UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The philosophical implications of the poetic impulse in Western civilization Gidney, Eileen Lee 1948

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&3 Co  The P h i l o s o p h i c a l  P3 /o • /  Implications  ofThe P o e t i o Impulse in Western  Civilization by  EILEEN LEE GIDNEY  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF PHILOSOPHY  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A P R I L , 194-8  Precis Title  ^or  : :  "The  Library)  Philosophical  Impulse Author:  Theme :  Lee  The  i n Western  Implications  of  the  Poetic  Civilization".  Gidney.  main  theme o f my  t h e s i s i s that  Spenglerian  a n a l y s i s o f w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n as d e c l i n i n g i s c o r r e c t , i n t h a t s p e c i f i c a l l y w e s t e r n c u l t u r e and civiliz a t i o n i s g i v i n g way ,more and more, t o a w o r l d c u l t u r e p a t t e r n ; b u t my t h e s i s d i s a g r e e s w i t h h i s v e r s i o n o f the d e c a d e n c e of a l l a r t - f o r m s t o d a y as p a r t of a d e c l i n i n g c u l t u r e , p o s t u l a t i n g r a t h e r t h a t , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n the a r t s o f A r c h i t e c t u r e and f i l m , t h e r e i s enormous a c t i v i t y o f a c r e a t i v e n a t u r e . My t h e s i s a l s o q u a r r e l s w i t h Spengl e r ' s a n a l y s i s of tne r e l a t i o n s e x i s t i n g between the e c o n o m i c - f o r m s o f s o c i e t y and the a r t - o b j e c t s p r o d u c e d by t h a t s o c i e t y . He s t a t e t h a t the e c o n o m i c f o r m s are" the p r o d u c t o f the s o u l of t h e c u l t u r e . I c o n t e n d t h a t the a r t - p r o d u c t s of t h e c u l t u r e m i r r o r the m o t i v a t i n g d r i v e s of the economic f o r c e s of the s o c i a l g r o u p w h i l e i n a s t a t e .of c o n s i d e r a b l e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h them. 1 have t r i e d t o p r e s e n t my t h e s i s , w i t h b o t h p o s i t i o n s c l e a r l y s t a t e d , q u o t i n g S p e n g l e r a t some l e n g t h on the one hand, and L e w i s Mumford a t an e q u a l l e n g t h on the o t h e r , and w i t h a s u p p o r t i n g c i t a t i o n f r o m K u t h . b e n e d i c t ' s book, " P a t t e r n s o f C u l t u r e " on s o c i a l p a t t e r n s o f a more p r i m i tive nature.  Arrangement  :  My  thesis i s divided  into four  chapters,  the  f i r s t s e r v i n g as an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the p o i n t - o f - v i e w and t h e m a t i c m a t e r i a l of the whole work; the s e c o n d and third c o v e r i n g the r e c o r d e d h i s t o r y o f the m o t i v a t i n g d r i v e s o f western h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d s , d r a w i n g from t h i s m a t e r i a l to s u p p o r t my c o n t e n t i o n o f the b a s i c r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t i n g between the mthods o f p r o d u c t i o n i n a s o c i a l g r o u p and the a r t - o b j e c t s p r o d u c e d by t h a t g r o u p . In the f i n a l chapt e r , 1 have a t t e m p t e d t o sum up the i n f e r e n c e s f r o m the h i s t o r i c a l c h a p t e r s and t o p r e s e n t my t h e s i s and i t s m a i n p o s i t i o n i n some d e t a i l .  The P h i l o s o p h i c a l  I m i 9 l i c a t i one  of The P e e t i e  Impulse in  Western  Civilizatien»  Table Chapter  One  C h a p t e r Two  of Contents.  : Introductory  Outline  : The P r e - p e r i o d  of Western  Chapter Three:Western C u l t u r e  and  page  1.  Culture..p.  7.  Civilization,  T w e l f t h C e n t u r y t o the P r e s e n t  p.42.  C h a p t e r -*bur :The C o n c e p t Of A r t i n R e l a t i o n to  the Economic  Examined, For  the  Possibility  Free Creative  Development  under  the two E c o n o m i c  Current Epilogue  and  Basis: o f L i v i n g  Today  Forms  Assessed  : f r o m Edmund B u r k e  Appendix A  : Bibliography  Appendix B  : Chart  Current p.87. ....p.104  p . i - i  showing M a j o r E p o c h s i n  Western  A r t , from  S h e l d o n Cheyney  .....p. i .  C h a p t e r One  :  Intreductary.  -1In t h i s  intreductory  t e r m s and t h e l i m i t s point  of view  the p o e t i c  of my  chapter I wish  to define,  investigation,  and t h e n t© show t h e  f r o m w h i c h I am a p p r o a c h i n g  impulse  as i t has expressed  t h e whole  itself  first,the  subject of  i n t h e works ©f  man's h a n d s , and i n t h e movement o f man's m i n d , i n ©ur w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i on. By p o e t i c  impulse,  I mean t h e t e n d e n c y  o r m a k i n g , w h i c h i s an e s s e n t i a l  ingredient  every p e r s e n , v a r y i n g i n i t s degree  who re-makes t h e work ©f a r t b y r e a l i z i n g  size  of p o e t i c  the elements  or c r e a t i v e  ©f s c i e n t i f i c  emerge w i t h a new s c i e n t i f i c to that desire  lesser  »ut s t i l l  ability  i n t h e makeup o f that  of the o t h e r - a r t i s t  it.  It varies  required  or a r t i s t i c  frem  t o synthe-  knowledge a n d  t h e o r y o r a new o b j e c t ©f a r t  vital  degree  of a b i l i t y  t© make,and  t o make w e l l , w h i c h i s o b s e r v a b l e i n a n y s k i l l e d workman,, I d© n o t a c c e p t i n my m e a n i n g  the minute S p e n g l e r i a n d i s t i n c t i o n ture,  creating  of development from  of t h e g e n i u s who c r e a t e s g r e a t a r t t o t h a t  the degree  toward  »ut u s e r a t h e r a d u a l i t y ,  culture  i s the g r e a t e t i o l o g i c a l  igion,mathematics, expression ization  only i n a p e r i a d  of c u l t u r a l  purposes  thesis  discernible  combining drive  from  cul-  t h e twe. F o r S p e n g l e r  producing  the a r t , r e l -  ©f a n y p e r i e d , t h e  ©f t h e p e r i o d , w h e r e a s , f o r h i m , c i v i l -  i s the r e s i d u a l product  of t h e s e two a s p e c t s  civilizatien  of c i v i l i z a t i o n  s c i e n c e , and p h i l o s o p h y  o f the s o u l  of this  of western  of this activity,  sterility  and e x i s t s  and d e c a d e n c e .  I mean c i v i l i z a t i o n  as a  combination  : a s »oth t h e s u r g i n g c u l t u r a l  i n different  F o r the  impulse  s t a g e s o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and t h e sta»le  -2products  of t h e s e p e r i o d s  By  the  philosophical  ative activities living. t o us  onomic,political,  the  various  s u c h as  ©f  the  I will  considered,  »e  i n t e r m s o f an i n general,  ec-  an  i n a discussion  »e  of  values. to c r e a t i o n not  current  only  in  i n each p e r i o d  whole p h i l o s o p h i c a l e t h o s  of  ,  the out  the  , to  some e x t e n t  influence  as  an  following  exclusive  so  that,  Byzantine  art-forms  western  the  later  From t h e s e  e m e r g i n g and comparative  supporting  my  typically  sources  I intend  also  t h e s i s of a newly emerging  and  culture-pattern.  and  f o l k - a r t s and  L a t i n l a n g u a g e , and  of Roman law,  and  in  cathedrals  Beginning with the  northern  fixed linguistic  w i t h the  changing g r a d u a l l y and  as  c r a f t s of  of E u r o p e , m i x i n g w i t h the  Gothic  whole;  on  I understand western c i v i l i z a t i o n myths,»allads,  Spengler^  showing  t y p i c a l l y world  the  available  t h i s i s done l a r g e l y w i t h a v i e w t o  t o draw i n f e r e n c e  the  cre-  t h i s connection should  Roman, e a r l y C h r i s t i a n and  culture-pattern.  of  ©r  c u l t u r a l development.  t h o u g h G r e e k and  toarians  knowledge  and  inherent  t h e s e human  v i e w of a c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n  their  •  these p o e t i c  society  c u l t u r e . In  art-expression  i n r e l a t i o n to  Here  are  of  show t h i s i m p u l s e  m e d i a of  stage of  analysis  religious, linguistic,  study  I want t o  of  them w i t h t h e  semantic d i f f i c u l t i e s  asstractions  also  implications  I wish to i n t e g r a t e  anthropological  t h e y r e m a i n t o us  I mean t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n man*s c o m p l e t e  from a s c i e n t i f i c  noted  as  h i g h l y developed until  the  »ar-  structure system  i t 'appearB  indeed*  t h e more i n d i v i d u a l i z e d a r t  of  -3of the l a t e r m i d d l e period  ages,  and  of Baroque, p e t e r i n g  decorative  statement  ©f  Spengler quotes  t h e n f l o w e r s most r i c h l y  out i n t h e  the f o l l o w i n g Goethe s 1  more  i n the  sophisticated  centurieB.  "Winckelmann" where he  says  ©f  Velleius Paterculus : " W i t h h i s s t a n d p o i n t i t was n o t g i v e n h i m t© see a l l a r t as a l i v i n g t h i n g t h a t must have an i n c o n s p i c u o u s "beginning, a slow growth, a torilliant moment o f f u l f i l m e n t , and a g r a d u a l d e c l i n e l i k e e v e r y o t h e r o r g a n i c toeing, t h o u g h i t i s p r e s e n t e d i n a s e t ©f i n d i v duals"* 1. S p e n g l e r t h e n g o e s ©n his  own  to that  to use  theory of culture-development  this  q u o t a t i o n to  with particular  develop attention  o f the w e s t : • T h i s sentence c o n t a i n s the e n t i r e mophology o f a r t h i s t o r y . S t y l e s do n e t f o l l o w one a n o t h e r l i k e waves or p u l s e "beats. I t i s n o t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o r w i l l o r b r a i n o f t h e a r t i s t t h a t makes t h e s t y l e , tout t h e s t y l e t h a t makes t h e t y p e o f t h e a r t i s t . . . I t i s , a s n a t u r e i s , a n e v e r new e x p r e s s i o n o f w a k i n g man, h i e a l t e r - e g o and m i r r o r - i m a g e i n t h e world a r o u n d . And t h e r e f o r e i n the g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of a c u l t u r e t h e r e can toe tout ©ne s t y l e , t h e s t y l e of t h e c u l t u r e . . . . . G o t h i c and B a r e q u e a r e s i m p l y t h e y o u t h and age of one and t h e same v e s s e l o f f o r m s , t h e s t y l e of t h e west as r i p e n i n g and. r i p e n e d . . . T h e t a s k b e f o r e a r t h i s t o r y i s t© w r i t e t h e c o m p a r a t i v e b i o g r a p h i e s ©f t h e g r e a t s t y l e s , a l l o f w h i c h , a s o r g a n i s m s ©f t h e same g e n u s , p o s s e s s s t r u c t u r a l l y c o g n a t e l i f e h i s t o r i e s . " 2. Prom t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a t e m e n t  Spengler proceeds  the s t a g e s of c u l t u r e - i e v e l o p m e n t i n the west,  with  characterizing  them i n t h i s way : " ( F i r s t ) the timid,dependent,naked expression of a n e w l y awakened s o u l s t i l l s e e k i n g t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n i t s e l f and t h e w o r l d , p r e s e n t e d a s a l i e n and u n f r i e n d l y ; e x a m p l e s toeing e a r l y C h r i s t i a n catacomb p a i n t i n g s ; (second; the February of the a r t s , a presentiment ef coming w e a l t h o f f © r m s l i e s o v e r t h e l a n d s c a p e . . . ; ( t h i r d ) t h e n f o l l o w s t h e j o y o u s m o u n t i n g int© t h e h i g h G o t h i c . Being i s understood-A s a c r e d form-language has 1*2,' " b e e n c o m p l e t e l y m a s t e r e d and r a d i a t e s i t B g l o r y ; ( f o u r t h ) Spengler*"Decline  of t h e W e s t " , p p s .  205-6,vol.1.  -4t h e n f e r v e n t " y o u t h comes t o an end, and cont r a d i c t i o n s a r i s e : the Renaissance indicates a moment o f r e s i s t a n c e ( i n i t s r e t u r n t o Greek i n f l u e n c e ) ; ( f i f t h ) t h e manhood o f t h e s t y l e h i s t o r y : the c u l t u r e i s changing i n t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l i t y of t h e g r e a t c i t i e s t h a t w i l l now d o m i n a t e t h e c o u n t r y s i d e ; t h e s t y l e i s "becoming i n t e l l e c t u a l i z e d a l s o . . . T h e a r t i s t a p p e a r s and p l a n s what f o r m e r l y grew o u t o f the s o i l , as a t the b e g i n n i n g o f Baroque w i t h M i c h e l a n g e l o ; ( s i x t h ) t h e n comes t h e g l e a m i n g autumn o f t h e s t y l e : once more t h e s o u l dep i c t s i t s h a p p i n e s s , t h i s time c o n s c i o u s o f s e l f - c o m p l e t i o n ; ( s e v e n t h ) then the s t y l e fades out: the form-language o f the Dresden Zwinger,honey-combed w i t h i n t e l l e c t , f r a g i l e , i s f o l l o w e d by the s e n i l e c l a s s i c i s m o f the E m p i r e modes. The end i s a s u n s e t r e f l e c t e d i n f o r m s r e v i v e d f o r a moment »y p e d a n t and e c l e c t i c : s e m i - e a r n e s t n e s s and d o u b t f u l genu i n e n e s s d o m i n a t e t h e w o r l d o f a r t . We t o d a y a r e i n t h i s c o n d i t i o n - p l a y i n g a t e d i o u s gome w i t h dead f o r m s , t o keep up t h e i l l u s i o n o f a l i v i n g a r t . " 3. While  a c c e p t i n g the genuine i n s i g h t  in h i s culture-comparisons, with h i s thesis. thought  I cannot  and l a n g u a g e ,  organisms.  I do f i n d  very i l l u m i n a t i n g  i tis still  accept  shown by  Spengler  possible to quarrel  the m y s t i c a l b a s i s of h i s  n o t h i s analogy  of c u l t u r a l  with  animal  the e r u d i t e comparisons o f culture-patterns  and s u g g e s t i v e  o f t h e more b a s i c a l l y  effective  f a c t o r s w h i c h he n e g l e c t s . B u t on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s e more nally analytical  factors  I cannot  accept h i s t h e s i s  fi-  of the  present d e c l i n e of a r t . I t h i n k a good c a s e present  as a p e r i o d o f m e g a l o p o l i t a n  s u c h a c a s e w o u l d be l a r g e l y of c u l t u r e , The  c a n be p r e s e n t e d  r a t h e r than  decadence, b u t I t h i n k  one s u r v e y i n g t h e s u p e r s t r u c t u r e  i t B more f u n d a m e n t a l c u l t u r a l  a n a l y s i s of M a r x and E n g e l s  3.Spengler,  d e s c r i b i n g the  shows t h e d e p e n d e n c e  o p . c i t . , p p s . 206-7, v o l . 1 .  values. of these  -5values that  on t h e b a s i c  the a c c e p t a n c e  this  clearly I wish  his to  economic a s p e c t  own  rational,  non-mystical  accept h i s s u r p r i s i n g l y acute  the  same t i m e  the  residual  including  through  cal  change, and  mythic  culture, stages  expressive  that we  that  , with  instead  o f a new  of folk-ways  o f the  be-  see:''.--*: a t  a slow growth i n  resulting  the r i s e  slow  of a l l s e p a r a t e  of the west, b u t l l of. h i s t o r y  willing  of  from  these  .  industrialized  of b e i n g a t t h e d e c l i n i n g  world  culture,  through  with i t s arts  shown i n t h e c i n e m a and  end  the  of  early  typically  the r a d i o ,  and  t h e p e r i o d o f b e g i n n i n g s , g r a d u a l l y b e i n g r e p l a c e d by more  t h i s world The  expression  the  products  time  o f the  bring  t y p i c a l mass-production so d i s t r i b u t e d  i n the world's  community,  products  w i t h i n a l l the a r t - f o r m s  of  culture-pattern.  w o r l d - s o c i e t y can be  first of  slow d e c l i n e  a r e a t the p r e s e n t g o i n g  conscious i n d i v i d u a l  new  course  grasp  I am  on  , t h e v e r y c h a n g e s i n method h a v e p r o d u c e d -a p h i l o s o p h i -  western  with  that  intuitive  a c c r e t i o n s of c i v i l i z a t i o n  seems t o me;,too,  living  the  and  of  a n a l y s i s however, more  as b e i n g f a l l a c i o u s h i s t o r i c a l l y .  culture-patterns,  think  light.  to challenge Spengler's  ground,  I do n o t  of s u r f a c e v a l u e s w i l l h o l d i n t h e f a c e  g i n n i n g , g r a d u a l development,  It  of s o c i e t y .  also.  The  history  thus c r e a t i n g  society  o f a war  ate  can  , we  see  f o r the  f o r e v e r y member  o f t r a d e and  t h a t a l o n g w i t h the t h r e a t a l l human c u l t u r e  this  enormous m a r k e t f o r the a r t -  interdependence  a l l the p a r t s of t h a t w o r l d  of  t o make p o s s i b l e  a good l i f e  an  me t h od  communications  so c l o s e  together,  so d i s a s t r o u s as t o  annhil-  t h e hope o f a p e a c e f u l  -6-  arid c o o p e r a t i v e w o r l d p u l s e s and  knowledge f r o m  I wish amination world  t o end my  culture-pattern,  enriched  day  life  o f man.  i n man  : that  cooperative which the  creative  in i t s last f o r the  full  whose most u n u s u a l  I would l i k e for this  u n d e r the  development  of  full  that  an  development of w o r l d  t y p e , t o see fullest may  tee  realized.  of the  assessment o f the  poetic  importance  to-  o f S o c i a l i s m ; o r more a c c u r -  t o what e x t e n t  philosophical  exthis  art-form (typical  p a t t e r n s o f a c o m p e t i t i v e t y p e , and  impulse  society,  c h a p t e r , w i t h an  to attempt  twer i d e o l o g i e s  o f C a p i t a l i s m , and  ately,social  in  survey,  im-  c h a n g e s i n ecoBomic p r o d u c t i o n ) w i l l l i e  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  impulse  every p a r t of i t s l a r g e  of t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l  of  c r o s s f e r t i l i z e d i n i t s a r t - f o r m s "by  those  of  a  these provide a m a t r i x  implications  o f man's  C h a p t e r Twe  : The  Pre-Period  Of W e s t e r n  Culture.  The arrival  early pre-period  ©f w e s t e r n  of the Greeks from the n o r t h e r n p a r t s  settling already  .along existent  the of  f o r t h i s long  e a l y Minoan  period,  d l e Minoan p e r i o d  ruins  ern  seeming a r c h i t e c t u r e ,  ture  signs  point  left  centre The  i n records  on p a r t l y  ©f e n o r among mod-  o f one h u n d r e d  con-  o f g o v e r n m e n t and b u s i n e s s  i t s i n c i p i e n t stages of  i t i s t h o u g h t by t h e u n w a r l i k e n a -  i t s decline,  of Cretan  of a g r a d u a l l y earliest  the i n f l u e n c e  Greeks.  of Cretan  civ-  were s t i l l  p r o d u c i n g , a s l a t e a s 900  i n s p i r a t i o n , and were f o r a l o n g d e c l i n i n g Minoan-Mycenean  time  culture.  G r e e k s came down i n t o what i s now G r e e c e a s  conquerors,  three d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e e  a picture-writing  o f Myceae and T i r y n s  barbarian  the mid-  h a d s p r e a d n o r t h i n t o G r e e c e a s f a r a s M a c e d o n i a . The  B.C.,art-objects  h  of bronze;  t o by the d i s c o v e r i e s  of a d v a n c e and saw a l s o  brought  ilization  t  the i n t r o d u c t i o n  of t h e p e o p l e who were no m a t c h f o r t h e i n v a d i n g  cities  findings:  t h e l a t e M i n o a n ( l 6 0 0 - 1 2 0 0 B . C . ) w h i c h saw t h e  However, b e f o r e  the  on a r c h a e o l o g i c a l  o f K n o s s o s - d e l i c a t e Kamares ware i n p o t t e r y ,  administration;  decline,  called,  general,  (2100-1600 B.C.) w h i c h was a p e r i o d  the  highest  of an  as i t i s u s u a l l y  There a r e three  based  production witnessed  ventionalized  their  ( 3400-2100 B.C.) w h i c h b e g a n w i t h t h e f i n d i n g  c o p p e r and ended w i t h  mous a r t i s t i c  o f Europe,  Cretan culture. -  f r o m 3400 B.C. t o 1200 B.C.  divisions  b e g i n s w i t h the  t h e Aegean S e a , and t h e i r a b s o r p t i o n  Cretan,or M i n o a n , c i v i l i z a t i o n , lasted  culture  Aehaeans.and l a s t  i n what i s a c c e p t e d b y many a u t h o r i t i e s a s waves o f a r r i v a l ,  first  of a l l the D o r i a n s .  the Ionians,  then  The I o n i a n s , t h o u g h  -9conquerors as  the  later  Greeks. of  of C r e t e  But  conqueror the  i n v a s i o n by  found  ean  i n the  t h e A c h a e a n s , who  wars between t h e 900  t o have had  a l a r g e and  weakened^ as I o n i a n s and  B.C.  the  early  closely  last  out  G r e e k s had  w i t h whom t h e y  spoken l a n g u a g e .  " O d y s s e y " and  the  "Iliad"  the  in this  a c q u i r e d the  t r a d e d , and  had  language,  telling  f o r him.  The  s e i g e of Troy  fighting  aristocracy  as l a t e r ,  i n an  i s the  by  i n t h e s e b o o k s was of K i n g s ,  alphabet  reduced  the  the  to  already  i n 1200  written for.a  councillors,  "Chanson de  the  legends  and  B.C.  Roland",  The  still  fighting-men,  e q u i v a l e n t p e r i o d of development England  "Beowulf", Prance  the  s t o r y - c o r e of Homer's  i s known t o h a v e b e e n d e s t r o y e d  contained  wave,  Homer,(d.c.800B.C) w r o t e  e a r l y Mycenean p e r i o d , w h i c h was  epic poetry  organized  r e m n a n t s o f Myeen-  the  Troy  wave  tables  arriving  from  b o o k s , and  duced  the n e x t  Achaeans.  own  misty  The  just  the  i t a l r e a d y e s s e n t i a l l y was  their  remaining  t h a t of  a r e known, f r o m H i t t i t e  p r a c t i c a l l y wiped  the P h o e n i c i a n s  writing  Rape, a d o p t e d  f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y B.C.  civilization,  By  its civilization,  I e n i a n s were i n t u r n d i s t u r b e d by  of the D o r i a n s ,  from  of G r e e c e ,  at Boghaz-Keui,  empire that  seem t o have a d o p t e d  and  pro-  Germany  the " N i e t o e l u n g e n l i e d " . With Hesiod's has  poetry  (d.c.750-700 B.C.)  t a k e n p l a c e . H i s work, c o m p r i s i n g  "Theogony" t e l l s - r a t h e r o f t h e ious devotion,  of the peasant  In these  stories  essential  early  attitude  the  "Works and  ordinary l i f e farmers  o f an  of t o i l  life  change  D a y s " and and  agricultural  o f Greek m y t h o l o g y can be  toward  already a  religsociety.  perceived  of the G r e e k c i t i z e n  a  of t h i s  the coll-  -10ection thus  of c i t y - s t a t e s ,  a n d o f Greek c u l t u r e i n g e n e r a l .  e a r l y , t h e y were a l r e a d y a c c e p t i n g  t o men, n o t a l i e n b e i n g s ,  only  t h e i r gods as s i m i l a r  s t r o n g e r and f a i r e r  t h a n men, embodying  thus  come t o be a c c e p t e d  as the t y p i c a l  Even  and b r a v e r  i n t h e h o n o u r t h e y p a i d them what h a s a t t i t u d e of t h e i r  civiliza  ti. on. The  tribal  community whese b a t t l e s were r e c o r d e d  mer's w r i t i n g s was f o l l o w e d b y t h r e e elopment  of the e i t y - s t a t e  : a period  o r o l i g a r c h y .wherin t h e k i n g s other p e r i o d  of t h e i r power; a n -  of t h e c i t i z e n s '  a l l citizens.  examples  of t h i s  Sparta  process  ly  describes  "Spartan*  the atmosphere  government  o f d e v e l o p m e n t , and c e r t a i n  t e r m s o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e s known t o h a v e The word  and a  a n d A t h e n s a r e t h e two most  c o m p a r i s o n s c a n b e made between t h e a r t - p r o d u c t s  organizations.  during  rights;  s t a g e marked b y t h e emergence o f a d e m o c r a t i c  including ous  were d e p r i v e d  a s champions  i n t h e dev-  o f ascendancy by the noblest  o f s t r u g g l e between c i t i z e n s a n d n o b l e s  which t y r a n t s rose final  f u r t h e r stages  i n Ho-  curious  o f t h e two i n  existed i n their  remaining  fam-  t o us today  of r i g o r o u s d i s c i p l i n e ,  social proper-  w h i c h made  theirs  a l m o s t a n armed-camp o r p o l i c e - s t a t e i n f o r m and atmos-  phere,  and l e f t  sophic  sense. By  by  them n o n - p r o d u c t i v e  500 B.C. t h e A t h e n i a n  the successive  i n an a r t i s t i c  city-state  reforms o f Draco,  Solon,  one  i n which every  c i t i z e n had a stake,  est  i n a l l aspects  of p u b l i c l i f e ,  and  commerce,  had been  or p h i l o -  re-organized  and C l e i s t h e n e s ,  t a k i n g an a c t i v e  politics,  s c i e n c e and a r t . T h e s e s h a r e d  into  inter-  religion,industry i n t e r e s t s gave  them  -11an  intense l o c a l  patriotism,  s i a n s " where t h e g r e e k s sian  fleet  a t Salamis,  enthusiastic Pive  support of these  federacy along with member  states,  exult  over  the defeat  play  "The P e r -  o f t h e huge  480 B.C. , w h i c h was made p o s s i b l e b y t h e  c i t y - s t a t e s were members o f t h e D e l i a n Consome i s l a n d s  and A t h e n s i t s e l f .  Beotia, Thessaly,  of f o r e i g n  Argolis,  Por these  and A c h a i a ,  o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s was b o r n e b y  A t h e n s , w h i c h a l s o gave a f r e s h i m p e t u s t o e v e r y b r a n c h community l i v i n g ; city-state  t h e f r e e d o m and p e r s o n a l  generated  Per-  g i v e n b y t h e members o f t h e c i t y - s t a t e s .  Attica,  the g e n e r a l charge  shown i n A e s c h y l u s *  a great Athenian  ation,drama,historical  stake  of t h e i r  i n the p o l i s or  flowering i n poetry,educ-  literature,oratory,  the p l a s t i c  arts,  s c i e n c e and p h i l o s o p h y . Succeeding ies  of Eesiod  came a new l y r i c  t h e now a f f l u e n t ed l y r e ,  the epic genius  cities  purposes  Sappho o f L e s b o s ,  the c h o r a l l y r i c  To warm my celebrating  stor-  i n t h e homes o f  of the s e v e n r s t r i n g  f o r m s a s i t was u s e d f o r  : the elegy or lament,  "When.I d r i n k wine A god d o t h s t r a i g h t  the p e r s o n a l l y r i c of  of the Dorians,  the d r i n k i n g  of Teos....  begin  soul within..."  and P i n d a r ' s  odes o f  t h e O l y m p i c games and o t h e r c o n t e s t s .  Greek e d u c a t i o n  than  recited  t o t h e accompaniment  songs made famous b y A n a c r e o n  aiming  poetry,  and t a k i n g on many d i f f e r e n t  different  victory  o f Homer and t h e h o m e l y  expressed  a t the production  a characteristic  of i n t e l l i g e n t  attitude i n  human b e i n g s  rather  a t g i v i n g mere v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n f o r e a r n i n g a l i v i n g .  -12This  i s evidenced  education  b y t h e c a r e f u l g u i d a n c e and p l a n n i n g  of the c i t i z e n s  f o r the  i n P l a t o ' s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s i d e a l  "Republic". The  sixth  drama, w i t h chorus,  century  the peasants'  i n honour  B.C. a l s o saw t h e b e g i n n i n g s songs and p r o c e s s i o n s  o f t h e god o f v e g e t a t i o n  These f e s t i v a l s were i n t r o d u c e d there to  were g i v e n  the t r a g i c  poets, and of  a more f o r m a l  the chorus. justice  the f i r s t  The Greek b e l i e f  and he, t h o u g h s t i l l  a c t o r t o support  the idea of inexorable  t r a g e d i e s . E u r i p i d e s used  chaotic ical  tales  played and  a less  and the i d e a  (d.406 B.C.) t h e  the burden of the p l a y  f a t e . H i s " O e d i p u s Rex"  a s t h e most p e r f e c t o f G r e e k  epic style  than  Aeschylus  and t r e a t e d h i s c h a r a c t e r s a s human b e i n g s  tangles  o f human e m o t i o n s ,  as p l o t  today,  or substance.  and s t i l l  though s t i l l  "Medea",  using  mytholog-  "Iphegenia",  m e a n i n g f u l as s t o r i e s  reached  the E l i z a b e t h a n  Comedy d e v e l o p e d aspect  of the D i o n y s i a n  or  i n the  ate s t i l l  o f human e m o t i o n ,  E u r i p i d e s ' i n f l u e n c e t h r o u g h t h e d e r i v a t i v e Roman  Seneca,  tragic  b e l i e v i n g i n d i v i n e o r d e r , be-  "Tyrannus") i s u s u a l l y accepted  Sophocles,  o f the great  i n l a w and o r d e r  takes  (or  Cleisthenes,and  a second a c t o r i n a d d i t i o n t o the l e a d e r  of a t h i r d  to reject  Dionysius.  sequence, g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p i n g in-  introduction  gins  and l i f e ,  permeates h i s p l a y s . With Sophocles  place,  o f l e a d e r and  i n t o Athens under  drama o f A e s c h y l u s ,  who- i n t r o d u c e d  o f Greek  dramatist,  theatre.  from the l e s s festivals.  formal  and l e s s  inhibited  Aristophanes(d.ca.385  B.C.)  shows h i s c o m i c v e i n a n d s c e p t i c a l  spirit  plays,  "Clouds",  and i n h i s t r e a t m e n t  "Frogs","Birds","Wasps",  in his satiric  of the  -13w a r s between t h e d i f f e r e n t "The  A c h a r n i a n s " and The  rather the  the  analysis  was  Zenophon  story  continued  reflections  also  "The by  a l s o wrote  and  the  later  Peloponnesian  War".  "Anabasis",telling went i n 400  the P e r s i a n throne i n which are  issues,  e s p e c i a l l y powerful  o f the w h o l e body  of c i t i z e n s  a r t o f a d d r e s s i n g and  as e x h i b i t e d  emotional  o f Maeedon -the-word The  their  c i v i c nature  architecture  expression  i n the  i g i o u s core  by  in  govern-  persuading  them  s u c h famous o r a t o r s as  western  temples,  ^tempting beautiful  t h e i r brave and  'philippic'  Per-  was  f r o m whose s p e e c h e s  ah  against  has-come down t o us* demonstrated  s c u l p t u r e which reach t h e i r h i g h e s t w h i c h were t h e  life.  at such  architecture  speaker  of Greek a r t i s a d m i r a b l y  and  of the c i t y  they a r r i v e d  from  contained  T h e m i s t o c l e s , D e m o s t h e n e s . D e m o s t h e n e s ( d . 3 2 2 B.C.)  Philip  B.c  h i s memories of S o c r a t e s .  inclusion  on i m p o r t a n t  take  than  Zenophon i n h i s " H e l l e n -  the  the"Memorabilia",  ment made n e c e s s a r y an  error  B.C.  the Younger t o h e l p him  The  by  t o 362  (d.355 B.C.)  h i s b r o t h e r ; and  icles,  i n h i s book  are  orP b r i g h t man  o f the m a r c h of. the 10,000 G r e e k s who  w i t h Cyrus  his  (d.424-5 B.C.)  of c u r r e n t h i s t o r y w r i t t e n by  (d.ca.400 B.C.)  His account  as  "Lysistrata".  r e c o r d o f what h a p p e n e d t o i n t e r e s t  Thucjdides  the  i n such p l a y s  h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g s of Herodotus  scientific  ica".  Greek c i t y - s t a t e s  By  a process  civic  as w e l l  of c r e a t i v e  as  rel-  trial  and  i d e a l l y harmonious p r o p o r t i o n s that  is still  copying  l a b o u r and  them t o d a y  producing  harmonious e x p r e s s i o n .  