c l e s ; ' The Church acted , as has been.noted, as a c o n s e r v i n g ag-ency f o r c u l t u r e i n these dark days of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n before 8.Bede,op.cit,,Everymans,London,pps.35-36, -39-medieval c i v i l i z a t i o n became c l e a r l y a r t i c u l a t e d . T h e i r church-men depended on the c l a s s i c s of Greece and Rome not only f o r l e a r n i n g t h e i r b a s i c reading and w r i t i n g from them, but a l s o to d e r i v e fundamental a t t i t u d e s to l i f e therefrom. One of t h e i r number, St.Jerome, t e l l s how, when he was once very s i c k , he had a v i s i o n . . . "Suddenly I was caught up i n the' s p i r i t and dragged before the Judge's seat : and here the l i g h t was so d a z z l i n g and the b r i g h t n e s s s h i n i n g from those who stood around so r a d i a n t , that I f l u n g myself upon the ground and I d i d not dare to look up. I was asked to s t a t e my c o n d i t i o n and r e p l i e d t h a t I was a C h r i s t i a n . But He who p r e s i d e d s a i d : "Thou l i e s t ; thou a r t a C i c -e r o n i a n , not a C h r i s t i a n . For where thy t r e a s u r e i s there w i l l thy h e a r t be a l s o . " B o e t h i u s (d.526), who i s f r e q u e n t l y read as an a u t h o r i t y by l a t e r Churchmen, was a Roman s c h o l a r who l i v e d a t the court of the O s t r o g o t h i c k i n g , Theodoric (d.532) and was l a t e r exec-uted by the k i n g on s u s p i c i o n . B o e t h i u s was a well-educated man whose work of t r a n s l a t i n g Greek c l a s s i c s i n t o L a t i n made these a v a i l a b l e when the use of Greek was l a s t . H i s t r a n s l a t i o n s i n -clude A r i s t o t l e ' s " C a t e g o r i e s " and "De I n t e r p r e t a t i o n e " , and h i s own o r i g i n a l work i n c l u d e d t r e a t i s e s on A r i t h m e t i c and music, one of which was l a t e r t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by Chaucer, and h i s w i d e l y read " C o n s o l a t i o n of P h i l o s o p h y " . There i s no e v i d -ence that he was a C h r i s t i a n . I s i d o r e of S e v i l l e (d.636), i s another of the g r e a t f i g -ures of the e a r l y Middle Ages. He wrote an enormous encycloped-i a c a l l e d the "Etymologies", which i n c l u d e d work on the seven l i b e r a l a r t s : grammar, r h e t o r i c , and l o g i c ( t r i v i u m ) , geometry, arithmetic,astronomy, and music (quadrivium); as w e l l as mater-i a l on medicine,law,and theology. He b e l i e v e d that t h i n g s c o u l d -40-be e x p l a i n e d simply by the etymology of t h e i r names. Around the C a r o l i n g i a n c o u r t , as i n the monasteries, ga-thered men of l e t t e r s . Included among these are the monk, E g i n -hard whose biography of Charlemagne has a l r e a d y been r e f e r r e d to, the teacher ,Alcuin,who brought from England (where at t h i B time York was the l e a d i n g shool of the C h r i s t i a n world) the hand-w r i t i n g which the E n g l i s h had improved by borrowing from I r i s h manuscript. T h i s form i s today c a l l e d the C a r o l i n g i a n m i n i s c u l e and was the predecessor of the type of medieval handwriting ap-p e a r i n g at the end of the Middle Ages. The t y p i c a l l i t e r a t u r e of the p e r i d i s that of the "hag-iography" or s a i n t s ' l i v e s , some of which were w r i t t e n by Greg-ory the Great, pope from 590-604, i n h i s "Dialogues" which he wrote to i n s t r u c t and amuse the l a i t y . H i s "Magna M o r a l i a " was the fundamental work on theology s t u d i e d throughout the p e r i o d . The Bayeux Tapestry which dates from 1120 shows the dawn-ing f e u d a l s o c i e t y of t h i s e a r l i e r p e r i o d . I t i s 231 f e e t l o n g and 20 inches wide and t y p i c a l l y i n a f i g h t i n g f e u d a l s o c i e t y snows the Norman conquest of England. T h i s e a r l y Medieval soc-i e t y i s one of beginnings, or even of pre-beginnings, s i n c e West-ern C u l t u r e p r o p e r l y begins w i t h the l a t e Romanesque ana G o t h i c . The l i f e of t h i s time with i t s t n r e e - f o l d estate-moid of n o b i l -i t y , c l e r g y , and p e a s a n t r y , o r g a n i z e d i n t o g r e a t manors modeled on l a t i f u n d i a of the l a s t p e r i o d of Roman gre a t l a n d - h o l d i n g s , was one of too g r e a t i n s e c u r i t y , w i t h too l i t t l e c o n t a c t of i n t e l l -e c t u a l c u r r e n t s of one p l a c e w i t h those of anotner, to a l l o w of any p o l i c e d or complete a r t - f o r m s . -41-In l i t e r a t u r e i t was r a t h e r a p e r i o d of legend, equiva-l e n t c u l t u r a l l y t o t h a t which i s d e s c r i b e d i n the Homeric e p i c s . *n the n o r t h there were the A r t h u r i a n legends, the e a r l y V i k i n g Eddas, the s t o r i e s of the German V a l h a l l a i n the N i e b e l u n g e n l i e d , and the F i n n i s h L a l v a l a . These a l l formed a m a t r i x from which l a -t e r and more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y developed a r t s were to draw source m a t e r i a l . We see, at t h i s time, what Spengler d e s c r i b e s as MA crowd of 'art-makers* who a l l dance or mime or s i n g . . . . i t i s only the h i g h e r a r t that becomes d e c i s i v e l y an a r t 'before s p e c t a t o r s * Chapter Three : Western C u l t u r e and C i v i l i z a t i o n , T w e l f t h Century to the P r e s e n t . -43-One l i n k between the Dark and Middle Ages was made by the Schoolmen, teachers who taught i n the monastery and Cathed-r a l s c h o o l s . Of these the most famous e a r l y teachers were : Jo-hannes Scotus, c a l l e d E r i g e n a because of h i s I r i s h o r i g i n , a man of powerful and o r i g i n a l i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t s , whose use of the M e o p l a t o n i s t i d e a s shows the c o n t i n u i t y of e a r l y p h i l o s o p h i c thought. He d i e d between 867 and 891. The famous Gerbert of Au-r i l l a c was born near the middle of the next century, v i s i t e d Spain l a t e r i n l i f e and became steeped i n the A r a b i c s c i e n c e s t i l l a v a i l a b l e there, wrote of i t s accumulation and was the f i r s t C h r i s t i a n w r i t e r to d e s c r i b e the a r a b i c numerals. In 999 he became Pope S y l v e s t e r l l l a n d a c t e d as a focus of encourage-ment f o r l e a r n i n g u n t i l h i s death i n 1003. I n t e l l e c t u a l and a r t -i s t i c s t i m u l u s was g i v e n a l s o by the three Saxon Ottos, Otto 1, who r u l e d from 936-973 and took over the i d e a i f not the scope of Charlemagne's empire and undertook a l s o to r e v i v e the C a r o l -i n g i a n t r a d i t i o n . o f l e a r n e d c o u n c i l l o r s ; Otto 11, 973-983; and Otto 111,983-1002, whose Empress Theophane was the daughter of the Byzantine emperor Romanus 11, and brought with hear Greek a r -t i s t s and workmen. Gerard of Cremona (d,1187) was the t r a n s l a t o r of A r i s t o t -l e ' s "Organon", and of the w i d e l y i n f l u e n t i a l "Almagest'' of P t o l -emy. H i s E n g l i s h contemporary,Adelard of Bath, i n 1116 t r a n s l a -ted the works of E u c l i d from the A r a b i c . John of S a l i s b u r y , d . l l 8 0 was one of the most elegant of the L a t i n i s t s c h o l a r s produced by the c a t h e d r a l s c h o o l of C h a r t r e s , while St.Anselm,d.ll07,was a P l a t o n i s t who d e r i v e d h i s p i a t o n i s m from Augustine of Hippo and -44-.Boethius, and gave o n t o l o g i c a l p r o o f s of the e x i s t e n c e of God hased on the P l a t o n i c Ideas i n h i s "Monologium" and " P r o s l o g -ium". One of the p o i n t s on which the Schoolmen fought most b i t -t e r l y was th a t of U n i v e r s a l s . Abelard of P a r i s h e l d to the the-ory that U n i v e r s a l s e x i s t only i n the mind, the only e x t e r n a l r r e a l i t y b e i n g that of t h i n g s . T h i s p o s i t i o n was known as "Con-cep t u a l i s m " , and was combatted by St.Bernard (d.1153), who f o l -t lows the p l a t o n i c theory. Hear the end of the 12th and d u r i n g the 13th c e n t u r i e s there appeared three i n t e l l e c t u a l g i a n t s : A l b e r t u s Magnus , (d. 1280), Thomas Aquinas, (d.1274) and Roger Bacon (d.1292).Al-b e r t the Great mastered the new A r i s t o t e l i a n l e a r n i n g made a-v a i l a b l e by h i s predecessors and succeeded i n combining i t with C h r i s t i a n t e a c h i n g i n a way only exceeded i n br e a d t h by h i s s t u -dent Aquinas. A l b e r t was not taken i n by the f o l k l o r e of the popular " B e a s t i a r i e s " of the time, but encouraged c r i t i c a l s t u -dy of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s and drew d e f i n i t e boundaries between magic and s c i e n c e , s a y i n g : "The aim of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s i s not merely to accept the statements made by others, but to i n v e s t i g a t e the causes which are at work i n n a t u r e . " The sources of h i s student Thomas' work and thought show him to have been the most e r u d i t e o f the e r u d i t e schoolmen. But h i s e r u d i t i o n was not l e f t to c o l l e c t dust i n separate small cubby-holes i n h i s mind, but was used r a t h e r to c o n s t r u c t an en-ormous s y n t h e s i s , "a s e v e r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l i n -t e r p r e t a t i o n of the u n i v e r s e , " 9. 9. T . G i l b e y , " P o e t i c Experience; an i n t r o d . to Thomistic A e s t h e t i c " 'frondbn:ik She ed. &i ,C a9 34 • - 4 5 -Thamas had read h i s A r i s t o t l e completely and w e l l . In h i s commentaries on A r i s t o t l e he used the t r a n s l a t i o n s from the Greek i n t o L a t i n of W i l l i a m of Moerbeke r a t h e r than the Arabian t r a n s l a t i o n s then a r r e n t . He used the P l a t o n i c theory of Ideas as i n t e r p r e t e d by Augustine. He knew the p h i l o s o p h y of Boethius, of the contemporary and e a r l i e r Arabian and Jewish w r i t e r s . He knew the s c r i p t u r e by h e a r t . He had read the church f a t h e r s . : Ambrose, Augustine,Jerome,John Damascene,Pseudo-Dionysius,Hilary of P o i t i e r s , G r e g o r y the G r e a t , I s i d o r e of S e v i l l e , S t . J o h n Chrysos-t u m , S t . C y r i l of A l e x a n d r i a . He knew the e a r l i e r s c h o l a s t i c s :An-selm of Canterbury,Rupert of Deutz,Bernard of C l a i r v a u x , G i l b e r t de l a P o r r e , Hugh and R i c h a r d of S t . V i c t o r , J o a c h i m of Flora,Ab-e l a r d , A l a i n de L i l l e and P e t e r the Lombard whose "Pour Books of Sentences" c o l l e c t the o p i n i o n s of the Church F a t h e r s on C h r i s -t i a n t e a c h i n g . Aquinas c o n s t a n t l y quotes h i s contemporaries of the 13th century as "quidam", a c e r t a i n one, though not a l l of these r e f e r e n c e s have been i d e n t i f i e d . A l s o he quotes e x t e n s i v e -l y from Horace, O v i d , C a e s a r , C i c e r o , S e n e c a , T e r r e n c e , S a l l u s t , L i v y , Strabo, and V a l e r i u s Maximus. Thomas 1 method i s sometimes t h a t of the church f a t h e r s i n h i s d i v i s i o n s i n t o books and chapters, sometimes t h a t of a s u s t a i n e d reasonimg process, and sometimes that r i g i d mold of the s c h o l a s t i c s f a s h i o n e d c h i e f l y by Alexander H a l l e s , each sub-j e c t b e i n g d i v i d e d i n t o questions,each q u e s t i o n i n t o so many a r t -i c l e s ; each a r t i c l e begins w i t h a statement of o b j e c t i o n s , d i s -cusses v a r i o u s o p i n i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e s the author's position, and c l o s e s w i t h a s o l u t i o n of d i f f i c u l t i e s which that p o s i t i o n may en--46-counter. 10. For example, the "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " i s d i v i d e d i n t o tnree p a r t s , 38 t r e a t i s e s , 6 3 1 questions,3000. a r t i c l e s , and 10,000 o b j e c t i o n s . In c o n s i d e r i n g Thomas' s t y l e , one must, i f one knows i t b e s t i n t r a n s l a t i o n , make allowance f o r the i n t e r p o l a t i o n of the t r a n s l a t o r between the reader and the o r i g i n a l form of h i s thought. Thomas G i l b e y i n h i s book speaks of the"vastness of conception","coherence of p a r t s and i m p r e g n a b i l i t y of l o g i c " , and i n Thomas' ve r y words there seems to be a q u i e t c l a r i t y , a r e v e r b e r a t i o n . In the Thomistic synthesis, there i s c e r t a i n l y a v a s t n e s s of c o n c e p t i o n . Of i t s o r i g i n a l i t y Brennan has t h i s to say... "The f a c t i s t h a t Aquinas took the m a t e r i a l s f o r h i s sys-tem from whatever source he could get them, so f a r as they l a y open to him, and what he c o n s t r u c t e d was a coherent e c l e c t i c i s m welded i n t o a u n i t y by the p r e s s u r e through-out i t s d e t a i l s of a s i n g l e g r e a t r u l i n g p r i n c i p l e which he had won by permanent hard t h i n k i n g , and h e l d w i t h the c l e a r e s t consciousness of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . H i s t i t l e , t h e r e f o r e to o r i g i n a l i t y i s a r e a l one," 11. T h i s s i n g l e r u l i n g p r i n c i p l e Thomas s t a t e s h i m s e l f thus: "Nothing may be a s s e r t e d as true t h a t i s opposed t© the t r u t h of f a i t h , to r e v e a l e d dogma. But i t i s n e i t h e r per-m i s s i b l e to take whatever we h o l d to be true and p r e s e n t i t as an a r t i c l e of f a i t h . For the t r u t h of our f a i t h be-comes a matter of r i d i c u l e among the i n f i d e l s , i f any C a t h o l i c not g i f t e d w i t h the necessary s c i e n t i f i c l e a r n -i n g , p r e s e n t s as dogma what s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y shows to be f a l s e . " 12. T h i s g i g a n t i c e d i f i c e i s b u i l t on the two-fold c o n v i c -t i o n that..."Our thought can know and a t t a i n being, the realm of the essences, causes, purposes and laws, t h a t l i e be-yond the world of appearances...a c o n v i c t i o n of the r e a l -i t y and k n o w a b i l i t y of the supersensory orders...and end-l e s s h o r i z o n of the s u p e r n a t u r a l , of the C h r i s t i a n myster-i e s r e v e a l e d by God, en h o r i z o n that i s even here on e a r t h opened to man by means of the l i g h t of f a i t h " , and 13 the second h a l f of t h i s c o n v i c t i o n i s the o b j e c t i v e nature of knowledge, based as i t i s on the sensory experience of human be--47-i n g s . Thomas h i m s e l f says..."That of which we are p r i m a r i l y aware i s the e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , of which the s p e c i e s i s the mental s i g n . Only s e c o n d a r i l y can we speak of the . i n t e l l i g i b l e s p e c i e s as a content of thought, i n so f a r e,s the mind i s r C L e x l y a c t i v e and contemplates i t s own a c t i v i t y , and thus a l s o the s p e c i e s , as the p r i n c i p l e of t h i s a c t i v i t y " . 14 e But though he g i v e s us an o b j e c t i v e l y r e a l r e a l i t y as the b a s i s of our conceptual knowledge Aquinas s t i l l assumes a s u b j e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r f o r human thought..."That which we d e s i g -nate by names can be d i v i d e d i n t o three G l a s s e s . The f i r s t c l a s s comprises those t h i n g s that are o u t s i d e the mind i n t h e i r e n t i r e being (e.g. stone, man)...the sec-ond c l a s s i s formed of the t h i n g s that e x i s t only i n our mind , as dreams, images o f chimera,etc...To the t h i r d c l a s s belong those t h i n g s that have a f o u n d a t i o n i n the r e a l i t y o u t s i d e the mind, but r e c e i v e t h e i r own formal c h a r a c t e r from the a c t i v i t y of the mind. Such are the g e n e r a l concepts," 15. Thomas d e f i n e s b e i n g as e x i s t i n g , and a f f i r m s the r e a l -i t y of o b j e c t s i n the external world which we know through the operation of the senses and our reason, but the realm of the s u p e r n a t u r a l i s known to us only through r e v e l a t i o n and f a i t h , Aquinas upheld the harmony between reason and f a i t h a g a i n s t the A v e r r o i s t i c heresy s t a r t e d by Averroes of Cordova (d.1198) who claimed there c o u l d be no p e r s o n a l i m m o r t a l i t y , as the i n d i v i d -u a l s o u l was a m a t e r i a l t h i n g , and consequently there could only be c o l l e c t i v e immortsliiy through the c o n t i n u i n g race of man as a whole; Averroes h e l d a l s o that there might be 'double t r u t h 1 , whereby a statement c o u l d be p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y true and y e t f a l s e from the standpoint of f a i t h , or v i c e v e r s a , Thomas con-tended t h a t f a i t h which was s u p r a - r a t i o n a l cannot be proved or d i s p r o v e d by reason, but i s true because i t comes from the h i g h -10. E.Pace,"Thomas Aquinas",vol.2 of " L i b r a r y of World's Best L i t " 11. R.E.Brennan,"General Psych.".N.Y.Macmillans,1937,pps.13-4. 12. Thomas Aquinas "De P o t e n t i a " , w r i t t e n 1260-1268. 13. Brennan,op.cit., 14. Aquinas,"Summa Theologica",I,q.85,a.2. -48-e s t t r u t h , God, and i s not a g a i n s t reason, s i n c e i t cannot be f a l s e . G i l s o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s thought i n these words... "His thought, t h e r e f o r e , does not aim a t a c h i e v i n g as e c o n o m i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e a s u p e r f i c i a l harmony wherein the d o c t r i n e s most e a s i l y r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h the t r a d i -t i o n a l t e a c h i n g of theology may f i n d room, but he i n s i s t s t h a t Reason should develop i t s own content i n f u l l l i b -e r t y and should set out i t s demands i n t h e i r utmost s t r i n g e n c y ; the value of h i s p h i l o s p h y does not l i e i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s C h r i s t i a n but t h a t i t i s t r u e . . I n t h i s l i e s the whole s e c r e t of Thomism, i n the immense e f f o r t of i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty to r e c o n s t r u c t p h i l o s p h y on a p l a n which e x h i b i t s the de f a c t o accord o w i t h theology as the necessary consequence of the demands of Reason i t s e l f , and as the a c c i d e n t a l r e s u l t of a mere wish f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . " 16~ The t h i r d great i n t e l l e c t of the 13th century i s that of Roger Bacon who, as Aquinas and A l b e r t u s Magnus, a t t a c k e d the i d e a of s l a v i s h acceptance of a u t h o r i t y , which he d e c l a r e d to be a stumbling-block i n s c i e n c e , f o r s c i e n c e can o n l y be a t t a c k -ed p r o f i t a b l y from the p o i n t of view of i n d u c t i o n from observ-a t i o n , which he o u t l i n e s i n h i s "Opus Majus". D u r i n g the next two c e n t u r i e s , the 14th and 15th, the p r a c t i c e of S c h o l a s t i c i s m g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d , though i t s i n t e l l -e c t u a l mold was not completely broken then, and was not outgrown u n t i l D e s c a r t e s ( 1 6 5 0 ) . With Duns Scotus and W i l l i a m of Ockham we see i t b e g i n n i n g to d o ubt.•William accepted the p o s i t i o n of Abelard's "Conceptualism" - only i n d i v i d u a l t n i n g s ( r e s ) e x i s t , and g e n e r a l concepts ( u n i v e r s a l i a ) are only formed i n the mind and, being s u j e c t i v e pnenomena, have no e x i s t e n c e out of the mind. 15. Thomas, I Sent. d. 19. q. 5, a. 1. 16, E.Gilson,"The P h i l . o f St.Thomas Aquinas", quoted i n Grab-Mann's "Thomas Aquinas",pps.8 9 - 9 0 , -49-The i d e a of i m m o r t a l i t y was a l s o c h a l l e n g e d "by Averroes as has been mentioned, and i n a d d i t i o n to these doubts there arose a new m y s t i c a l pantheism which not only saw God i n a l l t h i n g s , b u t a l s o averred t h a t God was, a l l t h i n g s . The German m y s t i c s , Meis-t e r Eckhart (d.1327) and Thomas a Kempis (d.1471) saw man's su-preme happiness i n h i s u n i f i c a t i o n with God, which the l a t t e r wrote about g l o w i n g l y i n a book much used bu the church, "The I m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t " . But the drama of s a l v a t i o n of man's immortal s o u l was the u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e v i s i b l e i n a l l medieval thought. As Thomas Aquinas taught, the t r u t h of r e l i g i o n could not be d i s c r e d i -ted by the t r u t h of s c i e n c e or p h i l o s o p h y s i n c e i n e v e r y t h i n g was v i s i b l e t h i s u n i t y of purpose, the attainment of t r u t h . T h i s u n i t y of purpose i s the s t r i k i n g t r a i t i n a l l the a r t - o b j e c t s l e f t from t h i s p e r i o d , as i t i s the most c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c mental a t t i t u d e of the w r i t i n g of the age, and whether with Spengler, you c a l l t h i s p r i n c i p l e one of D e s t i n y , or with -the more orthodox h i s t o r i a n s of c u l t u r e , one of r e l i g i o u s u n i t y of purpose, i t i s the main i d e a with which one shoufi. approach the p e r i o d from the 12th century onwards, when the d i s o r d e r of the e a r l y f e u d a l p e r i o d (850-1000) was over, and the growth of p o p u l a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , and s p e c i f i c a l l y the growth of urban p o p u l a t i o n , had focussed the d i s c o v e r y of Greek s c i e n c e and philosophy, and the r e v i v a l of the study of Roman law , on the complete e n u n c i a t i o n of a new and d i f f e r e n t way of t h i n k i n g and l i v i n g . Before going on to t a l k i n d e t a i l of the development of -50-v a r i o u s a r t e through the stages of western c u l t u r e to the pre s -ent, I would l i k e to supply here f o r r e f e r e n c e a c h a r t showing the "sequence of hlooming of the main a r t s i n (some) gre a t c u l t u r e s " taken from Sorokin's " S o c i a l Dynamics". The scores w i l l semm a r b i t r a r y , as they ignore the p a r a l l e l development i n a l l the a r t s i n p e r i o d s of c u l t u r a l r i c h e s s e . But i n a survey of the stages through which.the v a r i o u s a r t s pass from the p o i n t of view of content, Sorokin has a more v a l u a b l e s c a l e of h i s own, as i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n the l a t e r q u o t a t i o n g i v i n g h i s c r i t i q u e of c u l t u r a l f l u c t u a t i o n of form i n music.( Note 18.) 1 Greece Music 750-600 B.C. Literat u r e . 5 2 4 - 4 5 0 Architecture,500-430 Sculpture..450-350 Painting...430-350 Rome L i t e r a t u r e . . . 8 6 - 2 5 B.C. S c u l p t u r e . . . . 30-69A.D. P a i n t i n g 50-108 Architecture.60-138 Music 466-495 Germany : Architecture..1130-1250A.D. S c u l p t u r e 1400-1500 P a i n t i n g 1491-1559 Music 1720-1880 Literature....1756-1850 -England Architecture..1272-1377 Literature....1573-1618 Music 1600-1675 P a i n t i n g 1717-1763 Scu l p t u r e 1758-1787 I t a l y Literature..1290-1333 A.D. Architecture.1444-1564 P a i n t i n g 1472-1548 Music 1560-1800 Sculpture....1500-1600 France Architecture..1150-1350 S c u l p t u r e 1200-1250 Music ....1652-1700 P a i n t i n g 1760-1853 Literature....177931895." 17. "The movement of medieval and modern music cam be char-a c t e r i z e d from the satndpoin& of forms d i s c u s s e d as f o l l o w s : (1) On the highway of .the g r e a t music, the medieval music d u r i n g almost nine hundred y e a r s ( from about the f i f t h cen-t u r y A.D. to the four t e e n t h ) was e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y Idea-t i o n a l , or (from the 12th to the 14th) predominantly so. (2) The I d e a t i o n a l i t y of t h i s music was of the p u r e s t and most sublime. 17.Sorokin , o p . c i t . , V o l . 1 " F l u e t u a t i o n s of Forms of Art",1937, American Book Co. -51-(3) Up to the end of the 11th century, I d e a t i o n a l music was almost the only grand music e x i s t i n g ; a f t e r the end of that century there appeared the f i r s t s i g n s of the mixture w i t h Sensate, i n the music of the troubadours,trouveres,and minnesanger, and other forms of s e c u l a r music, which had ac-q u i r e d many t r a i t s of the Sensate. A f t e r that t i m e , t h i s stream of Sensate music - not without f l u c t u a t i o n s - tended to i n c r e a s e , i n the form of s e c u l a r motets,madrigals, and l a t e r on, i n the 'ars nova', and then i n that of the sym-phonies, operas,musical comedies, and so on. The growing sen-s a t i z a t i o n of music manifested i t s e l f i n the Sensate mus-i c a l m e n t a l i t y , i n the r a p i d i n c r e a s e of Sensate m u s i c , i n i t s t e c h n i c a l forms, i n i t s themes, i n the occasions f o r which i t was w r i t t e n , i n the s o c i a l events which i t immor-t a l i z e d . In b r i e f , i n the i n n e r nature as w e l l as i n the e x t e r n a l t r a i t s . (4) In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n to some other forms of a r t , e s p -e c i a l l y p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h a t t a i n e d the marvellous I d e a l i s t i c phase i n the 13 and 14th c e n t u r i e s , music seems to have reached the I d e a l i s t i c stage somewhat l a t e r : a r o u n d the 16th and lttth.and p a r t l y i n the 18th ( P a l e s t r i n a , V i t t o r -ia,Bach,Handel,Mozart,and Beethoven) when these forms were wo n d e r f u l l y blended i n r e s u l t e d i n the m i r a c l e of t h i s music. (5) A f t e r the b e g i n n i n g of the 19th C. the Sensate begins to dominate more and more r a d i c a l l y . In the music of Wagner and other Romantics, i t p o s s i b l y reached i t s peak. A f t e r t h a t and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the end of the 19th G. I t began to show a l l the s i g n s of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e m o r a l i z a t i o n , a n d degener-a t i o n which has been c o n t i n u i n g up to the present t i m e . I t witnesses on the one hand an u t t e r d e g r a d a t i o n , v u l g a r i z a t i o n , " j a z z i n g " , and m o d e r n i s t i c - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m u s i c a l anarchy and i m p o t e n c y * ( i n s p i t e of the g i g a n t i c s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l complexity of many modern compositions); and on the other hand, i t e x h i b i t s the f i r s t s i g n s of the e f f o r t s to seek new,anti-Sensate forms of music. Thus s c h e m a t i c a l l y : (a) The p e r i o d from the f i f t h to the t w e l f t h C. i s t h a t of the m o n o p o l i s t i c domination of the pure sublime I d e a t i o n -a l music;(b) the p e r i o d from the 12th to the 15th C. i s the time of the entrance of Sensate music,but s t i l l d e f i n i t e l y i n the secondary p l a c e ; ( c ) the p e r i o d of the end of the 15th to the b e g i n n i n g of the 19th C. was that of balance, of the I d e a t i o n a l arid Sensate music; (d) the 19th C. i s the p e r i o d of d e c i s i v e domination of Sensate music, and the c l o s e r we come to tfe§ 2oth. C. the s t r o n g e r i t becomes; (e) the pres-ent age i s showing the f i r s t symptoms of r e c e s s i o n of Sensate m u s i c . . T h i s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Sensate music i s v e r y s i m i l a r to that a g a i n s t V i s u a l i s m i n p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i -t e c t u r e . " 18. Sorokin goes on to s u b s t a n t i a t e these statements by con-s i d e r i n g i n d i v i d u a l works of m u s i c a l a r t w i t h i n each of these 18.Sorokin,op.cit.,pps.567-569. -52-p e r i o d s : (a) Church chants, the Amhrosian, then the Gregorian, then r e l i g i o u s hymns and psalmodies. Of these the most widely known today are the Gregorian chants, which c o n s i s t of ahout 300 I n t r o i t s and Communions , one hundred Graduals, one hundred A l -l e l u i a s , twenty T r a c t s , and one hundred O f f e r t o r i e s , i n which we can s t i l l hear the church i d e a l of o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s , i n the l a c k of i n s t r u m e n t a l or t e c h n i c a l adornment. For (h) Sorokin c i t e s the appearance of the songs of the troubadours and tr o u v e r e s , and i n Germany, of the minnesanger. T h i s music though based on f o l k legends, i s not f o l k - m u s i c , l a c k -i n g i t s i n t e l l e c t u a l s i m p l i c i t y . T h i s music was s t i l l h i g h l y sym-b o l i c b u t the complex and sensuously p l e a s i n g form and the s u b j e c t of p h y s i c a l and Romantic beauty and l o v e was new and s e c u l a r , though the m u s i c a l form employed was s t i l l v e r y s i m i l a r to the Ohants , i n the Chansons d ' h i s t o i r e , d r a m a t i q u e , d e danee; i n the r e v e r i e , the p a s t o r e l l e , i n the chansons c o u r t o i s e s , and debats. The i d e a l of p h y s i c a l l o v e and beauty which entered west-ern a r t as a major m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e i n a r t f o r the f i r s t time wi t h the appearance of the P r o v e n c a l b a l l a d s has never s i n c e completely l e f t i t , and i n aany m o d i f i e d forms remains as one of the most important m o t i v a t i n g f o r c e s i n a r t - e x p r e s s i o n today. Not on l y music i t s e l f showed t h i s change i n emphasis . . . b u t the t h e o r i z e r s , the w r i t e r s of m u s i c a l a e s t h e t i c s , a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h i s s h i f t . The medieval t h e o r e t i c i a n s had f o l l o w e d the l i n e of B o e t h i u s , whereas those of the next p e r i o d : Guido d'Arezzo(ca.1005),Walter Odington of Oxford,Adam de l a H a l l e , (1240-1287) a l l show the new a t t e n t i o n to m u s i c a l d e t a i l o f form -53-,to make i t r i c h e r and more sensuously pleasing.The t e c h n i c a l changes of the s h i f t i n emphasis are noted by Sorokin to be : " A f t e r the 13th C. i t becomes 'measured',quite a symbolic phenomena i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i t developed polyphony; i t produced and developed c o u n t e r p o i n t , . t h e 15th C. being the 'golden age'; i t i n t r o d u c e d and c u l t i v a t e d the r i c h e s t v a r -i e t y of rhythms; then developed harmony and ' v e r t i c a l ' w r i t -i n g i n s t e a d of h o r i z o n t a l ; began a r t i s t i c a l l y to use i n t e n s -i t y - piano, f o r t e , e t c . ; achieved wonderful p e r f e c t i o n i n the use of chromatics, consonances, dissonances; tended to become more and more e x p r e s s i v e ; i n t r o d u c e d and expanded and p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t a l music, and blended i t w i t h v o c a l ; enlarged the s c a l e of the choruses as w e l l as that of the o r c h e s t r a ; combined the sound impression w i t h the v i s u a l i n form,colour,and motion...The trend was g e n e r a l f o r Eur-opean c u l t u r e . " 19. In SorQfei'Rt-s s e c t i o n (c) s e c u l a r i z a t i o n had proceeded so f a r as to be a c t u a l l y a f f e c t i n g cnurch music i t s e l f , which was becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y i n s t r u m e n t a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y d e v e l -oped, u s i n g Sorokin's t e r m , i n c r e a s i n g l y 'Sensate 1. Examples i t i s p o s s i b l e to l i s t f o r t h i s are numerous S Johann Sebast i a n Bach's "Mass",, aSt.Matthew Passion","St.John P a s s i o n " ; P a l e s t r i -na's "Masses"; Beethoven's "Missa Solemnis",Mozart*s "Requiem Mass", B e r l i o z 1 "Tuba Mirum". In l i n e w i t h t h i s f a c t i s the other that Bach,Mozart,Handel and Beethoven, to name the g r e a t e s t , u s e d s i m i l a r themes and techniques i n t h e i r r e l i g i o u s and s e c u l a r music. The i n c r e a s i n g l y ornate and t h e a t r i c a l music of s e c t i o n ( d ) f o l l o w i n g on t h i s , i s shown i n the works of Wagner, e s p e c i a l l y i n the dramatic use he made of the legend of the •Niebelungen-l i e d " . I n t h i s p e r i o d developed a l s o what Sorokin c a l l s ' q uanti-t a t i v e c o l o s s a l i s m ' , shown i n the grad u a l i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e of i n s t r u m e n t a l groups employed..."Prom seven s i n g e r s i n the 19,Sorokin, op.cit.,pps.572-3 • -54-Gregorian chants of the Gregorian 'Schola', from f o u r and twenty f o r P a l e s t r i n a ' s music, from some t h i r t y to s i x t y instruments i n the r e g u l a r o r c h e s t r a s of Bach and Mozart, the o r c h e s t r a s of the 19th and 20th C. have c e r t a i n l y grown to be c o l o s s a l " . 21. b eing normally from one hun-dred to one hundred and twenty i n s i z e . T h i s same trend towards extremity i n s i z e i s matched i n one of e x t r e m i t y i n the t e c h n i -c a l l y complex texture of the music, f o r example, i n S t r a v i n s k y ' s "Sacre du Printemps", i n Schoenberg's " G u r r e l i e d e r " , or S t r a u s s ' " S i n f o n i a Domestica"; and a l s o i s matched by the g r a d u a l l y grow-complexity and e m o t i o n a l i t y of the ' p l o t ' m a t e r i a l f o r comic and 'genre' music, i n opera and m u s i c a l comedy, and i n the impression-i s t i c music of Debussy. F i n a l l y , i n the p e r i o d of today, s e c t i o n ( e ) , there i B a rupture w i t h the v a l u e s of Sensate a r t i n the re-a c t i o n toward I d e a t i o n a l music of such men as Honegger and other 'Cubists i n music', A s i m i l a r development of the other a r t s , e x h i b i t i n g these phases of (a) church or r e l i g i o u s domination i n theme and form; (b) of g r a d u a l l y growing s e c u l a r i z a t i o n i n both; (c) of a harmony e s t a b l i s h e d at d i f f e r e n t times i n the d i f f e r e n t a r t s between the two f o r c e s ; and f i n a l l y , showing the (d) almost completely s e c u l a r a r t of the present, w i l l now be undertaken, i n the order f o r each p e r i o d : A r c h i t e c t u r e , S c u l p t u r e , P a i n t i n g , L i t e r a t u r e . I t i s needless, perhaps, to p o i n t out that we do not f o l l o w h e r e , e x a c t l y , t h e Sorokin s c a l e of change, and that i * i s used r a t h e r t o suggest the whole flow of change through t h i s l o n g p e r i o d . The changes to be noted i n terms other than h i s w i l l be commented on from time to time, pointing-out the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of such change i n terms of the p o i n t of view t h i s t h e s i s has been attempting to e s t a b l i s h . 