our  own  instead  of a t -  equivalently  -14The cella, god,  core  a small  (Artemis  of  the  s t r u c t u r e of  four-walled  room f o r the  or v e s t i b u l e . •'. The  support  low-pitched  ner  room h i d d e n b y  umns o n l y and  across  back(the  Greek t e m p l e was statue  of  the  f o r E p h e s u s , A t h e n a f o r A t h e n s ) and  the pronaos the  the  gable  their  the  trunks.  the  local  entered  l a r g e r t e m p l e s had  r o o f , and  to  c e l l a became an i n -  Some o f the  and  from  columns  t e m p l e s had  f r o n t ( t h e p r o s t y l e ) , some a c r o s s  amphiprostyle),  the  some on a l l f o u r  col-  the  sides  front  (the  peristylar). I t was the  greatest  was  the  entablature  composed  d e c o r a t i v e band  c o r n i c e s . The the  gable  There are these  their places  directly,  and  square b l o c k s t r u c t i o n was  a r c h i t r a v e or heavy  the  roof  frieze,  u s e d by  the D o r i c ,  I n the  surmounted b y  a capital  cross-  moulded which  was  artists  the  i n stone;  that  t r i g l y p h s were added, and  called  the m e t o p e s were c o n v e n t i o n a l i z e d r e s t r a i n e d and  styles  from  the  temple  i s , stone  base a  cone  rafter  ends  s p a c e s between  in''• t r e a t m e n t ,  s e v e r e . "By  from  simplest  wooden r o o f  arid the  of  Corinthian,  w h i c h i s the  original  these  or  o f a r o u n d e d band and  called  whole e f f e c t b e i n g  great  divisions  early Doric  abacus;  perpetuated  the  I o n i c , and  p l a i n heavy s h a f t s r i s i n g  the  the  This  decoration.  temples,  called  and  formed a t r i a n g l e  three u s u a l l y accepted  of o r i g i n .  columns a r e  called  w h i c h was  of s c u l p t u r e f o r enriched  the  t e m p l e however w h i c h gave  of the  ends o f the  p e d i m e n t , and  classifying  o f the  c h a n c e f o r v a r i e t y i n the manner o f t r e a t m e n t .  temple f a c a d e  beams, the  called  the  the  close  the of  the  r  5th century vailing  B.C.  style.  slenderer,  and  I o n i c columns a r e u s u a l l y t a l l e r , the  c a p i t a l s more e l a b o r a t e . The  posed  of a p i l l o w b l o c k  larly  g r a c e f u l f o r m . The  horizontal the  low  i o n  lines;  reliefs  of t h e  ciple  the  carved  o f the  s c u l p t o r . The columns are  the v e r t i c a l  lines  of t h e b a s e s  of t h e  used  o f the  fluted,  preand  c a p i t a l was  volute, a  com-  particu-  e n t a b l a t u r e above i B o f t e n b r o k e n  Ionic capital  o f e n t a s i s was  i n a double  f r i e z e becomes a f l a t  I o n i c . The  the m o d i f i e d  D e c e r n i n g the  t h e more g r a c e f u l I o n i c was  s u r f a c e devoted  Cor i n t h i a n  still  i s an  taller,  and more  forms to curve  columns and  long straight  wherever the  eye m i g h t  fluted  The  i n a l l of these  temples,  to  elaborat-  i s more o r n a t e l y d e c o r a t e d .  the  by  prin-  subtly lines  imagine  a  sag. The  stiffly  gradually beginning peared  the  creator  first  t o c h a n g e . By  of the g r e a t  of t h e b r o n z e  Polycletus  of A r g o s  and  P h i d i a s , the  day  chiefly  still  a r c h a i c s c u l p t u r a l d e c o r a t i o n s were  g r e a t e s t of  are  the  w e s t end  e a s t end  the  long,  vision.  them a l l .  some i m p o r t a n t  or  They a r e  the b i r t h  of  o f t h e i r b e s t work,  but  around  some of w h i c h were d o u b t l e s s  were  to-  fragments.  festival  the  represented  Among t h e s e  the  f o r the cella,  and. i n c l u d i n g executed  is  (represent  the g o d d e s s A t h e n a , a n d  h i s enormous f r i e z e  ap-  spearbearer),  the pediments of the P a r t h e n o n  showing the P a n a t h e n a i c  figures,  "Doryphorus*  s t r u g g l e of Athena w i t h P o s e i d o n  of A t t i c a ) and  there  " D i s c o b o l u s " ; among h i s s u c c e s s o r s  by p o o r c o n t e m p o r a r y c o p i e s  available  on  5 t h c e n t u r y B.C.  s c u l p t o r s , Myron of Athens,  (the bronze  t h e work of P h i d i a s on ing  the  very  on  the  possession 522. f e e t over  under h i s  300 super-  -16-  After Phidias, excellence 1877  Praxiteles  i n sculpture. His  ture  from  the passage paintings,  men  the g r e a t a r t i s t s  Apollonius  nical  and  artistic-civil  licrates,  the h i s t o r i c a l  101  the world, stating  first  228  through crafts-  Polygnotus,  ft.  of t h e P a r t h e n o n , built  a l l express  political  substance  of r e a l i t y ;  idea Russell  says  and  Euripides,  the g r e a t  analysing reality  about  the  their first  as  per-  and  explan-  substance  of  theories : Thales  water; H e r a c l e i t O B  or c a u s a l i t y ,  Gal-  development.  different  while  peris-  the s c u l p t u r e  recourse to r e v e l a t i o n  t o be  a  of  I c t i n i u s and  t h e drama o f S o p h o c l e s  major question being  of order,  by  o f t h e whole A c r o p o l i s w i t h  without  t i o n was  this  chiefly  enormous d e v e l o p m e n t s i n t e c h -  the Greeks began by  nature  that  i s known t o d a y  building  f t . by  the f l u x - l i k e  d e r . Of  The  i n which they p o s i t e d  the p r i m e  and  sculp-  of e x p r e s s i o n i n a l l b r a n c h e s  e c o n o m i c and  of r e a l i t y  their  brought  as P h i d i a s ,  In P h i l o s o p h y the n a t u r e  and  a n a l y s e s of Thucydides,  of A t h e n i a n  intact  e v e n more t h a n Greek  o f the medium s u c h as  virtuosity  the adornment  of s u c h a r t i s t s  ation,  age  activity.  t y l a r D o r i c temple  thighs are  Z e u x i s , and P a r r h e s i u s .  Periclean  ability  and  at Olympia i n  w h i c h were p r e s u m a b l y done r a t h e r b y  of A t h e n s ,  The  trunk,  suffered  of t i m e ,  the v a s e than  unearthed  w  of G r e e k  ability.  Greek p a i n t i n g has  iod  *Hermes  i s m u t i l a t e d hut the h e a d ,  show h i s m a s t e r l y  i s the a c c e p t e d m o d e l  stressing  second major s t a t e d by  ques-  Anaximan-  :  " T h e r e i s a k i n d of n e c e s s i t y o r n a t u r a l l a w w h i c h p e r p e t u a l l y r e d r e s s e s t h e b a l a n c e ; where t h e r e has b e e n f i r e f o r example, t h e r e a r e a s h e s , w h i c h a r e e a r t h . T h i s c o n -  -17c e p t i o n of j u s t i c e - o f n o t o v e r s t e p p i n g e t e r n a l l y f i x e d bounds - was one o f t h e most p r o f o u n d o f Greek b e l i e f s . The g o d s were s u b j e c t t o j u s t i c e j u s t , as much a s men were, b u t t h i s supreme power was n o t i t s e l f p e r s o n a l , and was n o t a supreme god." 4. The osophy,  rich  f l o w e r i n g of t h e P e r i c l e a n p e r i o d  the q u e s t i o n i n g s p i r i t  P l a t o . But outside  the A t h e n i a n s  their  city;  Socrates w i t t i l y listening cles  indeed  tion.  one  of i t s s t i l l  paganda f o r a a t i o n and istotle,  i n the P l a t o n i c d i a l o g u e s , says  of  existing  certain  in his  Russell  in  t h a t he  first  and  Book  stated i n  of a r t a s f o r the  educ-  of c i t i z e n . Whereas r a t h e r on  the  pro-  Ar-  craft  as-  u s e s as h i s f u n d a m e n t a l p r e m i s t h a t  i n c h a r a c t e r , the  r y t h m s , and  s t a t e was  order,  "Poetics", concentrated  'making' i n a r t . He  imitation  to the  social  Anaxagoras  i n h i s "Republic",  forms - the u s e f u l n e s s  type.of  ' Peri-  of m i n d , ( n o u s ) , i n c r e a -  of t h e d e s i r e d t y p e  art i s imitative  words  importance  from  disciples  teacher.  t o Athens the p h i l o s o p h e r  of a r t i n r e l a t i o n ,  guidance  physiologic for  Sophist  was  "Protagoras*,  e a g e r n e s s o f the y o u n g  I n t h e work o,f P l a t o , e s p e c i a l l y the p l a c e  all  the  of t h e p r e - e m i n e n t  Ten,  pect  i n Plato's dialogue,  satirizes  f r o m whom S o c r a t e s , learned  eagerly received a l s o teachers  a visitor  as  in Phil-  of S o c r a t e s , whose d i s c i p l e  so a r d e n t l y t o t h e v i s i t i n g  invited  saw,  on what he  i m i t a t i o n b e i n g based  thought  o f as an  in  'instinct'  man.  sums up  Greek a c h i e v e m e n t  : "What t h e y a c h i e v e d  i n a r t and  of genius  literature  in  these  i s familiar  to e v e r y b o d y , b u t what t h e y d i d i n t h e p u r e l y i n t e l l e c t u a l r e a l m s i s e v e n more e x c e p t i o n a l . They i n v e n t e d mathe m a t i c s , and s c i e n c e , a n d p h i l o s o p h y ; t h e y f i r s t w r o t e h i s t o r y as opposed t o mere a n n a l s ; t h e y s p e c u l a t e d f r e e l y a b o u t the n a t u r e o f the w o r l d and the ends of l i f e , w i t h 4.Russell,  Bertrand:  "A H i s t o r y o f W e s t e r n P h i l o s o p h y " , N e w Y o r k ,  Simon & S c h u s t e r , 1 9 4 5 ; p p s .  24,27.  -18out b e i n g bound i n t h e f e t t e r s of any o r t h o d o x y . . . A r i t h m e t i c and some Geometry e x i s t e d among the E g y p t i a n s and B a b y l o n i a n s , b u t m a i n l y i n t h e f o r m o f r u l e s of thumb. D e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g f r o m g e n e r a l p r e m i s s e s was a Greek i n v e n t i o n . . . T h e y h a s a maxim, • n o t h i n g t o o much', b u t t h e y were i n f a c t e x c e s s i v e i n e v e r y t h i n g - i n pure thought, i n p o e t r y , i n r e l i g i o n , and i n s i n . I t was the c o m b i n a t i o n o f p a s s i o n and i n t e l l e c t t h a t made them g r e a t . N e i t h e r a l o n e w o u l d h a v e t r a n s f o r m e d t h e w o r l d f o r a l l f u t u r e time as t h e y t r a n s f o r m e d i t . T h e i r p r o t o t y p e i n m y t h o l ogy i s n o t O l y m p i a n Zeus, b u t P r o m e t h e u s , who b r o u g h t f i r e from h e a v e n and was rewarded w i t h e t e r n a l torment. I f t a k e n o f the G r e e k s as a w h o l e , however, what has j u s t b e e n s a i d w o u l d be a s o n e - s i d e d as t h e v i e w t h a t t h e G r e e k s were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by ' s e r e n i t y * . T h e r e were i n f a c t two t e n d e n c i e s i n G r e e c e , one p a s s i o n a t e , r e l i g i o u s , m y s t i c a l , o t h e r w o r l d l y ; the o t h e r c h e e r f u l , e m p i r i c a l , r a t i o n a l i s t i c , and i n t e r e s t e d i n a c q u i r i n g knowledge o f a d i v e r s i t y o f f a c t s . * 5. Hellenistic  civilization  Greek p h i l o s o p h y and plastic and  a r t s had  a r t had  s l o w l y developed  i n t h i s new  period  Hellenistic  a r t and  g i n s w i t h the conquests the  Empire,  and  146, The  o v e r - d e c o r a t i v e , exem-  civilization  * Laoco0n . ,  o f Macedon, who  i t extends  M  i n general really  t o the  a l l h i s , e m p i r e were a b s o r b e d  life  time when by  be-  subjected these  the Roman  v a l u e . Replaced  of v a l u e s s h i f t e d  of the p o l i s , op.  o f t h e c i t y - s t a t e was  time when P l a t o and  s t r u c t u r e and  5.Russell,  the r i c h n e s s o f P h i d i a s  the s c u l p t u r e group,  cit.,  by  from  Aristotle  S  3  ,  2  1.  of  Alexander  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  t o the more i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e pp .  over,  were a n a l y s i n g  the empire  of the  of  Greek  B.C.  even d u r i n g the  life  the  of A l e x a n d e r  free democratic  the e m p h a s i s  into  into  by  s t a t e s n e i g h b o r i n g , and  territories  its  begun t o p e t e r o u t , when t h e  t h e n begun t o d e t e r i o r a t e  plified  b e g i n s when t h e g r e a t p e r i o d  i n the Stoic  -19and  Epicurean  philosophy,  ly-burly  of c i v i c  at  s i m i l a r periods  other  life  However, d u r i n g that  of t h e  beyond  the  spread few  A s i a Minor, to the  new  teen  sections, ted  the  a period  the  that  and  i n the  producing  as  thrace",  the  action  of t h e  ing  a s o l i d body immersed weight  invasion  the  as  i n tne  of the  Colossus and  when t n e y were d e f e a t e d  very  and  i n the  A s i a M i n o r by  thir-  on  conic  demonstra-  becomes  light-  water. different  decorative  Nike  commemorating  Gauls,  "La-  o f Samo-  Pergamese g r o u p s ,  the  of  i n concep-  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  Self",  by K i n g A t a l u s . is O t h e r Pergamene a r t ' s h o w n i n the  mech-  richer period  o f Rhodes, the  " G a u l S l a y i n g W i f e and and  Rome.  discovered,  i t d i s p l a c e s i n the  i s shown i n the  Venus o f M i l o ,  of T h r a c e  spread  "Archimedean  in a f l u i d  earlier  G a u l " and  west. T h i s  l e v e r and  known,in h y d r o s t a t i c s , as  execution,  as  finally  o f P e r g a ' s work  emphasis to t h a t  the  far  i t did Euclid's  p e r i o d had  as  as  work o f A r c h i m e d e s o f S y r a c u s e who  t o the  was  o f d e v e l o p m e n t i n m a t h e m a t i c s and  a r t s i n the H e l l e n i s t i c  ocoon" group,  cultures.  positive result  Greek a r t . They were more e x a g g e r a t e d l y tion  noticeable  c u l t u r e o f G r e e c e and  "Elements", A p o l l o n i u s  er i n proportion  of  classical  hur-  e x i s t i n g Greek c u l t u r e f a r  of Rome t h e n r i s i n g  laws g o v e r n i n g  The  already  the  other  v a l l e y , E g y p t , and  1  and  principle",  the  , one  of  Tigris-Euphrates  what came t o be  points  of  than i n a r t ' ,  books of  development  this period  b e t w e e n the  rather  i n the  tower" a t t i t u a e  Greek p e n i n s u l a  state  T h i s was anics  to the"ivory  c i t y - s t a t e s o f the  the  forms a l i n k  r e t i r i n g . a s t h e y were f r o m  279-8  "Dythe  B.C.,  o f Pergamum. remains  of the  temple  at  -20Pergamum, e x c a v a t e d i n 1878 & 86 and now i n t h e B e r l i n and  i n their  tors  over-life-sized  f i g u r e s which  influenced  a r c h i t e c t s used  stone) and s p r e a d abroad  the true  arch ( with  over t h e t h e n known w o r l d  private  court  open t o t h e s k y s u r r o u n d e d b y a c o l o n n a d e d p o r c h  which  rooms o p e n e d . The new c i t i e s  costly  d w e l l i n g s which  temples, baths,and  theatres  i n which  libraries  the l a t e r  , and wrote  f o r i t s sophisticated  about,  like  t h e comedies  the l i f e  h i s t o r i a n Polybius of M e g a l o p o l i s wrote  ing  the s t o r y  the  fall  period  said  o f t h e Roman c o n q u e s t  in  Greece,  full  from  wrote,  p o e t r y , and  the "Histories ', 1  trac-  t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n war t o  i n 146 B.C. to the f i n a l  scroll  phase  of l i f e  others the p i c t u r e  them b o r n , It  Theocritus  of c l a s s i c a l  culture  , with  o f Roman dominance, we c a n b e a r i n m i n d what h a s b e e n  p e o p l e whose e n t i r e  see  o f Menander,  a new p a s t o r a l  of i t b y Jose Ortega y Gasset..."The  eyes. With  with  of the H e l l e n i s t i c  inhabitants,while  the  the  from  Romans, T e r r e n c e a n d P l a u t u s .  t h o s e who were b o r e d w i t h t h i s ,  As we t u r n  central  t h e one a t A l e x a n d r i a ,  for  of C o r i n t h  th&r  o f t h e t i m e were a d o r n e d  were p e r f o r m e d  a w r i t e r who i n f l u e n c e d Menander l o v e d  they copied, u s i n g  key-  the charming  Greek  city  the sculp-  o f Rhodes. Hellenistic  and  Museum,  can be u n r o l l e d  records i n familiar  l a w and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  Latin  t h a t we know i t s r o o t s  transitional of t h e i r  and language,  cannot  die..."  o f Roman c i v i l i z a t i o n  and i n H e l l e n i s t i c  b e f o r e our  i s f r a g m e n t a r y . E i t h e r we  o r we have n o t s e e n them  i s true  Romans a r e t h e o n l y  culture,  active  t h a t we have  contributions to  a n d t h a t we have r e c o r d s o f  -21the p r o c e s s e s  accompanying t h e i r d i s i n t e g r a t i o n .  umented h i s t o r y deductions and  clusions  o f t h e i r d e c a d e n c e we c a n t h e r e f o r e make  about  a beginning  o u r own somewhat s i m i l a r p e r i o d , w i t h culture inextricably  s u p p o r t i n g my t h e s i s w i l l How Rome s u b j e c t e d  Italian Celts  peninsula  the  i n f l u e n c e o f w h i c h has' l e f t  the  great  stories  i n the Greeks,  i n t e n s i f y i n g and  o f a wide c u l t u r a l  diffusion  t r a c e s t o t h i s d a y , i s one o f  the I t a l i a n  peninsula,  C a r t h a g e i n t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n wars, a n d t u r n e d  : Corinth  (146 B . C . ) ,  Syria,  and f i n a l l y E g y p t  quered by J u l i u s C a e s a r  Greece i t s e l f ,  destroyed  t o t h e e a s t , Rome  t o slowly absorb i t w i t h i n the boundaries  empire  Britain  con-  of history.  Having appropriated  proceeded  settled  Etruscans,  civilization,  i t , becoming the c e n t r e  a dying  be made a s we go on.  Carthaginians,  their  doc-  certain  j o i n e d ; and c e r t a i n  the v a r i o u s peoples  - Italians,  - and a p p r o p r i a t e d  extending  From t h i s  of a mighty  Macedonia,  Pergamum,  (30 B . C . ) . I n t h e n o r t h G a u l was c o n (58-49 B . C . ) , g a i n i n g a s f a r n o r t h a s  (56-55 B . C . ) . Roman l i t e r a t u r e  , like  Roman c u l t u r e g e n e r a l l y , began  w i t h b o r r o w i n g s from the Greek, b u t had produced by the time o f Plautus ,ability and  (d.184 B.C.) a n d T e r e n c e which c e n t u r i e s l a t e r  t h e commedia d e l l '  Renaissance, (10th ting  century anything  w h i c h was  i n f l u e n c e d Shakespeare,  a r t e , the popular  though even b e f o r e A.D.) h a d i m i t a t e d of h i s s t y l e  didactic.  (d.159 B.C.) c o m e d i e s o f n a t i v e  this  comedy o f t h e I t a l i a n  t h e Saxon nun, R o s w i t h a ,  . Terence  considered  Moliere,  i n pious  plays  omit-  improper f o r h e r purpose  -22After of Rome  the Punic  was r a d i c a l l y  cheap s l a v e l a b o u r and  unemployment  great  social  wars  , t h e "basic s m a l l - f a r m e r  c h a n g e d . The m a r k e t s were d r u g g e d  , captives  disturbances  c l a s s e s of c i t i z e n s  i n the c i t y  the  ruling low in  them t o p r e v e n t  and commerce and t h e y patricians,  resented  and o f t e n p r o v i d e d  p l e b s . The S e n a t o r s  r e v o l u t i o n . Some o f o f i n c r e a s i n g pop-  the exclusiveness  o f Rome g r a d u a l l y y i e l d e d power t o them  o f t h e p l e b s . The s e n a t o r s  c o u l d n o t then  t r i b u n e s who h a d t h e power t o v e t © and  even t o k i l l  their  o f the  leadership for their f e l . -  t h e f o r m o f t r i b u n e s who were e l e c t e d t o r e p r e s e n t  erest  flocked  of g r a i n which the  p l e b i a n s became w e a l t h y f r o m t h e e f f e c t s  ulation  led to  o f Rome where t h e y  t o s e e t h e " c i r c u s e s " and t o g e t t h e d o l e to give  with  o f t h e many Roman v i c t o r i e s ,  of the p o o r e r  s t a t e was f o r c e d  society  a magistrate  the i n t -  overrule  these  the a c t i o n o f the consuls,  who r e f u s e d  t o take  notice of  veto. The  fully  Roman f e d e r a t i o n o f c i t y - s t a t e s  on a p r i n c i p l e  retaining  their  responsibility  of u n i t y i n d i v e r s i t y ,  local  administrative  f o r matters  functioned with  peace-  the a l l i e d  states  c o n t r o l a n d Rome a s s u m i n g  of military  p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g $he  whole. But der  the conquest  of e x t r a t e r r i t o r y  i n t o Rome w h i c h u n d e r m i n e d  ing class,  while  the i n f l u x  called  free  on s m a l l h o l d i n g s  such m o n o p o l i s t i c  latifundia,  concerns.  the moral f i b r e  plun-  of the govern-  o f g a n g s o f s l a v e s t o work t h e g r e a t  plantations, farmers  i n war p o u r e d  as h a s been noted who c o u l d  ruined the  n o t compete  against  -23* The  c o n f l i c t between the "unemployed" who  drifted i n -  to the c i t y , and the senators who p r o f i t e d from these abuses, resulted i n c i v i l war. Marius and S u l l a , Pompey and Caesar, were popular figures who,  backed by the mob,  the l a s t hundred years B.C.  demanded reforms. For  there was continual s t r i f e between  these r i v a l opportunists whose ruthless ambitions ruined the welfare of the republic, while i n themselves they expressed the change i n v a l i e s pf the society which produced them. The new Roman Empire established by the l a s t of these, Augustus, by 27 B.C. had set up conditions of s t a b i l i t y and peace which became known as the "pax Romana", l a s t i n g f o r two centuries and leading to enormous i n d u s t r i a l and  commercial  a c t i v i t y , which in.turn extended knowledge of the inhabited world. The major philosophical positions of the Romans were those of the l a s t Greek schools, Epicureanism and Stoicism. The f i r s t appealed to the sophisticated younger Romans, who  accepted  the freedom from fixed values which i t gave them, based i t was on the Atomism of Democritus which considered l i f e but an accident a l combination of atoms, permitting no permanent values of the Good as taught by; the Platonic theory  of eternally existing  Ideas. Lucretius expressed t h i s point of view i n h i s "On the Nature of Things". Opposed to t h i s and accepted by the more serious typ: i c a l s p i r i t of Rome was Stoicism, whose essential idea of the equality of man  i s shown by the varying exponents who  accepted  i t and taught i t s doctrines, Epiotetus, a slave at one time, and Marcus Aurelius, Emperor of Rome.  -24-  Seneca s t a t e d i t s f u n d a m e n t a l l y i n h i s "On and  the B r e v i t y o f L i f e " , "On  moderate p o s i t i o n  Anger", and  i n h i s p l a y s , such as h i s "Medea", one  "On  Clemency",  of n i n e t r a g e d i e s •  w r i t t e n i n i m i t a t i o n of E u r i p i d e s , whose l a t e r i n f l u e n c e on p l a y s of the I t a l i a n R e n a i s s a n c e , and  the  e s p e c i a l l y on the F r e n c h  C l a s s i c i s m of the t i m e o f L o u i s XIV, was  important.  However the p h i l o s o p h i c a l i d e a f o r which t h i s  late  c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d i s most famous i s t h a t o f N e o p l a t o n i s m , e x p r e s s e d most f u l l y by P l o t i n u s i n h i s "Enneads" or "Nine P a r t s " w h i c h  was  p u b l i s h e d by Porphyry(d.304)• T h i s a c c e p t e d t h e dichotomy i m p l i c i t i n P l a t o ' s "Theory o f Ideas , and suggested two p o l e s , one presaating the "one" Matter, man,  and  or G-od,  the o t h e r r e p r e s e n t i n g  t h a t of  l y i n g between t h e s e extremes a l l t h i n g s i n c l u d i n g  whose s o u l p a r t a k e s o f the i m m a t e r i a l  whose, body i s m a t e r i a l and was  and  rep-  an e t h i c a l one,  t h a t man  q u a l i t y o f God  gross. Their s o l u t i o n of t h i s  but dualism  should t u r n h i s back on the mater-  i a l p a r t o f h i m s e l f , s u b j e c t i n g and d e n y i n g i t , and t u r n towards the i m m a t e r i a l o r  God.  This was i n g i n t h e west, and has  the most d e v e l o p e d m y s t i c i s m  yet  appear-  had an i n c a l c u l a b l e e f f e c t on most sub-  sequent r e l i g i o u s and p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g . I t was  the medium  from w h i c h sprang the m e d i e v a l d o c t r i n e o f the s a l v a t i o n o f  the  s o u l t h r o u g h the m o r t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e body. From i t a l s o came i d e a s c u r r e n t i n the M i d d l e Ages o f the m y s t i c  v i s i o n , or  ladder  l i t e r a t u r e of Rome i s an e c l e c t i c one,  deriv-  of p e r f e c t i o n . The  i n g not o n l y i t s m a t t e r f r o m Greece but a l s o many o f i t s s t y l i s t i c d e v i c e s . C i c e r o i s the most t y p i c a l o f t h e i r e a r l y w r i t e r s ,  -25d i s p l a y s the' eloquence o f o r a t o r y which was c o n s i d e r e d by them as by t h e Greeks one o f the c i v i c n e c e s s i t i e s . H i s most famous works a r e " O r a t i o n s A g a i n s t C a t i l i n e " , "On  the O r a t o r where he  d i s c u s s e s e d u c a t i o n a l theory;"On the S t a t e " and "On t h e Laws" i n which he s t a t e s h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y ; "On O l d Age" and the  "On  Nature of the Gods" w h i c h c o n t a i n s h i s c o n c e p t i o n o f S t o i c  i d e a s ; and h i s " L e t t e r s " which t r e a t o f the a f f a i r s o f an i n t e l l i g e n t w e l l - e d u c a t e d Roman o f the l a s t c e n t u r y B.C. The most famous Roman poet i s V i r g i l , whose e x q u i s i t e mast e r y of h i s own language can c o n c e a l h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l i n d e b t e d ness t o the Greeks more r e a d i l y t h a n more o b v i o u s l y d e r i v a t i v e w r i t e r s . H i s b e s t known work, "The A e n e i d " , w h i c h t e l l s o f t h e descent o f Rome from t h e T r o j a n hero Aeneas, i s f a m i l i a r t h r o u g h out European e d u c a t i o n i n which i t has l o n g been used t o i n c u l cate the p a t r i o t i c i d e a l s o f l o y a l t y and courage. H i s " E c l o g u e s " or  p a s t o r a l poems a r e i n s p i r e d by the p a s t o r a l p o e t r y o f Theo-  c r i t u s , and the " G e o r g i c s " t e l l i n p o e t i c v e i n o f the r e a l i t i e s of  farm l i f e . O v i d ( d . A.D.  1 7 ) , though w r i t i n g a t about the same time  as V i r g i l ( d . 19 B.C.) lax  shows i n h i s work r a t h e r a p i c t u r e of the  m o r a l i t y and l a c k o f purpose o f s o p h i s t i c a t e d urban Roman  s o c i e t y , than the v i r t u e s o f a l a n d e d a r i s t o c r a c y l i v i n g i n sepa r a t e s m a l l communities, and p o s s e s s i n g a compact f a m i l y  life  r u l e d o v e r by the " p a t e r f a m i l i a s " . Ovid"s " A r s A m a t o r i s " and "Metamorphoses" have e x e r t e d an enormous i n f l u e n c e on t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f Europe. The " A r t o f Love" though w r i t t e n i n a c y n i c a l s p i r i t to s a t i r i z e the s u b j e c t by g i v i n g i t a p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c t r e a t m e n t , was used s e r i o u s l y by  the w r i t e r s o f the m e d i e v a l phoses", t e l l i n g a source and  -26c o u r t l y r o m a n c e s , and h i s "Me-tamor-*  t h e s t o r i e s o f t h e c l a s s i c a l mythology, has been  f o r D a n t e , C h a u c e r , S h a k e s p e a r e , and many o t h e r  h i s mastery o f s t y l e The  continues  historical  to please.  w r i t i n g s o f t h e Romans h a s b e e n  i n b r i d g i n g t h e gap between t h e l a t e H e l l e n i s t i c own. P l i n y the f i e l d ter  the E l d e r , i n h i s "Natural H i s t o r i e s " o f e x t a n t knowledge;- P l i n y  of considerably less  amusingly  artists  useful  p e r i o d and t h e i r c o v e r s most o f  the Younger(d.114) , a w r i -  intellectual  content  and extent,  tells  a b o u t t h e h a p p e n i n g s o f h i s day, one o f t h e most  inter-  e s t i n g t o us b e i n g h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e r u p t i o n o f V e s u v i u s i n A.D.79 w h i c h d e s t r o y e d P o m p e i i ; Lives"  P l u t a r c h (d.120) i n h i s " P a r a l l e l  r e l a t e s the major b i o g r a p h i c a l events  o f 23 G r e e k and 23 -  Roman n o b l e s  and n o t a b l e s , and t h i s h a s s e r v e d  for  p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f those  dramatic  as S h a k e s p e a r e and of  his "Gallic  in  h i s campaigns; L i v y  the F o u n d i n g begin with  Caesar  glorified  the p r i n c i p a t e  Caesar"  and "Antony  h i m s e l f w r o t e an h i s t o r i c a l  Wars" i n o r d e r t o j u s t i f y  o f the C i t y " ,  Rome i n h i s " H i s t o r y o f Rome  Britain; Suetonius  of  from  whereas T a c i t u s i n h i s " A n n a l s " ( w h i c h o f A u g u s t u s ) and h i s " H i s t o r i e s "  .  (which and i n  " G e r m a n i a " d e s c r i b e s t h e t r i b e s o f Germany, a n d i n h i s " A g r i c o l a  cola" recounts  sar  account  h i m s e l f and h i s a c t i o n s  b e g i n w i t h A.D.68) shows t h e c o r r u p t i o n o f Roman s o c i e t y , his  source  c h a r a c t e r s by such w r i t e r s  i n his "Coriolanus", "Julius  Cleopatra"; Julius  since as a  the e x p l o i t s o f h i s f a t h e r - i n - l a w who  t h i s emphasis on m o r a l s  was n o t a s s t e r n l y  i n h i s " L i v e s o f t h e Twelve C a e s a r s "  to Domitian),  conquered f o l l o w e d by  (from J u l i u s  who f o u n d  a later  imitator  i n t h e monk  the 9 t h c e n t u r y , w r i t i n g  a "Life  o f Charlemagne".  Cae-  Eginhard  -27-  More i n t e r e s t e d i n s a t i r i z i n g society  than i n recording  exceptionally b i t t e r ious on  l i v i n g of  women; and  the  mus,  Martial  at  the  l a l i a n Renaissance; the Dead" and  ideal  o f Roman, e d u c a t i o n  own  ideal  of  "humanism", s i n c e  out  of  t h e i r y o u n g men,  to  the  type of  that  itectural inthian ed t h e  of  the  preferences  have i n s p i r e d of  the  Samosate, Prophet"  work o f  Eras-  given  us  a word  they attempted indicating this  adult,  and  by  describ-  t o make change  and  legal  were f o r a n  Colosseum, b u i l t i n the  to hold  o f Roman g e n i u s was  construction.  ornate v e r s i o n of  first  century  required  t o honour  50,000 s p e c t a t o r s ,  very  Their the  t e r p i e c e s , and e n c e d the  sculpture i t was  sculptors  consisted  these l a t e r  of  the  c o l l e c t i o n of p o r t r a i t they p r i z e d  s p i r e d by  reverence  can  A.D. few  so w£l  and  that  r e p a i r s . The  late  be  i n making c o p i e s discovered  call-  in  the  i n the arch  copies  of  1800  of Ro-  G r e e k mas-  which  Romans l e f t  f r o m w h i c h some i d e a  u n d e r s t o o d , as  for their  Cor-  Constantine.  R e n a i s s a n c e . The busts,  . ..  