21.Sorokin, op. c i t . , pps.583„ -55-The e a r l i e s t form of church a r c h i t e c t u r e , borrowing from the Roman b a s i l i c a s , was c a l l e d Romanesque, and Churches i n t h i s s t y l e were c o n s t r u c t e d between 1000 and 1200 A.D. , among the most famous of which s t i l l extant are the C a t h e d r a l of P i s a , completed i n 1093, end the Abbey Church of Cluny, consecrated i n 1131. The former of these, that at P i s a , d i s p l a y s the t y p i c a l r e c t a n g u l a r form w i t h a nave and double a i s l e s . A f l a t wooden c e i l i n g covers the nave, but on account of the dangers of f i r e the a i s l e s are covered only by stone v a u l t i n g , and there i s a low dome where the nave and t r a n s e p t s meet. The nave i s f l a n k e d by two rows of 34 columns each, and from these s p r i n g round a r c h -es c o n s t r u c t e d on the a r c of the h a l f - c i r c l e which h e l p bear up the heavy masonry s u p p o r t i n g the r o o f of the c e n t r a l p a r t . A B e l l Tower s t a n d i n g s l i g h t l y behind the church sagged i n time and has become known as the ' l e a n i n g tower' of P i s a . The Abbey at Cluny was i n f l u e n t i a l , s i n c e the order com-p r i s e d an e x t e n s i v e group of monasteries, and helped promote c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . The church was l a r g e , w i t h the u s u a l nave,dou-b l e a i s l e s and t r a n s e p t s , w i t h an ambulatory around the c h o i r and apse, and i t boasted a spacious a t r i u m . Over i t s main cross-ing there was a quadrangular tower. The use of r i b b e d v a u l t i n g made i t ... ^ Possible to r e s t the heavy r o o f on c e r t a i n p o r t i o n s of the w a l l s where there were c l u s t e r s of columns, and i n the l a t e r Romanesque churches i t was thus p o s s i b l e to d i s c a r d the t i n y s l i t - l i k e windows, and have wide windows i n - t h e c l e r e s t o r y and i n the s i d e w a l l s of the a i s l e s . -56-Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e d e r i v e s from t h i s Romanesque s t y l e , chan-gin g the a r c h from the arc of the h a l f - c i r c l e t o the t y p i c a l p o i n t e d one, which enabled a r c h i t e c t s to l i g h t e n the weight of the roof, s i n c e on the p r e v i o u s h a l f - c i r c l e p r i n c i p l e there was a f i x e d r e l a t i o n always between the h e i g h t of the r o o f and the d i s t a n c e between the w a l l s . The Gothic s t y l e a l s o used the r i b b e d v a u l t i n g employed by the l a t e Romanesque, which w i t h the p o i n t e d a r c h and the use of columns p e r m i t t e d the r a i s i n g of the r o o f to a very g r e a t h e i g h t i n c r e a s i n g |he h e i g h t of the d e r e s t o r y . The use of a group of columns or p i l a s t e r s to support the r o o f l e f t the w a l l s a v a i l -able f o r d e c o r a t i v e use i n windows of g r e a t beauty which f l o o d -ed the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n of the church and the nave wi t h l i g h t . There are b u i l d i n g s extant which combine the f e a t u r e s of the two p e r i o d s , f o r example the B e n e d i c t i n e abbey church of St.Den-i s n o r t h of P a r i s , which s t i l l uses the round arches i n the f a -cade. C a t h e d r a l s a l s o belong to t h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d , those at Noyon,Chartres,Senlis b e i n g examples, w i t h the t r a n s i t i o n be-coming g r a d u a l l y more completely to Gothic by the year 1 2 0 0 .The d i s p e r s i o n of t h i s type of architecture was f a c i l i t a t e d by the f a c t t h a t many orders of monks had head houses i n Prance and c a r r i e d the ideas to t h e i r l o c a l chapters, the C i s t e r c i a n s esp-e c i a l l y . But i n each country the s t y l e developed i t s own unique f e a t u r e s , the E n g l i s h having t h e i r s set i n lawns,with a s p i r e r i s i n g from a c e n t r a l c r o s s i n g , a n d massive towers as p a r t of the facade; the Flemish being c o n s t r u c t e d of b r i c k r a t h e r than the usual limestone; the I l a l i a n having a superabundance of decor-a t i o n (ex. the c a t h e d r a l at M i l a n ) ; the Spanish producing another - 5 7 - . unique v a r i a t i o n "by merging the Gothic w i t h the l o c a l Moorish ; the Germans f o l l o w i n g the French most c l o s e l y (ex. the C a t h e d r a l at Strasbourg, and the e a r l i e s t p a r t s of Cologne). Gothic a r c h i t e c t u r e ( s o - c a l l e d because c r i t i c s p r e f e r r e d the b u i l d i n g s of the Greco-Roman p e r i o d and wished to d i s d a i n the values of what they considered e a r l y b a r b a r i a n or "G o t h i c " a r t ) i s s t i l l v i s i b l e i n many f i n e p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s : the town h a l l a t Ypres, c a s t l e s l i k e those at Ghent and Venice, and others s c a t t e r e d over every country of Europe, and i n many p r i v a t e dwell-ings l i k e those l i n i n g whole s t r e e t s of Bruges today. Gothic as a s t y l e i s a l s o v i s i b l e i n the d e c o r a t i v e s c u l p -ture and p a i n t i n g f o r the b u i l d i n g s Q>t t h i s p e r i o d . During the Romanesque p e r i o d the c a t h e d r a l d e c o r a t i o n s i n the form of s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s were not l i f e l i k e , being done u s u a l l y without models, from memory or from other examples. But with Go-t h i c , s c u l p t u r e was used c r e a t i v e l y as the p r i n c i p l e s of a r c h i t e c -ture had a l s o been. A p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e use of n a t u r a l i s t i c forms i s found i n t h e i r b e s t work, and though the f i g u r e s seem r a t h e r s t i f f they were done to stand i n n i c h e s and to harmonize wi t h the predominantly l i n e a r l i n e s of the b u i l d i n g . The treatment of the p r o p o r t i o n s , muscles, and f e a t u r e s i s g i v e n a ve r y l i f e l i k e ren-d i t i o n . T h i s treatment i n f l u e n c e d the s c u l p t u r e of I t a l y , i n the work of N i c c o l a and Giovanni Pisano (dl328) who carved p a n e l s f o r the p u l p i t s of the c a t h e d r a l s of P i s a and Sienna; and i n the pa-n e l s of G i o t t o f o r the campanile or b e l l - t o w e r of the c a t h e d r a l of Plorence, the Church of St.Mary of the Flower; and i n the s c u l p t u r e on the bronze doors of the B a p t i s t r y of San Giovanni i n f r o n t of the C a t h e d r a l of Flor e n c e done by Andrea P i s a n o . - 5 8 -Painting at t h i s period was also r e l i g i o u s i n inspiration,the f i r s t a r t i s t s of n o r t h e r n Europe to make any p e r s o n a l l y noteworthy advance "being the F l e m i s h b r o t h e r s , Jan and Hubertus van E y c k ( d # ca.1440) who made m i n i a t u r e s i n books, g r a d u a l l y extending the s i z e of t h i l l u m i n a t i o n s u n t i l they crowded the t e x t o f f the page and i n t h i s we see the beginning of an independent form of p a i n t -ing a part from m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e i r works i n o i l s are the f i r s t s u c c e s s f u l use of t h i s medium, e s p e c i a l l y so i n the a l t a r p i e c e , "The M y s t i c Lamb'', preserved i n the C a t h e d r a l of Ghent. A l s o i n the p a i n t i n g s of donors of r e l i g i o u s groups there begins a secu-l a r a r t of p a i n t i n g , of which Jan van Eyck's "Marriage of John A r n o l f i n i " i s a f i n e example.Continuing t h i s l i n e of Plemish a r t i s t s were Rogier van der Weyden (d.1464) and Hans Memling(d 1494), the l a s t of the group, I t a l i a n p a i n t i n g i n t h i s e a r l y p e r i o d was more i n f l u e n c e d by the Greek p a i n t e r s who had come from Byzantium than by the more p r o g r e s s i v e Gothic s p i r i t . o f F l a n d e r s . F l o r e n c e took the l e a d i n a development from t h i s , c o m b i n i n g w i t h the Gothic s p i r i t , f i r s t , n o t i c e a b l e i n the work of Cimabue (d.1302 ?) and i n t h a t of h i s p u p i l , G i o t t o ( d . 1 3 3 6 ) . In these p a i n t i n g s though the technique s t i l l shows the i n f l u e n c e of the mosaic i n the r i g i d i t y of l i n e , the composition and d e t a i l s of the f i g u r e s are more n a t u r a l i s t i c , Cimabue*s " V i r g i n Enthroned" i n the U f f i z i , and the G i o t t o f r e s -coes on the l i f e of S t , F r a n c i s , at A s s i s s i , and i n the B a r d i cha-p e l i n the church of Santa Croce i n F l o r e n c e , and those on tne l i v e s of the B l e s s e d V i r g i n and Jesus i n the Arena Chapel of the C a t h e d r a l at Padua, are the g r e a t works of t h i s p e r i o d . The e a r l i e s t m edieval. l i t e r a t u r e WS§ in f luenced , by fche L a t -i n , and indeed a g r e a t p a r t of i t , e s p e c i a l l y the r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l . t r e a t i s e s , were w r i t t e n i n L a t i n , hut with the 11th century there was f e l t a wave of l e g e n d - i n s p i r e d a c t i v i t y , r e s u l t -in g i n l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n the language spoken l o c a l l y . In France, the chansons de geste, mentioned i n the s e c t i o n on mus-i c , show the great new i n t e r e s t i n s e c u l a r n a r r a t i v e , u s i n g the i -d e a l s of a f e u d a l f i g h t i n g s o c i e t y . The most famous, "The Song of Roland", was w r i t t e n j u s t a f t e r the f i r s t Crusade,(1096-1099), and t e l l s the t a l e of Charlemagne .Is attempt to g a i n Spain away from the fflohammedansH, of h i s eventual peace with M a r s i l e , K i n g of Saragossa,and of the treacherous Ganelon who p l o t s Roland's d e s t r u c t i o n when he i s l e f t by Charlemagne to command the r e a r -guard as he leaves Spain. I t concludes w i t h the a t t a c k on Roland at R o n c e v a l l e s . In the b a t t l e the v i r t u e s of courage and l o y a l -ty are descanted u p o n , e s p e c i a l l y l o y a l t y to one's f e u d a l l o r d , i n t h i s case the K i n g . . . "Man f o r h i s l o r d should s u f f e r g r e a t d i s -ease Most b i t t e r c o l d endure and burning heat, H i s h a i r and s k i n should o f f e r up at n e e d 8 The Gothic s p i r i t of d e v o t i o n , a l r e a d y commented upon, i s here expressed i n more s e c u l a r terms, as w e l l as i n the "Lay of the C i d " w r i t t e n i n Spain about 1140. With the 12th C. appears a new type of l i t e r a t u r e . The l a y s of the troubadours of Provence i n t r o d u c e a new theme i n to the l i t e r a t u r e of western Europe, one s t i l l w i d e l y p r e v a l e n t i n i t s use today, t h a t of Romantic Love. In t h i s p e r i o d the theme i s i d -e a l i z e d i n the person on the "Lady" f o r whom the k n i g h t perform-ed h i s k n i g h t l y duty, d e d i c a t i n g i t a l l to her, 2 2 ' C . . K . S c o t t - M o n c r i e f f , "The Song of K O I a n d c h a p m a n & Hall,London, l i n e s 1136-1138. - 6 0 -The l y r i c s w r i t t e n i n t h i s v e i n by the troubadours i n f l u e n c e d the c o u r t l y romances which were beginning to be w r i t t e n , u s i n g the legends of Arthur, those of Troy, and others w r i t t e n on these as models. C h r e t i e n de Troyes' " E r i e and E n i d e " , " Y v a i n " , and " L a n c e l o t " are the f i r s t of these u s i n g the conventions of • C o u r t l y L ove 1 : love i n s p i r e d by the g r e a t p h y s i c a l beauty of the l a d y who a c c o r d i n g to the convention i s always m a r r i e d to someone e l s e , the earnest p r o t e s t a t i o n s of l o v e and d e s i r e to serve the l a d y , h e r acceptance of the d e v o t i o n and her t e s t i n g of the k n i g h t ' s l o y a l t y , and f i n a l l y her i n t i m a t e acceptance of the k n i g h t as her l o v e r . These conventions are based p a r t l y on the s e r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Ovid's c y n i c a l advice to l o v e r s i n h i s "Ars Amatoris". There are however a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s i n the conventions he s e t s out and those employed by the w r i t e r s of the C o u r t l y Komances, and these d i f f e r e n c e s are important as they show the c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p of l i t e r a t u r e to l i f e . Ovid's d e s c r i p t i o n of l o v e i s as a degrading p a s s i o n , and h i s conven-t i o n a l i z i n g the techniques of h a n d l i n g the s i t u a t i o n was a meth-od of s a t i r e , whereas the w r i t e r s of the medieval romances h e l d l o v e to be an ennobling emotion,and the s e r v i c e to the l a d y en-j o i n e d on the l o v e r the v i r t u e s of l o y a l t y and c h i v a l t y . The g r e a t w r i t e r s of t h i s p e r i o d are B o c c a c c i o and Dante i n I t a l y , and Chaucer and Langland i n England. There are others but to these f o u r a t t e n t i o n i s c a l l e d as i l l u s t r a t i v e of the t y p i c a l romance, and as i l l u s t r a t i v e of the new concept of i n d i v -i d u a l i t y , with l i t e r a t u r e l e a v i n g the stage of legendary e p i c , and speculating on the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s of p e r s o n a l i t y and bases of conduct. - 6 1 -B o c c a c c i o ' s " I I F i l o s t r a t o " i s a romance i n the s t y l e des-c r i h e d , i n which he s t a t e s i n his'proem' t h a t he i s w r i t i n g to counteract the p a i n of p a r t i n g from h i s own 'lady', and to des-c r i b e f o r her and f o r a l l the world the f e e l i n g he has, i n the words of P r i n c e T r o i l u s to h i s l o v e C r i s e y d e . The "Decameron", "Wherein are contained an hundred s t o r i e s i n ten days t o l d by Seven L a d i e s and Three Young Men" i s a c y c l e of t a l e s t o l d by a group of young nobles to while away the tedium of being s t r a n d -ed i n a country-house to a v o i d the ravages of the Plague, which i s d e s c r i b e d w i t h g r e a t r e a l i s m i n the •proem 1. T h i s c y c l e was a model f o r Chaucer's g r e a t one, "The Canterbury T a l e s " , and from Bo c c a c c i o ' s "Teseide" c o n t a i n i n g g the legend of Thebes Chaucer t r a n s l a t e s w i t h numerous a d d i t i o n s i n h i s 'Knight's tale.' B o c c a c c i o , l i k e Dante, ( h i s g r e a t and f a v o u r i t e exemplar), wrote i n I t a l i a n as i t was spoken i n h i s day. Dante A l i g h i e r i , 1265-1361, i s the w r i t e r who b e s t fuses the v a l u e s of r e l i g i o n , p h i l o s o p h y , o b s e r v a t i o n of the l i f e around him,the new theme of c o u r t l y l o v e , i n t o g r e a t works of a r t . In h i s "Vita. Nuova" he i d e a l i z e s the concept of c o u r t l y l o v e , emphasising i t s aspects of d e v o t i o n , i n s p i r a t i o n and s e r v i c e , and l e a v i n g i t s aspect of p h y s i c a l i n t i m a c y untouched. In "De V u l g a r i Eloquentia," he s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y h i s views on the use of the mother-tongue i n l i t e r a -t u r e , showing the p a s s i n g of the supremacy of L a t i n as the l i t e r -a ry and s c h o l a r l y language. Dante's g r e a t e s t work , the " D i v i n a Comedia" i s w r i t t e n i n a d i s t i n c t i v e s t a n z a , ' t e r z a r i m a 1 or t r i -p l e rhyme, and i s d i v i d e d i n t o three p a r t s , "Inferno","Purgator-i o " , and " P a r a d i s e " . In i t the Roman poet V i r g i l guides him through H e l l . a n d there Dante sees the sou!s of the d a m n e d . a n d through -62-p u r g a t o r y , f i n a l l y g i v i n g p l a c e to B e a t r i c e who guides him through P a r a d i s e , which s e c t i o n c o n t a i n s i m p l i c i t i n i t s survey the i n -t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y of the Middle Ages. G e o f f r e y Chaucer (dJ.400) a l s o f o l l o w e d the model of the co u r t -l y romance, u s i n g i n the e a r l y bock of "Blanche the Duchesse" the poems of the French poet Guillaume Michaut and of the c h r o n i c l e r P r o i s s a r t ; t r a n s l a t i n g the gr e a t medieval legend of the 'Rose' i n h i s "Romaunt of the Rose"; r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y of Troy i n h i s " T r o i l u s and C r i s e y d e t r a n s l a t i n g the ph i l o s o p h y of Boethius i n h i s "Boece"; and coming under the i n f l u e n c e of the I t a l i a n w r i -t e r s l a t e r i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s from B o c c a c c i o , i n h i s reading of Dante,and i n h i s use of Ovid's m y t h o l o g i c a l "Metamorphoses" as source m a t e r i a l . The work of Chaucer's f u l l y developed genius i s h i s g r e a t s e r i e s of t a l e s ,"The Canterbury T a l e s " , which though perhaps suggested by Bocc a c c i o ' s use of the device i s so essen-t i a l l y o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e that even the p a r t s that s t a r t as t r a n s l a t i o n s have both t h e i r i d e a s and language so transmuted as to become p e c u l i a r l y h i s own. W i l l i a m Langland's " P i e r s Plowman" i s the work of a m o r a l i s t , p i c t u r i n g the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and r e l i g i o u s c o n d i t i o n s of the time and e x p r e s s i n g h i s d i s c o n t e n t w i t h l i f e l i v e d as i t was, s t r e s s i n g i t s moral i m p l i c a t i o n s and u r g i n g men to the good l i f e . With the Renaissance we reach a p e r i o d of l o o k i n g back to the c u l t u r a l achievements of Greece and Rome, shown f i r s t i n the arc h -i t e c t u r e of B r u n e l l e s c h i i n I t a l y , where he completed the dome of the c i t y c a t h e d r a l of Flor e n c e which had stood unroofed f o r a century, h i s s o l u t i o n being a r o o f 138£ f e e t i n diameter,using an -63-outer dome Gothic i n l i n e , and an i n n e r one saucer-shaped of stones f i t t e d together, which was an emulation of c l a s s i c a l b u i l d i n g and y e t an o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n meeting c e r t a i n s p e c i f i c problems of d e s i g n and s t r u c t u r e . He a l s o b u i l t the "Foundling Home" i n Flor e n c e f o r the S i l k G u i l d , the facade of which has a porch supported by a lo n g row of C o r i n t h i a n columns, i n the i n -t e r v a l s between which are Andrea D e l i a Robbia's t e r r a c o t t a "Bam-b i n i " . Another f e a t u r e of the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the time was the domestic p a l a c e , l i k e t h a t of the M e d i c i , b u i l t by Mic h e l o z z o d i Bartelommeo Id.1472). A l b e r t i a l s o b u i l t i n the s t y l e of the clas' s i c a l p e r i o d u s i n g the Greek-cross p l a n w i t h f o u r equal arms i n -stead of the commonly used r e c t a n g u l a r c r o s s - f o r m f o r churches. F o l l o w i n g the s t y l e of the M e d i c i palace was t h a t b u i l t f o r the Farnese i n the 16th C. by Antonio da San g a l l e i n Home, and by Sansovina i n V e n i c e ; and Donate Bramante (1444-1514) c a r -r i e d the t r a d i t i o n of c l a s s i c a l i n f l u e n c e f u r t h e r i n h i s copy of the Roman Pantheon i n the small round church of Tempiette near the V a t i c a n . Bramante, Raphael,Michelangelo,and B e r n i n i ( i n the 16th C.) a l l worked on the enormous s t r u c t u r e of S t . P e t e r ' s a t Rome. The Roman t a s t e f o r l u x u r y and p l e a s u r e i n the ornate was a l s o copied, as i s p e r f e c t l y d i s p l a y e d i n the works of Vincenza's master b u i l d e r , P a l l a d i o ( d . l 5 8 0 ) who used what has become known as the ' P a l l a d i a n m o t i f , the use of s m a l l e r columns to c a r r y the arches inward from the outer order of l a r g e columns, an example being the facade f o r the town h a l l of Vi n c e n z a . In p a i n t i n g I t a l y . a l s o l e d i n the esta b l i s h m e n t of new s t y l e s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . In Fl o r e n c e there were working Mass-accio(d.1428)..."Adam and Eve e x p e l l e d from P a r a d i s e " ; U c e l l o ( d . -64-1475) w i t h a b i z a r r e hut p l a s t i c a l l y fused sense of design; An-drea d e l Castagna(d.1457).."Last Supper"; F r a F i l i p p o L i p p i ( d , 1469) u s i n g an e x o t i c n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c c o l o u r and complex rhythm/' f o r example i n h i s " V i r g i n a d o r ing the C h i l d " ; F r a A n g e l i c a l d . 1455) whose c h i e f v alue i s l i t e r a r y not p l a s t i c ; P i r o d e l l a Fran-cesco (d.1492) u s i n g a co m p o s i t i o n ' p o w e r f u l l y welded by c o l o u r , c h i e f l y i n c o o l b l u e s , i n h i s " E x a l t a t i o n of the Cross"; B o t t i -c e l l i ^ . 1 5 1 0 ) , showing a rhythmic use of l i n e i n . such p a i n t i n g s as " A l l e g o r y of Spr i n g " ; Leonardo da Vinci(d.1519) whose f i n e sense of composition i s shown i n the "Adoration of the Magi" and i n nxs famous "Last .Supper", but who was a s c i e n t i s t r a t h e r than a sensuously o r i g i n a l c o l o u r i s t ; Michelangelo(d,1564) who used h i s s c u l p t u r a l i m a g i n a t i o n i n h i s a c c e n t u a t i o n of muscular con-t o u r s ; and Raphael(d.l520) who waB a f i r s t r a t e v i r t u o s o , but r e a l l y an e c l e c t i c . In Siena the t r a d i t i o n was one of exaggerated line,known sometimes as'Sienese droop', shown i n the l i n e s of d r a p e r i e s , i n the elongated whites of eyes and l i n e of l i d s , and i n the t r e a t -ment of rocks i n landscape. There was r e t a i n e d here Byzantine pat-t e r n s which were converted i n t o sinuous rhythms,by such a r t i s t s as Duccio d i Buoninsegna(d.l339) and Ug o l i n o da Siena(d.l340) who resembles Duccio i n h i s naive d e l i c a c y , but has more movement and b r i g h t e r colour.- --In Venice the t r a d i t i o n i s expressed i n the phrase,"Venetian glow",mentioning t h e i r glowing use of c o l o u r i n s t r u c t u r a l r e l a -t i o n to l i g h t , and r e a c h i n g a h i g h s t a t e of p i c t o r i a l a r t . T h i s i s shown i n the work of such men as : B e l l i n i (d.1516) whose per--65-v a s i v e atmospheric use of c o l o u r d e r i v e s ffom Massaccio;Carpaceig (d.1525) whose "Dream of S t . U r s u l a " shows him to be one of the g r e a t e s t masters of space-composition; G i o r g i o n e ( d . l 5 1 0 ) i n whose "S l e e p i n g Venus" and "Two Prophets" i s shown a l y r i c beauty merg-i n g a l l the elements of form; T i t i a n ( d . l 5 7 6 ) u s i n g r i c h l y dappled s u r f a c e s of f l e s h i n " C h r i s t and Magdelene" and '"Assumption"; T i n t -oretto(d,1594) whose " A r t i s t ' s P o r t r a i t " , " P a r a d i s e " and "Susanna at the Bath" show use of areas of c o l o u r i n r i c h deep p o o l s i n c o n t r a s t w i t h areas of accentuated l i g h t ; Paolo Veronese(d.1588) whose work has a j e w e l - l i k e s i l v e r y enamelled t e x t u r e ; a l l of the Venetians indeed express the same mastery of space i n composition as that d i s p l a y e d by the m a s t e r - b u i l d e r s ' use of the f l y i n g but-t r e s s , and the c o n t r a p u n t a l technique i n the music of the p e r i o d . Continuing i n the Fle m i s h t r a d i t i o n i n the n o r t h were : Pe-truB C h r i s t u s (d.1473) whose "Marco B a r b a r i g o " and " D e p o s i t i o n from the Cro s s " show f i n e c o l o u r r e l a t i o n s and a sheen to t e x t u r e s ; D i r k Bouts'(d.1475) "Entombment" and " P o r t r a i t of a man" having r i c h c o l o u r and l i n e a r d e s i g n ; Hugo van der Goes(.1482) u s i n g a l i n e of r e f l e c t e d l i g h t to d e f i n e countours; and Hieronymous Bosch (d.1516) who renders the essence of any p l a s t i c s i t u a t i o n i n sa-t i r i c mastery. Other Flemish p a i n t e r s of the p e r i o d f o l l o w i n g were: Gerard David (d.1523) who shows a predominantly l i n e a r p a t t e r n i n h i s " C r u c i f i x i o n " ; .;' Joachim P a t i n i r ( d . l 5 2 4 ) . . " B a p t i s m of C h r i s t " ; Adrian Isenbrant (d.1551)-who shows a r i c h deep c o l o u r and f i n e c o m p o s i t i o n a l sense i n h i s " N a t i v i t y " ; L u c a s van Leyden(d.1533), who used c o l o u r i n r e l a t i o n . t o l i g h t i n h i s "Man's P o r t r a i t " and "The A d o r a t i o n of the M a g i " ; P i e t e r Brueghel(d.1569) who f o l l o w e d Bosch i n h i s in t e n s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m , and used c o l o u r mas--66-t e r f u l l y i n such landscapes as "Harvesters", and a l s o used or-dered space i n such winter scenes as "Hunters"; Antonio Moro(d. 1578) adds to t h i s F lemish technique some of the c o l o u r q u a l -i t y of the V e n e t i a n s . The German s t y l e of t h i s p e r i o d drew i t s c o l o u r from the I t a l i a n s , h u t s t i l l used the l i n e a r r i g i d i t y of the Byzantine i n a charming naive q u a l i t y shown i n the work of:Stephen Loch-ner(d,1451).Barthel Bruyn(d.l555),Konrad von Soest(d.1404?).Ber-nard S t r i g e l ( d . 1 5 2 8 ) who begins to show an i n d i v i d u a l use-of c o l o u r i n unison w i t h l i g h t and a sharp l i n e ; Mathias Grunewald (d.1530) whose " C r u c i f i x i o n " and "Entombment" show a. m a s t e r f u l use of space and c o l o u r ; A l b r e c h t Durer(d.1528) who c r e a t e s a new form w i t h h i s w o n d e r f u l l y s u b t l e f l o w i n g c o l o u r shown i n "Erasmus","Girl's P o r t r a i t " , the B e r l i n "Madonna" and "Head of Woman"; Lucas Cranach the E l d e r (d,1553) who d i d p o r t r a i t s w i t h landscape backgrounds l i k e h i s "Judgment of P a r i s " ; Hans H o l b e i n (dil545)who ranks as a p o r t r a i t p a i n t e r and m i n i a t u r i s t w i t h the g r e a t e s t , as shown i n such works as h i s "Erasmus" and h i s r o y a l p o r t r a i t s . The French p r i m i t i v e s t y l e was a f u s i o n of the i n f l u e n c e s • from Italy,Germany, Spain and the I F l e m i s h t r a d i t i o n , r e s u l t i n g i n a form rooted i n that of the m i n i a t u r i s t s ; i n a c o l o u r not used s t r u c t u r a l l y , but l i g h t and d e l i c a t e l y •:> i v o r y i n tone;and i n drawing which seems a s u r v i v a l of the ByzanteBque i n I t s r i -g i d i t y , v i s i b l e i n works l i k e those of F r a n c i s Clouet(d.1572),Cbr-n e i l l e de Lyon(d.l575), and i n the b r o t h e r s Antione,Louis,and Ma-t h i e u l e Nain. The l i t e r a t u r e of the e a r l y f i f t e e n t h century shows the •-e d e c l i n e of medieval s o c i e t y and the emergence of the new bourge-o i s i e , and t h i s was marked by a backward-looking at .the f i n e i d e a l s of c h i v a l r y whose motive power was almost exhausted,for example,.: . the work of Malory whose "Morte d ' A r t h u r * was very popular,and the t h i s excerpt from the "Book of'Order of C h i v a l r y " by the E n g l i s h p r i n t e r Caxton which pleads f o r a r e t u r n to the former i d e a l s . . . "0 ye k n i g h t s of England, where i s the custome and usage of noble c h i v a l r y that was used i n those days? What do ye now .!-but go to the baynes and p l a y at d i c e ? And some not w e l l ad-v i s e d use not honest and good r u l e a g a i n s t a l l order of knighthood. Leave t h i 3 , l e a v e i t , and read the noble volumes of S a i n t G r a a l , of L a u n c e l o t , of Gawayne.and many more. There s h a l l ye see manhood,courtesy,and g e n t l e n e s s * And look i n l a t -t e r days of the noble a c t e s w i t h the "^conquests as i n K i n g Richard's days Couer de Lyon, Edward the F i r s t , a n d the T h i r d , and h i s noble s o n s , S i r Robert K n o l l e s , S i r John Hawkwood,Sir John Chaundos and S i r Walter de Manny. Read E r o i s s a r t . "..23, There were c r i t i c s of the other aspects of s o c i e t y who wrote,as d i d Erasmus, c r i t i c i z i n g the education of the c l e r g y ; the Papal B u l l " E x e c r a b i l i s " (1460) put an end to the movement f o r reform w i t h i n the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the church brought on by the p r e a c h i n g of Buch men as W y c l i f f e ( d . l 3 8 4 ) , and r e - e s t a b l i s h e d pa-p a l a u t h o r i t y ; i n the m o r a l i t y p l a y s l i k e the English"Everyman" a b s t r a c t themes are d e a l t with, while the m i r a c l e p l a y s allowed the e x p r e s s i o n of r e a l experience w i t h i n the p a t t e r n of the B i b l e s t o r i e s . The most famous poet of t h i s p e r i o d i s the Frenchman, F r a n c o i s V i l l o n (d.1462?) whose s t r i k i n g B a l l a d e w r i t t e n when he was to be hanged w i t h f o u r others because of h i s vagrant t h i e v i n g l i f e has been t r a n s l a t e d by Wyndham Lewis thus... 23. Lucas,"A Short H i s t o r y of C i v i l i z a t i o n " . M c G r a w f H i l l ,N.Y.,1945, pps.498-99. — 68-"Men,brother men,that a f t e r us y e t l i v e , L e t not your h e a r t s too hard a g a i n s t us he; For i f some p i t y of us poor men ye g i v e . The sooner God s h a l l take of you p i t y . Here are wee f i v e or s i x strung up, you see, And here the f l e s h t h a t a l l too w e l l we f e d B i t by b i t , e a s t e n and r o t t e n , rent and shred, And we the bones grow dust and ash w i t h a l ; L e t no man laugh a t us d i s c o m f i t e d , But pray to God that he f o r g i v e us a l l . The r a i n has washed and laundered us a l l f i v e , And the sun d r i e d and blackened; yea,per d i e , Ravens and p i e s w i t h beaks that rend and r i v e Have dug our eyes out; and plucked o f f f o r fee Our beards and eyebrows; never we are f r e e Not once to r e s t ; but here and there s t i l l sped D r i v e n at i t s w i l d w i l l , by the wind's change l e d , More pecked by b i r d s than f r u i t s on garden-wall; Men, f o r God's s a k e , l e t no gibe here be s a i d , But pray to God that he f o r g i v e us a l l . " 24. The age of change ushered i n by the i n c r e a s e i n trade and r e v i v a l of the c l a s s i c a l l e a r n i n g brought many new i d e a s to , l i t e r a t u r e a l s o , one of the most i n f l u e n t i a l w r i t e r s of the per-i o d being NIccolo M a c h i a v e l l i (d.1527) whose p r a c t i c a l guide f o r p o l i t i c a l conduct,"The P r i n c e " w r i t t e n f o r the Duke Lorenzo de'Medici, shows a p o l i t i c a l r e a l i s m which has seldom been e q u a l l -ed, and a t the same time shows the humanist i d e a l of the c u l t u r e d c i t y - s t a t e l i f e of F l o r e n c e i n h i s time. An E n g l i s h p o l i t i c a l i d e a l i s t , i n c o n t r a s t to t h i s , was S i r Thomas More' whose "Utop-i a " c o n t a i n s both a c r i t i c i s m of the s t a t e as i t was and a des-c r i p t i o n of an i d e a l s t a t e . The most s i g n i f i c a n t w r i t e r of the French Renaissance was F r a n c i s R a b e l a i s . From h i s e a r l y education i n a monastic order which he entered at the age of seven and from which he ran away to study medicine at the u n i v e r s i t y of Montpel-l i e r , R a b e l a i s conceived a h a t r e d f o r the medieval r e l i g i o u s d i s -d i s c i p l i n e of the church, and he wrote h i s g r e a t "Gargantua and 24.Wyndham Lewis, op. c i t . -69-P a n t a g r u e l r t ( w r i t t e n i n the o r d i n a r y French of the day) i n a s p i r -i t of s a t i r e towards some of the e v i l s of h i s day, u s i n g l a n g -uage so c r e a t i v e l y t h at he g r e a t l y e n r i c h e d the spoken language. The " N i n e t y - f i v e Theses" of M a r t i n Luther (d.1546) a t t a c k -ed the p r a c t i c e s t i l l c u r r e n t f o r some time a f t e r t h i s of s e l l -de i n g i n d u lgences, or pardons f o r s i n s , which Chaucer h a d ' p i c t e d so w e l l i n h i s "Pardoner", and Luther's "Open L e t t e r to the C h r i s -t i a n N o b i l i t y of the German Nation Concerning the Reform of the German State**, w r i t t e n i n German, and thoroughly understood by these p r i n c e s , produced among them a wave of sympathy f o r h i s t e a c h i n g about the r e l a t i o n of the s p i r i t u a l and temporal e s t a t e s * and a s t a t e - c o n t r o l l e d church r e s u l t e d i n most p a r t s of Germany. Though Luther was excomnunicated by the Pope i n 1521, Lutheranism continual to spread, e s p e c i a l l y among the peasants, to whom the d o c t r i n e of each man as h i s own ' p r i e s t 1 appealed, u n t i l the out-break of the Peasants' War i n 1525. In t h i s Luther's other d o c t r i n e of the s t a t e - c o n t r o l of botn s p i r i t u a l and and temporal matters caused him to advise the nobles to put down the u p r i s i n g with s e v e r i t y , thus checking the spread of Lutheranism among the pea-sants of S.Germany who remain C a t h o l i c to t h i s day. T h i s i d e a , of the s t a t e - c o n t r o l of p r i v a t e r e l i g i o n , was contested by the A n a b a p t i s t s , who were everywhere persecuted, t h e i r l e a d e r s b e i n g f r e q u e n t l y burned at the stake. The other i n f l u e n t i a l p r o t e s t a n t reformer of t h i s time was John C a l v i n , whose " I n s t i t u t e s of the C h r i s t i a n R e l i g i o n " was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n 1536 and contained a systematic arrangement of the whole body of d a t a about the C h r i s t i a n r e l i g i o n which he f e l t a C h r i s t i a n should Know, emphasizing r e a d i n g the B i b l e , a s God's word. -70-Th e C a t h o l i c Church a l s o conducted reforms at t h i s time, w i t h the formation of the " S o c i e t y of Jesus" hy I g n a t i u s L o y o l a , (dj.556) whose " S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s " resembled Thomas a Kempis' " I m i t a t i o n of C h r i s t " i n i n t e n t . The J e s u i t s were a s e l e c t order many of whom were the c o n f e s s o r s of Kings and P r i n c e s , and thus gained power f o r t h e i r s o c i e t y , t h o u g h many went as m i s s i o n a r i e s to the Americas,China,India, and Japan. Reform w i t h i n the church was c a r r i e d on a l s o hy means of the I n q u i s i t i o n , which, under Pope Paul IV.was so severe as to almost wipe out heresy i n I t -a l y . Pope Paul IV a l s o p u b l i s h e d the "Index", a l i s t of f o r b i d -den books, d u r i n g 1555-1559. There were other r e l i g i o u s r e f o r m i s t s among groups l i k e the P u r i t a n s , who under t h e i r l e a d e r John Browne, l e f t England , where they f e l t they were not f r e e to worship as t h e i r c o n s c i -ences ordered them to, and fo l l o w e d Browne f i r s t to Le i d e n , and then l a t e r to the New World, s a i l i n g on the "Mayflower", and l a n d i n g on the shores of America at Plymouth i n 1620. The P u r i t a n s , who were m i d d l e - c l a s s merchants, fought under t h e i r l e a d e r , Cromwell, a g a i n s t the K i n g and the order of p r i v e l e g e , and were s u c c e s s f u l , the k i n g C h a r l e s 1 s t , being be-headed i n 1649, l e a v i n g Cromwell as D i c t a t o r u n t i l h i s death, when C h a r l e s the Second r e t u r n e d . Dur i n g t h i s p e r i o d of P u r i t a n c o n t r o l the t h e a t r e s were c l o s e d and England l a y under a r e l -i g i o u s p a l l , from which she has not f u l l y recovered even today, the e f f e c t s of r e p r e s s i o n of a l l a r t i s t i c t endencies being more f a r - r e a c h i n g , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , than those of a reverse s i t u a t i o n . S c i e n t i f i c changes were h e l p i n g l o o s e n the h o l d of r e l -i g i o u s u n i t y i n the west. Prom 1500 u n t i l the death of Newton -71-there was v i s i b l e a steady i n c r e a s e i n the systematic i n v e s t i g a -t i o n of nature made p a s s i b l e by the i n v e n t i o n s of such d e v i c e s as the t e l e s c o p e , the microscope, the thermometer,barometer,pendulum, and micrometer. The s i g n i f c a n t men of t h i s l o n g l i n e of s c i e n t i s t s were Copernicus,Brahe,Kepler,Galileo,Harvey,van Loeuwenhoek,Huy-gens.Malpighi, and Newton. T h e i r work helped l a y the b a s i s f o r the g r e a t m a t e r i a l and i n t e l l e c t i a l changes of the next p e r i o d . To t h i s next p e r i o d the c r i t i c a l term,Baroque, i s a p p l i e d . T h i s term was taken over from one of the f i g u r e s of the c l a s s i c a l s y l l o g i s m , and has been used at d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s i n c r i t i c i s m to mean qu i t e d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , v a r y i n g from the hig h p r a i s e of the p e r i o d by Spengler as the Manhood of Western C u l t u r e to a term of contempt used c h i e f l y of I t a l i a n a t e ornateness by the c r i t i c s of the 18th century l i k e C o l i n Campbell,and the E n g l i s h Ruskin of the 19th c e n t u r y . Baroque, as a p p l y i n g to the s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i t e c t u r e of the p e r i o d s t r e s s e s the d i f f e r e n c e s i n the use of the Renaissance forms, which were i n f u s e d here w i t h a new s p i r i t , o f l a v i s h orna-mentation. In I t a l y the church of the V a t i c a n was changed by the a d d i t i o n of an ornamented approach w i t h a long colonnade and s a i n t s s c u l p t u r e d on the facade done by the a r t i s t Bernini(d.1680) who al s o worked on the' palace o f the Louvre i n P a r i s u n t i l he disagreed w i t h Mazarin and returned home. In Prance working then i n s c u l p -ture was Ch a r l e s l e Brun who d i d very d e c o r a t i v e work. The Baroque s t y l e i s shown p e r f e c t l y i n the Chateau of V e r s a i l l e s with i t s ex-q u i s i t e l y l a i d out formal gardens, which was the work of the a r c h i t e c t Mansart, who a l s o b u i l t many g r a c e f u l countryhom.es of the p e r i o d and designed the dome of the I n v a l i d e s i n P a r i s . -72-In p a i n t i n g the p e r i o d wa.s a r i c h one though i t s f i r s t d i s t i n c t i v e exponents were known as a group as the 'mannerists', u s i n g as they d i d an e c l e c t i c s t y l e combining' the F l o r e n t i n e , Umbrian,Mantuan,and Venetian t r a d i t i o n s . The f i r s t I t a l i a n ex-ponent was a Flemish a r t i s t , Denis C a l v a e r t , ( d l 6 1 9 ) who passed h i s technique on to h i s students,Ludovico Carracci(d.1619) and h i s nephews,Agostino and Annibale C a r r a c c i . The f i r s t g r e a t I t a l i a n p a i n t e r i n the new Baroque t r a d -i t i o n was Caravaggio (d.1609) whose "Entombment" shows the s k i l l i n use of c h i a r o s c u r o which foreshadows Rembrandt; while h i s f e l l o w - a r t i s t s , among whom were G-uido Reni (d.1642),sometimes p a i n t e d i n the new s t y l e . In Spain E l Greco (d.1614), p u p i l to the Venetian T i n t o r -r e t t o , was working i n a d i s t i n c t l y p e r s o n a l v e r s i o n of the new s t y l e , u s i n g long nervous l i n e s with l i g h t and c o l o u r worked i n to make a d e l i b e r a t e l y d i s t o r t e d p a t t e r n i n the i n t e r e s t of h i s d e s i g n . A l s o i n Spain , Velasquez (d.1660) was working , who though he d e r i v e s from the Venetians and the Flemish, p a i n t e d i n such an i n d i v i d u a l and s u b t l e manner that he i s d i f f i c u l t to • c l a s s i f y . In the Netherlands Salomon van Kuysdael (d.1670) was p a i n t i n g landscape around Haarlem, as shown i n h i s "View of Haar-lem", and f o l l o w i n g the l i n e of the other Dutch genre p a i n t e r s , who d e r i v e p a r t i a l l y from Caravaggio i n t h e i r s u b j e c t - m a t t e r of o r d i n a r y people doing o r d i n a r y t h i n g s . T h i s B w i l d i i n s u b j e c t to completely s e c u l a r m a t e r i a l i s shown e s p e c i a l l y i n the work of such an a r t i s t as Franz H a l s , (d.1666) i n p a i n t i n g s l i k e h i s "Mad Baabe", Hals a l s o had an enormous i n f l u e n c e on succeeding artists who used his brush technique. At Delft,Jan Vermeer used this characteristic intimate approach in his "Li t t l e Street", "View of Delft", "Young Woman with Jug" and "Lady with a Lute", In Amsterdam there was Rembrandt (d.1669) whose form i s wholly characteristic and his own, though often imitated by lesser arti s t s . The means he used consisted chiefly of a combination of light and shadow related to the outline so as to achieve a dis-tinctness of contour so subtle that i t is impossible to say how i t was done. In Rembrandt an imaginative interpretation of the actual world reaches i t s perfect plastic expression, with com-plete avoidance of anything not capable of being rendered plas-t i c a l l y , that i s , in the medium he has chosen. He is at his best in such paintings as "Hendrickje Stoffels","Old Man" and "Unmer-c i f u l Servant." In the south there were working Rubens(d.1640), and Van Dyck(d.l641). To conclude with the Netherlands , their Baroque architecture consists chiefly of public buildings like that in the town hall of Bolsward, and the Butcher's Hall in Haarlem. In Russia, Petee the Great travelled from home to bring back his European knowledge in an attempt of Europeanize his country, building the city of St.Petersburg on the Neva, and in-troducing western dress, ideas, manners, and art, and by his death in 1725 Russia was within the European tradition. In Prance were working the Painters : Poussin (d.1665), one of the great .French colourists*, integrating his colour and light and line; Claude le Lorrain(d.l682) who uses a pervasive colour and l i t t l e detail in his "Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba" and in his "Landing of Cleopatra". -74- P a S e n o t numbered. -75-In l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g the p e r i o d of c i v i l war i n France which accompanies the Reformation, there were two g r e a t w r i t e r s , Jean Bodin(d.l596) and Montaigne(d.1592). Bodin's " S i x Books on the S t a t e " recommaded a strong monarchy as the most s t a b l e form of government, but a s s e r t e d the n e c e s s i t y of the monarch's being s u b j e c t to the laws. Montaigne's "Essayes" are the s c e p t i c a l op-i n i o n s of an i n t e l l i g e n t and honest man i n t e r e s t e d i n every ph phase of l i f e . L a t e r , a f t e r the a c c e s s i o n of L o u i s XIV, the c o u r t l y a t -mosphere produced the comedy of Moliere(d.1673),which s a t i r i z e d the mannered c o u r t n o b i l i t y , and the tragedy of Racine(d.1699) and C o r n e i l l e ( d . 