arch-  some r e t u r n i n g h e r o i s a n o t h e r v e r y  f o r m , f o r example, t h e A r c h o f Their  by  t h e name " h u m a n i t a s "  s t y l e , w h i c h i s shown i n t h e F l a v i a n A m p h i t h e a t r e ,  triumph b u i l t  virtues  has  typical manifestation  y e a r s f o l i a / w i n g i t has  fine  to  engineering  Pantheon, b u i l t  man  on  satire  education.  However, t h e rather  in his  Lucian  some i n f l u e n c e  luxur-  Swift  name "humanus" g i v e n  given  and  Roman  the  "Alexander the F a l s e  The  c i v i l i z e d men  of  : Juvenal(d.135),  (d,104) whose w r i t i n g s may  least exerted  V o l t a i r e and  i n g our  e x p l o i t s were  the u p p e r c l a s s e s , e s p e c i a l l y so  whose " D i a l o g u e o f or  follies  i n his ruthless delineations of  lampoons o f the  inspired  their  the  forefathers.  influ-  also of  t h e y were c h i e f l y  a  the in-  -28Almost those  only remaining  d i s c o v e r e d on  technique but  the  t o the  adorned  fjeet h i g h ?  i n the  where t h e r e a r e height les  o f 160  still  took  hewn and  aqueducts l i k e  feet  ; and  reamining  and  Tagus r i v e r  three arcades  Rome. TheBe r o a d s crete,  the  a more o r i g i n a l i n bridges like  form, one  at A l c a n t a r a i n Spain,  150  t h a t a t Nimes i n s o u t h e r n  Prance  to c a r r y a c u r r e n t of water a t  i n the b u i l d i n g  of t h e i r  and  the  roads,  Sacred  stones  which are  a  examp-  Way  a r e made of s e v e r a l l a y e r s of s t o n e  together  which  the  i n t h e A p p i a n Way  surfaced with  fitted  p a i n t e r s of f r e s c o e s  floors.  w h i c h i s shown i n t h e i r b u i l d i n g s , and over  similar i n  of the mosaic p a t t e r n s w i t h  t h e i r w a l l s and  standing  which are  f r e s c o e s o f the R e n a i s s a n c e  Their engineering a b i l i t i e s  still  of Roman p a i n t i n g a r e  the w a l l s o f Pompeii,  t h e r e a r e many e x a m p l e s  they  examples  into  and  con-  so w e l l s e t , so  well  t h a t wagons r o l l i n g  over  them h a r d l y  rattle. In l e g a l posterity  a£  s t r u c t u r e t h e Romans b u i l t  in their  roads.  T h e o d o s i u s 11,  laws o f the p r e v i o u s C h r i s t i a n Byzantine  as  e m p e r o r s , and  enduringly  i n 438,  codified  Justinian  E m p e r o r o f r o m 427-565, s e t down i n l o g i c a l  whole body of Roman l e g a l In s a n i t a t i o n  and  Rome a l s o made i m p o r t a n t  c e n t r e , and  very  the  the the  principle. hospital  care  f o r their great  armies  c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o human k n o w l e d g e .  The  distrib-  o f their sewage s y s t e m s t h e most famous i s the  C l o a c a Maxima. C e l s u s w r o t e h i s *0n was  1 ,  form  h o u s e s of Rome were p r o v i d e d w i t h w a t e r f r o m a c e n t r a l uting  for  influential.  He  continued  M e d i c & n e * , and the  i d e a taken  Galen  (d.199)  from the  Greeks  -29o f t h e f o u r humours, a s s i g n i n g ements, •• Qualities Hot and wet Hot a n d d r y C o l d and d r y C o l d and wet which d i v i s i o n s l a t e r  recur  t o them t h e s e Elements Air Eire Earth Water  q u a l i t i e s and e l Humours Yellow B i l e Blood Black Bile Phlegm  i n m e d i e v a l m e d i c i n e and l e t t e r s .  M e d i c a l knowledge f r o m t h i s t i m e on began t o s h r i n k i n its  attention  scientific  to actual  aspects i n attention  men d a b b l i n g  i n ideas  k n o w l e d g e . The s t u d y stars'  anatomical  influence  studies  a n d t o expand i t s non-  to antrology  o f magic r a t h e r  and a l c h e m y ,  than i n those  o f t h e Z o d i a c was s u p p o s e d  on human d e s t i n y ,  were t a k e n as e x e r t i n g  influence  and t h e s i g n s  with  of precise  t o r e v e a l the of tne Zodiac  over d i f f e r e n t p a r t s  of the  human b o d y . . . A r i e s on t h e h e a d , T a u r u s on t h e n e c k , G e m i n i on t h e s h o u l d e r s and arms, C a n c e r on t h e b r e a s t , L e o on t h e f l a n k s , V i r g o on t h e b l a d d e r , L i b r a on t h e b u t t o c k s , S c o r p i o on t h e g e n i t a l s , S a g i t t a r i u s on t h e t h i g h s A q u a r / i u s on t h e l i m b s , and P i s c e s on t h e f e e t . which a l s o  later  influenced, medieval.thought.  Rome's c h i e f p e r s o n a l ilization bequeatned  was i n h e r e n g i n e e r i n g  the c u l t u r e  With the f i r s t  life  figures  i n h e r c o d i f i e d law, and i n h e r  c e n t u r y A.D. o f t h e C h r i s t i a n e r a ,  in I t a l y b e g a n t o d e c l i n e ,  and t h e s t r i c t  o f t h e e a r l y Romans  c e n t u r y i n hie p i c t u r e  of t h e l a x i t y  In  also  structure  there  pop-  home  disintegrated.  s a t i r e g r a p h i c a l l y shows t h i s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  political  civ-  of Greece.  and g e n i u s o f the f a m i l y  Ovidian  triumphs,  then to r e s i d u a l  i n ner u n i v e r s a l l y u s e d l a n g u a g e , L a t i n ,  spreading abroad  ulation  contribution  of the t r a d i t i o n a l  of the values.  were c h a n g e s . And e c o n o m i c a l l y  -30there  a p p e a r e d a f o r m of m o n o p o l y l a n d l o r d i s m ,  came more and  more c o n c e n t r a t e d  l a n d o w n e r s , w h i c h ms  large  with  ing  s y s t e m of t a x a t i o n w h i c h d r o v e  out  Pax  Romana d i s s o l v e d and  wars  trous,  imposing  s i o n was  as  they  aggravated  by  civil  d i d 26 the  the p o p u l a t i o n  y e a r s . The  D i o c l e t a i n reforms  disorganization arating  of t h e  i t i n two,  ruinously  with  expensive.  permanent mold  on  the  soil;  to  shirk their  p a t i o n s , no final nent  By  i n the  f o r a while  400  the  d u t i e s ; and being  crafts  were k e p t  of the  i n Europe i n the  fascist  last  would have e n s u r e d  some measure  and  i t gradually disappeared appointed able  the b a r b a r i a n  mighty but  now  sep-  proved a  stability  25  of  i n v a s i o n s met  d e c a d e n t Rome.  little  life  this  face  of  experiments  immiwe  the p r o s p e r i t y success  everywhere - c u r i a l s  them. C i v i c  occu-  years.  to create  d u t i e s , c o l o n s d i d run  to stop  forbidden  as h e r e d i t a r y  s t r u c t u r e i n the  which alone  not  complete  to l e a v e h i s j o b ;  unable  s t a t e was  and  to impress  a r i s t o c r a c y , were  permitted  change i s r e m i n i s c e n t  their  i n 252  o f f the  attempted  the g o v e r n m e n t was  refuse  confu-  , but h i s i d e a of  But  and  This  s e t s of o f f i c i a l s ,  State  at r i g i d i f y i n g s o c i a l  have b e e n w i t n e s s i n g  idea,  landlord.The  following fifteen  (284-305) s t a v e d  the m u n i c i p a l  craftsman  social  small  (235-285) p r o v e d d i s a s -  empire  complete  fewer  a l l p o s i t i o n s h e r e d i t a r y : c o l o n s were bound  curials,  attempt  the  coming f r o m A s i a  two  be-  i n c r e a s i n g l y crush-  i t s s o c i e t y i n t h e hope o f r e t a i n i n g  by means o f k e e p i n g to  of t h e  empire  an  e m p e r o r s i n 50 y e a r s .  plague,  decimating  control  i n t h e h a n d s o f f e w e r and  coupled  the  and  away, and  became  to  this  did the  paralysed,  r e s i s t a n c e from the  once  -31Early  C h r i s t i a n a r t which p a r t l y  Roman d e c l i n e was u s e d igion, ical  denying  eternity,  since  they  their  faith,  tyrs  took  over  regarded  Edict  tive  familiar  t h e o r y who s a c r i f i c e d  i n 313 b e g i n s  survivals  aisle  roof  over  typical  churches  early  built  of Rome a r e  as w a l l d e c o r a t i o n s ,  on t h a t  form  of above-ground  o f t h e Roman  law-courts  a t t h i s p e r i o d a r e c a l l e d 'ba-  They had r e c t a n g u l a r f l o o r p l a n s d i v i d e d i n t o  (called  b y a row o f c o l u m n s ;  t h e 'nave'  t h e nave was h i g h e r  i n front  of t h e c h u r c h  and  surrounded  three  a t t h e end o f t h e c e n -  ) was a s e m i - c i r c u l a r ' a p s e ' . The than  that  over  was an ' a t r i u m ' ,  by a r o o f e d colonnade.  i n the 4th,  distinc-  of development, c o n t a i n i n g  o r ' p r a y - e r s * . The e a r l i e s t  a r c h i t e c t u r e was b a s e d  and  built  1  the period of persecution  o f t h i s phase  each separated  tral  i n the face of  Constantine s  what c a n be c a l l e d  drawings from t h e o l d testament  the c h r i s t i a n  aisles  their lives  a r t was known h o w e v e r . The c a t a c o m b s  of 'orantes*  silicas'.  i n t h e many mar-  of C h r i s t i a n i t y by  a r c h i t e c t u r e . During  allegorical  Christian  t o us today  proving  persecution.  Christian  important  the-  as v a l u e l e s s i n terms  m a r t y r d o m a s t h e supreme h o n o u r  an a t t i t u d e  of M i l a n  Christian  life  of Neoplatonist  o f p e r s e c u t i o n t h e i r numbers grew,  With the l e g a l i z i n g  and  a t t i t u d e s of the c l a s s -  some a s p e c t s  t h e t h i n g s of t h i s  and i n s p i t e  to social  severe  and  rel-  c u l t u r e o f G r e e c e and ROme,  ory and renounced  as  a s t r i c t l y monotheistic  t h e many gods and l i b e r a l l  Christianity  of  t o express  overlaps t h i s period of  the side  aisles,  open i n t h e c e n t r e  Churches of t h i s  5 t h and 6 t h c e n t u r i e s a r e s t i l l  type  standing  near  -32Rome, examples b e i n g  those  of S t . P a u l , Santa M a r i a  St.Lawrence-outside-the-Walls, The dle  Gothic  and San C l e m e n t e .  Romanesque c h u r c h e s  Ages a r e v e r y l i k e  soon i n t h e e a r l y  and the l a t e r  ( a f t e r 1200) a r e m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f i t s t y p i c a l against Spengler's  exclusiveness  of d i f f e r e n t  r e s i d u e s from  one p e r i o d a f f e c t  In purify  325 C o n s t a n t i n e  the o f f i c i a l  a form  basis  appearing  these b a s i l i c a s ,  o t h e r p o i n t i n my c o m p l a i n t  ed  Maggiere,  called  cultures,  thesis  of the that a r t  of other p e r i o d s .  d o c t r i n e s o f the Church,  f o r there had appear-  A r i s n i s m , which threatened the s u p e r n a t u r a l that  J e s u s was l e s s  t h o u g h more t h a n man, w h e r e a s t h e o f f i c i a l  t h a n God  p o s i t i o n was t h a t J e -  s u s was c o e t e r n a l w i t h God and a t t h e same time Creed  s t y l e , an-  convoked t h e C o u n c i l of N i c a e a t o  o f C h r i s t a i n i t y by a s s e r t i n g  Nicene  appearing  and f o r my t h e s i s  artists  Mid-  t r u e man. The  was f o r m u l a t e d and t h e C o u n c i l u p h e l d  the orthodox  view. The  Christian  ideal  l e dto certain  fanatic  rigours  of as-  c e t i c i s m i n the l i v e s of such h e r m i t B as St.Anthony of E g y p t ( d . 356) d i f f e r i n g f r o m t h o s e l a t e r monks who l i k e St.Pachomius(d. 346) h a d o r g a n i z e d a common r u l e whereby e a c h h e r m i t r e t a i n e d a separate ing er  cell  but joined  of the gospel i n this  wherein  i n common work, d e v o t i o n s , and r e a d -  St.Basil's  Rule  (d.379) l a t e r b r o u g h t  community l i f e men o f s i m i l a r  they worshipped,  contemplated,  religious  tendency  ies  where t h e r e l i g i o u s  ing  and exeabted  ture.  of the hermit,  o f t h e more  s i n c e t h e new m o n a s t e r -  communities l i v e d  an i m p o r t a n t  tendencies,  r e a d , and l a b o u r e d i n a  p r e s c r i b e d manner. T h i s was a f o r t u n a t e d e v e l o p m e n t individualistic  togeth-  became c e n t r e s o f l e a r n -  conserving effect  on m e d i e v a l  cul-  -33The  early  church w r i t i n g s ,  appellations given t h e i r authors, 'church f a t h e r s ' , and  through  them,on modern ways o f  from  Ambrose  i t s b e g i n n i n g s i n the  (d.297),  the  the L a t i n s i o n was Hippo  New  (d430) was  throughout  influence  on m e d i e v a l ,  i n c i d e n t s from h i s e a r l y  disbelief  of the f i r s t  the  important  o r i g i n a l Hebrew  f a t h e r s was  igious  synthesis. With  l a t e r used  the appearance  of European culture In  the  h i s verof  In h i s " C o n f e s s i o n e "  life  des-  of d i s s o l u t e b e h a v i o r o f s e c u l a r and  important  and spir-  in setting  the  works of a l l these  Thomas A q u i n a s  i n h i s vast  o f the b a r b a r i a n t r i b e s  h i s t o r y we  as  rel-  important  a r e h e a r i n g the emergence  of  proper. second  t r i b e , moved s o u t h w a r d where t h e y l e a r n t the Greek and  by  into  Ages. S t . A u g u s t i n e  o p i n i o n on s u c h m a t t e r s . The  church  trans-  autobiographies, t e l l i n g  i n h i s • C i v i t a t e D e i * was  church  the  day.  c h u r c h . Jerome(d.420)  i n candid confession. His analysis  i t u a l matters  of  executive, also introduced  a very i n f l u e n t i a l writer.  criptive  Sea,  the  o f J e s u s t o h i s own  the M i d d l e  one  western  time  from  he w r o t e  elements  f a t h e r s ' and  o f the 4 t h c e n t u r y known as t h e V u l g a t e , and t h a t used  official  the  the h i s t o r i c a l b a s e s  the w e s t e r n  Testaments  from  thinking.  an e c c l e s i a s t i c a l  O l d and  'patristic'  'apostolic  (d.339) gave  t h e l i t u r g i c a l hymn i n t o lated  the  also exerted a d i r e c t i v e  Bishop Eusebius Church  known as  c e n t u r y A.D.  the Goths,  to the p l a i n s  t o r e a d and w r i t e ,  and  of f e r t i l e borrowing  e a s t German  southern Russia the a l p h a b e t  Roman s e t t l e m e n t s a l o n g t h e s h o r e s o f the  and p a s s i n g i t on g r a d u a l l y  t o the  o t h e r Germanic  from  Black tribes,  -34e v e n as f a r a s S c a n d i n a v i a , e m p l o y i n g  inscriptions  known as  ' r u n i c ' w h i c h d a t e h a c k t o t h e 5 t h and  B.C.  G o t h s were a l s o  The  i a n i t y by Bishop U l f i l a s stantinople.  The  Bible  spread  frontier  to the  ( d . 3 8 l ) who  was  of  i n any  into  Suevians,  of  Christi n Con-  G o t h i c , the  earliest  Germanic language,  o t h e r German t r i b e s  living  the V i s i g o t h s ,  and  Ar-  a l o n g t h e Danube  Ostrogoths,Burgund-  A l l a m a n n i , and Lombards,  t h e s e were A r i a n C h r i s t i a n s b e f o r e m o v i n g  type  centuries  had b e e n e d u c a t e d  translated  o f t h e Roman E m p i r e ;  ians. Vandals,  6th  c o n v e r t e d t o the A r i a n form  e x t a n t monument o f l i t e r a t u r e ianism  o f the  into  so t h a t many t h e Roman Emp-  ire. T h i s move w i t h i n  the b o r d e r s  a g r a d u a l one, many i n d i v i d u a l s  from  b e e n t o Rome as h o s t a g e s , v i s i t o r s , told  of i t i n s u c h a t t r a c t i v e  torians  that  t h e b o r d e r s . The  lieved  p a r t l y because  and of  partly Classic  because  history to  tribes and  i t is felt  first  having  returning by  some h i s -  i n t h e move  t r i b e s moved s o u t h i t i s b e -  of the famine  of t h i s  attraction  and  flood  toward  from  conditions -  the r i c h e r  life  culture. in their  i t s h o u l d be  the elements  following  at  o f the p r e s s u r e o f t h e nomadic Huns  d e s t r o y e d much t h a t was  in  or t r a d e r s ,  terms t h a t  Germanic  p a r t l y because  Inevitably  them, b u t  the b o r d e r  t h e s e t a l e s were a c o n v i n c i n g m f a c t o r  within  the r e a r ,  o f the E m p i r e was  o f law,  e n c r o a c h i n g movement t h e b a r b a r i a n s  valuable in this remembered  that  and -language.  life  t h a t had  they a l s o  p r e c e e d i n g the 11th  p l a y the p a r t  c e n t u r y , the c i t y  f o r m e r l y performed  by  absorbed  However i n t h e  t h e s e d i s r u p t i v e moves, i n t h e p e r i o d  Athens  attracted much,  'dark  ages'  of medieval  of Byzantium and  Rome.  was  -35Byzantine by  that  tine  literature  o f Rome; i n d e e d  criticizing  Thessalonica,  influence...  In  wrote  a poet,  Constan-  o f t h e pagan g o d s o f t h e G r e e k s a s  •soulof t h i s  the Byzantine  carried  d o c t o r s though  o c c a s i o n a l l y us-  on t o some e x t e n t i n t h e s p i r i t  of Tralles  (525-605) m a k i n g o r i g i n a l  of Galen, observations  t h e d i s e a s e s o f d y s e n t e r y , g o u t , b i l i o u s n e s s and i n s a n i t y , a n d  Paul  of Aegina  (625-690) i n h i s " E p i t o m e " r e v i e w i n g  medical  knowledge o f h i s d a y , i n p e d i a t r i c s a n d o b s t e t r i c s , i n infected  tonsils  the p u b l i c  and b r e a s t s , a n d  and  tha  architecture  cross, with gigantic  the Byzantine  o f the western  churches,  f o r ornate magnificence  the b u i l d i n g s  6. B u r y ,  smallpox  form  domes s u r m o u n t i n g  them t o t h e R u s s i a n  desire  d o c t o r s i n q u a r a n t i n i n g and  contagious diseases l i k e  cruciform, b a s i l i c a s  from  Also  h e a l t h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f towns was h e l p e d b y t h e  controlling In  removing  i n opewtions f o r stone.  knowledge a c h i e v e d b y the B y z a n t i n e  of  than  " F o u l f a r e t h e y , who t h e g o d s a d o r e Worshipped b y G r e c i a n f o l k o f yore Amorous gods t o p a s s i o n s p r o n e , Gods a s a d u l t e r e r s w e l l - k n o w n , Gods who were lame, and g o d s who f e l t The wound t h a t some mean m o r t a l d e a l t ; And g o d d e s s e s , a crowd o b s c e n e , Among them many a h a r l o t queen; Some wedded c l o w n i s h h e r d s , I trow, Some s q u i n t e d h i d e o u s l y enow...." 6.  with Alexander on  that  and condemning G r e e k l i t e r a t u r e b e c a u s e  medicine  charms,  so f a r i n f l u e n c e d  o f Greece  h i s master, Leo the P h i l o s o p h e r , A r c h b i s h o p of  devouring beasts*  ing  was more i n f l u e n c e d b y t h a t  and d i p h t h e r i a .  i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of  church,  u s i n g the Greek  them. T h i s f o r m  spread  and t o t h e A r a b mosques. The  discernible  i n t h e most  o f Rome i s e v e r y w h e r e v i s i b l e  J.B. " H i s t o r y o f t h e E a s t e r n 1912, p p s . 440-441.  E  m p  also  typical  i n t h e By-  i e"Macmillans,London. r  -36z a n t e s q u e a r c h i t e c t u r e . . . " E v e r y w h e r e i n i t we f i n d t h a t l o v e o f s t u p e n d o u s l u x u r y and of p r o d i g i o u s s p l e n d o u r w h i c h B y z a n t i u m d i s p l a y e d a t e v e r y p e r i o d of h e r h i s t o r y . I n the d e c o r a t i o n of t h e c h u r c h e s and t h e p a l a c e s i t i s a l w a y s t h e same s t o r y p r e c i o u s m a r b l e s , g l i t t e r i n g m o s a i c s , m a g n i f i c e n t work i n g o l d and s i l v e r , e n d w o n d e r f u l h a n g i n g s , a l l i n t e n d e d t o enhance the b e a u t y o f the r i t e s o f r e l i g i o n , and the m a j e s t y o f t h e i m p e r i a l p e r s o n ; i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e l i f e n o t h i n g b u t sumptuous t i s s u e s s h o t w i t h p u r p l e and g o l d , f i n e c a r v e d i v o r i e s , b r o n g e s i n l a i d with s i l v e r , r i c h l y i l l u m i n a t e d manuscripts,enamels, c l i s o n n e i n r e s p l e n d e n t c o l o u r s , g o l d and s i l v e r p l a t e , a n d c o s t l y j e w e l s . Whefcer, by d e c o r a t i n g the w a l l s o f c h u r c h e s w i t h t h e p a g e a n t of s a c r e d h i s t o r y s k i l l f u l l y d i s p o s e d , t h i s a r t was i n t e n t on g l o r i f y i n g god,on e x p r e s s i n g an a r t i c l e o f f a i t h on i n t e r p r e t i n g the l i t u r g i c a l r i t e s , o r w h e t h e r , t o g l o r i f y the m a j e s t y of the s o v e r e i g n , and t o g i v e p l e a s u r e t o the c o u r t and t h e g r a n d e e s , i t was d e p i c t i n g i n a more p r o f a n e s p i r i t s u b j e c t s b o r r o w e d f r o m c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y or m y t h o l o g y , p i c t u r e s q u e s c e n e s d e a r t o H e l l e n i s t i c a r t , as w e l l as h i s t o r i c a l p a i n t i n g s , r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e i m p e r i a l v i c t o r i e s , and p o r t r a i t s o f the p r i n c e s i n t h e i r g l o r y , e v e r y w h e r e we f i n d t h a t l o v e o f m a g n i f i c e n c e w h i c h even t o d a y makes us v i s u a l i z e B y z a n t i u m i n a j e w e l l e d i r i d e s c e n c e , i n a shimmer o f g o l d . 7. This a r t i s t i c  activity  of Byzantium i s a h y b r i d  with  e l e m e n t s f r o m Greece,Rome and  ture  i s an u r b a n  one,  istrative  activity,  propriate  to i m p e r i a l Medieval  as  Slavic  and  with  the  infused with  King  as  the  embroidery  become p a r t  draws on t h i s B y z a n t e s q u e Arab s o u r c e s , o f the  civilizing  life  of the  o r d e a l s by  fire  and  or  Celtic,Germanic,  of Europe. i d e a o f the  a t t i t u d e toward l i f e  Athelstan i n England  7.Diehl,Charles  ap-  aasevoir  w h i c h a r e more  was  church,  everywhere  t h e _ r e m n a n t s o f pagan p r a c t i c e s , e v i d e n c e  i n the  admin-  magnificence.  predominant  couraged a s p e c i a l  found  a r t s used  o t h e r nomadic p o p u l a t i o n s  The  is  and  civilization  e n f e o f f e d and  i t s cul-  a l i v e w i t h c o m m e r c i a l , i n d u s t r i a l , and  i t d o e s on Greek,Roman, and  less  the Mohammedan E a s t ;  one,  water l e f t  for attesting  en-  i n Europe of which  f r o m the  innocence  : "YThe Cambridge M e d i e v a l •N.Y., v o l . 4 , p . 7 6 7 .  which  of the  days  of  accused.  History-.Macmillans, '  -37A more i n t e l l e c t u a l ianity  i s shown i n t h i s  History of  account  of the E n g l i s h N a t i o n " ,  of t h e  ideals  , from B e d e ' 6 of the  of  Christ-  "Ecclesiastical  conversion  of King  Edwin  N o r t h u m b r i a i n 627... "The p r e s e n t l i f e of man,0 K i n g , seems t o me , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h a t t i m e w h i c h i s unknown t o u s , l i k e t o t h e s w i f t f l i g h t o f t h e s p a r r o w t h r o u g h t h e room where i n y o u s i t a t s u p p e r i n w i n t e r w i t h y o u r commanders and m i n i s t e r s , and a good f i r e i n t h e m i d s t , w h i l s t t h e s t o r m o f r a i n and snow p r e v a i l a b r o a d : t h e s p a r r o w , I say, f l y i n g i n a t one d o o r , and i m m e d i a t e l y out a n o t h e r , w h i l s t he i s w i t h i n , i s s a f e f r o m the w i n t r y s t o r m ; b u t a f t e r a s h o r t s p a c e o f f a i r w e a t h e r , he i m m e d i a t e l y v a n i s h e s f r o m y o u r s i g h t , i n t o t h e d a r k w i n t e r f r o m w h i c h he had emerged. So t h i s l i f e o f man a p p e a r s t o me,, b u t f o r a s h o r t s p a c e , b u t what went b e f o r e , o r o f what i s t o f o l l o w , we a r e u t t e r l y i g n o r a n t . I f t h e r e f o r e , t h i s new d o c t r i n e c o n t a i n s s o m e t h i n g more c e r t a i n , i t seems j u s t l y t o d e s e r v e t o be f o l l o w e d . " l 8. Christianity  Europe.Russia  on  the  1000,  l e a v i n g only  pagan  state. One  that The sent  of the  Irish  almost  and  agencies  of t h i s  tecassino being  the  still  St.Benedict  i n 528,  completely  L i t h u a n i a n groups  coast  h i s Rule  in religious  pagan  establisied stressing  t o h e l p monks who  The  the  transforming  kingdoms  Christian i n an  process  into monastic of S c o t l a n d  wished  then,  tribes  orders  by  was before. which  to convert  i n the  early  o f Germans i n  the 7th  the  his first  monastery at  the  of l i v i n g ,  order  to l i v e  of  untouched  o r d e r s whose o r i g i n s were d e s c r i b e d  t o I o n a o f f the  to c o n v e r t  life,  east being  throughout  t h e n o r t h e r n E n g l i s h , and  Rhine v a l l e y .  ject  rapidly  C h r i s t i a n s were o r g a n i z e d  teachers  century,  spread  the E i n n  of the m o n a s t i c  S c o t t i s h and  ple  acceptance  Mon-  his  ob-  a s y s t e m a t i c a l l y sim-  circles;'  Church acted  ency f o r c u l t u r e i n these  , as h a s  b e e n . n o t e d , as  dark days  a conserving  of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n b e f o r e  8.Bede,op.cit,,Everymans,London,pps.35-36,  ag-  -39medieval men  civilization  depended  learning derive  on  the  reading  later  uted  and  t e l l s how,  ( d . 5 2 6 ) , who  Churchmen, was  Rome n o t  w r i t i n g from  when he  was  church-  only  them, b u t  therefrom.  One  of  once v e r y  Ostrogothic  by  the  king  king,  on  available clude  when t h e  Aristotle's  own  original  one  o f w h i c h was  h i s widely  Theodoric  ence t h a t he  o f the  called  liberal  "Categories"  later  a  and  for also  to  their  sick,  he  "De  an at  was  authority the  court  later  exec-  a well-educated  i n t o L a t i n made  l a s t . His  treatises  man  these  translations in-  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n e " , and  on A r i t h m e t i c  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h by of P h i l o s o p h y " .  and  his  music,  Chaucer,  T h e r e i s no  and  evid-  Christian.  of S e v i l l e  (d.636),  e a r l y M i d d l e A g e s . He  the  arts  of G r e e k was  "Consolation  was  Isidore ures  use  was  Greek c l a s s i c s  as  lived  (d.532) and  suspicion. Boethius  work i n c l u d e d  read  i s f r e q u e n t l y read  a Roman s c h o l a r who  whose work of t r a n s l a t i n g  "Etymologies",  and  on m e d i c i n e , l a w , a n d  i s another w r o t e an  of the  enormous  w h i c h i n c l u d e d work on  : grammar, r h e t o r i c ,  arithmetic,astronomy, ial  of G r e e c e and  Their  a v i s i o n . . . " S u d d e n l y I was c a u g h t up i n the' s p i r i t and d r a g g e d b e f o r e the J u d g e ' s s e a t : and h e r e the l i g h t was so d a z z l i n g and t h e b r i g h t n e s s s h i n i n g f r o m t h o s e who s t o o d a r o u n d so r a d i a n t , t h a t I f l u n g m y s e l f upon the g r o u n d and I d i d n o t d a r e t o l o o k up. I was a s k e d t o s t a t e my c o n d i t i o n and r e p l i e d t h a t I was a C h r i s t i a n . But He who p r e s i d e d s a i d : "Thou l i e s t ; t h o u a r t a C i c e r o n i a n , n o t a C h r i s t i a n . F o r where t h y t r e a s u r e i s t h e r e w i l l t h y h e a r t be a l s o . "  of t h e  ia  articulated.  fundamental a t t i t u d e s to l i f e  Boethius by  classics  their basic  number, S t . J e r o m e , had  became c l e a r l y  music  and  logic  He  fig-  encyclopedthe  seven  ( t r i v i u m ) , geometry,  (quadrivium);  theology.  great  believed  as w e l l as that  things  matercould  -40be  e x p l a i n e d s i m p l y by Around the  t h e r e d men  the  of l e t t e r s .  teacher  t i m e Y o r k was  etymology  Included  ,Alcuin,who brought  the  and  was  p e a r i n g a t t h e end The iography"  typical  wrote the  literature lives,  pope f r o m  to i n s t r u c t  and  feudal society  and  20  of t h i s  The  life  latifundia one  any  with  c u r r e n t s o f one  policed  or c o m p l e t e  i s t h a t o f the  His  with  ap-  "hagGreg-  from  1120  in a fighting  shows t h e dawnfeet  feudal  i t s tnree-fold  long  society  This early Medieval  late  was  the p e r i o d .  p e r i o d . I t i s 231  the  he  "Magna M o r a l i a "  s t u d i e d throughout  peasantry,organized  of the l a s t  handwriting  or even o f p r e - b e g i n n i n g s ,  soc-  s i n c e West-  Romanesque ana  Gothic.  estate-moid  nobil-  of  i n t o g r e a t manors m o d e l e d  p e r i o d o f Roman g r e a t l a n d - h o l d i n g s ,  of too great i n s e c u r i t y ,  ectual  of m e d i e v a l  of E n g l a n d .  Culture properly begins  i t y , c l e r g y , and  Irish  some o f w h i c h were w r i t t e n b y  typically  ern  time  from  hand-  Ages.  earlier  of beginnings,  of t h i s  thiB  590-604, i n h i s " D i a l o g u e s " w h i c h  snows t h e Norman c o n q u e s t i s one  (where a t  the C a r o l i n g i a n m i n i s c u l e  amuse the l a i t y .  i n c h e s w i d e and  referred  C h r i s t i a n w o r l d ) the  Bayeux T a p e s t r y w h i c h d a t e s  ing  a l r e a d y been  o f the p e r i d  f u n d a m e n t a l work on t h e o l o g y The  iety  type  of t h e M i d d l e  or s a i n t s '  ory the Great,  of the  called  ga-  t h e monk, E g i n -  i m p r o v e d by b o r r o w i n g  i s today  the p r e d e c e s s o r  are  from E n g l a n d  l e a d i n g s h o o l o f the  T h i s form  names.  i n the m o n a s t e r i e s ,  among t h e s e  of C h a r l e m a g n e h a s  w r i t i n g which the E n g l i s h had manuscript.  of t h e i r  C a r o l i n g i a n c o u r t , as  h a r d whose b i o g r a p h y to,  the  with  place with art-forms.  too l i t t l e those  contact  of anotner,  of  on was  intell-  to a l l o w of  -41In l i t e r a t u r e lent *n  culturally  the n o r t h  t h e r e were t h e A r t h u r i a n l e g e n d s , o f t h e German V a l h a l l a  the F i n n i s h L a l v a l a .  crowd only  see, at t h i s  o f 'art-makers* the h i g h e r  spectators*  equiva-  who  the e a r l y V i k i n g  i n the N i e b e l u n g e n l i e d ,  These a l l f o r m e d a m a t r i x  t e r and more i n t e l l e c t u a l l y m a t e r i a l . We  r a t h e r a p e r i o d of legend,  t o t h a t which i s d e s c r i b e d i n the Homeric e p i c s .  Eddas, the s t o r i e s and  i t was  developed  time,  from which l a -  a r t s were t o draw  what S p e n g l e r  source  d e s c r i b e s as  M  A  a l l d a n c e o r mime o r s i n g . . . . i t i s  a r t t h a t becomes d e c i s i v e l y  an a r t ' b e f o r e  Chapter Three  : Western Century  Culture  and C i v i l i z a t i o n ,  t o the P r e s e n t .  Twelfth  -43One  link  between t h e D a r k and M i d d l e  the  Schoolmen,  t e a c h e r s who  ral  s c h o o l s . Of t h e s e  hannes S c o t u s , of  powerful  t h o u g h t . He rillac  was  d i e d between 867 near  in life  and  the m i d d l e and  still  available  first  Christian writer  of  s t i m u l u s was  ruled  from  Otto  The  famous G e r b e r t century,  936-973 and  took  tradition.of  i n 1003. the  over  undertook  tists  and  and  Au-  was  In  to r e v i v e  O t t o 11,  brought  999  encourage-  the i d e a i f not also  the  and  art-  Otto  1,  the  scope  the  Carol-  973-983;  the daughter  and of  w i t h hear G r e e k a r -  workmen.  