1 6 8 4 ) which, based on the heroes of c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y , are more s t a t e l y i n s u b j e c t matter, and more "rigid i n form.Also w r i t i n g were B o i l e a u . L a Rochefoucauld, La F o n t a i n e , Marie de Sevigne, Fenelon, and B l a i s e B a s c a l , whose "Pensees" c o n t a i n r e f l e c t i o n s on C h r i s t i a n i t y . In England the Age of E l i z a b e t h was one of n e v e r - p a r a l l e d l i t e r a r y b r i l l i a n c e , f e a t u r i n g as i t does,near i t s beginning,the work of such men as John Lyly,Bacon,Hooker,Fox, and i n i t s g r e a t p e r i o d of f u l l development the work of Spenser, Marlowe, Shakes-peare, Jonson, Donne, M a r v e l l , and , c l o s i n g i t , B u t l e r , Bunyan and M i l t o n , ( d . 1 6 7 4 ) . Among these are many who deserve the name of genius,and they are only the b e s t known w r i t e r s ; there were many of the d r a m a t i s t s , who , l i k e Webster and Chapman, would have f a r e d more k i n d l y i f they had not been faced by the u n i v e r -s a l genius of Shakespeare. The Baroque, then, was a p e r i o d of g r e a t achievement, i n many of the i n d i v i d u a l a r t-forms, and was one of enormous a l i v e -ness i n f e e l i n g . I t s more ornate s t y l e has heen termed "marin-i s t " i n I t a l y , a f t e r t h e i r poet M a r i n i , "Gongorism" i n Spain a f t e r Gongor, " e u p h u i s t i c " i n England a f t e r the "Euphues" of L y l y and, i n i'rance, " p r e c i o s i t e " . I t saw, d u r i n g i t s course, the death of I t a l i a n s o c i a l comedy i n the •commedia d e l l ' a r t e " , and the.emergence of i t s most t y p i c a l a r t - f o r m i n the new a r t of the 'opera'. These f i r s t operas were r e a l l y only performances of works meant simply to he sung r a t h e r than played, such as P a l -e s t r i n a ' s "Dafne" and " E u r i d i c e " . At £ouis' c o u r t the manners of the r e s t of p o l i t e Europe were formed, and the masques and entertainments he pr o v i d e d f o r h i s guests s t i m u l a t e d the a r t s to almost the same degree that they exhausted h i s t r e a s u r y . Here, f o r i n s t a n c e , appeared the f i r s t c l a s s i c a l dancing, i n r e f i n e d v a r i a t i o n s on the s o c i a l dancing of the c o u n t r y - s i d e . The conventions f o r the c l a s s i c a l f i g u r e s of the b a l l e t were l a i d down, and i n s p i r a t i o n g i v e n to m u s i c a l forms which often,today even, uses the dance forms of : pavanne,galliard,allemande,courante,sarabande,gigue,minuet, gavotte,bouree, rigaudon,chaconne,and p a s s e c a g l i a . I t was a p e r i o d of a new spaciousness i n l i v i n g , u s i n g the new l u x u r y of l e i s u r e , and i t s a r t was"sometimes overblown w i t h exuberance. D u r i n g the 16th ,and 17th c e n t u r i e s economic changes were t a k i n g p l a c e , world trade and manufacturing were i n c r e a s i n g i n scope, and were begi n n i n g to b r i n g together money, or c a p i t a l , which made a commerce i n wealth p o s s i b l e ; g r e a t t r a d i n g compan--77-i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , n e c e s s i t a t i n g the formation of banking hou-ses to supply them w i t h c r e d i t f o r t h e i r operations; double entry book-keeping had r e c e n t l y been invented; i n agricu3isre new and improved methods had made la r g e land-holdings more p r o f i t a b l e than ever, and a l e g a l i z e d d i s p o s s e s s i o n of the peasants from t h e i r land was ta k i n g place i n England, the now l a n d l e s s work-ers who d r i f t e d to the c i t i e s forming the o labo u r - f o r c e f o r the new E n g l i s h f a c t o r i e s . L i f e was changing. The machines and methods f o r making things more q u i c k l y and more cheaply were being invented. In the t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y Watt's steam-engine proved u s e f u l i n operating Richard Arkwright's (d. 1792) water-frame spinning-machine. In America, E l i Whitney(d.l825) invented a cotton g i n which i n c r e a s -ed the production of cotton from 189,000 l b s . i n 1791 to 2,000,000 i n 1860 and 5,ooo,ooo i n 1900. In metal-working Cort's (d.1800) process of 'puddling' made the p i g - i r o n production of England jump from 48,000"Tons i n 1740 to 8,000,000 i n 1844. In the manu-factu r e of tools,Maudsiay (d,183l) made an i r o n - l a t h e and a s l i d e -r e s t which permitted measurements of 1/10,000 of an i n c h to be made; W i i i n s o n , by boring c y l i n d e r s f o r the steam engine helped i t s success; J o s i a h Wedgewood (d.1795) produced machine-made vases of great beauty; and i n d i s t i l l i n g a vapour from c o a l to l i g h t h i s own home Murdock (d.1839) produced a method f o r using i l l u m i n a t i n g gas i n i n d u s t r y . L i f e was changing a l s o i n i t s meaningful geographic scope. Transportation methods were invented to make t r a v e l e a s i e r and cheaper : McAdam (d.1836) invented a method of t s u r f a c i n g roads -78-by elevating them and draining them before covering them with successive layers of finely crushed rock; Meaton (d.1792) and Telford(d,1834) built canals, the former the Forth and Clyde, the latter the Ellesmere connecting the Mersey and Severn rivers, Stevenson invented the the f i r s t successful steam engine which drew the f i r s t coaches on the Liverpool-ManChester Railway in 1830 carrying 600 passengers.Symington, in 1802 buil t the steam-boat "Charlotte Dundas", whih was later improved upon by the Am-erican, Fulton, whose "Clermont" with a Watt steam engine operat-ing i t s paddles travelled 150 miles up the Hudson River. By 1800 England led the world in the development of mech-anized industry. Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" laid down the accepted line of economic theory, with i t s p o l i t i c a l concomitant the 'laissez f a i r e ' attitude. Along with Ricardo, Mai thus, and Ben-tham he enunciated the principles of what later was called "Lib-eralism", a justification for the rise of the new class of ex-ploiter-capitalists, and gained for them greater representation in Parliament which had formerly been the exclusive 'club' of the land-owning class. Gradually even these parliamentary apologists were compelled to forsake their 'hands off industry' stand and pass legislationslike the Factory Acts of 1802-33-44-47 and the Mine Regulations of 1819 regulating hours and conditions of lab-our. This period is paralled in i t s earliest stages by the Literature of the Age of Reason which in England was written by Pope in poetry, and Hume , Locke and Berkelsyin philosophy; in France by Voltaire and Montesquieu, and the Encyclopedists,De Condillac,Diderot, and D'alembert. With the changes brought by - 7 9 -industrialization the picture changes in England where there is a reaction towards Romanticism in the Poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge,Shelley,Keats and Byron, and the novels o f , f i r s t , Richardson and Pieliing, and then those of Scott,Dickens, Thack-aray,George Eliot and the Bronte sisters, of whom,Emily's "Wu-therirgHeights" shows the greatest poetic a b i l i t y . This was f o l -by lowed in jthe works of Hardy,Samuel Butler,Arnold Bennett,/a more re a l i s t i c treatment of the novel, turning towards rather than away from1 the industrial society of English l i f e , and the ord-inary l i f e of the agricultural society which s t i l l existed in parts of England. In America the novel passed through a similar period of Romanticism, shown in the works of Penimore Cooper, and the soc-i a l criticism of Mrs.Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin", succeeded by a period of great social realism shown in the novels of Dreiser and Sinclair Lewis, and of greater intellectual power shown in those of Henry James. In Prance the same romantic tendency away from the reality of the bourgeoiBe society surrounding them is visible in the poetry of the Symbolistes, V i l l i e r s de l ' i s l e Adam,Mallarme, Verlaine, Laforgue,Ducasse,Paul Valery,Rimbaud and Baudelaire, divorcing their art from a l i f e in which they could see no val-ue, deriving greatly from the American poet Edgar Allen Poe. In architecture this early period is called "Rococo", from the word 'rocaille' or rock-work, because of the prevailing a r t i f i c i a l grottoes which the period affected. This style was seen characteristically in the decorations of rooms like the -80-one from the Palazzo Sagredo,on the Grand Canal of Venice, now i n the M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum i n New York. In such rooms a r c h i t e c -t u r e , s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , f u r n i t u r e , and even the l i g h t of the day are o r c h e s t r a t e d i n t o a whole. Other examples of the s t y l e are the Abbey of Rottenbuch i n A u s t r i a , and the Zwinger i n Dresden. In p a i n t i n g the t r a d i t i o n was e s s e n t i a l l y French , being an exaggeration of the baroque of the c o u r t of LouisXIV, shown i n the d e l i c a t e l y t i n t e d works of Watteau,Fragonard,Boucher, and the works of Chardin, whose s l i g h t l y p i t t e d and g r a i n y s u r f a c e and p e r s o n a l sense of composition had an i n f l u e n c e on many suc-ceeding p a i n t e r s . In the p a i n t i n g of n i n e t e e n t h century Prance p r i o r to Impressionism there was a r e v i v a l of c l a s s i c i s m and a tendency towards the a c c e n t u a t i o n of l i n e at the expense of, the other e l -i \ ements, v i s i b l e i n the work of such a r t i s t s as David, Ingres; and the h i s t r i o n i s m of D e l a c r o i x . The work of s o c i a l c r i t i c s l i k e Daumier i n Prance and Hogarth i n England c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s the work of the great n o v e l i s t s of the p e r i o d , Dickens a l r e a d y mentioned, f o r England, and Flaubert,(d.1880),Zola(d.1902) and Anatole France(d.1924). In R u s s i a i t was v i s i b l e i n the p o e t r y of Pushkin, that a s i m i l a r though delayed Romanticism was t a k i n g p l a c e i n t h e i r l i t e r a t u r e , shown a l s o i n the n o v e l s of Turgenev,Gogol,and esp-e c i a l l y i n the m a g n i f i c e n t p i c t u r e s of i n t e n s e l y human l i f e i n D o s t o i e v s k i . In Germany i t developed i n Goethes's g r e a t drama "Faust" what Spengler c a l l s the f i n a l p e r f e c t e d e x p r e s s i o n of the western or f a u s t i a n s o u l , and was v i s i b l e i n the p h i l o s o p h y -81-of Kant,Hegel,Schopenhauer, and N i e t z s c h , i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s by S c h l e g e l of Shakespeare's p l a y s , and i n the a e s t h e t i c c r i t -i c i s m of L e s s i n g . In Spain i t s e a r l i e s t p e r i o d produced the b i t t e r s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m of Goya's e t c h i n g s of the P e n i n s u l a r War. Everywhere i n Europe t h i s s p l i t between the v a l u e s o f the new i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t y and the v a l u e s not only of a r t , but those o f ' h u m a n i t y ' i t s e l f , was v i s i b l e , ana i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i -dent i n the two a t t i t u d e s which i t produced then, and which are s t i l l c u r r e n t i n a r t today - that of t u r n i n g from the f a l s e va-l u e s of the l i f e around the a r t i s t to an ' a r t f o r a r t ' s sake'at-t i t u d e , and t h a t of t u r n i n g the denied value of a r t and human-i t y i n t o a s e a r c h i n g study of s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t n o v e l s and some f i n e s o c i a l c r i t i c i s m . Adding to the new i n v e n t i o n s , d e v e l o p i n g the machine as-pect of the new s o c i e t y , and, through improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and communication methods, b r i n g t h i s 'one world' s t i l l more c l o s e l y to a r e a l i z a t i o n of i t s u n i t y of purpose, were the mech-a n i c a l achievements of the f i r s t h a l f of the 2otn century, i n the work of such men as Thomas B l a n c h a r d ( p r o f i l e L a t h e ) , F r e d -e r i c k Winsor ( s t r e e t l i g h t i n g ) , S a m u e l Clegg(gas meter),Howe and Singer (sewing machine).Merganthaier ( l i n o t y p e ) and Lanston (mon-otype ) t S c h o l e s ( t y p e w r i t e r ) , G o o d y e a r ( v u l c a n i z a t i o n o f rubber), Daguerre ( f i l m developing),Eastman(kodak),Morse ( t e l e g r a p h ) , Lord K e l v i n ( A t l a n t i c c a b l e ) . A l e x a n d e r Graham H e l l ( t e l e p h o n e ) , M a r c o n i ( w i r e l e s s ) , L e e de F o r e s t ( r a d i o ) , E d i s o n ( e l e c t r i c i t y ) , G . F . J e n k i n s ( t e l e v i s i on),Ford(aut omobile),Wright B r o t h e r s ( a e r o p l a n e ) , L i e b i g and W o h l e r ( i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i s t r y ) , J . P . M o r g a n ( f i n a n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n ) , K a r l Marx(socialism),De Gobineau ( r a c i s m ) , G a t l i n g , -82-Maxim,Colt,Du Pont,Krupp,Skoda,Armstrong & V i c k e r s , a n d Schneider-Creusot (armaments),Galvani,Volta,Ampere,Ohm, ( e l e c t r i c a l science?) Faraday (dynamo),Hetz,Helmholtz,Einstein,Manhattan P r o j e c t (atom-i c f i s s i o n ) . A r c h i t e c t u r e , i n t h i s age of i n d u s t r y , r e c e i v e d a new im-petus, which i n h e a r i n g out Spengler's own dictum that a r c h i t e c -ture i s the f i r s t a r t a f f e c t e d hy new beginnings of c u l t u r e , sup-p o r t s my c o n t e n t i o n that t h i s p e r i o d i s one of new beginnings c u l -t u r a l l y speaking. I t s t y p i c a l e x p r e s s i o n i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e of the 'new w o r l d 1 was the sk y s c r a p e r of American b u s i n e s s , t o w e r i n g more than 35 s t o r i e s i n t o the a i r and housing 5ooo people; the en-ormous f a c t o r i e s made necessary by mass p r o d u c t i o n were sometimes r e a l and e x c i t i n g works of a r t i n t h e i r s o l u t i o n of s t r u c t u r a l and personnel problems, as i n the Van N e l l e F a c t o r y at Rotterda,; the modern department s t o r e was t r e a t e d i n Germany and Sweden with i m a g i n a t i o n and beauty; the l a r g e d w e l l i n g u n i t s or a p a r t -ment b l o c k s have, i n some Mexican examples, achieved a f u n c t i o n a l s i m p l i c i t y and" grace; i n the gr e a t power dams necessary f o r i n d -u s t r i a l c i t y l i f e again t h i s i s v i s i b l e , as i n the Boulder Dam, U.S.A. and that at Dnieperpetrovsk, blown up by the Russians i n the face of the German advance i n the recent war; and f i n a l l y , the p o s s i b l e beauty of the p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g i s shown i n the designs of such men as Frank L l o y d Wright, and i n the c i t y p l a n n i n g of whole r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s of such men as Mumford,LeCorbusier, and Neutra. S c u l p t u r e i s no l o n g e r used as a fundamental p a r t of a r c h i t e c t u r e , but s i g n i f i c a n t a c t i v i t y has been going on s i n c e the time of Rodin by E p s t e i n , M a i l l o l , L a c h a i s e , D e g a s , and i n the. -83-smooth a b s t r a c t e d shapes of B r a n c u s i . P a i n t i n g has passed through v a r i o u s stages , one that e-q u i v a l e n t to the Komantic poets i n the Impressionism of Monet, M a n e t , P i s a r r o , S e u r a t , S i s l e y , R e n o i r , a n d some of the e a r l y Cezanne; another p e r i o d of post-impressionism represented by the work of Cezanne,Gauguin,Degas,Puvis de Chavannes,Van Gogh,Modigliani,and P a s c i n ; the work of i n d i v i d u a l i s t s l i k e Henri R o u s s e a u , U t r i l l o , S o u t i n e , P o u a u l t , C h i r i c o , and C h a g a l l ; the p e r i o d of the 'Pauves' o r ' w i l d b e a s t s ' l e d f o r a while by M a t i s s e ; In I t a l y Futurism; i n Germany the e x p r e s s i o n i s m of-Klee, and the n o n - o b j e c t i v e p a i n t -in g of Kandinsky; i n France the C u b i s t s l e d at f i r s t by P i c a s s o and Bracque; i n America the 'ash-can' school of r e a l i s t s ; other American a r t i s t s l i k e Winslow Homer,John Marin,Walt Kuhn,Max We-ber and Yasuo K u n i y o s h i who are more r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n