Gerard  of Cremona (d,1187) was  le's  "Organon", and  emy.  His English  of the w i d e l y  translator  influential  contemporary,Adelard from  the  of B a t h ,  ted  t h e works o f E u c l i d  was  one  the  cathedral school of Chartres, while who  d e r i v e d h i s p i a t o n i s m from  of  Aristot-  "Almagest'' o f i n 1116  the A r a b i c . John o f  o f t h e most e l e g a n t o f t h e L a t i n i s t  Platonist  and  t h r e e Saxon O t t o s ,  learned councillors;  emperor Romanus 11,  of  visited  Intellectual  111,983-1002, whose E m p r e s s Theophane was  the B y z a n t i n e  the  i n the A r a b i c s c i e n c e  a c t e d as a f o c u s o f  g i v e n a l s o by  man  of e a r l y p h i l o s o p h i c  of t h e n e x t  h i s death  a  of  to d e s c r i b e the a r a b i c numerals.  C h a r l e m a g n e ' s e m p i r e and  ingian  origin,  whose u s e  t h e r e , wrote o f i t s a c c u m u l a t i o n  ment f o r l e a r n i n g u n t i l  who  891.  became s t e e p e d  he became Pope S y l v e s t e r l l l a n d  istic  gifts,  continuity  Cathed-  t e a c h e r s were : J o -  of h i s I r i s h  intellectual  i d e a s shows the  born  Spain l a t e r  t h e most famous e a r l y  original  made by  i n t h e m o n a s t e r y and  c a l l e d E r i g e n a because  and  Meoplatonist  taught  Ages was  Ptol-  transla-  Salisbury,d.ll80  s c h o l a r s produced  St.Anselm,d.ll07,was Augustine  of Hippo  by a and  -44.Boethius,  and gave  ontological proofs  of the existence  o f God  hased  on t h e P l a t o n i c I d e a s i n h i s "Monologium" and " P r o s l o g -  ium".  One o f t h e p o i n t s  t e r l y was t h a t ory  of U n i v e r s a l s . Abelard  that Universals e x i s t  r e a l i t y being  that  ceptualism", t  on w h i c h t h e Schoolmen f o u g h t  only  of P a r i s held  three  intellectual  ( d . 1 2 8 0 ) , Thomas A q u i n a s , the Great  mastered  teaching  ( d . 1 1 5 3 ) , who f o l -  giants  the 1 3 t h c e n t u r i e s : A l b e r t u s Magnus ,  (d.1274) a n d R o g e r B a c o n t h e new A r i s t o t e l i a n  v a i l a b l e by h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s Christian  external r  theory.  H e a r t h e end o f t h e 1 2 t h and d u r i n g  bert  t o the the-  i n t h e mind, the only  and was c o m b a t t e d b y S t . B e r n a r d  appeared  and succeeded  i n a way o n l y  (d.1292).Al-  l e a r n i n g made a-  i n combining  exceeded i n b r e a d t h  dy  " B e a s t i a r i e s " o f the time, b u t encouraged  of the n a t u r a l s c i e n c e s  m a g i c and s c i e n c e , is  not merely  investigate The  saying  t o accept  and drew d e f i n i t e  of the  critical  stu-  b o u n d a r i e s between  : "The a i m o f t h e n a t u r a l  sciences  t h e s t a t e m e n t s made b y o t h e r s ,  but to  t h e c a u s e s w h i c h a r e a t work i n n a t u r e . "  sources  o f h i s student  him  t o have b e e n  his  e r u d i t i o n was n o t l e f t  t h e most  Thomas' work and t h o u g h t  erudite  o f the e r u d i t e  to c o l l e c t  c u b b y - h o l e s i n h i s mind, b u t was used ormous s y n t h e s i s , terpretation  i t with  by h i s s t u -  d e n t A q u i n a s . A l b e r t was n o t t a k e n i n by t h e f o l k l o r e popular  bit-  o f t h i n g s . T h i s p o s i t i o n was known a s "Con-  lows t h e p l a t o n i c  there  most  dust  schoolmen. But  i n separate  rather  show  small  to construct  an e n -  " a s e v e r e l y p h i l o s o p h i c a l and t h e o l o g i c a l i n -  of the universe,"  9. T . G i l b e y , " P o e t i c  Experience;  'frondbn k She ed. &i :i  9.  an i n t r o d . t o T h o m i s t i c ,C a9 34 •  Aesthetic"  -4  Thamas had his  commentaries  as  read h i s A r i s t o t l e  on A r i s t o t l e  Greek i n t o L a t i n translations  5-  he  used  a r r e n t . He  used  i n t e r p r e t e d by  Augustine.  He  contemporary  knew t h e  the  and  s c r i p t u r e by  had  read  de  l a P o r r e , Hugh and  elard,  A l a i n de  Sentences" tian  these  collect  and  the  knew the  w r i t e r s . He  church  earlier  of Deutz,Bernard  Richard  Boethius,  fathers. :  of S e v i l l e , S t . J o h n C h r y s o s scholastics  Peter  t h e Lombard whose  o p i n i o n s o f the  :An-  of C l a i r v a u x , G i l b e r t  of S t . V i c t o r , J o a c h i m of  century  as  "quidam", a c e r t a i n  r e f e r e n c e s have been i d e n t i f i e d .  from Horace,  Strabo,  and  Flora,Ab-  "Pour B o o k s  Church Fathers  1  in his divisions sustained  one,  on C h r i s -  though not  A l s o he  of  quotes  of  a l l of  extensive-  Ovid,Caesar,Cicero,Seneca,Terrence,Sallust,Livy,  V a l e r i u s Maximus.  Thomas  the  Lille  the  Ideas  t e a c h i n g . Aquinas c o n s t a n t l y quotes h i s contemporaries  the 13th  ly  o f A l e x a n d r i a . He  of Canterbury,Rupert  Jewish  Arabian  of  of  the  Damascene,Pseudo-Dionysius,Hilary  of P o i t i e r s , G r e g o r y the G r e a t , I s i d o r e  selm  and  In  from  the  the P l a t o n i c t h e o r y  Arabian  h e a r t . He  well.  translations  knew t h e p h i l o s o p h y  earlier  Ambrose, A u g u s t i n e , J e r o m e , J o h n  tum,St.Cyril  and  of W i l l i a m of Moerbeke r a t h e r than  then  of the  completely  method i s sometimes t h a t o f t h e i n t o b o o k s and  reasonimg p r o c e s s ,  scholastics  fashioned  ject being divided into  and  chapters,  c h i e f l y by  sometimes t h a t o f  Alexander  icles;  each a r t i c l e  cusses  v a r i o u s o p i n i o n s , e s t a b l i s h e s the  closes with a solution  fathers  sometimes t h a t r i g i d m o l d  questions,each  begins  church  of d i f f i c u l t i e s  of  H a l l e s , each  question into  w i t h a statement  a  sub-  so many  art-  of o b j e c t i o n s , d i s -  author's  position,  and  w h i c h t h a t p o s i t i o n may  en-  -46c o u n t e r . 10. For i n t o tnree parts, 10,000  example, the "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " i s d i v i d e d 38 t r e a t i s e s , 6 3 1 q u e s t i o n s , 3 0 0 0 . a r t i c l e s , and  objections. In c o n s i d e r i n g  best  Thomas' s t y l e ,  i n t r a n s l a t i o n , make a l l o w a n c e  must, i f one  f o r the  reader  t h o u g h t . Thomas G i l b e y  i n h i s book s p e a k s o f  conception","coherence  of p a r t s  i n Thomas' v e r y  reverberation. vastness  words t h e r e  In the  Thomistic  of c o n c e p t i o n .  Of  the  and  original  form of  a quiet  synthesis, there  i t s originality  of  the  his  the"vastness  impregnability  seems t o be  knows i t  i n t e r p o l a t i o n of  t r a n s l a t o r between the  and  and  one  of  logic",  clarity,  a  is certainly  a  Brennan has  this  to  s a y . . . "The f a c t i s t h a t A q u i n a s t o o k t h e m a t e r i a l s f o r h i s s y s tem f r o m w h a t e v e r s o u r c e he c o u l d g e t them, so f a r as t h e y l a y open t o him, and what he c o n s t r u c t e d was a c o h e r e n t e c l e c t i c i s m w e l d e d i n t o a u n i t y by t h e p r e s s u r e t h r o u g h out i t s d e t a i l s o f a s i n g l e g r e a t r u l i n g p r i n c i p l e w h i c h he had won by permanent h a r d t h i n k i n g , and h e l d w i t h the c l e a r e s t consciousness of i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . H i s t i t l e , t h e r e f o r e t o o r i g i n a l i t y i s a r e a l one," 11. T h i s s i n g l e r u l i n g p r i n c i p l e Thomas s t a t e s h i m s e l f t h u s : " N o t h i n g may be a s s e r t e d as t r u e t h a t i s opposed t© t h e t r u t h o f f a i t h , t o r e v e a l e d dogma. B u t i t i s n e i t h e r p e r m i s s i b l e t o t a k e w h a t e v e r we h o l d t o be t r u e and p r e s e n t i t as an a r t i c l e o f f a i t h . F o r the t r u t h o f o u r f a i t h becomes a m a t t e r o f r i d i c u l e among the i n f i d e l s , i f any C a t h o l i c not g i f t e d w i t h the n e c e s s a r y s c i e n t i f i c l e a r n i n g , p r e s e n t s as dogma what s c i e n t i f i c s c r u t i n y shows t o be f a l s e . " 12.  tion  This gigantic edifice i s b u i l t on the t w o - f o l d c o n v i c t h a t . . . " O u r t h o u g h t can know and a t t a i n b e i n g , the r e a l m o f t h e e s s e n c e s , c a u s e s , p u r p o s e s and l a w s , t h a t l i e bey o n d the w o r l d o f a p p e a r a n c e s . . . a c o n v i c t i o n o f the r e a l i t y and k n o w a b i l i t y o f the s u p e r s e n s o r y o r d e r s . . . a n d endl e s s h o r i z o n o f the s u p e r n a t u r a l , o f t h e C h r i s t i a n m y s t e r i e s r e v e a l e d b y God, en h o r i z o n t h a t i s e v e n h e r e on e a r t h opened t o man by means o f t h e l i g h t o f f a i t h " , and 13  the  s e c o n d h a l f of t h i s  knowledge, b a s e d as  c o n v i c t i o n i s the  i t i s on  the  sensory  objective nature experience  of  o f human  be-  -47ings.  Thomas h i m s e l f s a y s . . . " T h a t o f w h i c h we a r e p r i m a r i l y aware i s t h e e x t e r n a l o b j e c t , o f w h i c h t h e s p e c i e s i s the m e n t a l s i g n . O n l y s e c o n d a r i l y c a n we speak of the . i n t e l l i g i b l e s p e c i e s a s a c o n t e n t o f t h o u g h t , i n so f a r e,s the m i n d i s r C L e x l y a c t i v e and c o n t e m p l a t e s i t s own a c t i v i t y , and t h u s a l s o the s p e c i e s , as t h e p r i n c i p l e of t h i s a c t i v i t y " . 14 e  But the b a s i s  t h o u g h he o f our  subjective  character  nate by first  g i v e s us  conceptual be  d i v i d e d i n t o three  c l a s s comprises those  ond  things  c l a s s i s f o r m e d o f the , as dreams, images those  outside  character general  operation  of  the  supernatural  claimed  s o u l was  o n l y be  1  false tended  as e x i s t i n g ,  our only  s t a r t e d by  collective  no  only  their  the sec-  in  the  own  our  third in  the  formal  and  the  but  Averroes  realm  , and  of f a i t h ,  faith  immortality,  also that  t h a t f a i t h w h i c h was  the  and  real-  know t h r o u g h  of Cordova  consequently  i m m o r t s l i i y t h r o u g h the  standpoint  a f f i r m s the  of  t h r o u g h r e v e l a t i o n and  whereby a s t a t e m e n t c o u l d be  f r o m the  exist  w h i c h we  reason,  personal  thing  a whole; A v e r r o e s h e l d  truth ,  receive  the harmony between r e a s o n  a material  man)...the  o f the m i n d . Such a r e  external world  c o u l d be  outside  15.  s e n s e s and  heresy  there  that  The  t h a t have a f o u n d a t i o n  activity  i s known t o us  Aquinas upheld Averroistic  i n the  stone,  a  desig-  Glasses.  that are  as  assumes  chimera,etc...To  the m i n d , b u t  from the  concepts,"  of o b j e c t s  of  things  Thomas d e f i n e s b e i n g  as  things (e.g.  reality  reality  still  f o r human t h o u g h t . . . " T h a t w h i c h we  names can  class belong  ual  objectively real  mind i n t h e i r e n t i r e b e i n g mind  ity  an  knowledge A q u i n a s  the  the faith,  against  (d.1198)  as  the  there  continuing  t h e r e m i g h t be  the who  individcould  race  of  man  'double  p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t r u e and or v i c e v e r s a ,  yet  Thomas c o n -  s u p r a - r a t i o n a l c a n n o t be  proved  or  d i s p r o v e d by r e a s o n , b u t i s t r u e b e c a u s e i t comes f r o m t h e h i g h 10. E.Pace,"Thomas A q u i n a s " , v o l . 2 o f " L i b r a r y o f W o r l d ' s B e s t L i t " 11. R . E . B r e n n a n , " G e n e r a l P s y c h . " . N . Y . M a c m i l l a n s , 1 9 3 7 , p p s . 1 3 - 4 . 12. Thomas A q u i n a s "De P o t e n t i a " , w r i t t e n 1260-1268. 13. B r e n n a n , o p . c i t . , 14. Aquinas,"Summa T h e o l o g i c a " , I , q . 8 5 , a . 2 .  -48est  t r u t h , God,  false.  and  i s not  against  reason,  since  i t cannot  be  G i l s o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s thought i n these words... " H i s t h o u g h t , t h e r e f o r e , d o e s n o t aim a t a c h i e v i n g as e c o n o m i c a l l y as p o s s i b l e a s u p e r f i c i a l harmony w h e r e i n the d o c t r i n e s most e a s i l y r e c o n c i l a b l e w i t h t h e t r a d i t i o n a l t e a c h i n g o f t h e o l o g y may f i n d room, b u t he i n s i s t s t h a t R e a s o n s h o u l d d e v e l o p i t s own c o n t e n t i n f u l l l i b e r t y and s h o u l d s e t out i t s demands i n t h e i r u t m o s t s t r i n g e n c y ; the v a l u e o f h i s p h i l o s p h y d o e s n o t l i e i n the f a c t t h a t i t i s C h r i s t i a n but t h a t i t i s t r u e . . I n t h i s l i e s the w h o l e s e c r e t of Thomism, i n t h e immense e f f o r t of i n t e l l e c t u a l honesty to r e c o n s t r u c t philosphy on a p l a n w h i c h e x h i b i t s the de f a c t o a c c o r d o w i t h t h e o l o g y as t h e n e c e s s a r y c o n s e q u e n c e o f the demands o f R e a s o n i t s e l f , and as the a c c i d e n t a l r e s u l t o f a mere wish f o r r e c o n c i l i a t i o n . " 16~  The t h i r d g r e a t i n t e l l e c t of the 1 3 t h c e n t u r y i s t h a t of R o g e r B a c o n who, idea  of  as  A q u i n a s and  s l a v i s h acceptance  be  a stumbling-block  ed  p r o f i t a b l y from the  ation,  w h i c h he During  practice  until we  authority,  in science, point  next  two  of S c h o l a s t i c i s m not  Magnus, a t t a c k e d w h i c h he  f o r science  i t beginning  Abelard's  centuries gradually  completely  , the  general  and,  being  concepts  14th  declined,  broken  be  from  attack-  observ-  then,  and  and  was  William the  i n d i v i d u a l tnings  ( u n i v e r s a l i a ) are  s u j e c t i v e pnenomena, h a v e no  only  formed  existence  15. Thomas, I S e n t . d . 19. q. 5, a. 1. 16, E . G i l s o n , " T h e P h i l . o f St.Thomas A q u i n a s " ,  Mann's "Thomas A q u i n a s " , p p s . 8 9 - 9 0 ,  15th,  the  though i t s  to d o u b t . • W i l l i a m a c c e p t e d  "Conceptualism" - only  and  only  to  "Opus M a j u s " .  D e s c a r t e s ( 1 6 5 0 ) . W i t h Duns S c o t u s and  see  can  the  declared  of view of i n d u c t i o n  outlines in his  the  e c t u a l m o l d was  of  Albertus  not of  intelloutgrown  Ockham  position  of  (res) e x i s t , i n the out  of  mind the  quoted i n Grab-  mind.  -49The  idea  of i m m o r t a l i t y  been mentioned, new also ter  mystical  also  in addition  challenged to  pantheism which not  averred Eckhart  and  was  that  God  "by A v e r r o e s as  these doubts there  arose  only  saw  God  was, a l l t h i n g s .  The  German m y s t i c s ,  (d.1327) and  Thomas a Kempis  in a l l  which the  wrote about g l o w i n g l y  the  But  the  drama o f  Aquinas taught,  was  su-  latter  church,  "The  of C h r i s t " . s a l v a t i o n o f man's i m m o r t a l  unifying principle visible  t e d by  Meis-  man's  preme h a p p i n e s s i n h i s u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h God,  Imitation  a  things,but  (d.1471) saw  i n a b o o k much u s e d bu  has  the  visible This  art-objects  the  t r u t h of  t r u t h of  left  religion  science  this unity unity  i n a l l medieval  of p u r p o s e ,  of purpose from t h i s  i s the period,  i s t i c m e n t a l a t t i t u d e o f the w i t h S p e n g l e r , you  call  period  f r o m the  striking as  the  early feudal  period  i n general,  and  population,  had  focussed  philosophy,  and  the  revival  complete e n u n c i a t i o n  specifically  the  discovery of  o f a new  the and  truth.  i n a l l the  age,  and  one  whether or w i t h  of r e l i g i o u s u n i t y  one  over, the  character-  of D e s t i n y ,  shoufi. a p p r o a c h  onwards, when the  (850-1000) was  Thomas  everything of  trait  the  culture,  century  in  i t i s t h e most of  the  be d i s c r e d i -  attainment  t h i s p r i n c i p l e one  12th  not  since  i t i s the m a i n i d e a w i t h w h i c h  the  population  the  writing  the more o r t h o d o x h i s t o r i a n s o f of p u r p o s e ,  t h o u g h t . As  could  or p h i l o s o p h y  s o u l was  and  disorder  the  growth of  growth  d i f f e r e n t way  of  urban  o f Greek s c i e n c e  s t u d y o f Roman l a w  of  and  , on  of t h i n k i n g  the and  living. Before going  on  to t a l k i n d e t a i l  of the  development  of  -  -50various ent,  arte  I would l i k e  the  "sequence  cultures" will all of  to supply here  of hlooming  the a r t s  of view  t o the p r e s -  a chart  showing  i n (some) g r e a t  as they i g n o r e the p a r a l l e l  i n periods of c u l t u r a l  development i n  r i c h e s s e . But i n a survey  various  a r t s pass from the  o f c o n t e n t , S o r o k i n h a s a more v a l u a b l e  own, a s i s e x e m p l i f i e d  1  f o r reference  of the main a r t s  the stages through which.the  critique  culture  t a k e n f r o m S o r o k i n ' s " S o c i a l D y n a m i c s " . The s c o r e s  semm a r b i t r a r y ,  point his  through the stages of western  of c u l t u r a l  i n the l a t e r  fluctuation  scale of  quotation giving h i s  of form i n music.(  N o t e 18.)  Greece Music 750-600 B.C. Literature.524-450 Architecture,500-430 Sculpture..450-350 Painting...430-350  Rome L i t e r a t u r e . . . 8 6 - 2 5 B.C. S c u l p t u r e . . . . 30-69A.D. Painting 50-108 Architecture.60-138 Music 466-495  Germany Architecture..1130-1250A.D. Sculpture 1400-1500 Painting 1491-1559 Music 1720-1880 Literature....1756-1850  -England Architecture..1272-1377 Literature....1573-1618 Music 1600-1675 Painting 1717-1763 Sculpture 1758-1787  Italy L i t e r a t u r e . . 1 2 9 0 - 1 3 3 3 A.D. Architecture.1444-1564 Painting 1472-1548 Music 1560-1800 Sculpture....1500-1600  France Architecture..1150-1350 Sculpture 1200-1250 Music ....1652-1700 Painting 1760-1853 Literature....177931895." 17.  :  "The movement o f m e d i e v a l and modern m u s i c cam be c h a r a c t e r i z e d from t h e satndpoin& of forms d i s c u s s e d as f o l l o w s : (1) On t h e h i g h w a y o f .the g r e a t m u s i c , t h e m e d i e v a l m u s i c d u r i n g almost n i n e hundred y e a r s ( from about t h e f i f t h cent u r y A.D. t o t h e f o u r t e e n t h ) was e i t h e r e x c l u s i v e l y I d e a t i o n a l , or (from the 1 2 t h t o the 14th) p r e d o m i n a n t l y s o . (2) The I d e a t i o n a l i t y o f t h i s m u s i c was o f t h e p u r e s t and most s u b l i m e . 1 7 . S o r o k i n , o p . c i t . , V o l . 1 " F l u e t u a t i o n s o f Forms o f A r t " , 1 9 3 7 , A m e r i c a n Book C o .  -51(3) Up t o t h e end o f the 1 1 t h c e n t u r y , I d e a t i o n a l m u s i c was a l m o s t t h e o n l y g r a n d m u s i c e x i s t i n g ; a f t e r the end o f t h a t c e n t u r y t h e r e a p p e a r e d t h e f i r s t s i g n s of the m i x t u r e w i t h S e n s a t e , i n the m u s i c o f the t r o u b a d o u r s , t r o u v e r e s , a n d m i n n e s a n g e r , and o t h e r f o r m s o f s e c u l a r m u s i c , w h i c h had a c q u i r e d many t r a i t s o f t h e S e n s a t e . A f t e r t h a t t i m e , t h i s stream of Sensate music - not without f l u c t u a t i o n s - tended t o i n c r e a s e , i n the f o r m of s e c u l a r m o t e t s , m a d r i g a l s , and l a t e r on, i n the ' a r s n o v a ' , and t h e n i n t h a t o f the symp h o n i e s , o p e r a s , m u s i c a l c o m e d i e s , and so on. The g r o w i n g s e n s a t i z a t i o n o f m u s i c m a n i f e s t e d i t s e l f i n the S e n s a t e musi c a l m e n t a l i t y , i n the r a p i d i n c r e a s e o f S e n s a t e m u s i c , i n i t s t e c h n i c a l f o r m s , i n i t s themes, i n t h e o c c a s i o n s f o r w h i c h i t was w r i t t e n , i n the s o c i a l e v e n t s w h i c h i t immort a l i z e d . I n b r i e f , i n t h e i n n e r n a t u r e as w e l l as i n the external t r a i t s . (4) In c o n t r a d i s t i n c t i o n t o some o t h e r f o r m s o f a r t , e s p e c i a l l y p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e , w h i c h a t t a i n e d the m a r v e l l o u s I d e a l i s t i c p h a s e i n t h e 13 and 1 4 t h c e n t u r i e s , m u s i c seems t o have r e a c h e d the I d e a l i s t i c s t a g e somewhat l a t e r : a r o u n d t h e 1 6 t h and l t t t h . a n d p a r t l y i n the 1 8 t h ( P a l e s t r i n a , V i t t o r i a , B a c h , H a n d e l , M o z a r t , a n d B e e t h o v e n ) when t h e s e f o r m s were w o n d e r f u l l y b l e n d e d i n r e s u l t e d i n the m i r a c l e o f t h i s m u s i c . (5) A f t e r the b e g i n n i n g o f the 1 9 t h C. the S e n s a t e b e g i n s t o d o m i n a t e more and more r a d i c a l l y . In t h e m u s i c o f Wagner and o t h e r R o m a n t i c s , i t p o s s i b l y r e a c h e d i t s p e a k . A f t e r t h a t and e s p e c i a l l y a f t e r the end o f the 1 9 t h G. I t b e g a n to show a l l the s i g n s of d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , d e m o r a l i z a t i o n , a n d degenera t i o n w h i c h h a s b e e n c o n t i n u i n g up t o the p r e s e n t t i m e . I t w i t n e s s e s on the one hand an u t t e r d e g r a d a t i o n , v u l g a r i z a t i o n , " j a z z i n g " , and m o d e r n i s t i c - i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c m u s i c a l a n a r c h y and i m p o t e n c y * ( i n s p i t e of the g i g a n t i c s k i l l and t e c h n i c a l c o m p l e x i t y of many modern c o m p o s i t i o n s ) ; and on the o t h e r hand, i t e x h i b i t s the f i r s t s i g n s o f the e f f o r t s t o seek n e w , a n t i - S e n s a t e f o r m s of m u s i c . Thus s c h e m a t i c a l l y : (a) The p e r i o d f r o m the f i f t h t o the t w e l f t h C. i s t h a t of the m o n o p o l i s t i c d o m i n a t i o n o f the p u r e s u b l i m e I d e a t i o n a l m u s i c ; ( b ) t h e p e r i o d f r o m t h e 1 2 t h t o t h e 1 5 t h C. i s the t i m e o f the e n t r a n c e o f S e n s a t e m u s i c , b u t s t i l l d e f i n i t e l y i n the s e c o n d a r y p l a c e ; ( c ) the p e r i o d of t h e end of t h e 1 5 t h t o t h e b e g i n n i n g of the 1 9 t h C. was t h a t o f b a l a n c e , o f the I d e a t i o n a l arid S e n s a t e m u s i c ; (d) the 1 9 t h C. i s t h e p e r i o d o f d e c i s i v e d o m i n a t i o n of S e n s a t e m u s i c , and t h e c l o s e r we come t o tfe§ 2oth. C. the s t r o n g e r i t becomes; (e) the p r e s e n t age i s s h o w i n g t h e f i r s t symptoms of r e c e s s i o n o f S e n s a t e m u s i c . . T h i s r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t Sensate music i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h a t a g a i n s t V i s u a l i s m i n p a i n t i n g , s c u l p t u r e and a r c h i tecture." 18. Sorokin sidering  goes on  to s u b s t a n t i a t e  i n d i v i d u a l works o f m u s i c a l  18.Sorokin,op.cit.,pps.567-569.  these  s t a t e m e n t s by  art within  each of  con-  these  -52periods then  : (a) C h u r c h c h a n t s ,  the Amhrosian,  then the  Gregorian,  r e l i g i o u s hymns and p s a l m o d i e s . Of t h e s e t h e most  known t o d a y a r e t h e G r e g o r i a n  chants, which c o n s i s t  widely  of ahout  300  Introits  and Communions  , one h u n d r e d G r a d u a l s , one h u n d r e d A l -  leluias,  twenty T r a c t s ,  and  can of  still  h e a r the c h u r c h i d e a l  instrumental For  This music  t h e complex  ern  T h i s m u s i c was  folk-music,lackstill  and R o m a n t i c  b e a u t y and l o v e was  new  f o r m employed  ideal  was  still  very  and  force  t h e most i m p o r t a n t m o t i v a t i n g  ...but  the t h e o r i z e r s ,  indicated line  only music  this  shift.  itself  showed t h i s of  change  musical  time  one today.  i n emphasis  aesthetics,  to musical  also  followed  t h o s e o f the n e x t p e r i o d  attention  west-  since  f o r m s r e m a i n s as  d ' A r e z z o ( c a . 1 0 0 5 ) , W a l t e r O d i n g t o n o f Oxford,Adam (1240-1287) a l l show t h e new  i n the  and d e b a t s .  i n a r t f o r the f i r s t  The m e d i e v a l t h e o r e t i c i a n s h a d  o f B o e t h i u s , whereas  to the  forces i n art-expression  the w r i t e r s  subject  and b e a u t y w h i c h e n t e r e d  i t , and i n a a n y m o d i f i e d  sym-  secular,  danee;  the chansons c o u r t o i s e s , love  the  similar  d'histoire,dramatique,de  of p h y s i c a l  highly  the a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e P r o v e n c a l b a l l a d s h a s n e v e r  Not  the  legends, i s not  f o r m and  completely l e f t of  and i n Germany, o f t h e m i n n e s a n g e r .  sensuously pleasing  the p a s t o r e l l e , i n  lack  the appearance o f the songs o f the  a r t as a major m o t i v a t i n g  with  i n the  we  adornment.  simplicity.  , i n t h e Chansons  The  i n which  and  though the m u s i c a l  reverie,  Offertories,  of o t h e r w o r l d l i n e s s ,  t h o u g h b a s e d on f o l k  physical  Ohants  cites  trouveres,  i t s intellectual  bolicbut of  or t e c h n i c a l  (h) S o r o k i n  t r o u b a d o u r s and  ing  one h u n d r e d  : Guido  de l a H a l l e , detail  of form  -53, t o make i t r i c h e r  a n d more s e n s u o u s l y p l e a s i n g . T h e  changes o f the s h i f t  technical  i n e m p h a s i s a r e n o t e d b y S o r o k i n t o be :  " A f t e r t h e 1 3 t h C. i t becomes ' m e a s u r e d ' , q u i t e a symbolic phenomena i n i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e ; i t d e v e l o p e d p o l y p h o n y ; i t p r o d u c e d and d e v e l o p e d c o u n t e r p o i n t , . t h e 1 5 t h C. b e i n g t h e 'golden age'; i t i n t r o d u c e d and c u l t i v a t e d the r i c h e s t v a r i e t y o f r h y t h m s ; t h e n d e v e l o p e d harmony a n d ' v e r t i c a l ' w r i t i n g i n s t e a d o f h o r i z o n t a l ; began a r t i s t i c a l l y t o u s e i n t e n s i t y - piano, f o r t e , e t c . ; achieved wonderful p e r f e c t i o n i n the use o f c h r o m a t i c s , consonances, d i s s o n a n c e s ; tended t o become more and more e x p r e s s i v e ; i n t r o d u c e d a n d e x p a n d e d and p e r f e c t e d i n s t r u m e n t a l m u s i c , and b l e n d e d i t w i t h v o c a l ; e n l a r g e d t h e s c a l e of the c h o r u s e s as w e l l as t h a t o f t h e o r c h e s t r a ; combined t h e sound i m p r e s s i o n w i t h t h e v i s u a l i n f o r m , c o l o u r , a n d m o t i o n . . . T h e t r e n d was g e n e r a l f o r E u r opean c u l t u r e . " 19. In SorQfei'Rt-s  section  ( c ) s e c u l a r i z a t i o n had proceeded  so f a r a s t o be a c t u a l l y  affecting  was  i n s t r u m e n t a l l y and t e c h n i c a l l y d e v e l -  becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y  cnurch music  itself,  which  oped, u s i n g S o r o k i n ' s t e r m , i n c r e a s i n g l y ' S e n s a t e .  Examples i t  is  Sebastian  1  possible  to l i s t  f o rthis  a r e numerous S Johann  B a c h ' s "Mass",, S t . M a t t h e w P a s s i o n " , " S t . J o h n a  na's  Passion";  "Masses"; B e e t h o v e n ' s " M i s s a S o l e m n i s " , M o z a r t * s  Mass", B e r l i o z  1  "Tuba Mirum". I n l i n e  with this  fact  Palestri"Requiem  i s the o t h e r  t h a t B a c h , M o z a r t , H a n d e l and B e e t h o v e n ,  t o name t h e g r e a t e s t , u s e d  similar  religious  music.  themes and t e c h n i q u e s The i n c r e a s i n g l y  following in  on t h i s ,  the dramatic  lied".In tative  this  i n their  o r n a t e and t h e a t r i c a l m u s i c  i s shown i n t h e works o f Wagner,  u s e he made  of t h e l e g e n d  p e r i o d developed  especially  of the •Niebelungen-  •  'quanti-  i n c r e a s e i n the s i z e  o f i n s t r u m e n t a l g r o u p s employed..."Prom s e v e n op.cit.,pps.572-3  of s e c t i o n ( d )  a l s o what S o r o k i n c a l l s  c o l o s s a l i s m ' , shown i n t h e g r a d u a l  19,Sorokin,  and s e c u l a r  s i n g e r s i n the  -54Gregorian twenty  c h a n t s of the G r e g o r i a n ' S c h o l a ' ,  f o r P a l e s t r i n a ' s music,  i n s t r u m e n t s i n the r e g u l a r the  orchestras  grown t o be dred  t o one h u n d r e d  extremity i n size cally  complex  f r o m some t h i r t y  orchestras  of B a c h  of t h e 1 9 t h and 2 0 t h C. have  colossal".  21.  and  in size.  twenty  i s matched  texture  i n one  of the music,  This  certainly hun-  techni-  f o r example,  i n Stravinsky's  "Gurrelieder",  i s m a t c h e d by  or  Strauss'  the g r a d u a l l y grow-  c o m p l e x i t y and  emotionality  'genre' music,  i n o p e r a and m u s i c a l comedy, and  o f t h e ' p l o t ' m a t e r i a l f o r comic  Finally,  i n the p e r i o d  and  i n the i m p r e s s i o n of today,  section  i B a r u p t u r e w i t h the v a l u e s o f S e n s a t e a r t i n t h e r e -  there  action  Mozart,  of e x t r e m i t y i n the  and  (e),  sixty  towards  " S i n f o n i a Domestica";  of Debussy.  and  and  same t r e n d  i n Schoenberg's also  to  b e i n g n o r m a l l y f r o m one  " S a c r e du P r i n t e m p s " ,  i s t i c music  from f o u r  toward  I d e a t i o n a l music  o f s u c h men  as H o n e g g e r and o t h e r  'Cubists i n music', A similar phases  development  of the o t h e r a r t s ,  of (a) c h u r c h or r e l i g i o u s (b) o f g r a d u a l l y  different  exhibiting  d o m i n a t i o n i n theme and  growing  secularization  these  form;  i n both;  ( c ) o f a harmony e s t a b l i s h e d  at d i f f e r e n t  t i m e s i n the  a r t s b e t w e e n t h e two  and f i n a l l y ,  showing  forces;  the  (d) a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y s e c u l a r a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t , w i l l now  be u n d e r t a k e n , i n t h e o r d e r f o r e a c h p e r i o d  Sculpture, Painting, point  out t h a t we  change,  and  that  Literature.  i *  other than h i s w i l l  i s used  be  out t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n this  op.  cit.,  to  Sorokin scale  of  r a t h e r t o s u g g e s t t h e whole f l o w o f  commented  . The  changes  on f r o m time  o f s u c h change i n terms  t h e s i s has been  21.Sorokin,  I t i s n e e d l e s s , perhaps,  do n o t f o l l o w h e r e , e x a c t l y , t h e  change t h r o u g h t h i s l o n g p e r i o d  view  : Architecture,  attempting to  pps.583„  t o be n o t e d i n terms to time, pointingo f the p o i n t  establish.  of  -55The  earliest  form  t h e Roman b a s i l i c a s , style  was  of c h u r c h a r c h i t e c t u r e , called  were c o n s t r u c t e d between 1000  most famous of w h i c h s t i l l completed in  Romanesque, and  i n 1093,  end  and  1200  Churches  A.D.  from  in  , among  this  the  e x t a n t are the C a t h e d r a l o f P i s a ,  t h e Abbey C h u r c h  of C l u n y ,  consecrated  1131. The  former  of these, t h a t  r e c t a n g u l a r f o r m w i t h a nave and ceiling  c o v e r s the nave, but  the a i s l e s  are covered  rows o f 34  at P i s a , double  on a c c o u n t  o n l y by  low dome where t h e nave and  displays  aisles.  stone v a u l t i n g ,  two  es  c o n s t r u c t e d on t h e a r c o f t h e h a l f - c i r c l e  and  from  these  t h e h e a v y m a s o n r y s u p p o r t i n g the r o o f o f the Bell  Tower s t a n d i n g s l i g h t l y b e h i n d h a s become known a s t h e The  prised  cultural  activity.  ble  aisles  and  and  apse,  ing  t h e r e was  and  The  use  The  large,  of  fire  there i s a  nave  i s flanked  spring  round  central part.  of  sagged  arch-  in  up  A  time  Pisa.  since  the  and h e l p e d  o r d e r compromote  w i t h the u s u a l n a v e , d o u -  ambulatory  around  the  choir  tower.  of r i b b e d v a u l t i n g made i t ... ^ P o s s i b l e  to r e s t  the  p o r t i o n s of the w a l l s where t h e r e were  to d i s c a r d  wide windows i n - t h e  wooden  a s p a c i o u s a t r i u m . Over i t s m a i n cross-  a quadrangular  o f columns, and  thus p o s s i b l e  of monasteries,  t r a n s e p t s , w i t h an  h e a v y r o o f on c e r t a i n clusters  tower'  influential,  c h u r c h was  i t boasted  and  typical  which h e l p bear  the c h u r c h  'leaning  Abbey a t C l u n y was  an e x t e n s i v e g r o u p  A flat  t r a n s e p t s m e e t . The  columns e a c h ,  the  of the dangers  by  and  borrowing  i n the l a t e r the t i n y  clerestory  and  Romanesque c h u r c h e s  s l i t - l i k e windows, and  i t was have  i n t h e s i d e w a l l s o f the  aisles.  -56Gothic ging  the a r c h from  pointed the  a r c h i t e c t u r e d e r i v e s f r o m t h i s Romanesque the a r c o f t h e h a l f - c i r c l e  one, w h i c h e n a b l e d  roof,  a fixed  architects  relation  a l w a y s between t h e h e i g h t  chan-  t o the t y p i c a l  to lighten  s i n c e on t h e p r e v i o u s h a l f - c i r c l e  style,  the weight of  principle  there  was  o f t h e r o o f and t h e  d i s t a n c e between t h e w a l l s . The the  Gothic  late  style  a l s o used  the ribbed v a u l t i n g  Romanesque, w h i c h w i t h  columns p e r m i t t e d increasing  the r a i s i n g  |he h e i g h t  columns o r p i l a s t e r s  the p o i n t e d  employed by  a r c h and t h e u s e o f  of t h e r o o f t o a v e r y g r e a t  o f t h e d e r e s t o r y . The u s e o f a g r o u p o f to support  the r o o f l e f t  the w a l l s  avail-  a b l e f o r d e c o r a t i v e u s e i n windows o f g r e a t b e a u t y w h i c h ed  the c e n t r a l p o r t i o n o f the c h u r c h There a r e b u i l d i n g s e x t a n t  two p e r i o d s , f o r example is  north  of P a r i s ,  cade. C a t h e d r a l s  w h i c h combine  which s t i l l  also belong  to t h i s  being  fact  type  t h a t many o r d e r s  carried  the i d e a s  ecially.  facade;  i n the f a -  period,  those  t h e t r a n s i t i o n be1200.The  to G o t h i c by the y e a r  chapters,  the s t y l e  b y the  theirs  having  esp-  i t s own u n i q u e  set i n lawns,with  constructed  the I l a l i a n  the C i s t e r c i a n s  developed  crossing,and massive  the F l e m i s h being  a t i o n (ex.  transitional  o f St.Den-  o f monks h a d h e a d h o u s e s i n P r a n c e and  the E n g l i s h having  usual limestone;  abbey c h u r c h  examples, w i t h  to t h e i r l o c a l  r i s i n g from a c e n t r a l  light.  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e was f a c i l i t a t e d  But i n each country  features,  flood-  the f e a t u r e s o f the  uses the round a r c h e s  coming g r a d u a l l y more c o m p l e t e l y of t h i s  and t h e nave w i t h  the B e n e d i c t i n e  at Noyon,Chartres,Senlis  dispersion  height  a  spire  towers as p a r t o f the  of b r i c k  r a t h e r than the  a superabundance  the c a t h e d r a l a t M i l a n ) ; the Spanish  of decor-  producing  another  - 5 7 -  .  u n i q u e v a r i a t i o n "by m e r g i n g the  the l o c a l M o o r i s h  Germans f o l l o w i n g t h e F r e n c h most c l o s e l y  at Strasbourg, Gothic  values  and t h e e a r l i e s t  still  visible castles  scattered  over  ings l i k e  those  Gothic  considered  early barbarian  like  every  those  form  country  lining  as a s t y l e  of E u r o p e ,  or "Gothic" a r t )  whole s t r e e t s  o f Bruges  i s also v i s i b l e  and o t h e r s  today.  i n the d e c o r a t i v e s c u l p period.  t h e Romanesque p e r i o d t h e c a t h e d r a l d e c o r a t i o n s  models,  f r o m memory o r f r o m o t h e r  t h i c , s c u l p t u r e was u s e d  creatively  hall  and i n many p r i v a t e d w e l l -  o f s c u l p t u r e d f i g u r e s were n o t l i f e l i k e ,  without  to d i s d a i n the  a t Ghent a n d V e n i c e ,  and p a i n t i n g f o r t h e b u i l d i n g s Q>t t h i s During  p r e f e r r e d the  i n many f i n e p u b l i c b u i l d i n g s : t h e town  at Ypres,  ture  p a r t s of Cologne).  o f t h e Greco-Roman p e r i o d and w i s h e d  o f what t h e y  being  i n the  done u s u a l l y  e x a m p l e s . B u t w i t h Go-  as the p r i n c i p l e s  of a r c h i t e c -  ture had a l s o been. A p u r e l y d e c o r a t i v e use of n a t u r a l i s t i c is  found  stiff  i n t h e i r b e s t work, and t h o u g h t h e f i g u r e s  t h e y were done t o s t a n d  predominantly  linear  lines  proportions, muscles, dition. work  T h i s treatment  the p u l p i t s nels  sculpture front  seem r a t h e r  The t r e a t m e n t  (dl328)  who c a r v e d  o f t h e c a t h e d r a l s o f P i s a and S i e n n a ;  of the C a t h e d r a l  ren-  i n the  panels f o r  and i n t h e p a -  or b e l l - t o w e r of the c a t h e d r a l  the Church o f St.Mary o f the Flower;  on t h e b r o n z e d o o r s  o f the  lifelike  i n f l u e n c e d the s c u l p t u r e of I t a l y , Pisano  forms  and t o h a r m o n i z e w i t h t h e  and f e a t u r e s i s g i v e n a v e r y  of G i o t t o f o r the campanile  of P l o r e n c e ,  in  i n niches  o f the b u i l d i n g .  o f N i c c o l a and G i o v a n n i  ;  (ex. the Cathedral  a r c h i t e c t u r e ( s o - c a l l e d because c r i t i c s  buildings  is  the Gothic with  and i n t h e  o f t h e B a p t i s t r y o f San G i o v a n n i  o f F l o r e n c e done b y A n d r e a  Pisano.  -58-  P a i n t i n g at t h i s p e r i o d was first  a r t i s t s of n o r t h e r n E u r o p e  advance  t o make a n y p e r s o n a l l y  "being the F l e m i s h b r o t h e r s ,  ca.1440) who size  also r e l i g i o u s i n inspiration,the  J a n and H u b e r t u s  made m i n i a t u r e s i n b o o k s ,  of t h i l l u m i n a t i o n s u n t i l  and  i n t h i s we  ing  apart  gradually  independent  f r o m m a n u s c r i p t s . T h e i r works i n o i l s  s u c c e s s f u l use  o f t h i s medium, e s p e c i a l l y  van E y c k ( d  #  e x t e n d i n g the  t h e y crowded t h e t e x t  see t h e b e g i n n i n g o f an  noteworthy  o f f the page  form of  are the  so i n the  paint-  first  altarpiece,  "The M y s t i c Lamb'', p r e s e r v e d i n t h e C a t h e d r a l o f G h e n t . A l s o i n the  paintings  lar  a r t of painting,  Arnolfini" artists 1494),  the l a s t  example.Continuing  painting  from  had  shows the i n f l u e n c e  pel  on the l i f e  details  than by  though  i n the U f f i z i ,  and  at A s s i s s i ,  the more  i n that  of h i s  of  line,  naturalistic,  and  the G i o t t o  and  i n the B a r d i  and  those  on  Jesus i n the Arena Chapel  a t Padua, a r e the g r e a t w o r k s  first,  the t e c h n i q u e  a r e more  i n Florence,  of t h i s  by  the l e a d i n  i n the r i g i d i t y  of the f i g u r e s  of S t , F r a n c i s ,  of the B l e s s e d V i r g i n  Cathedral  Memling(d  more i n f l u e n c e d  (d.1302 ?) and  o f the m o s a i c  i n the c h u r c h of S a n t a C r o c e  lives  of P l e m i s h  F l a n d e r s . F l o r e n c e took  In these p a i n t i n g s  Cimabue*s " V i r g i n E n t h r o n e d " coes  was  come f r o m B y z a n t i u m  i n t h e work o f Cimabue  c o m p o s i t i o n and  line  John  t h i s , c o m b i n i n g w i t h the G o t h i c s p i r i t ,  pupil,Giotto(d.1336).  the  this  (d.1464) and Hans  early period  Gothic s p i r i t . o f  a development  "Marriage of  group,  in this  p a i n t e r s who  progressive  noticeable  o f the  there begins a secu-  Jan van E y c k ' s  were R o g i e r v a n d e r Weyden  Greek  still  of r e l i g i o u s groups  of which  i s a fine  Italian the  of donors  period.  frescha-  tne o f the  in,  The  e a r l i e s t medieval. l i t e r a t u r e  and  indeed  a g r e a t p a r t of i t , e s p e c i a l l y  philosophical.treatises, century ing  t h e r e was  felt  the  deals  and  tells  was  the  Saragossa,and  guard  as he  Roncevalles.  ty  are descanted  this  case  after  Gothic  by  The the  most first  section  famous,  result-  on mus-  "The  Song  Crusade,(1096-1099),  the v i r t u e s  spirit  "Man  for his lord  away  t o command the  o f c o u r a g e and  in  8  o f d e v o t i o n , a l r e a d y commented upon, i s h e r e  C.  appears  as w e l l as  i n the  ed h i s k n i g h t l y d u t y ,  Europe,  "Lay  on  the  of  the  1140. a new  type  of l i t e r a t u r e .  o f P r o v e n c e i n t r o d u c e a new  i n the person  S c o  loyal-  should  one  still  The  theme i n t o  t h a t of R o m a n t i c L o v e . In t h i s p e r i o d t h e  C..K.  Roland  t o one's f e u d a l l o r d ,  use  ealized  rear-  the a t t a c k on  of western  today,  Roland's  suffer great disease Most b i t t e r c o l d endure and b u r n i n g h e a t , H i s h a i r and s k i n s h o u l d o f f e r up a t n e e d  i n more s e c u l a r t e r m s ,  troubadours  plots  literature  '  11th  In  to g a i n Spain  with  upon,especially loyalty  w r i t t e n i n Spain about  the  Charlemagne  I t concludes  In the b a t t l e  W i t h the 12th  2 2  the  i n s e c u l a r n a r r a t i v e , u s i n g the i -  society.  is left  the K i n g . . .  expressed  of  i n the  t r e a c h e r o u s G a n e l o n who  leaves Spain.  at  Cid"  with  spoken l o c a l l y .  of Charlemagne .Is a t t e m p t  of the  d e s t r u c t i o n when he  The  interest  written just  tale  hut  and  t h e fflohammedansH, o f h i s e v e n t u a l p e a c e w i t h M a r s i l e , K i n g  from of  geste, mentioned  of a f e u d a l f i g h t i n g  Roland",  religious  a wave of l e g e n d - i n s p i r e d a c t i v i t y ,  c h a n s o n s de  i c , show t h e g r e a t new  the  were w r i t t e n i n L a t i n ,  i n l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n i n the l a n g u a g e  France,  of  WS§ i n f l u e n c e d , by fche L a t -  lays the  widely prevalent i n i t s theme i s i d -  "Lady" f o r whom the k n i g h t  perform-  d e d i c a t i n g i t a l l to her,  t t - M o n c r i e f f , "The Song of K O I a n d c h a p m a n l i n e s 1136-1138.  &  Hall,London,  -60w r i t t e n i n t h i s v e i n by  The  lyrics  the  courtly  the l e g e n d s  the  troubadours  romances w h i c h were b e g i n n i n g  t o be  of A r t h u r , t h o s e  o t h e r s w r i t t e n on  of Troy,  and  t h e s e as m o d e l s . C h r e t i e n de  Troyes'  and  of these u s i n g the  " L a n c e l o t " are  •Courtly Love t h e l a d y who  the  the f i r s t  : love inspired  1  a c c o r d i n g t o the  someone e l s e , serve  the l a d y , h e r a c c e p t a n c e  k n i g h t as h e r l o v e r .  and  "Ars Amatoris". the  her  the c l o s e  s e t s out and  those  relationship  techniques  w h e r e a s the w r i t e r s  love  e n n o b l i n g emotion,and  Italy, but  and  iduality,  Langland  four attention  romance, and  and  s p e c u l a t i n g on  and  bases  of  of the  the in  the  o f l o y a l t y and  i n England.  i s called  leaving  the  Ovid's  a meth-  romances h e l d  t o the l a d y  en-  chivalty.  There  are  as i l l u s t r a t i v e o f the new stage  as  h i s conven-  s i t u a t i o n was  service  writers  important  to l i f e .  p a s s i o n , and  Dante i n others of  concept  of legendary  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i t i e s  conduct.  are  o f the m e d i e v a l  as i l l u s t r a t i v e  with l i t e r a t u r e  of  on  the  o f t h i s p e r i o d a r e B o c c a c c i o and  C h a u c e r and  to these  typical  the v i r t u e s  great writers  employed b y  o f h a n d l i n g the  od o f s a t i r e ,  The  to  testing  to l o v e r s  of l i t e r a t u r e  the  on t h e l o v e r  her  of to  desire  partly  advice  these d i f f e r e n c e s  tionalizing  joined  beauty  i s always m a r r i e d  are based  of  a r e however a p p r e c i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s  o f l o v e i s as a d e g r a d i n g  an  conventions  intimate acceptance  cynical  description  t o be  using  Enide","Yvain",  o f the d e v o t i o n and  of O v i d ' s  There  c o n v e n t i o n s he  show  convention  finally  o f the C o u r t l y Komances, and they  and  the g r e a t p h y s i c a l  These c o n v e n t i o n s  serious interpretation  in  by  "Erie  written,  t h e e a r n e s t p r o t e s t a t i o n s of l o v e and  knight's loyalty,  his  influenced  of  the of  indiv-  epic,  personality  -61Boccaccio's crihed,  i n w h i c h he  counteract cribe  "II F i l o s t r a t o "  the  f o r her  pain and  words o f P r i n c e  s t a t e s i n h i s ' p r o e m ' t h a t he o f p a r t i n g f r o m h i s own  f o r a l l the  Troilus  "Wherein a r e  contained  Seven L a d i e s  and  group  i s a romance i n the  world  the  to h i s love an h u n d r e d  T h r e e Young Men" to while  away t h e  ed  i n a country-house  to a v o i d  the  is  described  great  from B o c c a c c i o ' s  "Teseide"  Chaucer t r a n s l a t e s w i t h  courtly  love,  idealizes  the  one,  into  concept  intimacy  ture,  showing  a r y and  the  best  legend  the  passing  use  of  of  the  "Vita. Nuova"  he  emphasising  i t s aspects  l e a v i n g i t s aspect  the m o t h e r - t o n g u e  in  supremacy o f L a t i n a s  ple  parts,  Hell.and  religion, of  stanza,'terza  and  of  V u l g a r i E l o q u e n t i a , " he  i s d i v i d e d i n t o three  "Paradise".  In  there  s e e s the  Dante  i t the  states  literathe  rima  of  liter-  "Divina 1  or  tri-  "Inferno","Purgator-  Roman p o e t V i r g i l s o u ! s o f the  tale.'  theme  Comedia" i s w r i t t e n i n a d i s t i n c t i v e  io",  and  exemplar), Alighieri,  s c h o l a r l y l a n g u a g e . D a n t e ' s g r e a t e s t work , the  rhyme, and  was  Thebes  a r o u n d h i m , t h e new  "De  which  cycle  of  a  strand-  'Knight's  the v a l u e s  s e r v i c e , and  by  Plague,  1  the  by  told  Canterbury Tales",  of c o u r t l y l o v e ,  on  the  •proem . T h i s  fuses  life  u n t o u c h e d . In  e x p l i c i t l y h i s views  "The  of the  works of a r t . I n h i s  o f d e v o t i o n , i n s p i r a t i o n and physical  in  ( h i s g r e a t and f a v o u r i t e spoken i n h i s day. Dante  of the  great  has,  "Decameron",  numerous a d d i t i o n s i n h i s  w r i t e r who  philosophy,observation  des-  tedium of b e i n g  containing g  B o c c a c c i o , l i k e Dante, w r o t e i n I t a l i a n as i t was 1265-1361, i s the  The  to  i n ten days t o l d  ravages  r e a l i s m i n the  a model f o r Chaucer's g r e a t  he  to  and  i s a c y c l e of t a l e s  of young n o b l e s  with  'lady',  Criseyde.  des-  is writing  feeling  stories  style  d a m n e  guides  d.and  him  through  through  -62purgatory,finally Paradise,  g i v i n g place  t o B e a t r i c e who g u i d e s h i m t h r o u g h  which s e c t i o n contains  implicit  t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y of the Middle Geoffrey ly  Chaucer  romance, u s i n g  (dJ.400)  i n i t s survey  Ages.  also followed  the model o f the c o u r t -  i n t h e e a r l y bock of " B l a n c h e  poems o f t h e F r e n c h p o e t G u i l l a u m e M i c h a u t Proissart; his  "Troilus his  o f t h e Rose"; r e t e l l i n g  the story  later  of Troy  i n h i s use of Ovid's m y t h o l o g i c a l  great  of Boethius i n  h i s reading of  developed genius i s  s e r i e s o f t a l e s ,"The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s " ,  original  translations  use of the device  and c r e a t i v e t h a t  have b o t h t h e i r  even  ideas  wri-  "Metamorphoses" a s  of C h a u c e r ' s f u l l y  perhaps suggested by B o c c a c c i o ' s  in his  o f the I t a l i a n  i n h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s from B o c c a c c i o , i n  s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . The work  tially  o f t h e 'Rose' i n  and C r i s e y d e t r a n s l a t i n g the p h i l o s o p h y  Dante,and  his  and o f t h e c h r o n i c l e r  "Boece"; and coming u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e  ters  the Duchesse" the  t r a n s l a t i n g the g r e a t medieval legend  "Romaunt  the i n -  the p a r t s  and l a n g u a g e  which  though  i s so e s s e n -  that  s t a r t as  so t r a n s m u t e d a s  t o become p e c u l i a r l y h i s own. William picturing  Langland's  " P i e r s Plowman" i s t h e work o f a m o r a l i s t ,  the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l ,  and r e l i g i o u s  h i s discontent  stressing  i m p l i c a t i o n s and u r g i n g men t o t h e g o o d  W i t h t h e R e n a i s s a n c e we r e a c h cultural  achievements  itecture  of B r u n e l l e s c h i i n I t a l y ,  of  the c i t y  century,  cathedral  life  a period  lived  of the  t i m e and e x p r e s s i n g i t s moral  with  conditions  a s i t was,  o f l o o k i n g back t o t h e  of G r e e c e a n d Rome, shown f i r s t  of Florence  h i s s o l u t i o n being  life.  where he c o m p l e t e d which had stood  i n the a r c h t h e dome  unroofed  fora  a roof 138£ f e e t i n diameter,using  an  -63o u t e r dome G o t h i c stones  fitted  building  i n line,  and an i n n e r one s a u c e r - s h a p e d  t o g e t h e r , w h i c h was an e m u l a t i o n  a n d y e t an o r i g i n a l  c r e a t i o n meeting  of c l a s s i c a l certain  p r o b l e m s o f d e s i g n a n d s t r u c t u r e . He a l s o b u i l t Home" i n F l o r e n c e porch  supported  f o r the S i l k  G u i l d , the facade  palace,  Bartelommeo  by a l o n g row o f C o r i n t h i a n c o l u m n s , i n t h e i n -  like  t h a t of the M e d i c i , b u i l t  Id.1472). A l b e r t i  sical  period using  stead  o f t h e commonly u s e d Following  for  the Farnese  and  by Sansovina  also built  terra  the Greek-cross  plan with  of the M e d i c i  i n t h e 1 6 t h C. b y A n t o n i o i n Venice;  also  as  being  inward  (1444-1514) c a r -  of Tempiette  near  B e r n i n i ( i n the  i n the ornate  was  d i s p l a y e d i n t h e works o f V i n c e n z a ' s  order  f o r t h e town h a l l  In p a i n t i n g I t a l y . a l s o styles during  i n Home,  t h e use o f s m a l l e r columns t o c a r r y t h e  from the outer  the facade  built  P a l l a d i o ( d . l 5 8 0 ) who u s e d what h a s become known  the ' P a l l a d i a n m o t i f ,  arches  churches.  on t h e enormous s t r u c t u r e o f S t . P e t e r ' s a t  as i s p e r f e c t l y  master b u i l d e r ,  arms i n -  i n f l u e n c e f u r t h e r i n h i s copy o f  The Roman t a s t e f o r l u x u r y a n d p l e a s u r e copied,  for  da Sangalle  the V a t i c a n . Bramante, R a p h a e l , M i c h e l a n g e l o , a n d C.) a l l worked  of the clas'  p a l a c e was t h a t  and D o n a t e Bramante  of c l a s s i c a l  was t h e  four equal  rectangular cross-form  the s t y l e  the t r a d i t i o n  Rome.  c o t t a "Bam-  by M i c h e l o z z o d i  i n the s t y l e  t h e Roman P a n t h e o n i n t h e s m a l l r o u n d c h u r c h  16th  of which has a  A n o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h e a r c h i t e c t u r e o f t h e time  domestic  ried  specific  the "Foundling  t e r v a l s between w h i c h a r e A n d r e a D e l i a R o b b i a ' s bini".  of  o f l a r g e c o l u m n s , an example of Vincenza.  l e d i n the establishment  t h i s p e r i o d . In Florence  o f new  t h e r e were w o r k i n g Mass-  a c c i o ( d . 1 4 2 8 ) . . . " A d a m and Eve e x p e l l e d f r o m P a r a d i s e " ; U c e l l o ( d .  -641475)  with a bizarre hut p l a s t i c a l l y  drea d e l Castagna(d.1457).."Last 1469) for  f u s e d sense  Supper"; F r a F i l i p p o  u s i n g an e x o t i c n o n - n a t u r a l i s t i c example i n h i s " V i r g i n  o f d e s i g n ; AnLippi(d,  c o l o u r and complex rhythm/'  a d o r i n g the C h i l d " ;  Fra Angelicald.  1455)  whose c h i e f v a l u e i s l i t e r a r y n o t p l a s t i c ;  cesco  (d.1492) u s i n g a c o m p o s i t i o n ' p o w e r f u l l y w e l d e d by  chiefly  i n cool blues, i n h i s "Exaltation  celli^.1510), as  "Allegory  sense  i n . such  sculptural  colourist;  and Raphael(d.l520)  really  an  Michelangelo(d,1564)  who waB  fine  a first  was one o f e x a g g e r a t e d shown i n t h e l i n e s  the e l o n g a t e d w h i t e s  and l i n e  of eyes  of r o c k s i n l a n d s c a p e . There  t e r n s w h i c h were c o n v e r t e d i n t o as D u c c i o d i B u o n i n s e g n a ( d . l 3 3 9 )  brighter  who  than  used con-  rate virtuoso, but  sometimes a s ' S i e n e s e d r o o p ' ,  resembles  rather  and  eclectic.  In S i e n a the t r a d i t i o n  Duccio  was  of l i d s ,  line,known  of draperies,in and i n t h e t r e a t -  retained here Byzantine  sinuous  rhythms,by  such  artists  and U g o l i n o d a S i e n a ( d . l 3 4 0 )  i n h i s naive delicacy,  pat-  who  b u t h a s more movement and  colour.- --  In V e n i c e  the t r a d i t i o n  glow",mentioning  is  paintings  imagination i n h i s accentuation of muscular  tours;  tion  Botti-  o f c o m p o s i t i o n i s shown i n t h e " A d o r a t i o n o f t h e M a g i "  a sensuously o r i g i n a l  ment  Fran-  colour,  d a V i n c i ( d . 1 5 1 9 ) whose  i n n x s famous " L a s t .Supper", b u t who was a s c i e n t i s t  his  della  of the C r o s s " ;  s h o w i n g a r h y t h m i c u s e of l i n e  of S p r i n g " ; Leonardo  Piro  to l i g h t ,  their  i s expressed  i n the p h r a s e , " V e n e t i a n  glowing use o f c o l o u r i n s t r u c t u r a l  and r e a c h i n g a h i g h s t a t e  shown i n t h e work o f s u c h men  of p i c t o r i a l  as : B e l l i n i  rela-  a r t . This  (d.1516) whose p e r -  vasive  -65a t m o s p h e r i c u s e of c o l o u r d e r i v e s f f o m  (d.1525) whose  "Dream o f S t . U r s u l a "  greatest masters  ing  a l l the elements o f form;  surfaces  of f l e s h  i n "Christ  o r e t t o ( d , 1 5 9 4 ) whose at  the Bath"  areas  Giorgione(d.l510)  i s shown a l y r i c  Titian(d.l576) using  as  indeed  of accentuated  l i g h t ; Paolo  e x p r e s s t h e same m a s t e r y  and t h e c o n t r a p u n t a l  Continuing truB  Christus  from  the C r o s s "  technique  i n the F l e m i s h  (d.1473) whose show f i n e  colour  line  of r e f l e c t e d  and l i n e a r  (d.1516) who tiric  a l l of the  o f space i n  composition  use of the f l y i n g  "Marco B a r b a r i g o "  his  David  Isenbrant  compositional who u s e d  "Deposition  and a s h e e n t o t e x t u r e s ; o f a man"  having  countours;  and H i e r o n y m o u s B o s c h  o f any p l a s t i c  painters  a  situation  o f the p e r i o d  i n sa-  f o l l o w i n g were:  shows a p r e d o m i n a n t l y l i n e a r p a t t e r n i n  .;' J o a c h i m P a t i n i r ( d . l 5 2 4 ) . . " B a p t i s m  of  Christ";  (d.1551)-who shows a r i c h deep c o l o u r a n d  fine  sense i n h i s " N a t i v i t y " ; L u c a s van Leyden(d.1533),  colour  Adoration  : Pe-  Hugo v a n d e r G o e s ( . 1 4 8 2 ) u s i n g  the essence  (d.1523) who  "Crucifixion";  Adrian  "The  design;  and  but-  of the p e r i o d .  i n t h e n o r t h were  colour relations  mastery. Other Flemish  Gerard  Tint-  Veronese(d.1588)  i n the music  tradition  l i g h t to d e f i n e  renders  dappled  texture;  D i r k B o u t s ' ( d . 1 4 7 5 ) "Entombment" and " P o r t r a i t rich  richly  o f c o l o u r i n r i c h deep p o o l s i n  that d i s p l a y e d by the m a s t e r - b u i l d e r s '  tress,  b e a u t y merg-  " A r t i s t ' s P o r t r a i t " , " P a r a d i s e " and "Susanna  whose work h a s a j e w e l - l i k e s i l v e r y e n a m e l l e d Venetians  i n whose  and M a g d e l e n e " and '"Assumption";  show u s e o f a r e a s  contrast with  shows him t o be one o f t h e  of space-composition;  " S l e e p i n g V e n u s " and "Two P r o p h e t s "  Massaccio;Carpaceig  in relation.to  l i g h t i n h i s "Man's P o r t r a i t " and  of the M a g i " ; P i e t e r  B r u e g h e l ( d . 1 5 6 9 ) who  B o s c h i n h i s i n t e n s e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m , and u s e d  followed  colour  mas-  -66terfully  i n such l a n d s c a p e s as  dered  space  1578)  adds t o t h i s  ity  i n such w i n t e r scenes as  "Hunters";  a l s o used Antonio  F l e m i s h t e c h n i q u e some of t h e c o l o u r  or-  Moro(d. qual-  of t h e V e n e t i a n s . The  German s t y l e  Italians,hut in  " H a r v e s t e r s " , and  still  a charming  of t h i s  used  period  the l i n e a r  naive quality  drew i t s c o l o u r f r o m  rigidity  nard  S t r i g e l ( d . 1 5 2 8 ) who  and  of s p a c e  new  form w i t h h i s w o n d e r f u l l y s u b t l e  Cranach  greatest,  like  who  Grunewald  creates a  colour  shown i n  "Madonna" and  (d,1553) who  "Head o f  did portraits  h i s "Judgment o f P a r i s " ;  r a n k s as a p o r t r a i t  as  flowing  the B e r l i n  the E l d e r  use-of  Mathias  c o l o u r ; A l b r e c h t Durer(d.1528)  landscape backgrounds (dil545)who  individual  "Entombment" show a. m a s t e r f u l  use  "Erasmus","Girl's P o r t r a i t " ,  Loch-  Soest(d.1404?).Ber-  a sharp l i n e ;  (d.1530) whose " C r u c i f i x i o n " and  Woman"; L u c a s  von  b e g i n s t o show an  colour i n unison with l i g h t  and  of the B y z a n t i n e  shown i n t h e work o f : S t e p h e n  ner(d,1451).Barthel Bruyn(d.l555),Konrad  the  with  Hans H o l b e i n  p a i n t e r and m i n i a t u r i s t  with  shown i n s u c h works as h i s "Erasmus" and h i s  the  royal  portraits. The from in  French p r i m i t i v e  Italy,Germany,  a form  used  i n drawing  which  gidity, visible neille  S p a i n and  rooted i n that  structurally,  s t y l e was  but l i g h t  and  those  of the ByzanteBque of F r a n c i s  resulting  i n a colour  d e l i c a t e l y •:> i v o r y  seems a s u r v i v a l  i n works l i k e  o f the i n f l u e n c e s •  the I F l e m i s h t r a d i t i o n ,  o f the m i n i a t u r i s t s ;  de L y o n ( d . l 5 7 5 ) , and  thieu l e Nain.  a fusion  in  not  tone;and  in Its  ri-  Clouet(d.1572),Cbr-  i n the b r o t h e r s Antione,Louis,and  Ma-  The decline oisie,  literature  of m e d i e v a l and  t h i s was  o f the  early fifteenth  s o c i e t y and marked by  this  excerpt  from  shows t h e  the emergence of the new  a backward-looking  o f c h i v a l r y whose m o t i v e power was t h e work of M a l o r y  century  almost  bourge-  a t .the f i n e  exhausted,for  •-e  ideals  example,.: .  whose "Morte d ' A r t h u r * was v e r y p o p u l a r , a n d the the "Book o f ' O r d e r o f C h i v a l r y " by t h e E n g l i s h  p r i n t e r Caxton which p l e a d s  f o r a r e t u r n t o the  former  ideals...  "0 ye k n i g h t s o f E n g l a n d , where i s t h e custome and u s a g e o f n o b l e c h i v a l r y t h a t was u s e d i n t h o s e d a y s ? What do ye now .b u t go t o the b a y n e s and p l a y a t d i c e ? And some n o t w e l l adv i s e d use n o t h o n e s t and good r u l e a g a i n s t a l l o r d e r o f k n i g h t h o o d . L e a v e t h i 3 , l e a v e i t , and r e a d the n o b l e v o l u m e s o f S a i n t G r a a l , o f L a u n c e l o t , o f Gawayne.and many more. T h e r e s h a l l ye see m a n h o o d , c o u r t e s y , a n d g e n t l e n e s s * And l o o k i n l a t t e r d a y s of t h e n o b l e a c t e s w i t h t h e "^conquests as i n K i n g R i c h a r d ' s d a y s Couer de L y o n , Edward t h e F i r s t , a n d the T h i r d , and h i s n o b l e s o n s , S i r R o b e r t K n o l l e s , S i r John Hawkwood,Sir John Chaundos and S i r W a l t e r de Manny. Read E r o i s s a r t . "..23, !  There were c r i t i c s  o f the  wrote,as d i d Erasmus, c r i t i c i z i n g the P a p a l B u l l  "Execrabilis"  other aspects the  education  (1460) p u t  an  end  of s o c i e t y of the  of B u c h men  as W y c l i f f e ( d . l 3 8 4 ) , and  p a l a u t h o r i t y ; i n the m o r a l i t y p l a y s l i k e abstract  themes a r e d e a l t w i t h , w h i l e  the e x p r e s s i o n o f r e a l stories.  The most famous p o e t  Francois V i l l o n was life  23.  on b y  the  r e - e s t a b l i s h e d paEnglish"Everyman"  the m i r a c l e p l a y s  allowed  w i t h i n t h e p a t t e r n of the  o f t h i s p e r i o d i s the  Bible  Frenchman,  (d.1462?) whose s t r i k i n g B a l l a d e w r i t t e n when he  t o be hanged w i t h has  experience  the  clergy;  t o the movement f o r  r e f o r m w i t h i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e c h u r c h b r o u g h t preaching  who  f o u r others because  b e e n t r a n s l a t e d by Wyndham L e w i s  of h i s v a g r a n t  thieving  thus...  