form; and other s t i l l l i k e Mondrian who have a r r i v e d at an almost com-p l e t e a b s t r a c t i o n from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l v a l u e s ; i n Canada the romantic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i s m of the 'Group of Seven' and the more recent work of such men as Jack Shadbolt and L i o n e l Thomas, and such women as E m i l y Carr, and the young and s t i l l d e v e l o p i n g M o l l y Lamb; and f i n a l l y the m a g n i f i c e n t Mexican f r e s c o i s t s , Diego Rivera,Orosco and S i q u e i r o s , who use t h e i r v e r y o l d medium to make s i g n i f c a n t and very modern s o c i a l comment. In l i t e r a t u r e the new i n t e r e s t i n language as e x p r e s s i v e of ideas and a s s o c i a t i v e images i s c r e a t i n g a new form - the new sinewy p o e t i c language of E l i o t and Auden i s matched i n the a r t of the novel by the work of D.H.Lawrence and V i r g i n i a W o o l f f , A l -dous Huxley and C h r i s t o p h e r Isherwood; i n I r e l a n d , by the potent -84-i n f l u e n c e of James Joyce i n the n o v e l , and W i l l i a m B u t l e r Yeats i n poetry; i n Prance hy the c u r i o u s l y p r e c i s e i n t e l l e c t u a l rem-i n i s c i n g of Proust's e x p l o r a t i o n s of time and the work of tilde; i n the U.S.A. hy the n o v e l s of such men as E r n e s t Hemingway,us-by i n g a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and muscular prose s t y l e ; / t h e panoramic novel of s o c i a l impact shown i n Steinbeck's "Grapes of Wrath"; by the s t u t t e r i n g attempts at s t y l i s t i c r e v i s i o n of Gertrude S t e i n ; by the genre s t u d i e s of such w r i t e r s as Dos P a s s o s , P a r r e l , and Faulkner; and by the short s t o r i e s of Irwin Shaw,John O'Hara, W i l l i a m Saroyan,Damon Runyan,James Thurber, and Jean S t a f f o r d ; and i n Canada by the novels of one young Canadian which are , f o r a change, worth reading as l i t e r a t u r e , Hugh MacLennan. Other European n o v e l i s t s whose work i n t r a n s l a t i o n has been w i d e l y read and i n f l u e n t i a l throughout the l i t e r a t e world are Thomas ^ann, Franz Kafka, G a b r i e l Silone,Arthua? K o e s t l e r , Jean P a u l S a r t r e , A l b e r t Camus, K o n s t a n t i n Simonov, and Stephan Zweig. In c r i t i c i s m there are w r i t i n g : Santayana,Dewey,White-head,Russell,Croce,Bergson and C a s s i r e r i n Philosophy; Mumford, Park e r , L i p p s , S p e n g l e r , and M a r i t a i n i n A e s t h e i c s ; I.A.Richards, T . S . E l i o t , Ivor W i n t e r s . W i l l i a m Empson and Herbert Read i n L i t -e r a r y C r i t i c i s m ; Ogden & R i c h a r d s , T a r s k i , C h a r l e s M o r r i s , K o r -z y b s k i and Hayakawa i n Semantics; Watson,:Dewey, D a s h i e l l , B i n e t , Thorndike,Yerkes,Terman i n Psychology; Freud, A d l e r , Jung i n P s y c h o - a n a l y s i s ; and Toynbee, Pareto, Sorokin,Spengler,Marx,Le-n i n , T r o t s k y , B e r n a r d Shaw, Edmund Wilson, and Wyndham Lewis i n s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a n a l y s i s . L i t e r a t u r e i n g e n e r a l has been a f f e c t e d by the i n f l u x of i d e a s and terminology from many other branches of human knowl--85-edge. For example, i n the 'streara-of-consciousness' technique of Joyce i n the n o v e l , and i n the c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e s employed i n the modern n o v e l the p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s of Freud and h i s c o l l -eagues have heen i n f l u e n t i a l , as have the s o c i a l t h e o r i e s used i n the novel a l s o . In poetry, the ' a s s o c i a t i o n i s t ' and ' i m a g i s t ' p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s of p o e t i c meaning of Richards and Empson, and the t r a d i t i o n a l i s m of E l i o t have mixed to produce a new v e r b a l technique, and a new approach toward p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , and i t s c r i t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n . But i t i s i n the realm of the f i l m that the new v a l u e s and techniques of our s o c i e t y are most c l e a r l y v i s i b l e . The f i l m i s a c o o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i c a l undertaking, not the work of l o n e l y genius, though the c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l has found a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l o u t l e t here a l s o . A young c r i t i c of the f i l m has had t h i s to say about i t s position today, i n a recent a r t i c l e i n the A t l a n t i c Monthly... • The monumental coraitragedies of C h a p l i n , the v i g o r o u s ab-s u r d i t i e s of Mack Sennett,Walt Disney's animated world of f a n -tasy,and some memorable f i l m s from s u c h ' d i r e c t o r s as Von S t r o -heim,Murnau,Vidor,Ford,Milestone,Wyler — i n the long run these remarkably mature achievements f o r an i n f a n t a r t may b a l -ance the ..sins ;.of tas;elessness,unimaginativene8s,, .and ; a r t i s t i c -a m o r a l i t y a m a j o r i t y of American f i l m makers have committed s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f o r g e n e r a t i o n s . . . '"•-These 'of fenders .nave t a k e n an instrument as s e n s i t i v e , as d e l i c a t e l y balanced, as capable 'of i n d e s c r i b a b l e beauty and s u b t l e emotion as the f i n e s t Steinway; they have set themselves b e f o r e the l a r g e s t audience i n the h i s t o r y of the world — and have proceeded to p l a y c h o p s t i c k s . "For w i t h h a l f a century of m o t i o n - p i c t u r e e x h i b i t i o n be-h i n d us i t i s h i g h time we were honest w i t h o u r s e l v e s and our g r e a t machine f o r making a r t . Hollywood f i n i s h e s at l e a s t one f e a t u r e - l e n g t h p i c t u r e every.day of the year, and. s i x of the seven turned out are j u s t p l a i n c h o p s t i c k s , the same tune everybody knows,repeated i n a repeated s e r i e s of r e p e t i t i o n s . "How can i t be t h a t the only n a t i o n i n the world with a t r a d i t i o n of popular education produces 98 m i l l i o n movie-goers a week who h a p p i l y keep on paying t h e i r two b i t s , f o u r -86-b i t s , s i x "bits (and sometimes three times that much) to see and hear c h o p s t i c k s year i n and year out ? "What's the t r o u b l e ? Is i t j u s t that Hollywood i s a low pressure a r e a i n our n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ? Itfsnot q u i t e so simple as the easy c o n c l u s i o n that Hollywood's h i e r a r c h y i s composed of a breed i n f e r i o r to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . In-stead, too o f t e n t h e i r short-comings l i e i n t h e i r r e l u c -tance to l i f t themselves above the lowest common denomin-a t o r of p u b l i c t a s t e . How to r a i s e the standard of a l l our mass-consumption a r t s i s the b a s i c problem; Hollywood i s merely an outstanding and s p e c t a c u l a r example. The a e s t h e t -i c bankruptcy that puts "Stage Door Canteen" onto the A l l Time L i s t of Box O f f i c e Champios (while f i l m s of l e s s ob-v i o u s a t t r a c t i o n l i k e * T h e Informer" and "The Ox-bow I n c i -dent" are l u c k y i f they get t h e i r c o s t s b a c k ) , t h a t permits tens of m i l l i o n s to enjoy movies that are f a l s e , s h a l l o w , and c l i c h e - c l u t t e r e d , i s the same I d i o t Muse t h a t enables c o u n t l e s s r a d i o - l i s t e n e r s to submit uncomplainingly to the b r a i n - c r u s h i n g b a n a l i t i e s of the soap operas and.the rout-i n e t e r r o r s . Sex, not as d e f i n e d by Hemingway but as dished up by Kathleen Winsor. Crime, not as p e n e t r a t e d by D o s t o i -e v s k i but as b a t t e d out by E r i e S t a n l e y Gardner. Love, not as d i g n i f i e d by T o l s t o y but as s t a n d a r d i z e d , s t r e a m l i n e d , and sweetened to t a s t e (everybody la) i n our radio-shows,love magazines and movies. Is t h i s the p r i c e we have to pay f o r being not the best-educated people i n the world but merely the most l i t e r a t e , w i t h more l e i s u r e than we know what to do with, and so much money f o r r e c r e a t i o n that the r e c r e a -t i v e p u r s u i t s must be geared to mass-production ?" 25. The problem of a r t today, t h e r e f o r e , seems to me to be not one of decadence but one of d i r e c t i o n . We have a s u f f i c i e n t l y f l o u r i s h i n g t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y producing even the new art-forms of r a d i o and f i l m to say t h a t we are i n a p e r i o d of c u l t u r a l movement r a t h e r than one of t u r g i d i t y . But the e s s e n t i a l quest-i o n s of d i r e c t i o n and value are everywhere being posed by the s i t u a t i o n not of the a r t s alone, but of human c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y . I have attempted above a survey of western c i v i l i z a t i o n , i n terms of i t s motive f o r c e s , i t s main c u l t u r a l movements and t h e i r r e s i d u e i n the a r t s , and i t s c o n c l u d i n g phase p o i n t i n g toward a new c u l t u r a l upsurge, i n the a r c h i t e c t u r a l a c t i v i t y noted above, and i n the new b a l l a d - a r t of the f i l m . I t remains to evaluate t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r achievement today. 25, Budd S c h u l b e r g , o p . c i t . . A t l a n t i c Monthly. November,1947. - 8 7 -Chapter Four : The Concept o f A r t i n R e l a t i o n t o the Economic B a s i s o f Living,Examined, and the P o s s i b i l i t y F o r Free C r e a t i v e Development under the two Economic Forms Current Today a s s e s s e d . «88-* The e x p r e s s i o n o f the p o e t i c impulse i n the a r t - r e c o r d s we possess has been seen to m i r r o r the process of c u l t u r a l change. Greek a r t we have seen b u i l d i n g on the remains of My-cenean and Cretan c i v i l i z a t i o n s ; e a r l y C h r i s t i a n art,Romanesque and what i s known as s p e c i f i c a l l y 'western' a r t we have seen developing w i t h i n the d i s i n t e g r a t i n g Roman Empire; and s i m i l a r -l y , I contend, the e a r l i e s t e x p r e s s i o n of a new World-Art can now be seen emerging , w i t h i n the s t i l l e x i s t e n t framework of t y p i c a l l y 'western' a r t t and c i v i l i z a t i o n g e n e r a l l y . Just as r o o t s of much of t h i s t y p i c a l l y western a r t can be seen t o be c l a s s i c a l or Semitic i n o r i g i n , although complete-l y e n f e o f f e d w i t h i n the western i d e a l , i n a s i m i l a r way, the signs of the new world c i v i l i z a t i o n have developed w i t h i n a l -ready e x i s t e n t forms...double-entry book-keeping b e i n g invented i n the 15th century; manufacturing processes b e i n g f i r s t based on h a n d c r a f t s ; l a r g e b u s i n e s s monopolies u s i n g the i d e a of the l a r g e land-monopolies of f e u d a l Europe and decadent ^ome; new i n d u s t r i a l designs employing f i r s t the d e c o r a t i v e t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n s , and only l a t e l y e v o l v i n g t h e i r own completely func .'-t i o n a l formal expression.' World-Art g e n e r a l l y has thus evolved w i t h i n the t e c h n i c a l e x p r e s s i v e n e s s c r e a t e d by western c i v i l i -z a t i o n . We can t r a c e , i n the r e s i d u a l a f t - o b j e c t s of d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s , the c u l t u r a l changes i n emphasis. The u r b a n i z a t i o n of Roman s o c i e t y w i t h i t s attendant s o p h i s t i c a t e d Empire-values was d e r i v a t i v e from the change i n p r o d u c t i v e b u s i n e s s and. farm-in g methods, and t h i s change i s v i s i b l e i n the a r t i s t i c and eng-i n e e r i n g works e x p r e s s i v e of the p e r i o d : f o r sample,in Ovidian -89-s a t i r e o f p r e v i o u s l y accepted s o c i a l mores; i n the d e t a i l e d and w e l l organized system of Roman Law; and i n the t e c h n i c a l e x c e l -lence and widespread development of the durable Roman Roads. S i m i l a r l y , i n the f e u d a l i z a t i o n of western (European) s o c i e t y w i t h i t s change i n the productive u n i t to the feudal estate and i t s acceptance of the idea of f e a l t y to such a feudal l o r d , was t y p i c a l l y expressed i n the c h i v a l r i c romances of the per i o d ; i n the chamber music composed,during i t s l a s t s t a ges,for the small p r i v a t e orchestras of the feud a l courts and i n the part s i n g i n g which accompanied or was interspersed...among the inst-rumental music;, i n the. transformation of the country-dancing of the peasants i n t o the court-dance-forms p r e v i o u s l y noted; and i n the decorative a r t s of the costumer,. the armourer, and of those attendant a r t s of embroidery and tapestry-work. The growth of the c i t i e s , the spread of trade, the con-c e n t r a t i o n of the c r a f t s i n the c i t y g u i l d s , can a l s o be seen to have i n f l u e n c e d expression i n the a r t s by i n c r e a s i n g the rate of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the subject-matter used and the formal patterns employed - i n music, the popular performances of the e a r l y opera;in the musical accompaniment f o r the dance; i n the drama, the gradual change from the mir a c l e and mystery-plays to those of the r i c h and s o p h i s t i c a t e d E l i z a b e t h a n t h e a t r e ; i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , the b u i l d i n g of such magnificent s e c u l a r e d i f i c e s as the g u i l d h a l l s and town-halls; and i n general, a change from the J feud a l c h i v a l r i c and r e l i g i o u s values to those of c u r i o s i t y and the urge f o r knowledge i s mirrored i n the l i f e of the p e r i o d e s p e c i a l l y i n the s c i e n t i f i c enquiry of the whole age of the Renaissance -to-modern. - 9 0 -With the change in methods in the industrial revolution we arrive at similar perceptible changes in social values, and in art-expression in the emergence of bourgeois Romanticism and proletarian Realism. If we can accept(with reservations) the Spenglerian tne-ofy of culture-patterns as exclusive wholes during their time of flowering, I think we must s t i l l see the process of culture in the whole world as a gradually expanding circle of influence, as a gradually more inclusive unit within which living together can become more meaningful and gracious, and that today we must see that there are only global limits to our culture, and that this presents an even more pressing necessity for social cooper-ation within that large unit, while at the same time i t makes possible an enriched cultural expression. My thesis is this : that Spengler's analysis of western culture ( developing into Gothic,expressing i t s e l f most ful l y in Baroque, and declining in the following bourgeois decorativ-ism) can be accepted a s illuminating the superstructure of social ^values by showing the interrelationship of the cultural drives of the arts, sciences,mathematics.a,and philosophy of any cultural pattern. It does no less certainly pervert however, or ignore, the basic importance of methods of economic production, though he does note the surface effects of industrial change, which has largely resulted in the sterile art-forms which Speng-ler notes. But, and here i s my main point of disagreement, Speng-ler ignores the basic changes wrought by those changes in method and sees the present as an extension of the exclusively western culture, decadent, save for development in technics. In contra-- 9 1 -d i s t i n c t i o n to t h i s , I see the p r e s e n t as a p e r i o d of beginnings of a new c u l t u r e , world-wide i n scope, u t i l i z i n g the media of a r t - e x p r e s s i o n developed w i t h i n western c i v i l i z a t i o n j u s t as the west used the language and law of -Rome, the r e l i g i o n of Jewish C h r i s t i a n i t y , the s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y of Greece, and c r e a t i n g , a s the west d i d , i t s own motive power, and i t s own t y p i c a l l y e x p r e s s i v e statement i n the v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n good machine design, and i n the new a rt-forms of r a d i o and f i l m . My f i r s t and major p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n i s w i t h Spengler's theory of 'the form-world of economic lifefjiwhich i s the t i t l e of Chapter T h i r t e e n of Volume Two) i n d i s c u s s i n g which he says: " A l l economic l i f e i s the e x p r e s s i o n of a s o u l - l i f e " . In terms of order t h i s statement would seeia to mean th a t Spengler f e e l B t h a t our ' s o u l - l i f e ' , our c r e a t i v e genius, shapes v i s i b l y and expresses our economic modes. My p o i n t of view i s a r e v e r s a l of t h i s • My second p o i n t of c o n t e n t i o n i s w i t h the theory that c u l t u r e i s 'dying' today. These two p o i n t s of c o n t e n t i o n f i t together i n the f o l -l owing manner. ' I f the s o u l - l i f e d i r e c t s the economic, then the f a c t ( a s Spengler contends) that our s o u l - l i f e i s dying out w i t h the gradual w i t h e r i n g of our c u l t u r e , should mean that economic-a l l y speaking, western c u l t u r e i s e q u a l l y d i s i n t e g r a t i n g . And i f he means only s p e c i f i c a l l y ' w e s t e r n ' c u l t u r e and economic l i f e , I f e e l that there i s no o b j e c t i o n to t h i s statement. But s i n c e even Spengler h i m s e l f admits i n h i s schema of development that i t i s the l a t e p e r i o d of m e g a l i p o l i t a n decadence(today) -92-i n which economics f l o u r i s h e s , I f e e l t h i s i s an e f f o r t to f i t i n an important c o n t r a d i c t i o n which shows the' f o l l y of h i s order and i n d i c a t e s the r e a l order, from economic f o r m - l i f e to a r t -r a t h e r than h i s reverse p a t t e r n . T h i s p o i n t seems important to me. I f the c o r r e c t r e l a t i o n between the c r e a t i v e f a c t o r i n man and the economic p a t t e r n of l i f e can be e s t a b l i s h e d , t h i s r e l a t i o n may be some b a s i s f o r a meaningful prognosis f o r the f u t u r e development of the c r e a t i v e a r t s w i t h i n the two e x i s t e n t economic p a t t e r n s of today. Spengler's whole s e c t i o n on the economic f o r m - l i f e seems to me to be m y s t i c i s m rampant, which though i l l u m i n a t i n g i n i t s comparisons of culture-Sat t e r n s , performs t h i s a c t of i l l u m i n a -t i o n i n such a deep purple romantic glow as to be suspect "Man", he