Lucas,"A Short H i s t o r y of C i v i l i z a t i o n " . M c G r a w f H i l l pps.498-99.  ,N.Y.,1945,  — 68" M e n , b r o t h e r m e n , t h a t a f t e r us y e t l i v e , L e t n o t y o u r h e a r t s t o o h a r d a g a i n s t us he; F o r i f some p i t y of u s p o o r men ye g i v e . The s o o n e r God s h a l l t a k e o f y o u p i t y . H e r e a r e wee f i v e or s i x s t r u n g up, y o u s e e , And h e r e t h e f l e s h t h a t a l l t o o w e l l we f e d B i t by b i t , e a s t e n and r o t t e n , r e n t and s h r e d , And we t h e b o n e s grow d u s t and a s h w i t h a l ; L e t no man l a u g h a t u s d i s c o m f i t e d , B u t p r a y t o God t h a t he f o r g i v e u s a l l . The r a i n h a s washed and l a u n d e r e d u s a l l f i v e , And the sun d r i e d and b l a c k e n e d ; y e a , p e r d i e , Ravens and p i e s w i t h b e a k s t h a t r e n d and r i v e Have dug our e y e s o u t ; and p l u c k e d o f f f o r f e e Our b e a r d s and eyebrows; n e v e r we a r e f r e e Not once t o r e s t ; b u t h e r e and t h e r e s t i l l sped D r i v e n a t i t s w i l d w i l l , b y t h e w i n d ' s change l e d , More p e c k e d by b i r d s t h a n f r u i t s on g a r d e n - w a l l ; Men,  f o r God's s a k e , l e t no g i b e h e r e be  But p r a y The revival  age  also,  one  ed, and  conduct,"The  idealist,  life  o f an  to t h i s ,  ideal  state  F r e n c h R e n a i s s a n c e was in  a monastic  w h i c h he  was  discipline  . The most  guide  f o r the Duke  Lorenzo  seldom been  ideal  o f the  a s i t was  significant  equall-  cultured  political "Utop-  and a  writer  des-  o f the  F r a n c i s R a b e l a i s . From h i s e a r l y e d u c a t i o n  o r d e r w h i c h he  e n t e r e d a t t h e age  o f s e v e n and  a t the u n i v e r s i t y  c o n c e i v e d a h a t r e d f o r the m e d i e v a l  o f t h e c h u r c h , and he w r o t e  24.Wyndham L e w i s ,  of the p e r -  S i r Thomas M o r e ' whose  of t h e s t a t e  r a n away t o s t u d y m e d i c i n e  lier,Rabelais  ideas to ,  writers  r e a l i s m which has  shows the h u m a n i s t  contains both a c r i t i c i s m  cription  i n t r a d e and  o f F l o r e n c e i n h i s t i m e . An E n g l i s h  i n contrast  24.  (d.1527) whose p r a c t i c a l  Prince" written  shows a p o l i t i c a l  a t the same t i m e  city-state  the i n c r e a s e  o f t h e most i n f l u e n t i a l  a  de'Medici,  f o r g i v e us a l l . "  l e a r n i n g b r o u g h t many new  being NIccolo M c h i a v e l l i  for p o l i t i c a l  ia"  t h a t he  o f change u s h e r e d i n b y  of the c l a s s i c a l  literature iod  t o God  said,  op. c i t .  h i s great  from  of Montpel-  religious dis"Gargantua  and  Pantagruel (written it  of s a t i r e  uage  ed  t o w a r d s some of the  so c r e a t i v e l y The  still  indulgences,  so w e l l tian  t h a t he  "Ninety-five  the p r a c t i c e  ing  -69ordinary French  i n the  r t  greatly  Theses"  e n r i c h e d the  and  t e a c h i n g about  the  and  Though L u t h e r was  Luther's  doctrine break of  the  caused  state-control  of botn  s a n t s o f S.Germany who  c o n t e s t e d by  first  'priest  1  Christhe by  temporal e s t a t e s *  and  Lutheranism  t o whom t h e  appealed,  and  until  the  to t h i s  matters  pea-  day.  were e v e r y w h e r e  religion,  was  persecuted,  stake.  p r o t e s t a n t reformer  whose " I n s t i t u t e s  with  among the  of p r i v a t e  a t the  out-  other doctrine  temporal  of L u t h e r a n i s m  Catholic  A n a b a p t i s t s , who  and  and  In t h i s L u t h e r ' s  state-control  t h e whole body of d a t a a b o u t a Christian  t h e R e f o r m of  t o p u t down t h e u p r i s i n g  spread  remain  of the  p u b l i s h e d i n 1536  sell-  i n most p a r t s of Germany.  spiritual  other i n f l u e n t i a l  John C a l v i n ,  of de  to the  t h e Pope i n 1521,  l e a d e r s b e i n g f r e q u e n t l y burned The  was  the  spiritual  i n 1525.  c h e c k i n g the  This idea,  "Open L e t t e r  among t h e p e a s a n t s ,  t o a d v i s e the n o b l e s thus  this  thoroughly understood  resulted  as h i s own  o f t h e P e a s a n t s ' War  severity,  their  church  especially  o f e a c h man  him  o f the  e x c o m n u n i c a t e d by  continual t o spread,  language.  among them a wave o f sympathy f o r h i s  relation  a state-controlled  using lang-  which Chaucer h a d ' p i c t e d  German State**, w r i t t e n i n German, and produced  spir-  (d.1546) a t t a c k -  after  German N a t i o n C o n c e r n i n g  these p r i n c e s ,  in a  spoken  of M a r t i n Luther  or p a r d o n s f o r s i n s ,  of the  of h i s day,  c u r r e n t f o r some time  i n h i s "Pardoner",  Nobility  evils  o f the d a y )  of t h i s  of the C h r i s t i a n  time  Religion"  was  c o n t a i n e d a s y s t e m a t i c arrangement the C h r i s t i a n  s h o u l d Know, e m p h a s i z i n g  religion  w h i c h he  of  felt  r e a d i n g t h e B i b l e , a s God's word.  -70Th e C a t h o l i c C h u r c h a l s o c o n d u c t e d with  the f o r m a t i o n  (dj.556) whose "Imitation  of C h r i s t "  i n intent.  power f o r t h e i r  carried  Pope P a u l  IV.was  as t o almost  felt  ences ordered  landing  other  Puritans  privelege, headed  religious  World,  like  England  ,  t o worship as t h e i r c o n s c i -  sailing  first  to Leiden,  and  on t h e " M a y f l o w e r " , and  o f A m e r i c a a t P l y m o u t h i n 1620.  , who  were m i d d l e - c l a s s m e r c h a n t s , the K i n g  fought  and t h e o r d e r o f  and were s u c c e s s f u l , t h e k i n g C h a r l e s 1 s t , b e i n g be-  t h e Second  returned  . During  igious pall,  f r o m w h i c h she h a s n o t f u l l y of r e p r e s s i o n o f a l l a r t i s t i c  far-reaching,unfortunately, Scientific  than  those  l a y under a  recovered  even  tendencies  of a reverse  c h a n g e s were h e l p i n g l o o s e n  i g i o u s u n i t y i n t h e w e s t . Prom 1500 u n t i l  h i s death,  t h i s p e r i o d of P u r i t a n  t h e t h e a t r e s were c l o s e d and E n g l a n d  effects  of f o r b i d -  l e a d e r John Browne, l e f t  l e a d e r , Cromwell, a g a i n s t  when C h a r l e s  the  in It-  r e f o r m i s t s among g r o u p s  i n 1649, l e a v i n g C r o m w e l l as D i c t a t o r u n t i l  control  church  under  wipe out h e r e s y  them t o , and f o l l o w e d Browne  t o t h e New  under t h e i r  which,  the "Index", a l i s t  t h e y were n o t f r e e  on t h e s h o r e s  The  thus  1555-1559.  the P u r i t a n s , who u n d e r t h e i r  later  and P r i n c e s , and  and J a p a n . R e f o r m w i t h i n t h e  IV a l s o p u b l i s h e d  T h e r e were  then  of Kings  order  s o c i e t y , t h o u g h many went a s m i s s i o n a r i e s  so s e v e r e  books, d u r i n g  where t h e y  Loyola,  The J e s u i t s were a s e l e c t  on a l s o h y means o f t h e I n q u i s i t i o n ,  a l y . Pope P a u l den  time,  " S p i r i t u a l E x e r c i s e s " r e s e m b l e d Thomas a K e m p i s '  to the Americas,China,India, was  at this  o f t h e " S o c i e t y o f J e s u s " hy I g n a t i u s  many of whom were t h e c o n f e s s o r s gained  reforms  today,  being  more  situation.  the h o l d  the death  rel-  of  rel-  o f Newton  -71t h e r e was v i s i b l e tion the  a steady increase i n the systematic  investiga-  o f n a t u r e made p a s s i b l e b y t h e i n v e n t i o n s o f s u c h d e v i c e s a s t e l e s c o p e , the microscope,  and m i c r o m e t e r .  the thermometer,barometer,pendulum,  The s i g n i f c a n t men  of t h i s  long l i n e  of s c i e n t i s t s  were C o p e r n i c u s , B r a h e , K e p l e r , G a l i l e o , H a r v e y , v a n Loeuwenhoek,Huygens.Malpighi,  and Newton. T h e i r work h e l p e d l a y t h e b a s i s f o r  the g r e a t m a t e r i a l To This  this  and i n t e l l e c t i a l  next  period  t e r m was t a k e n  changes o f t h e next  the c r i t i c a l  over from  period.  term,Baroque, i s a p p l i e d .  one o f t h e f i g u r e s  of the c l a s s i c a l  syllogism,  and h a s b e e n u s e d  at different  periods i n c r i t i c i s m to  mean q u i t e  different  v a r y i n g from  the high praise  things,  of the  p e r i o d b y S p e n g l e r a s t h e Manhood o f W e s t e r n C u l t u r e t o a t e r m o f contempt u s e d  chiefly  the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y l i k e 19th  of I t a l i a n a t e  o r n a t e n e s s by the c r i t i c s of  C o l i n Campbell,and  the E n g l i s h Ruskin  of the  century. Baroque,  the p e r i o d forms,  as a p p l y i n g t o t h e s c u l p t u r e  stresses  the d i f f e r e n c e s  w h i c h were i n f u s e d  mentation. addition  In I t a l y  i n the use of the Renaissance  h e r e w i t h a new s p i r i t , o f  the church  w i t h a l o n g colonnade  on t h e f a c a d e done b y t h e a r t i s t  a l s o worked  on the' p a l a c e o f t h e L o u v r e  with Mazarin  lavish  orna-  o f t h e V a t i c a n was c h a n g e d b y t h e  of an ornamented a p p r o a c h  sculptured  and a r c h i t e c t u r e o f  B e r n i n i ( d . 1 6 8 0 ) who  i n Paris until  a n d r e t u r n e d home. I n P r a n c e  and s a i n t s  working  then  he d i s a g r e e d i n sculp-  t u r e was C h a r l e s l e B r u n  who d i d v e r y d e c o r a t i v e work. The Baroque  style  i n the Chateau  i s shown p e r f e c t l y  quisitely  laid  out f o r m a l gardens,  a r c h i t e c t Mansart, the p e r i o d  of V e r s a i l l e s w i t h i t s ex-  w h i c h was t h e work  who a l s o b u i l t many g r a c e f u l  and d e s i g n e d  of the  countryhom.es o f  t h e dome o f t h e I n v a l i d e s  in Paris.  -72the p e r i o d wa.s  In p a i n t i n g distinctive using  a rich  one  e x p o n e n t s were known as a g r o u p as  as t h e y d i d an  eclectic  style  traditions.  p o n e n t was  Denis  a Flemish a r t i s t ,  his  technique  his  n e p h e w s , A g o s t i n o and  ition in  was  use  on  first  great I t a l i a n  Caravaggio  painted  Florentine,  first  Italian  C a l v a e r t , ( d l 6 1 9 ) who  ex-  passed  Carracci(d.1619)  and  Carracci.  p a i n t e r i n the new  (d.1609) whose  Baroque  trad-  "Entombment" shows t h e  among whom were G-uido R e n i  i n t h e new In  skill  Spain E l Greco  was  style,  u s i n g long nervous  working  design. Also i n Spain  pupil  individual  distorted  Tintor-  p e r s o n a l v e r s i o n of the and  (d.1660) was and  new  c o l o u r worked i n  p a t t e r n i n the i n t e r e s t  the V e n e t i a n s and  t o the V e n e t i a n  l i n e s with l i g h t  , Velasquez  d e r i v e s from  s u c h an  (d.1614),  in a distinctly  make a d e l i b e r a t e l y  t h o u g h he  (d.1642),sometimes  style.  retto,  in  'mannerists',  of c h i a r o s c u r o w h i c h f o r e s h a d o w s Rembrandt; w h i l e h i s  fellow-artists,  to  The  to h i s students,Ludovico Annibale  the  c o m b i n i n g ' the  Umbrian,Mantuan,and V e n e t i a n  The  though i t s f i r s t  working  ,  of h i s who  the F l e m i s h , p a i n t e d  s u b t l e manner t h a t he  is difficult  to  •classify. In painting lem", who  the N e t h e r l a n d s  landscape  and  following  completely  H a a r l e m , as  the l i n e  derive p a r t i a l l y  ordinary people  doing  from  of the  Caravaggio  Kuysdael  o t h e r Dutch genre in their  ordinary things. This  as F r a n z H a l s ,  Baabe", H a l s  a l s o had  an  (d.1670)  was  shown i n h i s "View o f H a a r painters,  s u b j e c t - m a t t e r of  Bwildi  s e c u l a r m a t e r i a l i s shown e s p e c i a l l y  s u c h an a r t i s t "Mad  around  Salomon v a n  i n s u b j e c t to  i n the work  (d.1666) i n p a i n t i n g s l i k e enormous i n f l u e n c e  on  of  his  succeeding  a r t i s t s who used h i s brush technique. At Delft,Jan Vermeer used this c h a r a c t e r i s t i c intimate approach in h i s " L i t t l e Street", "View of D e l f t " , "Young Woman with Jug" and "Lady with a Lute", In Amsterdam there was Rembrandt (d.1669) whose form i s wholly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and h i s own,  though often imitated by lesser  a r t i s t s . The means he used consisted c h i e f l y of a combination of l i g h t and shadow related to the outline so as to achieve a distinctness of contour so subtle that i t i s impossible to say how i t was done. In Rembrandt an imaginative interpretation of the actual world reaches i t s perfect p l a s t i c expression, with complete avoidance of anything not capable of being rendered plast i c a l l y , that i s , in the medium he has chosen. He i s at h i s best in such paintings as "Hendrickje Stoffels","Old Man"  and "Unmer-  c i f u l Servant." In the south there were working Rubens(d.1640), and Van Dyck(d.l641). To conclude with the Netherlands , t h e i r Baroque architecture consists c h i e f l y of public buildings l i k e that i n the town h a l l of Bolsward, and the Butcher's H a l l i n Haarlem. In Russia, Petee the Great travelled from home to bring back h i s European knowledge i n an attempt of Europeanize h i s country, building the c i t y of St.Petersburg on the Neva, and i n troducing western dress, ideas, manners, and a r t , and by h i s death in 1725 Russia was within the European  tradition.  In Prance were working the Painters : Poussin (d.1665), one of the great .French colourists*, integrating h i s colour and l i g h t and l i n e ; Claude l e Lorrain(d.l682) who uses a pervasive colour and l i t t l e d e t a i l i n h i s "Embarkation Sheba" and i n h i s "Landing of Cleopatra". -74- P S numbered. a  e  n  o  t  of the Queen of  -75In  literature  d u r i n g the p e r i o d  which accompanies the Reformation, Jean B o d i n ( d . l 5 9 6 ) the of  government, b u t  inions phase  a s s e r t e d the n e c e s s i t y  o f an of  intelligent  after  mosphere p r o d u c e d  the  interested  and  based  C o r n e i l l e ( d . 1 6 8 4 ) which,  history,  a r e more s t a t e l y  de  Sevigne,  the  tragedy  on  of  ph  England  as  featuring  and more " r i g i d i n  of f u l l  development  peare,  Jonson,  Donne, M a r v e l l ,  as i t d o e s , n e a r  i t s beginning,the  The  of  and  the work o f S p e n s e r , and  , closing  i t , Butler,  , l i k e W e b s t e r and  i f t h e y had  in i t s great  Marlowe,  deserve  o n l y the b e s t known w r i t e r s ;  many o f the d r a m a t i s t s , who  genius  "Pensees"  of n e v e r - p a r a l l e d  and M i l t o n , ( d . 1 6 7 4 ) . Among t h e s e a r e many who  have f a r e d more k i n d l y  La Fontaine,  one  John L y l y , B a c o n , H o o k e r , F o x ,  they are  classical  B l a i s e B a s c a l , whose  o f E l i z a b e t h was  period  genius,and  of  Christianity.  t h e Age  brilliance,  work of s u c h men  on  and  satirized  Racine(d.1699)  the h e r o e s  i n subject matter,  Fenelon,  reflections In  sal  i n every  op-  the c o u r t l y a t -  f o r m . A l s o w r i t i n g were B o i l e a u . L a R o c h e f o u c a u l d ,  of  sceptical  t h e comedy o f M o l i e r e ( d . 1 6 7 3 ) , w h i c h and  literary  form  o f the m o n a r c h ' s b e i n g  t h e a c c e s s i o n of L o u i s XIV,  the mannered c o u r t n o b i l i t y ,  contain  stable  on  life.  Later,  Marie  writers,  " S i x Books  the most  "Essayes" are  and h o n e s t man  i n France  great  Bodin's  a s t r o n g monarchy as  t o the l a w s . M o n t a i g n e ' s  war  t h e r e were two  and M o n t a i g n e ( d . 1 5 9 2 ) .  S t a t e " recommaded  subject  of c i v i l  ShakesBunyan  the name  t h e r e were  Chapman, w o u l d  n o t been f a c e d by  the u n i v e r -  Shakespeare.  Baroque,  t h e n , was  a period  of g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t ,  in  many o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ness  in feeling.  ist"  in Italy,  a r t - f o r m s , and was  I t s more  after  ornate  s t y l e has heen termed  t h e i r poet M a r i n i ,  a f t e r Gongor, " e u p h u i s t i c " i n E n g l a n d and,  i n i'rance,  death  "preciosite".  of I t a l i a n  the.emergence 'opera'.  estrina's  At £ouis' were f o r m e d , h i s guests  and  typical  t h e "Euphues" o f L y l y  a r t - f o r m i n t h e new  rather  arte",  and  a r t o f the  only performances  of  than p l a y e d , such as P a l -  "Euridice".  c o u r t t h e manners o f t h e r e s t  to almost  h i s t r e a s u r y . Here, dancing,  of p o l i t e  Europe  and e n t e r t a i n m e n t s he p r o v i d e d f o r  s t i m u l a t e d the a r t s  classical  after  o p e r a s were r e a l l y  and t h e masques  they exhausted  "marin-  I t saw, d u r i n g i t s c o u r s e , t h e  s i m p l y t o he sung  "Dafne"  alive-  "Gongorism" i n S p a i n  comedy i n t h e •commedia d e l l '  o f i t s most  These f i r s t  works meant  first  social  one o f enormous  t h e same d e g r e e  that  f o r i n s t a n c e , appeared  i n refined  variations  the  on t h e s o c i a l  dancing  o f t h e c o u n t r y - s i d e . The c o n v e n t i o n s f o r t h e c l a s s i c a l  figures  of the b a l l e t  musical  f o r m s w h i c h o f t e n , t o d a y even,  were l a i d  down, and i n s p i r a t i o n g i v e n t o uses  the dance  forms o f :  pavanne,galliard,allemande,courante,sarabande,gigue,minuet, gavotte,bouree, I t was new  rigaudon,chaconne,and  a period  luxury of leisure,  o f a new  passecaglia.  spaciousness i n l i v i n g ,  u s i n g the  and i t s a r t was"sometimes o v e r b l o w n  with  exuberance. During  t h e 1 6 t h ,and 1 7 t h c e n t u r i e s  taking place, world scope,  e c o n o m i c c h a n g e s were  t r a d e and m a n u f a c t u r i n g  and were b e g i n n i n g t o b r i n g  w h i c h made a commerce  were i n c r e a s i n g i n  t o g e t h e r money, o r c a p i t a l ,  i n wealth possible;  great trading  compan-  -77i e s were e s t a b l i s h e d , n e c e s s i t a t i n g the f o r m a t i o n of b a n k i n g houses t o s u p p l y them w i t h c r e d i t f o r t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s ; double e n t r y book-keeping had r e c e n t l y been i n v e n t e d ; i n a g r i c u 3 i s r e new and improved methods had made l a r g e l a n d - h o l d i n g s more p r o f i t a b l e than e v e r , and a l e g a l i z e d d i s p o s s e s s i o n of the p e a s a n t s from t h e i r l a n d was t a k i n g p l a c e i n E n g l a n d , the now l a n d l e s s worke r s who d r i f t e d t o the c i t i e s f o r m i n g the o l a b o u r - f o r c e f o r the new E n g l i s h f a c t o r i e s . L i f e was changing. The machines and methods f o r making t h i n g s more q u i c k l y and more c h e a p l y were b e i n g i n v e n t e d . I n the t e x t i l e i n d u s t r y Watt's steam-engine proved u s e f u l i n o p e r a t i n g R i c h a r d A r k w r i g h t ' s ( d . 1792) water-frame s p i n n i n g - m a c h i n e . I n America, E l i W h i t n e y ( d . l 8 2 5 ) i n v e n t e d a c o t t o n g i n  which i n c r e a s -  ed the p r o d u c t i o n of c o t t o n from 189,000 l b s . i n 1791 t o 2,000,000 i n 1860 and 5,ooo,ooo i n 1900. I n m e t a l - w o r k i n g C o r t ' s p r o c e s s o f ' p u d d l i n g ' made the p i g - i r o n  (d.1800)  p r o d u c t i o n of E n g l a n d  jump from 48,000"Tons i n 1740 t o 8,000,000 i n 1844. I n the manuf a c t u r e of t o o l s , M a u d s i a y ( d , 1 8 3 l ) made an i r o n - l a t h e and a s l i d e r e s t w h i c h p e r m i t t e d measurements o f 1/10,000 of an i n c h t o be made; W i i i n s o n , by b o r i n g c y l i n d e r s f o r the steam engine h e l p e d i t s s u c c e s s ; J o s i a h Wedgewood (d.1795) produced machine-made vases of g r e a t beauty; and i n d i s t i l l i n g a vapour from c o a l t o l i g h t h i s own home Murdock (d.1839) produced a method f o r u s i n g i l l u m i n a t i n g gas i n i n d u s t r y . L i f e was changing a l s o i n i t s m e a n i n g f u l g e o g r a p h i c scope. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n methods were i n v e n t e d t o make t r a v e l e a s i e r and cheaper : McAdam (d.1836) i n v e n t e d a method of t s u r f a c i n g roads  -78by elevating them and draining them before covering them with successive layers of f i n e l y crushed rock; Meaton (d.1792) and Telford(d,1834) b u i l t canals, the former the Forth and Clyde, the l a t t e r the Ellesmere connecting the Mersey and Severn Stevenson  rivers,  invented the the f i r s t successful steam engine which  drew the f i r s t coaches on the Liverpool-ManChester Railway i n 1830  carrying 600 passengers.Symington,  i n 1802 b u i l t the steam-  boat "Charlotte Dundas", whih was l a t e r improved upon by the  Am-  erican, Fulton, whose "Clermont" with a Watt steam engine operating  i t s paddles travelled 150 miles up the Hudson River. By 1800 England led the world i n the development of mech-  anized industry. Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" l a i d down the accepted l i n e of economic theory, with i t s p o l i t i c a l  concomitant  the 'laissez f a i r e ' attitude. Along with Ricardo, Mai thus, and  Ben-  tham he enunciated the p r i n c i p l e s of what l a t e r was called "Liberalism", a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the r i s e of the new  class of ex-  p l o i t e r - c a p i t a l i s t s , and gained for them greater representation in Parliament which had formerly been the exclusive 'club' of the land-owning c l a s s . Gradually even these parliamentary apologists were compelled to forsake t h e i r 'hands off industry' stand and pass l e g i s l a t i o n s l i k e the Factory Acts of 1802-33-44-47 and the Mine Regulations of 1819  regulating hours and conditions of lab-  our. This period i s paralled i n i t s e a r l i e s t stages by the Literature of the Age of Reason which in England was written by Pope i n poetry, and Hume , Locke and Berkelsyin philosophy; i n France by V o l t a i r e and Montesquieu, and the Encyclopedists,De Condillac,Diderot, and D'alembert. With the changes brought by  -79-  i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n the picture changes i n England where there is a reaction towards Romanticism i n the Poetry of Wordsworth, Coleridge,Shelley,Keats and Byron, and the novels o f , f i r s t , Richardson and Pieliing, and then those of Scott,Dickens, Thackaray,George E l i o t and the Bronte s i s t e r s , of whom,Emily's  "Wu-  therirgHeights" shows the greatest poetic a b i l i t y . This was f o l by lowed i n jthe works of Hardy,Samuel Butler,Arnold Bennett,/a more r e a l i s t i c treatment of the novel, turning towards rather than away from the i n d u s t r i a l society of English l i f e , and the ord1  inary l i f e of the a g r i c u l t u r a l society which s t i l l existed in parts of England. In America the novel passed through a similar period of Romanticism, shown i n the works of Penimore Cooper, and the soci a l c r i t i c i s m of Mrs.Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin", succeeded by a period of great s o c i a l realism shown i n the novels of Dreiser and S i n c l a i r Lewis, and of greater i n t e l l e c t u a l power shown i n those of Henry James. In Prance the same romantic tendency away from the r e a l i t y of the bourgeoiBe society surrounding them i s v i s i b l e i n the poetry of the Symbolistes, V i l l i e r s de l ' i s l e Adam,Mallarme, Verlaine, Laforgue,Ducasse,Paul Valery,Rimbaud and Baudelaire, divorcing their art from a l i f e i n which they could see no v a l ue, deriving greatly from the American poet Edgar Allen Poe. In architecture this early period i s called  "Rococo",  from the word ' r o c a i l l e ' or rock-work, because of the p r e v a i l i n g artificial  grottoes which the period affected. This style  was  seen c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y i n the decorations of rooms l i k e the  -80one in  from  the P a l a z z o  Sagredo,on the Grand C a n a l  t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum i n New  York.  t u r e , s c u l p t u r e , p a i n t i n g , f u r n i t u r e , and are  orchestrated into  the  Abbey of R o t t e n b u c h i n A u s t r i a , In p a i n t i n g  an  exaggeration  in  the d e l i c a t e l y  the  tinted  p e r s o n a l sense  and  works  the  now  architecof the  of t h e  style  day are  Zwinger i n Dresden.  essentially  of the  rooms  even the l i g h t examples  t r a d i t i o n was  of the b a r o q u e  t h e works o f C h a r d i n , and  a whole. Other  In s u c h  of Venice,  French  , being  c o u r t of L o u i s X I V ,  shown  of W a t t e a u , F r a g o n a r d , B o u c h e r ,  whose s l i g h t l y  of c o m p o s i t i o n  pitted  had  an  and  and  grainy surface  i n f l u e n c e on many  suc-  ceeding p a i n t e r s . In t h e p a i n t i n g Impressionism  of n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y  t h e r e was  a revival  t o w a r d s the a c c e n t u a t i o n  of l i n e  Prance p r i o r  of c l a s s i c i s m and a t the  a  to  tendency  expense of, the  other e l -  i \  ements, v i s i b l e and like  i n the work of s u c h a r t i s t s  the h i s t r i o n i s m  o f D e l a c r o i x . The  D a u m i e r i n P r a n c e and  t h e work of t h e mentioned, Anatole  critics  closely  parallels  of the p e r i o d , Dickens  already  Flaubert,(d.1880),Zola(d.1902)  and  France(d.1924). I n R u s s i a i t was  a similar  though  literature, ecially  and  Ingres;  work o f s o c i a l  Hogarth i n England  great n o v e l i s t s  f o r England,  as D a v i d ,  visible  i n the p o e t r y  d e l a y e d R o m a n t i c i s m was  shown a l s o  i n the n o v e l s  i n the m a g n i f i c e n t p i c t u r e s  Dostoievski.  the western  calls  or f a u s t i a n  the  taking place i n  their esp-  o f i n t e n s e l y human l i f e  in  final  s o u l , and  that  of Turgenev,Gogol,and  In Germany i t d e v e l o p e d  " F a u s t " what S p e n g l e r  of P u s h k i n ,  was  i n Goethes's g r e a t  drama  perfected expression visible  i n the  of  philosophy  -81of K a n t , H e g e l , S c h o p e n h a u e r , and by  Schlegel  icism  War. new  of S h a k e s p e a r e ' s p l a y s ,  of L e s s i n g .  bitter  social  In S p a i n  criticism  Everywhere  dent still lues  two  current  i n a r t today -  life  around  titude,  and  that  of t u r n i n g  pect  into a searching  and  novels  and  Adding  t o the  of the  new  the  anical  the  study  some f i n e new  of  artist the  of s u c h men  Singer  (street  of  values  only  then,  but  f r o m the  false  va-  'art f o r a r t ' s  value  eviare  o f a r t and  sake'athuman-  conditions resulting  in  the m a c h i n e  through improved  first  'one  h a l f of  as-  transportation  world'  the  still  more  2otn century,  Thomas B l a n c h a r d ( p r o f i l e  lighting),Samuel  K e l v i n ( A t l a n t i c cable).Alexander Forest  in  Lathe),Fred-  C l e g g ( g a s meter),Howe ( l i n o t y p e ) and  ( f i l m developing),Eastman(kodak),Morse  de  of a r t ,  the  which  t  Marconi(wireless),Lee  of  and  otype ) S c h o l e s ( t y p e w r i t e r ) , G o o d y e a r ( v u l c a n i z a t i o n  Lord  Peninsular  criticism.  (sewing machine).Merganthaier  Daguerre  the  o f i t s u n i t y of p u r p o s e , were the mech-  the  as  crit-  is particularly  turning  denied  social  s o c i e t y , and,  achievements  e r i c k Winsor  not  ana  t o an  of s o c i a l  the  inventions, developing  to a r e a l i z a t i o n  the work  of  between the  visible,  that  aesthetic  p e r i o d produced  values  c o m m u n i c a t i o n methods, b r i n g t h i s  closely  i n the  a t t i t u d e s which i t produced  the  great  split  s o c i e t y and  of  ity  i n the t r a n s l a t i o n s  o f Goya's e t c h i n g s  o f ' h u m a n i t y ' i t s e l f , was i n the  and  i t s earliest  i n Europe t h i s  industrialized  those  Nietzsch,  Lanston of  and (mon-  rubber),  (telegraph),  Graham H e l l ( t e l e p h o n e ) ,  (radio),Edison(electricity),G.F.  J e n k i n s ( t e l e v i s i on),Ford(aut omobile),Wright Brothers(ae roplane), Liebig  and  Wohler(industrial chemistry),  organization),Karl Marx(socialism),De  J.P.Morgan(financial  Gobineau  (racism),Gatling,  -82Maxim,Colt,Du Pont,Krupp,Skoda,Armstrong & V i c k e r s , a n d  Schneider-  Creusot  (armaments),Galvani,Volta,Ampere,Ohm, ( e l e c t r i c a l  Faraday  (dynamo),Hetz,Helmholtz,Einstein,Manhattan  ic  Project  (atom-  fission). Architecture,  i n this  age o f i n d u s t r y , r e c e i v e d a new im-  petus, which i n h e a r i n g out Spengler's ture  i s the f i r s t  p o r t s my turally the  speaking.  'new w o r l d  1  own d i c t u m  a r t a f f e c t e d h y new b e g i n n i n g s  contention that  of c u l t u r e ,  the s k y s c r a p e r of American  and e x c i t i n g works o f a r t i n t h e i r p e r s o n n e l problems,  t h e modern d e p a r t m e n t  cul-  business,towering  ment b l o c k s h a v e , simplicity  s t o r e was t r e a t e d  life  U.S.A. and t h a t  the l a r g e  were  Factory at Rotterda,;  i n Germany and Sweden dwelling units  or aparta functional  i n t h e g r e a t power dams n e c e s s a r y  again t h i s  i s visible,  at Dnieperpetrovsk,  sometimes  of s t r u c t u r a l  i n some M e x i c a n e x a m p l e s , a c h i e v e d  and" g r a c e ;  city  solution  a s i n t h e Van N e l l e  w i t h i m a g i n a t i o n and b e a u t y ;  ustrial  sup-  e x p r e s s i o n i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f  ormous f a c t o r i e s made n e c e s s a r y b y mass p r o d u c t i o n real  architec-  t h i s p e r i o d i s one o f new b e g i n n i n g s  Its typical  was  that  35 s t o r i e s i n t o t h e a i r and h o u s i n g 5ooo p e o p l e ; t h e e n -  more t h a n  and  science?)  f o r ind-  as i n the B o u l d e r  Dam,  b l o w n up b y t h e R u s s i a n s i n  the f a c e o f t h e German advance  i n t h e r e c e n t war; and f i n a l l y ,  possible  d w e l l i n g i s shown i n t h e d e s i g n s  of  of t h e p r i v a t e  s u c h men a s F r a n k  whole and  beauty  residential  districts  and i n t h e c i t y  o f s u c h men  planning of  as Mumford,LeCorbusier,  Neutra. Sculpture  architecture, the  L l o y d Wright,  the  time  i s no l o n g e r u s e d  but s i g n i f i c a n t  as a fundamental  a c t i v i t y has been g o i n g  p a r t of on s i n c e  o f R o d i n b y E p s t e i n , M a i l l o l , L a c h a i s e , D e g a s , and i n the.  -83smooth a b s t r a c t e d  shapes of  P a i n t i n g has quivalent  to the  passed  Brancusi. through various  K o m a n t i c p o e t s i n the  C e z a n n e , G a u g u i n , D e g a s , P u v i s de Pascin;  the  work of  in  beasts'  Germany the  expressionism  of K a n d i n s k y ;  and  Bracque;  and  and  other  plete  still  Rivera,Orosco  s u c h men  Carr,  and  sinewy p o e t i c novel  and  l e d at f i r s t  Futurism;  by  paint-  Picasso  of r e a l i s t s  have a r r i v e d  o f the  Jack Shadbolt and  the  the m a g n i f i c e n t  the new  and  young and  use  a t an  ;  other  the work  i n Canada  and  still  the more and  developing  o l d medium  Diego to  comment. i n l a n g u a g e as  expressive  f o r m - the  Auden i s matched  Isherwood;  the  Mexican f r e s c o i s t s ,  of D.H.Lawrence and  Christopher  We-  com-  L i o n e l Thomas,  t h e i r very  interest  of E l i o t  almost  'Group o f S e v e n ' and  v e r y modern s o c i a l  language  dous H u x l e y and  'Pauves'  non-objective  a s s o c i a t i v e images i s c r e a t i n g a new  by  of  a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l i n f o r m ;  S i q u e i r o s , who  In l i t e r a t u r e of ideas  as  finally  and  make s i g n i f c a n t  of the  who  representationalism  Lamb; and  of the  Italy  a b s t r a c t i o n from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l values;  work o f  the work  Rousseau,Utrillo,  In  the  'ash-can' s c h o o l  l i k e M o n d r i a n who  s u c h women as E m i l y Molly  Cubists  of Monet,  l i k e W i n s l o w Homer,John M a r i n , W a l t Kuhn,Max  Yasuo K u n i y o s h i  romantic recent  the  and  e-  e a r l y Cezanne;  by  period  by M a t i s s e ;  that  Gogh,Modigliani,and  Henri  the  of-Klee,  i n A m e r i c a the  artists  ber  i n France  like  Chagall;  l e d f o r a while  ing  American  and  the  represented  Chavannes,Van  individualists  Soutine,Pouault,Chirico, or'wild  some of  of p o s t - i m p r e s s i o n i s m  , one  Impressionism  Manet,Pisarro,Seurat,Sisley,Renoir,and another p e r i o d  stages  Virginia  i n I r e l a n d , by  i n the  new art  Woolff,Althe  potent  influence  of James J o y c e  i n poetry; iniscing in  i n P r a n c e hy  of P r o u s t ' s  t h e U.S.A. hy  -84i n the n o v e l , and the  curiously precise intellectual  e x p l o r a t i o n s of time  the n o v e l s  of s u c h men  by  of s o c i a l  the  stuttering  Stein; and  by  style;/the  shown i n S t e i n b e c k ' s  attempts  t h e work of  and  by  the  at s t y l i s t i c  revision  short s t o r i e s  the n o v e l s  a change, w o r t h r e a d i n g as  o f one  of  and  influential  Franz Kafka, Albert  throughout  literate  world  Other  been w i d e l y  are  Thomas  read  ^ann,  G a b r i e l Silone,Arthua? K o e s t l e r , Jean P a u l S a r t r e ,  Camus, K o n s t a n t i n Simonov, and  Stephan  In c r i t i c i s m  : Santayana,Dewey,White-  there are w r i t i n g  Parker,Lipps,Spengler,  Maritain i n Aestheics;  T.S.Eliot,  i n Philosophy;  I v o r W i n t e r s . W i l l i a m Empson and  Criticism; and  and  Cassirer  Zweig.  and  zybski  Stafford;  Hugh M a c L e n n a n .  head,Russell,Croce,Bergson  erary  Passos,Parrel,  young C a n a d i a n w h i c h a r e , f o r  literature,  the  Gertrude  Jean  E u r o p e a n n o v e l i s t s whose work i n t r a n s l a t i o n h a s and  panoramic  o f I r w i n Shaw,John O'Hara,  Saroyan,Damon Runyan,James T h u r b e r ,  i n Canada b y  tilde;  " G r a p e s o f Wrath";  the g e n r e s t u d i e s of s u c h w r i t e r s as Dos  Faulkner;  William and  impact  and  rem-  as E r n e s t Hemingway,usby  i n g a h i g h l y p e r s o n a l and m u s c u l a r p r o s e novel  W i l l i a m B u t l e r Yeats  Mumford,  I.A.Richards,  Herbert  Read i n L i t -  Ogden & R i c h a r d s , T a r s k i , C h a r l e s M o r r i s , K o r -  Hayakawa i n S e m a n t i c s ;  Watson,:Dewey,  Dashiell,Binet,  Thorndike,Yerkes,Terman i n Psychology;  Freud,  Psycho-analysis;  Sorokin,Spengler,Marx,Le-  and  Toynbee, P a r e t o ,  nin,Trotsky,Bernard  Shaw, Edmund W i l s o n ,  social  analysis.  and  cultural  Literature ideas  and  i n g e n e r a l has  terminology  and  A d l e r , Jung i n  Wyndham L e w i s i n  been a f f e c t e d  f r o m many o t h e r b r a n c h e s  by  the  influx  of  o f human k n o w l -  e d g e . F o r example, Joyce  i n t h e n o v e l , and  modern n o v e l  -85'streara-of-consciousness' technique  i n the  i n the  the p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c t h e o r i e s o f F r e u d  e a g u e s have h e e n i n f l u e n t i a l , the n o v e l a l s o . psychological and  the  In p o e t r y ,  as h a v e  the  the  and  a new  of E l i o t  approach  social  'associationist'  t h e o r i e s of p o e t i c m e a n i n g  traditionalism  technique,  c h a r a c t e r a n a l y s e s employed  toward  coll-  t h e o r i e s used and  in  'imagist'  to produce  poetic  i n the  and h i s  of R i c h a r d s and  have m i x e d  of  Empson,  a new  verbal  e x p r e s s i o n , and i t s  c r i t i c a l evaluation. But and is  i t i s i n the  techniques  of  t h o u g h the  a highly personal  in  society  of the  film  that  had  this  creative  to say about  the A t l a n t i c  ability  o u t l e t here  t h e new  a r e most c l e a r l y v i s i b l e .  a c o o p e r a t i v e t e c h n i c a l undertaking, not  genius,  has  our  realm  t h e work  of  values The  lonely  of the i n d i v i d u a l h a s  a l s o . A young c r i t i c  i t s position today,  of t h e  i n a recent  film  found film article  Monthly...  • The monumental c o r a i t r a g e d i e s o f C h a p l i n , the v i g o r o u s abs u r d i t i e s o f Mack S e n n e t t , W a l t D i s n e y ' s a n i m a t e d w o r l d o f f a n t a s y , a n d some memorable f i l m s f r o m s u c h ' d i r e c t o r s as Von S t r o heim,Murnau,Vidor,Ford,Milestone,Wyler — i n the l o n g r u n t h e s e r e m a r k a b l y m a t u r e a c h i e v e m e n t s f o r an i n f a n t a r t may b a l a n c e t h e ..sins .of t a s ; e l e s s n e s s , u n i m a g i n a t i v e n e 8 s , , .and ; a r t i s t i c a m o r a l i t y a m a j o r i t y of American f i l m makers have committed systematically f o r generations. . . '"•-These 'of f e n d e r s .nave t a k e n an i n s t r u m e n t as s e n s i t i v e , as d e l i c a t e l y b a l a n c e d , as c a p a b l e 'of i n d e s c r i b a b l e b e a u t y and s u b t l e e m o t i o n as the f i n e s t S t e i n w a y ; t h e y have s e t t h e m s e l v e s b e f o r e the l a r g e s t a u d i e n c e i n the h i s t o r y o f the world — and have p r o c e e d e d t o p l a y c h o p s t i c k s . " F o r w i t h h a l f a c e n t u r y of m o t i o n - p i c t u r e e x h i b i t i o n beh i n d us i t i s h i g h time we were h o n e s t w i t h o u r s e l v e s and our g r e a t m a c h i n e f o r m a k i n g a r t . H o l l y w o o d f i n i s h e s a t l e a s t one f e a t u r e - l e n g t h p i c t u r e e v e r y . d a y o f the y e a r , and. s i x o f the s e v e n t u r n e d o u t a r e j u s t p l a i n c h o p s t i c k s , the same tune everybody knows,repeated i n a repeated s e r i e s of r e p e t i t i o n s . "How c a n i t be t h a t the o n l y n a t i o n i n t h e w o r l d w i t h a t r a d i t i o n o f p o p u l a r e d u c a t i o n p r o d u c e s 98 m i l l i o n m o v i e g o e r s a week who h a p p i l y keep on p a y i n g t h e i r two b i t s , f o u r ;  -86b i t s , s i x "bits (and sometimes t h r e e t i m e s t h a t much) t o see and h e a r c h o p s t i c k s y e a r i n and y e a r out ? "What's the t r o u b l e ? I s i t j u s t t h a t H o l l y w o o d i s a low p r e s s u r e a r e a i n our n a t i o n a l c u l t u r e ? Itfsnot q u i t e so s i m p l e as the e a s y c o n c l u s i o n t h a t H o l l y w o o d ' s h i e r a r c h y i s composed o f a b r e e d i n f e r i o r t o the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . I n stead, too o f t e n t h e i r short-comings l i e i n t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o l i f t t h e m s e l v e s above the l o w e s t common denomina t o r o f p u b l i c t a s t e . How t o r a i s e the s t a n d a r d o f a l l our m a s s - c o n s u m p t i o n a r t s i s the b a s i c p r o b l e m ; H o l l y w o o d i s m e r e l y an o u t s t a n d i n g and s p e c t a c u l a r example. The aestheti c b a n k r u p t c y t h a t p u t s " S t a g e D o o r C a n t e e n " onto the A l l Time L i s t of Box O f f i c e Champios ( w h i l e f i l m s o f l e s s obv i o u s a t t r a c t i o n l i k e * T h e I n f o r m e r " and "The Ox-bow I n c i dent" are l u c k y i f they get t h e i r c o s t s b a c k ) , t h a t p e r m i t s t e n s of m i l l i o n s t o e n j o y m o v i e s t h a t a r e f a l s e , s h a l l o w , and c l i c h e - c l u t t e r e d , i s the same I d i o t Muse t h a t e n a b l e s c o u n t l e s s r a d i o - l i s t e n e r s t o s u b m i t u n c o m p l a i n i n g l y t o the b r a i n - c r u s h i n g b a n a l i t i e s o f the soap o p e r a s a n d . t h e r o u t i n e t e r r o r s . Sex, n o t as d e f i n e d by Hemingway b u t as d i s h e d up by K a t h l e e n W i n s o r . C r i m e , n o t as p e n e t r a t e d by D o s t o i e v s k i b u t as b a t t e d out by E r i e S t a n l e y G a r d n e r . L o v e , n o t as d i g n i f i e d by T o l s t o y b u t as standardized,streamlined, and sweetened t o t a s t e ( e v e r y b o d y a) i n our r a d i o - s h o w s , l o v e m a g a z i n e s and m o v i e s . I s t h i s the p r i c e we have t o pay f o r b e i n g n o t the b e s t - e d u c a t e d p e o p l e i n t h e w o r l d b u t m e r e l y t h e most l i t e r a t e , w i t h more l e i s u r e t h a n we know what t o do w i t h , and so much money f o r r e c r e a t i o n t h a t the r e c r e a t i v e p u r s u i t s must be g e a r e d t o m a s s - p r o d u c t i o n ?" 25. l  The one  problem  of a r t today,  of decadence but  flourishing  film  movement r a t h e r  not  of  I have a t t e m p t e d terms  of  their  residue  noted  t h a t we  than  one  of t u r g i d i t y . B u t  the  are  above a s u r v e y forces,  cultural  upsurge, new  the  but  t o be  new of  art-forms cultural  e s s e n t i a l questposed by  o f human c u l t u r e  i n the  phase  the  generally.  of western c i v i l i z a t i o n ,  i t s concluding  not  sufficiently  i t s m a i n c u l t u r a l movements  a r t s , and  i n the  in a period  everywhere b e i n g  a r t s alone,  i n the  above, and  value  are  have a  even the  say  i t s motive  t o w a r d a new  producing  to  o f d i r e c t i o n and  situation  seems t o me  of d i r e c t i o n . We  technical ability  o f r a d i o and  ions  one  therefore,  in and  pointing  architectural activity  b a l l a d - a r t of  the  film.  It  remains  to evaluate t h e i r p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r achievement today. 2 5 , Budd S c h u l b e r g , o p . c i t . . A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y . November,1947.  -87Chapter Four  :  The C o n c e p t o f A r t i n R e l a t i o n t o the  Economic B a s i s o f L i v i n g , E x a m i n e d ,  and  the P o s s i b i l i t y  Development under Forms C u r r e n t T o d a y  F  o r Free  t h e two  Creative Economic  assessed.  «88-*  The  expression o f the poetic  we p o s s e s s h a s b e e n change. cenean  Greek  seen  a r t we have  to mirror  early  and what i s known a s s p e c i f i c a l l y  ly,  I contend,  the e a r l i e s t  'western'  Just  'western'  art,Romanesque  a r t we have  art  t  seen  and s i m i l a r -  the s t i l l  existent  and c i v i l i z a t i o n  o f much o f t h i s  framework o f  generally.  typically  western a r t can  be c l a s s i c a l o r S e m i t i c i n o r i g i n , a l t h o u g h c o m p l e t e -  seen t o  ly  enfeoffed within  the western  ideal,  o f t h e new w o r l d c i v i l i z a t i o n  ready e x i s t e n t in  Christian  o f My-  e x p r e s s i o n o f a new W o r l d - A r t c a n  , within  as r o o t s  be  signs  on t h e r e m a i n s  t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i n g Roman E m p i r e ;  now be s e e n e m e r g i n g typically  the process of c u l t u r a l  seen b u i l d i n g  and C r e t a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s ;  developing within  impulse i n the a r t - r e c o r d s  i n a s i m i l a r way, t h e  have d e v e l o p e d w i t h i n a l -  forms...double-entry book-keeping  being invented  the 1 5 t h c e n t u r y ; m a n u f a c t u r i n g p r o c e s s e s b e i n g f i r s t  on h a n d c r a f t s ; l a r g e large  business monopolies  land-monopolies  industrial patterns,  of f e u d a l Europe  designs employing and o n l y  lately  first  evolving  using  the i d e a  and d e c a d e n t  the decorative their  based  of the  ^ome; new  traditional  own c o m p l e t e l y f u n c .'-  tional  formal expression.' World-Art g e n e r a l l y has thus evolved  within  the t e c h n i c a l  expressiveness created  by w e s t e r n  civili-  zation. We periods,  can t r a c e ,  i n the r e s i d u a l  the c u l t u r a l  changes  aft-objects  i n emphasis.  The u r b a n i z a t i o n o f  Roman s o c i e t y w i t h i t s a t t e n d a n t s o p h i s t i c a t e d was d e r i v a t i v e ing  from  of different  Empire-values  t h e change i n p r o d u c t i v e b u s i n e s s and. f a r m -  methods, and t h i s  change  i svisible  i n e e r i n g works e x p r e s s i v e o f t h e p e r i o d  i n the a r t i s t i c  and eng-  : f o r sample,in Ovidian  -89-  s a t i r e o f p r e v i o u s l y a c c e p t e d s o c i a l mores; i n t h e d e t a i l e d and w e l l organized  system o f Roman Law; and i n the t e c h n i c a l e x c e l -  l e n c e and w i d e s p r e a d development of the d u r a b l e Roman Roads. S i m i l a r l y , i n the f e u d a l i z a t i o n of w e s t e r n (European) s o c i e t y w i t h i t s change i n the p r o d u c t i v e u n i t t o the f e u d a l estate  and i t s acceptance of the i d e a of f e a l t y t o such a f e u d a l  l o r d , was t y p i c a l l y expressed i n t h e c h i v a l r i c romances of the p e r i o d ; i n the chamber music composed,during i t s l a s t  stages,for  the s m a l l p r i v a t e o r c h e s t r a s of the f e u d a l c o u r t s and i n the p a r t s i n g i n g which accompanied or was interspersed...among the i n s t rumental music;, i n the. t r a n s f o r m a t i o n  of the c o u n t r y - d a n c i n g  of  the p e a s a n t s i n t o the c o u r t - d a n c e - f o r m s p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d ; and i n the d e c o r a t i v e a r t s of the costumer,. the armourer, and o f those attendant  a r t s of embroidery and The  tapestry-work.  growth o f the c i t i e s , the spread o f t r a d e , the con-  c e n t r a t i o n of t h e c r a f t s i n the c i t y g u i l d s , can a l s o be seen t o have i n f l u e n c e d e x p r e s s i o n  i n the a r t s by i n c r e a s i n g the r a t e  of s e c u l a r i z a t i o n of the s u b j e c t - m a t t e r  used and the f o r m a l  p a t t e r n s employed - i n m u s i c , the p o p u l a r  performances of the  e a r l y o p e r a ; i n t h e m u s i c a l accompaniment f o r the dance; i n the drama, the g r a d u a l  change from t h e m i r a c l e and m y s t e r y - p l a y s t o  those of the r i c h and s o p h i s t i c a t e d E l i z a b e t h a n t h e a t r e ; i n a r c h i t e c t u r e , the b u i l d i n g o f such m a g n i f i c e n t  secular e d i f i c e s  as the g u i l d h a l l s and t o w n - h a l l s ; and i n g e n e r a l , a change f r o m the J f e u d a l c h i v a l r i c and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s t o those of c u r i o s i t y and  t h e urge f o r knowledge i s m i r r o r e d  e s p e c i a l l y i n the s c i e n t i f i c e n q u i r y Renaissance -to-modern.  i n the l i f e  of t h e p e r i o d  of the whole age o f the  -90-  With the change in methods in the i n d u s t r i a l revolution we arrive at s i m i l a r perceptible changes in s o c i a l values, and in art-expression i n the emergence of bourgeois Romanticism and proletarian Realism. If we can accept(with reservations) the Spenglerian  tne-  ofy of culture-patterns as exclusive wholes during t h e i r time of flowering, I think we must s t i l l see the process  of culture  in the whole world as a gradually expanding c i r c l e of influence, as a gradually more inclusive unit within which l i v i n g  together  can become more meaningful and gracious, and that today we must see that there are only global l i m i t s to our culture, and that t h i s presents an even more pressing necessity f o r s o c i a l cooperation within that large unit, while at the same time i t makes possible an enriched c u l t u r a l My  expression.  thesis i s this : that Spengler's analysis of western  culture ( developing  into Gothic,expressing  i t s e l f most f u l l y  in Baroque, and declining i n the following bourgeois decorativism) can be accepted  a s  i l l u m i n a t i n g the superstructure of  s o c i a l ^ v a l u e s by showing the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of the cultural drives of the arts, sciences,mathematics.a,and philosophy  of any  c u l t u r a l pattern. It does no less c e r t a i n l y pervert however, or ignore, the basic importance of methods of economic production, though he does note the surface e f f e c t s of i n d u s t r i a l change, which has l a r g e l y resulted in the s t e r i l e art-forms which Spengl e r notes. But, and here i s my main point of disagreement, Spengl e r ignores the basic changes wrought by those changes in method and sees the present as an extension of the exclusively western culture, decadent, save for development i n technics. In contra-  distinction o f a new  to  this,  the  typically  the  expressive  first  of  i n the  of  form-world  economic l i f e  order  that  our  this  new  major p o i n t  of C h a p t e r T h i r t e e n "All  and  of  philosophy  values  art-forms  of  just  i s the  its  inherent  own  i n good film.  i s with  Spengler's  of a s o u l - l i f e " .  seeia t o mean t h a t  c r e a t i v e genius,  e c o n o m i c modes. My  and  title  i n d i s c u s s i n g w h i c h he  expression  our  of  of Greece,  r a d i o and  of c o n t e n t i o n  point  of as  religion  m o t i v e power, and  i n the  beginnings  the media  civilization  of -Rome, the  of Volume Two)  'soul-life',  a period  of e c o n o m i c l i f e f j i w h i c h i s the  s t a t e m e n t would  e x p r e s s e s our  law  science  statement  and and  'the  western  w e s t d i d , i t s own  machine d e s i g n , My  the  as  i n scope, u t i l i z i n g  l a n g u a g e and  Jewish C h r i s t i a n i t y , creating,as  present  developed w i t h i n  west u s e d  theory  -91the  c u l t u r e , world-wide  art-expression the  I see  says:  In  terms  Spengler  feelB  shapes v i s i b l y  and  of view i s a r e v e r s a l  of  thi s• My culture  second p o i n t i s 'dying'  These two  of  the  points  of c o n t e n t i o n  ally if  he  soul-life  d i r e c t s the  withering  of  our  our  speaking, western c u l t u r e means o n l y  that  i n the  that  then  i s dying  should  there  since  even S p e n g l e r h i m s e l f late  i s no  period  the  out  mean t h a t  fol-  fact(as  with  the  economic-  i s equally disintegrating.  s p e c i f i c a l l y ' w e s t e r n ' c u l t u r e and  I feel  i t i s the  theory  f i t together  economic,  soul-life  culture,  life,  that  the  '  Spengler contends) that gradual  i s with  today.  l o w i n g manner. If  contention  objection  to t h i s  of m e g a l i p o l i t a n  economic  statement.  a d m i t s i n h i s schema o f  And  But  development  decadence(today)  -92i n which in  economics  flourishes,  I feel  an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n w h i c h  and  indicates  rather  the r e a l  i s an e f f o r t  shows the' f o l l y  o r d e r , f r o m economic  seems i m p o r t a n t t o me.  between t h e c r e a t i v e c a n be  arts within  factor  established,  i n man  this  to a r t -  and  I f the c o r r e c t t h e economic  r e l a t i o n may  the two  existent  economic  S p e n g l e r ' s whole s e c t i o n  be  of culture-Sat t e r n s ,  performs  pattern  of the  p a t t e r n s of  though  relation  some b a s i s  on the economic  t o be m y s t i c i s m rampant, w h i c h  comparisons tion  of h i s order  form-life  m e a n i n g f u l p r o g n o s i s f o r the f u t u r e d e v e l o p m e n t  t o me  to f i t  than h i s r e v e r s e p a t t e r n . This point  life  this  today.  form-life  act of  i n s u c h a deep p u r p l e r o m a n t i c g l o w as t o be  for a  creative  illuminating  this  of  seems in i t s  illumina-  suspect  "Man", he s a y s , " h a s l i s t e n e d - i n t o t h e m a r c h o f IMature and made n o t e s o f i t s i n d i c e s . He b e g i n s t o i m i t a t e i t by means and methods t h a t u t i l i z e the l a w s of the c o s m i c p u l s e . . . T h e s t o c k o f s u c h d i s c o v e r i e s grew and grew. O f t e n t h e y were made and f o r g o t t e n and made a g a i n , were i m i t a t e d , s h u n n e d , i m p r o v e d . But i n t h e end t h e y c o n s t i t u t e d f o r whole c o n t i n e n t s a s t o r e o f s e l f - e v i d e n t means - f i r e , m e t a l - w o r k i n g , i n s t r u m e n t s , a r m s , p l o u g h s , b o a t s , h o u s e s , a n i m a l - t a i m i n g and h u s b a n d r y . . . O n t h i s f o u n d a t i o n , now r i s e s t h e h i g h e r C u l t u r e s , e x p r e s s i v e i n q u a l i t y and c o l o u r and p a s s i o n o f the whole s o u l of t h e s e m a j o r e n t i t i e s . I t need h a r d l y be s a i d t h a t C l a s s i c a l Man, who f e l t h i m s e l f and h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i k e E u c l i d e a n , s e t h i m s e l f a p r i o r i i n h o s t i l e o p p o s i t i o n t o the v e r y i d e a o f t e c h n i q u e . . . V e r y d i f f e r e n t i s the E a u s t i a n t e c h n i c s , w h i c h w i t h a l l i t s p a s s i o n of the t h i r d d i m e n s i o n and f r o m e a r l i e s t G o t h i c d a y s , t h r u s t s i t s e l f upon n a t u r e , w i t h the f i r m r e s o l v e t o be i t s m a s t e r . H e r e and h e r e o n l y , i s the c o n n e c t i o n o f i n s i g h t and u t i l i z a t i o n a m a t t e r o f c o u r s e . Theory i s working h y p o t h e s i s from the s t a r t . . . T h e P a u s t i a n i n v e n t o r and d i s c o v e r o r i s a u n i q u e t y p e . The p r i m * i t i v e f o r ce o f h i s w i l l , the b r i l l i a n c e o f h i s v i s i o n s , t h e s t e e l y e n e r g y of h i s p r a c t i c a l p o n d e r i n g s must a p p e a r q u e e r and i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e f o r anyone a t the s t a n d p o i n t o f a n o t h e r c u l t u r e , b u t f o r u s t h e y a r e i n the b l o o d . . . T h e y l i s t e n e d t o the l a w s of the c o s m i c p u l s e i n o r d e r t o overpower i t . And so t h e y c r e a t e d t h e m a c h i n e as a s m a l l cosmos o b e y i n g t h e w i l l o f man a l o n e . . . A s t h e h o r s e - p o w e r s run t o m i l l i o n s and m i n i m i s , t h e numbers of t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e and i n c r e a s e on a s c a l e t h a t not o t h e r c u l t u r e thought p o s s i b l e . T h i s growth i s a prodxcct o f t h e m a c h i n e . »pfi 25.Spengler,op.cit.,pp .500-506. s  -93S p e n g l e r sees t h r e e s t a g e s i n the development o f the economic f o r m - l i f e : t h a t o f p r o d u c t i o n , t h e mode o f t h e p e a s a n t ; t h a t o f trade,  t h e mode o f t h e m i d d l e m a n ; a n d one between t h e s e  preparatory  stage,  of the c r a f t s , see  two, a  o r economy o f t e c h n i c s w h i c h he c a l l s  i n d u s t r i e s and c a l l i n g s .  a g r o u p who c o u l d be c a l l e d  t h e mode  B u t nowehere d o e s he  a 'working-class',  saying :  " I n a c t u a l i t y t h e r e i s an a l m o s t u n c o u n t a b l e number o f p u r e l y s e r v i n g a c t i v i t i e s i n workshop,and counting-houses, o f f i c e and c a r g o - d e c k , r o a d s , m i n e s , f i e l d s , a n d meadows;;;. A l l t h e s e t h i n g s a r e q u i t e i n c a p a b l e of b e i n g compared among t h e m s e l v e s . . . f a r m - l a b o u r e r s , b a n k - c l e r k s , a n d . tailor's h a n d s l i v e i n p e r f e c t l y d i f f e r e n t economic w o r l d s " . 27 I have q u o t e d in  Spengler  w h i c h I have a c c u s e d  at this  l e n g t h t o make clea,r t h e s e n s e  him - the e s s e n t i m l  t h o u g h t . To my way of t h i n k i n g he i g n o r e s schematic  p r e s e n t a t i o n . One c o u l d  romanticism  of h i s  the b a s i c i s s u e i n h i s  say, r a t h e r ,  that  there are  these s t a g e s . . . I n d i v i d u a l s , m a k i n g a l i v i n g Groups, making a l i v i n g specify  and  t h e ways i n w h i c h t h e l i v i n g s  then  and t h e n  go on t o  a r e made as  Marauding S o c i e t i e s Hunting,and F i s h i n g S o c i e t i e s . Hunting,Fishing,and A g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s . H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g , A g r i c . , and T r a d i n g S o c i e t i e s . H u n t i n g , F i s h i n g , A g r i c . , T r a d i n g , and I n d u s t r i a l S o c . f i n a l l y , n o t e t h e method o f enonomic o r g a n i z a t i o n u s e d  as  Group c o o p e r a t i o n , f o r g r o u p u s e Some g r o u p c o o p e r a t i o n , f o r the p r o f i t  of c e r t a i n  p a r t s of the group, i n a competitive  This difference i n the basic motivations would,  I feel,  developed;  affect  t h e way e v e r y  on t h e one hand  27.  o f t h e whole  of c u l t u r a l  a l l o w i n g f o r the f u l l  e v e r y member, and on t h e o t h e r , ed d e v e l o p m e n t  stage  on t h e m a j o r i t y  Spengler,op.cit.,pps.479-80  group  activity  development of  e n f o r c i n g only p a r t i a l of the group.  economy.  or d i s t o r t -  To dence in  support  this  -94contention  I would l i k e  to cite  t h e c u l t u r e - a n a l y s e s made h y R u t h B e n e d i c t  her book,"Patterns  cultural  buan and T r o b r i a n d  and p u b l i s h e d  of C u l t u r e " , i n w h i c h she t e l l s  h a b i t s o f many g r o u p s , groups,  i n evi-  o f the  among them t h e c o n t r a s t i n g Do-  o f f the southern  New G u i n e a . . . " T h e Dobuans amply d e s e r v e  shores  of e a s t e r n  the c h a r a c t e r  they are  g i v e n by t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s . They a r e l a w l e s s and t r e a c h e r o u s ; e v e r y man's hand i s a g a i n s t e v e r y o t h e r man. They l a c k t h e smoothly working o r g a n i z a t i o n of the T r o b r i a n d s , headed by h o n o u r e d c h i e f s and m a i n t i a n i n g p e a c e f u l and r e c i p r o c a l exc h a n g e s o f f o o d and p r i v i l e g e s . Dobu h a s no c h i e f s . I t c e r t a i n l y h a s no p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . I n a s t r i c t s e n s e i t h a s no l e g a l i t y . And t h i s i s n o t b e c a u s e t h e Dobuans l i v e i n a s t a t e o f a n a r c h y , R o u s s e a u • s ' n a t u r a l man' a s y e t unhampered by t h e s o c i a l c o n t r a c t , b u t b e c a u s e t h e s o c i a l f o r m s w h i c h o b t a i n i n Dobu p u t a premium on i l l - w i l l and t r e a c h e r y and make them t h e r e c o g n i z e d v i r t u e s o f t h e i r s o c i e t y . " 2 8 i My p o i n t h e r e of  i s t o show how i n a p r i m i t i v e s o c i a l  the a g r i c u l t u r e - w i t h - a - l i t t l e - f i s h i n g - v a r i e t y ,  or non-ownership radical primary  i n common  o f t h e l a n d and seed  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c u s t o m s a r i s i n g d i f f e r e n c e between  from  group  the ownership  yams c a n make this,  t o me,  themm.....,..  "The j e a l o u s y and s u p i c i o n " , M i s s B e n e d i c t g o e s o n , " t h e f i e r c e e x c l u s i v e n e s s o f o w n e r s h i p t h a t a r c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Dobu a r e a l l i n t h e for.egoround o f Dobuan m a r r i a g e , b u t i t i s imp o s s i b l e t o giiue them f u l l w e i g h t u n t i l we have c o n s i d e r e d a l s o t h e i r manner of l i f e i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s . The m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t r u n t h r o u g h a l l Dobuan e x i s t e n c e a r e s i n g u l a r l y l i m i t e d . . . I n t h e m s e l v e s t h e y have t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f m a n i a . A l l e x i s t e n c e i s c u t - t h r o a t c o m p e t i t i o n , and e v e r y a d v a n t a g e i s g a i n e d a t t h e expense o f a d e f e a t e d r i v a l . . . t h e good man, t h e s u c c e s s f u l man, i s he who h a s c h e a t e d a n o t h e r o f h i s p l a c e . " 29. " T h e r e i s no c a s u a l coming and g o i n g i n Dobu. A p a t h l e a d s a r o u n d t h e o u t s k i r t s o f e a c h v i l l a g e , and t h o s e who a r e p r i v i l e g e d t o a p p r o a c h so n e a r , s k i r t t h e s e t t l e m e n t b y t h i s p a t h . As we s h a l l s e e , a f t e r t h e i r f a t h e r ' s d e a t h , t h e c h i l d r e n o f the men o f t h e v i l l a g e have n o t even t h i s p r i v i l e g e o f approach. I f the f a t h e r i s s t i l l l i v i n g , o r i f i t i s the v i l l a g e of t h e i r s p o u s e , t h e y may e n t e r by. i n v i t a t i o n . A l l o t h e r s p a s s a r o u n d b y t h e p a t h . They may n o t s t o p . Not e v e n r e l i g i o u s c e r emonies,nor h a r v e s t f e a s t s , n o r t r i b a l i n i t i a t i o n s , c a l l the  -95p e o p l e t o g e t h e r p r o m i s c u o u s l y , f o r Dobu d o e s n o t s p e c i a l i z e i n s u c h o c c a s i o n s . In the c e n t r e of the v i l l a g e a g r a v e y a r d t a k e s the p l a c e of the open communal d a n c e - p l a z a o f the T r o b r i a n d s " . 