says," has l i s t e n e d - i n to the march of IMature and made notes of i t s i n d i c e s . He begins to i m i t a t e i t by means and methods that u t i l i z e the laws of the cosmic pulse...The stock of such d i s c o v e r i e s grew and grew. Often they were made and f o r g o t t e n and made again, were imitated,shunned, improved. But i n the end they c o n s t i t u t e d f o r whole c o n t i n -ents a sto r e of s e l f - e v i d e n t means - f i r e , m e t a l - w o r k i n g , i n -struments,arms,ploughs,boats,houses,animal- taiming and hus-bandry...On t h i s f oundation, now r i s e s the h i g h e r C u l t u r e s , e x p r e s s i v e i n q u a l i t y and c o l o u r and p a s s i o n of the whole s o u l of these major e n t i t i e s . I t need h a r d l y be s a i d t h at C l a s s i c a l Man, who f e l t h i m s e l f and h i s environment a l i k e E u c l i d e a n , s e t h i m s e l f a p r i o r i i n h o s t i l e o p p o s i t i o n to the v e r y i d e a of technique...Very d i f f e r e n t i s the E a u s t i a n t e c h n i c s , which w i t h a l l i t s p a s s i o n of the t h i r d dimension and from e a r l i e s t Gothic days, t h r u s t s i t s e l f upon nature, w i t h the f i r m r e s o l v e to be i t s master. Here and here only, i s the connection of i n s i g h t and u t i l i z a t i o n a matter of course. Theory i s working h y p o t h e s i s from the s t a r t . . . T h e P a u s t i a n i n v e n t o r and d i s c o v e r o r i s a unique type. The prim* i t i v e f o r ce of h i s w i l l , the b r i l l i a n c e of h i s v i s i o n s , t h e s t e e l y energy of h i s p r a c t i c a l ponderings must appear queer and incomprehensible f o r anyone at the standpoint of another c u l t u r e , but f o r us they are i n the blood...They l i s t e n e d to the laws of the cosmic pulse i n order to overpower i t . And so they c r e a t e d the machine as a small cosmos obeying the w i l l of man alone...As the horse-powers run to m i l l i o n s and m i n -i m i s , the numbers of the p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and i n c r e a s e on a s c a l e t h a t not other c u l t u r e thought p o s s i b l e . T h i s growth i s a prodxcct of the machine. »pfi 25.Spengler,op.cit.,pp s.500-506. -93-Spengler sees three stages i n the development of the economic f o r m - l i f e : that of p r o d u c t i o n , the mode of the peasant; that of trade, the mode of the middleman; and one between these two, a pr e p a r a t o r y stage, or economy of t e c h n i c s which he c a l l s the mode of the c r a f t s , i n d u s t r i e s and c a l l i n g s . But nowehere does he see a group who cou l d be c a l l e d a 'working-class', s a y i n g : "In a c t u a l i t y there i s an almost uncountable number of p u r e l y s e r v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n workshop,and counting-houses, o f f i c e and cargo-deck,roads,mines,fields,and meadows;;;. A l l these t h i n g s are qu i t e i n c a p a b l e of be i n g compared among themselves.. .farm-labourers,bank-clerks,and. t a i l o r ' s hands l i v e i n p e r f e c t l y d i f f e r e n t economic worlds". 27 I have quoted Spengler a t t h i s l e n g t h to make clea,r the sense i n which I have accused him - the e s s e n t i m l romanticism of h i s thought. To my way of t h i n k i n g he ignores the b a s i c i s s u e i n h i s schematic p r e s e n t a t i o n . One could say, r a t h e r , that there are these s t a g e s . . . I n d i v i d u a l s , making a l i v i n g Groups, making a l i v i n g and then go on to s p e c i f y the ways i n which the l i v i n g s are made as Marauding S o c i e t i e s Hunting,and F i s h i n g S o c i e t i e s . H unting,Fishing,and A g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g , A g r i c . , and Trading S o c i e t i e s . H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g , A g r i c . , T r a d i n g , and I n d u s t r i a l Soc. and then f i n a l l y , note the method of enonomic o r g a n i z a t i o n used as Group cooperation, f o r group use Some group c o o p e r a t i o n , f o r the p r o f i t of certain parts of the group, i n a competitive economy. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n the b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n s of the whole group would, I f e e l , a f f e c t the way every stage of c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y developed; on the one hand a l l o w i n g f o r the f u l l development of every member, and on the other, e n f o r c i n g only p a r t i a l or d i s t o r t -ed development on the m a j o r i t y of the group. 27. Spengler,op.cit.,pps.479-80 -94-To support t h i s c o n t e n t i o n I would l i k e to c i t e i n e v i -dence the c u l t u r e - a n a l y s e s made hy Ruth Benedict and p u b l i s h e d i n her book,"Patterns of C u l t u r e " , i n which she t e l l s of the c u l t u r a l h a b i t s of many groups, among them the c o n t r a s t i n g Do-buan and Tr o b r i a n d groups, o f f the southern shores of e a s t e r n New Guinea..."The Dobuans amply deserve the c h a r a c t e r they are give n by t h e i r neighbours. They are l a w l e s s and treacherous; every man's hand i s a g a i n s t every other man. They l a c k the smoothly working o r g a n i z a t i o n of the Tr o b r i a n d s , headed by honoured c h i e f s and m a i n t i a n i n g p e a c e f u l and r e c i p r o c a l ex-changes of food and p r i v i l e g e s . Dobu has no c h i e f s . I t cer-t a i n l y has no p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . In a s t r i c t sense i t has no l e g a l i t y . And t h i s i s not because the Dobuans l i v e i n a s t a t e of anarchy,Rousseau•s ' n a t u r a l man' as y e t unhampered by the s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , but because the s o c i a l forms which o b t a i n i n Dobu put a premium on i l l - w i l l and tr e a c h e r y and make them the recog n i z e d v i r t u e s of t h e i r s o c i e t y . " 28i My p o i n t here i s to show how i n a p r i m i t i v e s o c i a l group of the a g r i c u l t u r e - w i t h - a - l i t t l e - f i s h i n g - v a r i e t y , the ownership or non-ownership i n common of the l a n d and seed yams can make r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n the customs a r i s i n g from t h i s , to me, primary d i f f e r e n c e between themm.....,.. "The j e a l o u s y and s u p i c i o n " , M i s s Benedict goes on,"the f i e r c e e x c l u s i v e n e s s of ownership that a r c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Dobu are a l l i n the for.egoround of Dobuan marriage, but i t i s im-p o s s i b l e to giiue them f u l l weight u n t i l we have considered a l s o t h e i r manner of l i f e i n other r e s p e c t s . The m o t i v a t i o n s that run through a l l Dobuan e x i s t e n c e are s i n g u l a r l y l i m i t e d . ..In themselves they have the s i m p l i c i t y of mania. A l l e x i s -tence i s c u t - t h r o a t competition, and every advantage i s gained at the expense of a defe a t e d r i v a l . . . t h e good man, the suc-c e s s f u l man, i s he who has cheated another of h i s p l a c e . " 29. "There i s no c a s u a l coming and going i n Dobu. A path l e a d s around the o u t s k i r t s of each v i l l a g e , and those who are p r i v -i l e g e d to approach so near, s k i r t the settlement by t h i s path. As we s h a l l see, a f t e r t h e i r f a t h e r ' s death, the c h i l d r e n of the men of the v i l l a g e have not even t h i s p r i v i l e g e of ap-proach. I f the f a t h e r i s s t i l l l i v i n g , o r i f i t i s the v i l l a g e of t h e i r spouse, they may enter by. i n v i t a t i o n . A l l others pass around by the path. They may not stop. Not even r e l i g i o u s c e r -emonies,nor h a r v e s t f e a s t s , n o r t r i b a l i n i t i a t i o n s , c a l l the -95-people together promiscuously, f o r Dobu does not s p e c i a l i z e i n such o c c a s i o n s . In the centre of the v i l l a g e a grave-yard takes the p l a c e of the open communal dance-plaza of the T r o b r i a n d s " . 30. T h i s seems to p o i n t to the c e n t r a l agency of economic forms as determining the other v a l u e s of a s o c i a l group, while i n a s t a t e of c o n s i d e r a b l e a c t i v i t y w i t h them , as the modes of the econ-omic l i f e become more complex. I t may w e l l be that, owing to our i n a d e q u a t e l y r e a l i z e d system of c o o p e r a t i o n ( i n our e x i s t i n g 'Dobuan' i n t e r n a t i o n a l c ondi-t i o n ) , the f i n a l end of western c i v i l i z a t i o n w i l l not be the g r a d u a l w i t h e r i n g process i n r e a c t i o n to the g r a d u a l b i r t h of a world c i v i l i z a t i o n - p a t t e r n but that i t may come wit h a c o n c l u -s i v e e x p l o s i v e gesture, wiping the s l a t e c l e a n again f o r another long s t r u g g l i n g p e r i o d of c u l t u r a l b eginnings, i f i t does not a n n h i l a t e a l l c u l t u r e and l i f e , but as Dewey has remarked t h i s e n t a i l s too g r e a t a degree of s o c i a l waste. In h i s "Human Nature and Conduct", he comments o n the phrase ' h i s t o r y as a process of r e - b a r b a r i z a t i o n ' as c u l t u r e s change, saying that today t h i s i s too expensive a process as there are fewer 'new' peoples l e f t to perform the f u n c t i o n of breaking-up what he c a l l s ' c u l t u r a l a r t e r i o - s c l e r o s i s ' , and e s p e c i a l l y so, s i n c e we possess the t o o l of c u l t u r a l l o n g e v i t y i n u n i v e r s a l e d u c a t i o n . But , Dewey c r i t -i c i z e s . ... "The weight of a d u l t custom has been thrown upon r e -t a i n i n g and s t r e n g t h e n i n g tendencies toward conformity, and a g a i n s t those which make f o r v a r i a t i o n and inde-pendence ....And yet the i n t i m a t i o n never wholly d e s e r t s us that there i s i n the unformed a c t i v i t i e s of c h i l d -hood and youth (those which work toward e x p l o r a t i o n , d i s c o v e r y , and c r e a t i o n , ) the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a b e t t e r l i f e f o r the community as w e l l as f o r i n d i v i d u a l s here and t h e r e . " 31. 28,29,30...Ruth Benedict,op.cit.,pps.120-1,130-1,122-3. 31.Dewey,op.cit.,pps.96-99. — 9.6--There would seem to be more hope f o r the type of e d u c a t i o n -a l process , whose p o s s i b i l i t y Dewey mentions, i n a s o c i e t y where i t i s not to the vested i n t e r e s t of a powerful group to r e t a i n unchanging c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n s . I t seems to me that i n a c o o p e r a t i v e s o c i e t y i n which adequate p r o v i s i o n had been made f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l the c a p a c i t i e s of a l l people there would be an enormous fund of a c t i v e c r e a t i v e a b i l i t y which c o u l d be c a l l e d upon f o r t h i s c o n t i n u a l improvement of the commun-i t y ( the world) as a. whole. A planned economy of t h i s s o r t , i n which a l l the important resources of the country are owned by the country and operated i n i t s i n t e r e s t s as a whole e x i s t s today, at l e a s t i n embryo, i n R ussia, France, Jugo-Slavia,Mexico, and England. In the ab-sence o f reputable and o b j e c t i v e c r i t i c i s m of t h e i r p rogress i n the a r t s we can only hope that they do p r o g r e s s . However, a book p u b l i s h e d r e c e n t l y of some use i n t h i s r e s -pect i s the 'Seven S o v i e t A r t s ' , w r i t t e n by a non-Russian who i s anything but s u b s e r v i e n t to what i s known as 'the p a r t y - l i n e ' s i n c e he does ques t i o n the' amount of i n t e l l e c t u a l c e n s o r s h i p , and i t does seem to be a r a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n of the o p p o r t u n i t y of the a r t i s t and the d i r e c t i o n which the a r t s are t a k i n g . I t does not present overwhelming evidence of genius but i t sket-ches i n the extremely complex o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n o f f e r i n g the e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s to students, i n s u p p o r t i n g journey-men and a p p r e n t i c e a r t i s t s w h i le they p r a c t i c e t h e i r a r t , and f o r employing the mature a r t i s t as a,major s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t o r , not a mere d e c o r a t o r or e n t e r t a i n e r . The book g i v e s some i d e a - 9 7 -of the scope of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n government sponsored a r t -i s t i c and s c i e n t i f i c a c t i v i t y , and i t i l l u m i n a t e s the reason why such a p r o j e c t as the U.S.A.-sponsored WPA was so i n e v i t -a b l y w a s t e f u l , s i n c e the 1consumer' of the a r t - o b j e c t s i t prod-uced had not been i n t e r e s t e d i n them, and remained to a l a r g e degree untouched by t h i s work of s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The a r t s t y p i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by a process of change toward a a world c i v i l i z a t i o n are those of a r c h i t e c t u r e and communica-t i o n . T h i s i s a f u n c t i o n a l m a n i f e s t a t i o n s i n c e the new machines of the p e r i o d had to be s t o r e d or housed i n f a c t o r i e s , the new goods s o l d i n s t o r e s , the newly concentrated commerce c a r r i e d on i n huge o f f i c e b u i l d i n g s and banks, and the new c l a s s e s of i n d -u s t r i a l workers housed i n p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s and apartment b u i l d -i n g s . Here, can be seen the b e a u t i f u l p o s s i b i l i t i e s and s o r d i d a c t u a l i t i e s of i n d u s t r i a l d e s i g n . The b e s t of t h i s new a r c h i t e c -ture was, and i s , b u i l t to f u l f i l a s p e c i f i c need, and not to provide o u t l e t s f o r the e x p r e s s i o n of p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e i d e a s . And i n t h i s we can see the s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e p o i n t e d out by Mumford i n h i s "Technics and C i v i l i z a t i o n * ' i n the s e c t i o n devoted to the " A e s t h e t i c A s s i m i l a t i o n of the Machine". The i n d -u s t r i a l problems can be met i n terms of a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g design - the Van N e l l e F a c t o r y a t Rotterdam demonstrates that -but no l o n g e r are the designs e x p r e s s i v e of the t r a i t o f c o n s p i c -uous waste' ev i d e n t i n the l o v i n g l y e l a b o r a t e d hand-carved de-t a i l s of the Gothic c a t h e d r a l s . These b u i l d i n g s are r a t h e r i l l u s -t r a t i v e of the new and e q u a l l y t y p i c a l t r a i t of 'conspicuous ec-onomy' evi d e n t i n a l l good machine d e s i g n . We do see, t h e r e f o r e , today, that world c u l t u r e i s emerg--98-i n g everywhere on the globe i n the new methods of machine-produc-t i o n , and i n communication. The very technique of that p r o d u c t i o n imposes a c e r t a i n i d e a l upon i t , t h a t of uniform economy, and i t i s my purpose to see how w e l l t h a t i d e a l i s e x p r e s s i b l e i n terms of the a r t of c o l l e c t i v i s t and c o m p e t i t i v e economic o r g a n i z a -t i o n s • Mumford says t h a t whether our p o l i t i c a l or economic org-a n i z a t i o n admits the f a c t or not our machines i n t h e i r v e r y es-sence are communist.They are made to produce goods or other ma-chines whose t y p i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s t h e i r standard u n i f o r m i t y . No l o n g e r , he m a i n t a i n s , i s i t p o s s i b l e w i t h a e s t h e t i c honesty, to produce goods i m i t a t i n g the 'unique' q u a l i t y of the hand-made. Today i t i s r a t h e r p o s s i b l e to produce beautiful as well as func-tional o b j e c t s whose uniformity of d e s i g n makes possible t h e i r mass p r o d u c t i o n , as improved means of communication and distrib-u t i o n make possible t h e i r mass consumption i n the markets of the world. A reasonable usage of t h i s p o t e n t i a l i t y would r e s u l t i n the r e l e a s e of enormous s t o r e s of human energy now devoted to the s t e r i l i t i e s of a d v e r t i s i n g the q u a l i t y - g r a d e d m a t e r i a l possess-i o n s which denote f o r t h i e r owners membership i n c l a s s r e s p e c t -a b i l i t y . . Everyone everywhere c o u l d have r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e every m a t e r i a l o b j e c t r e q u i r e d f o r an e n r i c h e d and g r a c i o u s l i v -i n g . But t h i s i n v o l v e s the acceptance of a planned p r o d u c t i o n , to a v o i d waste , and planned d i s t r i b u t i o n to a v o i d shortages, and t h i s i n v o l v e s p r o d u c t i o n f o r use and not f o r p r o f i t . Such a theory i s v i s i b l y hot o p e r a t i n g on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . In t h i s connection, Mumford*s a n a l y s i s of the economic pro--99-cess i s so c l e a r ^ a n d s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t I g i v e i t a t some l e n g t h . . "The. permanent g a i n that emerges from the whole process i s i n the r e l a t i v e l y non-material elements of c u l t u r e , i n the s o c i a l h e r i t a g e i t s e l f , i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s , i n the t r a d i t i o n s and processes of technology, or d i r e c t l y i n l i f e i t s e l f , i n those •real;-enrichments: that'- come fr.om.