30. T h i s seems t o p o i n t t o the determining of  the  other values  considerable a c t i v i t y  omic l i f e It of  may  become more w e l l be  cooperation  tion)  , the  gradual world  a g e n c y of e c o n o m i c f o r m s  of a s o c i a l  with  them  group, w h i l e  , as  ( i n our end  to  our  existing  inadequately  'Dobuan' i n t e r n a t i o n a l  t h a t i t may  explosive gesture,  long  s t r u g g l i n g p e r i o d of c u l t u r a l b e g i n n i n g s ,  and  wiping  a l l c u l t u r e and  C o n d u c t " , he  a degree comments  of  r e - b a r b a r i z a t i o n ' as  is  too  to  perform  expensive the  cultural  life,  and  weight  taining and  and  on  as  there  are  'history  especially  so,  saying fewer  those  that there  hood and  discovery, life  and  f o r the  birth  of  for  a  another not this  process this  peoples  left  'cultural  possess  But  a  a conclu-  the  , Dewey  tool  crit-  b e e n thrown upon r e -  tendencies  toward  conformity, and  i n t i m a t i o n never wholly activities  of  indedeserts child-  ( t h o s e w h i c h work t o w a r d e x p l o r a t i o n , c r e a t i o n , ) the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  community as w e l l as  of  31. Benedict,op.cit.,pps.120-1,130-1,122-3.  31.Dewey,op.cit.,pps.96-99.  abetter  for individuals  there."  28,29,30...Ruth  the  t h a t today  calls  s i n c e we  i s i n the unformed  youth  as  w h i c h make f o r v a r i a t i o n the  be  "Human N a t u r e  'new'  what he  of a d u l t c u s t o m h a s  condi-  remarked  w a s t e . In h i s  the phrase  system  i f i t does  a s Dewey h a s  of s o c i a l  pendence ....And y e t  and  but  strengthening  against  not  clean again  longevity i n u n i v e r s a l education.  i c i z e s . ... "The  us  slate  f u n c t i o n of b r e a k i n g - u p  arterio-sclerosis', of  the  c u l t u r e s change,  a process  will  come w i t h  sive  too g r e a t  econ-  realized  i n r e a c t i o n t o the g r a d u a l  c i v i l i z a t i o n - p a t t e r n but  entails  i n a state  t h e modes o f the  of w e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n  withering process  annhilate  as  complex.  t h a t , owing  final  central  here  —  There would al  process  seem t o be more hope f o r the  t o the v e s t e d  r e t a i n unchanging cooperative  be  ity(  of a l l t h e  enormous f u n d  upon f o r t h i s  resources  o f the  i t s interests  in  Russia, of  in  a r t s we  the  country  are  there  which could  the  commun-  and  i s the  anything  s i n c e he  and  do  but  and  present  i n the  of t h e i r  in this  'the  educational f a c i l i t i e s  men  and  for  employing  not  a mere d e c o r a t o r  to students,  a r t i s t s while  are  the m a t u r e a r t i s t  as  ,  opportunity taking. It  but  i n supporting  they p r a c t i c e  who  censorship  e v a l u a t i o n of t h e  of genius  res-  party-line'  i t sket-  complex o r g a n i z a t i o n i n v o l v e d i n  the  apprentice  progress  a non-Russian  the' amount o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  overwhelming evidence  ab-  progress.  t h e d i r e c t i o n w h i c h the a r t s  extremely  In the  r e c e n t l y o f some use  a rational  operated  i n embryo,  England.  s u b s e r v i e n t t o what i s known as  does q u e s t i o n  important  and  at l e a s t  'Seven S o v i e t A r t s ' , w r i t t e n by  artist  does not  country  objective criticism  o n l y hope t h a t t h e y  i t d o e s seem t o be  of the  the  today,  Jugo-Slavia,Mexico,  reputable can  i n w h i c h a l l the  owned by  However, a book p u b l i s h e d  ches  b e e n made  creative a b i l i t y  sort,  as a whole e x i s t s  France,  sence  and  to  that i n a  of a l l p e o p l e  c o n t i n u a l improvement o f  economy of t h i s  in  is  group  the w o r l d ) as a. w h o l e . A planned  pect  of a powerful  capacities  of a c t i v e  education-  in a society  s o c i e t y i n w h i c h a d e q u a t e p r o v i s i o n had  an  called  interest  of  c u l t u r e - p a t t e r n s . I t seems t o me  the u t i l i z a t i o n  w o u l d be  type  , whose p o s s i b i l i t y Dewey m e n t i o n s ,  where i t i s n o t  for  9.6--  their  offering  journeyart,  and  a,major s o c i a l c o n t r i b u t o r ,  or e n t e r t a i n e r . The  book g i v e s some i d e a  of  the  istic why  scope and  of  scientific  such a p r o j e c t  ably  wasteful,  u c e d had  -97possibilities  the  not  as  since  o f the  had  t o be  o f a r c h i t e c t u r e and since  or housed  and  be  s e e n the  industrial is,  built  i n t h i s we Mumford  can  in his  see  communicanew  machines  i n f a c t o r i e s , the commerce  to the  ustrial  p r o b l e m s can  design  - the  but  longer  design.  The  to f u l f i l  a  expression the  "Aesthetic  Van  beautiful possibilities  be  met  the  new  carried  tails  cathedrals.  of  the  onomy' e v i d e n t do  new  and  ind-  sordid architec-  n e e d , and  not  decorative  to  ideas. out  section  the M a c h i n e " . The  at Rotterdam demonstrates o f the  l o v i n g l y elaborated  equally  therefore,  t h i s new  C i v i l i z a t i o n * ' i n the  trait  ind-  typical  today,  trait  of  that  of  -  conspic-  hand-carved  These b u i l d i n g s a r e  i n a l l good m a c h i n e  see,  and  difference pointed  designs expressive  i n the  Gothic  of p u r e l y  of  on  i n t e r m s of a e s t h e t i c a l l y p l e a s i n g  uous w a s t e ' e v i d e n t the  of  specific  A s s i m i l a t i o n of  Nelle Factory  are  best  significant  " T e c h n i c s and  devoted  and  the  a  apartment b u i l d -  o u t l e t s f o r the  We  of change t o w a r d  and  t u r e was,  trative  large  workers housed i n p r i v a t e d w e l l i n g s  of  of  to a  classes  actualities  provide  a process  banks,  i t prod-  reconstruction.  newly c o n c e n t r a t e d and  inevit-  new  can  no  the  reason  so  art-objects  art-  the  i n g s . Here,  by  stored  office buildings  ustrial  And  those  was  remained  i s a functional manifestation  period  huge  social  a f f e c t e d by  are  goods s o l d i n s t o r e s , in  the  1  arts typically  This  U . S . A . - s p o n s o r e d WPA  t h i s work o f  sponsored  i t i l l u m i n a t e s the  the consumer' of  a world c i v i l i z a t i o n tion.  the  and  been i n t e r e s t e d i n them, and  d e g r e e u n t o u c h e d by The  activity,  i n government  rather  deillus-  'conspicuous  ec-  design. that world  culture  i s emerg-  -98ing  everywhere  tion,  and  on  the  purpose  o f the tions  i n the  i n c o m m u n i c a t i o n . The  imposes a c e r t a i n i s my  globe  new  very  technique  i d e a l upon i t , t h a t  t o see  how  well  a r t of c o l l e c t i v i s t  that  and  methods o f of  of u n i f o r m  ideal  machine-producthat  production  economy, and  i s expressible  competitive  economic  i t  i n terms  organiza-  • Mumford  s a y s t h a t w h e t h e r our  our m a c h i n e s i n t h e i r v e r y  es-  sence are  communist.They a r e made t o p r o d u c e g o o d s or o t h e r  ma-  whose t y p i c a l  longer,  he  or not  org-  admits  No  fact  or economic  anization  chines  the  political  characteristic  maintains,  i s their  i s i t possible with  t o p r o d u c e goods i m i t a t i n g  the  Today i t i s r a t h e r p o s s i b l e  to  standard  uniformity.  aesthetic honesty,  'unique' q u a l i t y  of the  hand-made.  produce beautiful a s well as  func-  t i o n a l o b j e c t s whose uniformity of d e s i g n makes possible t h e i r mass p r o d u c t i o n , u t i o n make  as  i m p r o v e d means o f  c o m m u n i c a t i o n and  distrib-  possible t h e i r mass c o n s u m p t i o n i n t h e m a r k e t s o f the  world. A reasonable release  usage  of t h i s p o t e n t i a l i t y  of enormous s t o r e s  sterilities  o f human e n e r g y now  o f a d v e r t i s i n g the  i o n s which denote f o r t h i e r ability.  would  quality-graded  devoted  object  to  in  the  the  material  possess-  owners membership i n c l a s s  respect-  . E v e r y o n e e v e r y w h e r e c o u l d have r e a d i l y  every m a t e r i a l  result  required  f o r an  enriched  and  accessible gracious  liv-  ing. But  this  involves  to avoid  waste  and  involves production  this  theory  , and  the  acceptance  of a planned  planned d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r use  and  to avoid not  production, shortages,  for profit.  i s v i s i b l y h o t o p e r a t i n g on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , Mumford*s a n a l y s i s o f the  Such  economic  a  pro-  -99cess  i s so c l e a r ^ a n d s i g n i f i c a n t  that  I g i v e i t a t some l e n g t h . .  "The. permanent g a i n t h a t emerges f r o m t h e whole p r o c e s s i s i n the r e l a t i v e l y n o n - m a t e r i a l elements o f c u l t u r e , i n the s o c i a l h e r i t a g e i t s e l f , i n the a r t s and s c i e n c e s , i n t h e t r a d i t i o n s and p r o c e s s e s of t e c h n o l o g y , o r d i r e c t l y i n l i f e i t s e l f , i n t h o s e •real;-enrichments: that'- come fr.om.- e x p l o i t a t i o n . r of; o r g a n i c ; e n e r gy i n t h o u g h t and a c t i o n and e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , ' i n ' p l a y and a d v e n t u r e and drama and p e r s o n a l d e v e l o p m e n t - g a i n s t h a t l a s t t h r o u g h memory and c o m m u n i c a t i o n b e y o n d t h e i m m e d i a t e moment i n w h i c h t h e y a r e e n j o y e d . In s h o r t , as J o h n R u s k i n p u t i t , "There i s no w e a l t h b u t l i f e " , and what we c a l l w e a l t h i s i n f a c t w e a l t h o n l y when i t i s a s i g n o f p o t e n t i a l o r a c t u a l vitality." 32. In  o u t l i n i n g what he  energy,  to l i f e  I have  found  cesses  : "Conversion, p r o d u c t i o n , consumption,  Spengler  Mumford  essential  lation  and  and  c o n s i d e r s the  t o be,  a n a l y s e s the d i r e c t i o n  and  he  of each  processes i n re-  i s r a t h e r more  rational  names t h e s e e l e m e n t a r y and  than pro-  creation",  thus...  " I n t h e f i r s t two s t e p s , the e n e r g y i s s e i z e d and p r e p a r e d f o r u s e f o r the s u s t e n a n c e o f l i f e ; i n the t h i r d s t a g e , l i f e i s s u p p o r t e d and renewed' i n o r d e r t h a t i t may w i n d i t s e l f up o n t o h i g h e r l e v e l s of t h o u g h t and c u l t u r e ( f o u r t h ) , , r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g s h o r t - c i r c u i t e d b a c k i n t o the f i r s t p r e p a r a t o r y s t a g e s . . The amount o f e n e r g y a v a i l a b l e f o r the f i n a l p r o c e s s d e p e n d s upon ( l ) how much e n e r g y i s c o n v e r t e d by a g r i c u l t u r e and t e c h n i c s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g , and (2) how much e n e r g y i s e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l i e d and c o n s e r v e d i n t r a n s m i s s i o n . E v e n t h e Q r u d e s t s o c i e t y h a s some s u r p l u s . But u n d e r the c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m the m a i n u s e o f t h e s u r p l u s i s t o s e r v e as p r o f i t s w h i c h a r e an i n c e n t i v e to c a p i t a l investments, which i n turn i n c r e a s e p r o d u c t i o n . Hence t h e two m a s s i v e and r e c u r r i n g f a c t s i n modern c a p i t a l i s m , an enormous o v e r - e x p a n s i o n o f danfi and e q u i p m e n t ; s e c o n d , a n e x c e s s i v e d i v e r s i o n o f e n e r g y and manpower i n t o s a l e s - p r o m o t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n . O t h e r means o f u t i l i z i n g t h i s s u r p l u s , s u c h a s e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r a l bequests of v a r i o u s p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s , r e l i e v e some o f the b u r den of our i n a n e waste f r o m b o t h t h e i n d i v i d u a l and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t y ; b u t t h e r e i s no c a p i t a l i s t t h e o r y o f n o n - p r o f i t maki n g e n t e r p r i s e s and of n o n - c o n s u m a b l e g o o d s . These f u n c t i o n s e x i s t a c c i d e n t a l l y by the g r a c e o f the p h i l a n t h r o p i s t s ; they h a v e no r e a l p l a c e i n the s y s t e m . . . The p r o b l e m o f c a p i t a l i s m i s e s s e n t i a l l y n o t t o s a t i s f y n e e d s b u t t o c r e a t e demands." 33 My from  thesis,  i s that machine-society  the a t t e n d a n t a c t i v i t i e s  version  of today has  produced,  to which i t g i v e s r i s e ,  of the humanist-coneept,  o f man's c e n t r a l  a new-minted  v a l u e as  the  de-  signer and  -100-  of t h e " m a c h i n e ,  the  the  consumer of the p r o d u c t i v e  c r e a t i v e maker o r u s e r  I n c a p i t a l i s m , as Mumford has valuation nor  o f man  i n the The  o f man's l i f e  conceptions  the  real  and  1  visible  ecially;  aspects  which devotes separably If ful,  this  there  and  itself  exclusively social  i s an  even lower  capitalist-pattern  decorator  o£  art,  lives  the l i v e s of the  i f i t can be  known t o d a y equally  as  the  '32:  and  33.  separated  from  a revulsion  on  production,  or  'isms'  , and  the  a r t at a l l ,  poetry,  school experience  i n t o w h i c h the he  rich'  may and  T h i s form  artist  become the the  almost  occurred and  falls slave-  equally  of s l a v i s h l y  'bad'  t a k e s many f o r m s , u s u a l l y a l l o f the  of c o n c e p t i o n success.  The  and  between t h e  art-forms  lives  forms  execution  o f t h e i r wide p o p u l a r b a s i s , and  Mum.fofd, " T e c h n i c s  esp-  sub-conscious  Symboliste  of E n t e r t a i n m e n t ,  a vulgarity  w h i c h has  of  man.  of l i v i n g ;  f o r commercial  r a d i o , because  p l e t e divorcement  category  'business'  ster-  f u n c t i o n l e s s a r t seems w a s t e -  of t h e . ' i d l e  called  r e c o g n i z a b l e by  and  of  capitalist-poor.  considered necessary film  o f the  arts  as-  the  to e x p l o r i n g p e r s o n a l  being  f o r m o f more o r l e s s  other  competitive  focus  i n the p o e t r y  f r o m the  by  different'schools'  Surrealist  u n d e r the  blank  o f modern l i f e  a p p r o a c h t o the p l a s t i c  o f man's l i v i n g ,  the  s o c i e t y i s shown by  e n c o u r a g e d by  i n t h e work of t h e  i n Dada-ist  this  development.  art-for-art's-sake'elite,  functional  this dilletantist  as  the  in capitalist  of an  i t affords.  e v i d e n t , n e i t h e r i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  the f r a u d u l e n t v a l u e s  part  time  shown, c o n c l u s i v e l y I f e e l ,  ends,or d i r e c t i o n , o f  ile  and  leisure  l a c k o f v a l u a b l e r e l a t i o n between a r t and  pects  from  i s not  o f the  capacity ,  of the  the com-  of p e o p l e ai  Civilization",pps.3778,374-5-7.  -101any m e a n i n g f u l a r t , i s p e c u l i a r l y vulgarization,  though tate  arts  apparent  there a l a s t  i n the f i e l d s vestige  closer  to the a c t u a l  torted  , are themselves  ing  share i t . a l s o ,  living  of clothing  or beauty.  and h o u s i n g ,  These  o f p e o p l e , though  influenced  usually last  two coming  t h e y may be d i s -  b y t h e u s e made o f them,and,  and p e r s o n a l i t i e s  of l i v i n g  people be-  come more b e a r a b l e t h a n t h e e x c e s s e s o f t h e l e s s - t i e d  It  dic-  u g l y , b a d l y d e s i g n e d and c o n s t r u c t e d homes and c l o t h -  fused w i t h the l i v e s  working  form o f  and i t i s -sometimes  o f f u n c t i o n a l i s m does  decorum i f n o t o r i g i n a l i t y  essentially  to t h i s  a s h a s b e e n p r e v i o u s l y n o t e d . The m a g a z i n e and  o t h e r communication appallingly  susceptible  completely outside is still  possible  artist  t h e framework o f v a l u e s o f l i f e  to produce  good a r t w i t h i n  this  todajj frame-  work a s i t a l w a y s p o s s i b l e , b u t t h e c o n d i t i o n s do n o t make f o r the  regular  one  film  a vital novel  o r i n a n y sense  like  "The G r a p e s  problem,  like  o f Wrath", made f r o m l i v i n g  we have h u n d r e d s  "Ulysses",  which  p e r i m e n t a l u s e of l a n g u a g e , ists;  f r e q u e n t p r o d u c t i o n of such a r t . F o r  of p o i n t l e s s  i d e a s and  comedies;  f o r one  r e m a i n s m e a n i n g f u l i n i t s most exwe h a v e h u n d r e d s  f o r one m a g n i f i c e n t P r a n k L l o y d  ies  of a n a c h r o n i s t i c  ing  the jazzrhythms of h i s time,  for  one f a c t o r y m a k i n g f u r n i  of inadequate  copy-  W r i g h t home, t o o many  cop-  d e s i g n s ; f o r one G e r s h w i n m e l o d y , e x p r e s s -  ture  t o o many s e n t i m e n t a l d i t t i e s ; from c r e a t i v e  machine-designs,  t o o many m a i l - o r d e r h o u s e s m i s - u s i n g t h e aame t e c h n i q u e s t o p r o duce c o p i e s o f ' a n t i q u e , and t h e r e f o r e 1  and  f o r one r a d i o  'respectable' designs;  s e r i e s l i k e Norman C o r w i n ' s  on h i s w o r l d - t r i p , t o o m a n y p e u r i l e  "One w o r l d "  gag-shows and soap  report  operas.  And it  really  i s p e r p e t u a t e d hy  habitual to  the  the  -102pernicious being passed  responses,inadequate  future We  nificant  i n the  lives  have p e r f e c t e d use  nological  i n the  stated  by  the  that  many e x q u i s i t e  group able  1  art-forms capable  of  by  sig-  tech-  made i n c r e a s i n g l y a v a i l a b l e not  to d i e  to l i s t e n  out.  I t has  of a r t , and  the  and  may  to  been  discriminating  even l e a d  to  the  rele-  spreading  or watch t h i s mechanized  and  wider  process  process  of  criticism  cessation  of  art  of  the  the  motive.  This  d a n g e r can  come more or  knowledge  than a w i d e n i n g possibilities dangers of  of  the  seen i n a l m o s t  technical aspect  So  process  going  that  t h o u g h we  be-  or are  a narrowing  t o d a y , we  we  like  see can  we  Dukas'  c o m p l e t e l y d e l u g e d by  who  t h e i r pleasure,and  can  of m e c h a n i z a t i o n . Can  richesse, t o be  of  aware p u b l i c  for significant living  the  every a r t which has  to a l e s s d i s c r i m i n a t i n g p u b l i c  artistically  reality.  possible  prentice'  be  less available  i s making a r e a l l y  power  art-misinformation)  amount o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  creative processes,  ifestly  and  required  l e i s u r e made i n c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e  amateurs,causes l e s s v i t a l  have no  form of  children.  the m e c h a n i z a t i o n  decreasing  creative  ( i n the  that  a d v a n c e s . Knowledge o f , a n d a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n ,  'spectator and  our  i f these a r t - f o r m s are  vantly  on  ahout a l l t h i s i s  education,  of  t h e s e a r t - a c t i v i t i e s must be circles  thing  the also  control  rather  increased see  the  t h i s man-  'sorcerer's  i t s unleashed  ap-  demonic  ? -The  i z e d by  philosophical  artists  i n t e l l e c t s who  implications  today. There are use  of  always  their intellectual  t h i s question  are  , i n a l l periods,  abilities  realrare  meaningfully.And  -103i n many a r t i s t s  working  w i t h h o n e s t y and the  present  it'is  today  difficulty  , and  cribing  can  be  plenty...the Clifford  artistic  to e x p r e s s the  critically  i n t h e i r work t h a t  these  the  to a s s e s s new  cultural  seen e v o l v i n g . Witness  p r e v i o u s l y mentioned  Odets' f i l m ,  "None But  our  gifts  are  p o s i t i v e values social  pattern  to t h i s  Lonely  there  Heart";  new  schools  built  during  the  Chinese  literary  educational We erative  artists  is  can  hope t h a t  living  enriched  Steinbeck; Rivera's  designs  the  work  country's  will  some u n i v e r s a l l y a d o p t e d  o u t l a w war, banishing  creative participation necessary  and  des-  for of  enormous  needs.  a b o l i s h a d v e r t i s i n g by the  i n a i d of t h e i r  and  i s i n some  Diego  of f r e s c o e ; E n g l i s h a r c h i t e c t u r a l bombardments;  of  I have been  "Grapes of Wrath" of  The  used  situation,  r e v o l u t i o n a r y use  recent  being  i f we  living  we  are have  by  rendering  want; and  in living  to f u l l y  by  realize  s e e n t o be  scheme  of  i t unnecessary;  will  w i l l make p o s s i b l e  e v e r y o n e everywhere the  coop-  which  implications for  p o s s i b l e i n our  stage  of  an tech-  n o l o g i c a l .advancement. I would l i k e Rivera's  "Portrait  to conclude w i t h  an  enunciation  from Diego  of America"  "The s o c i a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f our t i m e i s a c o n t i n u o u s acc e l e r a t e d march towards c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n . . . T o m o r r o w , a r c h i t e c t u r e , the m o t h e r o f a l l the p l a s t i c a r t s , w i l l be r a t i o n a l i z e d , w i l l s l o u g h o f f the l e p r o u s s c a l e s of i t s t r a d i t i o n a l • r n a m e n t a t i o n and v o m i t the u s e l e s s t r u m p e r y and h o r r i b l e g i n g e r b r e a d adornments f r o m i t s w a l l s , i n o r d e r to s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e s e a d w e l l i n g whose b r i g h t w a l l s a r e s p l e n d i d l y i l l u m i n a t e d by g r e a t s p a c e s o f g l a s s and l i g h t - a d w e l l i n g s u i t a b l e t o the c e r e b r a l f u n c t i o n i n g of c i v i l i z e d man who has c o n q u e r e d h i m s e l f b y means of the m a c h i n e he h a s built."  Epilogue  :  11  S o c i e t y i s indeed State  ought not  nothing  the It  fancy  and  i s a partnership  every  t o be  who  are  those  tempby  i n a l l science;  ends o f obtained  such a  partnership  i n many  are g i v i n g , but  are  t o be  partnership  in a l l perfection.  l i v i n g , t h o s e who  who  agree-  dissolved  generations,  becomes a p a r t n e r s i p n o t  those  as  for a l i t t l e  in a l l art; a  virtue,and  c a n n o t be  who  considered  o f the p a r t i e s  And,as t h e  it  t a k e n up  interest,  a partnership in  t o be  the  b e t t e r than a p a r t n e r s h i p  ment... t o be orary  a c o n t r a c t . . .But  only  between  between are  dead,  born,"  Edmund  Burke  those and  A p p e n d i x A,  :  B i b l i o g r a p h y , covering the f i e l d o f the p r i m a r y s o u r c e s , and c r i t i c a l s t u d i e s , o f w h i c h my r e a d i n g h a s c o n s i s t e d .  BIbl-foeraphy General : I . Oswald  S p e n g l e r , " T h e D e c l i n e o f %he West",New Y o r k , Knopf,1928,volumes one and two. 2 , S . R e i n a c h , " A p o l l o , a n I l l u s t r a t e d manual o f t h e h i s t oj^y^of a r t t h r o u g h t h e a g e s " , N . Y . ? S c r i b n e r 3.  S h e l d o n Cheyney,"A W o r l d H i s t o r y o f A r t " , V i k i n g Pres3 New Y o r k , 1 9 ^ 5 . P i t i r i m S o r o k i n , " S o c i a l and C u l t u r a l D y n a m i c s " , V o l . 1 New Y o r k , A m e r i c a n Book Co.,1937. 5»Arisiotle's " P o e t i c s " , London,Macmillans,1925. 6.  " E n c y y c l o p e d i a o f t h e Arts',' t h e P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b . 19^.  New Y o r k , 7.  Ruth B e n e d i c t , " P a t t e r n s o f Culture",New  York,Pen-  g u i n Books I n c . , 1 9 ^ . 8. J . H . R a n d a l l , " T h e Making o f t h e Modern M i n d " , B o s t o n and N . Y . ? H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n Co.,1926. 9. H e n r y S . L u c a s , " A S h o r t H i s t o r y o f C i v i l i z a t i o n " , N.Y. & L o n d o n , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1 9 ^ 3 . 10. R e g i n a S c h o o l m a n and C h a r l e s S l o t k i n , " T h e S t o r y o f A r t " , N . Y . , H a l c y o n House,19^+0. I I , E r n s t P f u h l , " M a s t e r p e i e c e s o f Greek Drawing and P a i n t i n g " , London,Chatto & Windus,'26. 12. S i d n e y J a n i s , " A b s t r a c t a n d S u r r e a l i s t i c A r t i n A m e r i c a " , N.Y.,Reynal&Hitchcock,19M+. 13. J o h n Dewey,"Human N a t u r e a n d Conduct",N.Y.,The Modern L i b r a r y , 1 9 3 0 . lV. " A r t News A n n u a l " pub.by t h e A r t News M a g a z i n e , a m e m o r i a l i s s u e c e l e b r a t i n g t h e i r 75th a n n i v e r s a r y w i t h a "5000 Y e a r s o f A r t Exhibit". 15. P l a t o , " S h e Republic",London,Macmillans,19^1;esp. Book X. 16. V i r g i l ' s " A e n e i d " . 17. C i c e r o ' s "De S e n e c t u t e " . 18. D a n t e ' s " V i t a N a t v a " 19. B o c c a c c i o s " I I F i l o s t r a t o " 20. C h a u c e r ' s " T h e C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s " and " T R o i l u s a n d Criseyde",Robinson e d l . 21. Da V i n c i , " T h e N o t e b o o k s " , N . Y . , G a r d e n C i t y Pub.Co., 1  19^1-2.  22. Thomas A q u i n a s , " T h e Summa C o n t r a G e n t l i e s " , L o n d o n , Burns,Oates,&Washburne L t d . , 1 9 2 3 , s e c t i o n s . o f V o l . o n e and two and p o r t i o n s o f t h e "Summa T h e o l o g i c a " q u o t e d i n s e c o n d a r y sources. 23. M o n t a i g n e , " E s s a y e s " , F l o r i o t r a n s . , M o d e r n L i b r a r y E d . 2h.Rabelais,"The A d v e n t u r e s o f G a r g a n t u a and P a n t a g r u e l 2 5 . S h a k e s p e a r e s "Plays', K i t t r e d g e e d i t i o n . 1  1  Oi) 26. " G i o t t o " , C a r l o C a r r a , V e r l a g - V a l o r i P l a s t i c i - R o m . 1 9 2 5 27. "Hans Memling",Maur G u i l l a u m e j M a r i o n P r e s s , P a r i s , 1 9 3 9 2 8 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f J a n V e r m e e r " P h a i d o n Ed.London,'HO 2 9 . " S e l e c t e d F a i n t i n g o f Rembrandt" , P h a i d o n E d . , L o n d o n  19^2.  3 0 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f R a p h a e l " , P h a i d o n Ed.,London,*hl 3 1 . "The P a i n t i n g s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o " , P h a i d o n E d . L o n d o n 3 2 . " D o n a t e l l o " , P h a i d o n E d i t i o n , London,19H-1 3 3 . " L e o n d a r d o Da V i n c i " , P h a i d o n Ed.London,'hi. 3M-. " H o g a r t h " , f r o m "The S t u d i o " , L o n d o n , 1926. 3 5 . " T o u l o u s e - L a u t r e c " , G u s t a v e C o q u i o t j V e r l a g ErnstWasmuth A=G,Berlin. 36. "The L i f e and Work o f E d g a r Degas",J.B.Manson;"The Studio",London,1927. 37. "The F i l m S e n s e " , S e r g e i E i s e n s t e i n } H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & C o  N.Y. ,19*+2.  3 8 . "Modern A r t : P i c a s s o " ; Knopf;New York,1930 39. " A f t e r P i c a s s o " , J . T . S o b y j N . Y . , D o d d , M e a d & Co.,1935 M O . " P a u l K l e e " par W i l l Grohmann,Editions "Cahiers D ' A r t " , R u e du D r a g o n m P a r i s V I . H i . " P o r t r a i t o f America" Diego Rivera,London,GeorgeAllen & U n v i n Ltd.,1935 H-2. "The New A r c h i t e c t u r e i n M e x i c o " , E s t h e r B r n ; T h e A c h i t e c t u r a l R e c o r d ; M o r r o w & Co.,New Y o r k , ' 3 7 H-3. "The I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t y l e : A r c h i t e c t u r e s i n c e 1922" Hitehcock& J o h n s o n ; W.W.Norton Inc,JM. Y.',193 2 M+. " I n t r o d u c t i o n t o C o n t e m p o r a r y C i v i l i z a t i o n 3n t h e West", a s o u r c e b o o k , C o l . U . P r e s s , 1 9 ^ 6 ^ 5 . L e w i s Mumford,"The C u l t u r e o f C i t i e s " "Technfci and C i v i l i z a t i o n " k6.Oscar W i l d e , " T h e o u l o f a n Under S o c i a l i s m " M-7.Van o g h , " L e t t e r s " , h8.Edmund W i l s o n , c r i t i c i s m i n " A x e l ' s C a s t l e " , " T h e T r i p l e T h i n k e r s " and "The Wound and theBow" M-9.James J o y c e , n o v e l s : "The P o r t r a i t o f t h e A r t i s t a s a Young Man", " S t e p h e n H e r o " , " U l y s s e s " and " F i n n e g a n s Wage". 50. H e r b e r t Read, "Phases o f E n g l i s h P o e t r y " , e s p . t h e f i n all essay. 51. "The C o l l e c t e d P o e t r y o f Wystan Auden",Random House, New York,19H-5. 52. T . S . E l i o t , " T r a d i t i o n and E x p e r i m e n t " , 0  s  M  G  53  . " P r a t e r V i o l e t " , a n o v e l o f t h e making o f a f i l m , containing excellent c r i t i c i s m of I t s social f u n c t i o n , b y C h r i s t o p h e r IsherwoodjRandom House,New Y o r k , 1 9 ^ 5 . 5 t-.Ralph F x , "The N o v e l and t h e P e o p l e " , V i k i n g P r e s s , New Y o r k , 1 9 M 6 . 55»Roger F r y , " T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s " , B r e n t a n o ' s , N e w York; " V i s i o n and D e s i g n " , P e n g u i n B o o k s . 56.Yrjo Hirn,"The O r i g i n s o f Art",London,Macmillans,1900 L  0  57.  Ogden,Richards,Wood, "The - f o u n d a t i o n s o f A e s t h e t i c s " George ^ l l e n & I h w i n L t d , L o n d o n , 1 9 2 2 . 5 8 . D a v i d Wyndham Lewis,"Men W i t h o u t A r t " , C a s s e l &Co., London,193^ 59. Charles Morris,"Foundations f o r a theory o f signs", International Encyclopedia of Unified Science volume 1 . number 2 . 6 0 . 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O g d e n & R i c h a r d s , " T h e Meaning o f Meaning" and 6^.Richards,"Practical Criticism",London,Kegan,Paul,*30 "a s u r v e y o f l i t e r a r y judgment". 6 £ V A t l a n t i c Monthly',', " H a r p e r s", t'New Y o r k e r " , " A r t News M a g a z i n e " , "The S t u d i o " , "The A r c h i t e c t u r a l Record", " T h e a t r e A r t s " , " S t o r y " , and o t h e r magazines devoted t o p r i n t i n g " t h e works o f art representative of the present , or o f evaluating their significance.  A p p e n d i x B.  : Major Epochs i n Western A r t ; from S h e l d o n Cheyney's " A World H i s t o r y o f A r t " .  I f  IfOOO B.C.  3>  3000  r  2000  V) 0  -1  n  asp-' a S  f »  1000  IS*  -1  n>  a  TV  500 A.D. »  500 i t 0  § -fa o o  (A  3  A.D.  800 3  1000  Q  1100  (6  1200 1300  3 *0  l!f00  1500  8  1600 r  3t  1700 1800 |L  1900 2000 A.D.,  

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