- e x p l o i t a t i o n . r of; organic; ener-gy i n thought and a c t i o n and emotional experience,' i n ' p l a y and adventure and drama and p e r s o n a l development - g a i n s t h a t l a s t through memory and communication beyond the immediate mo-ment i n which they are enjoyed. In s h o r t , as John Ruskin put i t , "There i s no wealth but l i f e " , and what we c a l l wealth i s i n f a c t wealth only when i t i s a s i g n of p o t e n t i a l or a c t u a l v i t a l i t y . " 32. In o u t l i n i n g what he c o n s i d e r s the e s s e n t i a l processes i n r e -l a t i o n to l i f e and energy, Mumford i s r a t h e r more r a t i o n a l than I have found Spengler to be, and he names these elementary pro-cesses : "Conversion, p r o d u c t i o n , consumption, and c r e a t i o n " , and analyses the d i r e c t i o n of each thus... "In the f i r s t two steps, the energy i s s e i z e d and prepared f o r use f o r the sustenance of l i f e ; i n the t h i r d stage, l i f e i s supported and renewed' i n order that i t may wind i t s e l f up onto h i g h e r l e v e l s of thought and c u l t u r e (fourth),, r a t h e r than being s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d back i n t o the f i r s t p r e p a r a t o r y stages.. The amount of energy a v a i l a b l e f o r the f i n a l process depends upon ( l ) how much energy i s converted by a g r i c u l t u r e and t e c h n i c s a t the b e g i n n i n g , and (2) how much energy i s e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l i e d and conserved i n t r a n s m i s s i o n . Even the Qrudest s o c i e t y has some s u r p l u s . But under the c a p i t a l i s t system the main use of the s u r p l u s i s to serve as p r o f i t s which are an i n c e n t i v e to c a p i t a l investments, which i n t u r n i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . Hence the two massive and r e c u r r i n g f a c t s i n modern c a p i t a l i s m , an enormous over-expansion of danfi and equipment; second,an e x c e s s i v e d i v e r s i o n of energy and man-power i n t o sales-promotion and d i s t r i b u t i o n . Other means of u t i l i z i n g t h i s s u r p l u s , such as education and c u l t u r a l be-quests of v a r i o u s p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s , r e l i e v e some of the bur-den of our inane waste from both the i n d i v i d u a l and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ; but there i s no c a p i t a l i s t theory of n o n - p r o f i t mak-in g e n t e r p r i s e s and of non-consumable goods. These f u n c t i o n s e x i s t a c c i d e n t a l l y by the grace of the p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s ; they have no r e a l p l a c e i n the system... The problem of c a p i t a l i s m i s e s s e n t i a l l y not to s a t i s f y needs but to create demands." 33 My t h e s i s , i s that machine-society of today has produced, from the attendant a c t i v i t i e s to which i t g i v e s r i s e , a new-minted v e r s i o n of the humanist-coneept, of man's c e n t r a l value as the de--100-s i g n e r of the"machine, the consumer of the p r o d u c t i v e c a p a c i t y , and the c r e a t i v e maker or user of the l e i s u r e time i t a f f o r d s . In c a p i t a l i s m , as Mumford has shown, c o n c l u s i v e l y I f e e l , t h i s v a l u a t i o n of man i s not evident, n e i t h e r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n , nor i n the ends,or d i r e c t i o n , o f the development. The l a c k of v a l u a b l e r e l a t i o n between a r t and the other as-pects o f man's l i f e i n c a p i t a l i s t s o c i e t y i s shown by the s t e r -i l e c onceptions of an 1 a r t - f o r - a r t ' s - s a k e ' e l i t e , separated from the r e a l and f u n c t i o n a l aspects of modern l i f e by a r e v u l s i o n from the f r a u d u l e n t v a l u e s encouraged by c o m p e t i t i v e p r o d u c t i o n , and v i s i b l e i n the work of the d i f f e r e n t ' s c h o o l s ' or 'isms' of t h i s d i l l e t a n t i s t approach to the p l a s t i c a r t s , and poetry, esp-e c i a l l y ; i n D a d a - i s t and S u r r e a l i s t focus on the sub-conscious p a r t of man's l i v i n g , i n the p o e t r y of the Symboliste school which devotes i t s e l f e x c l u s i v e l y to e x p l o r i n g p e r s o n a l experience as separably from the s o c i a l being of man. I f t h i s form of more or l e s s f u n c t i o n l e s s a r t seems waste-f u l , there i s an even lower category i n t o which the a r t i s t f a l l s under the c a p i t a l i s t - p a t t e r n of l i v i n g ; he may become the s l a v e -d e c o r a t o r o£ the l i v e s of t h e . ' i d l e r i c h ' and the almost e q u a l l y blank l i v e s of the c a p i t a l i s t - p o o r . T h i s form of s l a v i s h l y 'bad' a r t , i f i t can be c a l l e d a r t a t a l l , takes many forms, u s u a l l y known today as the 'business' of Entertainment, a l l of the forms e q u a l l y r e c o g n i z a b l e by a v u l g a r i t y of c o n c e p t i o n and execution considered necessary f o r commercial success. The art-forms of the f i l m and r a d i o , because of t h e i r wide popular b a s i s , and the com-p l e t e divorcement which has occurred between the l i v e s of people ai '32: and 33. Mum.fofd, "Technics and C i v i l i z a t i o n " , p p s . 3 7 7 8 , 3 7 4 - 5 - 7 . - 1 0 1 -any meaningful a r t , i s p e c u l i a r l y s u s c e p t i b l e to t h i s form of v u l g a r i z a t i o n , as has been p r e v i o u s l y noted. The magazine and other communication a r t s share i t . a l s o , and i t i s -sometimes a p p a l l i n g l y apparent i n the f i e l d s of c l o t h i n g and housing, though there a l a s t v e s t i g e of f u n c t i o n a l i s m does u s u a l l y d i c -t a t e decorum i f not o r i g i n a l i t y or beauty. These l a s t two coming c l o s e r to the a c t u a l l i v i n g of people, though they may be d i s -t o r t e d , are themselves i n f l u e n c e d by the use made of them,and, e s s e n t i a l l y u g l y , b a d l y designed and c o n s t r u c t e d homes and c l o t h -i n g fused w i t h the l i v e s and p e r s o n a l i t i e s of l i v i n g people be-come more bearable than the excesses of the l e s s - t i e d a r t i s t working completely outside the framework of v a l u e s of l i f e todajj I t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e to produce good a r t w i t h i n t h i s frame-work as i t always p o s s i b l e , but the c o n d i t i o n s do not make f o r the r e g u l a r or i n any sense f r e q u e n t p r o d u c t i o n of such a r t . For one f i l m l i k e "The Grapes of Wrath", made from l i v i n g i d e a s and a v i t a l problem, we have hundreds of p o i n t l e s s comedies; f o r one no v e l l i k e " U l y s s e s " , which remains meaningful i n i t s most ex-per i m e n t a l use of language, we have hundreds of inadequate copy-i s t s ; f o r one m a g n i f i c e n t Prank L l o y d Wright home, too many cop-i e s of a n a c h r o n i s t i c designs; f o r one Gershwin melody, express-i n g the jazzrhythms of h i s time, too many se n t i m e n t a l d i t t i e s ; f o r one f a c t o r y making f u r n i t ure from c r e a t i v e machine-designs, too many m a i l - o r d e r houses m i s - u s i n g the aame techniques to pro-duce c o p i e s of ' a n t i q u e 1 , and t h e r e f o r e ' r e s p e c t a b l e ' designs; and f o r one r a d i o s e r i e s l i k e Norman Corwin's "One world" r e p o r t on h i s world-trip,toomany p e u r i l e gag-shows and soap operas. - 1 0 2 -And the r e a l l y p e r n i c i o u s t h i n g ahout a l l t h i s i s t h a t i t i s perpetuated hy b e i n g passed on ( i n the form of r e q u i r e d h a b i t u a l responses,inadequate education, and a r t - m i s i n f o r m a t i o n ) to the f u t u r e i n the l i v e s of our c h i l d r e n . We have p e r f e c t e d many e x q u i s i t e a r t - f o r m s capable of s i g -n i f i c a n t use i n the l e i s u r e made i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e by tech-n o l o g i c a l advances. Knowledge of,and a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n , these a r t - a c t i v i t i e s must be made i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e to wider c i r c l e s i f these art-forms are not to d i e out. I t has been r e l e -v a n t l y s t a t e d that the mechanization of a r t , and the spreading ' s p e c t a t o r 1 group able to l i s t e n or watch t h i s mechanized process and the d e c r e a s i n g amount of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the process of a r t by amateurs,causes l e s s v i t a l and d i s c r i m i n a t i n g c r i t i c i s m of the c r e a t i v e processes, and may even l e a d to the c e s s a t i o n of the c r e a t i v e motive. T h i s danger can be seen i n almost every a r t which has be-come more or l e s s a v a i l a b l e to a l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p u b l i c who have no knowledge of the t e c h n i c a l aspect of t h e i r pleasure,and i s making a r e a l l y a r t i s t i c a l l y aware p u b l i c a narrowing r a t h e r than a widening r e a l i t y . So that though we can see the i n c r e a s e d p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r s i g n i f i c a n t l i v i n g today, we can a l s o see the dangers of the process of mechanization. Can we c o n t r o l t h i s man-i f e s t l y p o s s i b l e r i c h e s s e , or are we l i k e Dukas' ' s o r c e r e r ' s ap-p r e n t i c e ' going to be completely deluged by i t s unleashed demonic power ? -The p h i l o s o p h i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s q u e s t i o n are r e a l -i z e d by a r t i s t s today. There are always , i n a l l p e r i o d s , rare i n t e l l e c t s who use t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t i e s meaningfully.And - 1 0 3 -i n many a r t i s t s working today these a r t i s t i c g i f t s are being used w i t h honesty and d i f f i c u l t y to express the p o s i t i v e v a l u e s of the p r e s e n t , and c r i t i c a l l y to assess our s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n , and i t ' i s i n t h e i r work that the new c u l t u r a l p a t t e r n I have been des-c r i b i n g can be seen e v o l v i n g . Witness to t h i s there i s i n some p l e n t y . . . t h e p r e v i o u s l y mentioned "Grapes of Wrath" of Steinbeck; C l i f f o r d Odets' f i l m , "None But The L o n e l y Heart"; Diego R i v e r a ' s r e v o l u t i o n a r y use of f r e s c o e ; E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r a l designs f o r new schools b u i l t d u r i n g recent bombardments; and the work of the Chinese l i t e r a r y a r t i s t s i n a i d of t h e i r country's enormous e d u c a t i o n a l needs. We can hope that some u n i v e r s a l l y adopted scheme of coop-e r a t i v e l i v i n g w i l l outlaw war, by r e n d e r i n g i t unnecessary; w i l l a b o l i s h a d v e r t i s i n g by b a n i s h i n g want; and w i l l make p o s s i b l e the c r e a t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n l i v i n g by everyone everywhere which i s necessary i f we are to f u l l y r e a l i z e the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r an e n r i c h e d l i v i n g we have seen to be p o s s i b l e i n our stage of t e c h -n o l o g i c a l .advancement. I would l i k e to conclude w i t h an e n u n c i a t i o n from Diego R i v e r a ' s " P o r t r a i t of America" "The s o c i a l development of our time i s a continuous ac-c e l e r a t e d march towards c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . . . T o m o r r o w , a r c h -i t e c t u r e , the mother of a l l the p l a s t i c a r t s , w i l l be r a t i o n -a l i z e d , w i l l slough o f f the l e p r o u s s c a l e s of i t s t r a d i t i o n -a l •rnamentation and vomit the u s e l e s s trumpery and h o r r i b l e gingerbread adornments from i t s w a l l s , i n order to s u b s t i -t ute f o r these a d w e l l i n g whose b r i g h t w a l l s are s p l e n d i d -l y i l l u m i n a t e d by great spaces of g l a s s and l i g h t - a d w e l l -i n g s u i t a b l e to the c e r e b r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of c i v i l i z e d man who has conquered h i m s e l f by means of the machine he has b u i l t . " E p i l o g u e : 11 S o c i e t y i s indeed a c o n t r a c t . . .But the S t a t e ought not to be c o n s i d e r e d as n o t h i n g b e t t e r than a p a r t n e r s h i p agree-ment... to be taken up f o r a l i t t l e temp-o r a r y i n t e r e s t , and to be d i s s o l v e d by the fancy o f the p a r t i e s I t i s a p a r t n e r s h i p i n a l l s c i e n c e ; a p a r t n e r s h i p i n a l l a r t ; a p a r t n e r s h i p i n every v i r t u e , a n d i n a l l p e r f e c t i o n . And,as the ends o f such a p a r t n e r s h i p cannot be o b t a i n e d i n many g e n e r a t i o n s , i t becomes a p a r t n e r s i p not o n l y between those who are g i v i n g , but between those who are l i v i n g , t h o s e who are dead, and those who are to be born," Edmund Burke Appendix A, : B i b l i o g r a p h y , c o v e r i n g the f i e l d o f the primary sources, and c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s , o f which my r e a d i n g has c o n s i s t e d . BIbl-foeraphy General : I . Oswald Spengler,"The D e c l i n e o f %he West",New York, Knopf,1928,volumes one and two. 2 ,S.Reinach,"Apollo, an I l l u s t r a t e d manual o f the h i s t -oj^y^of a r t through the ages",N.Y.?Scribner 3. Sheldon Cheyney,"A World H i s t o r y o f A r t " , V i k i n g Pres3 New York,19^5. P i t i r i m S o r o k i n , " S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l Dynamics",Vol . 1 New York,American Book Co.,1937. 5»Arisiotle's " P o e t i c s " , London,Macmillans,1925. 6. "Encyyclopedia o f the Arts',' the P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b . New York, 19^ . 7. Ruth B e n e d i c t , "Patterns o f Culture",New York,Pen-g u i n Books Inc., 1 9 ^ . 8. J.H.Randall,"The Making o f the Modern Mind",Boston and N.Y.?Houghton,Mifflin Co.,1926. 9. Henry S.Lucas,"A Short H i s t o r y o f C i v i l i z a t i o n " , N.Y. & London,McGraw-Hill,19^3. 10. Regina Schoolman and C h a r l e s S l o t k i n , " T h e S t o r y o f A r t " , N.Y.,Halcyon House,19^+0. I I , E r n s t P f u h l , " M a s t e r p e i e c e s o f Greek Drawing and P a i n t i n g " , London,Chatto & Windus, '26. 12. Sidney J a n i s , " A b s t r a c t and S u r r e a l i s t i c A r t i n America", N.Y.,Reynal&Hitchcock ,19M+. 13. John Dewey,"Human Nature and Conduct",N.Y.,The Modern Library,1930. lV. " A r t News Annual" pub.by the A r t News Magazine, a memorial i s s u e c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r 75th a n n i v e r s a r y w i t h a "5000 Years of A r t E x h i b i t " . 15. Plato,"She Republic",London,Macmillans,19^1;esp. Book X. 16. V i r g i l ' s "Aeneid". 17. C i c e r o ' s "De Senectute". 18. Dante's " V i t a Natva " 19. B o c c a c c i o 1 s " I I F i l o s t r a t o " 20. Chaucer's"The Canterbury T a l e s " and "TRoilus and Criseyde",Robinson e d l . 21. Da V i n c i , " T h e Notebooks",N.Y.,Garden C i t y Pub.Co., 19^1-2. 22. Thomas Aquinas,"The Summa Contra Gentlies",London, Burns,Oates,&Washburne Ltd. , 1 9 2 3 ,sections . o f Vol.one and two and p o r t i o n s o f the "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " quoted i n secondary sources. 23. M o n t a i g n e , " E s s a y e s " , F l o r i o trans.,Modern L i b r a r y Ed. 2h.Rabelais,"The Adventures o f Gargantua and P a n t a g r u e l 25 .Shakespeare 1 s "Plays',1 K i t t r e d g e e d i t i o n . Oi) 26. " G i o t t o " , C a r l o C a r r a , V e r l a g - V a l o r i Plastici-Rom.192 5 27. "Hans Memling",Maur GuillaumejMarion Press,Paris, 1 9 3 9 2 8 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f Jan Vermeer"Phaidon Ed.London,'HO 29. " S e l e c t e d F a i n t i n g o f Rembrandt" ,Phaidon Ed.,London 19^2. 3 0 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f Raphael",Phaidon Ed.,London,*hl 31 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f Michelangelo",Phaidon Ed.London 32. "Donatello",Phaidon E d i t i o n , London,19H-1 3 3 . "Leondardo Da V i n c i " , P h a i d o n Ed.London,'hi. 3M-. "Hogarth", from "The Studio",London, 1926. 3 5 . "Toulouse-Lautrec",Gustave C o q u i o t j V e r l a g ErnstWasmuth A=G,Berlin. 36. "The L i f e and Work o f Edgar Degas",J.B.Manson;"The Studio",London,1 9 2 7 . 37. "The F i l m Sense",Sergei Eisenstein}Harcourt,Brace&Co N.Y. ,19*+2. 3 8 . "Modern A r t : P i c a s s o " ; Knopf;New York,1930 39. " A f t e r Picasso",J.T.SobyjN.Y.,Dodd,Mead & Co.,1935 M O . " P a u l K l e e " par W i l l Grohmann,Editions "Cahiers D'Art",Rue du DragonmParis V I . H i . " P o r t r a i t o f America" Diego Rivera,London,GeorgeAllen & Unvin Ltd.,1935 H-2. "The New A r c h i t e c t u r e i n Mexico",Esther B 0rn;The Ach-i t e c t u r a l Record;Morrow & Co.,New York, ' 3 7 H-3. "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e : A r c h i t e c t u r e s i n c e 1922" Hitehcock& Johnson; W.W.Norton Inc,JM. Y.',193 2 M+. " I n t r o d u c t i o n to Contemporary C i v i l i z a t i o n 3n the West", a source book,Col.U.Press,19^6 ^ 5 .Lewis Mumford,"The C u l t u r e of C i t i e s " "Technfci and C i v i l i z a t i o n " k6.Oscar Wilde,"The s o u l o f M a n Under S o c i a l i s m " M-7.Van G o g h , " L e t t e r s " , h8.Edmund W i l s o n , c r i t i c i s m i n "Axel's C a s t l e " , " T h e T r i p l e T h i n k e r s " and "The Wound and theBow" M-9.James Joyce, n o v e l s : "The P o r t r a i t o f the A r t i s t as a Young Man", "Stephen Hero","Ulysses" and "Finnegans Wage". 50. Herbert Read, "Phases of E n g l i s h Poetry",esp. the f i n all essay. 51. "The C o l l e c t e d Poetry o f Wystan Auden",Random House, New York,19H-5. 52. T . S . E l i o t , " T r a d i t i o n and Experiment", 53 . " P r a t e r V i o l e t " , a n o v e l o f the making o f a f i l m , c o n t a i n i n g e x c e l l e n t c r i t i c i s m o f I t s s o c i a l f u n c t i o n , b y C h r i s t o p h e r IsherwoodjRandom House,New York,19^5. 5Lt-.Ralph F 0 x , "The Novel and the People", V i k i n g P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 M 6 . 55»Roger Fry,"Transformations",Brentano's,New York; " V i s i o n and Design",Penguin Books. 5 6.Yrjo Hirn,"The O r i g i n s o f Art",London,Macmillans,1 9 0 0 5 7 . Ogden,Richards,Wood, "The -foundations o f A e s t h e t i c s " George ^ l l e n & Ihwin Ltd,London, 1 9 2 2 . 5 8 . David Wyndham Lewis,"Men Without A r t " , C a s s e l &Co., London,1 9 3 ^ 5 9 . C h a r l e s Morris,"Foundations f o r a theory o f s i g n s " , I n t e r n a t i o n a l E n c y c l o p e d i a o f U n i f i e d S c i ence volume 1 . number 2 . -6 0 . W.R.Letha;by, '[Medieval A r t " , London,Duckworth & CO. 190*+, Chapters t h r e e and f o u r , 6 1 . E l i e . F a u r e , " H i s t o r y o f A r t " , V o l . 2 . " M e d i e v a l A r t " , London,Harpers,1 9 2 3 Byzantium,pps. 2 0 7 - 2 3 0 . Islam,pps. 2 3 1 - 2 6 0 . C h r i s t i a n i t y , p p s . 2 6 1 - 3 2 2 . 6 2 . "Modern French P a i n t i n g " , H y p e r i o n P r e s s , P a r i s . 6 3 .Ogden & Richards,"The Meaning of Meaning" and 6 ^ . R i c h a r d s , " P r a c t i c a l Criticism",London,Kegan,Paul, * 3 0 "a survey o f l i t e r a r y judgment". 6£VAtlantic Monthly',', "Harper s", t'New Yorker", " A r t News Magazine", "The S t u d i o " , "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record", "Theatre A r t s " , " S t o r y " , and other magazines devoted to p r i n t i n g " the works of a r t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the present , or o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e . Appendix B. : Major Epochs i n Western A r t ; from Sheldon Cheyney's " A World H i s t o r y o f A r t " . I f r 3> V) 0 -1 n asp-' a S f » IS* -1 n> a TV § -fa o o i t 0 (A 3 » 3 3 Q (6 *0 8 r 3t IfOOO B.C. 3000 2000 1000 500 A.D. 500 A.D. 800 -1000 1100 1200 1300 l ! f 0 0 1500 1600 1700 1800 | L 1900 2000 A .D., 

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